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Sample records for addition results obtained

  1. Additive for otto cycle engines and fuel mixture so obtained

    SciTech Connect

    Scifoni, M.

    1985-02-12

    The additive for Otto cycle engines according to the present invention consists of a mixture of water, ethanol, methanol and butanol to which is added a determined quantity of a liquid obtained by pressing prickly pear leaves. Added in a small percentage to the fuel, gasoline, LP or methane, this additive prevents the oxidation associated with the use of water and/or alcohols in Otto cycle engines, lowers fuel consumption and allows the use of low octane fuel.

  2. First results obtained by RUNJOB campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamioka, E.; Apanasenko, A. V.; Berezovskaya, V. A.; Fujii, M.; Fukuda, T.; Hareyama, M.; Hashimoto, G.; Ichimura, M.; Kobayashi, T.; Kopenkin, V.; Kuramata, S.; Lapshin, V. I.; Managadze, A. K.; Matsutani, H.; Misnikova, N. P.; Misu, T.; Mukhamedshin, R. A.; Nakamura, A.; Namiki, M.; Nanjo, H.; Nikolsky, S. I.; Ogura, K.; Ohta, S.; Oshuev, D. S.; Publichencko, P. A.; Rakobolskaya, I. V.; Roganova, T. M.; Sazhina, G. P.; Semba, H.; Shibata, T.; Shiota, T.; Sugimoto, H.; Sveshnikova, L. G.; Taran, V. M.; Watanabe, Z.; Yajima, N.; Yamagami, T.; Yashin, I. V.; Zamchalova, E. A.; Zatsepin, G. T.; Zayarnaya, I. S.; Runjob Collaboration ( Russia-Nippon Joint Balloon-Program)

    We report experimental results obtained by using a wide-gap type emulsion chamber flown in the first Japanese-Russo joint balloon project, called RUNJOB ( RUssia- Nippon JOint Balloon-program). Two balloons were launched from Kamchatka in July 1995, and both were recovered successfully near the Volga River. The exposure time was 130 hours for the first flight and 168 hours for the second. The mean ceiling altitude, in both flights, was 32 km corresponding to 10 g/cm 2. Total area of the emulsion chamber was 0.8 m 2, and the thickness 0.385 and 2.28 collision m.f.p.'s for vertically incident proton- and iron-primaries, respectively. We detected 381 showers using Fuji-#200-type X-ray film; of these 174 showers were due to atmospheric secondary γ-rays, and the rest 207 came from nuclear components. The energy range covers 20˜200 TeV for proton-primary, 3˜30 TeV/nucleon for helium-primary, and 0.7˜5 TeV/nucleon for iron-primary. We give the energy spectra for various elements (proton, helium, …, iron) as well as the all-particle spectrum and the average mass of the cosmic-ray primaries.

  3. Report on recent results obtained in TCABR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galvão, R. M. O.; Amador, C. H. S.; Baquero, W. A. H.; Borges, F.; Caldas, I. L.; Cuevas, N. A. M.; Duarte, V. N.; Elfimov, A. G.; Elizondo, J. I.; Fonseca, A. M. M.; Germano, T. M.; Grenfell, G. G.; Guimarães-Filho, Z. O.; Jeronimo, J. L.; Kuznetsov, Yu K.; Manrique, M. A. M.; Nascimento, I. C.; Pires, C. J. A.; Puglia, P. G. P.; Reis, A. P.; Ronchi, G.; Ruchko, L. F.; de Sá, W. P.; Sgalla, R. J. F.; Sanada, E. K.; Severo, J. H. F.; Theodoro, V. C.; Toufen, D. L.

    2015-03-01

    Recent results of experimental work and theoretical modeling carried out in the TCABR tokamak are reported on characterization of MHD instabilities, improved diagnostics of rotation of the plasma column, excitation of Alven global modes, identification of GAMs, and the effect of rotation on their behavior. Detailed measurements of edge electrostatic perturbations and of magnetic island evolution and rotation indicate that the edge turbulence is substantially affected by the islands growth, leading to a strong modulation of the edge particle losses at the same frequency of the MHD activity. Measurements with spatial resolution also show that the growth of the MHD activity is due to nonlinear coupling of magnetic islands with different poloidal mode numbers, which increases the impurity influx. A new system of data acquisition and processing of the TCABR plasma rotation diagnostic was implemented. The system is based upon a single monochromator coupled with six photomultipliers tubes and allows one toroidal and two poloidal simultaneous rotation measurements. The excitation of Global Alfven Waves - GAW has been investigated, using a new type of radio frequency amplifier. The GAW resonances are searched either by a pre-programmed density variation, at fixed generator frequency, or through three RF frequency sweeps from 2 to 4.5 MHz, at stationary density. GAW resonances have been found and their somewhat new characteristics are presented. The investigation of the effect of poloidal and toroidal rotation on the characteristics of the geodesic acoustic mode has been investigated, both theoretically and experimentally. It is found that the assumption of isothermal flux surfaces gives rise to a third branch of this mode. Detailed predictions coupled with experimental measurements are currently being carried out to investigate this question.

  4. Stories from the trenches: Experiences of Alberta pharmacists in obtaining additional prescribing authority

    PubMed Central

    Charrois, Theresa; Rosenthal, Meagen; Tsuyuki, Ross T.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Pharmacists in Alberta can apply to the Alberta College of Pharmacists in order to obtain the designation of additional prescriber. This designation uniquely allows them to initiate therapy, in addition to other medication-related activities. Our objective was to examine specific experiences of pharmacists regarding the decision to apply and the application itself, and use this information to help inform other pharmacists who are considering additional prescribing. Methods: All pharmacists involved in a randomized, controlled trial being conducted in rural Alberta who had received their additional prescribing authorization (APA) were invited to participate. Pharmacists were contacted via e-mail and asked to respond to questions regarding their experiences in applying for APA. Responses were analyzed using content analysis and the identites of all respondents were kept anonymous. Results: Fourteen pharmacists were invited to participate. Review and examination of the responses revealed 3 main themes: motivation, hurdles and outcomes. Motivation can be understood as the reasons why they applied for their APA. Hurdles include any problems encountered of a personal, environmental or professional nature. Outcomes refer to how this designation has changed their practice. Discussion: Pharmacists had to address many factors that were unexpected during the application process; however, the eventual outcome of obtaining APA was deemed beneficial, both professionally and with regard to patient care. Conclusion: The information shared from these pharmacists will help other pharmacists, regardless of jurisdiction, overcome some of the challenges associated with obtaining advanced prescribing privileges. PMID:23509485

  5. Additional Treatment Services in a Cocaine Treatment Study: Level of Services Obtained and Impact on Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Worley, Matthew; Gallop, Robert; Gibbons, Mary Beth Connolly; Ring-Kurtz, Sarah; Present, Julie; Weiss, Roger D.; Crits-Christoph, Paul

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the level of additional treatment services obtained by patients enrolled in the NIDA Cocaine Collaborative Study, a multi-center efficacy trial of four treatments for cocaine dependence, and to determine whether these services impact treatment outcome. Cocaine-dependent patients (N = 487) were recruited at five sites and randomly assigned to six months of one of four psychosocial treatments. Assessments were made at baseline, monthly during treatment, and at follow-ups at 9, 12, 15, and 18 months post-randomization. On average, patients received little or no additional treatment services during active treatment (first 6 months), but the rate of obtaining most services increased during the follow-up phase (month 7 to 18). In general, the treatment groups did not differ in the rates of obtaining non-protocol services. For all treatment groups, patients with greater psychiatric severity received more medical and psychiatric services during active treatment and follow-up. Use of treatment services was unrelated to drug use outcomes during active treatment. However, during the follow-up period, increased use of psychiatric medication, 12-step attendance, and 12-step participation was related to less drug use. The results suggest that during uncontrolled follow-up phases, additional non-protocol services may potentially confound the interpretation of treatment group comparisons in drug use outcomes. PMID:18463998

  6. Calibration results obtained with Liulin-4 type dosimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dachev, Ts.; Tomov, B.; Matviichuk, Yu.; Dimitrov, Pl.; Lemaire, J.; Gregoire, Gh.; Cyamukungu, M.; Schmitz, H.; Fujitaka, K.; Uchihori, Y.; Kitamura, H.; Reitz, G.; Beaujean, R.; Petrov, V.; Shurshakov, V.; Benghin, V.; Spurny, F.

    The Mobile Radiation Exposure Control System's (Liulin-4 type) main purpose is to monitor simultaneously the doses and fluxes at 4 independent places. It can also be used for personnel dosimetry. The system consists of 4 battery-operated 256-channel dosimeters-spectrometers. We describe results obtained during the calibrations of the spectrometers at the Cyclotron facilities of the University of Louvain, Belgium and of the National Institute of Radiological Sciences-STA, Chiba, Japan with protons of energies up to 70 MeV. The angular sensitivities of the devices are studied and compared with Monte-Carlo predictions. We also present the results obtained at the HIMAC accelerator with 500 MeV/u Fe ions and at the CERN high energy radiation reference fields. Records made during airplane flights are shown and compared with the predictions of the CARI-6 model.

  7. How to Obtain Reproducible Results for Lithium Sulfur Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Jianming; Lu, Dongping; Gu, Meng; Wang, Chong M.; Zhang, Jiguang; Liu, Jun; Xiao, Jie

    2013-01-01

    The basic requirements for getting reliable Li-S battery data have been discussed in this work. Unlike Li-ion batteries, electrolyte-rich environment significantly affects the cycling stability of Li-S batteries prepared and tested under the same conditions. The reason has been assigned to the different concentrations of polysulfide-containing electrolytes in the cells, which have profound influences on both sulfur cathode and lithium anode. At optimized S/E ratio of 50 g L-1, a good balance among electrolyte viscosity, wetting ability, diffusion rate dissolved polysulfide and nucleation/growth of short-chain Li2S/Li2S2 has been built along with largely reduced contamination on the lithium anode side. Accordingly, good cyclability, high reversible capacity and Coulombic efficiency are achieved in Li-S cell with controlled S/E ratio without any additive. Other factors such as sulfur content in the composite and sulfur loading on the electrode also need careful concern in Li-S system in order to generate reproducible results and gauge the various methods used to improve Li-S battery technology.

  8. The similia principle: results obtained in a cellular model system.

    PubMed

    Wiegant, Fred; Van Wijk, Roeland

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a research program focused on the beneficial effect of low dose stress conditions that were applied according to the similia principle to cells previously disturbed by more severe stress conditions. In first instance, we discuss criteria for research on the similia principle at the cellular level. Then, the homologous ('isopathic') approach is reviewed, in which the initial (high dose) stress used to disturb cellular physiology and the subsequent (low dose) stress are identical. Beneficial effects of low dose stress are described in terms of increased cellular survival capacity and at the molecular level as an increase in the synthesis of heat shock proteins (hsps). Both phenomena reflect a stimulation of the endogenous cellular self-recovery capacity. Low dose stress conditions applied in a homologous approach stimulate the synthesis of hsps and enhance survival in comparison with stressed cells that were incubated in the absence of low dose stress conditions. Thirdly, the specificity of the low dose stress condition is described where the initial (high dose) stress is different in nature from the subsequently applied (low dose) stress; the heterologous or 'heteropathic' approach. The results support the similia principle at the cellular level and add to understanding of how low dose stress conditions influence the regulatory processes underlying self-recovery. In addition, the phenomenon of 'symptom aggravation' which is also observed at the cellular level, is discussed in the context of self-recovery. Finally, the difference in efficiency between the homologous and the heterologous approach is discussed; a perspective is indicated for further research; and the relationship between studies on the similia principle and the recently introduced concept of 'postconditioning hormesis' is emphasized. PMID:20129172

  9. Main results obtained by the Siberia Regional Project of GAME

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohata, T.; Fukushima, Y.

    2002-12-01

    GAME(GEWEX Asian Monsoon Experiment) selected one of their field experiment site in Siberia. Importance of this area was, first, its large area on Eurasia, second, potential effect of fresh water supply to the Arctic Ocean, thirdly, this region is one center of the recent intense warming. In order to progress the study, we set up the following objectives. 1) Clarify the physical processes of the land-surface/atmosphere interacting system. 2) Clarify the characteristics and variability of regional energy/water cycle. 3) Obtain the climate trend and land-surface change during the past 50 years. 4) Improve and develop atmospheric and hydrological models 5) Collection and archive of regional ground based/satellite data. 6) Establishment of observational network for long-term variation study, and development of hardware. The 1st phase of the study was 1996-2001, and from 2002 to 2004, 2nd phase emphasizing on integration is continued. Among the drainage in Siberia, Lena River was selected and following main results were obtained. (1) Land surface processes at three local sites: Heat water exchange study was made at three sites (Tundra: Tiksi, Flat taiga:Yakutsk, Mountaineous taiga:Tynda) for multiple years. They all showed strong influence of frozen ground (permafrost) to the heat/ water balance at patch scale. Snow cover had strong influence to hydrological process at Tundra and Mountaineous taiga, but it was masked at Flat Taiga. In Flat taiga, rhythm of heat flux to atmosphere is regulated strongly by foliation of leaves. Grassland (called alas) in comparison with nearby forest show different seasonal progress of fluxes, higher evaporation and low sensible heat at small young alas, and lower evaporation at vastly cultivated alas. Inter-annual variation of evaporation seem to be small in the Flat taiga forest compared with Tundra, although soil moisture show strong inter-annual variability, mainly due to the result of active function of the trees. In dry years trees

  10. Additional role of second washing specimen obtained during single bronchoscopy session in diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Flexible bronchoscopy with bronchial washing is a useful procedure for diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB), when a patient cannot produce sputum spontaneously or when sputum smears are negative. However, the benefit of gaining serial bronchial washing specimens for diagnosis of TB has not yet been studied. Therefore, we conducted a retrospective study to determine the diagnostic utility of additional bronchial washing specimens for the diagnosis of pulmonary TB in suspected patients. Methods A retrospective analysis was performed on 174 patients [sputum smear-negative, n = 95 (55%); lack of sputum specimen, n = 79 (45%)] who received flexible bronchoscopy with two bronchial washing specimens with microbiological confirmation of pulmonary TB in Samsung Medical Center, between January, 2010 and December, 2011. Results Pulmonary TB was diagnosed by first bronchial washing specimen in 141 patients (81%) out of 174 enrolled patients, and an additional bronchial washing specimen established diagnosis exclusively in 22 (13%) patients. Smear for acid-fast bacilli (AFB) was positive in 46 patients (26%) for the first bronchial washing specimen. Thirteen patients (7%) were positive only on smear of an additional bronchial washing specimen. Combined smear positivity of the first and second bronchial washing specimens was significantly higher compared to first bronchial washing specimen alone [Total cases: 59 (34%) vs. 46 (26%), p < 0.001; cases for smear negative sputum: 25 (26%) vs. 18 (19%), p = 0.016; cases for poor expectoration: 34 (43%) vs. 28 (35%), p = 0.031]. The diagnostic yield determined by culture was also significantly higher in combination of the first and second bronchial washing specimens compared to the first bronchial washing. [Total cases: 163 (94%) vs. 141 (81%), p < 0.001; cases for smear negative sputum: 86 (91%) vs. 73 (77%), p < 0.001; cases for poor expectoration: 77 (98%) vs. 68 (86%), p = 0

  11. Appendix: Results obtained to date. [integrated multidisciplinary optimization of rotorcraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walsh, Joanne L.; Chattopadhyay, Aditi; Pritchard, Jocelyn I.; Nixon, Mark W.

    1989-01-01

    Optimization procedures are described for the rotor blade design process by integrating appropriate disciplines and accounting for important interactions among the disciplines. Progress is reported in the areas of aerodynamic performance optimization, dynamic optimization, optimum placement of tuning masses for vibration reduction, and structural optimization. Selected results from these activities are highlighted in this appendix.

  12. Measurement results obtained from air quality monitoring system

    SciTech Connect

    Turzanski, P.K.; Beres, R.

    1995-12-31

    An automatic system of air pollution monitoring operates in Cracow since 1991. The organization, assembling and start-up of the network is a result of joint efforts of the US Environmental Protection Agency and the Cracow environmental protection service. At present the automatic monitoring network is operated by the Provincial Inspection of Environmental Protection. There are in total seven stationary stations situated in Cracow to measure air pollution. These stations are supported continuously by one semi-mobile (transportable) station. It allows to modify periodically the area under investigation and therefore the 3-dimensional picture of creation and distribution of air pollutants within Cracow area could be more intelligible.

  13. Portable narcotics detector and the results obtained in field tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tumer, Tumay O.; Su, Chih-Wu; Kaplan, Christopher R.; Rigdon, Stephen W.

    1997-02-01

    A compact integrated narcotics detection instrument (CINDI) has been developed at NOVA R&D, Inc. with funding provided by the U.S. Coast Guard. CINDI is designed as a portable sensitive neutron backscatter detector which has excellent penetration for thick and high Z compartment barriers. It also has a highly sensitive detection system for backscattered neutrons and, therefore, uses a very weak californium-252 neutron source. Neutrons backscatter profusely from materials that have a large hydrogen content, such as narcotics. The rate of backscattered neutrons detected is analyzed by a microprocessor and displayed on the control panel. The operator guides the detector along a suspected area and displays in real time the backscattered neutron rate. CINDI is capable of detecting narcotics effectively behind panels made of steel, wood, fiberglass, or even lead-lined materials. This makes it useful for inspecting marine vessels, ship bulkheads, automobiles, structure walls or small sealed containers. The strong response of CINDI to hydrogen-rich materials such as narcotics makes it an effective tool for detecting concealed drugs. Its response has been field tested by NOVA, the U.S. Coast Guard and Brewt Power Systems. The results of the tests show excellent response and specificity to narcotic drugs. Several large shipments of concealed drugs have been discovered during these trials and the results are presented and discussed.

  14. Porous composite with negative thermal expansion obtained by photopolymer additive manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takezawa, Akihiro; Kobashi, Makoto; Kitamura, Mitsuru

    2015-07-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) could be a novel method of fabricating composite and porous materials having various effective performances based on mechanisms of their internal geometries. Materials fabricated by AM could rapidly be used in industrial application since they could easily be embedded in the target part employing the same AM process used for the bulk material. Furthermore, multi-material AM has greater potential than usual single-material AM in producing materials with effective properties. Negative thermal expansion is a representative effective material property realized by designing a composite made of two materials with different coefficients of thermal expansion. In this study, we developed a porous composite having planar negative thermal expansion by employing multi-material photopolymer AM. After measurement of the physical properties of bulk photopolymers, the internal geometry was designed by topology optimization, which is the most effective structural optimization in terms of both minimizing thermal stress and maximizing stiffness. The designed structure was converted to a three-dimensional stereolithography (STL) model, which is a native digital format of AM, and assembled as a test piece. The thermal expansions of the specimens were measured using a laser scanning dilatometer. Negative thermal expansion corresponding to less than -1 × 10-4 K-1 was observed for each test piece of the N = 3 experiment.

  15. Drag Reduction Obtained by the Addition of a Boattail to a Box Shaped Vehicle. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, R. L.

    1981-01-01

    Coast down tests were performed on a box shaped ground vehicle used to simulate the aerodynamic drag of high volume transports such as delivery vans, motor homes and trucks. The results of these tests define the reduction in aerodynamic drag that can be obtained by the addition of either a boattail or a truncated boattail to an otherwise blunt based vehicle. Test velocities ranged up to 96.6 km/h (60 mph) with Reynolds numbers to 1.3 x 10 the 7th power. The full boattail provided an average 32 percent reduction in drag at highway speeds whereas the truncated boattail provided an average 31 percent reduction in drag as compared to the configuration having the blunt base. These results are compared with one tenth scale wind tunnel model data.

  16. Composite scaffolds for osteochondral repair obtained by combination of additive manufacturing, leaching processes and hMSC-CM functionalization.

    PubMed

    Díaz Lantada, Andrés; Alarcón Iniesta, Hernán; García-Ruíz, Josefa Predestinación

    2016-02-01

    Articular repair is a relevant and challenging area for the emerging fields of tissue engineering and biofabrication. The need of significant gradients of properties, for the promotion of osteochondral repair, has led to the development of several families of composite biomaterials and scaffolds, using different effective approaches, although a perfect solution has not yet been found. In this study we present the design, modeling, rapid manufacturing and in vitro testing of a composite scaffold aimed at osteochondral repair. The presented composite scaffold stands out for having a functional gradient of density and stiffness in the bony phase, obtained in titanium by means of computer-aided design combined with additive manufacture using selective laser sintering. The chondral phase is obtained by sugar leaching, using a PDMS matrix and sugar as porogen, and is joined to the bony phase during the polymerization of PDMS, therefore avoiding the use of supporting adhesives or additional intermediate layers. The mechanical performance of the construct is biomimetic and the stiffness values of the bony and chondral phases can be tuned to the desired applications, by means of controlled modifications of different parameters. A human mesenchymal stem cell (h-MSC) conditioned medium (CM) is used for improving scaffold response. Cell culture results provide relevant information regarding the viability of the composite scaffolds used. PMID:26652367

  17. The interpretation of CO2 equilibration data to obtain plaque fluid buffer capacities, and comparison with results obtained by titration.

    PubMed

    Dibdin, G H; Shellis, R P

    1989-09-01

    Titration measurements of pooled plaque fluid buffering capacity (Shellis and Dibdin, 1988), which showed a broadly defined minimum at pH 7, were compared with recent curves published by Carey et al. (1988a), which they obtained by an ultra-micro CO2-equilibration technique and which suggested a quite different profile, peaking sharply at pH 7.1. When analyzed in a different, more conventional way, the raw measurements in the latter study become more consistent with our own results and with earlier findings of Tatevossian (1977). In particular, we conclude that the peak at pH 7.1 is an artifact, and that Carey et al. underestimated buffer capacities below pH 6.4 and above pH 7.4. Rationales for the two modes of analysis are compared, and possible reasons for the remaining differences between the re-analyzed CO2-equilibration results and the titration results are discussed. Suggestions for the improvement of the accuracy of the CO2-equilibration technique are put forward. PMID:2506258

  18. Impact of contacting study authors to obtain additional data for systematic reviews: diagnostic accuracy studies for hepatic fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Seventeen of 172 included studies in a recent systematic review of blood tests for hepatic fibrosis or cirrhosis reported diagnostic accuracy results discordant from 2 × 2 tables, and 60 studies reported inadequate data to construct 2 × 2 tables. This study explores the yield of contacting authors of diagnostic accuracy studies and impact on the systematic review findings. Methods Sixty-six corresponding authors were sent letters requesting additional information or clarification of data from 77 studies. Data received from the authors were synthesized with data included in the previous review, and diagnostic accuracy sensitivities, specificities, and positive and likelihood ratios were recalculated. Results Of the 66 authors, 68% were successfully contacted and 42% provided additional data for 29 out of 77 studies (38%). All authors who provided data at all did so by the third emailed request (ten authors provided data after one request). Authors of more recent studies were more likely to be located and provide data compared to authors of older studies. The effects of requests for additional data on the conclusions regarding the utility of blood tests to identify patients with clinically significant fibrosis or cirrhosis were generally small for ten out of 12 tests. Additional data resulted in reclassification (using median likelihood ratio estimates) from less useful to moderately useful or vice versa for the remaining two blood tests and enabled the calculation of an estimate for a third blood test for which previously the data had been insufficient to do so. We did not identify a clear pattern for the directional impact of additional data on estimates of diagnostic accuracy. Conclusions We successfully contacted and received results from 42% of authors who provided data for 38% of included studies. Contacting authors of studies evaluating the diagnostic accuracy of serum biomarkers for hepatic fibrosis and cirrhosis in hepatitis C patients

  19. Mars-GRAM 2010: Additions and Resulting Improvements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justh, Hilary L.; Burns, K. Lee

    2013-01-01

    factors. The adjustment factors generated by this process had to satisfy the gas law as well as the hydrostatic relation and are expressed as a function of height (z), Latitude (Lat) and areocentric solar longitude (Ls). The greatest adjustments are made at large optical depths such as tau greater than 1. The addition of the adjustment factors has led to better correspondence to TES Limb data from 0-60 km altitude as well as better agreement with MGS, ODY and MRO data at approximately 90-130 km altitude. Improved Mars-GRAM atmospheric simulations for various locations, times and dust conditions on Mars will be presented at the workshop session. The latest results validating Mars-GRAM 2010 versus Mars Climate Sounder data will also be presented. Mars-GRAM 2010 updates have resulted in improved atmospheric simulations which will be very important when beginning systems design, performance analysis, and operations planning for future aerocapture, aerobraking or landed missions to Mars.

  20. Additional Results of Glaze Icing Scaling in SLD Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsao, Jen-Ching

    2016-01-01

    New guidance of acceptable means of compliance with the super-cooled large drops (SLD) conditions has been issued by the U.S. Department of Transportation's Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) in its Advisory Circular AC 25-28 in November 2014. The Part 25, Appendix O is developed to define a representative icing environment for super-cooled large drops. Super-cooled large drops, which include freezing drizzle and freezing rain conditions, are not included in Appendix C. This paper reports results from recent glaze icing scaling tests conducted in NASA Glenn Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) to evaluate how well the scaling methods recommended for Appendix C conditions might apply to SLD conditions. The models were straight NACA 0012 wing sections. The reference model had a chord of 72 in. and the scale model had a chord of 21 in. Reference tests were run with airspeeds of 100 and 130.3 kn and with MVD's of 85 and 170 micron. Two scaling methods were considered. One was based on the modified Ruff method with scale velocity found by matching the Weber number WeL. The other was proposed and developed by Feo specifically for strong glaze icing conditions, in which the scale liquid water content and velocity were found by matching reference and scale values of the nondimensional water-film thickness expression and the film Weber number Wef. All tests were conducted at 0 deg AOA. Results will be presented for stagnation freezing fractions of 0.2 and 0.3. For nondimensional reference and scale ice shape comparison, a new post-scanning ice shape digitization procedure was developed for extracting 2-D ice shape profiles at any selected span-wise location from the high fidelity 3-D scanned ice shapes obtained in the IRT.

  1. Small-Scale Spray Releases: Additional Aerosol Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Schonewill, Philip P.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Kimura, Marcia L.; Brown, G. N.; Mahoney, Lenna A.; Tran, Diana N.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Kurath, Dean E.

    2013-08-01

    One of the events postulated in the hazard analysis at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities is a breach in process piping that produces aerosols with droplet sizes in the respirable range. The current approach for predicting the size and concentration of aerosols produced in a spray leak involves extrapolating from correlations reported in the literature. These correlations are based on results obtained from small engineered spray nozzles using pure liquids with Newtonian fluid behavior. The narrow ranges of physical properties on which the correlations are based do not cover the wide range of slurries and viscous materials that will be processed in the WTP and across processing facilities in the DOE complex. To expand the data set upon which the WTP accident and safety analyses were based, an aerosol spray leak testing program was conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL’s test program addressed two key technical areas to improve the WTP methodology (Larson and Allen 2010). The first technical area was to quantify the role of slurry particles in small breaches where slurry particles may plug the hole and prevent high-pressure sprays. The results from an effort to address this first technical area can be found in Mahoney et al. (2012a). The second technical area was to determine aerosol droplet size distribution and total droplet volume from prototypic breaches and fluids, including sprays from larger breaches and sprays of slurries for which literature data are largely absent. To address the second technical area, the testing program collected aerosol generation data at two scales, commonly referred to as small-scale and large-scale. The small-scale testing and resultant data are described in Mahoney et al. (2012b) and the large-scale testing and resultant data are presented in Schonewill et al. (2012). In tests at both scales, simulants were used to mimic the

  2. Large-Scale Spray Releases: Additional Aerosol Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel, Richard C.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Fountain, Matthew S.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Billing, Justin M.; Bontha, Jagannadha R.; Kurath, Dean E.; Jenks, Jeromy WJ; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Mahoney, Lenna A.

    2013-08-01

    One of the events postulated in the hazard analysis for the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities is a breach in process piping that produces aerosols with droplet sizes in the respirable range. The current approach for predicting the size and concentration of aerosols produced in a spray leak event involves extrapolating from correlations reported in the literature. These correlations are based on results obtained from small engineered spray nozzles using pure liquids that behave as a Newtonian fluid. The narrow ranges of physical properties on which the correlations are based do not cover the wide range of slurries and viscous materials that will be processed in the WTP and in processing facilities across the DOE complex. To expand the data set upon which the WTP accident and safety analyses were based, an aerosol spray leak testing program was conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL’s test program addressed two key technical areas to improve the WTP methodology (Larson and Allen 2010). The first technical area was to quantify the role of slurry particles in small breaches where slurry particles may plug the hole and prevent high-pressure sprays. The results from an effort to address this first technical area can be found in Mahoney et al. (2012a). The second technical area was to determine aerosol droplet size distribution and total droplet volume from prototypic breaches and fluids, including sprays from larger breaches and sprays of slurries for which literature data are mostly absent. To address the second technical area, the testing program collected aerosol generation data at two scales, commonly referred to as small-scale and large-scale testing. The small-scale testing and resultant data are described in Mahoney et al. (2012b), and the large-scale testing and resultant data are presented in Schonewill et al. (2012). In tests at both scales, simulants were used

  3. Additional Results of Ice-Accretion Scaling at SLD Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bond, Thomas H. (Technical Monitor); Anderson, David N.; Tsao, Jen-Ching

    2005-01-01

    To determine scale velocity an additional similarity parameter is needed to supplement the Ruff scaling method. A Weber number based on water droplet MVD has been included in several studies because the effect of droplet splashing on ice accretion was believed to be important, particularly for SLD conditions. In the present study, ice shapes recorded at Appendix-C conditions and recent results at SLD conditions are reviewed to show that droplet diameter cannot be important to main ice shape, and for low airspeeds splashing does not appear to affect SLD ice shapes. Evidence is presented to show that while a supplementary similarity parameter probably has the form of a Weber number, it must be based on a length proportional to model size rather than MVD. Scaling comparisons were made between SLD reference conditions and Appendix-C scale conditions using this Weber number. Scale-to-reference model size ratios were 1:1.7 and 1:3.4. The reference tests used a 91-cm-chord NACA 0012 model with a velocity of approximately 50 m/s and an MVD of 160 m. Freezing fractions of 0.3, 0.4, and 0.5 were included in the study.

  4. Analysis of Students' Responses to Contradictory Results Obtained by Simple Observation or Controlling Variables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Jongwon; Kim, Ikgyun

    1998-01-01

    Investigates students' responses to presentations of experimental results that conflicted with their preconceptions regarding electric circuits, and how those responses varied according to the type of inquiry skills required to obtain the results. Contains 24 references. (DDR)

  5. Macromolecular crystallographic results obtained at CHESS using a detector incorporating a charge-coupled device

    SciTech Connect

    Thiel, D.J.; Walter, R.L.; Ealick, S.E. ); Bilderback, D.H. , Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 ); Tate, M.W.; Gruner, S.M. ); Eikenberry, E.F. )

    1995-02-01

    Results from various macromolecular crystallography experiments are presented showing the effectiveness of a recently installed detector incorporating a charge-coupled device (CCD). This detector uses a 1024[times]1024 CCD directly coupled to an x-ray sensitive phosphor by a fiber optic taper. The pixel size at the phosphor (50 [mu]m) results in a point spread of 80 [mu]m full width at half-maximum. Even with the relatively small active area, 51[times]51 mm[sup 2], about 150 orders of diffraction can be resolved across the detector face. With this detector format, well-resolved diffraction data have been collected from unit cells with edges as large as 360 A. In an offset configuration, the detector has been used to collect extremely high-resolution data (1 A). A number of data sets have been collected having [ital R][sub sym] values in the 4%--6% range; in the case of room-temperature lysozyme, an [ital R][sub sym] value as small as 2.1 was obtained for a 2.5 A resolution data set. In addition to fixed wavelength studies, the detector has also been used to collect MAD data. In all cases, the use of this detector has proven to be more efficient than using standard image plates since less x-ray exposure time and no distinct scanning step are required. Furthermore, the data quality is as good and in some cases better than those from previous image plate measurements.

  6. Results and validation of marine surface wind speed obtained from SAC-D/Aquarius MWR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tauro, C. B.; Etala, P.; Echevarría, P.; Hejazin, Y.; Jacob, M. M.; Jones, L.

    2012-12-01

    MWR (MicroWave Radiometer) is a radiometer on board SAC-D/Aquarius satellite, launched in June 2011. The SAC-D/Aquarius science mission was developed jointly by the Nacional Space Agency of Argentina (CONAE, Comisión Nacional de Actividades Espaciales) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration of USA (NASA), that focuses on understanding the interaction between the global water cycle, ocean circulation and climate by measuring sea surface salinity. MWR is a three channel push broom, Dicke radiometer, that has 16 beams, 8 forward-looking at 36.5 GHz (in vertical and horizontal polarization) and 8 aft-looking at 23.8 GHz (in horizontal polarization), with a swath of approximately 380 Km. The beams are arranged to have two incidence angles, one of 52° (odd beams) and one of 58° (even beams) for both forward and aft-looks. Since recently, CONAE with collaboration of CFRSL (Central Florida Remote Sensing Laboratory), are generating geophysical parameters, all over the sea surface, using brightness temperature measurements from MWR. These parameters include columnar water vapor, wind speed, sea ice concentration and rain rate, which are ancillary data for the Aquarius salinity measurements. We present in this paper the first results of wind speed over the sea, obtained using the MWR data. The wind speed retrieval algorithm is based on the microwave radiative transfer theory by Wentz [1]. The algorithm developed uses MWR brigthness temperature at 36.5 GHz in both polarizations and sea surface temperature obtained from GDAS. As a result, the neutral stability ocean surface wind speed at 10 m height and the atmospheric trasnmissivity at 36.5 GHz are retrieved. In addition, a validation process in collaboration with the Naval Hydrographic Service of Argentina (SHN) has started. The final goal of this on-going work is to assess the quality of MWR wind data in conjunction with surface wind observations from other sources in a data assimilation system. At this

  7. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  8. Results obtained with position sensitive multiwire proportional chambers with helium, carbon, and oxygen nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emming, J. G.; Gilland, J. R.; Godden, G. D.; Smith, L. H.; Zardiackas, F.

    1974-01-01

    Spatial resolution performance results obtained at the Lawrence Radiation Laboratory Bevatron with prototype multiwire proportional chamber spatial detectors with integral delay line readout are presented. The effects due to incident nuclei charge, chamber operating parameters, chamber design, electronics, gas mixtures, and magnetic field presence have been investigated and are discussed.

  9. Comparison of results obtained with various sensors used to measure fluctuating quantities in jets.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parthasarathy, S. P.; Massier, P. F.; Cuffel, R. F.

    1973-01-01

    An experimental investigation has been conducted to compare the results obtained with six different instruments that sense fluctuating quantities in free jets. These sensors are typical of those that have recently been used by various investigators who are engaged in experimental studies of jet noise. Intensity distributions and two-point correlations with space separation and time delay were obtained. The static pressure, density, and velocity fluctuations are well correlated over the entire cross section of the jet and the cross-correlations persist for several jet diameters along the flow direction. The eddies appear to be flattened in the flow direction by a ratio of 0.4.

