Science.gov

Sample records for addition preliminary evidence

  1. Evidence-Based Health Policy: A Preliminary Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Gareth

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The development of evidence-based health policy is challenging. This study has attempted to identify some of the underpinning factors that promote the development of evidence based health policy. Methods: A preliminary systematic literature review of published reviews with "evidence based health policy" in their title was conducted…

  2. ADDITIVE TESTING FOR IMPROVED SULFUR RETENTION: PRELIMINARY REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    Amoroso, J.; Fox, K.

    2011-09-07

    The Savannah River National Laboratory is collaborating with Alfred University to evaluate the potential for additives in borosilicate glass to improve sulfur retention. This preliminary report provides further background on the incorporation of sulfur in glass and outlines the experiments that are being performed by the collaborators. A simulated waste glass composition has been selected for the experimental studies. The first phase of experimental work will evaluate the impacts of BaO, PbO, and V{sub 2}O{sub 5} at concentrations of 1.0, 2.0, and 5.0 wt % on sulfate retention in simulated high level waste borosilicate glass. The second phase of experimental work will evaluate the effects of time at the melt temperature on sulfur retention. The resulting samples will be characterized to determine the amount of sulfur remaining as well as to identify the formation of any crystalline phases. The results will be used to guide the future selection of frits and glass forming chemicals in vitrifying Department of Energy wastes containing high sulfur concentrations.

  3. The Communicative Effectiveness Survey: Preliminary Evidence of Construct Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donovan, Neila J.; Kendall, Diane L.; Young, Mary Ellen; Rosenbek, John C.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To provide preliminary evidence of the construct validity of the Communicative Effectiveness Survey (CES) for individuals with dysarthria and idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD). Method: In a prospective, quasi-experimental design, 25 participants each were assigned to 3 groups (N = 75): PD and dysarthria, non-PD and no dysarthria, and PD…

  4. Is there evidence for additional neutrino species from cosmology?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feeney, Stephen M.; Peiris, Hiranya V.; Verde, Licia

    2013-04-01

    It has been suggested that recent cosmological and flavor-oscillation data favor the existence of additional neutrino species beyond the three predicted by the Standard Model of particle physics. We apply Bayesian model selection to determine whether there is indeed any evidence from current cosmological datasets for the standard cosmological model to be extended to include additional neutrino flavors. The datasets employed include cosmic microwave background temperature, polarization and lensing power spectra, and measurements of the baryon acoustic oscillation scale and the Hubble constant. We also consider other extensions to the standard neutrino model, such as massive neutrinos, and possible degeneracies with other cosmological parameters. The Bayesian evidence indicates that current cosmological data do not require any non-standard neutrino properties.

  5. Spinel dissolution via addition of glass forming chemicals. Results of preliminary experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, K. M.; Johnson, F. C.

    2015-11-01

    Increased loading of high level waste in glass can lead to crystallization within the glass. Some crystalline species, such as spinel, have no practical impact on the chemical durability of the glass, and therefore may be acceptable from both a processing and a product performance standpoint. In order to operate a melter with a controlled amount of crystallization, options must be developed for remediating an unacceptable accumulation of crystals. This report describes preliminary experiments designed to evaluate the ability to dissolve spinel crystals in simulated waste glass melts via the addition of glass forming chemicals (GFCs).

  6. Preliminary evidence for a cognitive phenotype in Barth syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mazzocco, M M; Kelley, R I

    2001-09-01

    Barth syndrome (BTHS) is a rare, X-linked, recessive disorder that affects almost exclusively males. It is characterized by short stature, cardioskeletal myopathy, cyclic neutropenia, increased excretion of 3-methylglutaconic acid in the urine, and moderate hypocholesterolemia. The objective of the present study was to assess whether BTHS presents with a cognitive phenotype. Preliminary data were collected from five kindergarten or first-grade boys with BTHS. An abbreviated psychoeducational test battery was administered to each boy, and parents of each boy completed standardized behavior rating scales. Data from 120 boys of similar age or grade level were used for one comparison group; a subset of this sample comprised a comparison group that was individually matched on age and grade level to one of the five boys with BTHS. Preliminary data reflect a higher incidence of cognitive difficulties in boys with BTHS relative to both comparison groups. Boys with BTHS had significantly lower visual spatial skills, but comparable reading-related skills, when compared with either group. Although based on a small sample size, the preliminary data presented in this work are the first indication of a cognitive phenotype associated with BTHS.

  7. Mimas: Preliminary Evidence For Amorphous Water Ice from VIMS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruikshank, Dale P.; Marzo, G. A.; Pinilla-Alonso, N.; Roush, T. L.; Mastrapa, R. M.; DalleOre, C. M.; Buratti, B. J.; Stephan, K.

    2010-01-01

    We have conducted a statistical clustering analysis (1,2) on a mosaic of VIMS data cubes obtained on February 13, 2010, for Saturn s satellite Mimas. Seven VIMS cubes were geometrically projected and re-sampled to a common spatial resolution. The clustering technique consists of a partitioning algorithm coupled to a criterion that prevents sub-optimal solutions and tests for the influence of random noise in the measurements. The clustering technique is agnostic about the meaning of the clusters, and scientific interpretation requires their a posteriori evaluation. The preliminary results yielded five clusters, demonstrating that spectral variability across Mimas surface is statistically significant. The ratios of the means calculated for each of the clusters show structure within the 1.6- micron water ice band, as well as the shape and the central wavelength of the strong ice band at 2 micron, that map spatially in patterns apparently related to the topography of Mimas, in particular certain regions in and around Herschel crater. The mean spectra of the five clusters, show similarities with laboratory spectra of amorphous and crystalline H2O ice (3) that are suggestive of the presence of an amorphous ice component in certain regions of Mimas, notably on the central peak of Herschel, on the crater floor, and in faults surrounding the crater. This may represent a mixture of both ice phases, or perhaps a layer of amorphous ice on a base of crystalline ice. Another possible occurrence of amorphous ice appears southwest of Herschel, close to the south pole.

  8. Emergent Writing in Preschoolers: Preliminary Evidence for a Theoretical Framework

    PubMed Central

    Puranik, Cynthia S.; Lonigan, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    Researchers and educators use the term emergent literacy to refer to a broad set of skills and attitudes that serve as foundational skills for acquiring success in later reading and writing; however, models of emergent literacy have generally focused on reading and reading-related behaviors. Hence, the primary aim of this study was to articulate and evaluate a theoretical model of the components of emergent writing. Alternative models of the structure of individual and developmental differences of emergent writing and writing-related skills were examined in 372 preschool children who ranged in age from 3- to 5-years using confirmatory factor analysis. Results from a confirmatory factor analysis provide evidence that these emergent writing skills are best described by three correlated but distinct factors, (a) Conceptual Knowledge, (b) Procedural Knowledge, and (c) Generative Knowledge. Evidence that these three emergent writing factors show different patterns of relations to emergent literacy constructs is presented. Implications for understanding the development of writing and assessment of early writing skills are discussed. PMID:25316955

  9. School Improvement Plans and Student Achievement: Preliminary Evidence from the Quality and Merit Project in Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caputo, Andrea; Rastelli, Valentina

    2014-01-01

    This study provides preliminary evidence from an Italian in-service training program addressed to lower secondary school teachers which supports school improvement plans (SIPs). It aims at exploring the association between characteristics/contents of SIPs and student improvement in math achievement. Pre-post standardized tests and text analysis of…

  10. Internet Self-Exclusion: Characteristics of Self-Excluded Gamblers and Preliminary Evidence for Its Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayer, Tobias; Meyer, Gerhard

    2011-01-01

    Preliminary scientific evidence indicates that online gamblers are more likely to be problem gamblers and thus point to the need for effective protection measures. This study focuses on an online self-exclusion program and seeks to comprehensively examine the benefits of this measure. It was intended to collect detailed information on the…

  11. Triassic and Jurassic rocks at Currie, Nevada Preliminary paleontologic evidence

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, E.A.; Dubiel, R.F.; Brouwers, E.M. ); Litwin, R.J. ); Ash, S.R. ); Good, S.C. )

    1993-04-01

    A sequence of continental rocks overlies the Lower Triassic Thaynes Formation in a poorly exposed syncline near Currie in northeastern NV. The authors recognize four lithostratigraphic units above the Thaynes near Currie and provide new paleontologic data. In ascending order, unit 1 (120 ft) consists of reddish-brown, very fine grained sandstone. Unit 2 (50 ft) consists of light-gray, trough cross-stratified, coarse-grained, conglomeratic sandstone. Unit 3 (at least 500 ft) consists of green, red, and brown sandstone and mudstone. Unit 4 occurs as isolated outcrops of reddish-orange, fine- to medium-grained sandstone. New fossil evidence, while not definitive, constrain the age of this sequence. Plant megafossils in unit 1 include (1) a specimen with narrow ovate leaves, possibly from an early Mesozoic conifer and (2) abundant fragments of probable Neocalamites. The presence of these fossils and the absence of any angiosperm leaves or wood fragments suggest an early Mesozoic age. Ostracodes in unit 3 are exclusively Darwinula sp., and their association with conchostracans in the absence of younger ostracodes suggests a Triassic age. Finally, two small outcrops, previously mapped as Triassic/Jurassic, contain the gastropods Pilidae indet. and Lymnaea sp., which resemble Late Cretaceous to Paleocene faunas. The sequence is similar to the nearest Lower Mesozoic section on the Colorado Plateau at Cove Fort, Utah, 165 miles to the southeast. The authors' new evidence supports the longstanding correlation of units 1--4 with the Lower Triassic Moenkopi Formation (part), the Shinarump and Petrified Forest Members of the Upper Triassic Chinle Formation, and the Lower Jurassic Navajo Sandstone of the Plateau. These rocks at Currie demonstrate that the Early Mesozoic depositional systems of the Colorado Plateau extended at least this far west and provide constraints on Early Mesozoic tectonism in the eastern Great Basin.

  12. Preliminary evidence for vitamin D deficiency in nodulocystic acne

    PubMed Central

    Yildizgören, Mustafa Turgut; Togral, Arzu Karatas

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Acne vulgaris is a chronic inflammatory disease, and hormonal influences, follicular plugging and follicular hyperkeratinization, increased sebum secretion, Propionibacterium acnes colonization, and inflammation are involved in its pathogenesis. Recently, a significant body of evidence has accumulated that describes the comedolytic properties of vitamin D and its roles as a modulator of the immune system, a regulator of the proliferation and differentiation of sebocytes and keratinocytes, and as an antioxidant. In this study, we aimed to compare serum vitamin D levels in a group of patients with nodulocystic acne with vitamin D levels in a group of control subjects to determine whether there was any relationship between the vitamin D and acne. Methods: Levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) were measured in 43 patients with newly diagnosed nodulocystic acne and in 46 healthy control subjects, and participants were grouped according to their 25[OH]D levels as follows: normal/sufficient (>20 ng/mL) or insufficient/deficient (<20 ng/mL). Serum concentrations of calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and parathyroid hormone (PTH) were measured. Results: Forty-three patients and 46 control individuals, with mean ages of 23.13 (± 5.78) years and 25.23 (± 4.73) years, respectively, were included in this study. There were no significant differences between the groups in relation to their body mass indices and Ca, P, ALP, and PTH levels. However, the patients with nodulocystic acne had significantly lower 25[OH]D levels than the subjects in the control group (P< 0.05). Conclusion: The patients with nodulocystic acne had relatively low serum vitamin D levels compared with the subjects in the control group. The findings from this study suggest that there is a connection between low vitamin D levels and acne. Larger epidemiologic studies are needed to confirm the status of vitamin D levels in patients with acne. PMID:26413187

  13. Deep Brain Stimulation in Huntington’s Disease—Preliminary Evidence on Pathophysiology, Efficacy and Safety

    PubMed Central

    Wojtecki, Lars; Groiss, Stefan Jun; Hartmann, Christian Johannes; Elben, Saskia; Omlor, Sonja; Schnitzler, Alfons; Vesper, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Huntington’s disease (HD) is one of the most disabling degenerative movement disorders, as it not only affects the motor system but also leads to cognitive disabilities and psychiatric symptoms. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the pallidum is a promising symptomatic treatment targeting the core motor symptom: chorea. This article gives an overview of preliminary evidence on pathophysiology, safety and efficacy of DBS in HD. PMID:27589813

  14. Adapting Evidence-based Mental Health Treatments in Community Settings: Preliminary Results from a Partnership Approach

    PubMed Central

    Southam-Gerow, Michael A.; Hourigan, Shannon E.; Allin, Robert B.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the application of a university-community partnership model to the problem of adapting evidence-based treatment approaches in a community mental health setting. Background on partnership research is presented, with consideration of methodological and practical issues related to this kind of research. Then, a rationale for using partnerships as a basis for conducting mental health treatment research is presented. Finally, an ongoing partnership research project concerned with the adaptation of evidence-based mental health treatments for childhood internalizing problems in community settings is presented, with preliminary results of the ongoing effort discussed. PMID:18697917

  15. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  16. Preliminary In Vivo Evaluation of a Hybrid Armored Vascular Graft Combining Electrospinning and Additive Manufacturing Techniques.

    PubMed

    Spadaccio, Cristiano; Nappi, Francesco; De Marco, Federico; Sedati, Pietro; Sutherland, Fraser W H; Chello, Massimo; Trombetta, Marcella; Rainer, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we tested in vivo effectiveness of a previously developed poly-l-lactide/poly-ε-caprolactone armored vascular graft releasing heparin. This bioprosthesis was designed in order to overcome the main drawbacks of tissue-engineered vascular grafts, mainly concerning poor mechanical properties, thrombogenicity, and endothelialization. The bioprosthesis was successfully implanted in an aortic vascular reconstruction model in rabbits. All grafts implanted were patent at four weeks postoperatively and have been adequately populated by endogenous cells without signs of thrombosis or structural failure and with no need of antiplatelet therapy. The results of this preliminary study might warrant for further larger controlled in vivo studies to further confirm these findings.

  17. Preliminary Evidence for the Validity of the New Test of Everyday Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheldall, Kevin; McMurtry, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    The Test of Everyday Reading Comprehension (TERC) has recently been presented as an addition to the armoury of tests available for assessing the skills of low-progress readers. While comparison data for students of different ages are presented together with evidence for high test reliability, there is, as yet, no published evidence for its…

  18. Preliminary In Vivo Evaluation of a Hybrid Armored Vascular Graft Combining Electrospinning and Additive Manufacturing Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Spadaccio, Cristiano; Nappi, Francesco; De Marco, Federico; Sedati, Pietro; Sutherland, Fraser W.H.; Chello, Massimo; Trombetta, Marcella; Rainer, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we tested in vivo effectiveness of a previously developed poly-l-lactide/poly-ε-caprolactone armored vascular graft releasing heparin. This bioprosthesis was designed in order to overcome the main drawbacks of tissue-engineered vascular grafts, mainly concerning poor mechanical properties, thrombogenicity, and endothelialization. The bioprosthesis was successfully implanted in an aortic vascular reconstruction model in rabbits. All grafts implanted were patent at four weeks postoperatively and have been adequately populated by endogenous cells without signs of thrombosis or structural failure and with no need of antiplatelet therapy. The results of this preliminary study might warrant for further larger controlled in vivo studies to further confirm these findings. PMID:26949333

  19. 20 CFR 10.116 - What additional evidence is needed in cases based on occupational disease?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... based on occupational disease? 10.116 Section 10.116 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION... of Proof § 10.116 What additional evidence is needed in cases based on occupational disease? (a) The... occupational diseases. The medical report should also include the information specified on the checklist...

  20. 20 CFR 10.116 - What additional evidence is needed in cases based on occupational disease?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... based on occupational disease? 10.116 Section 10.116 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION... of Proof § 10.116 What additional evidence is needed in cases based on occupational disease? (a) The... particular occupational diseases. The medical report should also include the information specified on...

  1. 20 CFR 10.116 - What additional evidence is needed in cases based on occupational disease?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... based on occupational disease? 10.116 Section 10.116 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION... of Proof § 10.116 What additional evidence is needed in cases based on occupational disease? (a) The... occupational diseases. The medical report should also include the information specified on the checklist...

  2. 20 CFR 10.116 - What additional evidence is needed in cases based on occupational disease?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... based on occupational disease? 10.116 Section 10.116 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION... of Proof § 10.116 What additional evidence is needed in cases based on occupational disease? (a) The... particular occupational diseases. The medical report should also include the information specified on...

  3. 20 CFR 10.116 - What additional evidence is needed in cases based on occupational disease?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... based on occupational disease? 10.116 Section 10.116 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION... of Proof § 10.116 What additional evidence is needed in cases based on occupational disease? (a) The... particular occupational diseases. The medical report should also include the information specified on...

  4. 30 CFR 210.206 - Will I need to submit additional documents or evidence to MMS?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Will I need to submit additional documents or evidence to MMS? 210.206 Section 210.206 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT FORMS AND REPORTS Production and Royalty Reports-Solid Minerals §...

  5. Additions are biased by operands: evidence from repeated versus different operands.

    PubMed

    Charras, Pom; Molina, Enrique; Lupiáñez, Juan

    2014-03-01

    Recent evidence led to the conclusion that addition problems are biased towards overestimation, regardless of whether information is conveyed by symbolic or non-symbolic stimuli (the Operational Momentum effect). The present study focuses on the role of operands in the overestimation of addition problems. Based on the tie effect, and on recent evidence that the nature of operands biases addition problems towards an underestimation when operands are repeated, but towards an overestimation when different, we aim here to further elucidate the contribution of operands to addition problems. Experiment 1 replicates the underestimation of repeated-operand additions and overestimation of different-operand additions, with large numbers (around 50), and explores whether these effects also apply to small operand additions (around 10). Experiment 2 further explores the overestimation of different-operand additions by investigating the roles of operand order and numerical distance between operands. The results show that both factors have an impact on the overestimation size, but are not crucial for overestimation to occur. The results are discussed in terms of arithmetic strategies, spatial organization of numbers and magnitude representation.

  6. Preliminary evidence of different selection pressures on cancer cells as compared to normal tissues

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Cancer is characterized by both a high mutation rate as well as high rates of cell division and cell death. We postulate that these conditions will result in the eventual mutational inactivation of genes not essential to the survival of the cancer cell, while mutations in essential genes will be eliminated by natural selection leaving molecular signatures of selection in genes required for survival and reproduction. By looking for signatures of natural selection in the genomes of cancer cells, it should therefore be possible to determine which genes have been essential for the development of a particular cancer. Methods We provide a proof of principle test of this idea by applying a test of neutrality (Nei-Gojobori Z-test of selection) to 139 cancer-related nucleotide sequences obtained from GenBank representing 46 cancer-derived genes. Results Among cancer associated sequences, 10 genes showed molecular evidence of selection. Of these 10 genes, four showed molecular evidence of selection in non-cancer transcripts. Among non-cancer associated sequences, eight genes showed molecular evidence of selection, with four of these also showing selection in the cancer associated sequences. Conclusions These results provide preliminary evidence that the same genes may experience different selection pressures within normal and cancer tissues. Application of this technique could identify genes under unique selection pressure in cancer tissues and thereby indicate possible targets for therapeutic intervention. PMID:23146329

  7. Development and Preliminary Evaluation of Aryl Ester Boundary Additives for Perfluoropolyethers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, John R.; Feuchter, Debra K.; Jones, William R., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    A series of additives were developed for evaluation as boundary lubrication enhancers for perfluoropolyethers. They are composed of a hydrocarbon aryl component (for lubrication improvement) and a fluorinated side chain (for solubility enhancement). The two moieties are joined by an ester linkage. Five boundary additives were evaluated in a perfluoropolyether basestock (Fomblin Z25) using a specially designed four-ball apparatus. Additives were evaluated at a one wt percent concentration. Conditions included: an atmosphere of dry air at atmospheric pressure, a 200N load, a speed of 100 rpm, room temperature, and 440C stainless steel specimens. Two monoesters, 2,4,6-trimethyl E2 and H5PDFO yielded wear rate reductions of approximately 60 and 35 percent, respectively. One diester, H4(E2)(sub 2), had no activity, while two other diesters (a diester of bisphenol A and H4(E4)(sub 2)) were pro-wear.

  8. Preliminary result on the enhancement of Ufer electrodes using recycle additives materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zulkifli, Muhammad Haziq Aniq Bin; Ahmad, Hussein Bin

    2016-11-01

    Ground building pillars is to be used as ground rod. The pillars are design, fabricated, and formulated with new ground fillers. The additives will be used from recycle waste materials mainly from the palm oil plant process. Micro scale building pillars will be fabricated and install in the test ground at all of the location. Earth tester meter are used to measure and collect the data of the soil resistivity when the research is conducted. In collecting these data, 3-terminal methods are used to carry the measurements. This experiment will be conducted for 30 weeks and regular measurements at the test ground copper grids will be conducted to measure the ground electrode resistance. The study will mainly base on IEC 62503-3. The used of reinforcing rods and mixture of recycle additives could produce a better grounding system that are suitable and can be used in all kind of soil condition and large industries.

  9. Efficiently and Effectively Evaluating Public Service Announcements: Additional Evidence for the Utility of Perceived Effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Bigsby, Elisabeth; Cappella, Joseph N; Seitz, Holli H

    2013-03-01

    Recent research has made significant progress identifying measures of the perceived effectiveness (PE) of persuasive messages and providing evidence of a causal link from PE to actual effectiveness (AE). This article provides additional evidence of the utility of PE through unique analysis and consideration of another dimension of PE important to understanding the PE-AE association. Current smokers (N =1,139) watched four randomly selected anti-smoking Public Service Announcements (PSAs). PE scores aggregated by message were used instead of individual PE scores to create a summed total, minimizing the likelihood that PE perceptions are consequences of an individual's intention to quit, supporting instead the PE→AE order. Linear regression analyses provide evidence of PE's positive and significant influence on smoking cessation-related behavioral intentions.

  10. Efficiently and Effectively Evaluating Public Service Announcements: Additional Evidence for the Utility of Perceived Effectiveness

    PubMed Central

    Bigsby, Elisabeth; Cappella, Joseph N.; Seitz, Holli H.

    2014-01-01

    Recent research has made significant progress identifying measures of the perceived effectiveness (PE) of persuasive messages and providing evidence of a causal link from PE to actual effectiveness (AE). This article provides additional evidence of the utility of PE through unique analysis and consideration of another dimension of PE important to understanding the PE-AE association. Current smokers (N =1,139) watched four randomly selected anti-smoking Public Service Announcements (PSAs). PE scores aggregated by message were used instead of individual PE scores to create a summed total, minimizing the likelihood that PE perceptions are consequences of an individual’s intention to quit, supporting instead the PE→AE order. Linear regression analyses provide evidence of PE’s positive and significant influence on smoking cessation-related behavioral intentions. PMID:25568588

  11. Preliminary evidence for a 1000-year-old tsunami in the South China Sea

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Liguang; Zhou, Xin; Huang, Wen; Liu, Xiaodong; Yan, Hong; Xie, Zhouqing; Wu, Zijun; Zhao, Sanping; Da Shao; Yang, Wenqing

    2013-01-01

    The risk of large, devastating tsunamis in the South China Sea and its surrounding coastal region is commonly underestimated or unrecognized due to the difficulty of differentiating tsunami from storm deposits. As a consequence, few convincing records have documented tsunami deposits in this region. Here we report preliminary evidence from Xisha Islands in the South China Sea for a large tsunami around AD 1024. Sand layers in lake sediment cores and their geochemical characteristics indicate a sudden deposition event around AD 1024, temporally consistent with a written record of a disastrous event characterized by high waves in AD 1076. Heavy coral and shell fossils, which are older than AD 1024, deposited more than 200 meters into the island, further support the occurrence of a high-energy event such as a tsunami or an unusually large storm. Our results underscore the importance of acknowledging and understanding the tsunami hazard in this area. PMID:23575432

  12. Preliminary evidence for a 1000-year-old tsunami in the South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Sun, Liguang; Zhou, Xin; Huang, Wen; Liu, Xiaodong; Yan, Hong; Xie, Zhouqing; Wu, Zijun; Zhao, Sanping; Da Shao; Yang, Wenqing

    2013-01-01

    The risk of large, devastating tsunamis in the South China Sea and its surrounding coastal region is commonly underestimated or unrecognized due to the difficulty of differentiating tsunami from storm deposits. As a consequence, few convincing records have documented tsunami deposits in this region. Here we report preliminary evidence from Xisha Islands in the South China Sea for a large tsunami around AD 1024. Sand layers in lake sediment cores and their geochemical characteristics indicate a sudden deposition event around AD 1024, temporally consistent with a written record of a disastrous event characterized by high waves in AD 1076. Heavy coral and shell fossils, which are older than AD 1024, deposited more than 200 meters into the island, further support the occurrence of a high-energy event such as a tsunami or an unusually large storm. Our results underscore the importance of acknowledging and understanding the tsunami hazard in this area.

  13. Preliminary study of neutron absorption by concrete with boron carbide addition

    SciTech Connect

    Abdullah, Yusof Yusof, Mohd Reusmaazran; Zali, Nurazila Mat; Ahmad, Megat Harun Al Rashid Megat; Yazid, Hafizal; Ariffin, Fatin Nabilah Tajul; Ahmad, Sahrim; Hamid, Roszilah; Mohamed, Abdul Aziz

    2014-02-12

    Concrete has become a conventional material in construction of nuclear reactor due to its properties like safety and low cost. Boron carbide was added as additives in the concrete construction as it has a good neutron absorption property. The sample preparation for concrete was produced with different weight percent of boron carbide powder content. The neutron absorption rate of these samples was determined by using a fast neutron source of Americium-241/Be (Am-Be 241) and detection with a portable backscattering neutron detector. Concrete with 20 wt % of boron carbide shows the lowest count of neutron transmitted and this indicates the most neutrons have been absorbed by the concrete. Higher boron carbide content may affect the concrete strength and other properties.

  14. Preliminary study of neutron absorption by concrete with boron carbide addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, Yusof; Ariffin, Fatin Nabilah Tajul; Hamid, Roszilah; Yusof, Mohd Reusmaazran; Zali, Nurazila Mat; Ahmad, Megat Harun Al Rashid Megat; Yazid, Hafizal; Ahmad, Sahrim; Mohamed, Abdul Aziz

    2014-02-01

    Concrete has become a conventional material in construction of nuclear reactor due to its properties like safety and low cost. Boron carbide was added as additives in the concrete construction as it has a good neutron absorption property. The sample preparation for concrete was produced with different weight percent of boron carbide powder content. The neutron absorption rate of these samples was determined by using a fast neutron source of Americium-241/Be (Am-Be 241) and detection with a portable backscattering neutron detector. Concrete with 20 wt % of boron carbide shows the lowest count of neutron transmitted and this indicates the most neutrons have been absorbed by the concrete. Higher boron carbide content may affect the concrete strength and other properties.

  15. Preliminary Investigation of Keyhole Phenomena during Single Layer Fabrication in Laser Additive Manufacturing of Stainless Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matilainen, Ville-Pekka; Piili, Heidi; Salminen, Antti; Nyrhilä, Olli

    Laser additive manufacturing (LAM) is a fabrication technology that enables production of complex parts from metallic materials with mechanical properties comparable to conventionally manufactured parts. In the LAM process, parts are manufactured by melting metallic powder layer-by-layer with a laser beam. This manufacturing technology is nowadays called powder bed fusion (PBF) according to the ASTM F2792-12a standard. This strategy involves several different independent and dependent thermal cycles, all of which have an influence on the final properties of the manufactured part. The quality of PBF parts depends strongly on the characteristics of each single laser-melted track and each single layer. This study consequently concentrates on investigating the effects of process parameters such as laser power on single track and layer formation and laser-material interaction phenomena occurring during the PBF process. Experimental tests were done with two different machines: a modified research machine based on an EOS EOSINT M-series system and an EOS EOSINT M280 system. The material used was EOS stainless steel 17-4 PH. Process monitoring was done with an active illuminated high speed camera system. After microscopy analysis, it was concluded that a keyhole can form during laser additive manufacturing of stainless steel. It was noted that heat input has an important effect on the likelihood of keyhole formation. The threshold intensity value for keyhole formation of 106 W/cm2 was exceeded in all manufactured single tracks. Laser interaction time was found to have an effect on penetration depth and keyhole formation, since the penetration depth increased with increased laser interaction time. It was also concluded that active illuminated high speed camera systems are suitable for monitoring of the manufacturing process and facilitate process control.

  16. Mutations in RIT1 cause Noonan syndrome – additional functional evidence and expanding the clinical phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Koenighofer, Martin; Hung, Christina Y.; McCauley, Jacob L.; Dallman, Julia; Back, Emma J.; Mihalek, Ivana; Gripp, Karen W.; Sol-Church, Katia; Rusconi, Paolo; Zhang, Zhaiyi; Shi, Geng-Xian; Andres, Douglas A.; Bodamer, Olaf A.

    2015-01-01

    RASopathies are a clinically heterogeneous group of conditions caused by mutations in one of sixteen proteins in the RAS-MAPK pathway. Recently, mutations in RIT1 were identified as a novel cause for Noonan syndrome. Here we provide additional functional evidence for a causal role of RIT1 mutations and expand the associated phenotypic spectrum. We identified two de novo missense variants p.Met90Ile and, p.Ala57Gly. Both variants resulted in increased MEK-ERK signaling compared to wild-type, underscoring gain-of-function as the primary functional mechanism. Introduction of p.Met90Ile and p.Ala57Gly into zebrafish embryos reproduced not only aspects of the human phenotype but also revealed abnormalities of eye development, emphasizing the importance of RIT1 for spatial and temporal organization of the growing organism. In addition, we observed severe lymphedema of the lower extremity and genitalia in one patient. We provide additional evidence for a causal relationship between pathogenic mutations in RIT1, increased RAS-MAPK/MEK-ERK signaling and the clinical phenotype. The mutant RIT1 protein may possess reduced GTPase activity or a diminished ability to interact with cellular GTPase activating proteins, however the precise mechanism remains unknown. The phenotypic spectrum is likely to expand and includes lymphedema of the lower extremities in addition to nuchal hygroma. PMID:25959749

  17. Evidence of thermal additivity during short laser pulses in an in vitro retinal model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denton, Michael L.; Tijerina, Amanda J.; Dyer, Phillip N.; Oian, Chad A.; Noojin, Gary D.; Rickman, John M.; Shingledecker, Aurora D.; Clark, Clifton D.; Castellanos, Cherry C.; Thomas, Robert J.; Rockwell, Benjamin A.

    2015-03-01

    Laser damage thresholds were determined for exposure to 2.5-ms 532-nm pulses in an established in vitro retinal model. Single and multiple pulses (10, 100, 1000) were delivered to the cultured cells at three different pulse repetition frequency (PRF) values, and overt damage (membrane breach) was scored 1 hr post laser exposure. Trends in the damage data within and across the PRF range identified significant thermal additivity as PRF was increased, as evidenced by drastically reduced threshold values (< 40% of single-pulse value). Microthermography data that were collected in real time during each exposure also provided evidence of thermal additivity between successive laser pulses. Using thermal profiles simulated at high temporal resolution, damage threshold values were predicted by an in-house computational model. Our simulated ED50 value for a single 2.5-ms pulse was in very good agreement with experimental results, but ED50 predictions for multiple-pulse trains will require more refinement.

  18. Preliminary Comparison of Properties between Ni-electroplated Stainless Steel Parts Fabricated with Laser Additive Manufacturing and Conventional Machining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mäkinen, Mika; Jauhiainen, Eeva; Matilainen, Ville-Pekka; Riihimäki, Jaakko; Ritvanen, Jussi; Piili, Heidi; Salminen, Antti

    Laser additive manufacturing (LAM) is a fabrication technology, which enables production of complex parts from metallic materials with mechanical properties comparable to those of conventionally machined parts. These LAM parts are manufactured via melting metallic powder layer by layer with laser beam. Aim of this study is to define preliminarily the possibilities of using electroplating to supreme surface properties. Electrodeposited nickel and chromium as well as electroless (autocatalytic) deposited nickel was used to enhance laser additive manufactured and machined parts properties, like corrosion resistance, friction and wearing. All test pieces in this study were manufactured with a modified research AM equipment, equal to commercial EOS M series. The laser system used for tests was IPG 200 W CW fiber laser. The material used in this study for additive manufacturing was commercial stainless steel powder grade named SS316L. This SS316L is not equal to AISI 316L grade, but commercial name of this kind of powder is widely known in additive manufacturing as SS316L. Material used for fabrication of comparison test pieces (i.e. conventionally manufactured) was AISI 316L stainless steel bar. Electroplating was done in matrix cell and electroless was done in plastic sink properties of plated parts were tested within acetic acid salt spray corrosion chamber (AASS, SFS-EN-ISO 9227 standard). Adhesion of coating, friction and wearing properties were tested with Pin-On-Rod machine. Results show that in these preliminary tests, LAM parts and machined parts have certain differences due to manufacturing route and surface conditions. These have an effect on electroplated and electroless parts features on adhesion, corrosion, wearing and friction. However, further and more detailed studies are needed to fully understand these phenomena.

  19. Preliminary Evidence of Increased Hippocampal Myelin Content in Veterans with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Linda L.; Tosun, Duygu; Woodward, Steven H.; Kaufer, Daniela; Neylan, Thomas C.

    2015-01-01

    Recent findings suggest the formation of myelin in the central nervous system by oligodendrocytes is a continuous process that can be modified with experience. For example, a recent study showed that immobilization stress increased oligodendrogensis in the dentate gyrus of adult rat hippocampus. Because changes in myelination represents an adaptive form of brain plasticity that has a greater reach in the adult brain than other forms of plasticity (e.g., neurogenesis), the objective of this “proof of concept” study was to examine whether there are differences in myelination in the hippocampi of humans with and without post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We used the ratio of T1-weighted/T2-weighted magnetic resonance image (MRI) intensity to estimate the degree of hippocampal myelination in 19 male veterans with PTSD and 19 matched trauma-exposed male veterans without PTSD (mean age: 43 ± 12 years). We found that veterans with PTSD had significantly more hippocampal myelin than trauma-exposed controls. There was also found a positive correlation between estimates of hippocampal myelination and PTSD and depressive symptom severity. To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine hippocampal myelination in humans with PTSD. These results provide preliminary evidence for stress-induced hippocampal myelin formation as a potential mechanism underlying the brain abnormalities associated with vulnerability to stress. PMID:26696852

  20. Preliminary Evidence of Active Deformation in Morocco from Repeat GPS Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reilinger, R.; McClusky, S.; Ben Sari, D.; Mourabit, T.; Gomez, F.; Barazangi, M.

    2001-12-01

    We initiated GPS observations in Morocco during 1999 with the installation (May) and observation (October) of a 23-station network distributed throughout most of the country and extending from the Anti Atlas in central Morocco to the Rif Mountains along the Mediterranean coast. With UNAVCO assistance, we installed continuously recording, on-line GPS stations in Rabat (298, relocated 500), Tetouan (500), and Ifrane (701). We completed the first repeat observations of the network during February 2001. The resulting velocity estimates have uncertainties of about 3 mmyr E-W, and 2 mm/yr N-S (1 sigma, scaled). For the most part, the velocity determinations are within the uncertainties at the 95% confidence level. However, the preliminary velocities suggest N-S shortening between stations in the Rif Mountains and those in the Middle Atlas Mountains and the Anti Atlas. Furthermore, we see no clear evidence of significant northwestward motion of this part of the African plate (i.e., northwest Africa) relative to Eurasia, as is predicted by global plate models (Nuvel-1; 4.5 mmyr ~ NW). We are planning a repeat occupation of the survey network in October 2001. With three surveys over a two-year period, we should have substantially better constraints on present-day kinematics. We will present the results of this survey and discuss their implications for models of Africa plate motion and the active dynamics of Morocco and the Alboran Sea region.

  1. Preliminary Evidence for the Enhancement of Self-Conducted Exposures for OCD using Cognitive Bias Modification

    PubMed Central

    Amir, Nader; Kuckertz, Jennie M.; Najmi, Sadia; Conley, Sara L.

    2015-01-01

    Exposure and Response Prevention (ERP) is the most effective treatment for OCD but it is not accessible to most patients. Attempts to increase the accessibility of ERP via self-directed ERP (sERP) programs such as computerized delivery and bibliotherapy have met with noncompliance, presumably because patients find the exposure exercises unacceptable. Previous research suggests that Cognitive Bias Modification (CBM) interventions may help individuals approach feared situations. The goal of the current study was to test the efficacy of a treatment program for OCD that integrates sERP with CBM. Twenty-two individuals meeting diagnostic criteria for OCD enrolled in our 7-week treatment program. Results suggest that sERP with CBM led to significant reduction of OCD symptoms and functional impairment. Indeed, the magnitude of the effect of this novel treatment, that requires only an initial session with a clinician trained in ERP for OCD, was comparable to that of the gold standard clinician-administered ERP. Moreover, preliminary evidence suggests that CBM interventions targeting interpretation bias may be most effective, whereas those targeting attention and working memory bias may not be so. PMID:26366021

  2. Preliminary evidence for biologic activity of toceranib phosphate (Palladia(®)) in solid tumours.

    PubMed

    London, C; Mathie, T; Stingle, N; Clifford, C; Haney, S; Klein, M K; Beaver, L; Vickery, K; Vail, D M; Hershey, B; Ettinger, S; Vaughan, A; Alvarez, F; Hillman, L; Kiselow, M; Thamm, D; Higginbotham, M L; Gauthier, M; Krick, E; Phillips, B; Ladue, T; Jones, P; Bryan, J; Gill, V; Novasad, A; Fulton, L; Carreras, J; McNeill, C; Henry, C; Gillings, S

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide an initial assessment of the potential biologic activity of toceranib phosphate (Palladia®, Pfizer Animal Health, Madison, NJ, USA) in select solid tumours in dogs. Cases in which toceranib was used to treat dogs with apocrine gland anal sac adenocarcinoma (AGASACA), metastatic osteosarcoma (OSA), thyroid carcinoma, head and neck carcinoma and nasal carcinoma were included. Clinical benefit (CB) was observed in 63/85 (74%) dogs including 28/32 AGASACA [8 partial response (PR), 20 stable disease (SD)], 11/23 OSAs (1 PR and 10 SD), 12/15 thyroid carcinomas (4 PR and 8 SD), 7/8 head and neck carcinomas [1 complete response (CR), 5 PR and 1 SD] and 5/7 (1 CR and 4 SD) nasal carcinomas. For dogs experiencing CB, the median dose of toceranib was 2.8 mg kg(-1) , 36/63 (58.7%) were dosed on a Monday/Wednesday/Friday basis and 47/63 (74.6%) were treated 4 months or longer. Although these data provide preliminary evidence that toceranib exhibits CB in dogs with certain solid tumours, future prospective studies are necessary to define its true activity.

  3. Sensitivity to food additives, vaso-active amines and salicylates: a review of the evidence.

    PubMed

    Skypala, Isabel J; Williams, M; Reeves, L; Meyer, R; Venter, C

    2015-01-01

    Although there is considerable literature pertaining to IgE and non IgE-mediated food allergy, there is a paucity of information on non-immune mediated reactions to foods, other than metabolic disorders such as lactose intolerance. Food additives and naturally occurring 'food chemicals' have long been reported as having the potential to provoke symptoms in those who are more sensitive to their effects. Diets low in 'food chemicals' gained prominence in the 1970s and 1980s, and their popularity remains, although the evidence of their efficacy is very limited. This review focuses on the available evidence for the role and likely adverse effects of both added and natural 'food chemicals' including benzoate, sulphite, monosodium glutamate, vaso-active or biogenic amines and salicylate. Studies assessing the efficacy of the restriction of these substances in the diet have mainly been undertaken in adults, but the paper will also touch on the use of such diets in children. The difficulty of reviewing the available evidence is that few of the studies have been controlled and, for many, considerable time has elapsed since their publication. Meanwhile dietary patterns and habits have changed hugely in the interim, so the conclusions may not be relevant for our current dietary norms. The conclusion of the review is that there may be some benefit in the removal of an additive or a group of foods high in natural food chemicals from the diet for a limited period for certain individuals, providing the diagnostic pathway is followed and the foods are reintroduced back into the diet to assess for the efficacy of removal. However diets involving the removal of multiple additives and food chemicals have the very great potential to lead to nutritional deficiency especially in the paediatric population. Any dietary intervention, whether for the purposes of diagnosis or management of food allergy or food intolerance, should be adapted to the individual's dietary habits and a suitably

  4. Characterization and preliminary toxicity assay of nano-titanium dioxide additive in sugar-coated chewing gum.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xin-Xin; Cheng, Bin; Yang, Yi-Xin; Cao, Aoneng; Liu, Jia-Hui; Du, Li-Jing; Liu, Yuanfang; Zhao, Yuliang; Wang, Haifang

    2013-05-27

    Nanotechnology shows great potential for producing food with higher quality and better taste through including new additives, improving nutrient delivery, and using better packaging. However, lack of investigations on safety issues of nanofood has resulted in public fears. How to characterize engineered nanomaterials in food and assess the toxicity and health impact of nanofood remains a big challenge. Herein, a facile and highly reliable separation method of TiO2 particles from food products (focusing on sugar-coated chewing gum) is reported, and the first comprehensive characterization study on food nanoparticles by multiple qualitative and quantitative methods is provided. The detailed information on nanoparticles in gum includes chemical composition, morphology, size distribution, crystalline phase, particle and mass concentration, surface charge, and aggregation state. Surprisingly, the results show that the number of food products containing nano-TiO2 (<200 nm) is much larger than known, and consumers have already often been exposed to engineered nanoparticles in daily life. Over 93% of TiO2 in gum is nano-TiO2 , and it is unexpectedly easy to come out and be swallowed by a person who chews gum. Preliminary cytotoxicity assays show that the gum nano-TiO2 particles are relatively safe for gastrointestinal cells within 24 h even at a concentration of 200 μg mL(-1) . This comprehensive study demonstrates accurate physicochemical property, exposure, and cytotoxicity information on engineered nanoparticles in food, which is a prerequisite for the successful safety assessment of nanofood products.

  5. Can homeopathy bring additional benefits to thalassemic patients on hydroxyurea therapy? Encouraging results of a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Antara; Chakrabarty, Sudipa Basu; Karmakar, Susanta Roy; Chakrabarty, Amit; Biswas, Surjyo Jyoti; Haque, Saiful; Das, Debarsi; Paul, Saili; Mandal, Biswapati; Naoual, Boujedaini; Belon, Philippe; Khuda-Bukhsh, Anisur Rahman

    2010-03-01

    Several homeopathic remedies, namely, Pulsatilla Nigricans (30th potency), Ceanothus Americanus (both mother tincture and 6th potency) and Ferrum Metallicum (30th potency) selected as per similia principles were administered to 38 thalassemic patients receiving Hydroxyurea (HU) therapy for a varying period of time. Levels of serum ferritin (SF), fetal hemoglobin (HbF), hemoglobin (Hb), platelet count (PC), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), white blood cell (WBC) count, bilirubin content, alanine amino transferase (ALT), aspartate amino transferase (AST) and serum total protein content of patients were determined before and 3 months after administration of the homeopathic remedies in combination with HU to evaluate additional benefits, if any, derived by the homeopathic remedies, by comparing the data with those of 38 subjects receiving only HU therapy. Preliminary results indicated that there was a significant decrease in the SF and increase in HbF levels in the combined, treated subjects. Although the changes in other parameters were not so significant, there was a significant decrease in size of spleen in most patients with spleenomegaly and improvement in general health conditions along with an increased gap between transfusions in most patients receiving the combined homeopathic treatment. The homeopathic remedies being inexpensive and without any known side-effects seem to have great potentials in bringing additional benefits to thalassemic patients; particularly in the developing world where blood transfusions suffer from inadequate screening and fall short of the stringent safety standards followed in the developed countries. Further independent studies are encouraged.

  6. Evidence that Additions of Grignard Reagents to Aliphatic Aldehydes Do Not Involve Single-Electron-Transfer Processes.

    PubMed

    Otte, Douglas A L; Woerpel, K A

    2015-08-07

    Addition of allylmagnesium reagents to an aliphatic aldehyde bearing a radical clock gave only addition products and no evidence of ring-opened products that would suggest single-electron-transfer reactions. The analogous Barbier reaction also did not provide evidence for a single-electron-transfer mechanism in the addition step. Other Grignard reagents (methyl-, vinyl-, t-Bu-, and triphenylmethylmagnesium halides) also do not appear to add to an alkyl aldehyde by a single-electron-transfer mechanism.

  7. Evidence for an additional ligand, distinct from B7, for the CTLA-4 receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Razi-Wolf, Z; Galvin, F; Gray, G; Reiser, H

    1993-01-01

    Activation of T lymphocytes requires the recognition of peptide-major histocompatibility complex complexes and costimulatory signals provided by antigen-presenting cells (APCs). The best-characterized costimulatory molecule to date is the B7 antigen, a member of the immunoglobulin family that binds two receptors, CD28 and CTLA-4, expressed on the T-cell surface. Using the anti-mouse B7 (mB7) monoclonal antibody (mAb) 16-10A1, which we recently developed, we found that mB7 is indeed an important costimulatory ligand for the antigen-specific activation of murine T cells by B lymphocytes. Three lines of evidence suggest, however, the existence of at least one additional ligand for the CTLA-4 receptor. First, a soluble fusion protein of human CTLA-4 and the IgG1 Fc region, termed CTLA4Ig, blocks better than the anti-mB7 mAb the allogeneic stimulation of T cells by unfractionated splenic APCs. Second, saturating amounts of anti-mB7 mAb do not significantly block binding of fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated CTLA4Ig to activated splenic APCs. Furthermore, CTLA4Ig but not the anti-mB7 mAb reacts with the M12 and M12.C3 cell lines. The identification of an additional ligand for CTLA-4 may have applications to the treatment of autoimmune disease and transplant-associated disorders. PMID:7504299

  8. No evidence that chronic nitrogen additions increase photosynthesis in mature sugar maple forests.

    PubMed

    Talhelm, A F; Pregitzer, K S; Burton, A J

    2011-10-01

    Atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition can increase forest growth. Because N deposition commonly increases foliar N concentrations, it is thought that this increase in forest growth is a consequence of enhanced leaf-level photosynthesis. However, tests of this mechanism have been infrequent, and increases in photosynthesis have not been consistently observed in mature forests subject to chronic N deposition. In four mature northern hardwood forests in the north-central United States, chronic N additions (30 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1) as NaNO3 for 14 years) have increased aboveground growth but have not affected canopy leaf biomass or leaf area index. In order to understand the mechanism behind the increases in growth, we hypothesized that the NO3(-) additions increased foliar N concentrations and leaf-level photosynthesis in the dominant species in these forests (sugar maple, Acer saccharum). The NO3(-) additions significantly increased foliar N. However, there was no significant difference between the ambient and +NO3(-) treatments in two seasons (2006-2007) of instantaneous measurements of photosynthesis from either canopy towers or excised branches. In measurements on excised branches, photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency (micromol CO2 s(-1) g(-1) N) was significantly decreased (-13%) by NO3(-) additions. Furthermore, we found no consistent NO3(-) effect across all sites in either current foliage or leaf litter collected annually throughout the study (1993-2007) and analyzed for delta 13C and delta 18O, isotopes that can be used together to integrate changes in photosynthesis over time. We observed a small but significant NO3(-) effect on the average area and mass of individual leaves from the excised branches, but these differences varied by site and were countered by changes in leaf number. These photosynthesis and leaf area data together suggest that NO3(-) additions have not stimulated photosynthesis. There is no evidence that nutrient deficiencies have developed at

  9. Timing of paleoearthquakes on the northern Hayward Fault: preliminary evidence in El Cerrito, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lienkaemper, J.J.; Schwartz, D.P.; Kelson, K.I.; Lettis, W.R.; Simpson, Gary D.; Southon, J.R.; Wanket, J.A.; Williams, P.L.

    1999-01-01

    recurrence estimates described in this report are preliminary and should not be used as a basis for hazard estimates. Additional trenching is planned for this location to answer questions raised during the initial phase of trenching.

  10. Genetic evidence for an additional function of phage T4 gene 32 protein: interaction with ligase.

    PubMed

    Mosig, G; Breschkin, A M

    1975-04-01

    Gene 32 of bacteriophage T4 is essential for DNA replication, recombination, and repair. In an attempt to clarify the role of the corresponding gene product, we have looked for mutations that specifically inactivate one but not all of its functions and for compensating suppressor mutations in other genes. Here we describe a gene 32 ts mutant that does not produce progeny, but in contrast to an am mutant investigated by others, is capable of some primary and secondary DNA replication and of forming "joint" recombinational intermediates after infection of Escherichia coli B at the restrictive temperature. However, parental and progeny DNA strands are not ligated to covalently linked "recombinant" molecules, and single strands of vegetative DNA do not exceed unit length. Progeny production as well as capacity for covalent linkage in this gene 32 ts mutant are partially restored by additional rII mutations. Suppression by rII depends on functioning host ligase [EC 6.5.1.2; poly(deoxyribonucleotide):poly(deoxyribonucleotide) ligase (AMP-forming, NMN-forming)]. This gene 32 ts mutation (unlike some others) in turn suppresses the characteristic plaque morphology of rII mutants. We conclude that gene 32 protein, in addition to its role in DNA replication and in the formation of "joint" recombinational intermediates, interacts with T4 ligase [EC 6.5.1.1; poly(deoxyribonucleotide):poly(deoxyribonucleotide) ligase (AMP-forming)] when recombining DNA strands are covalently linked. The protein of the mutant that we describe here is mainly defective in this interaction, thus inactivating T4 ligase in recombination. Suppressing rII mutations facilitate substitution of host ligase. There is suggestive evidence that these interactions occur at the membrane.

  11. Scale Dependence of Effective Matrix Diffusion Coefficient Evidence and Preliminary Interpertation

    SciTech Connect

    H.H. Liu; Y. Zhang

    2006-06-20

    The exchange of solute mass (through molecular diffusion) between fluid in fractures and fluid in the rock matrix is called matrix diffusion. Owing to the orders-of-magnitude slower flow velocity in the matrix compared to fractures, matrix diffusion can significantly retard solute transport in fractured rock, and therefore is an important process for a variety of problems, including remediation of subsurface contamination and geological disposal of nuclear waste. The effective matrix diffusion coefficient (molecular diffusion coefficient in free water multiplied by matrix tortuosity) is an important parameter for describing matrix diffusion, and in many cases largely determines overall solute transport behavior. While matrix diffusion coefficient values measured from small rock samples in the laboratory are generally used for modeling field-scale solute transport in fractured rock (Boving and Grathwohl, 2001), several research groups recently have independently found that effective matrix diffusion coefficients much larger than laboratory measurements are needed to match field-scale tracer-test data (Neretnieks, 2002; Becker and Shapiro, 2000; Shapiro, 2001; Liu et al., 2003,2004a). In addition to the observed enhancement, Liu et al. (2004b), based on a relatively small number of field-test results, reported that the effective matrix diffusion coefficient might be scale dependent, and, like permeability and dispersivity, it seems to increases with test scale. This scale-dependence has important implications for large-scale solute transport in fractured rock. Although a number of mechanisms have been proposed to explain the enhancement of the effective matrix diffusion coefficient, the potential scale dependence and its mechanisms are not fully investigated at this stage. The major objective of this study is to again demonstrate (based on more data published in the literature than those used in Liu et al. [2004b]) the potential scale dependence of the effective

  12. Scale dependence of the effective matrix diffusion coefficient:Evidence and preliminary interpretation

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Hui-Hai; Zhang, Yingqi; Molz, Fred J.

    2006-04-30

    The exchange of solute mass (through molecular diffusion) between fluid in fractures and fluid in the rock matrix is called matrix diffusion. Owing to the orders-of-magnitude slower flow velocity in the matrix compared to fractures, matrix diffusion can significantly retard solute transport in fractured rock, and therefore is an important process for a variety of problems, including remediation of subsurface contamination and geological disposal of nuclear waste. The effective matrix diffusion coefficient (molecular diffusion coefficient in free water multiplied by matrix tortuosity) is an important parameter for describing matrix diffusion, and in many cases largely determines overall solute transport behavior. While matrix diffusion coefficient values measured from small rock samples in the laboratory are generally used for modeling field-scale solute transport in fractured rock (Boving and Grathwohl, 2001), several research groups recently have independently found that effective matrix diffusion coefficients much larger than laboratory measurements are needed to match field-scale tracer-test data (Neretnieks, 2002; Becker and Shapiro, 2000; Shapiro, 2001; Liu et al., 2003, 2004a). In addition to the observed enhancement, Liu et al. (2004b), based on a relatively small number of field-test results, reported that the effective matrix diffusion coefficient might be scale dependent, and, like permeability and dispersivity, it seems to increases with test scale. This scale-dependence has important implications for large-scale solute transport in fractured rock. Although a number of mechanisms have been proposed to explain the enhancement of the effective matrix diffusion coefficient, the potential scale dependence and its mechanisms are not fully investigated at this stage. The major objective of this study is to again demonstrate (based on more data published in the literature than those used in Liu et al. [2004b]) the potential scale dependence of the effective

  13. Preliminary experimental evidence of anisotropy of turbulence and the effect of non-Kolmogorov turbulence on wavefront tilt statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belen Kii, Mikhail S.; Barchers, Jeffrey D.; Karis, Stephen J.; Osmon, Christina L.; Brown, James M.; Fugate, Robert Q.

    1999-09-01

    We report preliminary results of wavefront tilt measurements for the star Polaris at the Starfire Optical Range 3.5 m telescope at Kirtland AFB in Albuquerque, NM. We measured full aperture gradient tilt by using five pupil masks representing aperture diameters from 0.1m to 3.5m. Two optical configurations were exploited. In the first configuration, five images of Polaris were recorded simultaneously on one camera frame. The telescope was operated in its normal sidereal pointing mode. In the second configuration, pupil masks were changed sequentially. Additional measurements were collected with the telescope bolted to attempt to mitigate the effects of mont jitter. The coordinate system of the tilt measurement was rotated so that the cross-correlation coefficient between X- and Y-axis tilt components is equal to zero. Several interesting results were obtained. We observed anisotropy of the statistics of wavefront tilt. The observed one-axis tilt variances are unequal and the horizontal tilt variance is consistently greater than the vertical one. We believe these effects dare due to anisotropy of the large evidence of the effects of non-Kolmogorov turbulence on wavefront tilt. The measured tilt variance vs. aperture diameter curve has a knee beyond which the tilt variance no longer decreases for larger diameters. In the low and high frequency range the tilt power spectra obey the f(superscript -2/3) and f(superscript -11/3) power law, respectively. The tilt temporal correlation scale for the 3.5m aperture is on the order of 0.4 sec.

  14. What is driving rates of social policy preliminary references to the CJEU? Evidence from the United Kingdom and France

    PubMed Central

    Sigafoos, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Preliminary references to the Court of Justice for the European Union are unevenly distributed across the EU, creating differing access to justice for European citizens. This study presents case studies of the UK and France, exploring factors affecting rates of social policy preliminary references from 1996–2009. The UK had a rate twice that of France. What accounts for this difference? Analysis of documentary evidence and 25 expert interviews help to explain the differing rates. Themes were related to policy, structural factors and the agency of actors. In the UK, policy themes are the free movement of persons and the ‘Right to Reside’ test. Legal aid and legal NGOs help individuals access the Court and drive test case strategies. In France, a high degree of dualisation in the welfare state creates an insider/outsider dynamic. Coupled with the resistance of courts and a lack of comparable actors to drive preliminary references, this contributes to a lower rate of references. PMID:23565042

  15. Clonazepam responsive opsoclonus myoclonus syndrome: additional evidence in favour of fastigial nucleus disinhibition hypothesis?

    PubMed

    Paliwal, Vimal Kumar; Chandra, Satish; Verma, Ritu; Kalita, Jayantee; Misra, Usha K

    2010-05-01

    Opsoclonus myoclonus syndrome is a rare paraneoplastic syndrome seen in 50% of children with neuroblastoma. Neural generator of opsoclonus and myoclonus is not known but evidences suggest the role of fastigial nucleus disinhibition from the loss of function of inhibitory (GABAergic) Purkinje cells in the cerebellum. We present a child with paraneoplastic opsoclonus myoclonus syndrome who responded well to clonazepam. Response to clonazepam is an evidence for the involvement of GABAergic neural circuits in the genesis of opsoclonus myoclonus syndrome and is in agreement with fastigial nucleus disinhibition hypothesis.

  16. Iterative Lineshape Analysis of Quadrupolar Echo Spectra of a Damped CD 3 Quantum Rotor: Preliminary Evidence of a Novel Mechanism of Stochastic Spin Exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szymański, S.; Olejniczak, Z.; Detken, A.; Haeberlen, U.

    2001-02-01

    It is demonstrated that the wealth of information about damped quantum rotation of CD3 groups, contained in quadrupolar echo spectra, can be fully explored in a broad temperature range using a method of iterative analysis of the spectral lineshapes. The recently reported lineshape equation which, apart from the quantum tunneling and the dissipative Alexander-Binsch terms, contains an additional dissipative term having no classical analog is shown to be capable of describing even subtle details of the spectra of a crystal of acetylsalicylic acid-CD3 oriented specifically in the magnetic field. Preliminary evidence of the occurrence of this novel dissipative mechanism in the system studied is reported. The results obtained seem to suggest that there is no "classical limit" in the dissipative behavior of this system.

  17. Additional Evidence for the Accuracy of Biographical Data: Long-Term Retest and Observer Ratings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaffer, Garnett Stokes; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Investigated accuracy of responses to biodata questionnaire using a test-retest design and informed external observers for verification. Responses from 237 subjects and 200 observers provided evidence that many responses to biodata questionnaire were accurate. Assessed sources of inaccuracy, including social desirability effects, and noted…

  18. Preliminary evidence of disease response to the pan deacetylase inhibitor panobinostat (LBH589) in refractory Hodgkin Lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, Michael; Ritchie, David; DeAngelo, Daniel J; Spencer, Andrew; Ottmann, Oliver G; Fischer, Thomas; Bhalla, Kapil N; Liu, Angela; Parker, Katie; Scott, Jeffrey W; Bishton, Mark; Prince, H Miles

    2009-10-01

    There are few treatment options for patients with Hodgkin Lymphoma (HL) who relapse after conventional therapies. Panobinostat is an orally available pan deacetylase inhibitor with evidence of activity in myeloid malignancies and cutaneous T cell lymphoma. Thirteen HL patients were treated with escalating doses of this novel agent in a phase IA/II multicentre study. A computed tomography partial response was achieved in 5/13(38%), and a metabolic response by (18)F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography scanning in 7/12 (58%) evaluable patients. This report describes the preliminary evidence of anti-tumour activity seen in the early phase of this study, which recently closed to accrual.

  19. Evidence-Based Mental Health Practices with Children Self-Efficacy Scale: Development and Preliminary Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMeel, Lorri S.; Leathers, Sonya J.; Strand, Tonya C.

    2017-01-01

    This article reviews existing measures related to evidence-based practices with children and self-efficacy and describes the development and psychometric properties of the Evidence-Based Mental Health Practices With Children Efficacy Scale. This scale was developed to assess students' and clinicians' self-efficacy in their abilities to use…

  20. Evidence That Certain Waste Tank Headspace Vapor Samples Were Contaminated by Semivolatile Polymer Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Huckaby, James L.

    2006-02-09

    Vapor samples collected from the headspaces of the Hanford Site high-level radioactive waste tanks in 1994 and 1995 using the Vapor Sampling System (VSS) were reported to contain trace levels of phthalates, antioxidants, and certain other industrial chemicals that did not have a logical origin in the waste. This report examines the evidence these chemicals were sampling artifacts (contamination) and identifies the chemicals reported as headspace constituents that may instead have been contaminants. Specific recommendations are given regarding the marking of certain chemicals as suspect on the basis they were sampling manifold contaminants.

