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  1. Role of amino acids as additives on sperm motility, plasma membrane integrity and lipid peroxidation levels at pre-freeze and post-thawed ram semen.

    PubMed

    Sangeeta, Sharon; Arangasamy, A; Kulkarni, S; Selvaraju, S

    2015-10-01

    The possibility of including amino acids for cryopreservation of ram semen to improve the quality of frozen semen was explored in this study in sheep model. 24 samples were collected in triplicate from 8 rams of 2-3 year old Bannur cross bred rams maintained at the Institute Experimental Livestock Unit. Semen was diluted in tris-egg yolk glycerol diluent and made into 7 aliquots as follows: aliquot 1 served as control, "l-alanine" was added at 100 and 135mM in the aliquots 2 and 3, "l-glutamine" was added at 20 and 25mM in the aliquots 4 and 5 and "l-proline" was added at 25 and 50mM in the aliquots 6 and 7, respectively. Diluted semen was filled in 0.25ml French straws and frozen in LN2. Inclusion of "l-proline" and "l-glutamine" in the diluent increased the percent live sperm (P<0.001), total motility (P<0.05) and maintained higher functional membrane and acrosomal integrity (P<0.001) by decreasing lipid peroxidation (P<0.001) compared to the control group. In contrast, "l-alanine" decreased the percentage of total motility, fast progressive spermatozoa and increased (P<0.01) the percentage of immotile spermatozoa. It can be concluded that 20mM "l-glutamine" and 25mM "l-proline" can be used as semen additive to freeze ram semen as they prevented cryoinjuries to sperm and improved the pre-freeze and post-thaw semen characteristics. PMID:26362050

  2. Role of amino acids as additives on sperm motility, plasma membrane integrity and lipid peroxidation levels at pre-freeze and post-thawed ram semen.

    PubMed

    Sangeeta, Sharon; Arangasamy, A; Kulkarni, S; Selvaraju, S

    2015-10-01

    The possibility of including amino acids for cryopreservation of ram semen to improve the quality of frozen semen was explored in this study in sheep model. 24 samples were collected in triplicate from 8 rams of 2-3 year old Bannur cross bred rams maintained at the Institute Experimental Livestock Unit. Semen was diluted in tris-egg yolk glycerol diluent and made into 7 aliquots as follows: aliquot 1 served as control, "l-alanine" was added at 100 and 135mM in the aliquots 2 and 3, "l-glutamine" was added at 20 and 25mM in the aliquots 4 and 5 and "l-proline" was added at 25 and 50mM in the aliquots 6 and 7, respectively. Diluted semen was filled in 0.25ml French straws and frozen in LN2. Inclusion of "l-proline" and "l-glutamine" in the diluent increased the percent live sperm (P<0.001), total motility (P<0.05) and maintained higher functional membrane and acrosomal integrity (P<0.001) by decreasing lipid peroxidation (P<0.001) compared to the control group. In contrast, "l-alanine" decreased the percentage of total motility, fast progressive spermatozoa and increased (P<0.01) the percentage of immotile spermatozoa. It can be concluded that 20mM "l-glutamine" and 25mM "l-proline" can be used as semen additive to freeze ram semen as they prevented cryoinjuries to sperm and improved the pre-freeze and post-thaw semen characteristics.

  3. 47. MAIN WAREHOUSE SECOND LEVEL ADDITION Second level was ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    47. MAIN WAREHOUSE - SECOND LEVEL ADDITION Second level was added in 1941. Note the variety of building materials used in the wall: cement, bricks and finally cement blocks, with wood topping the entire wall. - Hovden Cannery, 886 Cannery Row, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

  4. Effect of argon addition on plasma parameters and dust charging in hydrogen plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Kakati, B. Kausik, S. S.; Saikia, B. K.; Bandyopadhyay, M.; Saxena, Y. C.

    2014-10-28

    Experimental results on effect of adding argon gas to hydrogen plasma in a multi-cusp dusty plasma device are reported. Addition of argon modifies plasma density, electron temperature, degree of hydrogen dissociation, dust current as well as dust charge. From the dust charging profile, it is observed that the dust current and dust charge decrease significantly up to 40% addition of argon flow rate in hydrogen plasma. But beyond 40% of argon flow rate, the changes in dust current and dust charge are insignificant. Results show that the addition of argon to hydrogen plasma in a dusty plasma device can be used as a tool to control the dust charging in a low pressure dusty plasma.

  5. TDP-43 plasma levels are higher in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Verstraete, Esther; Kuiperij, H Bea; van Blitterswijk, Marka M; Veldink, Jan H; Schelhaas, H Jurgen; van den Berg, Leonard H; Verbeek, Marcel M

    2012-09-01

    Our objective was to investigate TDP-43 plasma levels in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). TDP-43 has been identified as a major component of protein inclusions in the brain of patients with ALS; mutations in the corresponding gene (TARDBP) have also been identified. Although increased TDP-43 levels have been reported in the cerebrospinal fluid, plasma levels have not yet been assessed in patients with ALS. TDP-43 levels were quantified by sandwich ELISA in plasma of 219 patients and 100 controls. In addition, we sequenced exon 6 of TARDBP, and performed longitudinal TDP-43 plasma measurements in a subset of patients. Results showed that TDP-43 plasma levels were significantly increased in patients with ALS (p=0.023) and we found a positive correlation with age in patients and controls. Longitudinal measurements of TDP-43 plasma levels showed an increase in only one patient, with stable levels in five others. Three TARDBP variations were identified in the ALS group (1.7%), but the association with TDP-43 plasma levels was ambiguous. In conclusion, our data indicate that TDP-43 plasma levels may have potential as a marker for ALS. A genotype-phenotype relationship could not, however, be established in this cohort.

  6. Reduced plasma pyrophosphate levels in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Lomashvili, Koba A; Khawandi, Wassim; O'Neill, W Charles

    2005-08-01

    Pyrophosphate (PPi) is a known inhibitor of hydroxyapatite formation and has been shown to inhibit medial vascular calcification in vitamin D-toxic rats. It was demonstrated recently that endogenous production of PPi prevents calcification of rat aorta that are cultured in high concentrations of calcium and phosphate. For determining whether PPi metabolism is altered in hemodialysis patients, plasma levels and dialytic clearance of PPi were measured in stable hemodialysis patients. Predialysis plasma [PPi] was 2.26 +/- 0.19 microM in 38 clinically stable hemodialysis patients compared with 3.26 +/- 0.17 in 36 normal subjects (P < 0.01). Approximately 30% of plasma PPi was protein bound, and this was not altered in dialysis patients. There was a weak inverse correlation with age in normal individuals but not in dialysis patients. Plasma [PPi] in dialysis patients was correlated with plasma [PO4(3-)] (r = 0.56) but not with [Ca2+], parathyroid hormone, or the dose of dialysis, and levels did not vary between interdialytic periods of 2 and 3 d. Plasma [PPi] decreased 32 +/- 5% after standard hemodialysis in 17 patients. In vitro clearance of PPi by a 2.1-m2 cellulose acetate dialyzer was 36%, and the mean PPi removal in five patients was 43 +/- 5 micromol, consistent with a similar in vivo clearance. Cleared PPi was greater than the plasma pool but less than the estimated extracellular fluid pool. Erythrocyte PPi content decreased 24 +/- 4%, indicating that intracellular PPi is removed as well. It is concluded that plasma [PPi] is reduced in hemodialysis patients and that PPi is cleared by dialysis. Plasma levels in some patients were below those that have previously been shown to prevent calcification of vessels in culture, suggesting that altered PPi metabolism could contribute to vascular calcification in hemodialysis patients. PMID:15958726

  7. Altered Levels of Acetylcholinesterase in Alzheimer Plasma

    PubMed Central

    García-Ayllón, María-Salud; Riba-Llena, Iolanda; Serra-Basante, Carol; Alom, Jordi; Boopathy, Rathnam; Sáez-Valero, Javier

    2010-01-01

    Background Many studies have been conducted in an extensive effort to identify alterations in blood cholinesterase levels as a consequence of disease, including the analysis of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in plasma. Conventional assays using selective cholinesterase inhibitors have not been particularly successful as excess amounts of butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) pose a major problem. Principal Findings Here we have estimated the levels of AChE activity in human plasma by first immunoprecipitating BuChE and measuring AChE activity in the immunodepleted plasma. Human plasma AChE activity levels were ∼20 nmol/min/mL, about 160 times lower than BuChE. The majority of AChE species are the light G1+G2 forms and not G4 tetramers. The levels and pattern of the molecular forms are similar to that observed in individuals with silent BuChE. We have also compared plasma AChE with the enzyme pattern obtained from human liver, red blood cells, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and brain, by sedimentation analysis, Western blotting and lectin-binding analysis. Finally, a selective increase of AChE activity was detected in plasma from Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients compared to age and gender-matched controls. This increase correlates with an increase in the G1+G2 forms, the subset of AChE species which are increased in Alzheimer's brain. Western blot analysis demonstrated that a 78 kDa immunoreactive AChE protein band was also increased in Alzheimer's plasma, attributed in part to AChE-T subunits common in brain and CSF. Conclusion Plasma AChE might have potential as an indicator of disease progress and prognosis in AD and warrants further investigation. PMID:20090844

  8. Effects of water addition on OH radical generation and plasma properties in an atmospheric argon microwave plasma jet

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, Nimisha; Wang Chuji

    2011-09-01

    Water vapor was added to the feeding gas of a continuous atmospheric argon (Ar) microwave plasma jet to study its influence on plasma shape, plasma gas temperature, and OH radical concentrations. The plasma jet was created by a 2.45 GHz microwave plasma source operating at constant power of 104 W with H{sub 2}O-Ar mixture flow rate of 1.7 standard liter per minute (slm). With an increase in the H{sub 2}O/Ar ratio from 0.0 to 1.9%, the plasma jet column length decreased from 11 mm to 4 mm, and the plasma jet became unstable when the ratio was higher than 1.9%; elevation of plasma gas temperature up to 330 K was observed in the plasma temperature range of 420-910 K. Optical emission spectroscopy showed that the dominant plasma emissions changed from N{sub 2} in the pure Ar plasma jet to OH with the addition of water vapor, and simulations of emission spectra suggested non-Boltzmann distribution of the rotational levels in the OH A-state (v'=0). Spatially resolved absolute OH number densities along the plasma jet axis were measured using UV cavity ringdown spectroscopy of the OH (A-X) (0-0) band in the H{sub 2}O/Ar ratio range of 0.0-1.9%. The highest OH number density is consistently located in the vicinity of the plasma jet tip, regardless of the H{sub 2}O/Ar ratio. OH number density in the post-tip region follows approximately an exponential decay along the jet axis with the fastest decay constant of 3.0 mm in the H{sub 2}O/Ar ratio of 1.5%. Given the low gas temperature of 420-910 K and low electron temperature of 0.5-5 eV along the jet axis, formation of the OH radical is predominantly due to electron impact induced dissociation of H{sub 2}O and dissociative recombination of H{sub 2}O{sup +} resulting from the Penning ionization process.

  9. Daily rhythms in plasma levels of homocysteine

    PubMed Central

    Lavie, Lena; Lavie, Peretz

    2004-01-01

    Background There is accumulated evidence that plasma concentration of the sulfur-containing amino-acid homocysteine (Hcy) is a prognostic marker for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Both fasting levels of Hcy and post methionine loading levels are used as prognostic markers. The aim of the present study was to investigate the existence of a daily rhythm in plasma Hcy under strictly controlled nutritional and sleep-wake conditions. We also investigated if the time during which methionine loading is performed, i.e., morning or evening, had a different effect on the resultant plasma Hcy concentration. Methods Six healthy men aged 23–26 years participated in 4 experiments. In the first and second experiments, the daily rhythm in Hcy as well as in other amino acids was investigated under a normal or an inverse sleep-wake cycle. In the third and fourth, Hcy concentrations were investigated after a morning and evening methionine loading. To standardize food consumption in the first two experiments, subjects received every 3 hours 150 ml of specially designed low-protein liquid food (Ensure® formula). Results In both the first and second experiments there was a significant daily rhythm in Hcy concentrations with a mid-day nadir and a nocturnal peak. Strikingly different 24-h patterns were observed in methionine, leucine, isoleucine and tyrosine. In all, the 24-h curves revealed a strong influence of both the sleep-wake cycle and the feeding schedule. Methionine loading resulted in increased plasma Hcy levels during both morning and evening experiments, which were not significantly different from each other. Conclusions There is a daily rhythm in plasma concentration of the amino acid Hcy, and this rhythm is independent of sleep-wake and food consumption. In view of the fact that increased Hcy concentrations may be associated with increased cardiovascular risks, these findings may have clinical implications for the health of rotating shift workers. PMID:15347422

  10. Plasma adropin level in patients with pseudoexfoliation.

    PubMed

    Oğurel, Tevfik; Oğurel, Reyhan; Topuz, Mustafa; Örnek, Nurgül; Örnek, Kemal

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate plasma adropin levels in patients with pseudoexfoliation (PEX). This retrospective case-control study included 35 patients with PEX and 35 individuals without PEX who served as controls. Plasma adropin levels with triglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and haemoglobin A1c (HGBA1C) concentrations were measured in both groups. The mean serum adropin levels were 3.24 ± 0.95 ng/mL (range, 1.90-7.88 ng/mL) in patients with PEX syndrome and 5.78 ± 2.85 ng/mL (range, 2.08-5.41 ng/mL) in PEX glaucoma patients. There was no statistically significant difference in mean adropin levels between PEX syndrome and PEX glaucoma patients. However, similar adropin levels were found in the PEX glaucoma patients and the control group (P > 0.05). The mean serum adropin levels were 3.34 ± 0.89 ng/mL (range, 1.90-5.39 ng/mL) in the PEX group and 5.78 ± 2.85 ng/mL (range, 3.08-11.06 ng/mL) in the control group. The mean serum adropin level of the PEX group was significantly lower than that of the control group (P < 0.001). There were no significant differences between the two groups in terms of serum glucose, total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, HGBA1C, triglycerides levels, or body mass index (all P > 0.05). Adropin level is lower in patients with PEX. PMID:26861473

  11. Photoperiod effects on plasma cortisol levels in Gasterosteus aculeatus.

    PubMed

    Audet, C; FitzGerald, G J; Guderley, H

    1986-01-01

    No diel variations of plasma cortisol levels were found in Gasterosteus aculeatus acclimated to two different photoperiod conditions: 14L:10D and 9L:15D. However, under long photoperiods, G. aculeatus exhibited higher plasma cortisol levels than under short photoperiods, suggesting that elevated plasma cortisol levels are associated with the spring migration and/or reproductive activities. This decrease of plasma cortisol levels is particularly marked in male G. aculeatus. Under the 9L:15D photoperiod, males had lower plasma cortisol levels than females, in contrast to 14L:10D, where no significant sex differences were found. PMID:3940931

  12. Cortisol levels in fetal scalp, maternal, and umbilical cord plasma.

    PubMed

    Sybulski, S; Goldsmith, W J; Maughan, G B

    1975-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate cortisol levels in the fetal circulation prior to delivery. Fetal scalp plasma cortisol levels during labor were significantly lower than those in maternal peripheral plasma but significantly higher than those in cord plasma at delivery. Cortisol levels in fetal scalp plasma did not correlate significantly with those in either maternal or cord plasma. The greater cortisol concentrations in fetal scalp plasma relative to those in cord plasma could have been transient increases caused by fetal adrenal response to the stress of the scalp sampling procedure. There was a significant correlation between cortisol levels in maternal and cord plasma, which may mean that a considerable part of the cortisol in the fetal circulation at delivery is of maternal origin.

  13. Calling rate, corticosterone plasma levels and immunocompetence of Hypsiboas albopunctatus.

    PubMed

    Titon, Stefanny Christie Monteiro; de Assis, Vania Regina; Titon, Braz; Barsotti, Adriana Maria Giorgi; Flanagan, Sarah Perry; Gomes, Fernando Ribeiro

    2016-11-01

    During the breeding season, male anuran amphibians produce advertisement calls. Androgens play a permissive role in the activation of calling activity, which is often positively correlated to androgen plasma levels and testes mass. Additionally, calling effort is also correlated to corticosterone plasma levels (hereinafter referred to as CORT), which is associated with the mobilization of energy substrates to sustain the high energy flux associated with this activity. However, high CORT also has many immunosuppressive effects and might interfere with reproduction. Consequently, CORT might mediate a compromise between reproductive effort and immunocompetence in anurans. In the present study, we investigated the relationship between calling rate, immunocompetence, and CORT in Hypsiboas albopunctatus, a midsize anuran occurring in South America. To understand these relationships, we conducted focal observations of calling behavior, followed by blood collection for CORT measurements and evaluation of some immune parameters. Our results showed that individuals with larger testes had higher calling rates, and those with higher calling rates showed lower cell-mediated immune response (swelling response to phytohaemagglutinin), although these relationships were not mediated by CORT. Furthermore, males calling early in the evening showed high CORT, and individuals with lower body condition index had higher CORT. We conclude that calling activity shows a cost in terms of cellular immune response in H. albopunctatus, but this compromise does not appear to be mediated by glucocorticoid plasma levels. PMID:27364933

  14. Association of plasma lipid levels with atherosclerosis prevalence in psittaciformes.

    PubMed

    Beaufrère, Hugues; Vet, Dr Med; Cray, Carolyn; Ammersbach, Mélanie; Tully, Thomas N

    2014-09-01

    The prevalence of atherosclerosis is high in the captive psittacine population and increases with age and female sex. The genera Psittacus, Amazona, and Nymphicus are predisposed to atherosclerosis, whereas the genera Cacatua and Ara are less susceptible. Plasma cholesterol and lipoprotein abnormalities have been suggested as risk factors in the development of atherosclerosis as observed in mammals. To investigate whether the psittacine genera susceptibility to atherosclerosis and the known risk factors of age and sex could be associated with differences in the lipid profile, a retrospective analysis was conducted on blood lipid values from 5625 birds. Prevalence values were obtained from a previously published, large, case-control study and were compared with identified trends in plasma lipid profiles. Genus-specific differences were identified in plasma total cholesterol values that corresponded to observed trends in the prevalence of clinically important atherosclerotic lesions, which were also highly correlated. The effect of age was significant but was mild and may not account for the dramatic increase in atherosclerosis prevalence observed with age. In addition, Quaker parrots ( Myiopsitta monachus ), which were used as experimental models for psittacine atherosclerosis and dyslipidemia, were found to have the highest values in all lipid profile parameters. The results of this study suggest that the differences observed in prevalence among species of the psittacine genera may partly be explained by differences in plasma total cholesterol levels. Results also support the use of Quaker parrots as models for studying atherosclerosis and dyslipidemia.

  15. 38. VIEW SOUTHWEST OF STREET LEVEL IN SHOWROOM ADDITION (NOW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. VIEW SOUTHWEST OF STREET LEVEL IN SHOWROOM ADDITION (NOW USED AS FINISHING ROOM) WITH FRESHLY PAINTED DORY BOATS ON DISPLAY. 2X4 STUD WALL AND ROOF FRAMING CAN BE SEEN. - Lowell's Boat Shop, 459 Main Street, Amesbury, Essex County, MA

  16. [Gastrointestinal disease with elevated plasma homocysteine level].

    PubMed

    Coll, P; Guttormsen, A B; Berstad, A

    1999-10-10

    Elevated plasma homocystein (tHcy) is a marker for functional deficiency of folate and/or cobalamin. Malabsorption of these vitamins occurs in various gastroenterologic diseases. A frequent mutation (C677T) in the gene coding for the enzyme methyltetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is often associated with elevated values of tHcy. We have investigated 24 patients with tHcy > 40 mumol/l for gastrointestinal disease that can contribute to such elevation. Of these, 19 were homozygous for mutated MTHFR, four were heterozygous and one was normal. We found two cases of probable celiac disease, one case of Crohn's disease and one case of ulcerative colitis. These four were homozygous for the C667T mutation. Furthermore, we found eight persons who were anacidic; four homozygous, three heterozygous and one normal. All had gastritis histologically, six had serum gastrin > 50 pmol/l, and four were already on treatment with cobalamin injections. Helicobacter pylori-infection was found in nine out of 22 persons. Gastrointestinal disease occurs frequently in patients with tHcy > 40 mumol/l, but with the exception of conditions resulting in serious deficiency of cobalamin, these diseases alone do not seem sufficient to cause such high levels. We suggest that a reasonable approach to patients with homocystein values above 40 mumol/l is to exclude cobalamin deficiency, and that further investigations should be based upon thorough anamnesis and symptoms. PMID:10563175

  17. Effect of additive oxygen gas on cellular response of lung cancer cells induced by atmospheric pressure helium plasma jet.

    PubMed

    Joh, Hea Min; Choi, Ji Ye; Kim, Sun Ja; Chung, T H; Kang, Tae-Hong

    2014-10-16

    The atmospheric pressure helium plasma jet driven by pulsed dc voltage was utilized to treat human lung cancer cells in vitro. The properties of plasma plume were adjusted by the injection type and flow rate of additive oxygen gas in atmospheric pressure helium plasma jet. The plasma characteristics such as plume length, electric current and optical emission spectra (OES) were measured at different flow rates of additive oxygen to helium. The plasma plume length and total current decreased with an increase in the additive oxygen flow rate. The electron excitation temperature estimated by the Boltzmann plot from several excited helium emission lines increased slightly with the additive oxygen flow. The oxygen atom density in the gas phase estimated by actinometry utilizing argon was observed to increase with the additive oxygen flow. The concentration of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) measured by fluorescence assay was found to be not exactly proportional to that of extracellular ROS (measured by OES), but both correlated considerably. It was also observed that the expression levels of p53 and the phospho-p53 were enhanced in the presence of additive oxygen flow compared with those from the pure helium plasma treatment.

  18. Effect of additive oxygen gas on cellular response of lung cancer cells induced by atmospheric pressure helium plasma jet

    PubMed Central

    Joh, Hea Min; Choi, Ji Ye; Kim, Sun Ja; Chung, T. H.; Kang, Tae-Hong

    2014-01-01

    The atmospheric pressure helium plasma jet driven by pulsed dc voltage was utilized to treat human lung cancer cells in vitro. The properties of plasma plume were adjusted by the injection type and flow rate of additive oxygen gas in atmospheric pressure helium plasma jet. The plasma characteristics such as plume length, electric current and optical emission spectra (OES) were measured at different flow rates of additive oxygen to helium. The plasma plume length and total current decreased with an increase in the additive oxygen flow rate. The electron excitation temperature estimated by the Boltzmann plot from several excited helium emission lines increased slightly with the additive oxygen flow. The oxygen atom density in the gas phase estimated by actinometry utilizing argon was observed to increase with the additive oxygen flow. The concentration of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) measured by fluorescence assay was found to be not exactly proportional to that of extracellular ROS (measured by OES), but both correlated considerably. It was also observed that the expression levels of p53 and the phospho-p53 were enhanced in the presence of additive oxygen flow compared with those from the pure helium plasma treatment. PMID:25319447

  19. Effect of additive oxygen gas on cellular response of lung cancer cells induced by atmospheric pressure helium plasma jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joh, Hea Min; Choi, Ji Ye; Kim, Sun Ja; Chung, T. H.; Kang, Tae-Hong

    2014-10-01

    The atmospheric pressure helium plasma jet driven by pulsed dc voltage was utilized to treat human lung cancer cells in vitro. The properties of plasma plume were adjusted by the injection type and flow rate of additive oxygen gas in atmospheric pressure helium plasma jet. The plasma characteristics such as plume length, electric current and optical emission spectra (OES) were measured at different flow rates of additive oxygen to helium. The plasma plume length and total current decreased with an increase in the additive oxygen flow rate. The electron excitation temperature estimated by the Boltzmann plot from several excited helium emission lines increased slightly with the additive oxygen flow. The oxygen atom density in the gas phase estimated by actinometry utilizing argon was observed to increase with the additive oxygen flow. The concentration of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) measured by fluorescence assay was found to be not exactly proportional to that of extracellular ROS (measured by OES), but both correlated considerably. It was also observed that the expression levels of p53 and the phospho-p53 were enhanced in the presence of additive oxygen flow compared with those from the pure helium plasma treatment.

  20. Plasma glutamine levels and falciparum malaria.

    PubMed

    Cowan, G; Planche, T; Agbenyega, T; Bedu-Addo, G; Owusu-Ofori, A; Adebe-Appiah, J; Agranoff, D; Woodrow, C; Castell, L; Elford, B; Krishna, S

    1999-01-01

    Glutamine deficiency is associated with increased rates of sepsis and mortality, which can be prevented by glutamine supplementation. Changes in glutamine concentration were examined in Ghanaian children with acute falciparum malaria and control cases. The mean (SD) plasma glutamine concentration was lower in patients with acute malaria (401 (82) mumol/L, n = 50) than in control patients (623 (67) mumol/L, n = 7; P < 0.001). Plasma glutamine concentrations all rose in convalescence. The mean (SD) increase in plasma glutamine was 202 (123) mumol/L (n = 18; P < 0.001) compared with acute infection. We conclude that acute falciparum malaria is associated with large decreases in plasma glutamine and these falls may increase susceptibility to sepsis and dyserythropoeisis.

  1. 113. Stage level floor structure. In addition to the movable ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    113. Stage level floor structure. In addition to the movable sections, there were hinged slots that could be opened in the stage floor (see sheet 4 of 9, note 4; sheet 5 of 9, note 2; and sheet 7 of 9, note 1). A remaining cast iron bracket is visible in the left foreground of the photograph. The actual structure for a hinged section is visible in the background, to the right of center. The hydraulic ram (type D) visible below the floor level is the south ram in the middle row; the view is facing north. - Auditorium Building, 430 South Michigan Avenue, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  2. 45. VIEW OF UPPER LEVEL CRUSHER ADDITION FROM CRUSHED OXIDIZED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. VIEW OF UPPER LEVEL CRUSHER ADDITION FROM CRUSHED OXIDIZED ORE BIN. 18 INCH BELT CONVEYOR BIN FEED, LOWER CENTER, WITH STEPHENS-ADAMSON 25 TON/HR ELEVATOR SPLIT DISCHARGE (OXIDIZED/UNOXIDIZED) IN CENTER. CRUDE ORE BINS AND MACHINE SHOP BEYOND. NOTE TOP OF CRUSHED OXIDIZED ORE BIN IS BELOW TOP OF CRUDE ORE BINS. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  3. Plasma obestatin levels in men with chronic atrophic gastritis.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xin-Yuan; Kuang, Hong-Yu; Liu, Xiao-Min; Ma, Zhi-Bin; Nie, Hao-Jie; Guo, Hong

    2008-10-01

    Obestatin is a recently discovered active peptide isolated from the stomach. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the modification of plasma obestatin levels in men with chronic atrophic gastritis. Men older than 65 years undergoing upper gastrointestinal endoscopy were included. All patients with chronic atrophic gastritis underwent multiple biopsies. Fasting plasma obestatin and ghrelin levels were examined in 50 men with chronic atrophic gastritis and 50 healthy men. Plasma obestatin levels were significantly lower in patients with chronic atrophic gastritis than in healthy subjects. Plasma ghrelin levels and ghrelin to obestatin ratio was decreased in men with chronic atrophic gastritis. There was a significant relationship between atrophy and decreased obestatin. A negative correlation was found between circulating obestatin levels and body mass index (BMI) in healthy subjects, but not in patients with chronic atrophic gastritis. The data indicated that chronic atrophic gastritis influenced plasma obestatin levels as well as ghrelin to obestatin ratio in elderly men.

  4. Increased plasma levels of interleukin-6 in sepsis.

    PubMed

    Hack, C E; De Groot, E R; Felt-Bersma, R J; Nuijens, J H; Strack Van Schijndel, R J; Eerenberg-Belmer, A J; Thijs, L G; Aarden, L A

    1989-10-01

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is likely to be an important mediator of the inflammatory response. We measured levels of this cytokine in plasma samples from 37 patients with sepsis or septic shock obtained at the time of admission to the intensive care unit and related these levels to hemodynamic and biochemical parameters as well as to clinical outcome. In 32 of the 37 patients, increased levels of IL-6 were found, occasionally up to 7,500 times the normal level. The highest IL-6 levels were encountered in patients who suffered from septic shock (P value of the difference between patients with and without shock less than .0001). In addition, IL-6 significantly correlated with plasma lactate (P less than .0001), heart rate (P = .05) and, inversely, with mean arterial pressure (P = .01) and platelet counts (P = .0002). Significant correlations of IL-6 with the anaphylatoxins C3a (P = .0001) and C4a (P = .0002) and with the main inhibitor of the classical pathway of complement, C1-inhibitor (inverse correlation, P = .05), were also observed. IL-6 on admission appeared to be of prognostic significance: levels were higher in septic patients who subsequently died than in those who survived (P = .0003), in particular when only patients with septic shock were considered (P less than .0001). All nine septic patients with levels of less than 40 U/mL on admission survived, whereas 89% of the nine patients with levels exceeding 7,500 U/mL died. These data provide evidence for a role of IL-6 in the pathophysiology of septic shock. Further studies are needed to reveal whether IL-6 in sepsis is directly involved in mediating lethal complications or whether it is to be considered as an "alarm hormone" that reflects endothelial cell injury probably mediated by the anaphylatoxines.

  5. Prospects of Vitamin C as an Additive in Plasma of Stored Blood

    PubMed Central

    Vani, R.; Soumya, R.; Carl, H.; Chandni, V. A.; Neha, K.; Pankhuri, B.; Trishna, S.; Vatsal, D. P.

    2015-01-01

    There is a dire necessity to improve blood storage and prolong shelf-life of blood. Very few studies have focused on oxidative stress (OS) in blood and its influence on plasma with storage. This study attempts to (i) elucidate the continuous changes occurring in plasma during storage through oxidant levels and antioxidant status and (ii) evaluate the influence of vitamin C (VC) as an additive during blood storage. Blood was drawn from male Wistar rats and stored for 25 days at 4°C. Blood samples were divided into control and experimental groups. Plasma was isolated every 5 days and the OS markers, antioxidant enzymes, lipid peroxidation, and protein oxidation products, were studied. Catalase activity increased in all groups with storage. Lipid peroxidation decreased in VC (10) but was maintained in VC (30) and VC (60). Although there were variations in all groups, carbonyls were maintained towards the end of storage. Advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) increased in VC (30) and were maintained in VC (10) and VC (60). Sulfhydryls were maintained in all groups. Vitamin C could not sufficiently attenuate OS and hence, this opens the possibilities for further studies on vitamin C in combination with other antioxidants, in storage solutions. PMID:26345502

  6. Treatment of enterococcus faecalis bacteria by a helium atmospheric cold plasma brush with oxygen addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wei; Huang, Jun; Du, Ning; Liu, Xiao-Di; Wang, Xing-Quan; Lv, Guo-Hua; Zhang, Guo-Ping; Guo, Li-Hong; Yang, Si-Ze

    2012-07-01

    An atmospheric cold plasma brush suitable for large area and low-temperature plasma-based sterilization is designed. Results demonstrate that the He/O2 plasma more effectively kills Enterococcus faecalis than the pure He plasma. In addition, the sterilization efficiency values of the He/O2 plasma depend on the oxygen fraction in Helium gas. The atmospheric cold plasma brush using a proper ratio of He/O2 (2.5%) reaches the optimum sterilization efficiency. After plasma treatment, the cell structure and morphology changes can be observed by the scanning electron microscopy. Optical emission measurements indicate that reactive species such as O and OH play a significant role in the sterilization process.

  7. Treatment of enterococcus faecalis bacteria by a helium atmospheric cold plasma brush with oxygen addition

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Wei; Huang Jun; Wang Xingquan; Lv Guohua; Zhang Guoping; Du Ning; Liu Xiaodi; Guo Lihong; Yang Size

    2012-07-01

    An atmospheric cold plasma brush suitable for large area and low-temperature plasma-based sterilization is designed. Results demonstrate that the He/O{sub 2} plasma more effectively kills Enterococcus faecalis than the pure He plasma. In addition, the sterilization efficiency values of the He/O{sub 2} plasma depend on the oxygen fraction in Helium gas. The atmospheric cold plasma brush using a proper ratio of He/O{sub 2} (2.5%) reaches the optimum sterilization efficiency. After plasma treatment, the cell structure and morphology changes can be observed by the scanning electron microscopy. Optical emission measurements indicate that reactive species such as O and OH play a significant role in the sterilization process.

  8. 41. VIEW NORTH OF UPPER LEVEL OF CRUSHER ADDITION. DINGS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. VIEW NORTH OF UPPER LEVEL OF CRUSHER ADDITION. DINGS MAGNETIC PULLEY AT CENTER. ALSO SHOWS 100-TON CRUSHED UNOXIDIZED ORE BIN (RIGHT), PULLEY FORM 18 INCH BELT CONVEYOR CRUSHED OXIDIZED ORE BIN FEED AND STEPHENSADAMSON 25 TON/HR BUCKET ELEVATOR (UPPER CENTER). THE UPPER PORTION OF THE SAMPLING ELEVATOR IS ABOVE THE MAGNETIC PULLEY (CENTER LEFT) WITH THE ROUTE OF THE 16 INCH BELT CONVEYOR FINES FEED TO CRUSHED OXIDIZED ORE BIN TO ITS LEFT. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  9. Plasma cortisol levels and illness appraisal in deficit syndrome schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    White, Ross G; Lysaker, Paul; Gumley, Andrew I; McLeod, Hamish; McCleery, Muriel; O'Neill, Donnacha; MacBeth, Angus; Giurgi-Oncu, Catalina; Mulholland, Ciaran C

    2014-12-30

    Research investigating the association between negative symptoms and plasma cortisol levels in individuals with schizophrenia has produced inconsistent findings. This study investigated whether deficit syndrome schizophrenia (characterized by high levels of primary negative symptoms) is associated with comparatively high morning plasma cortisol levels, more negative appraisals about illness and higher levels of depression. Participants were 85 individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia and 85 individuals with no history of contact with psychiatric services matched for age and gender. All participants provided fasting 9.00a.m. plasma cortisol samples. There were no significant differences between the schizophrenia and control participants in plasma cortisol levels. The Proximal Deficit Syndrome method was used to identify individuals with deficit syndrome schizophrenia. Contrary to what had been hypothesized, participants with deficit syndrome schizophrenia had significantly lower plasma cortisol levels than both non-deficit syndrome participants and control participants. Participants with the deficit syndrome reported significantly less negative appraisals about illness (assessed by PBIQ) and lower levels of depression (assessed by BDI-II). Differences in cortisol levels continued to trend toward significance when levels of depression were controlled for. The patterns of illness-related appraisals and plasma cortisol levels raise the possibility that the deficit syndrome could be a form of adaptation syndrome. PMID:25262562

  10. [Plasma homocysteine levels in patients with ischemic heart disease].

    PubMed

    Márk, L; Erdei, F; Márki-Zay, J; Nagy, E; Kondacs, A; Katona, A

    2001-07-29

    In the latest years it became clear that beside traditional cardiovascular risk factors the high plasma homocysteine level increases the risk of atherosclerotic diseases too. Metaanalysis of 27 papers found that 10% of population's coronary risk is attributable to homocysteine and a 5 mumol/l increase in its plasma level elevates the coronary risk by as much as 0.5 mumol/l cholesterol increase. Recent studies have shown an inverse relation between the levels of plasma homocysteine and that of folic acid, vitamin B6, vitamin B12. The latters are cofactors and substrates of the homocysteine and methionin metabolism. The plasma total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triglyceride, lipoprotein(a), Apo A1, Apo B and homocysteine concentrations were examined in 39 patients suffering from coronary artery disease treated in the Cardiac Rehabilitation Department of our hospital. Twenty of them were treated by folic acid and vitamin B6 for a three week period. The mean (+/- SD) plasma homocysteine concentration was 15.60 +/- 6.14 mumol/l. In the treated subgroup the mean (+/- SD) plasma homocysteine concentration was 17.3 +/- 7.00 mumol/l, the mean (+/- SD) plasma folic acid level was 8.58 +/- 4.6 mumol/l. After the three week treatment period (folic acid and vitamin B6) the plasma homocysteine level decreased by 26.5% (p = 0.012), that of folic acid increased by 68.7% (p = 0.002). From the plasma lipids the level of total- and LDL-cholesterol decreased significantly (6.7% and 10.4%, P < 0.05), caused by the strict diet during hospital treatment. As for the genetic polymorphism of the V677 gen of the metylenetetrahydrofolate-reductase (MTHFR) enzyme there was a significant correlation with homocysteine level (r = 0.436, p = 0.010), and a negative, but not significant correlation with the folic acid level (r = -0.354).

  11. How to Ignite an Atmospheric Pressure Microwave Plasma Torch without Any Additional Igniters.

    PubMed

    Leins, Martina; Gaiser, Sandra; Schulz, Andreas; Walker, Matthias; Schumacher, Uwe; Hirth, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    This movie shows how an atmospheric pressure plasma torch can be ignited by microwave power with no additional igniters. After ignition of the plasma, a stable and continuous operation of the plasma is possible and the plasma torch can be used for many different applications. On one hand, the hot (3,600 K gas temperature) plasma can be used for chemical processes and on the other hand the cold afterglow (temperatures down to almost RT) can be applied for surface processes. For example chemical syntheses are interesting volume processes. Here the microwave plasma torch can be used for the decomposition of waste gases which are harmful and contribute to the global warming but are needed as etching gases in growing industry sectors like the semiconductor branch. Another application is the dissociation of CO2. Surplus electrical energy from renewable energy sources can be used to dissociate CO2 to CO and O2. The CO can be further processed to gaseous or liquid higher hydrocarbons thereby providing chemical storage of the energy, synthetic fuels or platform chemicals for the chemical industry. Applications of the afterglow of the plasma torch are the treatment of surfaces to increase the adhesion of lacquer, glue or paint, and the sterilization or decontamination of different kind of surfaces. The movie will explain how to ignite the plasma solely by microwave power without any additional igniters, e.g., electric sparks. The microwave plasma torch is based on a combination of two resonators - a coaxial one which provides the ignition of the plasma and a cylindrical one which guarantees a continuous and stable operation of the plasma after ignition. The plasma can be operated in a long microwave transparent tube for volume processes or shaped by orifices for surface treatment purposes. PMID:25938699

  12. How to Ignite an Atmospheric Pressure Microwave Plasma Torch without Any Additional Igniters.

    PubMed

    Leins, Martina; Gaiser, Sandra; Schulz, Andreas; Walker, Matthias; Schumacher, Uwe; Hirth, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    This movie shows how an atmospheric pressure plasma torch can be ignited by microwave power with no additional igniters. After ignition of the plasma, a stable and continuous operation of the plasma is possible and the plasma torch can be used for many different applications. On one hand, the hot (3,600 K gas temperature) plasma can be used for chemical processes and on the other hand the cold afterglow (temperatures down to almost RT) can be applied for surface processes. For example chemical syntheses are interesting volume processes. Here the microwave plasma torch can be used for the decomposition of waste gases which are harmful and contribute to the global warming but are needed as etching gases in growing industry sectors like the semiconductor branch. Another application is the dissociation of CO2. Surplus electrical energy from renewable energy sources can be used to dissociate CO2 to CO and O2. The CO can be further processed to gaseous or liquid higher hydrocarbons thereby providing chemical storage of the energy, synthetic fuels or platform chemicals for the chemical industry. Applications of the afterglow of the plasma torch are the treatment of surfaces to increase the adhesion of lacquer, glue or paint, and the sterilization or decontamination of different kind of surfaces. The movie will explain how to ignite the plasma solely by microwave power without any additional igniters, e.g., electric sparks. The microwave plasma torch is based on a combination of two resonators - a coaxial one which provides the ignition of the plasma and a cylindrical one which guarantees a continuous and stable operation of the plasma after ignition. The plasma can be operated in a long microwave transparent tube for volume processes or shaped by orifices for surface treatment purposes.

  13. The influence of bone and blood lead on plasma lead levels in environmentally exposed adults.

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Avila, M; Smith, D; Meneses, F; Sanin, L H; Hu, H

    1998-01-01

    There is concern that previously accumulated bone lead stores may constitute an internal source of exposure, particularly during periods of increased bone mineral loss (e.g., pregnancy, lactation, and menopause). Furthermore, the contribution of lead mobilized from bone to plasma may not be adequately reflected by whole-blood lead levels. This possibility is especially alarming because plasma is the main circulatory compartment of lead that is available to cross cell membranes and deposit in soft tissues. We studied 26 residents of Mexico City who had no history of occupational lead exposure. Two samples of venous blood were collected from each individual. One sample was analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-magnetic sector mass spectrometry for whole-blood lead levels. The other sample was centrifuged to separate plasma, which was then isolated and analyzed for lead content by the same analytical technique. Bone lead levels in the tibia and patella were determined with a spot-source 109Cd K-X-ray fluorescence instrument. Mean lead concentrations were 0.54 microg/l in plasma, 119 microg/l in whole blood, and 23.27 and 11.71 microg/g bone mineral in the patella and tibia, respectively. The plasma-to-whole-blood lead concentration ratios ranged from 0.27% to 0.70%. Whole-blood lead level was highly correlated with plasma lead level and accounted for 95% of the variability of plasma lead concentrations. Patella and tibia lead levels were also highly correlated with plasma lead levels. The bivariate regression coefficients of patella and tibia on plasma lead were 0.034 (p<0. 001) and 0.053 (p<0.001), respectively. In a multivariate regression model of plasma lead levels that included whole-blood lead, patella lead level remained an independent predictor of plasma lead level (ss = 0.007, p<0.001). Our data suggest that although whole-blood lead levels are highly correlated with plasma lead levels, lead levels in bone (particularly trabecular bone) exert an additional

  14. A Fall in Plasma Free Fatty Acid (FFA) Level Activates the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis Independent of Plasma Glucose: Evidence for Brain Sensing of Circulating FFA

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Young Taek; Oh, Ki-Sook; Kang, Insug

    2012-01-01

    The brain responds to a fall in blood glucose by activating neuroendocrine mechanisms for its restoration. It is unclear whether the brain also responds to a fall in plasma free fatty acids (FFA) to activate mechanisms for its restoration. We examined whether lowering plasma FFA increases plasma corticosterone or catecholamine levels and, if so, whether the brain is involved in these responses. Plasma FFA levels were lowered in rats with three independent antilipolytic agents: nicotinic acid (NA), insulin, and the A1 adenosine receptor agonist SDZ WAG 994 with plasma glucose clamped at basal levels. Lowering plasma FFA with these agents all increased plasma corticosterone, but not catecholamine, within 1 h, accompanied by increases in plasma ACTH. These increases in ACTH or corticosterone were abolished when falls in plasma FFA were prevented by Intralipid during NA or insulin infusion. In addition, the NA-induced increases in plasma ACTH were completely prevented by administration of SSR149415, an arginine vasopressin receptor antagonist, demonstrating that the hypothalamus is involved in these responses. Taken together, the present data suggest that the brain may sense a fall in plasma FFA levels and activate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis to increase plasma ACTH and corticosterone, which would help restore FFA levels. Thus, the brain may be involved in the sensing and control of circulating FFA levels. PMID:22669895

  15. Plasma Kisspeptin Levels in Newborn Infants with Breast Enlargement

    PubMed Central

    Kaya, Avni; Orbak, Zerrin; Polat, Harun; Çayır, Atilla; Erdil, Abdullah; Döneray, Hakan

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Kisspeptin levels have been reported in children with premature thelarche, precocious puberty and adolescent gynecomastia, but there are no reports on kisspeptin levels in the neonatal period. This study aimed to investigate plasma kisspeptin hormone levels in newborns with and without breast enlargement. Methods: Plasma kisspeptin levels and other related biochemical variables were investigated in this prospective study conducted on 40 (20 girls and 20 boys) newborn infants with breast enlargement and on 40 healthy control infants (20 girls and 20 boys). Two-milliliter venous blood samples were taken in hemogram tubes with K2EDTA. Kisspeptin assays were performed using the enzyme-immunoassay method. Results: Mean plasma kisspeptin levels were 0.6±0.2 ng/mL in the study group and 0.5±0.2 ng/mL in the control group. Plasma kisspeptin concentrations were significantly higher in the study group (p=0.039) and also showed a correlation with serum prolactin levels (p=0.006). Significant correlations were also determined between plasma kisspeptin and luteinizing hormone concentrations (p=0.05, r=0.312). Conclusion: The findings of this study suggest that plasma kisspeptin and serum prolactin levels may be involved in the physiopathology of breast enlargement in newborns. PMID:26831552

  16. Aluminium content of some processed foods, raw materials and food additives in China by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Deng, Gui-Fang; Li, Ke; Ma, Jing; Liu, Fen; Dai, Jing-Jing; Li, Hua-Bin

    2011-01-01

    The level of aluminium in 178 processed food samples from Shenzhen city in China was evaluated using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Some processed foods contained a concentration of up to 1226 mg/kg, which is about 12 times the Chinese food standard. To establish the main source in these foods, Al levels in the raw materials were determined. However, aluminium concentrations in raw materials were low (0.10-451.5 mg/kg). Therefore, aluminium levels in food additives used in these foods was determined and it was found that some food additives contained a high concentration of aluminium (0.005-57.4 g/kg). The results suggested that, in the interest of public health, food additives containing high concentrations of aluminium should be replaced by those containing less. This study has provided new information on aluminium levels in Chinese processed foods, raw materials and a selection of food additives.

  17. Plasma kisspeptin levels in male cases with hypogonadism.

    PubMed

    Kotani, Masato; Katagiri, Fumihiko; Hirai, Tsuyoshi; Kagawa, Jiro

    2014-08-22

    The hypothalamic hormone kisspeptin (metastin) regulates human reproduction by modulating gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion. Kisspeptin is detected in peripheral blood, although GnRH is not. In this study, we measured plasma kisspeptin levels in four male cases with hypogonadism and seven normal male controls using enzyme immunoassay (EIA) to elucidate the clinical implications of kisspeptin levels in male hypogonadism. The results showed a variety of plasma kisspeptin levels: 6.0 fmol/ml in a male with isolated hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH), 43.2 fmol/ml in a male with Kallmann's syndrome, 40.7 fmol/ml in a male with azoospermia, 323.2 fmol/ml in a male with hypergonadotropic hypogonadism, and 12.3 ± 2.5 fmol/ml (mean ± SD) in seven normal controls. Except for the case with IHH, the plasma kisspetin levels were elevated in the three cases with Kallmann's syndrome, azoospermia, and hypergonadotropic hypogonadism. The reason why the three cases had high values was their lesions were downstream of the kisspeptin neuron in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, suggesting that elevated kisspeptin levels were implicated in hypothalamic kisspeptin secretion under decreased negative feedback of gonadal steroids. The result that the plasma kisspeptin levels were decreased by gonadotropin therapy in the case with Kallmann's syndrome supported this hypothesis. In conclusion, to measure plasma kisspeptin levels could be useful for better understanding of male hypogonadism.

  18. Plasma kisspeptin levels in male cases with hypogonadism.

    PubMed

    Kotani, Masato; Katagiri, Fumihiko; Hirai, Tsuyoshi; Kagawa, Jiro

    2014-01-01

    The hypothalamic hormone kisspeptin (metastin) regulates human reproduction by modulating gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion. Kisspeptin is detected in peripheral blood, although GnRH is not. In this study, we measured plasma kisspeptin levels in four male cases with hypogonadism and seven normal male controls using enzyme immunoassay (EIA) to elucidate the clinical implications of kisspeptin levels in male hypogonadism. The results showed a variety of plasma kisspeptin levels: 6.0 fmol/mL in a male with isolated hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH), 43.2 fmol/mL in a male with Kallmann's syndrome, 40.7 fmol/mL in a male with azoospermia, 323.2 fmol/mL in a male with hypergonadotropic hypogonadism, and 12.3 ± 2.5 fmol/mL (mean ± SD) in seven normal controls. Except for the case with IHH, the plasma kisspetin levels were elevated in the three cases with Kallmann's syndrome, azoospermia, and hypergonadotropic hypogonadism. The reason why the three cases had high values was their lesions were downstream of the kisspeptin neuron in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, suggesting that elevated kisspeptin levels were implicated in hypothalamic kisspeptin secretion under decreased negative feedback of gonadal steroids. The result that the plasma kisspeptin levels were decreased by gonadotropin therapy in the case with Kallmann's syndrome supported this hypothesis. In conclusion, to measure plasma kisspeptin levels could be useful for better understanding of male hypogonadism.

  19. [IGF-1 plasma levels evaluation in prolactinoma].

    PubMed

    Zylberberg, Daniela; Naliato, Erika C O; Sarmet, Alair; Sato, Eduardo; Costa, Fernando S R; Violante, Alice H D

    2006-09-01

    Prolactinomas are the most frequent pituitary tumors and may co-secrete GH (growth hormone). IGF-1 (insulin-like growth factor-1) is the main responsible for GH actions and a parameter for the diagnosis of acromegaly. With the objective of identifying through a IGF-1 levels analysis, in the initial evaluation of prolactinoma patients, the existence of mixed tumors [GH and prolactin (PRL)], we studied 7 men and 27 women, aged between 19 and 72 years, confronting them with the results of basal and glucose stimulated (glucose tolerance test--GTT) GH levels, indicated when GH >0.4 ng/mL or IGF-1 levels were elevated. The prevalence of patients with GH >0.4 ng/mL and elevated IGF-1 was higher than expected; however, after GTT, no patient fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for acromegaly. However, we suggest that, they should be submitted to IGF-1 evaluation, due to the risk of GH co-secretion in prolactinomas. Special attention should be paid to those who present a significant decrease of PRL levels without concomitant tumor size reduction.

  20. A Taiwanese food frequency questionnaire correlates with plasma docosahexaenoic acid but not with plasma eicosapentaenoic acid levels: questionnaires and plasma biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Little evidence is available for the validity of dietary fish and polyunsaturated fatty acid intake derived from interviewer-administered questionnaires and plasma docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) concentration. Methods We estimated the correlation of DHA and EPA intake from both questionnaires and biochemical measurements. Ethnic Chinese adults with a mean (± SD) age of 59.8 (±12.8) years (n = 297) (47% women) who completed a 38-item semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire and provided a plasma sample were enrolled. Plasma fatty acids were analyzed by capillary gas chromatography. Results The Spearmen rank correlation coefficients between the intake of various types of fish and marine n-3 fatty acids as well as plasma DHA were significant, ranging from 0.20 to 0.33 (P < 0.001). In addition, dietary EPA, C22:5 n-3 and DHA were significantly correlated with the levels of marine n-3 fatty acids and DHA, with the Spearman rank correlation coefficients ranging from 0.26 to 0.35 (P < 0.001). Moreover, compared with those in the lowest fish intake quintile, participants in the highest quintile had a significantly higher DHA level (adjusted mean difference, 0.99 ± 0.10%, test for trend, P < 0.001). Similar patterns between dietary DHA intake and plasma DHA levels were found. However, the association between dietary fish intake and plasma EPA was not significant (test for trend, P = 0.69). Conclusions The dietary intakes of fish and of long chain n-3 fatty acids, as determined by the food frequency questionnaire, were correlated with the percentages of these fatty acids in plasma, and in particular with plasma DHA. Plasma DHA levels were correlated to dietary intake of long-chain n-3 fatty acids. PMID:23414574

  1. Uterine activty and plasma progesterone levels in pregnant goats.

    PubMed

    Jones, D E; Kinfton, A

    1977-01-01

    Uterine activity was recorded during the last few weeks of pregnacy in goats, and related to changes in plasma progesterone concentration. In six of the 14 pregnancies, there was little activity until immediately pre-partum, but the remainder showed a progressive increase in uterine motility, particularly during the last seven days of pregnancy. There was a significant correlation between increased uterine activity and decline of peripheral plasma progesterone levels. PMID:841203

  2. Uterine activty and plasma progesterone levels in pregnant goats.

    PubMed

    Jones, D E; Kinfton, A

    1977-01-01

    Uterine activity was recorded during the last few weeks of pregnacy in goats, and related to changes in plasma progesterone concentration. In six of the 14 pregnancies, there was little activity until immediately pre-partum, but the remainder showed a progressive increase in uterine motility, particularly during the last seven days of pregnancy. There was a significant correlation between increased uterine activity and decline of peripheral plasma progesterone levels.

  3. Detection and quantification of lupus anticoagulants in plasma from heparin treated patients, using addition of polybrene

    PubMed Central

    Jacobsen, Eva M; Trettenes, Elin J; Wisløff, Finn; Abildgaard, Ulrich

    2006-01-01

    Background Lupus anticoagulants prolong clotting times in phospholipid-dependent coagulation tests. Lupus Ratio assays are integrated tests for lupus anticoagulants that may be based on APTT, RVVT or dPT clotting times. If a patient is being treated with unfractionated heparin, however, the heparin prolong clotting times and the diagnosis of lupus anticoagulant is invalidated. Commercial assays may have heparin neutralising agents added to their reagents. However, the type and efficacy of the heparin neutralisation is often not documented. We wanted to test the influence and efficacy of heparin neutralisers in the Lupus Ratio assay. Methods Several heparin neutralisers were tested, and polybrene was chosen for further testing. Unfractionated heparin and/or polybrene were added to normal plasma and to plasma from patients with or without lupus anticoagulant and clotting times compared before and after the additions. Lupus anticoagulant-positive patients were given 5000 IU i.v. of unfractionated heparin and plasma was collected just before and five minutes after the injection. Lupus Ratios were calculated after polybrene was added to the postinjection samples. Results The Lupus Ratio became slightly lower when polybrene was added to plasma without heparin. Plasma heparinised in vitro and plasma from patients that had received heparin, both had Lupus Ratios nearly identical to the Lupus Ratios calculated before any additions. Conclusion By addition of polybrene to a final concentration of 7.9 μg/ml in test plasma, Lupus Ratio may be determined in lupus anticoagulant-negative as well as positive plasmas irrespective of the presence of heparin 0.0 – 1.3 U/ml. PMID:16436199

  4. Seminal plasma HIV-1 RNA concentration is strongly associated with altered levels of seminal plasma interferon-γ, interleukin-17, and interleukin-5.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Jennifer C; Anton, Peter A; Baldwin, Gayle Cocita; Elliott, Julie; Anisman-Posner, Deborah; Tanner, Karen; Grogan, Tristan; Elashoff, David; Sugar, Catherine; Yang, Otto O; Hoffman, Risa M

    2014-11-01

    Seminal plasma HIV-1 RNA level is an important determinant of the risk of HIV-1 sexual transmission. We investigated potential associations between seminal plasma cytokine levels and viral concentration in the seminal plasma of HIV-1-infected men. This was a prospective, observational study of paired blood and semen samples from 18 HIV-1 chronically infected men off antiretroviral therapy. HIV-1 RNA levels and cytokine levels in seminal plasma and blood plasma were measured and analyzed using simple linear regressions to screen for associations between cytokines and seminal plasma HIV-1 levels. Forward stepwise regression was performed to construct the final multivariate model. The median HIV-1 RNA concentrations were 4.42 log10 copies/ml (IQR 2.98, 4.70) and 2.96 log10 copies/ml (IQR 2, 4.18) in blood and seminal plasma, respectively. In stepwise multivariate linear regression analysis, blood HIV-1 RNA level (p<0.0001) was most strongly associated with seminal plasma HIV-1 RNA level. After controlling for blood HIV-1 RNA level, seminal plasma HIV-1 RNA level was positively associated with interferon (IFN)-γ (p=0.03) and interleukin (IL)-17 (p=0.03) and negatively associated with IL-5 (p=0.0007) in seminal plasma. In addition to blood HIV-1 RNA level, cytokine profiles in the male genital tract are associated with HIV-1 RNA levels in semen. The Th1 and Th17 cytokines IFN-γ and IL-17 are associated with increased seminal plasma HIV-1 RNA, while the Th2 cytokine IL-5 is associated with decreased seminal plasma HIV-1 RNA. These results support the importance of genital tract immunomodulation in HIV-1 transmission.

  5. Normal fasting plasma glucose levels in some birds of prey.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, J A; Garbett, R; Morzenti, A

    1978-10-01

    Blood samples taken from five great horned owls (Bubo virginianus), eight red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis), four marsh hawks (Circus cyaneus), two prairie falcons (Falco mexicanus), five golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos), and five white leghorn chickens (Gallus domesticus) that had been fasted for 24 h were used to determine plasma levels of glucose by the glucose oxidase method. The mean plasma glucose levels were: great horned owls 374.6 mg/100 ml, red-tailed hawks 346.5 mg/00 ml, marsh hawks 369.3 mg/100 ml, prairie falcons 414.5 mg/100 ml, golden eagles 368.4 mg/100 ml, and white Leghorn chickens 218.2 mg/100 ml. The plasma glucose levels obtained for the raptorial birds in this study were considerably higher than those found for the chickens. These values are discussed in relation to the carnivorous food habits of raptors. PMID:739587

  6. Drag Reduction by Laser-Plasma Energy Addition in Hypersonic Flow

    SciTech Connect

    Oliveira, A. C.; Minucci, M. A. S.; Toro, P. G. P.; Chanes, J. B. Jr; Myrabo, L. N.

    2008-04-28

    An experimental study was conducted to investigate the drag reduction by laser-plasma energy addition in a low density Mach 7 hypersonic flow. The experiments were conducted in a shock tunnel and the optical beam of a high power pulsed CO{sub 2} TEA laser operating with 7 J of energy and 30 MW peak power was focused to generate the plasma upstream of a hemispherical model installed in the tunnel test section. The non-intrusive schlieren optical technique was used to visualize the effects of the energy addition to hypersonic flow, from the plasma generation until the mitigation of the shock wave profile over the model surface. Aside the optical technique, a piezoelectric pressure transducer was used to measure the impact pressure at stagnation point of the hemispherical model and the pressure reduction could be observed.

  7. Plasma protein carbonyl levels and breast cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Rossner, Pavel; Terry, Mary Beth; Gammon, Marilie D; Agrawal, Meenakshi; Zhang, Fang Fang; Ferris, Jennifer S; Teitelbaum, Susan L; Eng, Sybil M; Gaudet, Mia M; Neugut, Alfred I; Santella, Regina M

    2007-01-01

    To study the role of oxidative stress in breast cancer risk, we analysed plasma levels of protein carbonyls in 1050 cases and 1107 controls. We found a statistically significant trend in breast cancer risk in relation to increasing quartiles of plasma protein carbonyl levels (OR = 1.2, 95% CI = 0.9-1.5; OR = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.2-2.0; OR = 1.6, 95% CI = 1.2-2.1, for the 2(nd), 3(rd) and 4(th) quartile relative to the lowest quartile, respectively, P for trend = 0.0001). The increase in risk was similar for younger (<50 years) and older women, more pronounced among women with higher physical activity levels (0.7 hrs/week for 4(th) quartile versus lowest quartile OR = 2.0, 95% CI = 1.4-3.0), higher alcohol consumption (> or = 15 grams/day for 4(th) quartile versus lowest quartile OR = 2.3, 95% CI = 1.1-4.7), and hormone replacement therapy use (HRT, OR = 2.6, 95% CI = 1.6-4.4 for 4(th) quartile versus lowest quartile). The multiplicative interaction terms were statistically significant only for physical activity and HRT. The positive association between plasma protein carbonyl levels and breast cancer risk was also observed when the analysis was restricted to women who had not received chemotherapy or radiation therapy prior to blood collection. Among controls, oxidized protein levels significantly increased with cigarette smoking and higher fruit and vegetable consumption, and decreased with alcohol consumption >30 grams per day. Women with higher levels of plasma protein carbonyl and urinary 15F(2t)-isoprostane had an 80% increase in breast cancer risk (OR = 1.8, 95% CI = 1.2-2.6) compared to women with levels below the median for both markers of oxidative stress. In summary, our results suggest that increased plasma protein carbonyl levels may be associated with breast cancer risk.

  8. Increase in plasma thrombomodulin level in patients with vibration syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kanazuka, M; Shigekiyo, T; Toibana, N; Saito, S

    1996-04-01

    To determine whether endothelial cells are injured in vibration syndrome, we measured plasma levels of thrombomodulin (TM) in 100 patients with this syndrome using one-step sandwich enzyme immunoassay. Plasma level of TM in patients with vibration syndrome was significantly higher than that in normal control (p < 0.0001). There was no significant difference in the plasma TM level between patients with vibration syndrome and those with collagen disease. Plasma TM concentration in chain-saw operators was significantly higher than that in rock-drill operators (p < 0.05). Plasma TM value did not significantly differ between patients with vibration-induced white finger (VWF) and those without VWF. These results suggest that endothelial injury is present in patients with vibration syndrome, the degree of endothelial injury in patients with vibration syndrome equals that in patients with collagen disease, and the endothelial injury in chain-saw operators is greater than that in rock-drill operators. However, there was no difference in the degree of endothelial injury between patients with VWF and those without VWF.

  9. Additions to the Human Plasma Proteome via a Tandem MARS Depletion iTRAQ-Based Workflow.

    PubMed

    Cao, Zhiyun; Yende, Sachin; Kellum, John A; Robinson, Renã A S

    2013-01-01

    Robust platforms for determining differentially expressed proteins in biomarker and discovery studies using human plasma are of great interest. While increased depth in proteome coverage is desirable, it is associated with costs of experimental time due to necessary sample fractionation. We evaluated a robust quantitative proteomics workflow for its ability (1) to provide increased depth in plasma proteome coverage and (2) to give statistical insight useful for establishing differentially expressed plasma proteins. The workflow involves dual-stage immunodepletion on a multiple affinity removal system (MARS) column, iTRAQ tagging, offline strong-cation exchange chromatography, and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Independent workflow experiments were performed in triplicate on four plasma samples tagged with iTRAQ 4-plex reagents. After stringent criteria were applied to database searched results, 689 proteins with at least two spectral counts (SC) were identified. Depth in proteome coverage was assessed by comparison to the 2010 Human Plasma Proteome Reference Database in which our studies reveal 399 additional proteins which have not been previously reported. Additionally, we report on the technical variation of this quantitative workflow which ranges from ±11 to 30%.

  10. Additions to the Human Plasma Proteome via a Tandem MARS Depletion iTRAQ-Based Workflow

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Zhiyun; Yende, Sachin; Kellum, John A.; Robinson, Renã A. S.

    2013-01-01

    Robust platforms for determining differentially expressed proteins in biomarker and discovery studies using human plasma are of great interest. While increased depth in proteome coverage is desirable, it is associated with costs of experimental time due to necessary sample fractionation. We evaluated a robust quantitative proteomics workflow for its ability (1) to provide increased depth in plasma proteome coverage and (2) to give statistical insight useful for establishing differentially expressed plasma proteins. The workflow involves dual-stage immunodepletion on a multiple affinity removal system (MARS) column, iTRAQ tagging, offline strong-cation exchange chromatography, and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Independent workflow experiments were performed in triplicate on four plasma samples tagged with iTRAQ 4-plex reagents. After stringent criteria were applied to database searched results, 689 proteins with at least two spectral counts (SC) were identified. Depth in proteome coverage was assessed by comparison to the 2010 Human Plasma Proteome Reference Database in which our studies reveal 399 additional proteins which have not been previously reported. Additionally, we report on the technical variation of this quantitative workflow which ranges from ±11 to 30%. PMID:23509626

  11. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  12. Methods for the determination of plasma or tissue glutathione levels.

    PubMed

    Tipple, Trent E; Rogers, Lynette K

    2012-01-01

    We present two different methods for determining levels of glutathione in complex biological samples and plasma. The DTNB/GR enzyme recycling method is sensitive and requires no specialized equipment. The HPLC method is particularly useful for situations in which sample amounts are limited. Detailed instructions for performing each method as well as the advantages and disadvantages of each are discussed in this chapter.

  13. Increased plasma homocysteine levels in shift working bus drivers

    PubMed Central

    Martins, P; D'Almeida, V; Vergani, N; Perez, A; Tufik, S

    2003-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have indicated an association between shift work and cardiovascular disease. There is also considerable epidemiological evidence that hyperhomocysteinemia is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disorders. Aims: To analyse plasma homocysteine levels in shift work bus drivers, and to investigate possible relations with sleep parameters and other biochemical factors. Methods: Blood samples were collected from 30 male shift working long-haul bus drivers in a Brazilian sample and analysed for plasma levels of homocysteine, folic acid, vitamin B12, and serum lipids. A group of 22 daytime workers, matched for age and body mass index served as controls. The incidence of mutations in the gene coding for methylene tetrahydrofolate, an enzyme which is related to hyperhomocysteinemia, was also assessed. Polysomnographic recordings were obtained from the target group. Results: Bus drivers showed significantly higher levels of plasma homocysteine than the control group (18.57 v 9.43 µM). Most of the other biochemical, behavioural, and molecular parameters did not differ between groups. Likewise, sleep parameters appeared to be within the normal range. Conclusions: The significantly increased plasma homocysteine levels in long-haul bus drivers did not appear to be secondary to other biochemical or behavioural problems in this group. These results suggest that hyperhomocysteinemia may be involved in the increased incidence of cardiovascular diseases observed in shift workers. PMID:12937187

  14. Plasma relaxin levels in pregnant and lactating dogs.

    PubMed

    Steinetz, B G; Goldsmith, L T; Lust, G

    1987-10-01

    The pattern of plasma relaxin has been studied during pregnancy and following parturition in two breeds of dogs, Labrador retrievers and beagle hounds. Blood samples were collected at weekly intervals following mating and during pregnancy, parturition, and lactation. Relaxin, progesterone, and estradiol-17 beta were determined by specific double antibody radioimmunoassays. Immunoreactive relaxin (IR) was not detectable in plasma of male dogs, bitches in anestrous, or pseudopregnant bitches that had undergone an infertile mating. IR was first detectable in plasma in the third or fourth week of gestation in retrievers and beagles. IR levels rose to a peak of 4-5 ng/ml in both breeds. The peak plasma levels were reached 2-3 wk before whelping and declined significantly prior to that event. IR then persisted during lactation at a level of 0.5-2 ng/ml for 4-9 wk, but was significantly higher (p less than 0.01) at all time periods and persisted longer in labradors than in beagles. The secretion of relaxin did not parallel that of progesterone, which was highly elevated in the first samples drawn (during the first week of pregnancy), remained high through 5 or 6 wk of gestation, then slowly declined until the time of parturition, becoming undetectable during lactation. Plasma estradiol-17 beta was low after the second week of pregnancy in both breeds of dogs and became undetectable during lactation. The source of relaxin in the dog is not known currently, and its sites of secretion and role in pregnancy are currently under investigation in our laboratories. The dog is the first species in which plasma IR is detectable during lactation using antibody R6.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Progranulin Levels in Plasma and Cerebrospinal Fluid in Granulin Mutation Carriers

    PubMed Central

    Meeter, Lieke H.H.; Patzke, Holger; Loewen, Gordon; Dopper, Elise G.P.; Pijnenburg, Yolande A.L.; van Minkelen, Rick; van Swieten, John C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Pathogenic mutations in the granulin gene (GRN) are causative in 5-10% of patients with frontotemporal dementia (FTD), mostly leading to reduced progranulin protein (PGRN) levels. Upcoming therapeutic trials focus on enhancing PGRN levels. Methods Fluctuations in plasma PGRN (n = 41) and its relationship with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF, n = 32) and specific single nucleotide polymorphisms were investigated in pre- and symptomatic GRN mutation carriers and controls. Results Plasma PGRN levels were lower in carriers than in controls and showed a mean coefficient of variation of 5.3% in carriers over 1 week. Although plasma PGRN correlated with CSF PGRN in carriers (r = 0.54, p = 0.02), plasma only explained 29% of the variability in CSF PGRN. rs5848, rs646776 and rs1990622 genotypes only partly explained the variability of PGRN levels between subjects. Conclusions Plasma PGRN is relatively stable over 1 week and therefore seems suitable for treatment monitoring of PGRN-enhancing agents. Since plasma PGRN only moderately correlated with CSF PGRN, CSF sampling will additionally be needed in therapeutic trials.

  16. Smoking, COPD and 3-Nitrotyrosine Levels of Plasma Proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, Hongjun; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Peterson, Elena S.; Tan, Ruimin; Bigelow, Diana J.; Scholand, Mary Beth; Hoidal, John R.; Pounds, Joel G.; Zangar, Richard C.

    2011-09-01

    BACKGROUND: Nitric oxide is a physiologically regulator of endothelial function and hemodynamics. Oxidized products of nitric oxide can form nitrotyrosine, which is a marker of nitrative stress. Cigarette smoking decreases exhaled nitric oxide, and the underlying mechanism may be important in the cardiovascular toxicity of cigarette smoke, although it is not clear if this effect results from decreased nitric oxide production or oxidation of nitric oxide to reactive, nitrating, species. These processes would be expected to have opposite effects on nitrotyrosine levels, a marker of nitrative stress. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we determine the effects of smoking and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) on circulating levels of nitrotyrosine, and thereby gain insight into the processes regulating nitrotyrosine formation. METHODS: A custom antibody microarray platform was used to analyze the levels of 3-nitrotyrosine modifications on 24 proteins in plasma. Plasma samples from 458 individuals were analyzed. RESULTS: Nitrotyrosine levels in circulating proteins were uniformly reduced in smokers but increased in COPD patients. We also observed a persistent suppression of nitrotyrosine in former smokers. CONCLUSIONS: Smoking broadly suppresses the levels of 3-nitrotyrosine in plasma proteins, suggesting that cigarette smoke suppresses endothelial nitric oxide production. In contrast, the increase in nitrotyrosine levels in COPD patients most likely results from inflammatory processes. This study provides the first evidence that smoking has irreversible effects on endothelial production of nitric oxide, and provides insight into how smoking could induce a loss of elasticity in the vasculature and a long-term increase in the risk of cardiovascular disease.

  17. Cannabis use is associated with increased CCL11 plasma levels in young healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Egea, Emilio; Scoriels, Linda; Theegala, Swathi; Giro, Maria; Ozanne, Susan E; Burling, Keith; Jones, Peter B

    2013-10-01

    Cannabis is a widely used recreational drug. Its effect on human health and psychosis remains controversial. In this study, we aimed to explore the possibility that cannabis use influenced CCL11 plasma levels. Increased CCL11 chemokine has been reported in schizophrenia and cannabis is a known trigger of schizophrenia. Additionally, plasma levels of the chemokine CCL11 have recently been shown to increase with age and with cognitive deficits and hippocampal neurogenesis. For this study, a total of 87 healthy volunteers (68% men, age range 18-35 years) completed the Cannabis Experience Questionnaire that included information on sociodemographic and morphometric data and provided a blood sample for CCL11 measurement. 'Current users' of cannabis (n=18) had significantly higher CCL11 plasma levels compared to 'past users' (n=33) and 'never users' (n=36) [F(3,84)=3.649; p=0.030]. The latter two groups had similar CCL11 levels. Higher CCL11 plasma levels could not be attributed to gender, age, body mass index, physical activity or use of other legal/illegal drugs. These results suggest that cannabis use increases CCL11 plasma levels and the effects are reversible when cannabis use ceases. PMID:23820464

  18. Cannabis use is associated with increased CCL11 plasma levels in young healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Egea, Emilio; Scoriels, Linda; Theegala, Swathi; Giro, Maria; Ozanne, Susan E; Burling, Keith; Jones, Peter B

    2013-10-01

    Cannabis is a widely used recreational drug. Its effect on human health and psychosis remains controversial. In this study, we aimed to explore the possibility that cannabis use influenced CCL11 plasma levels. Increased CCL11 chemokine has been reported in schizophrenia and cannabis is a known trigger of schizophrenia. Additionally, plasma levels of the chemokine CCL11 have recently been shown to increase with age and with cognitive deficits and hippocampal neurogenesis. For this study, a total of 87 healthy volunteers (68% men, age range 18-35 years) completed the Cannabis Experience Questionnaire that included information on sociodemographic and morphometric data and provided a blood sample for CCL11 measurement. 'Current users' of cannabis (n=18) had significantly higher CCL11 plasma levels compared to 'past users' (n=33) and 'never users' (n=36) [F(3,84)=3.649; p=0.030]. The latter two groups had similar CCL11 levels. Higher CCL11 plasma levels could not be attributed to gender, age, body mass index, physical activity or use of other legal/illegal drugs. These results suggest that cannabis use increases CCL11 plasma levels and the effects are reversible when cannabis use ceases.

  19. Disuse atrophy, plasma corticosterone, and muscle glucocorticoid receptor levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steffen, J. M.; Musacchia, X. J.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of whole-body suspension on the time course and the extent of plasma corticosterone changes and the tissue sensitivity to glucocorticoids were investigated in rats subjected to seven days of whole-body suspension. Plasma corticosterone increased significantly on the first and the third days of suspension, but returned to control levels by day seven. Muscle glucocorticoid receptors exhibited a characteristic hormonal specificity (evaluated in competitive-displacement experiments). In controls, receptor site concentration in the slow-twitch soleus was comparable to that in the fast-twitch gastrocnemius and plantaris, but was significantly less than in the extensor; seven days of suspension resulted in significant differential effects on muscle receptor levels. The largest increase in receptor concentration was observed in the soleus in which it remained elevated after the receptor levels in other muscles returned to normal.

  20. Abnormal plasma prothrombin (PIVKA-II) levels in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kawaguchi, Y

    1989-05-01

    The concentration of abnormal prothrombin, or the protein induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist II (PIVKA-II) in 102 patients with hepatic disorders was measured by an enzyme immunoassay method. The concentration of PIVKA-II in the plasma was elevated in 11 out of 18 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma and also in a patient with hepatoblastoma. There was no correlation between serum alpha-fetoprotein and plasma PIVKA-II levels. The PIVKA-II level was normal in 11 patients who had metastatic carcinoma or cholangiocellular carcinoma. Moreover, benign diseases of the liver did not cause an elevation in PIVKA-II. PIVKA-II might be an useful marker of hepatocellular carcinoma because, like alpha-fetoprotein, its level changes in close relation to the effects of treatment.

  1. Plasma level monitoring of antidepressants: theoretical basis and clinical application.

    PubMed

    Gram, L F; Kragh-Sørensen, P; Kristensen, C B; Møller, M; Pedersen, O L; Thayssen, P

    1984-01-01

    For TCAs there is a strong rationale for drug level monitoring in clinical therapy. Therapeutic drug concentration ranges have been established in controlled studies with NT, imipramine, and AT. It has been shown that by appropriate choice of antidepressant and close monitoring of drug levels, treatment with antidepressants in elderly and other risk patients can be carried out effectively and safely, reducing the use of electroconvulsive therapy. Finally, the practical clinical use of antidepressant concentration measurements is now feasible and not expensive, and the analytical procedures can be established in most hospital settings. On the basis of these premises the following can be concluded: Plasma level monitoring should be used as a routine for imipramine, NT, and AT. Further plasma level studies on other antidepressants and in overdose cases should be initiated. Plasma level monitoring is indispensable in clinical research on antidepressants (trials, new drugs, toxicology). Pharmacokinetic considerations may be useful to determine which receptor effects are clinically relevant in therapy and toxicology. PMID:6380231

  2. The effect of dietary fat level and quality on plasma lipoprotein lipids and plasma fatty acids in normocholesterolemic subjects.