  10. Migration of additive molecules in a polymer filament obtained by melt spinning: Influence of the fiber processing steps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gesta, E.; Skovmand, O.; Espuche, E.; Fulchiron, R.

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to understand the influence of the yarn processing on the migration of additives molecules, especially insecticide, within polyethylene (PE) yarns. Yarns were manufactured in the laboratory focusing on three key-steps (spinning, post-stretching and heat-setting). Influence of each step on yarn properties was investigated using tensile tests, differential scanning calorimetry and wide-angle X-ray diffraction. The post-stretching step was proved to be critical in defining yarn mechanical and structural properties. Although a first orientation of polyethylene crystals was induced during spinning, the optimal orientation was only reached by post-stretching. The results also showed that the heat-setting did not significantly change these properties. The presence of additives crystals at the yarn surface was evidenced by scanning-electron microscopy. These studies performed at each yarn production step allowed a detailed analysis of the additives' ability to migrate. It is concluded that while post-stretching decreased the migration rate, heat-setting seems to boost this migration.

  11. Results of the 2013 UT modeling benchmark obtained with models implemented in CIVA

    SciTech Connect

    Toullelan, Gwénaël; Raillon, Raphaële; Chatillon, Sylvain; Lonne, Sébastien

    2014-02-18

    The 2013 Ultrasonic Testing (UT) modeling benchmark concerns direct echoes from side drilled holes (SDH), flat bottom holes (FBH) and corner echoes from backwall breaking artificial notches inspected with a matrix phased array probe. This communication presents the results obtained with the models implemented in the CIVA software: the pencilmodel is used to compute the field radiated by the probe, the Kirchhoff approximation is applied to predict the response of FBH and notches and the SOV (Separation Of Variables) model is used for the SDH responses. The comparison between simulated and experimental results are presented and discussed.

  12. Results of the 2013 UT modeling benchmark obtained with models implemented in CIVA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toullelan, Gwénaël; Raillon, Raphaële; Chatillon, Sylvain; Lonne, Sébastien

    2014-02-01

    The 2013 Ultrasonic Testing (UT) modeling benchmark concerns direct echoes from side drilled holes (SDH), flat bottom holes (FBH) and corner echoes from backwall breaking artificial notches inspected with a matrix phased array probe. This communication presents the results obtained with the models implemented in the CIVA software: the pencilmodel is used to compute the field radiated by the probe, the Kirchhoff approximation is applied to predict the response of FBH and notches and the SOV (Separation Of Variables) model is used for the SDH responses. The comparison between simulated and experimental results are presented and discussed.

  13. An overview of results obtained in intercomparison exercises for determination of actinides.

    PubMed

    Benedik, L

    2013-11-01

    In recent years the Jožef Stefan Institute participated in numerous intercomparison exercises for determination of natural and man-made radionuclides. The reported values were mostly in good agreement with the resulting reference values. This paper describes an analysis of the measurement results obtained in intercomparison exercises for determination of actinides in the period from 2009 to 2011, organised by the National Physical Laboratory and the Bundesamt für Strahlenschutz. The review covers neptunium, plutonium and americium radioisotopes over this period. PMID:23566808

  14. Results of Investigative Tests of Gas Turbine Engine Compressor Blades Obtained by Electrochemical Machining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozhina, T. D.; Kurochkin, A. V.

    2016-04-01

    The paper highlights results of the investigative tests of GTE compressor Ti-alloy blades obtained by the method of electrochemical machining with oscillating tool-electrodes, carried out in order to define the optimal parameters of the ECM process providing attainment of specified blade quality parameters given in the design documentation, while providing maximal performance. The new technological methods suggested based on the results of the tests; in particular application of vibrating tool-electrodes and employment of locating elements made of high-strength materials, significantly extend the capabilities of this method.

  15. The influence of Si addition in 55AlZn bath on the coating structures obtained in the batch hot-dip metallization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendala, J.

    2011-05-01

    One of the methods of increasing the corrosion resistance of zinc coatings is the application of zinc and aluminium alloy baths in the metallization process. The coatings obtained are characterized by much better corrosion resistance thanks to the combination of aluminium properties, i.e. the barrier protection provided by naturally created aluminium oxides, with the capacity to protect the steel substrate, which is characteristic of zinc coatings. Zinc coatings with 55 wt. % Al and an addition of Si have gained industrial importance. The introduction of a third alloying component into the metallization bath is a technological addition, the aim of which is to reduce and possibly inhibit the aluminium diffusion towards the substrate. The article presents the results of the examination of coatings obtained in a 55AlZn bath at varied parameters of the technological process, as well as the specification of silicon addition influence on the structure and chemical composition of the coatings, and on the kinetics of growth. The coatings were obtained in three temperatures: 620, 640 and 660°C, and the process was conducted in a 55 wt. % Al bath with Si content of 0, 0.8 and 1.6 wt. % respectively, the remaining content was Zn. For the purposes of evaluating the microstructure and thickness of the coatings obtained, examinations on a light microscope were conducted. In order to determine the chemical composition of the coatings obtained, an EDS analysis was conducted. Quantitative examination of the chemical composition was carried out on the selected cross-sections of samples with coatings considered to be representative ones, using a SEM with a microanalysis system. Moreover, the linear distribution of elements on the cross-sections of the chosen coatings was determined. It is possible to state that the addition of silicon to 55AlZn baths allows reducing the uncontrolled growth of a layer. The layers obtained are more uniform, continuous and they show good adhesion to

  16. Salivary cortisol results obtainable within minutes of sample collection correspond with traditional immunoassays

    PubMed Central

    Shirtcliff, E.A.; Buck, R.L.; Laughlin, M.; Hart, T.; Cole, C.R.; Slowey, P.D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Cortisol is frequently assayed as a stress-responsive biomarker which changes over the course of minutes to meet the demands of an individual’s social context. Salivary cortisol is often utilized as a non-invasive sampling methodology which possesses important health implications. A critical barrier to psychobiological research involving salivary cortisol is a time-delay of days to months before cortisol results are obtained via immunoassay, long after the individual is no longer proximate to the social context in which they provided the sample. The current study was designed to address this critical barrier through creation of a lateral flow technology (LFT) cortisol device capable of measuring salivary cortisol within minutes of sample collection. LFT is frequently used within commercial point-of-care settings to obtain rapid answers to the presence/absence of a biomarker. The present study extends LFT into the research domain by presenting performance characteristics of a quantitative LFT which measures salivary cortisol within 20 minutes of sample collection. Methods Saliva samples on N=29 adults (15 males) were obtained in the morning and afternoon using Passive Drool and then the Super•SAL™ Extra Collection Device (hereafter Super•SAL™) and later assayed with LFT and a commercially available enzyme-immunoassay. Findings Results show LFT correlated well with these collection methods (R=.872 with Super•SAL™; R=.739 with Passive Drool, p-values<.0001) and at comparable levels to correspondence of Super•SAL™ with Passive Drool (R=.798, p<.0001) which were measured with the same assay. Implications These results open up an exciting new possibility to integrate this technological advance into stress research, including knowing and potentially changing the individual’s social context in a time-sensitive manner. Methodological improvements such as this have the possibility of refining conceptual models of stress reactivity and regulation

  17. Migration of additive molecules in a polymer filament obtained by melt spinning: Influence of the fiber processing steps

    SciTech Connect

    Gesta, E.; Skovmand, O.; Espuche, E. Fulchiron, R.

    2015-12-17

    The purpose of this study is to understand the influence of the yarn processing on the migration of additives molecules, especially insecticide, within polyethylene (PE) yarns. Yarns were manufactured in the laboratory focusing on three key-steps (spinning, post-stretching and heat-setting). Influence of each step on yarn properties was investigated using tensile tests, differential scanning calorimetry and wide-angle X-ray diffraction. The post-stretching step was proved to be critical in defining yarn mechanical and structural properties. Although a first orientation of polyethylene crystals was induced during spinning, the optimal orientation was only reached by post-stretching. The results also showed that the heat-setting did not significantly change these properties. The presence of additives crystals at the yarn surface was evidenced by scanning-electron microscopy. These studies performed at each yarn production step allowed a detailed analysis of the additives’ ability to migrate. It is concluded that while post-stretching decreased the migration rate, heat-setting seems to boost this migration.

  18. Comparison of Theoretical Stresses and Deflections of Multicell Wings with Experimental Results Obtained from Plastic Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zender, George W

    1956-01-01

    The experimental deflections and stresses of six plastic multicell-wing models of unswept, delta, and swept plan form are presented and compared with previously published theoretical results obtained by the electrical analog method. The comparisons indicate that the theory is reliable except for the evaluation of stresses in the vicinity of the leading edge of delta wings and the leading and trailing edges of swept wings. The stresses in these regions are questionable, apparently because of simplifications employed in idealizing the actual structure for theoretical purposes and because of local effects of concentrated loads.

  19. Geodetic results from ISAGEX data. [for obtaining center of mass coordinates for geodetic camera sites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsh, J. G.; Douglas, B. C.; Walls, D. M.

    1974-01-01

    Laser and camera data taken during the International Satellite Geodesy Experiment (ISAGEX) were used in dynamical solutions to obtain center-of-mass coordinates for the Astro-Soviet camera sites at Helwan, Egypt, and Oulan Bator, Mongolia, as well as the East European camera sites at Potsdam, German Democratic Republic, and Ondrejov, Czechoslovakia. The results are accurate to about 20m in each coordinate. The orbit of PEOLE (i=15) was also determined from ISAGEX data. Mean Kepler elements suitable for geodynamic investigations are presented.

  20. Evaluation of a statistics-based Ames mutagenicity QSAR model and interpretation of the results obtained.

    PubMed

    Barber, Chris; Cayley, Alex; Hanser, Thierry; Harding, Alex; Heghes, Crina; Vessey, Jonathan D; Werner, Stephane; Weiner, Sandy K; Wichard, Joerg; Giddings, Amanda; Glowienke, Susanne; Parenty, Alexis; Brigo, Alessandro; Spirkl, Hans-Peter; Amberg, Alexander; Kemper, Ray; Greene, Nigel

    2016-04-01

    The relative wealth of bacterial mutagenicity data available in the public literature means that in silico quantitative/qualitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) systems can readily be built for this endpoint. A good means of evaluating the performance of such systems is to use private unpublished data sets, which generally represent a more distinct chemical space than publicly available test sets and, as a result, provide a greater challenge to the model. However, raw performance metrics should not be the only factor considered when judging this type of software since expert interpretation of the results obtained may allow for further improvements in predictivity. Enough information should be provided by a QSAR to allow the user to make general, scientifically-based arguments in order to assess and overrule predictions when necessary. With all this in mind, we sought to validate the performance of the statistics-based in vitro bacterial mutagenicity prediction system Sarah Nexus (version 1.1) against private test data sets supplied by nine different pharmaceutical companies. The results of these evaluations were then analysed in order to identify findings presented by the model which would be useful for the user to take into consideration when interpreting the results and making their final decision about the mutagenic potential of a given compound. PMID:26708083

  1. Surface properties modifications obtained on ceramics and metals resulting from excimer laser processing technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolas, Gines; Autric, Michel L.; Ocana, Jose L.

    1998-09-01

    The unique properties of a UV laser beam (high energy, short pulse duration) allow to transform the surface of ultrahard materials such as ceramics. In this way, a KrF excimer laser was used in this study in order to modify in selected zones, the surface of metals (aluminum alloy, titanium alloy and stainless steel) and oxides (Al2O3, ZrO2), carbide (SiC) and nitride (AlN). These ceramics possess good mechanical and thermal properties but exhibit a brittle behavior due to the granular structure. In a suitable range where the irradiated zone is melted and defects are removed, initial properties are modified (roughness, porosity, hardness, chemical composition). A cleaned and smoothed surface can be obtained without pores and cracks. These sites where corrosion attack starts are minimized and can lead to improve functions in potential industrial applications. The results presented in this work have been obtained by different analysis techniques such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to examine morphology, Auger spectroscopy (AES) to give chemical composition and depths profiles, mechanical tests to show roughness and hardness, grazing X-ray diffraction (XRD) to find structure.

  2. Saturn gravity results obtained from Pioneer 11 tracking data and earth-based Saturn satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Null, G. W.; Lau, E. L.; Biller, E. D.; Anderson, J. D.

    1981-03-01

    Improved gravity coefficients for Saturn, its satellites and rings are calculated on the basis of a combination of Pioneer 11 spacecraft Doppler tracking data and earth-based determinations of Saturn natural satellite apse and node rates. Solutions are first obtained separately from the coherent Doppler tracking data obtained for the interval from August 20 to September 4, surrounding the time of closest approach, with the effects of solar plasma on radio signal propagation taken into account, and from secular rates for Mimas, Enceladus, Tethys, Dione, Rhea and Titan determined from astrometric data by Kozai (1957, 1976) and Garcia (1972). Combination of the data by the use of the Pioneer solution and corresponding unadjusted covariance matrix as a priori information for a secular rate analysis results in values for the total ring mass of essentially zero at a standard error level of 1.7 x 10 to the -6th Saturn masses, a ratio of solar mass to that of the Saturn system of 3498.09 + or - 0.22, masses of Rhea, Titan and Iapetus of 4.0 + or - 0.9, 238.8 + or - 3, and 3.4 + or - 1.3 x 10 to the -6th Saturn masses, respectively, and second and fourth zonal harmonics of 16,479 + or - 18 and -937 + or - 38, respectively. The harmonic coefficients are noted to be important as boundary conditions in the modeling of the Saturn interior.

  3. IAOOS Microlidar Development and First Results Obtained During 2014 and 2015 Arctic Drifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariage, Vincent; Pelon, Jacques; Blouzon, F.; Victori, Stéphane

    2016-06-01

    The development of a first ever autonomous aerosol and cloud backscatter lidar system for on-buoy arctic observations has been achieved in 2014, within the French EQUIPEX IAOOS project developed in collaboration with LOCEAN at UPMC. This development is part of a larger set-up designed for integrated ocean-ice-atmosphere observations. First results have been obtained from spring to autumn 2014 after the system was installed at the North Pole at the Barneo Russian camp, and in winter-spring 2015 during the Norwegian campaign N-ICE 2015. The buoys were taking observations as drifting in the high arctic region where very few measurements have been made so far. This project required the design and the conception of an all-new lidar system to fit with the numerous constraints of such a deployment. We describe here the prototype and its performance. First analyzes are presented.

  4. An Update on Phased Array Results Obtained on the GE Counter-Rotating Open Rotor Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Podboy, Gary; Horvath, Csaba; Envia, Edmane

    2013-01-01

    Beamform maps have been generated from 1) simulated data generated by the LINPROP code and 2) actual experimental phased array data obtained on the GE Counter-rotating open rotor model. The beamform maps show that many of the tones in the experimental data come from their corresponding Mach radius. If the phased array points to the Mach radius associated with a tone then it is likely that the tone is a result of the loading and thickness noise on the blades. In this case, the phased array correctly points to where the noise is coming from and indicates the axial location of the loudest source in the image but not necessarily the correct vertical location. If the phased array does not point to the Mach radius associated with a tone then some mechanism other than loading and thickness noise may control the amplitude of the tone. In this case, the phased array may or may not point to the actual source. If the source is not rotating it is likely that the phased array points to the source. If the source is rotating it is likely that the phased array indicates the axial location of the loudest source but not necessarily the correct vertical location. These results indicate that you have to be careful in how you interpret phased array data obtained on an open rotor since they may show the tones coming from a location other than the source location. With a subsonic tip speed open rotor the tones can come form locations outboard of the blade tips. This has implications regarding noise shielding.

  5. A review of recent results in gamma-ray astronomy obtained from high-altitude balloons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teegarden, B. J.

    1994-06-01

    This paper reviews recent results in gamma-ray astronomy obtained from experiments flown on high-altitude balloons. New generation balloon-borne imaging experiments have produced the first gamma-ray maps of the Galactic center (GC) region. Balloon flights of new gamma-ray spectrometers with improved sensitivity have provided important new information on the GC annihilation line. For the first time, the narrow 511 keV line as been resolved (FWHM approx. = 3 keV). A very interesting spectral feature at approximately 170 keV has been attributed to backscattered annihilation, probably from the vicinity of a compact object. New results from the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (CGRO)/OSSE and Granat/SIGMA experiments on the annihilation line, when considered together with the recent balloon results, have added greatly to our knowledge and understanding of the origin and distribution of this emission. Balloon-borne instruments have made important measurements of gamma-ray continuum and line emission from SN 1987A. The GRIS spectrometer unambiguously resolved the 847 and 1238 keV line emission from radioactive Co-56 synthesized during the explosion. This data indicated that simple spherically symmetric and homogeneous models did not provide an adequate description of the expanding SN shell.

  6. Comparison of deformation at ends of the results obtained by some commonly used filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Dechun; Liao, Xinhao

    By using some commonly used filters, such as MULTI-STAGE, ELLIPSE, CHEBYSHEV, and BUTTERWORTH, seasonal, interannual, and decadal components are separated from a synthetic LOD series which was composed of 11 periodic terms extracted from a real LOD series during 1962 - 1998. And then comparisons of the filtered results with the original components have been made to investigate the deformations induced by the different filters at the two ends of the data series. Some results are shown. It is clear by the comparison that the MULTI-STAGE filter has least deformation rate at the two ends of series either it is used for high or low pass filtering, the BUTTERWORTH (for high pass filtering) and CHEBYSHEV (for low pass filtering) have less deformation among the others. For the band pass filtering, however, the CHEBYSHEV filter has least deformation. After adding some extended data obtained by fitting the original data series as a linear statistical model, comparison of the filtered results show that the BUTTERWORTH and ELLIPSE filters have least deformations for band pass filtering. The ends deformation induced by filtering will be smaller for any filters after adding of some statistically extended data to the original series.

  7. A review of recent results in gamma-ray astronomy obtained from high-altitude balloons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teegarden, B. J.

    1994-01-01

    This paper reviews recent results in gamma-ray astronomy obtained from experiments flown on high-altitude balloons. New generation balloon-borne imaging experiments have produced the first gamma-ray maps of the Galactic center (GC) region. Balloon flights of new gamma-ray spectrometers with improved sensitivity have provided important new information on the GC annihilation line. For the first time, the narrow 511 keV line as been resolved (FWHM approx. = 3 keV). A very interesting spectral feature at approximately 170 keV has been attributed to backscattered annihilation, probably from the vicinity of a compact object. New results from the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory (CGRO)/OSSE and Granat/SIGMA experiments on the annihilation line, when considered together with the recent balloon results, have added greatly to our knowledge and understanding of the origin and distribution of this emission. Balloon-borne instruments have made important measurements of gamma-ray continuum and line emission from SN 1987A. The GRIS spectrometer unambiguously resolved the 847 and 1238 keV line emission from radioactive Co-56 synthesized during the explosion. This data indicated that simple spherically symmetric and homogeneous models did not provide an adequate description of the expanding SN shell.

  8. Representation in GIS of the Results Obtained by Cluster Analysis in Territorial Profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dârdalą, Marian; Furtuną, Titus Felix; Reveiu, Adriana

    2010-05-01

    Cluster analysis involves grouping characteristics analyzed by the values of grouping parameters. The statistical cluster analysis uses the method of minimum dispersion of hierarchical tree method, in order to obtain the information necessary to group the administrative units. Territorial profile economic analyses can use the cluster analysis in order to make hierarchical classifications, according to performance, strategies. The hierarchical tree methods consist in identifying certain hierarchies used to take into consideration the units. According to their organization mode, clusters can be: vertically integrated, horizontally integrated, emerging clusters. With GIS, spatial data clustering can be applied to spatial data to represent the territorial analysis performed. In terms of viewing the results of cluster analysis by GIS, a usual way is to generate cartograms. In this case, a cartogram supposes defining a colors ramp, having a number of colors equal with the number of groups that divide the collectivity. The parameters used as the basis of the clustering process may exist as independent data or can be stored in the database of an informatic system. As a case study we implemented an ArcMap extension to analyze the clusters by selecting the grouping parameters and by setting the number of groups that will divide the collectivity. Cartograma can be defined taking into consideration multi-level administrative division of the territory. For example, Romania uses the split on villages, counties, regions and macro-regions. Analysis can be applied on different levels of administrative organization by aggregating the values of parameters. For example, the value of a parameter for a county can be obtained by aggregating all parameter values, for all villages, belonging to the county.

  9. Initial Results Obtained with the First TWIN VLBI Radio Telescope at the Geodetic Observatory Wettzell

    PubMed Central

    Schüler, Torben; Kronschnabl, Gerhard; Plötz, Christian; Neidhardt, Alexander; Bertarini, Alessandra; Bernhart, Simone; la Porta, Laura; Halsig, Sebastian; Nothnagel, Axel

    2015-01-01

    Geodetic Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) uses radio telescopes as sensor networks to determine Earth orientation parameters and baseline vectors between the telescopes. The TWIN Telescope Wettzell 1 (TTW1), the first of the new 13.2 m diameter telescope pair at the Geodetic Observatory Wettzell, Germany, is currently in its commissioning phase. The technology behind this radio telescope including the receiving system and the tri-band feed horn is depicted. Since VLBI telescopes must operate at least in pairs, the existing 20 m diameter Radio Telescope Wettzell (RTW) is used together with TTW1 for practical tests. In addition, selected long baseline setups are investigated. Correlation results portraying the data quality achieved during first initial experiments are discussed. Finally, the local 123 m baseline between the old RTW telescope and the new TTW1 is analyzed and compared with an existing high-precision local survey. Our initial results are very satisfactory for X-band group delays featuring a 3D distance agreement between VLBI data analysis and local ties of 1 to 2 mm in the majority of the experiments. However, S-band data, which suffer much from local radio interference due to WiFi and mobile communications, are about 10 times less precise than X-band data and require further analysis, but evidence is provided that S-band data are well-usable over long baselines where local radio interference patterns decorrelate. PMID:26263991

  10. Initial Results Obtained with the First TWIN VLBI Radio Telescope at the Geodetic Observatory Wettzell.

    PubMed

    Schüler, Torben; Kronschnabl, Gerhard; Plötz, Christian; Neidhardt, Alexander; Bertarini, Alessandra; Bernhart, Simone; la Porta, Laura; Halsig, Sebastian; Nothnagel, Axel

    2015-01-01

    Geodetic Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) uses radio telescopes as sensor networks to determine Earth orientation parameters and baseline vectors between the telescopes. The TWIN Telescope Wettzell 1 (TTW1), the first of the new 13.2 m diameter telescope pair at the Geodetic Observatory Wettzell, Germany, is currently in its commissioning phase. The technology behind this radio telescope including the receiving system and the tri-band feed horn is depicted. Since VLBI telescopes must operate at least in pairs, the existing 20 m diameter Radio Telescope Wettzell (RTW) is used together with TTW1 for practical tests. In addition, selected long baseline setups are investigated. Correlation results portraying the data quality achieved during first initial experiments are discussed. Finally, the local 123 m baseline between the old RTW telescope and the new TTW1 is analyzed and compared with an existing high-precision local survey. Our initial results are very satisfactory for X-band group delays featuring a 3D distance agreement between VLBI data analysis and local ties of 1 to 2 mm in the majority of the experiments. However, S-band data, which suffer much from local radio interference due to WiFi and mobile communications, are about 10 times less precise than X-band data and require further analysis, but evidence is provided that S-band data are well-usable over long baselines where local radio interference patterns decorrelate. PMID:26263991

  11. A comparative study for results obtained using biomonitors and PM10 collectors in Sado Estuary.

    PubMed

    Costa, C J; Marques, A P; Freitas, M C; Reis, M A; Oliveira, O R

    2002-01-01

    In 1996 a program was started, financed by the Environmental Ministry of Portugal and IAEA, aiming to study the inorganic atmospheric pollutant dispersion in Sado Estuary. Gent PM10 air samplers were used for air particulate matter sampling. Three sampling sites were chosen, forming a triangle around the fuel power station of Setúbal. Transplants of Parmelia sulcata Taylor were suspended in nylon bags within a rectangle 15 km wide and 25 km long on a 2.5 x 2.5 km grid. Two sets of four transplants were hung in each of the 47 locations, one set facing the wind and the other set opposing the wind. The transplants were suspended in December 1997 for a 1-year period; every 3 months, one transplant of each set was collected. Both lichen transplants and PM10 filters were analysed by INAA and PIXE. A comparative study of results obtained for the two sampling procedures is presented in this work. PMID:12199472

  12. Monitoring system for a synthesizer at SPring-8 synchrotron radiation facility and obtained results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawashima, Y.; Ego, H.; Hara, M.; Ohashi, Y.; Ohshima, T.; Takao, M.; Takashima, T.

    2013-02-01

    Beam orbit distortion in all dispersive sections was observed in the SPring-8 storage ring during beam commissioning. In order to confirm the stability of the radio frequency (RF) synthesizer, a monitoring system was developed. The system consists of a frequency counter referenced to a global positioning system (GPS) receiver. With this system, the output of the synthesizer, which uses an external 10 MHz-Rubidium atomic clock with the time accuracy of Δt/t=10-12, is correctly monitored with 11 digits absolute accuracy, verifying that the synthesizer works well. Measurement of the circumference of the SPring-8 storage ring reveals the effect of tidal forces and seasonal temperature variations on beam orbit. To maintain the center axis of photon radiation in experimental beam lines, a beam energy correction is carried out. The frequency of the RF synthesizer is changed every 5 min with 10-digit accuracy. This corresponds to an energy accuracy of ΔE/E=1.16×10-6. The monitoring system for the synthesizer and obtained results are described.

  13. Analysis of the Cyclotron Facility Calibration and Aircraft Results Obtained by LIULIN-3M Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dachev, T. P.; Stassinopoulos, E. G.; Tomov, B. T.; Dimitrov, P. G.; Matviichuk, Y. N.; Shurshakov, V. A.; Petrov, V. M.

    1998-01-01

    The LIULIN-3M instrument is a further development of the LIULIN dosimeter-radiometer, which has been used on the NffR space station in the 1988-1994 time period, The LIULIN-3M is designed for continuous monitoring of the radiation environment during the BION-12 satellite flight in 1999. A semiconductor detector with 1 mm thickness and 1 cm(exp 2) area is used in the instrument. Pulse high analysis technique is used for measurement of the energy losses in the detector. The final data sets from the instrument are the flux and the dose rate for the exposition time and 256 channels of LET spectra if a non-nal coincidence of the particles to the detector is considered. The LIULIN-3M instrument was calibrated by proton fluxes with different energies at the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility in June 1997 and was used for space radiation measurements during commercial aircraft flights. Obtained calibration and flight results are analyzed in the paper.

  14. Calculations and First Results Obtained with a SiC Prototype of the SPES Direct Target

    SciTech Connect

    Barbui, Marina; Andrighetto, Alberto; Antonucci, C.; Biasetto, Lisa; Carturan, S.; Cervellera, F.; Cevolani, S.; Cinausero, Marco; Colombo, P.; Dainelli, A.; Di Bernardo, P.; Giacchini, Mauro; Gramegna, Fabiana; Lollo, M.; Maggioni, G.; Manzolaro, Mattia; Meneghetti, G.; Petrovich, C.; Piga, L.; Prete, Gianfranco; Re, Maurizio; Rizzi, Valentina; Stracener, Daniel W; Tonezzer, Michele; Zafiropoulos, D.; Zanonato, P.

    2008-01-01

    In the framework of the SPES project at LNL [A. Bracco, A. Pisent (Ed.), REP 181/02, LNL-INFN, 2002], the realization of a direct ISOL Target for a mid-term radioactive ion beam facility is in progress. Using a primary proton beam of energy 40 MeV and intensity 0.2 mA, a high number of fission products will be obtained in the SPES multi-foil uranium carbide target, keeping a low power density deposition in the refractory matrix [A. Andrighetto, S. Cevolani, C. Petrovich, Eur. Phys J. A 25 (2005) 41]. The exotic species produced by Uranium fission in the target are collected in the ion source after the diffusion and the effusion processes. When short lived isotopes are produced it is very important to optimize the release properties of the target. To this purpose the RIBO code (radioactive ion beam optimiser) [M. Santana Leitner, A Monte Carlo Code to Optimize the Production of Radioactive Ion Beams by the ISOL Technique, PhD. Thesis, UPC-ETSEIB/CERN] has been used in order to estimate the target release efficiency for some neutron-rich nuclei. A SiC prototype of the target was recently produced at LNL and tested at ORNL using a 42 MeV proton beam. The yield of some aluminum isotopes was measured as a function of the target temperature. Some preliminary results of the data analysis will be presented.

  15. First Results Obtained with Wide-Angle Cerenkov Light Telescope BEO p. Mussala

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slavcheva Malamova, E.; Angelov, I.; Davidkov, K.; Stamenov, J.; Kirov, I.

    2003-07-01

    The first results from experiment using Cerenkov light of EAS, reflected from the snow surface of Ice Lake p. Mussala, Bulgaria are described. The construction of the telescope was started in autumn 2000.The first measurements with 1-meter diameter reflectors and FEU110 were carried out in winter 2000-2001. During 2002-2003 the detector was improved. The first results obtained in winter 2002-2003 are presented in this paper. Introduction Our experiment is based on the Prof. A.E. Chudakov (1972)[1] idea to detect the Cerenkov light from EAS reflected by snow surface.The special feature of that method is the possibility to use a sensitive area over some hundred square kilometers with comparatively small detectors. The intensity of Cerenkov light from EAS is proportional to the energy of the primary cosmic ray particle so this method is a calorimetric one. It gives the possibility for experimental investigation of the primary spectrum of the cosmic rays with very and ultra high energies. The Basic Environmental Observatory on peak Mussala (2925-m a.s.l) provides a real opportunity for realization of that method. The Ice Lake is located in the Mussala circus region, at 200 m below the peak (2925-m a.s.l). The lake's area is approximately 20.103 m2 . Its surface retains an ice-cover approximately 7 to 8 months annually. Detector is situated on the 212m high mountain ledge nearby Ice Lake and registers the Cerenkov light of the air showers reflected from the snow surface of the lake.The limits of the zenith angle for the photons descended by the reflecting surface, are determined by the terrain's specifics: d=0.73 rad The detector setting up consists of two parab olic reflectors with 1.40-meter diameter each. The light spots are detected by two photomultipliers (FEU-49B),

  16. 26 CFR 301.6110-5 - Notice and time requirements; actions to restrain disclosure; actions to obtain additional...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... the Internal Revenue Service determines that the request constitutes a request for disclosure of the... the Internal Revenue Service has determined that additional disclosure of information other than the... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice and time requirements; actions...

  17. Software reliability: A comparison of results obtained from established software reliability models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horn, M. H.; Thompson, W. E.

    1980-01-01

    Two models of the software error detection process are compared, the Jelinski-Moranda model and a Bayes inference model. Simulation techniques are used to generate software related system failure data which is analyzed by both models. Point estimates and confidence limits are compared. It is demonstrated that uncertainty may be considerable for reasonable samples sizes and should be considered in any application of these techniques. The Jelinski-Moranda model is sensitive to the failure of data to follow internal assumptions of the model, often not providing any point estimates, a factor which may limit its usefulness in many real world situations. The Bayes model is shown to respond to the introduction of additional errors in the software correction process, a condition where error counting models such as the Jelinski-Moranda generally fail to converge.

  18. 14 CFR 61.419 - How do I obtain privileges to provide training in an additional category or class of light-sport...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... training in an additional category or class of light-sport aircraft? 61.419 Section 61.419 Aeronautics and...: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Flight Instructors With a Sport Pilot Rating § 61.419 How do I obtain privileges to provide training in an additional category or class of...

  19. 14 CFR 61.419 - How do I obtain privileges to provide training in an additional category or class of light-sport...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... training in an additional category or class of light-sport aircraft? 61.419 Section 61.419 Aeronautics and...: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Flight Instructors With a Sport Pilot Rating § 61.419 How do I obtain privileges to provide training in an additional category or class of...

  20. 14 CFR 61.419 - How do I obtain privileges to provide training in an additional category or class of light-sport...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... training in an additional category or class of light-sport aircraft? 61.419 Section 61.419 Aeronautics and...: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Flight Instructors With a Sport Pilot Rating § 61.419 How do I obtain privileges to provide training in an additional category or class of...

  1. 14 CFR 61.321 - How do I obtain privileges to operate an additional category or class of light-sport aircraft?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... additional category or class of light-sport aircraft? 61.321 Section 61.321 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Sport Pilots § 61.321 How do I obtain privileges to operate an additional category or class of light-sport aircraft? If you hold a sport pilot certificate and seek to operate...

  2. 14 CFR 61.419 - How do I obtain privileges to provide training in an additional category or class of light-sport...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... training in an additional category or class of light-sport aircraft? 61.419 Section 61.419 Aeronautics and...: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Flight Instructors With a Sport Pilot Rating § 61.419 How do I obtain privileges to provide training in an additional category or class of...

  3. 14 CFR 61.419 - How do I obtain privileges to provide training in an additional category or class of light-sport...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... training in an additional category or class of light-sport aircraft? 61.419 Section 61.419 Aeronautics and...: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Flight Instructors With a Sport Pilot Rating § 61.419 How do I obtain privileges to provide training in an additional category or class of...

  4. 14 CFR 61.321 - How do I obtain privileges to operate an additional category or class of light-sport aircraft?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... additional category or class of light-sport aircraft? 61.321 Section 61.321 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Sport Pilots § 61.321 How do I obtain privileges to operate an additional category or class of light-sport aircraft? If you hold a sport pilot certificate and seek to operate...

  5. 14 CFR 61.321 - How do I obtain privileges to operate an additional category or class of light-sport aircraft?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... additional category or class of light-sport aircraft? 61.321 Section 61.321 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Sport Pilots § 61.321 How do I obtain privileges to operate an additional category or class of light-sport aircraft? If you hold a sport pilot certificate and seek to operate...

  6. 14 CFR 61.321 - How do I obtain privileges to operate an additional category or class of light-sport aircraft?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... additional category or class of light-sport aircraft? 61.321 Section 61.321 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Sport Pilots § 61.321 How do I obtain privileges to operate an additional category or class of light-sport aircraft? If you hold a sport pilot certificate and seek to operate...

  7. 14 CFR 61.321 - How do I obtain privileges to operate an additional category or class of light-sport aircraft?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... additional category or class of light-sport aircraft? 61.321 Section 61.321 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Sport Pilots § 61.321 How do I obtain privileges to operate an additional category or class of light-sport aircraft? If you hold a sport pilot certificate and seek to operate...

  8. Results obtained with the Tropospheric Ozone DIAL System Using a YAG Laser and Raman Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, J. T.; McGee, T. J.; Sumnicht, G. K.