  1. Ammonium catalyzed cyclitive additions: evidence for a cation-π interaction with alkynes.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Edith; St Germain, Elijah; Cosme, Patrick; Maity, Pradip; Terentis, Andrew C; Lepore, Salvatore D

    2016-02-07

    The addition of carbamate nitrogen to a non-conjugated carbon-carbon triple bond is catalyzed by an ammonium salt leading to a cyclic product. Studies in homogeneous systems suggest that the ammonium agent facilitates nitrogen-carbon bond formation through a cation-π interaction with the alkyne unit that, for the first time, is directly observed by Raman spectroscopy.

  2. Ammonium Catalyzed Cyclitive Additions: Evidence for a Cation-π Interaction with Alkynes†

    PubMed Central

    Nagy, Edith; St.Germain, Elijah; Cosme, Patrick; Maity, Pradip; Terentis, Andrew C.; Lepore, Salvatore D.

    2016-01-01

    The addition of carbamate nitrogen to a non-conjugated carbon-carbon triple bond is catalyzed by an ammonium salt leading to a cyclic product. Studies in homogeneous systems suggest that the ammonium agent facilitates nitrogen-carbon bond formation through a cation-π interaction with the alkyne unit that, for the first time, is directly observed by Raman spectroscopy. PMID:26728333

  3. Additional Validity Evidence and Across-Group Equivalency of the "HOPE Teacher Rating Scale"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Scott J.; Gentry, Marcia

    2013-01-01

    The "HOPE Scale" was developed to identify academic and social components of giftedness and talent in elementary-aged students with particular attention to students from low-income and/or culturally diverse families. Based on previous findings, additional research was conducted on revisions made to the "HOPE Scale". Items were…

  4. Is the additional greenhouse effect already evident in the current climate?

    PubMed

    Raschke, E

    2001-11-01

    Several greenhouse gases, which are in part or entirely produced by human activities, have accumulated in the atmosphere since approximately the middle of the 19th century. They are assumed to have an additional greenhouse effect causing a further increase of atmospheric temperatures near the ground and a decrease in the layers above approximately 15 km altitude. The currently observed near-surface warming over nearly the entire globe is already considered by a large fraction of our society to be result of this additional greenhouse effect. Complete justification of this assumption is, however, not yet possible, because there are still too many unknowns in our knowledge of participating processes and in our modeling capabilities.

  5. Separate cortical networks involved in music perception: preliminary functional MRI evidence for modularity of music processing.

    PubMed

    Schmithorst, Vincent J

    2005-04-01

    Music perception is a quite complex cognitive task, involving the perception and integration of various elements including melody, harmony, pitch, rhythm, and timbre. A preliminary functional MRI investigation of music perception was performed, using a simplified passive listening task. Group independent component analysis (ICA) was used to separate out various components involved in music processing, as the hemodynamic responses are not known a priori. Various components consistent with auditory processing, expressive language, syntactic processing, and visual association were found. The results are discussed in light of various hypotheses regarding modularity of music processing and its overlap with language processing. The results suggest that, while some networks overlap with ones used for language processing, music processing may involve its own domain-specific processing subsystems.

  6. Symptom Cluster and Quality of Life: Preliminary Evidence in Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Motl, Robert W.; McAuley, Edward

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the symptom cluster of fatigue, pain, and depression as a correlate of reduced quality of life (QOL) in individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS). The sample included 291 individuals with a definite diagnosis of MS who were enrolled in a 6-month longitudinal study of physical activity and QOL. The participants completed baseline measures of fatigue, depression, and pain and follow-up measures of QOL. Cluster analysis initially identified three sub-groups differing in experiences of fatigue, depression, and pain, and analysis of variance then indicated that the three sub-groups differed in QOL. The sub-group with lowest scores on all three symptoms had the highest QOL, whereas the sub-group with the highest scores on the symptoms had the worst QOL. Such findings provide preliminary support for fatigue, pain, and depression as a symptom cluster that correlates with reduced QOL in persons with MS. PMID:20804116

  7. Preliminary evidence for an emotion dysregulation model of generalized anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Mennin, Douglas S; Heimberg, Richard G; Turk, Cynthia L; Fresco, David M

    2005-10-01

    Three studies provide preliminary support for an emotion dysregulation model of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). In study 1, students with GAD reported heightened intensity of emotions, poorer understanding of emotions, greater negative reactivity to emotional experience, and less ability to self-soothe after negative emotions than controls. A composite emotion regulation score significantly predicted the presence of GAD, after controlling for worry, anxiety, and depressive symptoms. In study 2, these findings were largely replicated with a clinical sample. In study 3, students with GAD, but not controls, displayed greater increases in self-reported physiological symptoms after listening to emotion-inducing music than after neutral mood induction. Further, GAD participants had more difficulty managing their emotional reactions. Implications for GAD and psychopathology in general are discussed.

  8. Preliminary evaluation of feeder and lint slide moisture addition on ginning, fiber quality, and textile processing of western cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of moisture addition at the gin stand feeder conditioning hopper and/or the battery condenser slide on gin performance and Western cotton fiber quality and textile processing. The test treatments included no moisture addition, feeder hopper hum...

  9. Processing of multi-digit additions in high math-anxious individuals: psychophysiological evidence

    PubMed Central

    Núñez-Peña, María Isabel; Suárez-Pellicioni, Macarena

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the time course of neural processing of multi-digit additions in high- (HMA) and low-math anxious (LMA) individuals. Seventeen HMA and 17 LMA individuals were presented with two-digit additions and were asked to perform a verification task. Behavioral data showed that HMA individuals were slower and more error prone than their LMA peers, and that incorrect solutions were solved more slowly and less accurately than correct ones. Moreover, HMA individuals tended to need more time and commit more errors when having to verify incorrect solutions than correct ones. ERPs time-locked to the presentation of the addends (calculation phase) and to the presentation of the proposed solution (verification phase) were also analyzed. In both phases, a P2 component of larger amplitude was found for HMA individuals than for their LMA peers. Because the P2 component is considered to be a biomarker of the mobilization of attentional resources toward emotionally negative stimuli, these results suggest that HMA individuals may have invested more attentional resources both when processing the addends (calculation phase) and when they had to report whether the proposed solution was correct or not (verification phase), as compared to their LMA peers. Moreover, in the verification phase, LMA individuals showed a larger late positive component (LPC) for incorrect solutions at parietal electrodes than their HMA counterparts. The smaller LPC shown by HMA individuals when verifying incorrect solutions suggests that these solutions may have been appeared more plausible to them than to their LMA counterparts. PMID:26347705

  10. Implementing evidence-based practice in human service organizations: preliminary lessons from the frontlines.

    PubMed

    Austin, Michael J; Claassen, Jennette

    2008-01-01

    Evidence-based practice (EBP) involves the integration of the expertise of individual practitioners with the best available evidence within the context of values and expectations of clients. Little is known about the implementation of evidence-based practice in the human services. This article is based on a comprehensive search of the literature related to the organizational factors needed to introduce EBP into a human service agency, tools for assessing organizational readiness for EBP, and lessons learned from the current implementation efforts. Three approaches to implementing EBP are investigated: the micro (increasing worker skills), macro (strengthening systems and structures), and the combination (focusing on both aspects). Conclusions and recommendations are drawn from the literature review and framed in the form of a tool for assessing organizational readiness for EBP implementation.

  11. Violence against children: further evidence suggesting a relationship between burns, scalds, and the additional injuries.

    PubMed

    Seifert, Dragana; Krohn, Julia; Larson, Mandi; Lambe, Andrea; Püschel, Klaus; Kurth, Henrike

    2010-01-01

    Up to 22 % of all child maltreatment cases involve non-accidental burns or scalds. In the time period of 2000 until 2007, 20 children with non-accidental burns and scalds in conjunction with other mechanisms of injury were examined at children's hospitals in Hamburg and at the Institute of Legal Medicine, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, by experts in forensic medicine. The fact that these children presented with additional injuries due to blunt and sharp force and sometimes had signs of neglect emphasize the urgent need for a multidisciplinary cooperation between pediatricians and forensic medical experts to ensure the early identification and prevention of child maltreatment. A new approach for Germany, enforcing mandatory child well-being examinations is discussed.

  12. Evidence for an additional uppermost geological unit in the Medusae Fossae Formation, Equatorial Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Samantha; Balme, Matt; Hagermann, Axel

    2013-04-01

    The Medusae Fossae Formation (MFF) is a geological formation comprising three geological units (members) spread across five principal outcrops. The MFF dominates roughly a quarter of the longitudinal extent of the equatorial region of Mars, extending east-west across a distance of ~ 5,500 km between the southern Elysium Planitia and the Tharsis region. The nature of these materials is often referred to as enigmatic, as their exact origin remains unknown. Harrison et al. (Icarus, 2010) presented new observations of outlying occurrences of MFF materials on the southern highlands, atop the dichotomy boundary. They presented two hypotheses to explain these observation: 1) the MFF had a much larger pre-erosional extent than previously thought or 2) these materials had initially been eroded from the main outcrops of the formation, then transported southward by wind and subsequently reworked. A subsequent extension of this work provided evidence for an even larger extent of outlying MFF materials, particularly around and south of the easternmost portions of the MFF. Here we present these new outlier data, together with new textural classification and facies mapping of this region of the MFF. These data show that MFF outlier textures, whilst external to the main MFF outcrops in many places, are also found superposing large areas of the "main" MFF formations. These data support the first of the two working hypotheses presented, but also suggest that these so-called outlying materials represent a previously unmapped, stratigraphically uppermost unit of the Medusae Fossae Formation. We also suggest that, based upon our own morphometric study of yardangs across members and analogue studies by de Silva et al. (Icarus, 2010), these represent a less indurated material than other units of the formation. In the overall context of the origins of the MFF, we find that our data are consistent with the Medusae Fossae materials being a large-scale ignimbrite complex, perhaps with

  13. Geochemical evidence for airborne dust additions to soils in Channel Islands National Park, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muhs, D.R.; Budahn, J.R.; Johnson, D.L.; Reheis, M.; Beann, J.; Skipp, G.; Fisher, E.; Jones, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    There is an increasing awareness that dust plays important roles in climate change, biogeochemical cycles, nutrient supply to ecosystems, and soil formation. In Channel Islands National Park, California, soils are clay-rich Vertisols or Alfisols and Mollisols with vertic properties. The soils are overlain by silt-rich mantles that contrast sharply with the underlying clay-rich horizons. Silt mantles contain minerals that are rare or absent in the volcanic rocks that dominate these islands. Immobile trace elements (Sc-Th-La and Ta-Nd-Cr) and rare-earth elements show that the basalt and andesite on the islands have a composition intermediate between upper-continental crust and oceanic crust. In contrast, the silt fractions and, to a lesser extent, clay fractions of the silt mantle have compositions closer to average upper-continental crust and very similar to Mojave Desert dust. Island shelves, exposed during the last glacial period, could have provided a source of eolian sediment for the silt mantles, but this is not supported by mineralogical data. We hypothesize that a more likely source for the silt-rich mantles is airborne dust from mainland California and Baja California, either from the Mojave Desert or from the continental shelf during glacial low stands of sea. Although average winds are from the northwest in coastal California, easterly winds occur numerous times of the year when "Santa Ana" conditions prevail, caused by a high-pressure cell centered over the Great Basin. The eolian silt mantles constitute an important medium of plant growth and provide evidence that abundant eolian silt and clay may be delivered to the eastern Pacific Ocean from inland desert sources. ?? 2007 Geological Society of America.

  14. Adapting Evidence-Based Mental Health Treatments in Community Settings: Preliminary Results from a Partnership Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southam-Gerow, Michael A.; Hourigan, Shannon E.; Allin, Robert B., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the application of a university-community partnership model to the problem of adapting evidence-based treatment approaches in a community mental health setting. Background on partnership research is presented, with consideration of methodological and practical issues related to this kind of research. Then, a rationale for…

  15. Preliminary Evidence for Associations of "CHRM2" with Substance Use and Disinhibition in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendershot, Christian S.; Bryan, Angela D.; Feldstein Ewing, Sarah W.; Claus, Eric D.; Hutchison, Kent E.

    2011-01-01

    Evidence for shared heritable influences across domains of substance use suggests that some genetic variants influence broad risk for externalizing behaviors. Theories of externalizing psychopathology also suggest that genetic liability for substance use manifests as temperamental risk factors, particularly those related to behavioral…

  16. Recruiting for Values in Healthcare: A Preliminary Review of the Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Fiona; Prescott-Clements, Linda; Zibarras, Lara; Edwards, Helena; Kerrin, Maire; Cousans, Fran

    2016-01-01

    Displaying compassion, benevolence and respect, and preserving the dignity of patients are important for any healthcare professional to ensure the provision of high quality care and patient outcomes. This paper presents a structured search and thematic review of the research evidence relating to values-based recruitment within healthcare. Several…

  17. Community Collaborations and Youth Development: Preliminary Findings on the State of the Evidence. Research Brief Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Promise, 2013

    2013-01-01

    In 2004, the Aspen Institute Roundtable on Community Change emphasized the need for a comprehensive base of information on the effectiveness of community collaborations for youth--an accessible, evidence-rich resource that could guide local efforts to bring about meaningful change. Nearly 10 years later, this need remains largely unmet. In…

  18. Preliminary Psychometric Evidence of the "Behavioral and Emotional Screening System Teacher Rating Scale-Preschool"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greer, Fred W.; DiStefano, Christine A.; Liu, Jin; Cain, Leia K.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to provide psychometric evidence related to the "Behavioral and Emotional Screening System Teacher Rating Scale-Preschool" form's (BESS TRS-P) ability to identify emerging problems in preschool children. Reliability and validity associated with screener scores were compared by analyzing teacher ratings of…

  19. No Serological Evidence that Harbour Porpoises Are Additional Hosts of Influenza B Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Bodewes, Rogier; van de Bildt, Marco W. G.; van Elk, Cornelis E.; Bunskoek, Paulien E.; van de Vijver, David A. M. C.; Smits, Saskia L.; Osterhaus, Albert D. M. E.; Kuiken, Thijs

    2014-01-01

    Influenza A and B viruses circulate among humans causing epidemics almost annually. While various hosts for influenza A viruses exist, influenza B viruses have been detected only in humans and seals. However, recurrent infections of seals in Dutch coastal waters with influenza B viruses that are antigenetically distinct from influenza B viruses circulating among humans suggest that influenza B viruses have been introduced into this seal population by another, non-human, host. Harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) are sympatric with seals in these waters and are also occasionally in close contact with humans after stranding and subsequent rehabilitation. In addition, virus attachment studies demonstrated that influenza B viruses can bind to cells of the respiratory tract of these animals. Therefore, we hypothesized that harbour porpoises might be a reservoir of influenza B viruses. In the present study, an unique set of serum samples from 79 harbour porpoises, stranded alive on the Dutch coast between 2003 and 2013, was tested for the presence of antibodies against influenza B viruses by use of the hemagglutination inhibition test and for antibodies against influenza A viruses by use of a competitive influenza A nucleoprotein ELISA. No antibodies were detected against either virus, suggesting that influenza A and B virus infections of harbour porpoises in Dutch coastal waters are not common, which was supported by statistical analysis of the dataset. PMID:24551217

  20. Evidence for an Additional Heat Source in the Warm Ionized Medium of Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, R. J.; Haffner, L. M.; Tufte, S. L.

    1999-11-01

    Spatial variations of the [S II]/Hα and [N II]/Hα line intensity ratios observed in the gaseous halo of the Milky Way and other galaxies are inconsistent with pure photoionization models. They appear to require a supplemental heating mechanism that increases the electron temperature at low densities, ne. This would imply that in addition to photoionization, which has a heating rate per unit volume proportional to n2e, there is another source of heat with a rate per unit volume proportional to a lower power of ne. One possible mechanism is the dissipation of interstellar plasma turbulence, which, according to Minter & Spangler, heats the ionized interstellar medium in the Milky Way at a rate of ~1×10-25ne ergs cm-3 s-1. If such a source were present, it would dominate over photoionization heating in regions where ne<~0.1 cm-3, producing the observed increases in the [S II]/Hα and [N II]/Hα intensity ratios at large distances from the galactic midplane as well as accounting for the constancy of [S II]/[N II], which is not explained by pure photoionization. Other supplemental heating sources, such as magnetic reconnection, cosmic rays, or photoelectric emission from small grains, could also account for these observations, provided they supply ~10-5 ergs s-1 per square centimeter of the Galactic disk to the warm ionized medium.

  1. Preliminary Study on Tubuloglomerular Dysfunction and Evidence of Renal Inflammation in Patients with Visceral Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Michelle J. C.; Silva Junior, Geraldo B.; Sampaio, Aline M.; Montenegro, Bárbara L.; Alves, Marília P.; Henn, Guilherme A. L.; Rocha, Hermano A. L.; Meneses, Gdayllon C.; Martins, Alice M. C.; Daher, Elizabeth F.

    2014-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a re-emerging zoonosis of worldwide distribution. Monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) and malondialdehyde (MDA) are inflammation biomarkers that have never been investigated in VL. The aim of this study is to investigate the association between renal abnormalities and inflammation biomarkers in VL. This study is a preliminary prospective study with 16 VL adult patients evaluated before treatment compared with a group of 13 healthy volunteers and 5 VL patients evaluated after treatment. Urinary concentration and acidification tests were performed. MCP-1 and MDA were quantified in urine. Urinary concentration deficit was found in all VL patients before (100%) and four VL patients after (80%) treatment. Urinary acidification deficit was found in nine cases before (56.2%) and two cases after (40%) treatment. Urinary MCP-1 (374 ± 359 versus 42 ± 29 pg/mg creatinine, P = 0.002) as well as urinary MDA (5.4 ± 2.6 versus 2.0 ± 0.8 μmol/mL) showed significant differences between VL patients and controls. These data show that VL patients present urinary concentration and acidification deficit, which can persist even after specific treatment. Urinary MCP-1 and MDA are elevated in patients with VL, which suggests renal inflammation and incipient renal damage. PMID:25114011

  2. Preliminary Evidence for the Amplification of Global Warming in Shallow, Intertidal Estuarine Waters.

    PubMed

    Oczkowski, Autumn; McKinney, Richard; Ayvazian, Suzanne; Hanson, Alana; Wigand, Cathleen; Markham, Erin

    2015-01-01

    Over the past 50 years, mean annual water temperature in northeastern U.S. estuaries has increased by approximately 1.2°C, with most of the warming recorded in the winter and early spring. A recent survey and synthesis of data from four locations in Southern Rhode Island has led us to hypothesize that this warming may be amplified in the shallow (<1 m), nearshore portions of these estuaries. While intertidal areas are not typically selected as locations for long-term monitoring, we compiled data from published literature, theses, and reports that suggest that enhanced warming may be occurring, perhaps at rates three times higher than deeper estuarine waters. Warmer spring waters may be one of the factors influencing biota residing in intertidal regions both in general as well as at our specific sites. We observed greater abundance of fish, and size of Menidia sp., in recent (2010-2012) seine surveys compared to similar collections in 1962. While any linkages are speculative and data are preliminary, taken together they suggest that shallow intertidal portions of estuaries may be important places to look for the effects of climate change.

  3. Preliminary study on tubuloglomerular dysfunction and evidence of renal inflammation in patients with visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Michelle J C; Silva, Geraldo B; Sampaio, Aline M; Montenegro, Bárbara L; Alves, Marília P; Henn, Guilherme A L; Rocha, Hermano A L; Meneses, Gdayllon C; Martins, Alice M C; Daher, Elizabeth F

    2014-11-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a re-emerging zoonosis of worldwide distribution. Monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) and malondialdehyde (MDA) are inflammation biomarkers that have never been investigated in VL. The aim of this study is to investigate the association between renal abnormalities and inflammation biomarkers in VL. This study is a preliminary prospective study with 16 VL adult patients evaluated before treatment compared with a group of 13 healthy volunteers and 5 VL patients evaluated after treatment. Urinary concentration and acidification tests were performed. MCP-1 and MDA were quantified in urine. Urinary concentration deficit was found in all VL patients before (100%) and four VL patients after (80%) treatment. Urinary acidification deficit was found in nine cases before (56.2%) and two cases after (40%) treatment. Urinary MCP-1 (374 ± 359 versus 42 ± 29 pg/mg creatinine, P = 0.002) as well as urinary MDA (5.4 ± 2.6 versus 2.0 ± 0.8 μmol/mL) showed significant differences between VL patients and controls. These data show that VL patients present urinary concentration and acidification deficit, which can persist even after specific treatment. Urinary MCP-1 and MDA are elevated in patients with VL, which suggests renal inflammation and incipient renal damage.

  4. Bridging psychophysiological and phenomenological characteristics of psychosis--Preliminary evidence for the relevance of emotion regulation.

    PubMed

    Clamor, Annika; Schlier, Björn; Köther, Ulf; Hartmann, Maike M; Moritz, Steffen; Lincoln, Tania M

    2015-12-01

    In psychosis, the alleged increased subjective stress-sensitivity is reflected in abnormal physiological arousal such as higher heart rate, elevated skin conductance levels, decreased vagal activity, and unusual cortisol levels. Despite ongoing research, possible mechanisms that explain the interplay between the phenomenological (i.e., subjective stress and symptoms) and psychophysiological processes are not thoroughly understood. Building on the model of neurovisceral integration by Thayer and Lane (2000) that focuses on regulative mechanisms, we postulate that emotion regulation will be associated with vagal activity, and with both subjective and physiological stress. In the present analysis, we used data from a baseline relaxation period including a 5-minute assessment of heart rate variability (HRV), salivary cortisol, and momentary subjective stress ratings from a sample of 19 participants with psychosis (mean age=40.9, SD=11.1; 36.8% female). Emotion regulation modification skills were assessed for specific emotions (i.e., stress and arousal, anxiety, anger, sadness, shame) if these were present during the previous week. Vagal HRV was significantly and moderately associated with emotion regulation. Both stress parameters (i.e., cortisol, subjective stress) were significantly associated with emotion regulation, but not with HRV. We provide preliminary support for the notion that emotion regulatory processes represent a crucial link between phenomenological and psychophysiological phenomena in psychosis. A potential model that ascribes emotion regulation a central role in the restoration of homeostasis is discussed. Future studies are needed to verify its generalizability and predictive value.

  5. Preliminary Evidence for the Amplification of Global Warming in Shallow, Intertidal Estuarine Waters

    PubMed Central

    Oczkowski, Autumn; McKinney, Richard; Ayvazian, Suzanne; Hanson, Alana; Wigand, Cathleen; Markham, Erin

    2015-01-01

    Over the past 50 years, mean annual water temperature in northeastern U.S. estuaries has increased by approximately 1.2°C, with most of the warming recorded in the winter and early spring. A recent survey and synthesis of data from four locations in Southern Rhode Island has led us to hypothesize that this warming may be amplified in the shallow (<1 m), nearshore portions of these estuaries. While intertidal areas are not typically selected as locations for long-term monitoring, we compiled data from published literature, theses, and reports that suggest that enhanced warming may be occurring, perhaps at rates three times higher than deeper estuarine waters. Warmer spring waters may be one of the factors influencing biota residing in intertidal regions both in general as well as at our specific sites. We observed greater abundance of fish, and size of Menidia sp., in recent (2010–2012) seine surveys compared to similar collections in 1962. While any linkages are speculative and data are preliminary, taken together they suggest that shallow intertidal portions of estuaries may be important places to look for the effects of climate change. PMID:26510009

  6. Molecular scale evidence of new particle formation via sequential addition of HIO3

    PubMed Central

    Sipilä, Mikko; Sarnela, Nina; Jokinen, Tuija; Henschel, Henning; Junninen, Heikki; Kontkanen, Jenni; Richters, Stefanie; Kangasluoma, Juha; Franchin, Alessandro; Peräkylä, Otso; Rissanen, Matti P.; Ehn, Mikael; Vehkamäki, Hanna; Kurten, Theo; Berndt, Torsten; Petäjä, Tuukka; Worsnop, Douglas; Ceburnis, Darius; Kerminen, Veli-Matti; Kulmala, Markku; O’Dowd, Colin

    2016-01-01

    Homogeneous nucleation and subsequent cluster growth leads to the formation of new aerosol particles in the atmosphere1. Nucleation of sulphuric acid and organic vapours is thought to be responsible for new particle formation over continents1,2 while iodine oxide vapours have been implicated in particle formation over coastal regions3–7. Molecular clustering pathways involved in atmospheric particle formation have been elucidated in controlled laboratory studies of chemically simple systems2,8–10. But no direct molecular-level observations of nucleation in atmospheric field conditions involving either sulphuric acid, organic or iodine oxide vapours have been reported to date11. Here we report field data from Mace Head, Ireland and supporting data from northern Greenland and Queen Maud Land, Antarctica that allow for the identification of the molecular steps involved in new particle formation in an iodine-rich, coastal atmospheric environment. We find that the formation and initial growth process is almost exclusively driven by iodine oxoacids and iodine oxide vapours with average resulting cluster O:I ratios of 2.4. Based on the high O:I ratio, together with observed high concentrations of iodic acid, HIO3, we suggest that cluster formation primarily proceeds by sequential addition of iodic acid HIO3, followed by intra-cluster restructuring to I2O5 and recycling of water in the atmosphere or upon drying. Overall, our study provides ambient atmospheric molecular-level observations of nucleation, supporting the previously suggested role of iodine containing species in new particle formation3–7, 12–18, and identifies the key nucleating compound. PMID:27580030

  7. Molecular-scale evidence of aerosol particle formation via sequential addition of HIO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sipilä, Mikko; Sarnela, Nina; Jokinen, Tuija; Henschel, Henning; Junninen, Heikki; Kontkanen, Jenni; Richters, Stefanie; Kangasluoma, Juha; Franchin, Alessandro; Peräkylä, Otso; Rissanen, Matti P.; Ehn, Mikael; Vehkamäki, Hanna; Kurten, Theo; Berndt, Torsten; Petäjä, Tuukka; Worsnop, Douglas; Ceburnis, Darius; Kerminen, Veli-Matti; Kulmala, Markku; O'Dowd, Colin

    2016-09-01

    Homogeneous nucleation and subsequent cluster growth leads to the formation of new aerosol particles in the atmosphere. The nucleation of sulfuric acid and organic vapours is thought to be responsible for the formation of new particles over continents, whereas iodine oxide vapours have been implicated in particle formation over coastal regions. The molecular clustering pathways that are involved in atmospheric particle formation have been elucidated in controlled laboratory studies of chemically simple systems, but direct molecular-level observations of nucleation in atmospheric field conditions that involve sulfuric acid, organic or iodine oxide vapours have yet to be reported. Here we present field data from Mace Head, Ireland, and supporting data from northern Greenland and Queen Maud Land, Antarctica, that enable us to identify the molecular steps involved in new particle formation in an iodine-rich, coastal atmospheric environment. We find that the formation and initial growth process is almost exclusively driven by iodine oxoacids and iodine oxide vapours, with average oxygen-to-iodine ratios of 2.4 found in the clusters. On the basis of this high ratio, together with the high concentrations of iodic acid (HIO3) observed, we suggest that cluster formation primarily proceeds by sequential addition of HIO3, followed by intracluster restructuring to I2O5 and recycling of water either in the atmosphere or on dehydration. Our study provides ambient atmospheric molecular-level observations of nucleation, supporting the previously suggested role of iodine-containing species in the formation of new aerosol particles, and identifies the key nucleating compound.

  8. Molecular-scale evidence of aerosol particle formation via sequential addition of HIO3.

    PubMed

    Sipilä, Mikko; Sarnela, Nina; Jokinen, Tuija; Henschel, Henning; Junninen, Heikki; Kontkanen, Jenni; Richters, Stefanie; Kangasluoma, Juha; Franchin, Alessandro; Peräkylä, Otso; Rissanen, Matti P; Ehn, Mikael; Vehkamäki, Hanna; Kurten, Theo; Berndt, Torsten; Petäjä, Tuukka; Worsnop, Douglas; Ceburnis, Darius; Kerminen, Veli-Matti; Kulmala, Markku; O'Dowd, Colin

    2016-09-22

    Homogeneous nucleation and subsequent cluster growth leads to the formation of new aerosol particles in the atmosphere. The nucleation of sulfuric acid and organic vapours is thought to be responsible for the formation of new particles over continents, whereas iodine oxide vapours have been implicated in particle formation over coastal regions. The molecular clustering pathways that are involved in atmospheric particle formation have been elucidated in controlled laboratory studies of chemically simple systems, but direct molecular-level observations of nucleation in atmospheric field conditions that involve sulfuric acid, organic or iodine oxide vapours have yet to be reported. Here we present field data from Mace Head, Ireland, and supporting data from northern Greenland and Queen Maud Land, Antarctica, that enable us to identify the molecular steps involved in new particle formation in an iodine-rich, coastal atmospheric environment. We find that the formation and initial growth process is almost exclusively driven by iodine oxoacids and iodine oxide vapours, with average oxygen-to-iodine ratios of 2.4 found in the clusters. On the basis of this high ratio, together with the high concentrations of iodic acid (HIO3) observed, we suggest that cluster formation primarily proceeds by sequential addition of HIO3, followed by intracluster restructuring to I2O5 and recycling of water either in the atmosphere or on dehydration. Our study provides ambient atmospheric molecular-level observations of nucleation, supporting the previously suggested role of iodine-containing species in the formation of new aerosol particles, and identifies the key nucleating compound.

  9. Adding Ultrasound to the Evaluation of Patients with Pathologic Nipple Discharge to Diagnose Additional Breast Cancers: Preliminary Data.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Haesung; Yoon, Jung Hyun; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Moon, Hee Jung; Park, Byeong-Woo; Kim, Min Jung

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the malignancy yield of ultrasound Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) classification and the diagnostic value of adding ultrasound to diagnosis of breast cancer in patients with pathologic nipple discharge. Of 267 patients with pathologic nipple discharge seen from February 2003 to March 2011, 198 with histopathologic confirmation and follow-up data were included. Ultrasound images and mammograms were analyzed according to BI-RADS. The malignancy rate for each BI-RADS category and the difference in diagnostic performance resulting from the addition of ultrasound to mammography were calculated. Of the 198 enrolled patients, 34 were diagnosed with a malignancy. The malignancy rates obtained with the addition of ultrasound to mammography were 0.0% (0 of 27) for category 1, 5.9% (1/17) for category 2, 9.4% (5/53) for category 3, 21.5% (20/93) for category 4 and 100% (8/8) for category 5. The malignancy rates for mammography alone were 7.7%-9.0% for categories 1-3, 68.5% (13/19) for category 4 and 100.0% (5/5) for category 5. Adding US to mammography did not significantly increase sensitivity compared with mammography alone. Other diagnostic performance markers such as specificity and positive predictive value were not improved. Among patients for whom mammograms were available, ultrasound detected 5 breast cancers (26.3%) in addition to the 19 breast cancers found by positive mammography. Although it did not increase overall diagnostic performance in patients with pathologic nipple discharge, addition of ultrasound to mammography did detect an additional 26.3% of malignant lesions.

  10. A conservative method of testing whether combination analgesics produce additive or synergistic effects using evidence from acute pain and migraine.

    PubMed

    Moore, R A; Derry, C J; Derry, S; Straube, S; McQuay, H J

    2012-04-01

    Fixed-dose combination analgesics are used widely, and available both on prescription and over-the-counter. Combination drugs should provide more analgesia than with any single drug in the combination, but there is no evidence in humans about whether oral combinations have just additive effects, or are synergistic or even subadditive. We suggest that the measured result for the combination would be the summation of the absolute benefit increase (effect of active drug minus effect of placebo) of each component of a combination if effects were (merely) additive, and greater than the sum of the absolute benefits if they were synergistic. We tested measured effects of combination analgesics against the sum of the absolute benefits in acute pain and migraine using meta-analysis where individual components and combinations were tested against placebo in the same trials, and verified the result with meta-analyses where individual components and combinations were tested against placebo in different trials. Results showed that expected numbers needed to treat (NNT) for additive effects were generally within the 95% confidence interval of measured NNTs. This was true for combinations of paracetamol plus ibuprofen and paracetamol plus opioids in acute pain, and naproxen plus sumatriptan in migraine, but not where efficacy was very low or very high, nor combinations of paracetamol plus dextropropoxyphene. There was no evidence of synergy, defined as supra-additive effects.

  11. Glycine Transporter Inhibitor Attenuates the Psychotomimetic Effects of Ketamine in Healthy Males: Preliminary Evidence

    PubMed Central

    D'Souza, Deepak Cyril; Singh, Nagendra; Elander, Jacqueline; Carbuto, Michelle; Pittman, Brian; de Haes, Joanna Udo; Sjogren, Magnus; Peeters, Pierre; Ranganathan, Mohini; Schipper, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    Enhancing glutamate function by stimulating the glycine site of the NMDA receptor with glycine, -serine, or with drugs that inhibit glycine reuptake may have therapeutic potential in schizophrenia. The effects of a single oral dose of cis-N-methyl-N-(6-methoxy-1-phenyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalen-2-ylmethyl) amino-methylcarboxylic acid hydrochloride (Org 25935), a glycine transporter-1 (GlyT1) inhibitor, and placebo pretreatment on ketamine-induced schizophrenia-like psychotic symptoms, perceptual alterations, and subjective effects were evaluated in 12 healthy male subjects in a randomized, counter-balanced, within-subjects, crossover design. At 2.5 h after administration of the Org 25935 or placebo, subjects received a ketamine bolus and constant infusion lasting 100 min. Psychotic symptoms, perceptual, and a number of subjective effects were assessed repeatedly before, several times during, and after completion of ketamine administration. A cognitive battery was administered once per test day. Ketamine produced behavioral, subjective, and cognitive effects consistent with its known effects. Org 25935 reduced the ketamine-induced increases in measures of psychosis (Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS)) and perceptual alterations (Clinician Administered Dissociative Symptoms Scale (CADSS)). The magnitude of the effect of Org 25935 on ketamine-induced increases in Total PANSS and CADSS Clinician-rated scores was 0.71 and 0.98 (SD units), respectively. None of the behavioral effects of ketamine were increased by Org 25935 pretreatment. Org 25935 worsened some aspects of learning and delayed recall, and trended to improve choice reaction time. This study demonstrates for the first time in humans that a GlyT1 inhibitor reduces the effects induced by NMDA receptor antagonism. These findings provide preliminary support for further study of the antipsychotic potential of GlyT1 inhibitors. PMID:22113087

  12. Preliminary Evidence of Apathetic-Like Behavior in Aged Vesicular Monoamine Transporter 2 Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Baumann, Aron; Moreira, Carlos G.; Morawska, Marta M.; Masneuf, Sophie; Baumann, Christian R.; Noain, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Apathy is considered to be a core feature of Parkinson’s disease (PD) and has been associated with a variety of states and symptoms of the disease, such as increased severity of motor symptoms, impaired cognition, executive dysfunction and dementia. Apart from the high prevalence of apathy in PD, which is estimated to be about 40%, the underlying pathophysiology remains poorly understood and current treatment approaches are unspecific and proved to be only partially effective. In animal models, apathy has been sub-optimally modeled, mostly by means of pharmacological and stress-induced methods, whereby concomitant depressive-like symptoms could not be ruled out. In the context of PD only a few studies on toxin-based models (i.e., 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) or 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)) claimed to have determined apathetic symptoms in animals. The assessment of apathetic symptoms in more elaborated and multifaceted genetic animal models of PD could help to understand the pathophysiological development of apathy in PD and eventually advance specific treatments for afflicted patients. Here we report the presence of behavioral signs of apathy in 12 months old mice that express only ~5% of the vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2). Apathetic-like behavior in VMAT2 deficient (LO) mice was evidenced by impaired burrowing and nest building skills, and a reduced preference for sweet solution in the saccharin preference test, while the performance in the forced swimming test was normal. Our preliminary results suggest that VMAT2 deficient mice show an apathetic-like phenotype that might be independent of depressive-like symptoms. Therefore VMAT2 LO mice could be a useful tool to study the pathophysiological substrates of apathy and to test novel treatment strategies for apathy in the context of PD. PMID:27917116

  13. Apology in the criminal justice setting: evidence for including apology as an additional component in the legal system.

    PubMed

    Petrucci, Carrie J

    2002-01-01

    The criminal justice system has reached unprecedented scope in the United States, with over 6.4 million people under some type of supervision. Remedies that have the potential to reduce this number are continually being sought. This article analyzes an innovative strategy currently being reconsidered in criminal justice: the apology. Despite a legal system that only sporadically acknowledges it, evidence for the use of apology is supported by social science research, current criminal justice theories, case law, and empirical studies. Social psychological, sociological and socio-legal studies pinpoint the elements and function of apology, what makes apologies effective, and concerns about apology if it were implemented in the criminal justice system. Theoretical evidence is examined (including restorative justice, therapeutic jurisprudence, crime, shame, and reintegration) to explore the process of apology in the criminal justice context. Attribution theory and social conduct theory are used to explain the apology process specifically for victims and offenders. A brief examination of case law reveals that though apology has no formal place in criminal law, it has surfaced recently under the federal sentencing guidelines. Finally, empirical evidence in criminal justice settings reveals that offenders want to apologize and victims desire an apology. Moreover, by directly addressing the harmful act, apology may be the link to reduced recidivism for offenders, as well as empowerment for victims. This evidence combined suggests that apology is worthy of further study as a potentially valuable addition to the criminal justice process.

  14. Alginate-based pellets prepared by extrusion/spheronization: a preliminary study on the effect of additive in granulating liquid.

    PubMed

    Sriamornsak, Pornsak; Nunthanid, Jurairat; Luangtana-anan, Manee; Puttipipatkhachorn, Satit

    2007-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of producing alginate-based pellets by extrusion/spheronization and also to improve the formation of spherical alginate-based pellets by investigating the effect of additive in granulating liquid on characteristics and drug release from resulting pellets. Two types of sodium alginate (30%) were evaluated in combination with theophylline (20%), microcrystalline cellulose (50%) and different granulation liquids. The pellets were then prepared in a basket extruder, then spheronized and dried. The final products were characterized by morphological examination and drug release study. Different additives in the granulating liquid influenced the ability of the extruded mass to form pellets (the processability) with this technique. However, different sodium alginate types responded to shape modifications to a different extent. Long, dumbbell-shaped pellets were obtained with viscous granulating liquids. However, short, nearly spherical pellets were obtained with watery granulation liquid with calcium chloride that reduced the swelling ability of sodium alginate. Improvements in the pellet characteristics were also dependent on the sodium alginate type employed. Most of pellet formulations released about 75-85% drug within 60min and showed a good fit into both Higuchi and Korsmeyer-Peppas equations. Higher amount of 3% calcium chloride, as a granulating liquid, in the formulation showed higher mean dissolution time resulting from the cross-linking properties of calcium ions to the negative charges of alginate molecules.

  15. Biogeochemical evidence for subsurface hydrocarbon occurrence, Recluse oil field, Wyoming; preliminary results

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dalziel, Mary C.; Donovan, Terrence J.

    1980-01-01

    Anomalously high manganese-to-iron ratios occurring in pine needles and sage leaves over the Recluse oil field, Wyoming, suggest effects of petroleum microseepage on the plants. This conclusion is supported by iron and manganese concentrations in soils and carbon and oxygen isotope ratios in rock samples. Seeping hydrocarbons provided reducing conditions sufficient to enable divalent iron and manganese to be organically complexed or adsorbed on solids in the soils. These bound or adsorped elements in the divalent state are essential to plants, and the plants readily assimilate them. The magnitude of the plant anomalies, combined with the supportive isotopic and chemical evidence confirming petroleum leakage, makes a strong case for the use of plants as a biogeochemical prospecting tool.

  16. Preliminary evidence of motor impairment among polysubstance 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine users with intact neuropsychological functioning.

    PubMed

    Bousman, Chad A; Cherner, Mariana; Emory, Kristen T; Barron, Daniel; Grebenstein, Patricia; Atkinson, J Hampton; Heaton, Robert K; Grant, Igor

    2010-11-01

    Neuropsychological disturbances have been reported in association with use of the recreational drug "ecstasy," or 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), but findings have been inconsistent. We performed comprehensive neuropsychological testing examining seven ability domains in 21 MDMA users (MDMA+) and 21 matched control participants (MDMA-). Among MDMA+ participants, median [interquartile range] lifetime MDMA use was 186 [111, 516] doses, with 120 [35-365] days of abstinence. There were no significant group differences in neuropsychological performance, with the exception of the motor speed/dexterity domain in which 43% of MDMA+ were impaired compared with 5% of MDMA- participants (p = .004). Motor impairment differences were not explained by use of other substances and were unrelated to length of abstinence or lifetime number of MDMA doses. Findings provide limited evidence for neuropsychological differences between MDMA+ and MDMA- participants with the exception of motor impairments observed in the MDMA+ group. However, replication of this finding in a larger sample is warranted.

  17. Evidence for susceptibility genes to familial Wilms tumour in addition to WT1, FWT1 and FWT2

    PubMed Central

    Rapley, E A; Barfoot, R; Bonaïti-Pellié, C; Chompret, A; Foulkes, W; Perusinghe, N; Reeve, A; Royer-Pokora, B; Schumacher, V; Shelling, A; Skeen, J; Tourreil, S de; Weirich, A; Pritchard-Jones, K; Stratton, M R; Rahman, N

    2000-01-01

    Three loci have been implicated in familial Wilms tumour: WT1 located on chromosome 11p13, FWT1 on 17q12-q21, and FWT2 on 19q13. Two out of 19 Wilms tumour families evaluated showed strong evidence against linkage at all three loci. Both of these families contained at least three cases of Wilms tumour indicating that they were highly likely to be due to genetic susceptibility and therefore that one or more additional familial Wilms tumour susceptibility genes remain to be found. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10901367

  18. Preliminary evidence for a postsynaptic action of beta-bungarotoxin in mammalian skeletal muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Storella, R. J.; Schouchoff, A. L.; Fujii, M.; Hill, J.; Fletcher, J. E.; Jiang, M. S.; Smith, L. A.

    1992-01-01

    Two hours after treatment with beta-bungarotoxin (0.34-0.4 microM), when there was complete neuromuscular block, the peak contracture response to 50 microM succinylcholine was significantly reduced by about 35% in the mouse phrenic nerve-diaphragm preparation. Additionally, significant phospholipase A2 activity was detected on primary cell cultures from skeletal muscle which were incubated for 2 hr with concentrations of beta-bungarotoxin greater than or equal to 0.1 microM. Thus, beta-bungarotoxin appears to have pharmacologically and biochemically detectable postsynaptic actions in mammalian muscle systems.

  19. Preliminary Evidence for Effectiveness of Resourcefulness Training in Women Dementia Caregivers

    PubMed Central

    Zauszniewski, JA; Lekhak, N; Burant, CJ; Variath, M; Morris, DL

    2016-01-01

    Nearly 10 million women in the U.S. are caregivers for an elder with dementia, which often produces overwhelming stress and adversely affects their health. Resourcefulness training (RT) may promote the caregiver’s optimal health and continue in their caregiving role. This pilot trial of 138 women dementia caregivers examined the effectiveness of RT on perceived stress, depressive cognitions, and negative emotions over time. Caregivers were first randomized to RT or no RT and then further randomized into random versus choice conditions followed by assignment to the journal or recorder methods, thus creating eight groups. We examined differences on perceived stress, depressive cognitions, and negative emotions between groups: 1) RT versus no-RT, 2) choice versus random condition; and 3) journaling versus recording. Significant time by group interactions were found on stress (F=4.36, p<.05), depressive cognitions (F=10.93, p<.001), and negative emotions (F=20.48, p<.001) in the RT versus no RT group. No differences were found between the random versus choice conditions or the journaling versus recording methods for practicing the RT skills. The results provide evidence for the effectiveness of RT for decreasing stress, depressive cognitions, and negative emotions in women caregivers of elders with dementia. The findings also suggest the need for further examination of the effects of allowing caregivers to choose a method for practicing RT in larger samples if caregivers of elders with dementia. PMID:27500286

  20. Preliminary evidence for a role of the adrenergic nervous system in generalized anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaobin; Norton, Joanna; Carrière, Isabelle; Ritchie, Karen; Chaudieu, Isabelle; Ryan, Joanne; Ancelin, Marie-Laure

    2017-02-15

    Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is a common chronic condition that is understudied compared to other psychiatric disorders. An altered adrenergic function has been reported in GAD, however direct evidence for genetic susceptibility is missing. This study evaluated the associations of gene variants in adrenergic receptors (ADRs) with GAD, with the involvement of stressful events. Data were obtained from 844 French community-dwelling elderly aged 65 or over. Anxiety disorders were assessed using the Mini-International Neuropsychiatry Interview, according to DSM-IV criteria. Eight single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) involved with adrenergic function were genotyped; adrenergic receptors alpha(1A) (ADRA1A), alpha(2A) (ADRA2A), and beta2 (ADRB2) and transcription factor TCF7L2. Questionnaires evaluated recent stressful life events as well as early environment during childhood and adolescence. Using multivariate logistic regression analyses four SNPs were significantly associated with GAD. A 4-fold modified risk was found with ADRA1A rs17426222 and rs573514, and ADRB2 rs1042713 which remained significant after Bonferroni correction. Certain variants may moderate the effect of adverse life events on the risk of GAD. Replication in larger samples is needed due to the small case number. This is the first study showing that ADR variants are susceptibility factors for GAD, further highlighting the critical role of the adrenergic nervous system in this disorder.

  1. Preliminary evidence for a role of the adrenergic nervous system in generalized anxiety disorder

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaobin; Norton, Joanna; Carrière, Isabelle; Ritchie, Karen; Chaudieu, Isabelle; Ryan, Joanne; Ancelin, Marie-Laure

    2017-01-01

    Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is a common chronic condition that is understudied compared to other psychiatric disorders. An altered adrenergic function has been reported in GAD, however direct evidence for genetic susceptibility is missing. This study evaluated the associations of gene variants in adrenergic receptors (ADRs) with GAD, with the involvement of stressful events. Data were obtained from 844 French community-dwelling elderly aged 65 or over. Anxiety disorders were assessed using the Mini-International Neuropsychiatry Interview, according to DSM-IV criteria. Eight single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) involved with adrenergic function were genotyped; adrenergic receptors alpha(1A) (ADRA1A), alpha(2A) (ADRA2A), and beta2 (ADRB2) and transcription factor TCF7L2. Questionnaires evaluated recent stressful life events as well as early environment during childhood and adolescence. Using multivariate logistic regression analyses four SNPs were significantly associated with GAD. A 4-fold modified risk was found with ADRA1A rs17426222 and rs573514, and ADRB2 rs1042713 which remained significant after Bonferroni correction. Certain variants may moderate the effect of adverse life events on the risk of GAD. Replication in larger samples is needed due to the small case number. This is the first study showing that ADR variants are susceptibility factors for GAD, further highlighting the critical role of the adrenergic nervous system in this disorder. PMID:28198454

  2. Precursors to natural grammar learning: preliminary evidence from 4-month-old infants.

    PubMed

    Friederici, Angela D; Mueller, Jutta L; Oberecker, Regine

    2011-03-22

    When learning a new language, grammar--although difficult--is very important, as grammatical rules determine the relations between the words in a sentence. There is evidence that very young infants can detect rules determining the relation between neighbouring syllables in short syllable sequences. A critical feature of all natural languages, however, is that many grammatical rules concern the dependency relation between non-neighbouring words or elements in a sentence i.e. between an auxiliary and verb inflection as in is singing. Thus, the issue of when and how children begin to recognize such non-adjacent dependencies is fundamental to our understanding of language acquisition. Here, we use brain potential measures to demonstrate that the ability to recognize dependencies between non-adjacent elements in a novel natural language is observable by the age of 4 months. Brain responses indicate that 4-month-old German infants discriminate between grammatical and ungrammatical dependencies in auditorily presented Italian sentences after only brief exposure to correct sentences of the same type. As the grammatical dependencies are realized by phonologically distinct syllables the present data most likely reflect phonologically based implicit learning mechanisms which can serve as a precursor to later grammar learning.

  3. Brain Plasticity following Intensive Bimanual Therapy in Children with Hemiparesis: Preliminary Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Weinstein, Maya; Myers, Vicki; Green, Dido; Schertz, Mitchell; Shiran, Shelly I.; Geva, Ronny; Artzi, Moran; Gordon, Andrew M.; Fattal-Valevski, Aviva; Ben Bashat, Dafna

    2015-01-01

    Neuroplasticity studies examining children with hemiparesis (CH) have focused predominantly on unilateral interventions. CH also have bimanual coordination impairments with bimanual interventions showing benefits. We explored neuroplasticity following hand-arm bimanual intensive therapy (HABIT) of 60 hours in twelve CH (6 females, mean age 11 ± 3.6 y). Serial behavioral evaluations and MR imaging including diffusion tensor (DTI) and functional (fMRI) imaging were performed before, immediately after, and at 6-week follow-up. Manual skills were assessed repeatedly with the Assisting Hand Assessment, Children's Hand Experience Questionnaire, and Jebsen-Taylor Test of Hand Function. Beta values, indicating the level of activation, and lateralization index (LI), indicating the pattern of brain activation, were computed from fMRI. White matter integrity of major fibers was assessed using DTI. 11/12 children showed improvement after intervention in at least one measure, with 8/12 improving on two or more tests. Changes were retained in 6/8 children at follow-up. Beta activation in the affected hemisphere increased at follow-up, and LI increased both after intervention and at follow-up. Correlations between LI and motor function emerged after intervention. Increased white matter integrity was detected in the corpus callosum and corticospinal tract after intervention in about half of the participants. Results provide first evidence for neuroplasticity changes following bimanual intervention in CH. PMID:26640717

  4. Preliminary evidence of association between EFHC2, a gene implicated in fear recognition, and harm avoidance.

    PubMed

    Blaya, Carolina; Moorjani, Priya; Salum, Giovanni Abrahão; Gonçalves, Leonardo; Weiss, Lauren A; Leistner-Segal, Sandra; Manfro, Gisele G; Smoller, Jordan W

    2009-03-06

    Genetic variation at the EF-hand domain containing 2 gene (EFHC2) locus has been associated with fear recognition in Turner syndrome. The aim of this study was to examine whether EFHC2 variants are associated with non-syndromic anxiety-related traits [harm avoidance (HA) and behavioral inhibition (BI)] and with panic disorder (PD). Our sample comprised 127 PD patients and 132 controls without psychiatric disorder. We genotyped nine SNPs within the EFHC2 locus and used PLINK to perform association analyses. An intronic SNP (rs1562875) was associated with HA (permuted p=0.031) accounting alone for over 3% of variance in this trait. This same SNP was nominally, but not empirically, associated with BI (r(2)=0.022; nominal p=0.022) and PD (OR=2.64; nominal p=0.009). The same association was found in a subsample of only females. In sum, we observed evidence of association between a variant in EFHC2, a gene previously associated with the processing of fear and social threat, and HA. Larger studies are warranted to confirm this association.

  5. Binge eating disorder and obesity: preliminary evidence for distinct cardiovascular and psychological phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Klatzkin, Rebecca R; Gaffney, Sierra; Cyrus, Kathryn; Bigus, Elizabeth; Brownley, Kimberly A

    2015-04-01

    This study investigated cardiovascular functioning, mood, and eating-related psychological factors at rest and in response to mental stress in three groups of women: 1) Obese women with binge eating disorder (BED; n=9); 2) obese non-BED women (n=15); and 3) normal weight (NW) non-BED women (n=15). Compared to both obese and NW non-BED women, obese women with BED showed heightened overall blood pressure and reported greater depression symptoms, perceived stress, and eating-related psychopathology. Additionally, obese women with BED reported greater overall negative affect and state anxiety compared to obese non-BED women. The heart rate response to stress was blunted in the obese BED group compared to the other groups, but this effect was no longer significant after controlling for baseline differences in depression. Correlational analyses revealed a positive association between stress-induced changes in hunger and cardiovascular measures only in obese women with BED. Longitudinal studies are needed to determine if stress dysregulation and stress-induced increases in hunger contribute to the onset and/or maintenance of BED. In particular, studies utilizing an additional NW BED control group are warranted in order to further examine the impact of BED above and beyond the impact of obesity on psychophysiological functioning and to inform the growing literature regarding stress-related factors that distinguish the BED and obesity phenotypes.

  6. Preliminary assessment of metal-porcelain bonding strength of CoCrW alloy after 3wt.% Cu addition.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yanjin; Zhao, Chaoqian; Ren, Ling; Guo, Sai; Gan, Yiliang; Yang, Chunguang; Wu, Songquan; Lin, Junjie; Huang, Tingting; Yang, Ke; Lin, Jinxin

    2016-06-01

    In this work, a novel Cu-bearing CoCrW alloy fabricated by selective laser melting for dental application has been studied. For its successful application, the bonding strength of metal-porcelain is essential to be systematically investigated. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the metal-porcelain bonding strength of CoCrWCu alloy by three-point bending test, meanwhile the Ni-free CoCrW alloy was used as control. The oxygen content was investigated by an elemental analyzer; X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to analyze the surface chemical composition of CoCrW based alloy after preoxidation treatment; the fracture mode was investigated by X-ray energy spectrum analysis (EDS) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Result from the oxygen content analysis showed that the content of oxygen dramatically increased after the Cu addition. And the XPS suggested that Co-oxidation, Cr2O3, CrO2, WO3, Cu2O and CuO existed on the preoxidated surface of the CoCrWCu alloy; the three-point bending test showed that the bonding strength of the CoCrWCu alloy was 43.32 MPa, which was lower than that of the CoCrW group of 47.65 MPa. However, the average metal-porcelain bonding strength is significantly higher than the minimum value in the ISO 9693 standard. Results from the SEM images and EDS indicated that the fracture mode of CoCrWCu-porcelain was mixed between cohesive and adhesive. Based on the results obtained in this study, it can be indicated that the Cu-bearing CoCrW alloy fabricated by the selective laser melting is a promising candidate for use in dental application.

  7. Preliminary evidence of sex differences in behavioral and neural responses to palatable food reward in rats.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Elaine B; Hildebrandt, Britny A; Culbert, Kristen M; Klump, Kelly L; Sisk, Cheryl L

    2017-03-30

    The female bias in eating disorder prevalence is the largest in all of psychiatry. Binge eating on palatable food (PF) is a core, maladaptive symptom that cuts across all major types of eating disorders and can be studied via animal models. Using an individual differences rat model of binge eating that identifies binge eating prone (BEP) and binge eating resistant (BER) phenotypes, we previously showed that, compared with males, females consume more PF and are more likely to be classified as BEP. One potential explanation for this sex difference is that PF is inherently more rewarding to females, leading to higher rates of binge eating. Here we tested the hypothesis that females have more robust behavioral and neural responses to PF reward than males. Adult male (N=18) and female (N=17) Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to the Conditioned Place Preference paradigm using PF as the unconditioned stimulus. Select males (N=9) and females (N=9) were video-recorded during three of the PF-paired conditioning sessions to score feeding behavior. Following CPP, 13 male and 12 female rats were exposed to PF just prior to sacrifice to induce expression of the neural activation marker Fos, and Fos expression was quantified in mesocorticolimbic, hypothalamic, and amygdalar circuits. In the CPP paradigm, females displayed a more robust shift in preference for the chamber paired with PF compared with males, and behavioral analyses revealed that average duration of individual feeding bouts during pairing sessions was longer in females than in males. Fos expression was significantly higher in females vs. males in select regions of the mesocorticolimbic reward circuit, with no sex differences in hypothalamic or amygdalar regions. These results provide initial evidence that PF may be more rewarding to females than to males, possibly due to heightened responsiveness of neural substrates that mediate the hedonic and motivational responses to PF, which in part, may underlie sex

  8. Recruiting for values in healthcare: a preliminary review of the evidence.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Fiona; Prescott-Clements, Linda; Zibarras, Lara; Edwards, Helena; Kerrin, Maire; Cousans, Fran

    2016-10-01

    Displaying compassion, benevolence and respect, and preserving the dignity of patients are important for any healthcare professional to ensure the provision of high quality care and patient outcomes. This paper presents a structured search and thematic review of the research evidence relating to values-based recruitment within healthcare. Several different databases, journals and government reports were searched to retrieve studies relating to values-based recruitment published between 1998 and 2013, both in healthcare settings and other occupational contexts. There is limited published research related to values-based recruitment directly, so the available theoretical context of values is explored alongside an analysis of the impact of value congruence. The implications for the design of selection methods to measure values is explored beyond the scope of the initial literature search. Research suggests some selection methods may be appropriate for values-based recruitment, such as situational judgment tests (SJTs), structured interviews and multiple-mini interviews (MMIs). Personality tests were also identified as having the potential to compliment other methods (e.g. structured interviews), as part of a values-based recruitment agenda. Methods including personal statements, references and unstructured/'traditional' interviews were identified as inappropriate for values-based recruitment. Practical implications are discussed in the context of values-based recruitment in the healthcare context. Theoretical implications of our findings imply that prosocial implicit trait policies, which could be measured by selection tools such as SJTs and MMIs, may be linked to individuals' values via the behaviours individuals consider to be effective in given situations. Further research is required to state this conclusively however, and methods for values-based recruitment represent an exciting and relatively unchartered territory for further research.

  9. Trace evidence characteristics of DNA: A preliminary investigation of the persistence of DNA at crime scenes.

    PubMed

    Raymond, Jennifer J; van Oorschot, Roland A H; Gunn, Peter R; Walsh, Simon J; Roux, Claude

    2009-12-01

    The successful recovery of trace or contact DNA is highly variable. It is seemingly dependent on a wide range of factors, from the characteristics of the donor, substrate and environment, to the delay between contact and recovery. There is limited research on the extent of the effect these factors have on trace DNA analysis. This study investigated the persistence of trace DNA on surfaces relevant to the investigation of burglary and robbery offences. The study aimed to limit the number of variables involved to solely determine the effect of time on DNA recovery. Given that it is difficult to control the quantity of DNA deposited during a hand contact, human buffy coat and DNA control solution were chosen as an alternative to give a more accurate measure of quantity. Set volumes of these solutions were deposited onto outdoor surfaces (window frames and vinyl material to mimic burglary and 'bag snatch' offences) and sterile glass slides stored in a closed environment in the laboratory, for use as a control. Trace DNA casework data was also scrutinised to assess the effect of time on DNA recovery from real samples. The amount of DNA recovered from buffy coat on the outdoor surfaces declined by approximately half over two weeks, to a negligible amount after six weeks. Profiles could not be obtained after two weeks. The samples stored in the laboratory were more robust, and full profiles were obtained after six weeks, the longest time period tested in these experiments. It is possible that profiles may be obtained from older samples when kept in similarly favourable conditions. The experimental results demonstrate that the ability to recover DNA from human cells on outdoor surfaces decreases significantly over two weeks. Conversely, no clear trends were identified in the casework data, indicating that many other factors are involved affecting the recovery of trace DNA. Nevertheless, to ensure that valuable trace evidence is not lost, it is recommended that crime scenes

  10. Preliminary Evidence for a Gene-Environment Interaction in Predicting Alcohol Use Disorders in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, Robert; Reynolds, Elizabeth; Ray, Lara; Justus, Alicia; Knopik, Valerie S.; McGeary, John; Meyerson, Lori A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Emerging research suggests that genetic influences on adolescent drinking are moderated by environmental factors. The present study builds on molecular-genetic findings by conducting the first analysis of gene-environment interactions in the association between a functional single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of the µ-opioid receptor (OPRM1) gene (A118G) and risk for developing an alcohol use disorder (AUD) during adolescence. Specifically, we tested whether variation in parenting practices or affiliation with deviant peers moderated the link between the OPRM1 gene and risk for an AUD. Methods Adolescents reporting European ancestry (N = 104), ages 12–19 years (M = 15.60, SD = 1.77), were interviewed to ascertain AUD diagnoses, provided a DNA sample for genetic analyses, and completed measures of parental monitoring and deviant peer affiliation. Logistic regression was used to test the effects of environmental variable sand their interactions with OPRM1genotype as predictors of AUD diagnosis while controlling for age and sex. Results Case-control comparisons showed that the proportion of youth with an AUD (n = 18) significantly differed by genotype such that 33.3% of G allele carriers met criteria for an AUD compared to 10.8% of youth who were homozygous for the A allele (p = .006). The OPRM1 × parental monitoring (odds ratio = 0.16) and OPRM1 × deviant peer affiliation (odds ratio = 7.64) interactions were significant predictors of AUD risk, such that G allele carriers with high levels of deviant peer affiliation or lower levels of parental monitoring had the greatest likelihood of developing an AUD (p values < .01). Conclusions This study provides initial evidence that the association between the A118G SNP of the OPRM1 gene and risk for AUDs is moderated by modifiable factors. These results are limited, however, by the small sample size and require replication. PMID:23136901

  11. Laser acupuncture and analgesia: preliminary evidence for a transient and opioid-mediated effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whittaker, Peter

    2006-02-01

    Acupuncture is frequently used to treat pain. Although human pain quantification is difficult and often subjective, in rodent models the tail-flick test provides a well-established and objective assessment of analgesia. This test measures the time taken before a rat withdraws its tail from a heat source. Needle and electroacupuncture at the acupuncture point Spleen-6, located at the tibia's posterior margin above the medial malleolus, has been found to increase tail-flick time in rats. The aim of the current study was to determine if laser acupuncture had a similar effect. A 550 μm diameter optic fiber was used to irradiate Spleen-6 for 2 minutes (690 nm, 130 mW) in female Sprague-Dawley rats. In addition, control experiments were performed in which rats were subjected to sham treatment (restraint but no irradiation) or irradiation of an non-acupuncture point (the tail's dorsal surface, 1cm from the base) using the same laser parameters. The baseline tail-flick time was measured and 15 minutes later the laser acupuncture or the control protocols were performed and tail-flick time re-measured 10 minutes after treatment. Additional experiments were done in which the opioid-blocker naloxone (20 mg/kg, intraperitoneal injection) was administered one hour before laser acupuncture. Tailflick time increased after laser acupuncture (P = 0.0002), but returned to baseline values one hour later. In contrast, no increase was found after either sham treatment or tail irradiation. Pretreatment with naloxone attenuated the increase in tail-flick time. In summary, laser acupuncture exerts a transient analgesic effect which may act via an opioid-mediated mechanism.