    PubMed

    Sanders, K; Johnson, L; O'Dea, K; Sinclair, A J

    1994-02-01

    This study examined the effect on the plasma lipids and plasma phospholipid and cholesteryl ester fatty acids of changing froma typical western diet to a very low fat (VLF) vegetarian diet containing one egg/day. The effect of the addition of saturated, monounsaturated or polyunsaturated fat (PUFA) to the VLF diet was also examined. Three groups of 10 subjects (6 women, 4 men) were fed the VLF diet (10% energy as fat) for two weeks, and then in the next two weeks the dietary fat in each group was increased by 10% energy/week using butter, olive oil or safflower oil. The fat replaced dietary carbohydrate. The VLF diet reduced both the low density lipoprotein (LDL)- and high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol levels; addition of the monounsaturated fats and PUFA increased the HDL-cholesterol levels, whereas butter increased the cholesterol levels in both the LDL- and HDL-fractions. The VLF diet led to significant reductions in the proportion of linoleic acid (18:2 omega 6) and eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5 omega 3) and to increases in palmitoleic (16:1), eicosatrienoic (20:3 omega 6) and arachidonic acids (20:4 omega 6) in both phospholipids and cholesteryl esters. Addition of butter reversed the changes seen on the VLF diet, with the exception of 16:1, which remained elevated. Addition of olive oil resulted in a significant rise in the proportion of 18:1 and significant decreases in all omega 3 PUFA except 22:6 compared with the usual diet. The addition of safflower oil resulted in significant increases in 18:2 and 20:4 omega 6 and significant decreases in 18:1, 20:5 omega 3 and 22:5 omega 3. These results indicate that the reduction of saturated fat content of the diet (< 6% dietary energy), either by reducing the total fat content of the diet or by exchanging saturated fat with unsaturated fat, reduced the total plasma cholesterol levels by approximately 12% in normocholesterolemic subjects. Although the VLF vegetarian diet reduced both LDL- and HDL

  3. Evaluation of cisplatin plasma levels in patients undergoing cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Fleres, Francesco; Saladino, Edoardo; Catanoso, Rosaria; Arcoraci, Vincenzo; Mandolfino, Tommaso; Cucinotta, Eugenio; Macrì, Antonio

    2016-02-01

    Introduction Peritoneal surface malignancies have long been regarded as incurable, however, they can be treated with cytoreductive surgery in addition to hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy. This approach is associated with an increase in morbidity and mortality, unless hyperhydration is provided in a timely manner. Methods Cisplatin (CDDP) is the most widely used chemotherapeutic agent. Plasma levels of cisplatin (CDDP), a widely used chemotherapeutic agent, were measured before, during, and after the procedure. This was done in order to identify the window of highest risk as a function of drug concentrations, assuming a dose-dependent effect. Results Plasma levels of CDDP peak during perfusion. The concentration remains high until the 4th post-operative day and returns to pre-operative levels by the 7th post-operative day. Conclusions Our findings suggest that ensuring hyperhydration as well as infusing albumin and fresh frozen plasma may be of particular value for at least the first 4 days after the procedure. PMID:27385136

  4. Plasma Lactate Dehydrogenase Levels Predict Mortality in Acute Aortic Syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Morello, Fulvio; Ravetti, Anna; Nazerian, Peiman; Liedl, Giovanni; Veglio, Maria Grazia; Battista, Stefania; Vanni, Simone; Pivetta, Emanuele; Montrucchio, Giuseppe; Mengozzi, Giulio; Rinaldi, Mauro; Moiraghi, Corrado; Lupia, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In acute aortic syndromes (AAS), organ malperfusion represents a key event impacting both on diagnosis and outcome. Increased levels of plasma lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), a biomarker of malperfusion, have been reported in AAS, but the performance of LDH for the diagnosis of AAS and the relation of LDH with outcome in AAS have not been evaluated so far. This was a bi-centric prospective diagnostic accuracy study and a cohort outcome study. From 2008 to 2014, patients from 2 Emergency Departments suspected of having AAS underwent LDH assay at presentation. A final diagnosis was obtained by aortic imaging. Patients diagnosed with AAS were followed-up for in-hospital mortality. One thousand five hundred seventy-eight consecutive patients were clinically eligible, and 999 patients were included in the study. The final diagnosis was AAS in 201 (20.1%) patients. Median LDH was 424 U/L (interquartile range [IQR] 367–557) in patients with AAS and 383 U/L (IQR 331–460) in patients with alternative diagnoses (P < 0.001). Using a cutoff of 450 U/L, the sensitivity of LDH for AAS was 44% (95% confidence interval [CI] 37–51) and the specificity was 73% (95% CI 69–76). Overall in-hospital mortality for AAS was 23.8%. Mortality was 32.6% in patients with LDH ≥ 450 U/L and 16.8% in patients with LDH < 450 U/L (P = 0.006). Following stratification according to LDH quartiles, in-hospital mortality was 12% in the first (lowest) quartile, 18.4% in the second quartile, 23.5% in the third quartile, and 38% in the fourth (highest) quartile (P = 0.01). LDH ≥ 450 U/L was further identified as an independent predictor of death in AAS both in univariate and in stepwise logistic regression analyses (odds ratio 2.28, 95% CI 1.11–4.66; P = 0.025), in addition to well-established risk markers such as advanced age and hypotension. Subgroup analysis showed excess mortality in association with LDH ≥ 450 U/L in elderly, hemodynamically stable

  5. Plasma Leptin Levels in Children Hospitalized with Cholera in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Falkard, Brie; Uddin, Taher; Rahman, M Arifur; Franke, Molly F; Aktar, Amena; Uddin, Muhammad Ikhtear; Bhuiyan, Taufiqur Rahman; Leung, Daniel T; Charles, Richelle C; Larocque, Regina C; Harris, Jason B; Calderwood, Stephen B; Qadri, Firdausi; Ryan, Edward T

    2015-08-01

    Vibrio cholerae, the cause of cholera, induces both innate and adaptive immune responses in infected humans. Leptin is a hormone that plays a role in both metabolism and mediating immune responses. We characterized leptin levels in 11 children with cholera in Bangladesh, assessing leptin levels on days 2, 7, 30, and 180 following cholera. We found that patients at the acute stage of cholera had significantly lower plasma leptin levels than matched controls, and compared with levels in late convalescence. We then assessed immune responses to V. cholerae antigens in 74 children with cholera, correlating these responses to plasma leptin levels on day 2 of illness. In multivariate analysis, we found an association between day 2 leptin levels and development of later anti-cholera toxin B subunit (CtxB) responses. This finding appeared to be limited to children with better nutritional status. Interestingly, we found no association between leptin levels and antibody responses to V. cholerae lipopolysaccharide, a T cell-independent antigen. Our results suggest that leptin levels may be associated with cholera, including the development of immune responses to T cell-dependent antigens.

  6. Plasma estrogen levels during pregnancy in the western spotted skunk.

    PubMed

    Ravindra, R; Mead, R A

    1984-06-01

    The present study was undertaken to obtain an estrogen profile throughout gestation in the western spotted skunk with special emphasis on relating changes in estrogen levels to blastocyst development. Blood samples were collected from 130 pregnant animals by cardiac puncture and plasma estrogen levels were determined by radioimmunoassay (RIA). Estrogen levels varied throughout the period of embryonic diapause, with mean levels ranging between 3 to 18 pg/ml. There was a tendency for estrogen levels to be less variable and somewhat lower during the 15 days immediately prior to blastocyst implantation than during the preceding period. Plasma estrogen levels in skunks with delayed implanting blastocysts (diameters of 1.1 mm or less) were significantly higher (P less than 0.05) than those in females with activating blastocysts (i.e., diameters of 1.2 mm or greater), again suggesting that estrogen levels were reduced during the period immediately preceding implantation. However, the exact physiological significance, if any, of this modest reduction in estrogen levels remains to be determined.

  7. Positive relationship between plasma leptin level and hypertension.

    PubMed

    Shankar, Anoop; Xiao, Jie

    2010-10-01

    Leptin is an adipose tissue-derived hormone shown to be related to metabolic, inflammatory, and hemostatic factors involved in hypertension development. Animal studies suggest that higher leptin levels may activate the sympathetic nervous system and cause elevations in blood pressure (BP). However, few studies have examined the association between leptin and hypertension in humans. Also it is not clear whether this association is present among women as well as men. Therefore, we examined the association between plasma leptin levels and hypertension in a representative sample of US adults. We examined the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey participants >20 years of age (n=5599; 54.7% women). Plasma leptin levels were categorized into quartiles (women: <7.68, 7.68 to 13.18, 13.19 to 21.70, >21.70 fg/L; men: <2.64, 2.64 to 4.36, 4.37 to 7.12, >7.12 fg/L). Hypertension was defined as BP-reducing medication use or having systolic BP ≥140 mm Hg and/or diastolic BP ≥90 mm Hg. We found that higher plasma leptin levels were positively associated with hypertension after adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, smoking, alcohol intake, body mass index, diabetes mellitus, serum cholesterol, and C-reactive protein. Compared with quartile 1 of leptin (referent), the odds ratio (95% CI) of hypertension associated with quartile 4 was 1.89 (1.24 to 2.09; P for trend=0.0036). Subgroup analyses examining the relation between leptin and hypertension by sex and body mass index categories also showed a consistent positive association. In conclusion, higher plasma leptin levels are associated with hypertension both among women as well as men in a representative sample of US adults.

  8. Plasma FGF23 levels increase rapidly after acute kidney injury

    PubMed Central

    Christov, Marta; Waikar, Sushrut; Pereira, Renata; Havasi, Andrea; Leaf, David E.; Goltzman, David; Pajevic, Paola Divieti; Wolf, Myles; Jüppner, Harald

    2013-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) levels are elevated in patients with acute kidney injury (AKI). In order to determine how early this increase occurs we used a murine folic acid nephropathy model and found that plasma FGF23 levels increased significantly from baseline already after 1 hour of AKI, with an 18-fold increase at 24 hours. Similar elevations of FGF23 levels were found when AKI was induced in mice with osteocyte-specific parathyroid hormone receptor ablation or the global deletion of parathyroid hormone or vitamin D receptor, indicating that the increase in FGF23 was independent of parathyroid hormone and vitamin D signaling. Furthermore, FGF23 levels increased to a similar extent in wild-type mice maintained on normal or phosphate-depleted diets prior to induction of AKI, indicating that the marked FGF23 elevation is at least partially independent of dietary phosphate. Bone production of FGF23 was significantly increased in AKI. The half-life of intravenously administered recombinant FGF23 was only modestly increased. Consistent with the mouse data, plasma FGF23 levels rose 15.9-fold by 24 hours following cardiac surgery in patients who developed AKI. The levels were significantly higher than in those without postoperative AKI. Thus, circulating FGF23 levels rise rapidly during AKI in rodents and humans. In mice this increase is independent of established modulators of FGF23 secretion. PMID:23657144

  9. Fluctuations in plasma oestradiol levels in normal men.

    PubMed

    Kicóvíc, P M; Luisi, M; Cortés-Prieto, J; Franchi, F

    1980-01-01

    Plasma levels of oestradiol were measured in blood samples obtained from 6 normal men every 12 minutes for two 4-hour periods: between 08.00 and 12.00h and between 18.00 and 22.00h. Circulating oestradiol was measured by radioimmunoassay after chromatographic separation on microcolumns of Sephadex LH-20. Mean values of oestradiol concentrations and coefficients of variation for two 4-hour periods were calculated for each subject and for the whole group. Data were statistically evaluated by means of the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Rapid fluctuations in plasma oestradiol levels were observed in all subjects. The pattern of the fluctuations was found to be irregular and different in each subject. The mean concentration and coefficient of variation were significantly (p less than 0.05) higher in the morning, suggesting the possibility of a circadian rhythm in the secretion of oestradiol in men.

  10. Relationship between Plasma Leptin Level and Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Shankar, Anoop; Syamala, Shirmila; Xiao, Jie; Muntner, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Background. Leptin is an adipose tissue-derived hormone shown to be related to several metabolic, inflammatory, and hemostatic factors related to chronic kidney disease. Recent animal studies have reported that infusion of recombinant leptin into normal rats for 3 weeks fosters the development of glomerulosclerosis. However, few studies have examined the association between leptin and CKD in humans. Therefore, we examined the association between plasma leptin levels and CKD in a representative sample of US adults. Methods. We examined the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey participants >20 years of age (n = 5820, 53.6% women). Plasma leptin levels were categorized into quartiles (≤4.3 Fg/L, 4.4–8.7 Fg/L, 8.8–16.9 Fg/L, >16.9 Fg/L). CKD was defined as a glomerular filtration rate of <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 estimated from serum creatinine. Results. Higher plasma leptin levels were associated with CKD after adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, smoking, alcohol intake, body mass index (BMI), diabetes, hypertension, and serum cholesterol. Compared to quartile 1 of leptin (referent), the odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of CKD associated with quartile 4 was 3.31 (1.41 to 7.78); P-trend = 0.0135. Subgroup analyses examining the relation between leptin and CKD by gender, BMI categories, diabetes, and hypertension status also showed a consistent positive association. Conclusion. Higher plasma leptin levels are associated with CKD in a representative sample of US adults. PMID:22666590

  11. Plasma catecholamine levels and neurobehavioral problems in Indian firefighters.

    PubMed

    Ray, Manas R; Basu, Chandreyi; Roychoudhury, Sanghita; Banik, Sampa; Lahiri, Twisha

    2006-05-01

    Firefighting is a stressful and hazardous job. Persons engaged in firefighting are highly exposed to work-related stress as well as to smoke containing a host of chemicals potentially harmful to human health. In order to elucidate whether firefighting affects neuroendocrine and behavioral responses of firefighters, plasma catecholamine (CA) levels and the prevalence of neurobehavioral symptoms in 62 firefighters (all males, mean age 43 yr) and 52 control subjects matched for age and sex were examined in this study. Self-reported neurobehavioral symptoms data were obtained from a questionnaire survey and personal interview. Concentrations of epinephrine (E), norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine (DA) in plasma were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. Compared with matched controls, the firefighters showed higher prevalence (p<0.05) of neurobehavioral symptoms such as burning sensation in the extremities, tingling and numbness, transient loss of memory, and depression, but no significant difference was recorded in the prevalences of anxiety, vertigo and dizziness. The firefighters demonstrated a more than two-fold (p<0.05) rise in plasma levels of E and NE, but the plasma DA level was relatively unchanged. Controlling age and smoking as possible confounders, firefighting was found to be associated with raised E (OR=2.15; 95% CI, 0.98-4.52), and NE levels (OR=2.24 95% CI, 1.22-3.61). In conclusion, the job of firefighting appears to be associated with stimulation of sympathetic activity and a rise in the prevalence of neurobehavioral symptoms. PMID:16788283

  12. Decreased Plasma BDNF Levels of Patients with Somatization Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Nam-In; Park, Jong-Il

    2016-01-01

    Objective Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), one of the most abundant and important neurotrophins, is known to be involved in the development, survival, maintenance, and plasticity of neurons in the nervous system. Some studies have suggested that BDNF may play a role in the pathophysiology of several psychiatric illnesses such as depression and schizophrenia. Similarly, it is likely that the alteration of BDNF may be associated with the neuro-modulation that contributes to the development of somatization disorder. Methods The purpose of this study was to determine whether there is an abnormality of plasma BDNF levels in patients with somatization disorder, and to analyze the nature of the alteration after pharmacotherapy using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results The plasma BDNF levels of the patients with a somatization disorder were significantly lower compared with those of the control volunteers (83.61±89.97 pg/mL vs. 771.36±562.14 pg/mL); moreover, the plasma BDNF levels of those patients who received an antidepressant were significantly increased after the treatment (118.13±91.45 pg/mL vs. 72.92±88.21 pg/mL). Conclusion These results suggest that BDNF may play a role in the pathophysiology of somatization disorder. PMID:27757131

  13. Plasma bupivacaine levels following single dose intraarticular instillation for arthroscopy.

    PubMed

    Meinig, R P; Holtgrewe, J L; Wiedel, J D; Christie, D B; Kestin, K J

    1988-01-01

    Arthroscopy of the knee was performed using 30 ml single dose intraarticular instillations of 0.5% or 0.25% solutions of bupivacaine (Marcaine). A total of 18 patients (mean age, 34 years), divided into two groups, participated in this study. Venous plasma levels were measured at 0, 10, 20, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, and 240 minute intervals following a single instillation into the knee joint. All patients had suspected traumatic internal derangement of the knee. Electrocardiogram tracings, blood pressure, and neurologic assessment were monitored at each venous sampling interval or more often if clinically indicated. The type and amount of supplemental anesthesia were also recorded. None of our 18 patients required a general anesthetic because of pain although the following procedures were performed: meniscectomy, plica release, abrasion chondroplasty, loose body retrieval, and limited meniscal repair. A new methodology for the measurement of plasma bupivacaine using the gas chromatograph mass spectrometer is described. Monitoring specific molecular mass fragments allows the measurement of picogram per milliliter levels of bupivacaine. The highest peak plasma concentration occurred 20 minutes after instillation of 30 ml of 0.5% bupivacaine. The 625 +/- 225 ng/ml level was well below the 2,500 to 4,000 ng/ml reported to elicit early subjective CNS symptoms of bupivacaine toxicity. Thus, a single dose intraarticular instillation of 30 ml 0.5% or 0.25% bupivacaine is convenient, efficacious, and pharmacologically safe for routine clinical arthroscopy.

  14. Addition of in-vitro generated endothelial microparticles to von-Willebrand plasma improves primary and secondary hemostasis.

    PubMed

    Trummer, Arne; Werwitzke, Sonja; Wermes, Cornelia; Ganser, Arnold; Birschmann, Ingvild; Budde, Ulrich; Tiede, Andreas

    2014-03-01

    Increased endothelial microparticles (EMP) as markers for endothelial activation have been associated with worse outcomes in clinical prothrombotic situations. The procoagulant properties of EMP can be attributed to the expression of phospholipids, tissue factor and von-Willebrand factor on their surface. We therefore investigated whether addition of in-vitro generated EMP modifies hemostasis in plasma from patients with severe von-Willebrand disease (VWD). A large EMP pool was obtained from stimulated endothelial cell lines and EMP concentration was quantified by flow cytometry. The influence of EMP on primary and secondary hemostasis in VWD plasma was assessed using ristocetin-induced platelet aggregation (RIPA) and thrombin generation in a calibrated automated thrombogram (CAT), respectively. After addition of EMP, there was a significant increase in the maximal aggregation level in RIPA as well as a significant shortening of lag time and time-to-peak in CAT in comparison to control buffer. In summary, in vitro-generated EMP have the potential to improve hemostasis in severe VWD plasma and these results warrant further clinical reseach regarding their contribution to the clinical bleeding phenotype as well as their potential to improve replacement therapy.

  15. Plasma Osteopontin Level in Chronic Liver Disease and Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Fouad, Shawky Abdelhamid; Mohamed, Nagwa Abdel Ghaffar; Fawzy, Mary Wadie; Moustafa, Doaa Ali

    2015-01-01

    Background Osteopontin (OPN) is a secreted glycoprotein and is frequently associated with various tumors. Objectives We sought to investigate the clinical usefulness of the level of plasma OPN, compared to α-fetoprotein (AFP), as a biomarker for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and to evaluate its diagnostic value in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and its relationship with clinical and laboratory features of HCC and NAFLD. Patients and Methods The study was performed on 120 subjects classified into 5 groups: Group I included 25 chronic non-cirrhotic hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected patients; Group II encompassed 25 patients with chronic HCV infection with liver cirrhosis; Group III comprised 25 patients with chronic HCV with liver cirrhosis and HCC; Group IV was comprised of 25 patients with NAFLD; and Group V consisted of 20 healthy age- and sex-matched controls. All the participants were subjected to history taking and clinical and abdominal ultrasonographic examinations as well as the following laboratory investigations: liver function tests, complete blood count, blood sugar, hepatitis B surface antigen, hepatitis C virus antibodies, HCV-RNA by qualitative polymerase chain reaction (for Groups I, II, and III) and serum AFP and plasma OPN levels. Results There were statistically significant differences in plasma OPN levels between the HCC group (401 ± 72 ng/mL) and the other groups, between the cirrhotic group (258.3 ± 35 ng/mL) and the non-cirrhotic group (HCV group, 168.7 ± 41 ng/mL; fatty liver group, 106.7 ± 35 ng/mL), and between the chronic non-cirrhotic HCV group and the fatty liver group (I and IV) and the controls (35.1 ± 6 ng/mL). In the HCC group, the diagnostic value of OPN was comparable to that of AFP at a cutoff value of 280 ng/mL, achieving sensitivity, specificity, and overall accuracy of 100%, 98%, and 96%, respectively. Regarding the validity of plasma OPN as a predictor of fatty change, our results revealed a diagnostic accuracy

  16. Plasma-cortisol levels in experimental heatstroke in dogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assia, Ehud; Epstein, Yoram; Magazanik, Avraham; Shapiro, Yair; Sohar, Ezra

    1989-06-01

    The effect of external heat-load, exercise and dehydration on dynamic changes in plasma cortisol during the development of heatstroke was investigated. Thirty-three unanesthetized dogs were tested under two sets of climatic conditions: comfort conditions and hot-dry climatic conditions, half of them while exercising. Half of the dogs in each group were rehydrated. None of the dogs that were investigated at room temperature suffered heatstroke. Of the dogs exposed to high ambient temperature, all of the exercising, as well as five out of six non-hydrated dogs and one rehydrated non-exercising dog suffered heatstroke. Significant dehydration (6% 7% of body weight), occurred only under hgh ambient temperature. Plasma cortisol levels of all dogs that suffered heatstroke rose conspicuously for at least 5 h and returned to normal levels 24 h later. Cortisol levels of dogs who did not experience heatstroke remained within the normal range. Cortisol levels correlated with the severity of the stress leading to heatstroke. High and rising levels of cortisol, several hours after body temperature returns to normal, may support the diagnosis of heatstroke.

  17. [Determination of cefixime blood plasma levels by HPLC].

    PubMed

    Pisarev, V V; Zaĭtseva, K V; Smirnova, L B; Belolipetskaia, V G; Kibal'chich, D A; Koltunov, I E

    2009-01-01

    For comparative study of the pharmacokinetics of Cemidexor (capsules of 100 mg) and Suprax (capsules of 400 mg), a method of HPLC with quantitative determination of cefixime (the active substance in the drugs) in the blood plasma of patients with UV detection was developed. The data teproducibility with an account of the admissibility criterion was observed within the interval of all the concentrations (0.06-10 mcg/ml). The accuracy and correctness of the method also corresponded to the admissibility criteria. The lower limit of the quantitative determimation of the cefexime blood plasma levels was 0.06 mcg/ml. The pharmacokinetics was studied with the open crossed randomized method. The results were used for calculation of the pharmacokinetic parameters required for estimation of the bioequivalence of the drugs. The statistical analysis of the pharmacokinetic parameters showed that Cemidoxor and Suprax were bioequivalent.

  18. Plasma Kisspeptin Levels in Girls with Premature Thelarche

    PubMed Central

    Çetin, Dilek; İlhan, Nevin

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Premature thelarche (PT) is defined as isolated breast development without secondary sex characteristics in girls below the age of eight. We aimed to determine whether the level of kisspeptin, which plays a role in the release of gonadotropins, is associated with PT. Methods: The patient group included children with PT aged 3-8 years (n=20) and the control group included healthy children in the same age range (n=20). Height standard deviation scores (HSDSs), bone maturation and growth velocity were evaluated in the two groups. Basal follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), estradiol (E2), prolactin (PRL), and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) levels were also measured in the two groups by immunochemiluminometric assay (ICMA). A gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) test was also conducted in the patient group and the peak levels of FSH and LH were determined. Kisspeptin levels were measured using enzyme immunoassay (EIA). Results: No differences were found between the groups in terms of age, HSDS, annual growth rate and bone age. While the plasma basal FSH, LH and E2 levels in the patient and control groups did not show statistically significant differences, PRL levels were higher in the patient group (p<0.05). Peak LH response to GnRH test was at the prepubertal level (<5 ng/mL) in patients with PT. In the patient group, kisspeptin levels were significantly higher compared to the levels in the control group (2.96±1.21 ng/dL vs. 1.19±0.41 ng/dL; p<0.05), and kisspeptin levels showed a significant correlation with PRL, FSH, LH, and E2 levels (p<0.05). Conclusions: In this study, plasma kisspeptin levels were found to be higher in patients with PT and to show a positive correlation with increased PRL levels. Kisspeptin is one of the neuropeptides that plays a role in the onset of puberty. Our results support the hypothesis that PT may result from the temporary activation of central stimulants. Conflict of interest:None declared

  19. Comparison of plasma and cerebrospinal fluid levels of neuroactive steroids with their brain, spinal cord and peripheral nerve levels in male and female rats.

    PubMed

    Caruso, Donatella; Pesaresi, Marzia; Abbiati, Federico; Calabrese, Donato; Giatti, Silvia; Garcia-Segura, Luis Miguel; Melcangi, Roberto Cosimo

    2013-10-01

    Physiological changes and pathological alterations in the nervous system of rodents are associated with modifications in the levels of neuroactive steroids in the brain, spinal cord and/or peripheral nerves. Measures of tissue levels of steroids in the nervous system present serious limitations for human studies and for longitudinal studies in animals. In this study we have explored whether levels of neuroactive steroids in plasma and the cerebrospinal fluid reflect their levels in neural tissues. To this aim, we have evaluated by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry the levels of several neuroactive steroids in plasma, cerebrospinal fluid, cerebral cortex, cerebellum, hippocampus, spinal cord and sciatic nerve of male and female rats. Data indicate that plasma and cerebrospinal fluid levels of steroids do not fully reflect their tissue levels. However, the interindividual variations in the levels of all the steroids assessed, with the exception of dehydroepiandrosterone, showed a positive correlation in plasma and cerebral cortex. Most steroids also showed a positive correlation in plasma and the cerebellum, the spinal cord and the sciatic nerve. In the hippocampus, the levels of tetrahydroprogesterone, testosterone and testosterone metabolites showed a significant positive correlation with their respective levels in plasma. The cerebrospinal fluid levels of some steroids, such as testosterone and dihydrotestosterone, showed a full correlation with tissue levels. In addition, cerebrospinal fluid levels of pregnenolone, progesterone, and 17β-estradiol showed a positive correlation with their corresponding levels in the majority of the neural structures analyzed. These findings suggest that the levels of some neuroactive steroids in cerebrospinal fluid as well as in plasma may be valuable to predict their levels in the nervous system. PMID:23706961

  20. Multi-level molecular modelling for plasma medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogaerts, Annemie; Khosravian, Narjes; Van der Paal, Jonas; Verlackt, Christof C. W.; Yusupov, Maksudbek; Kamaraj, Balu; Neyts, Erik C.

    2016-02-01

    Modelling at the molecular or atomic scale can be very useful for obtaining a better insight in plasma medicine. This paper gives an overview of different atomic/molecular scale modelling approaches that can be used to study the direct interaction of plasma species with biomolecules or the consequences of these interactions for the biomolecules on a somewhat longer time-scale. These approaches include density functional theory (DFT), density functional based tight binding (DFTB), classical reactive and non-reactive molecular dynamics (MD) and united-atom or coarse-grained MD, as well as hybrid quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) methods. Specific examples will be given for three important types of biomolecules, present in human cells, i.e. proteins, DNA and phospholipids found in the cell membrane. The results show that each of these modelling approaches has its specific strengths and limitations, and is particularly useful for certain applications. A multi-level approach is therefore most suitable for obtaining a global picture of the plasma-biomolecule interactions.

  1. Seminal plasma trace metal levels in industrial workers.

    PubMed

    Dawson, E B; Evans, D R; Harris, W A; Powell, L C

    2000-05-01

    This study compares the seminal plasma trace metal levels of hospital workers with groups of industrial workers in a petroleum refinery, smelter, and chemical plant. The metals measured were the essential metals (copper, zinc, nickel, cobalt, and manganese) and the toxic metals (lead, cadmium, and aluminum). The group mean +/- SE metal level for each group (50 subjects per group) was calculated, and the statistical significance of the group mean differences of the industrial groups with the hospital group (control) was determined by the Student's t-test. The differences observed in the smelter group were increased copper and zinc (p < or = 0.001) and decreased nickel, cobalt, and manganese (p < or = 0.001, < or = 0.01). The refinery group differences were increased copper, zinc, and nickel (p < or = 0.001) but decreased cobalt and manganese (p < or = 0.001). The chemical group differences were increased zinc (p < or = 0.001) and decreased cobalt (p < or = 0.001). The seminal plasma levels of the toxic metals lead and aluminum were increased in each of the industrial groups (p < or = 0.001). Concurrent differences were (1) decreased accumulation of nickel, cobalt, and manganese in the smelter group, (2) decreased cobalt and manganese in the refinery group, and (3) only decreased cobalt in the chemical group. PMID:11051584

  2. Electron beam-generated Ar/N2 plasmas: The effect of nitrogen addition on the brightest argon emission lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lock, E. H.; Petrova, Tz. B.; Petrov, G. M.; Boris, D. R.; Walton, S. G.

    2016-04-01

    The effect of nitrogen addition on the emission intensities of the brightest argon lines produced in a low pressure argon/nitrogen electron beam-generated plasmas is characterized using optical emission spectroscopy. In particular, a decrease in the intensities of the 811.5 nm and 763.5 nm lines is observed, while the intensity of the 750.4 nm line remains unchanged as nitrogen is added. To explain this phenomenon, a non-equilibrium collisional-radiative model is developed and used to compute the population of argon excited states and line intensities as a function of gas composition. The results show that the addition of nitrogen to argon modifies the electron energy distribution function, reduces the electron temperature, and depopulates Ar metastables in exchange reactions with electrons and N2 molecules, all of which lead to changes in argon excited states population and thus the emission originating from the Ar 4p levels.

  3. Effect of Dysprosia Additive on the Consolidation of CeO2 by Spark Plasma Sintering

    SciTech Connect

    K. Choi; R. E. Reavis; D. D. Osterberg; B. J. Jacques; D. P. Butt; R. D. Mariani; D. E. Burkes; Z. A. Munir

    2012-05-01

    The influence of dysprosia addition on the sintering and resulting microstructure of nano-grained CeO2 ceramics was investigated as functions of the spark plasma sintering (SPS) parameters. The addition of Dy2O3 (forming a solid solution) resulted in an increase in relative density and a decrease in grain size. The relative density of samples with Dy2O3 content of 6 and 10 mol% was over 95% when sintered at 1050 C under 500 MPa for holding times as short as 5 minutes. The application of high pressure facilitated the consolidation to relatively high densities with minimal grain growth. Heating rate and holding time, however, had insignificant effect on density but a measurable effect on grain size.

  4. Micro-Plasma Transferred Arc Additive Manufacturing for Die and Mold Surface Remanufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jhavar, Suyog; Paul, Christ Prakash; Jain, Neelesh Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Micro-plasma transferred arc ( µPTA) additive manufacturing is one of the newest options for remanufacturing of dies and molds surfaces in the near-millimeter range leading to extended usage of the same. We deployed an automatic micro-plasma deposition setup to deposit a wire of 300 µm of AISI P20 tool steel on the substrate of same material for the potential application in remanufacturing of the die and mold surface. Our present research effort is to establish µPTA additive manufacturing as a viable economical and cleaner methodology for potential industrial applications. We undertook the optimization of single weld bead geometry as the first step in our present study. Bead-on-plate trials were conducted to deposit single bead geometry at various processing parameters. The bead geometry (shape and size) and dilution were measured and the parametric dependence was derived. A set of parameters leading to reproducible regular and smooth single bead geometry were identified and used to prepare a thin wall for mechanical testing. The deposits were subjected to material characterization such as microscopic studies, micro-hardness measurements and tensile testing. The process was compared qualitatively with other deposition processes involving high-energy density beams and was found to be advantageous in terms of low initial and running costs with comparable properties. The outcome of the study confirmed the process capability of µPTA deposition leading to deployment of cost-effective and environmentally friendlier technology for die and mold remanufacturing.

  5. Additive manufacture (3d printing) of plasma diagnostic components and assemblies for fusion experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sieck, Paul; Woodruff, Simon; Stuber, James; Romero-Talamas, Carlos; Rivera, William; You, Setthivoine; Card, Alexander

    2015-11-01

    Additive manufacturing (or 3D printing) is now becoming sufficiently accurate with a large range of materials for use in printing sensors needed universally in fusion energy research. Decreasing production cost and significantly lowering design time of energy subsystems would realize significant cost reduction for standard diagnostics commonly obtained through research grants. There is now a well-established set of plasma diagnostics, but these expensive since they are often highly complex and require customization, sometimes pace the project. Additive manufacturing (3D printing) is developing rapidly, including open source designs. Basic components can be printed for (in some cases) less than 1/100th costs of conventional manufacturing. We have examined the impact that AM can have on plasma diagnostic cost by taking 15 separate diagnostics through an engineering design using Conventional Manufacturing (CM) techniques to determine costs of components and labor costs associated with getting the diagnostic to work as intended. With that information in hand, we set about optimizing the design to exploit the benefits of AM. Work performed under DOE Contract DE-SC0011858.

  6. Affinity proteomics discovers decreased levels of AMFR in plasma from Osteoporosis patients

    PubMed Central

    Qundos, Ulrika; Drobin, Kimi; Mattsson, Cecilia; Hong, Mun‐Gwan; Sjöberg, Ronald; Forsström, Björn; Solomon, David; Uhlén, Mathias; Nilsson, Peter; Michaëlsson, Karl

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Affinity proteomic approaches by antibody bead arrays enable multiplexed analysis of proteins in body fluids. In the presented study, we investigated blood plasma within osteoporosis to discovery differential protein profiles and to propose novel biomarkers candidates for subsequent studies. Experimental design Starting with 4608 antibodies and plasma samples from 22 women for an untargeted screening, a set of 72 proteins were suggested for further analysis. Complementing these with targets from literature and other studies, a targeted bead array of 180 antibodies was built to profile for 92 proteins in plasma samples of 180 women from two independent population‐based studies. Results Differential profiles between osteoporosis patients and matched controls were discovered for 12 proteins in at least one of the two study sets. Among these targets, the levels of autocrine motility factor receptor (AMFR) were concordantly lower in plasma of female osteoporosis patients. Subsequently, verification of anti‐AMFR antibody selectivity was conducted using high‐density peptide and protein arrays, and Western blotting. Conclusions and clinical relevance Further validation in additional study sets will be needed to determine the clinical value of the observed decrease in AMFR plasma levels in osteoporosis patients, but AMFR may aid our understanding of disease mechanisms and could support existing tools for diagnosis and monitoring of patient mobility within osteoporosis. PMID:25689831

  7. Boysenberry Polyphenols Suppressed Elevation of Plasma Triglyceride Levels in Rats.

    PubMed

    Mineo, Shigeru; Noguchi, Akane; Nagakura, Yuta; Kobori, Kinji; Ohta, Tatsuo; Sakaguchi, Ei; Ichiyanagi, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Boysenberry, a hybrid Rubus berry, is mainly cultivated in New Zealand. We previously reported that consumption of boysenberry juice (BBJ) exhibited anti-obesity effects in high-fat feeding rats. In this study, we focused on the suppressive effect of BBJ and its fraction on triglyceride absorption from the gastrointestinal tract. BBJ effectively inhibited pancreatic lipase activity in vitro, and was separated into four fractions (Fr1, Fr2, Fr3 and Fr4) by HP-20 column chromatography. Among all the fractions, Fr3, the ellagic acid-rich fraction, showed the most potent inhibition against pancreatic lipase in vitro with Fr2, the anthocyanin-rich fraction, second. Authentic ellagic acid equivalent in Fr3 showed poor activity against pancreatic lipase. Then, each fraction was orally administered with corn oil to rats fitted with a jugular catheter to examine the effects of each fraction on plasma triglyceride levels. Both Fr2 and Fr3 effectively suppressed the plasma triglyceride level elevation at a dose of 1,000 mg/kg body weight. These findings demonstrated that BBJ contains chemical components which inhibit triglyceride absorption from the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:26440637

  8. [Levels of plasma cholinesterase in Colombian working-class populations].

    PubMed

    Carmona-Fonseca, Jaime

    2003-12-01

    Levels of plasma cholinesterase in Colombian working-class populations Reference values for plasma cholinesterase (EC 3.1.1.8) are not available for Colombian populations. A representative sample of a working-class population was used to establish these values to provide reference data for use by the social security system. Two working-class populations were sampled from the Aburrá Valley (Aburrá) and eastern Antioquia (Oriente). Cholinesterase activity was measured in 827 workers, with ages spanning 18-49 years, 415 from Aburrá and 412 people from Oriente. Three methods were used to measure cholinesterase: Michel, EQM and Monotest The average values by Michel and EQM were not statistically different between regions (Michel: Aburrá, 1.11, and East, 1.13 deltas pH/hora; EQM: Aburrá, 2.55, and Oriente, 2.48 U/ml). By the Monotest, the enzyme average was statistically higher in Aburra than in Oriente (5,743 and 5,459 U/L respectively; p = 0 .012). By region and technique, men had significantly higher enzymatic levels than women. Within both regions and sexes, no statistically significant difference among the three aged groups was noted. Our obtained Colombian values differed significantly from foreign reference values: Michel and Monotest levels were higher and EQM levels were lower. For making clinical and epidemiologic decisions in Colombia related to these data, the values obtained for the Colombian populations are preferred over values derived from external sources. PMID:14968922

  9. Plasma Soluble Urokinase Receptor Level Is Correlated with Podocytes Damage in Patients with IgA Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yanfeng; Liu, Lijun; Huang, Jing; Shi, Sufang; Lv, Jicheng; Liu, Gang; Zhao, Minghui; Zhang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Background Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) lesions are similar in characteristics to S lesions of the Oxford classification of IgA nephropathy (IgAN) and may predict poor prognosis. In the present study, we aimed to explore the association between plasma soluble urokinase receptor (suPAR) levels and S lesions and podocytes damage in IgAN patients. Methods We enrolled 569 IgAN patients with follow-up data and detected plasma suPAR levels at renal biopsy by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results Plasma suPAR levels in IgAN patients with or without S lesions did not differ significantly (P = 0.411). However, suPAR levels were positively correlated with proteinuria (r = 0.202, P < 0.001), and negatively correlated with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, r = –0.236, P < 0.001). In the partial correlation to adjust for eGFR, plasma suPAR levels remained positively correlated with proteinuria (r = 0.112, P = 0.023). In a Cox proportional hazards model, higher levels of plasma suPAR were not associated with poor renal outcome. Plasma suPAR levels of IgAN and primary FSGS patients with nephrotic syndrome were not significantly different (P = 0.306). Plasma suPAR levels in patients with extensive effacement of the epithelial cell foot processes of glomerular podocytes were significantly higher than those with segmental effacement on the basis of comparable eGFR (P = 0.036). Conclusions In IgAN patients, plasma suPAR levels were not associated with S lesions. However, they were positively associated with proteinuria and negatively associated with eGFR. In addition, plasma suPAR levels were positively associated with the effacement degree of the foot processes, which might partially contribute to the development of proteinuria in patients with IgAN. PMID:26167688

  10. Effect of citrate anticoagulants on factor VIII levels in plasma.

    PubMed

    Rock, G; Tittley, P; Fuller, V

    1988-01-01

    The citrate anticoagulants used during blood collection have been developed for their benefits to red cells. The concentrations in which they are used are strictly regulated in the United States: citrate-phosphate-dextrose-adenine (CPDA) is used in a 1:8 ratio for the collection of whole blood, whereas 4 percent sodium citrate (NaCit) is used in a 1:10 ratio for manual plasmapheresis. Acid-citrate-dextrose formula A (ACD-A) or formula B (ACD-B) and NaCit are commonly used in a 1:12 or 1:15 ratio during automated plasmapheresis. These anticoagulants have different initial and final pH values and citrate concentrations and different effects on the recovery of factor VIII (FVIII) in the plasma. NaCit has a higher initial pH (6.64) than ACD-A (4.98), ACD-B (5.60), or CPDA (5.12). The effects of these different anticoagulants on plasma constituents obtained from six healthy subjects were studied. In standard citrate concentrations, the FVIII level was significantly lower (p less than 0.05) in the NaCit used for manual plasmapheresis than in either of the ACD solutions used in automated plasmapheresis (104 U/dl vs. 153 and 160 U/dl). When various ratios of NaCit to blood were used, the pH increased from 7.62 at a 1:10 dilution to 7.65 at a 1:50 dilution. As expected, a progressive decrease in anticoagulant level was associated with an increase in ionized calcium and also in the level of FVIII, with the latter values rising from 104 U per dl at 1:10 to 137 at 1:20 and 148 U per dl at 1:30. Clot formation was detected only at a ratio of 1:35.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Relationship of seminal plasma level and extender type to sperm motility and DNA integrity.

    PubMed

    Love, C C; Brinsko, S P; Rigby, S L; Thompson, J A; Blanchard, T L; Varner, D D

    2005-04-01

    The relationship between seminal plasma level (0, 10, or 20%) and extender type [Kenney type (EZ-Mixin-CST) or Kenney-modified Tyrodes-KMT] to the susceptibility of sperm DNA to denaturation and sperm motility measures were investigated in cooled (5 degrees C) stallion sperm. Three ejaculates from each of three fertile stallions were collected in an artificial vagina and processed as follows: diluted one part uncentrifuged semen with four parts of extender to a final concentration of 20% seminal plasma in either CST or KMT (20% CST; 20% KMT); diluted to a final concentration of 25 million sperm/mL in either CST or KMT (10% CST; 10% KMT); centrifuged to remove virtually all seminal plasma and resuspended in either CST or KMT (0% CST-Cent; 0% KMT-Cent); centrifuged semen to remove virtually all seminal plasma and resuspended with previously filtered seminal plasma from the same stallion in either CST or KMT to a final concentration of 20% seminal plasma (20% CST-Cent; 20% KMT-Cent). Sperm motion characteristics were determined by CASA and DNA integrity (%COMP, percent of cells outside the main population) evaluated by the Sperm Chromatin Structure Assay prior to cooling, and after 24 and 48 h cooled-storage at 5 degrees C. After 48 h of storage at 5 degrees C, extenders with 0% seminal plasma (0% CST-Cent, 0% KMT-Cent) maintained highest quality DNA (P < 0.05), but 0% KMT-Cent maintained higher velocity measures (P < 0.05) than 0% CST-Cent. Total sperm motility was highest (P < 0.05) in 0% CST-Cent, 0% KMT-Cent, 10% CST, 20% CST-Cent, and 20% CST compared to the other treatment groups. Progressive sperm motility was highest (P < 0.05) after 48 h of storage in the treatment with 10% seminal plasma in Kenney extender (10% CST), despite a reduction in DNA integrity. Regardless of extender type, addition of 20% seminal plasma following centrifugation resulted in almost a two-fold increase in %COMP(alpha t), even though one of the treatments (20% CST-Cent) maintained

  12. Determining the Volume of Additive Solution and Residual Plasma in Whole Blood Filtered and Buffy Coat Processed Red Cell Concentrates

    PubMed Central

    Jordan, Andrew; Acker, Jason P.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Residual plasma in transfused red cell concentrates (RCCs) has been associated with adverse transfusion outcomes. Despite this, there is no consensus on the standard procedure for measuring residual plasma volume. Methods The volumes of residual plasma and additive solution were measured in RCCs processed using two separation methods: whole blood filtration (WBF) and buffy coat (BC)/RCC filtration. The concentration of mannitol and albumin in RCC components was measured using colorimetric assays. Mannitol concentration was used to calculate additive solution volume. Residual plasma volume was calculated using two methods. Results Calculated RCC supernatant volumes were much lower in BC-processed components compared to WBF-processed components (BC = 97 ± 6 ml, WBF = 109 ± 4 ml; p < 0.05). Calculated additive solution volumes were greater in WBF- than in BC-processed components (BC = 81 ± 4 ml, WBF = 105 ± 2 ml; p < 0.05). Absolute residual plasma volume varied significantly based on the calculation method used. Conclusion Disparity between plasma volume calculation methods was observed. Efforts should be made to standardize residual plasma volume measurement methods in order to accurately assess the impact of residual plasma on transfusion outcomes. PMID:27330533

  13. Effect of rhenium addition on tungsten fuzz formation in helium plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Aneeqa; De Temmerman, Gregory; Morgan, Thomas W.; Ward, Michael B.

    2016-06-01

    The effect of the addition of rhenium to tungsten on the formation of a nanostructure referred to as 'fuzz' when exposed to helium plasmas at fusion relevant ion fluxes was investigated in the Magnum and Pilot PSI devices at the FOM Institute DIFFER. The effect rhenium had on fuzz growth was seen to be dependent on time, temperature and flux. Initial fuzz growth was seen to be highly dependent on grain orientation, with rhenium having little effect. Once the fuzz was fully developed, the effect of grain orientation disappeared and the rhenium had an inhibiting effect on growth. This could be beneficial for inhibiting fuzz growth in a future fusion reactor, where transmutation of tungsten to rhenium is expected. It also appears that erosion or annealing of the fuzz is limiting growth of fuzz at higher temperatures in the range of ∼1340 °C.

  14. Effects of CH3OH Addition on Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation of AZ31 Magnesium Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yongyi; Chen, Li; Yan, Zongcheng; Zhang, Yalei

    2015-09-01

    Plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) films on AZ31 magnesium alloys were prepared in alkaline silicate electrolytes (base electrolyte) with the addition of different volume concentrations of CH3OH, which was used to adjust the thickness of the vapor sheath. The compositions, morphologies, and thicknesses of ceramic layers formed with different CH3OH concentrations were determined via X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Corrosion behavior of the oxide films was evaluated in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution using potentiodynamic polarization tests. PEO coatings mainly comprised Mg, MgO, and Mg2SiO4. The addition of CH3OH in base electrolytes affected the thickness, pores diameter, and Mg2SiO4 content in the films. The films formed in the electrolyte containing 12% CH3OH exhibited the highest thickness. The coatings formed in the electrolyte containing different concentrations of CH3OH exhibited similar corrosion resistance. The energy consumption of PEO markedly decreased upon the addition of CH3OH to the electrolytes. The result is helpful for energy saving in the PEO process. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 21376088), the Project of Production, Education and Research, Guangdong Province and Ministry of Education (Nos. 2012B09100063, 2012A090300015), and Guangzhou Science and Technology Plan Projects of China (No. 2014Y2-00042)

  15. Clinical Significance of Plasma Osteopontin Level as a Biomarker of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Salem, Mona; Atti, Sahar Abdel; Raziky, Maisa El; Darweesh, Samar Kamal; Sharkawy, Marwa El

    2013-01-01

    Background Biomarkers of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are helpful in screening, diagnosis and follow up of cases. Osteopontin (OPN) is a glycoprotein secreted by osteoblasts, osteoclasts, macrophages and T cells, and is over-expressed in a variety of tumors, including carcinomas of liver, stomach, breast, lung, colon, and prostate. So, the aim of this study was to verify the possibility of using the plasma Osteopontin level as a biomarker for diagnosis of HCC. Methods The study included 70 subjects divided into three groups: group I had 30 patients with HCC (proved by histopathology or combined spiral CT and elevated alpha-fetoprotein) on top of HCV, group II had 30 patients with HCV infection and group III had 10 healthy subjects serving as control. Osteopontin level was measured in plasma of the studied subjects by ELISA, serum alpha fetoprotein (AFP) level was also measured by EIA. Results Osteopontin levels were significantly elevated in patients with HCC and in HCV patients in comparison to control group (P: 0.005). There was significant correlation between OPN and AFP levels (P: 0.00). The sensitivity and specificity of OPN for selective detection of HCC group over the non-HCC group (HCV group and healthy control group) were73% and 54%, respectively, at a cut-off value of 128.5 ng/mL. Plasma OPN levels directly correlated with the tumor number but not with the size of the tumor (P: 0.00). Conclusion Plasma OPN level appears to be an additional biomarker for HCC detection.

  16. Relationship between whole plasma calcitonin levels, calcitonin secretory capacity, and plasma levels of estrone in healthy women and postmenopausal osteoporotics.

    PubMed

    Reginster, J Y; Deroisy, R; Albert, A; Denis, D; Lecart, M P; Collette, J; Franchimont, P

    1989-03-01

    The exact role of calcitonin (CT) in the pathogenesis of postmenopausal osteoporosis remains unknown. Whole plasma calcitonin (iCT) basal levels, metabolic clearance rate (MCR), and production rate (PR) of CT were measured in 9 premenopausal and 16 postmenopausal women, including 11 osteoporotics (OP). Basal iCT levels were statistically lower in postmenopausal women than in the premenopausal group (P less than 0.01) and strongly correlated (r = 0.72; P less than 0.001) with estrone circulating levels (E1). MCR were similar in all groups. PR were similar in eugonadal women between 22 (mean +/- SD = 30.9 +/- 9.9 micrograms/d) and 37 yr (mean +/- SD = 25.5 +/- 11.1 micrograms/d) premenopausal women. In healthy postmenopausal women PR were reduced, but not significantly (mean +/- SD = 19.5 +/- 6.95 micrograms/d), whereas osteoporotic patients presented a highly significant reduction of CT PR (mean +/- SD = 9.8 +/- 4 micrograms/d) (P less than 0.01). Because there is a strong relationship between E1 and PR (r = 0.64; P less than 0.001), CT secretory capacity appears to be modulated by estrogen circulating levels. This modulation leads to a menopause-related decrease in iCT. In osteoporotics, an independent impairment of CT production drastically lowers PR and basal iCT levels. CT might be one of the determining factors in the pathogenesis of postmenopausal osteoporosis.

  17. Luteinizing hormone levels are positively correlated with plasma amyloid-beta protein levels in elderly men.

    PubMed

    Verdile, Giuseppe; Yeap, Bu B; Clarnette, Roger M; Dhaliwal, Satvinder; Burkhardt, Melanie S; Chubb, S A Paul; De Ruyck, Karl; Rodrigues, Mark; Mehta, Pankaj D; Foster, Jonathan K; Bruce, David G; Martins, Ralph N

    2008-06-01

    Dysregulation of the hypothalamic pituitary gonadal (HPG) axis during aging has been associated with increased risk of cognitive decline and developing dementia. Compared to controls, men with Alzheimer's disease (AD) have been shown to have lower serum testosterone levels and higher serum luteinizing hormone (LH) levels. As serum free testosterone concentration is negatively correlated with LH in older men, the independent contributions of these hormones to the pathogenesis of AD warrants further clarification. To explore this notion, we measured plasma amyloid-beta (Abeta), serum testosterone, serum LH and other biochemical parameters in 40 cognitively normal elderly men. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that serum LH concentration is the only parameter that significantly correlates with plasma Abeta levels in these men (r=0.5, p=0.041). These results suggest that increased serum LH concentration, rather than lower serum free testosterone, is associated with the accumulation of Abeta in plasma. Larger, longitudinal human studies are needed to determine the significance of LH in the pathogenesis of AD.

  18. The role of cardiorespiratory fitness on plasma lipid levels.

    PubMed

    Parto, Parham; Lavie, Carl J; Swift, Damon; Sui, Xuemei

    2015-11-01

    Dyslipidemia is a treatable risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated the importance of treatment for abnormalities in total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides. Aside from pharmacotherapy, exercise and cardio-respiratory fitness have been shown to have beneficial effects on decreasing cardiovascular disease risk. Even though previous data regarding the benefits of exercise on plasma lipids have been somewhat conflicting, numerous studies have demonstrated that exercise increases HDL-cholesterol and reduces the triglyceride levels. Also, smaller, more atherogenic LDL particles seem to decrease with increases in cardio-respiratory fitness and exercise, and favorable blood lipid profiles seem to persist longer through the adult life span.

  19. Plasma levels of ursodeoxycholic acid in black bears, Ursus americanus: seasonal changes.

    PubMed

    Solá, Susana; Garshelis, David L; Amaral, Joana D; Noyce, Karen V; Coy, Pam L; Steer, Clifford J; Iaizzo, Paul A; Rodrigues, Cecília M P

    2006-06-01

    To date, no other studies have examined the seasonal changes in circulating levels of various bile acids in the plasma of wild North American black bears, Ursus americanus. Using gas chromatography, bile acid concentrations were measured in plasma samples obtained during either early or late hibernation, and during summer active periods. Thus, specific compositional changes from individual animals were examined through a given year. Total bile acid concentrations in the plasma of these normal animals were found to range between 0.2 and 3.1 micromol/L (0.9 +/- 0.2 micromol/L, mean +/- SEM). Cholic, ursodeoxycholic and chenodeoxycholic acids were the major bile acid species identified. Ursodeoxycholic acid represented 28.0 +/- 2.6% of the total bile acid pool. Deoxycholic and lithocholic acids were found only in small amounts. In addition, total bile acid concentrations were lower in plasma samples obtained during hibernation compared with those obtained during summer active periods (0.6 +/- 0.1 and 1.2 +/- 0.4 micromol/L, respectively; p < 0.05). However, the relative proportion of ursodeoxycholic acid, was significantly greater in winter than in summer (31.5 +/- 3.2% and 22.2 +/- 4.5%, p < 0.05). Finally, taurine-conjugated bile acids were the predominant species in bear plasma, accounting for >67% of the total bile acids. These data demonstrate that ursodeoxycholic acid is a major bile acid in black bear plasma, mostly conjugated with taurine. Further, the finding of seasonal variation in plasma bile acid composition provides evidence to support the possible role that ursodeoxycholic acid may play in cellular protection in hibernating black bears. PMID:16571381

  20. Increased plasma levels of CK-18 as potential cell death biomarker in patients with HELLP syndrome

    PubMed Central

    John, K; Wielgosz, S; Schulze-Osthoff, K; Bantel, H; Hass, R

    2013-01-01

    HELLP (hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, low platelets) syndrome represents a life-threatening pregnancy disorder with high fetal and maternal mortality, but its underlying molecular mechanisms remain unknown. Although apoptosis has been implicated in HELLP syndrome, its pathogenic role remains largely unclear. In the present study, we investigated whether the detection of apoptosis by novel plasma biomarkers is of diagnostic value in HELLP patients. For this purpose, we analyzed two biomarkers that specifically detect apoptosis or overall cell death of epithelial cells, such as hepatocytes or placental trophoblasts, through the release of caspase-cleaved or total (caspase-cleaved and uncleaved) cytokeratin-18 (CK-18) in plasma of HELLP patients compared with pregnant as well as non-pregnant healthy women. In addition, caspase activation and cell death were determined in placental tissues of HELLP patients and individuals with normal pregnancy. In contrast to pregnant or non-pregnant healthy controls, we observed significantly increased levels of both caspase-cleaved and total CK-18 in plasma of HELLP patients. Following delivery, CK-18 levels rapidly decreased in HELLP patients. Caspase activation and cell death were also elevated in placental tissues from HELLP patients compared with healthy pregnant women. These data demonstrate not only that apoptosis is increased in HELLP syndrome, but also that caspase-cleaved or total CK-18 are promising plasma biomarkers to identify patients with HELLP syndrome. Thus, further studies are warranted to evaluate the utility of these biomarkers for monitoring disease activity in HELLP syndrome. PMID:24157880

  1. Krill oil significantly decreases 2-arachidonoylglycerol plasma levels in obese subjects.

    PubMed

    Banni, Sebastiano; Carta, Gianfranca; Murru, Elisabetta; Cordeddu, Lina; Giordano, Elena; Sirigu, Anna Rita; Berge, Kjetil; Vik, Hogne; Maki, Kevin C; Di Marzo, Vincenzo; Griinari, Mikko

    2011-01-30

    We have previously shown that krill oil (KO), more efficiently than fish oil, was able to downregulate the endocannabinoid system in different tissues of obese zucker rats.We therefore aimed at investigating whether an intake of 2 g/d of either KO or menhaden oil (MO), which provides 309 mg/d of EPA/DHA 2:1 and 390 mg/d of EPA/DHA 1:1 respectively, or olive oil (OO) for four weeks, is able to modify plasma endocannabinoids in overweight and obese subjects.The results confirmed data in the literature describing increased levels of endocannabinoids in overweight and obese with respect to normo-weight subjects. KO, but not MO or OO, was able to significantly decrease 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), although only in obese subjects. In addition, the decrease of 2-AG was correlated to the plasma n-6/n-3 phospholipid long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) ratio. These data show for the first time in humans that relatively low doses of LCPUFA n-3 as KO can significantly decrease plasma 2-AG levels in obese subjects in relation to decrease of plasma phospholipid n-6/n-3 LCPUFA ratio. This effect is not linked to changes of metabolic syndrome parameters but is most likely due to a decrease of 2-AG biosynthesis caused by the replacement of 2-AG ultimate precursor, arachidonic acid, with n-3 PUFAs, as previously described in obese Zucker rats.

  2. Plasma Brain-Type Natriuretic Peptide Level Following Seizure and Syncope: Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Park, Kyung-Il

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose: To explore the clinical feasibility of plasma brain-type natriuretic peptide (proBNP) level to differentiate the two major causes of transient unconsciousness, seizure and vasovagal syncope (VVS) in adult patients. Methods: ProBNP levels were evaluated within 24 hours following attack in patients who had experienced a transient episode of unconsciousness. For confirmatory diagnosis, clinical history was reviewed thoroughly and several work-ups including electroencephalography and cerebral imaging and tilt-table test, were performed in cases of putative VVS, as a part of routine clinical approaches. Results: According to various relevant evaluations, 15 patients were diagnosed as seizure (age, 40.3±13.8 years) and 12 patients were VVS (age, 38.1±17.1 years). Plasma concentrations of pro-BNP were not different between two groups (p=0.714). Median level was 34.3 pg/mL (interquartile range: 12.9–91.1) in post-seizure group and 32.3 pg/mL (interquartile range 8.9–77.4) in post-VVS group. Additionally, it was not correlated with the sampling times within 24 hours after the episodes. Conclusions: The plasma level of pro-BNP has a limited clinical value in differentiating seizure and vasovagal syncope in adults. However, the more validated results with a large population should be sought in the future studies to confirm its value. PMID:24977125

  3. A Phospholipid-Protein Complex from Antarctic Krill Reduced Plasma Homocysteine Levels and Increased Plasma Trimethylamine-N-Oxide (TMAO) and Carnitine Levels in Male Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Bjørndal, Bodil; Ramsvik, Marie S.; Lindquist, Carine; Nordrehaug, Jan E.; Bruheim, Inge; Svardal, Asbjørn; Nygård, Ottar; Berge, Rolf K.

    2015-01-01

    Seafood is assumed to be beneficial for cardiovascular health, mainly based on plasma lipid lowering and anti-inflammatory effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. However, other plasma risk factors linked to cardiovascular disease are less studied. This study aimed to penetrate the effect of a phospholipid-protein complex (PPC) from Antarctic krill on one-carbon metabolism and production of trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) in rats. Male Wistar rats were fed isoenergetic control, 6%, or 11% PPC diets for four weeks. Rats fed PPC had reduced total homocysteine plasma level and increased levels of choline, dimethylglycine and cysteine, whereas the plasma level of methionine was unchanged compared to control. PPC feeding increased the plasma level of TMAO, carnitine, its precursors trimethyllysine and γ-butyrobetaine. There was a close correlation between plasma TMAO and carnitine, trimethyllysine, and γ-butyrobetaine, but not between TMAO and choline. The present data suggest that PPC has a homocysteine lowering effect and is associated with altered plasma concentrations of metabolites related to one-carbon metabolism and B-vitamin status in rats. Moreover, the present study reveals a non-obligatory role of gut microbiota in the increased plasma TMAO level as it can be explained by the PPC’s content of TMAO. The increased level of carnitine and carnitine precursors is interpreted to reflect increased carnitine biosynthesis. PMID:26371012

  4. Plasma Cytokine Levels in Astronauts Before and after Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, Satish K.; Aggarwal, Barat B.; Feiveson, Alan H.; Hammond, Dinne K.; Castro, Victoria A.; Stowe, Raymond; Pierson Duane L.

    2008-01-01

    Space flight is a unique experience and results in adverse effects on human physiology. Changes have been reported in various physiological systems, including musculoskeletal, neurovestibular, cardiovascular, endocrine, immunity and increased latent viral reactivation as well as others. The potential mechanisms behind these changes are not fully understood. Various cytokines such as IL-1, IL-6, TNF and chemokines have been linked to several of these changes, like muscle loss, bone loss, fatigue, sleep deprivation and viral reactivation. Eighteen astronauts (15 M and 3 F) from 8 spaceflights and 10 healthy age-matched adults (6 M, 4 F) were included in the present study. A panel of 21 plasma cytokines was analyzed with the Luminex 100 to measure the cytokines in these subjects 10 days before the flight (L-10), 2-3 hour after landing (R+0), 3 days after landing (R+3), and at their annual medical exam (AME). IL-10, IL-1, IFN-alpha, MCP-1 and IP-10 increased significantly at L-10 as compared with AME levels. IL-6 and IFN-alpha showed significant increases at R + 0 (P less than .05) over their baseline levels (AME). Cytokine levels at R+3 were not significantly different from R+0. IL-10 and IL-6 have been reported to increase in during viral reactivation. These data show that there was a shift from TH1 to TH2 cytokines L-10 and R+0. We also studied viral reactivation in 10 of the 18 subjects included in the present study before, during, and after space flight. Increased salivary varicella zoster virus (VZV) shedding in these subjects was found either during or after the mission. VZV shedding correlated with the increased levels of cytokines especially IL-10 and IL-6. Overall, our data suggests that cytokines may play an important role in regulating adverse changes in astronauts, and further studies are needed to fully understand the mechanism.

  5. Brief Report: Plasma Beta-Endorphin and Cortisol Levels in Autistic Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandman, Curt A.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Comparison of plasma levels of beta-endorphin (BE) found that levels in 8 adult autistic patients were lower than levels in 17 healthy controls, for both morning and evening measurements. Plasma BE concentrations were also significantly lower for 13 developmentally disabled patients than levels for normal controls. (JDD)

  6. Elevated Plasma Soluble CD14 Levels Correlate with the Monocyte Response Status During Hantaan Virus Infection in Humans.

    PubMed

    Tang, Kang; Zhang, Chunmei; Zhang, Yusi; Zhang, Yun; Zhuang, Ran; Jin, Boquan; Ma, Ying

    2015-10-01

    Hantaan virus (HTNV) infection can cause severe hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in humans. CD14, a pattern recognition receptor recognizing lipopolysaccharide, is highly expressed on monocytes and can be shed as soluble CD14 (sCD14) upon monocyte activation. To understand the role of sCD14 in HFRS, the sCD14 plasma concentrations from 45 HFRS patients were quantified, and the relationships between the plasma sCD14 level and the monocyte response status and clinical parameters were analyzed. The plasma sCD14 levels were significantly higher in the HFRS patients and they correlated with monocyte expansion and activation, which were characterized by increased blood monocyte counts, the proportion of CD14(++)CD16(+) intermediate monocytes, as well as elevated plasma tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and soluble CD163 (sCD163) levels. Additionally, the high plasma sCD14 levels positively correlated with white blood cell counts and blood urea nitrogen levels and negatively correlated with platelet counts in the HFRS patients. Taken together, our data indicate that elevated plasma sCD14 levels are associated with the monocyte response status during HTNV infection in humans.

  7. Numerical simulation for the influence of laser-induced plasmas addition on air mass capture of hypersonic inlet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Wei; Dou, Zhiguo; Li, Qian

    2012-03-01

    The theory of laser-induced plasmas addition to hypersonic airflow off a vehicle to increase air mass capture and improve the performance of hypersonic inlets at Mach numbers below the design value is explored. For hypersonic vehicles, when flying at mach numbers lower than the design one, we can increase the mass capture ratio of inlet through laser-induced plasmas injection to the hypersonic flow upstream of cowl lip to form a virtual cowl. Based on the theory, the model of interaction between laser-induced plasmas and hypersonic flow was established. The influence on the effect of increasing mass capture ratio was studied at different positions of laser-induced plasmas region for the external compression hypersonic inlet at Mach 5 while the design value is 6, the power of plasmas was in the range of 1-8mJ. The main results are as follows: 1. the best location of the plasma addition region is near the intersection of the nose shock of the vehicle with the continuation of the cowl line, and slightly below that line. In that case, the shock generated by the heating is close to the shock that is a reflection of the vehicle nose shock off the imaginary solid surface-extension of the cowl. 2. Plasma addition does increase mass capture, and the effect becomes stronger as more energy is added, the peak value appeared when the power of plasma was about 4mJ, when the plasma energy continues to get stronger, the mass capture will decline slowly.

  8. Current-level triggered plasma-opening switch

    DOEpatents

    Mendel, C.W.

    1987-06-29

    An opening switch for very high power electrical pulses uses a slow magnetic field to confine a plasma across a gap between two electrodes. The plasma conducts the electric pulse across the gap while the switch is closed. A magnetic field generated by the pulse repels the slow magnetic field from the negative electrode to push the plasma from the electrode, opening the switch. A plurality of radial vanes may be used to enhance the slow magnetic field. 5 figs.

  9. Current-level triggered plasma-opening switch

    SciTech Connect

    Mendel, Clifford W.

    1989-01-01

    An opening switch for very high power electrical pulses uses a slow magnetic field to confine a plasma across a gap between two electrodes. The plasma conducts the electric pulse across the gap while the switch is closed. A magnetic field generated by the pulse repels the slow magnetic field from the negative electrode to push the plasma from the electrode, opening the switch. A plurality of radial vanes may be used to enhance the slow magnetic field.

  10. Current-level triggered plasma-opening switch

    SciTech Connect

    Mendel, C.W.

    1989-03-14

    An opening switch for very high power electrical pulses uses a slow magnetic field to confine a plasma across a gap between two electrodes. The plasma conducts the electrical pulse across the gap while the switch is closed. A magnetic field generated by the pulse repels the slow magnetic field from the negative electrode to push the plasma from the electrode, opening the switch. A plurality of radial vanes may be used to enhance the slow magnetic field.

  11. Association between PAI-1 polymorphisms and plasma PAI-1 level with sepsis in severely burned patients.

    PubMed

    Chi, Y F; Chai, J K; Yu, Y M; Luo, H M; Zhang, Q X; Feng, R

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the association between plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) polymorphisms and plasma PAI-1 level with sepsis in severely burned patients. A total of 182 patients with burn areas lager than 30% of the body surface area were enrolled in this study. Peripheral blood samples were obtained from 103 patients with sepsis (sepsis group) and 79 patients without sepsis (control group). An allele-specific polymerase chain reaction assay was used to determine PAI-1 polymorphism 4G/5G distribution. Plasma PAI-1 levels were detected using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The frequency of the 4G/4G genotype and the 4G allele frequency in the sepsis group were 42.7 and 62.1% respectively, which were significantly higher than those in the control group (P < 0.05). Sepsis patients had a significantly higher plasma PAI-1 level than the control group (P < 0.05). Compared with the 5G/5G genotype, PAI-1 concentrations were significantly higher in the 4G/4G genotype (P < 0.05). The study indicates that the 4G/5G promoter polymorphism of PAI-1 gene may be related to the susceptibility to burn sepsis and that the 4G/4G genotype may be an important genetic risk factor of burn sepsis. Additionally, PAI-1 concentrations in the serum are increased in patients with burn sepsis.

  12. Decrease in plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels at puberty in boys with delayed adolescence: correlation with plasma testosterone levels

    SciTech Connect

    Kirkland, R.T.; Keenan, B.S.; Probstfield, J.L.; Patsch, W.; Lin, T.L.; Clayton, G.W.; Insull, W. Jr.

    1987-01-23

    A three-phase study tested the hypothesis that the decrease in the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) level observed in boys at puberty is related to an increase in the plasma testosterone concentration. In phase I, 57 boys aged 10 to 17 years were categorized into four pubertal stages based on clinical parameters and plasma testosterone levels. These four groups showed increasing plasma testosterone values and decreasing HDL-C levels. In phase II, 14 boys with delayed adolescence were treated with testosterone enanthate. Plasma testosterone levels during therapy were in the adult male range. Levels of HDL-C decreased by a mean of 7.4 mg/dL (0.20 mmol/L) and 13.7 mg/dL (0.35 mmol/L), respectively, after the first two doses. In phase III, 13 boys with delayed adolescence demonstrated increasing plasma testosterone levels and decreasing HDL-C levels during spontaneous puberty. Levels of HDL-C and apolipoprotein A-1 were correlated during induced and spontaneous puberty. Testosterone should be considered a significant determinant of plasma HDL-C levels during pubertal development.

  13. Plasma Osteopontin Levels and Adverse Cardiovascular Outcomes in the PEACE Trial

    PubMed Central

    Austin, Erin E.; Gersh, Bernard J.; Solak, Nusret; Rizvi, Syed A.; Bailey, Kent R.; Kullo, Iftikhar J.

    2016-01-01

    Osteopontin (OPN) is a secreted glycophosphoprotein that has a role in inflammation, immune response and calcification. We hypothesized that plasma OPN levels are associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes in patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD) and preserved ejection fraction (EF) enrolled in the PEACE trial. We measured plasma OPN levels at baseline in 3567 CAD patients (mean age 64.5 ± 8.1 years, 81% men) by a sandwich chemiluminescent assay (coefficient of variation = 4.1%). OPN levels were natural log (Ln) transformed prior to analyses. We assessed whether Ln OPN levels were associated with the composite primary endpoint of cardiovascular death, non-fatal myocardial infarction and hospitalization for heart failure using multiple event multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression. Adjustment was performed for: (a) age and sex; (b) additional potential confounders; and (c) a parsimonious set of statistically significant 10 variates. During a median follow-up of 4.8 years, 416 adverse cardiovascular outcomes occurred in 366 patients. Ln OPN was significantly associated with the primary endpoint; HR (95% CI) = 1.56 (1.27, 1.92); P <0.001, and remained significant after adjustment for age and sex [1.31 (1.06, 1.61); P = 0.01] and after adjustment for relevant covariates [1.24 (1.01, 1.52); P = 0.04]. In a secondary analysis of the individual event types, Ln OPN was significantly associated with incident hospitalization for heart failure: HR (95% CI) = 2.04 (1.44, 2.89); P <0.001, even after adjustment for age, sex and additional relevant covariates. In conclusion, in patients with stable CAD and preserved EF on optimal medical therapy, plasma OPN levels were independently associated with the composite incident endpoint of adverse cardiovascular outcomes as well as incident hospitalization for heart failure. PMID:27284698

  14. Experimental investigation on plasma parameter profiles on a wafer level with reactor gap lengths in an inductively coupled plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Ju-Ho; Chung, Chin-Wook; Kim, Young-Cheol

    2015-07-15

    The gap length effect on plasma parameters is investigated in a planar type inductively coupled plasma at various conditions. The spatial profiles of ion densities and the electron temperatures on the wafer level are measured with a 2D probe array based on the floating harmonic method. At low pressures, the spatial profiles of the plasma parameters rarely changed by various gap lengths, which indicates that nonlocal kinetics are dominant at low pressures. However, at relatively high pressures, the spatial profiles of the plasma parameter changed dramatically. These plasma distribution profile characteristics should be considered for plasma reactor design and processing setup, and can be explained by the diffusion of charged particles and the local kinetics.

  15. Effect of an Additional, Parallel Capacitor on Pulsed Inductive Plasma Accelerator Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polzin, Kurt A.; Sivak, Amy D.; Balla, Joseph V.

    2011-01-01

    A model of pulsed inductive plasma thrusters consisting of a set of coupled circuit equations and a one-dimensional momentum equation has been used to study the effects of adding a second, parallel capacitor into the system. The equations were nondimensionalized, permitting the recovery of several already-known scaling parameters and leading to the identification of a parameter that is unique to the particular topology studied. The current rise rate through the inductive acceleration coil was used as a proxy measurement of the effectiveness of inductive propellant ionization since higher rise rates produce stronger, potentially better ionizing electric fields at the coil face. Contour plots representing thruster performance (exhaust velocity and efficiency) and current rise rate in the coil were generated numerically as a function of the scaling parameters. The analysis reveals that when the value of the second capacitor is much less than the first capacitor, the performance of the two-capacitor system approaches that of the single-capacitor system. In addition, as the second capacitor is decreased in value the current rise rate can grow to be twice as great as the rise rate attained in the single capacitor case.

  16. Registration of gas impurities in nonlocal plasma of helium microdischarge by an additional electrode — sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudryavtsev, A.; Pramatarov, P.; Stefanova, M.; Khromov, N.

    2012-07-01

    Identification of gas impurities in helium by selective registration of groups of fast electrons created in Penning ionization of impurities atoms or molecules by metastable helium atoms at pressures of 7-40 Torr is realized. The collisional electron spectroscopy (CES) method is applied and is experimentally verified. Identification of impurities atoms and molecules is accomplished in collisional regime of movement of the particles, where the different groups of electrons have no time to relax in energy by collisions in the volume and behave independently of each other. An original design of microplasma gas analyzer is proposed, containing only nonlocal negative glow plasma of a short dc microdischarge. Registration of the energy spectra of penning electrons by means of an additional electrode-sensor, located at the boundary of the discharge volume is performed. The sensor has large collecting area compared to classical Langmuir probes, contributing to significant enhancement in the measurements sensitivity. Maxima in the EEDF are recorded in helium with small admixtures of krypton, argon and air. The obtained maxima appear at low discharge currents and at characteristic energies corresponding exactly to the expected maxima for penning electrons of the known gas impurities used. The gas analyser is compact, simple in technical performance, has high sensitivity and its size is dramatically reduced compared to the existing devices for gas analysis. This work is an approach to the development of microdischarge gas analyzers for gas impurities detection like poison gases, gas pollutions in the atmosphere or in the industry etc.

  17. Antibacterial plasma at safe levels for skin cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boekema, B. K. H. L.; Hofmann, S.; van Ham, B. J. T.; Bruggeman, P. J.; Middelkoop, E.

    2013-10-01

    Plasmas produce various reactive species, which are known to be very effective in killing bacteria. Plasma conditions, at which efficient bacterial inactivation is observed, are often not compatible with leaving human cells unharmed. The purpose of this study was to determine plasma settings for inactivation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, without damaging skin cells in vitro under the same treatment conditions. An RF argon plasma jet excited with either continuous or time modulated (20 kHz, 20% duty cycle) voltages was used. To compare these two operation modes, only the input voltage was adjusted in order to obtain the same average power (1.7 W) for both modes. All other settings, i.e. gas flow, distance plasma tip to liquid surface, were kept constant. Bacteria or skin cells in physiological salt solution were exposed to direct non-contact plasma treatments. Short plasma treatments of up to 2 min resulted in a high reduction of bacterial numbers and did not affect dermal fibroblasts or keratinocytes. Bacterial inactivation has been previously ascribed to peroxynitrite, nitrite and H2O2 while eukaryotic cell viability is proposed to be reduced in the long term by the presence of H2O2 and is less affected by reactive nitrogen species. The remote RF plasma jet treatment was highly effective for bacterial inactivation while skin cell viability was preserved.

  18. Plasma Cytokine Levels During Long-Duration Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crucian, Brian E.; Zwart, Sara R.; Quiriarte, Heather A.; Smith, Scott M.; Sams, Clarence F.

    2012-01-01

    Determine the in-flight status of immunity, physiological stress, viral immunity/reactivation. Specific measurements include leukocyte distribution, T cell function, cytokine production profiles (mRNA, intracellular, secreted, plasma), virus-specific T cell number/function, latent herpesvirus reactivation, stress hormone levels. Determine the clinical risk related to immune dysregulation for exploration class spaceflight, as well as an appropriate monitoring strategy for spaceflight-associated immune dysfunction, that could be used for the evaluation of countermeasures. Specific Study Objectives: Determine the nutritional status of astronauts before, during, and after spaceflight ensure adequate intake of energy, protein, and vitamins during missions. The Clinical Nutritional Status Assessment measures dietary intake, body composition, protein, bone, iron, mineral, vitamin, and antioxidant status (60 total analytes). Currently, it is a medical requirement for U.S. crewmembers on-board the ISS. The results of data analysis are used both to understand the connections between nutrition and human health during space flight, and to develop effective dietary strategies to reduce adverse health impacts (including bone loss, loss of important vitamins and minerals, and increased genetic damage from radiation).

  19. Plasma injection and capture at electron cyclotron resonance in a mirror system with additional rf fields

    SciTech Connect

    Golovanivskii, K.S.; Dugar-Zhabon, V.D.; Karyaka, V.I.; Milant'ev, V.P.; Turikov, V.A.

    1980-03-01

    Experiments and numerical simulations have been carried out to determine how cyclotron-resonance rf fields in an open magnetic mirror system affect the capture and confinement of a plasma injected along the axis. The results show that at electron cyclotron resonance the fields greatly improve the longitudinal plasma confinement.

  20. Biperiden and haloperidol plasma levels and extrapyramidal side effects in schizophrenic patients.

    PubMed

    Meszaros, K; Lenzinger, E; Hornik, K; Schönbeck, G; Hatzinger, R; Langer, G; Sieghart, W; Aschauer, H N

    1997-01-01

    Anticholinergic drugs such as biperiden are used for the treatment of extrapyramidal side effects (EPS) induced by neuroleptics such as haloperidol. The effects of biperiden and haloperidol plasma levels on EPS were studied in 29 chronically ill schizophrenics. The results show relationships between biperiden dose and biperiden plasma levels (BPL), and between BPL and haloperidol plasma levels (HPL). Neither BPL nor HPL seem to influence EPS.