    2012-12-01

    This poster will detail the findings of the ground based Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) system built and operated at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (Beltsville, MD 38.99° N, 76.84° W) in 2012. Current atmospheric satellites cannot peer through the optically thick stratospheric ozone layer to remotely sense boundary layer tropospheric ozone. In order to monitor this lower ozone more effectively, NASA has funded the ground based Tropospheric Ozone Lidar Network (TOLNET) which currently consists of five stations across the US. The Goddard instrument is based on the Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) technique, and has initially transmitted two wavelengths, 289 and 299 nm. Ozone is absorbed more strongly at 289 nm than at 299 nm, and the DIAL technique exploits this difference between the two returned signals to obtain the ozone number density as a function of altitude. The transmitted wavelengths are generated by focusing the output of a quadrupled Nd:YAG laser beam (266 nm) into a pair of Raman Cells, filled with high pressure Hydrogen and Deuterium. Stimulated Raman Scattering within the focus shifts the pump wavelength, and the first Stokes shift in each cell produces the required wavelengths. With the knowledge of the ozone absorption coefficient at these two wavelengths, the vertical number density can then be derived. There are currently surface ozone measurements hourly and ozonesonde launches occasionally, but this system will be the first to make long term ozone profile measurements in the Washington, DC - Baltimore area.

  9. A method for obtaining practical flutter-suppression control laws using results of optimal control theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newson, J. R.

    1979-01-01

    The results of optimal control theory are used to synthesize a feedback filter. The feedback filter is used to force the output of the filtered frequency response to match that of a desired optimal frequency response over a finite frequency range. This matching is accomplished by employing a nonlinear programing algorithm to search for the coefficients of the feedback filter that minimize the error between the optimal frequency response and the filtered frequency response. The method is applied to the synthesis of an active flutter-suppression control law for an aeroelastic wind-tunnel model. It is shown that the resulting control law suppresses flutter over a wide range of subsonic Mach numbers. This is a promising method for synthesizing practical control laws using the results of optimal control theory.

  10. Macromolecular crystallographic results obtained using a 2048{times}2048 CCD detector at CHESS

    SciTech Connect

    Thiel, D.J.; Ealick, S.E.; Tate, M.W.; Gruner, S.M.; Eikenberry, E.F. ||

    1996-09-01

    We present results of macromolecular crystallographic experiments performed at the Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (CHESS) with a new CCD-based detector. This detector, installed in January 1995, complements a 1024{times}1024 CCD detector that has been in continuous operation at CHESS since December 1993. The new detector is based on a 4-port, 2048{times}2048 pixel CCD that is directly coupled to a Gd{sub 2}O{sub 2}S:Tb phosphor by a 3:1 tapered fiber optic. The active area of the phosphor is a square 82 mm on an edge. The readout time is 7 seconds. In the standard mode of operation, the pixel size at the active area is 41 {mu}m on the edge leading to the capability of resolving approximately 200 orders of diffraction across the detector face. The detector also operates in a 1024{times}1024 mode in which the pixel size is electronically increased by a factor of 4 in area resulting in smaller data files and faster detector readout but at the expense of spatial resolution. Most of the data that has been collected by this detector has been collected in this mode. Dozens of data sets have been collected by many experimenters using this detector at CHESS during the four month period from its installation until the start of the six-month down period of the storage ring. The capabilities of the detector will be illustrated with results from various crystallographic measurements including experiments in which the recorded diffraction patterns extend in resolution as far as 1 A. The results demonstrate that this detector is capable of collecting data of quality at least equal to that of imaging plates but, in many circumstances, with much greater beamline efficiency. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  11. Summary of personal neutron dosemeter results obtained within the EVIDOS project.

    PubMed

    Luszik-Bhadra, M; Bolognese-Milsztajn, T; Boschung, M; Coeck, M; Curzio, G; Derdau, D; d'Errico, F; Fiechtner, A; Kyllönen, J-E; Lacoste, V; Lievens, B; Lindborg, L; Lovefors Daun, A; Reginatto, M; Schuhmacher, H; Tanner, R; Vanhavere, F

    2007-01-01

    Within the EC project EVIDOS ('Evaluation of Individual Dosimetry in Mixed Neutron and Photon Radiation Fields'), different types of active neutron personal dosemeters (and some passive ones) were tested in workplace fields at nuclear installations in Europe. The results of the measurements which have been performed up to now are summarised and compared to our currently best estimates of the personal dose equivalent Hp(10). Under- and over-readings by more than a factor of two for the same dosemeter in different workplace fields indicate that in most cases the use of field-specific correction factors is required. PMID:17449908

  12. Results Obtained with Various Antifungal Susceptibility Testing Methods Do Not Predict Early Clinical Outcome in Patients with Cryptococcosis

    PubMed Central

    Dannaoui, E.; Abdul, M.; Arpin, M.; Michel-Nguyen, A.; Piens, M. A.; Favel, A.; Lortholary, O.; Dromer, F.

    2006-01-01

    The in vitro susceptibilities of Cryptococcus neoformans isolates from consecutive human immunodeficiency virus-positive and -negative patients to the antifungal agents fluconazole, amphotericin B, and flucytosine were determined by different techniques, including the CLSI method, Etest, and broth microdilution in yeast nitrogen base (YNB) medium, during a multicenter prospective study in France. The relationship between the in vitro data and the clinical outcome 2 weeks after the initiation of antifungal therapy was assessed. In addition, the correlation between the strain serotype and the in vitro activities of the antifungals was determined, and the susceptibility results obtained with the different techniques were also compared. Thirty-seven patients received a combination of amphotericin B with flucytosine as first-line therapy, 22 were treated with amphotericin B alone, and 15 received fluconazole alone. Whatever the antifungal tested, there was no trend toward higher MICs for strains isolated from patients who failed to respond to a given therapy compared to those from patients who did not with either the CLSI method, Etest, or broth microdilution in YNB medium. The MICs obtained by the CLSI or Etest method were significantly lower for serotype D strains than for serotype A strains for both fluconazole and amphotericin B, while flucytosine MICs were not different according to serotype. These findings suggest that the in vitro antifungal susceptibility of C. neoformans, as determined with the techniques used, is not able to predict the early clinical outcome in patients with cryptococcosis. PMID:16801427

  13. Aircrew Exposure To Cosmic Radiation Evaluated By Means Of Several Methods; Results Obtained In 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Ploc, Ondrej; Spurny, Frantisek; Jadrnickova, Iva; Turek, Karel

    2008-08-07

    Routine evaluation of aircraft crew exposure to cosmic radiation in the Czech Republic is performed by means of calculation method. Measurements onboard aircraft work as a control tool of the routine method, as well as a possibility of comparison of results measured by means of several methods. The following methods were used in 2006: (1) mobile dosimetry unit (MDU) type Liulin--a spectrometer of energy deposited in Si-detector; (2) two types of LET spectrometers based on the chemically etched track detectors (TED); (3) two types of thermoluminescent detectors; and (4) two calculation methods. MDU represents currently one of the most reliable equipments for evaluation of the aircraft crew exposure to cosmic radiation. It is an active device which measures total energy depositions (E{sub dep}) in the semiconductor unit, and, after appropriate calibration, is able to give a separate estimation for non-neutron and neutron-like components of H*(10). This contribution consists mostly of results acquired by means of this equipment; measurements with passive detectors and calculations are mentioned because of comparison. Reasonably good agreement of all data sets could be stated.

  14. Preliminary Results Obtained in Integrated Safety Analysis of NASA Aviation Safety Program Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reveley, Mary S.

    2003-01-01

    The goal of the NASA Aviation Safety Program (AvSP) is to develop and demonstrate technologies that contribute to a reduction in the aviation fatal accident rate by a factor of 5 by the year 2007 and by a factor of 10 by the year 2022. Integrated safety analysis of day-to-day operations and risks within those operations will provide an understanding of the Aviation Safety Program portfolio. Safety benefits analyses are currently being conducted. Preliminary results for the Synthetic Vision Systems (SVS) and Weather Accident Prevention (WxAP) projects of the AvSP have been completed by the Logistics Management Institute under a contract with the NASA Glenn Research Center. These analyses include both a reliability analysis and a computer simulation model. The integrated safety analysis method comprises two principal components: a reliability model and a simulation model. In the reliability model, the results indicate how different technologies and systems will perform in normal, degraded, and failed modes of operation. In the simulation, an operational scenario is modeled. The primary purpose of the SVS project is to improve safety by providing visual-flightlike situation awareness during instrument conditions. The current analyses are an estimate of the benefits of SVS in avoiding controlled flight into terrain. The scenario modeled has an aircraft flying directly toward a terrain feature. When the flight crew determines that the aircraft is headed toward an obstruction, the aircraft executes a level turn at speed. The simulation is ended when the aircraft completes the turn.

  15. Results from CrIS/ATMS Obtained Using an AIRS "Version-6 like" Retrieval Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Susskind, Joel; Kouvaris, Louis; Iredell, Lena

    2015-01-01

    We tested and evaluated Version-6.22 AIRS and Version-6.22 CrIS products on a single day, December 4, 2013, and compared results to those derived using AIRS Version-6. AIRS and CrIS Version-6.22 O3(p) and q(p) products are both superior to those of AIRS Version-6All AIRS and CrIS products agree reasonably well with each other. CrIS Version-6.22 T(p) and q(p) results are slightly poorer than AIRS over land, especially under very cloudy conditions. Both AIRS and CrIS Version-6.22 run now at JPL. Our short term plans are to analyze many common months at JPL in the near future using Version-6.22 or a further improved algorithm to assess the compatibility of AIRS and CrIS monthly mean products and their interannual differences. Updates to the calibration of both CrIS and ATMS are still being finalized. JPL plans, in collaboration with the Goddard DISC, to reprocess all AIRS data using a still to be finalized Version-7 retrieval algorithm, and to reprocess all recalibrated CrISATMS data using Version-7 as well.

  16. Results from CrIS/ATMS Obtained Using an AIRS "Version-6 Like" Retrieval Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Susskind, Joel; Kouvaris, Louis; Iredell, Lena

    2015-01-01

    We have tested and evaluated Version-6.22 AIRS and Version-6.22 CrIS products on a single day, December 4, 2013, and compared results to those derived using AIRS Version-6. AIRS and CrIS Version-6.22 O3(p) and q(p) products are both superior to those of AIRS Version-6All AIRS and CrIS products agree reasonably well with each other CrIS Version-6.22 T(p) and q(p) results are slightly poorer than AIRS under very cloudy conditions. Both AIRS and CrIS Version-6.22 run now at JPL. Our short term plans are to analyze many common months at JPL in the near future using Version-6.22 or a further improved algorithm to assess the compatibility of AIRS and CrIS monthly mean products and their interannual differencesUpdates to the calibration of both CrIS and ATMS are still being finalized. JPL plans, in collaboration with the Goddard DISC, to reprocess all AIRS data using a still to be finalized Version-7 retrieval algorithm, and to reprocess all recalibrated CrISATMS data using Version-7 as well.

  17. Using the Viking biology experimental results to obtain chemical information about Martian regolith

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plumb, Robert C.

    1992-01-01

    Although initially formulated as biology experiments, most of the results produced by the Viking Labeled Release (LR), Gas Exchange (GEX), and Pyrolytic Release (PR) experiments have been reproduced by chemical means. The experiments do not need more study as 'biological' phenomena, but they do deserve much more careful consideration from a chemical viewpoint. They are the only 'wet-chemical' experiments that scientists have performed on another planet, but they have not found very general use as sources of scientific information. There is a large set of potentially useful chemical observations, e.g., the three resolvable and precisely measured kinetic components of the release of C-14-labeled gases, the thermal sensitivity and magnitudes of the oxidation reaction(s) of the LR experiments, the kinetics and magnitude of the O2 and CO2 release of the GEX experiments, the thermal sensitivity of the GEX results, the differences between the thermal sensitivity of the GEX and the thermal sensitivity of the LR responses, and the kinetics and magnitudes of the LR successive injection reabsorption effect. It should be possible to test many chemical aspects of hypothetical martian phenomena in experiments using the biology experimental configurations and derive much valuable information by comparisons with the Viking observations.

  18. Extended scheme for serotyping Campylobacter jejuni: results obtained in Israel from 1980 to 1981.

    PubMed Central

    Rogol, M; Sechter, I; Braunstein, I; Gerichter, C B

    1983-01-01

    The serotyping scheme for Campylobacter jejuni previously developed in the National Center for Campylobacter, Jerusalem, was extended by the use of 20 new sera and modified by the absorption of the sera, when necessary, with homologous boiled cultures or heterologous live cultures. The extended scheme is based on slide agglutination of live suspensions and is performed in two stages: pretesting with four pooled sera and final testing with monovalent sera. So far, 34 serotypes have been recognized. Among 442 isolates of C. jejuni, 86.4% could be typed with this scheme. Of the 382 cultures typed, 90% reacted with one single serum, and the remainder showed a complex antigenic structure. The frequent serotypes identified were: 11 (12.9%), 12 (8.2%), 18 (6.3%), and 3 (6.1%). When epidemiological data were available, the results of the serotyping corresponded with the epidemiological evidence. PMID:6619282

  19. First results obtained in France with the latest model of the Fresenius cell separator: AS 104.

    PubMed

    Coffe, C; Couteret, Y; Devillers, M; Fest, T; Hervé, P; Kieffer, Y; Lamy, B; Masse, M; Morel, P; Pouthier-Stein, F

    1993-01-01

    In Besançon, we carried out 40 plateletphereses with the latest model of the Fresenius cell separator AS 104 to check this new system against the new generation of cell separators, according to the following criteria: less than 2x10 6 leukocytes (before filtration) and more than 5x10 11 platelets. The results show that platelet concentrates contained 5.04+/-0.88x10 11 platelets in a total volume of 435+/-113 mL. The mean platelet recovery was 40.95+/-4.86% (from 31.7 to 51.6). The leukocyte content was 2.28+/-5.48x10 6 and the red blood cell contamination was 3.48+/-2.38x10 8. The quality of the platelets was very satisfactory. There was no problem with donor biocompatibility or procedure safety, few adverse donor reactions (0.6%) and good therapeutic efficiency of platelet concentrates. PMID:10148313

  20. Preliminary results obtained from novel CdZnTe pad detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Tuemer, T.O.; Joyce, D.C.; Yin, S.; Willson, P.D.; Parnham, K.B.; Glick, B.

    1996-06-01

    CdZnTe pad detectors with a novel geometry and approximately 1 mm{sup 2} pad sizes are being developed. These detectors have been specially designed for high energy resolution up to 300 keV energies. The contacts are produced through a unique technique developed by eV Products to achieve high reliability low resistance coupling to the substrate. A ceramic carrier is developed for low capacitance coupling of the detectors to NOVA`s FEENA chip. The detectors have been tested using the ultra low noise single and 3-channel amplifiers developed by eV Products. The CdZnTe detectors are tested for dark current. The charge energy resolutions and collection times are also measured using natural radiation sources. The measured detector parameters and the test results are showing that linear pad arrays can have good uniformity and excellent application potential for imaging x-rays and gamma-rays.

  1. Development, calibration, and experimental results obtained with an innovative calorimeter (CALMOS) for nuclear heating measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Carcreff, Hubert; Cloute-Cazalaa, Veronique; Salmon, Laurent

    2012-08-15

    Nuclear heating inside an MTR reactor has to be known in order to be able to control samples temperature during irradiation experiments. An R and D program has been carried out at CEA to design a new type of in-core calorimetric system. This new development, started in 2002, has for main objective to manufacture a calorimeter suitable to monitoring nuclear heating inside the 70 MWth OSIRIS material testing reactor operated by CEA's Nuclear Energy Division at the Saclay research center. An innovative calorimetric probe, associated to a specific handling system, has been designed to provide access to measurements both along the fissile height and on the upper part of the core, where nuclear heating still remains high. Two mock-ups of the probe were manufactured and tested in 2005 and 2009 in ex-core area of OSIRIS reactor for process validation, while a displacement system has been especially studied to move the probe along a given axial measurement range. This paper deals with the development, tests on preliminary mock-ups and the finalization of the probe. Main modeling and experimental results are presented. Moreover, alternative methods to calibration for nuclear heating rate measurements which are now possible with this new calorimeter are presented and discussed. (authors)

  2. Development, calibration and experimental results obtained with an innovative calorimeter (CALMOS) for nuclear heating measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Carcreff, H.; Cloute-Cazalaa, V.; Salmon, L.

    2011-07-01

    Nuclear heating inside an MTR reactor has to be known in order to be able to control samples temperature during irradiation experiments. An R and D program has been carried out at CEA to design a new type of in-core calorimetric system. This new development, started in 2002, has for main objective to manufacture a calorimeter suitable to monitoring nuclear heating inside the 70 MWth OSIRIS material testing reactor operated by CEA's Nuclear Energy Div. at the Saclay research center. An innovative calorimetric probe, associated to a specific handling system, has been designed to provide access to measurements both along the fissile height and on the upper part of the core, where nuclear heating still remains high. Two mock-ups of the probe were manufactured and tested in 2005 and 2009 in ex-core area of OSIRIS reactor for process validation, while a displacement system has been especially studied to move the probe along a given axial measurement range. This paper deals with the development, tests on preliminary mock-ups and the finalization of the probe. Main modeling and experimental results are presented. Moreover, alternative methods to calibration for nuclear heating rate measurements which are now possible with this new calorimeter are presented and discussed. (authors)

  3. Simbol-X Hard X-ray Focusing Mirrors: Results Obtained During the Phase A Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tagliaferri, G.; Basso, S.; Borghi, G.; Burkert, W.; Citterio, O.; Civitani, M.; Conconi, P.; Cotroneo, V.; Freyberg, M.; Garoli, D.; Gorenstein, P.; Hartner, G.; Mattarello, V.; Orlandi, A.; Pareschi, G.; Romaine, S.; Spiga, D.; Valsecchi, G.; Vernani, D.

    2009-05-01

    Simbol-X will push grazing incidence imaging up to 80 keV, providing a strong improvement both in sensitivity and angular resolution compared to all instruments that have operated so far above 10 keV. The superb hard X-ray imaging capability will be guaranteed by a mirror module of 100 electroformed Nickel shells with a multilayer reflecting coating. Here we will describe the technogical development and solutions adopted for the fabrication of the mirror module, that must guarantee an Half Energy Width (HEW) better than 20 arcsec from 0.5 up to 30 keV and a goal of 40 arcsec at 60 keV. During the phase A, terminated at the end of 2008, we have developed three engineering models with two, two and three shells, respectively. The most critical aspects in the development of the Simbol-X mirrors are i) the production of the 100 mandrels with very good surface quality within the timeline of the mission, ii) the replication of shells that must be very thin (a factor of 2 thinner than those of XMM-Newton) and still have very good image quality up to 80 keV, iii) the development of an integration process that allows us to integrate these very thin mirrors maintaining their intrinsic good image quality. The Phase A study has shown that we can fabricate the mandrels with the needed quality and that we have developed a valid integration process. The shells that we have produced so far have a quite good image quality, e.g. HEW <~30 arcsec at 30 keV, and effective area. However, we still need to make some improvements to reach the requirements. We will briefly present these results and discuss the possible improvements that we will investigate during phase B.

  4. Problems on the Analysis Results Obtained from the Geomagnetic Scalar Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isezaki, N.; Harada, M.; Sayanagi, K.; Matsuo, J.

    2009-12-01

    1.The scalar magnetic field TIA (Total Intensity Anomaly) has no physical formula describing the relation between M (Magnetization) and TIA. 2.Then MA could not be analyzed from TIA. 3.Anlyses of M from TIA have been done so far under assumption TIA=PTA (Projected Total Anomay on MF (Main Geomagnetic Field)), however, which caused the analysis error due to ɛT= TIA - PTA. 4.It is impossible to evaluate the error due to ɛT for the already published results so far because there were no PTA observations, but only TIA at present, then ɛT cannot be defined. 5.TA satisfies the Laplace’s equation, and TA can be adusted to the physically realizable data by solving this equation for TA. For the area where there is no bservation TA, we can interpolate them by solving the Dirichlet's problem as the boundary value problem. 6.TA varies its direction from place to place where MF is uniform in the small local area, then the magnetic poential for TA could not be defined in any place. 7.We strongly recommend to carry out the magnetic survey using a three component magnetometer to get TF and TA which have many advantages for magnetic analyses (magnetization, upward continuation etc.) which cannot be done using scalar TIA. 8.It is the case for time dependent TIA which varies with β=ωt (ω:time angular velocity) in Figure 1. Geometrical expression for ɛT. MF, TF and TA are the vectors of the main geomagnetic field, the total geomagnetic field, and the geomagnetic anomaly field respectively. MF, TF and TA are in this plane. MF= , TF= , TA= , PTA= , PTA= TIA= , and ɛT= . , ⊥ , and β=∠BAC, α=∠DBC. TA will rotate around the point B. for estimation of ɛT. If the magnitudes of MF and TA are assumed to be |MF|=50,000 nT and |TA|=1000 nT. Figure 2 shows the relative error (Isezaki etal 2009), defined by ɛT/TIA. For TIA from 1000 nT to -1000 nT. β changes from 0 at TIA=1,000 nT to the maximum ( TA/MF=0.02) where TA is almost perpendicular to MF and TIA 0nT. TF is produced by

  5. Implantation of peritoneal catheters by laparotomy: nephrologists obtained similar results to general surgeons

    PubMed Central

    Restrepo, Cesar A; Buitrago, Carlos Alberto; Holguin, Cielo

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To analyze the complications and costs of minilaparotomies performed by a nephrologist (group A) compared with conventional laparotomies performed by a surgeon (group B) for peritoneal catheter implantation. Setting Two university hospitals (Santa Sofia and Caldas) in Manizales, Caldas, Colombia. Methods The study included stage 5 chronic kidney disease patients, with indication of renal replacement therapy, who were candidates for peritoneal dialysis and gave informed consent for a peritoneal catheter implant. Minilaparotomies were performed by a nephrologist in a minor surgery room under local anesthesia. Conventional laparotomies were performed by a surgeon in an operating room under general anesthesia. Results Two nephrologists inserted 157 peritoneal catheters, and seven general surgeons inserted 185 peritoneal catheters. The groups had similar characteristics: the mean age was 55 years, 49.5% were men, and the primary diagnoses were diabetic nephropathy, hypertensive nephropathy, and unknown etiology. The implant was successful for 98.09% of group A and 99.46% of group B. There was no procedure-related mortality. The most frequent complications in the first 30 days postsurgery in group A versus group B, respectively, were: peritonitis (6.37% versus 3.78%), exit-site infection (3.82% versus 2.16%), tunnel infection (0% versus 0.54%), catheter entrapment by omentum (1.27% versus 3.24%), peritoneal effluent spillover (1.91% versus 2.16%), draining failure (4.46% versus 6.49%), hematoma (0% versus 1.08%), catheter migration with kinking (3.18% versus 2.70%), hemoperitoneum (1.27% versus 0%), and hollow viscera accidental puncture (1.91% versus 0.54%). There were no statistically significant differences in the number of complications between groups. In 2013, the cost of a surgeon-implanted peritoneal dialysis catheter in Colombia was US $366 (666,000 COP), whereas the cost of a nephrologist-implanted catheter was US $198 (356,725 COP). Conclusion

  6. Results from CrIS/ATMS Obtained Using an "AIRS Version-6 Like Retrieval Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Susskind, J.

    2015-12-01

    A main objective of AIRS/AMSU on EOS is to provide accurate sounding products that are used to generate climate data sets. Suomi NPP carries CrIS/ATMS that were designed as follow-ons to AIRS/AMSU. Our objective is to generate a long term climate data set of products derived from CrIS/ATMS to serve as a continuation of the AIRS/AMSU products. The Goddard DISC has generated AIRS/AMSU retrieval products, extending from September 2002 through real time, using the AIRS Science Team Version-6 retrieval algorithm. Level-3 gridded monthly mean values of these products, generated using AIRS Version-6, form a state of the art multi-year set of Climate Data Records (CDRs), which is expected to continue through 2022 and possibly beyond, as the AIRS instrument is extremely stable. The goal of this research is to develop and implement a CrIS/ATMS retrieval system to generate CDRs that are compatible with, and are of comparable quality to, those generated operationally using AIRS/AMSU data. The AIRS Science Team has made considerable improvements in AIRS Science Team retrieval methodology and is working on the development of an improved AIRS Science Team Version-7 retrieval methodology to be used to reprocess all AIRS data in the relatively near future. Research is underway by Dr. Susskind and co-workers at the NASA GSFC Sounder Research Team (SRT) towards the finalization of the AIRS Version-7 retrieval algorithm, the current version of which is called SRT AIRS Version-6.22. Dr. Susskind and co-workers have developed analogous retrieval methodology for analysis of CrIS/ATMS data, called SRT CrIS Version-6.22. Results will be presented that show that AIRS and CrIS products derived using a common further improved retrieval algorithm agree closely with each other and are both superior to AIRS Version 6. The goal of the AIRS Science Team is to continue to improve both AIRS and CrIS retrieval products and then use the improved retrieval methodology for the processing of past and

  7. Results from CrIS-ATMS Obtained Using the AIRS Science Team Retrieval Methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Susskind, Joel; Kouvaris, Louis C.; Iredell, Lena

    2013-01-01

    which significantly improved results of AIRS Version-6. Version-5.70 CrIS/ATMS temperature profile and surface skin temperature retrievals are of very good quality, and are better than AIRS Version-5 retrievals, but are still significantly poorer than those of AIRS Version-6. CrIS/ATMS retrievals should improve when a Neural-Net start-up system is ready for use. We also examined CrIS/ATMS retrievals generated by NOAA using their NUCAPS retrieval algorithm, which is based on earlier versions of the AIRS Science Team retrieval algorithms. We show that the NUCAPS algorithm as currently configured is not well suited for climate monitoring purposes.

  8. Real time prediction of sea level anomaly data with the Prognocean system - comparison of results obtained using different prediction techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizinski, Bartlomiej; Niedzielski, Tomasz; Kosek, Wieslaw

    2013-04-01

    Prognocean is a near-real time modeling and prediction system elaborated and based at University of Wroclaw, Poland. It operates on gridded Sea Level Anomaly (SLA) data obtained from the Archiving, Validation and Interpretation of Satellite Oceanographic data (AVISO), France. The data acquisition flow from AVISO to Prognocean is entirely automatic and is implemented in Python. The core of the system - including data pre-processing, modeling, prediction, validation and visualization procedures - is composed of a series of R scripts that are interrelated and work at three levels of generalization. The objective of the work presented here is to show the results of our numerical experiment that have been carried out since early 2012. Four prediction models have been implemented to date: (1) extrapolation of polynomial-harmonic model and the extrapolation of polynomial-harmonic model with (2) autoregressive model, (3) threshold autoregressive model and (4) autocovariance procedure. Although the presentation is limited to four models and their predictive skills, Prognocean consists of modules and hence new techniques may be plugged in at any time. In this paper, the comparison of the results into forecasting sea level anomaly maps is presented. Along with sample predictions, with various lead times up to two weeks, we present and discuss a set of root mean square prediction error maps computed in real time after the observations have been available. We identified areas where linear prediction models reveal considerable errors, which may indicate a non-linear mode of sea level change. In addition, we have identified an agreement between the spatial pattern of large prediction errors and the spatial occurrence of key mesoscale ocean eddies.

  9. The Modern U.S. High School Astronomy Course, Its Status and Makeup II: Additional Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krumenaker, Larry

    2009-01-01

    A postal survey of high school astronomy teachers strongly confirms many results of an earlier electronic survey. Additional and new results include a measure of the level of inquiry (more structured inquiry and teacher-led) in the classroom as well as data showing that more emphasis is given to traditional topics than to contemporary astronomy…

  10. Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive for Enhanced Mercury Control - Pilot-Scale Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Gary M. Blythe

    2006-03-01

    Texas Lignite Flue Gas; Task 3 - Full-scale FGD Additive Testing in High Sulfur Eastern Bituminous Flue Gas; Task 4 - Pilot Wet Scrubber Additive Tests at Yates; and Task 5 - Full-scale Additive Tests at Plant Yates. This topical report presents the results from the Task 2 and Task 4 pilot-scale additive tests. The Task 3 and Task 5 full-scale additive tests will be conducted later in calendar year 2006.

  11. Additional results on space environmental effects on polymer matrix composites: Experiment A0180

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tennyson, R. C.

    1992-01-01

    Additional experimental results on the atomic oxygen erosion of boron, Kevlar, and graphite fiber reinforced epoxy matrix composites are presented. Damage of composite laminates due to micrometeoroid/debris impacts is also examined with particular emphasis on the relationship between damage area and actual hole size due to particle penetration. Special attention is given to one micrometeoroid impact on an aluminum base plate which resulted in ejecta visible on an adjoining vertical flange structure.

  12. An assessment of the reliability of palaeointensity results obtained from the Cretaceous aged Suhongtu section, Inner Mongolia, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Mimi J.; Pan, Yongxin; Davies, Ceri J.

    2008-08-01

    Here we present microwave palaeointensity results from 89 sister samples from the study of Zhu et al. [Zhu, R., Pan, Y., He, H., Qin, H., Ren, S., 2008. Palaeomagnetism and 40Ar/ 39Ar age from a Cretaceous volcanic sequence, Inner Mongolia, China: implications for the field variation during the Cretaceous normal superchron. Phys. Earth Planet. Int., 169, 59-75] who carried out Thellier palaeointensity analysis as part of their integrated palaeomagnetic and 40Ar/ 39Ar dating study of Cretaceous lava from the Suhungtu section, Inner Mongolia, China. Additionally, a comprehensive rock magnetic investigation has been carried out in order to determine the mineralogy and hence the validity of assuming that the remanence is a thermal remanent magnetisation (TRM). The microwave results are of apparent high quality and give flow mean palaeointensity estimates ranging from 13 to 49 μT corresponding to virtual dipole moment (VDM) estimates ranging from 2.5 to 8.9 × 10 22 Am 2, and an overall mean VDM of 5.5 ± 1.9 × 10 22 Am 2 for the 24 flows (aged 110.6 ± 0.1 Ma). When the microwave results (using the perpendicular applied field method with partial microwave thermal remanence (pT MRM) and pT MRM tail checks) are compared to those obtained with the Thellier method (Coe version with pTRM but not tail checks, and heating in argon atmosphere) differences are seen at the sample, flow and palaeomagnetic unit level however, the overall means and spread in palaeointensity estimates are consistent. Some discrepancy is due to the differing sized sample sets and sample inhomogeneity but discrepancy is also interpreted to be due to the differing protocols, methodology, plus the subjectivity in interpretation. Considering only those results that are consistent to within 20% the spread in palaeointensity estimates remains. There is substantial rock magnetic evidence from progressive heating in air and argon experiments (both showing irreversible thermomagnetic behaviour) as well as

  13. [The surgical treatment of high myopia with dura mater. The results obtained long term (a clinical study)].

    PubMed

    Costin, D; Vancea, P P; Caraman, C; Burlea, M; Antohi, D; Popa, C; Stoian, R

    1990-01-01

    The paper presents the postoperative results obtained by performing scleroplasty with dura-mater in 127 progressive myopic eyes. The authors consider that the homologue dura-mater represents a high quality material to make scleral plasties. The evolution of myopia has ceased in over 60% of the cases. PMID:2100861

  14. Results of Measurements of Maximum Lift and Buffeting Intensities Obtained During Flight Investigation of the Northrop X-4 Research Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, Thomas F

    1953-01-01

    The variation of the intensity of buffeting experienced throughout the operational region of the semitailless Northrop X-4 airplane and the values of maximum and peak normal-force coefficients in the Mach number range from 0.42 to 0.92 have been determined. The results are compared with data obtained with the swept-wing Douglas D-558-II airplane.

  15. TANK 40 FINAL SB5 CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION RESULTS PRIOR TO NP ADDITION

    SciTech Connect

    Bannochie, C.; Click, D.

    2010-01-06

    A sample of Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) was pulled from Tank 40 in order to obtain radionuclide inventory analyses necessary for compliance with the Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (WAPS). This sample was also analyzed for chemical composition including noble metals. Prior to radionuclide inventory analyses, a final sample of the H-canyon Np stream will be added to bound the Np addition anticipated for Tank 40. These analyses along with the WAPS radionuclide analyses will help define the composition of the sludge in Tank 40 that is currently being fed to DWPF as SB5. At the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) the 3-L Tank 40 SB5 sample was transferred from the shipping container into a 4-L high density polyethylene vessel and solids allowed to settle overnight. Supernate was then siphoned off and circulated through the shipping container to complete the transfer of the sample. Following thorough mixing of the 3-L sample, a 239 g sub-sample was removed. This sub-sample was then utilized for all subsequent analytical samples. Eight separate aliquots of the slurry were digested, four with HNO{sub 3}/HCl (aqua regia) in sealed Teflon{reg_sign} vessels and four in Na{sub 2}O{sub 2} (alkali or peroxide fusion) using Zr crucibles. Due to the use of Zr crucibles and Na in the peroxide fusions, Na and Zr cannot be determined from this preparation. Additionally, other alkali metals, such as Li and K that may be contaminants in the Na{sub 2}O{sub 2} are not determined from this preparation. Three Analytical Reference Glass - 14 (ARG-1) standards were digested along with a blank for each preparation. The ARG-1 glass allows for an assessment of the completeness of each digestion. Each aqua regia digestion and blank was diluted to 1:100 mL with deionized water and submitted to Analytical Development (AD) for inductively coupled plasma - atomic emission spectroscopy (ICPAES) analysis, inductively coupled plasma - mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis of masses 81-209 and 230

  16. TANK 40 FINAL SB5 CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION RESULTS PRIOR TO NP ADDITION

    SciTech Connect

    Bannochie, C; Damon Click, D

    2009-02-26

    A sample of Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) was pulled from Tank 40 in order to obtain radionuclide inventory analyses necessary for compliance with the Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (WAPS). This sample was also analyzed for chemical composition including noble metals. Prior to radionuclide inventory analyses, a final sample of the H-canyon Np stream will be added to bound the Np addition anticipated for Tank 40. These analyses along with the WAPS radionuclide analyses will help define the composition of the sludge in Tank 40 that is currently being fed to DWPF as SB5. At the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) the 3-L Tank 40 SB5 sample was transferred from the shipping container into a 4-L high density polyethylene vessel and solids allowed to settle overnight. Supernate was then siphoned off and circulated through the shipping container to complete the transfer of the sample. Following thorough mixing of the 3-L sample, a 239 g sub-sample was removed. This sub-sample was then utilized for all subsequent analytical samples. Eight separate aliquots of the slurry were digested, four with HNO{sub 3}/HCl (aqua regia) in sealed Teflon{reg_sign} vessels and four in Na{sub 2}O{sub 2} (alkali or peroxide fusion) using Zr crucibles. Due to the use of Zr crucibles and Na in the peroxide fusions, Na and Zr cannot be determined from this preparation. Additionally, other alkali metals, such as Li and K that may be contaminants in the Na{sub 2}O{sub 2} are not determined from this preparation. Three Analytical Reference Glass-1 (ARG-1) standards were digested along with a blank for each preparation. The ARG-1 glass allows for an assessment of the completeness of each digestion. Each aqua regia digestion and blank was diluted to 1:100 mL with deionized water and submitted to Analytical Development (AD) for inductively coupled plasma--atomic emission spectroscopy (ICPAES) analysis, inductively coupled plasma--mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis of masses 81-209 and 230

  17. A comparison of results obtained by two different chromium-51 methods of determining platelet survival and recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Rock, G.; Tittley, P. )

    1990-06-01

    A number of different methods exist that use chromium-51 to determine platelet survival and recovery. A 1986 article in TRANSFUSION described the recommended methods for conducting such studies in the hope of standardizing methodology and permitting interlaboratory comparison of results. The results obtained with the recommended method have been compared with those of our previous method. With the new method, recovery of fresh random-donor platelets prepared in polyolefin bags was 76 +/- 6 percent with a survival of 9.3 +/- 2.8 days (n = 4). After 5 days of storage, these values were 67 +/- 8 percent and 7.8 +/- 1.9 days. Similar values were obtained for fresh and stored platelets collected on automated cell separators. However, when our previous (pre-1986) method of evaluation was used, recovery of fresh platelets in the polyolefin bags was 56 +/- 11 percent, and survival was 8.6 +/- 1.3 days. The 5-day values were 36 +/- 5 percent and 6.9 +/- 2.7 days. These values are significantly lower (p less than 0.05) than those obtained with the newer method, but they are in agreement with those previously reported for other techniques. Thus, the new method consistently gives higher values, possibly as a result of a less harmful labeling procedure.