  12. Preliminary evidence that sub-chronic citalopram triggers the re-evaluation of value in intimate partnerships

    PubMed Central

    Bilderbeck, Amy C.; Wakeley, Judi; Godlewska, Beata R.; McGlone, Francis; Harris, Tirril; Cowen, Phillip J.

    2014-01-01

    Depression frequently involves disrupted inter-personal relationships, while treatment with serotonergic anti-depressants can interfere with libido and sexual function. However, little is known about how serotonin activity influences appraisals of intimate partnerships. Learning more could help to specify how serotonergic mechanisms mediate social isolation in psychiatric illness. Forty-four healthy heterosexual adults, currently in romantic relationships, received 8 days treatment with the selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor citalopram (N = 21; 10 male) or placebo (N = 23; 12 male). Participants viewed photographs of unknown, heterosexual couples and made a series of judgements about their relationships. Participants also indicated the importance of relationship features in their own close partnerships, and close partnerships generally. Citalopram reduced the rated quality of couples’ physical relationships and the importance attributed to physical and intimate aspects of participants’ own relationships. In contrast, citalopram also enhanced the evaluated worth of mutual trust in relationships. Amongst males, citalopram was associated with judgements of reduced turbulence and bickering in others’ relationships, and increased male dominance. These data constitute preliminary evidence that enhancing serotonin activity modulates cognitions about sexual activity as part of a re-appraisal of sources of value within close intimate relationships, enhancing the judged importance of longer-term benefits of trust and shared experiences. PMID:23996287

  13. Preliminary evidence that sub-chronic citalopram triggers the re-evaluation of value in intimate partnerships.

    PubMed

    Bilderbeck, Amy C; Wakeley, Judi; Godlewska, Beata R; McGlone, Francis; Harris, Tirril; Cowen, Phillip J; Rogers, Robert D

    2014-09-01

    Depression frequently involves disrupted inter-personal relationships, while treatment with serotonergic anti-depressants can interfere with libido and sexual function. However, little is known about how serotonin activity influences appraisals of intimate partnerships. Learning more could help to specify how serotonergic mechanisms mediate social isolation in psychiatric illness. Forty-four healthy heterosexual adults, currently in romantic relationships, received 8 days treatment with the selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor citalopram (N = 21; 10 male) or placebo (N = 23; 12 male). Participants viewed photographs of unknown, heterosexual couples and made a series of judgements about their relationships. Participants also indicated the importance of relationship features in their own close partnerships, and close partnerships generally. Citalopram reduced the rated quality of couples' physical relationships and the importance attributed to physical and intimate aspects of participants' own relationships. In contrast, citalopram also enhanced the evaluated worth of mutual trust in relationships. Amongst males, citalopram was associated with judgements of reduced turbulence and bickering in others' relationships, and increased male dominance. These data constitute preliminary evidence that enhancing serotonin activity modulates cognitions about sexual activity as part of a re-appraisal of sources of value within close intimate relationships, enhancing the judged importance of longer-term benefits of trust and shared experiences.

  14. Seismic heating signatures in the Japan Trench subduction plate-boundary fault zone: evidence from a preliminary rock magnetic `geothermometer'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Tao; Dekkers, Mark J.; Zhang, Bo

    2016-04-01

    Frictional heating during earthquake rupture reveals important information on earthquake mechanisms and energy dissipation. The amount of annealing varies widely and is, as yet, poorly constrained. Here we use magnetic susceptibility versus temperature measurements during cycling to increasingly elevated temperatures to constrain the maximum temperature a slip zone has experienced. The case study comprises sheared clay cored from the Japan Trench subduction plate-boundary fault zone (décollement), which accommodated the large slip of the 2011 Mw 9.0 Tohoku-oki earthquake. The décollement was cored during the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 343, the Japan Trench Fast Drilling Project (JFAST). Heating signatures with estimated maximum temperatures ranging from ˜300 to over 500 °C are determined close to the multiple slip surfaces within the décollement. Since it is impossible to tie a specific slip surface to a certain earthquake, thermal evidence for the cumulative effect of several earthquakes is unveiled. This as yet preliminary rock magnetic `geothermometer' would be a useful tool to detect seismic heating along faults that experienced medium temperature rise, a range which is difficult to assess with other approaches.

  15. A proteomic analysis of the endometrium in obese and overweight women with recurrent miscarriage: preliminary evidence for an endometrial defect

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Overweight and obese women have been shown to have an increased risk of recurrent miscarriage as well as other adverse reproductive outcomes, but it is yet unclear whether this is due to an effect on the endometrium, embryo or both. The current study employs proteomic analysis to examine for a potential endometrial defect in obese and overweight women with recurrent miscarriage. Methods Proteomic tissue analysis of 21 endometrial samples obtained In the midluteal phase from 16 women with recurrent miscarriage (obese, n = 12 and lean, n = 4) and 5 fertile volunteers (Obese, n = 2 and Lean, n = 3). Proteins were separated using 2-D gel electrophoresis and principle component analysis was used to quantitatively compare protein expression between groups. Protein spots showing significantly altered expression were identified using mass spectrometry. Results Obese and overweight recurrent miscarriage patients had a significantly increased endometrial expression of haptoglobin compared to their lean counterparts (p = 0.01). These patients also displayed a significant increase in endometrial expression of transthyretin (p = 0.04) and beta- globulin (p = 0.04). Principle Component Analysis (PCA) of the studied groups also demonstrated that endometrial samples could be grouped based on differences in the BMI, suggesting that obesity is an independent factor influencing endometrial protein expression. Conclusions These findings provide preliminary evidence for an alteration in the endometrial protein profile in overweight/obese women with recurrent miscarriage mainly in the form of increased haptoglobin, an inflammatory marker associated with obesity. PMID:25096020

  16. Preliminary evidence that different mechanisms underlie the anger superiority effect in children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Isomura, Tomoko; Ogawa, Shino; Yamada, Satoko; Shibasaki, Masahiro; Masataka, Nobuo

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that angry faces capture humans' attention more rapidly than emotionally positive faces. This phenomenon is referred to as the anger superiority effect (ASE). Despite atypical emotional processing, adults and children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) have been reported to show ASE as well as typically developed (TD) individuals. So far, however, few studies have clarified whether or not the mechanisms underlying ASE are the same for both TD and ASD individuals. Here, we tested how TD and ASD children process schematic emotional faces during detection by employing a recognition task in combination with a face-in-the-crowd task. Results of the face-in-the-crowd task revealed the prevalence of ASE both in TD and ASD children. However, the results of the recognition task revealed group differences: In TD children, detection of angry faces required more configural face processing and disrupted the processing of local features. In ASD children, on the other hand, it required more feature-based processing rather than configural processing. Despite the small sample sizes, these findings provide preliminary evidence that children with ASD, in contrast to TD children, show quick detection of angry faces by extracting local features in faces. PMID:24904477

  17. Physical Feature Encoding and Word Recognition Abilities Are Altered in Children with Intractable Epilepsy: Preliminary Neuromagnetic Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Pardos, Maria; Korostenskaja, Milena; Xiang, Jing; Fujiwara, Hisako; Lee, Ki H.; Horn, Paul S.; Byars, Anna; Vannest, Jennifer; Wang, Yingying; Hemasilpin, Nat; Rose, Douglas F.

    2015-01-01

    Objective evaluation of language function is critical for children with intractable epilepsy under consideration for epilepsy surgery. The purpose of this preliminary study was to evaluate word recognition in children with intractable epilepsy by using magnetoencephalography (MEG). Ten children with intractable epilepsy (M/F 6/4, mean ± SD 13.4 ± 2.2 years) were matched on age and sex to healthy controls. Common nouns were presented simultaneously from visual and auditory sensory inputs in “match” and “mismatch” conditions. Neuromagnetic responses M1, M2, M3, M4, and M5 with latencies of ~100 ms, ~150 ms, ~250 ms, ~350 ms, and ~450 ms, respectively, elicited during the “match” condition were identified. Compared to healthy children, epilepsy patients had both significantly delayed latency of the M1 and reduced amplitudes of M3 and M5 responses. These results provide neurophysiologic evidence of altered word recognition in children with intractable epilepsy. PMID:26146459

  18. Evidence that protons can be the active catalysts in Lewis acid mediated hetero-Michael addition reactions.

    PubMed

    Wabnitz, Tobias C; Yu, Jin-Quan; Spencer, Jonathan B

    2004-01-23

    The mechanism of Lewis acid catalysed hetero-Michael addition reactions of weakly basic nucleophiles to alpha,beta-unsaturated ketones was investigated. Protons, rather than metal ions, were identified as the active catalysts. Other mechanisms have been ruled out by analyses of side products and of stoichiometric enone-catalyst mixtures and by the use of radical inhibitors. No evidence for the involvement of pi-olefin-metal complexes or for carbonyl-metal-ion interactions was obtained. The reactions did not proceed in the presence of the non-coordinating base 2,6-di-tert-butylpyridine. An excellent correlation of catalytic activities with cation hydrolysis constants was obtained. Different reactivities of mono- and dicarbonyl substrates have been rationalised. A (1)H NMR probe for the assessment of proton generation was established and Lewis acids have been classified according to their propensity to hydrolyse in organic solvents. Brønsted acid-catalysed conjugate addition reactions of nitrogen, oxygen, sulfur and carbon nucleophiles are developed and implications for asymmetric Lewis acid catalysis are discussed.

  19. Transit Timing Variation Measurements of WASP-12b and Qatar-1b: No Evidence Of Additional Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, Karen A.; Kielkopf, John F.; Stassun, Keivan G.

    2017-02-01

    WASP-12b and Qatar-1b are transiting hot Jupiters for which previous works have suggested the presence of transit timing variations (TTVs) indicative of additional bodies in these systems—an Earth-mass planet in WASP-12 and a brown-dwarf mass object in Qatar-1. Here, we present 23 new WASP-12b and 18 new Qatar-1b complete (or nearly complete) transit observations. We perform global system fits to all of our light curves for each system, as well as RV and stellar spectroscopic parameters from the literature. The global fits provide refined system parameters and uncertainties for each system, including precise transit center times for each transit. The transit model residuals of the combined and five minute binned light curves have an rms of 183 and 255 parts per million (ppm) for WASP-12b and Qatar-1b, respectively. Most of the WASP-12b system parameter values from this work are consistent with values from previous studies, but have ∼40%–50% smaller uncertainties. Most of the Qatar-1b system parameter values and uncertainties from this work are consistent with values recently reported in the literature. We find no convincing evidence for sinusoidal TTVs with a semi-amplitude of more than ∼35 and ∼25 s in the WASP-12b and Qatar-1b systems, respectively.

  20. Predictors of victim disclosure in child sexual abuse: Additional evidence from a sample of incarcerated adult sex offenders.

    PubMed

    Leclerc, Benoit; Wortley, Richard

    2015-05-01

    The under-reporting of child sexual abuse by victims is a serious problem that may prolong the suffering of victims and leave perpetrators free to continue offending. Yet empirical evidence indicates that victim disclosure rates are low. In this study, we perform regression analysis with a sample of 369 adult child sexual offenders to examine potential predictors of victim disclosure. Specifically, we extend the range of previously examined potential predictors of victim disclosure and investigate interaction effects in order to better capture under which circumstances victim disclosure is more likely. The current study differs from previous studies in that it examines the impact of victim and offense variables on victim disclosure from the perspective of the offender. In line with previous studies, we found that disclosure increased with the age of the victim and if penetration had occurred. In addition, we found that disclosure increased when the victim came from a non-dysfunctional family and resisted the abuse. The presence of an interaction effect highlighted the impact of the situation on victim disclosure. This effect indicated that as victims get older, they are more likely to disclose the abuse when they are not living with the offender at the time of abuse, but less likely to do so when they are living with the offender at the time of abuse. These findings are discussed in relation to previous studies and the need to facilitate victim disclosure.

  1. Evidence of Rapidly Warming Rivers in the UK from an Extensive Additive Modelling Study at the National Scale Using R

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, G. L.

    2011-12-01

    River water temperature data exhibit non-linear behaviour over the past 50 or so years. Standard techniques for identifying and quantifying trends have centred around the use of linear regression and Mann-Kendall and Thiel-Sen procedures. Observational data from UK rivers suggest that temperatures are far more variable then assumed under these statistical models. In a national-scale assessment of the response of riverine systems to global climatic change, an additive model framework was employed to model patterns in water temperatures from a large database of temporal observational data. Models were developed using R, which allowed for the deployment of cutting-edge additive modelling techniques to describe trends at 2773 sites across England and Wales, UK. At a subset of sites, additive models were used to model long-term trends, trends within seasons and the long-term variation in the seasonal pattern of water temperatures. Changes in water temperature have important consequences for aquatic ecology, with some species being particularly sensitive even to small shifts in temperature during some or all of their lifecycle. While there are many studies reporting increasing regional and global air temperatures, evidence for changes in river water temperature has thus far been site specific and/or from sites heavily influenced by human activities that could themselves lead to warming. Here I present selected results from a national-scale assessment of changing river water temperatures, covering the whole of England and Wales, comprising data from 2,773 locations. Positive trends in water temperature were observed at 86% of sites. At a subset of sites, seasonal trend models were developed, which showed that 90% of locations demonstrated statistically significant increases in water temperature during Autumn and Winter periods. Multivariate smoothers, that allow for within-year and longer-term trend interactions in time, suggest that periods of warmer waters now extend

  2. Equatorial plasma fountain and its effects over three locations: Evidence for an additional layer, the F3 layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balan, N.; Bailey, G. J.; Abdu, M. A.; Oyama, K. I.; Richards, P. G.; MacDougall, J.; Batista, I. S.

    1997-02-01

    The equatorial plasma fountain and equatorial anomaly in the ionospheres over Jicamarca (77°W), Trivandrum (77°E), and Fortaleza (38°W) are presented using the Sheffield University plasmasphere-ionosphere model under magnetically quiet equinoctial conditions at high solar activity. The daytime plasma fountain and its effects in the regions outside the fountain lead to the formation of an additional layer, the F3 layer, at latitudes within about plus or minus 10° of the magnetic equator in each ionosphere. The maximum plasma concentration of the F3 layer, which occurs at about 550 km altitude, becomes greater than that of the F2 layer for a short period of time before noon when the vertical E×B drift is large. Within the F3 layer the plasma temperature decreases by as much as 100 K. The ionograms recorded at Fortaleza on January 15, 1995, provide observational evidence for the development and decay of an F3 layer before noon. The neutral wind, which causes large north-south asymmetries in the plasma fountain in each ionosphere during both daytime and nighttime, becomes least effective during the prereversal strengthening of the upward drift. During this time the plasma fountain is symmetrical with respect to the magnetic equator and rises to over 1200 km altitude at the equator, with accompanying plasma density depletions in the bottomside of the underlying F region. The north-south asymmetries of the equatorial plasma fountain and equatorial anomaly are more strongly dependent upon the displacement of the geomagnetic and geographic equators (Jicamarca and Trivandrum) than on the magnetic declination angle (Fortaleza).

  3. Spectroscopic Evidence for Covalent Binding of Sulfadiazine to Natural Soils via 1,4-nucleophilic addition (Michael Type Addition) studied by Spin Labeling ESR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleksandrova, Olga

    2015-04-01

    with different polarity. As shown by the spin labeling ESR experiment, molecules modeling SDZ were promptly bound to non-hydrolysable network of soil organic matter only via the aromatic amines that was accompanied by a prompt enlargement of humic particles binding aromatic amines, whereas binding of decomposition products of SDZ to humic acids of soil via the aliphatic amines was not observable. The ESR spectra obviously showed a single-phase process of covalent binding of the aromatic amines. Repeated washouts of labeled soil samples using distil water and ultrafiltration through the membrane of 5000 MWCO PES confirmed irreversible binding of the aromatic amines, and showed that via the aliphatic amines, binding of SDZ or decomposition products of SDZ to soil might also occur but reversibly and only to small soil molecules, which don't enter into the composition of non-hydrolysable part of soil organic matter. SL ESR experiments of different soils at the presence of Laccase highlighted that covalent binding of the aromatic amines to humic particles occurred in the specific hydrophobic areas of soil found as depleted in oxygen. All measured data evidenced that first, SDZ might be decomposed that allowed for measuring the same change of a paramagnetic signal of soil organic matter influenced by both aromatic and aliphatic amines as in the experiment of the interaction of soil with SDZ. Second, a decomposition product of SDZ with the aromatic amine might be bound to non-hydrolysable parts of soil organic matter under specific anaerobic conditions only via 1,4 - nucleophilic addition, Michael-type addition. Gulkowska, A., Thalmann, B., D., Hollender, J., & Krauss, M. (2014). Chemosphere, 107, 366 - 372. Müller, T., Rosendahl, I., Focks, A., Siemens, J., Klasmeier, J., & Matthies. (2013). Environmental Pollution, 172,180 - 185. Nowak, K.M., Miltner, A., Gehre, M., Schaeffer, A., & Kaestner, M. (2011). Environmental Science & Technology 45, 999 - 1006. Weber, E.J., Spidle

  4. The Agoudal (High Atlas Mountains, Morocco) Shattered Limestone: Petrographical and Geochemical Studies and Additional Evidence of Impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Kerni, H.; Chennaoui Aoudjehane, H.; Marjanac, T.

    2016-08-01

    Agoudal impact structure shattered limestone and breccia are well studied and described using petrographical observations and geochemical analyses, and a new discovery of the magnesiwustite mineral as a further evidence of impact event.

  5. Financial decision-making abilities and financial exploitation in older African Americans: Preliminary validity evidence for the Lichtenberg Financial Decision Rating Scale (LFDRS).

    PubMed

    Lichtenberg, Peter A; Ficker, Lisa J; Rahman-Filipiak, Annalise

    2016-01-01

    This study examines preliminary evidence for the Lichtenberg Financial Decision Rating Scale (LFDRS), a new person-centered approach to assessing capacity to make financial decisions, and its relationship to self-reported cases of financial exploitation in 69 older African Americans. More than one third of individuals reporting financial exploitation also had questionable decisional abilities. Overall, decisional ability score and current decision total were significantly associated with cognitive screening test and financial ability scores, demonstrating good criterion validity. Study findings suggest that impaired decisional abilities may render older adults more vulnerable to financial exploitation, and that the LFDRS is a valid tool.

  6. Should Non-Cognitive Skills Be Included in School Accountability Systems? Preliminary Evidence from California's CORE Districts. Evidence Speaks Reports, Vol 1, #13

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Martin R.

    2016-01-01

    Evidence confirms that student skills other than academic achievement and ability predict a broad range of academic and life outcomes. This evidence, along with a new federal requirement that state accountability systems include an indicator of school quality or student success not based on test scores, has sparked interest in incorporating such…

  7. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-P-Dioxin (Tcdd) Dose-Response Studies: Preliminary Literature Search Results and Request for Additional Studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA invited the public to comment on the preliminary list of in vivo mammalian dose-response citations for 2,3,7,8 tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). This list was compiled as a first step in the development of EPA’s response to the National Academy of Sciences comments (NAS, 2...

  8. A Four-Step and Four-Criteria Approach for Evaluating Evidence of Dose Addition in Chemical Mixture Toxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dose addition is the most frequently-used component-based approach for predicting dose response for a mixture of toxicologically-similar chemicals and for statistical evaluation of whether the mixture response is consistent with dose additivity and therefore predictable from the ...

  9. Widespread evidence for non-additive genetic variation in Cloninger's and Eysenck's personality dimensions using a twin plus sibling design.

    PubMed

    Keller, Matthew C; Coventry, William L; Heath, Andrew C; Martin, Nicholas G

    2005-11-01

    Studies using the classical twin design often conclude that most genetic variation underlying personality is additive in nature. However, studies analyzing only twins are very limited in their ability to detect non-additive genetic variation and are unable to detect sources of variation unique to twins, which can mask non-additive genetic variation. The current study assessed 9672 MZ and DZ twin individuals and 3241 of their siblings to investigate the environmental and genetic architecture underlying eight dimensions of personality: four from Eysenck's Personality Questionnaire and four from Cloninger's Temperament and Character Inventory. Broad-sense heritability estimates from best-fitting models were two to three times greater than the narrow-sense heritability estimates for Harm Avoidance, Novelty Seeking, Reward Dependence, Persistence, Extraversion, and Neuroticism. This genetic non-additivity could be due to dominance, additive-by-additive epistasis, or to additive genetic effects combined with higher-order epistasis. Environmental effects unique to twins were detected for both Lie and Psychoticism but accounted for little overall variation. Our results illustrate the increased sensitivity afforded by extending the classical twin design to include siblings, and may provide clues to the evolutionary origins of genetic variation underlying personality.

  10. Teacher Self-Assessment of Evidence-Based Classroom Practices: Preliminary Findings across Primary, Intermediate and Secondary Level Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borgmeier, Chris; Loman, Sheldon L.; Hara, Motoaki

    2016-01-01

    The limited implementation of evidence-based classroom practices and ways to provide effective professional development to address this challenge remain enduring concerns in education. Despite these concerns, there exists a well-established research literature on evidence-based practices for effective classroom management and instructional…

  11. Developing and evaluating communication strategies to support informed decisions and practice based on evidence (DECIDE): protocol and preliminary results

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Healthcare decision makers face challenges when using guidelines, including understanding the quality of the evidence or the values and preferences upon which recommendations are made, which are often not clear. Methods GRADE is a systematic approach towards assessing the quality of evidence and the strength of recommendations in healthcare. GRADE also gives advice on how to go from evidence to decisions. It has been developed to address the weaknesses of other grading systems and is now widely used internationally. The Developing and Evaluating Communication Strategies to Support Informed Decisions and Practice Based on Evidence (DECIDE) consortium (http://www.decide-collaboration.eu/), which includes members of the GRADE Working Group and other partners, will explore methods to ensure effective communication of evidence-based recommendations targeted at key stakeholders: healthcare professionals, policymakers, and managers, as well as patients and the general public. Surveys and interviews with guideline producers and other stakeholders will explore how presentation of the evidence could be improved to better meet their information needs. We will collect further stakeholder input from advisory groups, via consultations and user testing; this will be done across a wide range of healthcare systems in Europe, North America, and other countries. Targeted communication strategies will be developed, evaluated in randomized trials, refined, and assessed during the development of real guidelines. Discussion Results of the DECIDE project will improve the communication of evidence-based healthcare recommendations. Building on the work of the GRADE Working Group, DECIDE will develop and evaluate methods that address communication needs of guideline users. The project will produce strategies for communicating recommendations that have been rigorously evaluated in diverse settings, and it will support the transfer of research into practice in healthcare systems

  12. SEX-RELATED FUNCTIONAL ASYMMETRY OF THE AMGDALA: PRELIMINARY EVIDENCE USING A CASE-MATCHED LESION APPROACH

    PubMed Central

    Tranel, Daniel; Bechara, Antoine

    2008-01-01

    We have reported previously that there appears to be an intriguing sex-related functional asymmetry of the prefrontal cortices, especially the ventromedial sector, in regard to social conduct, emotional processing, and decision-making, whereby the right-sided sector is important in men but not women and the left-sided sector is important in women but not men. The amygdala is another structure that has been widely implicated in emotion processing and social decision-making, and the question arises as to whether the amygdala, in a manner akin to what has been observed for the prefrontal cortex, might have sex-related functional asymmetry in regard to social and emotional functions. A preliminary test of this question was carried out in the current study, where we used a case-matched lesion approach and contrasted a pair of men cases and a pair of women cases, where in each pair one patient had left amygdala damage and the other had right amygdala damage. We investigated the domains of social conduct, emotional processing and personality, and decision-making. The results provide support for the notion that there is sex-related functional asymmetry of the amygdala in regard to these functions— in the men pair, the patient with right-sided amygdala damage was impaired in these functions, and the patient with left-sided amygdala damage was not, whereas in the women pair, the opposite pattern obtained, with the left-sided woman being impaired and the right-sided woman being unimpaired. These data provide preliminary support for the notion that sex-related functional asymmetry of the amygdala may entail functions such as social conduct, emotional processing, and decision-making, a finding that in turn could reflect (as either a cause or effect) differences in the manner in which men and women apprehend, process, and execute emotion-related information. PMID:19308794

  13. Sex-related functional asymmetry of the amygdala: preliminary evidence using a case-matched lesion approach.

    PubMed

    Tranel, Daniel; Bechara, Antoine

    2009-06-01

    We have reported previously that there appears to be an intriguing sex-related functional asymmetry of the prefrontal cortices, especially the ventromedial sector, in regard to social conduct, emotional processing, and decision-making, whereby the right-sided sector is important in men but not women and the left-sided sector is important in women but not men. The amygdala is another structure that has been widely implicated in emotion processing and social decision-making, and the question arises as to whether the amygdala, in a manner akin to what has been observed for the prefrontal cortex, might have sex-related functional asymmetry in regard to social and emotional functions. A preliminary test of this question was carried out in the current study, where we used a case-matched lesion approach and contrasted a pair of men cases and a pair of women cases, where in each pair one patient had left amygdala damage and the other had right amygdala damage. We investigated the domains of social conduct, emotional processing and personality, and decision-making. The results provide support for the notion that there is sex-related functional asymmetry of the amygdala in regard to these functions - in the male pair, the patient with right-sided amygdala damage was impaired in these functions, and the patient with left-sided amygdala damage was not, whereas in the female pair, the opposite pattern obtained, with the left-sided woman being impaired and the right-sided woman being unimpaired. These data provide preliminary support for the notion that sex-related functional asymmetry of the amygdala may entail functions such as social conduct, emotional processing, and decision-making, a finding that in turn could reflect (as either a cause or effect) differences in the manner in which men and women apprehend, process, and execute emotion-related information.

  14. Geochemical and mineralogical evidence for Sahara and Sahel dust additions to Quaternary soils on Lanzarote, eastern Canary Islands, Spain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muhs, D.R.; Budahn, J.; Skipp, G.; Prospero, J.M.; Patterson, D.; Bettis, E. Arthur

    2010-01-01

    Africa is the most important source of dust in the world today, and dust storms are frequent on the nearby Canary Islands. Previous workers have inferred that the Sahara is the most important source of dust to Canary Islands soils, with little contribution from the Sahel region. Soils overlying a late Quaternary basalt flow on Lanzarote, Canary Islands, contain, in addition to volcanic minerals, quartz and mica, exotic to the island's bedrock. Kaolinite in the soils also likely has an exotic origin. Trace-element geochemistry shows that the soils are derived from varying proportions of locally derived basalt and African dust. Major-element geochemistry, clay mineralogy and interpretation of satellite imagery suggest that dust additions to the Canary Islands come not only from the Sahara Desert, but also from the Sahel region. ?? Published 2010. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  15. Behavioural response of adult sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) to predator and conspecific alarm cues: evidence of additive effects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Di Rocco, Richard T.; Imre, Istvan; Johnson, Nicholas; Brown, Grant B

    2016-01-01

    Sea lampreys Petromyzon marinus, an invasive pest in the Upper Great Lakes, avoid odours that represent danger in their habitat. These odours include conspecific alarm cues and predator cues, like 2-phenylethylamine hydrochloride (PEA HCl), which is found in the urine of mammalian predators. Whether conspecific alarm cues and predator cues function additively or synergistically when mixed together is unknown. The objectives of this experimental study were to determine if the avoidance response of sea lamprey to PEA HCl is proportional to the concentration delivered, and if the avoidance response to the combination of a predator cue (PEA HCl) and sea lamprey alarm cue is additive. To accomplish the first objective, groups of ten sea lampreys were placed in an artificial stream channel and presented with stepwise concentrations of PEA HCl ranging from 5 × 10−8 to 5 × 10−10 M and a deionized water control. Sea lampreys exhibited an increase in their avoidance behaviour in response to increasing concentrations of PEA HCl. To accomplish the second objective, sea lampreys were exposed to PEA HCl, conspecific alarm cue and a combination of the two. Sea lampreys responded to the combination of predator cue and conspecific alarm cue in an additive manner.

  16. The Use of Systematic Reviews and Other Research Evidence in Disasters and Related Areas: Preliminary Report of a Needs Assessment Survey

    PubMed Central

    Kayabu, Bonnix; Clarke, Mike

    2013-01-01

    % of participants “strongly agreed” that evidence from systematic reviews could have a positive role in humanitarian interventions and a further 29% “agreed” with the same statement. 66% thought they would like to access them when a natural disaster is not known to be imminent, compared to 34% who said that they would not wish to access systematic reviews at such a time. 70% would like to access systematic reviews during the period of prediction that a disaster will happen Conclusion: These preliminary findings from the Evidence Aid survey emphasise the need for “global” evidence but also the need that this be supplemented by local and context-specific knowledge. Systematic reviews could play a central role in improving the effectiveness of humanitarian aid in the planning, delivery and recovery phases of a disaster. Keywords: Evidence base, humanitarian planning, delivery and recovery, systematic review PMID:23378935

  17. Financial Decision-making Abilities and Financial Exploitation in Older African Americans: Preliminary Validity Evidence for the Lichtenberg Financial Decision Rating Scale (LFDRS)

    PubMed Central

    Ficker, Lisa J.; Rahman-Filipiak, Annalise

    2015-01-01

    This study examines preliminary evidence for the Lichtenberg Financial Decision Rating Scale (LFDRS), a new person-centered approach to assessing capacity to make financial decisions, and its relationship to self-reported cases of financial exploitation in 69 older African Americans. More than one third of individuals reporting financial exploitation also had questionable decisional abilities. Overall, decisional ability score and current decision total were significantly associated with cognitive screening test and financial ability scores, demonstrating good criterion validity. Financially exploited individuals, and non-exploited individuals, showed mean group differences on the Mini Mental State Exam, Financial Situational Awareness, Psychological Vulnerability, Current Decisional Ability, and Susceptibility to undue influence subscales, and Total Lichtenberg Financial Decision Rating Scale Score. Study findings suggest that impaired decisional abilities may render older adults more vulnerable to financial exploitation, and that the LFDRS is a valid tool for measuring both decisional abilities and financial exploitation. PMID:26285038

  18. Is Social Categorization the Missing Link Between Weak Central Coherence and Mental State Inference Abilities in Autism? Preliminary Evidence from a General Population Sample.

    PubMed

    Skorich, Daniel P; May, Adrienne R; Talipski, Louisa A; Hall, Marnie H; Dolstra, Anita J; Gash, Tahlia B; Gunningham, Beth H

    2016-03-01

    We explore the relationship between the 'theory of mind' (ToM) and 'central coherence' difficulties of autism. We introduce covariation between hierarchically-embedded categories and social information--at the local level, the global level, or at both levels simultaneously--within a category confusion task. We then ask participants to infer the mental state of novel category members, and measure participants' autism-spectrum quotient (AQ). Results reveal a positive relationship between AQ and the degree of local/global social categorization, which in turn predicts the pattern of mental state inferences. These results provide preliminary evidence for a causal relationship between central coherence and ToM abilities. Implications with regard to ToM processes, social categorization, intervention, and the development of a unified account of autism are discussed.

  19. Preliminary findings of an adapted evidence-based woman-focused HIV intervention on condom use and negotiation among at-risk women in Pretoria, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Wechsberg, Wendee M; Luseno, Winnie K; Kline, Tracy L; Browne, Felicia A; Zule, William A

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the results of a randomized trial in South Africa of an adapted evidence-based Woman-Focused intervention on condom use with primary sex partners. The preliminary findings show that regardless of HIV status, condom negotiation was significantly associated with condom use at the 3- and 6-month follow-ups. By intervention group, significant intervention effects were found at 6-month follow-up for HIV-positive and HIV-unknown status women in the Woman-Focused intervention who were more likely than women in the Standard intervention to report condom use with a primary male partner. Among HIV-positive women, those in the Woman-Focused group and those with greater sexual control were more likely to report condom use at the 6-month follow-up. The findings indicate that gender-based interventions for women may result in increased condom negotiation skills.

  20. Additional information is not ignored: New evidence for information integration and inhibition in take-the-best decisions.

    PubMed

    Dummel, Sebastian; Rummel, Jan; Voss, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Ignoring information when making a decision is at the heart of the take-the-best (TTB) strategy, according to which decision makers only consider information about the most valid cue (TTB-relevant) and ignore less valid cues (TTB-irrelevant). Results of four experiments, however, show that participants do not ignore information when cues are easily available (Experiments 1a, 1b, and 3) or when task instructions emphasize decision accuracy (Experiment 2). In all four experiments we found that the consistency between the TTB-relevant cue and a supposedly TTB-irrelevant cue systematically affected decision times and confidence ratings of even those participants whose choices were consistently driven by only the TTB-relevant cue. In Experiments 1a and 1b, we also found that these participants were more likely to ignore information when cues had to be acquired sequentially, suggesting that whether or not participants ignore information depends on information availability. Experiment 2 further showed that different task instructions (emphasizing decision accuracy vs. speed) affect whether or not participants ignore information. Finally, Experiment 3 addressed the question of how participants process information that, according to TTB, is considered irrelevant for their choices. We find first evidence that participants who consistently make choices in line with TTB inhibit information about a TTB-irrelevant cue when this information conflicts with their decisions. Findings are considered and discussed in relation to current models of decision making.

  1. Additional evidence for a dual-strategy model of reasoning: Probabilistic reasoning is more invariant than reasoning about logical validity.

    PubMed

    Markovits, Henry; Brisson, Janie; de Chantal, Pier-Luc

    2015-11-01

    One of the major debates concerning the nature of inferential reasoning is between counterexample-based strategies such as mental model theory and the statistical strategies underlying probabilistic models. The dual-strategy model proposed by Verschueren, Schaeken, and d'Ydewalle (2005a, 2005b) suggests that people might have access to both kinds of strategies. One of the postulates of this approach is that statistical strategies correspond to low-cost, intuitive modes of evaluation, whereas counterexample strategies are higher-cost and more variable in use. We examined this hypothesis by using a deductive-updating paradigm. The results of Study 1 showed that individual differences in strategy use predict different levels of deductive updating on inferences about logical validity. Study 2 demonstrated no such variation when explicitly probabilistic inferences were examined. Study 3 showed that presenting updating problems with probabilistic inferences modified performance on subsequent problems using logical validity, whereas the opposite was not true. These results provide clear evidence that the processes used to make probabilistic inferences are less subject to variation than those used to make inferences of logical validity.

  2. Preliminary Evidence of Reduced Urge to Cough and Cough Response in Four Individuals following Remote Traumatic Brain Injury with Tracheostomy

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Sarah; Carnaby, Giselle; Tsai, Hsiu-Wen; Davenport, Paul W.

    2016-01-01

    Cough and swallow protect the lungs and are frequently impaired following traumatic brain injury (TBI). This project examined cough response to inhaled capsaicin solution challenge in a cohort of four young adults with a history of TBI within the preceding five years. All participants had a history of tracheostomy with subsequent decannulation and dysphagia after their injuries (resolved for all but one participant). Urge to cough (UTC) and cough response were measured and compared to an existing database of normative cough response data obtained from 32 healthy controls (HCs). Participants displayed decreased UTC and cough responses compared to HCs. It is unknown if these preliminary results manifest as a consequence of disrupted sensory (afferent) projections, an inability to perceive or discriminate cough stimuli, disrupted motor (efferent) response, peripheral weakness, or any combination of these factors. Future work should attempt to clarify if the observed phenomena are borne out in a larger sample of individuals with TBI, determine the relative contributions of central versus peripheral nervous system structures to cough sensory perceptual changes following TBI (should they exist), and formulate recommendations for systematic screening and assessment of cough sensory perception in order to facilitate rehabilitative efforts. This project is identified with the National Clinical Trials NCT02240329. PMID:27774033

  3. Early Holocene human remains from the Argentinean Pampas: additional evidence for distinctive cranial morphology of early South Americans.

    PubMed

    Pucciarelli, Héctor M; Perez, S Ivan; Politis, Gustavo G

    2010-10-01

    The cranial morphology of Early Holocene American human samples is characterized by a long and narrow cranial vault, whereas more recent samples exhibit a shorter and wider cranial vault. Two hypotheses have been proposed to account for the morphological differences between early and late-American samples: (a) the migratory hypothesis that suggests that the morphological variation between early and late American samples was the result of a variable number of migratory waves; and (b) the local diversification hypothesis, that is, the morphological differences between early and late American samples were mainly generated by local, random (genetic drift), and nonrandom factors (selection and phenotypic plasticity). We present the first craniometric study of three early skulls from the Argentinean Pampas, dated ∼8,000 cal. years BP (Arroyo Seco 2, Chocorí, and La Tigra), and one associated with mega-faunal remains (Fontezuelas skull). In addition, we studied several Late Holocene samples. We show that the skulls from the Argentinean Pampas are morphologically similar to other Early Holocene American skulls (i.e., Lagoa Santa from Brazil, Tequendama, Checua, and Aguazuque from Colombia, Lauricocha from Peru, and early Mexicans) that exhibit long and narrow cranial vaults. These samples differ from the Late Holocene American samples that exhibit a shorter and wider cranial vault. Our results underscore the important differences in cranial morphology between early and late-American samples. However, we emphasize the need for further studies to discuss alternative hypotheses regarding such differences.

  4. Goal-directed and transfer-cue-elicited drug-seeking are dissociated by pharmacotherapy: evidence for independent additive controllers.

    PubMed

    Hogarth, Lee

    2012-07-01

    According to contemporary learning theory, drug-seeking behavior reflects the summation of 2 dissociable controllers. Whereas goal-directed drug-seeking is determined by the expected current incentive value of the drug, stimulus-elicited drug-seeking is determined by the expected probability of the drug independently of its current incentive value, and these 2 controllers contribute additively to observed drug-seeking. One applied prediction of this model is that smoking cessation pharmacotherapies selectively attenuate tonic but not cue-elicited craving because they downgrade the expected incentive value of the drug but leave expected probability intact. To test this, the current study examined whether nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) nasal spray would modify goal-directed tobacco choice in a human outcome devaluation procedure, but leave cue-elicited tobacco choice in a Pavlovian to instrumental transfer (PIT) procedure intact. Smokers (N= 96) first underwent concurrent choice training in which 2 responses earned tobacco or chocolate points, respectively. Participants then ingested either NRT nasal spray (1 mg) or chocolate (147 g) to devalue 1 outcome. Concurrent choice was then tested again in extinction to measure goal-directed control of choice, and in a PIT test to measure the extent to which tobacco and chocolate stimuli enhanced choice of the same outcome. It was found that NRT modified tobacco choice in the extinction test but not the extent to which the tobacco stimulus enhanced choice of the tobacco outcome in the PIT test. This dissociation suggests that the propensity to engage in drug-seeking is determined independently by the expected value and probability of the drug, and that pharmacotherapy has partial efficacy because it selectively effects expected drug value.

  5. Preliminary evidence of altered steroidogenesis in women with Alzheimer's disease: Have the patients "OLDER" adrenal zona reticularis?

    PubMed

    Vaňková, Markéta; Hill, Martin; Velíková, Marta; Včelák, Josef; Vacínová, Gabriela; Dvořáková, Kateřina; Lukášová, Petra; Vejražková, Daniela; Rusina, Robert; Holmerová, Iva; Jarolímová, Eva; Vaňková, Hana; Kancheva, Radmila; Bendlová, Běla; Stárka, Luboslav

    2016-04-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) represents more than half of total dementias. Various factors including altered steroid biosynthesis may participate in its pathophysiology. We investigated how the circulating steroids (measured by GC-MS and RIA) may be altered in the presence of AD. Sixteen women with AD and 22 age- and BMI-corresponding controls aged over 65 years were enrolled in the study. The steroid levels (47 steroids and steroid polar conjugates) and their ratios in AD female patients indicated increased CYP11A1 activity, weakened activity of the CYP17A1C17,20 lyase metabolic step and attenuated sulfotransferase SULT2A1 activity at higher activity of the CYP17A1 17-hydroxylase step. The patients showed diminished HSD3B2 activity for C21 steroids, abated conversion of 17-hydroxyprogesterone to cortisol, and significantly elevated cortisol. The women with AD had also attenuated steroid 7α-hydroxylation forming immunoprotective Δ(5)-C19 steroids, attenuated aromatase activity forming estradiol that induces autoimmunity and a shift from the 3β-hydroxy-5α/β-reduced C19 steroids to their neuroinhibitory and antiinflammatory GABAergic 3α-hydroxy- counterparts and showed higher levels of the 3α-hydroxy-5α/β-reduced C21 steroids and pregnenolone sulfate (improves cognitive abilities but may be both protective and excitotoxic). Our preliminary data indicated functioning of alternative "backdoor" pathway in women with AD showing higher levels of both 5α/β-reduced C21 steroids but reduced levels of both 5α/β-reduced C21 steroids, which implied that the alternative "backdoor" pathway might include both 5α- and 5β-reduced steroids. Our study suggested relationships between AD status in women based on the age of subjects and levels of 10 steroids measured by GC-MS.

  6. Brain Correlates of Cognitive Remediation in Schizophrenia: Activation Likelihood Analysis Shows Preliminary Evidence of Neural Target Engagement

    PubMed Central

    Ramsay, Ian S.; MacDonald, Angus W.

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive remediation training (CRT) for schizophrenia has been found to improve cognitive functioning and influence neural plasticity. However, with various training approaches and mixed findings, the mechanisms driving generalization of cognitive skills from CRT are unclear. In this meta-analysis of extant imaging studies examining CRT’s effects, we sought to clarify whether varying approaches to CRT suggest common neural changes and whether such mechanisms are restorative or compensatory. We conducted a literature search to identify studies appropriate for inclusion in an activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analysis. Our criteria required studies to consist of training-based interventions designed to improve patients’ cognitive or social functioning, including generalization to untrained circumstances. Studies were also required to examine changes in pre- vs posttraining functional activation using functional magnetic resonance imaging or positron emission tomography. The literature search identified 162 articles, 9 of which were appropriate for inclusion. ALE analyses comparing pre- and posttraining brain activation showed increased activity in the lateral and medial prefrontal cortex (PFC), parietal cortex, insula, and the caudate and thalamus. Notably, activation associated with CRT in the left PFC and thalamus partially overlapped with previous meta-analytically identified areas associated with deficits in working memory, executive control, and facial emotion processing in schizophrenia. We conclude that CRT interventions from varying theoretic modalities elicit plasticity in areas that support cognitive and socioemotional processes in this early set of studies. While preliminary, these changes appear to be both restorative and compensatory, though thalamocortical areas previously associated with dysfunction may be common sources of plasticity for cognitive remediation in schizophrenia. PMID:25800249

  7. Placebo analgesia: Self-report measures and preliminary evidence of cortical dopamine release associated with placebo response

    PubMed Central

    Jarcho, Johanna M.; Feier, Natasha A.; Labus, Jennifer S.; Naliboff, Bruce; Smith, Suzanne R.; Hong, Jui-Yang; Colloca, Luana; Tillisch, Kirsten; Mandelkern, Mark A.; Mayer, Emeran A.; London, Edythe D.

    2015-01-01

    Placebo analgesia is measured by self-report, yet current, expected, and recalled efficacy may be differentially related to brain function. Here we used a human thermal pain model to compare self-reports of expected, concurrent, and recalled efficacy of a topical placebo analgesic, and tested associations of the three measures of efficacy with changes in dopamine D2/D3 receptor availability in brain using [18F]fallypride with positron emission tomography (PET). Participants (15 healthy women) were assessed on three test days. The first test day included a laboratory visit, during which the temperature needed to evoke consistent pain was determined, placebo analgesia was induced via verbal and experience-based expectation, and the placebo response was measured. On two subsequent test days, PET scans were performed in Control and Placebo conditions, respectively, in counterbalanced order. During Visit 1, concurrent and recalled placebo efficacy were unrelated; during the Placebo PET visit, expected and recalled efficacy were highly correlated (ρ = 0.68, p = 0.005), but concurrent efficacy was unrelated to expected or recalled efficacy. Region of interest analysis revealed dopamine D2/D3 receptor availability was lower in left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex in the Placebo condition (p < 0.001, uncorrected), and greater change in this measure was associated with higher levels of recalled analgesic efficacy (ρ = 0.58, p = 0.02). These preliminary findings underscore the need to consider how self-reported symptom improvement is assessed in clinical trials of analgesics and suggest that dopaminergic activity in the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex may promote recalled efficacy of placebo. PMID:26759785

  8. 15N electron nuclear double resonance of the primary donor cation radical P+.865 in reaction centers of Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides: additional evidence for the dimer model.

    PubMed Central

    Lubitz, W; Isaacson, R A; Abresch, E C; Feher, G

    1984-01-01

    Four 15N hyperfine coupling constants, including signs, have been measured by electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) and electron nuclear nuclear triple resonance (TRIPLE) for the bacteriochlorophyll a radical cation, BChla+., in vitro and for the light-induced primary donor radical cation, P+.865, in reaction centers of Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides R-26. A comparison of the data shows that the hyperfine coupling constants have the same sign in both radicals and are, on the average, smaller by a factor of 2 in P+.865. These results provide additional evidence that P+.865 is a bacteriochlorophyll dimer and are in contradiction with the monomer structure of P+.865 recently proposed by O'Malley and Babcock. The reduction factors of the individual 15N couplings, together with the evidence from proton ENDOR data and molecular orbital calculations, indicate a dimer structure in which only two rings (either I and I or III and III) of the bacteriochlorophyll macrocycles overlap. PMID:6096857

  9. Preliminary evidence on photoreactivation of Frankia spores with visible light after exposure to UV-C radiation.

    PubMed

    Sayed, W F

    2011-06-01

    Spores of four Frankia strains, the nitrogen-fixing actinomycete, were exposed to short wavelength UV-C radiation of 254 nm at 1 lux cm(2) (0.24 mw cm2 of energy) for 10 min. The used strains were HFP020203, UGL020604, UGL020602q and ORS021001. Exposure to UV was followed by reactivation with visible white light at 327.4 lux cm(2) for the same period of time. Spore germination percentage, spore protein content, and cell growth were damaged by this treatment. The lower and higher percentages of reduction in spore germination were 32 and 63% and, for the same strains, the recovery by white light was 7.2 and 37%. The lower percentages of UV damage and subsequent low recovery were recorded for strain ORS021001 that is considered more resistant to UV than the other strains. The higher percentages were recorded for strain HFP020203 that is more sensitive to UV but having more efficient repairing mechanisms. All the tested strains showed repairing activity induced by white light as indicated from the increase in their spore germination, protein content and almost restoring the normal shape of Frankia hyphae, after being damaged, as revealed by scanning electron microscope. This is the first evidence that photo-repairing systems are present in Frankia strains although there are variations in their response to both UV-C and photoreactivation by white light.

  10. Beyond Neglect: Preliminary Evidence of Retrospective Time Estimation Abnormalities in Non-Neglect Stroke and Transient Ischemic Attack Patients

    PubMed Central

    Low, Essie; Crewther, Sheila G.; Perre, Diana L.; Ben Ong; Laycock, Robin; Tu, Hans; Wijeratne, Tissa

    2016-01-01

    Perception of the passage of time is essential for safe planning and navigation of everyday activities. Findings from the literature have demonstrated a gross underestimation of time interval in right-hemisphere damaged neglect patients, but not in non-neglect unilaterally-damaged patients, compared to controls. This study aimed to investigate retrospective estimation of the duration of a target detection task over two occasions, in 30 stroke patients (12 left-side stroke 15 right-side stroke, and 3 right-side stroke with neglect) and 10 transient ischemic attack patients, relative to 31 age-matched controls. Performances on visual short-term and working memory tasks were also examined to investigate the associations between timing abilities with residual cognitive functioning. Initial results revealed evidence of perceptual time underestimation, not just in neglect patients, but also in non-neglect unilaterally-damaged stroke patients and transient ischemic attack patients. Three months later, underestimation of time persisted only in left-side stroke and right-side stroke with neglect patients, who also demonstrated reduced short-term and working memory abilities. Findings from this study suggest a predictive role of residual cognitive impairments in determining the prognosis of perceptual timing abnormalities. PMID:26940859

  11. Promoting Mentalizing in Pupils by Acting on Teachers: Preliminary Italian Evidence of the “Thought in Mind” Project

    PubMed Central

    Valle, Annalisa; Massaro, Davide; Castelli, Ilaria; Sangiuliano Intra, Francesca; Lombardi, Elisabetta; Bracaglia, Edoardo; Marchetti, Antonella

    2016-01-01

    Mentalization research focuses on different aspects of this topic, highlighting individual differences in mentalizing and proposing programs of intervention for children and adults to increase this ability. The “Thought in Mind Project” (TiM Project) provides training targeted to adults—teachers or parents—to increase their mentalization and, consequently, to obtain mentalization improvement in children. The present research aimed to explore for the first time ever the potential of training for teachers based on the TiM Project, regarding the enhancement of mentalizing of an adult who would have interacted as a teacher with children. For this reason, two teachers – similar for meta-cognitive and meta-emotional skills - and their classes (N = 46) were randomly assigned to the training or control condition. In the first case, the teacher participated in training on the implementation of promotion of mentalizing in everyday school teaching strategies; in the second case the teacher participated in a control activity, similar to training for scheduling and methods, but without promoting the implementation of mentalization (in both conditions two meetings lasting about 3 h at the beginning of the school year and two supervisions during the school year were conducted). The children were tested by tasks assessing several aspects of mentalization (second and third-order false belief understanding, Strange Stories, Reading the mind in the Eyes, Mentalizing Task) both before and after the teacher participate in the TiM or control training (i.e., at the beginning and at the end of the school year). The results showed that, although some measured components of mentalization progressed over time, only the TiM Project training group significantly improved in third order false belief understanding and changed - in a greater way compared to the control group – in two of the three components of the Mentalizing Task. These evidences are promising about the idea that the

  12. Facile and Promising Method for Michael Addition of Indole and Pyrrole to Electron-Deficient trans-β-Nitroolefins Catalyzed by a Hydrogen Bond Donor Catalyst Feist's Acid and Preliminary Study of Antimicrobial Activity

    PubMed Central

    Al Majid, Abdullah M. A.; Islam, Mohammad Shahidul; Barakat, Assem; Al-Agamy, Mohamed H. M.; Naushad, Mu.

    2014-01-01

    The importance of cooperative hydrogen-bonding effects has been demonstrated using novel 3-methylenecyclopropane-1,2-dicarboxylic acid (Feist's acid (FA)) as hydrogen bond donor catalysts for the addition of indole and pyrrole to trans-β-nitrostyrene derivatives. Because of the hydrogen bond donor (HBD) ability, Feist's acid (FA) has been introduced as a new class of hydrogen bond donor catalysts for the activation of nitroolefin towards nucleophilic substitution reaction. It has effectively catalyzed the Michael addition of indoles and pyrrole to β-nitroolefins under optimum reaction condition to furnish the corresponding Michael adducts in good to excellent yields (up to 98%). The method is general, atom-economical, convenient, and eco-friendly and could provide excellent yields and regioselectivities. Some newly synthesized compounds were for examined in vitro antimicrobial activity and their preliminary results are reported. PMID:24574906

  13. Facile and promising method for michael addition of indole and pyrrole to electron-deficient trans-β-nitroolefins catalyzed by a hydrogen bond donor catalyst Feist's acid and preliminary study of antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Al Majid, Abdullah M A; Islam, Mohammad Shahidul; Barakat, Assem; Al-Agamy, Mohamed H M; Naushad, Mu

    2014-01-01

    The importance of cooperative hydrogen-bonding effects has been demonstrated using novel 3-methylenecyclopropane-1,2-dicarboxylic acid (Feist's acid (FA)) as hydrogen bond donor catalysts for the addition of indole and pyrrole to trans-β-nitrostyrene derivatives. Because of the hydrogen bond donor (HBD) ability, Feist's acid (FA) has been introduced as a new class of hydrogen bond donor catalysts for the activation of nitroolefin towards nucleophilic substitution reaction. It has effectively catalyzed the Michael addition of indoles and pyrrole to β-nitroolefins under optimum reaction condition to furnish the corresponding Michael adducts in good to excellent yields (up to 98%). The method is general, atom-economical, convenient, and eco-friendly and could provide excellent yields and regioselectivities. Some newly synthesized compounds were for examined in vitro antimicrobial activity and their preliminary results are reported.

  14. Evidence of Shared Genome-Wide Additive Genetic Effects on Interpersonal Trauma Exposure and Generalized Vulnerability to Drug Dependence in a Population of Substance Users.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Rohan H C; Nugent, Nicole R; Brick, Leslie A; Bidwell, Cinnamon L; McGeary, John E; Keller, Matthew C; Knopik, Valerie S

    2016-06-01

    Exposure to traumatic experiences is associated with an increased risk for drug dependence and poorer response to substance abuse treatment (Claus & Kindleberger, 2002; Jaycox, Ebener, Damesek, & Becker, 2004). Despite this evidence, the reasons for the observed associations of trauma and the general tendency to be dependent upon drugs of abuse remain unclear. Data (N = 2,596) from the Study of Addiction: Genetics and Environment were used to analyze (a) the degree to which commonly occurring single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs; minor allele frequency > 1%) in the human genome explains exposure to interpersonal traumatic experiences, and (b) the extent to which additive genetic effects on trauma are shared with additive genetic effects on drug dependence. Our results suggested moderate additive genetic influences on interpersonal trauma, h(2) SNP-Interpersonal = .47, 95% confidence interval (CI) [.10, .85], that are partially shared with additive genetic effects on generalized vulnerability to drug dependence, h(2) SNP-DD = .36, 95% CI [.11, .61]; rG-SNP = .49, 95% CI [.02, .96]. Although the design/technique does not exclude the possibility that substance abuse causally increases risk for traumatic experiences (or vice versa), these findings raise the possibility that commonly occurring SNPs influence both the general tendency towards drug dependence and interpersonal trauma.

  15. Association of KIR2DL2 polymorphism rs2756923 with type 1 diabetes and preliminary evidence for lack of inhibition through HLA-C1 ligand binding.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Lopez, E; Scholten, F; Aminkeng, F; Wild, C; Kalhes, H; Seidl, C; Tonn, T; Van der Auwera, B; Badenhoop, K

    2009-06-01

    Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) on chromosome 19q13.4 regulate the function of not only human natural killer (NK) cells but also T cells. An increase in activating KIR- human leucocyte antigen ligand pairs has been associated with an additional risk to develop type 1 diabetes (T1D). T1D families [n = 184 (552 individuals); n = 176 (528 subjects)], unrelated T1D patients (n = 380; n = 394) and healthy controls (n = 315; n = 401) from Germany and Belgium, respectively, were genotyped for the rs2756923 polymorphism within the KIR gene cluster haplotype B in exon 8 of the KIR2DL2 gene. We observed in both Germans and Belgians an overtransmission of the allele 'G' of the KIR2DL2-rs2756923 polymorphism (64.2% vs 35.8%, P = 3 x 10(-4) and 60.0% vs 40.0%, P = 0.02, respectively). In addition, this allele was more frequent in German patients than in healthy controls (78.4% vs 21.6%, P = 1 x 10(-3)). Preliminary results from a cytotoxicity assay suggest that inhibition of NK-cell cytotoxicity may be impaired in individuals carrying the rs2756923 G allele. These data suggest a potential role of the KIR2DL2-rs2756923 polymorphism in T1D in Germans and Belgians.

  16. Evidence for the formation of an enamine species during aldol and Michael-type addition reactions promiscuously catalyzed by 4-oxalocrotonate tautomerase.

    PubMed

    Poddar, Harshwardhan; Rahimi, Mehran; Geertsema, Edzard M; Thunnissen, Andy-Mark W H; Poelarends, Gerrit J

    2015-03-23

    The enzyme 4-oxalocrotonate tautomerase (4-OT), which has a catalytic N-terminal proline residue (Pro1), can promiscuously catalyze various carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions, including aldol condensation of acetaldehyde with benzaldehyde to yield cinnamaldehyde, and Michael-type addition of acetaldehyde to a wide variety of nitroalkenes to yield valuable γ-nitroaldehydes. To gain insight into how 4-OT catalyzes these unnatural reactions, we carried out exchange studies in D2 O, and X-ray crystallography studies. The former established that H-D exchange within acetaldehyde is catalyzed by 4-OT and that the Pro1 residue is crucial for this activity. The latter showed that Pro1 of 4-OT had reacted with acetaldehyde to give an enamine species. These results provide evidence of the mechanism of the 4-OT-catalyzed aldol and Michael-type addition reactions in which acetaldehyde is activated for nucleophilic addition by Pro1-dependent formation of an enamine intermediate.

  17. Double-Edged Roles of Nitric Oxide Signaling on APP Processing and Amyloid-β Production In Vitro: Preliminary Evidence from Sodium Nitroprusside.

    PubMed

    Cai, Zheng-Xu; Guo, Hui-Shu; Wang, Che; Wei, Min; Cheng, Cheng; Yang, Zhao-Fei; Chen, Yin-Wang; Le, Wei-Dong; Li, Song

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that is thought to be caused in part by the age-related accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) in the brain. Recent findings have revealed that nitric oxide (NO) modulates the processing of amyloid-β precursor protein (APP) and alters Aβ production; however, the previously presented data are contradictory and the underlying molecular mechanisms are still incomplete. Here, using human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells stably transfected with wild-type APPwt695, we found that NO, derived from NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP), bi-directionally modulates APP processing in vitro. The data from ELISA and Western blot (WB) tests indicated that SNP at lower concentrations (0.01 and 0.1 μM) inhibits BACE1 expression, thus consequently suppresses APP β-cleavage and decreases Aβ production. In contrast, SNP at higher concentrations (10 and 20 μM) biases the APP processing toward the amyloidogenic pathway as evidenced by an increased BACE1 but a decreased ADAM10 expression, together with an elevated Aβ secretion. This bi-directional modulating activity of SNP on APP processing was completely blocked by specific NO scavenger c-PTIO, indicating NO-dependent mechanisms. Moreover, the anti-amyloidogenic activity of SNP is sGC/cGMP/PKG-dependent as evidenced by its reversal by sGC/PKG inhibitions, whereas the amyloidogenic activity of SNP is peroxynitrite-related and can be reversed by peroxynitrite scavenger uric acid. In summary, these present findings predict a double-edged role of NO in APP processing in vitro. Low (physiological) levels of NO inhibit the amyloidogenic processing of APP, whereas extra-high (pathological) concentrations of NO favor the amyloidogenic pathway of APP processing. This preliminary study may provide further evidence to clarify the molecular roles of NO and NO-related signaling in AD and supply potential molecular targets for AD treatment.