  1. Plasma intact fibroblast growth factor 23 levels in women with bulimia nervosa: A cross-sectional pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 23, a circulating 26-kDa peptide produced by osteogenic cells, is a novel phosphaturic factor. In our previous study, binge-eating/purging type anorexia nervosa (AN-BP) patients had elevated plasma intact FGF23 (iFGF23) levels, while restricting type (AN-R) patients had plasma iFGF23 levels similar to healthy controls. Although bulimia nervosa (BN) patients as well as some patients with AN-BP regularly engage in binge eating, there have been no studies regarding plasma iFGF23 levels in BN patients. Therefore, this study was performed to determine plasma iFGF23 concentrations in BN patients and healthy controls. The study population consisted of 13 female BN patients and 11 healthy female controls. Blood samples were collected from all subjects after overnight fasting. Plasma iFGF23 was measured using an ELISA kit in a cross-sectional manner. The two-tailed Mann-Whitney U-test was used to assess differences between BN patients and healthy controls. In addition, BN patients were divided into two groups based on questionnaire-reported binge eating frequency immediately prior to participation in this study: high frequency of binge eating (once a week or more; HF group; n = 8) and low frequency of binge eating (less than once a week; LF group; n = 5). Two-tailed Mann-Whitney U-test with Bonferroni's correction was performed after the Kruskal-Wallis test to assess differences between HF group, LF group, and healthy controls. Median (quartiles) plasma iFGF23 levels were greater in BN patients (35.5 [14.8-65.0] pg/ml) than in controls (3.8 [not detected-5.3] pg/ml; p = 0.002). In addition, median (quartiles) plasma iFGF23 levels were greater in the HF group (62.3 [44.4-73.4] pg/ml) than in controls (p < 0.001) and in the LF group (12.9 [not detected-30.3] pg/ml; p = 0.011), while there were no differences between the LF group and controls (p = 0.441). This is the first study to show that BN patients have elevated plasma iFGF23 levels

  2. Elevated levels of procoagulant plasma microvesicles in dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Burton, James O; Hamali, Hassan A; Singh, Ruchir; Abbasian, Nima; Parsons, Ruth; Patel, Amit K; Goodall, Alison H; Brunskill, Nigel J

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular (CV) death remains the largest cause of mortality in dialysis patients, unexplained by traditional risk factors. Endothelial microvesicles (EMVs) are elevated in patients with traditional CV risk factors and acute coronary syndromes while platelet MVs (PMVs) are associated with atherosclerotic disease states. This study compared relative concentrations of circulating MVs from endothelial cells and platelets in two groups of dialysis patients and matched controls and investigated their relative thromboembolic risk. MVs were isolated from the blood of 20 haemodialysis (HD), 17 peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients and 20 matched controls. Relative concentrations of EMVs (CD144(+ ve)) and PMVs (CD42b(+ ve)) were measured by Western blotting and total MV concentrations were measured using nanoparticle-tracking analysis. The ability to support thrombin generation was measured by reconstituting the MVs in normal plasma, using the Continuous Automated Thrombogram assay triggered with 1µM tissue factor. The total concentration of MVs as well as the measured sub-types was higher in both patient groups compared to controls (p<0.05). MVs from HD and PD patients were able to generate more thrombin than the controls, with higher peak thrombin, and endogenous thrombin potential levels (p<0.02). However there were no differences in either the relative quantity or activity of MVs between the two patient groups (p>0.3). Dialysis patients have higher levels of circulating procoagulant MVs than healthy controls. This may represent a novel and potentially modifiable mediator or predictor of occlusive cardiovascular events in these patients. PMID:23936542

  3. Elevated Levels of Procoagulant Plasma Microvesicles in Dialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Burton, James O.; Hamali, Hassan A.; Singh, Ruchir; Abbasian, Nima; Parsons, Ruth; Patel, Amit K.; Goodall, Alison H.; Brunskill, Nigel J.

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular (CV) death remains the largest cause of mortality in dialysis patients, unexplained by traditional risk factors. Endothelial microvesicles (EMVs) are elevated in patients with traditional CV risk factors and acute coronary syndromes while platelet MVs (PMVs) are associated with atherosclerotic disease states. This study compared relative concentrations of circulating MVs from endothelial cells and platelets in two groups of dialysis patients and matched controls and investigated their relative thromboembolic risk. MVs were isolated from the blood of 20 haemodialysis (HD), 17 peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients and 20 matched controls. Relative concentrations of EMVs (CD144+ ve) and PMVs (CD42b+ ve) were measured by Western blotting and total MV concentrations were measured using nanoparticle-tracking analysis. The ability to support thrombin generation was measured by reconstituting the MVs in normal plasma, using the Continuous Automated Thrombogram assay triggered with 1µM tissue factor. The total concentration of MVs as well as the measured sub-types was higher in both patient groups compared to controls (p<0.05). MVs from HD and PD patients were able to generate more thrombin than the controls, with higher peak thrombin, and endogenous thrombin potential levels (p<0.02). However there were no differences in either the relative quantity or activity of MVs between the two patient groups (p>0.3). Dialysis patients have higher levels of circulating procoagulant MVs than healthy controls. This may represent a novel and potentially modifiable mediator or predictor of occlusive cardiovascular events in these patients. PMID:23936542

  4. Effect of hydrogen addition on the deposition of titanium nitride thin films in nitrogen added argon magnetron plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saikia, P.; Bhuyan, H.; Diaz-Droguett, D. E.; Guzman, F.; Mändl, S.; Saikia, B. K.; Favre, M.; Maze, J. R.; Wyndham, E.

    2016-06-01

    The properties and performance of thin films deposited by plasma assisted processes are closely related to their manufacturing techniques and processes. The objective of the current study is to investigate the modification of plasma parameters occurring during hydrogen addition in N2  +  Ar magnetron plasma used for titanium nitride thin film deposition, and to correlate the measured properties of the deposited thin film with the bulk plasma parameters of the magnetron discharge. From the Langmuir probe measurements, it was observed that the addition of hydrogen led to a decrease of electron density from 8.6 to 6.2  ×  (1014 m-3) and a corresponding increase of electron temperature from 6.30 to 6.74 eV. The optical emission spectroscopy study reveals that with addition of hydrogen, the density of argon ions decreases. The various positive ion species involving hydrogen are found to increase with increase of hydrogen partial pressure in the chamber. The thin films deposited were characterized using standard surface diagnostic tools such as x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), x-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy (RS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Although it was possible to deposit thin films of titanium nitride with hydrogen addition in nitrogen added argon magnetron plasma, the quality of the thin films deteriorates with higher hydrogen partial pressures.

  5. Cortisol and ACTH plasma levels in maternal filicides and violent psychiatric women.

    PubMed

    Spironelli, Chiara; Gradante, Federica; Gradante, Giuseppe; Angrilli, Alessandro

    2013-05-01

    Maternal filicide may be considered the result of significant interactions between increased individual vulnerability and overwhelming environmental stress. The present study examined whether the biological vulnerability to stress and psychotic depression in criminally insane filicidal women was associated with an imbalance of stress-related hormones. Early-morning plasma levels of hormones associated with depression and chronic stress, i.e., thyroid hormones, Cortisol and Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), were measured in 10 filicidal inpatients recovered in a high-security psychiatric hospital for the criminally insane and 10 matched psychiatric, non-filicidal, criminal mothers with comparable traumatic/abuse records. Filicidal mothers had higher than normative Cortisol levels and significantly higher ACTH levels than both the normative values and plasma levels of non-filicidal women. Levels of thyroid hormones fell within normal ranges, without between-groups differences. In addition, while psychiatric controls had the expected Cortisol-ACTH positive correlation, mothers who killed their children revealed no relationship between the two hormones. HPA in the group of filicide perpetrators was altered despite they had received antidepressant pharmacological treatment. The observed imbalance of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis indicates a possible filicides' reduced sensitivity of the adrenal glands to ACTH, probably due to the pre-hospitalization long-term affective stress which preceded child homicide. The results reveal the existence of large psycho-biological stress-sensitivity in filicides, and careful post-discharge psychiatric follow-up of such women is recommended. PMID:23375405

  6. Effect of Khat (Catha edulis) Use on the Bioavailability, Plasma Levels and Antimalarial Activity of Chloroquine

    PubMed Central

    Issa, Faiza H.; Al-Habori, Molhem; Chance, Michael L.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of khat (Catha edulis) on chloroquine (CQ) bioavailability in healthy Yemeni adults and its effect on CQ plasma levels and parasite clearance among malaria patients. Methods: This study took place between January and April 2007 in Bajil and Sana’a, Yemen. Two CQ doses (600 mg each) were given to 15 healthy males on separate occasions; the first dose was followed by a khat-chewing session (phase one) while controls abstained from khat-chewing for the second (phase two). Additionally, 103 patients with Plasmodium falciparum-induced malaria, including both regular khat chewers (n = 57) and non-khat chewers (n = 46), were treated with CQ (25 mg/kg) over three days. Pharmacokinetic parameters were analysed among both controls and malaria patients. Parasite clearance was also investigated for the latter group. Results: The mean area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) was 2,108.9 versus 2,797.4 ng/hour/mL, mean peak plasma concentration (Cmax) was 415.6 versus 508.7 ng/mL and mean time to reach Cmax was 3.8 versus 3.6 hours for controls in phase one versus phase two, respectively; both AUC and Cmax levels were significantly reduced by khat-chewing (P <0.050). For khat- versus non-khat-chewing malaria patients, mean plasma CQ concentrations were 266.4 ng/mL versus 427.5 ng/mL (P <0.001). Furthermore, CQ was effective in 71.7% and 75.4% of non-khat and khat-chewing malaria patients, respectively (P = 0.823). Conclusion: Khat-chewing was found to significantly reduce plasma CQ levels among healthy volunteers and malaria patients. While receiving CQ treatment, patients should be advised not to chew khat. PMID:27226909

  7. Physical activity affects plasma coenzyme Q10 levels differently in young and old humans.

    PubMed

    Del Pozo-Cruz, Jesús; Rodríguez-Bies, Elisabet; Ballesteros-Simarro, Manuel; Navas-Enamorado, Ignacio; Tung, Bui Thanh; Navas, Plácido; López-Lluch, Guillermo

    2014-04-01

    Coenzyme Q (Q) is a key lipidic compound for cell bioenergetics and membrane antioxidant activities. It has been shown that also has a central role in the prevention of oxidation of plasma lipoproteins. Q has been associated with the prevention of cholesterol oxidation and several aging-related diseases. However, to date no clear data on the levels of plasma Q during aging are available. We have measured the levels of plasmatic Q10 and cholesterol in young and old individuals showing different degrees of physical activity. Our results indicate that plasma Q10 levels in old people are higher that the levels found in young people. Our analysis also indicates that there is no a relationship between the degree of physical activity and Q10 levels when the general population is studied. However, very interestingly, we have found a different tendency between Q10 levels and physical activity depending on the age of individuals. In young people, higher activity correlates with lower Q10 levels in plasma whereas in older adults this ratio changes and higher activity is related to higher plasma Q10 levels and higher Q10/Chol ratios. Higher Q10 levels in plasma are related to lower lipoperoxidation and oxidized LDL levels in elderly people. Our results highlight the importance of life habits in the analysis of Q10 in plasma and indicate that the practice of physical activity at old age can improve antioxidant capacity in plasma and help to prevent cardiovascular diseases.

  8. Investigation in the use of plasma arc welding and alternative feedstock delivery method in additive manufacture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alhuzaim, Abdullah F.

    The work conducted for this thesis was to investigate the use of plasma arc welding (PAW) and steel shot as a means of additive manufacturing. A robotic PAW system and automatic shot feeder were used to manufacture linear walls approximately 100 mm long by 7 mm wide and 20 mm tall. The walls were built, layer-by-layer, on plain carbon steel substrate by adding individual 2.5 mm diameter plain carbon steel shot. Each layer was built, shot-by-shot, using a pulse of arc current to form a molten pool on the deposit into which each shot was deposited and melted. The deposition rate, a measure of productivity, was approximately 50 g/hour. Three walls were built using the same conditions except for the deposit preheat temperature prior to adding each new layer. The deposit preheat temperature was controlled by allowing the deposit to cool after each layer for an amount of time called the inter-layer wait time. The walls were sectioned and grain size and hardness distribution were measured as a function of wall height. The results indicated that, for all specimens, deposit grain size increased and hardness decreased as wall height increased. Furthermore, average grain size decreased and hardness increased as interlayer wait time increased. An analytical heat flow model was developed to study the influence of interlayer wait time on deposit temperature and therefore grain size and hardness. The results of the model indicated that as wall height increased, the rate of deposit heat removal by conduction to the substrate decreased leading to a higher preheat temperature after a fixed interlayer wait time causing grain size to increase as wall height increased. However, the model results also show that as wall height increased, the deposit surface area from which heat energy is lost via convection and radiation increased. The model also demonstrated that the use of a means of forced convection to rapidly remove heat from the deposit could be an effective way to boost

  9. Effects of additional vapors on sterilization of microorganism spores with plasma-excited neutral gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsui, Kei; Ikenaga, Noriaki; Sakudo, Noriyuki

    2015-01-01

    Some fundamental experiments are carried out in order to develop a plasma process that will uniformly sterilize both the space and inner wall of the reactor chamber at atmospheric pressure. Air, oxygen, argon, and nitrogen are each used as the plasma source gas to which mixed vapors of water and ethanol at different ratios are added. The reactor chamber is remotely located from the plasma area and a metal mesh for eliminating charged particles is installed between them. Thus, only reactive neutral particles such as plasma-excited gas molecules and radicals are utilized. As a result, adding vapors to the source gas markedly enhances the sterilization effect. In particular, air with water and/or ethanol vapor and oxygen with ethanol vapor show more than 6-log reduction for Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores.

  10. Effect of plasma suppression additives on electrodynamic characteristics of the torch discharge burning in the air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidyaev, D.; Lutsenko, Yu; Boretsky, E.

    2016-06-01

    The paper shows the results of measurements of wave number of electromagnetic wave, which supports burning of high-frequency torch discharge in the mixture of air with water vapor and carbon dioxide. The nonmonotonic dependence of attenuation factor of electromagnetic waves is set on a concentration of water vapor. It is shown that the attenuation degree of electromagnetic field in the plasma with water vapor significantly exceeds the attenuation degree of electromagnetic field in the plasma with carbon dioxide.

  11. Theoretical investigation of the effect of hydrogen addition on the formation and properties of soliton in direct current argon plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saikia, P.; Goswami, K. S.; Saikia, B. K.

    2014-03-01

    In this study the effect of hydrogen addition on the formation and properties of soliton in direct-current (DC) argon plasma is theoretically investigated. By coupling fluid equations with Poisons equation for such multi-component plasma, the Mach number and amplitude of the soliton are determined following pseudo potential method. Addition of hydrogen in argon discharge leads to the decrease of electron, Ar+ ion density while a reverse trend was observed for ArH+ and hydrogen like ions. It was found that presence of hydrogen like ions in argon plasma affects the formation of soliton with its amplitude significantly decreases as concentration of hydrogen increases. On the other hand, increase in ion to electron temperature ratios of the lighter ions in the discharge also has a significant influence on the amplitude and formation of soliton. The inverse relation between solitons width and amplitude is found to be consistent for the entire range of study.

  12. Theoretical investigation of the effect of hydrogen addition on the formation and properties of soliton in direct current argon plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Saikia, P. Goswami, K. S.; Saikia, B. K.

    2014-03-15

    In this study the effect of hydrogen addition on the formation and properties of soliton in direct-current (DC) argon plasma is theoretically investigated. By coupling fluid equations with Poisons equation for such multi-component plasma, the Mach number and amplitude of the soliton are determined following pseudo potential method. Addition of hydrogen in argon discharge leads to the decrease of electron, Ar{sup +} ion density while a reverse trend was observed for ArH{sup +} and hydrogen like ions. It was found that presence of hydrogen like ions in argon plasma affects the formation of soliton with its amplitude significantly decreases as concentration of hydrogen increases. On the other hand, increase in ion to electron temperature ratios of the lighter ions in the discharge also has a significant influence on the amplitude and formation of soliton. The inverse relation between solitons width and amplitude is found to be consistent for the entire range of study.

  13. Association of plasma adiponectin and leptin levels with the development and progression of ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Jing Hui; Kim, Hyun-Jung; Kim, Chan Young; Kim, Yun Hwan; Ju, Woong

    2016-01-01

    Objective Decreased adiponectin and increased leptin plasma concentrations are believed to be associated with the occurrence and progression of cancers such as endometrial cancer and breast cancer. The aim of this study was to explore the association of plasma adiponectin and leptin levels with the development and progression of ovarian cancer. Methods For patients with ovarian cancer and the control group, adiponectin and leptin levels were measured; anthropometric data were obtained during a chart review. Statistical comparisons between groups were analyzed using the Student's t-test; correlations were confirmed using the Pearson correlation. Results The mean adiponectin and leptin concentrations in patients with ovarian cancer were lower than those of the control group (8.25 vs. 11.44 µg/mL, respectively; P=0.026) (7.09 vs. 15.4 ng/mL, respectively; P=0.001). However, there was no significant difference in adiponectin and leptin levels between early-stage (I/II) and advanced-stage (III/IV) disease (P=0.078). Conclusion Compared with other gynecological cancers, the level of adiponectin and leptin were decreased in ovarian cancer that may have some diagnostic value; additional study to elucidate the function of these two hormones in the development of ovarian carcinogenesis is necessitated. PMID:27462594

  14. Zinc and copper levels in plasma, erythrocytes, and whole blood in cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Aldor, Y; Walach, N; Modai, D; Horn, Y

    1982-04-01

    Zinc and copper levels in erythrocytes, plasma, and whole blood were determined in 35 cancer patients and compared with 24 normal individuals. A decrease in zinc was found in all three blood constituents of the cancer patients. The decrease was significant in plasma and whole blood and nonsignificant in erythrocytes. Copper levels in the cancer group showed a slight and nonsignificant increase in erythrocytes, plasma, and whole blood. The copper to zinc ratio revealed a significant increase only for plasma levels. Further investigations are indicated to determine whether these two elements could serve as indicators for diagnosis or prognosis in cancer patients.

  15. Correlations between Plasma Levels of Anionic Uremic Toxins and Clinical Parameters in Hemodialysis Patients.

    PubMed

    Ichimura, Yuichi; Takamatsu, Hiroyuki; Ideuchi, Hideki; Oda, Masako; Takeda, Kiyotaka; Saitoh, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    When the kidney is seriously impaired, various uremic toxins (UTs) accumulate in the body, often exerting unfavorable effects on physiological functions and drug pharmacokinetics. To prevent this, it is important to determine plasma UT levels accurately in chronic kidney disease patients. Although attempts to predict plasma UT levels using biomarkers have been made, the correlation between UT levels and the markers is not yet fully understood. In this study, we assessed the correlations among plasma levels of indoxyl sulfate (IS), indoleacetic acid (IA), and 3-carboxy-4-methyl-5-propyl-2-furanpropionic acid (CMPF) in 20 hemodialysis patients and evaluated the relationship between the plasma levels of UTs and clinical parameters, such as serum creatinine (Scr), blood urea nitrogen, and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), with special focus on IS. There were no correlations among the plasma levels of the three UTs before and immediately after hemodialysis. However, a significant correlation was observed between plasma IS levels and Scr before hemodialysis (r=0.643, p=0.002), with the correlation becoming much stronger when using the data obtained immediately after hemodialysis (r=0.744, p<0.001). Further, plasma IS levels showed a significant negative correlation with eGFR (r=-0.558, p=0.011). However, no correlations were observed for IA or CMPF. The results obtained from this study suggest that plasma IS levels can be predicted from Scr values, although the precise mechanism behind the correlation remains to be clarified. PMID:27477735

  16. Effects of prolonged physical exercise and fasting upon plasma testosterone level in rats.

    PubMed

    Guezennec, C Y; Ferre, P; Serrurier, B; Merino, D; Pesquies, P C

    1982-01-01

    Prolonged physical exercise and fasting in male rats were studied to determine the effect of these two treatments on plasma testosterone level. Blood and tissue samples were drawn after 1 h, 3 h, 5 h, and 7 h treadmill running, and after 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h of fasting. Both treatments resulted in a significant fall in plasma testosterone, plasma luteinizing hormone (LH), plasma Insulin (IRI) and in liver and muscle glycogen stores. In the course of these two treatments the injection of a supra maximal dose of Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (HCG) produced a rise in plasma testosterone similar to that in control rats. This indicates that the decrease of plasma LH may be responsible for the decrease in plasma testosterone, which is time-related with the decrease in glycogen stores. The possible metabolic role of the decrease in plasma testosterone is discussed. PMID:6889494

  17. Nutritional and environmental factors affecting plasma ghrelin and leptin levels in rats.

    PubMed

    Nakahara, Keiko; Okame, Rieko; Katayama, Tetsuro; Miyazato, Mikiya; Kangawa, Kenji; Murakami, Noboru

    2010-10-01

    We examined which factors suppress the rise of ghrelin secretion under hunger in 16-h-starved rats, and compared the responses of plasma ghrelin and leptin levels to various exogenous and endogenous stimuli in intact rats. Although an acute expansion of the stomach by infusion of 6 ml air or 3 ml water in rats starved for 16 h did not change the level of plasma acyl-ghrelin 3 ml corn starch solution, corn oil, or 20% ethanol significantly decreased it. Vagotomy inhibited suppression by nutrients but not by ethanol. Chronic infusion of ethanol into the stomach for 3 weeks in free-feeding rats caused widespread injury of the stomach mucosa, and increased both plasma ghrelin levels and the number of ghrelin cells. In intact rats, low temperature did not change ghrelin levels, but increased leptin levels. On the other hand, restriction stress decreased plasma ghrelin levels, but had the reverse effect on plasma leptin levels. Although insulin decreased and 20% glucose increased plasma glucose levels, they both decreased plasma ghrelin levels. Insulin elevated plasma leptin levels, but glucose had no effect. These results indicate that 1) acyl-ghrelin secretion from the stomach under fasting condition is suppressed by nutrients but not by mechanical expansion of the stomach; 2) high and low environmental temperature, stress, or administration of insulin reciprocally affect plasma levels of ghrelin and leptin; and 3) an increase of stomach ghrelin cell number and plasma ghrelin levels after chronic ethanol treatment may be involved in restoration of gastric mucosae.

  18. Differences in bisphenol A and estrogen levels in the plasma and seminal plasma of men with different degrees of infertility.

    PubMed

    Vitku, J; Sosvorova, L; Chlupacova, T; Hampl, R; Hill, M; Sobotka, V; Heracek, J; Bicikova, M; Starka, L

    2015-01-01

    The general population is potentially exposed to many chemicals that can affect the endocrine system. These substances are called endocrine disruptors (EDs), and among them bisphenol A (BPA) is one of the most widely used and well studied. Nonetheless, there are still no data on simultaneous measurements of various EDs along with steroids directly in the seminal fluid, where deleterious effects of EDs on spermatogenesis and steroidogenesis are assumed. We determined levels of BPA and 3 estrogens using LC-MS/MS in the plasma and seminal plasma of 174 men with different degrees of infertility. These men were divided according their spermiogram values into 4 groups: (1) healthy men, and (2) slightly, (3) moderate, and (4) severely infertile men. Estradiol levels differed across the groups and body fluids. Slightly infertile men have significantly higher BPA plasma and seminal plasma levels in comparison with healthy men (p<0.05 and p<0.01, respectively). Furthermore, seminal BPA, but not plasma BPA, was negatively associated with sperm concentration and total sperm count (-0.27; p<0.001 and -0.24; p<0.01, respectively). These findings point to the importance of seminal plasma in BPA research. Overall, a disruption of estrogen metabolism was observed together with a weak but significant impact of BPA on sperm count and concentration. PMID:26680493

  19. Inorganic and methylmercury levels in plasma are differentially associated with age, gender, and oxidative stress markers in a population exposed to mercury through fish consumption.

    PubMed

    Carneiro, Maria Fernanda Hornos; Grotto, Denise; Barbosa, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the concentrations of plasma methylmercury (Me-Hg) and inorganic mercury (I-Hg) in a population exposed to Me-Hg. In addition, associations between each form of mercury (Hg) and gender, age, plasma selenium (Se), and oxidative stress markers were also investigated. The mean plasma I-Hg level was 5.7 μg/L while the mean for plasma Me-Hg was 3.6 μg/L, representing approximately 59 and 41% of the total Hg in blood, respectively. However, several plasma samples contained higher percentages of Me-Hg. Age displayed a direct linkage with plasma I-Hg levels, whereas gender did not correlate with any of the Hg species. In addition, fish intake was only correlated with and a predictor of plasma Me-Hg, suggesting that plasma I-Hg levels originated endogenously through a demethylation reaction that needs to be verified. Further, plasma Me-Hg was markedly correlated with adverse effects to a greater extent than plasma I-Hg and may be considered a valuable, reliable internal dose biomarker for Hg in chronically Me-Hg- exposed individuals.

  20. Effect of exercise on the plasma BDNF levels in elderly women with knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Wellington F; Lacerda, Ana Cristina R; Mendonça, Vanessa A; Arrieiro, Arthur N; Fonseca, Sueli F; Amorim, Mateus R; Teixeira, Antônio L; Teixeira, Mauro M; Miranda, Aline S; Coimbra, Cândido C; Brito-Melo, Gustavo E A

    2014-06-01

    Knee osteoarthritis is a common disease in the elderly population worldwide. The alleviation of the symptoms associated with this disease can be achieved with physical exercise that induces a cascade of molecular and cellular processes. Of the neurotrophins, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) appears to be the most affected by physical activity. Moreover, BDNF seems to have a negative modulatory role in inflammation, and its production by skeletal muscle cells or by cells of the immune system drives the immunoprotective role of physical activity in situations of chronic inflammation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate plasma BDNF concentrations in elderly individuals presenting with knee osteoarthritis. To accomplish this, sixteen volunteers (mean age 67 ± 4.41 years) presenting with clinically and radiographically diagnosed knee osteoarthritis were evaluated during acute exercise (1 session of 20 min on a treadmill) and after chronic exercise (12 weeks of aerobic training, consisting of a 50-min walk 3 times per week). Additionally, both a functional assessment (during a 6-min walk) and a pain perception assessment were performed at the start and at the end of physical exercises (training). The plasma BDNF concentrations were measured by ELISA. For the population studied, acute exercise increased the levels of BDNF only before the 12-week training period (p < 0.001). Moreover, the training augmented the plasma concentrations of BDNF (p < 0.0001) and improved clinical parameters (functional p < 0.001; pain perception p < 0.01).

  1. Raisins and additional walking have distinct effects on plasma lipids and inflammatory cytokines

    PubMed Central

    Puglisi, Michael J; Vaishnav, Ushma; Shrestha, Sudeep; Torres-Gonzalez, Moises; Wood, Richard J; Volek, Jeff S; Fernandez, Maria Luz

    2008-01-01

    Background Raisins are a significant source of dietary fiber and polyphenols, which may reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk by affecting lipoprotein metabolism and inflammation. Walking represents a low intensity exercise intervention that may also reduce CVD risk. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of consuming raisins, increasing steps walked, or a combination of these interventions on blood pressure, plasma lipids, glucose, insulin and inflammatory cytokines. Results Thirty-four men and postmenopausal women were matched for weight and gender and randomly assigned to consume 1 cup raisins/d (RAISIN), increase the amount of steps walked/d (WALK) or a combination of both interventions (RAISINS + WALK). The subjects completed a 2 wk run-in period, followed by a 6 wk intervention. Systolic blood pressure was reduced for all subjects (P = 0.008). Plasma total cholesterol was decreased by 9.4% for all subjects (P < 0.005), which was explained by a 13.7% reduction in plasma LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) (P < 0.001). Plasma triglycerides (TG) concentrations were decreased by 19.5% for WALK (P < 0.05 for group effect). Plasma TNF-α was decreased from 3.5 ng/L to 2.1 ng/L for RAISIN (P < 0.025 for time and group × time effect). All subjects had a reduction in plasma sICAM-1 (P < 0.01). Conclusion This research shows that simple lifestyle modifications such as adding raisins to the diet or increasing steps walked have distinct beneficial effects on CVD risk. PMID:18416823

  2. Drift wave stabilized by an additional streaming ion or plasma population.

    PubMed

    Bashir, M F; Vranjes, J

    2015-03-01

    It is shown that the universally unstable kinetic drift wave in an electron-ion plasma can very effectively be suppressed by adding an extra flowing ion (or plasma) population. The effect of the flow of the added ions is essential, their response is of the type (vph-vf0)exp[-(vph-vf0)2], where vf0 is the flow speed and vph is the phase speed parallel to the magnetic field vector. The damping is strong and it is mainly due to this ion exponential term, and this remains so for vf0

  3. Mucosal IgG Levels Correlate Better with Respiratory Syncytial Virus Load and Inflammation than Plasma IgG Levels

    PubMed Central

    Vissers, Marloes; Ahout, Inge M. L.; de Jonge, Marien I.

    2015-01-01

    Maternal vaccination is currently considered a strategy against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections. In RSV-infected infants, high mucosal IgG levels correlated better with reduced RSV load and lower mucosal CXCL10 levels than plasma IgG levels. For future vaccination strategies against RSV, more focus should be on the mucosal humoral immune response. PMID:26656116

  4. The relevance of an elevation in the plasma vasopressin levels to the pathogenesis of Meniere's attack.

    PubMed

    Aoki, M; Asai, M; Nishihori, T; Mizuta, K; Ito, Y; Ando, K

    2007-11-01

    An elevation of plasma vasopressin levels has been frequently observed in Meniere's disease patients. However, little is known regarding the mechanism behind this elevation. The plasma vasopressin levels and plasma osmolality were therefore determined in 18 diagnosed Meniere's disease patients and 20 patients with other types of vertigo, who required admission for severe vertigo attacks. All participants were given questionnaires regarding their clinical and psychological status, including their stress levels and depression status, to evaluate environmental stress events. The plasma vasopressin levels of Meniere's disease patients in the acute phase (4.1 +/- 1.37 pg/ml) were significantly higher compared with with those of other vertigo patients in the acute phase (2.1 +/- 0.41 pg/ml) (P < 0.01). The average plasma osmolality of the Meniere's disease group was higher than that of the other vertigo patients group (P < 0.05). No significant difference in reported stress levels, depression status and prevalence of primary headache between the groups was observed. The plasma vasopressin showed no significant correlation with the patients' clinical data (occurrence of emesis or nausea, prevalence of primary headache, depression status and stress). No correlation between the plasma vasopressin and the plasma osmolarity was observed in the Meniere's disease group. These results suggest that the elevation of plasma vasopressin in the acute phase of Meniere's disease is therefore related to the pathogenesis of Meniere's attacks, and the results obtained may provide helpful information for distinguishing between Meniere's disease and other various inner ear diseases.

  5. Investigating the effect of additional gases in an atmospheric-pressure helium plasma jet using ambient mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Jun-Seok; Furuta, Hiroshi; Hatta, Akimitsu; Bradley, James W.

    2015-01-01

    Using ambient mass spectrometry, positive and negative ions created in an atmospheric-pressure plasma jet have been detected for a variation of different traces gases (Ar, N2, and O2) added to the flow, downstream of the main helium discharge plasma. We find that such additions can change the chemistry in the outflow plasma plume. For instance, small amounts of O2 increases the formation of positive ion clusters, e.g., water clusters H+(H2O)n (with n up to 5) through hydration reactions, but decreases the intensity of heavy negative ions detected. With the addition of Ar and N2 we see a marked decrease in the intensity of negative ions in the plume but with increased Ar+ and nitrous oxide ions (e.g., N2O+) for the two cases respectively. From broadband optical emission measurements of the glowing plasma we see that the relative emission intensity of OH radical were changed with addition of the four different gases but the emission spectra were not changed. A calculation of rotational temperature of OH radicals, indicates that the gas temperatures is about 290 K for the four different gas mixture cases.

  6. Plasma Levels of Nitrite and Nitrate in Early and Recent Classes of Fish

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Donna A; Flood, Mary H; Lewis, Debra A; Miller, Virginia M; Krause, William J

    2008-01-01

    The stable metabolite of nitric oxide in plasma is NOx, the sum of nitrite plus nitrate. Measures of plasma NOx may provide information about the nitric oxide tonus of the entire endothelium including capillary microvessels. Although data are available for mammalian species, plasma NOx measurements in early vertebrate species are scarce. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that plasma NOx would be similar to the NOx in the water environment for fish in early classes (Agnatha and Chondrichthye) and would exceed water NOx levels in the known nitrite-sensitive fish (Osteichthye). Plasma samples were obtained from 18 species of adult fish (n = 167) and from their housing or natural water environment. NOx was measured by using chemiluminescence. Plasma NOx was detected in all species and ranged from 0.5 nmol/ml (skate) to 453.9 nmol/ml (shortnose gar). Average plasma NOx was significantly higher in sea lamprey than in Atlantic hagfish whereas that of little skate was 3-fold lower than in spiny dogfish shark. Plasma NOx differed significantly among early bony fish (paddlefish, pallid sturgeon, gar) yet was similar among modern bony fish, with the exception of rainbow trout. Plasma NOx reflected water NOx in only 2 species (hagfish and shark), and levels did not coincide with nitrite sensitivity. This study provides an expanded comparative view of plasma NOx levels across 3 groups of early fish. The data obtained suggest a nitric oxide system in early and modern fish. PMID:19004368

  7. Plasma levels of nitrite and nitrate in early and recent classes of fish.

    PubMed

    Williams, Donna A; Flood, Mary H; Lewis, Debra A; Miller, Virginia M; Krause, William J

    2008-10-01

    The stable metabolite of nitric oxide in plasma is NOx, the sum of nitrite plus nitrate. Measures of plasma NOx may provide information about the nitric oxide tonus of the entire endothelium including capillary microvessels. Although data are available for mammalian species, plasma NOx measurements in early vertebrate species are scarce. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that plasma NOx would be similar to the NO in the water environment for fish in early classes (Agnatha and Chondrichthye) and would exceed water NOx levels in the known nitrite-sensitive fish (Osteichthye). Plasma samples were obtained from 18 species of adult fish (n=167) and from their housing or natural water environment. NOx was measured by using chemiluminescence. Plasma NO was detected in all species and ranged from 0.5 nmol/ml (skate) to 453.9 nmol/ml (shortnose gar). Average plasma NOx was significantly higher in sea lamprey than in Atlantic hagfish whereas that of little skate was 3-fold lower than in spiny dogfish shark. Plasma NO differed significantly among early bony fish (paddlefish, pallid sturgeon, gar) yet was similar among modern bony fish, with the exception of rainbow trout. Plasma NOx reflected water NO in only 2 species (hagfish and shark), and levels did not coincide with nitrite sensitivity. This study provides an expanded comparative view of plasma NO, levels across 3 groups of early fish. The data obtained suggest a nitric oxide system in early and modern fish. PMID:19004368

  8. Xenon Additives Detection in Helium Micro-Plasma Gas Analytical Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsyganov, Alexander; Kudryavtsev, Anatoliy; Mustafaev, Alexander

    2012-10-01

    Electron energy spectra of Xe atoms at He filled micro-plasma afterglow gas analyzer were observed using Collisional Electron Spectroscopy (CES) method [1]. According to CES, diffusion path confinement for characteristic electrons makes it possible to measure electrons energy distribution function (EEDF) at a high (up to atmospheric) gas pressure. Simple geometry micro-plasma CES sensor consists of two plane parallel electrodes detector and microprocessor-based acquisition system providing current-voltage curve measurement in the afterglow of the plasma discharge. Electron energy spectra are deduced as 2-nd derivative of the measured current-voltage curve to select characteristic peaks of the species to be detected. Said derivatives were obtained by the smoothing-differentiating procedure using spline least-squares approximation of a current-voltage curve. Experimental results on CES electron energy spectra at 10-40 Torr in pure He and in admixture with 0.3% Xe are discussed. It demonstrates a prototype of the new miniature micro-plasma sensors for industry, safety and healthcare applications. [1]. A.A.Kudryavtsev, A.B.Tsyganov. US Patent 7,309,992. Gas analysis method and ionization detector for carrying out said method, issued December 18, 2007.

  9. Assessment of changes in plasma hemoglobin and potassium levels in red cell units during processing and storage.

    PubMed

    Saini, Nishant; Basu, Sabita; Kaur, Ravneet; Kaur, Jasbinder

    2015-06-01

    Red cell units undergo changes during storage and processing. The study was planned to assess plasma potassium, plasma hemoglobin, percentage hemolysis during storage and to determine the effects of outdoor blood collection and processing on those parameters. Blood collection in three types of blood storage bags was done - single CPDA bag (40 outdoor and 40 in-house collection), triple CPD + SAGM bag (40 in-house collection) and quadruple CPD + SAGM bag with integral leukoreduction filter (40 in-house collection). All bags were sampled on day 0 (day of collection), day 1 (after processing), day 7, day 14 and day 28 for measurement of percentage hemolysis and potassium levels in the plasma of bag contents. There was significant increase in percentage hemolysis, plasma hemoglobin and plasma potassium level in all the groups during storage (p < 0.001). No significant difference was found between any parameter analyzed for outdoor and in-house collected single CPDA red cell units. There was significant lower percentage hemolysis (p < 0.001) and potassium (day 7 to day 14 - p < 0.05 and day 14 to day 28 - p < 0.001) in red cell units from day 7 onward until day 28 of storage in the leukoreduced quadruple bag as compared to the triple bag. The in-house single CPDA red cell units showed significantly more hemolysis (p < 0.001) as compared to the triple bags with SAGM additive solution after 28 days of storage. There is gradual increase in plasma hemoglobin and plasma potassium levels during the storage of red blood cells. Blood collection can be safely undertaken in outdoor blood donation camps even in hot summer months in monitored blood transport boxes. SAGM additive solution decreases the red cell hemolysis and allows extended storage of red cells. Prestorage leukoreduction decreases the red cell hemolysis and improves the quality of blood.

  10. Plasma levels of vasoactive regulatory peptides in patients receiving regular hemodialysis treatment.

    PubMed

    Hegbrant, J; Thysell, H; Ekman, R

    1992-01-01

    The fasting plasma levels of 10 vasoactive regulatory peptides were measured by radioimmunoassay in 23 stable patients with chronic renal failure receiving regular hemodialysis treatment (RDT) and compared with those of healthy controls. The plasma concentrations of arginine vasopressin, atrial natriuretic peptide, beta-endorphin, methionine-enkephalin, motilin, neuropeptide Y, substance P, and vasoactive intestinal peptide were increased. The plasma level of calcitonin gene-related peptide was not statistically different from that of the controls. The plasma concentration of gamma 2-melanocyte-stimulating hormone was lowered in the RDT-patients. The arterial blood pressure correlated with the plasma levels of motilin and neuropeptide Y. We conclude that patients with chronic renal failure receiving RDT have increased concentrations of 8 out of 10 measured vasoactive regulatory peptides. The elevated levels of vasoactive peptides may contribute to the adaptation of the cardiovascular system to impaired renal function.

  11. The Effectiveness of an Additional Stretching Exercise Program in Improving Flexibility Level among Preschool Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Wee Akina Sia Seng; Rengasamy, Shabeshan A/L; Raju, Subramaniam A/L

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effectiveness of a two minutes' additional stretching exercise program in a 30 minutes games teaching lesson in improving the flexibility level of 6 year old preschool boys (M = 5.92, SD = 0.27) in a preschool in Malaysia. Fifty (50) preschool boys were selected for the study based on the intact sampling…

  12. Multi-Level iterative methods in computational plasma physics

    SciTech Connect

    Knoll, D.A.; Barnes, D.C.; Brackbill, J.U.; Chacon, L.; Lapenta, G.

    1999-03-01

    Plasma physics phenomena occur on a wide range of spatial scales and on a wide range of time scales. When attempting to model plasma physics problems numerically the authors are inevitably faced with the need for both fine spatial resolution (fine grids) and implicit time integration methods. Fine grids can tax the efficiency of iterative methods and large time steps can challenge the robustness of iterative methods. To meet these challenges they are developing a hybrid approach where multigrid methods are used as preconditioners to Krylov subspace based iterative methods such as conjugate gradients or GMRES. For nonlinear problems they apply multigrid preconditioning to a matrix-few Newton-GMRES method. Results are presented for application of these multilevel iterative methods to the field solves in implicit moment method PIC, multidimensional nonlinear Fokker-Planck problems, and their initial efforts in particle MHD.

  13. Correlation between plasma component levels of cultured fish and resistance to bacterial infection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maita, M.; Satoh, K.-I.; Fukuda, Y.; Lee, H.-K.; Winton, J.R.; Okamoto, N.

    1998-01-01

    Mortalities of yellowtail Seriola quinqueradiata artificially infected with Lactococcus garvieae and of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss artificially infected with Vibrio anguillarum were compared with the levels of plasma components measured prior to challenge. The levels of plasma total cholesterol, free cholesterol and phospholipid of fish surviving infection were significantly higher in both yellowtail and rainbow trout than those of fish which died during the challenge test. Mortality of yellowtail with plasma total cholesterol levels lower than 250 mg/100 ml was significantly higher than that of fish which had cholesterol levels higher than 275 mg/100 ml (p < 0.05). Rainbow trout whose cholesterol was lower than 520 mg/100 ml suffered a significantly higher mortality due to vibriosis than fish having cholesterol levels higher than 560 mg/100 ml (p < 0.005). These results indicate that low levels of plasma lipid components may be an indicator of lowered disease resistance in cultured fish.

  14. Plasma fenfluramine levels, weight loss, and side effects.

    PubMed Central

    Innes, J A; Watson, M L; Ford, M J; Munro, J F; Stoddart, M E; Campbell, D B

    1977-01-01

    Fifty women with refractory obesity received fenfluramine for 20 weeks. Every two weeks details of weight change, drug dose, degree of anorexia, and any side effects were recorded and plasma was obtained for fenfluramine and norfenfluramine measurements. Of the 41 patients available for final analysis 26 achieved a maximum plateau dose of 160 mg/day. Plasma fenfluramine concentrations did not correlate with the degree of anorexia or with the incidence of side effects other than the severity of dream disturbance. There was a highly significant relation between weight loss and plasma fenfluramine and norfenfluramine concentrations and also between weight loss and the presence of sustained anorexia. Women who achieved mean plateau concentrations over 200 ng/ml lost a mean 8.8 kg while those with concentrations less than 100 ng/ml lost a mean of only 2.1 kg. When fenfluramine is prescribed in refractory obesity the dose should be increased stepwise until either satisfactory weight loss is achieved or troublesome side effects appear. PMID:589167

  15. Plasma and Synovial Fluid TrxR Levels are Correlated With Disease Risk and Severity in Patients With Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Zhijun; Sun, Jing; Li, Haichang; Shao, Tiejuan; Wang, Dawei; Zheng, Qi; Wen, Chengping

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This study was designed and performed to establish the relationship between plasma and synovial fluid (SF) levels of thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) and disease activity in Chinese patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). This study consisted of a total of 224 patients diagnosed with RA, 224 age and sex-matched healthy controls, and 156 patient controls. The disease activity of RA patients was calculated as diseases activity score that include 28-joint counts (DAS 28), which was divided into low-diseases activity (LDA) and high-diseases activity (HDA) groups. Increased plasma TrxR was detected in patients with RA than healthy controls (P < 0.0001). With an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.874, plasma TrxR showed a evidently greater discriminatory ability than C-reactive protein (CRP; AUC, 0.815), antistreptolysin-O (ASO; AUC, 0.631), rheumatoid factor (RF, AUC, 0.793), and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR, AUC, 0.789) in diagnosing RA. RA patients with HDA had significantly elevated TrxR levels in plasma and SF than did those with LDA (P < 0.0001). With an AUC of 0.874, plasma TrxR levels as an indicator for screening of HDA showed a significantly greater discriminatory ability than CRP (AUC, 0.690), ASO (AUC, 0.597), RF (AUC, 0.657), and ESR (AUC, 0.603). Similarly, SF TrxR levels as an indicator for screening of HDA also showed a significantly greater discriminatory ability as compared with above biomarkers. TrxR levels in plasma and SF were positively correlated with the severity of RA. TrxR levels may therefore serve as a new biomarker in addition of the traditional biomarkers for assessing the risk and severity of RA. Further analysis of TrxR release machinery may give us a new understanding of pathogenesis of RA. PMID:26871773

  16. Effect of deafferentation of the rat tongue on plasma corticosterone, aldosterone, angiotensin and ACTH levels

    SciTech Connect

    Polyntsev, Yu.V.; Serova, O.N.

    1987-09-01

    The effect of deafferentation of the tongue on the plasma level of hormones involved in regulation of the sodium ion level -- aldosterone, corticosterone, ACTH, and angiotensin -- was studied. Plasma hormone levels were determined by radioimmunoassay. The results indicate the important role of orosensory and taste perception in the processes of regulation of the sodium balance in the body. The experiments in this study were conducted on rats.

  17. The effect of different alcoholic beverages on blood alcohol levels, plasma insulin and plasma glucose in humans.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, L C; Couri, S; Trugo, N F; Lollo, P C B

    2014-09-01

    In the present work we studied the effects of four alcoholic beverages on blood alcohol levels, plasma insulin concentrations and plasma glucose concentrations in men and women. The volunteers were healthy non-smokers and they were divided according to sex into two groups of ten individuals. The alcoholic beverages used in the study were beer, red wine, whisky and "cachaça". In men, ingestion of the distilled drinks promoted a spike in blood alcohol levels more quickly than ingestion of the fermented drinks. In women, beer promoted the lowest blood alcohol levels over the 6h of the experiment. Whisky promoted highest blood alcohol levels in both sexes. The ingestion of wine promoted a significant difference in relation to the blood alcohol concentration (BAC) as a function of gender. The ingestion of cachaça by women produced BAC levels significantly smaller than those obtained for wine.

  18. Correlation of Plasma Catestatin Level and the Prognosis of Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xinyu; Liang, Ying; Yu, Haiyi; Gao, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Catestatin is a peptide which is a potent inhibitor of catecholamine secretion and played essential functions in the cardiovascular system. Previous research found that dramatic changes of catestatin were associated with hemodynamics in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) during the first week after the AMI symptoms onset, but whether catestatin is also involved in the pathophysiological progression after AMI and then a predictor for outcomes is not clear. The aim of this study is to determine the correlation of plasma catestatin levels at different time points and the prognosis of AMI. 100 participants recruited were all patients with AMI, all of who received successful primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) within 12h from the AMI symptom onset in our center; the concentrations of plasma catestatin were evaluated from blood samples of those 100 participants. Subsequent 65 months' follow-up was performed after discharging to evaluate cardiac adverse events and the association between catestatin levels and prognosis of AMI was examined. We confirmed the dramatic change of catestatin concentrations in the first week of AMI, and the levels of catestatin on D3 were much higher in adverse events group than those in non-adverse events group (p<0.0001), but the ratio of D7/D3 was significantly lower. In addition, the Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that the groups in which the levels on D3 were higher (p<0.0001) and the ratios of D7/D3 were lower (p<0.0001), patients trended to be more susceptive to adverse events after AMI. Furthermore, according to the analysis, we surmised catestatin level on D3 as an appropriate predictor for outcomes in patients with AMI with good specificity as well as sensitivity. All of the evidence confirmed that catestatin plays an important role in the progress of AMI, and may act as a promising target for prognostic prediction. PMID:25848973

  19. Lowering plasma cholesterol levels halts progression of aortic valve disease in mice

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Jordan D.; Weiss, Robert M.; Serrano, Kristine M.; Brooks, Robert M.; Berry, Christopher J.; Zimmerman, Kathy; Young, Stephen G.; Heistad, Donald D.

    2009-01-01

    Background Treatment of hyperlipidemia produces functional and structural improvements in atherosclerotic vessels. However, the effects of treating hyperlipidemia on the structure and function of the aortic valve has been controversial, and any effects could be confounded by pleiotropic effects of hypolipidemic treatment. The goal of this study was to determine whether reducing elevated plasma lipid levels with a “genetic switch” in Reversa mice (Ldlr−/−/Apob100/100/Mttpfl/fl/Mx1Cre+/+) reduces oxidative stress, reduces proosteogenic signaling, and retards the progression of aortic valve disease. Methods and Results After 6 months of hypercholesterolemia, Reversa mice exhibited increases in superoxide, lipid deposition, myofibroblast activation, calcium deposition, and pro-osteogenic protein expression in the aortic valve. Maximum aortic valve cusp separation, as judged by echocardiography, was not altered. During an additional 6 months of hypercholesterolemia, superoxide levels, valvular lipid deposition, and myofibroblast activation remained elevated. Furthermore, calcium deposition and pro-osteogenic gene expression became more pronounced and the aortic cusp separation decreased from 0.85 ± 0.04 to 0.70 ± 0.04 mm (mean ± SE; p < 0.05). Rapid normalization of cholesterol levels at 6 months of age (by inducing expression of Cre recombinase) normalized aortic valve superoxide levels, decreased myofibroblast activation, reduced valvular calcium burden, suppressed pro-osteogenic signaling cascades, and prevented the reductions in aortic valve cusp separation. Conclusions Collectively, these data indicate that reducing plasma lipid levels by genetic inactivation of the mttp gene in hypercholesterolemic mice with early aortic valve disease normalizes oxidative stress, reduces pro-osteogenic signaling, and halts the progression of aortic valve stenosis. PMID:19433756

  20. On the effect of BUM generation enhancement revealed using the scheme of additional heating of ionospheric plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frolov, V. L.; Erukhimov, L. M.; Komrakov, G. P.; Sergeev, E. N.; Thidé, B.; Bernhardt, P. A.; Wagner, L. S.; Goldstein, J. A.; Selcher, G.

    1997-05-01

    We present measured characteristics of the artificial ionospheric radio emission (AIRE), which were obtained experimentally using additional heating of the ionospheric F-region by O-polarized waves. It is shown that the observed enhancement of intensity of the broad upshifted maximum (BUM) of the AIRE can result from the influence of electrons accelerated in the plasma: esonance region on its generation. An empirical model of the phenomenon observed is developed. It is concluded from experimental results that the BUM has a complex structure and only one of its components produces the above emission enhancement. We show the possibility of using the AIRE in additional heating of ionospheric plasma for diagnostics of artificial ionospheric turbulence and investigation of the features of perturbation propagation along the geomagnetic field lines.

  1. Enterostatin decreases postprandial pancreatic UCP2 mRNA levels and increases plasma insulin and amylin.

    PubMed

    Arsenijevic, Denis; Gallmann, Eva; Moses, William; Lutz, Thomas; Erlanson-Albertsson, Charlotte; Langhans, Wolfgang

    2005-07-01

    This study investigated the chronic effect of enterostatin on body weight and some of the associated changes in postprandial metabolism. Rats were adapted to 6 h of food access/day and a choice of low-fat and high-fat (HF) food and then given enterostatin or vehicle by an intraperitoneally implanted minipump delivering 160 nmol enterostatin/h continuously over a 5-day infusion period. Enterostatin resulted in a slight but significant reduction of HF intake and body weight. After the last 6-h food access period, enterostatin-treated animals had lower plasma triglyceride and free fatty acid but higher plasma glucose and lactate levels than control animals. Enterostatin infusion resulted in increased uncoupling protein-2 (UCP2) expression in various tissues, including epididymal fat and liver. UCP2 was reduced in the pancreas of enterostatin-treated animals, and this was associated with increased plasma levels of insulin and amylin. Whether these two hormones are involved in the observed decreased food intake due to enterostatin remains to be determined. As lipid metabolism appeared to be altered by enterostatin, we measured peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) expression in tissues and observed that PPARalpha, -beta, -gamma1, and -gamma2 expression were modified by enterostatin in epididymal fat, pancreas, and liver. This further links altered lipid metabolism with body weight loss. Our data suggest that alterations in UCP2 and PPARgamma2 play a role in the control of insulin and amylin release from the pancreas. This implies that enterostatin changes lipid and carbohydrate metabolic pathways in addition to its effects on food intake and energy expenditure. PMID:15713687

  2. Coronary sinus plasma beta endorphin levels in cardioischemic patients undergoing PTCA.

    PubMed

    Parlapiano, C; Negri, M; Tonnarini, G; Borgia, M C; Martuscelli, E; Nigri, A; Campana, E; Giovanniello, T; Pantone, P

    1998-01-01

    Plasma beta-endorphin levels were studied in the coronary sinus of 8 patients undergoing percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA). All the patients had ECG ischemic signs and pain during the inflation of the balloon. No significant changes in plasma beta-endorphin levels were observed during PTCA-induced ischemia. Baseline coronary sinus plasma beta-endorphin levels were found to be elevated when compared with peripheral ones which would suggest an accumulation of beta-endorphin in the ischemic heart. PMID:10503168

  3. Effect of additive on electrochemical corrosion properties of plasma electrolytic oxidation coatings formed on CP Ti under different processing frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babaei, Mahdi; Dehghanian, Changiz; Vanaki, Mojtaba

    2015-12-01

    The plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) coating containing zirconium oxide was fabricated on CP Ti at different processing frequencies viz., 100 Hz and 1000 Hz in a (Na2ZrO3, Na2SiO3)-additive containing NaH2PO4-based solution, and long-term electrochemical corrosion behavior of the coatings was studied using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution. Electrochemical degradation behavior of two-layered coatings formed at different frequencies was turned out to be governed by concentration of electrolyte additive. With increasing additive concentration, the coating obtained at frequency of 1000 Hz exhibited enhanced corrosion resistance. However, corrosion resistance of the coating prepared at 100 Hz was found to decrease with increased additive, which was attributed to intensified microdischarges damaging the protective effect of inner layer. Nevertheless, the electrolyte additive was found to mitigate the long-term degradation of the coatings to a significant extent.

  4. Reduction in total plasma ghrelin levels following catecholamine depletion: relation to bulimic and depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Homan, Philipp; Grob, Simona; Milos, Gabriella; Schnyder, Ulrich; Hasler, Gregor

    2013-09-01

    There is increasing preclinical and clinical evidence of the important role played by the gastric peptide hormone ghrelin in the pathogenesis of symptoms of depression and eating disorders. To investigate the role of ghrelin and its considered counterpart, peptide tyrosine tyrosine (PYY), in the development of bulimic and depressive symptoms induced by catecholamine depletion, we administered the tyrosine hydroxylase inhibitor alpha-methyl-paratyrosine (AMPT) in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover, single-site experimental trial to 29 healthy controls and 20 subjects with fully recovered bulimia nervosa (rBN). We found a decrease between preprandial and postprandial plasma ghrelin levels (p<0.0001) and a postprandial rise in plasma PYY levels (p<0.0001) in both conditions in the entire study population. Plasma ghrelin levels decreased in the entire study population after treatment with AMPT compared to placebo (p<0.006). AMPT-induced changes in plasma ghrelin levels were negatively correlated with AMPT-induced depressive symptoms (p<0.004). Plasma ghrelin and plasma PYY levels were also negatively correlated (p<0.05). We did not observe a difference in ghrelin or PYY response to catecholamine depletion between rBN subjects and healthy controls, and there was no correlation between plasma ghrelin and PYY levels and bulimic symptoms induced by catecholamine depletion. These findings suggest a relationship between catecholamines and ghrelin with depressive symptoms.

  5. Plasma B-Endorphin Levels in Patients with Self-Injurious Behavior and Stereotypy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandman, Curt A.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    B-endorphin and cortisol concentrations were examined in the plasma of mentally retarded adults who displayed symptoms of self-injurious behavior (SIB) (N=9), stereotypy (N=17), or SIB plus stereotypy (N=14). Compared to matched controls, patients with SIB plus stereotypy had elevated b-endorphin plasma, while cortisol levels were identical for…

  6. Changes in plasma steroids and cytokines levels in betel chewing patients in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Hu, Sindy; Chen, Wen-Chyuan; Hwang, Guey-Shyang; Chen, Szu-Tah; Kuo, Song-Bor; Chen, Yifen; Idova, Galina; Wang, Shyi-Wu

    2016-07-01

    /ml, and 97.77pg/ml in young males (aged 20-22), respectively. Also, significantly elevated plasma cortisol concentration was noted in betel nut-chewing (median 727.2ng/ml) and oral cancer patients (561.9ng/ml) compared to the mid-aged (176.8ng/ml) and young males (173.4ng/ml), respectively. In addition, lower plasma testosterone concentrations were found in betel nut-chewing subjects compared with young males (2.6±3.3ng/ml vs 6.2±2.9ng/ml). To summarize, the inflammatory cytokines and steroid hormones may reflect the degree of inflammation in betel nut-chewing males and the oral cancer subjects. The above findings suggest that betel nut-chewing or oral cancer inhibits plasma cytokines and regulates steroid hormones concentrations compared to mid-aged or young normal subjects. It is also indicated that betel nut-chewing causes decreased inflammatory cytokines as the same levels as in oral cancer subjects. PMID:27016129

  7. Plasma homocysteine levels in Taiwanese vegetarians are higher than those of omnivores.

    PubMed

    Hung, Chien-Jung; Huang, Po-Chao; Lu, Shao-Chun; Li, Yi-Hwei; Huang, Hsien-Bin; Lin, Bi-Fong; Chang, Sue-Joan; Chou, Hsu-Fang

    2002-02-01

    Mild hyperhomocysteinemia is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and may result from a deficiency of folate, vitamin B-6 or vitamin B-12. Because vitamin B-12 deficiency is often associated with vegetarianism, this study was designed to examine the effect of Taiwanese vegetarian diets on B-vitamin status and plasma homocysteine levels. Female Buddhist lacto-vegetarians (n = 45; 31-45 y) and matched omnivores (n = 45) recruited in Hualien, Taiwan, were investigated. Taiwanese vegetarians consumed normal amount of folate, but only 21% of Taiwan Recommended Daily Nutrient Allowances (RDNA) values of vitamin B-12. Compared with the omnivores, the vegetarians had significantly higher levels of plasma folate (14.79 +/- 7.70 vs. 11.98 +/- 8.29 nmol/L), but lower levels of vitamin B-12 (207.7 +/- 127.1 vs. 403.5 +/- 138.9 pmol/L). Fasting plasma homocysteine levels were significantly higher in vegetarians than in omnivores (mean: 11.20 +/- 4.27 vs. 8.64 +/- 2.06 micromol/L; median: 10.5 vs. 8.5 micromol/L). Fasting plasma homocysteine was inversely correlated with plasma folate and vitamin B-12 in the vegetarian group. Multiple regression analysis revealed that plasma folate, vitamin B-12 and creatinine were independent determinants of homocysteine variation and contributed to 38.6% of homocysteine variation in the vegetarians. Compared with the omnivores, vegetarians also had significantly lower serum levels of valine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, alanine and arginine, but higher levels of glycine. In the vegetarian group, fasting plasma homocysteine correlated negatively with serum threonine, lysine, histidine, arginine and cystine, and these amino acids contributed to 38.7% of homocysteine variation. In conclusion, the Buddhist nuns who consumed a lacto-vegetarian diet had mildly elevated fasting plasma homocysteine levels presumably due to lower levels of plasma vitamin B-12.

  8. Determination of propranolol enantiomers in plasma and urine by spectrofluorimetry and second-order standard addition method.

    PubMed

    Valderrama, Patrícia; Poppi, Ronei Jesus

    2009-09-28

    The determination of propranolol enantiomers in human plasma and urine by spectrofluorimetry and a second-order standard addition method is described. The methodology is based on chiral recognition of propranolol by formation of an inclusion complex with beta-cyclodextrin, a chiral auxiliary, in the presence of 1-butanol. The adopted strategy combines the use of PARAFAC, for extraction of the pure analyte signal, with the standard addition method, for determinations in the presence of an individual matrix effect caused by the quenching action of the proteins present in the plasma and urine. A specific PARAFAC model was built for each sample, in triplicate, and the scores were related to (R)-propranolol mole fraction using a linear regression in the standard addition method. Using a propranolol with concentration of 260 ng mL(-1), good results were obtained for determinations in the mole fraction range from 50 to 80% of (R)-propranolol, providing absolute errors between 0.4 and 3.6% for plasma and between 0.9 and 6.0% for urine.

  9. Plasma ghrelin levels in association with left ventricular function and nutritional status in dialysis patients

    PubMed Central

    XU, LIBIN; YU, LEI; CHI, NING; WANG, WENHAO; LIU, GUOPING; SHI, WEI

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the association between ghrelin levels and the cardiac function and malnutrition of dialysis patients. The aim was to examine the conducive use of exogenous ghrelin to improve the malnutrition, protect the cardiovascular function with dialysis patients in the future. The study included 30 continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients and 30 hemodialysis (HD) patients undertaking treatment between March 2013 and March 2014. The control group included a total of 30 healthy physical examinees. The plasma ghrelin levels were measured by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to collect the clinical materials and biochemical parameters. The plasma ghrelin levels were 4.28±1.07, 4.63±1.08 and 2.00±0.48 ng/ml in the CAPD, HD and control groups, respectively, and statistical significance was identified between the three groups; F=75.106, P<0.0001. The plasma ghrelin levels in the CAPD group were positively correlated with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) (r=0.506, P=0.004) and were negatively correlated with body mass index (BMI) (r=−0.556, P=0.001). The plasma ghrelin levels in the CAPD and HD groups were positively correlated with serum creatinine (Scr) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN). In conclusion, the plasma ghrelin levels of patients in the CAPD and HD groups were higher compared to those of the control group, which demonstrated that dialysis patients could not effectively remove the plasma ghrelin. The present study found that the plasma ghrelin levels were positively correlated with LVEF, and high levels of ghrelin will exhibit protective effects on the cardiovascular function of CAPD patients. Plasma ghrelin levels were positively correlated with Scr and BUN levels in CAPD and HD patients, and were negatively correlated with BMI in CAPD patients, which showed that ghrelin was correlated with malnutrition of dialysis patients. PMID:27347404

  10. Subjects with Low Plasma HDL Cholesterol Levels Are Characterized by an Inflammatory and Oxidative Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Holven, Kirsten B.; Retterstøl, Kjetil; Ueland, Thor; Ulven, Stine M.; Nenseter, Marit S.; Sandvik, Marit; Narverud, Ingunn; Berge, Knut E.; Ose, Leiv; Aukrust, Pål; Halvorsen, Bente

    2013-01-01

    Background Epidemiological studies have shown that low plasma levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, but the mechanisms for the possible atheroprotective effects of HDL cholesterol have still not been fully clarified, in particular in relation to clinical studies. Objective To examine the inflammatory, anti-oxidative and metabolic phenotype of subjects with low plasma HDL cholesterol levels. Methods and Results Fifteen subjects with low HDL cholesterol levels (eleven males and four females) and 19 subjects with high HDL (three males and 16 females) were recruited. Low HDL cholesterol was defined as ≤10th age/sex specific percentile and high HDL-C was defined as ≥90 age/sex specific percentile. Inflammatory markers in circulation and PBMC gene expression of cholesterol efflux mediators were measured. Our main findings were: (i) subjects with low plasma HDL cholesterol levels were characterized by increased plasma levels of CRP, MMP-9, neopterin, CXCL16 and ICAM-1 as well as low plasma levels of adiponectin, suggesting an inflammatory phenotype; (ii) these individuals also had reduced paraoxonase (PON)1 activity in plasma and PON2 gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) accompanied by increased plasma levels of oxidized LDL suggesting decreased anti-oxidative capacity; and (iii) PBMC from low HDL subjects also had decreased mRNA levels of ABCA1 and ABCG1, suggesting impaired reverse cholesterol transport. Conclusion Subjects with low plasma HDL cholesterol levels are characterized by an inflammatory and oxidative phenotype that could contribute to the increased risk of atherosclerotic disorders in these subjects with low HDL levels. PMID:24244297

  11. Energy level formula for the Morse oscillator with an additional kinetic coupling potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Hong-yi; Chen, Bo-zhan; Fan, Yue

    1996-02-01

    Based on the <η| representation which is the common eigenstate of the relative position x1 - x2 and the total momentum P1 + P2 of two particles we derive the energy level formula for a Morse oscillator with an additional kinetic coupling potential. The <η| representation seems to provide a direct and convenient approach for solving certain dynamical problems for two-body systems.

  12. Effect of aluminum phosphate additions on composition of three-component plasma-sprayed solid lubricant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, T. P.; Young, S. G.

    1982-01-01

    Image analysis (IA) and electron microprobe X-ray analysis (EMXA) were used to characterize a plasma-sprayed, self-lubricating coating, NASA LUBE PS106, specified by weight percent as 35NiCr-35Ag-30CaF2. To minimize segregation of the powder mixture during the plasma-spraying procedure, monoaluminum phosphate was added to form agglomerate particles. Three concentrations of AlPO4 were added to the mixtures: 1.25, 2.5, and 6.25 percent by weight. Analysis showed that 1.25 wt% AlPO4 yielded a CaF2 deficiency, 2.5 wt% kept the coating closest to specification, and 6.25 wt% yielded excess CaF2 as well as more impurities and voids and a deficiency in silver. Photomicrographs and X-ray maps are presented. The methods of IA and EMXA complement each other, and the reasonable agreement in the results increases the confidence in determining the coating composition.

  13. Potential Role of Plasma Myeloperoxidase Level in Predicting Long-Term Outcome of Acute Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Kaya, Mehmet Gungor; Yalcin, Ridvan; Okyay, Kaan; Poyraz, Fatih; Bayraktar, Nilufer; Pasaoglu, Hatice; Boyaci, Bulent; Cengel, Atiye

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the prognostic importance of plasma myeloperoxidase levels in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) at long-term follow-up, and we analyzed the correlations between plasma myeloperoxidase levels and other biochemical values. We evaluated 73 consecutive patients (56 men; mean age, 56 ±11 yr) diagnosed with acute STEMI and 46 age- and sex-matched healthy control participants. Patients were divided into 2 groups according to the median myeloperoxidase level (Group 1: plasma myeloperoxidase ≤68 ng/mL; and Group 2: plasma myeloperoxidase >68 ng/mL). Patients were monitored for the occurrence of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), which were defined as cardiac death; reinfarction; new hospital admission for angina; heart failure; and revascularization procedures. The mean follow-up period was 25 ± 16 months. Plasma myeloperoxidase levels were higher in STEMI patients than in control participants (82 ± 34 vs 20 ±12 ng/mL; P=0.001). Composite MACE occurred in 12 patients with high myeloperoxidase levels (33%) and in 4 patients with low myeloperoxidase levels (11%) (P=0.02). The incidences of nonfatal recurrent myocardial infarction and verified cardiac death were higher in the high-mye-loperoxidase group. In multivariate analysis, high plasma myeloperoxidase levels were independent predictors of MACE (odds ratio = 3.843; <95% confidence interval, 1.625–6.563; P=0.003). High plasma myeloperoxidase levels identify patients with a worse prognosis after acute STEMI at 2-year follow-up. Evaluation of plasma myeloperoxidase levels might be useful in determining patients at high risk of death and MACE who can benefit from further aggressive treatment and closer follow-up. PMID:22949765

  14. Low edge safety factor operation and passive disruption avoidance in current carrying plasmas by the addition of stellarator rotational transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandya, M. D.; ArchMiller, M. C.; Cianciosa, M. R.; Ennis, D. A.; Hanson, J. D.; Hartwell, G. J.; Hebert, J. D.; Herfindal, J. L.; Knowlton, S. F.; Ma, X.; Massidda, S.; Maurer, D. A.; Roberds, N. A.; Traverso, P. J.

    2015-11-01

    Low edge safety factor operation at a value less than two ( q (a )=1 /ι̷tot(a )<2 ) is routine on the Compact Toroidal Hybrid device with the addition of sufficient external rotational transform. Presently, the operational space of this current carrying stellarator extends down to q (a )=1.2 without significant n = 1 kink mode activity after the initial plasma current rise phase of the discharge. The disruption dynamics of these low edge safety factor plasmas depend upon the fraction of helical field rotational transform from external stellarator coils to that generated by the plasma current. We observe that with approximately 10% of the total rotational transform supplied by the stellarator coils, low edge q disruptions are passively suppressed and avoided even though q(a) < 2. When the plasma does disrupt, the instability precursors measured and implicated as the cause are internal tearing modes with poloidal, m, and toroidal, n, helical mode numbers of m /n =3 /2 and 4/3 observed on external magnetic sensors and m /n =1 /1 activity observed on core soft x-ray emissivity measurements. Even though the edge safety factor passes through and becomes much less than q(a) < 2, external n = 1 kink mode activity does not appear to play a significant role in the disruption phenomenology observed.

  15. The plasma torch for the vitrification of low-level radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    Peratt, A.L.

    1995-12-31

    Plasma torch technology provides a possible solution for radioactive material storage. During the past decade, plasma torches have been developed that produce temperatures as high as 25,000 F. Currently, the plasma torch finds application in solid waste vitrification and pyrolysis plants. Low-level radioactive waste is a topic of considerable interest for baseline technologies development, generally by means of low-temperature arc heating to characterize surrogate or low-level waste streams. High temperature plasma torches, the hottest members belonging to the family of plasma arc heaters, are efficient devices for reducing matter to its constituent elements but also the most complex in theory and operation. Characterization of the high energy density plasma instability that produces the intense heat, ranges from MHD computer modeling to stimulated Raman scattering by laser diagnostics. This paper describes the history of the plasma torch and the possible use of a 1-megawatt reverse polarity torch in a low-level radioactive waste testbed. Issues such as torch diagnostics, control, and the monitoring of radioactive gaseous, aqueous, solid, and plasma effluent streams are discussed.

  16. Effects of acute doses of prosocial drugs methamphetamine and alcohol on plasma oxytocin levels.

    PubMed

    Bershad, Anya K; Kirkpatrick, Matthew G; Seiden, Jacob A; de Wit, Harriet

    2015-06-01

    Many drugs, including alcohol and stimulants, demonstrably increase sociability and verbal interaction and are recreationally consumed in social settings. One drug, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy), seems to produce its prosocial effects by increasing plasma oxytocin levels, and the oxytocin system has been implicated in responses to several other drugs of abuse. Here, we sought to investigate the effects of 2 other "social" drugs on plasma oxytocin levels--methamphetamine and alcohol. Based on their shared capacity to enhance sociability, we hypothesized that both methamphetamine and alcohol would increase plasma oxytocin levels. In study 1, 11 healthy adult volunteers attended 3 sessions during which they received methamphetamine (10 mg or 20 mg) or placebo under double-blind conditions. Subjective drug effects, cardiovascular effects, and plasma oxytocin levels were measured at regular intervals throughout the sessions. In study 2, 8 healthy adult volunteers attended a single session during which they received 1 beverage containing placebo, and then a beverage containing alcohol (0.8 g/kg). Subjective effects, breath alcohol levels, and plasma oxytocin levels were measured at regular intervals. Both methamphetamine and alcohol produced their expected physiological and subjective effects, but neither of these drugs increased plasma oxytocin levels. The neurobiological mechanisms mediating the prosocial effects of drugs such as alcohol and methamphetamine remain to be identified.

  17. Plasma Levels of Folates, Riboflavin, Vitamin B6, and Ascorbate in Severely Disturbed Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sankar, D. V. Siva

    1979-01-01

    The plasma levels of folic acid, ascorbic acid, pyridoxine, and riboflavin were studied in 125 severely emotionally disturbed children (ages 5-16 years) to determine whether they had overt vitamin deficiencies. (Author/DLS)

  18. Increased Plasma Levels of Pentraxin 3 Are Associated with Poor Prognosis of Colorectal Carcinoma Patients.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Wang, Tai-Yong; Niu, Xue-Cai

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal carcinoma (CRC) is one of the most common cancers globally. It is essential to identify a prognostic predictor for CRC. Pentraxin 3 (PTX3) is a glycoprotein that is secreted by a variety of human cells. It plays an important role in inflammation and immune regulation. Increasing evidence reveals that elevated PTX3 expression is related to poor prognosis in various cancers. The aim of the study was to determine the usefulness of plasma PTX3 level as a prognostic predictor in CRC. Total 184 CRC patients and 216 controls were included. Plasma levels of PTX3 were determined using Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. On admission, plasma PTX3 levels in CRC patients were higher than those in controls (11.8 ± 2.5 ng/ml vs. 3.1 ± 0.9 ng/ml, P < 0.001). After resection, plasma PTX3 levels in patients were decreased (6.0 ± 1.4 ng/ml, P = 0.007), and were elevated at the time of relapse (10.8 ± 2.8 ng/ml, P < 0.001). During the 60-month follow-up period, 108 patients suffered from relapse. Plasma PTX3 levels of ≥ 12 ng/ml on admission were associated with relapse (OR: 3.11, 95% CI: 1.74 ~ 6.29), and tumor-free survival rate in those patients with plasma PTX3 levels of ≥ 12 ng/ml was lower than that in other patients (P = 0.001). Furthermore, plasma PTX3 levels on admission showed positive linear correlations with plasma complement 3, 4 and 5b9 levels (P < 0.001, P < 0.001, P < 0.001). Therefore, we propose that PTX3 is an independent prognostic indicator in CRC. PMID:27568661

  19. Increased Plasma Levels of Pentraxin 3 Are Associated with Poor Prognosis of Colorectal Carcinoma Patients.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Wang, Tai-Yong; Niu, Xue-Cai

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal carcinoma (CRC) is one of the most common cancers globally. It is essential to identify a prognostic predictor for CRC. Pentraxin 3 (PTX3) is a glycoprotein that is secreted by a variety of human cells. It plays an important role in inflammation and immune regulation. Increasing evidence reveals that elevated PTX3 expression is related to poor prognosis in various cancers. The aim of the study was to determine the usefulness of plasma PTX3 level as a prognostic predictor in CRC. Total 184 CRC patients and 216 controls were included. Plasma levels of PTX3 were determined using Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. On admission, plasma PTX3 levels in CRC patients were higher than those in controls (11.8 ± 2.5 ng/ml vs. 3.1 ± 0.9 ng/ml, P < 0.001). After resection, plasma PTX3 levels in patients were decreased (6.0 ± 1.4 ng/ml, P = 0.007), and were elevated at the time of relapse (10.8 ± 2.8 ng/ml, P < 0.001). During the 60-month follow-up period, 108 patients suffered from relapse. Plasma PTX3 levels of ≥ 12 ng/ml on admission were associated with relapse (OR: 3.11, 95% CI: 1.74 ~ 6.29), and tumor-free survival rate in those patients with plasma PTX3 levels of ≥ 12 ng/ml was lower than that in other patients (P = 0.001). Furthermore, plasma PTX3 levels on admission showed positive linear correlations with plasma complement 3, 4 and 5b9 levels (P < 0.001, P < 0.001, P < 0.001). Therefore, we propose that PTX3 is an independent prognostic indicator in CRC.

  20. Effects of aspartame and carbohydrate administration on human and rat plasma large neutral amino acid levels and rat brain amino acid and monoamine levels.

    PubMed

    Romano, M; Casacci, F; De Marchi, F; Pacei, T; Esteve, A; Lomuscio, G; Mennini, T; Salmona, M

    1989-01-01

    Thirty fasted human volunteers were given 0.83 and 8.3 mg aspartame/kg body weight alone, as part of a basal low carbohydrate meal (648 kcal, 10% carbohydrate) or as part of a high energy carbohydrate-rich meal (1290 kcal, 34% carbohydrate). Amino acid concentrations in plasma were determined before and 30, 60 and 180 min after the consumption of aspartame. Under these conditions, which mimic realistic aspartame consumption, aspartame had no significant effect on plasma concentration of any amino acid. In addition, the effect of aspartame alone or with carbohydrates on plasma and brain amino acid levels was studied in rats after acute or subacute (14 d) oral treatment. In subacute dosing experiments aspartame was included in the diet. Brain monoamine concentrations were also measured in the same animals. Plasma concentrations of large neutral amino acids were modified under acute conditions. In contrast, after subacute treatment no significant differences in plasma or brain amino acid concentrations or in brain monoamine concentrations were observed.

  1. Plasma. beta. -endorphin and stress hormone levels during adaptation and stress

    SciTech Connect

    Lishmanov, Yu.B.; Trifonova, Zh.V.; Tsibin, A.N.; Maslova, L.V.; Dement'eva, L.A.

    1987-09-01

    This paper describes a comparative study of ..beta..-endorphin and stress hormone levels in the blood plasma of rats during stress and adaptation. Immunoreactive ..beta..-endorphin in the blood plasma was assayed by means of a kit after preliminary isolation of the ..beta..-endorphin fraction by affinity chromatography on sepharose; ACTH was assayed with a kit and cortisol, insulin, thyroxine and tri-iodothyronine by means of kits from Izotop. Determination of plasma levels of ..beta..-endorphin and other opioids could evidently be an important method of assessing the state of resistance of the organism to stress.

  2. The impact of acute lung injury, ECMO and transfusion on oxidative stress and plasma selenium levels in an ovine model.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Charles I; Fung, Yoke Lin; Shekar, Kiran; Diab, Sara D; Dunster, Kimble R; Passmore, Margaret R; Foley, Samuel R; Simonova, Gabriela; Platts, David; Fraser, John F

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of smoke induced acute lung injury (S-ALI), extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) and transfusion on oxidative stress and plasma selenium levels. Forty ewes were divided into (i) healthy control (n=4), (ii) S-ALI control (n=7), (iii) ECMO control (n=7), (iv) S-ALI+ECMO (n=8) and (v) S-ALI+ECMO+packed red blood cell (PRBC) transfusion (n=14). Plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), selenium and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity were analysed at baseline, after smoke injury (or sham) and 0.25, 1, 2, 6, 7, 12 and 24h after initiation of ECMO. Peak TBARS levels were similar across all groups. Plasma selenium decreased by 54% in S-ALI sheep (1.36±0.20 to 0.63±0.27μmol/L, p<0.0001), and 72% in sheep with S-ALI+ECMO at 24h (1.36±0.20 to 0.38±0.19, p<0.0001). PRBC transfusion had no effect on TBARS, selenium levels or glutathione peroxidase activity in plasma. While ECMO independently increased TBARS in healthy sheep to levels which were similar to the S-ALI control, the addition of ECMO after S-ALI caused a negligible increase in TBARS. This suggests that the initial lung injury was the predominant feature in the TBARS response. In contrast, the addition of ECMO in S-ALI sheep exacerbated reductions in plasma selenium beyond that of S-ALI or ECMO alone. Clinical studies are needed to confirm the extent and duration of selenium loss associated with ECMO.