  18. New high-definition thickness data obtained at tropical glaciers: preliminary results from Antisana volcano (Ecuador) using GPR prospection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zapata, Camilo; Andrade, Daniel; Córdova, Jorge; Maisincho, Luis; Carvajal, Juan; Calispa, Marlon; Villacís, Marcos

    2014-05-01

    The study of tropical glaciers has been a significant contribution to the understanding of glacier dynamics and climate change. Much of the data and results have been obtained by analyzing plan-view images obtained by air- and space-borne sensors, as well as depth data obtained by diverse methodologies at selected points on the glacier surface. However, the measurement of glacier thicknesses has remained an elusive task in tropical glaciers, often located in rough terrains where the application of geophysical surveys (i.e. seismic surveys) requires logistics sometimes hardly justified by the amount of obtained data. In the case of Ecuador, however, where most glaciers have developed on active volcanoes and represent sources/reservoirs of fresh water, the precise knowledge of such information is fundamental for scientific research but also in order to better assess key aspects for the society. The relatively recent but fast development of the GPR technology has helped to obtain new highdefinition thickness data at Antisana volcano that will be used to: 1) better understand the dynamics and fate of tropical glaciers; 2) better estimate the amount of fresh water stored in the glaciers; 3) better assess the hazards associated with the sudden widespread melting of glaciers during volcanic eruptions. The measurements have been obtained at glaciers 12 and 15 of Antisana volcano, with the help of a commercial GPR equipped with a 25 MHz antenna. A total of 30 transects have been obtained, covering a distance of more than 3 km, from the glacier ablation zone, located at ~ 4600 masl, up to the level of 5200 masl. The preliminary results show a positive correlation between altitude and glacier thickness, with maximum and minimum calculated values reaching up to 80 m, and down to 15 m, respectively. The experience gained at Antisana volcano will be used to prepare a more widespread GPR survey in the glaciers of Cotopaxi volcano, whose implications in terms of volcanic hazards

  19. A comparison of results obtained with two subsurface non-isothermal multiphase reactive transport simulators, FADES-CORE and TOUGHREACT

    SciTech Connect

    Juncosa Rivera, Ricardo; Xu, Tianfu; Pruess, Karsten

    2001-01-01

    FADES-CORE and TOUGHREACT are codes used to model the non-isothermal multiphase flow with multicomponent reactive transport in porous media. Different flow and reactive transport problems were used to compare the FADES-CORE and TOUGHREACT codes. These problems take into account the different cases of multiphase flow with and without heat transport, conservative transport, and reactive transport. Consistent results were obtained from both codes, which use different numerical methods to solve the differential equations resulting from the various physicochemical processes. Here we present the results obtained from both codes for various cases. Some results are slightly different with minor discrepancies, which have been remedied, so that both codes would be able to reproduce the same processes using the same parameters. One of the discrepancies found is related to the different calculation for thermal conductivity in heat transport, which affects the calculation of the temperatures, as well as the pH of the reaction of calcite dissolution problem modeled. Therefore it is possible to affirm that the pH is highly sensitive to temperature. Generally speaking, the comparison was concluded to be highly satisfactory, leading to the complete verification of the FADES-CORE code. However, we must keep in mind that, as there are no analytical solutions available with which to verify the codes, the TOUGHREACT code has been thoroughly corroborated, given that the only possible way to prove that the code simulation is correct, is by comparing the results obtained with both codes for the identical problems, or to validate the simulation results with actual measured data.

  20. First results obtained from the soft x-ray pulse height analyzer on experimental advanced superconducting tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, P.; Lin, S. Y.; Hu, L. Q.; Duan, Y. M.; Zhang, J. Z.; Chen, K. Y.; Zhong, G. Q.

    2010-06-15

    An assembly of soft x-ray pulse height analyzer system, based on silicon drift detector (SDD), has been successfully established on the experimental advanced superconducting tokamak (EAST) to measure the spectrum of soft x-ray emission (E=1-20 keV). The system, including one 15-channel SDD linear array, is installed on EAST horizontal port C. The time-resolved radial profiles of electron temperature and K{sub {alpha}} intensities of metallic impurities have been obtained with a spatial resolution of around 7 cm during a single discharge. It was found that the electron temperatures derived from the system are in good agreement with the values from Thomson scattering measurements. The system can also be applied to the measurement of the long pulse discharge for EAST. The diagnostic system is introduced and some typical experimental results obtained from the system are also presented.

  1. The LANDSAT system operated in Brazil by CNPq/INPE - results obtained in the area of mapping and future perspectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Barbosa, M. N.

    1981-01-01

    The LANDSAT system, operated in the country by CNPg/INPE since 1973, systematically acquires, produces, and distributes both multispectral and panchromatic images obtained through remote sensing satellites to thousands of researchers and technicians involved in the natural resources survey. To cooperate in the solution of national problems, CNPq/INPE is developing efforts in the area of manipulation of those images with the objective of making them useful as planimetric bases for the simple revision of already published maps or for its utilization as basic material in regions not yet reliability mapped. The results obtained from performed tests are presented and the existing limitations are discussed. The new system purchased to handle data from the next series of LANDSAT as well as from MAPSAT and SPOT which will be in operation within the 80's decade, and are designed not only for natural resources survey but also for the solution of cartographic problems.

  2. Quantitative assessment of the impact of biomedical image acquisition on the results obtained from image analysis and processing

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Dedicated, automatic algorithms for image analysis and processing are becoming more and more common in medical diagnosis. When creating dedicated algorithms, many factors must be taken into consideration. They are associated with selecting the appropriate algorithm parameters and taking into account the impact of data acquisition on the results obtained. An important feature of algorithms is the possibility of their use in other medical units by other operators. This problem, namely operator’s (acquisition) impact on the results obtained from image analysis and processing, has been shown on a few examples. Material and method The analysed images were obtained from a variety of medical devices such as thermal imaging, tomography devices and those working in visible light. The objects of imaging were cellular elements, the anterior segment and fundus of the eye, postural defects and others. In total, almost 200'000 images coming from 8 different medical units were analysed. All image analysis algorithms were implemented in C and Matlab. Results For various algorithms and methods of medical imaging, the impact of image acquisition on the results obtained is different. There are different levels of algorithm sensitivity to changes in the parameters, for example: (1) for microscope settings and the brightness assessment of cellular elements there is a difference of 8%; (2) for the thyroid ultrasound images there is a difference in marking the thyroid lobe area which results in a brightness assessment difference of 2%. The method of image acquisition in image analysis and processing also affects: (3) the accuracy of determining the temperature in the characteristic areas on the patient’s back for the thermal method - error of 31%; (4) the accuracy of finding characteristic points in photogrammetric images when evaluating postural defects – error of 11%; (5) the accuracy of performing ablative and non-ablative treatments in cosmetology - error of 18

  3. Evidence for obtaining a second successive semen sample for intrauterine insemination in selected patients: results from 32 consecutive cases

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz, Alejandra; Ortiz, Rita; Soto, Evelyn; Hartmann, Jonathan; Manzur, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Objective The goal of this study was to compare the semen parameters of two successive samples obtained within an interval of less than 60 minutes from patients planning to undergo intrauterine insemination (IUI) whose first samples exhibited low semen quality. Methods Thirty-two consecutive patients were enrolled in the study. On the day of IUI, the semen analysis of the samples initially presented by all patients met at least two of the following criteria: sperm concentration <5×106/mL, total sperm count <10×106, progressive sperm motility (a+b) in the native sample <30%, and total motile sperm count (TMSC) <4×106. A successive semen sample was obtained no more than 60 minutes after the first sample. Results Compared to the first sample, the second exhibited significantly (p<0.05) improved sperm concentration, TMSC, progressive motility, and vitality. Regarding TMSC, the most critical parameter on the day of IUI, 23 patients (71.8%) improved it, while nine (28.2%) displayed poorer outcomes. Conclusion In defined cases, requesting a second successive ejaculate on the day of insemination may result in a high percentage of cases in an improvement of the quality of the sample. PMID:27358828

  4. Major discrepancies between results obtained with two different methods for evaluating DNA damage: alkaline elution and alkaline unwinding. Possible explanations.

    PubMed

    Taningher, M; Bordone, R; Russo, P; Grilli, S; Santi, L; Parodi, S

    1987-01-01

    The fluorometric assay of DNA alkaline unwinding, developed by Birnboim and Jevcak (Cancer Res 41: 1889-1892, 1981) was applied to rat liver DNA, after treatment in vivo. N-nitrosodimethylamine, for which DNA damage in rat liver has been extensively investigated, was tested as a standard compound. The results were in complete agreement (both in terms of damage and repair) with data from the literature and with our own results obtained with other methods of detecting DNA alkaline fragmentation. Sensitivity was also of the same order of that of usual methods, with the effect of 0.3 mg/Kg of N-nitrosodimethylamine being detectable. Other DNA damaging carcinogens such as 1,2-dimethylhydrazine, 2-naphthylamine and dacarbazine were also correctly detected. Compounds like nitrofurantoin, benzoin and caprolactam, which appeared clearly positive with the alkaline elution technique, but for which genotoxicity and carcinogenicity are doubtful (nitrofurantoin) or most likely negative (benzoin and caprolactam), gave negative results with this method. This is also in agreement with previous results, observed using a different approach to measuring DNA unwinding. On the basis of these and other observations, we suggest that, under certain conditions, the alkaline elution technique is perhaps not only sensitive to DNA breaks but also to changes in chromatin conformation. Unwinding methods could be more specific in the detection of DNA fragmentations. PMID:3674758

  5. Additive effects of pollinators and herbivores result in both conflicting and reinforcing selection on floral traits.

    PubMed

    Sletvold, Nina; Moritz, Kim K; Agren, Jon

    2015-01-01

    Mutualists and antagonists are known to respond to similar floral cues, and may thus cause opposing selection on floral traits. However, we lack a quantitative understanding of their independent and interactive effects. In a population of the orchid Gymnadenia conopsea, we manipulated the intensity of pollination and herbivory in a factorial design to examine whether both interactions influence selection on flowering phenology, floral display, and morphology. Supplemental hand-pollination increased female fitness by 31% and one-quarter of all plants were damaged by herbivores. Both interactions contributed to selection. Pollinators mediated selection for later flowering and herbivores for earlier flowering, while both selected for longer spurs. The strength of selection was similar for both agents, and their effects were additive. As a consequence, there was no. net selection on phenology, whereas selection on spur length was strong. The experimental results demonstrate that both pollinators and herbivores can markedly influence the strength of selection on flowering phenology and floral morphology, and cause both conflicting and reinforcing selection. They also indicate that the direction of selection on phenology will vary with the relative intensity of the mutualistic and antagonistic interaction, potentially resulting in both temporal and among-population variation in optimal flowering time. PMID:26236906

  6. XLF deficiency results in reduced N-nucleotide addition during V(D)J recombination

    PubMed Central

    IJspeert, Hanna; Rozmus, Jacob; Schwarz, Klaus; Warren, René L.; van Zessen, David; Holt, Robert A.; Pico-Knijnenburg, Ingrid; Simons, Erik; Jerchel, Isabel; Wawer, Angela; Lorenz, Myriam; Patıroğlu, Turkan; Akar, Himmet Haluk; Leite, Ricardo; Verkaik, Nicole S.; Stubbs, Andrew P.; van Gent, Dik C.; van Dongen, Jacques J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) by the nonhomologous end-joining pathway (NHEJ) is important not only for repair of spontaneous breaks but also for breaks induced in developing lymphocytes during V(D)J (variable [V], diversity [D], and joining [J] genes) recombination of their antigen receptor loci to create a diverse repertoire. Mutations in the NHEJ factor XLF result in extreme sensitivity for ionizing radiation, microcephaly, and growth retardation comparable to mutations in LIG4 and XRCC4, which together form the NHEJ ligation complex. However, the effect on the immune system is variable (mild to severe immunodeficiency) and less prominent than that seen in deficiencies of NHEJ factors ARTEMIS and DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit, with defects in the hairpin opening step, which is crucial and unique for V(D)J recombination. Therefore, we aimed to study the role of XLF during V(D)J recombination. We obtained clinical data from 9 XLF-deficient patients and performed immune phenotyping and antigen receptor repertoire analysis of immunoglobulin (Ig) and T-cell receptor (TR) rearrangements, using next-generation sequencing in 6 patients. The results were compared with XRCC4 and LIG4 deficiency. Both Ig and TR rearrangements showed a significant decrease in the number of nontemplated (N) nucleotides inserted by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase, which resulted in a decrease of 2 to 3 amino acids in the CDR3. Such a reduction in the number of N-nucleotides has a great effect on the junctional diversity, and thereby on the total diversity of the Ig and TR repertoire. This shows that XLF has an important role during V(D)J recombination in creating diversity of the repertoire by stimulating N-nucleotide insertion. PMID:27281794

  7. XLF deficiency results in reduced N-nucleotide addition during V(D)J recombination.

    PubMed

    IJspeert, Hanna; Rozmus, Jacob; Schwarz, Klaus; Warren, René L; van Zessen, David; Holt, Robert A; Pico-Knijnenburg, Ingrid; Simons, Erik; Jerchel, Isabel; Wawer, Angela; Lorenz, Myriam; Patıroğlu, Turkan; Akar, Himmet Haluk; Leite, Ricardo; Verkaik, Nicole S; Stubbs, Andrew P; van Gent, Dik C; van Dongen, Jacques J M; van der Burg, Mirjam

    2016-08-01

    Repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) by the nonhomologous end-joining pathway (NHEJ) is important not only for repair of spontaneous breaks but also for breaks induced in developing lymphocytes during V(D)J (variable [V], diversity [D], and joining [J] genes) recombination of their antigen receptor loci to create a diverse repertoire. Mutations in the NHEJ factor XLF result in extreme sensitivity for ionizing radiation, microcephaly, and growth retardation comparable to mutations in LIG4 and XRCC4, which together form the NHEJ ligation complex. However, the effect on the immune system is variable (mild to severe immunodeficiency) and less prominent than that seen in deficiencies of NHEJ factors ARTEMIS and DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit, with defects in the hairpin opening step, which is crucial and unique for V(D)J recombination. Therefore, we aimed to study the role of XLF during V(D)J recombination. We obtained clinical data from 9 XLF-deficient patients and performed immune phenotyping and antigen receptor repertoire analysis of immunoglobulin (Ig) and T-cell receptor (TR) rearrangements, using next-generation sequencing in 6 patients. The results were compared with XRCC4 and LIG4 deficiency. Both Ig and TR rearrangements showed a significant decrease in the number of nontemplated (N) nucleotides inserted by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase, which resulted in a decrease of 2 to 3 amino acids in the CDR3. Such a reduction in the number of N-nucleotides has a great effect on the junctional diversity, and thereby on the total diversity of the Ig and TR repertoire. This shows that XLF has an important role during V(D)J recombination in creating diversity of the repertoire by stimulating N-nucleotide insertion. PMID:27281794

  8. [Pollen content of the Paris air: comparison of the results obtained by two samplers for the year 2003].

    PubMed

    Distigny, C; Polenne, J P; Bordenave, L; Bex, V; Squinazi, F

    2004-09-01

    During the 2003 season, a second pollen collector has been established in Paris city (Audubon site) to study the representativeness of the initial collector situated on the roof of the Pasteur Institute. The Hygiene Laboratory of Paris followed the pollen counts from the two collectors, during the period going from May to September. Both the samplers are Lanzoni model with a flow rate of 10 l x min(-1). The quantitative results show that no statistical difference exists between the pollen counts obtained from the 2 sites (Mann-Withney test, p > .05). The dominant species are Urticaceae, Poacae and Castenea species for the 2 collectors. Their counts are similar except for Poacae whose results are higher at the Audubon site. The collection period do not take into account the pollen production period of many trees species because of the late installation of the collector on the Audubon site. The results show that the two sites chosen for the study of pollen distribution are comparable. Nevertheless, the comparative study should be maintained on the next year to get more details about the observed differences and to collect the early trees pollen. PMID:15529829

  9. Additional heat treatment of non-porous coatings obtained on medium carbon steel substrates by electron beam cladding of a Ti-Mo-C powder composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mul, D. O.; Drobyaz, E. A.; Zimoglyadova, T. A.; Bataev, V. A.; Lazurenko, D. V.; Shevtsova, L. I.

    2016-04-01

    The structure and microhardness of surface layers, obtained by non-vacuum electron beam cladding of Ti-Mo-C powder mixture on a steel substrate after different types of heat treatment, were investigated. After cladding samples were heat treated in a furnace at 200...500 °C, as well as quenched at 860 ° C and then underwent high-temperature tempering. Heat treatment of cladded coatings induced tempering of martensite and precipitation of cementite particles (Fe3C). Transmission electron microscopy of the samples after heating and holding at 300 ° C revealed precipitation of nanosized cubical TiC particles. The formation of hard nanosized particles led to the surface layer microhardness growth. The highest level of microhardness (which was 1.2...1.5-fold higher in comparison with coating microhardness after heat treatment) was achieved after heating of the claded material at 300 °C and 400 °C Additional quenching of samples at 860 °C did not increase the microhardness level.

  10. Are Results of 4-D Ultrasound Angiography Examinations Dependent on the Doppler Technology Applied? Comparison of Results Obtained from an In Vivo Model.

    PubMed

    Kudla, Marek J; Los, Andrzej; Alcazar, Juan Luis

    2016-02-01

    We aimed to evaluate the agreement of results obtained by 4-D spatio-temporal image correlation (STIC) angiography with two options of Doppler technology (power Doppler [PD] and high-definition flow [HDF]) from an ovary as an in vivo model. Thirty-eight ovaries were recorded by trans-vaginal ultrasound examination in the first part of the menstrual cycle. Two STIC sequences (4-D HDF and 4-D PD) were stored. Volumetric pulsatility index, volumetric resistance index and volumetric systolic/diastolic index for each of these sequences were calculated, and their mean values were compared and correlated. Agreement between 4-D HDF and 4-D PD was assessed using the intra-class correlation coefficient. Intra-class correlation coefficients for all three indices were high, but 95% confidence intervals and limits of agreement were wide. We conclude that both 4-D power Doppler and 4-D high-definition flow may be used for calculating volumetric pulsatility index, volumetric resistance index and volumetric systolic/diastolic index from a STIC sequence, at least in ovaries used as an in vivo model. However, values obtained by both methods cannot be used interchangeably. PMID:26610712

  11. Seasonal differences in the subjective assessment of outdoor thermal conditions and the impact of analysis techniques on the obtained results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kántor, Noémi; Kovács, Attila; Takács, Ágnes

    2016-03-01

    Wide research attention has been paid in the last two decades to the thermal comfort conditions of different outdoor and semi-outdoor urban spaces. Field studies were conducted in a wide range of geographical regions in order to investigate the relationship between the thermal sensation of people and thermal comfort indices. Researchers found that the original threshold values of these indices did not describe precisely the actual thermal sensation patterns of subjects, and they reported neutral temperatures that vary among nations and with time of the year. For that reason, thresholds of some objective indices were rescaled and new thermal comfort categories were defined. This research investigates the outdoor thermal perception patterns of Hungarians regarding the Physiologically Equivalent Temperature (PET) index, based on more than 5800 questionnaires. The surveys were conducted in the city of Szeged on 78 days in spring, summer, and autumn. Various, frequently applied analysis approaches (simple descriptive technique, regression analysis, and probit models) were adopted to reveal seasonal differences in the thermal assessment of people. Thermal sensitivity and neutral temperatures were found to be significantly different, especially between summer and the two transient seasons. Challenges of international comparison are also emphasized, since the results prove that neutral temperatures obtained through different analysis techniques may be considerably different. The outcomes of this study underline the importance of the development of standard measurement and analysis methodologies in order to make future studies comprehensible, hereby facilitating the broadening of the common scientific knowledge about outdoor thermal comfort.

  12. Design, operational experiences and beam results obtained with the SNS H- ion source and LEBT at Berkeley Lab

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, R.; Thomae, R.; Stockli, M.; Welton, R.

    2002-04-15

    The ion source and Low-Energy Transport (LEBT) system that will provide H{sup -} ion beams to the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS)** Front End and the accelerator chain have been developed into a mature unit that fully satisfies the operational requirements through the commissioning and early operating phases of SNS. Compared to the early R&D version, many features of the ion source have been improved, and reliable operation at 6% duty factor has been achieved producing beam currents in the 35-mA range and above. LEBT operation proved that the purely electrostatic focusing principle is well suited to inject the ion beam into the RFQ accelerator, including the steering and pre-chopping functions. This paper will discuss the latest design features of the ion source and LEBT, give performance data for the integrated system, and report on commissioning results obtained with the SNS RFQ and Medium-Energy Beam Transport (MEBT) system. Prospects for further improvements will be outlined in concluding remarks.

  13. Recent results obtained on the APEX 12 m antenna with the ArTeMiS prototype camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talvard, M.; André, P.; Rodriguez, L.; Le-Pennec, Y.; De Breuck, C.; Revéret, V.; Agnèse, P.; Boulade, O.; Doumayrou, E.; Dubreuil, D.; Ercolani, E.; Gallais, P.; Horeau, B.; Lagage, PO; Leriche, B.; Lortholary, M.; Martignac, J.; Minier, V.; Pantin, E.; Rabanus, D.; Relland, J.; Willmann, G.

    2008-07-01

    ArTeMiS is a camera designed to operate on large ground based submillimetric telescopes in the 3 atmospheric windows 200, 350 and 450 µm. The focal plane of this camera will be equipped with 5760 bolometric pixels cooled down at 300 mK with an autonomous cryogenic system. The pixels have been manufactured, based on the same technology processes as used for the Herschel-PACS space photometer. We review in this paper the present status and the future plans of this project. A prototype camera, named P-ArTeMiS, has been developed and successfully tested on the KOSMA telescope in 2006 at Gornergrat 3100m, Switzerland. Preliminary results were presented at the previous SPIE conference in Orlando (Talvard et al, 2006). Since then, the prototype camera has been proposed and successfully installed on APEX, a 12 m antenna operated by the Max Planck Institute für Radioastronomie, the European Southern Observatory and the Onsala Space Observatory on the Chajnantor site at 5100 m altitude in Chile. Two runs have been achieved in 2007, first in March and the latter in November. We present in the second part of this paper the first processed images obtained on star forming regions and on circumstellar and debris disks. Calculated sensitivities are compared with expectations. These illustrate the improvements achieved on P-ArTeMiS during the 3 experimental campaigns.

  14. Density-functional-theory results for Ga and As vacancies in GaAs obtained using the Socorro code.

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, Alan Francis

    2009-09-01

    The Socorro code has been used to obtain density-functional theory results for the Ga vacancy (V{sub Ga}) and the As vacancy (V{sub As}) in GaAs. Calculations were performed in a nominal 216-atom simulation cell using the local-density approximation for exchange and correlation. The results from these calculations include: (1) the charge states, the atomic configurations of stable and metastable states, (2) energy levels in the gap, and (3) activation energies for migration. Seven charge states were found for the Ga vacancy (-3, -2, -1, 0, +1, +2, +3). The stable structures of the -3, -2, -1, and 0 charge states consist of an empty Ga site with four As neighbors displaying T{sub d} symmetry. The stable structures of the +1, +2, and +3 charge states consist of an As antisite next to an As vacancy; AsGa-V{sub As}. Five charge states were found for the As vacancy (-3, -2, -1, 0, +1). The stable structures of the -1, 0, and +1 charge states consist of an empty As site with four Ga neighbors displaying C{sub 2v} symmetry. The stable structures of the -3 and -2 charge states consist of a Ga antisite next to a Ga vacancy; Ga{sub As}-V{sub Ga}. The energy levels of V{sub Ga} lie below mid-gap while the energy levels of As{sub Ga}-V{sub As} lie above and below mid-gap. All but one of the V{sub As} energy levels lie above mid-gap while the As{sub Ga}-V{sub As} energy level lies below mid-gap. The migration activation energies of the defect states were all found to be larger than 1.35 eV.

  15. Obtaining identical results with double precision global accuracy on different numbers of processors in parallel particle Monte Carlo simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Cleveland, Mathew A. Brunner, Thomas A.; Gentile, Nicholas A.; Keasler, Jeffrey A.

    2013-10-15

    We describe and compare different approaches for achieving numerical reproducibility in photon Monte Carlo simulations. Reproducibility is desirable for code verification, testing, and debugging. Parallelism creates a unique problem for achieving reproducibility in Monte Carlo simulations because it changes the order in which values are summed. This is a numerical problem because double precision arithmetic is not associative. Parallel Monte Carlo, both domain replicated and decomposed simulations, will run their particles in a different order during different runs of the same simulation because the non-reproducibility of communication between processors. In addition, runs of the same simulation using different domain decompositions will also result in particles being simulated in a different order. In [1], a way of eliminating non-associative accumulations using integer tallies was described. This approach successfully achieves reproducibility at the cost of lost accuracy by rounding double precision numbers to fewer significant digits. This integer approach, and other extended and reduced precision reproducibility techniques, are described and compared in this work. Increased precision alone is not enough to ensure reproducibility of photon Monte Carlo simulations. Non-arbitrary precision approaches require a varying degree of rounding to achieve reproducibility. For the problems investigated in this work double precision global accuracy was achievable by using 100 bits of precision or greater on all unordered sums which where subsequently rounded to double precision at the end of every time-step.

  16. Continuous H/V spectral ratio analysis of ambient noise: a necessity to understand microzonation results obtained by mobile stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Noten, Koen; Lecocq, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Estimating the resonance frequency (f0) and amplification factor of unconsolidated sediments by H/V spectral ratio (HVSR) analysis of seismic ambient noise has been widely used since Nakamura's proposal in 1989. To measure f0 properly, Nakamura suggested to perform microzonation surveys at night when the artificial microtremor is small and does not fully disrupt the ambient seismic noise. As nightly fieldwork is not always a reasonable demand, we propose an alternative workflow of Nakamura's technique to improve the quality of HVSR results obtained by ambient noise measurements of mobile stations during the day. This new workflow includes the automated H/V calculation of continuous seismic data of a stationary or permanent station installed near the microzonation site for as long as the survey lasts in order to control the error in the HVSR analysis obtained by the mobile stations. In this presentation, we apply this workflow on one year of seismic data at two different case studies; i.e. a rural site with a shallow bedrock depth of 30 m and an urban site (Brussels, capital of Belgium, bedrock depth of 110 m) where human activity is continuous 24h/day. By means of an automated python script, the fundamental peak frequency and the H/V amplitude are automatically picked from H/V spectra that are calculated from 50% overlapping, 30 minute windows during the whole year. Afterwards, the f0 and amplitude picks are averaged per hour/per day for the whole year. In both case studies, the H/V amplitude and the fundamental frequencies range considerable, up to ˜15% difference between the daily and nightly measurements. As bedrock depth is known from boreholes at both sites, we concluded that the nightly picked f0 is the true one. Our results thus suggest that changes in the determined f0 and H/V amplitude are dominantly caused by the human behaviour which is stored in the ambient seismic noise (e.g. later onset of traffic in a weekend, quiet Sundays, differences between

  17. Lanthanum Tricyanide-Catalyzed Acyl Silane-Ketone Benzoin Additions and Kinetic Resolution of Resultant α-Silyloxyketones

    PubMed Central

    Tarr, James C.

    2010-01-01

    We report the full account of our efforts on the lanthanum tricyanide-catalyzed acyl silane-ketone benzoin reaction. The reaction exhibits a wide scope in both acyl silane (aryl, alkyl) and ketone (aryl-alkyl, alkyl-alkyl, aryl-aryl, alkenyl-alkyl, alkynyl-alkyl) coupling partners. The diastereoselectivity of the reaction has been examined in both cyclic and acyclic systems. Cyclohexanones give products arising from equatorial attack by the acyl silane. The diastereoselectivity of acyl silane addition to acyclic α-hydroxy ketones can be controlled by varying the protecting group to obtain either Felkin-Ahn or chelation control. The resultant α-silyloxyketone products can be resolved with selectivity factors from 10 to 15 by subjecting racemic ketone benzoin products to CBS reduction. PMID:20392127

  18. Testing the hypothesis of temporal transferability for hydrological models parameters in a changing climate: results obtained on 300 mountainous catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coron, L.; Andréassian, V.; Perrin, C.; Bourqui, M.; Hendrickx, F.

    2012-04-01

    In most hydrological studies, the parameters of hydrological models are calibrated on a period and used to simulate discharges on another. However, the temporal transferability of parameters remains a strong hypothesis, which is worth being confronted to facts. This is all the more true when climate evolutions are considered. This work focuses on mountainous areas, where water availability is closely linked with the processes of snow accumulation and melt controlling the distribution of flows along the year. Considering the trends on mean temperature (both observed and expected), mountainous catchments constitute therefore an interesting playground for testing the temporal/climatic transferability of hydrological models parameters. Series of split-sample tests were performed on a set of 300 French mountainous catchments with two rainfall-runoff models of contrasted structures. Our testing procedure showed that snow simulations can be significantly affected by the climatic conditions met during models' calibration. A tendency to simulate smaller and faster-melting snow packs was found when parameters were transferred to warmer period than the calibration one (as it would be the case in climate change impact studies), the reciprocal being true as well. Errors on annual volumes were limited but the impact on discharges seasonality was significant. This work provides an example of methodology designed for the purpose of hypothesis testing, which can be repeated to study various aspects of the transferability of model parameters. From these results, it can be concluded that temperature differences between calibration and simulation periods must be considered as a cause of additional modelling uncertainties for snow influenced catchments. Keywords: rainfall-runoff modelling, snow parameters, transferability

  19. The effects of metal ion PCR inhibitors on results obtained with the Quantifiler(®) Human DNA Quantification Kit.

    PubMed

    Combs, Laura Gaydosh; Warren, Joseph E; Huynh, Vivian; Castaneda, Joanna; Golden, Teresa D; Roby, Rhonda K

    2015-11-01

    Forensic DNA samples may include the presence of PCR inhibitors, even after extraction and purification. Studies have demonstrated that metal ions, co-purified at specific concentrations, inhibit DNA amplifications. Metal ions are endogenous to sample types, such as bone, and can be introduced from environmental sources. In order to examine the effect of metal ions as PCR inhibitors during quantitative real-time PCR, 2800 M DNA was treated with 0.0025-18.750 mM concentrations of aluminum, calcium, copper, iron, nickel, and lead. DNA samples, both untreated and metal-treated, were quantified using the Quantifiler(®) Human DNA Quantification Kit. Quantification cycle (Cq) values for the Quantifiler(®) Human DNA and internal PCR control (IPC) assays were measured and the estimated concentrations of human DNA were obtained. Comparisons were conducted between metal-treated and control DNA samples to determine the accuracy of the quantification estimates and to test the efficacy of the IPC inhibition detection. This kit is most resistant to the presence of calcium as compared to all metals tested; the maximum concentration tested does not affect the amplification of the IPC or quantification of the sample. This kit is most sensitive to the presence of aluminum; concentrations greater than 0.0750 mM negatively affected the quantification, although the IPC assay accurately assessed the presence of PCR inhibition. The Quantifiler(®) Human DNA Quantification Kit accurately quantifies human DNA in the presence of 0.5000 mM copper, iron, nickel, and lead; however, the IPC does not indicate the presence of PCR inhibition at this concentration of these metals. Unexpectedly, estimates of DNA quantity in samples treated with 18.750 mM copper yielded values in excess of the actual concentration of DNA in the samples; fluorescence spectroscopy experiments indicated this increase was not a direct interaction between the copper metal and 6-FAM dye used to label the probe that

  20. Speech Perception Results for Children Using Cochlear Implants Who Have Additional Special Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dettman, Shani J.; Fiket, Hayley; Dowell, Richard C.; Charlton, Margaret; Williams, Sarah S.; Tomov, Alexandra M.; Barker, Elizabeth J.

    2004-01-01

    Speech perception outcomes in young children with cochlear implants are affected by a number of variables including the age of implantation, duration of implantation, mode of communication, and the presence of a developmental delay or additional disability. The aim of this study is to examine the association between degree of developmental delay…

  1. The effect of filler addition and oven temperature to the antioxidant quality in the drying of Physalis angulata fruit extract obtained by subcritical water extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Susanti, R. F.; Christianto, G.

    2016-01-01

    Physalis angulata or ceplukan is medicinal herb, which grows naturally in Indonesia. It has been used in traditional medicine to treat several diseases. It is also reported to have antimycobacterial, antileukemic, antipyretic. In this research, Pysalis angulata fruit was investigated for its antioxidant capacity. In order to avoid the toxic organic solvent commonly used in conventional extraction, subcritical water extraction method was used. During drying, filler which is inert was added to the extract. It can absorb water and change the oily and sticky form of extract to powder form. The effects of filler types, concentrations and drying temperatures were investigated to the antioxidant quality covering total phenol, flavonoid and antioxidant activity. The results showed that total phenol, flavonoid and antioxidant activity were improved by addition of filler because the drying time was shorter compared to extract without filler. Filler absorbs water and protects extract from exposure to heat during drying. The combination between high temperature and shorter drying time are beneficial to protect the antioxidant in extract. The type of fillers investigation showed that aerosil gave better performance compared to Microcrystalline Celullose (MCC).

  2. Uncertainty and Sensitivity Analysis Results Obtained in the 1996 Performance Assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Bean, J.E.; Berglund, J.W.; Davis, F.J.; Economy, K.; Garner, J.W.; Helton, J.C.; Johnson, J.D.; MacKinnon, R.J.; Miller, J.; O'Brien, D.G.; Ramsey, J.L.; Schreiber, J.D.; Shinta, A.; Smith, L.N.; Stockman, C.; Stoelzel, D.M.; Vaughn, P.