  18. Additional evidence for morpho-dimensional tooth crown variation in a New Indonesian H. erectus sample from the Sangiran Dome (Central Java).

    PubMed

    Zanolli, Clément

    2013-01-01

    This contribution reports fifteen human fossil dental remains found during the last two decades in the Sangiran Dome area, in Central Java, Indonesia. Among this sample, only one of the specimens had already been briefly described, with the other fourteen remaining unreported. Seven of the fifteen isolated teeth were found in a secured stratigraphic context in the late Lower-early Middle Pleistocene Kabuh Formation. The remaining elements were surface finds which, based on coincidental sources of information, were inferred as coming from the Kabuh Formation. Mainly constituted of permanent molars, but also including one upper incisor and one upper premolar, this dental sample brings additional evidence for a marked degree of size variation and time-related structural reduction in Javanese H. erectus. This is notably expressed by a significant decrease of the mesiodistal diameter, frequently associated to the reduction or even loss of the lower molar distal cusp (hypoconulid) and to a more square occlusal outline. In addition to the hypoconulid reduction or loss, this new sample also exhibits a low frequency of the occlusal Y-groove pattern, with a dominance of the X and, to a lesser extent, of the+patterns. This combination is rare in the Lower and early Middle Pleistocene paleoanthropological record, including in the early Javanese dental assemblage from the Sangiran Dome. On the other hand, similar dental features are found in Chinese H. erectus and in H. heidelbergensis. As a whole, this new record confirms the complex nature of the intermittent exchanges that occurred between continental and insular Southeast Asia through the Pleistocene.

  19. Additional Evidence for Morpho-Dimensional Tooth Crown Variation in a New Indonesian H. erectus Sample from the Sangiran Dome (Central Java)

    PubMed Central

    Zanolli, Clément

    2013-01-01

    This contribution reports fifteen human fossil dental remains found during the last two decades in the Sangiran Dome area, in Central Java, Indonesia. Among this sample, only one of the specimens had already been briefly described, with the other fourteen remaining unreported. Seven of the fifteen isolated teeth were found in a secured stratigraphic context in the late Lower-early Middle Pleistocene Kabuh Formation. The remaining elements were surface finds which, based on coincidental sources of information, were inferred as coming from the Kabuh Formation. Mainly constituted of permanent molars, but also including one upper incisor and one upper premolar, this dental sample brings additional evidence for a marked degree of size variation and time-related structural reduction in Javanese H. erectus. This is notably expressed by a significant decrease of the mesiodistal diameter, frequently associated to the reduction or even loss of the lower molar distal cusp (hypoconulid) and to a more square occlusal outline. In addition to the hypoconulid reduction or loss, this new sample also exhibits a low frequency of the occlusal Y-groove pattern, with a dominance of the X and, to a lesser extent, of the+patterns. This combination is rare in the Lower and early Middle Pleistocene paleoanthropological record, including in the early Javanese dental assemblage from the Sangiran Dome. On the other hand, similar dental features are found in Chinese H. erectus and in H. heidelbergensis. As a whole, this new record confirms the complex nature of the intermittent exchanges that occurred between continental and insular Southeast Asia through the Pleistocene. PMID:23843996

  20. Life and Death of the Resurrection Plate: Evidence for an Additional Plate in the NE Pacific in Paleocene-Eocene Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haeussler, P. J.; Bradley, D. C.; Wells, R.; Rowley, D. B.; Miller, M.; Otteman, A.; Labay, K.

    2001-12-01

    We propose an additional plate in the northeastern Pacific Ocean in Paleocene-Eocene time. The Resurrection Plate, named after exposures of the Resurrection Peninsula ophiolite near Seward Alaska, was located northeast of the Kula Plate and north of the Farallon plate. We interpret concurrent near-trench magmatism in southern Alaska and the northwestern US as evidence for two slab windows associated with trench-ridge-trench (TRT) triple junctions that formed the boundaries of the Resurrection Plate. A compilation of geochronology from 100 Ma to the present from Alaska to Oregon displayed in movie form shows the following features. The Sanak-Baranof belt of near trench-intrusions in southern Alaska records a west to east migration of the northern TRT triple junction along a 2100-km-long section of coastline between 61-50 Ma. In Oregon, Washington, and southern Vancouver Island, voluminous basaltic volcanism of the Siletz River Volcanics, Crescent, and Metchosin Formations occurred between ~66-48 Ma. Lack of an age progression indicates this southern triple junction did not migrate significantly. Synchronous near-trench magmatism in southeastern Alaska, on southern Vancouver Island and beneath Puget Sound at ~50 Ma indicates a spreading center was subparallel to the margin of southeastern Alaska and British Columbia and was subducted all at once. We interpret 50 Ma as the approximate time of death of the Resurrection plate. The existence and demise of the Resurrection plate explains: 1) rapid northward terrane transport between 70 and 50 Ma; 2) uplift and magmatism in the Coast Mountains prior to 50 Ma; 3) cessation of magmatism in the Coast Mountains of BC and SE Alaska around 50 Ma; and 4) a major change in Pacific-North America plate motion and birth of the Queen Charlotte transform margin around 50 Ma. Death of the Resurrection plate was a contributing factor in the extensional collapse of the southern Canadian Cordilleran foreland fold and thrust belt after 50

  1. Characterizing slab inputs in the earliest stages of subduction: Preliminary evidence from fluid-mobile element systematics for IODP Expedition 352 recovered volcanic samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanatan, Keir; Ryan, Jeffrey; Atlas, Zachary; Reagan, Mark

    2016-04-01

    IODP Expedition 352 recovered ~1.22 km of boninitic and basaltic volcanic rocks from four sites in the Izu-Bonin forearc to examine the volcanic phenomena associated with subduction initiation. While the recovered forearc basalts give little indication for the involvement of slab-derived volatiles, the extensive sequences of boninite series lavas recovered up-section show physical evidence for extensive fluid involvement (heavy vesicularity, explosive eruptive style), along with chemistries indicative of fluid-addition melting of depleted mantle sources. We are attempting to assay the makeup and likely slab provenance of these fluids via their fluid-mobile element (B, As, Cs, Sb, Pb, Li) systematics. Boron abundances measured thus far in fresh boninitic glasses recovered from Holes U1439C and U1442A range from 3-12 ppm, with B/Be and B/La ranging from 7.5-106 and 2-18.5, respectively. While the highest values are comparable to those observed in the most B-enriched Izu-bonin arc rocks, most of the data are at the low end of this range. Cs/Th and Pb/Ce ratios encompass the range of values encountered in IBM boninites in the literature, and are comparable to values for Izu arc lavas, while As/Sm ratios appear to be lower than in arc suites. Li concentrations are elevated relative to basaltic lavas, at 7-17 ppm, and Li/Yb ratios range from 8-22, a factor of four higher than the range encountered in volcanic arc suites. While fluid-mobile element systematics of Izu-Bonin volcanic arc lavas show evidence for inputs of two unique slab components with markedly different fluid-mobile element enrichments, the Izu-Bonin boninites can best be explained as simple mixtures of very depleted mantle and a single slab phase with high abundances of fluid-mobile species, along with elevated K, Ba, and other common subduction indicator species. Volcanic arc lavas globally show evidence for a fluid-mobile element enriched component that appears to be similar to serpentinite

  2. Associations of ghrelin with eating behaviors, stress, metabolic factors, and telomere length among overweight and obese women: preliminary evidence of attenuated ghrelin effects in obesity?

    PubMed

    Buss, Julia; Havel, Peter J; Epel, Elissa; Lin, Jue; Blackburn, Elizabeth; Daubenmier, Jennifer

    2014-05-01

    Ghrelin regulates homeostatic food intake, hedonic eating, and is a mediator in the stress response. In addition, ghrelin has metabolic, cardiovascular, and anti-aging effects. This cross-sectional study examined associations between total plasma ghrelin, caloric intake based on 3day diet diaries, hedonic eating attitudes, stress-related and metabolic factors, and leukocyte telomere length in overweight (n=25) and obese women (n=22). We hypothesized associations between total plasma ghrelin and eating behaviors, stress, metabolic, cardiovascular, and cell aging factors among overweight women, but not among obese women due to lower circulating ghrelin levels and/or central resistance to ghrelin. Confirming previous studies demonstrating lowered plasma ghrelin in obesity, ghrelin levels were lower in the obese compared with overweight women. Among the overweight, ghrelin was positively correlated with caloric intake, giving in to cravings for highly palatable foods, and a flatter diurnal cortisol slope across 3days. These relationships were non-significant among the obese group. Among overweight women, ghrelin was negatively correlated with insulin resistance, systolic blood pressure, and heart rate, and positively correlated with telomere length. Among the obese subjects, plasma ghrelin concentrations were negatively correlated with insulin resistance, but were not significantly correlated with blood pressure, heart rate or telomere length. Total plasma ghrelin and its associations with food intake, hedonic eating, and stress are decreased in obesity, providing evidence consistent with the theory that central resistance to ghrelin develops in obesity and ghrelin's function in appetite regulation may have evolved to prevent starvation in food scarcity rather than cope with modern food excess. Furthermore, ghrelin is associated with metabolic and cardiovascular health, and may have anti-aging effects, but these effects may be attenuated in obesity.

  3. Preliminary evidence for an association of a dinucleotide repeat polymorphism at the MAOA gene with early onset alcoholism/substance abuse

    SciTech Connect

    Vanyukov, M.M.; Moss, H.B.; Tarter, R.E.

    1995-04-24

    An association between the liability to early onset alcoholism/substance abuse and a recently discovered dinucleotide repeat length polymorphism at the MAOA gene (MAOCA-1) was examined using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A significant correlation between the presence/absence of the disorder and the length of the MAOCA-1 repeat was found in males, but not females, with {open_quotes}long{close_quotes} alleles (repeat length above 115 bp) associated with both increased risk for the disorder and lower age of onset of substance abuse. These preliminary data suggest that further exploration of the relationship between the MAOA gene and behavioral traits in an expanded sample is warranted. 22 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  4. Evidence-Based Design for Project-Based Learning: A Case Study for a 50,000 SF Addition Dedicated to the New Tech Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moretti, Richard D.; Conte, Philip R.

    2012-01-01

    The Seaford School District, Seaford, Delaware, determined that a component of their "reinvention" of Seaford High School would be the creation of a New Tech Academy, affiliated with the New Tech Network and housed in an addition to that building. The New Tech Network, headquartered in Napa, California, is a rapidly growing association…

  5. Preliminary evidence for association of genetic variants in pri-miR-34b/c and abnormal miR-34c expression with attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Martínez, I; Sánchez-Mora, C; Pagerols, M; Richarte, V; Corrales, M; Fadeuilhe, C; Cormand, B; Casas, M; Ramos-Quiroga, J A; Ribasés, M

    2016-01-01

    Attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a prevalent neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impairment to sustain attention and inability to control impulses and activity level. The etiology of ADHD is complex, with an estimated heritability of 70–80%. Under the hypothesis that alterations in the processing or target binding of microRNAs (miRNAs) may result in functional alterations predisposing to ADHD, we explored whether common polymorphisms potentially affecting miRNA-mediated regulation are involved in this psychiatric disorder. We performed a comprehensive association study focused on 134 miRNAs in 754 ADHD subjects and 766 controls and found association between the miR-34b/c locus and ADHD. Subsequently, we provided preliminary evidence for overexpression of the miR-34c-3p mature form in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of ADHD subjects. Next, we tested the effect on gene expression of single-nucleotide polymorphisms within the ADHD-associated region and found that rs4938923 in the promoter of the pri-miR-34b/c tags cis expression quantitative trait loci for both miR-34b and miR-34c and has an impact on the expression levels of 681 transcripts in trans, including genes previously associated with ADHD. This gene set was enriched for miR-34b/c binding sites, functional categories related to the central nervous system, such as axon guidance or neuron differentiation, and serotonin biosynthesis and signaling canonical pathways. Our results provide preliminary evidence for the contribution to ADHD of a functional variant in the pri-miR-34b/c promoter, possibly through dysregulation of the expression of mature forms of miR-34b and miR-34c and some target genes. These data highlight the importance of abnormal miRNA function as a potential epigenetic mechanism contributing to ADHD. PMID:27576168

  6. Preliminary Evidence of the Effects of High-frequency Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) on Swallowing Functions in Post-Stroke Individuals with Chronic Dysphagia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Ivy K. Y.; Chan, Karen M. K.; Wong, C. S.; Cheung, Raymond T. F.

    2015-01-01

    Background: There is growing evidence of potential benefits of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in the rehabilitation of dysphagia. However, the site and frequency of stimulation for optimal effects are not clear. Aims: The aim of this pilot study is to investigate the short-term effects of high-frequency 5 Hz rTMS applied to…

  7. Technologies for Expanding the Reach of Evidence-Based Interventions: Preliminary Results for Promoting Social-Emotional Development in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baggett, Kathleen M.; Davis, Betsy; Feil, Edward G.; Sheeber, Lisa L.; Landry, Susan H.; Carta, Judith J.; Leve, Craig

    2010-01-01

    In great demand are efficient mechanisms for delivery of evidence-based interventions for promoting social-emotional development and early positive behavior of all children, and especially for those with or at risk for disabilities. The rise of Internet use has created potentially new avenues for intervention delivery, which, when paired with the…

  8. Preliminary evidences of CCM operation and its down regulation in relation to increasing CO2 levels in natural phytoplankton assemblages from the coastal waters of Bay of Bengal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, Haimanti; Rahman Shaik, Aziz Ur; Bandyopadhyay, Debasmita

    2014-05-01

    Bay of Bengal (BoB), a low productive part of the North Indian Ocean, often possesses low CO2 levels in its surface water and diatoms dominate the phytoplankton communities. Virtually no studies are available from this area reporting how this diatom dominated phytoplankton community would respond any increase in dissolved CO2 levels either naturally or anthopogenically. In most of the marine phytoplankton, the inefficiency of the sole carbon fixing enzyme Rubisco necessitates the need of concentrating dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) (mostly as HCO3) inside the cell in excess of the ambient water concentrations in order to maintain high rate of photosynthesis under low CO2 levels through an energy consuming carbon concentration mechanisms (CCMs). The ubiquitous enzyme carbonic anhydrase (CA) plays a vital role in CCMs by converting HCO3- to CO2 and usually utilizes the trace metal zinc (Zn) as a cofactor. However, it is evident in many marine phytoplankton species that with increasing external CO2 levels, CCMs can be down-regulated leading to energetic savings which can be reallocated to growth; although exceptions occur. Hence, in order to predict their responses to the projected changes, it is imperative to understand their carbon metabolism patterns. We have conducted a series of incubation experiments in microcosms with natural phytoplankton communities from the coastal waters of BoB under different CO2 levels. Our results revealed that the rate of net photosynthetic oxygen evolution and biomass build-up increased in response to increasing CO2 levels. The depletion in δ13CPOM values were more in the high CO2 treatments relative to the low CO2 treated cells (control), indicating that dissolved CO2 uptake was higher when CO2 levels were increased. When additional Zn was added to the low CO2 treated cells, net photosynthetic oxygen evolution rate was increased significantly than that of the untreated control. It is likely that upon the supply of Zn under low CO2

  9. Evidence for an Additive Neurorestorative Effect of Simultaneously Administered CDNF and GDNF in Hemiparkinsonian Rats: Implications for Different Mechanism of Action

    PubMed Central

    De Lorenzo, Francesca; Stepanova, Polina; Bäck, Susanne; Yu, Li-Ying; Pörsti, Eeva; Männistö, Pekka T.; Tuominen, Raimo K.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder associated with a progressive loss of dopaminergic (DAergic) neurons of the substantia nigra (SN) and the accumulation of intracellular inclusions containing α-synuclein. Current therapies do not stop the progression of the disease, and the efficacy of these treatments wanes over time. Neurotrophic factors (NTFs) are naturally occurring proteins promoting the survival and differentiation of neurons and the maintenance of neuronal contacts. CDNF (cerebral dopamine NTF) and GDNF (glial cell line-derived NTF) are able to protect DAergic neurons against toxin-induced degeneration in experimental models of PD. Here, we report an additive neurorestorative effect of coadministration of CDNF and GDNF in the unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesion model of PD in rats. NTFs were given into the striatum four weeks after unilateral intrastriatal injection of 6-OHDA (20 µg). Amphetamine-induced (2.5 mg/kg, i.p.) rotational behavior was measured every two weeks. Number of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive cells from SN pars compacta (SNpc) and density of TH-positive fibers in the striatum were analyzed at 12 weeks after lesion. CDNF and GDNF alone restored the DAergic function, and one specific dose combination had an additive effect: CDNF (2.5µg) and GDNF (1µg) coadministration led to a stronger trophic effect relative to either of the single treatments alone. The additive effect may indicate different mechanism of action for the NTFs. Indeed, both NTFs activated the survival promoting PI3 kinase (PI3K)-Akt signaling pathway, but only CDNF decreased the expression level of tested endoplasmatic reticulum (ER) stress markers ATF6, glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), and phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 2α subunit (eIF2α). PMID:28303260

  10. Genome-wide association study identifies variants at CLU and PICALM associated with Alzheimer's disease, and shows evidence for additional susceptibility genes

    PubMed Central

    Harold, Denise; Abraham, Richard; Hollingworth, Paul; Sims, Rebecca; Gerrish, Amy; Hamshere, Marian; Singh Pahwa, Jaspreet; Moskvina, Valentina; Dowzell, Kimberley; Williams, Amy; Jones, Nicola; Thomas, Charlene; Stretton, Alexandra; Morgan, Angharad; Lovestone, Simon; Powell, John; Proitsi, Petroula; Lupton, Michelle K; Brayne, Carol; Rubinsztein, David C.; Gill, Michael; Lawlor, Brian; Lynch, Aoibhinn; Morgan, Kevin; Brown, Kristelle; Passmore, Peter; Craig, David; McGuinness, Bernadette; Todd, Stephen; Holmes, Clive; Mann, David; Smith, A. David; Love, Seth; Kehoe, Patrick G.; Hardy, John; Mead, Simon; Fox, Nick; Rossor, Martin; Collinge, John; Maier, Wolfgang; Jessen, Frank; Schürmann, Britta; van den Bussche, Hendrik; Heuser, Isabella; Kornhuber, Johannes; Wiltfang, Jens; Dichgans, Martin; Frölich, Lutz; Hampel, Harald; Hüll, Michael; Rujescu, Dan; Goate, Alison; Kauwe, John S.K.; Cruchaga, Carlos; Nowotny, Petra; Morris, John C.; Mayo, Kevin; Sleegers, Kristel; Bettens, Karolien; Engelborghs, Sebastiaan; De Deyn, Peter; van Broeckhoven, Christine; Livingston, Gill; Bass, Nicholas J.; Gurling, Hugh; McQuillin, Andrew; Gwilliam, Rhian; Deloukas, Panagiotis; Al-Chalabi, Ammar; Shaw, Christopher E.; Tsolaki, Magda; Singleton, Andrew; Guerreiro, Rita; Mühleisen, Thomas W.; Nöthen, Markus M.; Moebus, Susanne; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Klopp, Norman; Wichmann, H-Erich; Carrasquillo, Minerva M.; Pankratz, V. Shane; Younkin, Steven G.; Holmans, Peter; O'Donovan, Michael; Owen, Michael J.; Williams, Julie

    2010-01-01

    We undertook a two-stage genome-wide association study of Alzheimer's disease involving over 16,000 individuals. In stage 1 (3,941 cases and 7,848 controls), we replicated the established association with the APOE locus (most significant SNP: rs2075650, p= 1.8×10−157) and observed genome-wide significant association with SNPs at two novel loci: rs11136000 in the CLU or APOJ gene (p= 1.4×10−9) and rs3851179, a SNP 5′ to the PICALM gene (p= 1.9×10−8). Both novel associations were supported in stage 2 (2,023 cases and 2,340 controls), producing compelling evidence for association with AD in the combined dataset (rs11136000: p= 8.5×10−10, odds ratio= 0.86; rs3851179: p= 1.3×10−9, odds ratio= 0.86). We also observed more variants associated at p< 1×10−5 than expected by chance (p=7.5×10−6), including polymorphisms at the BIN1, DAB1 and CR1 loci. PMID:19734902

  11. Food additives

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857

  12. How functional connectivity between emotion regulation structures can be disrupted: preliminary evidence from adolescents with moderate to severe traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Newsome, Mary R; Scheibel, Randall S; Mayer, Andrew R; Chu, Zili D; Wilde, Elisabeth A; Hanten, Gerri; Steinberg, Joel L; Lin, Xiaodi; Li, Xiaoqi; Merkley, Tricia L; Hunter, Jill V; Vasquez, Ana C; Cook, Lori; Lu, Hanzhang; Vinton, Kami; Levin, Harvey S

    2013-09-01

    Outcome of moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) includes impaired emotion regulation. Emotion regulation has been associated with amygdala and rostral anterior cingulate (rACC). However, functional connectivity between the two structures after injury has not been reported. A preliminary examination of functional connectivity of rACC and right amygdala was conducted in adolescents 2 to 3 years after moderate to severe TBI and in typically developing (TD)control adolescents, with the hypothesis that the TBI adolescents would demonstrate altered functional connectivity in the two regions. Functional connectivity was determined by correlating fluctuations in the blood oxygen level dependent(BOLD) signal of the rACC and right amygdala with that of other brain regions. In the TBI adolescents, the rACC was found to be significantly less functionally connected to medial prefrontal cortices and to right temporal regions near the amygdala (height threshold T = 2.5, cluster level p < .05, FDR corrected), while the right amygdala showed a trend in reduced functional connectivity with the rACC (height threshold T = 2.5, cluster level p = .06, FDR corrected). Data suggest disrupted functional connectivity in emotion regulation regions. Limitations include small sample sizes. Studies with larger sample sizes are necessary to characterize the persistent neural damage resulting from moderate to severe TBI during development.

  13. Early hyperandrogenism affects the development of hippocampal function: preliminary evidence from a functional magnetic resonance imaging study of boys with familial male precocious puberty.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Sven C; Mandell, Darcy; Leschek, Ellen W; Pine, Daniel S; Merke, Deborah P; Ernst, Monique

    2009-02-01

    The way in which sex hormones influence cognitive and affective brain development is poorly understood. Despite increasing knowledge in the area of pediatric mood disorders, little is known about the influence of sex hormones on the regulation of emotion. Animal studies and preliminary human studies suggest a strong impact of testosterone on limbic structures such as the hippocampus and amygdala. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine emotional processing in familial male-precocious puberty (FMPP), an extremely rare gonadotropin-independent form of precocious puberty characterized by early excess testosterone secretion. We compared this group (n = 7, mean age = 13 +/- 3.3 years) to healthy age and sex-matched controls (n = 14, mean age = 13 +/- 2.3 years). Participants were presented with emotional and neutral face stimuli and were required either to judge the hostility of the presented face, their subjective level of anxiety, or the width of the nose of the presented faces (nonemotional condition). In a fourth, passive viewing condition, no responses were required. Boys with FMPP responded faster to fearful faces during perception of threat compared to unaffected controls. Concurrently, fMRI data revealed significant differences in hippocampus activation in response to fearful faces relative to baseline whereas controls showed no differences. In contrast, no significant activation of the amygdala was found. These data are consistent with previous studies of the effects of sex hormones on brain function and support the role of testosterone on emotional development.

  14. Lack of Impact of Posidonia oceanica Leaf Nutrient Enrichment on Sarpa salpa Herbivory: Additional Evidence for the Generalist Consumer Behavior of This Cornerstone Mediterranean Herbivore

    PubMed Central

    Marco-Méndez, Candela; Wessel, Caitlin; Scheffel, Whitney; Ferrero-Vicente, Luis; Fernández-Torquemada, Yolanda; Cebrián, Just; Heck, Kenneth L.; Sánchez-Lizaso, Jose Luis

    2016-01-01

    The fish Sarpa salpa (L.) is one of the main macroherbivores in the western Mediterranean. Through direct and indirect mechanisms, this herbivore can exert significant control on the structure and functional dynamics of seagrass beds and macroalgae. Past research has suggested nutritional quality of their diet influences S. salpa herbivory, with the fish feeding more intensively and exerting greater top down control on macrophytes with higher internal nutrient contents. However recent findings have questioned this notion and shown that herbivores do not preferentially feed on macrophytes with higher nutrient contents, but rather feed on a wide variety of them with no apparent selectivity. To contribute to this debate, we conducted a field fertilization experiment where we enriched leaves of the seagrass Posidonia oceanica, a staple diet for S. salpa, and examined the response by the herbivore. These responses included quantification of leaf consumption in fertilized and non-fertilized/control plots within the bed, and food choice assays where fertilized and non-fertilized/control leaves were simultaneously offered to the herbivore. Despite the duration of leaf exposure to herbivores (30 days) and abundant schools of S. salpa observed around the plots, leaf consumption was generally low in the plots examined. Consumption was not higher on fertilized than on non-fertilized leaves. Food choice experiments did not show strong evidence for selectivity of enriched leaves. These results add to a recent body of work reporting a broad generalist feeding behavior by S. salpa with no clear selectivity for seagrass with higher nutrient content. In concert, this and other studies suggest S. salpa is often generalist consumers not only dictated by diet nutrient content but by complex interactions between other traits of nutritional quality, habitat heterogeneity within their ample foraging area, and responses to predation risk. PMID:27992498

  15. Lack of Impact of Posidonia oceanica Leaf Nutrient Enrichment on Sarpa salpa Herbivory: Additional Evidence for the Generalist Consumer Behavior of This Cornerstone Mediterranean Herbivore.

    PubMed

    Marco-Méndez, Candela; Wessel, Caitlin; Scheffel, Whitney; Ferrero-Vicente, Luis; Fernández-Torquemada, Yolanda; Cebrián, Just; Heck, Kenneth L; Sánchez-Lizaso, Jose Luis

    2016-01-01

    The fish Sarpa salpa (L.) is one of the main macroherbivores in the western Mediterranean. Through direct and indirect mechanisms, this herbivore can exert significant control on the structure and functional dynamics of seagrass beds and macroalgae. Past research has suggested nutritional quality of their diet influences S. salpa herbivory, with the fish feeding more intensively and exerting greater top down control on macrophytes with higher internal nutrient contents. However recent findings have questioned this notion and shown that herbivores do not preferentially feed on macrophytes with higher nutrient contents, but rather feed on a wide variety of them with no apparent selectivity. To contribute to this debate, we conducted a field fertilization experiment where we enriched leaves of the seagrass Posidonia oceanica, a staple diet for S. salpa, and examined the response by the herbivore. These responses included quantification of leaf consumption in fertilized and non-fertilized/control plots within the bed, and food choice assays where fertilized and non-fertilized/control leaves were simultaneously offered to the herbivore. Despite the duration of leaf exposure to herbivores (30 days) and abundant schools of S. salpa observed around the plots, leaf consumption was generally low in the plots examined. Consumption was not higher on fertilized than on non-fertilized leaves. Food choice experiments did not show strong evidence for selectivity of enriched leaves. These results add to a recent body of work reporting a broad generalist feeding behavior by S. salpa with no clear selectivity for seagrass with higher nutrient content. In concert, this and other studies suggest S. salpa is often generalist consumers not only dictated by diet nutrient content but by complex interactions between other traits of nutritional quality, habitat heterogeneity within their ample foraging area, and responses to predation risk.

  16. Additional patient with del(12)(q21.2q22): further evidence for a candidate region for cardio-facio-cutaneous syndrome?

    PubMed

    Rauen, Katherine A; Albertson, Donna G; Pinkel, Daniel; Cotter, Philip D

    2002-06-01

    Cardio-facio-cutaneous (CFC) syndrome is characterized by a distinct facial appearance, cardiac defects, ectodermal anomalies and developmental delay. Recently, we reported a 19-month-old girl with phenotypic manifestations consistent with the CFC syndrome who had an interstitial deletion of the long arm of chromosome 12, del(12)(q21.2q22), implicating a possible locus for CFC syndrome. Here, we report an additional patient with a cytogenetically identical interstitial deletion: 47,XYY,del(12)(q21.2q22). To further characterize this deletion we used microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH). Array CGH confirmed both the deletion and the second Y chromosome. The deletion on chromosome 12q spanned at least 14 Mb as indicated by the positions on the genome sequence of the 4 BAC clones included in the deletion. While the proband did not have the classic features of CFC, he had some dysmorphic craniofacial characteristics, ectodermal anomalies and moderate developmental delay which were suggestive of CFC syndrome; however, this patient did not have classical CFC. The phenotypic differences between the two del(12)(q21.2q22) patients may be due to variability in the expression of the syndrome, or this deletion may present as a syndrome with overlapping features. Alternatively, the phenotypic differences may result from discordance at the molecular level, which may yield a critical minimal region of deletion for CFC. The region 12q21.2 --> q22 remains a possible candidate region for CFC syndrome. Additional characterization of these and other CFC patients may confirm and further refine this candidate region.

  17. Characterization of Fluorescent Siderophore-Mediated Iron Uptake in Pseudomonas sp. Strain M114: Evidence for the Existence of an Additional Ferric Siderophore Receptor.

    PubMed

    Morris, J; O'sullivan, D J; Koster, M; Leong, J; Weisbeek, P J; O'gara, F

    1992-02-01

    In Pseudomonas sp. strain M114, the outer membrane receptor for ferric pseudobactin M114 was shown to transport ferric pseudobactins B10 and A225, in addition to its own. The gene encoding this receptor, which was previously cloned on pCUP3, was localized by Tn5 mutagenesis to a region comprising >1.6 kb of M114 DNA. A mutant (strain M114R1) lacking this receptor was then created by a marker exchange technique. Characterization of this mutant by using purified pseudobactin M114 in radiolabeled ferric iron uptake studies confirmed that it was completely unable to utilize this siderophore for acquisition of iron. In addition, it lacked an outer membrane protein band of 89 kDa when subjected to sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. As a result, growth of the mutant was severely restricted under low-iron conditions. However, this phenotype was reversed in the presence of another fluorescent siderophore (pseudobactin MT3A) from Pseudomonas sp. strain MT3A, suggesting the presence of a second receptor in strain M114. Furthermore, wild-type Pseudomonas sp. strain B24 was not able to utilize ferric pseudobactin MT3A, and this phenotype was not reversed upon expression of the M114 receptor encoded on pCUP3. However, a cosmid clone (pMS1047) that enabled strain B24 to utilize ferric pseudobactin MT3A was isolated from an M114 gene bank. Radiolabel transport assays with purified pseudobactin MT3A confirmed this event. Plasmid pMS1047 was shown to encode an outer membrane protein of 81 kDa in strain B24 under iron-limiting conditions; this protein corresponds to a similar protein in strain M114.

  18. Early Hyperandrogenism Affects the Development of Hippocampal Function: Preliminary Evidence from a Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study of Boys with Familial Male Precocious Puberty

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Sven C.; Mandell, Darcy; Leschek, Ellen W.; Pine, Daniel S.; Merke, Deborah P.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The way in which sex hormones influence cognitive and affective brain development is poorly understood. Despite increasing knowledge in the area of pediatric mood disorders, little is known about the influence of sex hormones on the regulation of emotion. Animal studies and preliminary human studies suggest a strong impact of testosterone on limbic structures such as the hippocampus and amygdala. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine emotional processing in familial male-precocious puberty (FMPP), an extremely rare gonadotropin-independent form of precocious puberty characterized by early excess testosterone secretion. We compared this group (n = 7, mean age = 13 ± 3.3 years) to healthy age and sex-matched controls (n = 14, mean age = 13 ± 2.3 years). Participants were presented with emotional and neutral face stimuli and were required either to judge the hostility of the presented face, their subjective level of anxiety, or the width of the nose of the presented faces (nonemotional condition). In a fourth, passive viewing condition, no responses were required. Boys with FMPP responded faster to fearful faces during perception of threat compared to unaffected controls. Concurrently, fMRI data revealed significant differences in hippocampus activation in response to fearful faces relative to baseline whereas controls showed no differences. In contrast, no significant activation of the amygdala was found. These data are consistent with previous studies of the effects of sex hormones on brain function and support the role of testosterone on emotional development. PMID:19232022

  19. Cytogenetic and Molecular Evidence of Additional Cryptic Diversity in High Elevation Black fly Simulium feuerborni (Diptera: Simuliidae) Populations in Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Pramual, Pairot; Thaijarern, Jiraporn; Sofian-Azirun, Mohd; Ya'cob, Zubaidah; Hadi, Upik Kesumawati; Takaoka, Hiroyuki

    2015-09-01

    Simulium feuerborni Edwards is geographically widespread in Southeast Asia. Previous cytogenetic study in Thailand revealed that this species is a species complex composed of two cytoforms (A and B). In this study, we cytologically examined specimens obtained from the Cameron Highlands, Malaysia, and Puncak, Java, Indonesia. The results revealed two additional cytoforms (C and D) of S. feuerborni. Specimens from Malaysia represent cytoform C, differentiated from other cytoforms by a fixed chromosome inversion on the long arm of chromosome III (IIIL-5). High frequencies of the B chromosome (33-83%) were also observed in this cytoform. Specimens from Indonesia represent the cytoform D. This cytoform is differentiated from others by a fixed chromosome inversion difference on the long arm of chromosome II (IIL-4). Mitochondrial DNA sequences support genetic differentiation among cytoforms A, B, and C. The pairwise F(ST) values among these cytoforms were highly significantly consistent with the divergent lineages of the cytoforms in a median-joining haplotype network. However, a lack of the sympatric populations prevented us from testing the species status of the cytoforms.

  20. Molecular characterization of begomoviruses and DNA satellites from Vietnam: additional evidence that the New World geminiviruses were present in the Old World prior to continental separation.

    PubMed

    Ha, Cuong; Coombs, Steven; Revill, Peter; Harding, Rob; Vu, Man; Dale, James

    2008-01-01

    Sixteen viruses, belonging to 16 species of begomovirus, that infect crops and weeds in Vietnam were identified. Sequence analysis of the complete genomes showed that nine of the viruses (six monopartite and three bipartite) belong to novel species and five of them were identified in Vietnam for the first time. Additionally, eight DNA-beta and three nanovirus-like DNA-1 molecules were also found associated with some of the monopartite viruses. Five of the DNA-beta molecules were novel. Importantly, a second bipartite begomovirus, Corchorus golden mosaic virus, shared several features with the previously characterized virus Corchorus yellow vein virus and with other bipartite begomoviruses from the New World, supporting the hypothesis that New World-like viruses were present in the Old World. This, together with a high degree of virus diversity that included putative recombinant viruses, satellite molecules and viruses with previously undescribed variability in the putative stem-loop sequences, suggested that South-East Asia, and Vietnam in particular, is one of the origins of begomovirus diversity.

  1. Additive genetic variation in resistance traits of an exotic pine species: little evidence for constraints on evolution of resistance against native herbivores.

    PubMed

    Moreira, X; Zas, R; Sampedro, L

    2013-05-01

    The apparent failure of invasions by alien pines in Europe has been explained by the co-occurrence of native pine congeners supporting herbivores that might easily recognize the new plants as hosts. Previous studies have reported that exotic pines show reduced tolerance and capacity to induce resistance to those native herbivores. We hypothesize that limited genetic variation in resistance to native herbivores and the existence of evolutionary trade-offs between growth and resistance could represent additional potential constraints on the evolution of invasiveness of exotic pines outside their natural range. In this paper, we examined genetic variation for constitutive and induced chemical defences (measured as non-volatile resin in the stem and total phenolics in the needles) and resistance to two major native generalist herbivores of pines in cafeteria bioassays (the phloem-feeder Hylobius abietis and the defoliator Thaumetopoea pityocampa) using half-sib families drawn from a sample of the population of Pinus radiata introduced to Spain in the mid-19th century. We found (i) significant genetic variation, with moderate-to-high narrow-sense heritabilities for both the production of constitutive non-volatile resin and induced total phenolics, and for constitutive resistance against T. pityocampa in bioassays, (ii) no evolutionary trade-offs between plant resistance and growth traits or between the production of different quantitative chemical defences and (iii) a positive genetic correlation between constitutive resistance to the two studied herbivores. Overall, results of our study indicate that the exotic pine P. radiata has limited genetic constraints on the evolution of resistance against herbivores in its introduced range, suggesting that, at least in terms of interactions with these enemies, this pine species has potential to become invasive in the future.

  2. Two additional human serum proteins structurally related to complement factor H: Evidence for a family of factor H-related genes

    SciTech Connect

    Skerka, C.; Timmann, C.; Horstmann, R.D. ); Zipfel, P.F.

    1992-05-15

    The authors identify and characterize two human serum proteins with an apparent molecular mass of 24 and 29 kDa, which are antigenically related to complement factor H. These proteins represent differently glycosylated forms and are encoded by the same mRNA. The corresponding cDNA clone is 1051 bp in size and hybridized to a 1.4-kb mRNA derived from human liver. The predicted translation product represents a protein of 270 amino acids, which displays a hydrophobic leader sequence, indicative of a secreted protein. The secreted part is organized in four short consensus repeats (SCR) and has a single putative N-linked glycosylation site. The predicted sequence is closely related to that of the previously described factor H-related proteins h37 and h42, which are also derived from a 1.4-kb mRNA. Amino acid comparison of these factor H-related proteins showed identical leader sequences, an exchange of three amino acids in SCR1, identical sequences of SCR2, and a lower degree of homology between SCR3-4 (h24 and h29) and SCR4-5 (h37 and h42). In addition, SCR3-4 of h24 and h29 display homology to SCR19-20 of human complement factor H. The relatedness of structural elements of the factor H-related proteins h24, h29, h37, and h42 and of factor H, suggests a function common to these proteins and indicates the existence of a gene family consisting of factor H and at least two factor H-related genes. 28 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  3. U-Pb ages of detrital zircons from the Sanbagawa Belt in western Shikoku: Additional evidence for the prevalence of Late Cretaceous protoliths of the Sanbagawa Metamorphics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knittel, U.; Suzuki, S.; Nishizaka, N.; Kimura, K.; Tsai, W.-L.; Lu, H.-Y.; Ishikawa, Y.; Ohno, Y.; Yanagida, M.; Lee, Y.-H.

    2014-12-01

    The Sanbagawa Metamorphic Belt in Japan is one of the best studied high-pressure, low temperature metamorphic belts. Recent work applying new dating techniques has challenged the previously accepted temporal framework for the evolution of the belt, as it was shown that large parts of the belt contain detrital zircons of Late Cretaceous age (younger than 100 Ma), i.e. they have protolith ages younger than the previously accepted age of metamorphism at ca. 110 Ma. A 2000 m bore hole from north-western Shikoku provided an excellent opportunity to further evaluate the areal extent of Late Cretaceous protoliths as the drill hole was drilled in an area considered to be part of the Jurassic to Early Cretaceous part of the Sanbagawa Belt. Dating of single zircon grains using the LA-ICP-MS U-Pb dating method shows that all but one sample contain zircons younger than 100 Ma and thus the protoliths are younger than the previously accepted age of metamorphism of the Sanbagawa Belt. The single sample that contains only zircons dated at 136 ± 3 Ma, apparently is of volcanic origin and could be a clast representing the source of 130-140 Ma zircons of the sample taken about 120 above this sample. In addition, three surface samples were analysed. Two of these also contain zircons younger than 100 Ma, whereas the third sample contains only zircons older than 159 Ma. The zircons from this sample also exhibit an age spectrum different from that exhibited by the other samples. The exact significance of this sample is not clear as yet.

  4. Food additives

    MedlinePlus

    ... or natural. Natural food additives include: Herbs or spices to add flavor to foods Vinegar for pickling ... Certain colors improve the appearance of foods. Many spices, as well as natural and man-made flavors, ...

  5. Paleopathological evidence of the cranial remains from the Sima de los Huesos Middle Pleistocene site (Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain). Description and preliminary inferences.

    PubMed

    Pérez, P J; Gracía, A; Martínez, I; Arsuaga, J L

    1997-01-01

    The large Sima de los Huesos sample provides for the first time the opportunity of performing a paleopathological study of a Middle Pleistocene population. A high frequency of bilateral temporomandibular arthropathy has been observed. We found an ear hyperostosis in Cranium 4, that probably caused deafness that we consider to be of infectious origin. Three osteomata were found in the cranial collection. One severe trauma was evident on the left supraorbital torus of an immature individual. Many cranial vault erosions, mostly restricted to the external table, are found in the sample. Cranium 5 displays thirteen of these. Cranium 5 also shows an extensive maxillary osteitis associated with a dental apical abscess, as well as another dental apical abscess in its mandible. Most of the adult frontal bones show a worm-like pattern of vascular channelling in the orbital roof, also found in modern populations.

  6. Results from a preliminary review of scientific evidence for appropriateness of preparations, dosage forms and other product design elements for older adult patients.

    PubMed

    Messina, Rossella; Becker, Robert; van Riet-Nales, Diana A; Stegemann, Sven

    2015-01-30

    The aging population and the growing multimorbidity of the major patient population as well as the advanced (pharmaco)therapeutic treatment options are increasing the complexity of independent drug therapy management and administration. The increased complexity may have an impact on drug adherence (including any need for patients initiated coping strategies), and consequently on the safety and efficacy of the medicine. To overcome adherence issues caused by the design of the medicine, it is crucial that developers consider the age appropriateness of the medicine (route of administration, dosage form, excipients in the composition, frequency of dosing) in meeting patients' needs to manage their therapy without the support of a care giver. In order to understand the scientific evidence on such age appropriately designed medicines for use by older adults, a literature search was performed in the Medline database (all languages included). The search produced 34 publications that met the inclusion and exclusion criteria for the patient population of 65 years an older. An in-depth analysis of the included publications with respect to the methodological quality (study design, data collection, endpoints chosen) and results showed that none of these publications had adequately investigated the age appropriateness of the medicine for use by older adults. The authors consider that the knowledge gap in this area requires attention of all stakeholders in the healthcare community.

  7. Mnemonic Vocabulary Instruction: Additional Effectiveness Evidence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Joel R.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Four experiments with 132 seventh graders, 162 eighth graders, 75 fourth graders, and 52 third graders compared the mnemonic keyword method with various other vocabulary learning strategies. Mnemonic keyword students outperformed sentence-context and free-study counterparts and generally outperformed others on tests of vocabulary usage. (SLD)

  8. Assessing protective factors of youth who sexually offended in singapore: preliminary evidence on the utility of the DASH-13 and the SAPROF.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Gerald; Chu, Chi Meng; Lee, Yirong

    2015-02-01

    Sexual offending has attracted increasing public concern because of its long-term effects. Although there is an increasing amount of research on the risk factors for recidivism among youth who have sexually offended, there is a dearth of research on the protective factors for desistence from recidivism. The current study investigated the associations between protective factors and recidivism among 97 Singaporean youth who sexually offended (YSO). In addition, the predictive validity with regard to two new measures of protective factors-the Desistence for Adolescents Who Sexually Harm (DASH-13), and Structured Assessment of Protective Factors for Violence Risk (SAPROF)-were also evaluated. Results indicated that both the DASH-13 and the SAPROF were inversely related to the Estimate of Risk of Adolescent Sexual Offense Recidivism (ERASOR). However, neither the DASH-13 nor the SAPROF were found to have adequate predictive validity or incremental validity for sexual or nonsexual recidivism. The implications for the assessment and management of YSO are discussed.

  9. Potlining Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolf Keller

    2004-08-10

    In this project, a concept to improve the performance of aluminum production cells by introducing potlining additives was examined and tested. Boron oxide was added to cathode blocks, and titanium was dissolved in the metal pool; this resulted in the formation of titanium diboride and caused the molten aluminum to wet the carbonaceous cathode surface. Such wetting reportedly leads to operational improvements and extended cell life. In addition, boron oxide suppresses cyanide formation. This final report presents and discusses the results of this project. Substantial economic benefits for the practical implementation of the technology are projected, especially for modern cells with graphitized blocks. For example, with an energy savings of about 5% and an increase in pot life from 1500 to 2500 days, a cost savings of $ 0.023 per pound of aluminum produced is projected for a 200 kA pot.

  10. Phosphazene additives

    DOEpatents

    Harrup, Mason K; Rollins, Harry W

    2013-11-26

    An additive comprising a phosphazene compound that has at least two reactive functional groups and at least one capping functional group bonded to phosphorus atoms of the phosphazene compound. One of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with cellulose and the other of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with a resin, such as an amine resin of a polycarboxylic acid resin. The at least one capping functional group is selected from the group consisting of a short chain ether group, an alkoxy group, or an aryloxy group. Also disclosed are an additive-resin admixture, a method of treating a wood product, and a wood product.

  11. Quiet eye training aids the long-term learning of throwing and catching in children: Preliminary evidence for a predictive control strategy.

    PubMed

    Miles, C A L; Wood, G; Vine, S J; Vickers, J N; Wilson, M R

    2017-02-01

    Quiet eye training (QET) may be a more effective method for teaching children to catch than traditional training (TT) methods, but it is unclear if the benefits accrued persist in the long term. Thirty children were randomly allocated into a QET or TT group and, while wearing a mobile eye tracker, underwent baseline testing, training and two retention tests over a period of eight weeks, using a validated throw and catch task. During training, movement-related information was provided to both groups, while the QET group received additional instruction to increase the duration of their targeting fixation (QE1) on the wall prior to the throw, and pursuit tracking (QE2) period on the ball prior to catching. In both immediate (R1) and delayed (R2, six weeks later) retention tests, the QET group had a significantly longer QE1 duration and an earlier and longer QE2 duration, compared to the TT group, who revealed no improvements. A performance advantage was also found for the QET compared to the TT group at both R1 and R2, revealing the relatively robust nature of the visuomotor alterations. Regression analyses suggested that only the duration of QE1 predicted variance in catch success post-training, pointing to the importance of a pre-programming visuomotor strategy for successful throw and catch performance.

  12. Preliminary Evidence for Feasibility, Use, and Acceptability of Individualized Texting for Adherence Building for Antiretroviral Adherence and Substance Use Assessment among HIV-Infected Methamphetamine Users

    PubMed Central

    Moore, David J.; Montoya, Jessica L.; Blackstone, Kaitlin; Depp, Colin A.; Atkinson, J. Hampton; TMARC Group, The

    2013-01-01

    The feasibility, use, and acceptability of text messages to track methamphetamine use and promote antiretroviral treatment (ART) adherence among HIV-infected methamphetamine users was examined. From an ongoing randomized controlled trial, 30-day text response rates of participants assigned to the intervention (individualized texting for adherence building (iTAB), n = 20) were compared to those in the active comparison condition (n = 9). Both groups received daily texts assessing methamphetamine use, and the iTAB group additionally received personalized daily ART adherence reminder texts. Response rate for methamphetamine use texts was 72.9% with methamphetamine use endorsed 14.7% of the time. Text-derived methamphetamine use data was correlated with data from a structured substance use interview covering the same time period (P < 0.05). The iTAB group responded to 69.0% of adherence reminder texts; among those responses, 81.8% endorsed taking ART medication. Standardized feedback questionnaire responses indicated little difficulty with the texts, satisfaction with the study, and beliefs that future text-based interventions would be helpful. Moreover, most participants believed the intervention reduced methamphetamine use and improved adherence. Qualitative feedback regarding the intervention was positive. Future studies will refine and improve iTAB for optimal acceptability and efficacy. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01317277. PMID:24078868

  13. Preliminary report: the effect of a 6-month dietary glycemic index manipulation in addition to healthy eating advice and weight loss on arterial compliance and 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure in men: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Philippou, Elena; Bovill-Taylor, Candace; Rajkumar, Chakravarthi; Vampa, Maria Luisa; Ntatsaki, Eleana; Brynes, Audrey E; Hickson, Mary; Frost, Gary S

    2009-12-01

    We aimed to determine whether altering dietary glycemic index (GI) in addition to healthy eating and weight loss advice affects arterial compliance and 24-hour blood pressure (BP), both coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factors. Middle-aged men with at least 1 CHD risk were randomized to a 6-month low-GI (LGI) or high-GI (HGI) diet. All were advised on healthy eating and weight loss. They were seen monthly to assess dietary compliance and anthropometrics. Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV), fasting blood lipid profile, and glucose and insulin concentrations were measured at baseline and at months 3 and 6. Six-hour postprandial glucose and insulin responses and 24-hour ambulatory BP were also assessed at baseline and month 6. Thirty-eight subjects (HGI group, n = 16; LGI group, n = 22) completed the study. At month 6, groups differed in dietary GI, glycemic load, and carbohydrate intake (P < .001). Fasting insulin concentration and insulin resistance (calculated by homeostatic model assessment) were lower in the LGI than the HGI group (P < .01). The reduction in total cholesterol and 24-hour BP was bigger in the LGI than the HGI group (P < .05); and only the LGI group had significant reductions (P < .05) in PWV, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triacylglycerol concentration. There were no differences in postprandial glucose or insulin responses between the groups. The results suggest that an LGI diet may be more beneficial in reducing CHD risk, including PWV and 24-hour BP, even in the setting of healthy eating and weight loss; and thus, further study is warranted.

  14. How cigarette additives are used to mask environmental tobacco smoke

    PubMed Central

    Connolly, G.; Wayne, G.; Lymperis, D.; Doherty, M.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To understand the tobacco industry's research on and use of cigarette additives that alter the perception of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS).
DATA SOURCES—Internal documents from four websites maintained by the major US tobacco manufacturers and company patents pertaining to the use of ETS altering additives obtained from the US Patent and Trademark Office online database.
STUDY SELECTION—Electronic searches of the four industry websites and the US patent database were conducted using keywords to identify relevant data.
DATA EXTRACTION—Industry documents and patents obtained using an exploratory snowball sampling method were reviewed and grouped into four general categories according to whether the additive(s) described affected ETS visibility, odour, irritation, or emissions. Accuracy of isolated findings was validated through cross comparison of the data sources.
DATA SYNTHESIS—Results of this preliminary study provide evidence that tobacco manufacturers have conducted extensive research on the use of chemical additives to reduce, mask, or otherwise alter the visibility, odour, irritation, or emission of ETS.
CONCLUSIONS—Findings suggest that the tobacco industry uses additives to reduce the perception of ETS. To protect the public, appropriate regulation of tobacco additives should be mandated.


Keywords: environmental tobacco smoke; tobacco industry; additives; masking PMID:10982572

  15. Children's strategies to solving additive inverse problems: a preliminary analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Meixia; Auxter, Abbey E.

    2017-03-01

    Prior studies show that elementary school children generally "lack" formal understanding of inverse relations. This study goes beyond lack to explore what children might "have" in their existing conception. A total of 281 students, kindergarten to third grade, were recruited to respond to a questionnaire that involved both contextual and non-contextual tasks on inverse relations, requiring both computational and explanatory skills. Results showed that children demonstrated better performance in computation than explanation. However, many students' explanations indicated that they did not necessarily utilize inverse relations for computation. Rather, they appeared to possess partial understanding, as evidenced by their use of part-whole structure, which is a key to understanding inverse relations. A close inspection of children's solution strategies further revealed that the sophistication of children's conception of part-whole structure varied in representation use and unknown quantity recognition, which suggests rich opportunities to develop students' understanding of inverse relations in lower elementary classrooms.

  16. Children's strategies to solving additive inverse problems: a preliminary analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Meixia; Auxter, Abbey E.

    2017-01-01

    Prior studies show that elementary school children generally "lack" formal understanding of inverse relations. This study goes beyond lack to explore what children might "have" in their existing conception. A total of 281 students, kindergarten to third grade, were recruited to respond to a questionnaire that involved both contextual and non-contextual tasks on inverse relations, requiring both computational and explanatory skills. Results showed that children demonstrated better performance in computation than explanation. However, many students' explanations indicated that they did not necessarily utilize inverse relations for computation. Rather, they appeared to possess partial understanding, as evidenced by their use of part-whole structure, which is a key to understanding inverse relations. A close inspection of children's solution strategies further revealed that the sophistication of children's conception of part-whole structure varied in representation use and unknown quantity recognition, which suggests rich opportunities to develop students' understanding of inverse relations in lower elementary classrooms.

  17. Hydrothermal Liquefaction Treatment Preliminary Hazard Analysis Report

    SciTech Connect

    Lowry, Peter P.; Wagner, Katie A.

    2015-08-31

    A preliminary hazard assessment was completed during February 2015 to evaluate the conceptual design of the modular hydrothermal liquefaction treatment system. The hazard assessment was performed in 2 stages. An initial assessment utilizing Hazard Identification and Preliminary Hazards Analysis (PHA) techniques identified areas with significant or unique hazards (process safety-related hazards) that fall outside of the normal operating envelope of PNNL and warranted additional analysis. The subsequent assessment was based on a qualitative What-If analysis. This analysis was augmented, as necessary, by additional quantitative analysis for scenarios involving a release of hazardous material or energy with the potential for affecting the public.

  18. ADHD Diet: Do Food Additives Cause Hyperactivity?

    MedlinePlus

    ... There's no solid evidence that food additives cause attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, the topic of food additives and their possible effects is controversial. Some studies indicate that certain food ...

  19. Preliminary reference Earth model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dziewonski, Adam M.; Anderson, Don L.

    1981-06-01

    A large data set consisting of about 1000 normal mode periods, 500 summary travel time observations, 100 normal mode Q values, mass and moment of inertia have been inverted to obtain the radial distribution of elastic properties, Q values and density in the Earth's interior. The data set was supplemented with a special study of 12 years of ISC phase data which yielded an additional 1.75 × 10 6 travel time observations for P and S waves. In order to obtain satisfactory agreement with the entire data set we were required to take into account anelastic dispersion. The introduction of transverse isotropy into the outer 220 km of the mantle was required in order to satisfy the shorter period fundamental toroidal and spheroidal modes. This anisotropy also improved the fit of the larger data set. The horizontal and vertical velocities in the upper mantle differ by 2-4%, both for P and S waves. The mantle below 220 km is not required to be anisotropic. Mantle Rayleigh waves are surprisingly sensitive to compressional velocity in the upper mantle. High S n velocities, low P n velocities and a pronounced low-velocity zone are features of most global inversion models that are suppressed when anisotropy is allowed for in the inversion. The Preliminary Reference Earth Model, PREM, and auxiliary tables showing fits to the data are presented.

  20. Evidence for an Independent Syndrome of Hyperactivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trites, R. L.; Laprade, K.

    1983-01-01

    Results of a factor analysis of the Conners Teacher Rating Scales for over 9,000 children provided preliminary evidence that hyperactivity and an aggressive conduct disorder can exist independently in children. (RH)

  1. Dielectric cure monitoring: Preliminary studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, B. E.; Semmel, M. L.

    1984-01-01

    Preliminary studies have been conducted on two types of dielectric cure monitoring systems employing both epoxy resins and phenolic composites. An Audrey System was used for 23 cure monitoring runs with very limited success. Nine complete cure monitoring runs have been investigated using a Micromet System. Two additional measurements were performed to investigate the Micromet's sensitivity to water absorption in a post-cure carbon-phenolic material. While further work is needed to determine data significance, the Micromet system appears to show promise as a feedback control device during processing.

  2. Preliminary Drill Sites

    DOE Data Explorer

    Lane, Michael

    2013-06-28

    Preliminary locations for intermediate depth temperature gradient holes and/or resource confirmation wells based on compilation of geological, geophysical and geochemical data prior to carrying out the DOE-funded reflection seismic survey.

  3. Quantitative evaluation of bronchial enhancement: preliminary observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odry, Benjamin L.; Kiraly, Atilla P.; Novak, Carol L.; Naidich, David P.; Godoy, Myrna C. B.; Schmidt, Bernhard

    2010-03-01

    It has been known for several years that airflow limitations in the small airways may be an important contributor to Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). Quantification of wall thickness has lately gained attention thanks to the use of high resolution CT, with novel approaches focusing on automated methods that can substitute for visual assessment [1, 2]. While increased thickening of the wall is considered evidence of inflammatory disease, we hypothesize that there may be additional ways to detect and quantify inflammation, specifically the uptake of contrast material. In this preliminary investigation, we selected patients with documented chronic airway inflammation, and for whom pre and post contrast datasets were available. On targeted reconstruction of right upper and lower lobes, we selected airways with no connections to surrounding structures, and used a modified Full-Width-Half-Max method for quantification of lumen diameter, wall thickness, and wall density. Matching airway locations on the pre- and postcontrast cases were compared. Airways from patients without airway disease served as a control. Results for the airway disease cases showed an average enhancement of 72 HU within the airway walls, with a standard deviation of 59 HU. In the control group the average enhancement was 16 HU with standard deviation of 22 HU. While this study is limited in number of cases, we hypothesize that quantification of contrast uptake is an additional factor to consider in assessing airway inflammation. At the same time we are currently investigating whether enhancement can be measured via a "contrast" map created with dual energy scanning, where a 3-value decomposition algorithm differentiates iodine from other materials. This technique would eliminate both the need for a pre-contrast scan, and the task of matching airway locations on pre- and post- scans.

  4. Development of a preliminary essential medicines list for Canada

    PubMed Central

    Taglione, Michael S.; Ahmad, Haroon; Slater, Morgan; Aliarzadeh, Babak; Glazier, Richard H.; Laupacis, Andreas; Persaud, Nav

    2017-01-01

    Background: Some evidence supports the use of a short list of essential medicines to improve prescribing. We aimed to create a preliminary essential medicines list for use in Canada. Methods: The 2013 World Health Organization Model List of Essential Medicines was initially adapted by the research team. Fourteen Canadian clinicians gave suggestions for changes to the list. Literature relevant to each unique suggestion was gathered and presented to 3 clinician-scientists who used a modified nominal group technique to make recommendations on the suggested changes. Audits of prescriptions of 2 Toronto-based family health teams (an inner city clinic and a suburban site) between Aug. 1, 2013, and July 30, 2014, were performed to identify common prescriptions that were not on the draft list. Literature relevant to these additional medications was gathered and shared with the clinician-scientist review panel to determine whether each should be added to the list, and a list was developed. The audits were repeated based on the final list to provide a preliminary assessment of the coverage of the list. Results: The multistep process produced a list of 125 medications. The medications included on this list covered 90.8% and 92.6% of prescriptions at the inner city clinic and the suburban site, respectively. In total, 93% of the patients seen at the inner city clinic and 96% of the patients seen at the suburban clinic had all or all but 1 of their medications covered by the list. Interpretation: A preliminary list of essential medicines was developed that covered most, but not all, prescriptions at 2 primary care sites. The list should be further refined based on wider input.

  5. Surveyor 3 Preliminary Science Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1967-01-01

    Surveyor III soft-landed on the Moon at 00:04 GMT on April 20, 1967. Data obtained have significantly increased our knowledge of the Moon. The Surveyor III spacecraft was similar to Surveyor I; the only major change in scientific instrumentation was the addition of a soil mechanics surface sampler. Surveyor III results at this preliminary evaluation of data give valuable information about the relation between the surface skin of under-dense material responsible for the photometric properties and the deeper layers of material whose properties resemble those of ordinary terrestrial soils. In addition, they provide new insight into the relation between the general lunar surface as seen by Surveyor I and the interior of a large subdued crater. The new results have also contributed to our understanding of the mechanism of downhill transport. Many critical questions cannot, however, be answered until final reduction of experimental data.