  3. Influence of C3 level on the determination of C3d in plasma and synovial fluid by radial immunodiffusion.

    PubMed

    Hack, C E; Paardekooper, J; Hannema, A J

    1986-02-12

    The influence of C3 levels on the determination of C3d in plasma and synovial fluid by radial immunodiffusion was investigated. In the method used, C3 is precipitated by 11% polyethylene glycol (PEG), and C3d is measured in the supernatant. In 51 healthy donors, a weak though significant correlation between C3 and C3d levels was found. The mean concentration of C3d was 1.6% of that in aged serum from healthy donors. So, small amounts of C3 (i.e., 1-2% of the normal plasma level) in the 11% PEG supernatants may contribute significantly to the C3d levels measured. A radioimmunoassay that detects C3, C3b, iC3b and C3c was used to measure C3 levels in the PEG supernatants. In PEG supernatants of 4 plasma samples, 0.3-0.6% of the C3 level in normal plasma was found, whereas in those of 2 synovial fluids much higher levels were found (4-10% of the normal plasma level). When purified 125I-labeled antibodies against C3c were added to the gel of the radial immunodiffusion, C3c antigen was detected in the precipitation rings obtained with all PEG supernatants of plasma samples from patients. Therefore, the quantitative contribution of C3 to the precipitation rings in the C3d radial immunodiffusion was analyzed after the addition of an excess of anti-C3c antibodies to the gel. No effect on the size of the C3d-precipitation rings obtained with plasma samples from patients was observed. However, the C3d precipitation rings obtained with synovial fluids were significantly smaller when the gel used in the radial immunodiffusion contained an excess of anti-C3c antibodies together with the anti-C3d serum. We conclude that it is necessary to add an excess of anti-C3c antibodies to the gel used for the radial immunodiffusion, for the determination of C3d levels in synovial fluid. An antiserum against human C3b, which contains both anti-C3c and anti-C3d antibodies, can be used for this purpose.

  4. Plasma taurine levels are not affected by vigabatrin in pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Spelbrink, Emily M; Mabud, Tarub S; Reimer, Richard; Porter, Brenda E

    2016-08-01

    Vigabatrin is a highly effective antiseizure medication, but its use is limited due to concerns about retinal toxicity. One proposed mechanism for this toxicity is vigabatrin-mediated reduction of taurine. Herein we assess plasma taurine levels in a retrospective cohort of children with epilepsy, including a subset receiving vigabatrin. All children who underwent a plasma amino acid analysis as part of their clinical evaluation between 2006 and 2015 at Stanford Children's Health were included in the analysis. There were no significant differences in plasma taurine levels between children taking vigabatrin (n = 16), children taking other anti-seizure medications, and children not taking any anti-seizure medication (n = 556) (analysis of variance [ANOVA] p = 0.841). There were, however, age-dependent decreases in plasma taurine levels. Multiple linear regression revealed no significant association between vigabatrin use and plasma taurine level (p = 0.87) when controlling for age. These results suggest that children taking vigabatrin maintain normal plasma taurine levels, although they leave unanswered whether taurine supplementation is necessary or sufficient to prevent vigabatrin-associated visual field loss. They also indicate that age should be taken into consideration when evaluating taurine levels in young children. PMID:27344989

  5. Elevated pretreatment plasma D-dimer levels and platelet counts predict poor prognosis in pancreatic adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Peng; Zhu, Yuan; Liu, Luying

    2015-01-01

    This retrospective study was conducted to evaluate the prognostic significance of the preoperative plasma D-dimer levels and platelet counts in patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma. A total of 168 consecutive locally advanced pancreatic adenocarcinoma patients who underwent intensity modulated radiation therapy with or without chemotherapy were enrolled in this study. Plasma D-dimer levels were measured by a latex-enhanced immunoturbidimetric assay. Of the 168 patients enrolled, 106 patients were males and 62 patients were females. There was significant difference between plasma D-dimer levels and clinical responses (P=0.001). The 1-year, 2-year, and 3-year cumulative overall survival rates were 50.6%, 15.0%, and 4.9%, respectively. Plasma D-dimer levels (P<0.001) and platelet counts (P=0.010) were significantly related with overall survival in univariate analysis. The Cox proportional hazards regression indicated that plasma D-dimer levels (P=0.028), platelet counts (P=0.004), and treatment response (P<0.001) were independent prognostic factors for overall survival. Elevated pretreatment plasma D-dimer levels and platelet counts predict poor prognosis in pancreatic adenocarcinoma. PMID:26082650

  6. The low photo-inactivation rate of bacteria in human plasma II. Inhibition of methylene blue bleaching in plasma and effective bacterial destruction by the addition of dilute acetic acid to human plasma.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jie; Cesario, Thomas C; Li, Runze; Er, Ali O; Rentzepis, Peter M

    2015-10-01

    Methylene blue (MB) and other photo-sensitizer molecules have been recognized as effective means for the inactivation of bacteria and other pathogens owing to their ability to photo-generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) including singlet oxygen. These reactive species react with the membrane of the bacteria causing their destruction. However, the efficiency of MB to destroy bacteria in plasma is very low because the MB 660 nm absorption band, that is responsible for the ROS generation, is bleached. The bleaching of MB, in plasma, is caused by the attachment of a hydrogen atom to the central ring nitrogen of MB, which destroys the ring conjugation and forms Leuco-MB which does not absorb in the 600 nm region. In this paper we show that addition of dilute acetic acid, ∼10(-4) M, to human plasma, prevents H-atom attachment to MB, allowing MB to absorb at 660 nm, generates singlet oxygen and thus inactivates bacteria. The mechanism proposed, for preventing MB bleaching in plasma, is based on the oxidation of cysteine to cystine, by reaction with added dilute acetic acid, thus eliminating the availability of the thiol hydrogen atom which attaches to the MB nitrogen. It is expected that the addition of acetic acid to plasma will be effective in the sterilization of plasma and killing of bacteria in wounds and burns.

  7. Effect of space flights on plasma hormone levels in man and in experimental animal.

    PubMed

    Macho, L; Kvetnansky, R; Vigas, M; Nemeth, S; Popova, I; Tigranian, R A; Noskov, V B; Serova, L; Grigoriev, I A

    1991-01-01

    An important increase of plasma hormone levels like insulin, TSH and aldosterone was observed in human subjects after space flights, however in the changes of plasma content of ACTH, cortisol, adrenaline and noradrenaline the individual variations were observed in relation to number and duration of space flight. For evaluation of the effects of these changes in plasma hormone levels on metabolic processes also the experiments with small animals subjected to space flights on a board of biosatellite of Cosmos series were running. An elevation of plasma levels of corticosterone, adrenaline, noradrenaline and insulin was found in rats after the space flights of duration from 7 to 20 days. It was demonstrated, that the increase of corticosterone in plasma is followed by the activation of enzymes involved in the amino acid metabolism in rat liver (tyrosine aminotransferase, tryptophanpyrolase, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase). After a short recovery period (2 to 6 days) the plasma corticosterone concentration and also the activity of liver enzymes returned to control levels. The exposition of animals to stress stimuli during this revcovery period showed higher response of corticosterone levels in flight rats as compared to intact controls. The increase of plasma catecholamine levels was not followed by elevation of lipolysis in adipose tissue. This is due to lower response of adipose tissue to catecholamine because a decrease of the stimulation of lipolysis by noradrenaline was observed in animals after space flight. The increase of insulin was not followed by adequate decrease of glucose concentration suggesting a disturbances in glucose utilization similarly as in cosmonauts after a long-term space flight. These results showed that changes in plasma hormone levels, observed after space flight, affected the regulation of metabolic processes in tissues. PMID:11537112

  8. Effect of space flights on plasma hormone levels in man and in experimental animal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macho, L.; Kvetňanský, R.; Vigaš, M.; Németh, S.; Popova, I.; Tigranian, R. A.; Noskov, V. B.; Serova, L.; Grigoriev, I. A.

    An important increase of plasma hormone levels like insulin, TSH and aldosterone was observed in human subjects after space flights, however in the changes of plasma content of ACTH, cortisol, adrenaline and noradrenaline the individual variations were observed in relation to number and duration of space flight. For evaluation of the effects of these changes in plasma hormone levels on metabolic processes also the experiments with small animals subjected to space flights on a board of biosatellite of Cosmos series were running. An elevation of plasma levels of corticosterone, adrenaline, noradrenaline and insulin was found in rats after the space flights of duration from 7 to 20 days. It was demonstrated, that the increase of corticosterone in plasma is followed by the activation of enzymes involved in the aminoacid metabolism in rat liver (tyrosine aminotransferase, tryptophanpyrolase, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase). After a short recovery period (2 to 6 days) the plasma corticosterone concentration and also the activity of liver enzymes returned to control levels. The exposition of animals to stress stimuli during this recovery period showed higher response of corticosterone levels in flight rats as compared to intact controls. The increase of plasma catecholamine levels was not followed by elevation of lipolysis in adipose tissue. This is due to lower response of adipose tissue to catecholamine because a decrease of the stimulation of lipolysis by noradrenaline was observed in animals after space flight. The increase of insulin was not followed by adequate decrease of glucose concentration suggesting a disturbances in glucose utilization similarly as in cosmonauts after a long-term space flight. These results showed that changes in plasma hormone levels, observed after space flight, affected the regulation of metabolic processes in tissues.

  9. Effect of Refiner Addition Level on Zirconium-Containing Aluminium Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaradeh, M. M. R.; Carlberg, T.

    2012-01-01

    It is well known that in aluminium alloys containing Zr, grain refiner additions do not function as desired, producing an effect often referred to as nuclei poisoning. This paper investigates the structure of direct chill-cast ingots of commercial AA3003 aluminium alloys, with and without Zr, at various addition levels of Al5Ti1B master alloy. In Bridgman experiments simulating ingot solidification, Zr-containing alloys were studied after the addition of various amounts of Ti. It could be demonstrated, in both ingot casting and simulation experiments, that Zr poisoning can be compensated for by adding more Ti and/or Al5Ti1B. The results confirm better refinement behaviour with the addition of Ti + B than of only Ti. The various combinations of Zr and Ti also influenced the formation of AlFeMn phases, and the precipitation of large Al6(Mn,Fe) particles was revealed. AlZrTiSi intermetallic compounds were also detected.

  10. Radiative properties of ceramic metal-halide high intensity discharge lamps containing additives in argon plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cressault, Yann; Teulet, Philippe; Zissis, Georges

    2016-07-01

    The lighting represents a consumption of about 19% of the world electricity production. We are thus searching new effective and environment-friendlier light sources. The ceramic metal-halide high intensity lamps (C-MHL) are one of the options for illuminating very high area. The new C-MHL lamps contain additives species that reduce mercury inside and lead to a richer spectrum in specific spectral intervals, a better colour temperature or colour rendering index. This work is particularly focused on the power radiated by these lamps, estimated using the net emission coefficient, and depending on several additives (calcium, sodium, tungsten, dysprosium, and thallium or strontium iodides). The results show the strong influence of the additives on the power radiated despite of their small quantity in the mixtures and the increase of visible radiation portion in presence of dysprosium.

  11. Estimation of plasma and saliva levels of coenzyme Q10 and influence of oral supplementation.

    PubMed

    Sekine, K; Ota, N; Nishii, M; Uetake, T; Shimadzu, M

    2005-01-01

    Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ(10)) levels in human saliva were measured by HPLC with a highly sensitive electrochemical detector (ECD) and a special concentration column. This HPLC system showed satisfactory analytical results within the standard range of 0.78-50 ng/ml. We also found a significant correlation between CoQ(10) levels in plasma and in saliva from parotid glands, while this correlation was lacking between plasma CoQ10 and CoQ10 in whole saliva. Unlike in plasma, there are some fluctuations of saliva CoQ(10) levels throughout the day. A good correlation was obtained by collecting parotid gland saliva at times between meals. The mean saliva CoQ(10) level for 55 healthy volunteers was 17.0 ng/ml (S.D. 6.8 ng/ml); approximately one fiftieth of that in plasma. Regarding the influence of oral supplementation, CoQ(10) was analyzed in plasma and parotid gland saliva from 20 healthy volunteers supplemented daily with 100 mg of CoQ(10) for the first week and 200 mg for the second. The plasma CoQ(10) levels of all volunteers increased to different extents in accordance with the CoQ(10) daily intake and the corresponding change in saliva showed almost the same trend.

  12. Effect of explosive noise on gastrointestinal transit and plasma levels of polypeptide hormones

    PubMed Central

    Mu, Zhen-Bin; Huang, Yu-Xin; Zhao, Bao-Min; Liu, Zhen-Xiong; Zhang, Bing-Hua; Wang, Qing-Li

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of firing noise on gastrointestinal transit and probe its mechanism by measuring the levels of plasma polypeptide hormones. METHODS: A total of 64 SD rats were randomly divided into a control group and three stimulating groups. Firing noise of different intensity by sub-machine guns was used as inflicting factor. The effect of firing noise on liquid substance gastrointestinal transit and solid substance gastrointestinal transit was observed by measuring the ratio of carbon powder suspension transmitting and barium sticks transmitting respectively. Plasma levels of polypeptide hormones were measured by radio-immunoassay. RESULTS: The noise accelerated gastrointestinal transit of solid food by more than 80 db;and accelerated gastrointestinal transit of liquid food significantly by more than 120 db. Meantime, plasma levels of plasma motilin (MTL)(157.47±16.08; 151.90±17.08), somatostatin (SS)(513.97±88.77; 458.25±104.30), substance P (SP)(115.52±20.70; 110.28±19.96) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) (214.21±63.17; 251.76±97.24) remarkably changed also. CONCLUSION: Within a certain intensity range, the firing noise changes the levels of rat plasma gastrointestinal hormones, but the gastrointestinal transit is still normal. Beyond the range, the noise induces plasma hormone levels disturbance and gastrointestinal transit disorder. PMID:16610038

  13. Relationship between Plasma Triglyceride Level and Severity of Hypertriglyceridemic Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Sheng-Huei; Chou, Yu-Ching; Shangkuan, Wei-Chuan; Wei, Kuang-Yu; Pan, Yu-Han; Lin, Hung-Che

    2016-01-01

    Background Hypertriglyceridemia is the third most common cause of acute pancreatitis, but whether the level of triglyceride (TG) is related to severity of pancreatitis is unclear. Aim To evaluate the effect of TG level on the severity of hypertriglyceridemic pancreatitis (HTGP). Design Retrospective cohort study. Methods We reviewed the records of 144 patients with HTGP from 1999 to 2013 at Tri-Service General Hospital. Patients with possible etiology of pancreatitis, such as gallstones, those consuming alcohol or drugs, or those with infections were excluded. The classification of severity of pancreatitis was based on the revised Atlanta classification. We allocated the patients into high-TG and low-TG groups based on the optimal cut-off value (2648 mg/dL), which was derived from the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve between TG level and severity of HTGP. We then compared the clinical characteristics, pancreatitis severity, and mortality rates of the groups. Results There were 66 patients in the low-TG group and 78 patients in the high-TG group. There was no significant difference in the age, sex ratio, body mass index, and comorbidity between the 2 groups. The high-TG group had significantly higher levels of glucose (P = 0.022), total cholesterol (P = 0.002), and blood urea nitrogen (P = 0.037), and lower levels of sodium (P = 0.003) and bicarbonate (P = 0.002) than the low-TG group. The incidences of local complication (P = 0.002) and severe and moderate form of pancreatitis (P = 0.004) were significantly higher in the high-TG group than in the low-TG group. The mortality rate was higher in the high-TG group than in the low-TG group (P = 0.07). Conclusions Higher TG level in patients with HTGP may be associated with adverse prognosis, but randomized and prospective studies are needed in the future verify this relationship. PMID:27727299

  14. Plasma and Urinary Amino Acid Metabolomic Profiling in Patients with Different Levels of Kidney Function

    PubMed Central

    Duranton, Flore; Lundin, Ulrika; Gayrard, Nathalie; Mischak, Harald; Aparicio, Michel; Mourad, Georges; Daurès, Jean-Pierre; Weinberger, Klaus M.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives Patients with CKD display altered plasma amino acid profiles. This study estimated the association between the estimated GFR and urinary and plasma amino acid profiles in CKD patients. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Urine and plasma samples were taken from 52 patients with different stages of CKD, and plasma samples only were taken from 25 patients on maintenance hemodialysis. Metabolic profiling was performed by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry after phenylisothiocyanate derivatization. Results Most plasma amino acid concentrations were decreased in hemodialysis patients, whereas proline, citrulline, asparagine, asymmetric dimethylarginine, and hydroxykynurenine levels were increased (P<0.05). Both plasma levels and urinary excretion of citrulline were higher in the group of patients with advanced CKD (CKD stages 2 and 3 versus CKD stages 4 and 5; in plasma: 35.9±16.3 versus 61.8±23.6 µmol/L, P<0.01; in urine: 1.0±1.2 versus 7.1±14.3 µmol/mol creatinine, P<0.001). Plasma asymmetric dimethylarginine levels were higher in advanced CKD (CKD stages 2 and 3, 0.57±0.29; CKD stages 4 and 5, 1.02±0.48, P<0.001), whereas urinary excretion was lower (2.37±0.93 versus 1.51±1.43, P<0.001). Multivariate analyses adjusting on estimated GFR, serum albumin, proteinuria, and other covariates revealed associations between diabetes and plasma citrulline (P=0.02) and between serum sodium and plasma asymmetric dimethylarginine (P=0.03). Plasma tyrosine to phenylalanine and valine to glycine ratios were lower in advanced CKD stages (P<0.01). Conclusion CKD patients have altered plasma and urinary amino acid profiles that are not corrected by dialysis. Depending on solutes, elevated plasma levels were associated with increased or decreased urinary excretion, depicting situations of uremic retention (asymmetric dimethylarginine) or systemic overproduction (citrulline). These results give some insight in

  15. Acute increases in night-time plasma melatonin levels following a period of meditation.

    PubMed

    Tooley, G A; Armstrong, S M; Norman, T R; Sali, A

    2000-05-01

    To determine whether a period of meditation could influence melatonin levels, two groups of meditators were tested in a repeated measures design for changes in plasma melatonin levels at midnight. Experienced meditators practising either TM-Sidhi or another internationally well known form of yoga showed significantly higher plasma melatonin levels in the period immediately following meditation compared with the same period at the same time on a control night. It is concluded that meditation, at least in the two forms studied here, can affect plasma melatonin levels. It remains to be determined whether this is achieved through decreased hepatic metabolism of the hormone or via a direct effect on pineal physiology. Either way, facilitation of higher physiological melatonin levels at appropriate times of day might be one avenue through which the claimed health promoting effects of meditation occur.

  16. Relationship Between Brain and Plasma Carbaryl Levels and Cholinesterase Inhibition

    EPA Science Inventory

    Carbaryl is a N-methylcarbamate pesticide and, like others in this class, is a reversible inhibitor of cholinesterase (ChE) enzymes. Although studied for many years, there is a surprising lack of information relating tissue levels of carbaryl with ChE activity in the same animals...

  17. Increased plasma neopterin and hs-CRP levels in patients with endemic fluorosis.

    PubMed

    Varol, Ercan; Aksoy, Fatih; Icli, Atilla; Arslan, Akif; Yuksel, Ozlem; Ersoy, I Hakki; Varol, Simge; Dogan, Abdullah

    2012-11-01

    Although fluoride induced inflammatory reactions have been shown in animals and in vitro humans, there are few studies about fluoride induced inflammatory reactions in human beings at clinical setting. We aimed to measure the plasma neopterin, a marker of activation of the monocyte/macrophage system, and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels in patients with endemic fluorosis to investigate the possible role of inflammatory processes (monocyte/macrophage activity) in the underlying pathophysiology of fluoride toxicity at clinical level. Plasma neopterin and hs-CRP levels were determined in endemic fluorosis patients and control subjects. Plasma neopterin levels were significantly higher among patients with endemic fluorosis when compared with control group (2.40 ± 0.66 vs. 1.63 ± 0.27 ng/mL respectively; p < 0.001) and plasma hs-CRP levels were also significantly higher among patients with endemic fluorosis when compared with control group (2.41 ± 1.23 vs. 1.93 ± 0.64 mg/L respectively; p < 0.001). Plasma neopterin levels were positively correlated with urine fluoride levels (r = 0.67, p < 0.001) and serum hs-CRP levels were positively correlated with urine fluoride levels (r = 0.36, p < 0.001). We have found that plasma neopterin and hs-CRP levels are increased in patients with endemic fluorosis. We have concluded that inflammation play an important role in the pathophysiology of fluoride toxicity in patients with endemic fluorosis.

  18. Two independent apolipoprotein A5 haplotypes influence human plasma triglyceride levels.

    PubMed

    Pennacchio, Len A; Olivier, Michael; Hubacek, Jaroslav A; Krauss, Ronald M; Rubin, Edward M; Cohen, Jonathan C

    2002-11-15

    The recently identified apolipoprotein A5 gene (APOA5) has been shown to play an important role in determining plasma triglyceride concentrations in humans and mice. We previously identified an APOA5 haplotype (designated APOA5*2) that is present in approximately 16% of Caucasians and is associated with increased plasma triglyceride concentrations. In this report we describe another APOA5 haplotype (APOA5*3) containing the rare allele of the single nucleotide polymorphism c.56C>G that changes serine to tryptophan at codon 19 and is independently associated with high plasma triglyceride levels in three different populations. In a sample of 264 Caucasian men and women with plasma triglyceride concentrations above the 90th percentile or below the 10th percentile, the APOA5*3 haplotype was more than three-fold more common in the group with high plasma triglyceride levels. In a second independently ascertained sample of Caucasian men and women (n=419) who were studied while consuming their self-selected diets as well as after high-carbohydrate diets and high-fat diets, the APOA5*3 haplotype was associated with increased plasma triglyceride levels on all three dietary regimens. In a third population comprising 2660 randomly selected individuals, the APOA5*3 haplotype was found in 12% of Caucasians, 14% of African-Americans and 28% of Hispanics and was associated with increased plasma triglyceride levels in both men and women in each ethnic group. These findings establish that the APOA5 locus contributes significantly to inter-individual variation in plasma triglyceride levels in humans. Together, the APOA5*2 and APOA5*3 haplotypes are found in 25-50% of African-Americans, Hispanics and Caucasians and support the contribution of common human variation to quantitative phenotypes in the general population.

  19. Two independent apolipoprotein a5 Haplotypes influence human plasma triglyceride levels

    SciTech Connect

    Pennacchio, Len A.; Olivier, Michael; Hubacek, Jaroslav A.; Krauss, Ronald M.; Rubin, Edward M.; Cohen, Jonathan C.

    2002-09-16

    The recently identified apolipoprotein A5 gene (APOA5) has been shown to play an important role in determining plasma triglyceride concentrations in humans and mice. We previously identified an APOA5 haplotype (designated APOA5*2) that is present in {approx}16 percent of Caucasians and is associated with increased plasma triglyceride concentrations. In this report we describe another APOA5 haplotype (APOA5*3) containing the rare allele of the single nucleotide polymorphism c.56C>G that changes serine to tryptophan at codon 19 and is independently associated with high plasma triglyceride levels in three different populations. In a sample of 264 Caucasian men and women with plasma triglyceride concentrations above the 90th percentile or below the 10th percentile, the APOA5*3 haplotype was more than three-fold more common in the group with high plasma triglyceride levels. In a second independently ascertained sample of Caucasian men and women (n 1/4 419) who were studied while consuming their self-selected diets as well as after high-carbohydrate diets and high-fat diets, the APOA5*3 haplotype was associated with increased plasma triglyceride levels on all three dietary regimens. In a third population comprising 2660 randomly selected individuals, the APOA5*3 haplotype was found in 12 percent of Caucasians, 14 percent of African-Americans and 28 percent of Hispanics and was associated with increased plasma triglyceride levels in both men and women in each ethnic group. These findings establish that the APOA5 locus contributes significantly to inter-individual variation in plasma triglyceride levels in humans. Together, the APOA5*2 and APOA5*3 haplotypes are found in 25 50 percent of African-Americans, Hispanics and Caucasians and support the contribution of common human variation to quantitative phenotypes in the general population.

  20. Oxygen and nitrogen plasma etching of three-dimensional hydroxyapatite/chitosan scaffolds fabricated by additive manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myung, Sung-Woon; Kim, Byung-Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) chitosan and hydroxyapatite (HAp)/chitosan (CH) scaffolds were fabricated by additive manufacturing, then their surfaces were etched with oxygen (O2) and nitrogen (N2) plasma. O2 and N2 plasma etching was performed to increase surface properties such as hydrophilicity, roughness, and surface chemistry on the scaffolds. After etching, hydroxyapatite was exposed on the surface of 3D HAp/CH scaffolds. The surface morphology and chemical properties were characterized by contact angle measurement, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and attenuated total reflection Fourier infrared spectroscopy. The cell viability of 3D chitosan scaffolds was examined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. The differentiation of preosteoblast cells was evaluated by alkaline phosphatase assay. The cell viability was improved by O2 and N2 plasma etching of 3D chitosan scaffolds. The present fabrication process for 3D scaffolds might be applied to a potential tool for preparing biocompatible scaffolds.

  1. Seminal plasma zinc level may be associated with the effect of cigarette smoking on sperm parameters.

    PubMed

    Liu, R-Z; Gao, J-C; Zhang, H-G; Wang, R-X; Zhang, Z-H; Liu, X-Y

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of cigarette smoking on seminal plasma zinc levels and sperm parameters, and to examine the role of seminal plasma zinc. Semen samples from 79 non-smokers and 68 smokers were obtained. There was a significant decrease in seminal plasma zinc in smokers and a clear correlation between seminal plasma zinc levels and the extent of smoking. Sperm parameters (concentration, motility and morphology) among smokers were significantly lower in comparison to non-smokers. These parameters were also significantly decreased among smokers with abnormal zinc levels, while there was no significant difference between non-smokers with normal zinc and non-smokers with abnormal zinc levels. As previous studies have shown that seminal plasma zinc is associated with a decrease of anti-oxidant defences, seminal plasma zinc could be a contributor to the effects of cigarette smoking on sperm parameters. In conclusion, cigarette smoking can affect sperm parameters and this study may help towards providing a mechanistic explanation.

  2. Comparison of additive image fusion vs. feature-level image fusion techniques for enhanced night driving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bender, Edward J.; Reese, Colin E.; Van Der Wal, Gooitzen S.

    2003-02-01

    The Night Vision & Electronic Sensors Directorate (NVESD) has conducted a series of image fusion evaluations under the Head-Tracked Vision System (HTVS) program. The HTVS is a driving system for both wheeled and tracked military vehicles, wherein dual-waveband sensors are directed in a more natural head-slewed imaging mode. The HTVS consists of thermal and image-intensified TV sensors, a high-speed gimbal, a head-mounted display, and a head tracker. A series of NVESD field tests over the past two years has investigated the degree to which additive (A+B) image fusion of these sensors enhances overall driving performance. Additive fusion employs a single (but user adjustable) fractional weighting for all the features of each sensor's image. More recently, NVESD and Sarnoff Corporation have begun a cooperative effort to evaluate and refine Sarnoff's "feature-level" multi-resolution (pyramid) algorithms for image fusion. This approach employs digital processing techniques to select at each image point only the sensor with the strongest features, and to utilize only those features to reconstruct the fused video image. This selection process is performed simultaneously at multiple scales of the image, which are combined to form the reconstructed fused image. All image fusion techniques attempt to combine the "best of both sensors" in a single image. Typically, thermal sensors are better for detecting military threats and targets, while image-intensified sensors provide more natural scene cues and detect cultural lighting. This investigation will address the differences between additive fusion and feature-level image fusion techniques for enhancing the driver's overall situational awareness.

  3. Mechanisms Underpinning Increased Plasma Creatinine Levels in Patients Receiving Vemurafenib for Advanced Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Hurabielle, Charlotte; Pillebout, Evangéline; Stehlé, Thomas; Pagès, Cécile; Roux, Jennifer; Schneider, Pierre; Chevret, Sylvie; Chaffaut, Cendrine; Boutten, Anne; Mourah, Samia; Basset-Seguin, Nicole; Vidal-Petiot, Emmanuelle; Lebbé, Céleste; Flamant, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Context Serum creatinine has been reported to increase in patients receiving Vemurafenib, yet neither the prevalence nor the mechanism of this adverse event are known. Objective We aimed to evaluate the frequency and the mechanisms of increases in plasma creatinine level in patients receiving Vemurafenib for advanced melanoma. Methods We performed a retrospective monocentric study including consecutive patients treated with Vemurafenib for an advanced melanoma. We collected clinical and biological data concerning renal function before introduction of Vemurafenib and in the course of monthly follow-up visits from March 2013 to December 2014. Cystatin C-derived glomerular filtration rate was evaluated before and after Vemurafenib initiation, as increase in serum cystatin C is specific to a decrease in the glomerular filtration rate. We also performed thorough renal explorations in 3 patients, with measurement of tubular secretion of creatinine before and after Vemurafenib initiation and a renal biopsy in 2 patients. Results 70 patients were included: 97% of them displayed an immediate, and thereafter stable, increase in creatinine (+22.8%) after Vemurafenib initiation. In 44/52 patients in whom Vemurafenib was discontinued, creatinine levels returned to baseline. Serum cystatin C increased, although proportionally less than serum creatinine, showing that creatinine increase under vemurafenib was indeed partly due to a renal function impairment. In addition, renal explorations demonstrated that Vemurafenib induced an inhibition of creatinine tubular secretion. Conclusion Thus, Vemurafenib induces a dual mechanism of increase in plasma creatinine with both an inhibition of creatinine tubular secretion and slight renal function impairment. However, this side effect is mostly reversible when Vemurafenib is discontinued, and should not lead physicians to discontinue the treatment if it is effective. PMID:26930506

  4. Acute modification in plasma lipid levels in ultramarathon runners.

    PubMed

    Emed, Luiz Gustavo Marin; Passaglia, Daniela Gunther; Guerios, Surya T; João, Paula G D; Moser, André I S; Abdalla, Dulcinéia S P; Guarita-Souza, Luis Cesar; Mikilita, Emanuella Stella; Baena, Cristina Pellegrino; da Costa, Ana Beatriz Brenner Affonso; Faria-Neto, José Rocha

    2016-09-01

    We aimed to evaluate the effects of a 24-h ultramarathon, an aerobic test of high physical load, on lipid profile and apolipoproteins B (ApoB) and A1 (ApoA1) levels, minimally modified low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and oxidised LDL. Prospective evaluation of 16 male athletes who participated in an ultramarathon run, where the objective was to run the greatest distance possible in 24 h. Fourteen participants completed the run. The mean distance achieved was 133.1 km (maximum of 169.6 km). There was a trend in reduction of triglycerides and total cholesterol (P = 0.06 and 0.05, respectively), without significant modifications in high-density lipoprotein, LDL and ApoA1 levels (P = 0.16; 0.55 and 0.67). There was a marked reduction in ApoB levels (P < 0.001), correlated directly to the distance covered (Pearson R = 0.68). Accordingly, an increase in the LDL/ApoB ratio was observed. The stress of this physical activity was not associated to an increase in minimally modified LDL or oxidised LDL. Lipid profile levels were not acutely altered by prolonged physical activity. Similarly, there was no evidence of greater oxidation of LDL over a 24-h period of physical activity. The reduction in ApoB was directly proportional to the distance covered, suggesting an acute positive change in phenotype of LDL molecules.

  5. Relationship Between Plasma Adiponectin Level With Inflammatory and Metabolic Markers in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sedighi, Omid; Abediankenari, Saeid

    2013-01-01

    Background: Adiponectin (ADPN) is an important anti-inflammatory marker with anti-atherogenic effects. However, its role in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) should be determined. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between plasma adiponectin level with some inflammatory and metabolic markers in CKD patients. Patients and Methods: In this case-control study, we measured plasma ADPN level in 42 CKD patients and 46 healthy persons with the same age and sex as control group. Then, we investigated the association between plasma ADPN level with some inflammatory and metabolic determinants in CKD patients. Results: Plasma ADPN level was significantly higher in CKD patients than control group (P = 0.04). It was directly correlated with HDL-cholesterol (r = 0.599, P < 0.001) and serum creatinine levels (r = 0.675, P < 0.001) and inversely correlated with glomerular filtration rate (GFR) (r = -0.570, P < 0.001), body mass index (BMI) (r = -0.318, P = 0.04), C-reactive protein (CRP) (r = -0.548, P < 0.001) and fasting blood sugar (FBS) (r = -0.640, P < 0.001) in CKD patients. Conclusions: These findings suggested that plasma ADPN level is inversely associated with GFR and directly correlate with HDL-cholesterol and inversely with some, but not all metabolic factors of CKD patients who were not undergone dialysis. PMID:24719803

  6. Ultrasound and estradiol plasma levels in threatened abortion.

    PubMed

    Melis, G B; Strigini, F; Fruzzetti, F; Paoletti, A M; Battistelli, P; Boldrini, A

    1984-01-01

    Ultrasound examination and unconjugated estriol assay were performed in 111 women with threatened abortion between the 6th and the 20th week of pregnancy. In viable pregnancies, fetal echoes and fetal heart movements were always observed by sonar from the 10th week onward and estradiol levels always increased above 30 pg/ml from the 13th week. Both ultrasound and estriol assay showed high percentages of uncertain prognostic indication on pregnancy outcome when examinations were performed during the first weeks of pregnancy. However, in the same period estriol levels higher than 30 pg/ml were always correlated with the favourable outcome of pregnancy, since no abortion occurred in subjects with detectable estriol values. During the second trimester ultrasound and estradiol results were normal in all viable pregnancies, while they were abnormal in 71.4% of pregnancies which failed to continue. Estriol values were always undetectable when fetuses could not be identified by sonar or they were dead. These data seem to demonstrate that both methods have similar prognostic value in patients with threatened abortion. However both sonar examination and estriol levels sometimes failed in predicting subsequent pregnancy interruptions, suggesting that abortions were not related to either fetal or placental alterations.

  7. Liver and plasma levels of descarboxyprothrombin (PIVKA II) in vitamin K deficiency in rats.

    PubMed

    Harauchi, T; Takano, K; Matsuura, M; Yoshizaki, T

    1986-04-01

    Descarboxyprothrombin (PIVKA II) is a precursor of prothrombin without biological activity, and it increases with vitamin K deficiency. We studied the time course changes in liver and plasma levels of PIVKA II during the progress of vitamin K deficiency in rats. Good correlation was observed between liver PIVKA II and plasma PIVKA II and between liver or plasma PIVKA II and plasma prothrombin in experiments in which rats were fed a vitamin K-deficient diet. Feeding of a vitamin K-deficient diet or fasting caused marked increases in liver and plasma PIVKA II in male rats and a weaker response in female rats. Warfarin, a vitamin K antagonist, caused an abrupt increase in liver PIVKA II, but the increase in plasma PIVKA II was delayed about 3 hr. Plasma prothrombin decreased from about 30 min later. Factor VII decreased similarly to prothrombin, and changes in the prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time were slower than the changes in these substances. Sex differences were not seen in these warfarin actions. These observations indicate that liver and plasma PIVKA II are sensitive markers of vitamin K deficiency in rats, and assay of PIVKA II can be useful for analyzing the action mechanism of drugs which influence blood coagulation.

  8. Genetic effects of an air discharge plasma on Staphylococcus aureus at the gene transcription level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zimu; Wei, Jun; Shen, Jie; Liu, Yuan; Ma, Ronghua; Zhang, Zelong; Qian, Shulou; Ma, Jie; Lan, Yan; Zhang, Hao; Zhao, Ying; Xia, Weidong; Sun, Qiang; Cheng, Cheng; Chu, Paul K.

    2015-05-01

    The dynamics of gene expression regulation (at transcription level) in Staphylococcus aureus after different doses of atmospheric-pressure room-temperature air plasma treatments are investigated by monitoring the quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The plasma treatment influences the transcription of genes which are associated with several important bio-molecular processes related to the environmental stress resistance of the bacteria, including oxidative stress response, biofilm formation, antibiotics resistance, and DNA damage protection/repair. The reactive species generated by the plasma discharge in the gas phase and/or induced in the liquid phase may account for these gene expression changes.

  9. Evaluation of CART peptide level in rat plasma and CSF: Possible role as a biomarker in opioid addiction.

    PubMed

    Bakhtazad, Atefeh; Vousooghi, Nasim; Garmabi, Behzad; Zarrindast, Mohammad Reza

    2016-10-01

    It has been shown previously that cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptide has a modulatory role and homeostatic regulatory effect in motivation to and reward of the drugs of abuse specially psychostimulants. Recent data also showed that in addition to psychostimulants, CART is critically involved in the different stages of opioid addiction. Here we have evaluated the fluctuations in the level of CART peptide in plasma and CSF in different phases of opioid addiction to find out whether CART can serve as a suitable marker in opioid addiction studies. Male rats were randomly distributed in groups of control, acute low-dose (10mg/kg) morphine, acute high-dose morphine (80mg/kg), chronic escalating doses of morphine, withdrawal syndrome precipitated by administration of naloxone (1mg/kg), and abstinent after long-term drug-free maintenance of addicted animals. The level of CART peptide in CSF and plasma samples was measured by enzyme immunoassay. CART peptide concentration in the CSF and plasma was significantly elevated in acute high-dose morphine and withdrawal state animals and down-regulated in addicted rats. In abstinent group, CART peptide level was up-regulated in plasma but not in CSF samples. As the observed results are in agreement with data regarding the CART mRNA and protein expression in the brain reward pathway in opioid addiction phases, it may be suggested that evaluation of CART peptide level in CSF or plasma could be a suitable marker which reflects the rises and falls of the peptide concentration in brain in the development of opioid addiction. PMID:27349817

  10. Evaluation of CART peptide level in rat plasma and CSF: Possible role as a biomarker in opioid addiction.

    PubMed

    Bakhtazad, Atefeh; Vousooghi, Nasim; Garmabi, Behzad; Zarrindast, Mohammad Reza

    2016-10-01

    It has been shown previously that cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptide has a modulatory role and homeostatic regulatory effect in motivation to and reward of the drugs of abuse specially psychostimulants. Recent data also showed that in addition to psychostimulants, CART is critically involved in the different stages of opioid addiction. Here we have evaluated the fluctuations in the level of CART peptide in plasma and CSF in different phases of opioid addiction to find out whether CART can serve as a suitable marker in opioid addiction studies. Male rats were randomly distributed in groups of control, acute low-dose (10mg/kg) morphine, acute high-dose morphine (80mg/kg), chronic escalating doses of morphine, withdrawal syndrome precipitated by administration of naloxone (1mg/kg), and abstinent after long-term drug-free maintenance of addicted animals. The level of CART peptide in CSF and plasma samples was measured by enzyme immunoassay. CART peptide concentration in the CSF and plasma was significantly elevated in acute high-dose morphine and withdrawal state animals and down-regulated in addicted rats. In abstinent group, CART peptide level was up-regulated in plasma but not in CSF samples. As the observed results are in agreement with data regarding the CART mRNA and protein expression in the brain reward pathway in opioid addiction phases, it may be suggested that evaluation of CART peptide level in CSF or plasma could be a suitable marker which reflects the rises and falls of the peptide concentration in brain in the development of opioid addiction.

  11. Circadian plasma level profile of lisuride in rats and mice after continuous administration via the diet.

    PubMed

    Krause, W; Reissmann, F; Kühne, G; Schöbel, C

    1995-01-01

    Lisuride (Dopergin, CAS 18016-80-3), a dopamine D2 agonist, was administered to male and female rats and mice continuously via the diet for 14 days. The doses were 0.2 mg/kg/d in mice and 1 mg/kg/d in mice and rats. Plasma level profiles (0-22 or 24 h) were determined by measuring lisuride concentrations by radioimmunoassay. At all doses a plateau-like plasma level of lisuride was observed. A clear circadian rhythm of lisuride concentrations (highs during night, low levels during day) was found for male rats (1 mg/kg/d) and for male mice (0.2 mg/kg/d). Female animals did not show this phenomenon as pronounced. At the same dose of 1 mg/kg/d rats showed higher plasma levels than mice. For males the ratio of total AUCs was 1.9 and for female animals 8.6.

  12. Gonadal Development, Spawning and Plasma Sex Steroid Levels of the Indoor Cultured Grunt, Hapalogenys nitens

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Hee Woong; Cho, Jae-Kwon; Son, Maeng-Hyun; Park, Jong Youn; Hong, Chang Gi; Chung, Jae Seung; Chung, Ee-Yung

    2015-01-01

    The gonadosomatic index (GSI), gonadal development and changes in hormones in plasma level of the indoor cultured grunt (Hapalogenys nitens) were investigated by histological study from August 2011 to October 2012. The GSI showed similar trends with gonad developmental stages during the culture periods. Changes in plasma level of estradiol-17β of female H. nitens reached the highest value before the spawning period, and seasonal changes in plasma level of estradiol-17β were similar in trends of oocyte developments and GSI changes. Testosterone levels of male H. nitens reached the highest value before and after the spent stage. Ovarian developmental stages of H. nitens could be classified into early growing stage, late growing stage, mature stage, ripe and spawning stage, recovery and resting stage. The testicular developmental stages could be divided into growing stage, mature stage, ripe and spent stage, and recovery and resting stage. PMID:25949208

  13. Peanut consumption increases levels of plasma very long chain fatty acids in humans.

    PubMed

    Lam, Christina; Wong, Derek; Cederbaum, Stephen; Lim, Bennie; Qu, Yong

    2012-11-01

    Peanut consumption has been suspected of raising plasma very long chain fatty acid (VLCFA) levels in humans. The effect of peanut consumption on VLCFAs was studied in six human subjects. After 3 to 4h of peanut butter ingestion, plasma C26:0 and C26:0/C22:0 were found to be significantly elevated to levels seen in patients with peroxisomal disorders. These levels returned to normal within 12h. Peanut consumption needs to be accounted for when interpreting VLCFAs. PMID:22864056

  14. Nonthermal plasma processor utilizing additive-gas injection and/or gas extraction

    DOEpatents

    Rosocha, Louis A.

    2006-06-20

    A device for processing gases includes a cylindrical housing in which an electrically grounded, metal injection/extraction gas supply tube is disposed. A dielectric tube surrounds the injection/extraction gas supply tube to establish a gas modification passage therearound. Additionally, a metal high voltage electrode circumscribes the dielectric tube. The high voltage electrode is energizable to create nonthermal electrical microdischarges between the high voltage electrode and the injection/extraction gas supply tube across the dielectric tube within the gas modification passage. An injection/extraction gas and a process gas flow through the nonthermal electrical microdischarges within the gas modification passage and a modified process gas results. Using the device contaminants that are entrained in the process gas can be destroyed to yield a cleaner, modified process gas.

  15. The relationship between plasma homocysteine level and different treatment modalities in patients with ankylosing spondylitis.

    PubMed

    Capkin, Erhan; Karkucak, Murat; Akyüz, Ayşe; Alver, Ahmet; Turkyilmaz, Aysegul Kucukali; Zengin, Elif

    2012-08-01

    To determine plasma homocysteine levels in ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and their correlation with disease activity measurements. To examine the effects of different treatment modalities on homocysteine levels. One hundred eight patients diagnosed with AS according to New York criteria and 65 healthy individuals matched in terms of age and gender were enrolled in the study. Patients were given detailed physical examinations. The Bath AS Disease Activity Index (BASDAI) was used for disease activity, the Bath AS Metrology Index (BASMI) for spinal mobility, the Bath AS Functional Index (BASFI) to determine functional status and the Bath AS Radiological Index (BASRI) for radiological analysis. Sedimentation rate (ESR) and C reactive protein (CRP) levels, acute phase reactants, were measured. Plasma homocysteine levels, serum interleukin (IL) -6 and serum tumor necrosis factor- α (TNF- α) levels were investigated using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. Plasma homocysteine levels in AS patients were statistically significantly lower compared with those in the healthy control group (P = 0.0001). There was no significant difference among sub-groups established on the basis of medical treatments and disease activity (BASDAI ≤4 and >4). No statistically significant correlation was determined between homocysteine level and disease activity parameters, radiological score and functional indices. A significant negative correlation was, however, established between age and homocysteine level in the AS group (P < 0.05, r = -0.426). Plasma homocysteine was lower in AS patients compared with the control group. This is not correlated with disease activation and medical treatment employed.

  16. Plasma Amino Acid Levels in Children with Autism and Their Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldred, Sarah; Moore, Kieran M.; Fitzgerald, Michael; Waring, Rosemary H.

    2003-01-01

    Plasma amino acid levels were measured in autistic (n=12), Asperger syndrome (n=11) patients, their parents and siblings. Patients with autism or Asperger syndrome and their siblings and parents all had raised glutamic acid, phenyalanine, asparagine, tyrosine, alanine, and lysine levels than age-matched controls. Results suggest dysregulated amino…

  17. Lack of correlation of glucose levels in filtered blood plasma to density and conductivity measurements.

    PubMed

    Gordon, David M; Ash, Stephen R

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this research project was to determine whether the glucose level of a blood plasma sample from a diabetic patient could be predicted by measuring the density and conductivity of ultrafiltrate of plasma created by a 30,000 m.w. cutoff membrane. Conductivity of the plasma filtrate measures electrolyte concentration and should correct density measurements for changes in electrolytes and water concentration. In vitro studies were performed measuring conductivity and density of solutions of varying glucose and sodium chloride concentrations. Plasma from seven hospitalized patients with diabetes was filtered across a 30,000 m.w. cutoff membrane. The filtrate density and conductivity were measured and correlated to glucose levels. In vitro studies confirmed the ability to predict glucose from density and conductivity measurements, in varying concentrations of glucose and saline. In plasma filtrate, the conductivity and density measurements of ultrafiltrate allowed estimation of glucose in some patients with diabetes but not others. The correlation coefficient for the combined patient data was 0.45 which was significant but only explained 20% of the variability in the glucose levels. Individually, the correlation was significant in only two of the seven patients with correlation coefficients of 0.79 and 0.88. The reasons for lack of correlation are not clear, and cannot be explained by generation of idiogenic osmoles, effects of alcohol dehydrogenase, water intake, etc. This combination of physical methods for glucose measurement is not a feasible approach to measuring glucose in plasma filtrate.

  18. Modeling of plasma-based CO2 conversion: lumping of the vibrational levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berthelot, Antonin; Bogaerts, Annemie

    2016-08-01

    Although CO2 conversion by plasma technology is gaining increasing interest, the underlying mechanisms for an energy-efficient process are still far from understood. In this work, a reduced non-equilibrium CO2 plasma chemistry set, based on level lumping of the vibrational levels, is proposed and the reliability of this level-lumping method is tested by a self-consistent zero-dimensional code. A severe reduction of the number of equations to be solved is achieved, which is crucial to be able to model non-equilibrium CO2 plasmas by 2-dimensional models. Typical conditions of pressure and power used in a microwave plasma for CO2 conversion are investigated. Several different sets, using different numbers of lumped groups, are considered. The lumped models with 1, 2 or 3 groups are able to reproduce the gas temperature, electron density and electron temperature profiles, as calculated by the full model treating all individual excited levels, in the entire pressure range investigated. Furthermore, a 3-groups model is also able to reproduce the shape of the vibrational distribution function (VDF) and gives the most reliable prediction of the CO2 conversion. A strong influence of the vibrational excitation on the plasma characteristics is observed. Finally, the limitations of the lumped-levels method are discussed.

  19. EEG alterations in patients treated with clozapine in relation to plasma levels.

    PubMed

    Haring, C; Neudorfer, C; Schwitzer, J; Hummer, M; Saria, A; Hinterhuber, H; Fleischhacker, W W

    1994-02-01

    It is well known that psychotropic drugs can induce EEG alterations. Dose dependence seems established; however, there are no data concerning the impact of plasma levels. The authors investigated the influence of clozapine plasma levels on the frequency of EEG alterations. Data from 29 inpatients (18 male, 11 female, 31.7 +/- 10.2 years) receiving clozapine in a dose range between 25 and 600 mg were collected prospectively. There was no psychotropic or anticholinergic comedication. All patients had normal EEGs before taking clozapine. Fifteen patients showed pathological changes (group 2) and 14 no changes (group 1). Discriminant analysis showed that EEG changes are dependent on plasma levels (P = 0.0009, plasma levels in group 1 mean 81.6 ng/ml, +/- SD 64.6, in group 2 235.7 ng/ml, +/- 169.8). A total of 72.4% of the patients were correctly classified as having either pathological EEG changes or none by this analysis. Variables such as dose, age, sex, weight and duration of treatment were not statistically relevant. It can therefore be suggested that clozapine plasma levels are a valid indicator for the appearance of electrophysiological reactions. PMID:7846212

  20. Additions to the spectra and energy levels of the zinc-like ions Y X-Cd XIX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litzén, Ulf; Hansson, Anna

    1989-10-01

    Transitions from 4p4d 1F and 3F have been identified in the spectra Y X-Cd XIX emitted from laserproduced plasmas. Energy levels have been derived, and the term structure has been studied with special emphasis on the 4s4f-4p4d configuration interaction.

  1. High levels of subgenomic HCV plasma RNA in immunosilent infections

    PubMed Central

    Bernardin, Flavien; Stramer, Susan; Rehermann, Barbara; Page-Shafer, Kimberly; Cooper, Stewart; Bangsberg, David; Hahn, Judith; Tobler, Leslie; Busch, Michael; Delwart, Eric

    2007-01-01

    A genetic analysis of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in rare blood donors who remained HCV seronegative despite long-term high-level viremia revealed the chronic presence of HCV genomes with large in frame deletions in their structural genes. Full-length HCV genomes were only detected as minority variants. In one immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infected donor the truncated HCV genome transiently decreased in frequency concomitant with delayed seroconversion and re-emerged following partial seroreversion. The long-term production of heavily truncated HCV genomes in vivo suggests that these viruses retained the necessary elements for RNA replication while the deleted structural functions necessary for their spread in vivo was provided in trans by wild type helper virus in co-infected cells. The absence of immunological pressure and a high viral load may therefore promote the emergence of truncated HCV subgenomic replicons in vivo. PMID:17493654

  2. Interacting Electrons in Parabolic Quantum Dots:. Energy Levels, Addition Energies, and Charge Distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreiber, Michael; Siewert, Jens; Vojta, Thomas

    We investigate the properties of interacting electrons in a parabolic confinement. To this end we numerically diagonalize the Hamiltonian using the Hartree-Fock based diagonalization method which is related to the configuration interaction approach. We study different types of interactions, Coulomb as well as short range. In addition to the ground state energy we calculate the spatial charge distribution and compare the results to those of the classical calculation. We find that a sufficiently strong screened Coulomb interaction produces energy level bunching for classical as well as for quantum-mechanical dots. Bunching in the quantum-mechanical system occurs due to an interplay of kinetic and interaction energy, moreover, it is observed well before reaching the limit of a Wigner crystal. It also turns out that the shell structure of classical and quantum mechanical spatial charge distributions is quite similar.

  3. Interacting Electrons in Parabolic Quantum Dots:. Energy Levels, Addition Energies, and Charge Distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreiber, Michael; Siewert, Jens; Vojta, Thomas

    2001-08-01

    We investigate the properties of interacting electrons in a parabolic confinement. To this end we numerically diagonalize the Hamiltonian using the Hartree-Fock based diagonalization method which is related to the configuration interaction approach. We study different types of interactions, Coulomb as well as short range. In addition to the ground state energy we calculate the spatial charge distribution and compare the results to those of the classical calculation. We find that a sufficiently strong screened Coulomb interaction produces energy level bunching for classical as well as for quantum-mechanical dots. Bunching in the quantum-mechanical system occurs due to an interplay of kinetic and interaction energy, moreover, it is observed well before reaching the limit of a Wigner crystal. It also turns out that the shell structure of classical and quantum mechanical spatial charge distributions is quite similar.

  4. Ground-Level Ozone Following Astrophysical Ionizing Radiation Events: An Additional Biological Hazard?

    PubMed

    Thomas, Brian C; Goracke, Byron D

    2016-01-01

    Astrophysical ionizing radiation events such as supernovae, gamma-ray bursts, and solar proton events have been recognized as a potential threat to life on Earth, primarily through depletion of stratospheric ozone and subsequent increase in solar UV radiation at Earth's surface and in the upper levels of the ocean. Other work has also considered the potential impact of nitric acid rainout, concluding that no significant threat is likely. Not yet studied to date is the potential impact of ozone produced in the lower atmosphere following an ionizing radiation event. Ozone is a known irritant to organisms on land and in water and therefore may be a significant additional hazard. Using previously completed atmospheric chemistry modeling, we examined the amount of ozone produced in the lower atmosphere for the case of a gamma-ray burst and found that the values are too small to pose a significant additional threat to the biosphere. These results may be extended to other ionizing radiation events, including supernovae and extreme solar proton events.

  5. Ground-Level Ozone Following Astrophysical Ionizing Radiation Events: An Additional Biological Hazard?

    PubMed

    Thomas, Brian C; Goracke, Byron D

    2016-01-01

    Astrophysical ionizing radiation events such as supernovae, gamma-ray bursts, and solar proton events have been recognized as a potential threat to life on Earth, primarily through depletion of stratospheric ozone and subsequent increase in solar UV radiation at Earth's surface and in the upper levels of the ocean. Other work has also considered the potential impact of nitric acid rainout, concluding that no significant threat is likely. Not yet studied to date is the potential impact of ozone produced in the lower atmosphere following an ionizing radiation event. Ozone is a known irritant to organisms on land and in water and therefore may be a significant additional hazard. Using previously completed atmospheric chemistry modeling, we examined the amount of ozone produced in the lower atmosphere for the case of a gamma-ray burst and found that the values are too small to pose a significant additional threat to the biosphere. These results may be extended to other ionizing radiation events, including supernovae and extreme solar proton events. PMID:26745353

  6. Inconformity of CXCL3 plasma level and placenta expression in preeclampsia and its effect on trophoblast viability and invasion.

    PubMed

    Gui, Shunping; Ni, Shanshan; Jia, Jin; Gong, Yunhui; Gao, Linbo; Zhang, Lin; Zhou, Rong

    2014-01-01

    As a member of the chemokine family, CXCL3 was previously known to participate in many pathophysiological events. However, whether CXCL3 stimulates trophoblast invasion as a key process of preeclampsia pathogenesis remains largely unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate this hypothesis and determine the effect of CXCL3 on the first trimester trophoblast. Seventy gravidas were included in this study. ELISA was used to detect CXCL3 plasma levels on preeclampsia and normal pregnant groups. CXCL3 protein and mRNA levels were detected via Western blot and real-time quantitative PCR analysis after immunolocalized in human placenta. Moreover, the CXCL3 function in HTR-8/Svneo was analyzed via WST-1 assay, flow cytometry and invasion test. The plasma CXCL3 level in preeclampsia was significantly higher than that in normal pregnancy. CXCL3 expression was observed in the cytoplasm of placental trophoblasts and vascular endothelium in all groups without significant difference between maternal and fetal sides. In addition, placenta CXCL3 expression in severe preeclampsia was significantly lower than those in normal and mild PE groups. Moreover, exogenous CXCL3 can promote the proliferation and invasion of HTR-8/Svneo; however, its effect on apoptosis remains unclear. In summary, a significant abnormality of plasma CXCL3 level and placental CXCL3 expression was discovered in severe preeclampsia; CXCL3 had a function in trophoblast invasion, which indicated its participation in shallow implantation. Therefore CXCL3 might be involved in severe preeclampsia pathogenesis. PMID:25485631

  7. Genetic variation in Tanis was associated with elevating plasma triglyceride level in Chinese nondiabetic subjects

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The association of genetic polymorphisms of Tanis with triglyceride concentration in human has not been thoroughly examined. We aimed to investigate the relationship between triglyceride concentrations and Tanis genetic polymorphisms. Methods All participants (n=1497) selected from subjects participating in the Cardiovascular Risk Survey (CRS) study were divided into two groups according to ethnicity (Han: n=1059; Uygur: n= 438). Four tagging SNPs (rs12910524, rs1384565, rs2101171, rs4965814) of Tanis gene were genotyped using TaqMan® assays from Applied Biosystems following the manufacturer’s suggestions and analyzed in an ABI 7900HT Fast Real-Time PCR System. Results We found that the SNP rs12910524 was associated with triglyceride levels by analyses of a dominant model (P<0.001), recessive model (P <0.001) and additive model (P < 0.001) not only in Han ethnic but also in Uygur ethnic group, and the difference remained significant after the adjustment of sex, age, alcohol intake, smoking, BMI and plasma glucose (GLU) level (All P < 0.001). However, this relationship was not observed in rs1384565, rs2101171, and rs4965814 before and after multivariate adjustment (All P > 0.05). Furthermore, there were significant interactions between rs12910524 and GLU on TG both in Han (P=0.001) and Uygur population (P=2.60×10-4). Conclusion Our results indicated that the rs12910524 in the Tanis gene was associated with triglyceride concentrations in subjects without diabetes in China. PMID:23829426

  8. A rare variant in APOC3 is associated with plasma triglyceride and VLDL levels in Europeans.

    PubMed

    Timpson, Nicholas J; Walter, Klaudia; Min, Josine L; Tachmazidou, Ioanna; Malerba, Giovanni; Shin, So-Youn; Chen, Lu; Futema, Marta; Southam, Lorraine; Iotchkova, Valentina; Cocca, Massimiliano; Huang, Jie; Memari, Yasin; McCarthy, Shane; Danecek, Petr; Muddyman, Dawn; Mangino, Massimo; Menni, Cristina; Perry, John R B; Ring, Susan M; Gaye, Amadou; Dedoussis, George; Farmaki, Aliki-Eleni; Burton, Paul; Talmud, Philippa J; Gambaro, Giovanni; Spector, Tim D; Smith, George Davey; Durbin, Richard; Richards, J Brent; Humphries, Steve E; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Soranzo, Nicole

    2014-09-16

    The analysis of rich catalogues of genetic variation from population-based sequencing provides an opportunity to screen for functional effects. Here we report a rare variant in APOC3 (rs138326449-A, minor allele frequency ~0.25% (UK)) associated with plasma triglyceride (TG) levels (-1.43 s.d. (s.e.=0.27 per minor allele (P-value=8.0 × 10(-8))) discovered in 3,202 individuals with low read-depth, whole-genome sequence. We replicate this in 12,831 participants from five additional samples of Northern and Southern European origin (-1.0 s.d. (s.e.=0.173), P-value=7.32 × 10(-9)). This is consistent with an effect between 0.5 and 1.5 mmol l(-1) dependent on population. We show that a single predicted splice donor variant is responsible for association signals and is independent of known common variants. Analyses suggest an independent relationship between rs138326449 and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels. This represents one of the first examples of a rare, large effect variant identified from whole-genome sequencing at a population scale.

  9. Plasma Folate and Vitamin B12 Levels in Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Cui, Lian-Hua; Quan, Zhen-Yu; Piao, Jin-Mei; Zhang, Ting-Ting; Jiang, Meng-Hui; Shin, Min-Ho; Choi, Jin-Su

    2016-01-01

    Folate and vitamin B12 involved in the one-carbon metabolism may play a key role in carcinogenesis and progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) through influencing DNA integrity. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the association of plasma folate and vitamin B12 levels with HCC in a case-control study on 312 HCC patients and 325 cancer-free controls. Plasma concentrations of folate and vitamin B12 in all the subjects were measured by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. Meanwhile, the information of HCC patients' clinical characteristics including tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stage, tumor size and tumor markers were collected. The patients of HCC had significantly lower folate levels than those of controls; there was no significant difference in the mean of plasma vitamin B12 levels. We also observed an inverse association between the levels of plasma folate and HCC: the adjusted odds ratios (OR) (95% confidence intervals (CI)) of HCC from the highest to lowest quartile of folate were 0.30 (0.15-0.60), 0.33 (0.17-0.65), and 0.19 (0.09-0.38). Compared to the subjects in the lowest quartile of plasma vitamin B12, only the subjects in the highest quartile of vitamin B12 exhibited a significant positive relationship with HCC, the adjusted OR was 2.01 (95% CI, 1.02-3.98). HCC patients with Stage III and IV or bigger tumor size had lower folate and higher vitamin B12 levels. There was no significant difference in the mean plasma folate levels of the HCC cases in tumor markers status (AFP, CEA and CA19-9 levels), whereas patients with higher CEA or CA19-9 levels retained significantly more plasma vitamin B12 than those with normal-CEA or CA19-9 level. In conclusion, plasma folate and vitamin B12 levels could be associated with HCC, and might be used as predictors of clinical characteristics of HCC patients. However, further prospective studies are essential to confirm the observed results. PMID:27376276

  10. Plasma Folate and Vitamin B12 Levels in Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Lian-Hua; Quan, Zhen-Yu; Piao, Jin-Mei; Zhang, Ting-Ting; Jiang, Meng-Hui; Shin, Min-Ho; Choi, Jin-Su

    2016-01-01

    Folate and vitamin B12 involved in the one-carbon metabolism may play a key role in carcinogenesis and progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) through influencing DNA integrity. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the association of plasma folate and vitamin B12 levels with HCC in a case-control study on 312 HCC patients and 325 cancer-free controls. Plasma concentrations of folate and vitamin B12 in all the subjects were measured by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. Meanwhile, the information of HCC patients’ clinical characteristics including tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stage, tumor size and tumor markers were collected. The patients of HCC had significantly lower folate levels than those of controls; there was no significant difference in the mean of plasma vitamin B12 levels. We also observed an inverse association between the levels of plasma folate and HCC: the adjusted odds ratios (OR) (95% confidence intervals (CI)) of HCC from the highest to lowest quartile of folate were 0.30 (0.15–0.60), 0.33 (0.17–0.65), and 0.19 (0.09–0.38). Compared to the subjects in the lowest quartile of plasma vitamin B12, only the subjects in the highest quartile of vitamin B12 exhibited a significant positive relationship with HCC, the adjusted OR was 2.01 (95% CI, 1.02–3.98). HCC patients with Stage III and IV or bigger tumor size had lower folate and higher vitamin B12 levels. There was no significant difference in the mean plasma folate levels of the HCC cases in tumor markers status (AFP, CEA and CA19-9 levels), whereas patients with higher CEA or CA19-9 levels retained significantly more plasma vitamin B12 than those with normal-CEA or CA19-9 level. In conclusion, plasma folate and vitamin B12 levels could be associated with HCC, and might be used as predictors of clinical characteristics of HCC patients. However, further prospective studies are essential to confirm the observed results. PMID:27376276

  11. Elite sport is not an additional source of distress for adolescents with high stress levels.

    PubMed

    Gerber, Markus; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Pühse, Uwe; Brand, Serge

    2011-04-01

    This study examined whether participation in elite sport interacts with stress in decreasing or increasing symptoms of depression and anxiety among adolescents, and further, whether the interplay between participation in high-performance sport and stress is related to the perceived quality of sleep. 434 adolescents (278 girls, 156 boys; age: M = 17.2 yr.) from 15 "Swiss Olympic Sport Classes" and 9 conventional classes answered a questionnaire and completed a 7-day sleep log. Analyses of covariance showed that heightened stress was related to more depressive symptoms and higher scores for trait-anxiety. Moreover, those classified as having poor sleep by a median split cutoff reported higher levels of depressive symptoms. No significant (multivariate) main effects were found for high-performance sport athletes. Similarly, no significant two- or three-way interaction effects were found. These results caution against exaggerated expectations concerning sport participation as a stress buffer. Nevertheless, participation in high-performance sport was not found to be an additional source of distress for adolescents who reported high stress levels despite prior research that has pointed toward such a relationship.

  12. Influence of NH4Cl Powder Addition for Fabrication of Aluminum Nitride Coating in Reactive Atmospheric Plasma Spray Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahien, Mohammed; Yamada, Motohiro; Yasui, Toshiaki; Fukumoto, Masahiro

    2011-01-01

    Reactive plasma spray is the key to fabricating aluminum nitride (AlN) thermally sprayed coatings. It was possible to fabricate AlN/Al composite coatings using atmospheric plasma spray process through plasma nitriding of Al powders (Al 30 μm). The nitriding reaction and the AlN content could be improved by controlling the spray distance and the feedstock powder particle size. Increasing the spray distance and/or using smaller particle size of Al powders improved the in-flight nitriding reaction. However, it was difficult to fabricate thick and dense AlN coatings with an increase in the spray distance and/or when using fine particles. Thus, the coatings thickness was suppressed because of the complete nitriding of some particles (formation of AlN particles) during flight, which prevents the particle deposition. Furthermore, the excessive vaporization of Al fine particles (due to increased particle temperature) decreased the deposition efficiency. To fabricate thick AlN coatings in the reactive plasma spray process, improving the nitriding reaction of the large Al particles at short spray distance is required to decrease the vaporization of Al particles during flight. This study investigated the influence of adding ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) powders on the nitriding process of large Al powders and on the microstructure of the fabricated coatings. It was possible to fabricate thick AlN coatings at 100 mm spray distance with small addition of NH4Cl powders to the Al feedstock powders (30 μm). Addition of NH4Cl to the starting Al powders promoted the formation of AlN through changing the reaction path to vapor-phase nitridation chlorination-nitridation sequences as confirmed by the thermodynamic analysis of possible intermediate reactions. This changes the nitriding reaction to a mild way, so it is more controlled with no explosive mode and with relatively low heating rates. Thus, NH4Cl acts as a catalyst, nitrogen source, and diluent agent. Furthermore, the evolved

  13. Effect of acute cold exposure and insulin hypoglycemia on plasma thyrotropin levels by IRMA in healthy young males.

    PubMed

    Vigas, M; Martino, E; Bukovská, M; Langer, P

    1988-12-01

    Thyrotropin (TSH) levels in plasma were estimated with the aid of immunoradiometric assay in two groups of healthy male subjects aged 21-22 years in two experiments: 1. acute (30 min) exposure to 4 degrees C in a cold room; 2. insulin (0.01 U per kg i.v.) hypoglycemia at room temperature and at 55 degrees C. Immediately after cold exposure a decrease of TSH level was found (P less than 0.01), while no changes were observed during 30 min exposure. After insulin injection a significant decrease (P less than 0.05 to less than 0.001) of TSH level was found at 45 to 120 min irrespectively of the ambient temperature. In addition, increased levels of noradrenaline and decreased levels of growth hormone after cold exposure are presented. PMID:3243203

  14. U-shaped relation between plasma oxytocin levels and behavior in the trust game.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Songfa; Monakhov, Mikhail; Mok, Helen P; Tong, Terry; Lai, Poh San; Chew, Soo Hong; Ebstein, Richard P

    2012-01-01

    Trust underpins much of social and economic exchanges across human societies. In experimental economics, the Trust Game has served as the workhorse for the study of trust in a controlled incentivized setting. Recent evidence using intranasal drug administration, aka 'sniffing', suggests that oxytocin (OT) can function as a social hormone facilitating trust and other affiliative behaviors. Here we hypothesized that baseline plasma OT is a biomarker that partially predicts the degree of trust and trustworthiness observed in the trust game. Using a large sample of 1,158 participants, we observed a significant U-shaped relationship between plasma OT with the level of trust, and marginally with the level of trustworthiness, especially among males. Specifically, subjects with more extreme levels of plasma OT were more likely to be trusting as well as trustworthy than those with moderate levels of plasma OT. Our results contribute to a deeper understanding of the biological basis of human trust and underscore the usefulness of peripheral plasma OT measures in characterizing human social behavior.

  15. Zinc levels in seminal plasma are associated with sperm quality in fertile and infertile men.

    PubMed

    Colagar, Abasalt Hosseinzadeh; Marzony, Eisa Tahmasbpour; Chaichi, Mohammad Javad

    2009-02-01

    Zinc has antioxidative properties and plays an important role in scavenging reactive oxygen species. We hypothesized that in the absence of Zn, the possibility of increased oxidative damage exists that would contribute to poor sperm quality. Therefore, measurement of seminal Zn in the seminal plasma of males with a history of subfertility or idiopathic infertility is necessary and can be helpful in fertility assessment. The primary objective of the present study was to assess the relationship between Zn levels in seminal plasma with sperm quality in fertile and infertile men. Semen samples were provided by fertile (smoker [n = 17], nonsmoker [n = 19]) and infertile men (smoker [n = 15], nonsmoker [n = 21]). After semen analysis, concentrations of Zn, Mg, Ca, Na, and K in the seminal plasma of all groups were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Element concentrations in seminal plasma of all groups were in the order Na > K > Ca > Zn > Mg. Fertile subjects, smoker or not, demonstrated significantly higher seminal Zn levels than any infertile group (P < .001). A trend was observed for a lower Zn levels in seminal plasma of smokers compared with nonsmokers. Seminal Zn in fertile and infertile (smokers or nonsmokers) males correlated significantly with sperm count (P < .01) and normal morphology of sperm (P < .001). There was a significantly positive correlation between seminal Zn with Ca (P < .01) and K (P < .01) levels in all specimens. In conclusion, poor Zn nutrition may be an important risk factor for low quality of sperm and idiopathic male infertility.

  16. Macadamia nut consumption lowers plasma total and LDL cholesterol levels in hypercholesterolemic men.

    PubMed

    Garg, Manohar L; Blake, Robert J; Wills, Ron B H

    2003-04-01

    This study was conducted to assess the cholesterol-lowering potential of macadamia nuts. Seventeen hypercholesterolemic men (mean age 54 y) were given macadamia nuts (40-90 g/d), equivalent to 15% energy intake, for 4 wk. Plasma total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides and homocysteine concentrations and the fatty acid composition of plasma lipids were determined before and after treatment. Plasma MUFA 16:1(n-7), 18:1(n-7) and 20:1(n-9) were elevated after intervention with macadamia nuts. Plasma (n-6) and (n-3) PUFA concentrations were unaffected by macadamia nut consumption. Plasma total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol concentrations decreased by 3.0 and 5.3%, respectively, and HDL cholesterol levels increased by 7.9% in hypercholesterolemic men after macadamia nut consumption. Plasma triglyceride and homocysteine concentrations were not affected by treatment. Macadamia nut consumption was associated with a significant increase in the relative intake of MUFA and a reduced relative intake of saturated fatty acids and PUFA. This study demonstrates that macadamia nut consumption as part of a healthy diet favorably modifies the plasma lipid profile in hypercholesterolemic men despite their diet being high in fat.

  17. Macadamia nut consumption lowers plasma total and LDL cholesterol levels in hypercholesterolemic men.

    PubMed

    Garg, Manohar L; Blake, Robert J; Wills, Ron B H

    2003-04-01

    This study was conducted to assess the cholesterol-lowering potential of macadamia nuts. Seventeen hypercholesterolemic men (mean age 54 y) were given macadamia nuts (40-90 g/d), equivalent to 15% energy intake, for 4 wk. Plasma total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides and homocysteine concentrations and the fatty acid composition of plasma lipids were determined before and after treatment. Plasma MUFA 16:1(n-7), 18:1(n-7) and 20:1(n-9) were elevated after intervention with macadamia nuts. Plasma (n-6) and (n-3) PUFA concentrations were unaffected by macadamia nut consumption. Plasma total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol concentrations decreased by 3.0 and 5.3%, respectively, and HDL cholesterol levels increased by 7.9% in hypercholesterolemic men after macadamia nut consumption. Plasma triglyceride and homocysteine concentrations were not affected by treatment. Macadamia nut consumption was associated with a significant increase in the relative intake of MUFA and a reduced relative intake of saturated fatty acids and PUFA. This study demonstrates that macadamia nut consumption as part of a healthy diet favorably modifies the plasma lipid profile in hypercholesterolemic men despite their diet being high in fat. PMID:12672919

  18. Growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor I plasma levels in patients with hypophosphatemic rickets.

    PubMed

    Jasper, H; Cassinelli, H

    1993-01-01

    The cause of the growth retardation present in patients with hypophosphatemic rickets has not been totally elucidated. There has been a previous report of a growth hormone deficit in a group of these patients. To verify this abnormality we studied two groups of patients with hypophosphatemic rickets, one with (n = 6) and the other without (n = 7) treatment with calcitriol and oral phosphates. All patients in both groups showed a normal growth hormone response (> 10 micrograms/l) to standard stimulatory tests and normal IGF-I plasma levels. Mean IGF-I plasma levels were not significantly different (untreated 1.46 +/- 0.80 U/ml, treated 1.25 +/- 0.69 U/ml) and the mean logarithmic deviation of IGF-I plasma levels from both groups did not differ from normal. In summary, we found no abnormalities of the growth hormone-IGF-I axis in our patients with hypophosphatemic rickets.

  19. Quantitative plasma proteome analysis reveals aberrant level of blood coagulation-related proteins in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Peng, Pei-Hua; Wu, Chih-Ching; Liu, Shu-Chen; Chang, Kai-Ping; Chen, Chi-De; Chang, Ya-Ting; Hsu, Chia-Wei; Chang, Yu-Sun; Yu, Jau-Song

    2011-05-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), one of the most common cancers in Southeast Asia, is not easily diagnosed until advanced stages. To discover potential biomarkers for improving NPC diagnosis, we herein identified the aberrant plasma proteins in NPC patients. We first removed the top-seven abundant proteins from plasma samples of healthy controls and NPC patients, and then labeled the samples with different fluorescent cyanine dyes. The labeled samples were then mixed equally and fractionated with ion-exchange chromatography followed by SDS-PAGE. Proteins showing altered levels in NPC patients were identified by in-gel tryptic digestion and LC-MS/MS. When the biological roles of the 45 identified proteins were assessed via MetaCore™ analysis, the blood coagulation pathway emerged as the most significantly altered pathway in NPC plasma. Plasma kallikrein (KLKB1) and thrombin-antithrombin III complex (TAT) were chosen for evaluation as the candidate NPC biomarkers because of their involvement in blood coagulation. ELISAs confirmed the elevation of their plasma levels in NPC patients versus healthy controls. Western blot and activity assays further showed that the KLKB1 active form was significantly increased in NPC plasma. Collectively, our results identified the significant alteration of blood coagulation pathway in NPC patients, and KLKB1 and TAT may represent the potential NPC biomarkers.

  20. Significance of plasma lead levels in normal and lead-intoxicated children.

    PubMed

    Rosen, J F; Trinidad, E E

    1974-05-01

    Plasma lead (Pb) levels have been measured in normal and lead-intoxicated children, newborns, and children with sickle cell disease. The results in all groups were contant over a wide range of red cell Pb concentration. These results support the thesis that the red cell represents a large repository for Pb, maintaining plasma Pb concentration within closely defined limits, and that methods other than measurements of plasma Pb will be necessary to uncover a presumably dynamic transport system between red cell and plasma. Indeed, we have demonstrated in vitro that ionized calcium (Ca(2+)) lowers red cell Pb content according to a linear dose-response curve. Ca(2+) may thereby control Pb transport from red cell to plasma, and fluctuations in the concentration of Ca(2+) in serum and extracellular fluid may influence the toxic activities of Pb. In bone organ culture, changes in the concentration of Ca(2+) and phosphate in the medium alter the release of previously incorporated (210)Pb from fetal rat bones in response to parathyroid hormone (PTH). Therefore, both PTH and the ionic milieu of the medium apparently regulate bone Pb metabolism.We would expect that understanding further the dynamics of Pb transport in plasma and bone may lead to a more exact definition of the real hazards of low level Pb toxicity in children.

  1. Inverse association of plasma vanadium levels with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes in a Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xia; Sun, Taoping; Liu, Jun; Shan, Zhilei; Jin, Yilin; Chen, Sijing; Bao, Wei; Hu, Frank B; Liu, Liegang

    2014-08-15

    Vanadium compounds have been proposed to have beneficial effects on the pathogenesis and complications of type 2 diabetes. Our objective was to evaluate the association between plasma vanadium levels and type 2 diabetes. We performed a case-control study involving 1,598 Chinese subjects with or without newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes (December 2004-December 2007). Cases and controls were frequency-matched by age and sex. Plasma vanadium concentrations were measured and compared between groups. Analyses showed that plasma vanadium concentrations were significantly lower in cases with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes than in controls (P = 0.001). Mean plasma vanadium levels in participants with and without diabetes were 1.0 μg/L and 1.2 μg/L, respectively. Participants in the highest quartile of plasma vanadium concentration had a notably lower risk of newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes (odds ratio = 0.26, 95% confidence interval: 0.19, 0.35; P < 0.001), compared with persons in the lowest quartile. The trend remained significant after adjustment for known risk factors and in further stratification analyses. Our results suggested that plasma vanadium concentrations were inversely associated with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes in this Chinese population.

  2. Effect of Graphite Addition on Structure and Properties of Ti(CN) Coatings Deposited by Reactive Plasma Spraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mi, Pengbo; He, Jining; Zhao, Hongjian; Ni, Zenglei; Ye, Fuxing

    2016-10-01

    Ti(CN) coatings with graphite addition ranging from 0 to 50 wt.% were prepared using reactive plasma spraying technology and their microstructure, mechanical, and tribological properties were investigated using scanning and transmission electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction analysis, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Vickers microhardness testing, and block-on-ring wear testing. The results showed that graphite addition resulted in crystallite size refinement and an increase in the amount of amorphous phase. The Ti(CN) coatings consisted of a mixture of Ti(CN), graphite, CN x , and amorphous phases. The hardness first increased then decreased as the graphite content was increased, with a maximum of 1450 HV0.2 for 30 wt.% graphite addition. The fracture toughness decreased from 4.38 MPa m1/2 to 2.76 MPa m1/2 with increasing graphite content. The friction coefficient decreased due to unreacted graphite embedded in the matrix. Also, the wear rate first decreased then increased, with a minimum value of 2.65 × 10-6 mm3 N-1 m-1 for 30 wt.% graphite addition. The wear mechanisms of the Ti(CN) coatings included abrasive, adhesive, and oxidation wear.