    1998-09-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WPP) is located in southeastern New Mexico and is being developed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for the geologic (deep underground) disposal of transuranic (TRU) waste. A detailed performance assessment (PA) for the WIPP was carried out in 1996 and supports an application by the DOE to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for the certification of the WIPP for the disposal of TRU waste. The 1996 WIPP PA uses a computational structure that maintains a separation between stochastic (i.e., aleatory) and subjective (i.e., epistemic) uncertainty, with stochastic uncertainty arising from the many possible disruptions that could occur over the 10,000 yr regulatory period that applies to the WIPP and subjective uncertainty arising from the imprecision with which many of the quantities required in the PA are known. Important parts of this structure are (1) the use of Latin hypercube sampling to incorporate the effects of subjective uncertainty, (2) the use of Monte Carlo (i.e., random) sampling to incorporate the effects of stochastic uncertainty, and (3) the efficient use of the necessarily limited number of mechanistic calculations that can be performed to support the analysis. The use of Latin hypercube sampling generates a mapping from imprecisely known analysis inputs to analysis outcomes of interest that provides both a display of the uncertainty in analysis outcomes (i.e., uncertainty analysis) and a basis for investigating the effects of individual inputs on these outcomes (i.e., sensitivity analysis). The sensitivity analysis procedures used in the PA include examination of scatterplots, stepwise regression analysis, and partial correlation analysis. Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis results obtained as part of the 1996 WIPP PA are presented and discussed. Specific topics considered include two phase flow in the vicinity of the repository, radionuclide release from the repository, fluid flow and radionuclide

  3. Temporal and spatial variations of pulsating auroras obtained from ground-based observations at Poker Flat Research Range: Initial result

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishiyama, T.; Sakanoi, T.; Miyoshi, Y.; Kataoka, R.; Katoh, Y.; Asamura, K.; Sato, M.; Okano, S.

    2011-12-01

    regions which showed different periods. There were 1-3Hz modulations inside each patches, while there was no higher frequency modulations. In addition, simultaneous observations with the search coil demonstrated that modulations of PA ranged 1 to 3Hz correlated to ELF amplitudes integrated over frequency range of 1-10Hz. On the other hand, VLF emissions corresponding to whistler mode waves were not seen during this period. Isolated PA seen around UT14:30 on the same day showed continuous modulations with peak at 3Hz and no correlations to ELF amplitudes. These results demonstrate that the temporal and spatial characteristics of PA, such as periodicity, modulation and micro-shapes, varies considerably with MLT in a narrow region corresponding to about 2000km × 2000km in the magnetosphere. It means that the generation processes depend greatly on local plasma conditions and the conditions are nonuniform in the source regions.

  4. Spinel dissolution via addition of glass forming chemicals. Results of preliminary experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, K. M.; Johnson, F. C.

    2015-11-01

    Increased loading of high level waste in glass can lead to crystallization within the glass. Some crystalline species, such as spinel, have no practical impact on the chemical durability of the glass, and therefore may be acceptable from both a processing and a product performance standpoint. In order to operate a melter with a controlled amount of crystallization, options must be developed for remediating an unacceptable accumulation of crystals. This report describes preliminary experiments designed to evaluate the ability to dissolve spinel crystals in simulated waste glass melts via the addition of glass forming chemicals (GFCs).

  5. Prolonged durability of electroporation microarrays as a result of addition of saccharides to nucleic acids.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, Hiroyuki; Kato, Koichi; Iwata, Hiroo

    2009-01-01

    The electroporation microarray is a useful tool for high-throughput analysis of gene functions. However, transfection efficiency is greatly impaired by storage of the microarrays, due to water evaporation from arrayed nucleotides. In this study, we aimed at evaluating the effect of saccharides and sugar alcohols, added to the solution of the plasmid DNA or small interfering RNA (siRNA). Microarrays loaded with plasmids and siRNAs were prepared with various polyols including sugars and sugar alcohols. After storage of these microarrays at different temperatures for various time periods, transfection efficiency was evaluated using human embryonic kidney cells. In the case of plasmid-loaded microarrays, addition of monosaccharides (glucose, fructose), disaccharides (trehalose, sucrose), and trisaccharide (raffinose) served to retain transfection efficiency at a reasonably high level after storage at -20 degrees C. The observed effects may be because moisture retention serves to maintain the solubility of DNA. In contrast, polysaccharide (dextran) and sugar alcohol (glycerol) had insignificant effects on retention of transfection efficiency. On the other hand, addition of saccharides and sugar alcohols had insignificant effects on the transfection of siRNA after storage of a microarray at 25 degrees C for 7 days, presumably due to the intrinsically-high solubility of siRNA which consists of short nucleotides. PMID:18989662

  6. Summary of Results Obtained in Full-Scale Tunnel Investigation of the Ryan Flex-Wing Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Joseph L., Jr.; Hassell, James L., Jr.

    1962-01-01

    The performance and static stability and control characteristics of the Ryan Flex-Wing airplane were determined in an investigation conducted in the Langley full-scale tunnel through an angle-of-attack range of the keel from about 14 to 44 deg. for power-on and -off conditions. Comparisons of the wind-tunnel data with flight-test data obtained with the same airplane by the Ryan Aeronautical Company were made in a number of cases.

  7. 43 CFR 3835.17 - What additional requirements must I fulfill to obtain a small miner waiver for my mining claims...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... of a complete plan of operations in compliance with regulations at 36 CFR parts 6 and 9. Your... fulfill to obtain a small miner waiver for my mining claims or sites on National Park System lands? 3835... waiver for my mining claims or sites on National Park System lands? (a) Before performing assessment...

  8. 43 CFR 3835.17 - What additional requirements must I fulfill to obtain a small miner waiver for my mining claims...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... of a complete plan of operations in compliance with regulations at 36 CFR parts 6 and 9. Your... fulfill to obtain a small miner waiver for my mining claims or sites on National Park System lands? 3835... waiver for my mining claims or sites on National Park System lands? (a) Before performing assessment...

  9. 43 CFR 3835.17 - What additional requirements must I fulfill to obtain a small miner waiver for my mining claims...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... of a complete plan of operations in compliance with regulations at 36 CFR parts 6 and 9. Your... fulfill to obtain a small miner waiver for my mining claims or sites on National Park System lands? 3835... waiver for my mining claims or sites on National Park System lands? (a) Before performing assessment...

  10. 43 CFR 3835.17 - What additional requirements must I fulfill to obtain a small miner waiver for my mining claims...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... of a complete plan of operations in compliance with regulations at 36 CFR parts 6 and 9. Your... fulfill to obtain a small miner waiver for my mining claims or sites on National Park System lands? 3835... waiver for my mining claims or sites on National Park System lands? (a) Before performing assessment...

  11. An Investigation of the Feasibility of Obtaining Additional Subscores on the GRE Advanced Psychology Test. GRE Board Professional Report GREB No. 74-4P.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McPeek, Miles; And Others

    This study was undertaken to determine whether additional information useful for guidance or placement could be derived from the existing Graduate Record Examinations (GRE) Advanced Psychology Test. The number of subscores currently reported is limited by the high reliability required to make admissions decisions; subscores used only for guidance…

  12. ON THE DIFFERENT ANALYTICAL RESULTS OBTAINED FOR THE PARALLEL DIFFUSION COEFFICIENT OF COSMIC PARTICLES WITH ADIABATIC FOCUSING

    SciTech Connect

    Shalchi, A.; Danos, R. J.

    2013-03-10

    A spatially varying mean magnetic field gives rise to so-called adiabatic focusing of energetic particles propagating through the universe. In the past, different analytical approaches have been proposed to calculate the particle diffusion coefficient along the mean field with focusing. In the present paper, we show how these different results are related to each other. New results for the parallel diffusion coefficient that are more general than previous results are also presented.

  13. Aircraft-Produced Ice Particles (APIPs): Additional Results and Further Insights.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodley, William L.; Gordon, Glenn; Henderson, Thomas J.; Vonnegut, Bernard; Rosenfeld, Daniel; Detwiler, Andrew

    2003-05-01

    This paper presents new results from studies of aircraft-produced ice particles (APIPs) in supercooled fog and clouds. Nine aircraft, including a Beech King Air 200T cloud physics aircraft, a Piper Aztec, a Cessna 421-C, two North American T-28s, an Aero Commander, a Piper Navajo, a Beech Turbo Baron, and a second four-bladed King Air were involved in the tests. The instrumented King Air served as the monitoring aircraft for trails of ice particles created, or not created, when the other aircraft were flown through clouds at various temperatures and served as both the test and monitoring aircraft when it itself was tested. In some cases sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) gas was released by the test aircraft during its test run and was detected by the King Air during its monitoring passes to confirm the location of the test aircraft wake. Ambient temperatures for the tests ranged between 5° and 12°C. The results confirm earlier published results and provide further insights into the APIPs phenomenon. The King Air at ambient temperatures less than 8°C can produce APIPs readily. The Piper Aztec and the Aero Commander also produced APIPs under the test conditions in which they were flown. The Cessna 421, Piper Navajo, and Beech Turbo Baron did not. The APIPs production potential of a T-28 is still indeterminate because a limited range of conditions was tested. Homogeneous nucleation in the adiabatically cooled regions where air is expanding around the rapidly rotating propeller tips is the cause of APIPs. An equation involving the propeller efficiency, engine thrust, and true airspeed of the aircraft is used along with the published thrust characteristics of the propellers to predict when the aircraft will produce APIPs. In most cases the predictions agree well with the field tests. Of all of the aircraft tested, the Piper Aztec, despite its small size and low horsepower, was predicted to be the most prolific producer of APIPs, and this was confirmed in field tests. The

  14. Preliminary results, obtained by using a proton beam, for an active scanning system to installed on the KHIMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Chang Hyeuk; Lee, Hwa-Ryun; Jang, Sea Duk; Kim, Hyunyong; Hahn, Garam; Kim, Jeong Hwan; Jang, Hong Suk; Park, Dong Wook; Hwang, Won Taek; Yang, Tae-Keun

    2015-08-01

    The active scanning technique is a pencil beam delivery method in particle therapy. The active scanning beam delivery system consists of a beam scanner, beam monitor, energy modulator, and related programs, such as the irradiation control and planning programs. A proposed prototype active scanning system was designed and installed on MC-50 at the Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Science (KIRAMS) with a 45-MeV proton beam. The laminated magnetic yoke of the scanning magnet supported fast ramping. The beam intensity and the beam profile monitors were designed for measuring the beam's properties. Both the range shifter and the ridge filter modulate the incoming beam energy. The LabVIEW®-based beam-irradiation-control program operates the system in a sequential operation manner for use with the MC-50 cyclotron. In addition, an in-housecoded irradiation-planning program generates an optimal irradiation path. A scanning experiment was successfully completed to print the logo of the Korea Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator (KHIMA) on GaF film. Moreover, the beam's position accuracy was measured as 0.62 mm in the x-direction and as 0.83 mm in the y-direction.

  15. Comparison of environmental TLD (thermoluminescent dosimeter) results obtained using glow curve deconvolution and region of interest analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    We tested a Harshaw Model 4000 TLD Reader in the Sandia Environmental TLD Program. An extra set of LiF TLD-700 chips were prepared for each field location and calibration level. At the end of quarter one, half of the TLDs were read on the Model 4000 and the other half were read on our standard Harshaw Model 2000. This presentation compares the results of the two systems. The Model 4000 results are reported for two regions of interest and for background subtraction using Harshaw Glow Curve Deconvolution Software.

  16. Flue gas conditioning for improved particle collection in electrostatic precipitators. First topical report, Results of laboratory screening of additives

    SciTech Connect

    Durham, M.D.

    1993-04-16

    Several tasks have been completed in a program to evaluate additives to improve fine particle collection in electrostatic precipitators. Screening tests and laboratory evaluations of additives are summarized in this report. Over 20 additives were evaluated; four were found to improve flyash precipitation rates. The Insitec particle analyzer was also evaluated; test results show that the analyzer will provide accurate sizing and counting information for particles in the size range of {le} 10 {mu}m dia.

  17. A comparison of results obtained from foil chaff clouds at 69 deg northern latitude during winter, summer and autumn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Widdel, H. U.; Vonzahn, U.

    1989-01-01

    Results from high resolution foil chaff experiments flown during the campaigns MAP/WINE (December 83 to February 84), MAC/SINE (June to July 1987) and Epsilon (October to November 1987) at Andenes (Northern Norway) are compared to each other and the differences in wind direction and wave activity during the different seasons are worked out.

  18. Prevalence of micronutrient deficiency based on results obtained from the national pilot program on control of micronutrient malnutrition.

    PubMed

    Chakravarty, Indira; Sinha, R K

    2002-05-01

    Micronutrient deficiency is a serious public health concern in most developing countries. In India, iron deficiency, vitamin A deficiency, and iodine deficiency disorder are of greatest public health significance. In addition, subclinical zinc deficiency, flourosis, and fluoride-deficient dental caries are important areas of concern. The National Pilot Program on Control of Micronutrient Malnutrition was launched in 1995 to address these problems and the Department of Biochemistry and Nutrition of the All India Institute of Hygiene and Public Health (Calcutta) was entrusted to coordinate its activities. The program presently covers one northeastern and four eastern states, namely Assam, Bihar (Jharkhand), Orissa, West Bengal, and Tripura. Baseline analyses were conducted on demographic situation, food and nutrient intake pattern, nutritional deficiency diseases (e.g., iron deficiency anemia), iodine deficiency disorder, and vitamin A deficiency. It was observed that except for cereals, the diet was deficient in all other food groups. Nutrient intake (i.e., energy, protein, vitamins, and minerals) was also deficient in almost the entire state. Anthropometric indices (e.g., weight-for-age and height-for-age data) indicated that large percentages of <5-year-old and 6-14-year-old children were in grade II or III malnutrition. Mean dietary zinc intakes in all the surveyed districts were much lower than the RDA. Large percentages of salt samples had iodine levels less than 15 ppm. The point prevalence of anemia in various age groups was found to be high. Bitot's spot was mainly noted in the age group of 6-71 months. Nightblindness was noted in young children as well as the children 24-71 months old. High prevalence of nightblindness in pregnant women is a point of concern. Actions needed to control micronutrient deficiencies include: intervention strategies, extensive nutrition and health education through innovative IEC materials to support problem-specific programs

  19. Nitrogen Addition as a Result of Long-Term Root Removal Affects Soil Organic Matter Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crow, S. E.; Lajtha, K.

    2004-12-01

    A long-term field litter manipulation site was established in a mature coniferous forest stand at the H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest, OR, USA in 1997 in order to address how detrital inputs influence soil organic matter formation and accumulation. Soils at this site are Andisols and are characterized by high carbon (C) and low nitrogen (N) contents, due largely to the legacy of woody debris and extremely low atmospheric N deposition. Detrital treatments include trenching to remove roots, doubling wood and needle litter, and removing aboveground litter. In order to determine whether five years of detrital manipulation had altered organic matter quantity and lability at this site, soil from the top 0-5 cm of the A horizon was density fractionated to separate the labile light fraction (LF) from the more recalcitrant mineral soil in the heavy fraction (HF). Both density fractions and whole soils were incubated for one year in chambers designed such that repeated measurements of soil respiration and leachate chemistry could be made. Trenching resulted in the removal of labile root inputs from root exudates and turnover of fine roots and active mycorrhizal communities as well as an increase of available N by removing plant uptake. Since 1999, soil solution chemistry from tension lysimeters has shown greater total N and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) flux and less dissolved organic carbon (DOC) flux to stream flow in the trenched plots relative to the other detrital treatments. C/N ratio and C content of both light and heavy fractions from the trenched plots were greater than other detrital treatments. In the lab incubation, over the course of a year C mineralization from these soils was suppressed. Cumulative DOC losses and CO2 efflux both were significantly less in soils from trenched plots than in other detrital treatments including controls. After day 150 of the incubation, leachates from the HF of plots with trenched treatments had a DOC/DON ratio significantly

  20. Disk Diffusion Testing Using Candida sp. Colonies Taken Directly from CHROMagar Candida Medium May Decrease Time Required To Obtain Results

    PubMed Central

    Klevay, Michael; Ebinger, Alex; Diekema, Daniel; Messer, Shawn; Hollis, Richard; Pfaller, Michael

    2005-01-01

    We compared results of disk diffusion antifungal susceptibility testing from Candida sp. strains passaged on CHROMagar and on potato dextrose agar. The overall categorical agreements for fluconazole and voriconazole disk testing were 95% and 98% with 0% and 0.5% very major errors, respectively. Disk diffusion testing by the CLSI (formerly NCCLS) M44-A method can be performed accurately by taking inocula directly from CHROMagar. PMID:16000489

  1. Dataset of calcified plaque condition in the stenotic coronary artery lesion obtained using multidetector computed tomography to indicate the addition of rotational atherectomy during percutaneous coronary intervention.

    PubMed

    Akutsu, Yasushi; Hamazaki, Yuji; Sekimoto, Teruo; Kaneko, Kyouichi; Kodama, Yusuke; Li, Hui-Ling; Suyama, Jumpei; Gokan, Takehiko; Sakai, Koshiro; Kosaki, Ryota; Yokota, Hiroyuki; Tsujita, Hiroaki; Tsukamoto, Shigeto; Sakurai, Masayuki; Sambe, Takehiko; Oguchi, Katsuji; Uchida, Naoki; Kobayashi, Shinichi; Aoki, Atsushi; Kobayashi, Youichi

    2016-06-01

    Our data shows the regional coronary artery calcium scores (lesion CAC) on multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) and the cross-section imaging on MDCT angiography (CTA) in the target lesion of the patients with stable angina pectoris who were scheduled for percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). CAC and CTA data were measured using a 128-slice scanner (Somatom Definition AS+; Siemens Medical Solutions, Forchheim, Germany) before PCI. CAC was measured in a non-contrast-enhanced scan and was quantified using the Calcium Score module of SYNAPSE VINCENT software (Fujifilm Co. Tokyo, Japan) and expressed in Agatston units. CTA were then continued with a contrast-enhanced ECG gating to measure the severity of the calcified plaque condition. We present that both CAC and CTA data are used as a benchmark to consider the addition of rotational atherectomy during PCI to severely calcified plaque lesions. PMID:26977441

  2. 21 CFR 570.14 - Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed and pet food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... materials for animal feed and pet food. 570.14 Section 570.14 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.14 Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed...

  3. 21 CFR 570.14 - Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed and pet food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... materials for animal feed and pet food. 570.14 Section 570.14 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.14 Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed...

  4. 21 CFR 570.14 - Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed and pet food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... materials for animal feed and pet food. 570.14 Section 570.14 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.14 Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed...

  5. 21 CFR 570.14 - Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed and pet food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... materials for animal feed and pet food. 570.14 Section 570.14 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.14 Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed...

  6. 21 CFR 570.14 - Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed and pet food.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... materials for animal feed and pet food. 570.14 Section 570.14 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES General Provisions § 570.14 Indirect food additives resulting from packaging materials for animal feed...

  7. A comparison of the results obtained with traditional phlebotomy and with therapeutic erythrocytapheresis in patients with erythrocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Vecchio, Sisto; Leonardo, Patrizia; Musuraca, Vittoria; D'Ettoris, Anna Rita; Geremicca, Walter

    2007-01-01

    Background Phlebotomy is the most commonly treatment used for erythrocytosis and polycythaemia. After the introduction in the medical practice of cell separators, erythrocytapheresis has been also introduced. The aim of the study was to compare the clinical results of the two kinds of treatment. Patients and methods We analysed 98 patients affected by different forms of erythrocytosis, divided into three treatment groups: 1) patients undergoing phlebotomy; 2) patients treated only with therapeutic erythrocytapheresis; 3) patients who underwent phlebotomy treatment for a certain period and who were then switched to apheresis treatment. The haematocrit in these patients was maintained at about 45% and they were treated when the haematocrit exceeded the critical threshold of 50%. Results The interval between two therapeutic interventions was assumed as indicator. In 80% of the patients treated only with phlebotomy the interval was between 20 days and 2 months, in subjects treated with only erythrocytapheresis the intevals were between 2 and 7 months. In the third group of patients, the switch from phlebotomy to erythrocytapheresis considerably prolonged the interval. Conclusions The data showed that erythrocytapheresis was clearly superior to traditional phlebotomy in terms of prolonging the period between one treatment and another, independently of the type of erythrocytosis and of the treatment group. PMID:19204747

  8. Superior critical current density obtained in MgB2 bulks via employing carbon-coated boron and minor Cu addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Junming; Liu, Yongchang; Ma, Zongqing; Shahriar Al Hossain, M.; Xin, Ying; Jin, Jianxun

    2016-09-01

    High performance Cu doped MgB2 bulks were prepared by an in-situ method with carbon-coated amorphous boron as precursor. It was found that the usage of carbon-coated boron in present work leads to the formation of uniformly refined MgB2 grains, as well as a high level of homogeneous carbon doping in the MgB2 samples, which significantly enhance the Jc in both Cu doped and undoped bulks compared to MgB2 bulks with normal amorphous boron precursor. Moreover, minor Cu can service as activator, and thus facilitates the growth of MgB2 grains and improves crystallinity and grain connectivity, which can bring about the excellent critical current density (Jc) at self fields and low fields (the best values are 7 × 105 A/cm2 at self fields, and 1 × 105 A/cm2 at 2 T, 20 K, respectively). Simultaneously, minor Cu addition can reduce the amount of MgO impurity significantly, also contributing to the improvement of Jc at low fields. Our work suggests that Cu-activated sintering combined with employment of carbon-coated amorphous boron as precursor could be a promising technique to produce practical MgB2 bulks or wires with excellent Jc on an industrial scale.

  9. Assessing the impact of common forensic presumptive tests on the ability to obtain results using a novel rapid DNA platform.

    PubMed

    Donachie, Gillian E; Dawnay, Nick; Ahmed, Romana; Naif, Sarah; Duxbury, Nicola J; Tribble, Nicholas D

    2015-07-01

    The rise of DNA evidence to the forefront of forensic science has led to high sample numbers being submitted for profiling by investigators to casework laboratories: bottleneck effects are often seen resulting in slow turnaround times and sample backlog. The ParaDNA(®) Screening and Intelligence Tests have been designed to guide investigators on the viability of potential sources of DNA allowing them to determine which samples should be sent for full DNA analysis. Both tests are designed to augment the arsenal of available forensic tests for end users and be used concurrently to those commonly available. Therefore, assessing the impact that common forensic tests have on such novel technology is important to measure. The systems were tested against various potential inhibitors to which samples may be exposed as part of the investigative process. Presumptive test agents for biological materials (blood, semen and saliva) and those used as fingerprint enhancement agents were both used. The Screening Test showed a drop in performance following application of aluminium powder and cyanoacrylate (CNA) on fingerprints samples; however this drop in performance was not replicated with high template DNA. No significant effect was observed for any agent using the Intelligence Test. Therefore, both tests stand up well to the chemical agents applied and can be used by investigators with confidence that system performance will be maintained. PMID:25864157

  10. Nano Sized Powder Additives of SiC and Diamond to MgB2 as Artificially Inductor of Pinning Force for the Dense Samples Obtained by High Pressure Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morawski, A.; Pachla, W.; Kuzmenko, D.; Łada, T.; Zaleski, A.; Eibl, O.; Haessler, W.; Kovac, P.

    2006-09-01

    The nano-powder additives of SiC (11nm) and diamond (6 nm) were mixed with Mg and amorphous B powders in the production route of MgB2 bulk and wires samples. Special attention was paid to the precursor powders with the respect to chemical purity, grain morphology and secondary phases. Commercially available MgB2 powders (ex-situ technology) and also mixtures of MgH2 and amorphous B powders (in-situ technology) were applied as the starting precursors. Electron microscopy was used extensively for the characterization of these powders applying both SEM and TEM analysis. Superconducting bulks and wires samples have been produced, by hot pressing, hot isostatic pressing and hydrostatic extrusion processes. High grain refinement and density in the final wire samples have been achieved by the severe plastic deformation (reduction over 99.98%) with the use of the cumulative (multi-step) hydrostatic extrusion. Superconducting properties of these samples were measured, with particular attention paid to the Jc(B) characteristics. Critical currents at lower and higher magnetic fields depended sensitively on the amount of the additives and grain refinement. TEM imaging and electron spectroscopic imaging were used to evaluate the size and distribution of the both of additives within the microstructure. The strain field of the additives resulted from the misfit in thermal expansion coefficient between the additives and the MgB2 matrix was imaged in bright and dark field TEM and is particularly important for the flux-pinning properties of these materials. Influence of such synthesis parameters as pressure, temperature and time on the superconducting properties and the morphology of the products were examined and obtained results were compared. This allowed to choose the optimal conditions for the improvement of the bulk MgB2 characteristics of the wire samples.

  11. The effect of the addition of colloidal iridium oxide into sol-gel obtained titanium and ruthenium oxide coatings on titanium on their electrochemical properties.

    PubMed

    Panić, Vladimir V; Dekanski, Aleksandar B; Mitrić, Miodrag; Milonjić, Slobodan K; Misković-Stanković, Vesna B; Nikolić, Branislav Z

    2010-07-21

    Electrochemical properties of sol-gel processed Ti(0.6)Ir(0.4)O(2) and Ti(0.6)Ru(0.3)Ir(0.1)O(2) coatings on titanium substrate were investigated using cyclic voltammetry, polarization measurements and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and compared to the properties of Ti(0.6)Ru(0.4)O(2) coating. The role of iridium oxide in the improvement of the electrocatalytic, capacitive and stability properties of titanium anodes activated by a RuO(2)-TiO(2) coating is discussed. The oxide sols were prepared by forced hydrolysis of the metal chlorides. The characterization by dynamic light scattering and X-ray diffraction showed that polydisperse oxide sols were obtained with the particles tending to form agglomerates. The presence of IrO(2) causes a suppression of the X-ray diffraction peaks of TiO(2) and RuO(2) in the sol-gel prepared Ti(0.6)Ir(0.4)O(2) and Ti(0.6)Ru(0.3)Ir(0.1)O(2) coatings. The IrO(2)-containing coatings had an enhanced charge storage ability and activity for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) in comparison to Ti(0.6)Ru(0.4)O(2) coating. The voltammogram of the Ti(0.6)Ir(0.4)O(2)/Ti electrode showed well-resolved peaks related to Ir redox transitions, which are responsible for the enhanced charge storage ability of IrO(2)-containing coatings. Redox transitions of Ir were also registered in the high-frequency domain of the ac impedance spectra of the coatings as a semicircle with characteristics insensitive to the electrolyte composition and to the electrode potential prior to OER. However, the semicircle characteristics were different for the two IrO(2)-containing coatings, as well as at potentials outside the OER in comparison to those at which the OER occurs. PMID:20544088

  12. A Summary of the results obtained in the LDRD project Interaction of a magnetized plasma with structured surfaces-

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, R H; Porter, G D; Ryutov, D D.

    1999-02-23

    Our work was directed towards developing a basic understanding of a new class of phenomena: effects of surface structure on the processes in a magnetized plasma near surfaces and at some distances for them. The surface structures can be of various kinds: topographic features ranging from smooth waviness to a coarse roughness, non-uniformities of the secondary emission coefficient, dielectric impregnations into conducting surface, etc. The expected effects are strongest when the magnetic field forms a shallow angle with the surface. The current and future applications of this new branch of plasma physics include fusion devices, gas-discharge and plasma-processing devices, large spacecraft, and physical phenomena in the vicinity of celestial bodies without atmospheres. We have developed a methodology that allows one to study in a unified way effects of rough surfaces with arbitrary scales of topographic features, from sizes exceeding the ion gyro-radius, to sizes much below the electron gyro-radius, in the most interesting case of a grazing magnetic field. The results can be presented in a dimensionless form, so that they would be equally applicable to the micrometer-scale roughness of the divertor plates of fusion devices, and to 10-km-scale structures of a Lunar surface. We have identified the following new effects: 1) the plasma is absorbed by only a small fraction of the total surface, near the mountain tops of the bumps; 2) regions inaccessible for one or both plasma species (shadows) are formed behind the bumps; the size of these inaccessible domains is, generally speaking, different for the electrons and ions; 3) this latter circumstance leads to formation of fine potential structure both near the surface and in the bulk plasma, leading to enhanced plasma transport. We have investigated the processes that may lead to plasma penetration into the shadows and concluded that most probable candidates are (depending on the specifics of plasma parameters) the lower

  13. Review of disastrous torrent flood on the vlasina river on June 26, 1988 — Including analysis of flood and the obtained results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavrilovic, Zoran; Matovic, Zivorad

    A disastrous torrent flood on the Vlasina River of 26 June 1988 was of unprecedented intensity in Yugoslavia. The catchment area affected by the catastrophe covered more than 1000 km2 and the damage was estimated to one billion dollars. It is interesting to note that this area was treated with erosion control works and that percentage of eroded land (soils) was negligible. According to the experts opinion, or should we say delusion, torrent flood could not possibly occur in thus protected catchment. However, we have to admit that impossible did happen. The analysis of the flood yielded significant results that revealed that experts were mistaken in many points. Those results indicated a need to find different analytical approach because, besides visible traces, the actual records of flood were sparse. Rain gauging stations in the zone affected most seriously were completely destroyed as well as water level gauges. Since the torrent flood computations on the base of flood traces are not reliable, the causes of flood occurrence and development of flood itself had to be reconstructed. In that respect, meteorology — radar surveys were used for reconstruction of rainfalls. Using these data, as well as those obtained by torrent bed survey, by grain size analysis and by determination of peak flood on some tributaries and along the river itself, the flood could be analysed. In addition, the efficiency level of erosion control works was analysed and also the importance of torrent control as basic element of complex erosion and torrent control works.

  14. Remnant Preservation is Helpful to Obtain Good Clinical Results in Posterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: Comparison of Clinical Results of Three Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang Hak; Lee, Han-Jun; Jung, Ho Joong; Kim, Seong Hwan

    2013-01-01

    Background The purpose of the present study was to compare the clinical results of 3 posterior cruciate ligament reconstruction techniques according to the time from injury to surgery and remnant PCL status and to evaluate the efficiency of each technique. Methods The records of 89 patients who underwent primary PCL reconstructions with a posterolateral corner sling were analyzed retrospectively. Thirty-four patients were treated by anterolateral bundle (ALB) reconstruction with preservation of the remnant PCL using a transtibial tunnel technique in the acute and subacute stages of injury (group 1). Forty patients were treated with remnant PCL tensioning and an ALB reconstruction using the modified inlay technique in the chronic stage (group 2), and fifteen patients were treated with double-bundle reconstruction using the modified inlay technique (group 3). The double-bundle reconstruction was performed if there was a very weak or no PCL remnant. Results The mean side-to-side differences in posterior tibial translation on the stress radiographs were reduced from 10.1 ± 2.5 mm in group 1, 10.6 ± 2.4 mm in group 2, and 12.8 ± 3.2 mm in group 3 preoperatively to 2.3 ± 1.4 mm in group 1, 2.3 ± 1.5 mm in group 2, and 4.0 ± 2.5 mm in group 3 at the last follow-up (p < 0.001, p < 0.001, and p < 0.001, respectively). Statistical analyses revealed that group 1 and group 2 were similar in terms of side-to-side difference changes in posterior tibial translation on the stress radiographs; however, group 3 was inferior to group 1 and group 2 at the last follow-up (p = 0.022). The clinical results were not significantly different among the three groups. Conclusions Excellent posterior stability and good clinical results were achieved with ALB reconstruction preserving the injured remnant PCL in the acute and subacute stages and remnant PCL tensioning with ALB reconstruction in the chronic stage. The PCL injuries could be surgically corrected with different techniques

  15. Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive for Enhanced Mercury Control - Task 3 Full-scale Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Gary Blythe

    2007-05-01

    in Texas Lignite Flue Gas; Task 3 - Full-scale FGD Additive Testing in High-sulfur Eastern Bituminous Flue Gas; Task 4 - Pilot Wet Scrubber Additive Tests at Plant Yates; and Task 5 - Full-scale Additive Tests at Plant Yates. The pilot-scale tests were completed in 2005 and have been previously reported. This topical report presents the results from the Task 3 full-scale additive tests, conducted at IPL's Petersburg Station Unit 2. The Task 5 full-scale additive tests will be conducted later in calendar year 2007.

  16. Additional results on palaeomagnetic stratigraphy of the Koobi Fora Formation, east of Lake Turkana (Lake Rudolf), Kenya

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hillhouse, J.W.; Ndombi, J.W.M.; Cox, A.; Brock, A.

    1977-01-01

    The magnetostratigraphy of the hominid-bearing sediments exposed east of Lake Turkana has been strengthened by new palaeomagnetic results. Ages obtained from several tuffs by the 40Ar/39Ar method suggest an approxmate match between the observed magnetozones and the geomagnetic polarity time scale; however, the palaeomagnetic results are also compatible with a younger chronology suggested by conventional K-Ar dating of the KBS Tuff. ?? 1977 Nature Publishing Group.

  17. 49 CFR 1155.23 - Additional requirements when filing after an unsatisfactory result from a State, local, or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional requirements when filing after an unsatisfactory result from a State, local, or municipal authority affecting the siting of the facility. 1155.23 Section 1155.23 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT...

  18. Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive for Enhanced Mercury Control - Task 5 Full-Scale Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Gary Blythe; MariJon Owens

    2007-12-01

    and reporting. The other four tasks involve field testing on FGD systems, either at pilot or full scale. The four tasks include: Task 2 - Pilot Additive Testing in Texas Lignite Flue Gas; Task 3 - Full-scale FGD Additive Testing in High-sulfur Eastern Bituminous Flue Gas; Task 4 - Pilot Wet Scrubber Additive Tests at Plant Yates; and Task 5 - Full-scale Additive Tests at Plant Yates. The pilot-scale tests and the full-scale test using high-sulfur coal were completed in 2005 and 2006 and have been previously reported. This topical report presents the results from the Task 5 full-scale additive tests, conducted at Southern Company's Plant Yates Unit 1. Both additives were tested there.

  19. Buckling loads for stiffened panels subjected to combined longitudinal compression and shear loadings: Results obtained with PASCO, EAL, and STAGS computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stroud, W. J.; Greene, W. H.; Anderson, M. S.

    1981-01-01

    The shear buckling analyses used in PASCO are summarized. The PASCO analyses include the basic VIPASA analysis, which is essentially exact for longitudinal and transverse loads, and a smeared orthotropic solution which was added to alleviate a shortcoming in the VIPASA analysis. Buckling results are presented for six stiffened panels loaded by combinations of longitudinal compression and shear. The buckling results were obtained with the PASCO, EAL, and STAGS computer programs. The EAL and STAGS solutions were obtained with a fine finite element mesh and provide calculations for the entire range of combinations of longitudinal compression and shear loadings.

  20. Aircraft and ground vehicle friction correlation test results obtained under winter runway conditions during joint FAA/NASA Runway Friction Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yager, Thomas J.; Vogler, William A.; Baldasare, Paul

    1988-01-01

    Aircraft and ground vehicle friction data collected during the Joint FAA/NASA Runway Friction Program under winter runway conditions are discussed and test results are summarized. The relationship between the different ground vehicle friction measurements obtained on compacted snow- and ice-covered conditions is defined together with the correlation to aircraft tire friction performance under similar runway conditions.

  1. Rheological behavior of FM-9 solutions and correlation with flammability test results and interpretations. [fuel thickening additive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peng, S. T. J.; Landel, R. F.