  6. High performance addition-type thermoplastics (ATTs) - Evidence for the formation of a Diels-Alder adduct in the reaction of an acetylene-terminated material and a bismaleimide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pater, R. H.; Soucek, M. D.; Chang, A. C.; Partos, R. D.

    1991-01-01

    Recently, the concept and demonstration of a new versatile synthetic reaction for making a large number of high-performance addition-type thermoplastics (ATTs) were reported. The synthesis shows promise for providing polymers having an attractive combination of easy processability, good toughness, respectable high temperature mechanical performance, and excellent thermo-oxidative stability. The new chemistry involves the reaction of an acetylene-terminated material with a bismaleimide or benzoquinone. In order to clarify the reaction mechanism, model compound studies were undertaken in solutions as well as in the solid state. The reaction products were purified by flash chromatography and characterized by conventional analytical techniques including NMR, FT-IR, UV-visible, mass spectroscopy, and high pressure liquid chromatography. The results are presented of the model compound studies which strongly support the formation of a Diels-Alder adduct in the reaction of an acetylene-terminated compound and a bismaleimide or benzoquinone.

  7. Recombinant pollen allergens from Dactylis glomerata: preliminary evidence that human IgE cross-reactivity between Dac g II and Lol p I/II is increased following grass pollen immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Roberts, A M; Van Ree, R; Cardy, S M; Bevan, L J; Walker, M R

    1992-07-01

    We previously described the isolation of three identical complementary DNA (cDNA) clones, constructed from Orchard/Cocksfoot grass (Dactylis glomerata) anther messenger RNA (mRNA), expressing a 140,000 MW beta-galactosidase fusion protein recognized by IgE antibodies in atopic sera. Partial nucleotide sequencing and inferred amino acid sequence showed greater than 90% homology with the group II allergen from Lolium perenne (Lol II) indicating they encode the group II equivalent, Dac g II. Western blot immunoprobing of recombinant lysates with rabbit polyclonal, mouse monoclonal and human polyclonal antisera demonstrates immunological identity between recombinant Dac g II, Lol p I and Lol p II. Similar cross-identity is observed with pollen extracts from three other grass species: Festuca rubra, Phleum pratense and Anthoxanthum odoratum. Recombinant Dac g II was recognized by species- and group-cross-reactive human IgE antibodies in 33% (4/12) of sera randomly selected from grass-sensitive individuals and in 67% (14/21) of sera from patients receiving grass pollen immunotherapy, whilst 0/4 sera from patients receiving venom immunotherapy alone contained Dac g II cross-reactive IgE. Cross-reactive IgG4 antibodies were detectable in 95% of sera from grass pollen immunotherapy patients. These preliminary data suggest that conventional grass pollen allergoid desensitization immunotherapy may induce IgE responses to a cross-reactive epitope(s) co-expressed by grass pollen groups I and II (and possibly group III) allergens.

  8. 46 CFR 355.5 - Additional material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Additional material. 355.5 Section 355.5 Shipping... STATES CITIZENSHIP § 355.5 Additional material. If additional material is determined to be essential to clarify or support the evidence of U.S. citizenship, such material shall be furnished by...

  9. 46 CFR 355.5 - Additional material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Additional material. 355.5 Section 355.5 Shipping... STATES CITIZENSHIP § 355.5 Additional material. If additional material is determined to be essential to clarify or support the evidence of U.S. citizenship, such material shall be furnished by...

  10. 46 CFR 355.5 - Additional material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Additional material. 355.5 Section 355.5 Shipping... STATES CITIZENSHIP § 355.5 Additional material. If additional material is determined to be essential to clarify or support the evidence of U.S. citizenship, such material shall be furnished by...

  11. 46 CFR 355.5 - Additional material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Additional material. 355.5 Section 355.5 Shipping... STATES CITIZENSHIP § 355.5 Additional material. If additional material is determined to be essential to clarify or support the evidence of U.S. citizenship, such material shall be furnished by...

  12. Evidence for an additional intracellular site of action of probucol in the prevention of oxidative modification of low density lipoprotein. Use of a new water-soluble probucol derivative.

    PubMed Central

    Parthasarathy, S

    1992-01-01

    Oxidative modification of low density lipoprotein (LDL) renders it more atherogenic. Probucol, a highly nonpolar antioxidant, is transported in lipoproteins, including LDL, and inhibits oxidative modification of LDL in vitro. The ability of probucol to inhibit atherogenesis in the LDL receptor-deficient rabbit has been attributed to its antioxidant effect. We report synthesis of a new water-soluble analogue of probucol that is very effective in preventing cell-induced LDL oxidation. The polar probucol derivative, diglutaryl probucol, is efficiently taken up by endothelial cells and macrophages in culture and is hydrolyzed to release the active antioxidant, probucol. The treated cells, after thorough washing, show a marked decrease in their capacity to oxidize LDL during a subsequent incubation. At high concentrations of the derivative, the cells also released free probucol into the medium. Thus, the effectiveness of probucol in vivo may be related both to its presence in LDL, acting as a nonspecific antioxidant, and to an additional ability to inhibit cell-mediated oxidation of LDL by virtue of its uptake into cells. PMID:1569200

  13. Measuring social skills of children and adolescents in a Chinese population: Preliminary evidence on the reliability and validity of the translated Chinese version of the Social Skills Improvement System-Rating Scales (SSIS-RS-C).

    PubMed

    Cheung, Phoebe P P; Siu, Andrew M H; Brown, Ted

    2017-01-01

    The Social Skills Improvement System-Rating Scales (SSIS-RS; Gresham & Elliott, 2008) are designed to assist in the screening and classification of students (aged 5-18 years) who are suspected of presenting with social skills deficits and to offer guidelines in the development of interventions to remediate those types of problems. The objective of this study is to examine the preliminary reliability and validity of the translated Chinese version of the SSIS-RS, referred to as the SSIS-RS-C. In this study, parent-reported social skills and problem behaviors among students with typical development (n=79) were compared with those of age- and gender-matched students with a known developmental disability (n=79) using the SSIS-RS-C. The results indicated that the SSIS-RS-C subscale scores in all the disability groups were significantly different except for those in the Assertion scale for one disability group. Furthermore, the normative sample of typically developing children and adolescents (aged 5-12 and 13-18 years, n=567) from Hong Kong was established to improve the psychometric properties of the SSIS-RS-C. There were moderate to strong relationships between the common subscales across all forms of the SSIS-RS-C. Acceptable to excellent levels of internal consistency across all common subscales was also obtained. The scores for the Hong Kong sample (n=567) derived from the use of the SSIS-RS-C were then compared to the normative sample scores from the American version of the SSIS-RS. It was found that there were statistically significant differences on five out of the seven SSIS-RS-C Social Skill subscales for children aged 5-12 years and on four out of the seven SSIS-RS-C Social Skills subscales for the adolescent group (aged 13-18 years). Also, there were statistically significant differences between the American and Hong Kong samples on all of the SSIS-RS-C Problem Behavior scale scores. It was concluded that the SSIS-RS-C is a promising instrument for clinicians

  14. New recA mutations that dissociate the various RecA protein activities in Escherichia coli provide evidence for an additional role for RecA protein in UV mutagenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Dutreix, M; Moreau, P L; Bailone, A; Galibert, F; Battista, J R; Walker, G C; Devoret, R

    1989-01-01

    To isolate strains with new recA mutations that differentially affect RecA protein functions, we mutagenized in vitro the recA gene carried by plasmid mini-F and then introduced the mini-F-recA plasmid into a delta recA host that was lysogenic for prophage phi 80 and carried a lac duplication. By scoring prophage induction and recombination of the lac duplication, we isolated new recA mutations. A strain carrying mutation recA1734 (Arg-243 changed to Leu) was found to be deficient in phi 80 induction but proficient in recombination. The mutation rendered the host not mutable by UV, even in a lexA(Def) background. Yet, the recA1734 host became mutable upon introduction of a plasmid encoding UmuD*, the active carboxyl-terminal fragment of UmuD. Although the recA1734 mutation permits cleavage of lambda and LexA repressors, it renders the host deficient in the cleavage of phi 80 repressor and UmuD protein. Another strain carrying mutation recA1730 (Ser-117 changed to Phe) was found to be proficient in phi 80 induction but deficient in recombination. The recombination defect conferred by the mutation was partly alleviated in a cell devoid of LexA repressor, suggesting that, when amplified, RecA1730 protein is active in recombination. Since LexA protein was poorly cleaved in the recA1730 strain while phage lambda was induced, we conclude that RecA1730 protein cannot specifically mediate LexA protein cleavage. Our results show that the recA1734 and recA1730 mutations differentially affect cleavage of various substrates. The recA1730 mutation prevented UV mutagenesis, even upon introduction into the host of a plasmid encoding UmuD* and was dominant over recA+. With respect to other RecA functions, recA1730 was recessive to recA+. This demonstrates that RecA protein has an additional role in mutagenesis beside mediating the cleavage of LexA and UmuD proteins. Images PMID:2651400

  15. Evidence of past climate change in the Little Ice Age and of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation periodicity in Africa: comparison between two neighbor stalagmites from Namibia and Botswana (preliminary results)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voarintsoa, N. G.; Railsback, L. B.; Liang, F.; Brook, G. A.; Cheng, H.; Edwards, R.

    2013-12-01

    Stalagmites are potential sources of paleoenvironmental records because their characteristics respond to climate change. In this preliminary study we compare isotopic values resolvable at annual to bi-annual scale from two stalagmites from caves in Proterozoic dolomitic marbles, as a proxy for the past climate variability in Southern Africa. Stalagmite DP1 is from Dante Cave in the Otjozondjupa region of Namibia, and Stalagmite BC97-14 is from Bone Cave, in the Koanaka Hills of Northwest Botswana, ~125km west of the Okavango Delta. Dante and Bone Cave receive respectively ~532 and ~475mm annual rainfall with an annual average temperature of 21.0°C and 22.6°C. Both caves are in semi-arid areas with highly seasonal rainfall. Vegetation is distinctive for each location: deciduous woodland savanna with a relatively high diversity of scattered tall trees on the hill in which Dante is located and a sparser tree cover on the hillsite of Bone Cave area. The data from the two stalagmites are very different, reflecting the distinctive hydrological and vegetation settings of the caves where they formed. δ18O in BC97-14 is highly variable, ranging from -11.6 to -5.8 ‰, while δ13C is nearly constant (-10.5 to -8.5 ‰). In contrast, δ13C and δ18O are covariant in DP1, with much higher δ13C values (-10.8 to -5.1‰) and much lower δ18O (-11.7 to -6.5 ‰) compared to that of Bone Cave. The distance from the water vapor source (Indian Ocean) might explain the generally lower δ18O values from the Namibian stalagmite compared to that of Botswana; while the difference in vegetation cover reflects the difference between δ13C for the two areas. Regardless of this isotopic difference, the stalagmite data for Bone Cave show a marked 15- to 22-year periodicity that is much more subdued in the Namibia speleothem. This cycle matches with the 17- or 18-year periodicity in the Botswana historical rainfall record. The periodicity is very well pronounced between AD 1825 to 1925

  16. Preliminary Cruise Report - Iguana Expedition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    A preliminary cruise report of Expedition Iguana , 31 March 1972-11 May 1972, gives some preliminary results, list of equipment and, personnel, stations and data gathered, and track and topographic plots. (Author)

  17. Preliminary AirMSPI Datasets

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-12-06

    ... Preliminary AirMSPI Datasets   The data files available through this web page and ftp links are preliminary ... geometric corrections. Caution should be used for science analysis. At a later date, more qualified versions will be made public.   ...

  18. Additive Similarity Trees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sattath, Shmuel; Tversky, Amos

    1977-01-01

    Tree representations of similarity data are investigated. Hierarchical clustering is critically examined, and a more general procedure, called the additive tree, is presented. The additive tree representation is then compared to multidimensional scaling. (Author/JKS)

  19. Anomaly Detection In Additively Manufactured Parts Using Laser Doppler Vibrometery

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez, Carlos A.

    2015-09-29

    Additively manufactured parts are susceptible to non-uniform structure caused by the unique manufacturing process. This can lead to structural weakness or catastrophic failure. Using laser Doppler vibrometry and frequency response analysis, non-contact detection of anomalies in additively manufactured parts may be possible. Preliminary tests show promise for small scale detection, but more future work is necessary.

  20. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, J. R.; St. Clair, T. L.; Burks, H. D.; Stoakley, D. M.

    1987-01-01

    A method has been found for enhancing the melt flow of thermoplastic polyimides during processing. A high molecular weight 422 copoly(amic acid) or copolyimide was fused with approximately 0.05 to 5 pct by weight of a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive, and this melt was studied by capillary rheometry. Excellent flow and improved composite properties on graphite resulted from the addition of a PMDA-aniline additive to LARC-TPI. Solution viscosity studies imply that amic acid additives temporarily lower molecular weight and, hence, enlarge the processing window. Thus, compositions containing the additive have a lower melt viscosity for a longer time than those unmodified.

  1. [Food additives and healthiness].

    PubMed

    Heinonen, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Additives are used for improving food structure or preventing its spoilage, for example. Many substances used as additives are also naturally present in food. The safety of additives is evaluated according to commonly agreed principles. If high concentrations of an additive cause adverse health effects for humans, a limit of acceptable daily intake (ADI) is set for it. An additive is a risk only when ADI is exceeded. The healthiness of food is measured on the basis of nutrient density and scientifically proven effects.

  2. Preliminary evidence of anxiolytic effects of the CRF(1) receptor antagonist R317573 in the 7.5% CO(2) proof-of-concept experimental model of human anxiety.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Jayne E; Papadopoulos, Andreas; Diaper, Alison; Phillips, Suzanne; Schmidt, Me; van der Ark, P; Dourish, Colin T; Dawson, Gerard R; Nutt, David J

    2011-09-01

    We have validated the use of prolonged inhalation of 7.5% carbon dioxide (CO(2)) as a human model of anxiety and have shown that drugs from two prototypical classes of anxiolytics, benzodiazepines and a serotonin reuptake inhibitor, attenuate CO(2)-induced symptoms (Bailey et al., 2007a). Preclinical evidence suggests that drugs acting at the corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) system may be useful for the treatment of depression, anxiety, and other stress-related disorders (Valdez, 2006), hence we have now examined the effects of a CRF(1) receptor antagonist in the 7.5% CO(2) model. In a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled, study in 32 healthy participants we examined the effects of 7 days of treatment with the CRF(1) receptor antagonist, R317573, at a dose that shows a favourable safety profile and is comparable with those effective in preclinical models (40 mg). On day 8, eight of the placebo-treated group received lorazepam (LZP) 2 mg as a positive control. All participants underwent 20 min inhalation of 7.5% CO(2)-enriched air. Subjective reports of peak gas effects were assessed using visual analogue scales and questionnaires. The mean age of participants was 26 years, and 13 were male. The peak effects of CO(2) were expressed as a difference from baseline scores obtained while breathing air alone. Compared with placebo (PLAC), both drug groups showed a decrease in all subjective symptoms, total score on the panic symptom inventory (CRF 11 [2.6], PLAC 16.4 [3.1], LZP 2.9 [3.0]) and a generalized anxiety disorder symptom scale (CRF 2.2 [1.5], PLAC 8.2 [2.2], LZP 1.1 [1.5]). We have shown that a drug that acts to inhibit the CRF(1) receptor shows efficacy in the 7.5% CO(2) model of anxiety in healthy participants.

  3. Eating Disorder Diagnostic Scale: Additional Evidence of Reliability and Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stice, Eric; Fisher, Melissa; Martinez, Erin

    2004-01-01

    The authors conducted 4 studies investigating the reliability and validity of the Eating Disorder Diagnostic Scale (HDDS; E. Stice, C. F. Telch, & S. L. Rizvi, 2000), a brief self-report measure for diagnosing anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating disorder. Study 1 found that the HDDS showed criterion validity with interview-based…

  4. Evidence for the existence of additional small satellites of Saturn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Synnott, S. P.

    1986-01-01

    Voyager-1 and 2 long exposure images were studied in a search for previously undiscovered satellites in the Saturn system. The technique used was to overlap the images with common view areas, thereby including increasingly higher-resolution images of nearby exposures with those taken at greater distances during approach. No definite identifications were made of new satellites. However, five objects were apparently detected by the survey and the orbits associated with each of the recorded photographic 'streaks' were calculated. Techniques are discussed for applying the Space Telescope to confirm or disprove the satellite status of the observed objects.

  5. [INVITED] Lasers in additive manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinkerton, Andrew J.

    2016-04-01

    Additive manufacturing is a topic of considerable ongoing interest, with forecasts predicting it to have major impact on industry in the future. This paper focusses on the current status and potential future development of the technology, with particular reference to the role of lasers within it. It begins by making clear the types and roles of lasers in the different categories of additive manufacturing. This is followed by concise reviews of the economic benefits and disadvantages of the technology, current state of the market and use of additive manufacturing in different industries. Details of these fields are referenced rather than expanded in detail. The paper continues, focusing on current indicators to the future of additive manufacturing. Barriers to its development, trends and opportunities in major industrial sectors, and wider opportunities for its development are covered. Evidence indicates that additive manufacturing may not become the dominant manufacturing technology in all industries, but represents an excellent opportunity for lasers to increase their influence in manufacturing as a whole.

  6. Preliminary results of steel containment vessel model test

    SciTech Connect

    Luk, V.K.; Hessheimer, M.F.; Matsumoto, T.; Komine, K.; Arai, S.; Costello, J.F.

    1998-04-01

    A high pressure test of a mixed-scaled model (1:10 in geometry and 1:4 in shell thickness) of a steel containment vessel (SCV), representing an improved boiling water reactor (BWR) Mark II containment, was conducted on December 11--12, 1996 at Sandia National Laboratories. This paper describes the preliminary results of the high pressure test. In addition, the preliminary post-test measurement data and the preliminary comparison of test data with pretest analysis predictions are also presented.

  7. The role of NASTRAN in the preliminary design cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grooms, H. R.; Baipsys, V. J.

    1993-01-01

    This paper explains how NASTRAN can be utilized advantageously in the preliminary design cycle. The initial portion of the preliminary design process lends itself to programs that can produce multiple configurations or variations on a particular design with minimal cost or effort. The latter portion of the process encompasses refining the design and adding more detailed analyses (particularly for other disciplines). A method for quickly generating balanced spacecraft loading conditions for use in preliminary design and analysis also is explained. The following additional sections are included: Background, Symbols, Analytical Process, Aerodynamic Load Distributions, NASTRAN Applications, Conclusion and References.

  8. On Preliminary Breakdown

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beasley, W. H.; Petersen, D.

    2013-12-01

    The preliminary breakdown phase of a negative cloud-to-ground lightning flash was observed in detail. Observations were made with a Photron SA1.1 high-speed video camera operating at 9,000 frames per second, fast optical sensors, a flat-plate electric field antenna covering the SLF to MF band, and VHF and UHF radio receivers with bandwidths of 20 MHz. Bright stepwise extensions of a negative leader were observed at an altitude of 8 km during the first few milliseconds of the flash, and were coincident with bipolar electric field pulses called 'characteristic pulses'. The 2-D step lengths of the preliminary processes were in excess of 100 meters, with some 2-D step lengths in excess of 200 meters. Smaller and shorter unipolar electric field pulses were superposed onto the bipolar electric field pulses, and were coincident with VHF and UHF radio pulses. After a few milliseconds, the emerging negative stepped leader system showed a marked decrease in luminosity, step length, and propagation velocity. Details of these events will be discussed, including the possibility that the preliminary breakdown phase consists not of a single developing lightning leader system, but of multiple smaller lightning leader systems that eventually join together into a single system.

  9. Polylactides in additive biomanufacturing.

    PubMed

    Poh, Patrina S P; Chhaya, Mohit P; Wunner, Felix M; De-Juan-Pardo, Elena M; Schilling, Arndt F; Schantz, Jan-Thorsten; van Griensven, Martijn; Hutmacher, Dietmar W

    2016-12-15

    New advanced manufacturing technologies under the alias of additive biomanufacturing allow the design and fabrication of a range of products from pre-operative models, cutting guides and medical devices to scaffolds. The process of printing in 3 dimensions of cells, extracellular matrix (ECM) and biomaterials (bioinks, powders, etc.) to generate in vitro and/or in vivo tissue analogue structures has been termed bioprinting. To further advance in additive biomanufacturing, there are many aspects that we can learn from the wider additive manufacturing (AM) industry, which have progressed tremendously since its introduction into the manufacturing sector. First, this review gives an overview of additive manufacturing and both industry and academia efforts in addressing specific challenges in the AM technologies to drive toward AM-enabled industrial revolution. After which, considerations of poly(lactides) as a biomaterial in additive biomanufacturing are discussed. Challenges in wider additive biomanufacturing field are discussed in terms of (a) biomaterials; (b) computer-aided design, engineering and manufacturing; (c) AM and additive biomanufacturing printers hardware; and (d) system integration. Finally, the outlook for additive biomanufacturing was discussed.

  10. Additive Manufactured Product Integrity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waller, Jess; Wells, Doug; James, Steve; Nichols, Charles

    2017-01-01

    NASA is providing key leadership in an international effort linking NASA and non-NASA resources to speed adoption of additive manufacturing (AM) to meet NASA's mission goals. Participants include industry, NASA's space partners, other government agencies, standards organizations and academia. Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) is identified as a universal need for all aspects of additive manufacturing.

  11. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fletcher, James C. (Inventor); Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor); Burks, Harold D. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

  12. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor); Burks, Harold D. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of the additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

  13. 76 FR 44305 - Honey From Argentina: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty New...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-25

    ... International Trade Administration Honey From Argentina: Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results of..., 2011. Extension of Time Limits for Preliminary Results of Review Section 751(a)(2)(B)(iv) of the Tariff... extraordinarily complicated and, therefore, it requires additional time to complete the preliminary...

  14. Food Additives and Hyperkinesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wender, Ester H.

    1977-01-01

    The hypothesis that food additives are causally associated with hyperkinesis and learning disabilities in children is reviewed, and available data are summarized. Available from: American Medical Association 535 North Dearborn Street Chicago, Illinois 60610. (JG)

  15. Smog control fuel additives

    SciTech Connect

    Lundby, W.

    1993-06-29

    A method is described of controlling, reducing or eliminating, ozone and related smog resulting from photochemical reactions between ozone and automotive or industrial gases comprising the addition of iodine or compounds of iodine to hydrocarbon-base fuels prior to or during combustion in an amount of about 1 part iodine per 240 to 10,000,000 parts fuel, by weight, to be accomplished by: (a) the addition of these inhibitors during or after the refining or manufacturing process of liquid fuels; (b) the production of these inhibitors for addition into fuel tanks, such as automotive or industrial tanks; or (c) the addition of these inhibitors into combustion chambers of equipment utilizing solid fuels for the purpose of reducing ozone.

  16. Examining the Reinforcing Properties of Making Sense: A Preliminary Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wray, Alisha M.; Dougher, Michael J.; Hamilton, Derek A.; Guinther, Paul M.

    2012-01-01

    Acceptance and commitment therapy asserts that in clinical problems such as rumination and depression, making sense continues despite accompanying aversive consequences, because sense-making is reinforcing, particularly when it leads to experiential avoidance. The following series of experiments aimed to provide preliminary empirical evidence for…

  17. Environmental Survey preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-04-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings from the first phase of the Environmental Survey of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Sandia National Laboratories conducted August 17 through September 4, 1987. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with Sandia National Laboratories-Albuquerque (SNLA). The Survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulation. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. This phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations carried on at SNLA, and interviews with site personnel. 85 refs., 49 figs., 48 tabs.

  18. Ruiz Volcano: Preliminary report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz Volcano, Colombia (4.88°N, 75.32°W). All times are local (= GMT -5 hours).An explosive eruption on November 13, 1985, melted ice and snow in the summit area, generating lahars that flowed tens of kilometers down flank river valleys, killing more than 20,000 people. This is history's fourth largest single-eruption death toll, behind only Tambora in 1815 (92,000), Krakatau in 1883 (36,000), and Mount Pelée in May 1902 (28,000). The following briefly summarizes the very preliminary and inevitably conflicting information that had been received by press time.

  19. Group Sparse Additive Models

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Junming; Chen, Xi; Xing, Eric P.

    2016-01-01

    We consider the problem of sparse variable selection in nonparametric additive models, with the prior knowledge of the structure among the covariates to encourage those variables within a group to be selected jointly. Previous works either study the group sparsity in the parametric setting (e.g., group lasso), or address the problem in the nonparametric setting without exploiting the structural information (e.g., sparse additive models). In this paper, we present a new method, called group sparse additive models (GroupSpAM), which can handle group sparsity in additive models. We generalize the ℓ1/ℓ2 norm to Hilbert spaces as the sparsity-inducing penalty in GroupSpAM. Moreover, we derive a novel thresholding condition for identifying the functional sparsity at the group level, and propose an efficient block coordinate descent algorithm for constructing the estimate. We demonstrate by simulation that GroupSpAM substantially outperforms the competing methods in terms of support recovery and prediction accuracy in additive models, and also conduct a comparative experiment on a real breast cancer dataset.

  20. Additive Manufacturing Infrared Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaddy, Darrell

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing is a rapid prototyping technology that allows parts to be built in a series of thin layers from plastic, ceramics, and metallics. Metallic additive manufacturing is an emerging form of rapid prototyping that allows complex structures to be built using various metallic powders. Significant time and cost savings have also been observed using the metallic additive manufacturing compared with traditional techniques. Development of the metallic additive manufacturing technology has advanced significantly over the last decade, although many of the techniques to inspect parts made from these processes have not advanced significantly or have limitations. Several external geometry inspection techniques exist such as Coordinate Measurement Machines (CMM), Laser Scanners, Structured Light Scanning Systems, or even traditional calipers and gages. All of the aforementioned techniques are limited to external geometry and contours or must use a contact probe to inspect limited internal dimensions. This presentation will document the development of a process for real-time dimensional inspection technique and digital quality record of the additive manufacturing process using Infrared camera imaging and processing techniques.

  1. Phenylethynyl Containing Reactive Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Phenylethynyl containing reactive additives were prepared from aromatic diamine, containing phenylethvnvl groups and various ratios of phthalic anhydride and 4-phenylethynviphthalic anhydride in glacial acetic acid to form the imide in one step or in N-methyl-2-pvrrolidinone to form the amide acid intermediate. The reactive additives were mixed in various amounts (10% to 90%) with oligomers containing either terminal or pendent phenylethynyl groups (or both) to reduce the melt viscosity and thereby enhance processability. Upon thermal cure, the additives react and become chemically incorporated into the matrix and effect an increase in crosslink density relative to that of the host resin. This resultant increase in crosslink density has advantageous consequences on the cured resin properties such as higher glass transition temperature and higher modulus as compared to that of the host resin.

  2. Fused Lasso Additive Model

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Ashley; Witten, Daniela; Simon, Noah

    2016-01-01

    We consider the problem of predicting an outcome variable using p covariates that are measured on n independent observations, in a setting in which additive, flexible, and interpretable fits are desired. We propose the fused lasso additive model (FLAM), in which each additive function is estimated to be piecewise constant with a small number of adaptively-chosen knots. FLAM is the solution to a convex optimization problem, for which a simple algorithm with guaranteed convergence to a global optimum is provided. FLAM is shown to be consistent in high dimensions, and an unbiased estimator of its degrees of freedom is proposed. We evaluate the performance of FLAM in a simulation study and on two data sets. Supplemental materials are available online, and the R package flam is available on CRAN. PMID:28239246

  3. Phenylethynyl Containing Reactive Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Phenylethynyl containing reactive additives were prepared from aromatic diamines containing phenylethynyl groups and various ratios of phthalic anhydride and 4-phenylethynylphthalic anhydride in glacial acetic acid to form the imide in one step or in N-methyl-2-pyrrolidi none to form the amide acid intermediate. The reactive additives were mixed in various amounts (10% to 90%) with oligomers containing either terminal or pendent phenylethynyl groups (or both) to reduce the melt viscosity and thereby enhance processability. Upon thermal cure, the additives react and become chemically incorporated into the matrix and effect an increase in crosslink density relative to that of the host resin. This resultant increase in crosslink density has advantageous consequences on the cured resin properties such as higher glass transition temperature and higher modulus as compared to that of the host resin.

  4. Additives in plastics.

    PubMed Central

    Deanin, R D

    1975-01-01

    The polymers used in plastics are generally harmless. However, they are rarely used in pure form. In almost all commercial plastics, they are "compounded" with monomeric ingredients to improve their processing and end-use performance. In order of total volume used, these monomeric additives may be classified as follows: reinforcing fibers, fillers, and coupling agents; plasticizers; colorants; stabilizers (halogen stabilizers, antioxidants, ultraviolet absorbers, and biological preservatives); processing aids (lubricants, others, and flow controls); flame retardants, peroxides; and antistats. Some information is already available, and much more is needed, on potential toxicity and safe handling of these additives during processing and manufacture of plastics products. PMID:1175566

  5. Additives in plastics.

    PubMed

    Deanin, R D

    1975-06-01

    The polymers used in plastics are generally harmless. However, they are rarely used in pure form. In almost all commercial plastics, they are "compounded" with monomeric ingredients to improve their processing and end-use performance. In order of total volume used, these monomeric additives may be classified as follows: reinforcing fibers, fillers, and coupling agents; plasticizers; colorants; stabilizers (halogen stabilizers, antioxidants, ultraviolet absorbers, and biological preservatives); processing aids (lubricants, others, and flow controls); flame retardants, peroxides; and antistats. Some information is already available, and much more is needed, on potential toxicity and safe handling of these additives during processing and manufacture of plastics products.

  6. Biobased lubricant additives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fully biobased lubricants are those formulated using all biobased ingredients, i.e. biobased base oils and biobased additives. Such formulations provide the maximum environmental, safety, and economic benefits expected from a biobased product. Currently, there are a number of biobased base oils that...

  7. More Than Additional Space...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CEFP Journal, 1973

    1973-01-01

    A much needed addition to the Jamestown Elementary School turned out to be more than an expansion of walls for more space. A new educational program, a limited budget, and a short time line were tackled on a team approach basis and were successfully resolved. (Author)

  8. Preliminary evidence for a theory of the fractal city.

    PubMed

    Batty, M; Xie, Y

    1996-10-01

    "In this paper, we argue that the geometry of urban residential development is fractal. Both the degree to which space is filled and the rate at which it is filled follow scaling laws which imply invariance of function, and self-similarity of urban form across scale. These characteristics are captured in population density functions based on inverse power laws whose parameters are fractal dimensions. First we outline the relevant elements of the theory in terms of scaling relations and then we introduce two methods for estimating fractal dimension based on varying the size of cities and the scale at which their form is detected. Exact and statistical estimation techniques are applied to each method respectively generating dimensions which measure the extent and the rate of space filling. These methods are then applied to residential development patterns in six industrial cities in the northeastern United States...."

  9. Bayesian Evidence for Two Populations of White Dwarfs: Preliminary Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valentim, R.; Romero, A. D.; Kepler, S. O.; Horvath, J. E.; Rangel, E. M.

    2017-03-01

    White dwarf (WD) populations are analyzed using Bayesian tools, which allows inferring possible evolutionary paths through the study of the mass values. We employed a sample of 2761 DA white dwarf stars from the SDSS, and obtained the central mass values and their corresponding standard deviations using a bimodal population as an ansatz. The results indicate a population with M1 = 0.60 M⊙ and σ1 = 0.06 M⊙, corresponding to a single stellar evolution, and a second population with M2 = 1.00 M⊙ and σ1 = 0.11 M⊙ possibly due to binary evolution resulting from mergers.

  10. Preliminary Evidence for Reduced Auditory Lateral Suppression in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Ramage, Erin. M.; Weintraub, David M.; Vogel, Sally J.; Sutton, Griffin P.; Ringdahl, Erik N.; Allen, Daniel N.; Snyder, Joel S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Well-documented auditory processing deficits such as impaired frequency discrimination and reduced suppression of auditory brain responses in schizophrenia (SZ) may contribute to abnormal auditory functioning in everyday life. Lateral suppression of non-stimulated neurons by stimulated neurons has not been extensively assessed in SZ and likely plays an important role in precise encoding of sounds. Therefore, this study evaluated whether lateral suppression of activity in auditory cortex is impaired in SZ. Methods SZ participants and control participants watched a silent movie with subtitles while listening to trials composed of a 0.5 s control stimulus (CS), a 3 s filtered masking noise (FN), and a 0.5 s test stimulus (TS). The CS and TS were identical on each trial and had energy corresponding to the high energy (recurrent suppression) or low energy (lateral suppression) portions of the FN. Event-related potentials were recorded and suppression was measured as the amplitude change between CS and TS. Results Peak amplitudes of the auditory P2 component (160–260 ms) showed reduced lateral but not recurrent suppression in SZ participants. Conclusions Reduced lateral suppression in SZ participants may lead to overlap of neuronal populations representing different auditory stimuli. Such imprecise neural representations may contribute to the difficulties SZ participants have in discriminating complex stimuli in everyday life. PMID:25583249

  11. Preliminary Evidence for Impaired Rapid Verb Generation in Schizophrenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Steven Paul; Weinborn, Michael; Posada, Carolina; O'Grady, Joy

    2007-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that nouns and verbs are processed within relatively separable semantic memory networks. Although abnormal semantic processing is a common feature of schizophrenia-spectrum disorders, no prior studies have specifically examined the comparability of noun and verb generation deficits in schizophrenia. In the current study,…

  12. Preliminary evidence of altered biomechanics in adolescents with Juvenile Fibromyalgia

    PubMed Central

    Sil, Soumitri; Thomas, Staci; DiCesare, Christopher; Strotman, Daniel; Ting, Tracy V; Myer, Gregory; Kashikar-Zuck, Susmita

    2014-01-01

    Objective Juvenile Fibromyalgia (JFM) is characterized by chronic musculoskeletal pain and marked reduction in physical activity. Despite recommendations for exercise to manage JFM pain, exercise adherence is poor. Due to pain and activity avoidance, adolescents with JFM are at risk for altered joint mechanics that may make them susceptible to increased pain and reduced tolerance for exercise. The primary aim of this study was to assess functional deficits in patients with JFM compared to healthy controls using objective biomechanical assessment. Methods Female adolescent patients with JFM (n=17) and healthy controls (n=14) completed biomechanical assessments including gait analysis and tests of lower extremity strength (isokinetic knee extension/flexion, hip abduction) and functional performance (Drop Vertical Jump) along with self-report measures of disability (Functional Disability Inventory), pain intensity, depressive symptoms (Children’s Depression Inventory), and fear of movement (Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia). Results Patients with JFM demonstrated mild deficiencies in walking gait and functional performance (p’s <. 05), significantly lower left knee extension and flexion strength (19–26% deficit) and bilateral hip abduction strength (33–37%) compared to healthy controls (p’s < .008). Patients with JFM reported significantly higher functional disability, pain intensity, depressive symptoms, and fear of movement relative to controls (p’s < 0.01). Conclusions This study showed that adolescents with JFM exhibited objective alterations in biomechanics, and self-reported fear of movement which may reinforce their activity avoidance. Interventions for JFM should include a focus on correcting functional deficits and instilling greater confidence in adolescents with JFM to engage in exercise to improve functional outcomes. PMID:25156509

  13. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT: ENVIROFUELS DIESEL FUEL CATALYZER FUEL ADDITIVE

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA's Environmental Technology Verification Program has tested EnviroFuels diesel fuel additive, called the Diesel Fuel Catalyzer. EnviroFuels has stated that heavy-duty on and off road diesel engines are the intended market for the catalyzer. Preliminary tests conducted indicate...

  14. Vinyl capped addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vannucci, Raymond D. (Inventor); Malarik, Diane C. (Inventor); Delvigs, Peter (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    Polyimide resins (PMR) are generally useful where high strength and temperature capabilities are required (at temperatures up to about 700 F). Polyimide resins are particularly useful in applications such as jet engine compressor components, for example, blades, vanes, air seals, air splitters, and engine casing parts. Aromatic vinyl capped addition polyimides are obtained by reacting a diamine, an ester of tetracarboxylic acid, and an aromatic vinyl compound. Low void materials with improved oxidative stability when exposed to 700 F air may be fabricated as fiber reinforced high molecular weight capped polyimide composites. The aromatic vinyl capped polyimides are provided with a more aromatic nature and are more thermally stable than highly aliphatic, norbornenyl-type end-capped polyimides employed in PMR resins. The substitution of aromatic vinyl end-caps for norbornenyl end-caps in addition polyimides results in polymers with improved oxidative stability.

  15. Electrophilic addition of astatine

    SciTech Connect

    Norseev, Yu.V.; Vasaros, L.; Nhan, D.D.; Huan, N.K.

    1988-03-01

    It has been shown for the first time that astatine is capable of undergoing addition reactions to unsaturated hydrocarbons. A new compound of astatine, viz., ethylene astatohydrin, has been obtained, and its retention numbers of squalane, Apiezon, and tricresyl phosphate have been found. The influence of various factors on the formation of ethylene astatohydrin has been studied. It has been concluded on the basis of the results obtained that the univalent cations of astatine in an acidic medium is protonated hypoastatous acid.

  16. Functional Generalized Additive Models.

    PubMed

    McLean, Mathew W; Hooker, Giles; Staicu, Ana-Maria; Scheipl, Fabian; Ruppert, David

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the functional generalized additive model (FGAM), a novel regression model for association studies between a scalar response and a functional predictor. We model the link-transformed mean response as the integral with respect to t of F{X(t), t} where F(·,·) is an unknown regression function and X(t) is a functional covariate. Rather than having an additive model in a finite number of principal components as in Müller and Yao (2008), our model incorporates the functional predictor directly and thus our model can be viewed as the natural functional extension of generalized additive models. We estimate F(·,·) using tensor-product B-splines with roughness penalties. A pointwise quantile transformation of the functional predictor is also considered to ensure each tensor-product B-spline has observed data on its support. The methods are evaluated using simulated data and their predictive performance is compared with other competing scalar-on-function regression alternatives. We illustrate the usefulness of our approach through an application to brain tractography, where X(t) is a signal from diffusion tensor imaging at position, t, along a tract in the brain. In one example, the response is disease-status (case or control) and in a second example, it is the score on a cognitive test. R code for performing the simulations and fitting the FGAM can be found in supplemental materials available online.

  17. A PRELIMINARY JUPITER MODEL

    SciTech Connect

    Hubbard, W. B.; Militzer, B.

    2016-03-20

    In anticipation of new observational results for Jupiter's axial moment of inertia and gravitational zonal harmonic coefficients from the forthcoming Juno orbiter, we present a number of preliminary Jupiter interior models. We combine results from ab initio computer simulations of hydrogen–helium mixtures, including immiscibility calculations, with a new nonperturbative calculation of Jupiter's zonal harmonic coefficients, to derive a self-consistent model for the planet's external gravity and moment of inertia. We assume helium rain modified the interior temperature and composition profiles. Our calculation predicts zonal harmonic values to which measurements can be compared. Although some models fit the observed (pre-Juno) second- and fourth-order zonal harmonics to within their error bars, our preferred reference model predicts a fourth-order zonal harmonic whose absolute value lies above the pre-Juno error bars. This model has a dense core of about 12 Earth masses and a hydrogen–helium-rich envelope with approximately three times solar metallicity.

  18. Siloxane containing addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maudgal, S.; St. Clair, T. L.

    1984-01-01

    Addition polyimide oligomers have been synthesized from bis(gamma-aminopropyl) tetramethyldisiloxane and 3, 3', 4, 4'-benzophenonetetracarboxylic dianhydride using a variety of latent crosslinking groups as endcappers. The prepolymers were isolated and characterized for solubility (in amide, chlorinated and ether solvents), melt flow and cure properties. The most promising systems, maleimide and acetylene terminated prepolymers, were selected for detailed study. Graphite cloth reinforced composites were prepared and properties compared with those of graphite/Kerimid 601, a commercially available bismaleimide. Mixtures of the maleimide terminated system with Kerimid 601, in varying proportions, were also studied.

  19. Platelet additive solution - electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Azuma, Hiroshi; Hirayama, Junichi; Akino, Mitsuaki; Ikeda, Hisami

    2011-06-01

    Recent attention to solutions that replace most or all plasma in platelet concentrates, while maintaining satisfactory platelet function, is motivated by the potential of plasma reduction or depletion to mitigate various transfusion-related adverse events. This report considers the electrolytic composition of previously described platelet additive solutions, in order to draw general conclusions about what is required for platelet function and longevity. The optimal concentrations of Na(+) and Cl(-) are 69-115 mM. The presence of both K(+) and Mg(2+) in platelet suspension at nearly physiological concentrations (3-5mM and 1.5-3mM, respectively) is indispensable for good preservation capacity because both electrolytes are required to prevent platelet activation. In contrast to K(+) and Mg(2+), Ca(2+) may not be important because no free Ca(2+) is available in M-sol, which showed excellent platelet preservation capacity at less than 5% plasma concentration. The importance of bicarbonate (approximately 40 mM) can be recognized when the platelets are suspended in additive solution under less than 5% residual plasma concentration.

  20. Additive composition, for gasoline

    SciTech Connect

    Vataru, M.

    1989-01-10

    An admixture is described that comprises Diesel fuel and an additive composition added thereto which is between about 0.05 to about 2.0 percent by weight of the fuel, the composition comprising: (a) between about 0.05 and 25% relative weight parts of an organic peroxide, and (b) between about 0.1 and 25% relative weight parts of detergent selected from the component group that consists of: (i) fatty amines; (ii) ethoxylated and propoxylated derivatives of fatty amines; (iii) fatty diamines; (iv) fatty imidazlines; (v) polymeric amines and derivatives thereof; (vi) combination of one or more of the (i) through (v) components with carboxylic acid or acids having from three to forth carbon atoms, (c) from about 99.0 to about 50% by weight of a hydrocarbon solvent.

  1. Teardrop bladder: additional considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Wechsler, R.J.; Brennan, R.E.

    1982-07-01

    Nine cases of teardrop bladder (TDB) seen at excretory urography are presented. In some of these patients, the iliopsoas muscles were at the upper limit of normal in size, and additional evaluation of the perivesical structures with computed tomography (CT) was necessary. CT demonstrated only hypertrophied muscles with or without perivesical fat. The psoas muscles and pelvic width were measured in 8 patients and compared with the measurements of a control group of males without TDB. Patients with TDB had large iliopsoas muscles and narrow pelves compared with the control group. The psoas muscle width/pelvic width ratio was significantly greater (p < 0.0005) in patients with TDB than in the control group, with values of 1.04 + 0.05 and 0.82 + 0.09, respectively. It is concluded that TDB is not an uncommon normal variant in black males. Both iliopsoas muscle hypertrophy and a narrow pelvis are factors that predispose a patient to TDB.

  2. New addition curing polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frimer, Aryeh A.; Cavano, Paul

    1991-01-01

    In an attempt to improve the thermal-oxidative stability (TOS) of PMR-type polymers, the use of 1,4-phenylenebis (phenylmaleic anhydride) PPMA, was evaluated. Two series of nadic end-capped addition curing polyimides were prepared by imidizing PPMA with either 4,4'-methylene dianiline or p-phenylenediamine. The first resulted in improved solubility and increased resin flow while the latter yielded a compression molded neat resin sample with a T(sub g) of 408 C, close to 70 C higher than PME-15. The performance of these materials in long term weight loss studies was below that of PMR-15, independent of post-cure conditions. These results can be rationalized in terms of the thermal lability of the pendant phenyl groups and the incomplete imidization of the sterically congested PPMA. The preparation of model compounds as well as future research directions are discussed.

  3. Perspectives on Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourell, David L.

    2016-07-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has skyrocketed in visibility commercially and in the public sector. This article describes the development of this field from early layered manufacturing approaches of photosculpture, topography, and material deposition. Certain precursors to modern AM processes are also briefly described. The growth of the field over the last 30 years is presented. Included is the standard delineation of AM technologies into seven broad categories. The economics of AM part generation is considered, and the impacts of the economics on application sectors are described. On the basis of current trends, the future outlook will include a convergence of AM fabricators, mass-produced AM fabricators, enabling of topology optimization designs, and specialization in the AM legal arena. Long-term developments with huge impact are organ printing and volume-based printing.

  4. Sewage sludge additive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalvinskas, J. J.; Mueller, W. A.; Ingham, J. D. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    The additive is for a raw sewage treatment process of the type where settling tanks are used for the purpose of permitting the suspended matter in the raw sewage to be settled as well as to permit adsorption of the dissolved contaminants in the water of the sewage. The sludge, which settles down to the bottom of the settling tank is extracted, pyrolyzed and activated to form activated carbon and ash which is mixed with the sewage prior to its introduction into the settling tank. The sludge does not provide all of the activated carbon and ash required for adequate treatment of the raw sewage. It is necessary to add carbon to the process and instead of expensive commercial carbon, coal is used to provide the carbon supplement.

  5. Kinematic analysis of motor performance in robot-assisted surgery: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Nisky, Ilana; Patil, Sangram; Hsieh, Michael H; Okamura, Allison M

    2013-01-01

    The inherent dynamics of the master manipulator of a teleoperated robot-assisted surgery (RAS) system can affect the movements of a human operator, in comparison with free-space movements. To measure the effects of these dynamics on operators with differing levels of surgical expertise, a da Vinci Si system was instrumented with a custom surgeon grip fixture and magnetic pose trackers. We compared users' performance of canonical motor control movements during teleoperation with the manipulator and freehand cursor control, and found significant differences in several aspects of motion, including target acquisition error, movement speed, and acceleration. In addition, there was preliminary evidence for differences between experts and novices. These findings could impact robot design, control, and training methods for RAS.

  6. Preventing Mania: A Preliminary Examination of the GOALS Program

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Sheri L.; Fulford, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    There is strong evidence of a relationship between goal dysregulation and mania. Building on these findings, we examined the feasibility of developing a mania prevention treatment program designed to improve goal regulation skills for those with bipolar disorder. Here, we describe the process of developing a manual, delivering the intervention to a series of cases, and then conducting a small open uncontrolled trial. All participants met diagnostic criteria for bipolar I disorder based on the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV and were not currently experiencing episodes of depression or mania. Ten participants (8 female, mean age = 46.7 years) were enrolled in the GOALS program and completed an average of 13.2 weekly sessions. Participants were administered the Bech-Rafaelson Mania Scale (BRMS) and the Modified Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression at baseline and termination. Some participants completed self-report scales including the Altman Self-Rating Mania Scale, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Willingly Approached Set of Statistically Unrealistic Pursuits at baseline and termination. In addition, participants were administered a consumer satisfaction questionnaire at termination. At termination, all 10 participants found the program highly relevant and helpful. Most importantly, even though levels of mania were low initially, mean levels of manic symptoms on the BRMS decreased significantly from baseline to termination, and all 10 participants were within a healthy range (BRMS <7) at termination. Although the lack of control group or follow-up data limits this study, preliminary evidence suggests that it is feasible to identify treatment targets by drawing from the basic research literature in bipolar disorder. Findings await replication and more careful testing within a randomized controlled trial. PMID:19433142

  7. Additive lattice kirigami.

    PubMed

    Castle, Toen; Sussman, Daniel M; Tanis, Michael; Kamien, Randall D

    2016-09-01

    Kirigami uses bending, folding, cutting, and pasting to create complex three-dimensional (3D) structures from a flat sheet. In the case of lattice kirigami, this cutting and rejoining introduces defects into an underlying 2D lattice in the form of points of nonzero Gaussian curvature. A set of simple rules was previously used to generate a wide variety of stepped structures; we now pare back these rules to their minimum. This allows us to describe a set of techniques that unify a wide variety of cut-and-paste actions under the rubric of lattice kirigami, including adding new material and rejoining material across arbitrary cuts in the sheet. We also explore the use of more complex lattices and the different structures that consequently arise. Regardless of the choice of lattice, creating complex structures may require multiple overlapping kirigami cuts, where subsequent cuts are not performed on a locally flat lattice. Our additive kirigami method describes such cuts, providing a simple methodology and a set of techniques to build a huge variety of complex 3D shapes.

  8. Ceramics with Different Additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Juanjuan; Feng, Lajun; Lei, Ali; Zhao, Kang; Yan, Aijun

    2014-09-01

    Li2CO3, MgCO3, BaCO3, and Bi2O3 dopants were introduced into CaCu3Ti4O12 (CCTO) ceramics in order to improve the dielectric properties. The CCTO ceramics were prepared by conventional solid-state reaction method. The phase structure, microstructure, and dielectric behavior were carefully investigated. The pure structure without any impurity phases can be confirmed by the x-ray diffraction patterns. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) analysis illuminated that the grains of Ca0.90Li0.20Cu3Ti4O12 ceramics were greater than that of pure CCTO. It was important for the properties of the CCTO ceramics to study the additives in complex impedance spectroscopy. It was found that the Ca0.90Li0.20Cu3Ti4O12 ceramics had the higher permittivity (>45000), the lower dielectric loss (<0.025) than those of CCTO at 1 kHz at room temperature and good temperature stability from -30 to 75 °C.

  9. Additive lattice kirigami

    PubMed Central

    Castle, Toen; Sussman, Daniel M.; Tanis, Michael; Kamien, Randall D.

    2016-01-01

    Kirigami uses bending, folding, cutting, and pasting to create complex three-dimensional (3D) structures from a flat sheet. In the case of lattice kirigami, this cutting and rejoining introduces defects into an underlying 2D lattice in the form of points of nonzero Gaussian curvature. A set of simple rules was previously used to generate a wide variety of stepped structures; we now pare back these rules to their minimum. This allows us to describe a set of techniques that unify a wide variety of cut-and-paste actions under the rubric of lattice kirigami, including adding new material and rejoining material across arbitrary cuts in the sheet. We also explore the use of more complex lattices and the different structures that consequently arise. Regardless of the choice of lattice, creating complex structures may require multiple overlapping kirigami cuts, where subsequent cuts are not performed on a locally flat lattice. Our additive kirigami method describes such cuts, providing a simple methodology and a set of techniques to build a huge variety of complex 3D shapes. PMID:27679822

  10. Preliminary Analysis of Photoreading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McNamara, Danielle S.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to provide a preliminary analysis of a reading strategy called PhotoReading. PhotoReading is a technique developed by Paul Scheele that claims to increase reading rate to 25,000 words per minute (Scheele, 1993). PhotoReading itself involves entering a "relaxed state" and looking at, but not reading, each page of a text for a brief moment (about I to 2 seconds). While this technique has received attention in the popular press, there had been no objective examinations of the technique's validity. To examine the effectiveness of PhotoReading, the principal investigator (i.e., trainee) participated in a PhotoReading workshop to learn the technique. Parallel versions of two standardized and three experimenter-created reading comprehension tests were administered to the trainee and an expert user of the PhotoReading technique to compare the use of normal reading strategies and the PhotoReading technique by both readers. The results for all measures yielded no benefits of using the PhotoReading technique. The extremely rapid reading rates claimed by PhotoReaders were not observed; indeed, the reading rates were generally comparable to those for normal reading. Moreover, the PhotoReading expert generally showed an increase in reading time when using the PhotoReading technique in comparison to when using normal reading strategies to process text. This increase in reading time when PhotoReading was accompanied by a decrease in text comprehension.

  11. Enhanced preliminary assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-02-01

    An Enhanced Preliminary Assessment was conducted at Fort Benjamin Harrison (FBH) Indiana, which is located approximately 12 miles from downtown Indianapolis in Lawrence Township, Marion County. FBH contains 2,501 acres, of which approximately 1,069 acres is covered by woodlands. Activities at FBH include administration, training, housing, and support. Sensitive environments at FBH include wetlands, habitat areas for the endangered Indiana bat, endangered plants, and historically and archeologically significant areas. FBH is a U.S. Army Soldier Support Center under the jurisdiction of the U.S. Army Training and Doctrine Command (TRADOC). Based on information obtained during and subsequent to a site visit (15 through 18 October 1991), 36 types of Areas Requiring Environmental Evaluation (AREEs) were identified and grouped by the following categories: Facility Operations; Maintenance/Fueling Operations; Water Treatment Operations; Training Areas; Hazardous Materials Storage/Waste Handling Areas; Sanitary Wastewater Treatment Plants; Storage Tanks; Landfills/Incinerators; Medical Facilities; Burn Pit Areas; Spill Areas; Ammunition Storage; Coal Storage; and Facility-wide AREEs. This report presents a summary of findings for each AREE and recommendations for further action.

  12. Putting evidence into practice.

    PubMed

    Feight, Deborah; Baney, Tara; Bruce, Susan; McQuestion, Maurene

    2011-10-01

    Radiation dermatitis, or radiodermatitis, is a significant symptom caused by radiation therapy for the treatment of cancerous and noncancerous conditions. Radiodermatitis can negatively affect patients' physical functioning and quality of life. The Oncology Nursing Society coordinated a Putting Evidence Into Practice (PEP) project team to develop a PEP resource summarizing current evidence for the management of patients with radiodermatitis. Oncology nurses play an important role in educating, assessing, and monitoring patients for this symptom. Many common nursing interventions for radiodermatitis are based on tradition or opinion and have not been researched thoroughly. In addition, evidence to support some current interventions in practice is lacking. This article presents information concerning radiodermatitis, summarizes the evidence-based review for its prevention and management, and identifies gaps in the literature, as well as opportunities for research, education, and practice.

  13. Stardust Interstellar Preliminary Examination (ISPE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westphal, A. J.; Allen, C.; Bajt, S.; Basset, R.; Bastien, R.; Bechtel, H.; Bleuet, P.; Borg, J.; Brenker, F.; Bridges, J.; Brownlee, D. E.; Burchell, M.; Burghammer, M.; Butterworth, A. L.; Cloetens, P.; Cody, G.; Ferroir, T.; Floss, C.; Flynn, G. J.; Frank, D.; Gainsforth, Z.; Grün, E.; Hoppe, P.; Kearsley, A.; Lemelle, L.; Leroux, H.; Lettieri, R.; Marchant, W.; Mendez, B.; Nittler, L. R.; Ogliore, R.; Postberg, F.; Sandford, S. A.; Schmitz, S.; Silversmit, G.; Simionovici, A.; Srama, R.; Stadermann, F. J.; Stephan, T.; Stroud, R. M.; Susini, J.; Sutton, S.; Trieloff, M.; Tsou, P.; Tsuchiyama, A.; Tyliczszak, T.; Vekemans, B.; Vincze, L.; Warren, J.; Zolensky, M. E.

    2009-03-01

    The Stardust Interstellar Preliminary Examination (ISPE) is a three-year effort to characterize the Stardust interstellar dust collection and collector using non-destructive techniques. We summarize the status of the ISPE.

  14. 32 CFR 651.49 - Preliminary phase.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Preliminary phase. 651.49 Section 651.49... Preliminary phase. In the preliminary phase, the proponent agency or office identifies, as early as possible... tentative list of the affected parties to be notified. A key part of this preliminary identification is...

  15. Evidence and evidence gaps - an introduction.

    PubMed

    Dreier, Gabriele; Löhler, Jan

    2016-01-01

    , databases, information portals with processed evidence as well as specific journals and finally teaching are appropriate vehicles. One problem is the multitude of information so that knowledge gaps may affect the clinical routine despite actually existing evidence. Generally, it still takes several years until new knowledge is implemented in daily routine. Tasks: The German Society of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology, Head and Neck Surgery (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Hals-, Nasen- und Ohren-Heilkunde, Kopf- und Hals-Chirurgie e.V., DGHNOKHC) and the Professional Association of Otolaryngologists (Deutscher Berufsverband der HNO-Ärzte e.V., BVHNO) have fundamental interest in supporting their members in generating, processing, and providing evidence as well as accompanying knowledge transfer. It encompasses the fields of diagnostics, therapy, and prognosis in the same way as prevention and applies to medicinal products as well as to medical devices or surgical procedures. The base for this is the regular assessment of evidence gaps, also in the area of established procedures, that has to be followed by a prioritization of research questions and the subsequent initiation of clinical research. In addition, large trials verifying therapies and diagnostics, for example in the context of daily conditions after approval, can only be conducted combining all resources in the ENT community. Method, results, and outlook: Together, the executive committees of the DGHNOKHC and the BVHNO founded the German Study Center of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology, Head and Neck Surgery (Deutsches Studienzentrum für Hals-, Nasen- und Ohren-Heilkunde, Kopf- und Hals-Chirurgie, DSZ-HNO). First projects have been initiated, among those a clinical trial on the therapy of sudden hearing loss supported by the BMBF and a survey on evidence gaps in oto-rhino-laryngology. It seems to be both reasonable and feasible to make available methodological expertise via such an infrastructure of a study center for physicians in

  16. Evidence and evidence gaps – an introduction

    PubMed Central

    Dreier, Gabriele; Löhler, Jan

    2016-01-01

    , databases, information portals with processed evidence as well as specific journals and finally teaching are appropriate vehicles. One problem is the multitude of information so that knowledge gaps may affect the clinical routine despite actually existing evidence. Generally, it still takes several years until new knowledge is implemented in daily routine. Tasks: The German Society of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology, Head and Neck Surgery (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Hals-, Nasen- und Ohren-Heilkunde, Kopf- und Hals-Chirurgie e.V., DGHNOKHC) and the Professional Association of Otolaryngologists (Deutscher Berufsverband der HNO-Ärzte e.V., BVHNO) have fundamental interest in supporting their members in generating, processing, and providing evidence as well as accompanying knowledge transfer. It encompasses the fields of diagnostics, therapy, and prognosis in the same way as prevention and applies to medicinal products as well as to medical devices or surgical procedures. The base for this is the regular assessment of evidence gaps, also in the area of established procedures, that has to be followed by a prioritization of research questions and the subsequent initiation of clinical research. In addition, large trials verifying therapies and diagnostics, for example in the context of daily conditions after approval, can only be conducted combining all resources in the ENT community. Method, results, and outlook: Together, the executive committees of the DGHNOKHC and the BVHNO founded the German Study Center of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology, Head and Neck Surgery (Deutsches Studienzentrum für Hals-, Nasen- und Ohren-Heilkunde, Kopf- und Hals-Chirurgie, DSZ-HNO). First projects have been initiated, among those a clinical trial on the therapy of sudden hearing loss supported by the BMBF and a survey on evidence gaps in oto-rhino-laryngology. It seems to be both reasonable and feasible to make available methodological expertise via such an infrastructure of a study center for physicians in

  17. Addition of Rice Bran Arabinoxylan to Curcumin Therapy May Be of Benefit to Patients With Early-Stage B-Cell Lymphoid Malignancies (Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance, Smoldering Multiple Myeloma, or Stage 0/1 Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia): A Preliminary Clinical Study.

    PubMed

    Golombick, Terry; Diamond, Terrence H; Manoharan, Arumugam; Ramakrishna, Rajeev

    2016-06-01

    Hypothesis Prior studies on patients with early B-cell lymphoid malignancies suggest that early intervention with curcumin may lead to delay in progressive disease and prolonged survival. These patients are characterized by increased susceptibility to infections. Rice bran arabinoxylan (Ribraxx) has been shown to have immunostimulatory, anti-inflammatory, and proapoptotic effects. We postulated that addition of Ribraxx to curcumin therapy may be of benefit. Study design Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS)/smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM) or stage 0/1 chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients who had been on oral curcumin therapy for a period of 6 months or more were administered both curcumin (as Curcuforte) and Ribraxx. Methods Ten MGUS/SMM patients and 10 patients with stage 0/1 CLL were administered 6 g of curcumin and 2 g Ribraxx daily. Blood samples were collected at baseline and at 2-month intervals for a period of 6 months, and various markers were monitored. MGUS/SMM patients included full blood count (FBC); paraprotein; free light chains/ratio; C-reactive protein (CRP)and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR); B2 microglobulin and immunological markers. Markers monitored for stage 0/1 CLL were FBC, CRP and ESR, and immunological markers. Results Of 10 MGUS/SMM patients,5 (50%) were neutropenic at baseline, and the Curcuforte/Ribraxx combination therapy showed an increased neutrophil count, varying between 10% and 90% among 8 of the 10 (80%) MGUS/SMM patients. An additional benefit of the combination therapy was the potent effect in reducing the raised ESR in 4 (44%) of the MGUS/SMM patients. Conclusion Addition of Ribraxx to curcumin therapy may be of benefit to patients with early-stage B-cell lymphoid malignancies.