  3. Interleukin-6 plasma levels and socioeconomic status in Brazilian elderly community-dwelling women.

    PubMed

    de Britto Rosa, Nayza Maciel; de Queiroz, Bárbara Zille; Pereira, Daniele Sirineu; di Sabatino Santos, Mary Luci Avelar; Oliveira, Daniela Matos Garcia; Narciso, Fabrícia Mendes E Silva; Pereira, Leani Souza Máximo

    2011-01-01

    Aging is related to a chronic increase in inflammatory cytokines. Adverse socioeconomic conditions are associated with increased plasma levels of these molecules, especially interleukin (IL)-6. Considering the differential profile of elderly Brazilians regarding their socioeconomic and cultural aspects, the objectives of this study were: to assess the correlation and differences between levels of IL-6 and socioeconomic status (education and income) in elderly women. IL-6 levels were measured using ELISA. The Spearman test was used to determine the correlation between IL-6 and socioeconomic status, and the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests for cytokine level differences across education and income. IL-6 showed a significant inverse correlation with education (r = -0.205, p = 0.014) and income (r = -0.185, p = 0.028). Differences in IL-6 levels were registered across the education variables. The results corroborate evidence that low socioeconomic status is related to higher IL-6 plasma levels in elderly women.

  4. Apolipoprotein gene polymorphisms and plasma levels in healthy Tunisians and patients with coronary artery disease

    PubMed Central

    Bahri, Raoudha; Esteban, Esther; Moral, Pedro; Hassine, Mohsen; Hamda, Khaldoun Ben; Chaabani, Hassen

    2008-01-01

    Aim To analyze apolipoprotein gene polymorphisms in the Tunisian population and to check the relation of these polymorphisms and homocysteine, lipid and apolipoprotein levels to the coronary artery disease (CAD). Methods In healthy blood donors and in patients with CAD complicated by myocardial infarction (MI) four apolipoprotein gene polymorphisms [APO (a) PNR, APO E, APO CI and APO CII] were determined and plasma levels of total homocysteine, total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), HDL-cholesterol (HLD-C) and apolipoproteins (apo A-I, Apo B, Apo E) were measured. Results Analysis of the four apolipoprotein gene polymorphisms shows a relative genetic homogeneity between Tunisian population and those on the other side of Mediterranean basin. Compared to controls, CAD patients have significantly higher main concentrations of TC, TG, LDL-C, apo B and homocysteine, and significantly lower ones of HDL-C, apo A-I and apo E. The four apolipoprotein gene polymorphisms have not showed any significant differences between patients and controls. However, the APO E4 allele appears to be associated to the severity of CAD and to high levels of atherogenic parameters and low level of apo E, which has very likely an anti-atherogenic role. Conclusion Although APO (a) PNR, APO CI and APO CII genes are analyzed in only few populations, they show a frequency distribution, which is not at variance with that of APO E gene and other widely studied genetic markers. In the Tunisian population the APO E 4 appears to be only indirectly involved in the severity of CAD. In the routine practice, in addition of classic parameters, it will be useful to measure the concentration of apo E and that of Homocysteine and if possible to determine the APO E gene polymorphism. PMID:19014618

  5. Effects of Caffeine Supplementation on Plasma and Blood Mononuclear Cell Interleukin-10 Levels After Exercise.

    PubMed

    Tauler, Pedro; Martinez, Sonia; Martinez, Pau; Lozano, Leticia; Moreno, Carlos; Aguiló, Antoni

    2016-02-01

    This study compared the response of interleukin (IL)-10, and also of IL-6 and IL-12 p40, to exercise and caffeine supplementation between plasma and blood mononuclear cells (BMNCs). Participants in the study (n = 28) were randomly allocated in a double-blind fashion to either caffeine (n = 14) or placebo (n = 14) treatments. One hour before completing a 15-km run competition, athletes took 6 mg/kg body mass of caffeine or a placebo. Plasma and BMNCs were purified from blood samples taken before and after competition. Concentrations of interleukins (IL-10, IL-6, and IL-12 p40), cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), caffeine, adrenaline, and cortisol were measured in plasma. IL-10, IL-6, and IL-12 p40 and cAMP levels were also determined in BMNCs. Exercise induced significant increases in IL-6 and IL-10 plasma levels, with higher increases in the caffeine-supplemented group. After 2-hr recovery, these levels returned to almost preexercise values. However, no effect of caffeine on BMNC cytokines was observed. IL-10, IL-6, and IL-12 p40 levels in BMNCs increased mainly at 2 hr postexercise. cAMP levels increased postexercise in plasma and after recovery in BMNCs, but no effects of caffeine were observed. In conclusion, caffeine did not modify cytokine levels in BMNCs in response to exercise. However, higher increases of IL-10 were observed in plasma after exercise in the supplemented participants, which could suppose an enhancement of the anti-inflammatory properties of exercise.

  6. Effects of Caffeine Supplementation on Plasma and Blood Mononuclear Cell Interleukin-10 Levels After Exercise.

    PubMed

    Tauler, Pedro; Martinez, Sonia; Martinez, Pau; Lozano, Leticia; Moreno, Carlos; Aguiló, Antoni

    2016-02-01

    This study compared the response of interleukin (IL)-10, and also of IL-6 and IL-12 p40, to exercise and caffeine supplementation between plasma and blood mononuclear cells (BMNCs). Participants in the study (n = 28) were randomly allocated in a double-blind fashion to either caffeine (n = 14) or placebo (n = 14) treatments. One hour before completing a 15-km run competition, athletes took 6 mg/kg body mass of caffeine or a placebo. Plasma and BMNCs were purified from blood samples taken before and after competition. Concentrations of interleukins (IL-10, IL-6, and IL-12 p40), cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), caffeine, adrenaline, and cortisol were measured in plasma. IL-10, IL-6, and IL-12 p40 and cAMP levels were also determined in BMNCs. Exercise induced significant increases in IL-6 and IL-10 plasma levels, with higher increases in the caffeine-supplemented group. After 2-hr recovery, these levels returned to almost preexercise values. However, no effect of caffeine on BMNC cytokines was observed. IL-10, IL-6, and IL-12 p40 levels in BMNCs increased mainly at 2 hr postexercise. cAMP levels increased postexercise in plasma and after recovery in BMNCs, but no effects of caffeine were observed. In conclusion, caffeine did not modify cytokine levels in BMNCs in response to exercise. However, higher increases of IL-10 were observed in plasma after exercise in the supplemented participants, which could suppose an enhancement of the anti-inflammatory properties of exercise. PMID:26132827

  7. Plasma levels of N-telopeptide of Type I collagen in periodontal health, disease and after treatment

    PubMed Central

    Aruna, Ganganna

    2016-01-01

    Background: To determine plasma concentrations of bone resorption marker cross-linked N-terminal telopeptide (NTx) of Type I collagen in periodontal health, disease and after nonsurgical periodontal therapy in chronic periodontitis group. In addition, to know the association between plasma NTx levels and the different clinical parameters. Materials and Methods: Thirty subjects were divided on the basis of their periodontal status and were categorized as Group I: Healthy, Group II: Gingivitis, and Group III: Chronic periodontitis. Group III subjects were treated with scaling and root planing, 6-8 weeks later blood samples were analyzed, and they constituted Group IV. NTx levels in plasma were analyzed by competitive - enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. All data were analyzed using statistical software (SPSS) (α = 0.05). Results: All the samples tested positive for the presence of NTx. The mean NTx concentration was highest in Group III (18.77 nanomole Bone Collagen Equivalent [nm BCE]) and the lowest in Group IV (16.02 nm BCE). The values of Group I and Group II fell between the highest and the lowest values (16.23 nm BCE and 16.70 nm BCE, respectively). The difference in mean NTx levels in Group III and Group IV were statistically significant. NTx levels in all the groups positively correlated with the clinical parameters. All data were analyzed using statistical software (SPSS) (α = 0.05). Conclusion: Within the limits of this study, it may be suggested that plasma NTx levels may provide distinguishing data between periodontally healthy diseased sites and after nonsurgical therapy of diseased sites. PMID:26962311

  8. Plasma selenium levels in healthy blood bank donors in the central-eastern part of Belgium.

    PubMed

    Van Cauwenbergh, Rudy; Robberecht, Harry; Van Vlaslaer, Veerle; De Smet, Annie; Emonds, Marie-Paule; Hermans, Nina

    2007-01-01

    Graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry, with Zeeman background correction and after improved matrix modification, was used to measure the plasma selenium content of healthy blood bank donors in the central part of Belgium. The mean plasma selenium concentration of 80 men and 80 women was 79.7+/-4.4ng/mL with a range of 55.0-117.4ng/mL. There was no gender difference observed. Plasma selenium level was significantly highest for the adult group, aged 45-64 years, compared to the others, except the young adults (18-24 years). The mean plasma selenium concentration measured corresponded well with literature data for Belgium. The obtained values were found to be in the medium range, compared with recent literature values for the European countries. PMID:17980813

  9. Increase of EPA-derived hydroxy, epoxy and dihydroxy fatty acid levels in human plasma after a single dose of long-chain omega-3 PUFA

    PubMed Central

    Schuchardt, Jan Philipp; Schneider, Inga; Willenberg, Ina; Yang, Jun; Hammock, Bruce D.; Hahn, Andreas; Schebb, Nils Helge

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Several supplementation studies with long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFA) describe an increase of EPA-derived hydroxy, epoxy and dihydroxy fatty acids in blood, while changes in levels of other LC n-3 and n-6 PUFA-derived oxylipins were minor. In order to investigate the kinetics of changes in oxylipin levels in response to LC n-3 PUFA ingestion, we conducted a single dose treatment study with healthy subjects. Subjects and methods In the present kinetic study, we compared patterns of hydroxy, epoxy and dihydroxy fatty acids in plasma of 6 healthy men before and after 6, 8, 24, and 48 h of fish oil (1008 mg EPA and 672 mg DHA) ingestion. Levels of EPA- as well as other LC PUFA-derived hydroxy, epoxy and dihydroxy fatty acids were analyzed in plasma by LC–MS. Additionally, levels of these oxylipins were compared with their parent PUFA levels in plasma phospholipids. Results All EPA-derived oxylipin levels were significantly increased 6 h after LC n-3 PUFA ingestion and gradually drop thereafter reaching the baseline levels about 48 h after treatment. The relative increase in EPA plasma phospholipid levels highly correlated with the increase of plasma EPA-derived oxylipin levels at different time points. In contrast, plasma levels of arachidonic acid- and DHA-derived oxylipins as well as parent PUFA levels in plasma phospholipids were hardly changed. Discussion and conclusions Our findings demonstrate that a single dose of LC n-3 PUFAs can rapidly induce a shift in the EPA oxylipin profile of healthy subjects within a few hours. Taking the high biological activity of the EPA-derived epoxy fatty acids into account, even short-term treatment with LC n-3 PUFAs may cause systemic effects, which warrant further investigation. PMID:24667634

  10. Relationship between Prolactin Plasma Levels and White Matter Volume in Women with Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    De Giglio, L.; Marinelli, F.; Prosperini, L.; Contessa, G. M.; Gurreri, F.; Piattella, M. C.; De Angelis, F.; Barletta, V. T.; Tomassini, V.; Pantano, P.; Pozzilli, C.

    2015-01-01

    Background. The role of prolactin (PRL) on tissue injury and repair mechanisms in multiple sclerosis (MS) remains unclear. The aim of this work was to investigate the relationship between PRL plasma levels and brain damage as measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods. We employed a chemiluminescence immunoassay for measuring plasma levels of PRL. We used a 1.5 T scanner to acquire images and Jim 4.0 and SIENAX software to analyse them. Results. We included 106 women with relapsing remitting (RR) MS and stable disease in the last two months. There was no difference in PRL plasma levels between patients with and without gadolinium enhancement on MRI. PRL plasma levels correlated with white matter volume (WMV) (rho = 0.284, p = 0.014) but not with grey matter volume (GMV). Moreover, PRL levels predicted changes in WMV (Beta: 984, p = 0.034). Conclusions. Our data of a positive association between PRL serum levels and WMV support the role of PRL in promoting myelin repair as documented in animal models of demyelination. The lack of an increase of PRL in the presence of gadolinium enhancement, contrasts with the view considering this hormone as an immune-stimulating and detrimental factor in the inflammatory process associated with MS. PMID:26236110

  11. The effect of vegetarian diets on plasma lipid and platelet levels.

    PubMed

    Fisher, M; Levine, P H; Weiner, B; Ockene, I S; Johnson, B; Johnson, M H; Natale, A M; Vaudreuil, C H; Hoogasian, J

    1986-06-01

    Vegetarians have an apparent diminished risk for the development of ischemic coronary heart disease. This may be secondary to dietary effects of plasma lipids and lipoproteins, but platelets, which may also play a role, have also been observed to have aberrant functions in vegetarians. We measured plasma lipid and lipoprotein levels, platelet function, platelet fatty acid levels, and platelet active prostaglandins in ten strict vegetarians (vegans), 15 lactovegetarians, and 25 age- and sex-matched omnivorous controls. The most striking observations were a highly significant rise in platelet linoleic acid concentration and a decline in platelet arachidonic acid concentration in both vegetarian subgroups as compared with omnivorous controls. Serum thromboxane and prostacyclin levels as well as results of platelet aggregation studies did not differ among the groups tested. Cholesterol levels were significantly lower in both vegetarian groups as compared with controls, but plasma high- and low-density lipoprotein levels were lower only in the vegan subgroup as compared with omnivores. If diet produces these changes in platelet fatty acid and plasma lipid levels it may contribute to the decreased risk of coronary heart disease and possibly atherosclerosis in vegetarians.

  12. Diurnal Variation in Oral Glucose Tolerance: Blood Sugar and Plasma Insulin Levels Morning, Afternoon, and Evening

    PubMed Central

    Jarrett, R. J.; Baker, I. A.; Keen, H.; Oakley, N. W.

    1972-01-01

    Twenty-four subjects received three oral glucose tolerance tests, in the morning, afternoon, and evening of separate days. The mean blood sugar levels in the afternoon and evening tests were similar, and they were both significantly higher than those in the morning test. Plasma immunoreactive insulin levels, however, were highest in the morning test. The pattern of insulin levels during the afternoon and evening tests resembled that described as typical of maturity-onset diabetes. PMID:5058728

  13. Effect of some psychoactive drugs on stress induced alteration in plasma corticosterone level.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, S P; Ahmad, M; Ahmed, S I; Najam, R; Khurshid, S J

    1995-06-01

    Psychoactive drugs such as chlorpromazine, fluphenazine, haloperidol, propranolol and diazepam were evaluated for their ability to block stress induced changes in Wistar albino rats. The stress induced changes were monitored as the difference in plasma corticosterone (PCS) levels, before and after the administration of minimum effective doses of psychoactive drugs. Significant results were obtained with diazepam at the dose of 5-10 mg/kg and to a lesser extent with propranolol 20 mg/kg. Other drugs, at their minimum effective doses showed no significant change in plasma corticosterone levels.

  14. Assays to measure nanomolar levels of the renin inhibitor CGP 38 560 in plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Cumin, F.; de Gasparo, M.; Wood, J.M.; Schnell, C.; Frueh, F.; Graf, P. )

    1989-10-01

    A radioinhibitor binding assay and an enzyme inhibition assay have been developed to measure plasma levels of CGP 38 560, a potent human renin inhibitor. The detection limit of the assays was between 0.5 and 1 pmol/ml. There was a good correlation (r = 0.989) between the two assays for the measurement of human plasma spiked with CGP 38 560 in concentrations from 1.9 nM to 12 microM. Intra-assay variability was 6.1-17.3% and 4.4-27.2% for the radioinhibitor binding assay and the enzyme inhibition assay, respectively. Interassay variability was 6.0-28.2% and 3.8-28.4% for the radioinhibitor binding assay and the enzyme inhibition assay, respectively. Blood samples were collected during a pharmacological study performed in normotensive human volunteers on an unrestricted diet who were infused during a 30-minute period with CGP 38 560 A (50 micrograms/kg). Similar values for the concentrations of renin inhibitor in plasma were obtained with the radioinhibitor binding assay and the enzyme inhibitor assay, and there was a significant correlation between values obtained with the two different methodologies (r = 0.94). The plasma levels of renin inhibitor reached a maximum at the end of infusion and then decreased rapidly, indicating a short plasma half-life. The changes in biochemical parameters, plasma renin activity, and plasma concentration of active renin could be related to the concentrations of CGP 38 560 measured in the plasma.

  15. Epipolymorphisms within lipoprotein genes contribute independently to plasma lipid levels in familial hypercholesterolemia

    PubMed Central

    Guay, Simon-Pierre; Brisson, Diane; Lamarche, Benoit; Gaudet, Daniel; Bouchard, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    Gene polymorphisms associated so far with plasma lipid concentrations explain only a fraction of their heritability, which can reach up to 60%. Recent studies suggest that epigenetic modifications (DNA methylation) could contribute to explain part of this missing heritability. We therefore assessed whether the DNA methylation of key lipoprotein metabolism genes is associated with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglyceride levels in patients with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH). Untreated FH patients (61 men and 37 women) were recruited for the measurement of blood DNA methylation levels at the ABCG1, LIPC, PLTP and SCARB1 gene loci using bisulfite pyrosequencing. ABCG1, LIPC and PLTP DNA methylation was significantly associated with HDL-C, LDL-C and triglyceride levels in a sex-specific manner (all P < 0.05). FH subjects with previous history of coronary artery disease (CAD) had higher LIPC DNA methylation levels compared with FH subjects without CAD (P = 0.02). Sex-specific multivariable linear regression models showed that new and previously reported epipolymorphisms (ABCG1-CpGC3, LIPC-CpGA2, mean PLTP-CpGC, LPL-CpGA3, CETP-CpGA2, and CETP-CpGB2) significantly contribute to variations in plasma lipid levels (all P < 0.001 in men and P < 0.02 in women), independently of traditional predictors such as age, waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting plasma lipids and glucose levels. These results suggest that epigenetic perturbations of key lipoprotein metabolism genes are associated with plasma lipid levels, contribute to the interindividual variability and might partially explain the missing heritability of plasma lipid levels, at least in FH. PMID:24504152

  16. Association between plasma selenium level and NRF2 target genes expression in humans.

    PubMed

    Reszka, Edyta; Wieczorek, Edyta; Jablonska, Ewa; Janasik, Beata; Fendler, Wojciech; Wasowicz, Wojciech

    2015-04-01

    Animal studies in rodent and in vitro studies indicate compensatory role of nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like (Nrf2) and Nrf2-regulated antioxidant and phase II biotransformation enzymes for the dietary selenium (Se) deficiency or for the loss of selenoproteins. To explore associations between plasma Se level and NRF2-regulated cytoprotective genes expression, an observational study was conducted in a population of 96 healthy non-smoking men living in Central Poland aged 18-83 years with relatively low plasma Se level. NRF2, KEAP2, CAT, EPHX1, GCLC, GCLM, GPX2, GSR, GSTA1, GSTM1, GSTP1, GSTT1, HMOX1, NQO1, PRDX1, SOD1, SOD2, TXNRD1 transcript levels in peripheral blood leukocytes and polymorphism of NRF2-617C/A (rs6721961) in blood genomic DNA were determined by means of quantitative real-time PCR. Mean plasma Se level was found to be 51.10±15.25μg/L (range 23.86-96.18μg/L). NRF2 mRNA level was positively correlated with expression of investigated NRF2-target genes. The multivariate linear regression adjusting for selenium status showed that plasma Se level was significantly inversely associated only with expression of GSTP1 (β-coef.=-0.270, p=0.009), PRDXR1 (β-coef.=-0.245, p=0.017) and SOD2 with an inverse trend toward significance (β-coef.=-0.186, p=0.074), but without an effect of NRF2 gene variants. NRF2 expression was inversely associated with age (r=-0.23, p=0.03) and body mass index (r=-0.29, p<0.001). The findings may suggest a possible link between plasma Se level and cytoprotective response at gene level in humans. PMID:25524402

  17. Plasma oxytocin levels predict social cue recognition in individuals with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Strauss, Gregory P; Keller, William R; Koenig, James I; Gold, James M; Frost, Katherine H; Buchanan, Robert W

    2015-03-01

    Lower endogenous levels of the neuropeptide oxytocin may be an important biological predictor of social cognition impairments in schizophrenia (SZ). Prior studies have demonstrated that lower-level social cognitive processes (e.g., facial affect perception) are significantly associated with reduced plasma oxytocin levels in SZ; however, it is unclear whether higher-level social cognition, which requires inferential processes and knowledge not directly presented in the stimulus, is associated with endogenous oxytocin. The current study explored the association between endogenous oxytocin levels and lower- and higher-level social cognition in 40 individuals diagnosed with SZ and 22 demographically matched healthy controls (CN). All participants received the Social Cue Recognition Test (SCRT), which presents participants with videotaped interpersonal vignettes and subsequent true/false questions related to concrete or abstract aspects of social interactions in the vignettes. Results indicated that SZ had significantly higher plasma oxytocin concentrations than CN. SZ and CN did not differ on SCRT hits, but SZ had more false positives and lower sensitivity scores than CN. Higher plasma oxytocin levels were associated with better sensitivity scores for abstract items in CN and fewer false positives for concrete items in individuals with SZ. Findings indicate that endogenous oxytocin levels predict accurate encoding of lower-level socially relevant information in SZ. PMID:25673435

  18. A dominant role of oxygen additive on cold atmospheric-pressure He + O{sub 2} plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Aijun; Liu, Dingxin E-mail: xhw@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Rong, Mingzhe; Wang, Xiaohua E-mail: xhw@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Kong, Michael G.

    2014-08-15

    We present in this paper how oxygen additive impacts on the cold atmospheric-pressure helium plasmas by means of a one-dimensional fluid model. For the oxygen concentration [O{sub 2}] > ∼0.1%, the influence of oxygen on the electron characteristics and the power dissipation becomes important, e.g., the electron density, the electron temperature in sheath, the electron-coupling power, and the sheath width decreasing by 1.6 to 16 folds with a two-log increase in [O{sub 2}] from 0.1% to 10%. Also the discharge mode evolves from the γ mode to the α mode. The reactive oxygen species are found to peak in the narrow range of [O{sub 2}] = 0.4%–0.9% in the plasmas, similar to their power-coupling values. This applies to their wall fluxes except for those of O* and O{sub 2}{sup −}. These two species have very short lifetimes, thus only when generated in boundary layers within several micrometers next to the electrode can contribute to the fluxes. The dominant reactive oxygen species and the corresponding main reactions are schematically presented, and their relations are quantified for selected applications.

  19. Gastric emptying and plasma levels of gastrointestinal hormones in patients with peptic ulcer

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jian; Li, Jun-Man; Li, Xue-Hui; Hao, Hong-Sheng; Fu, Shu-Hua

    1997-01-01

    AIM: To study the plasma level of gastrointestinal hormones and the time of gastric emptying in patients with peptic ulcer. METHODS: Thirty patients with gastric ulcer (GU), 29 patients with duodenal ulcer (DU), and 12 healthy controls were studied. Plasma levels of somatostatin (SS), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and substance P (SP) were measured by radioimmunoassay. Gastric emptying half-time (GET1/2) was measured by the TC-99m resin/solid meal method. RESULTS: GET1/2 was significantly longer in the GU patients than that in the healthy controls (65.9 ± 14.8 min vs 53.3 ± 4.3 min, P < 0.01) and plasma VIP levels were significantly higher (37.5 ± 10.7 ng/L vs 18.4 ± 5.9 ng/L, P < 0.05).There was a significant positive correlation between GET1/2 and plasma VIP levels (r = 0.55, P < 0.01). No significant differences were found in SS and SP levels when GU patients were compared with healthy controls (P > 0.05). GET1/2 was markedly shorter in the DU patients than in the healthy controls (41.7 ± 10.2 min vs 53.3 ± 4.3 min, P < 0.01) and plasma SS levels were significantly lower (6.4 ± 2.5 ng/L vs 11.9 ± 3.4 ng/L, P < 0.01). There was a significant positive correlation between GET1/2 and SS levels (r = 0.56, P < 0.01). Plasma SP levels in the DU patients were significantly higher than those in the healthy controls (54.4 ± 12.7 ng/L vs 41.6 ± 5.8 ng/L, P < 0.01). There was a significant negative correlation between GET1/2 and SP levels (r = -0.68, P < 0.01). No significant differences were found in the plasma VIP levels when DU patient were compared to healthy controls (P > 0.05). CONCLUSION: Elevation in VIP may contribute to occurrence of GU and its associated delay in GET1/2. Increased SP and reduced SS may play important roles in GET1/2 acceleration and in the pathogensis of DU. PMID:27053894

  20. Effects of chronic sleep deprivation on autonomic activity by examining heart rate variability, plasma catecholamine, and intracellular magnesium levels.

    PubMed

    Takase, Bonpei; Akima, Takashi; Satomura, Kimio; Ohsuzu, Fumitaka; Mastui, Takemi; Ishihara, Masayuki; Kurita, Akira

    2004-10-01

    Chronic sleep deprivation is associated with cardiovascular events. In addition, autonomic activity determined from the levels of the heart rate variability (HRV), plasma catecholamine, and intracellular magnesium (Mg) are important in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular events. This study therefore aimed to determine the effects of chronic sleep deprivation on autonomic activity by examining the HRV, plasma catecholamine, and intracellular magnesium levels. Thirty (30) healthy male college students ranging in age from 20 to 24 years of age (average 22 +/- 1 years; mean +/- SD) with no coronary risk factors such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia or a family history of premature coronary artery disease (CAD) were included in the study. Over a 4-week period, the volunteers' plasma levels of epinephrine, norepinephrine, and erythrocyte-Mg were measured. The study was made during the 4 weeks before and immediately after college finals exams. HRV, obtained from 24-hour ambulatory ECG monitoring, included time and frequency domain indices. The HRV indices and erythrocyte-Mg decreased while norepinephrine increased during chronic sleep deprivation. It is concluded that chronic sleep deprivation causes an autonomic imbalance and decreases intracellular Mg, which could be associated with chronic sleep deprivation-induced cardiovascular events. PMID:15754837

  1. Plasma miRNA levels correlate with sensitivity to bone mineral density in postmenopausal osteoporosis patients.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongqiu; Wang, Zhe; Fu, Qin; Zhang, Jing

    2014-11-01

    In our study, we detect the levels of three micro-RNAs (miRNAs; miR-21, miR-133a and miR-146a) in the plasma of 120 Chinese postmenopausal women who were divided into three groups (normal, osteopenia and osteoporosis) according to the T-scores. Downregulation of miR-21, as well as upregulation of miR-133a, was validated in the plasma of osteoporosis and osteopenia patients versus the normal group. The difference in expression regarding the miR-146a level in plasma among the three groups was not significant (p > 0.01). The circulating miRNA expression levels and bone mineral density (BMD) were examined during a multiple correlation analysis as a dependent variable after adjusting for age, weight and height. We have demonstrated that specific miRNAs species are significantly changed in the plasma of osteoporosis and osteopenia patients and correlated with the BMD. Our study suggested a potential use of miR-21 and miR-133a as sensitive and plasma biomarkers for postmenopausal osteoporosis.

  2. Genetic variants in ABCA1 promoter affect transcription activity and plasma HDL level in pigs.

    PubMed

    Dang, Xiao-yong; Chu, Wei-wei; Shi, Heng-chuan; Yu, Shi-gang; Han, Hai-yin; Gu, Shu-Hua; Chen, Jie

    2015-01-25

    Excess accumulation of cholesterol in plasma may result in coronary artery disease. Numerous studies have demonstrated that ATP-binding cassette protein A1 (ABCA1) mediates the efflux of cholesterol and phospholipids to apolipoproteins, a process necessary for plasma high density lipoprotein (HDL) formation. Higher plasma levels of HDL are associated with lower risk for cardiovascular disease. Studies of human disease and animal models had shown that an increased hepatic ABCA1 activity relates to an enhanced plasma HDL level. In this study, we hypothesized that functional mutations in the ABCA1 promoter in pigs may affect gene transcription activity, and consequently the HDL level in plasma. The promoter region of ABCA1 was comparatively scanned by direct sequencing with pool DNA of high- and low-HDL groups (n=30 for each group). Two polymorphisms, c. - 608A>G and c. - 418T>A, were revealed with reverse allele distribution in the two groups. The two polymorphisms were completely linked and formed only G-A or A-T haplotypes when genotyped in a larger population (n=526). Furthermore, we found that the G-A/G-A genotype was associated with higher HDL and ABCA1 mRNA level than A-T/A-T genotype. Luciferase assay also revealed that G-A haplotype promoter had higher activity than A-T haplotype. Single-nucleotide mutant assay showed that c.-418T>A was the causal mutation for ABCA1 transcription activity alteration. Conclusively, we identified two completely linked SNPs in porcine ABCA1 promoter region which have influence on the plasma HDL level by altering ABCA1 gene transcriptional activity.

  3. Coenzyme Q10, carotenoid, tocopherol, and retinol levels in cord plasma from multiethnic subjects in Hawaii

    PubMed Central

    Franke, AA; Lai, J.F.; Morrison, C.M.; Pagano, I.; Li, X; Halm, B.M.; Soon, R.; Custer, L.J.

    2015-01-01

    Coenzyme Q10 (Q10), carotenoids, tocopherols, and retinol are the major circulating lipid-phase micronutrients (LPM) known to help mitigate oxidative damage and prevent chronic diseases. However, the functions of these compounds in newborns are little understood. This is due, in part, to the paucity of studies reporting their concentrations in this population. We measured Q10, carotenoids, tocopherols, and retinol in cord plasma from 100 multiethnic subjects living in Hawaii using HPLC with diode array and electrochemical detection. Appropriate internal standards were used including, for the first time, custom designed oxidized (UN10) and reduced (UL10) Q10 analogues. These compounds reflected the oxidation of UL10 to UN10 that occurred during sample processing and analysis and thus permitted accurate adjustments of natively circulating Q10 levels. All LPM measured were much lower in cord than in peripheral plasma. Cord plasma levels of total carotenoids, tocopherols, and retinol were approximately 10-fold, 3- to 5-fold and 1.5- to 3-fold lower than those in children or women. Cord plasma levels of total Q10 (TQ10; median, 113 ng/mL) were approximately 2-fold or 7- to 9-fold lower than peripheral plasma levels of neonates or children and adults, respectively. In contrast, the UN10/TQ10 ratio was substantially higher in cord (24%) than in peripheral plasma of children (3 – 4%) or adults (9%). Among the 5 ethnic groups in our cohort, no differences were observed in the levels of UN10, UL10, or TQ10. However, significant differences in many of the LPM were observed between ethnicities. More research is needed to explain these phenomena. PMID:23829202

  4. Plasma and CSF herpes simplex virus levels at diagnosis and outcome of neonatal infection

    PubMed Central

    Melvin, Ann J.; Mohan, Kathleen M.; Schiffer, Joshua T; Drolette, Linda M; Magaret, Amalia; Corey, Lawrence; Wald, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the utility of quantitative herpes simplex virus (HSV) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) levels for prognosis and management of neonatal HSV disease. Study design Clinical and virologic data were abstracted by medical record review from neonatal HSV cases treated at Seattle Children’s Hospital between 1993 and 2012. HSV PCR results from plasma (n= 47), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) (n=56) or both (n=40) at the time of diagnosis were available from 63 infants; 26 with skin/eye/mouth (SEM), 18 with central nervous system (CNS) and 19 with disseminated (DIS) disease. Results Plasma HSV PCR was positive in 78% of the infants with SEM, 64% with CNS and 100% with DIS disease. Mean plasma viral level was 2.8 log10 copies/mL in SEM, 2.2 log10 copies/ml in CNS, and 7.2 log10 copies/ml in DIS infants. The HSV levels were higher among infants who died compared with surviving infants, 8.1 log10 copies/mL (range 7.7–8.6) vs 3.8 log10 copies/ml (range 0.0–8.6), p=0.001, however, level of HSV DNA in the CSF or in plasma did not correlate with neurologic outcome. Dynamics of HSV clearance from plasma during high-dose acyclovir treatment showed single-phase exponential decay with a median viral half-life of 1.26 days (range: 0.8 – 1.51). Conclusion Plasma HSV levels correlate with clinical presentation of neonatal HSV disease and mortality, but not neurologic outcome. PMID:25491092

  5. Infantile Refsum Disease: Influence of Dietary Treatment on Plasma Phytanic Acid Levels.

    PubMed

    Sá, Maria João Nabais; Rocha, Júlio C; Almeida, Manuela F; Carmona, Carla; Martins, Esmeralda; Miranda, Vasco; Coutinho, Miguel; Ferreira, Rita; Pacheco, Sara; Laranjeira, Francisco; Ribeiro, Isaura; Fortuna, Ana Maria; Lacerda, Lúcia

    2016-01-01

    Infantile Refsum disease (IRD) is one of the less severe of Zellweger spectrum disorders (ZSDs), a group of peroxisomal biogenesis disorders resulting from a generalized peroxisomal function impairment. Increased plasma levels of very long chain fatty acids (VLCFA) and phytanic acid are biomarkers used in IRD diagnosis. Furthermore, an increased plasma level of phytanic acid is known to be associated with neurologic damage. Treatment of IRD is symptomatic and multidisciplinary.The authors report a 3-year-old child, born from consanguineous parents, who presented with developmental delay, retinitis pigmentosa, sensorineural deafness and craniofacial dysmorphisms. While the relative level of plasma C26:0 was slightly increased, other VLCFA were normal. Thus, a detailed characterization of the phenotype was essential to point to a ZSD. Repeatedly increased levels of plasma VLCFA, along with phytanic acid and pristanic acid, deficient dihydroxyacetone phosphate acyltransferase activity in fibroblasts and identification of the homozygous pathogenic mutation c.2528G>A (p.Gly843Asp) in the PEX1 gene, confirmed this diagnosis. Nutritional advice and follow-up was proposed aiming phytanic acid dietary intake reduction. During dietary treatment, plasma levels of phytanic acid decreased to normal, and the patient's development evaluation showed slow progressive acquisition of new competences.This case report highlights the relevance of considering a ZSD in any child with developmental delay who manifests hearing and visual impairment and of performing a systematic biochemical investigation, when plasma VLCFA are mildly increased. During dietary intervention, a biochemical improvement was observed, and the long-term clinical effect of this approach needs to be evaluated.

  6. Relationship between plasma level of vitamin D and post operative atrial fibrillation in patients undergoing CABG

    PubMed Central

    Shadvar, Kamran; Ramezani, Fariba; Sanaie, Sarvin; Maleki, Taher Entezari; Arbat, Babak Kazemi; Nagipour, Bahman

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Atrial fibrillation is the most common arrhythmia after cardiac surgery. Several studies have shown the impact of vitamin D on heart disease; however, there have been few studies for the incidence of AF and its relationship with vitamin D levels. According to the different results of these studies, we decided to evaluate the relation of plasma levels of vitamin D and postoperative atrial fibrillation in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG). Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed on 50 patients after CABG surgery. Simple random sampling was done. Twenty five patients who developed AF within 48 hours after CABG with Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) were enrolled in the case group and 25 patients who did not develop AF within 48 hours after CABG with CPB were enrolled in the control group. Plasma levels of vitamin D in both groups of patients were recorded. Collected data were analyzed by the SPSS software version 17. Results: There was no significant difference in terms of demographic characteristics, comorbidities, lipid profile and kidney function between two groups. The mean plasma level of vitamin D was 27.4 ± 2.22 ng/ml in the case group and was 28.2 ± 1.18 ng/ml in the control group it (p= 0.803). Conclusions: Plasma levels of vitamin D were almost the same in both groups and there was no statistically significant difference between the groups with and without atrial fibrillation following CABG.

  7. Stereospecific effects of morphine on plasma opioid peptide levels and nociception in dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, M.L.; Morris, D.L.; Dewey, W.L.

    1986-03-05

    ..beta..-endorphin, (met)enkephalin, and (leu)enkephalin were quantitated in canine plasma by radioimmunoassay (RIA) after extraction of the peptides on Sep Pak C18 cartridges. Plasma samples were taken one hour after a 10 mg/kg s.c. injection of (-)-morphine SO/sub 4/ or (+)-morphine HBr. Antinociception, measured by a dog tail-flick test, and morphine-induced emesis, salivation, diarrhea, and ataxia were quantitated before sampling. Control levels for each dog were taken one week earlier at the same time of day after saline injections. Antinociception, morphine signs, and opioid peptide levels in plasma were significantly increased by (-)-morphine. Antinociception increased from zero to 83.54 +/- 11.0%. The number of morphine signs increased from zero to 2.9 +/- 0.28 per dog. ..beta..-endorphin levels increased from 44.52 +/- 4.25 to 90.6 +/- 7.38 pg/ml; (met)enkephalin levels increased from 253.56 +/- 22.04 to 497.1 +/- 58.12 pg/ml; (leu)-enkephalin increased from 141.65 +/- 12.9 to 313.24 +/- 35.95 pg/ml. None of these effects were observed in the dogs that received (+)-morphine. The conclude that morphine stereospecifically inhibits nociception, induces observable signs, and increases plasma opioid peptide levels in dogs.

  8. Relationship between plasma level of vitamin D and post operative atrial fibrillation in patients undergoing CABG

    PubMed Central

    Shadvar, Kamran; Ramezani, Fariba; Sanaie, Sarvin; Maleki, Taher Entezari; Arbat, Babak Kazemi; Nagipour, Bahman

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Atrial fibrillation is the most common arrhythmia after cardiac surgery. Several studies have shown the impact of vitamin D on heart disease; however, there have been few studies for the incidence of AF and its relationship with vitamin D levels. According to the different results of these studies, we decided to evaluate the relation of plasma levels of vitamin D and postoperative atrial fibrillation in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG). Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed on 50 patients after CABG surgery. Simple random sampling was done. Twenty five patients who developed AF within 48 hours after CABG with Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) were enrolled in the case group and 25 patients who did not develop AF within 48 hours after CABG with CPB were enrolled in the control group. Plasma levels of vitamin D in both groups of patients were recorded. Collected data were analyzed by the SPSS software version 17. Results: There was no significant difference in terms of demographic characteristics, comorbidities, lipid profile and kidney function between two groups. The mean plasma level of vitamin D was 27.4 ± 2.22 ng/ml in the case group and was 28.2 ± 1.18 ng/ml in the control group it (p= 0.803). Conclusions: Plasma levels of vitamin D were almost the same in both groups and there was no statistically significant difference between the groups with and without atrial fibrillation following CABG. PMID:27648036

  9. Genetic variants in PLG, LPA, and SIGLEC 14 as well as smoking contribute to plasma plasminogen levels

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Qianyi; Ozel, Ayse B.; Ramdas, Shweta; McGee, Beth; Khoriaty, Rami; Siemieniak, David; Li, Hong-Dong; Guan, Yuanfang; Brody, Lawrence C.; Mills, James L.; Molloy, Anne M.; Ginsburg, David; Li, Jun Z.

    2014-01-01

    Plasminogen is the precursor of the serine protease plasmin, a central enzyme of the fibrinolytic system. Plasma levels of plasminogen vary by almost 2-fold among healthy individuals, yet little is known about its heritability or genetic determinants in the general population. In order to identify genetic factors affecting the natural variation of plasminogen levels, we performed a genome-wide association study and linkage analysis in a sample of 3456 young healthy individuals who participated in the Genes and Blood Clotting Study (GABC) or the Trinity Student Study (TSS). Heritability of plasminogen levels was 48.1% to 60.0%. Tobacco smoking and female sex were associated with higher levels of plasminogen. In the meta-analysis, 11 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 2 regions reached genome-wide significance (P < 5.0E-8). Of these, 9 SNPs were near the PLG or LPA genes on Chr6q26, whereas 2 were on Chr19q13 and 5′ upstream of SIGLEC14. These 11 SNPs represented 4 independent signals and collectively explained 6.8% of plasminogen level variation in the study populations. The strongest association was observed for a nonsynonymous SNP in the PLG gene (R523W). Individuals bearing an additional copy of this allele had an average decrease of 13.4% in plasma plasminogen level. PMID:25208887

  10. Plasma levels of DDT and their association with reproductive hormones in adult men from northern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Asawasinsopon, R; Prapamontol, T; Prakobvitayakit, O; Vaneesorn, Y; Mangklabruks, A; Hock, B

    2006-02-15

    Historically, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) was used in northern Thailand for malaria control and farming purposes. Several studies have investigated its effects on end points of adverse reproductive health outcomes. However, the few previous studies investigated hormonal effects in men and available data are inconclusive. The authors aimed to explore the main hypothesis that plasma DDT levels in adult men were associated with reproductive hormone levels. A cross-sectional study was performed of 97 adult men living in a highland village named Mae Sa Mai, 35 km north of Chiang Mai, Thailand. Venous blood samples were collected for measuring plasma levels of DDT and its metabolites and reproductive hormones, including 17beta-estradiol (E2), testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH), and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH). 1,1-Dichloro-2,2-di(4-chlorophenyl)ethylene (p,p'-DDE) and 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-di(4-chlorophenyl)ethane (p,p'-DDT) were detected in all plasma samples. p,p'-DDE had the highest level with a median of 4057.7 ng/g lipids and a relatively higher level compared with most other studies. Plasma p,p'-DDT levels were positively associated with years of residence (beta+SE=0.472+0.208, P=0.028) and years of DDT usage for farming (beta+SE=0.177+0.084, P=0.04). The remarkable findings were the negative association of plasma E2 levels with plasma p,p'-DDE levels (beta+SE=-7.093+2.899, P=0.016) and the positive association with plasma 1,1-dichloro-2-(2-chlorophenyl)-2-(4-chlorophynyl)ethylene (o,p'-DDE) levels (beta+SE=16.381+5.596, P=0.008) after adjusting for age and body mass index (BMI). However, these associations were rather weak. Our results suggest that these associations may reflect their different mechanisms of hormonal activities and they would be warrant further detail investigations.

  11. Higher plasma level of STIM1, OPG are correlated with stent restenosis after PCI

    PubMed Central

    Li, Haibin; Jiang, Zhian; Liu, Xiangdong; Yang, Zhihui

    2015-01-01

    Object: Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (PCI) is one of the most effective treatments for Coronary Heart Disease (CHD), but the high rate of In Stent Restenosis (ISR) has plagued clinicians after PCI. We aim to investigate the correlation of plasma Stromal Interaction Molecular 1 (STIM1) and Osteoprotegerin (OPG) level with stent restenosis after PCI. Methods: A total of 100 consecutive patients with Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) received PCI procedure were recruited. Coronary angiography was performed 8 months after their PCI. Then patients were divided into 2 groups: observation group was composed by patients who existing postoperative stenosis after intervention; Control group was composed by patients with no postoperative stenosis. The plasma levels of STIM, OPG in all patients were tested before and after intervention. Pearson correlation and multiple linear regression analysis were performed to analysis the correlation between STIM, OPG level and postoperative stenosis. Results: 35 cases were divided into observation group and other 65 were divided into control group. The plasma levels of STIM, OPG have no statistical difference before their PCI procedure, but we observed higher level of High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (Hs-CRP) existed in observation group. We observed higher level of plasma STIM, OPG in observation group when compared with control group after PCI procedure (P < 0.05). Regression analysis demonstrated that Hs-CRP, STIM1, OPG are independent risk factors for ISR. Conclusion: Elevated levels of plasma STIM1, OPG are independent risk factors for ISR in patients received PCI, which could provide useful information for the restenosis control after PCI. PMID:26885040

  12. [Evaluation of miR-122 level in the plasma of chronically HCV infected patients].

    PubMed

    Gholami, M; Ravanshad, M; Alavian, S-M; Baesi, K; Moallemi, S

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA molecules, which have an important function in regulating RNA stability and gene expression. They also can circulate in a cell-free form in the blood thatmakes them potential disease markers. The liver contains various classes of miRNAs in which miR-122 accounts for about 70% of all miRNAs and it has been proved that its level increases in case of liver damage. Here, we investigated plasma levels of miR-122 as a useful disease parameter in patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC) infection. Thirty five hemophilia and thalassemia patients with CHC were studied. The total RNA was extracted from plasma samples, and miR-122 levels were measured by qPCR and then compared with the specific liver markers. The plasma levels of alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase(AST) were correlated with plasma miR-122 level in CHC patients, and the level of circulating miR-122 in healthy individual groups were rarely lower than those of patients with CHC. In our study, miR-122 levels correlated well with markers of liver inflammatory activity. Plasma miR-122 can be assumed to be another marker in liver similar to the currently used specific markers such as ALT and AST for evaluation of liver damage in hepatitis C virus (HCV) infected patients. Moreover, the correlation between miR-122 and ALT was shown to be higher than between miR-122 and AST. PMID:27239848

  13. Systemic and cavernous plasma levels of endothelin 1 in healthy males during different functional conditions of the penis.

    PubMed

    Becker, A J; Uckert, S; Stief, C G; Truss, M C; Hartman, U; Sohn, M; Jonas, U

    2000-06-01

    The role of the sympathetic adrenergic nerves in mediating the constant tone of penile flaccidity and returning the erect penis to its flaccid state is fairly well established. However, it is not yet known whether additional nonadrenergic transmitters might be involved in this process. Endothelin 1 (ET-1), a 21-amino-acid peptide with potent and long-lasting vasoconstrictor activity, may be one of the factors contributing to such control. The present study was undertaken to determine whether plasma levels of ET-1 changed during flaccidity, tumescence, rigidity, and detumescence. We determined plasma levels of ET-1 in the peripheral and cavernosal blood of 32 potent adult male volunteers, in whom penile tumescence and erection were elicited by exposure to visual and tactile erotic stimuli. Whole blood was aspirated from the corpus cavernosum and the cubital vein, and ET-1 was quantified in plasma aliquots obtained from the blood samples. Using the organ bath technique, we evaluated the contractile effects of ET-1 and norepinephrine (NE) on isolated human corpus cavernosum musculature. No significant change in ET-1 levels was observed in the peripheral or cavernosal blood in the process of developing erection, rigidity, or detumescence. The mean plasma level of ET-1 was 0.2-0.7 fmol/ml. In the organ bath, ET-1 elicited concentration-dependent contractions of isolated human corpus cavernosum, which were much more pronounced than those evoked by the adrenergic agonist NE. Our data indicate that despite the in vitro efficacy of ET-1 in stimulating contractile activity in isolated human cavernous smooth muscle, the peptide may not be of ultimate importance for the mechanism of flaccidity and detumescence in healthy males. Nevertheless, the exact role of ETs in the control of penile smooth muscle tone remains to be established. PMID:10926088

  14. Analytical method for the determination of acrylonitrile in rat plasma at the nanograms per milliliter level.

    PubMed

    Freshour, N L; Melcher, R G

    1983-01-01

    A method is described for the determination of acrylonitrile (propenenitrile, vinyl cyanide, AN) in rat plasma at the ng/mL level by gas chromatography (GC) utilizing a modified delayed injection technique (DIT) and a nitrogen-phosphorus detector. The method was developed to determine the acrylonitrile plasma profile following administration of various dose levels of AN via different routes. A remote injection apparatus was placed in-line with the purge gas to the precolumn of the DIT. Using this arrangement, matrix interferences in rat plasma samples normally incurred during GC analysis were overcome, while a high sensitivity for acrylonitrile was maintained. The ability to analyze 20-microL samples made serial kills unnecessary and duplicate injections possible with an analysis time of approximately 10 min/sample. The average detection limit for the entire study (3 x background) was 2.0 ng/mL.

  15. Adaptation of the mineralocorticoid target tissues to the high circulating cortisol and progesterone plasma levels in the squirrel monkey.

    PubMed

    Chrousos, G P; Loriaux, D L; Brandon, D; Shull, J; Renquist, D; Hogan, W; Tomita, M; Lipsett, M B

    1984-07-01

    Many New World primate species have elevated circulating free plasma cortisol concentrations, target tissue resistance to cortisol, and no evidence of sodium retention. A representative New World primate, the squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus), has plasma cortisol concentrations above those necessary to cause complete suppression of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone axis in an Old World primate, the cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis). Despite this, the arterial blood pressure as well as the plasma sodium, potassium, and bicarbonate levels of the squirrel monkey are similar to those of the cynomolgus monkey, and its plasma aldosterone concentrations are approximately 2-fold higher. These findings suggest that cortisol has minimal sodium-retaining effects in this species. Renal cytosol aldosterone receptor concentrations are about 2- to 3-fold lower in the squirrel monkey than in the cynomolgus, whereas the receptor affinities for [3H]aldosterone are similar in the two monkeys. Higher concentrations of cortisol are needed to displace [3H]aldosterone from the mineralocorticoid receptor in the squirrel monkey than from the renal receptor in the cynomolgus [apparent equilibrium dissociation constant (Ki) = 7.8 X 10(-7) vs. 2.9 X 10(-8) M, respectively]. In addition, in contrast to man and presumably other Old World primates, plasma aldosterone concentrations in the female squirrel monkey do not increase during the reproductive cycle or pregnancy when progesterone concentrations are 10- to 20-fold higher than those of the male or the reproductively quiescent female. This suggests that progesterone is a poor aldosterone antagonist in this species. We conclude that a low concentration of mineralocorticoid receptors in New World Primates is compensated for by higher aldosterone levels, with a concomitant increase in receptor occupancy. The salt-retaining potency of cortisol is low, presumably because of a decrease in the affinity of the aldosterone receptor for

  16. Plasma leptin levels and free leptin index in women with Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Baranowska-Bik, Agnieszka; Bik, Wojciech; Styczynska, Maria; Chodakowska-Zebrowska, Malgorzata; Barcikowska, Maria; Wolinska-Witort, Ewa; Kalisz, Malgorzata; Martynska, Lidia; Baranowska, Boguslawa

    2015-08-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by irreversible and progressive loss of memory and other cognitive functions. Controversies still exist on the precise mechanisms contributing to neurodegeneration. Obesity and disturbances in metabolic homeostasis are thought to be AD risk factors. Adipokine leptin has receptors in the brain, also in the regions related to AD. Leptin may protect against AD. The aim was to assess leptin and soluble leptin receptor levels in plasma as well as free leptin index (FLI) in correlation with metabolic status of women diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease. Eighteen women with moderate to severe stage of AD, 40 women with AD at early stage, and 42 female controls, matched for age and body mass index, participated in the study. Leptin and soluble leptin receptor levels were measured with RIA and IRMA, respectively. Then, FLI was calculated. In addition, metabolic parameters (lipid profile, glucose and insulin concentrations, HOMA-IR) were estimated. Clinical and anthropometric data were collected. The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) as a cognitive impairment measurement was performed. Correlations with both leptin and FLI, and MMSE, clinical and biochemical parameters were evaluated. Leptin levels and FLI were significantly lower and leptin receptor concentrations were higher in AD subjects when compared with the controls. In AD group leptin, soluble leptin receptor and FLI correlated with selected metabolic parameters but not with MMSE. We conclude that alterations in leptin, leptin receptor, and FLI were the most intensified in advanced AD. However, these results did not correlate with dementia stage measured with MMSE. Therefore, further intensive research is needed to explain the mechanisms involved in this phenomenon.

  17. Distribution and determinants of plasma homocysteine levels in rural Chinese twins across the lifespan.

    PubMed

    Ji, Yuelong; Kong, Xiangyi; Wang, Guoying; Hong, Xiumei; Xu, Xin; Chen, Zhu; Bartell, Tami; Xu, Xiping; Tang, Genfu; Hou, Fanfan; Huo, Yong; Wang, Xiaobin; Wang, Binyan

    2014-12-01

    Plasma homocysteine (Hcy) is a modifiable, independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and is affected by both environmental and genetic factors. This study aimed to describe the gender- and age-specific distribution of Hcy concentration for 1117 subjects aged 10-66 years, a subset of a community-based rural Chinese twin cohort. In addition, we examined environmental and genetic contributions to variances in Hcy concentration by gender and age groups. We found that the distribution pattern for Hcy varied by both age and gender. Males had higher Hcy than females across all ages. Elevated Hcy was found in 43% of male adults and 13% of female adults. Moreover, nearly one fifth of children had elevated Hcy. Genetic factors could explain 52%, 36% and 69% of the variation in Hcy concentration among children, male adults and female adults, respectively. The MTHFR C677T variant was significantly associated with Hcy concentrations. Smokers with the TT genotype had the highest Hcy levels. Overall, our results indicate that elevated Hcy is prevalent in the children and adults in this rural Chinese population. The early identification of elevated Hcy will offer a window of opportunity for the primary prevention of CVD and metabolic syndrome. PMID:25529062

  18. Therapeutic Plasma Exchange Decreases Levels of Routinely Used Cardiac and Inflammatory Biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Beutel, Gernot; Bauersachs, Johann; David, Sascha; Schmidt, Bernhard M. W.; Lichtinghagen, Ralf; Kielstein, Jan T.

    2012-01-01

    Background Therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) plays a key role in the management of various diseases, from thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura and Goodpasture's syndrome to cardiac allograft rejection. In many of these disease states cardiac and inflammatory involvement is common and biomarkers are routinely used for diagnosis or assessment of therapeutic success. The effect of TPE on biomarkers used in the clinical routine has not been investigated. Methods TPE was initiated for established clinical conditions in 21 patients. Troponin T, NT-proBNP, C-reactive protein, procalcitonin and routine chemistry were drawn before and after TPE, as well as before and after the 2nd TPE. The total amount of these markers in the waste bag was also analyzed. Results In 21 patients 42 TPEs were performed. The procedure reduced plasma levels of the examined biomarkers: 23% for NT-proBNP (pre vs. post: 4637±10234 ng/l to 3565±8295 ng/l, p<0.001), 64% for CRP (21.9±47.0 mg/l vs. 7.8±15.8 mg/l, p<0.001) and 31% for procalcitonin (0.39±1.1 µg/l vs. 0.27±0.72 µg/l, p=0.004). TPE also tended to reduce plasma levels of troponin T by about 14% (60.7±175.5 ng/l vs. 52.2±141.3 ng/l), however this difference was not statistical significant (p=0.95). There was a significant correlation between the difference of pre TPE levels to post TPE levels of all examined biomarkers and the total amount of the removed biomarker in the collected removed plasma. Conclusions TPE significantly reduces plasma levels of inflammatory and cardiac biomarkers. Therefore, post TPE levels of cardiac and inflammatory biomarkers should be viewed with caution. PMID:22685586

  19. Serum Creatinine Versus Plasma Methotrexate Levels to Predict Toxicities in Children Receiving High-dose Methotrexate.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Priya; Thomas, M K; Pathania, Subha; Dhawan, Deepa; Gupta, Y K; Vishnubhatla, Sreenivas; Bakhshi, Sameer

    2015-01-01

    Facilities for measuring methotrexate (MTX) levels are not available everywhere, potentially limiting administration of high-dose methotrexate (HDMTX). We hypothesized that serum creatinine alteration after HDMTX administration predicts MTX clearance. Overall, 122 cycles in 50 patients of non-Hodgkin lymphoma or acute lymphoblastic leukemia aged ≤18 years receiving HDMTX were enrolled prospectively. Plasma MTX levels were measured at 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, and 72 hours; serum creatinine was measured at baseline, 24, 48, and 72 hours. Correlation of plasma MTX levels with creatinine levels and changes in creatinine from baseline (Δ creatinine) were evaluated. Plasma MTX levels at 72 hours showed positive correlation with serum creatinine at 48 hours (P = .011) and 72 hours (P = .013) as also Δ creatinine at 48 hours (P = .042) and 72 hours (P = .045). However, cut-off value of either creatinine or Δ creatinine could not be established to reliably predict delayed MTX clearance. Greater than 50% Δ creatinine at 48 and 72 hours significantly predicted grade 3/4 leucopenia (P = .036 and P = .001, respectively) and thrombocytopenia (P = .012 and P = .009, respectively) but not mucositis (P = .827 and P = .910, respectively). Delayed MTX elimination did not predict any grade 3/4 toxicity. In spite of demonstration of significant correlation between serum creatinine and Δ creatinine with plasma MTX levels at 72 hours, cut-off value of either variable to predict MTX delay could not be established. Thus, either of these cannot be used as a surrogate for plasma MTX estimation. Interestingly, Δ creatinine effectively predicted hematological toxicities, which were not predicted by delayed MTX clearance.

  20. Association Between Plasma Beta-2 Microglobulin Level and Cardiac Performance in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sedighi, Omid; Abediankenari, Saeid; Omranifar, Batoul

    2014-01-01

    Background: Beta-2 microglobulin (B2M) is considered as a surrogate marker for middle molecule uremic toxins and a key component in dialysis-related amyloidosis. However, few studies have evaluated role of B2M in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association of plasma B2M level with some metabolic and cardiac performance factors in patients with CKD. Patients and Methods: In this case-control study, we measured plasma B2M level in 86 patients with different stages of CKD and 78 age- and sex-matched individuals, as healthy control group. Then we investigated the association between plasma B2M level and left ventricular hypertrophy, ejection fraction (EF), and left ventricular end-diastolic diameter (LVEDD) in echocardiography and some inflammatory and metabolic factors in patients with CKD. Results: Mean plasma B2M level was significantly higher in patients with CKD than in control group (P < 0.001). It was directly correlated with serum C-reactive protein (r = 0.167, P < 0.001), phosphate (r = 0.112, P < 0.001) levels, and left ventricular mass index (r = 0.438, P < 0.001) and LVEDD (r = 0.275, P < 0.001) in echocardiography. It was also inversely correlated with glomerular filtration rate (r = -0.033, P < 0.001), albumin (r = -0.521, P < 0.001), hemoglobin (r = -0.748, P < 0.001), and EF (r = -0.625, P < 0.001). Conclusions: Our findings suggested that plasma B2M level is inversely associated with GFR and EF and directly correlated with some metabolic and cardiac performance factors. PMID:25738124

  1. Increased plasma homocysteine levels in patients with multiple sclerosis and depression

    PubMed Central

    Triantafyllou, Nikolaos; Evangelopoulos, Maria-Eleftheria; Kimiskidis, Vasilios K; Kararizou, Evangelia; Boufidou, Fotini; Fountoulakis, Konstantinos N; Siamouli, Melina; Nikolaou, Chrysoula; Sfagos, Constantinos; Vlaikidis, Nikolaos; Vassilopoulos, Dimitrios

    2008-01-01

    Background The aim of the study was to assess the plasma levels of homocysteine in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and to investigate whether an association with depression exists. Methods Plasma homocysteine (Hcy), vitamin B12 and plasma folate were measured in 65 moderately disabled patients with relapsing/remitting MS (RR-MS) and 60 healthy controls. All subjects were assessed with the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Results Hcy levels were significantly increased in MS patients compared to controls (13.5 ± 4.7 μmol/l vs 8.5 ± 3.1, p < 0.001). A significant correlation was found between Hcy levels and BDI scores (Pearson r = 0.3025, p < 0.05). Plasma Hcy was not related to Extended Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score, age, disease duration or vitamin B12 and folate. Conclusion Moderately disabled MS patients with elevated Hcy levels are particularly prone to develop depressive symptomatology. Further study is warranted in order to elucidate the prognostic and therapeutic implications of this novel finding. PMID:18782433

  2. Plasma levels on thyroid hormones in sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) decrease before spawning.

    PubMed

    Biddiscombe, S; Idler, D R

    1983-12-01

    Blood samples were taken from mature sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) at various stages in their upstream migration to spawn at Adam's River in British Columbia, Canada. Plasma T3 and T4 levels decreased significantly in both males and females between time of entry into fresh water and postspawning.

  3. Effect of frequency of dosing of plant sterols on plasma cholesterol levels and synthesis rate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective was to compare the effects of plant sterols (PS) consumed as a single dose (single) at breakfast or as three doses consumed with breakfast, lunch and dinner (divided) on plasma lipoprotien levels and cholesterol endogenous fractional synthesis rate (FSR). A randomized, placebo-controll...

  4. Plasma coenzyme Q10 levels in type 2 diabetic patients with retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Ates, Orhan; Bilen, Habip; Keles, Sadullah; Alp, H. Hakan; Keleş, Mevlüt Sait; Yıldırım, Kenan; Öndaş, Osman; Pınar, L. Can; Civelekler, Mustafa; Baykal, Orhan

    2013-01-01

    AIM To determine the relationship between proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDRP) and plasma coenzyme Q10(CoQ10) concentration. METHODS Patients with type 2 diabetes and PDRP were determined to be the case group (n=50). The control group was consist of healthy individuals (n=50). Plasma CoQ10 and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were measured in both groups. RESULTS Ubiquinone-10 (Coenzyme Q10) levels in PDRP and control subjects are 3.81±1.19µmol/L and 1.91±0.62µmol/L, respectively. Plasma MDA levels in PDRP and control subjects were 8.16±2µmol/L and 3.44±2.08µmol/L, respectively. Ratio of Ubiquinol-10/ubiquinone-10 in PDRP and control subjects were 0.26±0.16 and 1.41±0.68, respectively. CONCLUSION The ratio of ubiquinol-10/ubiquinone-10 is found lower in patients with PDRP. High levels of plasma ubiquinol-10/ubiquinone-10 ratio indicate the protective effect on diabetic retinopathy. PMID:24195048

  5. Increased levels of hyper-stable protein aggregates in plasma of older adults.

    PubMed

    Xia, Ke; Trasatti, Hannah; Wymer, James P; Colón, Wilfredo

    2016-06-01

    Proteins that misfold into hyper-stable/degradation-resistant species during aging may accumulate and disrupt protein homeostasis (i.e., proteostasis), thereby posing a survival risk to any organism. Using the method diagonal two-dimensional (D2D) SDS-PAGE, which separates hyper-stable SDS-resistant proteins at a proteomics level, we analyzed the plasma of healthy young (<30 years) and older (60-80 years) adults. We discovered the presence of soluble SDS-resistant protein aggregates in the plasma of older adults, but found significantly lower levels in the plasma of young adults. We identified the inflammation-related chaperone protein haptoglobin as the main component of the hyper-stable aggregates. This observation is consistent with the growing link between accumulations of protein aggregates and aging across many organisms. It is plausible higher amounts of SDS-resistant protein aggregates in the plasma of older adults may reflect a compromise in proteostasis that may potentially indicate cellular aging and/or disease risk. The results of this study have implications for further understanding the link between aging and the accumulation of protein aggregates, as well as potential for the development of aging-related biomarkers. More broadly, this novel application of D2D SDS-PAGE may be used to identify, quantify, and characterize the degradation-resistant protein aggregates in human plasma or any biological system. PMID:27179971

  6. Simulation of uphill/downhill running on a level treadmill using additional horizontal force.

    PubMed

    Gimenez, Philippe; Arnal, Pierrick J; Samozino, Pierre; Millet, Guillaume Y; Morin, Jean-Benoit

    2014-07-18

    Tilting treadmills allow a convenient study of biomechanics during uphill/downhill running, but they are not commonly available and there is even fewer tilting force-measuring treadmill. The aim of the present study was to compare uphill/downhill running on a treadmill (inclination of ± 8%) with running on a level treadmill using additional backward or forward pulling forces to simulate the effect of gravity. This comparison specifically focused on the energy cost of running, stride frequency (SF), electromyographic activity (EMG), leg and foot angles at foot strike, and ground impact shock. The main results are that SF, impact shock, and leg and foot angle parameters determined were very similar and significantly correlated between the two methods, the intercept and slope of the linear regression not differing significantly from zero and unity, respectively. The correlation of oxygen uptake (V̇O2) data between both methods was not significant during uphill running (r=0.42; P>0.05). V̇O2 data were correlated during downhill running (r=0.74; P<0.01) but there was a significant difference between the methods (bias=-2.51 ± 1.94 ml min(-1) kg(-1)). Linear regressions for EMG of vastus lateralis, biceps femoris, gastrocnemius lateralis, soleus and tibialis anterior were not different from the identity line but the systematic bias was elevated for this parameter. In conclusion, this method seems appropriate for the study of SF, leg and foot angle, impact shock parameters but is less applicable for physiological variables (EMG and energy cost) during uphill/downhill running when using a tilting force-measuring treadmill is not possible.

  7. Plasma zinc alpha2-glycoprotein levels correlate positively with frailty severity in female elders.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ya-Ping; Chang, Chin-Hao; Liu, Heng-Hsiu; Chen, Chin-Ying; Chen, Ching-Yu; Hsu, Chih-Cheng; Chang, Ching-I; Lin, Yen-Ting; Lee, Chung-Sheng; Tsai, Jaw-Shiun

    2016-08-01

    Frailty is a geriatric syndrome associated with adiposity. Zinc alpha2-glycoprotein (ZAG), a novel adipokine, is a modulator of body fat mass and positively correlates with age. This observational study aims to investigate the relationship between plasma ZAG levels and frailty in the elderly.We enrolled 189 elder participants from a hospital-based comprehensive geriatric assessment program in Taiwan from January 2007 to June 2008. The demographic data, body weight, body mass index, appendicular skeletal muscle mass index (ASMI), body fat mass percentage, metabolic and inflammatory parameters including plasma tumor-necrosis factor alpha, C-reactive protein and ZAG levels, were assessed. The frailty score was assessed by Fried Frailty Index.The mean age of all participants (91 [48.1%] men and 98 [51.9%] women) was 77.19 ± 6.12 years. Judged by the FFI score, 46 (24.34%) elders were robust, 106 (56.08%) were pre-frail, and 37 (19.58%) were frail. Older men showed greater ASMI and lower fat mass percentage in comparison to older women (P < 0.0001). The log-transformed mean plasma ZAG (μg/mL) level of overall was 1.82 ± 0.11, and it was higher in men than in women (1.85 ± 0.12 vs 1.79 ± 0.1, P = 0.0006). Plasma ZAG levels were different among the robust, pre-frail and frail subgroups (1.78 ± 0.09, 1.83 ± 0.12, 1.83 ± 1.10, respectively, P = 0.028), and the differences were more significant in woman elders (P = 0.005). Further multiple linear regression analysis showed plasma ZAG levels positively correlated with frailty severity in women (P for trend = 0.0435).Plasma ZAG levels positively correlated with frailty severity in woman elders. The difference between sexes suggests certain sex-specific mechanisms may exist to affect the association between plasma ZAG levels and frailty. PMID:27583927

  8. Plasma zinc alpha2-glycoprotein levels correlate positively with frailty severity in female elders

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ya-Ping; Chang, Chin-Hao; Liu, Heng-Hsiu; Chen, Chin-Ying; Chen, Ching-Yu; Hsu, Chih-Cheng; Chang, Ching-I; Lin, Yen-Ting; Lee, Chung-Sheng; Tsai, Jaw-Shiun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Frailty is a geriatric syndrome associated with adiposity. Zinc alpha2-glycoprotein (ZAG), a novel adipokine, is a modulator of body fat mass and positively correlates with age. This observational study aims to investigate the relationship between plasma ZAG levels and frailty in the elderly. We enrolled 189 elder participants from a hospital-based comprehensive geriatric assessment program in Taiwan from January 2007 to June 2008. The demographic data, body weight, body mass index, appendicular skeletal muscle mass index (ASMI), body fat mass percentage, metabolic and inflammatory parameters including plasma tumor-necrosis factor alpha, C-reactive protein and ZAG levels, were assessed. The frailty score was assessed by Fried Frailty Index. The mean age of all participants (91 [48.1%] men and 98 [51.9%] women) was 77.19 ± 6.12 years. Judged by the FFI score, 46 (24.34%) elders were robust, 106 (56.08%) were pre-frail, and 37 (19.58%) were frail. Older men showed greater ASMI and lower fat mass percentage in comparison to older women (P < 0.0001). The log-transformed mean plasma ZAG (μg/mL) level of overall was 1.82 ± 0.11, and it was higher in men than in women (1.85 ± 0.12 vs 1.79 ± 0.1, P = 0.0006). Plasma ZAG levels were different among the robust, pre-frail and frail subgroups (1.78 ± 0.09, 1.83 ± 0.12, 1.83 ± 1.10, respectively, P = 0.028), and the differences were more significant in woman elders (P = 0.005). Further multiple linear regression analysis showed plasma ZAG levels positively correlated with frailty severity in women (P for trend = 0.0435). Plasma ZAG levels positively correlated with frailty severity in woman elders. The difference between sexes suggests certain sex-specific mechanisms may exist to affect the association between plasma ZAG levels and frailty. PMID:27583927

  9. Chewing nicotine gum for 3 months: what happens to plasma nicotine levels?

    PubMed Central

    McNabb, M E

    1984-01-01

    Techniques that help patients stop smoking should also reduce their exposure to agents such as nicotine. The mean plasma nicotine levels in 50 subjects while they were still smoking and then while they were chewing pieces of gum containing either 2 or 4 mg of nicotine over a 12-week period of abstinence were 35, 9 and 23 ng/mL (217, 56 and 143 nmol/L) respectively. A small number of subjects given an unlimited supply of gum used 14 to 24 pieces of 4-mg gum daily and had plasma nicotine levels exceeding the levels achieved while smoking. There were no acute symptoms necessitating medical intervention associated with these excessive levels. Side effects were uncommon and usually controllable. When simple dosage rules are followed people who chew nicotine gum for a few months to stop smoking lower their exposure to nicotine. PMID:6478344

  10. Activity levels of tamoxifen metabolites at the estrogen receptor and the impact of genetic polymorphisms of phase I and II enzymes on their concentration levels in plasma.

    PubMed

    Mürdter, T E; Schroth, W; Bacchus-Gerybadze, L; Winter, S; Heinkele, G; Simon, W; Fasching, P A; Fehm, T; Eichelbaum, M; Schwab, M; Brauch, H

    2011-05-01

    The therapeutic effect of tamoxifen depends on active metabolites, e.g., cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) mediated formation of endoxifen. To test for additional relationships, 236 breast cancer patients were genotyped for CYP2D6, CYP2C9, CYP2B6, CYP2C19, CYP3A5, UGT1A4, UGT2B7, and UGT2B15; also, plasma concentrations of tamoxifen and 22 of its metabolites, including the (E)-, (Z)-, 3-, and 4'-hydroxymetabolites as well as their glucuronides, were quantified using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (MS). The activity levels of the metabolites were measured using an estrogen response element reporter assay; the strongest estrogen receptor inhibition was found for (Z)-endoxifen and (Z)-4-hydroxytamoxifen (inhibitory concentration 50 (IC50) 3 and 7 nmol/l, respectively). CYP2D6 genotypes explained 39 and 9% of the variability of steady-state concentrations of (Z)-endoxifen and (Z)-4-hydroxytamoxifen, respectively. Among the poor metabolizers, 93% had (Z)-endoxifen levels below IC90 values, underscoring the role of CYP2D6 deficiency in compromised tamoxifen bioactivation. For other enzymes tested, carriers of reduced-function CYP2C9 (*2, *3) alleles had lower plasma concentrations of active metabolites (P < 0.004), pointing to the role of additional pathways.

  11. Correlation between C677T MTHFR gene polymorphism, plasma homocysteine levels and the incidence of CAD.

    PubMed

    Nakai, K; Itoh, C; Nakai, K; Habano, W; Gurwitz, D

    2001-01-01

    The lesions of coronary atherosclerosis represent the result of a complex, multicellular, inflammatory-healing response in the coronary arterial wall. In vivo and in vitro cellular and molecular studies have suggested a role for tissue homocysteine in endothelial cell injury and adverse extra-cellular matrix remodeling. Gene polymorphisms in relation with numerous risk factors might increase the incidence of coronary artery disease (CAD). In this review we have focused on the correlations between plasma homocysteine levels, the incidence of cardiovascular disease and the cytosine-to-thymidine substitution at nucleotide 677 (C677T) of the 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene, coding for a key enzyme in methionine-homocysteine metabolism. The role of the C677T MTHFR gene polymorphism in the causation of CAD is controversial. We reviewed 12 recent case-control studies comprising 5370 genotyped patients with CAD and 4961 genotyped participants without CAD. There was no significant difference between those with and without CAD in the frequency of the C677T polymorphism (34.9 vs 33.6%). The frequency of homozygous C677T polymorphism in these groups was 10.9 versus 12.8%, respectively, although there were some ethnic differences in the C677T MTHFR polymorphism. In the analysis of the 12 studies, the odds ratio of CAD associated with the TT genotype (homozygous C677T polymorphism) was 1.18. Only slightly higher plasma homocysteine levels were observed in participants with the val/val (TT) genotype (14.4+/-2.9 micro mol/L in TT genotype vs 11.1+/-1.9 and 11.9+/-2 micro mol/L in CC and CT genotype, respectively). In addition, the relation between homocysteine increase after methionine loading and MTHFR genotypes is also controversial. However, hyperhomocysteinemia because of the C677T MTHFR allele may be corrected with oral folic acid therapy. Further investigations on the relationships between MTHFR genotypes and the incidence of CAD should be based on

  12. Plasma levels of the chemokines monocyte chemotactic proteins-1 and -2 are elevated in human sepsis.

    PubMed

    Bossink, A W; Paemen, L; Jansen, P M; Hack, C E; Thijs, L G; Van Damme, J

    1995-11-15

    Because of their effects on monocytes, monocyte chemotactic proteins-1 and -2 (MCP-1 and MCP-2) may participate in the pathophysiology of sepsis. We measured circulating MCP-1 and MCP-2 levels in 42 septic patients having positive local or blood cultures. MCP-1 and MCP-2 levels were elevated in 24 (57%) and 25 (59%) of 42 septic patients, respectively, compared with healthy volunteers. Both patients with gram-positive and gram-negative infections had elevated MCP-1 plasma levels (P = .0001) and P < .0001), respectively; Mann-Whitney-U test), whereas patients with gram-positive infection, but not those with gram-negative infection, had increased MCP-2 plasma levels (P= .0182). No relative differences in MCP-1 and MCP-2 plasma levels were observed between several subgroups of patients (sepsis v septic shock; survivors v nonsurvivors), although levels of MCP-1 were the highest in patients with the more severe forms of sepsis, ie, those with shock or a lethal outcome. Serial observations showed that MCP-1 and MCP-2 plasma levels remained elevated for at least 48 hours. MCP-1 correlated weakly with interleukin-8 and MCP-2, the correlations for which were most pronounced in patients with septic shock. MCP-2 correlated with interleukin-8, and surprisingly, with the complement activation product C3a; these correlations further improved when analyzing patients with septic shock or when applying gram-positive infections. Thus, our results not only show increased MCP-1 and MCP-2 levels in patients with sepsis, but also suggest that the synthesis and release of MCP-1 and MCP-2 in sepsis are differently regulated in part.

  13. Changes in blood glucose and plasma insulin levels induced by bradykinin in anaesthetized rats

    PubMed Central

    Damas, Jacques; Hallet, Claude; Lefebvre, Pierre J

    2001-01-01

    The influence of bradykinin (BK) on blood glucose and plasma insulin levels was investigated in anaesthetized rats. Blood glucose level was dose-dependently increased by intravenous infusion of BK. This effect of BK was enhanced by captopril, an inhibitor of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE). Des-Arg9-bradykinin (DABK), a kinin B1 receptor agonist, did not modify blood glucose levels while the effect of BK was inhibited by Hoe-140, a kinin B2 receptor antagonist. The effect of BK was reduced by the NO-synthase inhibitor, Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), and by the cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor, indomethacin. The effect of BK was suppressed by the association of propranolol with phentolamine or phenoxybenzamine. It was also reduced by hexamethonium, a ganglion-blocking drug. In adrenalectomized rats, the infusion of BK slightly decreased blood glucose levels. The hyperglycaemic effect of adrenaline was suppressed by propranolol associated with phentolamine or phenoxybenzamine, but it was not modified by L-NAME. Infusion of BK did not modify plasma insulin levels. However, after phentolamine and propranolol, BK induced a transient 2 fold rise in plasma insulin levels. The release of insulin was dose-dependent and inhibited by Hoe-140. We conclude that infusion of BK induces, via a stimulation of B2 receptors, the release of NO and of prostanoids. The latter agents activate through a reflex pathway the release of catecholamines from the adrenal medulla. This release increases blood glucose levels and reduces plasma insulin levels. After adrenoceptor inhibition, BK induces a secretion of insulin, via the stimulation of B2 receptors. PMID:11704652

  14. Plasma intact fibroblast growth factor 23 levels in women with anorexia nervosa

    PubMed Central

    Otani, Makoto; Takimoto, Yoshiyuki; Moriya, Junko; Yoshiuchi, Kazuhiro; Akabayashi, Akira

    2008-01-01

    Background Fibroblast growth factor (FGF)23 is a novel phosphaturic factor associated with inorganic phosphate homeostasis. Previous human studies have shown that serum FGF23 levels increase in response to a high phosphate diet. For anorexia nervosa (AN) patients, inorganic phosphate homeostasis is important in the clinical course, such as in refeeding syndrome. The purpose of this study was to determine plasma levels of intact FGF23 (iFGF23) in restricting-type AN (AN-R) patients, binge-eating/purging-type AN (AN-BP) patients, and healthy controls. Methods The subjects consisted of 6 female AN-R patients, 6 female AN-BP patients, and 11 healthy female controls; both inpatients and outpatients were included. Plasma iFGF23, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25-(OH)2D), and 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) levels were measured. Data are presented as the median and the range. A two-tailed Mann-Whitney U-test with Bonferroni correction was used to assess differences among the three groups, and a value of p < 0.017 was considered statistically significant. Results There were no differences between AN-R patients and controls in the iFGF23 and 1,25-(OH)2D levels. In AN-BP patients, the iFGF23 level (41.3 pg/ml; range, 6.1–155.5 pg/ml) was significantly higher than in controls (3.8 pg/ml; range, not detected-21.3 pg/ml; p = 0.001), and the 1,25-(OH)2D was significantly lower in AN-BP patients (7.0 pg/ml; range, 4.2–33.7 pg/ml) than in controls (39.7 pg/ml; range, 6.3–58.5 pg/ml; p = 0.015). No differences in plasma 25-OHD levels were observed among the groups. Conclusion This preliminary study is the first to show that plasma iFGF23 levels are increased in AN-BP patients, and that these elevated plasma FGF23 levels might be related to the decrease in plasma 1,25-(OH)2D levels. PMID:18412981

  15. C-type natriuretic peptide plasma levels are reduced in obese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Del Ry, S; Cabiati, M; Bianchi, V; Storti, S; Caselli, C; Prescimone, T; Clerico, A; Saggese, G; Giannessi, D; Federico, G

    2013-12-01

    The high prevalence of obesity in children may increase the magnitude of lifetime risk of cardiovascular disease (CD). At present, explicit data for recommending biomarkers as routine pre-clinical markers of CD in children are lacking. C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) is assuming increasing importance in CD; in adults with heart failure, its plasma levels are related to clinical and functional disease severity. We have previously reported five different reference intervals for blood CNP as a function of age in healthy children; however, data on plasma CNP levels in obese children are still lacking. Aim of this study was to assess CNP levels in obese adolescents and verify whether they differ from healthy subjects. Plasma CNP was measured in 29 obese adolescents (age: 11.8 ± 0.4 years; BMI: 29.8 ± 0.82) by radioimmunoassay and compared with the reference values of healthy subjects. BNP was also measured. Both plasma CNP and BNP levels were significantly lower in the obese adolescents compared to the appropriate reference values (CNP: 3.4 ± 0.2 vs 13.6 ± 2.3 pg/ml, p<0.0001; BNP: 18.8 ± 2.6 vs 36.9 ± 5.5 pg/ml, p=0.003). There was no significant difference between CNP values in males and females. As reported in adults, we observed lower plasma CNP and BNP levels in obese children, suggesting a defective natriuretic peptide system in these patients. An altered regulation of production, clearance and function of natriuretic peptides, already operating in obese adolescents, may possibly contribute to the future development of CD. Thus, the availability of drugs promoting the action of natriuretic peptides may represent an attractive therapeutic option to prevent CD.