    1983-01-01

    The rheological behavior of progressively shear thickening FM-9 solutions, a time-dependent shear thickening material with characteristics of threshold behavior, is investigated as part of a study of the rheological properties of antimisting jet fuel. Flammability test results and test configurations from various sources are evaluated. A correlation is obtained between the rheological behavior and the flammability tests such that, for a given system, such as a fixed solvent system and the FM-9 polymer system, the flammability criterion can be applied to a wide range of concentrations and temperatures.

  2. Buckling loads of stiffened panels subjected to combined longitudinal compression and shear: Results obtained with PASCO, EAL, and STAGS computer programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stroud, W. J.; Greene, W. H.; Anderson, M. S.

    1984-01-01

    Buckling analyses used in PASCO are summarized with emphasis placed on the shear buckling analyses. The PASCO buckling analyses include the basic VIPASA analysis, which is essentially exact for longitudinal and transverse loads, and a smeared stiffener solution, which treats a stiffened panel as an orthotropic plate. Buckling results are then presented for seven stiffened panels loaded by combinations of longitudinal compression and shear. The buckling results were obtained with the PASCO, EAL, and STAGS computer programs. The EAL and STAGS solutions were obtained with a fine finite element mesh and are very accurate. These finite element solutions together with the PASCO results for pure longitudinal compression provide benchmark calculations to evaluate other analysis procedures.

  3. Long continental pollen record of the last ca. 500 ka in eastern Anatolia - First palynological results from Lake Van cores obtained in 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pickarski, N.; Heumann, G.; Litt, T.

    2012-04-01

    Lake Van is located in a climatically sensitive semiarid and tectonically active region in Eastern Anatolia, Turkey. It is a key site to reconstruct terrestrial paleoecology and paleoclimate in the Near East during the Quaternary. Lake Van is the largest soda lake (surface area 3.570 km2) and the fourth largest terminal lake in the world (volume 607 km3). The maximum water depth is 460 m and the maximum length is 130 km WSW-ENE. The present lake level is at an elevation of 1,646 m above mean sea level. The northern and eastern part of Lake Van is mainly characterized by steppe vegetation related to the so-called Irano-Turanian plant geographical territory. In contrast, some remnants of deciduous oak forests can be observed mainly in the Bitlis Massive, SW of the lake. We present preliminary palynological results of a long continental sedimentary record obtained during a coring campaign supported by the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP) in summer 2010. The composite profile from the Ahlat Ridge, the most important site for paleoclimatological studies (total length of ca. 218 m), yields a continuous paleoclimate archive encompassing ca. 500.000 years. The record is partly characterized by annually laminated sediments. By using pollen analysis, several glacial and interglacial/ interstadial periods can be observed. The warm stages can be identified based on higher amounts of pollen from thermophilous trees such as deciduous oak. In addition to the current interglacial stage (MIS 1), pronounced warm phases coincide with past interglacials probably correlative to MIS 5, 7, 9 and 11 or 13. Cold stages are characterized by pollen types related to steppe plants such as Artemisia, chenopods and grasses. The glacial-interglacial cycles as reflected in the palynological data are in broad agreement with those of stable oxygen isotope analyses based on autigenic carbonate of the lacustrine sediments (bulk). Caused by the state of the art, more

  4. RESULTS OF THE 2008 UT MODELING BENCHMARK OBTAINED WITH 2 SEMI-ANALYTICAL MODELS: RESPONSES OF FLAT BOTTOM HOLES AT VARIOUS DEPTHS UNDER INTERFACES OF DIFFERENT CURVATURES

    SciTech Connect

    Raillon, R.; Mahaut, S.; Leymarie, N.; Lonne, S.; Spies, M.

    2009-03-03

    This paper presents the results of the 2008 UT modeling benchmark with the ultrasonic simulation code for predicting echo-responses from flaws integrated into the Civa software platform and with the code developed by M. Spies. UT configurations addressed are similar to 2007 ones, to better understand some responses obtained last year. Experimental results proposed concern the responses of flat bottom holes at different depths inside surface curved blocks inspected by an immersion probe in normal incidence. They investigate the influence of surface curvature upon the amplitude and shape of flaw responses. Comparison of the simulated and experimental results is discussed.

  5. Hormonal monitoring of ovarian activity using the Ovarian Monitor, part I. Validation of home and laboratory results obtained during ovulatory cycles by comparison with radioimmunoassay.

    PubMed

    Blackwell, Leonard F; Brown, James B; Vigil, Pilar; Gross, Barbara; Sufi, Saulat; d'Arcangues, Catherine

    2003-05-01

    A study was conducted to determine the accuracy and reliability of the Home Ovarian Monitor for measuring estrone glucuronide (E1G) and pregnanediol glucuronide (PdG) during ovulatory cycles as a means of monitoring ovarian activity. Approximately 60 ovulating women in three centres collected timed specimens of urine (3h or more) for a total of six cycles each. The women measured the E1G and PdG excretion per 24h in their urine specimens using the Monitor. A local laboratory using the Monitor also measured the excretion. Urine specimens from 18 to 19 cycles were sent frozen to the WHO Reference Laboratory in London where they were analysed for E1G and PdG by the Monitor and by radioimmunoassay (RIA). The correlation coefficients between the Monitor and radioimmunoassay results obtained in London were better than 0.84 in 80% of the cycles. A urine bias caused the Monitor E1G results to be higher than those obtained by radioimmunoassay but the daily patterns were the same. In 50% of the cycles, this bias caused a delay of up to 3 days in identifying the beginning of the E1G rise compared with radioimmunoassay. Timing of the preovulatory E1G peak and the postovulatory PdG rise agreed within the experimental errors of the two systems. The study confirmed that women using the Monitor at home obtained results that were as accurate as those obtained by laboratory procedures. Careful supervision was required to maintain laboratory levels of quality control and interpretation of results. PMID:12798498

  6. Divergent targets of glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation result in additive effects of metformin and starvation in colon and breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Marini, Cecilia; Bianchi, Giovanna; Buschiazzo, Ambra; Ravera, Silvia; Martella, Roberto; Bottoni, Gianluca; Petretto, Andrea; Emionite, Laura; Monteverde, Elena; Capitanio, Selene; Inglese, Elvira; Fabbi, Marina; Bongioanni, Francesca; Garaboldi, Lucia; Bruzzi, Paolo; Orengo, Anna Maria; Raffaghello, Lizzia; Sambuceti, Gianmario

    2016-01-01

    Emerging evidence demonstrates that targeting energy metabolism is a promising strategy to fight cancer. Here we show that combining metformin and short-term starvation markedly impairs metabolism and growth of colon and breast cancer. The impairment in glycolytic flux caused by starvation is enhanced by metformin through its interference with hexokinase II activity, as documented by measurement of 18F-fluorodeoxyglycose uptake. Oxidative phosphorylation is additively compromised by combined treatment: metformin virtually abolishes Complex I function; starvation determines an uncoupled status of OXPHOS and amplifies the activity of respiratory Complexes II and IV thus combining a massive ATP depletion with a significant increase in reactive oxygen species. More importantly, the combined treatment profoundly impairs cancer glucose metabolism and virtually abolishes lesion growth in experimental models of breast and colon carcinoma. Our results strongly suggest that energy metabolism is a promising target to reduce cancer progression. PMID:26794854

  7. Divergent targets of glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation result in additive effects of metformin and starvation in colon and breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Marini, Cecilia; Bianchi, Giovanna; Buschiazzo, Ambra; Ravera, Silvia; Martella, Roberto; Bottoni, Gianluca; Petretto, Andrea; Emionite, Laura; Monteverde, Elena; Capitanio, Selene; Inglese, Elvira; Fabbi, Marina; Bongioanni, Francesca; Garaboldi, Lucia; Bruzzi, Paolo; Orengo, Anna Maria; Raffaghello, Lizzia; Sambuceti, Gianmario

    2016-01-01

    Emerging evidence demonstrates that targeting energy metabolism is a promising strategy to fight cancer. Here we show that combining metformin and short-term starvation markedly impairs metabolism and growth of colon and breast cancer. The impairment in glycolytic flux caused by starvation is enhanced by metformin through its interference with hexokinase II activity, as documented by measurement of 18F-fluorodeoxyglycose uptake. Oxidative phosphorylation is additively compromised by combined treatment: metformin virtually abolishes Complex I function; starvation determines an uncoupled status of OXPHOS and amplifies the activity of respiratory Complexes II and IV thus combining a massive ATP depletion with a significant increase in reactive oxygen species. More importantly, the combined treatment profoundly impairs cancer glucose metabolism and virtually abolishes lesion growth in experimental models of breast and colon carcinoma. Our results strongly suggest that energy metabolism is a promising target to reduce cancer progression. PMID:26794854

  8. Pyrolysis of mixtures of sewage sludge and manure: a comparison of the results obtained in the laboratory (semi-pilot) and in a pilot plant.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, M E; Martínez, O; Gómez, X; Morán, A

    2007-01-01

    A pilot-scale pyrolysis process was carried out for the treatment of a mixture of two types of waste, sewage sludge and cattle manure, comparing the results with others obtained under laboratory conditions (semi-pilot scale). The aim of this study was to obtain the energetic valorization of the products. Owing to the specific characteristics of the plant, two products were obtained from the process: gas and carbonized solid. As no liquid fraction was obtained, the gas fraction is a greater percentage made up of both condensable and non-condensable compounds, which were obtained separately at the laboratory scale. The pilot plant was designed so that the gases produced by thermolysis were burnt continuously in a combustion chamber, while the carbonized fraction was fed in batches for co-combustion. To determine composition and combustion ability, the gas and solid products from the pilot process were characterized by chromatographic analysis of the gaseous fraction and chemical analysis and programmed-temperature combustion of the carbonized solid. The composition of the combustion gases, rich in light hydrocarbons, and the carbon present in the carbonized fraction enable the energetic valorization of these products. The combustion gases were subjected to a cleaning process and their composition analysed twice: before and after the gas cleaning treatment. The study led to a positive assessment of the possible use of the process products as fuel, provided that the combustion gases are treated. As most of the sulphur and chlorine from the original waste are mainly concentrated in the solid fraction, the use of char as a fuel will depend on the effectiveness of clean-up techniques for combustion gases. During gas cleansing, neutralizing with sodium bicarbonate proved effective, especially for the acidic compounds HCl, HF and SO(2). PMID:16996726

  9. Model assessment of additional contamination of water bodies as a result of wildfires in the Chernobyl exclusion zone.

    PubMed

    Bondar, Yu I; Navumau, A D; Nikitin, A N; Brown, J; Dowdall, M

    2014-12-01

    Forest fires and wild fires are recognized as a possible cause of resuspension and redistribution of radioactive substances when occurring on lands contaminated with such materials, and as such are a matter of concern within the regions of Belarus and the Ukraine which were contaminated by the Chernobyl accident in 1986. Modelling the effects of such fires on radioactive contaminants is a complex matter given the number of variables involved. In this paper, a probabilistic model was developed using empirical data drawn from the Polessie State Radiation-Ecological Reserve (PSRER), Belarus, and the Maximum Entropy Method. Using the model, it was possible to derive estimates of the contribution of fire events to overall variability in the levels of (137)Cs and (239,240)Pu in ground air as well as estimates of the deposition of these radionuclides to specific water bodies within the contaminated areas of Belarus. Results indicate that fire events are potentially significant redistributors of radioactive contaminants within the study area and may result in additional contamination being introduced to water bodies. PMID:25240987

  10. Can homeopathy bring additional benefits to thalassemic patients on hydroxyurea therapy? Encouraging results of a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Antara; Chakrabarty, Sudipa Basu; Karmakar, Susanta Roy; Chakrabarty, Amit; Biswas, Surjyo Jyoti; Haque, Saiful; Das, Debarsi; Paul, Saili; Mandal, Biswapati; Naoual, Boujedaini; Belon, Philippe; Khuda-Bukhsh, Anisur Rahman

    2010-03-01

    Several homeopathic remedies, namely, Pulsatilla Nigricans (30th potency), Ceanothus Americanus (both mother tincture and 6th potency) and Ferrum Metallicum (30th potency) selected as per similia principles were administered to 38 thalassemic patients receiving Hydroxyurea (HU) therapy for a varying period of time. Levels of serum ferritin (SF), fetal hemoglobin (HbF), hemoglobin (Hb), platelet count (PC), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), white blood cell (WBC) count, bilirubin content, alanine amino transferase (ALT), aspartate amino transferase (AST) and serum total protein content of patients were determined before and 3 months after administration of the homeopathic remedies in combination with HU to evaluate additional benefits, if any, derived by the homeopathic remedies, by comparing the data with those of 38 subjects receiving only HU therapy. Preliminary results indicated that there was a significant decrease in the SF and increase in HbF levels in the combined, treated subjects. Although the changes in other parameters were not so significant, there was a significant decrease in size of spleen in most patients with spleenomegaly and improvement in general health conditions along with an increased gap between transfusions in most patients receiving the combined homeopathic treatment. The homeopathic remedies being inexpensive and without any known side-effects seem to have great potentials in bringing additional benefits to thalassemic patients; particularly in the developing world where blood transfusions suffer from inadequate screening and fall short of the stringent safety standards followed in the developed countries. Further independent studies are encouraged. PMID:18955271

  11. Biomarker based reconstruction of Pleistocene climate and environmental conditions in the Gulf of Alaska: Preliminary results obtained from IODP Expedition 341 sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Juliane; Sanchez Montes, Maria Luisa; McClymont, Erin; Stein, Ruediger; Fahl, Kirsten; Mangelsdorf, Kai; Wilkes, Heinz; 341 Scientists, Expedition

    2014-05-01

    (Etourneau et al., 2013) - is applied to gain information about the variability in polar water/sea ice extent in the study area. Previously, Rowland et al. (2001) documented that not only the degree of unsaturation in C25-HBIs but also the E- to Z-isomerisation in the C25-HBI trienes increases with increasing water temperature. Based on this observation we suggest that the ratio of the Z-isomer to the E-isomer in the trienes might reflect SST changes and could be used as an additional SST proxy. The applicability of this approach, however, needs further evaluation (e.g. through comparisons with alkenone SST data obtained from Expedition 341 sediments). References Addison, J.A., Finney, B.P., Dean, W.E., Davies, M.H., Mix, A.C., Stoner, J.S. and Jaeger, J.M., 2012. Productivity and sedimentary d15N variability for the last 17,000 years along the northern Gulf of Alaska continental slope. Paleoceanography, 27 (1), PA1206. Barron, J.A., Bukry, D., Dean, W.E., Addison, J.A. and Finney, B., 2009. Paleoceanography of the Gulf of Alaska during the past 15,000 years: Results from diatoms, silicoflagellates, and geochemistry. Marine Micropaleontology, 72 (3-4), 176-195. Davies, M.H., Mix, A.C., Stoner, J.S., Addison, J.A., Jaeger, J., Finney, B. and Wiest, J., 2011. The deglacial transition on the southeastern Alaska Margin: Meltwater input, sea level rise, marine productivity, and sedimentary anoxia. Paleoceanography, 26 (2), PA2223. Etourneau, J., Collins, L.G., Willmott, V., Kim, J.H., Barbara, L., Leventer, A., Schouten, S., Sinninghe Damsté, J.S., Bianchini, A., Klein, V., Crosta, X. and Massé, G., 2013. Holocene climate variations in the western Antarctic Peninsula: evidence for sea ice extent predominantly controlled by changes in insolation and ENSO variability. Clim. Past, 9 (4), 1431-1446. Rowland, S.J., Allard, W.G., Belt, S.T., Masse, G., Robert, J.M., Blackburn, S., Frampton, D., Revill, A.T. and Volkman, J.K., 2001. Factors influencing the distributions of

  12. Accuracy and Precision in the Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes (SHADOZ) Dataset in Light of the JOSIE-2000 Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witte, Jacquelyn C.; Thompson, Anne M.; Schmidlin, F. J.; Oltmans, S. J.; Smit, H. G. J.

    2004-01-01

    Since 1998 the Southern Hemisphere ADditional OZonesondes (SHADOZ) project has provided over 2000 ozone profiles over eleven southern hemisphere tropical and subtropical stations. Balloon-borne electrochemical concentration cell (ECC) ozonesondes are used to measure ozone. The data are archived at: &ttp://croc.gsfc.nasa.gov/shadoz>. In analysis of ozonesonde imprecision within the SHADOZ dataset, Thompson et al. [JGR, 108,8238,20031 we pointed out that variations in ozonesonde technique (sensor solution strength, instrument manufacturer, data processing) could lead to station-to-station biases within the SHADOZ dataset. Imprecisions and accuracy in the SHADOZ dataset are examined in light of new data. First, SHADOZ total ozone column amounts are compared to version 8 TOMS (2004 release). As for TOMS version 7, satellite total ozone is usually higher than the integrated column amount from the sounding. Discrepancies between the sonde and satellite datasets decline two percentage points on average, compared to version 7 TOMS offsets. Second, the SHADOZ station data are compared to results of chamber simulations (JOSE-2000, Juelich Ozonesonde Intercomparison Experiment) in which the various SHADOZ techniques were evaluated. The range of JOSE column deviations from a standard instrument (-10%) in the chamber resembles that of the SHADOZ station data. It appears that some systematic variations in the SHADOZ ozone record are accounted for by differences in solution strength, data processing and instrument type (manufacturer).

  13. Reducing the item number to obtain same-length self-assessment scales: a systematic approach using result of graphical loglinear Rasch modeling.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Tine; Kreiner, Svend

    2011-01-01

    The Revised Danish Learning Styles Inventory (R-D-LSI) (Nielsen 2005), which is an adaptation of Sternberg-Wagner Thinking Styles Inventory (Sternberg, 1997), comprises 14 subscales, each measuring a separate learning style. Of these 14 subscales, 9 are eight items long and 5 are seven items long. For self-assessment, self-scoring and self-interpretational purposes it is deemed prudent that subscales measuring comparable constructs are of the same item length. Consequently, in order to obtain a self-assessment version of the R-D-LSI with an equal number of items in each subscale, a systematic approach to item reduction based on results of graphical loglinear Rasch modeling (GLLRM) was designed. This approach was then used to reduce the number of items in the subscales of the R-D-LSI which had an item-length of more than seven items, thereby obtaining the Danish Self-Assessment Learning Styles Inventory (D-SA-LSI) comprising 14 subscales each with an item length of seven. The systematic approach to item reduction based on results of GLLRM will be presented and exemplified by its application to the R-D-LSI. PMID:22357154

  14. Long-term follow-up for bimanual microincision cataract surgery: comparison of results obtained by surgeons in training and experienced surgeons

    PubMed Central

    Cavallini, Gian Maria; Verdina, Tommaso; Forlini, Matteo; Volante, Veronica; De Maria, Michele; Torlai, Giulio; Benatti, Caterina; Delvecchio, Giancarlo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To determine the efficacy of bimanual microincision cataract surgery (B-MICS) performed by surgeons in training, evaluating clinical results, posterior capsule opacification (PCO) incidence, and clear corneal incision (CCI) architecture in a long-term follow-up and comparing results with those obtained by experienced surgeons. Patients and methods Eighty eyes of 62 patients operated on by three surgeons in training who used B-MICS technique for the first time were included in the study (Group A). Eighty eyes of 59 patients who underwent B-MICS by three experienced surgeons were included as a control group (Group B). Best corrected visual acuity, astigmatism, corneal pachymetry, and endothelial cell count were evaluated before surgery and at 1 month and 18 months after surgery. Anterior segment optical coherence tomography images were obtained to study the morphology of CCIs. PCO incidence was evaluated using EPCO2000 software. Results Out of 160 surgeries included in the study, mean best-corrected visual acuity improvement at 18 months was 0.343±0.246 logMAR for Group A, and 0.388±0.175 logMAR for Group B, respectively. We found no statistically significant induced astigmatism nor corneal pachymetry changes in either group, while we noticed a statistically significant endothelial cell loss postoperatively in both groups (P<0.05). In Group A, mean PCO score was 0.163±0.196, while for Group B, it was 0.057±0.132 (P=0.0025). Mean length and inclination of the CCIs for Group A and Group B were, respectively, 1,358±175 µm and 1,437±256 µm and 141.8°±6.4° and 148.7°±5.1°. As regards corneal architecture in the 320 CCIs considered, we found posterior wound retractions and endothelial gaps, respectively, 9.8% and 11.6% for Group A and 7.8% and 10.8% for Group B. Conclusion B-MICS performed by surgeons in training is an effective surgical technique even when assessed after a long-term follow-up. PCO incidence resulted in being higher for less

  15. Results of in vivo measurements of strontium-90 body-burden in Urals residents: analyses of data obtained 2006-2012

    SciTech Connect

    Tolstykh, E. I.; Bougrov, N. G.; Krivoshchapov, Victor A.; Shishkina, Elena A.; Shagina, N. B.; Degteva, M. O.; Anspaugh, L. R.; Napier, Bruce A.

    2012-06-01

    A part of the Urals territory was contaminated with 90Sr and 137Cs in the 1950s as a result of accidents at the "Mayak" Production Association. The paper describes the analysis of in vivo 90Sr measurements in Urals residents. The measurements were performed with the use of whole-body-counter SICH-9.1M in 2006-2012. Totally 5840 measurements for 4876 persons were performed from 2006 to 2012; maximal measured value was 24 kBq. Earlier, similar measurements were performed with SICH-9.1 (1974-1997). Comparison of the results obtained with SICH-9.1 and SICH-9.1M has shown a good agreement of the two data sets.

  16. Mean Polyp per Patient Is an Accurate and Readily Obtainable Surrogate for Adenoma Detection Rate: Results from an Opportunistic Screening Colonoscopy Program

    PubMed Central

    Delavari, Alireza; Salimzadeh, Hamideh; Bishehsari, Faraz; Sobh Rakhshankhah, Elham; Delavari, Farnaz; Moossavi, Shirin; Khosravi, Pejman; Nasseri-Moghaddam, Siavosh; Merat, Shahin; Ansari, Reza; Vahedi, Homayoon; Shahbazkhani, Bijan; Saberifiroozi, Mehdi; Sotoudeh, Masoud; Malekzadeh, Reza

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND The incidence of colorectal cancer is rising in several developing countries. In the absence of integrated endoscopy and pathology databases, adenoma detection rate (ADR), as a validated quality indicator of screening colonoscopy, is generally difficult to obtain in practice. We aimed to measure the correlation of polyp-related indicators with ADR in order to identify the most accurate surrogate(s) of ADR in routine practice. METHODS We retrospectively reviewed the endoscopic and histopathological findings of patients who underwent colonoscopy at a tertiary gastrointestinal clinic. The overall ADR and advanced-ADR were calculated using patient-level data. The Pearson’s correlation coefficient (r) was applied to measure the strength of the correlation between the quality metrics obtained by endoscopists. RESULTS A total of 713 asymptomatic adults aged 50 and older who underwent their first-time screening colonoscopy were included in this study. The ADR and advanced-ADR were 33.00% (95% CI: 29.52-36.54) and 13.18% (95% CI: 10.79-15.90), respectively. We observed good correlations between polyp detection rate (PDR) and ADR (r=0.93), and mean number of polyp per patient (MPP) and ADR (r=0.88) throughout the colon. There was a positive, yet insignificant correlation between advanced ADRs and non-advanced ADRs (r=0.42, p=0.35). CONCLUSION MPP is strongly correlated with ADR, and can be considered as a reliable and readily obtainable proxy for ADR in opportunistic screening colonoscopy programs. PMID:26609349

  17. Search for Trans-Neptunian Objects: a new MIDAS context confronted with some results obtained with the UH 8k CCD Mosaic Camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rousselot, P.; Lombard, F.; Moreels, G.

    1998-09-01

    We present the results obtained with a new program dedicated to the automatic detection of trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs) with standard sets of images obtained in the same field of view. This program has the key advantage, when compared to other similar softwares, of being designed to be used with one of the main astronomical data processing package; the Munich Image Data Analysis System (MIDAS) developped by The European Southern Observatory (ESO). It is available freely from the World Wide Web server of the Observatory of Besan\\c con (http://www.obs-besancon/www/ publi/philippe/tno.html). This program has been tested with observational data collected with the UH 8k CCD mosaic Camera, used during two nights, on October 25 and 26, 1997, at the prime focus of the CFH telescope (Mauna Kea, Hawaii). The purpose of these observational data was to detect new TNOs and a previous analysis conducted by the classical method of blinking, had lead to a first detection of a new TNO. This object appears close to the detection limit of the images (i.e. to the 24(th) magnitude) and presents an unsual orbital inclination (i =~ 33(deg) ). It has allowed the efficient and successful testing of the program to detect faint moving objects, demonstrating its ability to detect the objects close to the sky background noise with a very limited number of false detections.

  18. New results for the space radiation environment of MIR space station obtained by Liulin dosimeter-radiometer. Comparison with LET spectrometer NAUSICAA.

    PubMed

    Dachev TsP; Semkova, J V; Matviichuk YuN; Koleva, R T; Tomov, B T; Baynov, P T; Bottollier-Depois, J F; Nguen, V D; Lebaron-Jacobs, L; Siegrist, M; Duvivier, E; Almarcha, B; Petrov, V M; Shurshakov, V V

    1995-01-01

    Since 1988 high sensitivity semiconductor dosimeter-radiometer "Liulin" worked on board of MIR space station. Device measured the absorbed dose rate and the flux of penetrating particles. The analysis of the data shows the following new results: In October 1989 and after March 24, 1991, two additional stable maximums in flux channel were observed in the southern-eastern part of South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA). These two maximums existed at least several months and seem to be due to trapped high energy electron and proton fluxes. In April 1991 additional maximums were localized in the following geographical coordinates regions: latitude = (-35 degrees)-(-50 degrees) longitude = 332 degrees-l6 degrees and lat.(-46 degrees)-(-52 degrees) long. 360 degrees-60 degrees. Additional maximums diffusion occurs inside radiation belt. Appearance of these maximums seems to be closely connected with preceding powerful solar proton events and associated geomagnetic dynamics of new belt disturbances. Alter the series of solar proton events in June 1991 we observed significant enhancement of this new radiation belt formation. To achieve sufficient accuracy of dose rate predictions in low Earth orbits the structure and dynamics of new belt should be carefully analyzed to be included in a new environment model. From the inter comparison of the data from "Liulin" and French developed tissue equivalent LET spectrometer NAUSICAA in the time period August-November 1992 we come to the following conclusions: Mainly there is good agreement between both data sets for absorbed dose in the region of SAA; Different situation of the instruments on the station can explain the cases when differences up to 2 times are observed; At high latitudes usually the tissue equivalent absorbed dose observations are 2 times larger than "Liulin" doses. PMID:11540982

  19. Biochemical and physiological parameters on the skin surface of healthy test persons: a contribution towards the interpretation of the results obtained by a screening program.

    PubMed

    Gloor, M; Kionke, M; Friederich, H C

    1975-07-18

    Biochemical and physiological examinations were carried out on the skin surface of a total of 115 healthy persons ranging from the age of 7-79 years. In these investigations the following striking findings were made: 1. There is a significant correlation between the results obtained by the ferricyanide, the phenol sulfuric acid and the ninhydrin methods in the so called water solubles. 2. The relationship between the fraction of wax and cholesterol esters and the squalene fraction in the skin surface lipids influences the release of free fatty acids by bacterial lipases. 3. With regards to most parameters tested there are great differences between the 8-12 year age group and the older age groups. 4. There are significant differences in the 8-12 year age group between the male and female test persons. 5. With regards to the parameters tested there are also significant differences between the various test areas. PMID:1164042

  20. Recent results obtained by use of accelerators on plasma-edge properties in controlled-fusion devices and on properties of high-power neutral beams

    SciTech Connect

    Langley, R.A.

    1982-01-01

    The study of plasma-wall interactions is of primary importance in present fusion devices. Measurements of incident fuel and impurity fluxes, retention and release of fuel atoms, and erosion of internal components are of particular interest. Accelerators in the megaelectronvolt range are being used both to measure the depth profile of fuel atoms implanted in samples placed in the plasma edge by use of nuclear reactions and to measure impurities and film thicknesses by use of elastic scattering reactions. Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) is used to determine flux and energy distributions of fuel atoms and to measure species composition and impurities in the beams of high power neutral beam injectors. Recent results obtained with these techniques are presented and areas of future study are discussed.

  1. Consideration on the Long Ecological Half-Life Component of (137)Cs in Demersal Fish Based on Field Observation Results Obtained after the Fukushima Accident.

    PubMed

    Tagami, Keiko; Uchida, Shigeo

    2016-02-16

    Radiocesium concentrations in most marine fish collected off the coast of Fukushima and surrounding prefectures have decreased with time, and four years after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident occurred, radiocesium concentrations have generally fallen below the detectable level (ca. < 10 Bq kg(-1)-raw). Only in some demersal fish species have detectable concentration levels still been found, and even these species have showed slow radiocesium decreases. The food web was considered as the major factor causing this phenomenon; however, slow elimination rates of radiocesium from these fish species also could be the cause. The latter effect was examined by considering that the (137)Cs concentration decreasing trend in fish could be fit with a set of three exponentially decreasing components; that is, having short, intermediate, and long biological half-lives. The long ecological half-life component was calculated using a 400-1500 d period of monitoring results for Japanese rockfish (Sebastes cheni) and compared with previous reported laboratory results for biological half-life. The obtained ecological half-lives ranged from 274-365 d, and these values agreed with the biological half-life of this fish species. This result implied that the long biological half-lives of radiocesium in some demersal fish species made their radiocesium contamination periods longer. PMID:26828695

  2. Recent Advances in Solid Catalysts Obtained by Metalloporphyrins Immobilization on Layered Anionic Exchangers: A Short Review and Some New Catalytic Results.

    PubMed

    Nakagaki, Shirley; Mantovani, Karen Mary; Machado, Guilherme Sippel; Castro, Kelly Aparecida Dias de Freitas; Wypych, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Layered materials are a very interesting class of compounds obtained by stacking of two-dimensional layers along the basal axis. A remarkable property of these materials is their capacity to interact with a variety of chemical species, irrespective of their charge (neutral, cationic or anionic). These species can be grafted onto the surface of the layered materials or intercalated between the layers, to expand or contract the interlayer distance. Metalloporphyrins, which are typically soluble oxidation catalysts, are examples of molecules that can interact with layered materials. This work presents a short review of the studies involving metalloporphyrin immobilization on two different anionic exchangers, Layered Double Hydroxides (LDHs) and Layered Hydroxide Salts (LHSs), published over the past year. After immobilization of anionic porphyrins, the resulting solids behave as reusable catalysts for heterogeneous oxidation processes. Although a large number of publications involving metalloporphyrin immobilization on LDHs exist, only a few papers have dealt with LHSs as supports, so metalloporphyrins immobilized on LHSs represent a new and promising research field. This work also describes new results on an anionic manganese porphyrin (MnP) immobilized on Mg/Al-LDH solids with different nominal Mg/Al molar ratios (2:1, 3:1 and 4:1) and intercalated with different anions (CO₃(2-) or NO₃(-)). The influence of the support composition on the MnP immobilization rates and the catalytic performance of the resulting solid in cyclooctene oxidation reactions will be reported. PMID:26938518

  3. Spinning Characteristics of the XN2Y-1 Airplane Obtained from the Spinning Balance and Compared with Results from the Spinning Tunnel and from Flight Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bamber, M J; House, R O

    1937-01-01

    Report presents the results of tests of a 1/10-scale model of the XN2Y-1 airplane tested in the NACA 5-foot vertical wind tunnel in which the six components of forces and moments were measured. The model was tested in 17 attitudes in which the full-scale airplane had been observed to spin, in order to determine the effects of scale, tunnel, and interference. In addition, a series of tests was made to cover the range of angles of attack, angles of sideslip, rates of rotation, and control setting likely to be encountered by a spinning airplane. The data were used to estimate the probable attitudes in steady spins of an airplane in flight and of a model in the free-spinning tunnel. The estimated attitudes of steady spin were compared with attitudes measured in flight and in the spinning tunnel. The results indicate that corrections for certain scale and tunnel effects are necessary to estimate full-scale spinning attitudes from model results.

  4. Prognosis of Slagging and Fouling Properties of Coals Based on Widely Available Data and Results of Additional Measuraments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alekhnovich, Alexander N.; Artemjeva, Natalja V.; Bogomolov, Vladimir V.; Shchelokov, Vyacheslav I.; Petukhov, Vasilij G.

    Ranging of coals according to the slagging properties of similar type and investigated coals could be made on the basis of the available reference data. However, to define the slagging and fouling properties of a random coal it is necessary to carry out additional laboratory research.

  5. Prevention of False Resistance Results Obtained in Testing the Susceptibility of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to Pyrazinamide with the Bactec MGIT 960 System Using a Reduced Inoculum

    PubMed Central

    Mustazzolu, Alessandro; Giannoni, Federico; Bornigia, Stefano; Gherardi, Giancarlo; Fattorini, Lanfranco

    2013-01-01

    The susceptibility of 211 clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (201 M. tuberculosis and 10 Mycobacterium bovis isolates) to pyrazinamide (PZA) was assessed by the nonradiometric Bactec MGIT 960 system (M960). Detection of PZA resistance was followed by a repeat testing using a reduced inoculum (RI) of 0.25 ml instead of 0.5 ml. According to the first M960 analysis, resistance was observed in 55 samples. In the RI assay, 32 samples turned out to be susceptible and 23 proved to be resistant (58.2% false positivity). The Bactec 460 assay confirmed as resistant those strains detected by the RI assay, while discrepant results were found susceptible. Mutation analysis performed on 13 M. tuberculosis isolates detected pncA mutations in 11 samples. On the basis of our data, we suggest using the RI assay to confirm all PZA resistance results obtained with the standard M960 assay. Further studies are required to confirm our findings. PMID:23100351

  6. Results from Mobile Lab Measurements Obtained in the Barnett Shale with Emphasis on Methane and Gaseous Mercury Emissions (Fort Worth, TX)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laine, P. L.; Lan, X.; Anderson, D.; Talbot, R. W.