  18. Preliminary LISA Telescope Spacer Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Livas, J.; Arsenovic, P.; Catellucci, K.; Generie, J.; Howard, J.; Stebbins, R. T.

    2010-01-01

    The Laser Interferometric Space Antenna (LISA) mission observes gravitational waves by measuring the separations between freely floating proof masses located 5 million kilometers apart with an accuracy of approximately 10 picometers. The separations are measured interferometrically. The telescope is an afocal Cassegrain style design with a magnification of 80x. The entrance pupil has a 40 cm diameter and will either be centered on-axis or de-centered off-axis to avoid obscurations. Its two main purposes are to transform the small diameter beam used on the optical bench to a diffraction limited collimated beam to efficiently transfer the metrology laser between spacecraft, and to receive the incoming light from the far spacecraft. It transmits and receives simultaneously. The basic optical design and requirements are well understood for a conventional telescope design for imaging applications, but the LISA design is complicated by the additional requirement that the total optical path through the telescope must remain stable at the picometer level over the measurement band during the mission to meet the measurement accuracy. This poster describes the requirements for the telescope and the preliminary work that has been done to understand the materials and mechanical issues associated with the design of a passive metering structure to support the telescope and to maintain the spacing between the primary and secondary mirrors in the LISA on-orbit environment. This includes the requirements flowdown from the science goals, thermal modeling of the spacecraft and telescope to determine the expected temperature distribution,layout options for the telescope including an on- and off-axis design, and plans for fabrication and testing.

  19. Interpreting Evidence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munsart, Craig A.

    1993-01-01

    Presents an activity that allows students to experience the type of discovery process that paleontologists necessarily followed during the early dinosaur explorations. Students are read parts of a story taken from the "American Journal of Science" and interpret the evidence leading to the discovery of Triceratops and Stegosaurus. (PR)

  20. Using epidemiology to regulate food additives: saccharin case-control studies.

    PubMed

    Cordle, F; Miller, S A

    1984-01-01

    The increasing use of nonnutritive sweeteners and the widely publicized 1969 ban on cyclamate led to additional investigations in rodents of the carcinogenic potential of saccharin. Preliminary results of a long-term feeding study indicated formation of bladder tumors in rodents, and collective experimental evidence has demonstrated that high doses of the synthetic sweetener saccharin can cause bladder cancer in rodents. Based on the results of that and other rodent studies indicating an increased risk of bladder cancer associated with saccharin, the Commissioner of the Food and Drug Administration announced the agency's intention to propose a ban on saccharin. This intention was made known in April 1977 under the Delaney Clause of the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. The clause essentially states that no additive shall be deemed safe if it is found to induce cancer in man or animals, or if it is found, after tests appropriate for the evaluation of the safety of food additives, to induce cancer in man or animals. Also in 1977, a group of epidemiologists began to assess the available epidemiologic information to determine the potential human risk. This report describes the assessment of several human epidemiologic studies available then and the results of more recent epidemiologic studies.

  1. Possible Hydrovolcanic Landforms Observed in MOC NA Imagery: A Preliminary Survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farrand, W. H.; Gaddis, L. R.; Blundell, S.

    2001-01-01

    In a preliminary survey of MOC NA imagery, a number of features resembling table mountains, tuff rings, and near craters have been identified. Their locations and geologic significance will be discussed. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  2. Seismicity in Pennsylvania: Evidence for Anthropogenic Events?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Homman, K.; Nyblade, A.

    2015-12-01

    The deployment and operation of the USArray Transportable Array (TA) and the PASEIS (XY) seismic networks in Pennsylvania during 2013 and 2014 provide a unique opportunity for investigating the seismicity of Pennsylvania. These networks, along with several permanent stations in Pennsylvania, resulted in a total of 104 seismometers in and around Pennsylvania that have been used in this study. Event locations were first obtained with Antelope Environmental Monitoring Software using P-wave arrival times. Arrival times were hand picked using a 1-5 Hz bandpass filter to within 0.1 seconds. Events were then relocated using a velocity model developed for Pennsylvania and the HYPOELLIPSE location code. In this study, 1593 seismic events occurred between February 2013 and December 2014 in Pennsylvania. These events ranged between magnitude (ML) 1.04 and 2.89 with an average MLof 1.90. Locations of the events occur across the state in many areas where no seismicity has been previously reported. Preliminary results indicate that most of these events are related to mining activity. Additional work using cross-correlation techniques is underway to examine a number of event clusters for evidence of hydraulic fracturing or wastewater injection sources.

  3. Stardust Interstellar Preliminary Examination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westphal, A.; Stardust Interstellar Preliminary Examation Team: http://www. ssl. berkeley. edu/~westphal/ISPE/

    2011-12-01

    A. J. Westphal, C. Allen, A. Ansari, S. Bajt, R. S. Bastien, H. A. Bechtel, J. Borg, F. E. Brenker, J. Bridges, D. E. Brownlee, M. Burchell, M. Burghammer, A. L. Butterworth, A. M. Davis, P. Cloetens, C. Floss, G. Flynn, D. Frank, Z. Gainsforth, E. Grün, P. R. Heck, J. K. Hillier, P. Hoppe, G. Huss, J. Huth, B. Hvide, A. Kearsley, A. J. King, B. Lai, J. Leitner, L. Lemelle, H. Leroux, R. Lettieri, W. Marchant, L. R. Nittler, R. Ogliore, F. Postberg, M. C. Price, S. A. Sandford, J.-A. Sans Tresseras, T. Schoonjans, S. Schmitz, G. Silversmit, A. Simionovici, V. A. Solé, R. Srama, T. Stephan, V. Sterken, J. Stodolna, R. M. Stroud, S. Sutton, M. Trieloff, P. Tsou, A. Tsuchiyama, T. Tyliszczak, B. Vekemans, L. Vincze, D. Zevin, M. E. Zolensky, >29,000 Stardust@home dusters ISPE author affiliations are at http://www.ssl.berkeley.edu/~westphal/ISPE/. In 2000 and 2002, a ~0.1m2 array of aerogel tiles and alumi-num foils onboard the Stardust spacecraft was exposed to the interstellar dust (ISD) stream for an integrated time of 200 days. The exposure took place in interplanetary space, beyond the orbit of Mars, and thus was free of the ubiquitous orbital debris in low-earth orbit that precludes effective searches for interstellar dust there. Despite the long exposure of the Stardust collector, <<100 ISD particles are expected to have been captured. The particles are thought to be ~1μm or less in size, and the total ISD collection is probably <10-6 by mass of the collection of cometary dust parti-cles captured in the Stardust cometary dust collector from the coma of the Jupiter-family comet Wild 2. Thus, although the first solid sample from the local interstellar medium is clearly of high interest, the diminutive size of the particles and the low numbers of particles present daunting challenges. Nevertheless, six recent developments have made a Preliminary Examination (PE) of this sample practical: (1) rapid automated digital optical scanning microscopy for three

  4. Coarticulatory evidence in stuttered disfluencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arbisi-Kelm, Timothy

    2005-09-01

    While the disfluencies produced in stuttered speech surface at a significantly higher rate than those found in normal speech, it is less clear from the previous stuttering literature how exactly these disfluency patterns might differ in kind [Wingate (1988)]. One tendency found in normal speech is for disfluencies to remove acoustic evidence of coarticulation patterns [Shriberg (1999)]. This appears attributable to lexical search errors which prevent a speaker from accessing a word's phonological form; that is, coarticulation between words will fail to occur when segmental material from the following word is not retrieved. Since stuttering is a disorder which displays evidence of phonological but not lexical impairment, it was predicted that stuttered disfluencies would differ from normal errors in that the former would reveal acoustic evidence of word transitions. Eight speakers four stutterers and four control subjects participated in a narrative-production task, spontaneously describing a picture book. Preliminary results suggest that while both stutterers and controls did produce similar rates of disfluencies occurring without coarticulatory evidence, only the stutterers regularly produced disfluencies reflecting this transitional evidence. These results support the argument that disfluencies proper to stuttering result from a phonological deficit, while normal disfluencies are generally lexically based.

  5. Physical evidence for dark energy

    SciTech Connect

    Scranton, Ryan; Connolly, Andrew J.; Nichol, Robert C.; Stebbins, Albert; Szapudi, Istvan; Eisenstein, Daniel J.; Afshordi, Niayesh; Budavari, Tamas; Csabai, Istvan; Frieman, Joshua A.; Gunn, James E.; Johnston, David; Loh, Yeong-Shang; Lupton, Robert H.; Miller, Christopher J.; Sheldon, Erin Scott; Sheth, Ravi K.; Szalay, Alexander S.; Tegmark, Max; Xu, Yongzhong; Anderson, Scott F.; /Pittsburgh U. /Carnegie Mellon U. /Fermilab /Inst. Astron., Honolulu /Arizona U., Astron. Dept. - Steward Observ. /Princeton U. Observ. /Johns Hopkins U. /Eotvos U. /Chicago U., Astron. Astrophys. Ctr. /KICP, Chicago /Pennsylvania U. /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept. /Apache Point Observ. /Illinois U., Urbana, Astron. Dept. /Tokyo U., ICRR /LLNL, Livermore /Sussex U., Astron. Ctr. /Baltimore, Space Telescope Sci. /Michigan U. /Naval Observ., Flagstaff /Penn State U., Astron. Astrophys.

    2003-07-01

    The authors present measurements of the angular cross-correlation between luminous red galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the cosmic microwave background temperature maps from the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe. They find a statistically significant achromatic positive correlation between these two data sets, which is consistent with the expected signal from the late Integrated Sachs-Wolfe (ISW) effect. they do not detect any anti-correlation on small angular scales as would be produced from a large Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect, although they do see evidence for some SZ effect for their highest redshift samples. Assuming a flat universe, their preliminary detection of the ISW effect provides independent physical evidence for the existence of dark energy.

  6. Preliminary Centaur Systems Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maronde, R. G.; Holmes, J. K.; Iwasaki, R. S.

    1981-01-01

    The Centaur is stored in the Orbiter payload bay on the Centaur Integrated Support System (CISS). The CISS not only cradles the Centaur prior to deployment but also provides any signal conditioning required to make the Centaur/Orbiter hardwire interfaces compatible. In addition, the CISS provides other Centaur functions such as controlling all the avionics safety features and providing all the helium supplies for tank pressurizations. Problems associated with a Centaur design concept using a transponder and two switchable antennas are defined. Solutions to these problems are presented.

  7. Preliminary remediation goals for ecological endpoints

    SciTech Connect

    Efroymson, R.A.; Suter, G.W. II; Sample, B.E.; Jones, D.S.

    1996-07-01

    Preliminary remediation goals (PRGs) are useful for risk assessment and decision making at Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) sites. PRGs are upper concentration limits for specific chemicals in specific environmental media that are anticipated to protect human health or the environment. They can be used for multiple remedial investigations at multiple facilities. In addition to media and chemicals of potential concern, the development of PRGs generally requires some knowledge or anticipation of future land use. In Preliminary Remediation Goals for Use at the U.S. Department of Energy Oak Ridge Operations Office (Energy Systems 1995), PRGs intended to protect human health were developed with guidance from Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund: Volume I - Human Health Evaluation Manual, Part B (RAGS) (EPA 1991). However, no guidance was given for PRGs based on ecological risk. The numbers that appear in this volume have, for the most part, been extracted from toxicological benchmarks documents for Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and have previously been developed by ORNL. The sources of the quantities, and many of the uncertainties associated with their derivation, are described in this technical memorandum.

  8. Concentrating solar collector subsystem: Preliminary design package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Preliminary design data are presented for a concentrating solar collector including an attitude controller. Provided are schedules, technical status, all documents required for preliminary design, and other program activities.

  9. Additions to the mycobiota of the invasive weed Miconia calvescens (Melastomataceae).

    PubMed

    Alves, Janaina Lana; Barreto, Robert Weingart; Pereira, Olinto Liparini; Soares, Dartanhã José

    2010-01-01

    Miconia calvescens (Melastomataceae) is a shrub or small tree native to the Neotropics that has become one of the worst invaders of forest ecosystems, particularly in Pacific islands such as Hawaii and French Polynesia. It has been a target for biological control for more than 10 y, both with arthropod and pathogen natural enemies. Until now Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. sp. miconiae was the only organism to be used in biological control against this weed. This fungus was introduced both in Hawaii and in French Polynesia in the late 1990s/early 2000s, where it has caused some damage to the weed, but it became evident that additional agents are needed to achieve adequate control. Exploratory surveys for plant pathogens as potential biocontrol agents of M. calvescens were undertaken in Brazil, Costa Rica and Ecuador and yielded a diverse list of pathogens, including one phytoplasma, two nematodes, one oomycete and numerous fungi. A study including the description of five fungal species found attacking M. calvescens was published recently. Herein the following additional fungi also belonging to the mycobiota of M. calvescens are described: Hyalosphaera ornata sp. nov, Microsphaeropsis miconiae sp. nov., Myrothecium miconiae sp. nov., Phyllachora miconiiphila sp. nov., as well as Hyalosphaera miconiae, Lembosia melastomatum and Microsphaeropsis clidemiae, which are recorded here for the first time on this host. Although preliminary our observations of damage to M. calvescens caused by these seven fungal species did not indicate any potential for use in classical biological control.

  10. Nucleophilic Addition of Organozinc Reagents to 2-Sulfonyl Cyclic Ethers

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyoungsu; Kasper, Amanda C.; Moon, Eui Jung; Park, Yongho; Wooten, Ceshea M.; Dewhirst, Mark W.; Hong, Jiyong

    2009-01-01

    A convergent route to the synthesis of manassantins A and B, potent inhibitors of HIF-1, is described. Central to the synthesis is a stereoselective addition of an organozinc reagent to a 2-benzenesulfonyl cyclic ether to achieve the 2,3-cis-3,4-trans-4,5-cis-tetrahydrofuran of the natural products. Preliminary structure—activity relationships suggested that the (R)-configuration at C-7 and C-7″′ is not critical for HIF-1 inhibition. In addition, the hydroxyl group at C-7 and C-7″′ can be replaced with carbonyl group without loss of activity. PMID:19111058

  11. Measuring Organizational Learning: A Preliminary Progress Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-08-01

    Contractor Report 2010-01 Measuring Organizational Learning : A Preliminary Progress Report Chris Winkler and Charles T...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Measuring Organizational Learning : A Preliminary Progress Report 5a. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER W91WAW-07-C-0074 5b...Technical Publications Specialist (703) 602-8049 ii iii MEASURING ORGANIZATIONAL LEARNING : A PRELIMINARY

  12. 18 CFR 806.11 - Preliminary consultations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... COMMISSION REVIEW AND APPROVAL OF PROJECTS Application Procedure § 806.11 Preliminary consultations. (a) Any... Commission staff for an informal discussion of preliminary plans for the proposed project. To facilitate preliminary consultations, it is suggested that the project sponsor provide a general description of...

  13. 18 CFR 806.11 - Preliminary consultations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... COMMISSION REVIEW AND APPROVAL OF PROJECTS Application Procedure § 806.11 Preliminary consultations. (a) Any... Commission staff for an informal discussion of preliminary plans for the proposed project. To facilitate preliminary consultations, it is suggested that the project sponsor provide a general description of...

  14. How Safe Are Color Additives?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home For Consumers Consumer Updates How Safe are Color Additives? Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... Consumer Updates RSS Feed Download PDF (380 K) Color additives give the red tint to your fruit ...

  15. Detergent Additive for Lubricating Oils,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The Russian patent pertains to a method of producing additives for lubricating oils . A method is known for producing an antiwear additive for... lubricating oils by processing phenols with phosphorus oxychloride, phosphoric acid esters are obtained. In order to give the additive detergent properties

  16. Outside enclosure and additional enrichment for dairy goats – a preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Dairy goats are commonly housed at a space allowance of 0.7 – 0.8 m2/goat in commercial Norwegian goat herds, which is very low compared to regulations and recommendations in other European countries. One easy and cheap way to increase space allowance is to allow the animals’ access to outdoor area. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of access to an outside enclosure and environmental enrichment for dairy goats kept in slatted floor pens with low space allowance on their activity pattern and social behaviour. Methods A group of 82 dairy goats on a commercial Norwegian dairy farm were kept inside during the winter period from October to April. In April the goats were given access to an outside enclosure for 8 hours per day. After having access to the enclosure for another for two days, enrichment (branches) was provided, and after 19 days the enrichment were removed. The goats were observed for 5 hours per day for the two last days before they got access to the outside enclosure, the two days in the enclosure, the two first and the two last days with enrichment and for the following two days without enrichment by two trained observers. Results When allowed access to the enclosure, the goats spent nearly 50% of the time outside, and later the time spent outside was reduced to less than 40% (P < 0.0001), but there was no clear effect of enrichment. All the goats appeared to have a regular use of the enclosure. Time spent resting decreased 59.2% to only 25.2% when the goats first got access to the enclosure, but then started to increase again (P < 0.0001). Initially time spent exploring and chewing the branches was 20%, but this was reduced to around 12% in the last part of the ENRICH period (P < 0.0001). Number of aggressive interactions tended to increase when the goats were allowed access to the outdoor enclosure whereas play behaviour was only observed in the outside enclosure (P < 0.05). Conclusions In conclusion, the goats preferred to use the outside enclosure when being active, and branches were perceived as an attractive enrichment. PMID:23173769

  17. Grain Modification Additives for TNT and its Compositions. A Preliminary Screening via Suppression of Supercooling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-01

    designated by other documentation. Destroy this report when no longer needed. Do not return to the originator. UNCLASSIFIED SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF...t^ CQ cn e >. •H jes 1 o •H C C 4-1 CM 0) 1-1 ^ 01 1 <u •> a 4-J 4J 4= fttH ^i cu •H a 1 ts 1 .iH c vO CO CO C cn >^ CO u U

  18. [Chewing gum as an additional agent in maintaining oral hygiene versus smoking status--preliminary study].

    PubMed

    Nakonieczna-Rudnicka, Marta; Strycharz-Dudziak, Małgorzata; Bachanek, Teresa

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays chewing gum is widely used in different age groups, so complying with proper duration and frequency of chewing is an important factor influencing the state of masticatory system. The study involved 112 dental students of the Medical University of Lublin. Everyday use of chewing gum declared 47,32% of cases. Chewing time up to 10 minutes was stated in 23,08% of respondents, 11-20 minutes in 40,38% of interviewees. Among the examined students 17,3% smoked cigarettes. In smokers group 83,33% of questioned chewed the gum every day, while among non-smokers - 43,37%. Chewing time shorter than 10 minutes declared 22,22% of smokers and 23,26% of non-smokers, while chewing time between 11-20 minutes - 27,78% i 44,35% of smokers and non-smokers respectively. Obtained results indicate the need of carrying out further studies aimed at the nicotine influence on saliva parameters with respect to development of diseases of hard tooth tissues.

  19. The professional clothing bank as evidence-based practice.

    PubMed

    Bishop, SueZanne Monique

    2015-01-01

    Little research exists linking interview-appropriate attire to improved employment outcomes for women. Thus, it appears that the professional clothing bank has not been investigated as evidence-based practice. To provide preliminary evidence for clothing banks, in this article the author synthesizes findings from existing research on the provision of a professional clothing bank as a means for offering interview-appropriate attire to poor women in job readiness programming. For context, job readiness programs are explored and a case study of one program operating a professional clothing bank is presented. Finally, preliminary considerations for planning and implementing clothing banks based on this literature review are given.

  20. Incorporation of additives into polymers

    DOEpatents

    McCleskey, T. Mark; Yates, Matthew Z.

    2003-07-29

    There has been invented a method for incorporating additives into polymers comprising: (a) forming an aqueous or alcohol-based colloidal system of the polymer; (b) emulsifying the colloidal system with a compressed fluid; and (c) contacting the colloidal polymer with the additive in the presence of the compressed fluid. The colloidal polymer can be contacted with the additive by having the additive in the compressed fluid used for emulsification or by adding the additive to the colloidal system before or after emulsification with the compressed fluid. The invention process can be carried out either as a batch process or as a continuous on-line process.

  1. Additive manufacturing of optical components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinrich, Andreas; Rank, Manuel; Maillard, Philippe; Suckow, Anne; Bauckhage, Yannick; Rößler, Patrick; Lang, Johannes; Shariff, Fatin; Pekrul, Sven

    2016-08-01

    The development of additive manufacturing methods has enlarged rapidly in recent years. Thereby, the work mainly focuses on the realization of mechanical components, but the additive manufacturing technology offers a high potential in the field of optics as well. Owing to new design possibilities, completely new solutions are possible. This article briefly reviews and compares the most important additive manufacturing methods for polymer optics. Additionally, it points out the characteristics of additive manufactured polymer optics. Thereby, surface quality is of crucial importance. In order to improve it, appropriate post-processing steps are necessary (e.g. robot polishing or coating), which will be discussed. An essential part of this paper deals with various additive manufactured optical components and their use, especially in optical systems for shape metrology (e.g. borehole sensor, tilt sensor, freeform surface sensor, fisheye lens). The examples should demonstrate the potentials and limitations of optical components produced by additive manufacturing.

  2. Bacterial Identification Using Light Scattering Measurements: a Preliminary Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkins, J. R.

    1971-01-01

    The light scattering properties of single bacterial cells were examined as a possible means of identification. Three species were studied with streptococcus faecalis exhibiting a unique pattern; the light-scattering traces for staphylococcus aureus and escherichia coli were quite similar although differences existed. Based on preliminary investigations, the light scattering approach appeared promising with additional research needed to include a wide variety of bacterial species, computer capability to handle and analyze data, and expansion of light scattering theory to include bacterial cells.

  3. SARDA HITL Preliminary Human Factors Measures and Analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyashi, Miwa; Dulchinos, Victoria

    2012-01-01

    Human factors data collected during the SARDA HITL Simulation Experiment include a variety of subjective measures, including the NASA TLX, questionnaire questions regarding situational awareness, advisory usefulness, UI usability, and controller trust. Preliminary analysis of the TLX data indicate that workload may not be adversely affected by use of the advisories, additionally, the controller's subjective ratings of the advisories may suggest acceptance of the tool.

  4. Radioactive waste shredding: Preliminary evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Soelberg, N.R.; Reimann, G.A.

    1994-07-01

    The critical constraints for sizing solid radioactive and mixed wastes for subsequent thermal treatment were identified via a literature review and a survey of shredding equipment vendors. The types and amounts of DOE radioactive wastes that will require treatment to reduce the waste volume, destroy hazardous organics, or immobilize radionuclides and/or hazardous metals were considered. The preliminary steps of waste receipt, inspection, and separation were included because many potential waste treatment technologies have limits on feedstream chemical content, physical composition, and particle size. Most treatment processes and shredding operations require at least some degree of feed material characterization. Preliminary cost estimates show that pretreatment costs per unit of waste can be high and can vary significantly, depending on the processing rate and desired output particle size.

  5. Food additives and contaminants. An update.

    PubMed

    Newberne, P M; Conner, M W

    1986-10-15

    Food additives continue to be a source of benefits to the consuming public but there are also perceived risks. Concern for the latter in the last decade has produced a society afflicted with cancer phobia. The intentional additives including sugars, salt, corn syrup, and dextrose make up 90% of the direct additives. These, along with a limited number of familiar items make up a large proportion of the remainder of the additives. Such common ingredients as nitrates and nitrites, solanine, cyanogenetic compounds, arsenic, etc., are unavoidably consumed in the diet and with little if any evidence for public health consequences. Major concern on the part of the public in recent years has been focused on man-made chemicals which are intentionally added to foods to enhance flavors and acceptability, nutrient value, shelf life and increased availability. These include food colors, nonnutritive and low-nutrient sweeteners, (saccharin, cyclamate, aspartame); antioxidants; and nitrites. Contaminants, sometimes incorrectly included in lists of food additives, present the greatest potential threat to public health. Such contaminants as mycotoxins, nitrosamines, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), pesticides, among others, provide a continuing challenge to our regulatory agencies and to public health authorities. Evidence to date indicate that these responsible for food safety are doing an admirable job, and as a society, our food supply has never been better, or safer, and, as a population, we have never been healthier. Aside from contaminants, major concerns relate to an excess of good food and to obesity. These comments should not be taken to infer that we should relax our concern and surveillance; instead more concern and surveillance should be exerted toward those uncontrolled substances such as natural plant products and alleged natural nutrients, roots, herbs, etc., which are given much credit for positive health effects, without meeting the high standards of our

  6. Lunar Excavator Preliminary Test Video

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This video shows a preliminary test of the boom and bucket wheel assembly of the lunar excavator prototype developed by the Center for Commercial Applications of Combustion at the Colorado School of Mines in Golden. According to Michael Duke, director for the center, the wheel on the end of the boom can dig up 45.36 kilograms (100 pounds) of dirt each hour which is several times the weight of the entire device.

  7. The MUNU experiment : preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busto, J.; MUNU Collaboration

    2000-06-01

    The MUNU collaboration has built a detector to study overlineνe - e - scattering at low energy. From the results we expect to increase the sensitivity to the neutrino magnetic moment. The detector used, a 1 m 3 T.P.C. surrounded by an anti-Compton scintillator, is running at the Bugey nuclear plant. Some preliminary results will be presented in the following.

  8. Genetic evidence for ecological divergence in kokanee salmon.

    PubMed

    Lemay, Matthew A; Russello, Michael A

    2015-02-01

    The evolution of locally adapted phenotypes among populations that experience divergent selective pressures is a central mechanism for generating and maintaining biodiversity. Recently, the advent of high-throughput DNA sequencing technology has provided tools for investigating the genetic basis of this process in natural populations of nonmodel organisms. Kokanee, the freshwater form of sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka), occurs as two reproductive ecotypes, which differ in spawning habitat (tributaries vs. shorelines); however, outside of the spawning season the two ecotypes co-occur in many lakes and lack diagnostic morphological characteristics. We used restriction site-associated DNA (RAD) sequencing to identify 6145 SNPs and genotype kokanee from multiple spawning sites in Okanagan Lake (British Columbia, Canada). Outlier tests revealed 18 loci putatively under divergent selection between ecotypes, all of which exhibited temporally stable allele frequencies within ecotypes. Six outliers were annotated to sequences in the NCBI database, two of which matched genes associated with early development. There was no evidence for neutral genetic differentiation; however, outlier loci demonstrated significant structure with respect to ecotype and had high assignment accuracy in mixed composition simulations. The absence of neutral structure combined with a small number of highly divergent outlier loci is consistent with theoretical predictions for the early stages of ecological divergence. These outlier loci were then applied to a realistic fisheries scenario in which additional RAD sequencing was used to genotype kokanee collected by trawl in Okanagan Lake, providing preliminary evidence that this approach may be an effective tool for conservation and management.

  9. Enantioselective Michael addition of water.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bi-Shuang; Resch, Verena; Otten, Linda G; Hanefeld, Ulf

    2015-02-09

    The enantioselective Michael addition using water as both nucleophile and solvent has to date proved beyond the ability of synthetic chemists. Herein, the direct, enantioselective Michael addition of water in water to prepare important β-hydroxy carbonyl compounds using whole cells of Rhodococcus strains is described. Good yields and excellent enantioselectivities were achieved with this method. Deuterium labeling studies demonstrate that a Michael hydratase catalyzes the water addition exclusively with anti-stereochemistry.

  10. Enantioselective Michael Addition of Water

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Bi-Shuang; Resch, Verena; Otten, Linda G; Hanefeld, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    The enantioselective Michael addition using water as both nucleophile and solvent has to date proved beyond the ability of synthetic chemists. Herein, the direct, enantioselective Michael addition of water in water to prepare important β-hydroxy carbonyl compounds using whole cells of Rhodococcus strains is described. Good yields and excellent enantioselectivities were achieved with this method. Deuterium labeling studies demonstrate that a Michael hydratase catalyzes the water addition exclusively with anti-stereochemistry. PMID:25529526

  11. A preliminary evaluation of Trinity river sediment and nutrient loads into Galveston Bay, Texas, during two periods of high flow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, Michael T.

    2010-01-01

    Suspend-sediment and water-quality data were measured during two periods o high flow, one during April 20-23, 2009 and a second during September 22-November 3, 2009. On the basis of streamflow and continuous and discrete water-quality measurements, the two periods of high flow had different flood and nutrient loading characteristics. Some differences in the nature of these two periods of high flow were evident. Preliminary results indicate that it might be possible to better understand the extent of sediment and nutrient loading in Galveston Bay using selected measurements of discrete and continuous water-quality data. An apparent correlation was observed between the concentrations of selected nutrients and suspended sediment, and an apparent correlation was observed between suspended sediment and total nutrient concentration measured with in-situ turbidity measurements during periods of high flow in Trinity River at the Wallisville, Texas gage, about 3.5 miles upstream from where the Trinity River enters Galveston Bay. Additional data are needed to confirm these preliminary results.  

  12. Preliminary study of the characteristics of a high Mg containing Al-Mg-Si alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, F.; McKay, B. J.; Fan, Z.; Chen, M. F.

    2012-01-01

    An Al-20Mg-4Si high Mg containing alloy has been produced and its characteristics investigated. The as-cast alloy revealed primary Mg2Si particles evenly distributed throughout an α-Al matrix with a β-Al3Mg2 fully divorced eutectic phase observed in interdendritic regions. The Mg2Si particles displayed octahedral, truncated octahedral, and hopper morphologies. Additions of Sb, Ti and Zr had a refining influence reducing the size of the Mg2Si from 52 ± 4 μm to 25 ± 0.1 μm, 35 ± 1 μm and 34 ± 1 μm respectively. HPDC tensile test samples could be produced with a 0.6 wt.% Mn addition which prevented die soldering. Solution heating for 1 hr was found to dissolve the majority of the Al3Mg2 eutectic phase with no evidence of any effect on the primary Mg2Si. Preliminary results indicate that the heat treatment has a beneficial effect on the elongation and the UTS.

  13. No Generalization of Practice for Nonzero Simple Addition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Jamie I. D.; Beech, Leah C.

    2014-01-01

    Several types of converging evidence have suggested recently that skilled adults solve very simple addition problems (e.g., 2 + 1, 4 + 2) using a fast, unconscious counting algorithm. These results stand in opposition to the long-held assumption in the cognitive arithmetic literature that such simple addition problems normally are solved by fact…

  14. 14 CFR 65.123 - Additional type ratings: Requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Parachute Riggers § 65.123 Additional type ratings: Requirements. A certificated parachute rigger who applies for an additional type rating must— (a) Present evidence satisfactory to the Administrator that he has packed at least 20...

  15. 14 CFR 65.123 - Additional type ratings: Requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Parachute Riggers § 65.123 Additional type ratings: Requirements. A certificated parachute rigger who applies for an additional type rating must— (a) Present evidence satisfactory to the Administrator that he has packed at least 20...

  16. 14 CFR 65.123 - Additional type ratings: Requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Parachute Riggers § 65.123 Additional type ratings: Requirements. A certificated parachute rigger who applies for an additional type rating must— (a) Present evidence satisfactory to the Administrator that he has packed at least 20...

  17. 14 CFR 65.123 - Additional type ratings: Requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Parachute Riggers § 65.123 Additional type ratings: Requirements. A certificated parachute rigger who applies for an additional type rating must— (a) Present evidence satisfactory to the Administrator that he has packed at least 20...

  18. 14 CFR 65.123 - Additional type ratings: Requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Parachute Riggers § 65.123 Additional type ratings: Requirements. A certificated parachute rigger who applies for an additional type rating must— (a) Present evidence satisfactory to the Administrator that he has packed at least 20...

  19. Color Addition and Subtraction Apps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz, Frances; Ruiz, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Color addition and subtraction apps in HTML5 have been developed for students as an online hands-on experience so that they can more easily master principles introduced through traditional classroom demonstrations. The evolution of the additive RGB color model is traced through the early IBM color adapters so that students can proceed step by step…

  20. Additive Effects on Asymmetric Catalysis.

    PubMed

    Hong, Liang; Sun, Wangsheng; Yang, Dongxu; Li, Guofeng; Wang, Rui

    2016-03-23

    This review highlights a number of additives that can be used to make asymmetric reactions perfect. Without changing other reaction conditions, simply adding additives can lead to improved asymmetric catalysis, such as reduced reaction time, improved yield, or/and increased selectivity.

  1. 75 FR 71072 - Initiation and Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Changed Circumstances Review: Certain...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-22

    ..., 1992) and Certain Cut-to-Length Carbon Steel Plate from Romania: Initiation and Preliminary Results of... Romania). While no single factor or combination of factors will necessarily be dispositive, the Department... 14, 1994), and Plate from Romania, 70 FR 22847. ] Thus, if the record evidence demonstrates the...

  2. Preliminary weight and cost estimates for transport aircraft composite structural design concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Preliminary weight and cost estimates have been prepared for design concepts utilized for a transonic long range transport airframe with extensive applications of advanced composite materials. The design concepts, manufacturing approach, and anticipated details of manufacturing cost reflected in the composite airframe are substantially different from those found in conventional metal structure and offer further evidence of the advantages of advanced composite materials.

  3. Development and Preliminary Validation of the Time Management for Exercise Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hellsten, Laurie-ann M.; Rogers, W. Todd

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to collect preliminary validity evidence for a time management scale for exercise. An initial pool of 91 items was developed from existing literature. Ten exercise/health psychologists evaluated each of the items in terms of relevance and representativeness. Forty-nine items met all criteria. Exploratory factor…

  4. Astor Pass Seismic Surveys Preliminary Report

    SciTech Connect

    Louie, John; Pullammanappallil, Satish; Faulds, James; Eisses, Amy; Kell, Annie; Frary, Roxanna; Kent, Graham

    2011-08-05

    In collaboration with the Pyramid Lake Paiute Tribe (PLPT), the University of Nevada, Reno (UNR) and Optim re-processed, or collected and processed, over 24 miles of 2d seismic-reflection data near the northwest corner of Pyramid Lake, Nevada. The network of 2d land surveys achieved a near-3d density at the Astor Pass geothermal prospect that the PLPT drilled during Nov. 2010 to Feb. 2011. The Bureau of Indian Affairs funded additional seismic work around the Lake, and an extensive, detailed single-channel marine survey producing more than 300 miles of section, imaging more than 120 ft below the Lake bottom. Optim’s land data collection utilized multiple heavy vibrators and recorded over 200 channels live, providing a state-of-the-art reflection-refraction data set. After advanced seismic analysis including first-arrival velocity optimization and prestack depth migration, the 2d sections show clear fault-plane reflections, in some areas as deep as 4000 ft, tying to distinct terminations of the mostly volcanic stratigraphy. Some lines achieved velocity control to 3000 ft depth; all lines show reflections and terminations to 5000 ft depth. Three separate sets of normal faults appear in an initial interpretation of fault reflections and stratigraphic terminations, after loading the data into the OpendTect 3d seismic visualization system. Each preliminary fault set includes a continuous trace more than 3000 ft long, and a swarm of short fault strands. The three preliminary normal-fault sets strike northerly with westward dip, northwesterly with northeast dip, and easterly with north dip. An intersection of all three fault systems documented in the seismic sections at the end of Phase I helped to locate the APS-2 and APS-3 slimholes. The seismic sections do not show the faults connected to the Astor Pass tufa spire, suggesting that we have imaged mostly Tertiary-aged faults. We hypothesize that the Recent, active faults that produced the tufa through hotspring

  5. Zika Virus Disease in Colombia - Preliminary Report.

    PubMed

    Pacheco, Oscar; Beltrán, Mauricio; Nelson, Christina A; Valencia, Diana; Tolosa, Natalia; Farr, Sherry L; Padilla, Ana V; Tong, Van T; Cuevas, Esther L; Espinosa-Bode, Andrés; Pardo, Lissethe; Rico, Angélica; Reefhuis, Jennita; González, Maritza; Mercado, Marcela; Chaparro, Pablo; Martínez Duran, Mancel; Rao, Carol Y; Muñoz, María M; Powers, Ann M; Cuéllar, Claudia; Helfand, Rita; Huguett, Claudia; Jamieson, Denise J; Honein, Margaret A; Ospina Martínez, Martha L

    2016-06-15

    Background Colombia began official surveillance for Zika virus disease (ZVD) in August 2015. In October 2015, an outbreak of ZVD was declared after laboratory-confirmed disease was identified in nine patients. Methods Using the national population-based surveillance system, we assessed patients with clinical symptoms of ZVD from August 9, 2015, to April 2, 2016. Laboratory test results and pregnancy outcomes were evaluated for a subgroup of pregnant women. Concurrently, we investigated reports of microcephaly for evidence of congenital ZVD. Results By April 2, 2016, there were 65,726 cases of ZVD reported in Colombia, of which 2485 (4%) were confirmed by means of reverse-transcriptase-polymerase-chain-reaction (RT-PCR) assay. The overall reported incidence of ZVD among female patients was twice that in male patients. A total of 11,944 pregnant women with ZVD were reported in Colombia, with 1484 (12%) of these cases confirmed on RT-PCR assay. In a subgroup of 1850 pregnant women, more than 90% of women who were reportedly infected during the third trimester had given birth, and no infants with apparent abnormalities, including microcephaly, have been identified. A majority of the women who contracted ZVD in the first or second trimester were still pregnant at the time of this report. Among the cases of microcephaly investigated from January 2016 through April 2016, four patients had laboratory evidence of congenital ZVD; all were born to asymptomatic mothers who were not included in the ZVD surveillance system. Conclusions Preliminary surveillance data in Colombia suggest that maternal infection with the Zika virus during the third trimester of pregnancy is not linked to structural abnormalities in the fetus. However, the monitoring of the effect of ZVD on pregnant women in Colombia is ongoing. (Funded by Colombian Instituto Nacional de Salud and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.).

  6. Preliminary floor, seat, and dummy data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cannon, M. R.; Zimmerman, R. E.

    1986-01-01

    According to preliminary examination of the data, out of 179 data channels that were onboard the aircraft in support of the seat experiments, there is data from 168. There was somewhat more severe environment imposed in the structure of the obstacles than by the ground impact. Therefore, both ground impact and obstacle impact are of interest for crashworthiness experiments. Most of the data channels that were studied are fairly consistent with the physical evidence: they show acceleration levels that are reasonable, and in many cases these integrate out to a reasonable velocity change. Finally, from observation thus far, the ground impact did not fail or significantly damage any seat. Nor did any of the energy absorbers in the modified seats extend. The accelerations do not appear high enough and/or energetic enough to cause this to happen. At this time, the onboard films have not been studied; only some videotape have been viewed. Some of the seats were so badly damaged by the fire that any failures which might have occurred were obscured. A close examination of the onboard films using a stop-action projector will allow a more thorough evaluation.

  7. Preliminary DMR measurements of the CMB isotropy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smoot, G. F.; Bennett, C. L.; Kogut, A.; Aymon, J.; Backus, C.; De Amici, G.; Galuk, K.; Jackson, P. D.; Keegstra, P.; Rokke, L.

    1991-01-01

    The COBE Differential Microwave Radiometers (DMR) instrument has produced preliminary full-sky maps at frequencies 31.5, 53, and 90 GHz. The redundant channels and matched beams at three frequencies distinguish the DMR from previous large-scale surveys. Galactic emission is seen unambiguously at all three frequencies. The only large-scale anisotropy detected in the cosmic microwave background is the dipole anisotropy. There is no clear evidence for any other large-angular-scale feature in the maps. Without correcting for any systematic effects, we are able to place limits DeltaT/T sub 0 less than 3 x 10 exp -5 for the rms quadrupole amplitude, DeltaT/T sub 0 less than 4 x 10 exp -5 for monochromatic fluctuations, and DeltaT/T sub 0 less than 4 x 10 exp -5 for Gaussian fluctuations (all limits are 95 percent C.L. with TO = 2.735 K). The data limit DeltaT/T sub 0 less than 10 exp -4 for any feature larger than 7 deg. We briefly review the DMR and discuss some implications of these results in cosmology.

  8. Food-Specific Decentering Experiences Are Associated with Reduced Food Cravings in Meditators: A Preliminary Investigation.

    PubMed

    Papies, Esther K; van Winckel, Martine; Keesman, Mike

    This study examined the association of food-specific decentering experiences with food cravings in a sample of meditators. Decentering refers to viewing one's thoughts as transient mental events and thus experiencing them as less subjectively real. This process has been suggested to be a key mechanism underlying the effects of mindfulness and many contemplative practices. Although most earlier studies have focused on the effects of decentering with regard to negative affect, some studies have shown that brief inductions of decentering among non-meditators reduce food cravings as well as unhealthy food choices. Here, we report a preliminary investigation of whether the food-specific decentering experiences that meditators have in daily life are associated with fewer food cravings. A small sample of meditators (N = 33, female = 15) answered a number of questions about decentering experiences with regard to thoughts about food, and they completed the short version of the Food Cravings Questionnaire-Trait and a measure of meditation experience. Results confirmed that both more meditation experience and more food-specific decentering experiences were associated with fewer food cravings in daily life. In addition, results suggested that when participants had stronger decentering experiences, they experienced fewer food cravings, regardless of their level of meditation experience. Exploratory analyses further revealed that decentering was more strongly associated with reduced cravings in women than in men. These preliminary findings suggest that food-specific decentering experiences indeed help meditators deal with food desires, and thus extend the evidence for decentering effects into the domain of reward. Future research might investigate this in larger samples, validate a food-specific measure of decentering, and consider the broader implications of decentering experiences in daily life.

  9. Color Addition and Subtraction Apps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz, Frances; Ruiz, Michael J.

    2015-10-01

    Color addition and subtraction apps in HTML5 have been developed for students as an online hands-on experience so that they can more easily master principles introduced through traditional classroom demonstrations. The evolution of the additive RGB color model is traced through the early IBM color adapters so that students can proceed step by step in understanding mathematical representations of RGB color. Finally, color addition and subtraction are presented for the X11 colors from web design to illustrate yet another real-life application of color mixing.

  10. Adverse reactions to drug additives.

    PubMed

    Simon, R A

    1984-10-01

    There is a long list of additives used by the pharmaceutical industry. Most of the agents used have not been implicated in hypersensitivity reactions. Among those that have, only reactions to parabens and sulfites have been well established. Parabens have been shown to be responsible for rare immunoglobulin E-mediated reactions that occur after the use of local anesthetics. Sulfites, which are present in many drugs, including agents commonly used to treat asthma, have been shown to provoke severe asthmatic attacks in sensitive individuals. Recent studies indicate that additives do not play a significant role in "hyperactivity." The role of additives in urticaria is not well established and therefore the incidence of adverse reactions in this patient population is simply not known. In double-blind, placebo-controlled studies, reactions to tartrazine or additives other than sulfites, if they occur at all, are indeed quite rare for the asthmatic population, even for the aspirin-sensitive subpopulation.

  11. Radiation Therapy: Additional Treatment Options

    MedlinePlus

    ... SNIPEND SNIPSTART Find A Radiation Oncologist SNIPEND Additional Treatment Options SNIPSTART A A SNIPEND Chemotherapy Medicines prescribed ... such as antibodies, to fight cancer. Novel Targeted Therapies Cancer doctors now know much more about how ...

  12. Calculators and Computers: Graphical Addition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spero, Samuel W.

    1978-01-01

    A computer program is presented that generates problem sets involving sketching graphs of trigonometric functions using graphical addition. The students use calculators to sketch the graphs and a computer solution is used to check it. (MP)

  13. HIV/AIDS Prevention in Zambia: A Preliminary Study of Obstacles to Behavior Change in the Copperbelt

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-01

    PREVENTION IN ZAMBIA: A PRELIMINARY STUDY OF OBSTACLES TO BEHAVIOR CHANGE IN THE COPPERBELT by Jana Ramona Alley Nyerges June 2006 Thesis Co...A Preliminary Study of Obstacles to Behavior Change in the Copperbelt 6. AUTHOR(S) Jana Ramona Alley Nyerges 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 7. PERFORMING... Copperbelt region in Zambia, finding significant evidence that both social and economic factors operate as fundamental obstacles to behavior change

  14. Preliminary ECLSS waste water model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Donald L.; Holder, Donald W., Jr.; Alexander, Kevin; Shaw, R. G.; Hayase, John K.

    1991-01-01

    A preliminary waste water model for input to the Space Station Freedom (SSF) Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) Water Processor (WP) has been generated for design purposes. Data have been compiled from various ECLSS tests and flight sample analyses. A discussion of the characterization of the waste streams comprising the model is presented, along with a discussion of the waste water model and the rationale for the inclusion of contaminants in their respective concentrations. The major objective is to establish a methodology for the development of a waste water model and to present the current state of that model.

  15. Preliminary considerations concerning actinide solubilities

    SciTech Connect

    Newton, T.W.; Bayhurst, B.P.; Daniels, W.R.; Erdal, B.R.; Ogard, A.E.

    1980-01-01

    Work at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory on the fundamental solution chemistry of the actinides has thus far been confined to preliminary considerations of the problems involved in developing an understanding of the precipitation and dissolution behavior of actinide compounds under environmental conditions. Attempts have been made to calculate solubility as a function of Eh and pH using the appropriate thermodynamic data; results have been presented in terms of contour maps showing lines of constant solubility as a function of Eh and pH. Possible methods of control of the redox potential of rock-groundwater systems by the use of Eh buffers (redox couples) is presented.

  16. Modeling uranium transport in acidic contaminated groundwater with base addition.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fan; Luo, Wensui; Parker, Jack C; Brooks, Scott C; Watson, David B; Jardine, Philip M; Gu, Baohua

    2011-06-15

    This study investigates reactive transport modeling in a column of uranium(VI)-contaminated sediments with base additions in the circulating influent. The groundwater and sediment exhibit oxic conditions with low pH, high concentrations of NO(3)(-), SO(4)(2-), U and various metal cations. Preliminary batch experiments indicate that additions of strong base induce rapid immobilization of U for this material. In the column experiment that is the focus of the present study, effluent groundwater was titrated with NaOH solution in an inflow reservoir before reinjection to gradually increase the solution pH in the column. An equilibrium hydrolysis, precipitation and ion exchange reaction model developed through simulation of the preliminary batch titration experiments predicted faster reduction of aqueous Al than observed in the column experiment. The model was therefore modified to consider reaction kinetics for the precipitation and dissolution processes which are the major mechanism for Al immobilization. The combined kinetic and equilibrium reaction model adequately described variations in pH, aqueous concentrations of metal cations (Al, Ca, Mg, Sr, Mn, Ni, Co), sulfate and U(VI). The experimental and modeling results indicate that U(VI) can be effectively sequestered with controlled base addition due to sorption by slowly precipitated Al with pH-dependent surface charge. The model may prove useful to predict field-scale U(VI) sequestration and remediation effectiveness.

  17. Food additives and preschool children.

    PubMed

    Martyn, Danika M; McNulty, Breige A; Nugent, Anne P; Gibney, Michael J

    2013-02-01

    Food additives have been used throughout history to perform specific functions in foods. A comprehensive framework of legislation is in place within Europe to control the use of additives in the food supply and ensure they pose no risk to human health. Further to this, exposure assessments are regularly carried out to monitor population intakes and verify that intakes are not above acceptable levels (acceptable daily intakes). Young children may have a higher dietary exposure to chemicals than adults due to a combination of rapid growth rates and distinct food intake patterns. For this reason, exposure assessments are particularly important in this age group. The paper will review the use of additives and exposure assessment methods and examine factors that affect dietary exposure by young children. One of the most widely investigated unfavourable health effects associated with food additive intake in preschool-aged children are suggested adverse behavioural effects. Research that has examined this relationship has reported a variety of responses, with many noting an increase in hyperactivity as reported by parents but not when assessed using objective examiners. This review has examined the experimental approaches used in such studies and suggests that efforts are needed to standardise objective methods of measuring behaviour in preschool children. Further to this, a more holistic approach to examining food additive intakes by preschool children is advisable, where overall exposure is considered rather than focusing solely on behavioural effects and possibly examining intakes of food additives other than food colours.

  18. Safety Performance of Airborne Separation: Preliminary Baseline Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Consiglio, Maria C.; Hoadley, Sherwood T.; Wing, David J.; Baxley, Brian T.

    2007-01-01

    The Safety Performance of Airborne Separation (SPAS) study is a suite of Monte Carlo simulation experiments designed to analyze and quantify safety behavior of airborne separation. This paper presents results of preliminary baseline testing. The preliminary baseline scenario is designed to be very challenging, consisting of randomized routes in generic high-density airspace in which all aircraft are constrained to the same flight level. Sustained traffic density is varied from approximately 3 to 15 aircraft per 10,000 square miles, approximating up to about 5 times today s traffic density in a typical sector. Research at high traffic densities and at multiple flight levels are planned within the next two years. Basic safety metrics for aircraft separation are collected and analyzed. During the progression of experiments, various errors, uncertainties, delays, and other variables potentially impacting system safety will be incrementally introduced to analyze the effect on safety of the individual factors as well as their interaction and collective effect. In this paper we report the results of the first experiment that addresses the preliminary baseline condition tested over a range of traffic densities. Early results at five times the typical traffic density in today s NAS indicate that, under the assumptions of this study, airborne separation can be safely performed. In addition, we report on initial observations from an exploration of four additional factors tested at a single traffic density: broadcast surveillance signal interference, extent of intent sharing, pilot delay, and wind prediction error.

  19. Topaz II preliminary safety assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Albert C.; Standley, Vaughn; Voss, Susan S.; Haskin, Eric

    1993-01-01

    The Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO) decided to investigate the possibility of launching a Russian Topaz II space nuclear power system. A preliminary safety assessment was conducted to determine whether or not a space mission could be conducted safely and within budget constraints. As part of this assessment, a safety policy and safety functional requirements were developed to guide both the safety assessment and future Topaz II activities. A review of the Russian flight safety program was conducted and documented. Our preliminary safety assessment included a top level event tree, neutronic analysis of normal and accident configurations, an evaluation of temperature coefficients of reactivity, a reentry and disposal analysis, and analysis of postulated launch abort impact accidents, and an analysis of postulated propellant fire and explosion accidents. Based on the assessment, it appears that it will be possible to safely launch the Topaz II system in the U.S. with some possible system modifications. The principal system modifications will probably include design changes to preclude water flooded criticality and to assure intact reentry.

  20. Preliminary Investigation of a Paraglider

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogallo, Francis M.; Lowry, John G.; Croom, Delwin R.; Taylor, Robert T.

    1960-01-01

    A preliminary investigation of the aerodynamic and control characteristics of a flexible glider similar to a parachute in construction has been made at the Langley Research Center to evaluate its capabilities as a reentry glider. Preliminary weight estimates of the proposed vehicle indicate that such a structure can be made with extremely low wing loading. Maximum temperatures during the reentry maneuver might be held as low as about 1,500 F. The results of wind-tunnel and free-glide tests show that the glider when constructed of nonporous material performed extremely well at subsonic speeds and could be flown at angles of attack from about 200 to 900. At supersonic speeds the wing showed none of the unfavorable tendencies exhibited by conventional parachutes at these speeds, such as squidding and breathing. Several methods of packing and deploying the glider have been successfully demonstrated. The results of this study indicate that this flexible-lifting-surface concept may provide a lightweight controllable paraglider for manned space vehicles.

  1. Descent Advisor Preliminary Field Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Steven M.; Vivona, Robert A.; Sanford, Beverly

    1995-01-01

    A field test of the Descent Advisor (DA) automation tool was conducted at the Denver Air Route Traffic Control Center in September 1994. DA is being developed to assist Center controllers in the efficient management and control of arrival traffic. DA generates advisories, based on trajectory predictions, to achieve accurate meter-fix arrival times in a fuel efficient manner while assisting the controller with the prediction and resolution of potential conflicts. The test objectives were: (1) to evaluate the accuracy of DA trajectory predictions for conventional and flight-management system equipped jet transports, (2) to identify significant sources of trajectory prediction error, and (3) to investigate procedural and training issues (both air and ground) associated with DA operations. Various commercial aircraft (97 flights total) and a Boeing 737-100 research aircraft participated in the test. Preliminary results from the primary test set of 24 commercial flights indicate a mean DA arrival time prediction error of 2.4 seconds late with a standard deviation of 13.1 seconds. This paper describes the field test and presents preliminary results for the commercial flights.

  2. Topaz II preliminary safety assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, A.C. ); Standley, V. ); Voss, S.S. ); Haskin, E. . Dept. of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering)

    1992-01-01

    The Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO) decided to investigate the possibility of launching a Russian Topaz 11 space nuclear power system. A preliminary safety assessment was conducted to determine whether or not a space mission could be conducted safely and within budget constraints. As part of this assessment, a safety policy and safety functional requirements were developed to guide both the safely assessment and future Topaz II activities. A review of the Russian flight safety program was conducted and documented. Our preliminary safety assessment included a top level event tree, neutronic analysis of normal and accident configurations, an evaluation of temperature coefficients of reactivity, a reentry and disposal analysis, and analysis of postulated launch abort impact accidents, and an analysis of postulated propellant fire and explosion accidents. Based on the assessment, it appears that it will be possible to safely launch the Topaz II system in the US with some possible system modifications. The principal system modifications will probably include design changes to preclude water flooded criticality and to assure intact reentry.

  3. Topaz II preliminary safety assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, A.C. ); Standley, V. ); Voss, S.S. ); Haskin, E. )

    1993-01-10

    The Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO) decided to investigate the possibility of launching a Russian Topaz II space nuclear power system. A preliminary safety assessment was conducted to determine whether or not a space mission could be conducted safely and within budget constraints. As part of this assessment, a safety policy and safety functional requirements were developed to guide both the safety assessment and future Topaz II activities. A review of the Russian flight safety program was conducted and documented. Our preliminary safety assessment included a top level event tree, neutronic analysis of normal and accident configurations, an evaluation of temperature coefficients of reactivity, a reentry and disposal analysis, and analysis of postulated launch abort impact accidents, and an analysis of postulated propellant fire and explosion accidents. Based on the assessment, it appears that it will be possible to safely launch the Topaz II system in the U.S. with some possible system modifications. The principal system modifications will probably include design changes to preclude water flooded criticality and to assure intact reentry.

  4. Evaluation of certain food additives.

    PubMed

    2015-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives, including flavouring agents, and to prepare specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation of and assessment of dietary exposure to food additives, including flavouring agents. A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and dietary exposure data for eight food additives (Benzoe tonkinensis; carrageenan; citric and fatty acid esters of glycerol; gardenia yellow; lutein esters from Tagetes erecta; octenyl succinic acid-modified gum arabic; octenyl succinic acid-modified starch; paprika extract; and pectin) and eight groups of flavouring agents (aliphatic and alicyclic hydrocarbons; aliphatic and aromatic ethers; ionones and structurally related substances; miscellaneous nitrogen-containing substances; monocyclic and bicyclic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters; phenol and phenol derivatives; phenyl-substituted aliphatic alcohols and related aldehydes and esters; and sulfur-containing heterocyclic compounds). Specifications for the following food additives were revised: citric acid; gellan gum; polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monostearate; potassium aluminium silicate; and Quillaia extract (Type 2). Annexed to the report are tables summarizing the Committee's recommendations for dietary exposures to and toxicological evaluations of all of the food additives and flavouring agents considered at this meeting.

  5. Additive manufacturing of hybrid circuits

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, Nelson S.; Sarobol, Pylin; Cook, Adam; Clem, Paul G.; Keicher, David M.; Hirschfeld, Deidre; Hall, Aaron Christopher

    2016-03-26

    There is a rising interest in developing functional electronics using additively manufactured components. Considerations in materials selection and pathways to forming hybrid circuits and devices must demonstrate useful electronic function; must enable integration; and must complement the complex shape, low cost, high volume, and high functionality of structural but generally electronically passive additively manufactured components. This article reviews several emerging technologies being used in industry and research/development to provide integration advantages of fabricating multilayer hybrid circuits or devices. First, we review a maskless, noncontact, direct write (DW) technology that excels in the deposition of metallic colloid inks for electrical interconnects. Second, we review a complementary technology, aerosol deposition (AD), which excels in the deposition of metallic and ceramic powder as consolidated, thick conformal coatings and is additionally patternable through masking. As a result, we show examples of hybrid circuits/devices integrated beyond 2-D planes, using combinations of DW or AD processes and conventional, established processes.

  6. Additional factors in chronic bronchitis.

    PubMed

    Cullen, K J; Elder, J; Adams, A R; Stenhouse, N S

    1970-02-14

    A review of persons with chronic bronchitis and controls without bronchitis showed several irritants around the home that aggravated cough, such as house dust, flowers and grasses, smoke, strong fumes, hair spray, insecticide, and soap powders. Most subjects with bronchitis were affected by exposure to one or more of these irritants for at least once a day for three months of the year or more. Out of 163 subjects with chronic bronchitis only six non-smokers were free of factors associated with pulmonary irritation. This evidence from non-smokers not exposed to air pollution adds further strength to the hypothesis that daily phlegm is caused by persistent inhalation of irritants.

  7. Another step closer to measuring the ghosts in the nursery: preliminary validation of the Trauma Reflective Functioning Scale

    PubMed Central

    Ensink, Karin; Berthelot, Nicolas; Bernazzani, Odette; Normandin, Lina; Fonagy, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine preliminary evidence of the validity of the Trauma Reflective Functioning Scale and to investigate reflective functioning (RF) and attachment in pregnant women with histories of trauma, with a particular focus on the capacity to mentalize regarding trauma and its implications for adaptation to pregnancy and couple functioning. The Adult Attachment Interview was used to assess attachment, unresolved trauma and mentalization (measured as RF) regarding relationships with attachment figures (RF-G) and trauma (RF-T) in 100 pregnant women with histories of abuse and neglect. The majority (63%) of women had insecure attachment states of mind and approximately half were unresolved regarding trauma. Furthermore, the majority of women manifested deficits specific to RF-T. Their RF-T was significantly lower than their RF-G; the findings indicate that women with histories of childhood abuse and neglect do not manifest a generic inhibition of reflectiveness, but a collapse of mentalization specific to trauma. Low RF-T, indicative of difficulty in considering traumatic experiences in mental state terms, was associated with difficulty in investment in the pregnancy and lack of positive feelings about the baby and motherhood. In addition, low RF-T was also associated with difficulties in intimate relationships. Results of a regression analysis with RF indicated that RF-T was the best predictor of investment in pregnancy and couple functioning. In sum, the study provides preliminary evidence that RF-T can be reliably measured and is a valid construct that has potential usefulness for research and clinical practice. It highlights the importance of mentalization specifically about trauma and suggests that it is not the experience of trauma per se, but the absence of mentalization regarding trauma that is associated with difficulties in close relationships and in making the transition to parenthood. PMID:25566146

  8. Tougher Addition Polyimides Containing Siloxane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St. Clair, T. L.; Maudgal, S.

    1986-01-01

    Laminates show increased impact resistances and other desirable mechanical properties. Bismaleamic acid extended by reaction of diaminosiloxane with maleic anhydride in 1:1 molar ratio, followed by reaction with half this molar ratio of aromatic dianhydride. Bismaleamic acid also extended by reaction of diaminosiloxane with maleic anhydride in 1:2 molar ratio, followed by reaction with half this molar ratio of aromatic diamine (Michael-addition reaction). Impact resistances improved over those of unmodified bismaleimide, showing significant increase in toughness. Aromatic addition polyimides developed as both matrix and adhesive resins for applications on future aircraft and spacecraft.

  9. NASA 2010 Pharmacology Evidence Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinberg, Susan

    2011-01-01

    In 2008, the Institute of Medicine reviewed NASA's Human Research Program Evidence in assessing the Pharmacology risk identified in NASA's Human Research Program Requirements Document (PRD). Since this review there was a major reorganization of the Pharmacology discipline within the HRP, as well as a re-evaluation of the Pharmacology evidence. This panel is being asked to review the latest version of the Pharmacology Evidence Report. Specifically, this panel will: (1) Appraise the descriptions of the human health-related risk in the HRP PRD. (2) Assess the relevance and comprehensiveness of the evidence in identifying potential threats to long-term space missions. (3) Assess the associated gaps in knowledge and identify additional areas for research as necessary.