  16. Childhood Chronic Physical Aggression Associates with Adult Cytokine Levels in Plasma

    PubMed Central

    Provençal, Nadine; Suderman, Matthew J.; Vitaro, Frank; Szyf, Moshe; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2013-01-01

    Background An increasing number of animal and human studies are indicating that inflammation is associated with behavioral disorders including aggression. This study investigates the association between chronic physical aggression during childhood and plasma cytokine levels in early adulthood. Methodology/Principal Findings Two longitudinal studies were used to select males on a chronic physical aggression trajectory from childhood to adolescence (n = 7) and a control group from the same background (n = 25). Physical aggression was assessed yearly by teachers from childhood to adolescence and plasma levels of 10 inflammatory cytokines were assessed at age 26 and 28 years. Compared to the control group, males on a chronic physical aggression trajectory from childhood to adolescence had consistently lower plasma levels of five cytokines: lower pro-inflammatory interleukins IL-1α (T(28.7) = 3.48, P = 0.002) and IL-6 (T(26.9) = 3.76, P = 0.001), lower anti-inflammatory interleukin IL-4 (T(27.1) = 4.91, P = 0.00004) and IL-10 (T(29.8) = 2.84, P = 0.008) and lower chemokine IL-8 (T(26) = 3.69, P = 0.001). The plasma levels of four cytokines accurately predicted aggressive and control group membership for all subjects. Conclusions/Significance Physical aggression of boys during childhood is a strong predictor of reduced plasma levels of cytokines in early adulthood. The causal and physiological relations underlying this association should be further investigated since animal data suggest that some cytokines such as IL-6 and IL-1β play a causal role in aggression. PMID:23922720

  17. Plasma TGF-β1 Levels Are Elevated in Down Syndrome Infants with Transient Abnormal Myelopoiesis.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Hajime; Go, Hayato; Imamura, Takashi; Sato, Maki; Momoi, Nobuo; Hosoya, Mitsuaki

    2016-01-01

    Infants with Down syndrome (DS) are at risk of developing a transient myeloproliferative disorder during the neonatal period, known as transient abnormal myelopoiesis (TAM). It is characterized by clonal myeloproliferation and is typically self-limiting. However, TAM can be a life-threatening disorder, when complicated by liver fibrosis. Here, we evaluated cytokine profiles in two male DS infants having TAM with or without liver dysfunction. The first patient, Patient 1, had hyperleukocytosis with cholestatic liver dysfunction, coagulopathy, and increased counts of blasts and was treated with exchange transfusion (ExT) due to the serious general condition. In Patient 1, serum interleukin (IL)-8 and plasma transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 levels were markedly elevated before ExT (1,518.2 pg/mL and 17,635 pg/mL, respectively). After ExT, serum IL-8 and plasma TGF-β1 levels decreased to 40.7 pg/mL and 6,847 pg/mL, respectively. However, Patient 1 died on day 56 due to cholestatic liver dysfunction; namely, this patient represents fatal TAM. The second patient, Patient 2, had hyperleukocytosis with increased counts of blasts without liver dysfunction and was treated with cytarabine. In Patient 2, plasma TGF-β1 levels, but not plasma IL-8, were elevated (9,068 pg/mL and 28 pg/mL, respectively). Patient 2 was discharged on day 47. In summary, plasma TGF-β1 levels were elevated in the two DS infants with TAM, regardless of the presence or absence of hepatic fibrosis. Importantly, fatal TAM is assoicated with the elevated serum level of IL-8. We thus propose that IL-8 may be involved in the pathogenesis of liver fibrosis. PMID:27546516

  18. Elevation of plasma glucose, alanine, and urea levels by mammalian ACTH in the American bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana).

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, E J; deRoos, R

    1985-08-01

    The effects of a single infusion of mammalian ACTH on plasma glucose, alanine, urea, and lactate were determined in the American bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana). The ACTH (10 U/250 g body wt) was administered, and serial blood samples were collected via a nonocclusive cannula chronically placed in the right truncus arteriosus. Plasma metabolite levels were estimated by standard enzymatic techniques. The plasma metabolites declined following the surgery to levels that were relatively stable by postoperative Day 2. The levels did not vary significantly for the remainder of the 3- or 4-day pretreatment period and in the control bullfrogs during the 48-hr experiments. Plasma glucose levels were essentially unchanged from the time-zero levels at 6 hr following ACTH infusion. Plasma glucose levels subsequently increased to levels that were approximately 24% greater than the control levels by 24 hr and then declined to near control levels by 48 hr. Plasma alanine increased to levels that were approximately 60% greater than the control levels by 12 hr after ACTH treatment and returned to essentially the time-zero levels by 24 hr. Plasma urea rose to levels that were approximately 110% greater than the control levels by 45 min after ACTH infusion, but urea returned to essentially the time-zero levels by 1.5 through 3 hr. Plasma urea increased again to levels that were approximately 90% greater than the control levels by 6 hr and returned to essentially the initial levels by 24 hr. Plasma lactate levels were not significantly influenced by ACTH treatment. The results suggest that a function of the bullfrog hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis is to regulate gluconeogenesis from alanine, and probably other glucogenic amino acids.

  19. Effect of various partial separations of the litters from their mother on plasma prolactin levels of lactating rats.

    PubMed

    Bánky, Z; Nagy, G M; Halász, B

    1994-01-01

    Removal of the pups results in an abrupt and marked depression in plasma prolactin (PRL) level of the lactating mother. The present studies were undertaken to investigate what kind of sensory input (smell, sound, visual, touch etc.) from the pups is essential for the mother to avoid the pituitary PRL response to pup-removal. Therefore, various partial separations were made and their effect on plasma PRL levels tested: a. The pups were placed into a small glass having holes on its cover; b. they were put into a long measuring tube not covered; c. the pups were placed into the feeding trough made of a wireframe; d. a dividing wall made of glass or metal was slowly let down when the mother spontaneously went away from her pups; e. the nipples were covered by a cotton plaster. Pituitary PRL responses were almost identical after all these separations and similar to that one obtained after removal of the pups from the cage. In addition, separation of the mother resulted in a rise in plasma corticosterone concentrations. The findings suggest that the pup-removal induced inhibition of PRL secretion is a very complex event for the mother and cannot be prevented by partial separations when the mother can see, smell her pups, or hear them or even can touch them with her nose. We assume that separation of the pups is a stress for the mother and cannot simply be due to the lack of just one kind of sensory input from the pups. This assumption is in line with our recent observations indicating that in lactating rat stress causes a decrease in plasma PRL level.

  20. Utility of Plasma Osteopontin Levels in Management of Community-Acquired Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Jer-Hwa; Hung, Wen-Yueh; Bai, Kuan-Jen; Yang, Shun-Fa; Chien, Ming-Hsien

    2016-01-01

    Osteopontin (OPN) is an essential cytokine involved in immune cell recruitment and an important regulator of inflammation. The purpose of this study was to examine differences in OPN plasma levels between before and after antibiotic treatment in hospitalized adult patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). OPN levels were measured in 93 patients with CAP and 54 healthy controls using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The CURB-65, Pneumonia Severity Index (PSI), and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) scores were used to determine the CAP severity in patients upon initial hospitalization. A decline in the number of white blood cells (WBCs) and neutrophils, and decreases in the levels of OPN and C-reactive protein (CRP) were observed after antibiotic treatment. Only the plasma level of OPN, but not CRP, was correlated with the severity of CAP based on the PSI (r = 0.514, p < 0.001), CURB-65 (r = 0.396, p < 0.001), and APACHE II scores (r = 0.473, p < 0.001). The OPN level also showed a significant correlation with the length of hospital stay (r = 0.210, p = 0.044). In conclusion, plasma level of OPN may act as diagnostic adjuvant biomarkers for CAP and further play a role in clinical assessment of the severity of CAP, which could potentially guide the development of treatment strategies.

  1. The unstimulated pancreatic secretion obtained by endoscopic cannulation, and the plasma secretin levels in man.

    PubMed

    Osnes, M; Hanssen, L E; Larsen, S

    1979-01-01

    The technique of collecting juice from the main pancreatic duct by siphonage is described. The juice was collected in 5-min fractions under basal conditions for 20 min (32 subjects) and extended to 60 min (6 subjects). Flow rate and bicarbonate concentration were significantly higher during the first collected samples, whereas concentrations of amylase and protein rose during the first 20 min of the study. All variables remained nearly constant after this period. Immunoreactive secretin (IRS) in peripheral plasma was significantly higher immediately after cannulation of the main pancreatic duct, as compared to the pre-endoscopic level. When the catheter was left in the duct and pancreatic juice drained, the IRS stabilized at a level not significantly different from the pre-endoscopic level. Positive correlations were found between flow rate and plasma level of IRS and between flow rate and bicarbonate concentrations. A negative correlation was found between the flow rate and concentrations of amylase and protein. The higher flow rate, plasma level of IRS, and bicarbonate concentration at the beginning of the examination may be due to the presence of acid and/or bile in the duodenal contents shortly after the endoscope enters the duodenum. Later in the procedure the levels have stabilized, which indicates that little or no acid or bile is passing into the duodenum. It is also concluded that secretin may be one factor responsible for the basal pancreatic secretion in man.

  2. Reduction in plasma vasopressin levels of dehydrated rats following acute stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keil, L. C.; Severs, W. B.

    1977-01-01

    Results are presented for an investigation directed to substantiate and extend preliminary findings of stress-induced reduction in plasma arginine vasopressin (pAVP). Since normally hydrated rats have very low levels of pAVP, it is difficult to measure reliably any decrease in pAVP that may result from stress. To overcome this problem, the pAVP levels of the tested rats were raised by dehydration prior to application of stress. A radioimmunoassay for pAVP is described and used to determine the levels of vasopressin in the plasma of nondehydrated and dehydrated rats after exposure to ether or acceleration stress. Plasma pAVP is also determined in rats following nicotine administration. It is shown that exposure of nondehydrated rats to ether or acceleration stress does not elicit any significant alterations in circulating pAVP levels while nicotine injections stimulate a marked increase. In particular, ether and acceleration stress produce a rapid reduction in the pAVP level of dehydrated rats, the decrease being observed in both large and small animals. The mechanism for this reduction in pAVP level following stress is yet unknown.

  3. Utility of Plasma Osteopontin Levels in Management of Community-Acquired Pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jer-Hwa; Hung, Wen-Yueh; Bai, Kuan-Jen; Yang, Shun-Fa; Chien, Ming-Hsien

    2016-01-01

    Osteopontin (OPN) is an essential cytokine involved in immune cell recruitment and an important regulator of inflammation. The purpose of this study was to examine differences in OPN plasma levels between before and after antibiotic treatment in hospitalized adult patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). OPN levels were measured in 93 patients with CAP and 54 healthy controls using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The CURB-65, Pneumonia Severity Index (PSI), and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) scores were used to determine the CAP severity in patients upon initial hospitalization. A decline in the number of white blood cells (WBCs) and neutrophils, and decreases in the levels of OPN and C-reactive protein (CRP) were observed after antibiotic treatment. Only the plasma level of OPN, but not CRP, was correlated with the severity of CAP based on the PSI (r = 0.514, p < 0.001), CURB-65 (r = 0.396, p < 0.001), and APACHE II scores (r = 0.473, p < 0.001). The OPN level also showed a significant correlation with the length of hospital stay (r = 0.210, p = 0.044). In conclusion, plasma level of OPN may act as diagnostic adjuvant biomarkers for CAP and further play a role in clinical assessment of the severity of CAP, which could potentially guide the development of treatment strategies. PMID:27647996

  4. Alterations in the levels of plasma amino acids in polycystic ovary syndrome- A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Unni, C. Sumithra N.; Lakshman, Lakshmi R.; Vaidyanathan, Kannan; Subhakumari, K.N.; Menon, N. Leela

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: Plasma amino acid levels are known to be altered in conditions like sepsis and burns which are situations of metabolic stress. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a condition which affects a woman throughout her life, is said to be associated with metabolic stress. This study was undertaken to assess if there were significant alterations in the levels of plasma amino acids in women with PCOS. Methods: Sixty five women with PCOS along with the similar number of age matched normal controls were included in this study. Levels of 14 amino acids were determined using reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography. Results: The levels of methionine, cystine, isoleucine, phenylalanine, valine, tyrosine, proline, glycine, lysine and histidine were found to be significantly (P<0.001) lower in cases than in controls. Arginine and alanine levels were found to be significantly (P<0.001) higher in cases compared with controls. Interpretation & conclusions: Our findings showed significant derangement in the levels of plasma amino acids in women with PCOS which might be due to the oxidative and metabolic stress associated with it. Further studies need to be done to confirm the findings. PMID:26658589

  5. Utility of Plasma Osteopontin Levels in Management of Community-Acquired Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Jer-Hwa; Hung, Wen-Yueh; Bai, Kuan-Jen; Yang, Shun-Fa; Chien, Ming-Hsien

    2016-01-01

    Osteopontin (OPN) is an essential cytokine involved in immune cell recruitment and an important regulator of inflammation. The purpose of this study was to examine differences in OPN plasma levels between before and after antibiotic treatment in hospitalized adult patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). OPN levels were measured in 93 patients with CAP and 54 healthy controls using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The CURB-65, Pneumonia Severity Index (PSI), and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) scores were used to determine the CAP severity in patients upon initial hospitalization. A decline in the number of white blood cells (WBCs) and neutrophils, and decreases in the levels of OPN and C-reactive protein (CRP) were observed after antibiotic treatment. Only the plasma level of OPN, but not CRP, was correlated with the severity of CAP based on the PSI (r = 0.514, p < 0.001), CURB-65 (r = 0.396, p < 0.001), and APACHE II scores (r = 0.473, p < 0.001). The OPN level also showed a significant correlation with the length of hospital stay (r = 0.210, p = 0.044). In conclusion, plasma level of OPN may act as diagnostic adjuvant biomarkers for CAP and further play a role in clinical assessment of the severity of CAP, which could potentially guide the development of treatment strategies. PMID:27647996

  6. Oral supplementation with whey proteins increases plasma glutathione levels of HIV-infected patients.

    PubMed

    Micke, P; Beeh, K M; Schlaak, J F; Buhl, R

    2001-02-01

    HIV infection is characterized by an enhanced oxidant burden and a systemic deficiency of the tripeptide glutathione (GSH), a major antioxidant. The semi-essential amino acid cysteine is the main source of the free sulfhydryl group of GSH and limits its synthesis. Therefore, different strategies to supplement cysteine supply have been suggested to increase glutathione levels in HIV-infected individuals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of oral supplementation with two different cysteine-rich whey protein formulas on plasma GSH levels and parameters of oxidative stress and immune status in HIV-infected patients. In a prospective double blind clinical trial, 30 patients (25 male, 5 female; mean age (+/- SD) 42 +/- 9.8 years) with stable HIV infection (221 +/- 102 CD4 + lymphocytes L-1) were randomized to a supplemental diet with a daily dose of 45 g whey proteins of either Protectamin (Fresenius Kabi, Bad Hamburg, Germany) or Immunocal (Immunotec, Vandreuil, Canada) for two weeks. Plasma concentrations of total, reduced and oxidized GSH, superoxide anion (O2-) release by blood mononuclear cells, plasma levels of TNF-alpha and interleukins 2 and 12 were quantified with standard methods at baseline and after therapy. Pre-therapy, plasma GSH levels (Protectamin: 1.92 +/- 0.6 microM; Immunocal: 1.98 +/- 0.9 microM) were less than normal (2.64 +/- 0.7 microM, P = 0.03). Following two weeks of oral supplementation with whey proteins, plasma GSH levels increased in the Protectamin group by 44 +/- 56% (2.79 +/- 1.2 microM, P = 0.004) while the difference in the Immunocal group did not reach significance (+ 24.5 +/- 59%, 2.51 +/- 1.48 microM, P = 0.43). Spontaneous O2- release by blood mononuclear cells was stable (20.1 +/- 14.2 vs. 22.6 +/- 16.1 nmol h-1 10-6 cells, P = 0.52) whereas PMA-induced O2- release decreased in the Protectamin group (53.7 +/- 19 vs. 39.8 +/- 18 nmol h-1 10-6 cells, P = 0.04). Plasma concentrations of TNF-alpha and interleukins 2 and

  7. A solid-phase radioimmunoassay for the determination of fibronectin levels in plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Pearlstein, E.; Baez, L.

    1981-09-15

    Fibronectin, iodinated in the absence of urea using lactoperoxidase coupled to Sepharose 4B, retained antigenic and biological activity. Utilizing the labeled protein, a solid-phase radioimmunoassay for the determination of the fibronectin concentraction in plasma was developed. The radioimmunoassay is rapid, uses small amounts of antibody, and obviates the need for a second antibody. It also facilitates the handling of large sample numbers.The mean plasma fibronectin level in normal individuals was 557 +/- 102 ..mu..g/ml, approximately 70% higher than values obtained by other procedures.

  8. Clinical relevance of β₂-glycoprotein-I plasma levels in antiphospholipid syndrome (APS).

    PubMed

    Banzato, Alessandra; Pengo, Vittorio

    2014-06-01

    Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is characterized by the presence of antiphospholipid (aPL) antibodies associated with thrombosis or pregnancy morbidity. The antibodies mainly involved in this disorder are directed against β2-glycoprotein I (β2-GPI). β2-GPI plasma level is usually not reported in studies on APS, because it is not regarded as relevant to the diagnosis and prognosis of APS. Nevertheless its measurement may be important for understanding the pathophysiology of the syndrome. This review summarizes available data from the literature on plasma concentrations of β2-GPI in patients with different antibody profiles.

  9. Quantitative trait loci that control plasma lipid levels in an F2 intercross between C57BL/6J and DDD.Cg-A(y) inbred mouse strains.

    PubMed

    Suto, Jun-ichi

    2012-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to characterize plasma lipid phenotypes and dissect the genetic basis of plasma lipid levels in an obese DDD.Cg-A(y) mouse strain. Plasma triglyceride (TG) levels were significantly higher in the DDD.Cg-A(y) strain than in the B6.Cg-A(y) strain. In contrast, plasma total-cholesterol (CHO) levels did not substantially differ between the two strains. As a rule, the A(y) allele significantly increased TG levels, but did not increase CHO levels. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) analyses for plasma TG and CHO levels were performed in two types of F(2) female mice [F(2)A(y) (F(2) mice carrying the A(y) allele) and F(2) non- A(y) mice (F(2) mice without the A(y) allele)] produced by crossing C57BL/6J females and DDD.Cg-A(y) males. Single QTL scan identified one significant QTL for TG levels on chromosome 1, and two significant QTLs for CHO levels on chromosomes 1 and 8. When the marker nearest to the QTL on chromosome 1 was used as covariates, four additional significant QTLs for CHO levels were identified on chromosomes 5, 6, and 17 (two loci). In contrast, consideration of the agouti locus genotype as covariates did not detect additional QTLs. DDD.Cg-A(y) showed a low CHO level, although it had Apoa2(b), which was a CHO-increasing allele at the Apoa2 locus. This may have been partly due to the presence of multiple QTLs, which were associated with decreased CHO levels, on chromosome 8.

  10. A Modest Protective Effect of Thyrotropin against Bone Loss Is Associated with Plasma Triiodothyronine Levels

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Mira; Choi, Sun Kyu; Kim, Kyunga; Jang, Ju Young; Cho, Yoon Young; Min, Yong-Ki; Chung, Jae Hoon; Kim, Sun Wook

    2015-01-01

    Background The independent skeletal effect of thyrotropin (thyroid stimulating hormone, TSH) has been suggested in animal studies. However, clinical data on the association between bone loss and variations in TSH levels is inconsistent. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between TSH levels and bone mineral density (BMD). Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study with 37,431 subjects (33,052 cases with euthyroidism and 4,379 cases with subclinical thyroid dysfunction) aged over 35 years. We performed thyroid function tests and measured BMD at the lumbar spine, femur neck, and total hip. Results Levels of TSH and T3 were positively correlated in women (r = 0.076, P = 0.001) and uncorrelated in men. In both men and women, TSH levels correlated positively and T3 levels correlated negatively with BMD at all skeletal sites in age and body mass index adjusted analyses. BMD increased steadily with TSH levels from the subclinical hyperthyroid to subclinical hypothyroid range in subjects with T3 levels in the highest tertile (119.5–200.0 ng/dL), but was no longer significant in subjects with lower plasma T3 levels. Conclusions The variations in TSH levels within the euthyroid and subclinical range were positively correlated with BMD in healthy men and women. The negative effect of T3 on BMD appears to be compensated for by increased TSH in subjects with plasma T3 levels in the upper normal range. PMID:26679692

  11. Relationship between Sustained Reductions in Plasma Lipid and Lipoprotein Concentrations with Apheresis and Plasma Levels and mRNA Expression of PTX3 and Plasma Levels of hsCRP in Patients with HyperLp(a)lipoproteinemia

    PubMed Central

    Stefanutti, Claudia; Mazza, Fabio; Steiner, Michael; Watts, Gerald F.; De Nève, Joel; Pasqualetti, Daniela; Paal, Juergen

    2016-01-01

    The effect of lipoprotein apheresis (Direct Adsorption of Lipids, DALI) (LA) on plasma levels of pentraxin 3 (PTX3), an inflammatory marker that reflects coronary plaque vulnerability, and expression of PTX3 mRNA was evaluated in patients with hyperLp(a)lipoproteinemia and angiographically defined atherosclerosis/coronary artery disease. Eleven patients, aged 55 ± 9.3 years (mean ± SD), were enrolled in the study. PTX3 soluble protein levels in plasma were unchanged by 2 sessions of LA; however, a downregulation of mRNA expression for PTX3 was observed, starting with the first session of LA (p < 0.001). The observed reduction was progressively increased in the interval between the first and second LA sessions to achieve a maximum decrease by the end of the second session. A statistically significantly greater treatment-effect correlation was observed in patients undergoing weekly treatments, compared with those undergoing treatment every 15 days. A progressive reduction in plasma levels of C-reactive protein was also seen from the first session of LA, with a statistically significant linear correlation for treatment-effect in the change in plasma levels of this established inflammatory marker (R2 = 0.99; p < 0.001). Our findings suggest that LA has anti-inflammatory and endothelium protective effects beyond its well-established efficacy in lowering apoB100-containing lipoproteins. PMID:26903710

  12. Taste acuity, plasma zinc levels, and weight loss during radiotherapy: a study of relationships

    SciTech Connect

    Bolze, M.S.; Fosmire, G.J.; Stryker, J.A.; Chung, C.K.; Flipse, B.G.

    1982-07-01

    Thirty-five patients who were to undergo radiotherapy and 13 normal subjects were evaluated with taste questionnaires, taste acuity tests, and plasma zinc analyses. The studies were repeated on the patients in the fifth week of radiotherapy. The mean taste thresholds for NaCl (salt), sucrose (sweet), HCl (sour), and urea (bitter) were elevated and the plasma zinc levels were lower (77.2 +/- 11.8 vs. 94.6 +/- 30.1 g/100 ml, p = 0.055) for the patients than for the controls. However, there was not a significant correlation between the taste thresholds and plasma zinc levels at any time. The mean weight loss experienced by the 14 patients who reported subjective taste alteration in the fifth week was 3.1 kg versus 0.1 kg (p = 0.005) for those who did not report taste alteration. The data suggest that alterations in taste acuity, but not plasma zinc levels, are associated with weight loss during radiotherapy.

  13. Taste acuity, plasma zinc levels, and weight loss during radiotherapy: a study of relationships

    SciTech Connect

    Bolze, M.S.; Fosmire, G.J.; Stryker, J.A.; Chung, C.K.; Flipse, B.G.

    1982-07-01

    Thirty-five patients who were to undergo radiotherapy and 13 normal subjects were evaluated with taste questionnaires, taste acuity tests, and plasma zinc analyses. The studies were repeated on the patients in the fifth week of radiotherapy. The mean taste thresholds for NaCl (salt), sucrose (sweet), HCl (sour), and urea (bitter) were elevated and the plasma zinc levels were lower (77.2 +/- 11.8 vs. 94.6 +/- 30.1 g/100 ml, p . 0.055) for the patients than for the controls. However, there was not a significant correlation between the taste thresholds and plasma zinc levels at any time. The mean weight loss experienced by the 14 patients who reported subjective taste alteration in the fifth week was 3.1 kg versus 0.1 kg (p . 0.005) for those who did not report taste alteration. The data suggest that alterations in taste acuity, but not plasma zinc levels, are associated with weight loss during radiotherapy.

  14. Relationship of drinking water disinfectants to plasma cholesterol and thyroid hormone levels in experimental studies

    SciTech Connect

    Revis, N.W.; McCauley, P.; Bull, R.; Holdsworth, G.

    1986-03-01

    The effects of drinking water containing 2 or 15 ppm chlorine (pH 6.5 and 8.5), chlorine dioxide, and monochloramine on thyroid function and plasma cholesterol were studied because previous investigators have reported cardiovascular abnormalities in experimental animals exposed to chlorinated water. Plasma thyroxine (T4) levels, as compared to controls, were significantly decreased in pigeons fed a normal or high-cholesterol diet and drinking water containing these drinking water disinfectants at a concentration of 15 ppm (the exception was chlorine at pH 6.5) for 3 months. In most of the treatment groups, T4 levels were significantly lower following the exposure to drinking water containing the 2 ppm dose. Increase in plasma cholesterol were frequently observed in the groups with lower T4 levels. This association was most evident in pigeons fed the high-cholesterol diet and exposed to these disinfectants at a dose of 15 ppm. The factor(s) associated with the effect of these disinfectants on plasma T4 and cholesterol is not known. The authors suggest however that these effects are probably mediated by products formed when these disinfectants react with organic matter in the upper gastrointestinal tract.

  15. Effect of 14 days of bed rest on urine metabolite excretion and plasma enzyme levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pace, N.; Grunbaum, B. W.; Kodama, A. M.; Rahlmann, D. F.; Newsom, B. D.

    1974-01-01

    After 1 week of ambulatory base-line measurement, a group of 8 men 19-26 years of age remained continuously recumbent for 14 days. Studies were continued for 1 week following the prolonged recumbency. Urine excretion rates for a number of constituents were determined 2 days before bed rest, on day 14 of bed rest, and day 6 after bed rest. Blood plasma samples were also obtained at these times, and analyzed for several enzymes. On day 14 of bed rest significant increases were observed in urine excretion of total osmotically-active substances, magnesium, calcium, phosphate, creatinine, hydroxyproline, and 17-OH corticosteroids. A decrease occurred in urinary glucose excretion. Plasma levels of alkaline phosphatase and LDH-3 were depressed, while plasma GPT was elevated. Many of these changes persisted on day 6 after bed rest, and are interpreted as concomitants of the disuse atrophy of the musculoskeletal system that characterizes prolonged bed rest and weightlessness.

  16. Relationship between plasma cholesterol levels and cholesterol esterification in isolated human mononuclear cells

    SciTech Connect

    Dallongeville, J.; Davignon, J.; Lussier-Cacan, S. )

    1990-01-01

    The authors studied the relationship between plasma lipoprotein concentrations and cholesterol esterification in freshly isolated human mononuclear cells from 27 normolipidemic and 32 hyperlipidemic individuals. Cells were either incubated for 5 hours with radiolabeled oleate immediately after isolation or were preincubated for 18 hours in the presence of exogenous cholesterol, and then incubated with ({sup 14}C)sodium-oleate-albumin complex. In the absence of exogenous cholesterol, control and hypercholesterolemic subjects had similarly low values of intracellular cholesterol esterification. In the presence of exogenous cholesterol, both hypertriglyceridemic and hypercholesterolemic subjects had higher cholesterol esterification than controls. There was a significant correlation between the rate of cholesterol esterification and plasma total cholesterol. These results suggest that plasma cholesterol levels may regulate mononuclear cell intra-cellular cholesterol esterification in humans.

  17. Antibiotic plasma levels in dogs with otitis externa treated routinely with various topical preparations.

    PubMed

    Voget, Michael; Armbruster, Martin; Meyer, Michael

    2012-01-01

    We aimed to determine whether, and at what levels, topical antibiotics applied to treat Otitis externa in dogs are absorbed systemically, leading to an increased risk of antibiotic resistance. 75 dogs brought to a veterinarian for Otitis externa were recruited for a non-interventional study. Selection criteria included diagnosis of Otitis externa and owner consent.The animals were divided into five groups of 15 dogs each. Each group received one of five commonly prescribed topical medications for up to 14 days according to the labeled instructions. Development and validation of low residue detection methods (HPLC-MS/MS) for all active substances studied was performed. Plasma concentrations were evaluated for gentamicin (Otomax, Easotic), marbofloxacin (Aurizon), orbifloxacin (Posatex) and polymyxin B (Surolan). Low-level plasma concentrations of the topically applied antibiotics were detected after multiple administrations. In several samples, the concentrations detected were less than the limit of detection (LOD) of the corresponding analytical method. However, at the end of the treatment period, mean plasma concentrations were in the low pmol/ml range and exceeded the LOD for gentamicin, marbofloxacin and orbifloxacin. None of the plasma samples examined for polymyxin showed levels above the LOD. After routine topical antibiotic use in the treatment of Otitis externa in dogs, low systemic plasma concentrations are likely to develop.This low-level exposure may facilitate cellular changes that lead to an increased possibility for antibiotic resistance. These findings should provoke veterinary clinicians to optimise therapy for Otitis externa in light of minimising the development of antibiotic resistance.

  18. In vivo evidence that Agxt2 can regulate plasma levels of dimethylarginines in mice.

    PubMed

    Kittel, Anja; Maas, Renke; König, Jörg; Mieth, Maren; Weiss, Norbert; Jarzebska, Natalia; Hohenstein, Bernd; Martens-Lobenhoffer, Jens; Bode-Böger, Stefanie M; Rodionov, Roman N

    2013-01-01

    Elevated plasma concentrations of the asymmetric (ADMA) and symmetric (SDMA) dimethylarginine have repeatedly been linked to adverse cardiovascular clinical outcomes. Both dimethylarginines can be degraded by alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase 2 (Agxt2), which is also the key enzyme responsible for the degradation of endogenously formed β-aminoisobutyrate (BAIB). In the present study we wanted to investigate the effect of BAIB on Agxt2 expression and Agxt2-mediated metabolism of dimethylarginines. We infused BAIB or saline intraperitoneally for 7days in C57/BL6 mice via minipumps. Expression of Agxt2 was determined in liver and kidney. The concentrations of BAIB, dimethylarginines and the Agxt2-specific ADMA metabolite α-keto-δ-(N(G),N(G)-dimethylguanidino)valeric acid (DMGV) was determined by LC-MS/MS in plasma and urine. As compared to controls systemic administration of BAIB increased plasma and urine BAIB levels by a factor of 26.5 (p<0.001) and 25.8 (p<0.01), respectively. BAIB infusion resulted in an increase of the plasma ADMA and SDMA concentrations of 27% and 31%, respectively, (both p<0.05) and a 24% decrease of plasma DMGV levels (p<0.05), while expression of Agxt2 was not different. Our data demonstrate that BAIB can inhibit Agxt2-mediated metabolism of dimethylarginines and show for the first time that endogenous Agxt2 is involved in the regulation of systemic ADMA, SDMA and DMGV levels. The effect of BAIB excess on endogenous dimethylarginine levels may have direct clinical implications for humans with the relatively common genetic trait of hyper-β-aminoisobutyric aciduria.

  19. Plasma levels of alarmin IL-33 are unchanged in autism spectrum disorder: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Izabela Guimarães; Rodrigues, David Henrique; Rocha, Natália Pessoa; Sousa, Larissa Fonseca da Cunha; Vieira, Erica Leandro M; Simões-E-Silva, Ana Cristina; Kummer, Arthur; Teixeira, Antônio Lúcio

    2015-01-15

    The pathogenesis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is unknown, and the immune system has been appointed to play an important role. The interleukin 33 (IL-33), a member of the IL-1, may act as an alarmin. This study aimed to evaluate plasma levels of IL-33, sST2, and IL-1β in 30 patients with ASD in comparison with 18 controls matched by gender, age and maternal age at childbirth. Patients did not differ from controls in IL-33, sST2, and IL-1β plasma levels. Alarmin levels were not correlated with age, and neither was influenced by clinical parameters. Our results undermine the role of IL-33/ST2 in ASD. PMID:25595254

  20. Elevated plasma homocysteine level is possibly associated with skin sclerosis in a series of Japanese patients with systemic sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Motegi, Sei-Ichiro; Toki, Sayaka; Yamada, Kazuya; Uchiyama, Akihiko; Ishikawa, Osamu

    2014-11-01

    Homocysteine is a sulfhydryl-containing amino acid that is derived from dietary methionine, and there has been increasing evidence that elevated plasma homocysteine levels are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular diseases, including carotid, coronary and peripheral arterial disease (PAD). The association of plasma homocysteine levels with peripheral vascular involvements, such as Raynaud phenomenon (RP), digital ulcers (DU) in systemic sclerosis (SSc) patients has not been well studied. The objective of this study was to examine plasma homocysteine levels and their clinical associations in patients with SSc. Plasma homocysteine levels in 151 Japanese patients with SSc and 20 healthy controls were examined. No significant differences were observed in plasma homocysteine levels between SSc patients and healthy individuals. Demographic and clinical features of the SSc patients revealed that severe skin sclerosis, anti-topoisomerase I antibody positivity, complications of DU, acro-osteolysis (AO) and interstitial lung disease (ILD) were significantly more prevalent among the patients with elevated plasma homocysteine levels. The plasma homocysteine levels were positively correlated with modified Rodnan total skin score. The plasma homocysteine levels in the SSc patients with DU, AO and ILD were significantly higher than those in the SSc without DU, AO and ILD, respectively. Plasma homocysteine levels did not correlate with either the mean or max intima-media thickness (IMT) or plaque score, suggesting that plasma homocysteine levels might not be associated with carotid artery atherosclerosis in SSc patients. The measurement of plasma homocysteine levels in SSc patients might be useful for the risk stratifications of severe skin sclerosis, DU and AO.

  1. Genetic Influences on Plasma Homocysteine Levels in African Americans and Yoruba Nigerians.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sungeun; Nho, Kwangsik; Ramanan, Vijay K; Lai, Dongbing; Foroud, Tatiana M; Lane, Katie; Murrell, Jill R; Gao, Sujuan; Hall, Kathleen S; Unverzagt, Frederick W; Baiyewu, Olusegun; Ogunniyi, Adesola; Gureje, Oye; Kling, Mitchel A; Doraiswamy, P Murali; Kaddurah-Daouk, Rima; Hendrie, Hugh C; Saykin, Andrew J

    2015-01-01

    Plasma homocysteine, a metabolite involved in key cellular methylation processes seems to be implicated in cognitive functions and cardiovascular health with its high levels representing a potential modifiable risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other dementias. A better understanding of the genetic factors regulating homocysteine levels, particularly in non-white populations, may help in risk stratification analyses of existing clinical trials and may point to novel targets for homocysteine-lowering therapy. To identify genetic influences on plasma homocysteine levels in individuals with African ancestry, we performed a targeted gene and pathway-based analysis using a priori biological information and then to identify new association performed a genome-wide association study. All analyses used combined data from the African American and Yoruba cohorts from the Indianapolis-Ibadan Dementia Project. Targeted analyses demonstrated significant associations of homocysteine and variants within the CBS (Cystathionine beta-Synthase) gene. We identified a novel genome-wide significant association of the AD risk gene CD2AP (CD2-associated protein) with plasma homocysteine levels in both cohorts. Minor allele (T) carriers of identified CD2AP variant (rs6940729) exhibited decreased homocysteine level. Pathway enrichment analysis identified several interesting pathways including the GABA receptor activation pathway. This is noteworthy given the known antagonistic effect of homocysteine on GABA receptors. These findings identify several new targets warranting further investigation in relation to the role of homocysteine in neurodegeneration.

  2. Impact of restraint and disinhibition on PYY plasma levels and subjective feelings of appetite.

    PubMed

    Martins, C; Robertson, M D; Morgan, L M

    2010-10-01

    The impact of eating behaviours on circulating levels of appetite-regulating hormones remains largely unknown. The aims of this study were to assess the role of restraint and disinhibition on fasting/postprandial peptide YY (PYY) plasma levels and subjective feelings of appetite in normal-weight individuals and to determine whether the effect was energy load dependent. 33 participants (12 men) were classified as restrained/unrestrained and low/high in disinhibition based on Three Factor Eating Questionnaire-18R and Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire. The impact of restraint/disinhibition on PYY plasma levels and feelings of appetite was measured, after a 500kcal and 1000kcal breakfast, using a randomised crossover design. Restraint did not impact on either fasting or postprandial PYY plasma levels, but participants with high disinhibition had a tendency towards a blunted postprandial PYY response. Moreover, restrained eaters reported lower ratings of prospective food consumption postprandially, and a tendency towards higher fullness/lower hunger. In conclusion, circulating PYY is unaffected by restrained eating behaviour, despite being associated with increased fullness and reduced hunger in the fed state. High levels of disinhibition tend to be associated with a blunted PYY response and this may contribute towards the susceptibility to overconsumption and increased risk of weight gain characteristic of this trait.

  3. Plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels in patients suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Su, Shanshan; Xiao, Zeping; Lin, Zhiguang; Qiu, Yongming; Jin, Yichao; Wang, Zhen

    2015-09-30

    A number of studies have been done to investigate the role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In this study we aimed to test the relationship between plasma BDNF levels and PTSD. We solicited 65 subjects having recently experienced road traffic accidents (RTA) conforming to screening criteria. They were given follow-up examinations after one month, three months, and six months. PTSD was diagnosed according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-R-TR, American Psychiatric Association, 2000) using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). All participants were divided into two groups: a group with PTSD and a group without PTSD. There were no significant differences in plasma BDNF levels between the two groups at either the 48h or six-month examination. Within the PTSD group, no significant differences were found in plasma BDNF levels between the two examinations. BDNF levels in those without PTSD showed a higher trend over time after trauma. Higher BDNF levels may be an important protective factor for the prevention of traumatized subjects from developing PTSD.

  4. Interleukin-6 gene polymorphism -174G/C influences plasma lipid levels in women.

    PubMed

    Henningsson, Susanne; Håkansson, Anna; Westberg, Lars; Baghaei, Fariba; Rosmond, Roland; Holm, Göran; Ekman, Agneta; Nissbrandt, Hans; Eriksson, Elias

    2006-11-01

    Elevated levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) have been associated with cardiovascular risk factors. The objective of this study was to investigate potential associations between the promoter polymorphism IL-6 -174G/C and the following indices of metabolism: BMI, waist-to-hip ratio, and plasma levels of IL-6, cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein, leptin, and C-reactive protein in 252 42-year-old women and 245 51-year-old men. Subgroups were also studied 5 years later. The CC genotype of the IL-6 polymorphism was associated with lower levels of cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (p < 0.001) in women. This finding was replicated in the follow-up, when a significant association between the CC genotype and low triglycerides was also observed. The association between the C allele and lipid pattern found in women was not found in men, where on the contrary, C carriers tended to display elevated triglycerides. IL-6 genotype was not associated with IL-6 plasma levels in either sample. The results suggest different effects of the IL-6 polymorphism on metabolic indices in women and men. None of the associations between IL-6 genotype and lipid pattern seemed to result from an effect of the polymorphism on IL-6 plasma levels.

  5. Correlation between Saliva and Plasma Levels of Endothelin Isoforms ET-1, ET-2, and ET-3.

    PubMed

    Gurusankar, Roma; Kumarathasan, Prem; Saravanamuthu, Anusha; Thomson, Errol M; Vincent, Renaud

    2015-01-01

    Although saliva endothelins are emerging as valuable noninvasive cardiovascular biomarkers, reports on the relationship between isoforms in saliva and plasma remain scarce. We measured endothelins in concurrent saliva and plasma samples (n = 30 males; age 18-63) by HPLC-fluorescence. Results revealed statistically significant positive correlations among all isoforms between saliva and plasma: big endothelin-1 (BET-1, 0.55 ± 0.27 versus 3.35 ± 1.28 pmol/mL; r = 0.38, p = 0.041), endothelin-1 (ET-1, 0.52 ± 0.21 versus 3.45 ± 1.28 pmol/mL; r = 0.53, p = 0.003), endothelin-2 (ET-2, 0.21 ± 0.07 versus 1.63 ± 0.66 pmol/mL; r = 0.51, p = 0.004), and endothelin-3 (ET-3, 0.39 ± 0.19 versus 2.32 ± 1.44 pmol/mL; r = 0.75, p < 0.001). Correlations of BET-1, ET-1, and ET-3 within each compartment were positive in both plasma (p < 0.05) and saliva (p ≤ 0.1), whereas ET-2 was not significantly correlated with other isoforms in either plasma or saliva. For all isoforms, concentrations varied on average fivefold between individuals (90th/10th percentiles); individuals with high plasma endothelin levels generally had high saliva endothelin levels. Our results reveal that salivary ET isoform profiles portray the plasmatic profiles and support the view of coordinated regulation of ET-1 and ET-3, but distinct regulatory pathways for ET-2.

  6. Increased Levels of Sphingosylphosphorylcholine (SPC) in Plasma of Metabolic Syndrome Patients.

    PubMed

    El-Najjar, Nahed; Orsó, Evelyn; Wallner, Stefan; Liebisch, Gerhard; Schmitz, Gerd

    2015-01-01

    Recent developments in lipid mass spectrometry enable extensive lipid class and species analysis in metabolic disorders such as diabesity and metabolic syndrome. The minor plasma lipid class sphingosylphosphorylcholine (SPC) was identified as a ligand for lipid sensitive G-protein coupled receptors playing a key role in cell growth, differentiation, motility, calcium signaling, tissue remodeling, vascular diseases and cancer. However, information about its role in diabesity patients is sparse. In this study, we analyzed plasma lipid species in patients at risk for diabesity and the metabolic syndrome and compared them with healthy controls. Our data show that SPC is significantly increased in plasma samples from metabolic syndrome patients but not in plasma from patients at risk for diabesity. Detailed SPC species analysis showed that the observed increase is due to a significant increase in all detected SPC subspecies. Moreover, a strong positive correlation is observed between total SPC and individual SPC species with both body mass index and the acute phase low grade inflammation marker soluble CD163 (sCD163). Collectively, our study provides new information on SPC plasma levels in metabolic syndrome and suggests new avenues for investigation. PMID:26466367

  7. Human plasma levels of POPs, and diet among native people from Uelen, Chukotka.

    PubMed

    Sandanger, Torkjel M; Brustad, Magritt; Odland, Jon Oyvind; Doudarev, Alexey A; Miretsky, Georgy I; Chaschin, Valery; Burkow, Ivan C; Lund, Eiliv

    2003-08-01

    Some of the people living in the Chukotka Peninsula of Russia depend heavily on marine mammals, but little is known of the exact dietary patterns and plasma levels of POPs among these populations. In this study, POPs levels in plasma from 50 participants from the isolated community of Uelen (Bering Strait) were determined and related to dietary information obtained through a food frequency questionnaire. The intake of marine mammals was high and the combined intake of blubber from walrus, seal and whale was a significant predictor (p < 0.01) of plasma concentrations of sum PCBs and borderline for sum CDs (p = 0.02) and sum DDTs (p = 0.04). There was a significant gender difference in the levels of POPs, and among women there was a significant increase with age. Extensive breastfeeding and lower blubber intake among women could be possible explanations for this gender difference. Despite the high intake of blubber the plasma levels of PCBs and DDTs were lower than some of those reported for the East Coast of Greenland. The geometric mean values for sum PCBs (17 congeners) and sum DDTs were 1316 ng g(-1) lipids and 563 ng g(-1) lipids, respectively. PCB 163, which partly co-eluted with PCB 138, was found in high concentrations (40% of PCB 138). This raises questions regarding the validity of using PCB 138 and PCB 153 to calculate the level of Arochlor 1260. The geometric mean of sum CDs was 518 ng g(-1) lipids. Concentrations of beta-HCH (geometric mean; 410 ng g(-1) lipids) were higher than observed for other native populations depending on marine mammals. Transportation of beta-HCH by ocean currents through the Bering Strait into the Arctic Ocean or regional point sources might explain these elevated levels.

  8. Human plasma levels of POPs, and diet among native people from Uelen, Chukotka.

    PubMed

    Sandanger, Torkjel M; Brustad, Magritt; Odland, Jon Oyvind; Doudarev, Alexey A; Miretsky, Georgy I; Chaschin, Valery; Burkow, Ivan C; Lund, Eiliv

    2003-08-01

    Some of the people living in the Chukotka Peninsula of Russia depend heavily on marine mammals, but little is known of the exact dietary patterns and plasma levels of POPs among these populations. In this study, POPs levels in plasma from 50 participants from the isolated community of Uelen (Bering Strait) were determined and related to dietary information obtained through a food frequency questionnaire. The intake of marine mammals was high and the combined intake of blubber from walrus, seal and whale was a significant predictor (p < 0.01) of plasma concentrations of sum PCBs and borderline for sum CDs (p = 0.02) and sum DDTs (p = 0.04). There was a significant gender difference in the levels of POPs, and among women there was a significant increase with age. Extensive breastfeeding and lower blubber intake among women could be possible explanations for this gender difference. Despite the high intake of blubber the plasma levels of PCBs and DDTs were lower than some of those reported for the East Coast of Greenland. The geometric mean values for sum PCBs (17 congeners) and sum DDTs were 1316 ng g(-1) lipids and 563 ng g(-1) lipids, respectively. PCB 163, which partly co-eluted with PCB 138, was found in high concentrations (40% of PCB 138). This raises questions regarding the validity of using PCB 138 and PCB 153 to calculate the level of Arochlor 1260. The geometric mean of sum CDs was 518 ng g(-1) lipids. Concentrations of beta-HCH (geometric mean; 410 ng g(-1) lipids) were higher than observed for other native populations depending on marine mammals. Transportation of beta-HCH by ocean currents through the Bering Strait into the Arctic Ocean or regional point sources might explain these elevated levels. PMID:12948250

  9. Determination of arsenic, chromium, lead, manganese, and mercury in certifiable color additives by inductively coupled plasma/mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Hepp, Nancy Morris

    2015-01-01

    Specifications in the Code of Federal Regulations limit the levels of As, Pb, and Hg in most certifiable color additives, and some have additional specification limits for Cr and Mn. A new ICP/MS method was developed and validated for the quantitative determination of these elements in various certifiable color additives. One dissolution and two microwave-assisted digestion sample preparation procedures were optimized to address initial low Hg and enhanced As recoveries. Results using the three sample preparation procedures were generally equivalent for all of the elements determined. LOQ values were 0.3 mg/kg for As, 0.7 mg/kg for Cr, 0.4 mg/kg for Pb, 0.7 mg/kg for Mn, and 0.1 mg/kg for Hg.

  10. [Pattern of plasma sex steroid hormone levels during the breeding season of male and female skink: Eumeces chinensis].

    PubMed

    Hu, Jian Rao; Du, Ji Zeng; Ji, Xiang

    2004-12-01

    Changes in gonadal activity and plasma sex steroid hormone levels in male and female Eumece chinensis during the breeding season were described. The results showed that: The vitellogensis of follicles of female Eumeces chinensis needed the stimulation of 17beta-estradiol (E2). As ovary masses reached peak values between late April and mid-May, E2 levels rose to the top value by late March, and then sharply declined but went up again before preovulation; The physiological functions of plasma progesterone (P) consisted in its oviductal egg retention, embryo development, and eggshell formation. P levels fluctuated near the basic value between mid-March and late April. In mid-May, with the onset of ovulation, plasma P levels rose rapidly, reached peak value by late May and declined sharply after ovulation. Plasma E2 levels declined as plasma P levels rose, showing an inverse relationship between them; In males, plasma Testosterone (T) levels were closely correlated with the maintenance of spermatogenesis activities, male and male combat, sexual display, and mating. Plasma T levels tended to rise after the termination of hibernation, and reached peak value by mid-April. After mid-May, with the testis aggressing, plasma T levels gradually went down and reached bottom value by late June.

  11. Influence of different dietary zinc levels on cashmere growth, plasma testosterone level and zinc status in male Liaoning Cashmere goats.

    PubMed

    Liu, H Y; Sun, M H; Yang, G Q; Jia, C L; Zhang, M; Zhu, Y J; Zhang, Y

    2015-10-01

    The experiment was conducted to investigate the influence of different levels of zinc (Zn) on cashmere growth, plasma testosterone and Zn profile in male Cashmere goats. Twenty-eight male Liaoning Cashmere goats, 3 years old and body weight at 56.2 ± 2.45 kg, were assigned to four groups. The animals were fed a basal diet containing of 45.9 mg Zn/kg dry matter (DM) basis and supplemented with 0, 20, 40 or 80 mg Zn (reagent grade ZnSO₄ ·7H₂ O) per kg DM for 90 days. There was no significant effect on growth and diameter of cashmere fibre for Zn supplemented in diets. However, the length and growth rate of wool were improved (p < 0.05) with dietary Zn. The length and growth rate of wool were higher (p < 0.05) for the groups supplemented with 40 or 80 mg Zn/kg DM compared with that of 20 mg Zn/kg DM treatment group. Plasma testosterone concentration was increased for Zn supplemented in diets, and the testosterone concentration was higher (p < 0.05) in goats fed on the diet supplemented with 40 or 80 mg Zn/kg DM compared with those fed on basal diet. Plasma Zn concentrations increased (p < 0.05) with increasing dietary Zn and supplemented with 40 and 80 mg Zn/kg DM groups improved plasma Zn concentration (p < 0.05) more than 20 mg Zn/kg DM group. Fibre Zn content was higher (p < 0.05) in groups supplemented with 40 or 80 mg Zn/kg DM compared with control group, but no difference between Zn-supplemented groups (p > 0.05). The activity of plasma alkaline phosphatase was increased (p < 0.05) due to dietary Zn supplementation; however, no difference was found between supplemented treatment groups (p > 0.05). In conclusion, Zn content (45.9 mg Zn/kg DM) in control diet was insufficient for optimal wool growth performance, and we recommended the level of dietary Zn for such goats is 86 mg/kg DM during the breeding season and cashmere fibre growing period.

  12. Effect of Greens and Soil Type, Sulfur Addition and Lithium Level on Leaf Constituents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A greenhouse experiment was conducted near Weslaco, Texas (Lat. 26o 8' N, Long. 97o 57' W) between Dec. 2006 and Feb 2007 to evaluate the effect of soil type, added sulfur and lithium level on the growth and leaf nutrients, particularly biofortified levels of Li and S, in spinach and mustard gree...

  13. Spinach and mustard greens response to soil type, sulfur addition and lithium level

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A greenhouse experiment was conducted near Weslaco, Texas (Lat. 26o 8' N, Long. 97o 57' W) between Dec. 2006 and Feb 2007 to evaluate the effect of soil type, added sulfur and lithium level on the growth and leaf nutrients, particularly biofortified levels of Li and S, in spinach and mustard gree...

  14. Plasma Oxytocin and Arginine-Vasopressin Levels in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder in China: Associations with Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong-Feng; Dai, Yu-Chuan; Wu, Jing; Jia, Mei-Xiang; Zhang, Ji-Shui; Shou, Xiao-Jing; Han, Song-Ping; Zhang, Rong; Han, Ji-Sheng

    2016-10-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is defined by impairments of social interaction and the presence of obsessive behaviors. The "twin" nonapeptides oxytocin (OXT) and arginine-vasopressin (AVP) are known to play regulatory roles in social behaviors. However, the plasma levels and behavioral relevance of OXT and AVP in children with ASD have seldom been investigated. It is also unknown whether their mothers have abnormal plasma peptide levels. Here, using well-established methods of neuropeptide measurement and a relatively large sample size, we determined the plasma levels of the two neuropeptides in 85 normal children, 84 children with ASD, and 31 mothers from each group of children. As expected, children with ASD had lower plasma OXT levels than gender-matched controls (P = 0.028). No such difference was found for plasma AVP concentrations. Correlation analysis showed that ASD children with higher plasma OXT concentrations tended to have less impairment of verbal communication (Rho = -0.22, P = 0.076), while those with higher plasma AVP levels tended to have lower levels of repetitive use of objects (Rho = -0.231, P = 0.079). Unlike the findings in children, maternal plasma OXT levels showed no group difference. However, plasma AVP levels in the mothers of ASD children tended to be lower than in the mothers of normal children (P = 0.072). In conclusion, our results suggest that the OXT system is dysregulated in children with ASD, and that OXT and AVP levels in plasma seem to be associated with specific autistic symptoms. The plasma levels of OXT or AVP in mothers and their ASD children did not seem to change in the same direction. PMID:27342432

  15. Interleukin-7 Plasma Levels in Human Differentiate Anorexia Nervosa, Constitutional Thinness and Healthy Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Germain, Natacha; Viltart, Odile; Loyens, Anne; Bruchet, Céline; Nadin, Katia; Wolowczuk, Isabelle; Estour, Bruno; Galusca, Bogdan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Interleukin-7 (IL-7) is a cytokine involved in energy homeostasis as demonstrated in rodents. Anorexia nervosa is characterized by restrained eating behavior despite adaptive orexigenic regulation profile including high ghrelin plasma levels. Constitutional thinness is a physiological condition of resistance to weight gain with physiological anorexigenic profile including high Peptide YY plasma level. Healthy obesity can be considered as a physiological state of resistance to weight loss with opposite appetite regulating profile to constitutional thinness including low Peptide YY plasma level. No studies in IL-7 are yet available in those populations. Therefore we evaluated circadian plasma levels of IL-7 in anorexia nervosa compared to constitutional thinness, healthy obese and control females. Materials and Methods 10 restrictive-type anorexia nervosa women, 5 bingeing/purging anorexia nervosa woman, 5 recovered restrictive anorexia nervosa women, 4 bulimic females, 10 constitutional thinness women, 7 healthy obese females, and 10 normal weight women controls were enrolled in this cross-sectional study, performed in endocrinology unit and academic laboratory. Twelve-point circadian profiles of plasma IL-7 levels were measured in each subject. Results 24h mean IL-7 plasma levels (pg/ml, mean±SEM) were decreased in restrictive-type anorexia nervosa (123.4±14.4, p<0.0037), bingeing/purging anorexia nervosa (24.2±5.6, p<0.001), recovered restrictive anorexia nervosa (64.2±16.1, p = 0.01) and healthy obese patients (51±3.2, p<0.001) compared to controls (187.7±28.6). Bulimic patients (197.4±42.7) and constitutional thinness patients (264.3±35.8) were similar to controls. Conclusions Low IL-7 is part of the adaptive profile in restrictive-type anorexia nervosa, confirming its difference with constitutional thinness. Healthy obesity, with low IL-7, is once again in mirror image of constitutional thinness with normal high IL-7. PMID:27611669

  16. Effect of Pressure Level on the Performance of an Auto-Initiated Pulsed Plasma Thruster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelvin, Loh; Abhijit, Kushari

    2010-08-01

    Pulsed plasma thrusters (PPT) are micro-propulsion devices used in satellites for station keeping. Conventionally the plasma discharge in a PPT is initiated by a spark plug. The primary objective of the present work was to develop and characterize a PPT that does not need a spark plug to initiate the plasma discharge. If the spark plug is eliminated, the size of the thrusters can be reduced and arrays of such thrusters can be manufactured using micro electro mechanical systems (MEMS) techniques, which can provide tremendous control authority over the satellite positioning. A parallel rail thruster was built and its performances were characterized inside a vacuum chamber to elucidate the effect of vacuum level on the performance. The electrical performance of the thruster was quantified by measuring the voltage output from a Rogowski coil, and the thrust produced by the developed thruster was estimated by measuring the force exerted by the plume on a light weight pendulum, whose deflection was measured using a laser displacement sensor. It was observed that the thruster can operate without a spark plug. In general, the performance parameters such as thrust, mass ablation, impulse bit, and specific impulse per discharge, would increase with the increase in pressure up to an optimum level due to the increase in discharge energy as well as the decrease in the total impedance of the plasma discharge. The thrust efficiency is found to be affected by the discharge energy.

  17. Chronic ethanol feeding inhibits plasma levels of insulin-like growth factor-1

    SciTech Connect

    Sonntag, W.E.; Boyd, R.L.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the generalized catabolic effects of chronic ethanol may be associated with a decline in plasma of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a liquid diet containing 5% ethanol or pair-fed a diet made isocaloric with maltose-dextrin. Animals were maintained on this diet for either 12 days or 4.5 months. Another groups of animals were fed control diet ad libitum for 2 weeks. After 12 days of feeding, plasma concentrations of IGF-1 in ad libitum fed rats were 771 +/- 41 ng/ml which was greater than concentrations in either pair-fed or ethanol-fed rats. After 4.5 months of feeding, plasma levels of IGF-1 in ad libitum and pair-fed rats were similar to the 12 day study. However, a significant decrease in plasma levels of IGF-1 was observed in ethanol-fed animals over the 4.5 month period. Results of a similar study in rats fed a high-fat diet for 4.5 months were similar to those found with the low-fat diet.

  18. Statins and Ezetimibe Modulate Plasma Proprotein Convertase Subtilisin Kexin-9 (PCSK9) Levels

    PubMed Central

    Davignon, Jean; Dubuc, Geneviève

    2009-01-01

    PCSK9 is a natural inhibitor of the LDL receptor. Gain-of-function mutations may cause the familial hypercholesterolemia phenotype, whereas loss-of-function variants associate with reduced LDL-C levels and lower coronary risk. Statins up-regulate PCSK9 in hepatocytes. We developed an assay to measure total PCSK9 in human plasma and evaluated the effect of statins and ezetimibe on PCSK9 in vivo and in vitro. In 254 normal subjects, the mean plasma PCSK9 was 89 ± 32 ng/ml. PCSK9 levels correlated with plasma cholesterol, LDL-C, triglycerides, fasting glucose, age and body mass index. Sequencing PCSK9 from subjects at the extremes of plasma distribution revealed new variants. In 200 hypercholesterolemic patients, circulating PCSK9 was higher than in controls, increased with increasing statin dose, and further increased when ezetimibe was added. However, ezetimibe treatment of HepG2 (hepatocytes) and Caco-2 (enterocytes) cells caused a slight increase in PCSK9 and NPC1L1 mRNA, but no significant rise in PCSK9 protein secretion, suggesting that these transformed cells are not ideal model cell lines. PMID:19768174

  19. [Efavirenz and nevirapine plasma levels in HIV-infected patients with hemophilia].

    PubMed

    Martorell, Marta; López, Rosa M; Ribera, Esteban; Ruiz, Isabel; Tural, Cristina; Puig, Lluís; Monterde, Josep

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate efavirenz and nevirapine plasma levels in HIV-infected hemophilic patients seen in two hospitals in Barcelona. Plasma levels of these drugs were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) at four-month intervals, together with viral load and CD4 cell count. Nineteen patients treated with efavirenz and 8 with nevirapine were included, and 68 efavirenz and 31 nevirapine determinations were performed. Mean study time was 12 months. Median efavirenz plasma concentration was 2.95 .g/ml (interval: 1.54-5.26 .g/ml) in patients with favorable virological response and 1.86 .g/ml (0.82-4.88 .g/ml) in patients with detectable viral load (p = 0.32). Nevirapine plasma concentrations were 4.41 .g/ml (3.50-6.72 .g/ml) and 3.12 .g/ml (2.44-3.80 .g/ml) respectively (p = 0.18).

  20. Cytokine polymorphisms and plasma levels are associated with sleep onset insomnia in adults living with HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Gay, Caryl L; Zak, Rochelle S; Lerdal, Anners; Pullinger, Clive R; Aouizerat, Bradley E; Lee, Kathryn A

    2015-07-01

    Sleep disturbance has been associated with inflammation and cytokine activity, and we previously described genetic associations between cytokine polymorphisms and sleep maintenance and duration among adults with HIV/AIDS. Although sleep onset insomnia (SOI) is also a commonly reported sleep problem, associations between cytokine biomarkers and SOI have not been adequately studied. The purpose of this study was to describe SOI in relation to cytokine plasma concentrations and gene polymorphisms in a convenience sample of 307 adults (212 men, 72 women, and 23 transgender) living with HIV/AIDS. Based on the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index item that asks the time it usually took to fall asleep in the past month, participants were categorized as either >30min to fall asleep (n=70, 23%) or 30min or less to fall asleep (n=237). Plasma cytokines were analyzed, and genotyping was conducted for 15 candidate genes involved in cytokine signaling: interferon-gamma (IFNG), IFNG receptor 1 (IFNGR1), interleukins (IL1R2, IL2, IL4, IL6, IL8, IL10, IL13, IL17A), nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B cells (NFKB1 and NFKB2), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFA). Demographic and clinical variables were evaluated as potential covariates. After adjusting for genomic estimates of ancestry, self-reported race/ethnicity and viral load, SOI was associated with higher IL-13 plasma levels and with six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs): IL1B rs1143642 and rs1143623, IL6 rs4719714, IL13 rs1295686, NFKB1 rs4648110, and TNFA rs2857602. In addition, the IL1B rs1143642 polymorphism was associated with plasma levels of IL-1β in adjusted analyses. This study strengthens the evidence for an association between inflammation and sleep disturbance, particularly self-report of habitual SOI. In this chronic illness population, the cytokine polymorphisms associated with SOI provide direction for future personalized medicine intervention research.

  1. Additional focusing of a high-intensity laser beam in a plasma with a density ramp and a magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Devki Nandan; Hur, Min Sup; Suk, Hyyong

    2007-08-20

    Propagation of a high power Gaussian laser beam through a plasma with a density ramp where a magnetic field is present has been investigated. The spot size of the laser beam decreases as the beam penetrates into the plasma due to the role of a plasma density ramp. The studies show that the combined effect of a plasma density ramp and a magnetic field enhances the self-focusing property of the laser beam. Both factors not only reduce the spot size of the laser beam but also maintain it with only a mild ripple over several Rayleight lengths.

  2. Studies of levels of biogenic amines in meat samples in relation to the content of additives.

    PubMed

    Jastrzębska, Aneta; Kowalska, Sylwia; Szłyk, Edward

    2016-01-01

    The impact of meat additives on the concentration of biogenic amines and the quality of meat was studied. Fresh white and red meat samples were fortified with the following food additives: citric and lactic acids, disodium diphosphate, sodium nitrite, sodium metabisulphite, potassium sorbate, sodium chloride, ascorbic acid, α-tocopherol, propyl 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoate (propyl gallate) and butylated hydroxyanisole. The content of spermine, spermidine, putrescine, cadaverine, histamine, tyramine, tryptamine and 2-phenylethylamine was determined by capillary isotachophoretic methods in meat samples (fresh and fortified) during four days of storage at 4°C. The results were applied to estimate the impact of the tested additives on the formation of biogenic amines in white and red meat. For all tested meats, sodium nitrite, sodium chloride and disodium diphosphate showed the best inhibition. However, cadaverine and putrescine were characterised by the biggest changes in concentration during the storage time of all the additives. Based on the presented data for the content of biogenic amines in meat samples analysed as a function of storage time and additives, we suggest that cadaverine and putrescine have a significant impact on meat quality. PMID:26515667

  3. Studies of levels of biogenic amines in meat samples in relation to the content of additives.

    PubMed

    Jastrzębska, Aneta; Kowalska, Sylwia; Szłyk, Edward

    2016-01-01

    The impact of meat additives on the concentration of biogenic amines and the quality of meat was studied. Fresh white and red meat samples were fortified with the following food additives: citric and lactic acids, disodium diphosphate, sodium nitrite, sodium metabisulphite, potassium sorbate, sodium chloride, ascorbic acid, α-tocopherol, propyl 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoate (propyl gallate) and butylated hydroxyanisole. The content of spermine, spermidine, putrescine, cadaverine, histamine, tyramine, tryptamine and 2-phenylethylamine was determined by capillary isotachophoretic methods in meat samples (fresh and fortified) during four days of storage at 4°C. The results were applied to estimate the impact of the tested additives on the formation of biogenic amines in white and red meat. For all tested meats, sodium nitrite, sodium chloride and disodium diphosphate showed the best inhibition. However, cadaverine and putrescine were characterised by the biggest changes in concentration during the storage time of all the additives. Based on the presented data for the content of biogenic amines in meat samples analysed as a function of storage time and additives, we suggest that cadaverine and putrescine have a significant impact on meat quality.

  4. Plasma phthalate and bisphenol a levels and oxidant-antioxidant status in autistic children.

    PubMed

    Kondolot, Meda; Ozmert, Elif N; Ascı, Ali; Erkekoglu, Pınar; Oztop, Didem B; Gumus, Hakan; Kocer-Gumusel, Belma; Yurdakok, Kadriye

    2016-04-01

    Phthalates and bisphenol A (BPA) are endocrine disruting chemicals (EDCs) that are suggested to exert neurotoxic effects. This study aimed to determine plasma phthalates and BPA levels along with oxidant/antioxidant status in autistic children [n=51; including 12 children were diagnosed with "Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS)]. Plasma levels of BPA, di (2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate (DEHP) and its main metabolite mono (2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate (MEHP); thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) and carbonyl groups; erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase (GPx1), thioredoxin reductase (TrxR), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities and glutathione (GSH) and selenium levels were measured. Plasma BPA levels of children with PDD-NOS were significantly higher than both classic autistic children and controls (n=50). Carbonyl, selenium concentrations and GPx1, SOD and GR activities were higher (p<0.05); CAT activity was markedly lower in study group. BPA exposure might be associated with PDD-NOS. Intracellular imbalance between oxidant and antioxidant status might facilitate its neurotoxicity.

  5. Energy levels and multipole transition properties of C4+ ion in Debye plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, L. Y.; Wang, J. G.; Janev, R. K.; Qu, Y. Z.; Dong, C. Z.

    2012-05-01

    Plasma screening effects on the energy structure and radiative transition properties of helium-like C4+ ions embedded in Debye plasmas are investigated by using the multi-configuration Dirac-Hartree-Fock method incorporating the Debye-Hückel potential for both the electron-nucleus and electron-electron interactions. Seventeen fine-structure energy levels of the low-lying 1 s 2, 1 s2 l( l = s,p) and 1 s3 l'( l' = s,p,d) configurations, as well as the electric-dipole ( E1), magnetic-dipole ( M1) and magnetic-quadrupole ( M2) transition probabilities and oscillator strengths between these levels have been calculated over a wide range of screening parameters. It is found that the plasma screening leads to a decrease of excitation energies and alters the energy levels remarkably. For Δn ≠ 0 transitions, the spontaneous decay spectra are red-shifted and their oscillator strengths and transition probabilities decrease with increasing the interaction screening, while those for the Δn = 0 transitions exhibit opposite patterns. The influence of electron-nucleus and electron-electron screened interactions on the changes of energy levels and transition properties are analyzed. Comparison is made of present results with other data available in the literature for this ion.

  6. Plasma phthalate and bisphenol a levels and oxidant-antioxidant status in autistic children.

    PubMed

    Kondolot, Meda; Ozmert, Elif N; Ascı, Ali; Erkekoglu, Pınar; Oztop, Didem B; Gumus, Hakan; Kocer-Gumusel, Belma; Yurdakok, Kadriye

    2016-04-01

    Phthalates and bisphenol A (BPA) are endocrine disruting chemicals (EDCs) that are suggested to exert neurotoxic effects. This study aimed to determine plasma phthalates and BPA levels along with oxidant/antioxidant status in autistic children [n=51; including 12 children were diagnosed with "Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS)]. Plasma levels of BPA, di (2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate (DEHP) and its main metabolite mono (2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate (MEHP); thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) and carbonyl groups; erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase (GPx1), thioredoxin reductase (TrxR), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities and glutathione (GSH) and selenium levels were measured. Plasma BPA levels of children with PDD-NOS were significantly higher than both classic autistic children and controls (n=50). Carbonyl, selenium concentrations and GPx1, SOD and GR activities were higher (p<0.05); CAT activity was markedly lower in study group. BPA exposure might be associated with PDD-NOS. Intracellular imbalance between oxidant and antioxidant status might facilitate its neurotoxicity. PMID:26991849

  7. Study on the effect of hydrogen addition on the variation of plasma parameters of argon-oxygen magnetron glow discharge for synthesis of TiO2 films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saikia, Partha; Saikia, Bipul Kumar; Bhuyan, Heman

    2016-04-01

    We report the effect of hydrogen addition on plasma parameters of argon-oxygen magnetron glow discharge plasma in the synthesis of H-doped TiO2 films. The parameters of the hydrogen-added Ar/O2 plasma influence the properties and the structural phases of the deposited TiO2 film. Therefore, the variation of plasma parameters such as electron temperature (Te), electron density (ne), ion density (ni), degree of ionization of Ar and degree of dissociation of H2 as a function of hydrogen content in the discharge is studied. Langmuir probe and Optical emission spectroscopy are used to characterize the plasma. On the basis of the different reactions in the gas phase of the magnetron discharge, the variation of plasma parameters and sputtering rate are explained. It is observed that the electron and heavy ion density decline with gradual addition of hydrogen in the discharge. Hydrogen addition significantly changes the degree of ionization of Ar which influences the structural phases of the TiO2 film.

  8. Alterations in plasma sodium and potassium levels following chronic oral ingestion of lead, mercury and cadmium in male albino rats.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, R; Chansouria, J P

    1991-08-01

    Adult male albino rats were orally administered 0, 25, 50 and 100 ppm of lead nitrate, mercuric chloride and cadmium chloride for 60, 120 and 180 days. The plasma sodium levels were decreased in rats exposed to varying doses of lead and mercury up to 180 days, while animals which consumed cadmium chloride showed an increase in sodium levels. In lead and mercury treated animals, plasma potassium levels were increased up to 180 days. The levels were decreased in cadmium exposed rats. These observations suggest that chronic exposure to these heavy metals considerably influences plasma sodium and potassium levels depending on the dose and duration of exposure.

  9. Elevated plasma tissue factor levels in neonates with umbilical arterial catheter-associated thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Tay, S P; Cheong, S K; Boo, N Y

    2006-06-01

    Catheterization of the umbilical artery has been a useful aid in the management of sick neonates for the past few decades. However, it is associated with various complications. Reported studies strongly suggest a significant role of intravascular catheterization in the development of aortic thrombi. Increase in thrombosis of large vessels is believed to be related to mechanical injury in the catheterized vessels, which provide direct exposure of blood to tissue factor (TF), the primary cellular initiator of the extrinsic coagulation pathway. This study was conducted to determine the levels of plasma TF, tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) and D-dimer (DD) in infants with umbilical arterial catheter (UAC)-associated thrombosis. Quantification of TF was carried out using an in-house sandwich ELISA, whereas TFPI and DD levels were measured with commercial immunoassay kits. Infants with UAC inserted were found to have significantly higher levels of plasma TF (p < 0.001) than baseline levels. However, there were no significantly elevated levels of TFPI or DD. Infants with UAC-associated thrombosis demonstrated a greater increase of TF level (median: 414.5 pg/mL; range: -76.0, 6667.0) than infants without UAC-associated thrombosis (105.0 pg/mL; -976.0, 9480.0; p = 0.009) following UAC insertion. Our findings indicate that quantification and monitoring of TF levels could predict thrombus formation in infants with indwelling UAC. Following umbilical arterial catheterisation, infants with an approximately 3-fold rise in plasma TF levels were most at risk of developing abdominal aorta thrombosis as confirmed by real-time abdominal ultrasonography.

  10. Spectrophotometric determination of carminic acid in human plasma and fruit juices by second order calibration of the absorbance spectra-pH data matrices coupled with standard addition method.