    2013-12-01

    Our work is part of a comprehensive analysis conducted through a collaboration of ground based measurements and airborne measurements with several research groups in order to gain a better understanding of methane and mercury emissions in the Barnett Shale. It's a vast rock formation that sits in the 5,000 square miles surrounding the Fort Worth area. To get the gas to market requires an underground highway of pipelines and compression stations. Texas state records show that since 2000 the number of gas compressors in the Barnett Shale has tripled (from a few hundred to 1,300), and they're ever infringing on populated areas. Recent preliminary data reported by Pétron et al. and Tollefson et al. (from the natural-gas operations in Denver-Julesburg Basin) point to CH4 loss from the process of 4-8%, not including additional losses in the pipeline and distribution system. Additionally, Howarth et al. have conducted a comprehensive analysis of greenhouse gases (methane, in particular) emitted from shale gas as a result of hydraulic fracturing and they estimate up to 8% of all natural gas mined from shale formations leaks to the atmosphere. Not only is this cause for alarm due to the global warming potential of methane, but we would expect similar losses of additional (potentially harmful) gases, i.e., atmospheric Hg, from the extraction systems. These preliminary findings are higher than the current U.S. Environment Protection Agency (EPA) leakage estimate of 2.3 percent. Our strategy employs the use of our mobile laboratory, a four door Chevrolet Silverado pickup truck with a camper shell, outfitted with trace gas instrumentation including a Picarro G2132i and a Tekran 2537 mercury analyzer. The Picarro cavity ring down instrument has high precision and accuracy H2O, CO2, CH4, and 13δC in CH4 and CO2 with very little drift due to precise temperature and pressure controls. The Tekran mercury analyzer allows for accurate total gaseous mercury measurements via

  7. Controlling False-Positive Results Obtained with the Hodge and Masuda Assays for Detection of Class A Carbapenemase in Species of Enterobacteriaceae by Incorporating Boronic Acid▿

    PubMed Central

    Pasteran, Fernando; Mendez, Tania; Rapoport, Melina; Guerriero, Leonor; Corso, Alejandra

    2010-01-01

    The modified Hodge method (MHT) has been recommended by the CLSI for confirmation of suspected class A carbapenemase production in species of Enterobacteriaceae. This test and the Masuda method (MAS) have advantages over traditional phenotypic methods in that they directly analyze carbapenemase activity. In order to identify the potential interferences of these tests, we designed a panel composed of diverse bacterial genera with distinct carbapenem susceptibility patterns (42 carbapenemase producers and 48 nonproducers). About 25% of results among carbapenemase nonproducers, mainly strains harboring CTX-M and AmpC hyperproducers, were observed to be false positive. Subsequently, we developed an optimized approach for more-accurate detection of suspicious isolates of carbapenemase by addition of boronic acid (BA) derivatives (reversible inhibitor of class A carbapenemases and AmpC cephalosporinases) and oxacillin (inhibitor of AmpCs enzymes). The use of the modified BA- and oxacillin-based MHT and MAS resulted in high sensitivity (>90%) and specificity (100%) for class A carbapenemase detection. By use of these methodologies, isolates producing KPCs and GES, Sme, IMI, and NMC-A carbapenemases were successfully distinguished from those producing other classes of ß-lactamases (extended-spectrum β-lactamases [ESBLs], AmpC β-lactamases, metallo-β-lactamases [MBLs], etc.). These methods will provide the fast and useful information needed for targeting of antimicrobial therapy and appropriate infection control. PMID:20181912

  8. Collection of relevant results obtained with the ERTS-1 satellite images by the Institute for Space Research (INPE), volume 2. [Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demendonca, F.; Amaral, G.; Gamadealmeida, E. (Principal Investigator)

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Soil resource studies in Brazil have concluded that: areas with agricultural activities appear surrounding urban centers; some areas are suffering a strong erosion action; there exist two drainage systems near Paraguai River and Parana River; and this region possesses great variety of soil types. It is possible to count the number of lakes and sluices as well as their superficial area using a channel 7 photographic enlargement. The great concentration of water bodies along the Jacui River determines the large rice crops. Data concerning regions around Teresina City, Presidente Prudente, Piracicaba City, Dourados, and Tres Marias Dam revealed several characteristics concerning the soil and water resources. Two basic maps were made of the natural vegetation distribution over central eastern Brazil from data ERTS-1 data. One map shows the drainage system, the road system, and cities; while the second shows the natural vegetation. It was possible to identify old reforestation, new reforestation, natural forest in flat lands, and natural forest in rolling lands from the ERTS images. Different pasture plant species could be identified by multispectral remote sensing. Data obtained along different wavelength bands provide essential data for the range manager to evaluate his range and to establish a suitable policy. Hydrographic mapping was done using the ERTS images.

  9. Changes in lipid composition of Escherichia coli resulting from growth with organic solvents and with food additives.

    PubMed Central

    Ingram, L O

    1977-01-01

    Cells of Escherichia coli contain an altered fatty acid and phospholipid composition when grown in the presence of sublethal concentrations of a variety of organic solvents and food additives. The diversity of compounds examined which caused these changes indicates that no single catabolic pathway is involved. Many of the observed changes are consistent with the hypothesis that cells adapt their membrane lipids to compensate for the presence of these compounds in the environment. Both sodium benzoate and calcium propionate caused the synthesis of unusual fatty acids. PMID:327934

  10. Neutron-induced 63Ni in copper samples from Hiroshima and Nagasaki: a comprehensive presentation of results obtained at the Munich Maier-Leibnitz Laboratory.

    PubMed

    Rühm, W; Carroll, K L; Egbert, S D; Faestermann, T; Knie, K; Korschinek, G; Martinelli, R E; Marchetti, A A; McAninch, J E; Rugel, G; Straume, T; Wallner, A; Wallner, C; Fujita, S; Hasai, H; Hoshi, M; Shizuma, K

    2007-11-01

    Those inhabitants of Hiroshima and Nagasaki who were affected by the A-bomb explosions, were exposed to a mixed neutron and gamma radiation field. Few years later about 120,000 survivors of both cities were selected, and since then radiation-induced late effects such as leukemia and solid tumors are being investigated in this cohort. When the present study was initiated, the fast neutron fluences that caused the neutron doses of these survivors had never been determined experimentally. In principle, this would have been possible if radioisotopes produced by fast neutrons from the A-bomb explosions had been detected in samples from Hiroshima and Nagasaki at distances where the inhabitants survived. However, no suitable radioisotope had so far been identified. As a contribution to a large international effort to re-evaluate the A-bomb dosimetry, the concentration of the radionuclide (63)Ni (half-life 100.1 years) has been measured in copper samples from Hiroshima and Nagasaki. These measurements were mainly performed at the Maier-Leibnitz-Laboratory in Munich, Germany, by means of accelerator mass spectrometry. Because the (63)Ni had been produced in these samples by fast A-bomb neutrons via the reaction (63)Cu(n,p)(63)Ni, these measurements allow direct experimental validation of calculated neutron doses to the members of the LSS cohort, for the first time. The results of these efforts have already been published in a compact form. A more detailed discussion of the methodical aspects of these measurements and their results are given in the present paper. Eight copper samples that had been significantly exposed to fast neutrons from the Hiroshima A-bomb explosion were investigated. In general, measured (63)Ni concentrations decreased in these samples with increasing distance to the hypocenter, from 4 x 10(6 ) (63)Ni nuclei per gram copper at 391 m, to about 1 x 10(5 ) (63)Ni nuclei per gram copper at about 1,400 m. Additional measurements performed on three large

  11. Continuous H/V Spectral Ratio Analysis of Ambient Noise Recorded by Stationary Seismic Stations to Improve Microzonation Results Obtained by Mobile Stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Noten, K.; Lecocq, T.; Meyer, L.; Molron, J.; Camelbeeck, T.

    2015-12-01

    Estimating the resonance frequency and amplification factor of unconsolidated sediments by H/V spectral ratio (HVSR) analysis of seismic ambient noise has been widely used since Nakamura's proposal in 1989. The fundamental frequency (f0) usually correlates well with the thickness of unconsolidated sediments above the bedrock. To measure f0 properly, Nakamura suggested to perform microzonation surveys at night when the artificial microtremor is small and does not fully disrupt the ambient seismic noise. As nightly fieldwork is not always a reasonable demand, we propose an alternative workflow of Nakamura's technique to improve the quality of HVSR results obtained by ambient noise measurements of mobile stations during the day. This new workflow includes the automated H/V calculation of one year of continuous seismic data of a stationary/permanent station located nearby the sites selected for microzonation. By means of an automated python script, the daily, weekly, monthly and seasonally variations of the fundamental frequency and the H/V amplitude at the site where the stationary station is installed are evaluated. Continuous HVSR analysis of sites with constant bedrock depth shows that the changes in the determined f0 and H/V amplitude are dominantly caused by the human behaviour which is stored in the ambient seismic noise (e.g. later onset of traffic in a weekend, quiet Sundays, differences between daily/nightly activity,…). This continuous analysis allows the characterisation of the deviation of the measured f0 to the true f0 throughout the whole year! Consequently, as mobile stations are affected by the same variation of the ambient noise, a correction factor can be applied on the calculated f0 of individual measurements during the microzonation survey and a proper Vs can be estimated. In this presentation, we apply this workflow to two different case studies; i.e. a rural site with a shallow bedrock depth of 30 m and an urban site (Brussels, capital of

  12. Estimation of daily aluminum intake in Japan based on food consumption inspection results: impact of food additives

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Kyoko; Suzuki, Ippei; Kubota, Hiroki; Furusho, Noriko; Inoue, Tomoyuki; Yasukouchi, Yoshikazu; Akiyama, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Dietary aluminum (Al) intake by young children, children, youths, and adults in Japan was estimated using the market basket method. The Al content of food category (I–VII) samples for each age group was determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The Al content in processed foods and unprocessed foods ranged from 0.40 to 21.7 mg/kg and from 0.32 to 0.54 mg/kg, respectively. For processed foods in all age groups, the Al content in food category VI samples, sugar and confections/savories, was the highest, followed by those in category II, cereals. The daily dietary Al intake from processed foods was much larger than that from unprocessed foods. The mean weekly percentages of the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI, established by the joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives in 2011) from processed foods for all age groups are 43.1, 22.4, 17.6 and 15.1%, respectively. Only the highest consumer Al exposure value (>P95) of the young children group exceeded the PTWI. PMID:25473496

  13. A re-examination of paleomagnetic results from NA Jurassic sedimentary rocks: Additional evidence for proposed Jurassic MUTO?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Housen, B. A.

    2015-12-01

    Kent and Irving, 2010; and Kent et al, 2015 propose a monster shift in the position of Jurassic (160 to 145 Ma) paleopoles for North America- defined by results from igneous rocks. This monster shift is likely an unrecognized true polar wander occurrence. Although subject to inclination error, results from sedimentary rocks from North America, if corrected for these effects, can be used to supplement the available data for this time period. Steiner (2003) reported results from 48 stratigraphic horizons sampled from the Callovian Summerville Fm, from NE New Mexico. A recalculated mean of these results yields a mean direction of D = 332, I = 39, n=48, k = 15, α95 = 5.4°. These data were analyzed for possible inclination error-although the dataset is small, the E-I results yielded a corrected I = 53. This yields a corrected paleopole for NA at ~165 Ma located at 67° N and 168° E.Paleomagnetic results from the Black Hills- Kilanowski (2002) for the Callovian Hulett Mbr of the Sundance Fm, and Gregiore (2001) the Oxfordian-Tithonian Morrison Fm (Gregiore, 2001) have previously been interpreted to represent Eocene-aged remagnetizations- due to the nearly exact coincidence between the in-situ pole positions of these Jurassic units with the Eocene pole for NA. Both of the tilt-corrected results for these units have high latitude poles (Sundance Fm: 79° N, 146° E; Morrison Fm: 89° N, 165° E). An E-I analysis of these data will be presented- using a provisional inclination error of 10°, corrected paleopoles are: (Sundance Fm: 76° N, 220° E; Morrison Fm: 77° N, 266° E). The Black Hills 165 Ma (Sundance Fm) and 145 Ma (Morrison Fm) poles, provisionally corrected for 10° inclination error- occur fairly close to the NA APWP proposed by Kent et al, 2015- using an updated set of results from kimberlites- the agreement between the Sundance Fm and the Triple-B (158 Ma) pole would be nearly exact with a slightly lesser inclination error. The Summerville Fm- which is

  14. Influence of a Dopamine Pathway Additive Genetic Efficacy Score on Smoking Cessation: Results from Two Randomized Clinical Trials of Bupropion

    PubMed Central

    David, Sean P.; Strong, David R.; Leventhal, Adam M.; Lancaster, Molly A.; McGeary, John E.; Munafò, Marcus R.; Bergen, Andrew W.; Swan, Gary E.; Benowitz, Neal L.; Tyndale, Rachel F.; Conti, David V.; Brown, Richard A.; Lerman, Caryn; Niaura, Raymond

    2013-01-01

    Aims To evaluate associations of treatment and an ‘additive genetic efficacy score’ (AGES) based on dopamine functional polymorphisms with time to first smoking lapse and point prevalence abstinence at end of treatment among participants enrolled in two randomized clinical trials of smoking cessation therapies. Design Double-blind pharmacogenetic efficacy trials randomizing participants to active or placebo bupropion. Study 1 also randomized participants to cognitive-behavioral smoking cessation treatment (CBT) or this treatment with CBT for depression. Study 2 provided standardized behavioural support. Setting Two Hospital-affiliated clinics (Study 1), and two University-affiliated clinics (Study 2). Participants N=792 self-identified white treatment-seeking smokers aged ≥18 years smoking ≥10 cigarettes per day over the last year. Measurements Age, gender, Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence, dopamine pathway genotypes (rs1800497 [ANKK1 E713K], rs4680 [COMT V158M], DRD4 exon 3 Variable Number of Tandem Repeats polymorphism [DRD4 VNTR], SLC6A3 3' VNTR) analyzed both separately and as part of an AGES, time to first lapse, and point prevalence abstinence at end of treatment. Findings Significant associations of the AGES (hazard ratio = 1.10, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] = 1.06–1.14], p=0.0099) and of the DRD4 VNTR (HR = 1.29, 95%CI 1.17–1.41, p=0.0073) were observed with time to first lapse. A significant AGES by pharmacotherapy interaction was observed (β [SE]=−0.18 [0.07], p=0.016), such that AGES predicted risk for time to first lapse only for individuals randomized to placebo. Conclusions A score based on functional polymorphisms relating to dopamine pathways appears to predict lapse to smoking following a quit attempt, and the association is mitigated in smokers using bupropion. PMID:23941313

  15. Determination of hydraulic properties of the Callovo-Oxfordian argillite at the bure site: Synthesis of the results obtained in deep boreholes using several in situ investigation techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Distinguin, Marc; Lavanchy, Jean-Marc

    -term monitoring sections). Borehole simulators were used to define a suitable flow model taking into account the complete pressure history of the borehole, and to derive best-guess estimates and uncertainty ranges for the hydraulic parameters. The sources of perturbations and the consistency of results are discussed in this paper. For instance, for a same interval tested through different techniques, an overestimation by one order of magnitude of the hydraulic conductivity due to a large overestimation of pore pressure during packer test was observed. In situ permeability estimations are also compared with those obtained from laboratory tests on core samples. Both short-term and long-term measurements provide values for the hydraulic conductivity at different scales with high consistency. This parameter is shown to be less than 2 × 10 -12 m/s. Pressures measurements from long-term monitoring are sufficiently accurate for determining formation hydraulic heads. A pressure profile in the argillite, derived from the extensive set of data currently available, shows an overpressure in the argillite 20-60 m above its surrounding formations. As a whole, the pressure data and derived hydraulic properties acquired from deep boreholes, offer a high degree of reliability and constitute a major contribution to the hydraulic characterisation of the low-permeable argillite formation. In 2006, this data will be complemented with measurements carried out in the Laboratory at 490 m depth, with the aim to characterize in greater depth the pressure profile of the argillite.

  16. New results on ground deformation in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin (southern Poland) obtained during the DORIS Project (EU-FP 7)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graniczny, Marek; Colombo, Davide; Kowalski, Zbigniew; Przyłucka, Maria; Zdanowski, Albin

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents application of satellite interferometric methods (persistent scatterer interferometric synthetic aperture radar (PSInSAR™) and differential interferometric synthetic aperture radar (DInSAR)) for observation of ground deformation in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin (USCB) in Southern Poland. The presented results were obtained during the DORIS project (EC FP 7, Grant Agreement n. 242212, www.doris-project.eu). Several InSAR datasets for this area were analysed. Most of them were processed by Tele-Rilevamento Europa - T.R.E. s.r.l. Italy. Datasets came from different SAR satellites (ERS 1 and 2, Envisat, ALOS- PALSAR and TerraSAR-X) and cover three different SAR bands (L, C and X). They were processed using both InSAR techniques: DInSAR, where deformations are presented as interferometric fringes on the raster image, and PSInSAR, where motion is indentified on irregular set of persistent scatterer (PS) points. Archival data from the C-band European Space Agency satellites ERS and ENVISAT provided information about ground movement since 1992 until 2010 in two separate datasets (1992-2000 and 2003-2010). Two coal mines were selected as examples of ground motion within inactive mining areas: Sosnowiec and Saturn, where mining ceased in 1995 and 1997, respectively. Despite well pumping after closure of the mines, groundwater rose several dozen meters, returning to its natural horizon. Small surface uplift clearly indicated on satellite interferometric data is related to high permeability of the hydrogeological subregion and insufficient water withdrawal from abandoned mines. The older 1992-2000 PSInSAR dataset indicates values of ground motion ranging from -40.0 to 0.0 mm. The newer 2003-2010 dataset shows values ranging from -2.0 to +7.0 mm. This means that during this period of time subsidence was less and uplift greater in comparison to the older dataset. This is even more evident in the time series of randomly selected PS points from both coal

  17. Additive reductions in zebrafish PRPS1 activity result in a spectrum of deficiencies modeling several human PRPS1-associated diseases

    PubMed Central

    Pei, Wuhong; Xu, Lisha; Varshney, Gaurav K.; Carrington, Blake; Bishop, Kevin; Jones, MaryPat; Huang, Sunny C.; Idol, Jennifer; Pretorius, Pamela R.; Beirl, Alisha; Schimmenti, Lisa A.; Kindt, Katie S.; Sood, Raman; Burgess, Shawn M.

    2016-01-01

    Phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate synthetase-1 (PRPS1) is a key enzyme in nucleotide biosynthesis, and mutations in PRPS1 are found in several human diseases including nonsyndromic sensorineural deafness, Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease-5, and Arts Syndrome. We utilized zebrafish as a model to confirm that mutations in PRPS1 result in phenotypic deficiencies in zebrafish similar to those in the associated human diseases. We found two paralogs in zebrafish, prps1a and prps1b and characterized each paralogous mutant individually as well as the double mutant fish. Zebrafish prps1a mutants and prps1a;prps1b double mutants showed similar morphological phenotypes with increasingly severe phenotypes as the number of mutant alleles increased. Phenotypes included smaller eyes and reduced hair cell numbers, consistent with the optic atrophy and hearing impairment observed in human patients. The double mutant also showed abnormal development of primary motor neurons, hair cell innervation, and reduced leukocytes, consistent with the neuropathy and recurrent infection of the human patients possessing the most severe reductions of PRPS1 activity. Further analyses indicated the phenotypes were associated with a prolonged cell cycle likely resulting from reduced nucleotide synthesis and energy production in the mutant embryos. We further demonstrated the phenotypes were caused by delays in the tissues most highly expressing the prps1 genes. PMID:27425195

  18. Additive reductions in zebrafish PRPS1 activity result in a spectrum of deficiencies modeling several human PRPS1-associated diseases.

    PubMed

    Pei, Wuhong; Xu, Lisha; Varshney, Gaurav K; Carrington, Blake; Bishop, Kevin; Jones, MaryPat; Huang, Sunny C; Idol, Jennifer; Pretorius, Pamela R; Beirl, Alisha; Schimmenti, Lisa A; Kindt, Katie S; Sood, Raman; Burgess, Shawn M

    2016-01-01

    Phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate synthetase-1 (PRPS1) is a key enzyme in nucleotide biosynthesis, and mutations in PRPS1 are found in several human diseases including nonsyndromic sensorineural deafness, Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease-5, and Arts Syndrome. We utilized zebrafish as a model to confirm that mutations in PRPS1 result in phenotypic deficiencies in zebrafish similar to those in the associated human diseases. We found two paralogs in zebrafish, prps1a and prps1b and characterized each paralogous mutant individually as well as the double mutant fish. Zebrafish prps1a mutants and prps1a;prps1b double mutants showed similar morphological phenotypes with increasingly severe phenotypes as the number of mutant alleles increased. Phenotypes included smaller eyes and reduced hair cell numbers, consistent with the optic atrophy and hearing impairment observed in human patients. The double mutant also showed abnormal development of primary motor neurons, hair cell innervation, and reduced leukocytes, consistent with the neuropathy and recurrent infection of the human patients possessing the most severe reductions of PRPS1 activity. Further analyses indicated the phenotypes were associated with a prolonged cell cycle likely resulting from reduced nucleotide synthesis and energy production in the mutant embryos. We further demonstrated the phenotypes were caused by delays in the tissues most highly expressing the prps1 genes. PMID:27425195

  19. Zoledronate prevents lactation induced bone loss and results in additional post-lactation bone mass in mice.

    PubMed

    Wendelboe, Mette Høegh; Thomsen, Jesper Skovhus; Henriksen, Kim; Vegger, Jens Bay; Brüel, Annemarie

    2016-06-01

    In rodents, lactation is associated with a considerable and very rapid bone loss, which almost completely recovers after weaning. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the bisphosphonate Zoledronate (Zln) can inhibit lactation induced bone loss, and if Zln interferes with recovery of bone mass after lactation has ceased. Seventy-six 10-weeks-old NMRI mice were divided into the following groups: Baseline, Pregnant, Lactation, Lactation+Zln, Recovery, Recovery+Zln, and Virgin Control (age-matched). The lactation period was 12days, then the pups were removed, and thereafter recovery took place for 28days. Zln, 100μg/kg, was given s.c. on the day of delivery, and again 4 and 8days later. Mechanical testing, μCT, and dynamic histomorphometry were performed. At L4, lactation resulted in a substantial loss of bone strength (-55% vs. Pregnant, p<0.01), BV/TV (-40% vs. Pregnant, p<0.01), and trabecular thickness (Tb.Th) (-29% vs. Pregnant, p<0.001). Treatment with Zln completely prevented lactation induced loss of bone strength, BV/TV, and Tb.Th at L4. Full recovery of micro-architectural and mechanical properties was found 28days after weaning in vehicle-treated mice. Interestingly, the recovery group treated with Zln during the lactation period had higher BV/TV (+45%, p<0.01) and Tb.Th (+16%, p<0.05) compared with virgin controls. Similar results were found at the proximal tibia and femur. This indicates that Zln did not interfere with the bone formation taking place after weaning. On this background, we conclude that post-lactation bone formation is not dependent on a preceding lactation induced bone loss. PMID:27021151

  20. Results on Dose Distributions in a Human Body from the Matroshka-R Experiment onboard the ISS Obtained with the Tissue-Equivalent Spherical Phantom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shurshakov, Vyacheslav; Nikolaev, Igor; Kartsev, Ivan; Tolochek, Raisa; Lyagushin, Vladimir

    The tissue-equivalent spherical phantom (32 kg mass, 35 cm diameter and 10 cm central spherical cave) made in Russia has been used on board the ISS in Matroshka-R experiment for more than 10 years. Both passive and active space radiation detectors can be located inside the phantom and on its surface. Due to the specially chosen phantom shape and size, the chord length distributions of the detector locations are attributed to self-shielding properties of the critical organs in a human body. Originally the spherical phantom was installed in the star board crew cabin of the ISS Service Module, then in the Piers-1, MIM-2, and MIM-1 modules of the ISS Russian segment, and finally in JAXA Kibo module. Total duration of the detector exposure is more than 2000 days in 9 sessions of the space experiment. In the first phase of the experiment with the spherical phantom the dose measurements were realized with only passive detectors (thermoluminescent and solid state track detectors). The detectors are placed inside the phantom along the axes of 20 containers and on the phantom outer surface in 32 pockets of the phantom jacket. After each session the passive detectors are returned to the ground. The results obtained show the dose difference on the phantom surface as much as a factor of 2, the highest dose being usually observed close to the outer wall of the compartment, and the lowest dose being in the opposite location along the phantom diameter. However, because of the ISS module shielding properties an inverse dose distribution in a human body can be observed when the dose rate maximum is closer to the geometrical center of the module. Maximum dose rate measured in the phantom is obviously due to the action of two radiation sources, namely, galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and Earth’ radiation belts. Minimum dose rate is produced mainly by the strongly penetrating GCR particles and is mostly observed behind more than 5 g/cm2 tissue shielding. Critical organ doses, mean

  1. 1. 0 Million Btu combustor testing: Test results: Part 2. [Hydrate Addition at Low Temperature for the removal of SO/sub 2/

    SciTech Connect

    Babu, M.; College, J.; Forsythe, R.; Kanary, D.

    1988-12-01

    ''Hydrate Addition at Low Temperature'' or HALT is a dry calcium- based hydrate injection process for the removal of SO/sub 2/ from flue gases off a sulfur bearing fuel. In this process the hydrate is pneumatically conveyed and injected into the flue gas stream as a dry particulates. The flue gas is cooled downstream of the hydrate injection location by spraying the gas with a stream of finely atomized water droplets. The water is atomized into a fine spray mist by using air under pressure as the atomizing fluid. The waste product from this process is the dry disposable solids which differ considerably from the wet cake solids obtained from a wet FGD process. The HALT test program currently being conducted at Dravo Lime Company and Ohio Edison Company is to be carried out in two stages: (1) Parametric testing on a 1.0 MM BTU/hour combustor, and (2) Follow up long term testing (six months) on a 5 MW unit. The first stage of the program which involves the parametric testing is now completed. Results are presented. 9 refs., 18 figs.

  2. Seismological results from the records obtained by the Seismic Alert System of Mexico (SASMEX). The analysis of the earthquake of March 20, 2012 and other examples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos Perez, S.; Rodriguez Gonzalez, M.; Uribe Carvajal, A.; Espinosa Aranda, J.; Cuellar Martinez, A.

    2013-05-01

    In this talk we show seismological processes performed with data obtained from the records collected by the strong motion recorders that constitute the seismic alert system of Mexico (SASMEX). The instruments and the triggering algorithms are original design of CIRES, This has allowed that optimal time modifications, improvements and error corrections. Punctual parameters as first time arrivals, S-P times, and maximum acceleration (Amax) for each seismic station can be obtained from the warning record it self, before the earthquake arrives. When the system initiates the alert process the S-P time at least two sites are already known and at this moment common time is set in all the array which allows the synchronization of all the records, these are recovered during field trips after every trigger. The time histories are obtained by A/D converters (12 bits) and MEMS accelerometers. During the March 20, 2012 earthquake nine seismic stations of the SASMEX array detected the event at less than one hundred kilometres of epicentral distance, this allowed to calculate the location of the hypocenter, the maxima displacements associated to each of these sites. The greatest value corresponds to the Llano Grande seismic station, 0.47m on the SW direction, for the NS component. The distributions of Amax and the estimated movement displacement are shown. The foreshock of October 6 is also analysed, The behaviour of the SASMEX during the earthquakes of Tehuacan (June 15, 1999) and of Guatemala (Nov 7, 2012) are shown as examples of the possibility that the nature of the seismic activity it self point the need and probable success of increasing the coverage of SASMEX.

  3. A simple approach to obtain hybrid Au-loaded polymeric nanoparticles with a tunable metal load† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr06850a Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Luque-Michel, Edurne; Larrea, Ane; Lahuerta, Celia; Imbuluzqueta, Edurne; Arruebo, Manuel; Santamaría, Jesús

    2016-01-01

    A new strategy to nanoengineer multi-functional polymer–metal hybrid nanostructures is reported. By using this protocol the hurdles of most of the current developments concerning covalent and non-covalent attachment of polymers to preformed inorganic nanoparticles (NPs) are overcome. The strategy is based on the in situ reduction of metal precursors using the polymeric nanoparticle as a nanoreactor. Gold nanoparticles and poly(dl-lactic-co-glycolic acid), PLGA, are located in the core and shell, respectively. This novel technique enables the production of PLGA NPs smaller than 200 nm that bear either a single encapsulated Au NP or several smaller NPs with tunable sizes and a 100% loading efficiency. In situ reduction of Au ions inside the polymeric NPs was achieved on demand by using heat to activate the reductive effect of citrate ions. In addition, we show that the loading of the resulting Au NPs inside the PLGA NPs is highly dependent on the surfactant used. Electron microscopy, laser irradiation, UV-Vis and fluorescence spectroscopy characterization techniques confirm the location of Au nanoparticles. These promising results indicate that these hybrid nanomaterials could be used in theranostic applications or as contrast agents in dark-field imaging and computed tomography. PMID:26612770

  4. Employers' role in helping Latino workers obtain access to health care services: results of a community-based pilot demonstration project.

    PubMed

    Dembe, Allard E; Biehl, Jeffrey M; Smith, Alicia D; Garcia de Gutierrez, Teresa

    2013-06-01

    A coalition of employers in the hotel and restaurant industries collaborated with community-based organizations to undertake a unique demonstration project, called the Employed Latino Health Initiative, aimed at improving access to basic health care services for low-wage Latino workers in Columbus, Ohio. With grant funding from the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, the project developed and tested protocols allowing Latino workers from participating companies to obtain basic health care screenings, referrals to medical providers, health education training, and the services of a qualified community health navigator. Data from the pilot project indicated high screening participation rates, extensive referrals to providers for follow-up care, and a substantial need for facilitation services by community health navigators. The project provides a model for how employers can potentially promote their own interests in boosting work productivity through facilitating expanded access to basic medical services among vulnerable workers, despite the absence of conventional health insurance coverage. PMID:22610691

  5. Are Bibliographic Management Software Search Interfaces Reliable?: A Comparison between Search Results Obtained Using Database Interfaces and the EndNote Online Search Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgibbons, Megan; Meert, Deborah

    2010-01-01

    The use of bibliographic management software and its internal search interfaces is now pervasive among researchers. This study compares the results between searches conducted in academic databases' search interfaces versus the EndNote search interface. The results show mixed search reliability, depending on the database and type of search…

  6. Results and interpretation of groundwater data obtained from multiport-instrumented coreholes (GW-131 through GS-135), fiscal years 1990 and 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Dreier, R.B.; Early, T.O.; King, H.L.

    1993-01-01

    With the increased emphasis by Department of Energy personnel on assessing the environmental impact of past waste disposal practices at all of its facilities, there has been an associated increase in characterization activities that focus on delineating site-specific groundwater flow regimes and contaminant migration pathways. At the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, the complex geologic and hydrologic relationships require a more detailed understanding of the three-dimensional properties of groundwater flow regimes than can be obtained by conventional monitoring activities. Thus, as part of groundwater characterization activities conducted by the Environmental Surveillance Section staff of the Y-12 Plant Environmental Management Department, five existing deep core holes were instrumented with multiport monitoring systems to provide greatly enhanced resolution of the hydraulic and hydrochemical properties of the groundwater system within Bear Creek Valley. With a multiport system, it is possible to measure hydraulic head and hydraulic conductivity and collect water samples from multiple levels within a single borehole. In this report, multiport data collected during fiscal years (FYs) 1990 and 1991 are summarized.

  7. Toxic Metal Concentrations in Cigarettes Obtained from U.S. Smokers in 2009: Results from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) United States Survey Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Caruso, Rosalie V.; O’Connor, Richard J.; Stephens, W. Edryd; Cummings, K. Michael; Fong, Geoffrey T.

    2013-01-01

    Smoking-related diseases can be attributed to the inhalation of many different toxins, including heavy metals, which have a host of detrimental health effects. The current study reports the levels of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), and lead (Pb) in cigarettes obtained from adult smokers participating in the 2009 wave of the ITC United States Survey (N = 320). The mean As, Cd, Cr, Ni, and Pb levels were 0.17, 0.86, 2.35, 2.21, and 0.44 µg/g, respectively. There were some differences in metal concentrations of cigarette brands produced by different manufacturers, suggesting differences in the source of tobaccos used by different companies. For Ni, there were significant pairwise differences between Philip Morris U.S. (PMUSA) and R.J. Reynolds (RJR) brands (PMUSA higher; p < 0.001), PMUSA and other manufacturer (OM) brands (PMUSA higher; p < 0.001), and RJR and OM brands (RJR higher; p = 0.006). For Cr, RJR brands had higher levels than did OM brands (p = 0.02). Levels of As, Cd, and Pb did not differ significantly across manufacturer groups (p > 0.10). Because of the variety of toxic heavy metals in cigarette tobacco, and their numerous negative health effects, metal content in cigarette tobacco should be reduced. PMID:24452255

  8. The present status and future issues regarding the use of nonprescription drugs, obtained from the results of face-to-face surveys with the inhabitants of remote islands.

    PubMed

    Hirayama, Tadahiko; Tanaka, Hidekazu; Suzuki, Shintarou; Inoue, Kouhei; Nagatomi, Aki; Sakumoto, Seiji; Kitahara, Toshihiro; Miyazaki, Cho-Ichiro; Yoshitani, Kiyomitu; Satoh, Hiroki; Hori, Satoko; Miki, Akiko; Sawada, Yasufumi

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted among 252 inhabitants aged 16 years or older of small remote islands in Gotoh. The survey was conducted in a direct interview format based on a questionnaire. In the interview, the respondents were asked about the statuses of their Internet usage, purchase/use/storage of nonprescription drugs, acquisition of information regarding nonprescription drugs, as well as regulations pertaining to the sale of nonprescription drugs, including the use of postal services. Among the respondents, 7.5% were Internet users, whereas people who had past experiences in purchasing nonprescription drugs through Internet accounted for as few as 0.8% of the total number of respondents; 63.9% of the inhabitants of small remote islands did not use nonprescription drugs, additionally, most inhabitants of small remote islands did not express any need for nonprescription drugs sold through Internet. Further, the findings suggested that a large number of people felt the need for the presence of pharmacists and experts to provide them with explanations and information regarding nonprescription drugs. However, because a large number of these people were unaware of the existence of pharmacists, it is important that in the future, pharmacists should conduct "consultation meetings and briefings regarding medications." These meeting may be held in a continuous manner in these small remote islands, such that the inhabitants recognize the difference in a pharmacists' profession. It is essential that "family pharmacies/pharmacists" play a central role in promoting the supply, management, and proper use of pharmaceutical products. PMID:23903232

  9. [Cytological and bacteriological examinations of the cervix and vagina. A review of the results obtained in a laboratory for analyses in Guadeloupe (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Millan, J; Crenn, O; Lidome, E

    1981-01-01

    The authors give the results of their cytological and bacteriological examinations of the cervix and vagina carried out routinely in a laboratory. They emphasize, in detailing their method of working, the criteria that they feel must be adopted in an attempt to code the qualitative appraisal of direct examination and the result of studying the cultures. The first part of the paper deals with an overall survey of the 4,573 examinations which were carried out over a period of 8 years. The second part is concerned with a more detailed analysis of the 883 samples which were divided into 4 categories: pregnant women, those having oral contraception, those with an intra-uterine device, and others. There are several variations revealed between these 4 categories as far as the white cell count, the bacterial flora and even pathogenic organisms are concerned. PMID:7334191

  10. Analysis of results obtained using the automatic chemical control of the quality of the water heat carrier in the drum boiler of the Ivanovo CHP-3 power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larin, A. B.; Kolegov, A. V.

    2012-10-01

    Results of industrial tests of the new method used for the automatic chemical control of the quality of boiler water of the drum-type power boiler ( P d = 13.8 MPa) are described. The possibility of using an H-cationite column for measuring the electric conductivity of an H-cationized sample of boiler water over a long period of time is shown.