  10. The Additive Property of Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsaoussis, Dimitris S.

    1995-01-01

    Presents exercises that analyze the additive property of energy. Concludes that if a body has more than one component of energy depending on the same physical quantity, the body's total energy will be the algebraic sum of the components if a linear relationship exists between the energy components and that physical quantity. (JRH)

  11. Tetrasulfide extreme pressure lubricant additives

    SciTech Connect

    Gast, L.E.; Kenney, H.E.; Schwab, A.W.

    1980-08-19

    A novel class of compounds has been prepared comprising the tetrasulfides of /sup 18/C hydrocarbons, /sup 18/C fatty acids, and /sup 18/C fatty and alkyl and triglyceride esters. These tetrasulfides are useful as extreme pressure lubricant additives and show potential as replacements for sulfurized sperm whale oil.

  12. Out of bounds additive manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Holshouser, Chris; Newell, Clint; Palas, Sid; Love, Lonnie J.; Kunc, Vlastimil; Lind, Randall F.; Lloyd, Peter D.; Rowe, John C.; Blue, Craig A.; Duty, Chad E.; Peter, William H.; Dehoff, Ryan R.

    2013-03-01

    Lockheed Martin and Oak Ridge National Laboratory are working on an additive manufacturing system capable of manufacturing components measured not in terms of inches or feet, but multiple yards in all dimensions with the potential to manufacture parts that are completely unbounded in size.

  13. 37 CFR 1.115 - Preliminary amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... amendment unduly interferes with the preparation of a first Office action in an application. Factors that... first Office action as of the date of receipt (§ 1.6) of the preliminary amendment by the Office; and... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Preliminary amendments....

  14. 37 CFR 1.115 - Preliminary amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... amendment unduly interferes with the preparation of a first Office action in an application. Factors that... first Office action as of the date of receipt (§ 1.6) of the preliminary amendment by the Office; and... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Preliminary amendments....

  15. 23 CFR 645.109 - Preliminary engineering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Preliminary engineering. 645.109 Section 645.109 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS UTILITIES Utility Relocations, Adjustments, and Reimbursement § 645.109 Preliminary engineering. (a)...

  16. 23 CFR 645.109 - Preliminary engineering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Preliminary engineering. 645.109 Section 645.109 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS UTILITIES Utility Relocations, Adjustments, and Reimbursement § 645.109 Preliminary engineering. (a)...

  17. 23 CFR 645.109 - Preliminary engineering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Preliminary engineering. 645.109 Section 645.109 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS UTILITIES Utility Relocations, Adjustments, and Reimbursement § 645.109 Preliminary engineering. (a)...

  18. 23 CFR 645.109 - Preliminary engineering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Preliminary engineering. 645.109 Section 645.109 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS UTILITIES Utility Relocations, Adjustments, and Reimbursement § 645.109 Preliminary engineering. (a)...

  19. 23 CFR 645.109 - Preliminary engineering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Preliminary engineering. 645.109 Section 645.109 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS UTILITIES Utility Relocations, Adjustments, and Reimbursement § 645.109 Preliminary engineering. (a)...

  20. 18 CFR 1b.6 - Preliminary investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Preliminary investigations. 1b.6 Section 1b.6 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.6 Preliminary investigations....

  1. 18 CFR 1b.6 - Preliminary investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Preliminary investigations. 1b.6 Section 1b.6 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.6 Preliminary investigations....

  2. 32 CFR 1801.11 - Preliminary information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Preliminary information. 1801.11 Section 1801.11 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense NATIONAL COUNTERINTELLIGENCE CENTER PUBLIC RIGHTS UNDER THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 Filing Of Privacy Act Requests § 1801.11 Preliminary...

  3. 32 CFR 1801.11 - Preliminary information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Preliminary information. 1801.11 Section 1801.11 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense NATIONAL COUNTERINTELLIGENCE CENTER PUBLIC RIGHTS UNDER THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 Filing Of Privacy Act Requests § 1801.11 Preliminary...

  4. 32 CFR 1801.11 - Preliminary information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Preliminary information. 1801.11 Section 1801.11 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense NATIONAL COUNTERINTELLIGENCE CENTER PUBLIC RIGHTS UNDER THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 Filing Of Privacy Act Requests § 1801.11 Preliminary...

  5. 32 CFR 1801.11 - Preliminary information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Preliminary information. 1801.11 Section 1801.11 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense NATIONAL COUNTERINTELLIGENCE CENTER PUBLIC RIGHTS UNDER THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 Filing Of Privacy Act Requests § 1801.11 Preliminary...

  6. 32 CFR 1801.11 - Preliminary information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Preliminary information. 1801.11 Section 1801.11 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense NATIONAL COUNTERINTELLIGENCE CENTER PUBLIC RIGHTS UNDER THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 Filing Of Privacy Act Requests § 1801.11 Preliminary...

  7. 18 CFR 1b.6 - Preliminary investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Preliminary investigations. 1b.6 Section 1b.6 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.6 Preliminary investigations....

  8. 18 CFR 1b.6 - Preliminary investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Preliminary investigations. 1b.6 Section 1b.6 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.6 Preliminary investigations....

  9. 18 CFR 1b.6 - Preliminary investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Preliminary investigations. 1b.6 Section 1b.6 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.6 Preliminary investigations....

  10. 18 CFR 806.11 - Preliminary consultations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... any proposed structures, anticipated water needs, and the environmental impacts. (b) Preliminary... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Preliminary consultations. 806.11 Section 806.11 Conservation of Power and Water Resources SUSQUEHANNA RIVER...

  11. 18 CFR 806.11 - Preliminary consultations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... any proposed structures, anticipated water needs, and the environmental impacts. (b) Preliminary... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Preliminary consultations. 806.11 Section 806.11 Conservation of Power and Water Resources SUSQUEHANNA RIVER...

  12. 18 CFR 806.11 - Preliminary consultations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... any proposed structures, anticipated water needs, and the environmental impacts. (b) Preliminary... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Preliminary consultations. 806.11 Section 806.11 Conservation of Power and Water Resources SUSQUEHANNA RIVER...

  13. 40 CFR 158.345 - Preliminary analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Preliminary analysis. 158.345 Section 158.345 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Product Chemistry § 158.345 Preliminary analysis. (a) If the product is produced...

  14. 40 CFR 158.345 - Preliminary analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Preliminary analysis. 158.345 Section 158.345 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Product Chemistry § 158.345 Preliminary analysis. (a) If the product is produced...

  15. 40 CFR 158.345 - Preliminary analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Preliminary analysis. 158.345 Section 158.345 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Product Chemistry § 158.345 Preliminary analysis. (a) If the product is produced...

  16. 40 CFR 158.345 - Preliminary analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Preliminary analysis. 158.345 Section 158.345 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Product Chemistry § 158.345 Preliminary analysis. (a) If the product is produced...

  17. 32 CFR 1901.11 - Preliminary information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Preliminary information. 1901.11 Section 1901.11 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY PUBLIC RIGHTS UNDER THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 Filing of Privacy Act Requests § 1901.11 Preliminary information....

  18. 32 CFR 1901.11 - Preliminary information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Preliminary information. 1901.11 Section 1901.11 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY PUBLIC RIGHTS UNDER THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 Filing of Privacy Act Requests § 1901.11 Preliminary information....

  19. Plutonium Immobilization Can Loading Preliminary Specifications

    SciTech Connect

    Kriikku, E.

    1998-11-25

    This report discusses the Plutonium Immobilization can loading preliminary equipment specifications and includes a process block diagram, process description, equipment list, preliminary equipment specifications, plan and elevation sketches, and some commercial catalogs. This report identifies loading pucks into cans and backfilling cans with helium as the top priority can loading development areas.

  20. Evaluation of certain food additives.

    PubMed

    2012-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives, including flavouring agents, with a view to concluding as to safety concerns and to preparing specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation of and assessment of dietary exposure to food additives, including flavouring agents. A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and dietary exposure data for five food additives (magnesium dihydrogen diphosphate; mineral oil (medium and low viscosity) classes II and III; 3-phytase from Aspergillus niger expressed in Aspergillus niger; serine protease (chymotrypsin) from Nocardiopsis prasina expressed in Bacillus licheniformis; and serine protease (trypsin) from Fusarium oxysporum expressed in Fusarium venenatum) and 16 groups of flavouring agents (aliphatic and aromatic amines and amides; aliphatic and aromatic ethers; aliphatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids and related esters, sulfides, disulfides and ethers containing furan substitution; aliphatic linear alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes, acids and related alcohols, acetals and esters; amino acids and related substances; epoxides; furfuryl alcohol and related substances; linear and branched-chain aliphatic, unsaturated, unconjugated alcohols, aldehydes, acids and related esters; miscellaneous nitrogen-containing substances; phenol and phenol derivatives; pyrazine derivatives; pyridine, pyrrole and quinoline derivatives; saturated aliphatic acyclic branched-chain primary alcohols, aldehydes and acids; simple aliphatic and aromatic sulfides and thiols; sulfur-containing heterocyclic compounds; and sulfur-substituted furan derivatives). Specifications for the following food additives were revised: ethyl cellulose, mineral oil (medium viscosity), modified starches and titanium

  1. Improving eating disorders mental health literacy: a preliminary evaluation of the "Should I say something?" workshop.

    PubMed

    Gratwick-Sarll, Kassandra; Bentley, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    A repeated measures, uncontrolled, preliminary evaluation of a single 3-hour workshop-"Should I Say Something?"-aimed at improving eating disorders mental health literacy, was conducted in a sample of 177 university undergraduates. Following participation in the workshop, significant increases in eating disorder recognition and knowledge, and significant decreases in stigmatizing attitudes, were reported by participants. Moreover, 85% of participants reported that they provided assistance to someone whom they suspected had a mental health condition, including an eating disorder, during the 3-month follow-up period. This study provides preliminary evidence that "Should I Say Something?" may be effective in improving the mental health literacy of young people.

  2. Improving Student Understanding of Addition of Angular Momentum in Quantum Mechanics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Guangtian; Singh, Chandralekha

    2013-01-01

    We describe the difficulties advanced undergraduate and graduate students have with concepts related to addition of angular momentum in quantum mechanics. We also describe the development and implementation of a research-based learning tool, Quantum Interactive Learning Tutorial (QuILT), to reduce these difficulties. The preliminary evaluation…

  3. Toward DNA-based facial composites: preliminary results and validation.

    PubMed

    Claes, Peter; Hill, Harold; Shriver, Mark D

    2014-11-01

    The potential of constructing useful DNA-based facial composites is forensically of great interest. Given the significant identity information coded in the human face these predictions could help investigations out of an impasse. Although, there is substantial evidence that much of the total variation in facial features is genetically mediated, the discovery of which genes and gene variants underlie normal facial variation has been hampered primarily by the multipartite nature of facial variation. Traditionally, such physical complexity is simplified by simple scalar measurements defined a priori, such as nose or mouth width or alternatively using dimensionality reduction techniques such as principal component analysis where each principal coordinate is then treated as a scalar trait. However, as shown in previous and related work, a more impartial and systematic approach to modeling facial morphology is available and can facilitate both the gene discovery steps, as we recently showed, and DNA-based facial composite construction, as we show here. We first use genomic ancestry and sex to create a base-face, which is simply an average sex and ancestry matched face. Subsequently, the effects of 24 individual SNPs that have been shown to have significant effects on facial variation are overlaid on the base-face forming the predicted-face in a process akin to a photomontage or image blending. We next evaluate the accuracy of predicted faces using cross-validation. Physical accuracy of the facial predictions either locally in particular parts of the face or in terms of overall similarity is mainly determined by sex and genomic ancestry. The SNP-effects maintain the physical accuracy while significantly increasing the distinctiveness of the facial predictions, which would be expected to reduce false positives in perceptual identification tasks. To the best of our knowledge this is the first effort at generating facial composites from DNA and the results are preliminary

  4. Psychohistory and Slavery: Preliminary Issues.

    PubMed

    Adams, Kenneth Alan

    2015-01-01

    "Psychohistory and Slavery: Preliminary Issues," begins an examination of slavery in the antebellum South. The paper suggests that how slavery and the group-fantasy of white male supremacy were perpetuated among slaveholders is a question of fundamental importance for psychohistorians. The family and childrearing are the focus of attention. Given the ferocity of slavery, it is argued that the psychological and emotional consequences of this barbarism were not limited to the slaves themselves, but had significant impact on the slaveholders as well-their parenting, their children, and their children's parenting of the next generation. In each generation the trauma of slavery was injected into slaveholder children and became a fundamental component of elite Southern personality.

  5. Genesis Preliminary Examination: Ellipsometry Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stansbery, E. K.; McNamara, K. M.

    2005-01-01

    The Genesis spacecraft returned to Earth on September 8, 2004, experiencing a non-nominal reentry in which both the drogue and main parachutes failed to deploy causing the capsule to impact the surface of the UTTR desert at a speed of approximately 310 kph (193 mph). The impact caused severe damage to the capsule and a breach of the science canister in the field. The science canister was recovered and transported to the cleanroom at UTTR within approximately 8 hours of reentry. Although the ground water table did not rise to canister level before removal, damp soil and debris from the heat shield and other spacecraft components did enter the canister and contaminate some collector surfaces. The objective of preliminary examination of the Genesis collectors is to provide the science community with the information necessary to request the most useful samples for their analysis.

  6. Preliminary results of UCN τ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pattie, Robert; UCNtau Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    There is currently a 4 σ discrepancy between measurements of the neutron lifetime performed using cold neutron beams and those performed with ultracold neutron (UCN) storage vessels. The UCN τ experiment uses an asymmetric magneto-gravitational UCN trap with in situ counting of surviving neutrons to measure the neutron lifetime. This design eliminates a major systematic of previous bottle experiments related to the loss of UCN on material trap walls and with unloading neutrons from the storage vessel. A new in situ detection system was used in the 2015-2016 run that was able to measure the population of surviving UCN at different heights in the trap, providing important information on spectral evolution. Understanding the behavior of quasi-bound UCN in a bottle experiment is essential to achieving a subsecond precision measurement of τn. We will present the preliminary results from the 2015-2016 data set and an update on the UCN τ experiment.

  7. Monsoon '90 - Preliminary SAR results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dubois, Pascale C.; Van Zyl, Jakob J.; Guerra, Abel G.

    1992-01-01

    Multifrequency polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images of the Walnut Gulch watershed near Tombstone, Arizona were acquired on 28 Mar. 1990 and on 1 Aug. 1990. Trihedral corner reflectors were deployed prior to both overflights to allow calibration of the two SAR data sets. During both overflights, gravimetric soil moisture and dielectric constant measurements were made. Detailed vegetation height, density, and water content measurements were made as part of the Monsoon 1990 Experiment. Preliminary results based on analysis of the multitemporal polarimetric SAR data are presented. Only the C-band data (5.7-cm wavelength) radar images show significant difference between Mar. and Aug., with the strongest difference observed in the HV images. Based on the radar data analysis and the in situ measurements, we conclude that these differences are mainly due to changes in the vegetation and not due to the soil moisture changes.

  8. Monsoon 1990: Preliminary SAR results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanzyl, Jakob J.; Dubois, Pascale; Guerra, Abel

    1991-01-01

    Multifrequency polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images of the Walnut Gulch watershed near Tombstone, Arizona were acquired on 28 Mar. 1990 and on 1 Aug. 1990. Trihedral corner reflectors were deployed prior to both overflights to allow calibration of the two SAR data sets. During both overflights, gravimetric soil moisture and dielectric constant measurements were made. Detailed vegetation height, density, and water content measurements were made as part of the Monsoon 1990 Experiment. Preliminary results based on analysis of the multitemporal polarimetric SAR data are presented. Only the C-band data (5.7-cm wavelength) radar images show significant difference between Mar. and Aug., with the strongest difference observed in the HV images. Based on the radar data analysis and the in situ measurements, we conclude that these differences are mainly due to changes in the vegetation and not due to the soil moisture changes.

  9. Preliminary hazards analysis -- vitrification process

    SciTech Connect

    Coordes, D.; Ruggieri, M.; Russell, J.; TenBrook, W.; Yimbo, P.

    1994-06-01

    This paper presents a Preliminary Hazards Analysis (PHA) for mixed waste vitrification by joule heating. The purpose of performing a PHA is to establish an initial hazard categorization for a DOE nuclear facility and to identify those processes and structures which may have an impact on or be important to safety. The PHA is typically performed during and provides input to project conceptual design. The PHA is then followed by a Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR) performed during Title 1 and 2 design. The PSAR then leads to performance of the Final Safety Analysis Report performed during the facility`s construction and testing. It should be completed before routine operation of the facility commences. This PHA addresses the first four chapters of the safety analysis process, in accordance with the requirements of DOE Safety Guidelines in SG 830.110. The hazards associated with vitrification processes are evaluated using standard safety analysis methods which include: identification of credible potential hazardous energy sources; identification of preventative features of the facility or system; identification of mitigative features; and analyses of credible hazards. Maximal facility inventories of radioactive and hazardous materials are postulated to evaluate worst case accident consequences. These inventories were based on DOE-STD-1027-92 guidance and the surrogate waste streams defined by Mayberry, et al. Radiological assessments indicate that a facility, depending on the radioactive material inventory, may be an exempt, Category 3, or Category 2 facility. The calculated impacts would result in no significant impact to offsite personnel or the environment. Hazardous materials assessment indicates that a Mixed Waste Vitrification facility will be a Low Hazard facility having minimal impacts to offsite personnel and the environment.

  10. Stardust interstellar preliminary examination (ISPE).

    SciTech Connect

    Westphal, A.J.; Allen, C.; Bajt, S.; Basset, R.; Flynn, G.L.; Sutton, S.

    2009-03-23

    The Stardust Interstellar Preliminary Examination (ISPE) is a three-year effort to characterize the Stardust interstellar dust collection and collector using non-destructive techniques. We summarize the status of the ISPE. In January 2006 the Stardust sample return capsule returned to Earth bearing the first solid samples from a primitive solar system body, Comet 81P/Wild2, and a collector dedicated to the capture and return of contemporary interstellar dust. Both collectors were {approx}0.1 m{sup 2} in area and were composed of aerogel tiles (85% of the collecting area) and aluminum foils. The Stardust Interstellar Dust Collector (SIDC) was exposed to the interstellar dust stream for a total exposure factor of 20 m{sup 2}-day during two periods before the cometary encounter. The Stardust Interstellar Preliminary Examination (ISPE) is a three-year effort to characterize the collection using nondestructive techniques. The goals and restrictions of the ISPE are described in Westphal et al. The ISPE consists of six interdependent projects: (1) Candidate identification through automated digital microscopy and a massively distributed, calibrated search; (2) Candidate extraction and photodocumentation; (3) Characterization of candidates through synchrotron-based Fourier-Tranform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning X-Ray Fluoresence Microscopy (SXRF), and Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscopy (STXM); (4) Search for and analysis of craters in foils through FESEM scanning, Auger Spectroscopy and synchrotron-based Photoemission Electron Microscopy (PEEM); (5) Modeling of interstellar dust transport in the solar system; and (6) Laboratory simulations of hypervelocity dust impacts into the collecting media.

  11. The Frontiers of Additive Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Grote, Christopher John

    2016-03-03

    Additive manufacturing, more commonly known as 3-D printing, has become a ubiquitous tool in science for its precise control over mechanical design. For additive manufacturing to work, a 3-D structure is split into thin 2D slices, and then different physical properties, such as photo-polymerization or melting, are used to grow the sequential layers. The level of control allows not only for devices to be made with a variety of materials: e.g. plastics, metals, and quantum dots, but to also have finely controlled structures leading to other novel properties. While 3-D printing is widely used by hobbyists for making models, it also has industrial applications in structural engineering, biological tissue scaffolding, customized electric circuitry, fuel cells, security, and more.

  12. Decontamination formulation with sorbent additive

    DOEpatents

    Tucker; Mark D. , Comstock; Robert H.

    2007-10-16

    A decontamination formulation and method of making that neutralizes the adverse health effects of both chemical and biological compounds, especially chemical warfare (CW) and biological warfare (BW) agents, and toxic industrial chemicals. The formulation provides solubilizing compounds that serve to effectively render the chemical and biological compounds, particularly CW and BW compounds, susceptible to attack, and at least one reactive compound that serves to attack (and detoxify or kill) the compound. The formulation includes at least one solubilizing agent, a reactive compound, a bleaching activator, a sorbent additive, and water. The highly adsorbent, water-soluble sorbent additive (e.g., sorbitol or mannitol) is used to "dry out" one or more liquid ingredients, such as the liquid bleaching activator (e.g., propylene glycol diacetate or glycerol diacetate) and convert the activator into a dry, free-flowing powder that has an extended shelf life, and is more convenient to handle and mix in the field.

  13. Preliminary test results for the SVX4

    SciTech Connect

    Christofek, L.; Hanagaki, K.; Rapidis, P.; Utes, M.; /Fermilab

    2005-06-01

    We present and summarize the preliminary test results for SVX4 chip testing. There are presently two versions of the SVX4. Version 2 has on-chip bypassing and Version 1 does not. The on-chip bypassing is a layer of transistors under the front-end analog pipeline that acts as a bypassing capacitor for the voltage supply. Its size is about a microfarad. We aggressively choose to test Version 2 because of this feature. The feature is advantageous for hybrid design because it eliminates the need for an additional passive component on the hybrid itself by placing it on the actual SVX4 die. Also, the SVX4 was designed to operate in two modes: D. and CDF. One can set which mode the chip will operate by placing a jumper in the proper position on the SVX4 chip carrier. In either mode, the chip can either use the operating parameters from the shift register or the shadow register. Similarly, this is selected by placing a jumper on the SVX4 chip carrier. This chip has this feature because it was unknown whether the new design of the shadow register would be operable. The shadow register is also call the SEU register or Single Event Upset register. An introduction into the functionality of the chip and an explanation on the difference between D. and CDF mode can be found in the SVX4 User's Manual [1].

  14. Preliminary High-Throughput Metagenome Assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Dusheyko, Serge; Furman, Craig; Pangilinan, Jasmyn; Shapiro, Harris; Tu, Hank

    2007-03-26

    Metagenome data sets present a qualitatively different assembly problem than traditional single-organism whole-genome shotgun (WGS) assembly. The unique aspects of such projects include the presence of a potentially large number of distinct organisms and their representation in the data set at widely different fractions. In addition, multiple closely related strains could be present, which would be difficult to assemble separately. Failure to take these issues into account can result in poor assemblies that either jumble together different strains or which fail to yield useful results. The DOE Joint Genome Institute has sequenced a number of metagenomic projects and plans to considerably increase this number in the coming year. As a result, the JGI has a need for high-throughput tools and techniques for handling metagenome projects. We present the techniques developed to handle metagenome assemblies in a high-throughput environment. This includes a streamlined assembly wrapper, based on the JGI?s in-house WGS assembler, Jazz. It also includes the selection of sensible defaults targeted for metagenome data sets, as well as quality control automation for cleaning up the raw results. While analysis is ongoing, we will discuss preliminary assessments of the quality of the assembly results (http://fames.jgi-psf.org).

  15. Overweight and urban pollution: preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Ponticiello, Barnaba Giuseppina; Capozzella, Assunta; Di Giorgio, Valeria; Casale, Teodorico; Giubilati, Roberto; Tomei, Gianfranco; Tomei, Francesco; Rosati, Maria Valeria; Sancini, Angela

    2015-06-15

    The aim of this study is to determine whether in workers exposed to urban pollution the risk of developing overweight and obesity is higher in workers exposed to urban pollution compared to a control group. The study was conducted on 150 volunteers, 75 workers exposed to urban pollution (50 women and 25 men) and 75 indoor workers (50 women and 25 men). Once measured the weight and height and calculated body mass index (BMI) for each worker, the research was based on the comparison, between the two groups, of the mean values of the measurements and of the frequency of workers with BMI index higher than the cut-off of normality. The only statistically significant difference found was for the mean value of weight in women, which was higher among outdoor workers compared to indoor workers. The mean values of BMI and the frequency of workers with BMI higher than normal was higher among outdoor workers compared to indoor workers in both sexes, but not statistically significant. The data suggest that outdoor workers may be subject to an additional risk of developing obesity as a result of exposure to urban air pollution (which, like obesity, is a source of oxidative stress). So, our preliminary study encourages to continue this line of research by implementing the sample and considering all the confounding factors. Furthermore, the results highlight the necessity to take account of gender differences in the context of health surveillance of workers.

  16. Additive Manufacturing Integrated Energy Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, Roderick; Lee, Brian; Love, Lonnie; Mabe, Gavin; Keller, Martin; Curran, Scott; Chinthavali, Madhu; Green, Johney; Sawyer, Karma; Enquist, Phil

    2016-02-05

    Meet AMIE - the Additive Manufacturing Integrated Energy demonstration project. Led by Oak Ridge National Laboratory and many industry partners, the AMIE project changes the way we think about generating, storing, and using electrical power. AMIE uses an integrated energy system that shares energy between a building and a vehicle. And, utilizing advanced manufacturing and rapid innovation, it only took one year from concept to launch.

  17. Robust stability under additive perturbations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhaya, A.; Desoer, C. A.

    1985-01-01

    A MIMO linear time-invariant feedback system 1S(P,C) is considered which is assumed to be U-stable. The plant P is subjected to an additive perturbation Delta P which is proper but not necessarily stable. It is proved that the perturbed system is U-stable if and only if Delta P(I + Q x Delta P) exp -1 is U-stable.

  18. Additive Manufacturing Integrated Energy Demonstration

    ScienceCinema

    Jackson, Roderick; Lee, Brian; Love, Lonnie; Mabe, Gavin; Keller, Martin; Curran, Scott; Chinthavali, Madhu; Green, Johney; Sawyer, Karma; Enquist, Phil

    2016-07-12

    Meet AMIE - the Additive Manufacturing Integrated Energy demonstration project. Led by Oak Ridge National Laboratory and many industry partners, the AMIE project changes the way we think about generating, storing, and using electrical power. AMIE uses an integrated energy system that shares energy between a building and a vehicle. And, utilizing advanced manufacturing and rapid innovation, it only took one year from concept to launch.

  19. Nanoengineered Additives for Active Coatings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-01

    commercial ad bial activ component from the coating, leading to eventual depletion of the film. Small TPU samples were evaluated using a Kirby - Bauer ...7 Table 5. Summary of 24-hr ASTM E 2180 tests with 1 weight-percent additive in PUr (solvent dispersible) based on 6-log loading of...Noveon X-1150). The ASTM E 2180 test is run in triplicate (Note that alternative ro 1° amines) was suspended in dry tetrahydrofuran (THF) (150 mL) in

  20. Reversible Oxidative Addition at Carbon.

    PubMed

    Eichhorn, Antonius F; Fuchs, Sonja; Flock, Marco; Marder, Todd B; Radius, Udo

    2017-04-07

    The reactivity of N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) and cyclic alkyl amino carbenes (cAACs) with arylboronate esters is reported. The reaction with NHCs leads to the reversible formation of thermally stable Lewis acid/base adducts Ar-B(OR)2 ⋅NHC (Add1-Add6). Addition of cAAC(Me) to the catecholboronate esters 4-R-C6 H4 -Bcat (R=Me, OMe) also afforded the adducts 4-R-C6 H4 Bcat⋅cAAC(Me) (Add7, R=Me and Add8, R=OMe), which react further at room temperature to give the cAAC(Me) ring-expanded products RER1 and RER2. The boronate esters Ar-B(OR)2 of pinacol, neopentylglycol, and ethyleneglycol react with cAAC at RT via reversible B-C oxidative addition to the carbene carbon atom to afford cAAC(Me) (B{OR}2 )(Ar) (BCA1-BCA6). NMR studies of cAAC(Me) (Bneop)(4-Me-C6 H4 ) (BCA4) demonstrate the reversible nature of this oxidative addition process.

  1. Additive manufacturing of hybrid circuits

    DOE PAGES

    Bell, Nelson S.; Sarobol, Pylin; Cook, Adam; ...

    2016-03-26

    There is a rising interest in developing functional electronics using additively manufactured components. Considerations in materials selection and pathways to forming hybrid circuits and devices must demonstrate useful electronic function; must enable integration; and must complement the complex shape, low cost, high volume, and high functionality of structural but generally electronically passive additively manufactured components. This article reviews several emerging technologies being used in industry and research/development to provide integration advantages of fabricating multilayer hybrid circuits or devices. First, we review a maskless, noncontact, direct write (DW) technology that excels in the deposition of metallic colloid inks for electrical interconnects.more » Second, we review a complementary technology, aerosol deposition (AD), which excels in the deposition of metallic and ceramic powder as consolidated, thick conformal coatings and is additionally patternable through masking. As a result, we show examples of hybrid circuits/devices integrated beyond 2-D planes, using combinations of DW or AD processes and conventional, established processes.« less

  2. Overt and Latent Cardiac Effects of Ozone Inhalation in Rats: Evidence for Autonomic Modulation and Increased Myocardial Vulnerability

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Ozone (03) is a well-documented respiratory oxidant, but increasing epidemiologic evidence points to extra-pulmonary effects including positive associations between ambient 03 concentrations and cardiovascular morbidity/mortality. Objectives: With preliminary reports ...

  3. Fire-Retardant Polymeric Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Martha K.; Smith, Trent M.

    2011-01-01

    Polyhydroxyamide (PHA) and polymethoxyamide (PMeOA) are fire-retardant (FR) thermoplastic polymers and have been found to be useful as an additive for imparting fire retardant properties to other compatible, thermoplastic polymers (including some elastomers). Examples of compatible flammable polymers include nylons, polyesters, and acrylics. Unlike most prior additives, PHA and PMeOA do not appreciably degrade the mechanical properties of the matrix polymer; indeed, in some cases, mechanical properties are enhanced. Also, unlike some prior additives, PHA and PMeOA do not decompose into large amounts of corrosive or toxic compounds during combustion and can be processed at elevated temperatures. PMeOA derivative formulations were synthesized and used as an FR additive in the fabrication of polyamide (PA) and polystyrene (PS) composites with notable reduction (>30 percent for PS) in peak heat release rates compared to the neat polymer as measured by a Cone Calorimeter (ASTM E1354). Synergistic effects were noted with nanosilica composites. These nanosilica composites had more than 50-percent reduction in peak heat release rates. In a typical application, a flammable thermoplastic, thermoplastic blend, or elastomer that one seeks to render flame-retardant is first dry-mixed with PHA or PMeOA or derivative thereof. The proportion of PHA or PMeOA or derivative in the mixture is typically chosen to lie between 1 and 20 weight percent. The dry blend can then be melt-extruded. The extruded polymer blend can further be extruded and/or molded into fibers, pipes, or any other of a variety of objects that may be required to be fire-retardant. The physical and chemical mechanisms which impart flame retardancy of the additive include inhibiting free-radical oxidation in the vapor phase, preventing vaporization of fuel (the polymer), and cooling through the formation of chemical bonds in either the vapor or the condensed phase. Under thermal stress, the cyclic hydroxyl/ methoxy

  4. Evaluation of certain food additives.

    PubMed

    2009-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives, including flavouring agents, with a view to recommending acceptable daily intakes (ADIs) and to preparing specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation and assessment of intake of food additives (in particular, flavouring agents). A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and intake data for certain food additives (asparaginase from Aspergillus niger expressed in A. niger, calcium lignosulfonate (40-65), ethyl lauroyl arginate, paprika extract, phospholipase C expressed in Pichia pastoris, phytosterols, phytostanols and their esters, polydimethylsiloxane, steviol glycosides and sulfites [assessment of dietary exposure]) and 10 groups of related flavouring agents (aliphatic branched-chain saturated and unsaturated alcohols, aldehydes, acids and related esters; aliphatic linear alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes, acids and related alcohols, acetals and esters; aliphatic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters; alkoxy-substituted allylbenzenes present in foods and essential oils and used as flavouring agents; esters of aliphatic acyclic primary alcohols with aliphatic linear saturated carboxylic acids; furan-substituted aliphatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids and related esters, sulfides, disulfides and ethers; miscellaneous nitrogen-containing substances; monocyclic and bicyclic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters; hydroxy- and alkoxy-substituted benzyl derivatives; and substances structurally related to menthol). Specifications for the following food additives were revised: canthaxanthin; carob bean gum and carob bean gum (clarified); chlorophyllin copper complexes, sodium and potassium salts; Fast Green FCF; guar gum and guar gum (clarified

  5. FADB: a food additive molecular database for in silico screening in food toxicology.

    PubMed

    Ginex, Tiziana; Spyrakis, Francesca; Cozzini, Pietro

    2014-01-01

    A crucial limit to in silico preliminary toxicological evaluations in the "food safety" area is the lack of a specific, efficient and available free dataset of 3D small molecules. In this direction, we present the first version of FADB (Food Additives Data Base), a suitable and freely available food additives dataset. FADB is the 3D version of the EAFUS (Everything Added to Food in the United States) list, a sum of WHO, FAO food additive databases and could be a useful starting material in preliminary stages of toxicological assessments. Molecules in FADB are represented through several chemical and 1D identifies, physical properties and 3D (SD and Mol2 file) file formats. FADB also contains important information about functional uses of chemicals as food additives. The aim of the work is to put together substances potentially relevant to food into a "computational" library for virtual screening and docking studies with interesting scenarios for toxicology.

  6. Installation-Restoration Program Preliminary Assessment, Granite Mountain Radio Relay Station, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-04-01

    The Hazardous Materials Technical Center (HMTC) was retained in January 1988 to conduct the Installation-Restoration Program (IRP) Preliminary Assessment of Granite Mountain Radio Relay Station (RRS), Alaska; DoD policy is to identify and fully evaluate suspected problems associated with past hazardous material disposal sites on DoD facilities, control the migration of hazardous contamination from such facilities, and control hazards to health and welfare that may have resulted from these past operations. The major operations of the installation that used and diposed of hazardous materials/hazardous waste (HM/HW) included management of fuel and electrical equipment, maintenance of the facility and vehicles, and use of asbestos as a construction material. Based on information obtained through interviews with Air Force personnel and review of installation records, hazardous materials were used at Granite Mountain RRS while the facility was in operation. Although no evidence of contamination was visible at the time of the site visit, it was common practice at similar facilities to bury drums and waste liquids and these wastes may be present in the solid-waste landfill at the RRS. In addition, asbestos may remain within the buildings.

  7. A preliminary report of music-based training for adult cochlear implant users: rationales and development

    PubMed Central

    Gfeller, Kate; Guthe, Emily; Driscoll, Virginia; Brown, Carolyn J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective This paper provides a preliminary report of a music-based training program for adult cochlear implant (CI) recipients. Included in this report are descriptions of the rationale for music-based training, factors influencing program development, and the resulting program components. Methods Prior studies describing experience-based plasticity in response to music training, auditory training for persons with hearing impairment, and music training for cochlear implant recipients were reviewed. These sources revealed rationales for using music to enhance speech, factors associated with successful auditory training, relevant aspects of electric hearing and music perception, and extant evidence regarding limitations and advantages associated with parameters for music training with CI users. This information formed the development of a computer-based music training program designed specifically for adult CI users. Results Principles and parameters for perceptual training of music, such as stimulus choice, rehabilitation approach, and motivational concerns were developed in relation to the unique auditory characteristics of adults with electric hearing. An outline of the resulting program components and the outcome measures for evaluating program effectiveness are presented. Conclusions Music training can enhance the perceptual accuracy of music, but is also hypothesized to enhance several features of speech with similar processing requirements as music (e.g., pitch and timbre). However, additional evaluation of specific training parameters and the impact of music-based training on speech perception of CI users are required. PMID:26561884

  8. Feasibility, Preliminary Efficacy, and Lessons Learned From a Garden-Based Lifestyle Intervention for Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Spees, Colleen K.; Hill, Emily B.; Grainger, Elizabeth M.; Buell, Jackie L.; White, Susan E.; Kleinhenz, Matthew D.; Clinton, Steven K.

    2016-01-01

    Background Cancer survivors remain at increased risk for secondary malignancies, comorbidities, and all-cause mortality. Lifestyle behaviors, such as diet and physical activity, are strongly linked to a decreased risk of chronic disease and improved health outcomes, yet a paucity of research has been conducted in this vulnerable population. Methods Adult cancer survivors were recruited to participate in Growing Hope, an experimental single-group study designed to assess the feasibility and efficacy of a theory-driven and evidence-based intervention. For 4 months, 22 participants received group and individual education and had access to harvesting fresh produce at an urban garden. Data on program satisfaction, compliance, diet, and physical activity were collected via surveys; anthropometrics, blood values, and skin carotenoids were objectively measured. Results The intervention resulted in significant improvements in consumption of fruits and vegetables (P = .003), decreased consumption of red and processed meats (P = .030) and sugar-sweetened beverages (P = .020). Levels of skin carotenoids, fasting blood glucose, and non–high density lipoprotein cholesterol were also significantly improved (P = .011, P = .043, and P = .05, respectively). Conclusions The results of this study support the feasibility and efficacy of a multifaceted, garden-based intervention for cancer survivors. In addition, these preliminary results demonstrate a positive impact aligning with the current lifestyle recommendations for cancer survivorship. Larger randomized controlled trials are warranted to define impact on sustained health outcomes. PMID:27556671

  9. Primed neutrophil infiltrations into multiple organs in child physical abuse cases: A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Takahito; Nakamae, Takuma; Higo, Eri; Ikematsu, Kazuya; Ogata, Mamoru

    2017-01-01

    Physical abuse of the elderly induces a massive primed neutrophil infiltration into the lung and liver through chemotaxis by interleukin (IL)-8, similar to cases of traumatic or hemorrhagic shock. Here, we used immunohistochemical analyses to investigate this infiltration in cases of physically abused children. In addition, we examined the expression of neutrophil elastase (NE) as the inflammatory mediator and α1-antitrypsin (AAT) as the elastase inhibitor. The number of neutrophils in the abuse cases was increased significantly in the heart, lung, liver, and kidney, compared with that of control cases. IL-8-positive cells and NE-positive cells in all organs of abuse cases were significantly greater than those in control cases. Large quantities of oxidized AAT, which fails to inactivate NE and results in tissue damage, was detected in the liver of abuse cases. Neutrophil infiltration showed positive correlation with the degree of systemic accumulation of non-fatal injuries caused by repetitive abusive behavior. Although further investigation using more autopsy samples is necessary, results of our preliminary study indicate that massive neutrophil infiltration induced by IL-8 in multiple organs is a new complementary diagnostic indicator of physical abuse in children. Moreover, the demonstration of NE-positive cells and oxidized AAT provides firm evidence of tissue damage.

  10. Preliminary Framework for Human-Automation Collaboration

    SciTech Connect

    Oxstrand, Johanna Helene; Le Blanc, Katya Lee; Spielman, Zachary Alexander

    2015-09-01

    The Department of Energy’s Advanced Reactor Technologies Program sponsors research, development and deployment activities through its Next Generation Nuclear Plant, Advanced Reactor Concepts, and Advanced Small Modular Reactor (aSMR) Programs to promote safety, technical, economical, and environmental advancements of innovative Generation IV nuclear energy technologies. The Human Automation Collaboration (HAC) Research Project is located under the aSMR Program, which identifies developing advanced instrumentation and controls and human-machine interfaces as one of four key research areas. It is expected that the new nuclear power plant designs will employ technology significantly more advanced than the analog systems in the existing reactor fleet as well as utilizing automation to a greater extent. Moving towards more advanced technology and more automation does not necessary imply more efficient and safer operation of the plant. Instead, a number of concerns about how these technologies will affect human performance and the overall safety of the plant need to be addressed. More specifically, it is important to investigate how the operator and the automation work as a team to ensure effective and safe plant operation, also known as the human-automation collaboration (HAC). The focus of the HAC research is to understand how various characteristics of automation (such as its reliability, processes, and modes) effect an operator’s use and awareness of plant conditions. In other words, the research team investigates how to best design the collaboration between the operators and the automated systems in a manner that has the greatest positive impact on overall plant performance and reliability. This report addresses the Department of Energy milestone M4AT-15IN2302054, Complete Preliminary Framework for Human-Automation Collaboration, by discussing the two phased development of a preliminary HAC framework. The framework developed in the first phase was used as the

  11. Standardized description of scientific evidence using the Evidence Ontology (ECO).

    PubMed

    Chibucos, Marcus C; Mungall, Christopher J; Balakrishnan, Rama; Christie, Karen R; Huntley, Rachael P; White, Owen; Blake, Judith A; Lewis, Suzanna E; Giglio, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    The Evidence Ontology (ECO) is a structured, controlled vocabulary for capturing evidence in biological research. ECO includes diverse terms for categorizing evidence that supports annotation assertions including experimental types, computational methods, author statements and curator inferences. Using ECO, annotation assertions can be distinguished according to the evidence they are based on such as those made by curators versus those automatically computed or those made via high-throughput data review versus single test experiments. Originally created for capturing evidence associated with Gene Ontology annotations, ECO is now used in other capacities by many additional annotation resources including UniProt, Mouse Genome Informatics, Saccharomyces Genome Database, PomBase, the Protein Information Resource and others. Information on the development and use of ECO can be found at http://evidenceontology.org. The ontology is freely available under Creative Commons license (CC BY-SA 3.0), and can be downloaded in both Open Biological Ontologies and Web Ontology Language formats at http://code.google.com/p/evidenceontology. Also at this site is a tracker for user submission of term requests and questions. ECO remains under active development in response to user-requested terms and in collaborations with other ontologies and database resources. Database URL: Evidence Ontology Web site: http://evidenceontology.org.

  12. 10 CFR 960.3-1-4 - Evidence for siting decisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evidence for siting decisions. 960.3-1-4 Section 960.3-1-4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-1-4 Evidence for siting decisions. The...

  13. 10 CFR 960.3-1-4 - Evidence for siting decisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Evidence for siting decisions. 960.3-1-4 Section 960.3-1-4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-1-4 Evidence for siting decisions. The...

  14. 10 CFR 960.3-1-4 - Evidence for siting decisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Evidence for siting decisions. 960.3-1-4 Section 960.3-1-4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-1-4 Evidence for siting decisions. The...

  15. 10 CFR 960.3-1-4 - Evidence for siting decisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Evidence for siting decisions. 960.3-1-4 Section 960.3-1-4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-1-4 Evidence for siting decisions. The...

  16. 10 CFR 960.3-1-4 - Evidence for siting decisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Evidence for siting decisions. 960.3-1-4 Section 960.3-1-4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3-1-4 Evidence for siting decisions. The...

  17. Use of waste rubber as concrete additive.

    PubMed

    Chou, Liang Hsing; Lu, Chun-Ku; Chang, Jen-Ray; Lee, Maw Tien

    2007-02-01

    For resource reutilization, scrap tyres have long been investigated as an additive to concrete to form 'Rubcrete' for various applications and have shown promising results. However, the addition of rubber particles leads to the degradation of physical properties, particularly, the compressive strength of the concrete. In this study, a theoretical model was proposed to shed light on the mechanisms of decrease in compressive strength due to the addition of rubber particles as well as improvement in compressive strength through modification of particle surfaces. The literature suggests that the compressive strength can be improved by soaking the rubber particles in alkaline solution first to increase the inter-phase bonding between the rubber particles and cement. Instead, we discovered that the loss in compressive strength was due to local imperfections in the hydration of cement, induced by the addition of heterogeneous and hydrophobic rubber particles. Microscopic studies showed that the rubber particles disturbed the water transfer to create channels, which were prone to cracking and led to a loss in the compressive strength. Unexpectedly, no cracking was found along the surfaces of the rubber particles, indicating that the bonding strength between the rubber particles and cement phases was not the critical factor in determining the compressive strength. Therefore, a theoretical model was proposed to describe the water transfer in the Rubcrete specimens to explain the experimental data. In the model, the local water available for hydration (Q) is: Q = -A(slv)/6piv, where Q, A(slv), and v are mass flow rate (kg s(-1)), Hamaker constant (J), and dynamic viscosity (m2 s(-1)), respectively. By maximizing the quantity Q and, in turn, the Hamaker constant A(slv), the compressive strength could be improved. The Hamaker constant A(slv) for water film on rubber particle surfaces was smaller than that for the hydrated cement particles; the water transfer rate was lower in

  18. The Mozart Effect: Additional Data.

    PubMed

    Hughes, John R.

    2002-04-01

    After the review of the Mozart effect was published in this journal (Hughes JR. Epilepsy Behav 2001;2:369-417), additional data from the music of Haydn and Liszt have been analyzed that may account for the decrease in seizure activity originally reported during Mozart music. Even with these added data Mozart music continued to score significantly higher than the selections from the other six composers in one of the important characteristics of this music, namely, the repetition of the melody. However Haydn's values were second highest among Mozart, J. S. Bach, Wagner, Beethoven, Chopin, and Liszt.

  19. Water based drilling mud additive

    SciTech Connect

    McCrary, J.L.

    1983-12-13

    A water based fluid additive useful in drilling mud used during drilling of an oil or gas well is disclosed, produced by reacting water at temperatures between 210/sup 0/-280/sup 0/ F. with a mixture comprising in percent by weight: gilsonite 25-30%, tannin 7-15%, lignite 25-35%, sulfonating compound 15-25%, water soluble base compound 5-15%, methylene-yielding compound 1-5%, and then removing substantially all of the remaining water to produce a dried product.

  20. Metal Additive Manufacturing: A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frazier, William E.

    2014-06-01

    This paper reviews the state-of-the-art of an important, rapidly emerging, manufacturing technology that is alternatively called additive manufacturing (AM), direct digital manufacturing, free form fabrication, or 3D printing, etc. A broad contextual overview of metallic AM is provided. AM has the potential to revolutionize the global parts manufacturing and logistics landscape. It enables distributed manufacturing and the productions of parts-on-demand while offering the potential to reduce cost, energy consumption, and carbon footprint. This paper explores the material science, processes, and business consideration associated with achieving these performance gains. It is concluded that a paradigm shift is required in order to fully exploit AM potential.

  1. Theatre fleet's vital additional capacity.

    PubMed

    2012-11-01

    Vanguard Healthcare's fleet of mobile surgical facilities has been deployed to healthcare sites throughout Europe and beyond for over a decade, providing vital additional clinical capacity when existing buildings are refurbished or upgraded, in the event of flood or fire, or simply to help hospitals cater for rising demand. It is a combination of careful planning, teamwork, and the specialist expertise of Vanguard's personnel--many with a clinical background--that ensures not only each unit's successful installation, but equally its subsequent running, servicing, and maintenance, the company explains.

  2. Shale JP-4 Additive Evaluation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-10-01

    8217. •% . , ’ ,,,r ,% . -- - ,.-. ’ ’ 4,w% %’. " - ,’ . . . * ’, .* . TABLE OF CONTENTS .4q ,4 . * SECTION PAGE I. INTRODUCTION 1 II. TEST PARAMETERS 2 1...42 PRECEDING PAGE BLANK TABLE OF CONTENTS (CON’T) SECT ION PAGE V. CONCLUSIONS 44 REFERENCES 46 APPENDIX A Drum to Test Sample Relationship 47 APPENDIX...B.O.C.L.E. Results 40 vii LIST OF TABLES TABLE PAGE 1 Antioxidants 3 2 Raw Shale/Petroleum Fuel Properties 10 3 Drum Sample Additive Content 13 4

  3. Evidence on global medical travel

    PubMed Central

    Záliš, Ladislav; Meurice, Christopher R; Hilton, Ian; Ly, Terry-Lisa; Zupan, Zorana; Hinrichs, Saba

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The potential benefits of travelling across national borders to obtain medical treatment include improved care, decreased costs and reduced waiting times. However, medical travel involves additional risks, compared to obtaining treatment domestically. We review the publicly-available evidence on medical travel. We suggest that medical travel needs to be understood in terms of its potential risks and benefits so that it can be evaluated against alternatives by patients who are seeking care. We propose three domains –quality standards, informed decision-making, economic and legal protection – in which better evidence could support the development of medical travel policies. PMID:26549906

  4. Evidence on global medical travel.

    PubMed

    Ruggeri, Kai; Záliš, Ladislav; Meurice, Christopher R; Hilton, Ian; Ly, Terry-Lisa; Zupan, Zorana; Hinrichs, Saba

    2015-11-01

    The potential benefits of travelling across national borders to obtain medical treatment include improved care, decreased costs and reduced waiting times. However, medical travel involves additional risks, compared to obtaining treatment domestically. We review the publicly-available evidence on medical travel. We suggest that medical travel needs to be understood in terms of its potential risks and benefits so that it can be evaluated against alternatives by patients who are seeking care. We propose three domains -quality standards, informed decision-making, economic and legal protection - in which better evidence could support the development of medical travel policies.

  5. The Electrophilic Addition to Alkynes Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tidwell, Thomas T.

    1996-11-01

    A recent claim (Weiss, H. J. Chem. Ed. 1993, 70, 873 - 874) that vinyl cations are not the predominant intermediates in the electrophilic addition to alkynes in disputed on the following grounds: (1) these is a linear free energy correlation between the rates of acid-catalyzed hydration of alkenes and alkynes, and since carbocations are accepted as intermediates in the former reaction, they are implicated in the latter as well; (2) rearrangements are known to be energetically less favorable in vinyl cations compared to alkyl cations, and so the lesser observed tendency for rearrangement in the former case does not argue for the absence of vinyl cation intermediates; (3) there is evidence that alkenes and alkynes react with HBr and HCl in some cases with anti addition and a kinetic term in [HX]2, but this is not an argument for a difference in behavior between the two, or for a pi-complex mechanism; (4) thermochemical calculations show that vinyl cations are not prohbitively destabilized compared to analogous alkyl cations; (5) the observation of an HCl/acetylene pi-complex in the gas phase is not an argument that this represents a rate-limiting transition state in solution.

  6. High Flow Addition Curing Polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chuang, Kathy C.; Vannucci, Raymond D.; Ansari, Irfan; Cerny, Lawrence L.; Scheiman, Daniel A.

    1994-01-01

    A new series of high flow PMR-type addition curing polyimides was developed, which employed the substitution of 2,2'-bis (trifluoromethyl) -4,4'-diaminobiphenyl (BTDB) for p-phenylenediamine (p -PDA) in a PMR-IL formulation. These thermoset polyimides, designated as 12F resins, were prepared from BTDB and the dimethyl ester of 4,4'- (hexafluo- roisopropylidene) -diphthalic acid (HFDE) with either nadic ester (NE) or p-aminostyrene (PAS) as the endcaps for addition curing. The 12F prepolymers displayed lower melting temperatures in DSC analysis, and higher melt flow in rheological studies than the cor- responding PMR-11 polyimides. Long-term isothermal aging studies showed that BTDB- based 12F resins exhibited comparable thermo-oxidative stability to P-PDA based PMR-11 polyimides. The noncoplanar 2- and 2'-disubstituted biphenyldiamine (BTDB) not only lowered the melt viscosities of 12F prepolymers, but also retained reasonable thermal sta- bility of the cured resins. The 12F polyimide resin with p-aminostyrene endcaps showed the best promise for long-term, high-temperature application at 343 C (650 F).

  7. Fuel Additives: Canada bans MMT

    SciTech Connect

    Sissell, K.

    1997-04-16

    The Canadian Senate voted late last week to ban use of the manganese-based fuel additive MMT, produced only in the US by Ethyl. MMT, which has been sold in Canada for the past 20 years and accounts for about half of Ethyl`s Canadian sales, has been criticized by environmentalists, who have raised public health concerns, and automakers, who say it harms emission control systems. {open_quotes}Canada`s vote is a great victory for public health and the environment,{close_quotes} says Environmental Defense Fund executive director Fred Krupp. {open_quotes}The US should move swiftly to follow suit and suspend sales of MMT until adequate toxicity testing on the additive is completed.{close_quotes} EPA had refused to approve MMT for sale because of health concerns but was compelled to do so by a December 1995 court ruling. Ethyl asserts the ban violates Canada`s obligations under Nafta and says it will file a damage claim with the Nafta arbitration panel.

  8. Additive interaction between heterogeneous environmental ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    BACKGROUND Environmental exposures often occur in tandem; however, epidemiological research often focuses on singular exposures. Statistical interactions among broad, well-characterized environmental domains have not yet been evaluated in association with health. We address this gap by conducting a county-level cross-sectional analysis of interactions between Environmental Quality Index (EQI) domain indices on preterm birth in the Unites States from 2000-2005.METHODS: The EQI, a county-level index constructed for the 2000-2005 time period, was constructed from five domain-specific indices (air, water, land, built and sociodemographic) using principal component analyses. County-level preterm birth rates (n=3141) were estimated using live births from the National Center for Health Statistics. Linear regression was used to estimate prevalence differences (PD) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) comparing worse environmental quality to the better quality for each model for a) each individual domain main effect b) the interaction contrast and c) the two main effects plus interaction effect (i.e. the “net effect”) to show departure from additive interaction for the all U.S counties. Analyses were also performed for subgroupings by four urban/rural strata. RESULTS: We found the suggestion of antagonistic interactions but no synergism, along with several purely additive (i.e., no interaction) associations. In the non-stratified model, we observed antagonistic interac

  9. Additive manufacturing of RF absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, Matthew S.

    The ability of additive manufacturing techniques to fabricate integrated electromagnetic absorbers tuned for specific radio frequency bands within structural composites allows for unique combinations of mechanical and electromagnetic properties. These composites and films can be used for RF shielding of sensitive electromagnetic components through in-plane and out-of-plane RF absorption. Structural composites are a common building block of many commercial platforms. These platforms may be placed in situations in which there is a need for embedded RF absorbing properties along with structural properties. Instead of adding radar absorbing treatments to the external surface of existing structures, which adds increased size, weight and cost; it could prove to be advantageous to integrate the microwave absorbing properties directly into the composite during the fabrication process. In this thesis, a method based on additive manufacturing techniques of composites structures with prescribed electromagnetic loss, within the frequency range 1 to 26GHz, is presented. This method utilizes screen printing and nScrypt micro dispensing to pattern a carbon based ink onto low loss substrates. The materials chosen for this study will be presented, and the fabrication technique that these materials went through to create RF absorbing structures will be described. The calibration methods used, the modeling of the RF structures, and the applications in which this technology can be utilized will also be presented.

  10. Preliminary design package for solar heating and cooling systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Summarized preliminary design information on activities associated with the development, delivery and support of solar heating and cooling systems is given. These systems are for single family dwellings and commercial applications. The heating/cooling system use a reversible vapor compression heat pump that is driven in the cooling mode by a Rankine power loop, and in the heating mode by a variable speed electric motor. The heating/cooling systems differ from the heating-only systems in the arrangement of the heat pump subsystem and the addition of a cooling tower to provide the heat sink for cooling mode operation.

  11. Preliminary report on radiocarbon dating of cryptoendolithic microorganisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonani, G.; Friedmann, E. I.; Ocampo-Friedmann, R.; McKay, C. P.; Woelfli, W.

    1988-01-01

    The existence of microbial communities living inside desert rocks has been reported by FRIEDMANN et al. (1967, 1976), first in rocks collected from the hot and dry Negev desert and later in rocks in the frigid Ross Desert of Southern Victoria Land, Antarctica. The extremely inhospitable climatic conditions in both places has led to the suggestion that these organisms have very low rates of metabolism and may, in addition, be very old (FRIEDMANN 1982). Our preliminary measurements showed a 14C deficiency indicating a carbon age in the order of magnitude of 10(3) years.

  12. Preliminary design review report for K Basin Dose Reduction Project

    SciTech Connect

    Blackburn, L.D.

    1996-01-01

    The strategy for reducing radiation dose, originating from radionuclides absorbed in the K East Basin concrete, is to raise the pool water level to provide additional shielding. This report documents a preliminary design review conducted to ensure that design approaches for cleaning/coating basin walls and modifying other basin components were appropriate. The conclusion of this review was that design documents presently conclusion of this review was that design documents presently completed or in process of modification are and acceptable basis for proceeding to complete the design.

  13. Preliminary design of JEM ECLSS and TCS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, T.; Otsuki, F.; Suzuki, K.; Shibutani, S.; Hattori, A.; Sasayama, H.; Inoue, M.; Sugai, W.

    1991-12-01

    Preliminary design of the Japanese Module (JEM), which will be attached to the U.S. Space Station Freedom (SSF), began in early 1991. The target of the design activities is the Preliminary Design Review (PDR) planned in the beginning of 1992. The pressurized module of the JEM is composed of several subsystems including the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS), the Thermal Control System (TCS), mechanical equipment (airlock), the data management system, the communications and tracking system, the electrical power system, and the experiment support system. The preliminary design of ECLSS and TCS including the baseline configurations and the design requirements are described.

  14. Co-operative transitions of responsive-polymer coated gold nanoparticles; precision tuning and direct evidence for co-operative aggregation† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c6tb01336h Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Won, Sangho; Phillips, Daniel J.; Walker, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Responsive polymers and polymer-coated nanoparticles have many potential bio-applications with the crucial parameter being the exact temperature where the transition occurs. Chemical modification of hydrophobic/hydrophilic or ligand binding sites has been widely explored as a tool for controlling this transition, but requires the synthesis of many different components to achieve precise control. This study reports an extensive investigation into the use of blending (i.e. mixing) as a powerful tool to modulate the transition temperature of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) coated gold nanoparticles. By simply mixing two nanoparticles of different compositions, precise control over the transition temperature can be imposed. This was shown to be flexible to all possible mixing parameters (different polymers on different particles, different polymers on same particles and different sized particles with identical/different polymers). Evidence of the co-operative aggregation of differently sized nanoparticles (with different cloud points) is shown using transmission electron microscopy; particles with higher cloud points aggregate with those with lower cloud points with homo-aggregates not seen, demonstrating the co-operative behaviour. These interactions, and the opportunities for transition tuning will have implications in the rational design of responsive biomaterials. PMID:27746916

  15. Grading the quality of evidence in complex interventions: a guide for evidence-based practitioners.

    PubMed

    Murad, M Hassan; Almasri, Jehad; Alsawas, Mouaz; Farah, Wigdan

    2017-03-01

    Evidence-based practitioners who want to apply evidence from complex interventions to the care of their patients are often challenged by the difficulty of grading the quality of this evidence. Using the GRADE (Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation) approach and an illustrative example, we propose a framework for evaluating the quality of evidence that depends on obtaining feedback from the evidence user (eg, guideline panel) to inform: (1) proper framing of the question, (2) judgements about directness and consistency of evidence and (3) the need for additional contextual and qualitative evidence. Using this framework, different evidence users and based on their needs would consider the same evidence as high, moderate, low or very low.

  16. Neutron Characterization for Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watkins, Thomas; Bilheux, Hassina; An, Ke; Payzant, Andrew; DeHoff, Ryan; Duty, Chad; Peter, William; Blue, Craig; Brice, Craig A.