    PubMed

    Samari, Fayezeh; Hemmateenejad, Bahram; Shamsipur, Mojtaba

    2010-05-14

    A simple analytical method based on the second-order calibration of the pH gradient spectrophotometric data was developed for assay of carminic acid (CA) in human plasma and orange juice over the concentration range of 1.5-14.0microM. The multi-way data analysis method was coupled with standard addition to encounter the significant effects of plasma and juices matrices on the acid-base behavior and UV-vis. absorbance spectra of CA. Thus, the standard addition three-way calibration data of plasma or fruit juices samples were analyzed by parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) and the concentration related scores were used to derive a standard addition plot such as one obtained in univariate standard addition method. The number of PARAFAC components was obtained utilizing different criteria such as core consistency and residual errors through pf-test implementation. The applicability of the proposed method was evaluated by analysis of human plasma and fruit juices spiked with different levels of standard CA solutions. The results confirmed the success of the proposed method in the analysis of pH gradient spectrophotometric data for determination of CA. The recoveries were between 86.7 and 106.7. PMID:20441865

  11. Effect of hypertonic saline infusion on the level of immunoreactive dynorphin in extracted human plasma.

    PubMed

    Margioris, A N; Brockmann, G; Kalogeras, K T; Fjellestad-Paulsen, A; Stratakis, C A; Vamvakopoulos, N; Chrousos, G P

    1990-08-01

    Dynorphin-A and its related peptides are derived from prodynorphin, one of the three known endogenous opioid precursors. The prodynorphin gene is expressed in the vasopressinergic magnocellular neurons of the hypothalamus, while its peptide products are present in the vasopressin (AVP) neurosecretory vesicles of the neurohypophysis. The concentration of immunoreactive (IR) dynorphin is orders of magnitude higher in the neurohypophysis than in any other tissue, suggesting that perhaps the prodynorphin-derived peptides are secreted from the hypothalamic-neurohypophyseal unit into the general circulation. Experiments in rats have shown that osmotic stimuli increase both AVP and prodynorphin in the hypothalamus. To determine whether human hypothalamic prodynorphin is also under osmotic regulation, we measured plasma IR-dynorphin, plasma IR-AVP, and serum sodium immediately before and during the infusion of normal or hypertonic saline in normal human volunteers. Because of the unusual susceptibility of the prodynorphin-derived peptides to cleavage by endopeptidases, we also developed an appropriate plasma dynorphin extraction technique. We found that the IR-dynorphin present in human plasma was composed of 6K- and 4K-sized peptides and that no larger than 6K or smaller than 4K dynorphins were present. The infusion of normal saline did not have any significant effect on plasma IR-dynorphin, while 3% hypertonic saline increased its plasma levels. Thus, the mean IR-dynorphin level in the plasma of the volunteers infused with normal saline was 40.3 +/- 6.4 fmol/mL (mean +/- SE; n = 6) at zero time; after 30 min of infusion, plasma IR-dynorphin was 36.0 +/- 6.3, after 60 min it was 29.9 +/- 5, after 90 min it was 36.0 +/- 4.7, after 120 min it was 36.8 +/- 3.2, and after 150 min it was 36.0 +/- 6.1. The plasma IR-dynorphin level in the volunteers infused with hypertonic saline was 31.7 +/- 3.5 fmol/mL (mean +/- SE; n = 10) at zero time. After 30 min of infusion it increased

  12. Solving Additive Problems at Pre-Elementary School Level with the Support of Graphical Representation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selva, Ana Coelho Vieira; Falcao, Jorge Tarcisio da Rocha; Nunes, Terezinha

    2005-01-01

    This research offers empirical evidence of the importance of supplying diverse symbolic representations in order to support concept development in mathematics. Graphical representation can be a helpful symbolic tool for concept development in the conceptual field of additive structures. Nevertheless, this symbolic tool has specific difficulties…

  13. Aerobic exercise and plasma beta endorphin levels in patients with migrainous headache without aura.

    PubMed

    Köseoglu, E; Akboyraz, A; Soyuer, A; Ersoy, A O

    2003-12-01

    This study aims to evaluate the effects of plasma beta endorphin level and exercise on migrainous headache. Forty patients with migrainous headache without aura (MWOA), firstly exercised on a treadmill and afterwards were asked to continue an aerobic home exercise program for six weeks. On evaluation, basal plasma beta endorphin level was negatively correlated with total duration of attacks in the last month period (P = 0.01). Exercise was found to have beneficial effects on all migraine parameters (P < 0.0001) and to increase beta endorphin levels after the treadmill practice (P < 0.0001) and after the home exercise program except four patients not regularly attended to the program (P < 0.0001). Any of the changes in headache parameters was not correlated with the change in beta endorphin level. However, pre-exercise beta endorphin level was found to be negatively correlated with the changes in the number of attacks (P < 0.05) and total duration of attacks (P = 0.01) and also with the change in beta endorphin level due to exercise (P < 0.0001). As a result, this study emphasizes the beneficial effect of exercise on migrainous headache, especially in patients with lower basal beta endorphin level. PMID:14984230

  14. Association between Plasma Homocysteine Levels and Neuronal Injury in HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Ahlgren, Erika; Hagberg, Lars; Fuchs, Dietmar; Andersson, Lars-Magnus; Nilsson, Staffan; Zetterberg, Henrik; Gisslén, Magnus

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the role of homocysteine in neuronal injury in HIV infection. Methods Using a cross-sectional design and archived samples, we compared concentrations of plasma homocysteine and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) neurofilament light protein (NFL), a sensitive marker of neuronal injury, in 83 HIV-1-infected subjects without antiretroviral treatment. We also analyzed plasma vitamin B12, serum folate, CSF, and plasma HIV RNA, the immune activation marker neopterin in CSF and serum, and albumin ratio as a marker of blood-brain barrier integrity. Twenty-two subjects provided a second sample median of 12.5 months after antiretroviral treatment initiation. Results A significant correlation was found between plasma homocysteine and CSF NFL concentrations in untreated individuals (r = 0.52, p < 0.0001). As expected, there was a significant inverse correlation between homocysteine and B12 (r = –0.41, p < 0.001) and folate (r = –0.40, p = < 0.001) levels. In a multiple linear regression analysis homocysteine stood out as an independent predictor of CSF NFL in HIV-1-infected individuals. The correlation of plasma homocysteine and CSF NFL was also present in the group receiving antiretroviral therapy (r = 0.51, p = 0.016). Conclusion A correlation between plasma homocysteine and axonal injury, as measured by CSF NFL, was found in both untreated and treated HIV. While this study is not able to prove a causal link, homocysteine and functional B12/folate deficiency appear to play a role in neural injury in HIV-infected individuals. PMID:27441551

  15. Plasma Levels of Transforming Growth Factor-β1 Reflect Left Ventricular Remodeling in Aortic Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Villar, Ana V.; Cobo, Manuel; Llano, Miguel; Montalvo, Cecilia; González-Vílchez, Francisco; Martín-Durán, Rafael; Hurlé, María A.; Nistal, J. Francisco

    2009-01-01

    Background TGF-β1 is involved in cardiac remodeling through an auto/paracrine mechanism. The contribution of TGF-β1 from plasmatic source to pressure overload myocardial remodeling has not been analyzed. We investigated, in patients with valvular aortic stenosis (AS), and in mice subjected to transverse aortic arch constriction (TAC), whether plasma TGF-β1 relates with myocardial remodeling, reflected by LV transcriptional adaptations of genes linked to myocardial hypertrophy and fibrosis, and by heart morphology and function. Methodology/Principal Findings The subjects of the study were: 39 patients operated of AS; 27 healthy volunteers; 12 mice subjected to TAC; and 6 mice sham-operated. Myocardial samples were subjected to quantitative PCR. Plasma TGF-β1 was determined by ELISA. Under pressure overload, TGF-β1 plasma levels were significantly increased both in AS patients and TAC mice. In AS patients, plasma TGF-β1 correlated directly with aortic transvalvular gradients and LV mass surrogate variables, both preoperatively and 1 year after surgery. Plasma TGF-β1 correlated positively with the myocardial expression of genes encoding extracellular matrix (collagens I and III, fibronectin) and sarcomeric (myosin light chain-2, β-myosin heavy chain) remodelling targets of TGF-β1, in TAC mice and in AS patients. Conclusions/Significance A circulating TGF-β1-mediated mechanism is involved, in both mice and humans, in the excessive deposition of ECM elements and hypertrophic growth of cardiomyocytes under pressure overload. The possible value of plasma TGF-β1 as a marker reflecting preoperative myocardial remodeling status in AS patients deserves further analysis in larger patient cohorts. PMID:20041033

  16. Heating and cooling of the nitroglycerin patch application area modify the plasma level of nitroglycerin.

    PubMed

    Klemsdal, T O; Gjesdal, K; Bredesen, J E

    1992-01-01

    19 healthy volunteers wore a nitroglycerin patch releasing 10 mg per 24 h for 2 h. Subsequently, the skin area surrounding the patch was exposed to 15 min of local heating with an infrared bulb (Group A, n = 10), or local cooling with an ice-pack (Group B, n = 9). The patch was protected by an insulating shield (Styrofoam). After 10 min of heating, the median (Walsh) plasma nitroglycerin level increased from 3.1 to 7.6 nmol.l-1. Body temperature remained constant. After 15 min of cooling the median plasma level had dropped from 2.1 to 1.4 nmol.l-1. The results demonstrate that changes in skin temperature may cause extensive short-term changes in the bioavailability of nitroglycerin. Presumably, a subcutaneous or cutaneous reservoir builds up during transdermal treatment, and changes in regional cutaneous blood flow affect the rate of drainage from the reservoir into the systemic circulation.

  17. Plasma corticosteroid levels in rats maintained on a long-acting naltrexone delivery system.

    PubMed

    Misra, A L; Pontani, R B; Vadlamani, N L

    1978-04-01

    A long-acting delivery system for naltrexone has been described, which blocked the antinociceptive action of 10 mg kg-1 s.c. dose of morphine in rats for a period of 2 to 3 months. Male Wistar rats implanted s.c. with such a delivery system showed highly significant depression of plasma corticosteroid levels (40.2% in one week and 22.4 to 27.2% in 3 months) as compared to placebo pellet-implanted animals. Morphine-dependent male rats implanted with 75 mg morphine pellets showed a small (17.5%) but significant increase in plasma corticosteroid levels as compared to the placebo controls 72 hr. after pellet implantation. PMID:663407

  18. Effect of post-thaw addition of seminal plasma on motility, viability and chromatin integrity of cryopreserved donkey jack (Equus asinus) spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Sabatini, C; Mari, G; Mislei, B; Love, Cc; Panzani, D; Camillo, F; Rota, A

    2014-12-01

    Pregnancy rates in donkeys after artificial insemination with cryopreserved semen are still low, compared to the horse species. Addition of autologous seminal plasma to frozen-thawed semen appeared to improve pregnancy rates. The aims of this study were to evaluate (1) sperm motility and plasma membrane integrity after thawing (T0) and after one and 2 h (T1 and T2) of post-thaw incubation in either 0% (SP0) or 70% (SP70) autologous seminal plasma and (2) sperm motility, plasma membrane integrity and DNA quality (%COMP-αt) after thawing (T0) and after 2 and 4 h (T2 and T4) of post-thaw incubation in either 0% (SP0), 5% (SP5) or 20% (SP20) homologous seminal plasma. In experiment 1, seminal plasma decreased total and progressive sperm motility and plasma membrane intact spermatozoa immediately after dilution and at all following time points (p < 0.05). In experiment 2, total and progressive motility did not differ between treatments immediately after dilution and between SP0 and SP5 at T2, while they were lower in both SP5 and SP20 than in SP0 at T4. Plasma membrane intact sperm cells did not differ between SP0 and SP5 and were lower in SP20 at all time points. DNA quality was not affected by treatment immediately after dilution and was significantly worse for SP20 after 4 h of incubation (p < 0.05). The post-thaw addition of seminal plasma at the tested concentrations did not improve donkey frozen semen characteristics in vitro over time. PMID:25256158

  19. Phytosterol intake and dietary fat reduction are independent and additive in their ability to reduce plasma LDL cholesterol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The plasma LDL-cholesterol-lowering effect of plant sterols (PS) appears to be independent of background diet, but definitive proof is lacking. The effect of background diet on plasma concentrations of PS has not been reported. We determined the effects of manipulating dietary contents of PS and f...

  20. Low plasma glutamine in combination with high glutamate levels indicate risk for loss of body cell mass in healthy individuals: the effect of N-acetyl-cysteine.

    PubMed

    Kinscherf, R; Hack, V; Fischbach, T; Friedmann, B; Weiss, C; Edler, L; Bärtsch, P; Dröge, W

    1996-07-01

    Skeletal muscle catabolism, low plasma glutamine, and high venous glutamate levels are common among patients with cancer or human immunodeficiency virus infection. In addition, a high glycolytic activity is commonly found in muscle tissue of cachectic cancer patients, suggesting insufficient mitochondrial energy metabolism. We therefore investigated (a) whether an "an-aerobic physical exercise" program causes similar changes in plasma amino acid levels, and (b) whether low plasma glutamine or high glutamate levels are risk factors for loss of body cell mass (BCM) in healthy human subjects, i.e., in the absence of a tumor or virus infection. Longitudinal measurements from healthy subjects over longer periods suggest that the age-related loss of BCM occur mainly during episodes with high venous glutamate levels, indicative of decreased muscular transport activity for glutamate. A significant increase in venous glutamate levels from 25 to about 40 microM was seen after a program of "anaerobic physical exercise." This was associated with changes in T lymphocyte numbers. Under these conditions persons with low baseline levels of plasma glutamine, arginine, and cystine levels also showed a loss of BCM. This loss of BCM was correlated not only with the amino acid levels at baseline examination, but also with an increase in plasma glutamine, arginine, and cystine levels during the observation period, suggesting that a loss of BCM in healthy individuals terminates itself by adjusting these amino acids to higher levels that stabilize BCM. To test a possible regulatory role of cysteine in this context we determined the effect of N-acetyl-cysteine on BCM in a group of subjects with relatively low glutamine levels. The placebo group of this study showed a loss of BCM and an increase in body fat, suggesting that body protein had been converted into other forms of chemical energy. The decrease in mean BCM/body fat ratios was prevented by N-acetyl-cysteine, indicating that

  1. Bothrops jararaca Venom Metalloproteinases Are Essential for Coagulopathy and Increase Plasma Tissue Factor Levels during Envenomation

    PubMed Central

    Yamashita, Karine M.; Alves, André F.; Barbaro, Katia C.; Santoro, Marcelo L.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims Bleeding tendency, coagulopathy and platelet disorders are recurrent manifestations in snakebites occurring worldwide. We reasoned that by damaging tissues and/or activating cells at the site of the bite and systemically, snake venom toxins might release or decrypt tissue factor (TF), resulting in activation of blood coagulation and aggravation of the bleeding tendency. Thus, we addressed (a) whether TF and protein disulfide isomerase (PDI), an oxireductase involved in TF encryption/decryption, were altered in experimental snake envenomation; (b) the involvement and significance of snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMP) and serine proteinases (SVSP) to hemostatic disturbances. Methods/Principal Findings Crude Bothrops jararaca venom (BjV) was preincubated with Na2-EDTA or AEBSF, which are inhibitors of SVMP and SVSP, respectively, and injected subcutaneously or intravenously into rats to analyze the contribution of local lesion to the development of hemostatic disturbances. Samples of blood, lung and skin were collected and analyzed at 3 and 6 h. Platelet counts were markedly diminished in rats, and neither Na2-EDTA nor AEBSF could effectively abrogate this fall. However, Na2-EDTA markedly reduced plasma fibrinogen consumption and hemorrhage at the site of BjV inoculation. Na2-EDTA also abolished the marked elevation in TF levels in plasma at 3 and 6 h, by both administration routes. Moreover, increased TF activity was also noticed in lung and skin tissue samples at 6 h. However, factor VII levels did not decrease over time. PDI expression in skin was normal at 3 h, and downregulated at 6 h in all groups treated with BjV. Conclusions SVMP induce coagulopathy, hemorrhage and increased TF levels in plasma, but neither SVMP nor SVSP are directly involved in thrombocytopenia. High levels of TF in plasma and TF decryption occur during snake envenomation, like true disseminated intravascular coagulation syndrome, and might be implicated in engendering

  2. The Apo(a) gene is the major determinant of variation in plasma Lp(a) levels in African Americans.

    PubMed Central

    Mooser, V; Scheer, D; Marcovina, S M; Wang, J; Guerra, R; Cohen, J; Hobbs, H H

    1997-01-01

    The distributions of plasma lipoprotein(a), or Lp(a), levels differ significantly among ethnic groups. Individuals of African descent have a two- to threefold higher mean plasma level of Lp(a) than either Caucasians or Orientals. In Caucasians, variation in the plasma Lp(a) levels has been shown to be largely determined by sequence differences at the apo(a) locus, but little is known about either the genetic architecture of plasma Lp(a) levels in Africans or why they have higher levels of plasma Lp(a). In this paper we analyze the plasma Lp(a) levels of 257 sibling pairs from 49 independent African American families. The plasma Lp(a) levels were much more similar in the sibling pairs who inherited both apo(a) alleles identical by descent (IBD) (r = .85) than in those that shared one (r = .48) or no (r = .22) parental apo(a) alleles in common. On the basis of these findings, it was estimated that 78% of the variation in plasma Lp(a) levels in African Americans is attributable to polymorphism at either the apo(a) locus or sequences closely linked to it. Thus, the apo(a) locus is the major determinant of variation in plasma Lp(a) levels in African Americans, as well as in Caucasians. No molecular evidence was found for a common "high-expressing" apo(a) allele in the African Americans. We propose that the higher plasma levels of Lp(a) in Africans are likely due to a yet-to-be-identified trans-acting factor(s) that causes an increase in the rate of secretion of apo(a) or a decrease in its catabolism. PMID:9311746

  3. Fine-mapping at three loci known to affect fetal hemoglobin levels explains additional genetic variation.

    PubMed

    Galarneau, Geneviève; Palmer, Cameron D; Sankaran, Vijay G; Orkin, Stuart H; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Lettre, Guillaume

    2010-12-01

    We used resequencing and genotyping in African Americans with sickle cell anemia (SCA) to characterize associations with fetal hemoglobin (HbF) levels at the BCL11A, HBS1L-MYB and β-globin loci. Fine-mapping of HbF association signals at these loci confirmed seven SNPs with independent effects and increased the explained heritable variation in HbF levels from 38.6% to 49.5%. We also identified rare missense variants that causally implicate MYB in HbF production.

  4. A Pilot Study to Examine the Effect of Additional Structured Outdoor Playtime on Preschoolers' Physical Activity Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alhassan, Sofiya; Nwaokelemeh, Ogechi; Lyden, Kate; Goldsby, TaShauna; Mendoza, Albert

    2013-01-01

    The impact of additional structured outdoor playtime on preschoolers'; physical activity (PA) level is unclear. The purpose of this pilot study was to explore the effects of increasing structured outdoor playtime on preschoolers'; PA levels. Eight full-day classrooms (n = 134 children) from two preschool programmes were randomised into a treatment…

  5. Myoglobin plasma level related to muscle mass and fiber composition: a clinical marker of muscle wasting?

    PubMed

    Weber, Marc-André; Kinscherf, Ralf; Krakowski-Roosen, Holger; Aulmann, Michael; Renk, Hanna; Künkele, Annette; Edler, Lutz; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Hildebrandt, Wulf

    2007-08-01

    Progressive muscle wasting is a central feature of cancer-related cachexia and has been recognized as a determinant of poor prognosis and quality of life. However, until now, no easily assessable clinical marker exists that allows to predict or to track muscle wasting. The present study evaluated the potential of myoglobin (MG) plasma levels to indicate wasting of large locomotor muscles and, moreover, to reflect the loss of MG-rich fiber types, which are most relevant for daily performance. In 17 cancer-cachectic patients (weight loss 22%) and 27 age- and gender-matched healthy controls, we determined plasma levels of MG and creatine kinase (CK), maximal quadriceps muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) by magnetic resonance imaging, muscle morphology and fiber composition in biopsies from the vastus lateralis muscle, body cell mass (BCM) by impedance technique as well as maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2)max). In cachectic patients, plasma MG, muscle CSA, BCM, and VO(2)max were 30-35% below control levels. MG showed a significant positive correlation to total muscle CSA (r = 0.65, p < 0.001) and to the CSA fraction formed by type 1 and 2a fibers (r = 0.80, p < 0.001). However, when adjusted for body height and age by multiple regression, MG yielded a largely improved prediction of total CSA (multiple r = 0.83, p < 0.001) and of fiber type 1 and 2a CSA (multiple r = 0.89, p < 0.001). The correlations between CK and these muscle parameters were weaker, and elevated CK values were observed in 20% of control subjects despite a prior abstinence from exercise for 5 days. In conclusion, plasma MG, when adjusted for anthropometric parameters unaffected by weight, may be considered as a novel marker of muscle mass (CSA) indicating best the mass of MG-rich type 1 and 2a fibers as well as VO(2)max as an important functional readout. CK plasma levels appear to be less reliable because prolonged increases are observed in even subclinical myopathies or after exercise. Notably, cancer

  6. Effects of feeding two levels of propionibacteria to dairy cows on plasma hormones and metabolites.

    PubMed

    Aleman, Mayte M; Stein, Dan R; Allen, Dustin T; Perry, Emily; Lehloenya, Keneuoe V; Rehberger, Thomas G; Mertz, Keith J; Jones, David A; Spicer, Leon J

    2007-05-01

    To determine the effect of feeding propionibacteria on metabolic indicators during lactation, multiparous and primiparous Holstein cows were fed one of three dietary treatments in a 2 x 3 factorial design from 2 weeks prepartum to 30 weeks post partum: (1) Control (primiparous n=5, multiparous n=8) fed a total mixed ration (TMR); (2) high-dose group (primiparous n=6, multiparous n=5) fed TMR plus 6 x 10 (11) cfu/head daily (high-dose P169) of propionibacterium strain P169; or (3) low-dose group (primiparous n=8, multiparous n=6) fed TMR plus 6 x 10(10) cfu/head daily (low-dose P169) of P169. Blood samples were collected weekly and analysed for plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), leptin, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) and cholesterol. Between weeks 25 and 30, all groups received bovine somatotropin (bST) every 2 weeks. Low-dose P169 multiparous cows had lower (P<0.05) plasma insulin and glucose concentrations than high-dose P169 multiparous cows, whereas high-dose P169 primiparous cows had lower glucose but greater insulin concentartions than low-dose P169 primiparous cows (P<0.05). Plasma insulinratioglucose molar ratios were 13-18% lower (P<0.05) in low-dose P169 cows than in control or high-dose P169 cows. Plasma IGF-I, NEFA and leptin levels did not differ among diet groups between weeks 1 and 25. Low-dose P169 multiparous cows had 25% greater plasma cholesterol levels than high-dose P169 and control multiparous cows, but cholesterol levels in primiparous cows did not differ. During bST treatment, high-dose P169 multiparous cows and low-dose P169 primiparous cows had lower IGF-I levels than their respective controls and, regardless of parity, high-dose P169 cows had greater NEFA than control cows. Although supplemental feeding of P169 altered plasma hormones and metabolites, the particular effects were dependent on dose of P169 and parity of cows.

  7. Peripheral plasma prolactin and progesterone levels in pseudopregnant goats during bromocryptine treatment.

    PubMed

    Taverne, M A; Lavoir, M C; Bevers, M M; Pieterse, M C; Dieleman, S J

    1988-10-01

    Persistence of luteal function and accumulation of fluid within the uterus (hydrometra) are characteristics of pseudopregnancy in goats. To study the luteotrophic role of prolactin in this condition, seven seudopregnant goats were treated with bromocryptine (1 mg subcutaneously, twice daily) for 6 to 10 d. Plasma progesterone (P4) and prolactin (PRL) were measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA) in samples taken twice daily by venipuncture. Ultrasound scanning took place at regular intervals to visualize the presence of fluid within the uterus. Bromocryptine treatment effectively reduced the plasma PRL concentration in six goats. In all seven goats, a gradual decrease of the plasma P4 concentration to levels < 1.8 ng/ml occured during treatment. After bromocryptine treatment, P4 concentrations reached basal levels (<0.1 ng/ml) in two animals. In four goats, P4 concentrations remained close to 1.0 ng/ml, or even temporarily rose above the 2.0 ng/ml level. Spontaneous discharge of uterine fluid took place during (two goats) or within 4 d after bromocryptine treatment (three goats). These results indicate that prolactin plays an important luteotrophic role during pseudopregnancy in goats. PMID:16726519

  8. Changes in salivary and plasma cortisol levels in Purebred Arabian horses during race training session.

    PubMed

    Kędzierski, Witold; Cywińska, Anna; Strzelec, Katarzyna; Kowalik, Sylwester

    2014-03-01

    Physical activity and stress both cause an increase in cortisol release ratio. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of saliva samples for the determination of cortisol concentrations indicating the work-load level in horses during race training. Twelve Purebred Arabian horses aged 3-5 years were studied during the routine training session. After the warm-up, the horses galloped on the 800 m sand track at a speed of 12.8 m/s. Three saliva samples, and three blood samples were collected from each horse. Both types of samples were taken at rest, immediately after return from the track and after 30 min restitution. The concentrations of blood lactic acid (LA), and cortisol in saliva and plasma samples were measured and analyzed. Blood LA, plasma and salivary cortisol levels increased significantly after exercise (P < 0.05). Salivary cortisol concentration determined 30 min after the exercise correlated significantly with plasma cortisol level obtained immediately after exercise (P < 0.05) as well as measured 30 min after the end of exercise (P < 0.05). The determination of cortisol concentration in saliva samples taken from racehorses 30 min after the end of exercise can be recommended to use in field conditions to estimate the work-load in racehorses.

  9. Lower Oxytocin Plasma Levels in Borderline Patients with Unresolved Attachment Representations.

    PubMed

    Jobst, Andrea; Padberg, Frank; Mauer, Maria-Christine; Daltrozzo, Tanja; Bauriedl-Schmidt, Christine; Sabass, Lena; Sarubin, Nina; Falkai, Peter; Renneberg, Babette; Zill, Peter; Gander, Manuela; Buchheim, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Interpersonal problems and affective dysregulation are core characteristics of borderline personality disorder (BPD). BPD patients predominantly show unresolved attachment representations. The oxytocin (OT) system is associated with human social attachment and affiliative behavior, and OT dysregulation may be related to distinct attachment characteristics. Here, we investigated whether attachment representations are related to peripheral OT levels in BPD patients. Twenty-one female BPD patients and 20 age-, gender-, and education-matched healthy controls (HCs) were assessed with clinical scales and measures of interpersonal and attachment-related characteristics, including the Adult Attachment Projective Picture System (AAP). Plasma OT concentrations were measured prior to and during social exclusion in a virtual ball tossing game (Cyberball). The majority of BPD patients (63.2%) but no HCs showed unresolved (disorganized) attachment representations. In this subgroup of patients, baseline OT plasma levels were significantly lower than in BPD patients with organized attachment representations. This pilot study extends previous findings of altered OT regulation in BPD as a putative key mechanism underlying interpersonal dysregulation. Our results provide first evidence that altered OT plasma levels are related to disorganized attachment representations in BPD patients.

  10. Association Between Arsenic Exposure From Drinking Water and Plasma Levels of Cardiovascular Markers

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Fen; Jasmine, Farzana; Kibriya, Muhammad G.; Liu, Mengling; Wójcik, Oktawia; Parvez, Faruque; Rahaman, Ronald; Roy, Shantanu; Paul-Brutus, Rachelle; Segers, Stephanie; Slavkovich, Vesna; Islam, Tariqul; Levy, Diane; Mey, Jacob L.; van Geen, Alexander; Graziano, Joseph H.; Ahsan, Habibul; Chen, Yu

    2012-01-01

    The authors conducted a cross-sectional study to assess the relation between arsenic exposure from drinking water and plasma levels of markers of systemic inflammation and endothelial dysfunction (matrix metalloproteinase-9, myeloperoxidase, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, soluble E-selectin, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), and soluble vascular adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1)) using baseline data from 668 participants (age, >30 years) in the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study in Bangladesh (2007–2008). Both well water arsenic and urinary arsenic were positively associated with plasma levels of soluble VCAM-1. For every 1-unit increase in log-transformed well water arsenic (ln μg/L) and urinary arsenic (ln μg/g creatinine), plasma soluble VCAM-1 was 1.02 (95% confidence interval: 1.01, 1.03) and 1.04 (95% confidence interval: 1.01, 1.07) times greater, respectively. There was a significant interaction between arsenic exposure and higher body mass index, such that the increased levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and soluble VCAM-1 associated with arsenic exposure were stronger among people with higher body mass index. The findings indicate an effect of chronic arsenic exposure from drinking water on vascular inflammation and endothelial dysfunction that could be modified by body mass index and also suggest a potential mechanism underlying the association between arsenic exposure and cardiovascular disease. PMID:22534204

  11. Changes in salivary and plasma cortisol levels in Purebred Arabian horses during race training session.

    PubMed

    Kędzierski, Witold; Cywińska, Anna; Strzelec, Katarzyna; Kowalik, Sylwester

    2014-03-01

    Physical activity and stress both cause an increase in cortisol release ratio. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of saliva samples for the determination of cortisol concentrations indicating the work-load level in horses during race training. Twelve Purebred Arabian horses aged 3-5 years were studied during the routine training session. After the warm-up, the horses galloped on the 800 m sand track at a speed of 12.8 m/s. Three saliva samples, and three blood samples were collected from each horse. Both types of samples were taken at rest, immediately after return from the track and after 30 min restitution. The concentrations of blood lactic acid (LA), and cortisol in saliva and plasma samples were measured and analyzed. Blood LA, plasma and salivary cortisol levels increased significantly after exercise (P < 0.05). Salivary cortisol concentration determined 30 min after the exercise correlated significantly with plasma cortisol level obtained immediately after exercise (P < 0.05) as well as measured 30 min after the end of exercise (P < 0.05). The determination of cortisol concentration in saliva samples taken from racehorses 30 min after the end of exercise can be recommended to use in field conditions to estimate the work-load in racehorses. PMID:24261657

  12. FXR agonist GW4064 increases plasma glucocorticoid levels in C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Hoekstra, Menno; van der Sluis, Ronald J; Li, Zhaosha; Oosterveer, Maaike H; Groen, Albert K; Van Berkel, Theo J C

    2012-10-15

    Since high expression of farnesoid X receptor (FXR) has been detected in glucocorticoid-producing adrenocortical cells, we evaluated the potential role of FXR in adrenal glucocorticoid production. FXR agonist GW4064 increased fasting plasma corticosterone levels (+45%; P<0.01) in C57BL/6 mice, indicative of enhanced adrenal steroidogenesis. GW4064 treatment did not affect plasma ACTH levels, adrenal weight, or adrenal expression of steroidogenic genes. Scavenger receptor BI (SR-BI) mRNA and protein expression, respectively, increased 1.9-fold (P<0.01) and 1.5-fold, which suggests a stimulated lipoprotein-associated cholesterol uptake into the adrenals upon GW4064 treatment. In line with an enhanced flux of cellular cholesterol into the steroidogenic pathway, adrenal unesterified and esterified cholesterol stores were 21-41% decreased (P<0.01) upon GW4064 treatment. In conclusion, we have shown that the FXR agonist GW4064 stimulates plasma corticosterone levels in C57BL/6 mice. Our findings suggest a novel role for FXR in the modulation of adrenal cholesterol metabolism and glucocorticoid synthesis in mice.

  13. Addition by Subtraction: The Relation between Dropout Rates and School-Level Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glennie, Elizabeth; Bonneau, Kara; vanDellen, Michelle; Dodge, Kenneth A.

    2012-01-01

    Background/Context: Efforts to improve student achievement should increase graduation rates. However, work investigating the effects of student-level accountability has consistently demonstrated that increases in the standards for high school graduation are correlated with increases in dropout rates. The most favored explanation for this finding…

  14. Nonlinear responses of coastal salt marshes to nutrient additions and sea level rise

    EPA Science Inventory

    Increasing nutrients and accelerated sea level rise (SLR) can cause marsh loss in some coastal systems. Responses to nutrients and SLR are complex and vary with soil matrix, marsh elevation, sediment inputs, and hydroperiod. We describe field and greenhouse studies examining sing...

  15. Addition by Subtraction: The Relation Between Dropout Rates and School-Level Academic Achievement

    PubMed Central

    GLENNIE, ELIZABETH; BONNEAU, KARA; VANDELLEN, MICHELLE; DODGE, KENNETH A.

    2013-01-01

    Background/Context Efforts to improve student achievement should increase graduation rates. However, work investigating the effects of student-level accountability has consistently demonstrated that increases in the standards for high school graduation are correlated with increases in dropout rates. The most favored explanation for this finding is that high-stakes testing policies that mandate grade repetition and high school exit exams may be the tipping point for students who are already struggling academically. These extra demands may, in fact, push students out of school. Purpose/Objective/Focus This article examines two hypotheses regarding the relation between school-level accountability and dropout rates. The first posits that improvements in school performance lead to improved success for everyone. If school-level accountability systems improve a school for all students, then the proportion of students performing at grade level increases, and the dropout rate decreases. The second hypothesis posits that schools facing pressure to improve their overall accountability score may pursue this increase at the cost of other student outcomes, including dropout rate. Research Design Our approach focuses on the dynamic relation between school-level academic achievement and dropout rates over time—that is, between one year’s achievement and the subsequent year’s dropout rate, and vice versa. This article employs longitudinal data of records on all students in North Carolina public schools over an 8-year period. Analyses employ fixed-effects models clustering schools and districts within years and controls each year for school size, percentage of students who were free/reduced-price lunch eligible, percentage of students who are ethnic minorities, and locale. Findings/Results This study finds partial evidence that improvements in school-level academic performance will lead to improvements (i.e., decreases) in school-level dropout rates. Schools with improved

  16. High Plasma Pentraxin 3 Levels in Diabetic Polyneuropathy Patients with Nociceptive Pain.

    PubMed

    Salcini, Celal; Atasever-Arslan, Belkis; Sunter, Gulin; Gur, Hazal; Isik, Fatma Busra; Saylan, Cemil Can; Yalcin, Ayse Destina

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic polyneuropathy is the most common neurologic complication of diabetes mellitus. Underlying mechanisms of diabetic polyneuropathy are related to various metabolic and inflammatory pathways. Pentraxin 3 (PTX3) is an acute phase protein that is produced locally at the inflammatory sites by several cell types. Thioredoxin binding protein 2 (TBP2) is a thioredoxin regulator involved in intracellular energy pathways and cell growth. We measured the plasma levels of PTX3 and TBP2 in type 2 diabetic patients (n = 27) with pain complaints and compared their levels with those of healthy age- and sex-matched subjects (n = 24). Moreover, the diabetic patients were divided into two groups using the Leeds Assessment of Neuropathic Symptoms and Signs (LANSS) pain scale: patients with nociceptive pain that is caused by tissue damage and patients with neuropathic pain that is caused by nerve damage. Patients with LANSS scores of < 12 were considered to have nocicceptive pain (n = 15), while patients with LANSS scores of ≥ 12 were considered to have neuropathic pain (n = 12). We found that PTX3 levels were significantly higher in diabetic patients compared to controls (p = 0.03), but there was no significant difference in the TBP2 levels. Importantly, patients with nociceptive pain had significantly higher PTX3 levels compared to patients with neuropathic pain (p < 0.05). Thus, plasma PTX3 levels can be helpful for discrimination of nociceptive pain from neuropathic pain in diabetic patients. We propose that PTX3 may contribute to the onset of nociceptive pain.

  17. Plasma homocysteine level is a risk factor for osteoporotic fractures in elderly patients

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yuefeng; Shen, Jie; Cheng, Qun; Fan, Yongqian; Lin, Weilong

    2016-01-01

    Objective To study the relationship of plasma homocysteine (Hcy), bone turnover biomarkers (BTB), and bone mineral density (BMD) with osteoporotic fracture (OPF) in elderly people. Methods Eighty-two patients (aged 65 years or older) admitted to our orthopedics department between October 2014 and May 2015 were randomly divided into three groups: 1) OPF group: 39 cases with the mean age 81.82±5.49 years, which included 24 females and 15 males; 2) high-energy fracture (HEF) group: 22 cases with the mean age 78.88±5.75 years, which included 16 females and six males; 3) non-bone-fracture group: 21 cases with mean age 79.75±5.47 years without bone fracture, which included 14 females and seven males. Plasma Hcy, BTB, and BMD were measured. Analysis of variance and multiple regression analysis were used in the statistical analysis. Results There was no significant difference in either age or sex among the three groups. There were significant differences in plasma Hcy and hip BMD between the OPF and HEF groups; there was also significant difference in plasma Hcy, 25-(OH) Vit D, and hip BMD between the OPF and non-fracture groups. There was no difference in lumbar spine BMD between the OPF group and the other two groups. There was no significant difference in plasma Hcy, 25-(OH) Vit D, hip or lumbar spine BMD between the HEF and non-fracture group. There was no significant difference in procollagen type I N-propeptide of type I collagen, serum C-terminal cross-linking telopeptide of type I collagen, and parathyroid hormone among the three groups. Plasma Hcy was linearly correlated with age and serum C-terminal cross-linking telopeptide of type I collagen, but not correlated with either hip or lumbar spine BMD or any other BTBs. Conclusion In this study, we found that the plasma Hcy level in elderly patients with OPF is higher than that of nonosteoporotic patients. It is not correlated with BMD, but positively correlated with bone resorption markers. An increased Hcy

  18. Plasma amino acid profiles are associated with insulin, C-peptide and adiponectin levels in type 2 diabetic patients

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, H; Jinzu, H; Nagao, K; Noguchi, Y; Shimba, N; Miyano, H; Watanabe, T; Iseki, K

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Plasma-free amino acid (PFAA) profiles have been associated with a future risk of developing diabetes or cardiovascular disease in nondiabetic subjects. These PFAA alterations might predominantly result from the metabolic shift caused by insulin resistance and visceral fat deposition. The variety of PFAA profiles within diabetic subjects is not well researched. In this study, we focused on type 2 diabetic subjects and examined the association between PFAA profiles and insulin- and glucose-related variables. Methods: Fifty-one Japanese subjects diagnosed with type 2 diabetes were recruited from an outpatient clinic. The plasma concentrations of 21 amino acids; glucose-related markers including glucose, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), glycoalbumin and 1,5-anhydroglucitol; insulin-related markers including insulin, C-peptide, and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance; and adipocytokines including adiponectin and leptin were determined. The association of PFAA and other metabolic profiles were analyzed, and stratified analyses of the PFAAs and clinical characteristics were performed according to the fasting plasma insulin and HbA1c levels. In addition, the PFAA indices that correlate to visceral fat obesity were evaluated. Results: Although strong correlations between PFAAs and glucose-related markers were not observed, several amino acids (branched-chain amino acids, tryptophan, alanine, tyrosine, glutamate and proline) and PFAA indices that evaluate visceral obesity were highly correlated with insulin-related markers and adiponectin (P<0.001). In the group of diabetic patients with hyperinsulinemia, the amino acid levels were significantly increased, which generally demonstrated good concordance with insulin-related markers and adiponectin levels. Conclusions: The PFAA profiles in diabetic patients were strongly associated with hyperinsulinemia and hypoadiponectinemia, which might become risk evaluation factors for the development of

  19. Apolipoprotein A-V: a potential modulator of plasma triglyceride levels in Turks.

    PubMed

    Hodoglugil, Ugur; Tanyolaç, Sinan; Williamson, David W; Huang, Yadong; Mahley, Robert W

    2006-01-01

    The apolipoprotein A-V gene (APOA5) plays an important role in determining plasma triglyceride levels. We studied the effects of APOA5 polymorphisms on plasma triglyceride levels in Turks, a population with low levels of HDL cholesterol and a high prevalence of coronary artery disease. We found 15 polymorphisms, three of which were novel. Seven haplotype-tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were chosen and genotyped in approximately 3,000 subjects. The rare alleles of the -1464T>C, -1131T>C, S19W, and 1259T>C SNPs were significantly associated with increased triglyceride levels (19-86 mg/dl; P < 0.05) and had clear gene-dose effects. Haplotype analysis of the nine common APOA5 haplotypes revealed significant effects on triglyceride levels (P < 0.001). Detailed analysis of haplotypes clearly showed that the -1464T>C polymorphism had no effect by itself but was a marker for the -1131T>C, S19W, and 1259T>C polymorphisms. The -1131T>C and 1259T>C polymorphisms were in a strong but incomplete linkage disequilibrium and appeared to have independent effects. Thus, the APOA5 -1131T>C, S19W, and 1259T>C rare alleles were associated with significant increases in plasma triglyceride levels. At least one of these alleles was present in approximately 40% of the Turks. Similar associations were observed for -1131T>C and S19W in white Americans living in San Francisco, California.

  20. Evaluation of D-dimer and lactate dehydrogenase plasma levels in patients with relapsed acute leukemia

    PubMed Central

    HU, WANGQIANG; WANG, XIAOXIA; YANG, RONGRONG

    2016-01-01

    Despite the outstanding advances made over the past decade regarding our knowledge of acute leukemia (AL), relapsed AL remains to be associated with a dismal prognosis. A better understanding of AL relapse and monitoring of the D-dimer and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) plasma levels following chemotherapy may aid clinicians in determining whether relapse may occur in the subsequent phases of the disease. The present study evaluated D-dimer and LDH levels in 204 patients with relapsed AL. Data were collected at the initial onset of AL, at complete remission (CR) and in patients with relapsed AL. D-dimer plasma levels were significantly increased in patients with initial AL and in patients with relapsed AL (P=0.005 and P=0.007, respectively) but not in those with CR. LDH levels were significantly increased in AL patients at the initial onset of disease and at relapse compared with patients achieving CR, irrespective of cell type. Plasma prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time and fibrinogen levels were not significantly different across patients (with the exception of acute promyelocytic leukemia patients) at the initial onset, relapsed AL or CR. Routine hematological parameters (white blood cell count, hemoglobin, platelet count) were significantly different at the initial onset of AL (P=0.002, P<0.001 and P=0.001, respectively) and during relapsed AL (P=0.009, P=0.003 and P<0.001, respectively) compared with patients achieving CR, suggesting an association between D-dimer, LDH and relapsed AL. These results also indicate that determination of D-dimer and LDH levels may be useful for predicting the probability of relapse during chemotherapy, but should also be combined with routine hematological parameters. PMID:27347185

  1. Correlation between changes in plasma HIV RNA levels and in plasma infectivity in response to antiretroviral therapy.

    PubMed

    Andreoni, M; Sarmati, L; Ercoli, L; Nicastri, E; Giannini, G; Galluzzo, C; Pirillo, M F; Vella, S

    1997-05-01

    We evaluated the degree of correlation between the variation of different HIV-1 viral load measures in response to antiretroviral therapy. A quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for plasma HIV-RNA, and HIV plasma infectivity titration, were performed on prospective samples obtained from 86 antiretroviral-naive patients with symptomatic infection and CD4+ < 300/mm3, enrolled in a randomized double-blind trial of the HIV protease inhibitor saquinavir (SQV) in combination with zidovudine (ZDV). Subjects were stratified according to plasma virus infectivity and examined for correlations between distinct response categories with respect to CD4 count and HIV RNA copy number changes. Infectious virus could be titrated in 72% of patients at baseline. A significant reduction (< 1 log10) in HIV plasma infectivity titer was observed during the study in 69% of these patients. The reduction in plasma infectivity was a good predictor of sustained CD4+ cell increases and of sustained decrease in HIV RNA plasma copies. A decrease of at least 0.5 log10 in HIV RNA copy number was observed in 82% of the treated patients. A good correlation was found between HIV plasma infectivity titer and plasma HIV RNA copy number variations (p < 0.001). However, 10 of 17 patients with unchanged plasma infectivity titer showed a significant reduction in HIV RNA copies. While a good correlation was found between plasma infectivity and RNA plasma copies variations, only a minor correlation was found between CD4+ cell count variation and plasma infectivity titer variation. However, reduction in plasma infectivity was a very good predictor of high CD4 changes.

  2. Habitual aerobic exercise increases plasma pentraxin 3 levels in middle-aged and elderly women.

    PubMed

    Miyaki, Asako; Maeda, Seiji; Choi, Youngju; Akazawa, Nobuhiko; Tanabe, Yoko; Ajisaka, Ryuichi

    2012-10-01

    Chronic inflammation that occurs with aging is one of the risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Regular exercise may prevent cardiovascular morbidity by decreasing chronic systematic inflammation. Additionally, excess inflammation can be reduced by the anti-inflammatory protein pentraxin 3 (PTX3). Thus, both habitual exercise and PTX3 have an anti-inflammatory effect. However, it is unclear whether regular exercise leads to increased plasma PTX3 concentration. In the present study, we investigated the effects of regular aerobic exercise on plasma PTX3 concentration in middle-aged and elderly women. Twenty-two postmenopausal women (60 ± 6 years) were randomly divided evenly into 2 groups (i.e., exercise intervention and control). Subjects in the exercise group completed 2 months of regular aerobic exercise training (walking and cycling, 30-45 min, 3-5 days·week⁻¹). Before and after the intervention, we evaluated plasma PTX3 concentration, peak oxygen uptake, blood chemistry, and arterial distensibility (carotid arterial compliance and β-stiffness) in all participants. There were no significant differences in baseline parameters between the 2 groups. Plasma PTX3 concentration was significantly increased in the exercise group after the intervention (p < 0.05). High-density lipoprotein cholesterol, peak oxygen uptake, and arterial compliance were also significantly increased (p < 0.05), while β-stiffness was markedly decreased (p < 0.01) after the intervention. On the other hand, there was no change in the parameters tested in the control group. This study demonstrates that regular aerobic exercise increases plasma PTX3 concentration with improvement of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, peak oxygen uptake, and arterial distensibility in postmenopausal women.

  3. Priming effect in agricultural and forest soils depending on glucose level and N addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Splettstoesser, Thomas; Kumar, Amit; Sun, Yue

    2015-04-01

    Growing plants continuously release easily available organic compounds into the rhizosphere. By their interactions with soil microbial biomass (MB) these compounds result in changes of organic matter turnover rates. The understanding of this priming effect (PE) is important for the estimation of climate change impacts on different land use systems. In order to investigate the PE, we conducted a soil incubation experiment under laboratory conditions with two loamy soils: one under cropland and the second under a deciduous forest near Göttingen. 13C and 14C Glucose were added in four levels reaching from 10% to 300% of MB-C. Furthermore two nitrogen levels were established in order to investigate the effects of fertilization on PE. During the whole experiment CO2 release was monitored by trapping in a NaOH solution. Nitrogen mineralization rate, activity of enzymes, and composition of MB were analyzed at the start, after one day, after one week and at the end of the experiment. The results on priming effects induced in agricultural and forest soils depending on N and glucose levels will be presented.

  4. Catecholamine plasma levels following immune stimulation with rabies vaccine in dogs selected for their paw preferences.

    PubMed

    Siniscalchi, Marcello; Sasso, Raffaella; Pepe, Anna M; Dimatteo, Salvatore; Vallortigara, Giorgio; Quaranta, Angelo

    2010-06-01

    Epinephrine and norepinephrine plasma levels were assessed in dogs in relation to paw preference following an immune challenge with rabies vaccine. The results showed that both catecholamines increased after the vaccine administration, confirming the main role of the sympathetic nervous system in the modulation activity between the brain and the immune system. Moreover, ambidextrous dogs showed a significantly higher increase of epinephrine levels 8 days after immunization with respect to right- and left-pawed dogs, suggesting that the biological activity of this molecule could be key for a different immune response with regard to laterality.

  5. Increased IL6 plasma levels in indolent systemic mastocytosis patients are associated with high risk of disease progression.

    PubMed

    Mayado, A; Teodosio, C; Garcia-Montero, A C; Matito, A; Rodriguez-Caballero, A; Morgado, J M; Muñiz, C; Jara-Acevedo, M; Álvarez-Twose, I; Sanchez-Muñoz, L; Matarraz, S; Caldas, C; Muñoz-González, J I; Escribano, L; Orfao, A

    2016-01-01

    Systemic mastocytosis (SM) is a heterogeneous disease with altered interleukin (IL)-6 and IL13 plasma levels. However, no study has simultaneously investigated the plasma levels of IL1β, IL6, IL13, CCL23 and clusterin in SM at diagnosis and correlated them with disease outcome. Here we investigated IL1β, IL6, IL13, CCL23 and clusterin plasma levels in 75 SM patients--66 indolent SM (ISM) and 9 aggressive SM--and analyzed their prognostic impact among ISM cases grouped according to the extent of hematopoietic involvement of the bone marrow cells by the KIT D816V mutation. Although increased IL1β, IL6 and CCL23 levels were detected in SM patients versus healthy controls, only IL6 and CCL23 levels gradually increased with disease severity. Moreover, increased IL6 plasma levels were associated with ISM progression to more aggressive disease, in particular among ISM patients with multilineal KIT mutation (ISM-ML), these patients also showing a higher frequency of organomegalies, versus other ISM-ML patients. Of note, all ISM patients who progressed had increased IL6 plasma levels already at diagnosis. Our results indicate that SM patients display an altered plasma cytokine profile already at diagnosis, increased IL6 plasma levels emerging as an early marker for disease progression among ISM cases, in particular among high-risk ISM patients who carry multilineage KIT mutation. PMID:26153655

  6. The interaction of an atmospheric pressure plasma jet using argon or argon plus hydrogen peroxide vapour addition with bacillus subtilis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, San-Xi; Cheng, Cheng; Ni, Guo-Hua; Meng, Yue-Dong; Chen, Hua

    2010-10-01

    This paper reports that an atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge plasma jet, which uses argon or argon + hydrogen peroxide vapour as the working gas, is designed to sterilize the bacillus subtilis. Compared with the pure argon plasma, the bacterial inactivation efficacy has a significant improvement when hydrogen peroxide vapour is added into the plasma jet. In order to determine which factors play the main role in inactivation, several methods are used, such as determination of optical emission spectra, high temperature dry air treatment, protein leakage quantification, and scanning electron microscope. These results indicate that the possible inactivation mechanisms are the synergistic actions of chemically active species and charged species.

  7. Altered plasma levels of chemokines in autism and their association with social behaviors.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yidong; Ou, JInajun; Liu, Mengmeng; Shi, Lijuan; Li, Yamin; Xiao, Lu; Dong, Huixi; Zhang, Fengyu; Xia, Kun; Zhao, Jingping

    2016-10-30

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a group of neurodevelopment disorders with an unclear etiology. Chemokines have been implicated in the etiology and pathogenesis of ASD. The current study investigated the plasma levels of seven chemokines (RANTES, Eotaxin, MIP-1 α, MIP-1 β, MCP-1, IP-10, and MIG) in 42 young autistic patients and 35 age-matched typically developing (TD) children. The study also tested the association between these chemokine levels and social behaviors, as measured by the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS). Compared to the TD children, RANTES, MIP-1α, and MIP-1β were higher, while IP-10 and MIG were lower in the autistic patients, after correcting for multiple comparisons. Among these seven chemokines, MIP-1α, MIP-1β and IP-10 levels were found to be associated with social behaviors in all the participants. Moreover, MIP-1α and IP-10 were found to be independent predictors of social behaviors. The results of our study support the hypothesis that altered chemokine levels are involved in the pathophysiology of ASD and they indicate that chemokines plasma levels could be potential biomarkers for ASD.

  8. Plasma progesterone levels in the pregnant female rat-kangaroo (Bettongia gaimardi).

    PubMed

    Jones, S M; Rose, R W

    1992-08-01

    Plasma progesterone levels were measured in female bettongs (small macropodid marsupials) under two natural regimes: (1) during "delayed" gestation (initiated by removal of pouch young, RPY) and (2) during the pregnancy prior to pouch vacation when a young still occupies the pouch (i.e., during lactation). Basal levels of progesterone were 0.15-0.5 ng/ml. There was a transient peak of progesterone (0.7 ng/ml) early in gestation at Day 4 RPY. After Day 6 RPY, progesterone levels remained elevated (1.2-1.5 ng/ml) until they dropped sharply to basal levels on the day of birth. This pattern of progesterone secretion during delayed gestation is similar to that seen in other marsupials, such as the tammar wallaby. There was no significant difference between the progesterone profiles of the two experimental groups. We deduce, then, that lactation had no effect on corpus luteum function (as assessed by plasma progesterone levels) in the pregnant bettong.

  9. Additions to the spectrum and energy levels and critical compilation of doubly ionized boron, B III

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramida, A. E.; Ryabtsev, A. N.; Ekberg, J. O.; Kink, I.; Mannervik, S.; Martinson, I.

    2008-08-01

    We have undertaken the study of the Li-like spectrum of doubly ionized boron, B III. The spectroscopic data have been obtained with beam-foil spectroscopy and high-resolution spark spectroscopy. The experimental work was combined with theoretical calculations using ab initio and semi-empirical techniques. About 50 new transitions have been observed, and most of the previously known lines have been measured with improved accuracy. We have also critically evaluated all previous and recent data for this spectrum. Complete data on wavelengths and energy levels based on this analysis are tabulated.

  10. Evaluation of alternative chemical additives for high-level waste vitrification feed preparation processing

    SciTech Connect

    Seymour, R.G.

    1995-06-07

    During the development of the feed processing flowsheet for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS), research had shown that use of formic acid (HCOOH) could accomplish several processing objectives with one chemical addition. These objectives included the decomposition of tetraphenylborate, chemical reduction of mercury, production of acceptable rheological properties in the feed slurry, and controlling the oxidation state of the glass melt pool. However, the DEPF research had not shown that some vitrification slurry feeds had a tendency to evolve hydrogen (H{sub 2}) and ammonia (NH{sub 3}) as the result of catalytic decomposition of CHOOH with noble metals (rhodium, ruthenium, palladium) in the feed. Testing conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory and later at the Savannah River Technical Center showed that the H{sub 2} and NH{sub 3} could evolve at appreciable rates and quantities. The explosive nature of H{sub 2} and NH{sub 3} (as ammonium nitrate) warranted significant mitigation control and redesign of both facilities. At the time the explosive gas evolution was discovered, the DWPF was already under construction and an immediate hardware fix in tandem with flowsheet changes was necessary. However, the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) was in the design phase and could afford to take time to investigate flowsheet manipulations that could solve the problem, rather than a hardware fix. Thus, the HWVP began to investigate alternatives to using HCOOH in the vitrification process. This document describes the selection, evaluation criteria, and strategy used to evaluate the performance of the alternative chemical additives to CHOOH. The status of the evaluation is also discussed.

  11. Delayed uric Acid accumulation in plasma provides additional anti-oxidant protection against iron-triggered oxidative stress after a wingate test.

    PubMed

    Souza-Junior, Tp; Lorenço-Lima, L; Ganini, D; Vardaris, Cv; Polotow, Tg; Barros, Mp

    2014-12-01

    Reactive oxygen species are produced during anaerobic exercise mostly by Fe ions released into plasma and endothelial/muscle xanthine oxidase activation that generates uric acid (UA) as the endpoint metabolite. Paradoxically, UA is considered a major antioxidant by virtue of being able to chelate pro-oxidative iron ions. This work aimed to evaluate the relationship between UA and plasma markers of oxidative stress following the exhaustive Wingate test. Plasma samples of 17 male undergraduate students were collected before, 5 and 60 min after maximal anaerobic effort for the measurement of total iron, haem iron, UA, ferric-reducing antioxidant activity in plasma (FRAP), and malondialdehyde (MDA, biomarker of lipoperoxidation). Iron and FRAP showed similar kinetics in plasma, demonstrating an adequate pro-/antioxidant balance immediately after exercise and during the recovery period (5-60 min). Slight variations of haem iron concentrations did not support a relevant contribution of rhabdomyolysis or haemolysis for iron overload following exercise. UA concentration did not vary immediately after exercise but rather increased 29% during the recovery period. Unaltered MDA levels were concomitantly measured. We propose that delayed UA accumulation in plasma is an auxiliary antioxidant response to post-exercise (iron-mediated) oxidative stress, and the high correlation between total UA and FRAP in plasma (R-Square = 0.636; p = 0.00582) supports this hypothesis. PMID:25435669

  12. DELAYED URIC ACID ACCUMULATION IN PLASMA PROVIDES ADDITIONAL ANTI-OXIDANT PROTECTION AGAINST IRON-TRIGGERED OXIDATIVE STRESS AFTER A WINGATE TEST

    PubMed Central

    Souza-Junior, TP; Lorenço-Lima, L; Ganini, D; Vardaris, CV; Polotow, TG

    2014-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species are produced during anaerobic exercise mostly by Fe ions released into plasma and endothelial/muscle xanthine oxidase activation that generates uric acid (UA) as the endpoint metabolite. Paradoxically, UA is considered a major antioxidant by virtue of being able to chelate pro-oxidative iron ions. This work aimed to evaluate the relationship between UA and plasma markers of oxidative stress following the exhaustive Wingate test. Plasma samples of 17 male undergraduate students were collected before, 5 and 60 min after maximal anaerobic effort for the measurement of total iron, haem iron, UA, ferric-reducing antioxidant activity in plasma (FRAP), and malondialdehyde (MDA, biomarker of lipoperoxidation). Iron and FRAP showed similar kinetics in plasma, demonstrating an adequate pro-/antioxidant balance immediately after exercise and during the recovery period (5–60 min). Slight variations of haem iron concentrations did not support a relevant contribution of rhabdomyolysis or haemolysis for iron overload following exercise. UA concentration did not vary immediately after exercise but rather increased 29% during the recovery period. Unaltered MDA levels were concomitantly measured. We propose that delayed UA accumulation in plasma is an auxiliary antioxidant response to post-exercise (iron-mediated) oxidative stress, and the high correlation between total UA and FRAP in plasma (R-Square = 0.636; p = 0.00582) supports this hypothesis. PMID:25435669

  13. Plasma arginine levels and the response to inhaled nitric oxide in neonates.

    PubMed

    Kavvadia, V; Greenough, A; Lilley, J; Laubscher, B; Dimitriou, G; Boa, F; Poyser, K

    1999-12-01

    Inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) can be an effective vasodilator in pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PHN). The aim of this study was to determine whether differences in arginine levels, from which endogenous NO is produced, explain the variability in response to NO and whether the arginine levels were lower in term and preterm infants with PHN than in infants without PHN (controls). We prospectively studied 30 infants (17 born preterm) with clinically diagnosed PHN and treated with iNO and 22 controls (14 born preterm). Three NO levels (10, 20, 40 ppm) were administered to the PHN infants to identify that associated with maximum oxygenation. Twenty-seven infants with PHN improved following iNO and had lower arginine levels than those infants who did not respond to iNO (p < 0. 05). No significant relationship, however, was noted between the arginine levels and either the magnitude of change in the oxygenation index in response to iNO or the NO level associated with maximum oxygenation. The median plasma arginine level prior to iNO of the PHN infants was 12.5 (range 2-53) mu mol/l, but not significantly lower than that of the controls (median 24, range 3-82 mu mol/l). We conclude that differences in plasma arginine levels are unlikely to explain the variation in response to iNO and that, although arginine levels tended to be lower in infants with PHN, this is not a consistent finding in either the term or preterm infants.

  14. Relationship between plasma IGF-I levels, in vitro correlates of immunity, and human senescence.

    PubMed

    Krishnaraj, R; Zaks, A; Unterman, T

    1998-09-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) is a polypeptide mitogen which is regulated by growth hormone (GH). IGF-I mediates many of the biological functions of GH, including the maintenance of lymphoid mass and functions. Since GH secretion declines with age, we asked whether changes in the availability of IGF-I might contribute to age-associated alterations in immune functions. As a first step, we examined relationships between plasma levels of IGF-I and in vitro correlates of immunity in young and elderly subjects. Heparinized plasma and lymphocytes were collected from the peripheral blood of 34 healthy young (aged 27 +/- 0.9 years, mean +/- SEM) and 41 elderly (79 +/- 1.3 years) volunteers (31 males and 44 females in total). Plasma levels of IGF-I, measured by radioimmunoassay after the removal of IGF-I-binding proteins, were reduced among elders compared to young controls (138 +/- 8.7 ng/mL vs 80.2 +/- 4.7 ng/mL, P < 0.001). The number of circulating lymphocytes did not change with age. The proliferative response ([3H]thymidine uptake into DNA) of T-cells to concanavalin A and B-cells to pokeweed mitogen were reduced among elders (P < 0.05). An increased spontaneous antitumor natural killer (NK) activity (P < 0.001) was accompanied by a higher percentage of CD16(+) NK cells among lymphocytes in older subjects (P < 0.001). The NK cell number was positively related to IGF-I levels in young volunteers but not among elders. Correlation analysis demonstrated a highly significant relationship between plasma IGF-I levels and T-cell (but not B-cell) proliferative response during aging (r = 0.492, P < 0.001). Our results imply that reduced immunocompetence may be one of the consequences of reduced IGF-I levels in human aging. Among the three types of immune cells tested, the T-cells were most sensitive to fluctuations in IGF-I levels. Reduced IGF-I availability may be one of the determinants of the decline in T-cell-mediated immune function in the elderly. To our knowledge

  15. NT Pro BNP Plasma Level and Atrial Volume Are Linked to the Severity of Liver Cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Licata, Anna; Corrao, Salvatore; Petta, Salvatore; Genco, Chiara; Cardillo, Mauro; Calvaruso, Vincenza; Cabibbo, Giuseppe; Massenti, Fatima; Cammà, Calogero; Licata, Giuseppe; Craxì, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Plasma levels of NT-pro-BNP, a natriuretic peptide precursor, are raised in the presence of fluid retention of cardiac origin and can be used as markers of cardiac dysfunction. Recent studies showed high levels of NT pro BNP in patients with cirrhosis. We assessed NT pro-BNP and other parameters of cardiac dysfunction in patients with cirrhosis, with or without ascites, in order to determine whether the behaviour of NT pro BNP is linked to the stage of liver disease or to secondary cardiac dysfunction. Methods Fifty eight consecutive hospitalized patients mostly with viral or NAFLD-related cirrhosis were studied. All underwent abdominal ultrasound and upper GI endoscopy. Cardiac morpho-functional changes were evaluated by echocardiography and NT-pro-BNP plasma levels determined upon admission. Twenty-eight hypertensive patients, without evidence of liver disease served as controls. Results Fifty eight cirrhotic patients (72% men) with a median age of 62 years (11% with mild arterial hypertension and 31% with type 2 diabetes) had a normal renal function (mean creatinine 0.9 mg/dl, range 0.7–1.06). As compared to controls, cirrhotic patients had higher NT pro-BNP plasma levels (365.2±365.2 vs 70.8±70.6 pg/ml; p<0.001). Left atrial volume (LAV) (61.8±26.3 vs 43.5±14.1 ml; p = 0.001), and left ventricular ejection fraction (62.7±6.9 vs. 65.5±4%,; p = 0.05) were also altered in cirrhotic patients that in controls. Patients with F2-F3 oesophageal varices as compared to F0/F1, showed higher e' velocity (0.91±0.23 vs 0.66±0.19 m/s, p<0.001), and accordingly a higher E/A ratio (1.21±0.46 vs 0.89±0.33 m/s., p = 0.006). Conclusion NT-pro-BNP plasma levels are increased proportionally to the stage of chronic liver disease. Advanced cirrhosis and high NT-pro-BNP levels are significantly associated to increased LAV and to signs of cardiac diastolic dysfunction. NT pro-BNP levels could hence be an useful prognostic indicators of early

  16. Aircraft noise exposure affects rat behavior, plasma norepinephrine levels, and cell morphology of the temporal lobe.

    PubMed

    Di, Guo-Qing; Zhou, Bing; Li, Zheng-Guang; Lin, Qi-Li

    2011-12-01

    In order to investigate the physiological effects of airport noise exposure on organisms, in this study, we exposed Sprague-Dawley rats in soundproof chambers to previously recorded aircraft-related noise for 65 d. For comparison, we also used unexposed control rats. Noise was arranged according to aircraft flight schedules and was adjusted to its weighted equivalent continuous perceived noise levels (L(WECPN)) of 75 and 80 dB for the two experimental groups. We examined rat behaviors through an open field test and measured the concentrations of plasma norepinephrine (NE) by high performance liquid chromatography-fluorimetric detection (HPLC-FLD). We also examined the morphologies of neurons and synapses in the temporal lobe by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Our results showed that rats exposed to airport noise of 80 dB had significantly lower line crossing number (P<0.05) and significantly longer center area duration (P<0.05) than control animals. After 29 d of airport noise exposure, the concentration of plasma NE of exposed rats was significantly higher than that of the control group (P<0.05). We also determined that the neuron and synapsis of the temporal lobe of rats showed signs of damage after aircraft noise of 80 dB exposure for 65 d. In conclusion, exposing rats to long-term aircraft noise affects their behaviors, plasma NE levels, and cell morphology of the temporal lobe.

  17. Fluctuating plasma phosphorus level by changes in dietary phosphorus intake induces endothelial dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Watari, Eriko; Taketani, Yutaka; Kitamura, Tomoyo; Tanaka, Terumi; Ohminami, Hirokazu; Abuduli, Maerjianghan; Harada, Nagakatsu; Yamanaka-Okumura, Hisami; Yamamoto, Hironori; Takeda, Eiji

    2015-01-01

    High serum phosphorus (P) impairs endothelial function by increasing oxidative stress and decreasing nitric oxide production. Serum P levels fluctuate due to circadian rhythms or dietary P intake in healthy people and due to dialysis in end-stage chronic kidney disease patients. Here we examined whether fluctuating plasma P caused by changes in dietary P intake may be involved in endothelial dysfunction, resulting in increased cardiovascular risk. Rats were fed a diet containing 0.6% P for 16 days (control group), or a diet alternating between 0.02% P and 1.2% P (LH group) or between 1.2% P and 0.02% P (HL group) every 2 days; the total amount of P intake among the groups during the feeding period was similar. In the LH and HL groups, endothelial-dependent vasodilation significantly decreased plasma 8-(OH)dG level significantly increased, and the expression of inflammatory factors such as MCP-1 increased in the endothelium as compared with the control group. These data indicate that repetitive fluctuations of plasma P caused by varying dietary P intake can impair endothelial function via increased oxidative stress and inflammatory response. Taken together, these results suggest that habitual fluctuation of dietary P intake might be a cause of cardiovascular disease through endothelial dysfunction, especially in chronic kidney disease patients.

  18. Comparison of surface vacuum ultraviolet emissions with resonance level number densities. I. Argon plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Boffard, John B. Lin, Chun C.; Culver, Cody; Wang, Shicong; Wendt, Amy E.; Radovanov, Svetlana; Persing, Harold

    2014-03-15

    Vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photons emitted from excited atomic states are ubiquitous in material processing plasmas. The highly energetic photons can induce surface damage by driving surface reactions, disordering surface regions, and affecting bonds in the bulk material. In argon plasmas, the VUV emissions are due to the decay of the 1s{sub 4} and 1s{sub 2} principal resonance levels with emission wavelengths of 104.8 and 106.7 nm, respectively. The authors have measured the number densities of atoms in the two resonance levels using both white light optical absorption spectroscopy and radiation-trapping induced changes in the 3p{sup 5}4p→3p{sup 5}4s branching fractions measured via visible/near-infrared optical emission spectroscopy in an argon inductively coupled plasma as a function of both pressure and power. An emission model that takes into account radiation trapping was used to calculate the VUV emission rate. The model results were compared to experimental measurements made with a National Institute of Standards and Technology-calibrated VUV photodiode. The photodiode and model results are in generally good accord and reveal a strong dependence on the neutral gas temperature.

  19. Fluctuating plasma phosphorus level by changes in dietary phosphorus intake induces endothelial dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Watari, Eriko; Taketani, Yutaka; Kitamura, Tomoyo; Tanaka, Terumi; Ohminami, Hirokazu; Abuduli, Maerjianghan; Harada, Nagakatsu; Yamanaka-Okumura, Hisami; Yamamoto, Hironori; Takeda, Eiji

    2015-01-01

    High serum phosphorus (P) impairs endothelial function by increasing oxidative stress and decreasing nitric oxide production. Serum P levels fluctuate due to circadian rhythms or dietary P intake in healthy people and due to dialysis in end-stage chronic kidney disease patients. Here we examined whether fluctuating plasma P caused by changes in dietary P intake may be involved in endothelial dysfunction, resulting in increased cardiovascular risk. Rats were fed a diet containing 0.6% P for 16 days (control group), or a diet alternating between 0.02% P and 1.2% P (LH group) or between 1.2% P and 0.02% P (HL group) every 2 days; the total amount of P intake among the groups during the feeding period was similar. In the LH and HL groups, endothelial-dependent vasodilation significantly decreased plasma 8-(OH)dG level significantly increased, and the expression of inflammatory factors such as MCP-1 increased in the endothelium as compared with the control group. These data indicate that repetitive fluctuations of plasma P caused by varying dietary P intake can impair endothelial function via increased oxidative stress and inflammatory response. Taken together, these results suggest that habitual fluctuation of dietary P intake might be a cause of cardiovascular disease through endothelial dysfunction, especially in chronic kidney disease patients. PMID:25678749

  20. Niacin reduces plasma CETP levels by diminishing liver macrophage content in CETP transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhaosha; Wang, Yanan; van der Sluis, Ronald J; van der Hoorn, José W A; Princen, Hans M G; Van Eck, Miranda; Van Berkel, Theo J C; Rensen, Patrick C N; Hoekstra, Menno

    2012-09-15

    The anti-dyslipidemic drug niacin has recently been shown to reduce the hepatic expression and plasma levels of CETP. Since liver macrophages contribute to hepatic CETP expression, we investigated the role of macrophages in the CETP-lowering effect of niacin in mice. In vitro studies showed that niacin does not directly attenuate CETP expression in macrophages. Treatment of normolipidemic human CETP transgenic mice, fed a Western-type diet with niacin for 4 weeks, significantly reduced the hepatic cholesterol concentration (-20%), hepatic CETP gene expression (-20%), and plasma CETP mass (-30%). Concomitantly, niacin decreased the hepatic expression of CD68 (-44%) and ABCG1 (-32%), both of which are specific markers for the hepatic macrophage content. The decrease in hepatic CETP expression was significantly correlated with the reduction of hepatic macrophage markers. Furthermore, niacin attenuated atherogenic diet-induced inflammation in liver, as evident from decreased expression of TNF-alpha (-43%). Niacin similarly decreased the macrophage markers and absolute macrophage content in hyperlipidemic APOE*3-Leiden.CETP transgenic mice on a Western-type diet. In conclusion, niacin decreases hepatic CETP expression and plasma CETP mass by attenuating liver inflammation and macrophage content in response to its primary lipid-lowering effect, rather than by attenuating the macrophage CETP expression level.

  1. Circulating IGF-axis Protein Levels and Their Relation with Levels of Plasma Adipocytokines and Macronutrient Consumption in Women

    PubMed Central

    Beasley, Jeannette M.; Wedick, Nicole M.; Rajpathak, Swapnil N.; Xue, Xiaonan; Holmes, Michelle D.; Gunter, Marc J.; Wylie-Rosett, Judith; Rohan, Thomas E.; Pollak, Michael; Kaplan, Robert C.; Hu, Frank B.; Sun, Qi; Strickler, Howard D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Circulating free insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I and its binding proteins, most notably, IGFBP-1 and IGFBP-2, have been prospectively associated with incident type 2 diabetes in women. However, little is known regarding the factors that may influence these IGF-axis protein levels. To study the relation of IGF-axis protein levels with adipocytokines, macronutrient consumption, and other factors related to diabetes. Design Fasting plasma from 558 controls enrolled in a nested case-control study within the Nurses’ Health Study of incident type 2 diabetes in women were tested for: IGF-axis proteins (free and total IGF-I, IGFBP-1, IGFBP-2, IGFBP-3), adipocytokines (leptin, adiponectin, resistin), soluble leptin receptor (sOB-R), inflammatory factors (IL-18 and C-reactive protein (CRP)), insulin, and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C). Results In multivariate models, each 1% increase in sOB-R (mean 34.9 ng/mL, standard deviation (SD) ±11.3) was associated with −0.20% total IGF-I (P=0.0003) and −0.42% free IGF-I (P=0.002), as well as 0.73% higher IGFBP-1 (P<0.0001) and 0.27% IGFBP-2 (P=0.003). For example, a one SD change from the mean sOB-R level was associated with 11% lower free IGF-I. Insulin levels (mean 6.8 μU/mL ±5.3) were inversely and adiponectin (mean 18.3 μg/mL ±7.4) positively associated with IGFBP-1 and IGFBP-2 (all P<0.01). Consumption of dairy protein, monounsaturated fats, and saturated fats, was also correlated with IGF-axis protein levels (all P<0.05). Conclusions Several molecular factors and macronutrients were independently associated with plasma IGF-axis protein levels. Which of these, if any, reflect biologic relationships that can be intervened upon to influence IGF-axis protein concentrations warrants further investigation. PMID:24888819

  2. Plasma cinnarizine levels resulting from oral administration as capsule or tablet formulation investigated by gas-liquid chromatography.

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, P J; Bradbrook, I D; Rogers, H J

    1979-01-01

    1 A gas chromatographic assay for the estimation of therapeutic concentrations of cinnarizine in plasma is described. 2 Cinnarizine (75 mg) was administered orally to twelve healthy subjects in the form of capsules and tablets on two separate occasions. No difference was found in the plasma levels or absorption of cinnarizine from these formulations. 3 The mean plasma elimination half-life of cinnarizine was 3.24 h. PMID:444354

  3. COPD and levels of Hsp70 (HSPA1A) and Hsp27 (HSPB1) in plasma and lymphocytes among coal workers: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Cui, Xiuqing; Xing, Jingcai; Liu, Yuewei; Zhou, Yun; Luo, Xin; Zhang, Zhihong; Han, Wenhui; Wu, Tangchun; Chen, Weihong

    2015-05-01

    This case-control study aimed to investigate whether the levels of Hsp70 (HSPA1A) and Hsp27 (HSPB1) in plasma and lymphocytes were associated with the risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) among coal workers. A total of 76 COPD cases and 48 age-matched healthy controls from a group of coal workers were included. The case group consisted of 35 COPD patients whose condition was complicated with coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP) and 41 COPD patients without CWP. Heat shock proteins (Hsps) in plasma and lymphocytes were detected by ELISA and flow cytometry, respectively. Multiple logistic regression models were applied to estimate the association between Hsp levels and COPD risk. Our results showed that plasma Hsp70 and lymphocyte Hsp27 levels were significantly higher and plasma Hsp27 levels were significantly lower in COPD cases than in controls (p < 0.01). No significant differences in lymphocyte Hsp70 levels were found between COPD cases and the matched subjects. Higher plasma Hsp70 levels (odds ratio (OR) = 13.8, 95 % confidence interval (CI) = 5.7-33.5) and lower plasma Hsp27 levels (OR = 4.6, 95 % CI = 2.0-10.5) were significantly associated with an increased risk of COPD after adjusting for confounders. Higher lymphocyte Hsp27 levels were only associated with an increased risk of COPD with CWP (OR = 6.6, 95 % CI = 2.0-22.1) but not with an increased risk of COPD without CWP (OR = 3.0, 95 % CI = 0.9-8.9). Additionally, there were strong joint effects of different Hsps on COPD risk. These results showed that higher levels of plasma Hsp70 and lower levels of plasma Hsp27 might be associated with an increased risk of COPD among coal workers. They may have the potential to serve as monitoring markers for COPD in coal workers. PMID:25620081

  4. COPD and levels of Hsp70 (HSPA1A) and Hsp27 (HSPB1) in plasma and lymphocytes among coal workers: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Cui, Xiuqing; Xing, Jingcai; Liu, Yuewei; Zhou, Yun; Luo, Xin; Zhang, Zhihong; Han, Wenhui; Wu, Tangchun; Chen, Weihong

    2015-05-01

    This case-control study aimed to investigate whether the levels of Hsp70 (HSPA1A) and Hsp27 (HSPB1) in plasma and lymphocytes were associated with the risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) among coal workers. A total of 76 COPD cases and 48 age-matched healthy controls from a group of coal workers were included. The case group consisted of 35 COPD patients whose condition was complicated with coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP) and 41 COPD patients without CWP. Heat shock proteins (Hsps) in plasma and lymphocytes were detected by ELISA and flow cytometry, respectively. Multiple logistic regression models were applied to estimate the association between Hsp levels and COPD risk. Our results showed that plasma Hsp70 and lymphocyte Hsp27 levels were significantly higher and plasma Hsp27 levels were significantly lower in COPD cases than in controls (p < 0.01). No significant differences in lymphocyte Hsp70 levels were found between COPD cases and the matched subjects. Higher plasma Hsp70 levels (odds ratio (OR) = 13.8, 95 % confidence interval (CI) = 5.7-33.5) and lower plasma Hsp27 levels (OR = 4.6, 95 % CI = 2.0-10.5) were significantly associated with an increased risk of COPD after adjusting for confounders. Higher lymphocyte Hsp27 levels were only associated with an increased risk of COPD with CWP (OR = 6.6, 95 % CI = 2.0-22.1) but not with an increased risk of COPD without CWP (OR = 3.0, 95 % CI = 0.9-8.9). Additionally, there were strong joint effects of different Hsps on COPD risk. These results showed that higher levels of plasma Hsp70 and lower levels of plasma Hsp27 might be associated with an increased risk of COPD among coal workers. They may have the potential to serve as monitoring markers for COPD in coal workers.

  5. Plasma levels of nitrate and risk of prostate cancer: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Tianying; Wang, Yushan; Ho, Shuk-Mei; Giovannucci, Edward

    2013-01-01

    Background Nitrate and nitrite supplements have recently been shown to improve cardiovascular health, but there is concern that these supplements could contribute to the development of cancer.Previous small, cross-sectional studies reported positive associations between circulating nitrate/nitrite levels and cancer. Prospective studies examining the association between plasma nitrate and cancer, especially prostate cancer (PCa), are lacking. Methods We conducted a nested case-control study within the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. Baseline blood samples were collected in 1994, and incident cases of PCa were identified from 1997–2005. Baseline plasma levels of nitrate were measured in the 630 cases and 630 matched controls. Results We have found that baseline levels of plasma nitrate were not associated with risk of PCa. Compared to quintile 1, the relative risk from quintiles 2–5 were 1.13 (95% CI, 0.78–1.63), 0.93 (95% CI, 0.63–1.38), 0.95 (95% CI, 0.65–1.39), and 0.99 (95% CI, 0.68–1.48); p for trend was 0.9 after adjustment of multivariate risk factors. When analyses were restricted to men fasting more than 6 hrs, the trend was similar. Further, plasma nitrate appeared to be inversely associated with advanced-stage PCa. The relative risk across extreme quartiles was 0.44 (95% CI, 0.17–1.12; p for trend = 0.07) for the whole data set and 0.30 (95% CI, 0.09–0.99; p for trend = 0.05) for the fasting data set. Conclusions In summary, we did not find an increased risk of PCa associated with higher plasma nitrate levels. A potential protective association between nitrate and aggressive forms of PCa requires confirmation. Impact Nitrate-nitrite-nitric oxide pathway has emerged as a new therapeutic pathway for chronic diseases. The results of this study certainly merit replications in other prospective studies. PMID:23677578

  6. Plasma levels and clinical response with imipramine in a study comparing efficacy with mianserin and nomifensine

    PubMed Central

    Montgomery, S. A.; Roy, D.; Wynne-Willson, S.; Robinson, C.; Montgomery, D. B.

    1983-01-01

    1 The comparative antidepressant efficacy of 150 mg imipramine, 60 mg mianserin and 150 mg nomifensine was studied in 45 depressed patients in a six week double-blind investigation. 2 In the efficacy analysis of 41 patients completing the study there was no overall significant difference in efficacy between the groups. Individual group comparisons showed no significant difference in response between mianserin and nomifensine, and mianserin and imipramine. There was a significant (z=1.99, P<0.05) improved response in the imipramine compared with the nomifensine treated group. The imipramine treated group were significantly older. 3 No significant plasma concentration/clinical response relationships were demonstrated with nomifensine, mianserin, imipramine or desipramine. 4 Plasma level monitoring of imipramine recommended by some investigators does not seem to be appropriate. PMID:6337608

  7. Plasma hearth process vitrification of DOE low-level mixed waste

    SciTech Connect

    Gillins, R.L.; Geimer, R.M.

    1995-11-01

    The Plasma Hearth Process (PHP) demonstration project is one of the key technology projects in the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development Mixed Waste Focus Area. The PHP is recognized as one of the more promising solutions to DOE`s mixed waste treatment needs, with potential application in the treatment of a wide variety of DOE mixed wastes. The PHP is a high temperature vitrification process using a plasma arc torch in a stationary, refractory lined chamber that destroys organics and stabilizes the residuals in a nonleaching, vitrified waste form. This technology will be equally applicable to low-level mixed wastes generated by nuclear utilities. The final waste form will be volume reduced to the maximum extent practical, because all organics will have been destroyed and the inorganics will be in a high-density, low void-space form and little or no volume-increasing glass makers will have been added.

  8. Plasma Glucose Levels for Red Drum Sciaenops Ocellatus in a Florida Estuarine Fisheries Reserve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourtis, Carla M.; Francis-Floyd, Ruth; Boggs, Ashley S P.; Reyier, Eric A.; Stolen, Eric D.; Yanong, Roy P.; Guillette, Louis J., Jr.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the significant value of the southeastern United States' red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) fishery, there is a lack of clinical blood chemistry data. This was the first study to assess plasma glucose values as an indicator of stress response to evaluate variation and the effect of reproductive activity for wild adult red drum in Florida. Red drum (n=126) were collected from NASA's Kennedy Space Center waters during three reproductive periods in 2011. Samples were obtained from the branchial vessels of the gill arch. Plasma glucose levels were significantly different among reproductive periods, with the highest mean values recorded during the spawning period, September- October (38.23 mg / dL +/- 10.0). The glucose range was 17 - 69 mg / dL. Glucose values were lower during all three periods than previous values recorded for cultured or captive red drum studies. This may indicate that fish from this population were under less stress than other populations previously sampled.

  9. A low-level activation technique for monitoring thermonuclear fusion plasma conditions.

    PubMed

    Gasparro, Joël; Hult, Mikael; Bonheure, Georges; Johnston, Peter N

    2006-01-01

    Optimisation of the confinement and sustainability of a thermonuclear plasma requires methods to monitor processes in the plasma. In this work three materials were used as activation targets (Ti, MgF2 and a TiVAl compound). They were placed inside the joint European Torus (JET) vacuum chamber. Certain gamma-ray emitting radionuclides (7Be, 54Mn, 56Co, 57Co, 58Co and 46Sc) were measured using ultra low-level gamma-ray spectrometry in an underground laboratory 1-2 months after activation. They were found to arise from neutron activation of bulk sample material and surface contaminants sputtered from other Tokamak parts. Decision thresholds for some activation products were determined in order to aid in giving upper bounds for the flux of charged particles.

  10. Soft mean spherical approximation for dusty plasma liquids: Level of accuracy and analytic expressions

    SciTech Connect

    Tolias, P.; Ratynskaia, S.; Angelis, U. de

    2015-08-15

    The soft mean spherical approximation is employed for the study of the thermodynamics of dusty plasma liquids, the latter treated as Yukawa one-component plasmas. Within this integral theory method, the only input necessary for the calculation of the reduced excess energy stems from the solution of a single non-linear algebraic equation. Consequently, thermodynamic quantities can be routinely computed without the need to determine the pair correlation function or the structure factor. The level of accuracy of the approach is quantified after an extensive comparison with numerical simulation results. The approach is solved over a million times with input spanning the whole parameter space and reliable analytic expressions are obtained for the basic thermodynamic quantities.

  11. Effect of clozapine and molindone on plasma and brain levels of mescaline in mice.

    PubMed

    Shah, N S; Gulati, O D

    1984-01-01

    Levels of unchanged mescaline were examined in the plasma and brain of albino Swiss-Webster mice pretreated with various doses of either clozapine or molindone. In clozapine treated mice, the mescaline levels were statistically significantly higher at 2 and 3 h with 7.5 and 15.0 mg/kg and at 1, 2 and 3 h with 30 mg/kg. Molindone at 4.0 and 8.0 mg/kg produced no significant effect; at 16.0 and 48.0 mg/kg, the levels were significantly higher at 1 and 2 h. Elevated brain levels of mescaline by clozapine and molindone indicate an adverse metabolic interaction between a hallucinogen and drugs that are commonly used to treat mescaline-induced psychosis.

  12. Trend analysis of plasma insulin level around parturition in relation to parity in Saanen goats.

    PubMed

    Magistrelli, D; Rosi, F

    2014-06-01

    The present study investigated the effect of parity on plasma insulin level around parturition in Saanen goats. On d -14, -7, 0, 3, 7, 10, and 14 from parturition, plasma glucose, NEFA, free AA, cortisol, and insulin concentrations were analyzed in 10 primiparous and 10 multiparous goats. At parturition, BW of primiparous goats was about 75% of that of multiparous ones (P < 0.001) and then their milk production was lower than that of multiparous ones (P < 0.001). At parturition, glucose increased (P < 0.01) in both primiparous and multiparous goats and then decreased (P < 0.01) on d 3 of lactation, remaining higher (P < 0.01) in primiparous than multiparous goats until the end of the study period. In both groups, free AA decreased (P < 0.01) at parturition, returning to prepartum levels (P < 0.01) on d 3 of lactation without difference between groups. Only in multiparous goats, plasma NEFA increased at parturition (P < 0.01), returning to prepartum levels on d 14 (P < 0.01). Changes in glucose and AA could have been caused by cortisol, which increased (P < 0.01) at parturition in both primiparous and multiparous goats, returning to prepartum levels (P < 0.01) on d 7 of lactation, without difference between the parity groups. In multiparous goats, insulin decreased soon after parturition (P < 0.05), remaining at low levels until the end of the study period, whereas in primiparous goats, insulin did not vary until d 14 of lactation, when it decreased (P < 0.05) also in this group. Therefore, between d 3 and 14 of lactation, insulin was higher in primiparous than multiparous goats (P < 0.05). Only in primiparous goats, at kidding, insulin was negatively correlated to BW (P < 0.01), and after parturition it was negatively correlated with milk yield (P < 0.05) and plasma NEFA (P < 0.05). We hypothesize that higher insulin levels in primiparous Saanen goats, which are still immature at their first breeding season, acted to limit both the mobilization of bodily reserves

  13. Gender specific effect of LIPC C-514T polymorphism on obesity and relationship with plasma lipid levels in Chinese children.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hao; Zhang, Dandan; Ling, Jie; Lu, Wenhui; Zhang, Shuai; Zhu, Yimin; Lai, Maode

    2015-09-01

    Hepatic lipase (LIPC) is a key rate-limiting enzyme in lipoprotein catabolism pathways involved in the development of obesity. The C-514T polymorphism in the promoter region is associated with decreased LIPC activity. We performed a case-controlled study (850 obese children and 2119 controls) and evaluated the association between LIPC C-514T polymorphism, obesity and plasma lipid profile in Chinese children and adolescents. Additionally, we conducted a meta-analysis of all results from published studies as well as our own data. A significant association between the polymorphism and obesity is observed in boys (P = 0.042), but not in girls. And we observed a significant relationship of the polymorphism with total cholesterol (TC) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) independent of obesity in boys. The T allele carriers have higher levels of low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in obese boys, and triglyceride (TG), TC and LDL-C in non-obese girls (all P < 0.05). In the meta-analysis, under dominant model the T allele increased body mass index (BMI) level in boys, while it decreased BMI in girls, and increased the levels of TC both in the overall and subgroups, TG and HDL-C in the overall and boys, and LDL-C in the overall (all P < 0.05). Our results suggest that the T allele might carry an increased risk of obesity in Chinese boys. The meta-analysis suggests that T allele acts as a risk allele for higher BMI levels in male childhood, while it is a protective allele in female childhood. And the polymorphism is associated with the levels of plasma lipids, which may be modulated by obesity and gender.

  14. Atorvastatin Reduces Plasma Levels of Chemokine (CXCL10) in Patients with Crohn's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Grip, Olof; Janciauskiene, Sabina

    2009-01-01

    Background In Crohn's disease high tissue expression and serum levels of chemokines and their receptors are known to correlate with disease activity. Because statins can reduce chemokine expression in patients with coronary diseases, we wanted to test whether this can be achieved in patients with Crohn's disease. Methodology/Principal Findings We investigated plasma levels of chemokines (CCL2, CCL4, CCL11, CCL13, CCL17, CCL22, CCL26, CXCL8, CXCL10) and endothelial cytokines (sP-selectin, sE-selectin, sICAM-3, thrombomodulin) in ten Crohn's disease patients before and after thirteen weeks' daily treatment with 80 mg atorvastatin. Of the 13 substances investigated, only CXCL10 was found to be significantly reduced (by 34%, p = 0.026) in all of the treated patients. Levels of CXCL10 correlated with C-reactive protein (r = 0.82, p<0.01). Conclusions/Significance CXCL10 is a ligand for the CXCR3 receptor, the activation of which results in the recruitment of T lymphocytes and the perpetuation of mucosal inflammation. Hence the reduction of plasma CXCL10 levels by atorvastatin may represent a candidate for an approach to the treatment of Crohns disease in the future. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00454545 PMID:19421322

  15. Association of interleukin 16 gene polymorphisms and plasma IL16 level with osteosarcoma risk

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Yu-Jin; Wang, Jun-Li; Xie, Ke-Gong; Lan, Chang-Gong

    2016-01-01

    Interleukin (IL) 16 plays a key role in inflammatory diseases as well as in tumorigenesis of osteosarcoma (OS). The aim of this study was to investigate the association of IL16 polymorphisms and plasma IL16 level with OS risk in a Chinese population. We genotyped IL16 rs4778889, rs11556218, and rs4072111 in 358 patients with OS and 402 controls using a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism assay. Plasma IL16 level was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Rs11556218 was associated with an increased risk of OS in heterozygote comparison (adjusted OR = 1.65, 95% CI, 1.23–2.21, P < 0.001), dominant model (adjusted OR = 1.66, 95% CI, 1.24–2.21, P < 0.001), and allele comparison (adjusted OR = 1.44, 95% CI, 1.14–1.81, P = 0.002). Moreover, rs11556218 TG/GG genotypes were associated with higher levels of IL16 as compared to TT genotype (P = 0.03). However, no significant association of rs4778889 and rs4072111 and OS was found. These findings suggest that rs11556218 TG/GG genotypes may be associated with increased susceptibility to OS, probably by increasing the production of IL16 level. PMID:27703190

  16. Changes in plasma levels of vasoactive peptides during sequential bicarbonate hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Hegbrant, J; Thysell, H; Mårtensson, L; Ekman, R; Boberg, U

    1993-01-01

    The hemodynamic response to isolated ultrafiltration (IUF) is characterized by a vasoconstriction, while there is no significant change in peripheral vascular resistance during isovolemic bicarbonate hemodialysis (IVHD). The present investigation was designed to study the plasma levels of vasoactive regulatory peptides together with noradrenaline (NA) and plasma renin activity (PRA) in 11 patients during sequential hemodialysis (SQHD) - IUF for 60 min, followed by IVHD for 210 min. During IUF, the vasoconstrictors arginine vasopressin (AVP), gamma 2-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (gamma 2-MSH), neuropeptide Y (NPY), NA and PRA increased. During IVHD, NPY and PRA remained unchanged on a higher level. A decrease in AVP below the baseline and in gamma 2-MSH and NA to the baseline levels occurred during IVHD. In the case of vasodilators, there were no changes in calcitonin gene-related peptide or motilin during SQHD. An increase in beta-endorphin (beta-END) occurred during IUF, followed by a decrease during IVHD. Substance P and vasoactive intestinal peptide were unchanged during IUF but decreased during IVHD. We conclude that SQHD is characterized by an increase in all the measured vasoconstrictors during IUF in response to loss of fluid, and by a decrease in some vasoconstrictors (AVP, gamma 2-MSH, NA) during IVHD. With the exception of beta-END, there were no changes or only minor ones in vasodilators during SQHD. There are changes in plasma levels of vasoactive substances during SQHD but the importance of these changes for the hemodynamic adaptation to ultrafiltration and dialysis needs to be studied further.

  17. Alteration in plasma testosterone levels in male mice lacking soluble epoxide hydrolase.

    PubMed

    Luria, Ayala; Morisseau, Christophe; Tsai, Hsing-Ju; Yang, Jun; Inceoglu, Bora; De Taeye, Bart; Watkins, Steven M; Wiest, Michelle M; German, J Bruce; Hammock, Bruce D

    2009-08-01

    Soluble epoxide hydrolase (Ephx2, sEH) is a bifunctional enzyme with COOH-terminal hydrolase and NH(2)-terminal phosphatase activities. sEH converts epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) to dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids (DHETs), and the phosphatase activity is suggested to be involved in cholesterol metabolism. EETs participate in a wide range of biological functions, including regulation of vascular tone, renal tubular transport, cardiac contractility, and inflammation. Inhibition of sEH is a potential approach for enhancing the biological activity of EETs. Therefore, disruption of sEH activity is becoming an attractive therapeutic target for both cardiovascular and inflammatory diseases. To define the physiological role of sEH, we characterized a knockout mouse colony lacking expression of the Ephx2 gene. Lack of sEH enzyme is characterized by elevation of EET to DHET ratios in both the linoleate and arachidonate series in plasma and tissues of both female and male mice. In male mice, this lack of expression was also associated with decreased plasma testosterone levels, sperm count, and testicular size. However, this genotype was still able to sire litters. Plasma cholesterol levels also declined in this genotype. Behavior tests such as anxiety-like behavior and hedonic response were also examined in Ephx2-null and WT mice, as all can be related to hormonal changes. Null mice showed a level of anxiety with a decreased hedonic response. In conclusion, this study provides a broad biochemical, physiological, and behavioral characterization of the Ephx2-null mouse colony and suggests a mechanism by which sEH and its substrates may regulate circulating levels of testosterone through cholesterol biosynthesis and metabolism. PMID:19458064

  18. Alteration in plasma testosterone levels in male mice lacking soluble epoxide hydrolase

    PubMed Central

    Luria, Ayala; Morisseau, Christophe; Tsai, Hsing-Ju; Yang, Jun; Inceoglu, Bora; De Taeye, Bart; Watkins, Steven M.; Wiest, Michelle M.; German, J. Bruce; Hammock, Bruce D.

    2009-01-01

    Soluble epoxide hydrolase (Ephx2, sEH) is a bifunctional enzyme with COOH-terminal hydrolase and NH2-terminal phosphatase activities. sEH converts epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) to dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids (DHETs), and the phosphatase activity is suggested to be involved in cholesterol metabolism. EETs participate in a wide range of biological functions, including regulation of vascular tone, renal tubular transport, cardiac contractility, and inflammation. Inhibition of sEH is a potential approach for enhancing the biological activity of EETs. Therefore, disruption of sEH activity is becoming an attractive therapeutic target for both cardiovascular and inflammatory diseases. To define the physiological role of sEH, we characterized a knockout mouse colony lacking expression of the Ephx2 gene. Lack of sEH enzyme is characterized by elevation of EET to DHET ratios in both the linoleate and arachidonate series in plasma and tissues of both female and male mice. In male mice, this lack of expression was also associated with decreased plasma testosterone levels, sperm count, and testicular size. However, this genotype was still able to sire litters. Plasma cholesterol levels also declined in this genotype. Behavior tests such as anxiety-like behavior and hedonic response were also examined in Ephx2-null and WT mice, as all can be related to hormonal changes. Null mice showed a level of anxiety with a decreased hedonic response. In conclusion, this study provides a broad biochemical, physiological, and behavioral characterization of the Ephx2-null mouse colony and suggests a mechanism by which sEH and its substrates may regulate circulating levels of testosterone through cholesterol biosynthesis and metabolism. PMID:19458064

  19. Controlled Systemic Delivery by Polymeric Implants Enhances Tissue and Plasma Curcumin Levels Compared with Oral Administration

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Shyam S.; Kausar, Hina; Vadhanam, Manicka V.; Ravoori, Srivani; Gupta, Ramesh C.

    2012-01-01

    Curcumin possess potent anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative activities but with poor biopharmaceutical attributes. To overcome these limitations, curcumin implants were developed and tissue (plasma, brain and liver) curcumin concentrations were measured in female ACI rats for 3 months. Biological efficacy of tissue levels achieved was analyzed by modulation of hepatic cytochromes. Curcumin implants exhibited diffusion-mediated biphasic release pattern with ~2-fold higher in vivo release as compared to in vitro. Plasma curcumin concentration from implants was ~3.3 ng/ml on day 1 which dropped to ~0.2 ng/ml after 3 months whereas only 0.2–0.3 ng/ml concentration was observed from 4–12 days with diet and was undetected subsequently. Almost 10 fold higher curcumin levels were observed in brain on day 1 from implants compared with diet (30.1±7.3 vs 2.7±0.8 ng/g) and were higher even after 90 days (7.7±3.8 vs 2.2±0.8 ng/g). Although, curcumin levels were similar in liver from both the routes (~25–30 ng/g from day 1–4 and ~10–15 ng/g at 90 days), implants were more efficacious in altering hepatic CYP1A1 levels and CYP3A4 activity at ~28 fold lower doses. Curcumin implants provided much higher plasma and tissue concentrations and are a viable alternative for delivery of curcumin to various organs like brain. PMID:22227368

  20. Enhanced critical currents in (Gd,Y)Ba2Cu3Ox superconducting tapes with high levels of Zr addition

    SciTech Connect

    Selvamanickam, V; Chen, Y; Shi, T; Liu, Y; Khatri, ND; Liu, J; Yao, Y; Xiong, X; Lei, C; Soloveichik, S; Galstyan, E; Majkic, G

    2013-01-21

    The critical current and structural properties of (Gd,Y)BaCuO tapes made by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) with Zr addition levels up to 30 at.% have been investigated. The reduction in critical current beyond the previously optimized Zr addition level of 7.5 at.% was found to be due to structural deterioration of the (Gd,Y)Ba2Cu3Ox film. By a modified MOCVD process,enhanced critical current densities have been achieved with high levels of Zr addition,including 3.83 MA cm(-2) in 15 at.% Zr- added 1.1 mu m thick film at 77 K in zero magnetic field. Critical currents as high as 1072 A/ 12 mm have been reached in (Gd,Y) BaCuO tapes with 15 at.% Zr addition at 30 K in a field of 3 T applied perpendicular to the tape,corresponding to a pinning force value of 268 GN m(-3). The enhanced critical currents achievable with a high density of nanoscale defects by employing high levels of second- phase additions enable the performance targets needed for the use of HTS tapes in coil applications involving high magnetic fields at temperatures below 50 K to be met.

  1. Enhanced critical currents in (Gd,Y)Ba2Cu3Ox superconducting tapes with high levels of Zr addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selvamanickam, V.; Chen, Y.; Shi, T.; Liu, Y.; Khatri, N. D.; Liu, J.; Yao, Y.; Xiong, X.; Lei, C.; Soloveichik, S.; Galstyan, E.; Majkic, G.

    2013-03-01

    The critical current and structural properties of (Gd,Y)BaCuO tapes made by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) with Zr addition levels up to 30 at.% have been investigated. The reduction in critical current beyond the previously optimized Zr addition level of 7.5 at.% was found to be due to structural deterioration of the (Gd,Y)Ba2Cu3Ox film. By a modified MOCVD process, enhanced critical current densities have been achieved with high levels of Zr addition, including 3.83 MA cm-2 in 15 at.% Zr-added 1.1 μm thick film at 77 K in zero magnetic field. Critical currents as high as 1072 A/12 mm have been reached in (Gd,Y)BaCuO tapes with 15 at.% Zr addition at 30 K in a field of 3 T applied perpendicular to the tape, corresponding to a pinning force value of 268 GN m-3. The enhanced critical currents achievable with a high density of nanoscale defects by employing high levels of second-phase additions enable the performance targets needed for the use of HTS tapes in coil applications involving high magnetic fields at temperatures below 50 K to be met.

  2. Plasma levels of lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 are increased in patients with β-thalassemia

    PubMed Central

    Tselepis, Alexandros D.; Hahalis, George; Tellis, Constantinos C.; Papavasiliou, Eleni C.; Mylona, Panagiota T.; Kourakli, Alexandra; Alexopoulos, Dimitrios C.

    2010-01-01

    Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) is an independent cardiovascular risk factor. We investigated the plasma levels of Lp-PLA2 activity and mass as a function of plasma lipid levels, LDL subclass profile, and oxidative stress in patients with β-thalassemia. Thirty-five patients with β-thalassemia major (β-TM) and 25 patients with β-thalassemia intermedia (β-TI) participated in the study. Lp-PLA2 activity and mass were measured in total plasma, in apolipoprotein (apo)B-depleted plasma (HDL-Lp-PLA2), and in LDL subclasses. Lp-PLA2 activity produced and secreted from peripheral blood monocytes in culture was also determined. Patients with β-thalassemia are characterized by a predominance of small-dense LDL particles, increased oxidative stress, and very high plasma levels of Lp-PLA2 mass and activity, despite low LDL-cholesterol levels. A significant positive correlation between plasma Lp-PLA2 activity or mass and 8-isoprostane (8-epiPGF2a) and ferritin levels as well as intima-media thickness (IMT) values was observed. An increase in secreted and cell-associated Lp-PLA2 activity from monocytes in culture was observed in both patient groups. The HDL-Lp-PLA2 activity and mass as well as the ratio of HDL-Lp-PLA2/plasma Lp-PLA2 were significantly higher in both patient groups compared with the control group. In conclusion, patients with β-thalassemia exhibit high plasma Lp-PLA2 levels, attributed to increased enzyme secretion from monocytes/macrophages and to the predominance of sdLDL particles in plasma. Plasma Lp-PLA2 is correlated with carotid IMT, suggesting that this enzyme may be implicated in premature carotid atherosclerosis observed in β-thalassemia. PMID:20625038

  3. Prediagnostic plasma antibody levels to periodontopathic bacteria and risk of coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Masayuki; Izumi, Yuichi; Kawaguchi, Yoko; Ikeda, Ai; Iso, Hiroyasu; Inoue, Manami; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2012-01-01

    Many epidemiological studies have indicated that periodontitis is an important risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD). We examined whether plasma antibody levels to 3 major periodontal pathogens, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, and Prevotella intermedia predicted the risk of CHD events. A nested case-control research design (case: n = 191, control: n = 382), by matching gender, age, study area, date of blood collection, and time since last meal at blood collection, was employed in a large cohort of Japanese community residents.Antibody levels of periodontopathic bacteria were associated with risk of CHD after adjusting for BMI, smoking status, alcohol intake, history of hypertension, history of diabetes mellitus, exercise during leisure time, and perceived mental stress. The association was different by age subgroup. For subjects aged 40-55 years, the medium (31.7-184.9 U/mL) or high tertile plasma antibody level (> 184.9 U/mL) of A. actinomycetemcomitans showed higher risk of CHD (medium: OR = 3.72; 95% CI = 1.20-11.56, high: OR = 4.64; 95% CI = 1.52-14.18) than the low tertile level (< 31.7 U/mL). The ORs of CHD incidence became higher with an increase in IgG level of A. actinomycetemcomitans (P for trend = 0.007). For subjects aged 56-69 years, the high tertile level (> 414.1 U/mL) of P. intermedia was associated with higher risk of CHD (OR = 2.65; 95% CI = 1.18-5.94) in a dose-response fashion (P for trend = 0.007). The possible role of periodontopathic bacteria as a risk factor for CHD incidence was suggested by the results of this study by the elevated antibody level to these bacteria with the increased risk of CHD. PMID:22878796

  4. Plasma Free H2S Levels are Elevated in Patients With Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Peter, Elvis A.; Shen, Xinggui; Shah, Shivang H.; Pardue, Sibile; Glawe, John D.; Zhang, Wayne W.; Reddy, Pratap; Akkus, Nuri I.; Varma, Jai; Kevil, Christopher G.

    2013-01-01

    Background Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been implicated in regulating cardiovascular pathophysiology in experimental models. However, there is a paucity of information regarding the levels of H2S in health and cardiovascular disease. In this study we examine the levels of H2S in patients with cardiovascular disease as well as bioavailability of nitric oxide and inflammatory indicators. Methods and Results Patients over the age of 40 undergoing coronary or peripheral angiography were enrolled in the study. Ankle brachial index (ABI) measurement, measurement of plasma‐free H2S and total nitric oxide (NO), thrombospondin‐1 (TSP‐1), Interleukin‐6 (IL‐6), and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule‐1 (sICAM‐1) levels were performed. Patients with either coronary artery disease alone (n=66), peripheral arterial disease (PAD) alone (n=13), or any vascular disease (n=140) had higher plasma‐free H2S levels compared to patients without vascular disease (n=53). Plasma‐free H2S did not distinguish between disease in different vascular beds; however, total NO levels were significantly reduced in PAD patients and the ratio of plasma free H2S to NO was significantly greater in patients with PAD. Lastly, plasma IL‐6, ICAM‐1, and TSP‐1 levels did not correlate with H2S or NO bioavailability in either vascular disease condition. Conclusions Findings reported in this study reveal that plasma‐free H2S levels are significantly elevated in vascular disease and identify a novel inverse relationship with NO bioavailability in patients with peripheral arterial disease. Clinical Trial Registration URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01407172. PMID:24152982

  5. Plasma levels of trace elements and exercise induced stress hormones in well-trained athletes.

    PubMed

    Soria, Marisol; González-Haro, Carlos; Ansón, Miguel; López-Colón, José L; Escanero, Jesús F

    2015-01-01

    This study analyzed the variation and relationship of several trace elements, metabolic substrates and stress hormones activated by exercise during incremental exercise. Seventeen well-trained endurance athletes performed a cycle ergometer test: after a warm-up of 10 min at 2.0 W kg(-1), the workload was increased by 0.5 W kg(-1) every 10 min until exhaustion. Prior diet, activity patterns, and levels of exercise training were controlled, and tests timed to minimize variations due to the circadian rhythm. Oxygen uptake, blood lactate concentration, plasma ions (Zn, Se, Mn and Co), serum glucose, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs) and several hormones were measured at rest, at the end of each stage and 3, 5 and 7 min post-exercise. Urine specific gravity was measured before and after the test, and participants drank water ad libitum. Significant differences were found in plasma Zn and Se levels as a function of exercise intensity. Zn was significantly correlated with epinephrine, norepinephrine and cortisol (r = 0.884, P < 0.01; r = 0.871, P < 0.01; and r = 0.808, P = 0.05); and Se showed significant positive correlations whit epinephrine and cortisol (r = 0.743, P < 0.05; and r = 0.776, P < 0.05). Neither Zn nor Se levels were associated with insulin or glucagon, and neither Mn nor Co levels were associated with any of the hormones or substrate metabolites studied. Further, while Zn levels were found to be associated only with lactate, plasma Se was significantly correlated with lactate and glucose (respectively for Zn: r = 0.891, P < 0.01; and for Se: r = 0.743, P < 0.05; r = 0.831, P < 0.05). In conclusion, our data suggest that there is a positive correlation between the increases in plasma Zn or Se and stress hormones variations induced by exercise along different submaximal intensities in well-hydrated well-trained endurance athletes. PMID:26004901

  6. Plasma Levels of Middle Molecules to Estimate Residual Kidney Function in Haemodialysis without Urine Collection

    PubMed Central

    Vilar, Enric; Boltiador, Capella; Wong, Jonathan; Viljoen, Adie; Machado, Ashwini; Uthayakumar, Arani; Farrington, Ken

    2015-01-01

    Background Residual Kidney Function (RKF) is associated with survival benefits in haemodialysis (HD) but is difficult to measure without urine collection. Middle molecules such as Cystatin C and β2-microglobulin accumulate in renal disease and plasma levels have been used to estimate kidney function early in this condition. We investigated their use to estimate RKF in patients on HD. Design Cystatin C, β2-microglobulin, urea and creatinine levels were studied in patients on incremental high-flux HD or hemodiafiltration(HDF). Over sequential HD sessions, blood was sampled pre- and post-session 1 and pre-session 2, for estimation of these parameters. Urine was collected during the whole interdialytic interval, for estimation of residual GFR (GFRResidual = mean of urea and creatinine clearance). The relationships of plasma Cystatin C and β2-microglobulin levels to GFRResidual and urea clearance were determined. Results Of the 341 patients studied, 64% had urine output>100ml/day, 32.6% were on high-flux HD and 67.4% on HDF. Parameters most closely correlated with GFRResidual were 1/β2-micoglobulin (r2 0.67) and 1/Cystatin C (r2 0.50). Both these relationships were weaker at low GFRResidual. The best regression model for GFRResidual, explaining 67% of the variation, was: GFRResidual=160.3⋅(1β2m)−4.2 Where β2m is the pre-dialysis β2 microglobulin concentration (mg/L). This model was validated in a separate cohort of 50 patients using Bland-Altman analysis. Areas under the curve in Receiver Operating Characteristic analysis aimed at identifying subjects with urea clearance≥2ml/min/1.73m2 was 0.91 for β2-microglobulin and 0.86 for Cystatin C. A plasma β2-microglobulin cut-off of ≤19.2mg/L allowed identification of patients with urea clearance ≥2ml/min/1.73m2 with 90% specificity and 65% sensitivity. Conclusion Plasma pre-dialysis β2-microglobulin levels can provide estimates of RKF which may have clinical utility and appear superior to cystatin C. Use

  7. Plasma levels of trace elements and exercise induced stress hormones in well-trained athletes.

    PubMed

    Soria, Marisol; González-Haro, Carlos; Ansón, Miguel; López-Colón, José L; Escanero, Jesús F

    2015-01-01

    This study analyzed the variation and relationship of several trace elements, metabolic substrates and stress hormones activated by exercise during incremental exercise. Seventeen well-trained endurance athletes performed a cycle ergometer test: after a warm-up of 10 min at 2.0 W kg(-1), the workload was increased by 0.5 W kg(-1) every 10 min until exhaustion. Prior diet, activity patterns, and levels of exercise training were controlled, and tests timed to minimize variations due to the circadian rhythm. Oxygen uptake, blood lactate concentration, plasma ions (Zn, Se, Mn and Co), serum glucose, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs) and several hormones were measured at rest, at the end of each stage and 3, 5 and 7 min post-exercise. Urine specific gravity was measured before and after the test, and participants drank water ad libitum. Significant differences were found in plasma Zn and Se levels as a function of exercise intensity. Zn was significantly correlated with epinephrine, norepinephrine and cortisol (r = 0.884, P < 0.01; r = 0.871, P < 0.01; and r = 0.808, P = 0.05); and Se showed significant positive correlations whit epinephrine and cortisol (r = 0.743, P < 0.05; and r = 0.776, P < 0.05). Neither Zn nor Se levels were associated with insulin or glucagon, and neither Mn nor Co levels were associated with any of the hormones or substrate metabolites studied. Further, while Zn levels were found to be associated only with lactate, plasma Se was significantly correlated with lactate and glucose (respectively for Zn: r = 0.891, P < 0.01; and for Se: r = 0.743, P < 0.05; r = 0.831, P < 0.05). In conclusion, our data suggest that there is a positive correlation between the increases in plasma Zn or Se and stress hormones variations induced by exercise along different submaximal intensities in well-hydrated well-trained endurance athletes.

  8. Plasma nitric oxide level in familial Mediterranean fever and its modulations by Immuno-Guard.

    PubMed

    Panossian, A; Hambartsumyan, M; Panosyan, L; Abrahamyan, H; Mamikonyan, G; Gabrielyan, E; Amaryan, G; Astvatsatryan, V; Wikman, G

    2003-09-01

    Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is a recessively inherited inflammatory disorder, characterised by recurrent attacks of fever and serositis. Since nitric oxide (NO) is an important mediator of inflammation, the production of NO (assessed as the accumulation of nitrate and nitrite and measured by capillary electrophoresis) in blood plasma of FMF patients during acute attacks (active) and attack-free periods (inactive) of the disease has been determined and compared with NO levels found in healthy volunteers (control group C). Thirty-six FMF patients were involved in a placebo-controlled double-blind study (group A received the drug, group B the placebo) of the effects of Immuno-Guard, a novel herbal preparation which relieves the severity and longevity of FMF attacks on NO blood levels. Thirty-two FMF patients (group D) being permanently treated with colchicine were also examined with respect to their NO blood level. No significant differences were found between the NO levels in blood of inactive FMF patients and those of control group C, or between inactive colchicine-treated group D patients and inactive patients of groups A and B, a finding which is atypical for chronic inflammatory disorders. Significantly lower plasma NO levels were found in active FMF patients in groups A and B compared with inactive patients in those groups (p=0.031 and 0.036, respectively) and with patients of group D and the control group C (p=0.0235 and 0.0453, respectively). The decrease of NO in blood of FMF patients may trigger the generation of fever by initiating the production of pro-inflammatory IL-6. Plasma NO levels in inactive FMF patients were significantly increased during attack-free periods following treatment with Immuno-Guard. The preparation has a normalising effect both on NO and IL-6 blood levels in FMF patients during attacks, demonstrating a relationship between the beneficial effect of Immuno-Guard in reducing the severity of inflammatory attacks in FMF patients

  9. Comparative effects of epinephrine, norepinephrine, and a gentle handling stress on plasma lactate, glucose, and hematocrit levels in the American bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana).

    PubMed

    MbangKollo, D; deRoos, R

    1983-02-01

    The effects of a single infusion of epinephrine or norepinephrine and of a 2-min handling stress on plasma lactate, glucose, and hematocrit levels were compared in the American bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana). The catecholamines were administered, and serial blood samples were collected, via a cannula placed in the truncus arteriosus. Plasma lactate was estimated by the lactate dehydrogenase method and glucose by the glucose oxidase method. Dose-dependent increases occurred in plasma lactate, glucose, and hematocrit levels after the infusion of 50 and 500 micrograms/kg body weight of epinephrine. Norepinephrine infusion resulted in dose-dependent increases in hematocrit levels, but plasma lactate and glucose levels were not increased significantly by 50 micrograms/kg body weight of norepinephrine. The infusion of 500 micrograms/kg body weight of norepinephrine caused a lactacidemia that was similar to that which occurred with the same dose of epinephrine, but the hyperglycemia was less. The plasma lactate increases after handling were similar to those that occurred after treatment with 500 micrograms/kg body weight of the catecholamines; however, the hematocrit elevations were less and the glucose levels were not increased significantly. In addition, the plasma lactate and hematocrit responses to handling were more rapid than those that occurred after the catecholamines. The results suggest that immediate physiological adjustments to a sudden threat are mediated in the bullfrog by direct nervous stimulation of the relevant organs. Catecholamines and corticoids secreted by the adrenal glands probably function synergistically and sequentially when a stress is more severe and/or more prolonged than the brief, gentle handling employed in this study.

  10. Comparison of Plasma Neurosteroid and Prolactin Levels in Patients with Schizophrenia and Healthy Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Riahi, Forough; Izadi-mazidi, Maryam; Ghaffari, Ali; Yousefi, Elham

    2016-01-01

    Background. The present study aimed to compare plasma levels of cortisol, testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), and prolactin in patients with schizophrenia and healthy individuals. Method. A total of 100 patients with schizophrenia disorder (69 men and 31 women) and 190 healthy individuals (94 men and 96 women) participated in this cross-sectional study. They were tested for hormone levels and completed demographic questionnaires. Data were analyzed using multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) and one-way analysis of variance. Results. Serum testosterone level was significantly higher in men with schizophrenia than in healthy men. Women with schizophrenia had a significantly higher level of testosterone and lower level of prolactin compared to healthy women. There were no significant differences in hormone levels across various subtypes of schizophrenia. No significant differences also were observed in hormones levels in patients with first-episode schizophrenia disorder compared to those in patients with recurrent episodes. Conclusion. This study indicated that abnormal testosterone and prolactin levels might be associated with pathophysiology of schizophrenia disorder. PMID:27293968

  11. Plasma androgen and gonadotropin levels during hibernation and testicular maturation in golden-mantled ground squirrels.

    PubMed

    Barnes, B M; Kretzmann, M; Zucker, I; Licht, P

    1988-04-01

    The 4-5-mo hibernation season of golden-mantled ground squirrels consists of extended torpor bouts interspersed with brief, periodic intervals of normothermic arousal. Plasma levels of testosterone (T), luteinizing hormone (LH), and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and degree of scrotal pigmentation were measured in torpid and aroused male ground squirrels throughout a season of hibernation and in active animals after the termination of torpor. T was basal in torpid animals; beginning 3 weeks before torpor ended, T was elevated in normothermic males during the first half of periodic arousals but returned to basal levels before animals reentered torpor. After the last (terminal) arousal from torpor, T levels were moderately elevated for 4 wk and maximal for the next 6 wk before they returned to basal values. LH patterns were similar to those of T; however, levels of T and LH were positively correlated only in aroused or posthibernation males. FSH levels remained constant and low during most of the heterothermic season but increased in several torpid males within 3 days of terminal arousal. FSH levels peaked 2 wk after the end of heterothermy. Scrotal pigmentation developed over the first 4 wk after terminal arousal. Maturation of reproductive function occurs during the 4 wk after termination of heterothermy, but elevated levels of T during arousals and variable levels of FSH in the last days of torpor suggest that activation or increased sensitivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis is important in the termination of heterothermy in ground squirrels.

  12. Changes in plasma hormone levels correlate with fledging in nestling Leach's storm-petrels.

    PubMed

    Kozlowski, Corinne P; Mauck, Robert A; O'Reilly, Kathleen M; Philipsborn, Jon; Ricklefs, Robert E

    2010-10-01

    Leach's storm-petrels accumulate large amounts of body mass throughout the nestling period. Approximately 4days before fledging, nestlings weigh 50-100% more than adults. In order to shed this excess mass, nestlings engage in behavioral anorexia, and leave the burrow when they are light enough to fly. During this prefledging period, we measured several plasma hormones (corticosterone, thyroxine, and testosterone) to determine whether the behavioral changes associated with fledging are correlated with endocrine changes. In several species, including petrels, corticosterone levels are known to increase near fledging. Reduced food consumption has been shown to elevate corticosterone levels and decrease thyroxine levels in nestling birds. In nestling storm-petrels, levels of both corticosterone and thyroxine increased. Storm-petrels were found to secrete measurable levels of testosterone, but levels did not change during the prefledging period. Increased corticosterone levels might be part of an endocrine signal that initiates changes in feeding behavior, or may result from reduced food intake. Elevated thyroxine levels may be related to metabolic changes involved in mass loss. Future experimental work is needed to ascertain whether the described endocrine changes are responsible for, or result from, prefledging changes in petrel feeding behavior. PMID:20688060

  13. Comparison of Plasma Neurosteroid and Prolactin Levels in Patients with Schizophrenia and Healthy Individuals.

    PubMed

    Riahi, Forough; Izadi-Mazidi, Maryam; Ghaffari, Ali; Yousefi, Elham; Khademvatan, Shahram

    2016-01-01

    Background. The present study aimed to compare plasma levels of cortisol, testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), and prolactin in patients with schizophrenia and healthy individuals. Method. A total of 100 patients with schizophrenia disorder (69 men and 31 women) and 190 healthy individuals (94 men and 96 women) participated in this cross-sectional study. They were tested for hormone levels and completed demographic questionnaires. Data were analyzed using multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) and one-way analysis of variance. Results. Serum testosterone level was significantly higher in men with schizophrenia than in healthy men. Women with schizophrenia had a significantly higher level of testosterone and lower level of prolactin compared to healthy women. There were no significant differences in hormone levels across various subtypes of schizophrenia. No significant differences also were observed in hormones levels in patients with first-episode schizophrenia disorder compared to those in patients with recurrent episodes. Conclusion. This study indicated that abnormal testosterone and prolactin levels might be associated with pathophysiology of schizophrenia disorder. PMID:27293968

  14. Elevated levels of plasma Big endothelin-1 and its relation to hypertension and skin lesions in individuals exposed to arsenic

    SciTech Connect

    Hossain, Ekhtear; Islam, Khairul; Yeasmin, Fouzia; Karim, Md. Rezaul; Rahman, Mashiur; Agarwal, Smita; Hossain, Shakhawoat; Aziz, Abdul; Al Mamun, Abdullah; Sheikh, Afzal; Haque, Abedul; Hossain, M. Tofazzal; Hossain, Mostaque; Haris, Parvez I.; Ikemura, Noriaki; Inoue, Kiyoshi; Miyataka, Hideki; Himeno, Seiichiro; Hossain, Khaled

    2012-03-01

    Chronic arsenic (As) exposure affects the endothelial system causing several diseases. Big endothelin-1 (Big ET-1), the biological precursor of endothelin-1 (ET-1) is a more accurate indicator of the degree of activation of the endothelial system. Effect of As exposure on the plasma Big ET-1 levels and its physiological implications have not yet been documented. We evaluated plasma Big ET-1 levels and their relation to hypertension and skin lesions in As exposed individuals in Bangladesh. A total of 304 study subjects from the As-endemic and non-endemic areas in Bangladesh were recruited for this study. As concentrations in water, hair and nails were measured by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS). The plasma Big ET-1 levels were measured using a one-step sandwich enzyme immunoassay kit. Significant increase in Big ET-1 levels were observed with the increasing concentrations of As in drinking water, hair and nails. Further, before and after adjusting with different covariates, plasma Big ET-1 levels were found to be significantly associated with the water, hair and nail As concentrations of the study subjects. Big ET-1 levels were also higher in the higher exposure groups compared to the lowest (reference) group. Interestingly, we observed that Big ET-1 levels were significantly higher in the hypertensive and skin lesion groups compared to the normotensive and without skin lesion counterpart, respectively of the study subjects in As-endemic areas. Thus, this study demonstrated a novel dose–response relationship between As exposure and plasma Big ET-1 levels indicating the possible involvement of plasma Big ET-1 levels in As-induced hypertension and skin lesions. -- Highlights: ► Plasma Big ET-1 is an indicator of endothelial damage. ► Plasma Big ET-1 level increases dose-dependently in arsenic exposed individuals. ► Study subjects in arsenic-endemic areas with hypertension have elevated Big ET-1 levels. ► Study subjects with arsenic

  15. Vitrification of low-level waste using the plasma hearth process

    SciTech Connect

    Gillins, R.L.

    1996-03-01

    The Plasma Hearth Process (PHP) is a high temperature vitrification process using a plasma arc torch in a stationary, refractory lined chamber that destroys organics and stabilizes the residuals in a nonleaching, vitrified waste form. Plasma arc technology is an innovative technology that has exhibited commercial success, primarily in its use for production of high purity alloys and other specialty metals. The residual from the PHP provides a very stable vitrified final product of high integrity for most wastes without the need for glass formers. The final waste form will be volume-reduced to the maximum extent practical, because all organics will have been destroyed and inorganics will be in a high-density, low void-space form and little or no volume-increasing glass makers will have been added. Low volume and high integrity waste forms result in low disposal costs. The PHP technology is chiefly applicable to solid (DAW) or wet solid (sludge) wastes where volume reduction and a stabilized byproduct is desired for disposal. The technology is ideally suited for heterogeneous wastes of nearly any category that are difficult to treat by conventional thermal technologies. The application for which it is currently being developed is Department of Energy (DOE) solid mixed wastes, both low level and transuranic. DOE, through the Office of Technology Development`s Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) is conducting a development and demonstration project to ready the PHP for implementation in the DOE complex.

  16. Plasma Hearth Process vitrification of DOE low-level mixed waste

    SciTech Connect

    Gillins, R.L.; Geimer, R.M.

    1995-11-01

    The Plasma Hearth Process (PHP) demonstration project is one of the key technology projects in the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development Mixed Waste Focus Area. The PHP is recognized as one of the more promising solutions to DOE`s mixed waste treatment needs, with potential application in the treatment of a wide variety of DOE mixed wastes. The PHP is a high temperature vitrification process using a plasma arc torch in a stationary, refractory lined chamber that destroys organics and stabilizes the residuals in a nonleaching, vitrified waste form. This technology will be equally applicable to low-level mixed wastes generated by nuclear utilities. The final waste form will be volume reduced to the maximum extent practical, because all organics will have been destroyed and the inorganics will be in a high-density, low void-space form and little or no volume-increasing glass makers will have been added. Low volume and high integrity waste forms result in low disposal costs. This project is structured to ensure that the plasma technology can be successfully employed in radioactive service. The PHP technology will be developed into a production system through a sequence of tests on several test units, both non-radioactive and radioactive. As the final step, a prototype PHP system will be constructed for full-scale radioactive waste treatment demonstration.

  17. Alpha-Synuclein Levels in Blood Plasma Decline with Healthy Aging

    PubMed Central

    Koehler, Niklas K. U.; Stransky, Elke; Meyer, Mirjam; Gaertner, Susanne; Shing, Mona; Schnaidt, Martina; Celej, Maria S.; Jovin, Thomas M.; Leyhe, Thomas; Laske, Christoph; Batra, Anil; Buchkremer, Gerhard; Fallgatter, Andreas J.; Wernet, Dorothee; Richartz-Salzburger, Elke

    2015-01-01

    There is unequivocal evidence that alpha-synuclein plays a pivotal pathophysiological role in neurodegenerative diseases, and in particular in synucleinopathies. These disorders present with a variable extent of cognitive impairment and alpha-synuclein is being explored as a biomarker in CSF, blood serum and plasma. Considering key events of aging that include proteostasis, alpha-synuclein may not only be useful as a marker for differential diagnosis but also for aging per se. To explore this hypothesis, we developed a highly specific ELISA to measure alpha-synuclein. In healthy males plasma alpha-synuclein levels correlated strongly with age, revealing much lower concentrations in older (avg. 58.1 years) compared to younger (avg. 27.6 years) individuals. This difference between the age groups was enhanced after acidification of the plasmas (p<0.0001), possibly reflecting a decrease of alpha-synuclein-antibody complexes or chaperone activity in older individuals. Our results support the concept that alpha-synuclein homeostasis may be impaired early on, possibly due to disturbance of the proteostasis network, a key component of healthy aging. Thus, alpha-synuclein may be a novel biomarker of aging, a factor that should be considered when analyzing its presence in biological specimens. PMID:25844871

  18. Decreased Plasma Histidine Level Predicts Risk of Relapse in Patients with Ulcerative Colitis in Remission

    PubMed Central

    Hisamatsu, Tadakazu; Ono, Nobukazu; Imaizumi, Akira; Mori, Maiko; Suzuki, Hiroaki; Uo, Michihide; Hashimoto, Masaki; Naganuma, Makoto; Matsuoka, Katsuyoshi; Mizuno, Shinta; Kitazume, Mina T.; Yajima, Tomoharu; Ogata, Haruhiko; Iwao, Yasushi; Hibi, Toshifumi; Kanai, Takanori

    2015-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is characterized by chronic intestinal inflammation. Patients with UC have repeated remission and relapse. Clinical biomarkers that can predict relapse in UC patients in remission have not been identified. To facilitate the prediction of relapse of UC, we investigated the potential of novel multivariate indexes using statistical modeling of plasma free amino acid (PFAA) concentrations. We measured fasting PFAA concentrations in 369 UC patients in clinical remission, and 355 were observed prospectively for up to 1 year. Relapse rate within 1 year was 23% (82 of 355 patients). The age- and gender-adjusted hazard ratio for the lowest quartile compared with the highest quartile of plasma histidine concentration was 2.55 (95% confidence interval: 1.41–4.62; p = 0.0020 (log-rank), p for trend = 0.0005). We demonstrated that plasma amino acid profiles in UC patients in clinical remission can predict the risk of relapse within 1 year. Decreased histidine level in PFAAs was associated with increased risk of relapse. Metabolomics could be promising for the establishment of a non-invasive predictive marker in inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:26474176

  19. Estrogen excretion patterns and plasma levels in vegetarian and omnivorous women.

    PubMed

    Goldin, B R; Adlercreutz, H; Gorbach, S L; Warram, J H; Dwyer, J T; Swenson, L; Woods, M N

    1982-12-16

    We studied 10 vegetarian and 10 nonvegetarian premenopausal women on four occasions approximately four months apart. During each study period, the participants kept three-day dietary records, and estrogens were measured in plasma, urinary, and fecal samples. Vegetarians consumed less total fat than omnivores did (30 per cent of total calories, as compared with 40 per cent) and more dietary fiber (28 g per day, as compared with 12 g). There was a positive correlation between fecal weight and fecal excretion of estrogens in both groups (P less than 0.001), with vegetarians having higher fecal weight and increased fecal excretion of estrogens. Urinary excretion of estriol was lower in vegetarians (P less than 0.05), and their plasma levels of estrone and estradiol were negatively correlated with fecal excretion of estrogen (P = 0.005). Among the vegetarians the beta-glucuronidase activity of fecal bacteria was significantly reduced (P = 0.05). We conclude that vegetarian women have an increased fecal output, which leads to increased fecal excretion of estrogen and a decreased plasma concentration of estrogen.

  20. Zinc fortification decreases ZIP1 gene expression of some adolescent females with appropriate plasma zinc levels.

    PubMed

    Méndez, Rosa O; Santiago, Alejandra; Yepiz-Plascencia, Gloria; Peregrino-Uriarte, Alma B; de la Barca, Ana M Calderón; García, Hugo S

    2014-06-11

    Zinc homeostasis is achieved after intake variation by changes in the expression levels of zinc transporters. The aim of this study was to evaluate dietary intake (by 24-h recall), absorption, plasma zinc (by absorption spectrophotometry) and the expression levels (by quantitative PCR), of the transporters ZIP1 (zinc importer) and ZnT1 (zinc exporter) in peripheral white blood cells from 24 adolescent girls before and after drinking zinc-fortified milk for 27 day. Zinc intake increased (p < 0.001) from 10.5 ± 3.9 mg/day to 17.6 ± 4.4 mg/day, and its estimated absorption from 3.1 ± 1.2 to 5.3 ± 1.3 mg/day. Mean plasma zinc concentration remained unchanged (p > 0.05) near 150 µg/dL, but increased by 31 µg/dL (p < 0.05) for 6/24 adolescents (group A) and decreased by 25 µg/dL (p < 0.05) for other 6/24 adolescents (group B). Expression of ZIP1 in blood leukocytes was reduced 1.4-fold (p < 0.006) in group A, while for the expression of ZnT1 there was no difference after intervention (p = 0.39). An increase of dietary zinc after 27-days consumption of fortified-milk did not increase (p > 0.05) the plasma level of adolescent girls but for 6/24 participants from group A in spite of the formerly appropriation, which cellular zinc uptake decreased as assessed by reduction of the expression of ZIP1.

  1. High plasma levels of MCP-1 and eotaxin provide evidence for an immunological basis of fibromyalgia.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhifang; Cherryholmes, Gregory; Mao, Allen; Marek, Claudia; Longmate, Jeffrey; Kalos, Michael; Amand, R Paul St; Shively, John E

    2008-09-01

    Fibromyalgia (FMS), a predominantly female (85%) syndrome, affects an estimated 2% of the US population with skeletal muscle ache, fatigue, headache, and sleep disorder. The pathogenesis of FMS is unknown and there is no laboratory test for diagnosis. In this study, plasma levels of 25 cytokines and chemokines in 92 female patients with FMS and 69 family members were measured compared to 77 controls. Trans-endothelial migration of normal leukocytes in response to FMS plasma and the cytokine profile of human myoblasts were analyzed. High levels of MCP-1 (P<0.001) and eotaxin (P<0.01) were found in patients and family members compared to controls. Patients (56/92) treated with the single agent guaifenesin (>3 months) had higher levels of eotaxin than those not treated (P<0.01). Diluted plasma from patients increased the migration of normal eosinophils and monocytes, but not neutrophils, through an endothelial/Matrigel barrier only when mast cells are included in the lower wells (P<0.05). Furthermore, myoblasts can secrete MCP-1, eotaxin, and IP-10, while treatment with MCP-1 caused secretion of IL-1beta, eotaxin and IP-10. FMS is associated with inflammatory chemokines, that MCP-1 and eotaxin may contribute to the symptoms of FMS, and that similar cytokine profiles found in family members support the idea that FMS has a genetic component. Furthermore, the chemokine profile associated with FMS has direct effects on the migration of eosinophils and monocytes in the presence of mast cells, and skeletal muscle itself may secrete.

  2. Plasma Levels of microRNA-145 Are Associated with Severity of Coronary Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Matsuzawa, Yasushi; Liu, Li-Ping; Su, Li-Xiao; Guo, Duo; Nie, Shao-Ping; Du, Jie; Zhang, Ming

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been shown to be associated with various physiological and pathological conditions, including inflammation and cardiovascular disease, but little is known about their relationship with the presence of coronary artery disease (CAD) and disease severity. Methods A total of 195 consecutive subjects who underwent coronary angiography for chest pain evaluation were enrolled in this study. In CAD patients severity of coronary lesions was assessed by the number of diseased vessels and the Synergy between PCI with Taxus and Cardiac surgery score (SYNTAX score). Plasma levels of miRNA-145 were quantified by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction test, and logarithmic transformation of miRNA-145 levels (Ln_miRNA-145) was used for analyses due to its skewed distribution. Results Of the 195 total subjects 167 patients were diagnosed as having CAD. Ln_miRNA-145 was significantly lower in CAD patients compared with the non-CAD group (-6.11±0.92 vs. -5.06±1.25; p <0.001). In multivariable linear regression analyses CAD was significantly associated with lower Ln_miRNA-145 (Estimate, -0.50; standard error (SE), 0.11; p <0.0001). Furthermore, among CAD patients, three-vessel disease, higher SYNTAX scores and STEMI were significantly associated with lower Ln_miRNA-145 ([Estimate, -0.40; SE, 0.07; p <0.0001]; [Estimate, -0.02, SE, 0.10; p = 0.005] and [Estimate, -0.35, SE, 0.10; p <0.001] respectively). Conclusions Lower plasma levels of miRNA-145 were significantly associated with the presence as well as severity of CAD. As a potential biomarker for CAD, plasma miRNA-145 may be useful in predicting CAD and its severity in patients presenting with chest pain. PMID:25938589

  3. Zinc Fortification Decreases ZIP1 Gene Expression of Some Adolescent Females with Appropriate Plasma Zinc Levels

    PubMed Central

    Méndez, Rosa O.; Santiago, Alejandra; Yepiz-Plascencia, Gloria; Peregrino-Uriarte, Alma B.; de la Barca, Ana M. Calderón; García, Hugo S.

    2014-01-01

    Zinc homeostasis is achieved after intake variation by changes in the expression levels of zinc transporters. The aim of this study was to evaluate dietary intake (by 24-h recall), absorption, plasma zinc (by absorption spectrophotometry) and the expression levels (by quantitative PCR), of the transporters ZIP1 (zinc importer) and ZnT1 (zinc exporter) in peripheral white blood cells from 24 adolescent girls before and after drinking zinc-fortified milk for 27 day. Zinc intake increased (p < 0.001) from 10.5 ± 3.9 mg/day to 17.6 ± 4.4 mg/day, and its estimated absorption from 3.1 ± 1.2 to 5.3 ± 1.3 mg/day. Mean plasma zinc concentration remained unchanged (p > 0.05) near 150 µg/dL, but increased by 31 µg/dL (p < 0.05) for 6/24 adolescents (group A) and decreased by 25 µg/dL (p < 0.05) for other 6/24 adolescents (group B). Expression of ZIP1 in blood leukocytes was reduced 1.4-fold (p < 0.006) in group A, while for the expression of ZnT1 there was no difference after intervention (p = 0.39). An increase of dietary zinc after 27-days consumption of fortified-milk did not increase (p > 0.05) the plasma level of adolescent girls but for 6/24 participants from group A in spite of the formerly appropriation, which cellular zinc uptake decreased as assessed by reduction of the expression of ZIP1. PMID:24922175

  4. Plasma Levels of Biotin Metabolites Are Elevated in Hemodialysis Patients with Cramps.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Masako; Ando, Itiro; Yagi, Shigeaki; Nishizawa, Manabu; Oguma, Shiro; Satoh, Keisuke; Sato, Hiroshi; Imai, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    Patients with renal failure undergoing hemodialysis (HD) are susceptible to muscle cramps during and after HD. Muscle cramps are defined as the sudden onset of a prolonged involuntary muscle contraction accompanied by severe pain. Through HD, water-soluble vitamins are drawn out with water. Since biotin, a water-soluble vitamin, plays an essential role as one of the coenzymes in producing energy, we have hypothesized that deficiency of biotin may be responsible for HD-associated cramps. We previously reported that biotin administration ameliorated the muscle cramps, despite the elevated plasma biotin levels before HD and biotin administration, as judged by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). However, the ELISA measures not only biotin but also total avidin-binding substances (TABS) including biotin metabolites. In the present study, we determined biotin in HD patients as well as healthy controls, using a newly developed method with ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). The plasma samples were collected from 28 HD patients (16 patients with cramps and 12 patients without cramps) before HD and biotin administration and from 11 controls. The results showed that the accumulation of biotin and TABS in plasma of HD patients compared to controls. Importantly, the levels of biotin metabolites, i.e. TABS subtracted by biotin, increased significantly in patients with cramps over those without cramps. Moreover, the levels of biotin metabolites were significantly higher in patients with a poor response to administered biotin, compared to those with a good response. We propose that accumulated biotin metabolites impair biotin's functions as a coenzyme. PMID:27466017

  5. Novel Flow Cytometry Analyses of Boar Sperm Viability: Can the Addition of Whole Sperm-Rich Fraction Seminal Plasma to Frozen-Thawed Boar Sperm Affect It?

    PubMed Central

    Díaz, Rommy; Boguen, Rodrigo; Martins, Simone Maria Massami Kitamura; Ravagnani, Gisele Mouro; Leal, Diego Feitosa; Oliveira, Melissa de Lima; Muro, Bruno Bracco Donatelli; Parra, Beatriz Martins; Meirelles, Flávio Vieira; Papa, Frederico Ozanan; Dell’Aqua, José Antônio; Alvarenga, Marco Antônio; Moretti, Aníbal de Sant’Anna; Sepúlveda, Néstor

    2016-01-01

    Boar semen cryopreservation remains a challenge due to the extension of cold shock damage. Thus, many alternatives have emerged to improve the quality of frozen-thawed boar sperm. Although the use of seminal plasma arising from boar sperm-rich fraction (SP-SRF) has shown good efficacy; however, the majority of actual sperm evaluation techniques include a single or dual sperm parameter analysis, which overrates the real sperm viability. Within this context, this work was performed to introduce a sperm flow cytometry fourfold stain technique for simultaneous evaluation of plasma and acrosomal membrane integrity and mitochondrial membrane potential. We then used the sperm flow cytometry fourfold stain technique to study the effect of SP-SRF on frozen-thawed boar sperm and further evaluated the effect of this treatment on sperm movement, tyrosine phosphorylation and fertility rate (FR). The sperm fourfold stain technique is accurate (R2 = 0.9356, p > 0.01) for simultaneous evaluation of plasma and acrosomal membrane integrity and mitochondrial membrane potential (IPIAH cells). Centrifugation pre-cryopreservation was not deleterious (p > 0.05) for any analyzed variables. Addition of SP-SRF after cryopreservation was able to improve total and progressive motility (p < 0.05) when boar semen was cryopreserved without SP-SRF; however, it was not able to decrease tyrosine phosphorylation (p > 0.05) or improve IPIAH cells (p > 0.05). FR was not (p > 0.05) statistically increased by the addition of seminal plasma, though females inseminated with frozen-thawed boar semen plus SP-SRF did perform better than those inseminated with sperm lacking seminal plasma. Thus, we conclude that sperm fourfold stain can be used to simultaneously evaluate plasma and acrosomal membrane integrity and mitochondrial membrane potential, and the addition of SP-SRF at thawed boar semen cryopreserved in absence of SP-SRF improve its total and progressive motility. PMID:27529819

  6. Mental retardation is associated with plasma omega-3 fatty acid levels and the omega-3/omega-6 ratio in children.

    PubMed

    Neggers, Yasmin H; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Song, Ju-Mi; Chung, Eun-Jung; Um, Young-Sook; Park, Taesun

    2009-01-01

    There is evidence that alteration in plasma fatty acid composition may play a role in certain neurological disorders. This case control study was conducted to evaluate the association between plasma fatty acid levels and mental retardation in Korean children. Plasma phospholipid fatty acids, plasma lipids, dietary fatty acids and selected nutrients were measured in 31 mentally retarded boys (mean age 9.93 +/-1.5 yrs) and matched controls. Total plasma omega-3 fatty acids (Sigmaw3), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and high density lipoprotein (HDL) concentrations were significantly lower and the Sigmaomega-6/Sigmaomega-3 ratio was significantly higher in cases than in controls. The odds in favor of mental retardation increased by 69 % for each unit increase in the Sigmaomega-6/ Sigmaomega-3 ratio (adjusted odds ratio = 1.69, 95% CI = 1.25-2.29). Significant variation in plasma Sigmaomega-3 and the Sigmaomega-6/ Sigmaomega-3 ratio was explained by mental retardation and plasma HDL concentrations (45% and 37 % respectively). There was a significant inverse association between plasma DHA and mental retardation. For each unit increase in plasma DHA, odds of mental retardation decreased by 74 %. There was no significant difference in either total dietary fat or fatty acids intakes between cases and controls. The energy intake of cases was significantly higher than the controls. These results suggest that proportion of plasma Sigmaomega-3 fatty acids, particularly, DHA, and the Sigmaomega-6/ Sigmaomega-3 ratio are associated with mental retardation in children in this study. PMID:19329391

  7. Mental retardation is associated with plasma omega-3 fatty acid levels and the omega-3/omega-6 ratio in children.

    PubMed

    Neggers, Yasmin H; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Song, Ju-Mi; Chung, Eun-Jung; Um, Young-Sook; Park, Taesun

    2009-01-01

    There is evidence that alteration in plasma fatty acid composition may play a role in certain neurological disorders. This case control study was conducted to evaluate the association between plasma fatty acid levels and mental retardation in Korean children. Plasma phospholipid fatty acids, plasma lipids, dietary fatty acids and selected nutrients were measured in 31 mentally retarded boys (mean age 9.93 +/-1.5 yrs) and matched controls. Total plasma omega-3 fatty acids (Sigmaw3), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and high density lipoprotein (HDL) concentrations were significantly lower and the Sigmaomega-6/Sigmaomega-3 ratio was significantly higher in cases than in controls. The odds in favor of mental retardation increased by 69 % for each unit increase in the Sigmaomega-6/ Sigmaomega-3 ratio (adjusted odds ratio = 1.69, 95% CI = 1.25-2.29). Significant variation in plasma Sigmaomega-3 and the Sigmaomega-6/ Sigmaomega-3 ratio was explained by mental retardation and plasma HDL concentrations (45% and 37 % respectively). There was a significant inverse association between plasma DHA and mental retardation. For each unit increase in plasma DHA, odds of mental retardation decreased by 74 %. There was no significant difference in either total dietary fat or fatty acids intakes between cases and controls. The energy intake of cases was significantly higher than the controls. These results suggest that proportion of plasma Sigmaomega-3 fatty acids, particularly, DHA, and the Sigmaomega-6/ Sigmaomega-3 ratio are associated with mental retardation in children in this study.

  8. Effect of stimulation of afferent renal nerves on plasma levels of vasopressin

    SciTech Connect

    Caverson, M.M.; Ciriello, J.

    1987-04-01

    Experiments were done in ..cap alpha..-chloralose-anesthetized, paralyzed and artificially ventilated cats with vagus, cervical sympathetic, aortic depressor, and carotid sinus nerves cut bilaterally to investigate the effect of afferent renal nerve (ARN) stimulation on circulating levels of vasopressin (AVP). Electrical stimulation of ARN elicited a pressor response that had two components, a primary (1/sup 0/) component locked in time with the stimulus and a secondary (2/sup 0/) component that had a long onset latency and that outlasted the stimulation period. The 1/sup 0/ and 2/sup 0/ components of the pressor response were largest at stimulation frequencies of 30 and 40 Hz, respectively. Autonomic blockage with hexamethonium bromide and atropine methylbromide abolished the 1/sup 0/ component. Administration of the vasopressin V/sub 1/-vascular receptor antagonist d(CH/sub 2/)/sub 5/ VAVP during autonomic blockade abolished the 2/sup 0/C component. Plasma concentrations of AVP measured by radioimmunoassay increased from control levels of 5.2 +/- 0.9 to 53.6 +/- 18.6 pg/ml during a 5-min period of stimulation of ARN. Plasma AVP levels measured 20-40 min after simulation were not significantly different from control values. These data demonstrate that sensory information originating in the kidney alters the release of vasopressin from the neurohypophysis and suggest that ARN are an important component of the neural circuitry involved in homeostatic mechanisms controlling arterial pressure.

  9. Change in Plasma Cytokine Levels During Risperidone Treatment in Children with Autism

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jae Eun; Widjaja, Felicia; Careaga, Milo; Bent, Stephen; Ashwood, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Atypical antipsychotics decrease irritability in autism. They also affect the cytokine network. Psychological stress, depression, and, possibly, autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are associated with the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. We sought to determine if risperidone treatment led to changes in plasma cytokine levels. Methods: Forty-five subjects from an open-label study of risperidone treatment of children and adolescents with ASD, ages 4–18 years, had an analysis of 27 different cytokines at baseline and after 8 weeks of treatment using multiplex assays (Millipore) and read on the Luminex 100™ platform. We examined changes in each of the cytokine levels in the entire group, and also compared changes in cytokines in responders versus nonresponders. Results: After 8 weeks of risperidone treatment, 2 of the 27 plasma cytokines showed statistically significant decreases in median levels: Eotaxin (p=0.0003) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) (p=0.0024). Six of the 48 subjects met two criteria for responders to risperidone, and the median values of interleukin (IL)-5 were significantly higher (p=0.005) in the overall responder group than in nonresponders. Conclusions: Two cytokines, eotaxin and MCP-1, which have previously been identified as abnormally elevated in children with autism, decreased during treatment with risperidone. This suggests a possible mechanism of action of risperidone treatment and a balancing of the immune system in affected subjects in this very preliminary study. PMID:24828014

  10. Plasma levels of corticosterone and testosterone after sexual activity in male rats treated neonatally with clomipramine.

    PubMed

    Bonilla-Jaime, H; Retana-Márquez, S; Vazquez-Palacios, G; Velázquez-Moctezuma, J

    2003-07-01

    Neonatal treatment with clomipramine (CMI) in rats, induces alterations of pleasure-seeking behaviors during adulthood. Alterations of hormonal responses to stressful situations have also been reported. In this study, the levels of corticosterone and testosterone in response to sexual activity were assessed in rats treated neonatally with CMI. Male pups received subcutaneous injections of CMI (15 mg/kg, 0.1 ml), twice a day (09.00 hours and 18.00 hours) from 8 to 21 days of age. A control group received saline in the same number of injections. Four months after CMI treatment, subjects (Ss) were submitted to the forced swim test to verify the effect of CMI. Thereafter, they were tested to assess their spontaneous sexual activity. Plasma levels of corticosterone and testosterone were assessed under different conditions. Results of sexual behavior and the forced swim test corroborate the depressive-like effect of CMI. The sole presence of an estrogenized stimulus female caused an increase in plasma levels of testosterone in both control and CMI-treated Ss. The same was true for corticosterone; however, this increase was significantly lower in the CMI-treated group. There is a discrepancy between the normal hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) response and the decreased sexual behavior. The data suggest that CMI induces permanent changes in the reactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis.

  11. Plasma cholinesterase levels of mountain plovers (Charadrius montanus) wintering in central California, USA.

    PubMed

    Iko, William M; Archuleta, Andrew S; Knopf, Fritz L

    2003-01-01

    Declines of over 60% in mountain plover (Charadrius montanus) populations over the past 30 years have made it a species of concern throughout its current range and a proposed species for listing under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. Wintering mountain plovers spend considerable time on freshly plowed agricultural fields where they may potentially be exposed to anticholinesterase pesticides. Because of the population status and wintering ecology of plovers, the objectives of our study were to use nondestructive methods to report baseline plasma cholinesterase (ChE) levels in free-ranging mountain plovers wintering in California, USA, and to assess whether sampled birds showed signs of ChE inhibition related to anticholinesterase chemical exposure. We compared plasma ChE activity for mountain plovers sampled from the Carrizo Plain (an area relatively free of anticholinesterase pesticide use) with similar measures for plovers from the Central Valley (where anticholinesterase pesticides are widely used). Analyses for ChE inhibition indicated that none of the plovers had been recently exposed to these chemicals. However, mean ChE levels of plovers from the Central Valley were significantly higher (32%) than levels reported for plovers from the Carrizo Plain. This result differs from our original assumption of higher exposure risk to mountain plovers in the Central Valley but does suggest that some effect is occurring in the ChE activity of mountain plovers wintering in California.

  12. Testosterone levels in the blood plasma of male chicken-pheasant hybrids.

    PubMed

    Purohit, V D; Basrur, P K; Smith, V G

    1978-03-01

    Testosterone levels in the blood plasma of sterile male chicken-pheasant hybrids were compared with plasma testosterone levels of roosters and male pheasants, using radioimmunoassay. Mean values of testosterone in the roosters, male pheasants and chicken-pheasant hybrids during spring were 155.47 +/- 4.03, 24.29 +/- 1.55 and 0.68 +/- 0.05 ng./100 ml., respectively and the corresponding values for winter were 88.88 +/- 4.10, 0.61 +/- 0.04 and 0.76 +/- 0.07 ng./100 ml. The pheasant testes were inactive in winter but active in spring whereas the hybrid testes were inactive in winter and spring unlike those of roosters which were active during these seasons. The low levels of testosterone in hybrids during both seasons could be attributed to the impairment of steroid biosynthetic activity of the Leydig cells and may be causally related to the absence of secondary sexual characteristics and the interruption of spermatogenesis in chicken-pheasant hybrids.

  13. Effects of ovarian stimulation on blood pressure and plasma catecholamine levels.

    PubMed

    Tollan, A; Oian, P; Kjeldsen, S E; Holst, N; Eide, I

    1993-07-01

    Effects of ovarian stimulation for in vitro fertilization on blood pressure and plasma catecholamine levels were studied in 10 women. The examinations were carried out before hormonal treatment with human menopausal gonadotropin (day three of the menstrual cycle, mean serum oestradiol concentration 0.2 nmol l-1, and on the day after ovulation induction with human chorionic gonadotropin (cycle days 10-12, mean serum oestradiol concentration 7.4 nmol l-1). Systolic and diastolic blood pressures (mean +/- SD) decreased 6.7 +/- 8.6 mm Hg, p = 0.049, and 5.3 +/- 4.7 mm Hg, p = 0.009, respectively), and venous plasma noradrenaline increased (42 +/- 44 pg ml-1, p = 0.02) during ovarian stimulation. No significant change was observed in either arterial noradrenaline, arterial adrenaline or venous adrenaline. After stimulation a positive correlation was observed between systolic blood pressure and arterial adrenaline (r = 0.73, p = 0.027), and between systolic blood pressure and the arterial-venous difference for adrenaline (r = 0.81, p = 0.007). The increased venous noradrenaline levels may be a reflex-mediated activation of the sympathetic nervous tone due to a decrease in blood pressure, or may indicate reduced neuronal re-uptake of released noradrenaline. The mechanisms behind the strong correlation between adrenaline and blood pressure are unclear, but may be induced by the supraphysiological oestradiol levels. Thus, adrenaline seems to be more important for blood pressure control in this particular setting.

  14. Comparison of plasma uric acid levels in five varieties of the domestic turkey, Meleagris gallopavo.

    PubMed

    Hartman, S; Taleb, S A; Geng, T; Gyenai, K; Guan, X; Smith, E

    2006-10-01

    Plasma uric acid (PUA) is a consensus physiological biomarker for many phenotypes in vertebrates because it is a reliable indicator for processes such as oxidative stress and tubular function. In birds, it is considered a major antioxidant and is also the primary endproduct of nitrogen metabolism. Despite this importance, knowledge of baseline levels of PUA in physiologically normal birds, including the turkey, Meleagris gallopavo, is limited. Here, we compared PUA levels in a total of 106 apparently normal male and female birds at 8 and 32 wk of age from 5 strains of the domestic turkey, including Bourbon Red, Narragansett, Blue Slate, Royal Palm, and Spanish Black. Though differences in PUA were not significant at 8 and 32 wk of age, BW, variety, and sex effects were highly significant. When adjusted for BW, female birds had, on average, a higher PUA per kilogram of BW than male birds. When adjusted for both sex and BW, Royal Palm birds had the lowest average PUA, and Blue Slate had the highest PUA. Results of these investigations represent the first comparative analysis of PUA in physiologically normal turkey varieties. They suggest that differences in basal plasma levels of uric acid in physiologically normal turkeys are influenced by sex, weight, and genetic background but may be independent of age.

  15. Effects of age on plasma levels of calcium-regulating hormones and bone status in male SAMP8 mice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chun-Chi; Wang, Ming-Fu; Liu, Mei-Hui; Lin, Wu-Ting; Yang, Shyi-Kuen

    2004-03-31

    This study was undertaken to examine whether the plasma levels of calcium-regulating hormones and bone status alter with age in male senescence accelerated mice (SAM), SAMP8. Age-matched senescence-resistant mice, SAMR1, were used as controls. The blood and femur samples were collected at 2.5 months of age (M) and then monthly from 3 to 12 M for physicochemical analyses, biochemical analyses, and the determination of hormones by radioimmunoassay. With advancing age, the plasma calcitonin (CT) levels decreased progressively, and the plasma parathyroid hormone (PTH) and 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (1,25(OH)2D3) levels increased in both SAMR1 and SAMP8. The plasma calcium concentrations were maintained within a narrow range throughout the experimental period, while the plasma phosphorus (P) concentrations decreased with age in both strains. In contrast to SAMR1, the curves of age-related changes in the plasma CT levels and P concentrations were lower, and those in the plasma PTH levels were higher in SAMP8. The femoral bone densities and calcium contents increased gradually with age from the beginning of the experiment and peaked at 6 M in both strains, then declined. Those peaks were lower in SAMP8 than in SAMR1. These results indicate that the male SAMP8 develops osteoporotic signs earlier than SAMR1, and is proved to be a satisfactory animal model for longitudinal studies related to osteoporosis for men. PMID:15239589

  16. Nocturnal plasma melatonin and alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone levels during exacerbation of multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Sandyk, R; Awerbuch, G I

    1992-01-01

    The pineal gland has been implicated recently in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS). To investigate this hypothesis further, we studied nocturnal plasma melatonin levels and the presence or absence of pineal calcification (PC) on CT scan in a cohort of 25 patients (5 men, 20 women; mean age: 41.1 years; SD = 11.1; range: 27-72) who were admitted to a hospital Neurology service for exacerbation of symptoms. Plasma alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) estimations were included in the study since there is evidence for a feedback inhibition between alpha-MSH and melatonin secretion. Abnormal melatonin levels were found in 13 patients (52.0%), 11 of whom had nocturnal levels which were below the daytime values (i.e., < 25 pg/ml). Although melatonin levels were unrelated to the patient's age and sex, there was a positive correlation with age of onset of symptoms (p < .0001) and an inverse correlation with the duration of illness (p < .05). PC was noted in 24 of 25 patients (96%) underscoring the pathogenetic relationship between MS and the pineal gland. Alpha-MSH levels were undetectable in 15 patients (60.0%), low in two patients (8.0%), normal in seven patients (28.0%), and elevated in one patient (4.0%). Collectively, abnormal alpha-MSH levels were found in over 70% of patients. These findings support the hypothesis that MS may be associated with pineal failure and suggest, furthermore, that alterations in the secretion of alpha-MSH also occur during exacerbation of symptoms. The relevance of these findings to the pathogenesis of MS are discussed. PMID:1305632

  17. Plasma PGF 2 alpha metabolite levels in cats with uterine disease.

    PubMed

    Hagman, R; Karlstam, E; Persson, S; Kindahl, H

    2009-12-01

    Uterine disease induces PGF(2 alpha) increase in many animal species, which can be measured by the metabolite 15-keto-(13,14)-dihydro-PGF(2 alpha) (PGFM). Plasma PGFM levels are associated with severity of the uterine disease and presence of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) in dogs. The objectives in this study were to investigate PGFM levels, presence of SIRS, and clinical and laboratory parameters in female cats as possible indicators for severity of uterine disease. In total, 7 female cats with pyometra, 2 with mucometra, 7 with cystic endometrial hyperplasia (CEH), and 14 healthy control cats were included. Physical examination, ovariohysterectomy, and histopathology were performed, laboratory parameters were analyzed, and PGFM levels were analyzed by radioimmunoassay. Analysis of variance, Fisher's exact test, Student's t-test and Pearson's product moment correlation coefficient were used for data analysis. In cats with pyometra, mean PGFM levels were increased (21.1 nmol L(-1)) but were decreased in cats with CEH (0.4 nmol L(-1)) compared with control cats (0.6 nmol L(-1)). In cats with mucometra, the mean PGFM level was 8.8 nmol L(-1). Systemic inflammatory response syndrome was present in 6 (85%) cats with pyometra, 1 cat with mucometra, and 1 cat with CEH. Hospitalization length was negatively correlated with albumin and positively correlated with total white blood cell count (WBC), neutrophils, band neutrophils (BN), percentage BN (PBN), and monocytes. Pyometra and mucometra were associated with increased plasma levels of PGFM. The parameters albumin, WBC, neutrophils, BN, PBN, and monocytes may be useful to determine morbidity as measured by hospitalization length.