    2013-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is leveraging decades of experience in neutron characterization of advanced materials together with resources such as the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) and the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) shown in Fig. 1 to solve challenging problems in additive manufacturing (AM). Additive manufacturing, or three-dimensional (3-D) printing, is a rapidly maturing technology wherein components are built by selectively adding feedstock material at locations specified by a computer model. The majority of these technologies use thermally driven phase change mechanisms to convert the feedstock into functioning material. As the molten material cools and solidifies, the component is subjected to significant thermal gradients, generating significant internal stresses throughout the part (Fig. 2). As layers are added, inherent residual stresses cause warping and distortions that lead to geometrical differences between the final part and the original computer generated design. This effect also limits geometries that can be fabricated using AM, such as thin-walled, high-aspect- ratio, and overhanging structures. Distortion may be minimized by intelligent toolpath planning or strategic placement of support structures, but these approaches are not well understood and often "Edisonian" in nature. Residual stresses can also impact component performance during operation. For example, in a thermally cycled environment such as a high-pressure turbine engine, residual stresses can cause components to distort unpredictably. Different thermal treatments on as-fabricated AM components have been used to minimize residual stress, but components still retain a nonhomogeneous stress state and/or demonstrate a relaxation-derived geometric distortion. Industry, federal laboratory, and university collaboration is needed to address these challenges and enable the U.S. to compete in the global market. Work is currently being conducted on AM technologies at the ORNL

  17. Additives in fibers and fabrics.

    PubMed Central

    Barker, R H

    1975-01-01

    The additives and contaminants which occur in textile fibers vary widely, depending on the type of fiber and the pretreatment which it has received. Synthetic fibers such as nylon and polyester contain trace amounts of contaminants such as catalysts and catalyst deactivators which remain after the synthesis of the basic polymers. In addition, there are frequently a number of materials which are added to perform specific functions in almost all man-made fibers. Examples of these would include traces of metals or metal salts used as tracers for identification of specific lots of fiber, TiO2 or similar materials added as delustrants, and a host of organic species added for such special purposes as antistatic agents or flame retardants. There may also be considerable quantities of residual monomer or small oligomers dissolved in the polymer matrix. The situation becomes even more complex after the fibers are converted into fabric form. Numerous materials are applied at various stages of fabric preparation to act as lubricants, sizing agents, antistats, bleaches, and wetting agents to facilitate the processing, but these are normally removed before the fabric reaches the cutters of the ultimate consumers and therefore usually do not constitute potential hazards. However, there are many other chemical agents which are frequently added during the later stages of fabric preparation and which are not designed to be removed. Aside from dyes and printing pigments, the most common additive for apparel fabrics is a durable press treatment. This generally involves the use of materials capable of crosslinking cellulosics by reacting through such functions as N-methylolated amides or related compounds such as ureas and carbamates. These materials pose some potential hazards due to both the nitrogenous bases and the formaldehyde which they usually release. There is usually also some residual catalyst in fabrics which have received such treatments. Other types of chemical treatments

  18. Cloud optical thickness feedbacks on climate: evidence from satellite remote sensing. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Somerville, R.C.J.; Chertock, B.

    1986-05-01

    Satellite data from the Earth Radiation Budget (ERB) experiment aboard Nimbus-7 have been used to seek evidence for cloud-radiation climate feedback mechanisms. One such feedback is microphysical, involving changes in cloud optical thickness. Theoretical results indicate that an increase in temperature, such as might occur in response to an increase in atmospheric CO/sub 2/ concentration, may be accompanied by an increase in the albedo of low and middle clouds. This temperature dependence of albedo arises from changes in cloud liquid water content and is potentially strong enough to reduce the CO/sub 2/-induced climate warming substantially. Preliminary analyses of the Nimbus-7 satellite data show some systematic dependence of cloud radiative properties on sea surface temperature, in a test region north of Hawaii. This evidence is consistent with the proposed cloud optical thickness feedback, but it is far from conclusive. To further explore such feedbacks, research should be carried out to improve and generalize the original theoretical model by adding non-black cirrus, upgrading the radiative transfer and moist convection algorithms, improving cloud microphysics, and incorporating seasonal variability and additional feedback physics. It is also feasible to seek evidence for validating hypothesized cloud feedback processes in atmospheric general circulation model integration and diagnostic studies and also in more extensive analyses of regional and seasonal variability of satellite observations of cloud properties.

  19. An Additive Manufacturing Test Artifact

    PubMed Central

    Moylan, Shawn; Slotwinski, John; Cooke, April; Jurrens, Kevin; Donmez, M Alkan

    2014-01-01

    A test artifact, intended for standardization, is proposed for the purpose of evaluating the performance of additive manufacturing (AM) systems. A thorough analysis of previously proposed AM test artifacts as well as experience with machining test artifacts have inspired the design of the proposed test artifact. This new artifact is designed to provide a characterization of the capabilities and limitations of an AM system, as well as to allow system improvement by linking specific errors measured in the test artifact to specific sources in the AM system. The proposed test artifact has been built in multiple materials using multiple AM technologies. The results of several of the builds are discussed, demonstrating how the measurement results can be used to characterize and improve a specific AM system. PMID:26601039

  20. An Additive Manufacturing Test Artifact.

    PubMed

    Moylan, Shawn; Slotwinski, John; Cooke, April; Jurrens, Kevin; Donmez, M Alkan

    2014-01-01

    A test artifact, intended for standardization, is proposed for the purpose of evaluating the performance of additive manufacturing (AM) systems. A thorough analysis of previously proposed AM test artifacts as well as experience with machining test artifacts have inspired the design of the proposed test artifact. This new artifact is designed to provide a characterization of the capabilities and limitations of an AM system, as well as to allow system improvement by linking specific errors measured in the test artifact to specific sources in the AM system. The proposed test artifact has been built in multiple materials using multiple AM technologies. The results of several of the builds are discussed, demonstrating how the measurement results can be used to characterize and improve a specific AM system.

  1. Optics of progressive addition lenses.

    PubMed

    Sheedy, J E; Buri, M; Bailey, I L; Azus, J; Borish, I M

    1987-02-01

    The optical characteristics of the major progressive addition lenses were measured using an automated lensometer with a specially designed lens holder to simulate eye rotation. Measurements were made every 3 degrees (about 1.5 mm) and graphs of isospherical equivalent lines and isocylinder lines were developed. Generally the near zone of these lenses is narrower and lower than in bifocal or trifocal lenses. Distinct differences exist between the various progressive lenses. The width of the near zone, rate of power progression, amount of unwanted cylinder (level with the distance center), and clarity of the distance zone are compared for the various lenses. The optical measurements demonstrate an apparent trade-off between the size of the cylinder-free area of the lens and the amount of the cylinder.

  2. 23 CFR 658.11 - Additions, deletions, exceptions, and restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... and serve the area in which such segment is located. (iv) Evidence of consultation with the local... § 658.11 Additions, deletions, exceptions, and restrictions. To ensure that the National Network remains... National Network as well as requests for the imposition of certain restrictions. FHWA approval...

  3. Space station preliminary design report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The results of a 3 month preliminary design and analysis effort is presented. The configuration that emerged consists of a very stiff deployable truss structure with an overall triangular cross section having universal modules attached at the apexes. Sufficient analysis was performed to show feasibility of the configuration. An evaluation of the structure shows that desirable attributes of the configuration are: (1) the solar cells, radiators, and antennas will be mounted to stiff structure to minimize control problems during orbit maintenance and correction, docking, and attitude control; (2) large flat areas are available for mounting and servicing of equipment; (3) Large mass items can be mounted near the center of gravity of the system to minimize gravity gradient torques; (4) the trusses are lightweight structures and can be transported into orbit in one Shuttle flight; (5) the trusses are expandable and will require a minimum of EVA; and (6) the modules are anticipated to be structurally identical except for internal equipment to minimize cost.

  4. Advanced space engine preliminary design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuffe, J. P. B.; Bradie, R. E.

    1973-01-01

    A preliminary design was completed for an O2/H2, 89 kN (20,000 lb) thrust staged combustion rocket engine that has a single-bell nozzle with an overall expansion ratio of 400:1. The engine has a best estimate vacuum specific impulse of 4623.8 N-s/kg (471.5 sec) at full thrust and mixture ratio = 6.0. The engine employs gear-driven, low pressure pumps to provide low NPSH capability while individual turbine-driven, high-speed main pumps provide the system pressures required for high-chamber pressure operation. The engine design dry weight for the fixed-nozzle configuration is 206.9 kg (456.3 lb). Engine overall length is 234 cm (92.1 in.). The extendible nozzle version has a stowed length of 141.5 cm (55.7 in.). Critical technology items in the development of the engine were defined. Development program plans and their costs for development, production, operation, and flight support of the ASE were established for minimum cost and minimum time programs.

  5. Stardust Interstellar Preliminary Examination (ISPE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westphal, A. J.; Allen, C.; Bajt, S.; Basset, R.; Bastien, R.; Bechtel, H.; Bleuet, P.; Borg, J.; Brenker F.; Bridges, J.

    2009-01-01

    In January 2006 the Stardust sample return capsule returned to Earth bearing the first solid samples from a primitive solar system body, C omet 81P/Wild2, and a collector dedicated to the capture and return o f contemporary interstellar dust. Both collectors were approximately 0.1m(exp 2) in area and were composed of aerogel tiles (85% of the co llecting area) and aluminum foils. The Stardust Interstellar Dust Col lector (SIDC) was exposed to the interstellar dust stream for a total exposure factor of 20 m(exp 2-) day during two periods before the co metary encounter. The Stardust Interstellar Preliminary Examination ( ISPE) is a three-year effort to characterize the collection using no ndestructive techniques. The ISPE consists of six interdependent proj ects: (1) Candidate identification through automated digital microsco py and a massively distributed, calibrated search (2) Candidate extr action and photodocumentation (3) Characterization of candidates thro ugh synchrotronbased FourierTranform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), S canning XRay Fluoresence Microscopy (SXRF), and Scanning Transmission Xray Microscopy (STXM) (4) Search for and analysis of craters in f oils through FESEM scanning, Auger Spectroscopy and synchrotronbased Photoemission Electron Microscopy (PEEM) (5) Modeling of interstell ar dust transport in the solar system (6) Laboratory simulations of h ypervelocity dust impacts into the collecting media

  6. EUPORIAS: plans and preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buontempo, C.

    2013-12-01

    Recent advances in our understanding and ability to forecast climate variability have meant that skilful predictions are beginning to be routinely made on seasonal to decadal (s2d) timescales. Such forecasts have the potential to be of great value to a wide range of decision-making, where outcomes are strongly influenced by variations in the climate. In 2012 the European Commission funded EUPORIAS, a four year long project to develop prototype end-to-end climate impact prediction services operating on a seasonal to decadal timescale, and assess their value in informing decision-making. EUPORIAS commenced on 1 November 2012, coordinated by the UK Met Office leading a consortium of 24 organisations representing world-class European climate research and climate service centres, expertise in impacts assessments and seasonal predictions, two United Nations agencies, specialists in new media, and commercial companies in climate-vulnerable sectors such as energy, water and tourism. The poster describes the setup of the project, its main outcome and some of the very preliminary results.

  7. Preliminary Iron Distribution on Vesta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mittlefehldt, David W.; Mittlefehldt, David W.

    2013-01-01

    The distribution of iron on the surface of the asteroid Vesta was investigated using Dawn's Gamma Ray and Neutron Detector (GRaND) [1,2]. Iron varies predictably with rock type for the howardite, eucrite, and diogenite (HED) meteorites, thought to be representative of Vesta. The abundance of Fe in howardites ranges from about 12 to 15 wt.%. Basaltic eucrites have the highest abundance, whereas, lower crustal and upper mantle materials (cumulate eucrites and diogenites) have the lowest, and howardites are intermediate [3]. We have completed a mapping study of 7.6 MeV gamma rays produced by neutron capture by Fe as measured by the bismuth germanate (BGO) detector of GRaND [1]. The procedures to determine Fe counting rates are presented in detail here, along with a preliminary distribution map, constituting the necessary initial step to quantification of Fe abundances. We find that the global distribution of Fe counting rates is generally consistent with independent mineralogical and compositional inferences obtained by other instruments on Dawn such as measurements of pyroxene absorption bands by the Visual and Infrared Spectrometer (VIR) [4] and Framing Camera (FC) [5] and neutron absorption measurements by GRaND [6].

  8. Preliminary Response Analysis of AUV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hariri, Azian; Basharie, Siti Mariam; Ghani, Mohamad Hanifah Abd.

    2010-06-01

    Development of Autonomous Unmanned Vehicle (AUV) involves a great task to fully understand the overall working principles of an UAV that needed time, experience and a wide range of intelligence to cover the entire scientific facts. This study is done by means to acquire the fundamental knowledge in understanding the stability and response of an UAV. The longitudinal response and stability of UAV owing to deflection of stern plane during trimmed equilibrium motion can be computed by solving the AUV equation of motion. In this study, the AUV equations of motion were rederived and the solution was computed with the aid of Matlab software. From the existing AUV, a new dimension, weight and speed were specified to be used in the rederivation of the linearised AUV longitudinal equations of motion. From the analysis done, the longitudinal response AUV shows the stern plane and thrust has relatively steady longitudinal control power and quick response characteristic. The results had successfully given a preliminary insight of the specified AUV response and dynamic stability.

  9. Preliminary results of ANAIS-25

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaré, J.; Cebrián, S.; Cuesta, C.; García, E.; Ginestra, C.; Martínez, M.; Oliván, M. A.; Ortigoza, Y.; Ortiz de Solórzano, A.; Pobes, C.; Puimedón, J.; Sarsa, M. L.; Villar, J. A.; Villar, P.

    2014-04-01

    The ANAIS (Annual Modulation with NaI(Tl) Scintillators) experiment aims at the confirmation of the DAMA/LIBRA signal using the same target and technique at the Canfranc Underground Laboratory. 250 kg of ultrapure NaI(Tl) crystals will be used as a target, divided into 20 modules, each coupled to two photomultipliers. Two NaI(Tl) crystals of 12.5 kg each, grown by Alpha Spectra from a powder having a potassium level under the limit of our analytical techniques, form the ANAIS-25 set-up. The background contributions are being carefully studied and preliminary results are presented: their natural potassium content in the bulk has been quantified, as well as the uranium and thorium radioactive chains presence in the bulk through the discrimination of the corresponding alpha events by PSA, and due to the fast commissioning, the contribution from cosmogenic activated isotopes is clearly identified and their decay observed along the first months of data taking. Following the procedures established with ANAIS-0 and previous prototypes, bulk NaI(Tl) scintillation events selection and light collection efficiency have been also studied in ANAIS-25.

  10. Evidence Study Guide.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-04-01

    involving novel scientific evidence, e.g., the drug-induced or hypnosis -induced interview of a witness. Although the rules on experts contain no reference...under the Fed.R.Evid. Among the evidence which Nil.R.Evid. 803(6) makes admissible are forensic laboratory reports and chain of custody documents. The...34 inclusion of forensic laboratory reports and chain of custody documents in this Mil.R.Evid. is in conflict with the legislative history of

  11. San Mateo Creek Basin Preliminary Assessment

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The objective of this Preliminary Assessment is to evaluate the site using the Hazard Ranking System and the Superfund Chemical Data Matrix to determine if a threat to human health and the environment exists such that further action is warranted.

  12. 40 CFR 158.345 - Preliminary analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Product Chemistry § 158.345 Preliminary analysis. (a) If the product is produced by... point in the production process after which no further chemical reactions designed to produce or...

  13. Multidisciplinary Optimization Methods for Preliminary Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korte, J. J.; Weston, R. P.; Zang, T. A.

    1997-01-01

    An overview of multidisciplinary optimization (MDO) methodology and two applications of this methodology to the preliminary design phase are presented. These applications are being undertaken to improve, develop, validate and demonstrate MDO methods. Each is presented to illustrate different aspects of this methodology. The first application is an MDO preliminary design problem for defining the geometry and structure of an aerospike nozzle of a linear aerospike rocket engine. The second application demonstrates the use of the Framework for Interdisciplinary Design Optimization (FIDO), which is a computational environment system, by solving a preliminary design problem for a High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT). The two sample problems illustrate the advantages to performing preliminary design with an MDO process.

  14. 29 CFR 1955.31 - Preliminary conference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) PROCEDURES FOR WITHDRAWAL OF APPROVAL OF STATE PLANS Preliminary Conference and Discovery § 1955... those not disposed of by admissions or agreements, and control the subsequent course of the...

  15. 43 CFR 3425.1-7 - Preliminary data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Preliminary data. 3425.1-7 Section 3425.1... Preliminary data. (a) Any application for a lease shall contain preliminary data to assist the authorized... preliminary data shall include: (1) A map, or maps, showing the topography, physical features and...

  16. Additively manufactured porous tantalum implants.

    PubMed

    Wauthle, Ruben; van der Stok, Johan; Amin Yavari, Saber; Van Humbeeck, Jan; Kruth, Jean-Pierre; Zadpoor, Amir Abbas; Weinans, Harrie; Mulier, Michiel; Schrooten, Jan

    2015-03-01

    The medical device industry's interest in open porous, metallic biomaterials has increased in response to additive manufacturing techniques enabling the production of complex shapes that cannot be produced with conventional techniques. Tantalum is an important metal for medical devices because of its good biocompatibility. In this study selective laser melting technology was used for the first time to manufacture highly porous pure tantalum implants with fully interconnected open pores. The architecture of the porous structure in combination with the material properties of tantalum result in mechanical properties close to those of human bone and allow for bone ingrowth. The bone regeneration performance of the porous tantalum was evaluated in vivo using an orthotopic load-bearing bone defect model in the rat femur. After 12 weeks, substantial bone ingrowth, good quality of the regenerated bone and a strong, functional implant-bone interface connection were observed. Compared to identical porous Ti-6Al-4V structures, laser-melted tantalum shows excellent osteoconductive properties, has a higher normalized fatigue strength and allows for more plastic deformation due to its high ductility. It is therefore concluded that this is a first step towards a new generation of open porous tantalum implants manufactured using selective laser melting.

  17. Additive Transforms Paint into Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Tech Traders Inc. sought assistance developing low-cost, highly effective coatings and paints that created useful thermal reflectance and were safe and non-toxic. In cooperation with a group of engineers at Kennedy Space Center., Tech Traders created Insuladd, a powder additive made up of microscopic, inert gas-filled, ceramic microspheres that can be mixed into ordinary interior or exterior paint, allowing the paint to act like a layer of insulation. When the paint dries, this forms a radiant heat barrier, turning the ordinary house paint into heat-reflecting thermal paint. According to Tech Traders, the product works with all types of paints and coatings and will not change the coverage rate, application, or adhesion of the paint. Other useful applications include feed storage silos to help prevent feed spoilage, poultry hatcheries to reduce the summer heat and winter cold effects, and on military vehicles and ships. Tech Traders has continued its connection to the aerospace community by recently providing Lockheed Martin Corporation with one of its thermal products for use on the F-22 Raptor.

  18. Sustainability Characterization for Additive Manufacturing

    PubMed Central

    Mani, Mahesh; Lyons, Kevin W; Gupta, SK

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has the potential to create geometrically complex parts that require a high degree of customization, using less material and producing less waste. Recent studies have shown that AM can be an economically viable option for use by the industry, yet there are some inherent challenges associated with AM for wider acceptance. The lack of standards in AM impedes its use for parts production since industries primarily depend on established standards in processes and material selection to ensure the consistency and quality. Inability to compare AM performance against traditional manufacturing methods can be a barrier for implementing AM processes. AM process sustainability has become a driver due to growing environmental concerns for manufacturing. This has reinforced the importance to understand and characterize AM processes for sustainability. Process characterization for sustainability will help close the gaps for comparing AM performance to traditional manufacturing methods. Based on a literature review, this paper first examines the potential environmental impacts of AM. A methodology for sustainability characterization of AM is then proposed to serve as a resource for the community to benchmark AM processes for sustainability. Next, research perspectives are discussed along with relevant standardization efforts. PMID:26601038

  19. Sustainability Characterization for Additive Manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Mani, Mahesh; Lyons, Kevin W; Gupta, S K

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has the potential to create geometrically complex parts that require a high degree of customization, using less material and producing less waste. Recent studies have shown that AM can be an economically viable option for use by the industry, yet there are some inherent challenges associated with AM for wider acceptance. The lack of standards in AM impedes its use for parts production since industries primarily depend on established standards in processes and material selection to ensure the consistency and quality. Inability to compare AM performance against traditional manufacturing methods can be a barrier for implementing AM processes. AM process sustainability has become a driver due to growing environmental concerns for manufacturing. This has reinforced the importance to understand and characterize AM processes for sustainability. Process characterization for sustainability will help close the gaps for comparing AM performance to traditional manufacturing methods. Based on a literature review, this paper first examines the potential environmental impacts of AM. A methodology for sustainability characterization of AM is then proposed to serve as a resource for the community to benchmark AM processes for sustainability. Next, research perspectives are discussed along with relevant standardization efforts.

  20. Dynamics of ultrasonic additive manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Hehr, Adam; Dapino, Marcelo J

    2017-01-01

    Ultrasonic additive manufacturing (UAM) is a solid-state technology for joining similar and dissimilar metal foils near room temperature by scrubbing them together with ultrasonic vibrations under pressure. Structural dynamics of the welding assembly and work piece influence how energy is transferred during the process and ultimately, part quality. To understand the effect of structural dynamics during UAM, a linear time-invariant model is proposed to relate the inputs of shear force and electric current to resultant welder velocity and voltage. Measured frequency response and operating performance of the welder under no load is used to identify model parameters. Using this model and in-situ measurements, shear force and welder efficiency are estimated to be near 2000N and 80% when welding Al 6061-H18 weld foil, respectively. Shear force and welder efficiency have never been estimated before in UAM. The influence of processing conditions, i.e., welder amplitude, normal force, and weld speed, on shear force and welder efficiency are investigated. Welder velocity was found to strongly influence the shear force magnitude and efficiency while normal force and weld speed showed little to no influence. The proposed model is used to describe high frequency harmonic content in the velocity response of the welder during welding operations and coupling of the UAM build with the welder.

  1. Dimensionless numbers in additive manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, T.; Manvatkar, V.; De, A.; DebRoy, T.

    2017-02-01

    The effects of many process variables and alloy properties on the structure and properties of additively manufactured parts are examined using four dimensionless numbers. The structure and properties of components made from 316 Stainless steel, Ti-6Al-4V, and Inconel 718 powders for various dimensionless heat inputs, Peclet numbers, Marangoni numbers, and Fourier numbers are studied. Temperature fields, cooling rates, solidification parameters, lack of fusion defects, and thermal strains are examined using a well-tested three-dimensional transient heat transfer and fluid flow model. The results show that lack of fusion defects in the fabricated parts can be minimized by strengthening interlayer bonding using high values of dimensionless heat input. The formation of harmful intermetallics such as laves phases in Inconel 718 can be suppressed using low heat input that results in a small molten pool, a steep temperature gradient, and a fast cooling rate. Improved interlayer bonding can be achieved at high Marangoni numbers, which results in vigorous circulation of liquid metal, larger pool dimensions, and greater depth of penetration. A high Fourier number ensures rapid cooling, low thermal distortion, and a high ratio of temperature gradient to the solidification growth rate with a greater tendency of plane front solidification.

  2. Children's understanding of additive concepts.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Katherine M; Dubé, Adam K; Beatch, Jacqueline-Ann

    2017-04-01

    Most research on children's arithmetic concepts is based on one concept at a time, limiting the conclusions that can be made about how children's conceptual knowledge of arithmetic develops. This study examined six arithmetic concepts (identity, negation, commutativity, equivalence, inversion, and addition and subtraction associativity) in Grades 3, 4, and 5. Identity (a-0=a) and negation (a-a=0) were well understood, followed by moderate understanding of commutativity (a+b=b+a) and inversion (a+b-b=a), with weak understanding of equivalence (a+b+c=a+[b+c]) and associativity (a+b-c=[b-c]+a). Understanding increased across grade only for commutativity and equivalence. Four clusters were found: The Weak Concept cluster understood only identity and negation; the Two-Term Concept cluster also understood commutativity; the Inversion Concept cluster understood identity, negation, and inversion; and the Strong Concept cluster had the strongest understanding of all of the concepts. Grade 3 students tended to be in the Weak and Inversion Concept clusters, Grade 4 students were equally likely to be in any of the clusters, and Grade 5 students were most likely to be in the Two-Term and Strong Concept clusters. The findings of this study highlight that conclusions about the development of arithmetic concepts are highly dependent on which concepts are being assessed and underscore the need for multiple concepts to be investigated at the same time.

  3. 80 FR 53510 - Owyhee Hydro, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2015-09-04

    ...-000] Owyhee Hydro, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting Comments, Motions To Intervene, and Competing Applications On November 24, 2014, Owyhee Hydro, LLC (Owyhee..., 2015, Owyhee Hydro filed a revised application providing an additional alternative to the...

  4. Applications of Metal Additive Manufacturing in Veterinary Orthopedic Surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrysson, Ola L. A.; Marcellin-Little, Denis J.; Horn, Timothy J.

    2015-03-01

    Veterinary medicine has undergone a rapid increase in specialization over the last three decades. Veterinarians now routinely perform joint replacement, neurosurgery, limb-sparing surgery, interventional radiology, radiation therapy, and other complex medical procedures. Many procedures involve advanced imaging and surgical planning. Evidence-based medicine has also become part of the modus operandi of veterinary clinicians. Modeling and additive manufacturing can provide individualized or customized therapeutic solutions to support the management of companion animals with complex medical problems. The use of metal additive manufacturing is increasing in veterinary orthopedic surgery. This review describes and discusses current and potential applications of metal additive manufacturing in veterinary orthopedic surgery.

  5. Modulation of Additive and Interactive Effects in Lexical Decision by Trial History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masson, Michael E. J.; Kliegl, Reinhold

    2013-01-01

    Additive and interactive effects of word frequency, stimulus quality, and semantic priming have been used to test theoretical claims about the cognitive architecture of word-reading processes. Additive effects among these factors have been taken as evidence for discrete-stage models of word reading. We present evidence from linear mixed-model…

  6. Modafinil: a useful medication for cocaine addiction? Review of the evidence from neuropharmacological, experimental and clinical studies.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Raga, Jose; Knecht, Carlos; Cepeda, Sonsoles

    2008-06-01

    Cocaine addiction is a chronic relapsing disorder associated with severe medical and psychosocial complications. However, there are no approved medications for cocaine dependent individuals. Modafinil, a medication that differs chemically and pharmacologically from other central nervous system stimulants, has been suggested to be potentially useful for this complex disorder. The present paper aims to critically review the published evidence from laboratory and clinical studies on modafinil for cocaine addiction, including discussion of its pharmacological characteristics and how it may relate with cocaine neurobiology. Whilst its exact mechanism of action remains to be elucidated, different neurotransmitter systems have been implicated, including modulation on dopamine, glutamate/GABA, noradrenaline and the hypocretin/orexin system, but it is possible that modafinil acts by a synergistic combination of mechanisms. With a favourable pharmacokinetic profile, it appears to have a low abuse potential. Laboratory and clinical studies provide consistent, albeit preliminary, evidence of the potential usefulness of modafinil for cocaine dependent patients. Not only there is no evidence of pharmacokinetic interactions between modafinil and cocaine, but in addition cocaine induced euphoria and cardiovascular effects appear to be attenuated by modafinil. Furthermore, modafinil has been shown to decrease cocaine self-administration. In addition, modafinil treated patient are more likely to achieve protracted abstinence than placebo treated patients. However, further research is needed to confirm these findings.

  7. Evidence and evidence gaps in tinnitus therapy

    PubMed Central

    Hesse, Gerhard

    2016-01-01

    A nearly endless number of procedures has been tried and in particular sold for the treatment of tinnitus, unfortunately they have not been evaluated appropriately in an evidence-based way. A causal therapy, omitting the tinnitus still does not exist, actually it cannot exist because of the various mechanisms of its origin. However or perhaps because of that, medical interventions appear and reappear like fashion trends that can never be proven by stable and reliable treatment success. This contribution will discuss and acknowledge all current therapeutic procedures and the existing or non-existing evidence will be assessed. Beside external evidence, the term of evidence also encompasses the internal evidence, i.e. the experience of the treating physician and the patient’s needs shall be included. While there is no evidence for nearly all direct procedures that intend modulating or stimulating either the cochlea or specific cervical regions such as the auditory cortex, there are therapeutic procedures that are acknowledged in clinical practice and have achieved at least a certain degree of evidence and generate measurable effect sizes. Those are in particular habituation therapy and psychotherapeutic measures, especially if they are combined with concrete measures for improved audio perception (hearing aids, CI, hearing therapies). PMID:28025604

  8. Evidence and evidence gaps in tinnitus therapy.

    PubMed

    Hesse, Gerhard

    2016-01-01

    A nearly endless number of procedures has been tried and in particular sold for the treatment of tinnitus, unfortunately they have not been evaluated appropriately in an evidence-based way. A causal therapy, omitting the tinnitus still does not exist, actually it cannot exist because of the various mechanisms of its origin. However or perhaps because of that, medical interventions appear and reappear like fashion trends that can never be proven by stable and reliable treatment success. This contribution will discuss and acknowledge all current therapeutic procedures and the existing or non-existing evidence will be assessed. Beside external evidence, the term of evidence also encompasses the internal evidence, i.e. the experience of the treating physician and the patient's needs shall be included. While there is no evidence for nearly all direct procedures that intend modulating or stimulating either the cochlea or specific cervical regions such as the auditory cortex, there are therapeutic procedures that are acknowledged in clinical practice and have achieved at least a certain degree of evidence and generate measurable effect sizes. Those are in particular habituation therapy and psychotherapeutic measures, especially if they are combined with concrete measures for improved audio perception (hearing aids, CI, hearing therapies).

  9. Global Geologic Mapping of Io: Preliminary Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, David A.; Keszthelyi, L. P.; Crown, D. A.; Geissler, P. E.; Schenk, P. M.; Yff, Jessica; Jaeger, W. L.; Rathbun, J. A.

    2008-01-01

    A new global geologic map of Jupiter's volcanic moon, Io is being prepared, with the focus being on completion of a draft map by July 2008. Here initial results of the mapping are reported: a preliminary distribution of material units in terms of areas and a visual representation. Additionally, the mapping hopes to address some of the problems in Io geology. Thus far it has been discovered that Io's surface is dominated by plains material, thought to consist of Io's silicate crust covered by pyroclastic deposits and lava flows of silicate and sulfur-bearing composition. Many plains areas contain flow fields that cannot be mapped separately due to a lack of resolution or modification by alteration processes. Discrete lava flows and flow fields are the next most abundant unit, with bright (sulfur?) flows in greater abundance than dark (silicate?) flows. The source of most of Io's heat flow, the paterae, are the least abundant unit in terms of areal extent.Upon completion of the draft map for peer review, it will be used to investigate several specific questions about the geological evolution of Io that previously could not be well addressed, including: comparison of the areas versus the heights of Ionian mountains to assess their stability and evolution; correlation and comparison of Galileo Near-Infrared Mapping Spectrometer and Photopolarimeter-Radiometer hot spot locations with the mapped location of dark versus bright lava flows and patera floors to assess any variations in the types of sources for Io's active volcanism; and the creation of a global inventory of the areal coverage of dark and bright laval flows to assess the relative importance of sulfur versus silicate volcanism in resurfacing Io, and to assess whether there are regional concentrations of either style of volcanism that may have implications on interior processes.

  10. Preliminary estimates of radiosonde thermistor errors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidlin, F. J.; Luers, J. K.; Huffman, P. D.

    1986-01-01

    Radiosonde temperature measurements are subject to errors, not the least of which is the effect of long- and short-wave radiation. Methods of adjusting the daytime temperatures to a nighttime equivalent are used by some analysis centers. Other than providing consistent observations for analysis this procedure does not provide a true correction. The literature discusses the problem of radiosonde temperature errors but it is not apparent what effort, if any, has been taken to quantify these errors. To accomplish the latter, radiosondes containing multiple thermistors with different coatings were flown at Goddard Space Flight Center/Wallops Flight Facility. The coatings employed had different spectral characteristics and, therefore, different adsorption and emissivity properties. Discrimination of the recorded temperatures enabled day and night correction values to be determined for the US standard white-coated rod thermistor. The correction magnitudes are given and a comparison of US measured temperatures before and after correction are compared with temperatures measured with the Vaisala radiosonde. The corrections are in the proper direction, day and night, and reduce day-night temperature differences to less than 0.5 C between surface and 30 hPa. The present uncorrected temperatures used with the Viz radiosonde have day-night differences that exceed 1 C at levels below 90 hPa. Additional measurements are planned to confirm these preliminary results and determine the solar elevation angle effect on the corrections. The technique used to obtain the corrections may also be used to recover a true absolute value and might be considered a valuable contribution to the meteorological community for use as a reference instrument.

  11. Herbal medicine for depression, anxiety and insomnia: a review of psychopharmacology and clinical evidence.

    PubMed

    Sarris, Jerome; Panossian, Alexander; Schweitzer, Isaac; Stough, Con; Scholey, Andrew

    2011-12-01

    Research in the area of herbal psychopharmacology has increased markedly over the past decades. To date however, a comprehensive review of herbal antidepressant, anxiolytic and hypnotic psychopharmacology and applications in depression, anxiety and insomnia has been absent. A search of MEDLINE (PubMed), CINAHL, PsycINFO, and the Cochrane Library databases was conducted (up to February 21st 2011) on commonly used psychotropic herbal medicines. A review of the literature was conducted to ascertain mechanisms of action of these botanicals, in addition to a systematic review of controlled clinical trials for treatment of mood, anxiety and sleep disorders, which are common comorbid psychiatric disorders. Specific emphasis was given to emerging phytomedicines. Analysis of evidence levels was conducted, as were effect sizes (Cohen's d) where data were available. Results provided evidence of a range of neurochemical, endocrinological, and epigenetic effects for 21 individual phytomedicines, which are detailed in this paper. Sixty six controlled studies were located involving eleven phytomedicines. Several of these provide a high level of evidence, such as Hypericum perforatum for major depression, and Piper methysticum for anxiety disorders. Several human clinical trials provide preliminary positive evidence of antidepressant effects (Echium amoenum, Crocus sativus, and Rhodiola rosea) and anxiolytic activity (Matricaria recutita, Ginkgo biloba, Passiflora incanata, E. amoenum, and Scutellaria lateriflora). Caution should however be taken when interpreting the results as many studies have not been replicated. Several herbal medicines with in vitro and in vivo evidence are currently unexplored in human studies, and along with use of emerging genetic technologies "herbomics", are areas of potential future research.

  12. Time domain simulations of preliminary breakdown pulses in natural lightning

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, B E; Liang, C; Bitzer, P; Christian, H

    2015-01-01

    Lightning discharge is a complicated process with relevant physical scales spanning many orders of magnitude. In an effort to understand the electrodynamics of lightning and connect physical properties of the channel to observed behavior, we construct a simulation of charge and current flow on a narrow conducting channel embedded in three-dimensional space with the time domain electric field integral equation, the method of moments, and the thin-wire approximation. The method includes approximate treatment of resistance evolution due to lightning channel heating and the corona sheath of charge surrounding the lightning channel. Focusing our attention on preliminary breakdown in natural lightning by simulating stepwise channel extension with a simplified geometry, our simulation reproduces the broad features observed in data collected with the Huntsville Alabama Marx Meter Array. Some deviations in pulse shape details are evident, suggesting future work focusing on the detailed properties of the stepping mechanism. Key Points Preliminary breakdown pulses can be reproduced by simulated channel extension Channel heating and corona sheath formation are crucial to proper pulse shape Extension processes and channel orientation significantly affect observations PMID:26664815

  13. Replacing and Additive Horizontal Gene Transfer in Streptococcus

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Sang Chul; Rasmussen, Matthew D.; Hubisz, Melissa J.; Gronau, Ilan; Stanhope, Michael J.; Siepel, Adam

    2012-01-01

    The prominent role of Horizontal Gene Transfer (HGT) in the evolution of bacteria is now well documented, but few studies have differentiated between evolutionary events that predominantly cause genes in one lineage to be replaced by homologs from another lineage (“replacing HGT”) and events that result in the addition of substantial new genomic material (“additive HGT”). Here in, we make use of the distinct phylogenetic signatures of replacing and additive HGTs in a genome-wide study of the important human pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes (SPY) and its close relatives S. dysgalactiae subspecies equisimilis (SDE) and S. dysgalactiae subspecies dysgalactiae (SDD). Using recently developed statistical models and computational methods, we find evidence for abundant gene flow of both kinds within each of the SPY and SDE clades and of reduced levels of exchange between SPY and SDD. In addition, our analysis strongly supports a pronounced asymmetry in SPY–SDE gene flow, favoring the SPY-to-SDE direction. This finding is of particular interest in light of the recent increase in virulence of pathogenic SDE. We find much stronger evidence for SPY–SDE gene flow among replacing than among additive transfers, suggesting a primary influence from homologous recombination between co-occurring SPY and SDE cells in human hosts. Putative virulence genes are correlated with transfer events, but this correlation is found to be driven by additive, not replacing, HGTs. The genes affected by additive HGTs are enriched for functions having to do with transposition, recombination, and DNA integration, consistent with previous findings, whereas replacing HGTs seen to influence a more diverse set of genes. Additive transfers are also found to be associated with evidence of positive selection. These findings shed new light on the manner in which HGT has shaped pathogenic bacterial genomes. PMID:22617954

  14. Non-additive and additive genetic effects on extraversion in 3314 Dutch adolescent twins and their parents.

    PubMed

    Rettew, David C; Rebollo-Mesa, Irene; Hudziak, James J; Willemsen, Gonneke; Boomsma, Dorret I

    2008-05-01

    The influence of non-additive genetic influences on personality traits has been increasingly reported in adult populations. Less is known, however, with respect to younger samples. In this study, we examine additive and non-additive genetic contributions to the personality trait of extraversion in 1,689 Dutch twin pairs, 1,505 mothers and 1,637 fathers of the twins. The twins were on average 15.5 years (range 12-18 years). To increase statistical power to detect non-additive genetic influences, data on extraversion were also collected in parents and simultaneously analyzed. Genetic modeling procedures incorporating age as a potential modifier of heritability showed significant influences of additive (20-23%) and non-additive genetic factors (31-33%) in addition to unshared environment (46-48%) for adolescents and for their parents. The additive genetic component was slightly and positively related to age. No significant sex differences were found for either extraversion means or for the magnitude of the genetic and environmental influences. There was no evidence of non-random mating for extraversion in the parental generation. Results show that in addition to additive genetic influences, extraversion in adolescents is influenced by non-additive genetic factors.

  15. Preliminary Study of a Pull Plug Friction Weld

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buchanan, George R.

    1999-01-01

    A pull plug friction weld, simply defined, comprises inserting a rotating cone-shaped cylinder into a somewhat cone-shaped hole in a plate. The rotating plug makes contact with the edge of the plate and the resulting friction generates heat. The temperature of the plate material eventually reaches a magnitude that will cause the plate material at the edge of the hole to flow. This can be termed a temperature dependent plastic flow. The rotation of the plug is terminated, additional pressure is applied and the metal at the interface of the two materials cools and welding occurs. This preliminary study addresses only three aspects of a complete analysis that is multi-faceted. The transient temperature distribution for different pull plug configurations has been studied in some detail even though the initial conditions and boundary conditions may still be deemed tentative. The stress distribution within the pull plug caused by the heating pressure was studied along with a preliminary analysis of the thermoelastic stress distribution caused by friction heating. There are no definitive results for the stress analysis. Additional study will be required.

  16. Additives In Meat and Poultry Products

    MedlinePlus

    ... What is a food additive? What is a "direct" food additive? What is an 'indirect" food additive? ... convenience foods. [ Top of Page ] What is a “direct” food additive? According to the FDA, “Direct food ...

  17. Embedded Shared Reading to Increase Literacy in an Inclusive English/Language Arts Class: Preliminary Efficacy and Ecological Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruppar, Andrea L.; Afacan, Kemal; Yang, Yeuwn-Lann; Pickett, Kelly J.

    2017-01-01

    Learning in general education contexts enhances access to general curriculum content for students with disabilities. However, few intervention studies focused on general education content have been conducted in general education settings. The current study provides preliminary evidence of the effectiveness of a literacy intervention using…

  18. Using Direct Behavior Rating (DBR) to Screen for School Social Risk: A Preliminary Comparison of Methods in a Kindergarten Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chafouleas, Sandra M.; Kilgus, Stephen P.; Hernandez, Paul

    2009-01-01

    In this study, preliminary evidence of the potential for Direct Behavior Rating (DBR) in screening assessment of school social behavior is provided through evaluation of the concurrent validity of DBR with a commonly used criterion measure. The teacher-completed form of the "Social Skills Rating System" (SSRS) was selected as the…

  19. Evaluation of biodegradation-promoting additives for plastics.

    PubMed

    Selke, Susan; Auras, Rafael; Nguyen, Tuan Anh; Castro Aguirre, Edgar; Cheruvathur, Rijosh; Liu, Yan

    2015-03-17

    Biodegradation-promoting additives for polymers are increasingly being used around the world with the claim that they effectively render commercial polymers biodegradable. However, there is a lot of uncertainty about their effectiveness in degrading polymers in different environments. In this study, we evaluated the effect of biodegradation-promoting additives on the biodegradation of polyethylene (PE) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET). Biodegradation was evaluated in compost, anaerobic digestion, and soil burial environments. None of the five different additives tested significantly increased biodegradation in any of these environments. Thus, no evidence was found that these additives promote and/or enhance biodegradation of PE or PET polymers. So, anaerobic and aerobic biodegradation are not recommended as feasible disposal routes for nonbiodegradable plastics containing any of the five tested biodegradation-promoting additives.

  20. Time domain simulations of preliminary breakdown pulses in natural lightning.

    PubMed

    Carlson, B E; Liang, C; Bitzer, P; Christian, H

    2015-06-16

    Lightning discharge is a complicated process with relevant physical scales spanning many orders of magnitude. In an effort to understand the electrodynamics of lightning and connect physical properties of the channel to observed behavior, we construct a simulation of charge and current flow on a narrow conducting channel embedded in three-dimensional space with the time domain electric field integral equation, the method of moments, and the thin-wire approximation. The method includes approximate treatment of resistance evolution due to lightning channel heating and the corona sheath of charge surrounding the lightning channel. Focusing our attention on preliminary breakdown in natural lightning by simulating stepwise channel extension with a simplified geometry, our simulation reproduces the broad features observed in data collected with the Huntsville Alabama Marx Meter Array. Some deviations in pulse shape details are evident, suggesting future work focusing on the detailed properties of the stepping mechanism.

  1. Time domain simulations of preliminary breakdown pulses in natural lightning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, B. E.; Liang, C.; Bitzer, P.; Christian, H.

    2015-06-01

    Lightning discharge is a complicated process with relevant physical scales spanning many orders of magnitude. In an effort to understand the electrodynamics of lightning and connect physical properties of the channel to observed behavior, we construct a simulation of charge and current flow on a narrow conducting channel embedded in three-dimensional space with the time domain electric field integral equation, the method of moments, and the thin-wire approximation. The method includes approximate treatment of resistance evolution due to lightning channel heating and the corona sheath of charge surrounding the lightning channel. Focusing our attention on preliminary breakdown in natural lightning by simulating stepwise channel extension with a simplified geometry, our simulation reproduces the broad features observed in data collected with the Huntsville Alabama Marx Meter Array. Some deviations in pulse shape details are evident, suggesting future work focusing on the detailed properties of the stepping mechanism.

  2. Preliminary evaluation of fiber composite reinforcement of truck frame rails

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faddoul, J. R.

    1977-01-01

    The use of graphite fiber/resin matrix composite to effectively reinforce a standard steel truck frame rail is studied. A preliminary design was made and it was determined that the reinforcement weight could be reduced by a factor of 10 when compared to a steel reinforcement. A section of a 1/3 scale reinforced rail was fabricated to demonstrate low cost manufacturing techniques. The scale rail section was then tested and increased stiffness was confirmed. No evidence of composite fatigue was found after 500,000 cycles to a fiber stress of 34,000 psi. The test specimen failed in bending in a static test at a load 50 percent greater than that predicted for a non-reinforced rail.

  3. Preliminary medical results of the Mir year-long mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigoriev, A. I.; Bugrov, S. A.; Bogomolov, V. V.; Egorov, A. D.; Kozlovskaya, I. B.; Pestov, I. D.; Polyakov, V. V.; Tarasov, I. K.

    The basic goal of medical investigations during and after the 366-day mission was to accumulate data about physiological responses to such a long exposure to microgravity. In flight, cardiovascular and other systems were examined in detail and the efficacy of countermeasures used was assessed. After flight, physiological systems were also followed very carefully. According to the preliminary data, the medical results obtained during and after flight give evidence that man can well adapt to a year-long space flight, maintaining good health and adequate work capacity. The readaptation process was very similar to that observed after shorter flights (6-II months). As compared to former flights, no new or qualitatively different changes in the vital systems of the body were seen. The observations indicate that the duration of manned space missions can be further increased.

  4. Preliminary Results on Lunar Interior Properties from the GRAIL Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, James G.; Konopliv, Alexander S.; Asmar, Sami W.; Lemoine, H. Jay; Melosh, H. Jay; Neumann, Gregory A.; Phillips, Roger J.; Smith, David E.; Solomon, Sean C.; Watkins, Michael M.; Wieczorek, Mark A.; Zuber, Maria T.; Andrews-Hanna, Jeffrey C.; Head, James W.; Kiefer, Walter S.; Matsuyama, Isamu; McGovern, Patrick J.; Nimmo, Francis; Weber, Renee C.; Boggs, D. H.; Goossens, Sander J.; Kruizinga, Gerhard L.; Mazarico, Erwan; Park, Ryan S.; Yuan, Dah-Ning

    2013-01-01

    The Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission has provided lunar gravity with unprecedented accuracy and resolution. GRAIL has produced a high-resolution map of the lunar gravity field while also determining tidal response. We present the latest gravity field solution and its preliminary implications for the Moon's interior structure, exploring properties such as the mean density, moment of inertia of the solid Moon, and tidal potential Love number k2. Lunar structure includes a thin crust, a deep mantle, a fluid core, and a suspected solid inner core. An accurate Love number mainly improves knowledge of the fluid core and deep mantle. In the future GRAIL will search for evidence of tidal dissipation and a solid inner core.

  5. Multi-GNSS Orbit and Clock Combination: Preliminary Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritsche, Mathias

    2016-04-01

    In the framework of the Multi-GNSS Experiment (MGEX) a number of Analysis Centers (ACs) extended their software capabilities to process signals from the BeiDou, Galileo, and QZSS systems in addition to the well established systems GPS and GLONASS. Currently, the MGEX product portfolio covers precise satellite orbits and clocks, receiver clocks, signal biases, and Earth rotation parameters generated by the individual ACs. This presentation will provide an overview on the available AC-specific MGEX products. In addition, an introduction to a multi-GNSS orbit and clock combination procedure will be given. Finally, preliminary results from that multi-GNSS combination including a comparison with corresponding operational IGS products will be reported along with a discussion of the results.

  6. Tellurium in active volcanic environments: Preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milazzo, Silvia; Calabrese, Sergio; D'Alessandro, Walter; Brusca, Lorenzo; Bellomo, Sergio; Parello, Francesco

    2014-05-01

    Tellurium is a toxic metalloid and, according to the Goldschmidt classification, a chalcophile element. In the last years its commercial importance has considerably increased because of its wide use in solar cells, thermoelectric and electronic devices of the last generation. Despite such large use, scientific knowledge about volcanogenic tellurium is very poor. Few previous authors report result of tellurium concentrations in volcanic plume, among with other trace metals. They recognize this element as volatile, concluding that volcanic gases and sulfur deposits are usually enriched with tellurium. Here, we present some results on tellurium concentrations in volcanic emissions (plume, fumaroles, ash leachates) and in environmental matrices (soils and plants) affected by volcanic emissions and/or deposition. Samples were collected at Etna and Vulcano (Italy), Turrialba (Costa Rica), Miyakejima, Aso, Asama (Japan), Mutnovsky (Kamchatka) at the crater rims by using common filtration techniques for aerosols (polytetrafluoroethylene filters). Filters were both eluted with Millipore water and acid microwave digested, and analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Volcanic ashes emitted during explosive events on Etna and Copahue (Argentina) were analyzed for tellurium bulk composition and after leaching experiments to evaluate the soluble fraction of tellurium. Soils and leaves of vegetation were also sampled close to active volcanic vents (Etna, Vulcano, Nisyros, Nyiragongo, Turrialba, Gorely and Masaya) and investigated for tellurium contents. Preliminary results showed very high enrichments of tellurium in volcanic emissions comparing with other volatile elements like mercury, arsenic, thallium and bismuth. This suggests a primary transport in the volatile phase, probably in gaseous form (as also suggested by recent studies) and/or as soluble salts (halides and/or sulfates) adsorbed on the surface of particulate particles and ashes. First

  7. [Evidence based medicine].

    PubMed

    Cuestas, Eduardo

    2005-01-01

    Evidence based medicine is a systematic method employed to secure the best scientific available evidence when making clinical decisions. Several steps are taken in these process, describing a clinical scenario, formulating a specific clinical question, searching the literature for the pertinent studies, selecting the relevant articles using rules of evidence, understanding and calculating measures of effect, and finally incorporating the evidence and patients preferences in the clinical decision process.

  8. "Evidence! Evidence! All You People Talk about is Evidence!"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stern, Sheldon M.

    2000-01-01

    Explains that using a document that belonged to Evelyn Lincoln, the personal secretary of John F. Kennedy from 1952-1963, can provide the basis for a case study for teaching high school and college students about the process of verifying historical evidence. Discusses the process of verifying Ms. Lincoln's document. (CMK)

  9. ERIS: preliminary design phase overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuntschner, Harald; Jochum, Lieselotte; Amico, Paola; Dekker, Johannes K.; Kerber, Florian; Marchetti, Enrico; Accardo, Matteo; Brast, Roland; Brinkmann, Martin; Conzelmann, Ralf D.; Delabre, Bernard A.; Duchateau, Michel; Fedrigo, Enrico; Finger, Gert; Frank, Christoph; Rodriguez, Fernando G.; Klein, Barbara; Knudstrup, Jens; Le Louarn, Miska; Lundin, Lars; Modigliani, Andrea; Müller, Michael; Neeser, Mark; Tordo, Sebastien; Valenti, Elena; Eisenhauer, Frank; Sturm, Eckhard; Feuchtgruber, Helmut; George, Elisabeth M.; Hartl, Michael; Hofmann, Reiner; Huber, Heinrich; Plattner, Markus P.; Schubert, Josef; Tarantik, Karl; Wiezorrek, Erich; Meyer, Michael R.; Quanz, Sascha P.; Glauser, Adrian M.; Weisz, Harald; Esposito, Simone; Xompero, Marco; Agapito, Guido; Antichi, Jacopo; Biliotti, Valdemaro; Bonaglia, Marco; Briguglio, Runa; Carbonaro, Luca; Cresci, Giovanni; Fini, Luca; Pinna, Enrico; Puglisi, Alfio T.; Quirós-Pacheco, Fernando; Riccardi, Armando; Di Rico, Gianluca; Arcidiacono, Carmelo; Dolci, Mauro

    2014-07-01

    The Enhanced Resolution Imager and Spectrograph (ERIS) is the next-generation adaptive optics near-IR imager and spectrograph for the Cassegrain focus of the Very Large Telescope (VLT) Unit Telescope 4, which will soon make full use of the Adaptive Optics Facility (AOF). It is a high-Strehl AO-assisted instrument that will use the Deformable Secondary Mirror (DSM) and the new Laser Guide Star Facility (4LGSF). The project has been approved for construction and has entered its preliminary design phase. ERIS will be constructed in a collaboration including the Max- Planck Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik, the Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule Zürich and the Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri and will offer 1 - 5 μm imaging and 1 - 2.5 μm integral field spectroscopic capabilities with a high Strehl performance. Wavefront sensing can be carried out with an optical high-order NGS Pyramid wavefront sensor, or with a single laser in either an optical low-order NGS mode, or with a near-IR low-order mode sensor. Due to its highly sensitive visible wavefront sensor, and separate near-IR low-order mode, ERIS provides a large sky coverage with its 1' patrol field radius that can even include AO stars embedded in dust-enshrouded environments. As such it will replace, with a much improved single conjugated AO correction, the most scientifically important imaging modes offered by NACO (diffraction limited imaging in the J to M bands, Sparse Aperture Masking and Apodizing Phase Plate (APP) coronagraphy) and the integral field spectroscopy modes of SINFONI, whose instrumental module, SPIFFI, will be upgraded and re-used in ERIS. As part of the SPIFFI upgrade a new higher resolution grating and a science detector replacement are envisaged, as well as PLC driven motors. To accommodate ERIS at the Cassegrain focus, an extension of the telescope back focal length is required, with modifications of the guider arm assembly. In this paper we report on the status of the

  10. Very preliminary reference Moon model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Raphaël F.; Gagnepain-Beyneix, Jeannine; Chevrot, Sébastien; Lognonné, Philippe

    2011-09-01

    The deep structure of the Moon is a missing piece to understand the formation and evolution of the Earth-Moon system. Despite the great amount of information brought by the Apollo passive seismic experiment (ALSEP), the lunar structure below deep moonquakes, which occur around 900 km depth, remains largely unknown. We construct a reference Moon model which incorporates physical constraints, and fits both geodesic (lunar mass and polar moment of inertia, and Love numbers) and seismological (body wave arrivals measured by Apollo network) data. In this model, the core radius is constrained by the detection of S waves reflected from the core. In a first step, for each core radius, a radial model of the lunar interior, including P and S wave velocities and density, is inverted from seismic and geodesic data. In a second step, the core radius is determined from the detection of shear waves reflected on the lunar core by waveform stacking of deep moonquake Apollo records. This detection has been made possible by careful data selection and processing, including a correction of the gain of horizontal sensors based on the principle of energy equipartition inside the coda of lunar seismic records, and a precise alignment of SH waveforms by a non-linear inversion method. The Very Preliminary REference MOON model (VPREMOON) obtained here has a core radius of 380 ± 40 km and an average core mass density of 5200 ± 1000 kg/m 3. The large error bars on these estimates are due to the poorly constrained S-wave velocity profile at the base of the mantle and to mislocation errors of deep moonquakes. The detection of horizontally polarized S waves reflected from the core and the absence of detection of vertically polarized S waves favour a liquid state in the outermost part of the core. All these results are consistent, within their error bars, with previous estimates based on lunar rotation dissipation ( Williams et al., 2001) and on lunar induced magnetic moment ( Hood et al., 1999).

  11. A Question of Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todd, Ross J.

    2008-01-01

    Broadly defined, evidence-based practice (EBP) is fundamentally about professional practice being informed and guided by best available evidence of what works. The EBP movement had its origins in the early 1990s in the United Kingdom in medicine and health care services. Sackett et al. defined evidence-based medicine as the "conscientious,…

  12. Evidence-based neurosurgery

    PubMed Central

    Esene, Ignatius N.; Baeesa, Saleh S.; Ammar, Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Medical evidence is obtainable from approaches, which might be descriptive, analytic and integrative and ranked into levels of evidence, graded according to quality and summarized into strengths of recommendation. Sources of evidence range from expert opinions through well-randomized control trials to meta-analyses. The conscientious, explicit, and judicious use of current best evidence in making decisions related to the care of individual patients defines the concept of evidence-based neurosurgery (EBN). We reviewed reference books of clinical epidemiology, evidence-based practice and other previously related articles addressing principles of evidence-based practice in neurosurgery. Based on existing theories and models and our cumulative years of experience and expertise conducting research and promoting EBN, we have synthesized and presented a holistic overview of the concept of EBN. We have also underscored the importance of clinical research and its relationship to EBN. Useful electronic resources are provided. The concept of critical appraisal is introduced. PMID:27356649

  13. Measurement of Evidence and Evidence of Measurement

    PubMed Central

    Vieland, Veronica J; Hodge, Susan E

    2011-01-01

    One important use of statistical methods in application to biological data is measurement of evidence, or assessment of the degree to which data support one or another hypothesis. While there is a small literature on this topic, it seems safe to say that consensus has not yet been reached regarding how best, or most accurately, to measure statistical evidence. Here, we propose considering the problem as a measurement problem, rather than as a statistical problem per se, and we explore the consequences of this shift in perspective. Our arguments here are part of an ongoing research program focused on exploiting deep parallelisms between foundations of thermodynamics and foundations of “evidentialism,” in order to derive an absolute scale for the measurement of evidence, a general framework in the context of which that scale is validated, and the many ancillary benefits that come from having such a framework in place.

  14. Extinction vulnerability of tropical montane endemism from warming and upslope displacement: a preliminary appraisal for the highest massif in Madagascar

    PubMed Central

    RAXWORTHY, CHRISTOPHER J; PEARSON, RICHARD G; RABIBISOA, NIRHY; RAKOTONDRAZAFY, ANDRY M; RAMANAMANJATO, JEAN-BAPTISTE; RASELIMANANA, ACHILLE P; WU, SHENGHAI; NUSSBAUM, RONALD A; STONE, DÁITHÍ A

    2008-01-01

    One of the predicted biological responses to climate warming is the upslope displacement of species distributions. In the tropics, because montane assemblages frequently include local endemics that are distributed close to summits, these species may be especially vulnerable to experiencing complete habitat loss from warming. However, there is currently a dearth of information available for tropical regions. Here, we present a preliminary appraisal of this extinction threat using the herpetological assemblage of the Tsaratanana Massif in northern Madagascar (the island's highest massif), which is rich with montane endemism. We present meteorological evidence (individual and combined regional weather station data and reanalysis forecast data) for recent warming in Madagascar, and show that this trend is consistent with recent climate model simulations. Using standard moist adiabatic lapse rates, these observed meteorological warming trends in northern Madagascar predict upslope species displacement of 17–74 m per decade between 1993 and 2003. Over this same period, we also report preliminary data supporting a trend for upslope distribution movements, based on two surveys we completed at Tsaratanana. For 30 species, representing five families of reptiles and amphibians, we found overall mean shifts in elevational midpoint of 19–51 m upslope (mean lower elevation limit 29–114 m; mean upper elevation limit −8 to 53 m). We also found upslope trends in mean and median elevational observations in seven and six of nine species analysed. Phenological differences between these surveys do not appear to be substantial, but these upslope shifts are consistent with the predictions based on meteorological warming. An elevational range displacement analysis projects complete habitat loss for three species below the 2 °C ‘dangerous’ warming threshold. One of these species is not contracting its distribution, but the other two were not resampled in 2003. A preliminary

  15. Overview of Food Ingredients, Additives and Colors

    MedlinePlus

    ... pesticides where other legal premarket approval requirements apply. Direct food additives are those that are added to ... and other foods to add texture -- is a direct additive. Most direct additives are identified on the ...

  16. Highly enantioselective direct vinylogous Michael addition of γ-butenolide to enals.

    PubMed

    Quintard, Adrien; Lefranc, Alice; Alexakis, Alexandre

    2011-03-18

    An unprecedented and simple direct vinylogous addition of deconjugated butenolide to enals has been developed in excellent stereoselectivities (>95% ee), with Aminal-PYrrolidine (APY) catalyst. This methodology allows for the efficient preparation of complex γ-butenolide from readily available renewable resources. Furthermore, preliminary mechanistic investigations have allowed for the better understanding of the origin of both stereoselectivities and of the observed high reactivities.

  17. Uniform Additivity in Classical and Quantum Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cross, Andrew; Li, Ke; Smith, Graeme

    2017-01-01

    Information theory quantifies the optimal rates of resource interconversions, usually in terms of entropies. However, nonadditivity often makes evaluating entropic formulas intractable. In a few auspicious cases, additivity allows a full characterization of optimal rates. We study uniform additivity of formulas, which is easily evaluated and captures all known additive quantum formulas. Our complete characterization of uniform additivity exposes an intriguing new additive quantity and identifies a remarkable coincidence—the classical and quantum uniformly additive functions with one auxiliary variable are identical.

  18. 16 CFR 1102.16 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... PUBLICLY AVAILABLE CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY INFORMATION DATABASE Content Requirements § 1102.16 Additional... in the Database any additional information it determines to be in the public interest,...

  19. 16 CFR 1102.16 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... PUBLICLY AVAILABLE CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY INFORMATION DATABASE Content Requirements § 1102.16 Additional... in the Database any additional information it determines to be in the public interest,...

  20. 16 CFR 1102.16 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... PUBLICLY AVAILABLE CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY INFORMATION DATABASE Content Requirements § 1102.16 Additional... in the Database any additional information it determines to be in the public interest,...