  11. Results of a greenhouse study investigating the phytoextraction of lead from contaminated soils obtained from the Sunflower Army Ammunition Plant, Desoto, Kansas

    SciTech Connect

    Bader, D.F.; Behel, A.D.; Almond, R.A.; Kelly, D.A.; Pier, P.A.

    1998-08-01

    This report describes the results of greenhouse studies conducted to determine if phytoextraction methods could be enhanced by increasing ionic lead`s solubility in water. Soil acidifiers and chelating agents were used to increase lead`s solubility in water. The study was conducted using lead contaminated soil from the Sunflower Army Ammunition Plant near Desoto, Kansas. These soils were shipped to the Tennessee Valley Authority`s Environmental Research Facility in Muscle Shoals, Alabama, where the study was conducted. The report concludes that phytoextraction methods may be enhanced by these techniques and that the risk of leaching lead out of the soil`s root zone is minimal.

  12. Flue gas conditioning for improved particle collection in electrostatic precipitators. Second topical report, Results of bench-scale screening of additives

    SciTech Connect

    Durham, M.D.

    1993-08-13

    ADA Technologies, Inc. (ADA) has completed the bench-scale testing phase of a program to evaluate additives that will improve the collection of fine particles in electrostatic precipitators (ESPs). A bench-scale ESP was installed at the Consolidation Coal Company (CONSOL) combustion research and development facility in Library, PA in order to conduct the evaluation. During a two-week test, four candidate additives were injected into the flue gas ahead of a 100 acfm ESP to determine the effect on fly ash collectability. Two additives were found to reduce the emissions from the ESP. Additives ``C`` and ``D`` performed better than initially anticipated -- reducing emissions initially by 17%. Emissions were reduced by 27% after the ESP was modified by the installation of baffles to minimize sneakage. In addition to the measured improvements in performance, no detrimental effects (i.e., electrode fouling) were observed in the operation of the ESP during the testing. The measures of success identified for the bench-scale phase of the program have been surpassed. Since the additives will affect only non-rapping reentrainment particle losses, it is expected that an even greater improvement in particle collection will be observed in larger-scale ESPs. Therefore, positive results are anticipated during the pilot-scale phase of the program and during a future full-scale demonstration test. A preliminary economic analysis was performed to evaluate the cost of the additive process and to compare its costs against alternative means for reducing emissions from ESPs. The results show that conditioning with additive C at a rate of 0.05% (wt. additive to wt. fly ash) is much less expensive than adding new ESP capacity, and more cost competitive than existing chemical conditioning processes. Preliminary chemical analysis of conditioned fly ash shows that it passes the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure criteria.

  13. Functional ultrastructure of eggs and cellular organization of hexacanths of the cyclophyllidean cestode Thysanotaenia congolensis: a phylogenetic implication of obtained results.

    PubMed

    Świderski, Zdzisław; Miquel, Jordi; Conn, David Bruce

    2016-03-01

    The functional ultrastructure of eggs and cellular organization of hexacanths from gravid proglottids of Thysanotaenia congolensis, from black rats from Cape Verde, were examined by transmission electron microscopy. Mature eggs with fully formed hexacanths are grouped within parenchymatous capsules of gravid proglottids. Oncospheral envelopes surrounding mature hexacanths are reduced to a very thin membranous embryophore as their protective function is taken over by the parenchymatous capsules originating from the medullary parenchyma of immature proglottids and composed of three layers. Six major cell types are present: a bi-nucleate medullary centre; a six-nucleate U-shaped penetration gland; a second type of penetration gland; two neurosecretory-type nerve cells; about 30 somatic cells; and about 12 germinative cells. Present results on the functional ultrastructure of eggs and cellular organization of hexacanths support the phylogenetic distinction between T. congolensis and cestodes of the subfamily Anoplocephalinae. PMID:26689933

  14. The effects of different input data and their spatial resolution on the results obtained from a conceptual nutrient emissions model: the River Stör case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venohr, Markus; Behrendt, Horst; Kluge, Winfrid

    2005-11-01

    This paper focuses on the influences of different data sources, and the variation in spatial resolution of input data and analysis, on the calculated nutrient emissions using the conceptual model MONERIS. MONERIS calculates both nitrogen and phosphorus emissions from point and diffuse sources and the riverine nutrient retention. By subtracting the retention from the emissions, a riverine nutrient load was estimated and compared with the observed nutrient river load. All calculations were conducted for the period from 1991 to 1993.The River Stör, with a catchment area of 1135 km2, located in a postglacial lowland landscape in northern Germany, was chosen as a case study area. Two different data sets (e.g. land use, soil type or wastewater treatment plant inventory) were used: a commonly available standard data set (German or European maps) and a more detailed set with a higher spatial resolution derived from several studies at the Ecosystem Research Centre in Kiel. Initially, both data sets were used to apply MONERIS to the total catchment. The results were compared to adapt some of the free model-parameters to the conditions in the relatively small lowland river catchment.Using the standard data set, total nutrient emissions of 2320 tons year-1 of nitrogen and 96 tons year-1 phosphorus were calculated. The detailed data set yielded slightly higher emissions for nitrogen (2420 tons year-1) and for phosphorus (102 tons year-1). According to the spatial resolution, the proportion of the area of tile drainages and sandy soils derived from the different data sets varies considerably. This causes great differences in the total nutrient emissions estimated by the two approaches. Comparing the observed and the calculated nutrient loads, reliable results for catchments larger than 50 km2, or third-order streams, could be shown. Copyright

  15. Results of the new processing of images obtained from the surface of Venus in a TV experiment onboard the VENERA-9 lander (1975)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ksanfomality, L. V.

    2012-09-01

    Data on the results of the analysis of the content of re-processed panorama of the VENERA-9 lander are presented. The panorama was transmitted historically for the first time from the surface of Venus in 1975. The low noise of the VENERA-9 data allowed allocating a large object of an unusual regular structure. Earlier, its fuzzy image was repeatedly cited in the literature being interpreted as a "strange stone". The complex shape and its other features suggest that the object may be a real habitant of the planet. It is not excluded that another similar object observed was damaged during the VENERA-9 landing. From the evidence of its movement and position of some other similar objects it is concluded that because of the limited energy capacity, the physical action of the Venusian fauna may be much slower than that of the Earth fauna. Another question considered is what sources of energy could be used by life in the conditions of the high temperature oxygenless atmosphere of the planet. It is natural to assume that, like on Earth, the Venusian fauna is heterotrophic and should be based on hypothetical flora, using photosynthesis (based on an unknown high temperature biophysical mechanism).

  16. Correlation of results obtained by in-vivo optical spectroscopy with measured blood oxygen saturation using a positive linear regression fit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCormick, Patrick W.; Lewis, Gary D.; Dujovny, Manuel; Ausman, James I.; Stewart, Mick; Widman, Ronald A.

    1992-05-01

    Near infrared light generated by specialized instrumentation was passed through artificially oxygenated human blood during simultaneous sampling by a co-oximeter. Characteristic absorption spectra were analyzed to calculate the ratio of oxygenated to reduced hemoglobin. A positive linear regression fit between diffuse transmission oximetry and measured blood oxygenation over the range 23% to 99% (r2 equals .98, p < .001) was noted. The same technology was used to pass two channels of light through the scalp of brain-injured patients with prolonged, decreased level of consciousness in a tertiary care neuroscience ICU. Transmission data were collected with gross superficial-to-deep spatial resolution. Saturation calculation based on the deep signal was observed in the patient over time. The procedure was able to be performed clinically without difficulty; rSO2 values recorded continuously demonstrate the usefulness of the technique. Using the same instrumentation, arterial input and cerebral response functions, generated by IV tracer bolus, were deconvoluted to measure mean cerebral transit time. Date collected over time provided a sensitive index of changes in cerebral blood flow as a result of therapeutic maneuvers.

  17. The use of skin surface electropotentials for breast cancer detection--preliminary clinical trial results obtained using the biofield diagnostic system.

    PubMed

    Sree, Subbhuraam Vinitha; Ng, E Y K; Kaw, G; U, Rajendra Acharya; Chong, B K

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficiency of the Biofield Diagnostic System (BDS) as an adjunct to established diagnostic techniques such as mammography and ultrasound in differentiating benign and malignant breast lesions. The clinical trial was conducted at the Tan Tock Seng hospital, Singapore. 103 women scheduled for mammography and/or ultrasound tests participated in the study. The BDS test recorded a sensitivity of 100%, specificity of 97.6%, and an accuracy of 98.1%. The area under the ROC curve was 0.988 which was slightly lower than that of ultrasound (0.994) and slightly higher than that of mammography (0.951). The BDS test has demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity values in the studied population. The accuracy is also comparable to that of diagnostic techniques like mammography and ultrasound. Thus, it is evident that BDS can be a fast and reliable adjunct tool for getting a secondary opinion on lesions with indeterminate mammographic and sonographic results. PMID:20703583

  18. Quantity and quality of black carbon molecular markers as obtained by two chromatographic methods (GC-FID and HPLC-DAD) - How do results compare?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, M. P. W.; Smittenberg, R. H.; Dittmar, T.; Schmidt, M. W. I.

    2009-04-01

    Chars produced by wildfires are an important source of black carbon (BC) in the environment. After their deposition on the soil surface they can be distributed into rivers, marine waters and sediments. The analysis of benzenepolycarboxylic acids (BPCAs) as a quantitative measure for black carbon (BC) in soil and sediment samples is a well-established method (Glaser et al., 1998; Brodowski et al., 2005). Briefly, the nitric acid oxidation of fused aromatic ring systems in BC forms eight molecular markers (BPCAs), which can be assigned to BC, and which subsequently can be quantified by GC-FID (gas chromatography with flame ionization detector). Recently, this method was modified for the quantification of BC in seawater samples using HPLC-DAD (High performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector) for the determination of individual BPCAs (Dittmar, 2008). A direct comparison of both analytical techniques is lacking but would be important for future data comparison aimed at the calculation of global BC budgets. Here we present a systematic comparison of the two BPCA quantification methods. We prepared chars under well-defined laboratory conditions. In order to cover a broad spectrum of char properties we used two sources of biomass and a wide range of pyrolysis temperatures. Chestnut hardwood chips (Castanea sativa) and rice straw (Oryza sativa) were pyrolysed at temperatures between 200 and 1000°C under a constant N2 stream. The maximum temperatures were held constant for 5 hours (Hammes et al., 2006). The BC contents of the chars have been analysed using the BPCA extraction method followed by either GC-FID or HPLC-DAD quantification. Preliminary results suggest that both methods yield similar total quantities of BPCA, and also the proportions of the individual markers are similar. Ongoing experiments will allow for a more detailed comparison of the two methods. The BPCA composition of chars formed at different temperatures and from different precursor

  19. Chemically Assisted Enucleation Results in Higher G6PD Expression in Early Bovine Female Embryos Obtained by Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Clara Slade; Tetzner, Tatiane Almeida Drummond; de Lima, Marina Ragagnin; de Melo, Danilas Salinet; Niciura, Simone Cristina Méo; Garcia, Joaquim Mansano

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Despite extensive efforts, low efficiency is still an issue in bovine somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). The hypothesis of our study was that the use of cytoplasts produced by chemically assisted enucleation (EN) would improve nuclear reprogramming in nuclear transfer (NT)–derived embryos because it results in lower damage and higher cytoplasm content than conventional EN. For that purpose, we investigated the expression of two X-linked genes: X inactive-specific transcript (XIST) and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD). In the first experiment, gene expression was assessed in day-7 female blastocysts from embryonic cell NT (ECNT) groups [conventional, ECNT conv; chemically assisted, ECNT deme (demecolcine)]. Whereas in the ECNT conv group, only one embryo (25%; n=4) expressed XIST transcripts, most embryos showed XIST expression (75%; n=4) in the ECNT deme group. However, no significant differences in transcript abundance of XIST and G6PD were found when comparing the embryos from all groups. In a second experiment using somatic cells as nuclear donors, we evaluated gene expression profiles in female SCNT-derived embryos. No significant differences in relative abundance (RA) of XIST transcripts were observed among the groups. Nonetheless, higher (p<0.05) levels of G6PD were observed in SCNT deme and in vitro–derived groups in comparison to SCNT conv. To know whether higher G6PD expression in embryos derived from SCNT chemically assisted EN indicates higher metabolism in embryos considered of superior quality or if the presence of higher reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels generated by the increased oxygen consumption triggers G6PD activation, the expression of genes related to stress response should be investigated in embryos produced by that technique. PMID:22908977

  20. Electrophilic addition of astatine

    SciTech Connect

    Norseev, Yu.V.; Vasaros, L.; Nhan, D.D.; Huan, N.K.

    1988-03-01

    It has been shown for the first time that astatine is capable of undergoing addition reactions to unsaturated hydrocarbons. A new compound of astatine, viz., ethylene astatohydrin, has been obtained, and its retention numbers of squalane, Apiezon, and tricresyl phosphate have been found. The influence of various factors on the formation of ethylene astatohydrin has been studied. It has been concluded on the basis of the results obtained that the univalent cations of astatine in an acidic medium is protonated hypoastatous acid.

  1. A Summary of the results obtained in the LDRD project "Interaction of a magnetized plasma with structured surfaces-from devices to spacecraft"

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, R. H.; Porter, G. D.; Ryutov, D. D.

    1999-02-23

    Our work was directed towards developing a basic understanding of a new class of phenomena: effects of surface structure on the processes in a magnetized plasma near surfaces and at some distances for them. The surface structures can be of various kinds: topographic features ranging from smooth "waviness" to a coarse "roughness," non-uniformities of the secondary emission coefficient, dielectric impregnations into conducting surface, etc. The expected effects are strongest when the magnetic field forms a shallow angle with the surface. The current and future applications of this new branch of plasma physics include fusion devices, gas-discharge and plasma-processing devices, large spacecraft, and physical phenomena in the vicinity of celestial bodies without atmospheres. We have developed a methodology that allows one to study in a unified way effects of rough surfaces with arbitrary scales of topographic features, from sizes exceeding the ion gyro-radius, to sizes much below the electron gyro-radius, in the most interesting case of a grazing magnetic field. The results can be presented in a dimensionless form, so that they would be equally applicable to the micrometer-scale roughness of the divertor plates of fusion devices, and to 10-km-scale structures of a Lunar surface. We have identified the following new effects: 1) the plasma is absorbed by only a small fraction of the total surface, near the "mountain tops" of the bumps; 2) regions inaccessible for one or both plasma species ("shadows") are formed behind the bumps; the size of these inaccessible domains is, generally speaking, different for the electrons and ions; 3) this latter circumstance leads to formation of fine potential structure both near the surface and in the bulk plasma, leading to enhanced plasma transport. We have investigated the processes that may lead to plasma penetration into the shadows and concluded that most probable candidates are (depending on the specifics of plasma parameters) the

  2. Influence of binder properties, method of addition, powder type and operating conditions on fluid-bed melt granulation and resulting tablet properties.

    PubMed

    Abberger, T

    2001-12-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate melt granulation in a laboratory scale fluid-bed granulator with respect to granule growth, granule properties and resulting tablet properties. The parameters investigated were method of addition of PEG (spray-on or addition as flakes), binder concentration, PEG type (3000, 4000 and 6000, sprayed-on), size (PEG 4000, added as three different sized flakes), powder type (two different sized lactose types and corn starch) and operating conditions (volume air flow and heating temperature). Addition of binder as flakes led to layering as a growth mechanism when the size of the flakes was high. Coalescence occurred when the size was low. Coalescence also occurred when spraying was the method of addition. Due to the greater viscosity of the PEG 6000 melt it produced bigger granules than 3000 or 4000. The influence of volume air flow was moderate and the influence of heating temperature in the range of 70-90 degrees C was very low with both methods of addition. The disintegration time of tablets from granules where PEG was added as flakes was shorter than from granules where PEG was sprayed-on. The latter method of binder addition led to tablets which did not disintegrate but eroded. This was apparently caused by formation of a binder matrix, which could not be destroyed by the disintegrant. PMID:11802658

  3. Obtaining physics results from the SLD CRID

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, K.; Antilogus, P.; Aston, D.; Baird, K.; Baltay, C.; Bean, A.; Ben-David, R.; Bienz, T.; Bird, F.; Caldwell, D. O.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Coller, J.; Coyle, P.; Coyne, D.; Dasu, S.; Dima, M.; d'Oliveira, A.; Duboscq, J.; Dunwoodie, W.; Hallewell, G.; Hasegawa, K.; Hasegawa, Y.; Huber, J.; Iwasaki, Y.; Jacques, P.; Johnson, R. A.; Kalelkar, M.; Kawahara, H.; Kwon, Y.; Leith, D. W. G. S.; Liu, X.; Lu, A.; Manly, S.; Martinez, J.; Mathys, L.; McHugh, S.; Meadows, B.; Müller, G.; Muller, D.; Nagamine, T.; Narita, S.; Nussbaum, M.; Pavel, T. J.; Plano, R.; Ratcliff, B.; Rensing, P.; Santha, A. K. S.; Schultz, D.; Sen, S.; Shank, J. T.; Shapiro, S.; Simopoulos, C.; Snyder, J.; Solodov, E.; Stamer, P.; Stockdale, I.; Suekane, F.; Toge, N.; Turk, J.; Va'vra, J.; Whitaker, J. S.; Williams, D. A.; Williams, S. H.; Willocq, S.; Wilson, R. J.; Word, G.; Yellin, S.; Yuta, H.

    1996-02-01

    We describe the likelihood ratio method used for particle identification in the SLD CRID, which allows the use of the entire momentum range covered by the liquid and gas radiators, including the threshold regions. Its application to two preliminary physics analyses is also described.

  4. Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zemsky, Robert; Shaman, Susan; Shapiro, Daniel B.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the Collegiate Results Instrument (CRI), which measures a range of collegiate outcomes for alumni 6 years after graduation. The CRI was designed to target alumni from institutions across market segments and assess their values, abilities, work skills, occupations, and pursuit of lifelong learning. (EV)

  5. Food additives.

    PubMed

    Berglund, F

    1978-01-01

    The use of additives to food fulfils many purposes, as shown by the index issued by the Codex Committee on Food Additives: Acids, bases and salts; Preservatives, Antioxidants and antioxidant synergists; Anticaking agents; Colours; Emulfifiers; Thickening agents; Flour-treatment agents; Extraction solvents; Carrier solvents; Flavours (synthetic); Flavour enhancers; Non-nutritive sweeteners; Processing aids; Enzyme preparations. Many additives occur naturally in foods, but this does not exclude toxicity at higher levels. Some food additives are nutrients, or even essential nutritents, e.g. NaCl. Examples are known of food additives causing toxicity in man even when used according to regulations, e.g. cobalt in beer. In other instances, poisoning has been due to carry-over, e.g. by nitrate in cheese whey - when used for artificial feed for infants. Poisonings also occur as the result of the permitted substance being added at too high levels, by accident or carelessness, e.g. nitrite in fish. Finally, there are examples of hypersensitivity to food additives, e.g. to tartrazine and other food colours. The toxicological evaluation, based on animal feeding studies, may be complicated by impurities, e.g. orthotoluene-sulfonamide in saccharin; by transformation or disappearance of the additive in food processing in storage, e.g. bisulfite in raisins; by reaction products with food constituents, e.g. formation of ethylurethane from diethyl pyrocarbonate; by metabolic transformation products, e.g. formation in the gut of cyclohexylamine from cyclamate. Metabolic end products may differ in experimental animals and in man: guanylic acid and inosinic acid are metabolized to allantoin in the rat but to uric acid in man. The magnitude of the safety margin in man of the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) is not identical to the "safety factor" used when calculating the ADI. The symptoms of Chinese Restaurant Syndrome, although not hazardous, furthermore illustrate that the whole ADI

  6. Potlining Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolf Keller

    2004-08-10

    In this project, a concept to improve the performance of aluminum production cells by introducing potlining additives was examined and tested. Boron oxide was added to cathode blocks, and titanium was dissolved in the metal pool; this resulted in the formation of titanium diboride and caused the molten aluminum to wet the carbonaceous cathode surface. Such wetting reportedly leads to operational improvements and extended cell life. In addition, boron oxide suppresses cyanide formation. This final report presents and discusses the results of this project. Substantial economic benefits for the practical implementation of the technology are projected, especially for modern cells with graphitized blocks. For example, with an energy savings of about 5% and an increase in pot life from 1500 to 2500 days, a cost savings of $ 0.023 per pound of aluminum produced is projected for a 200 kA pot.

  7. Two cases of food additive-induced severe liver damage associated with positive results on lymphocyte stimulation test and for antinuclear antibodies.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Rena; Ohishi, Chitose; Kim, Miniru; Shiina, Masaaki; Kusayanagi, Satoshi; Ogawa, Masazumi; Munakata, Kazuo; Mizuno, Kyoichi; Sato, Yuzuru

    2012-08-01

    Two cases of severe liver injury and positive result for antinuclear antibodies induced by food additives are reported. The first patient reported long-term intake of Mabo Ramen(®) noodle soup, nutritional supplements, and over-the-counter drugs. Total bilirubin, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase were 9.6 mg/dL, 1,048, and 1,574 IU/L, respectively. Antinuclear antibody was 80×. The drug-induced lymphocyte stimulation test (DLST) was positive for Mabo Ramen(®) and its additives such as Xanthan gum, guar gum, and Doubanjiang. Histologic examination of a liver biopsy specimen showed lymphocyte infiltration and necrosis. The autoimmune hepatitis score was 3. The second patient reported intake of dietary supplements, including Bimore C(®) and Chokora BB(®). Laboratory tests revealed that total bilirubin was 9.8 mg/dL, aspartate aminotransferase was 1,130 IU/L, and alanine aminotransferase was 1,094 IU/L. Antinuclear antibody was 320×. Co-existing pancreatic damage was confirmed by the findings on abdominal CT and elevation of serum lipase, span-1, and DUPAN-2. DLSTs were positive for both supplements. These two supplements contained additives such as titanium oxide, magnesium stearate, and hydroxypropylcellulose. DLSTs for all three additives were positive. Histologic examination revealed periportal necrosis and lymphocyte infiltration of lobular and portal areas. These two cases demonstrate that repeating DLSTs is useful for identifying causative constituents in foods and supplements. PMID:26182392

  8. Pulsed addition of HMF and furfural to batch-grown xylose-utilizing Saccharomyces cerevisiae results in different physiological responses in glucose and xylose consumption phase

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass generates a number of undesired degradation products that can inhibit microbial metabolism. Two of these compounds, the furan aldehydes 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and 2-furaldehyde (furfural), have been shown to be an impediment for viable ethanol production. In the present study, HMF and furfural were pulse-added during either the glucose or the xylose consumption phase in order to dissect the effects of these inhibitors on energy state, redox metabolism, and gene expression of xylose-consuming Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Results Pulsed addition of 3.9 g L-1 HMF and 1.2 g L-1 furfural during either the glucose or the xylose consumption phase resulted in distinct physiological responses. Addition of furan aldehydes in the glucose consumption phase was followed by a decrease in the specific growth rate and the glycerol yield, whereas the acetate yield increased 7.3-fold, suggesting that NAD(P)H for furan aldehyde conversion was generated by acetate synthesis. No change in the intracellular levels of NAD(P)H was observed 1 hour after pulsing, whereas the intracellular concentration of ATP increased by 58%. An investigation of the response at transcriptional level revealed changes known to be correlated with perturbations in the specific growth rate, such as protein and nucleotide biosynthesis. Addition of furan aldehydes during the xylose consumption phase brought about an increase in the glycerol and acetate yields, whereas the xylitol yield was severely reduced. The intracellular concentrations of NADH and NADPH decreased by 58 and 85%, respectively, hence suggesting that HMF and furfural drained the cells of reducing power. The intracellular concentration of ATP was reduced by 42% 1 hour after pulsing of inhibitors, suggesting that energy-requiring repair or maintenance processes were activated. Transcriptome profiling showed that NADPH-requiring processes such as amino acid biosynthesis and sulfate and

  9. High SO{sub 2} removal efficiency testing: Results of DBA and sodium formate additive tests at Southwestern Electric Power company`s Pirkey Station

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-30

    Tests were conducted at Southwestern Electric Power Company`s (SWEPCo) Henry W. Pirkey Station wet limestone flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system to evaluate options for achieving high sulfur dioxide removal efficiency. The Pirkey FGD system includes four absorber modules, each with dual slurry recirculation loops and with a perforated plate tray in the upper loop. The options tested involved the use of dibasic acid (DBA) or sodium formate as a performance additive. The effectiveness of other potential options was simulated with the Electric Power Research Institute`s (EPRI) FGD PRocess Integration and Simulation Model (FGDPRISM) after it was calibrated to the system. An economic analysis was done to determine the cost effectiveness of the high-efficiency options. Results are-summarized below.

  10. Combining an amyloid-beta (Aβ) cleaving enzyme inhibitor with a γ-secretase modulator results in an additive reduction of Aβ production.

    PubMed

    Strömberg, Kia; Eketjäll, Susanna; Georgievska, Biljana; Tunblad, Karin; Eliason, Kristina; Olsson, Fredrik; Radesäter, Ann-Cathrin; Klintenberg, Rebecka; Arvidsson, Per I; von Berg, Stefan; Fälting, Johanna; Cowburn, Richard F; Dabrowski, Michael

    2015-01-01

    A major hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the deposition of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides in amyloid plaques. Aβ peptides are produced by sequential cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein by the β amyloid cleaving enzyme (BACE) and the γ-secretase (γ-sec) complex. Pharmacological treatments that decrease brain levels of in particular the toxic Aβ42 peptide are thought to be promising approaches for AD disease modification. Potent and selective BACE1 inhibitors as well as γ-sec modulators (GSMs) have been designed. Pharmacological intervention of secretase function is not without risks of either on- or off-target adverse effects. One way of improving the therapeutic window could be to combine treatment on multiple targets, using smaller individual doses and thereby minimizing adverse effect liability. We show that combined treatment of primary cortical neurons with a BACE1 inhibitor and a GSM gives an additive effect on Aβ42 level change compared with the individual treatments. We extend this finding to C57BL/6 mice, where the combined treatment results in reduction of brain Aβ42 levels reflecting the sum of the individual treatment efficacies. These results show that pharmacological targeting of two amyloid precursor protein processing steps is feasible without negatively interfering with the mechanism of action on individual targets. We conclude that targeting Aβ production by combining a BACE inhibitor and a GSM could be a viable approach for therapeutic intervention in AD modification. PMID:25303711

  11. Change in cardio-protective medication and health-related quality of life after diagnosis of screen-detected diabetes: Results from the ADDITION-Cambridge cohort

    PubMed Central

    Black, J.A.; Long, G.H.; Sharp, S.J.; Kuznetsov, L.; Boothby, C.E.; Griffin, S.J.; Simmons, R.K.

    2015-01-01

    Aims Establishing a balance between the benefits and harms of treatment is important among individuals with screen-detected diabetes, for whom the burden of treatment might be higher than the burden of the disease. We described the association between cardio-protective medication and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among individuals with screen-detected diabetes. Methods 867 participants with screen-detected diabetes underwent clinical measurements at diagnosis, one and five years. General HRQoL (EQ5D) was measured at baseline, one- and five-years, and diabetes-specific HRQoL (ADDQoL-AWI) and health status (SF-36) at one and five years. Multivariable linear regression was used to quantify the association between change in HRQoL and change in cardio-protective medication. Results The median (IQR) number of prescribed cardio-protective agents was 2 (1 to 3) at diagnosis, 3 (2 to 4) at one year and 4 (3 to 5) at five years. Change in cardio-protective medication was not associated with change in HRQoL from diagnosis to one year. From one year to five years, change in cardio-protective agents was not associated with change in the SF-36 mental health score. One additional agent was associated with an increase in the SF-36 physical health score (2.1; 95%CI 0.4, 3.8) and an increase in the EQ-5D (0.05; 95%CI 0.02, 0.08). Conversely, one additional agent was associated with a decrease in the ADDQoL-AWI (−0.32; 95%CI −0.51, −0.13), compared to no change. Conclusions We found little evidence that increases in the number of cardio-protective medications impacted negatively on HRQoL among individuals with screen-detected diabetes over five years. PMID:25937542

  12. Vildagliptin in addition to metformin improves retinal blood flow and erythrocyte deformability in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus – results from an exploratory study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Numerous rheological and microvascular alterations characterize the vascular pathology in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This study investigated effects of vildagliptin in comparison to glimepiride on retinal microvascular blood flow and erythrocyte deformability in T2DM. Fourty-four patients with T2DM on metformin monotherapy were included in this randomized, exploratory study over 24 weeks. Patients were randomized to receive either vildagliptin (50 mg twice daily) or glimepiride individually titrated up to 4 mg in addition to ongoing metformin treatment. Retinal microvascular blood flow (RBF) and the arteriolar wall to lumen ratio (WLR) were assessed using a laser doppler scanner. In addition, the erythrocyte elongation index (EI) was measured at different shear stresses using laserdiffractoscopy. Both treatments improved glycaemic control (p < 0.05 vs. baseline; respectively). While only slight changes in RBF and the WLR could be observed during treatment with glimepiride, vildagliptin significantly increased retinal blood flow and decreased the arterial WLR (p < 0.05 vs. baseline respectively). The EI increased during both treatments over a wide range of applied shear stresses (p < 0.05 vs. baseline). An inverse correlation could be observed between improved glycaemic control (HbA1c) and EI (r = −0.524; p < 0.0001) but not with the changes in retinal microvascular measurements. Our results suggest that vildagliptin might exert beneficial effects on retinal microvascular blood flow beyond glucose control. In contrast, the improvement in erythrocyte deformability observed in both treatment groups, seems to be a correlate of improved glycaemic control. PMID:23565740

  13. From numbers to a biological sense: How the strategy chosen for metabolomics data treatment may affect final results. A practical example based on urine fingerprints obtained by LC-MS.

    PubMed

    Godzien, Joanna; Ciborowski, Michal; Angulo, Santiago; Barbas, Coral

    2013-10-01

    Application of high-throughput technologies in metabolomics studies increases the quantity of data obtained, which in turn imposes several problems during data analysis. Correctly and clearly addressed biological question and comprehensive knowledge about data structure and properties are definitely necessary to select proper chemometric tools. However, there is a broad range of chemometric tools available for use with metabolomics data, which makes this choice challenging. Precisely performed data treatment enables valuable extraction of information and its proper interpretation. The effect of an error made at an early stage will be enhanced throughout the later stages, which in combination with other errors made at each step can accumulate and significantly affect the data interpretation. Moreover, adequate application of these tools may help not only to detect, but sometimes also to correct, biological, analytical, or methodological errors, which may affect truthfulness of obtained results. This report presents steps and tools used for LC-MS based metabolomics data extraction, reduction, and visualization. Following such steps as data reprocessing, data pretreatment, data treatment, and data revision, authors want to show how to extract valuable information and how to avoid misinterpretation of results obtained. The purpose of this work was to emphasize problematic characteristics of metabolomics data and the necessity for their attentive and precise treatment. The dataset used to illustrate metabolomics data properties and to illustrate major data treatment challenges was obtained utilizing an animal model of control and diabetic rats, both with and without rosemary treatment. Urine samples were fingerprinted employing LC-QTOF-MS. PMID:23775708

  14. SU-E-J-06: Additional Imaging Guidance Dose to Patient Organs Resulting From X-Ray Tubes Used in CyberKnife Image Guidance System

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, A; Ding, G

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The use of image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) has become increasingly common, but the additional radiation exposure resulting from repeated image guidance procedures raises concerns. Although there are many studies reporting imaging dose from different image guidance devices, imaging dose for the CyberKnife Robotic Radiosurgery System is not available. This study provides estimated organ doses resulting from image guidance procedures on the CyberKnife system. Methods: Commercially available Monte Carlo software, PCXMC, was used to calculate average organ doses resulting from x-ray tubes used in the CyberKnife system. There are seven imaging protocols with kVp ranging from 60 – 120 kV and 15 mAs for treatment sites in the Cranium, Head and Neck, Thorax, and Abdomen. The output of each image protocol was measured at treatment isocenter. For each site and protocol, Adult body sizes ranging from anorexic to extremely obese were simulated since organ dose depends on patient size. Doses for all organs within the imaging field-of-view of each site were calculated for a single image acquisition from both of the orthogonal x-ray tubes. Results: Average organ doses were <1.0 mGy for every treatment site and imaging protocol. For a given organ, dose increases as kV increases or body size decreases. Higher doses are typically reported for skeletal components, such as the skull, ribs, or clavicles, than for softtissue organs. Typical organ doses due to a single exposure are estimated as 0.23 mGy to the brain, 0.29 mGy to the heart, 0.08 mGy to the kidneys, etc., depending on the imaging protocol and site. Conclusion: The organ doses vary with treatment site, imaging protocol and patient size. Although the organ dose from a single image acquisition resulting from two orthogonal beams is generally insignificant, the sum of repeated image acquisitions (>100) could reach 10–20 cGy for a typical treatment fraction.

  15. Multi-nozzle humidification tests: Test results: Part 4. [Hydrate addition at low temperature for the removal of SO/sub 2/

    SciTech Connect

    Stouffer, M.

    1988-12-01

    ''Hydrate Addition at Low Temperature'' or HALT is a dry calcium-based hydrate injection process for the removal of SO/sub 2/ from flue gases off a sulfur bearing fuel. In this process the hydrate is pneumatically conveyed and injected into the flue gas stream as a dry particulate. The flue gas is cooled downstream of the hydrate injection by spraying the gas with a stream of finely atomized water droplets. The water is atomized into a fine spray by using air under pressure as the atomizing fluid. The spray nozzles are specially designed. Results are presented on nozzle array field tests conducted using the Dravo HALT unit at Ohio Edison's Toronto station. A method for humidifier scale-up from single-nozzle pilot test data was demonstrated. The method uses arrays of nozzles, with each individual nozzle operated at fixed conditions determined as optimum in the single-nozzle tests. By applying this method, the Consol 8.3-inch pilot humidifier operation with a single Spraying Systems 1/8JJ-J12 nozzle was successfully scaled up to operation of the Dravo 31 x 31-inch humidifier with arrays of up to 46 J12 nozzles. The tests provided data on nozzle deposition and solids dropout that may be useful for large-scale humidifier design. 4 refs., 16 figs., 10 tabs.

  16. Movement of tagged dredged sand at thalweg disposal sites in the Upper Mississippi River. Volume 3. Additional results at Gordon's Ferry and Whitney Island sites

    SciTech Connect

    McCown, D.L.; Paddock, R.A.

    1985-04-01

    During routine channel maintenance, hydraulically dredged sand was tagged with sand coated with fluorescent dye before being deposited as a pile in the thalweg at three sites on the Upper Mississippi River. As discussed in the first two volumes of this report, bathymetry was measured and surface sediments were sampled to study changes in the topography of the disposal pile and the downstream movement of the tagged sand. At all three sites, topographic evidence of the pile disappeared after the first period of high river flow, which was followed by redevelopment of dunes in the disposal area. The tagged sand did not migrate into nearby border areas, backwaters, or sloughs, remaining in the main channel as it moved downstream. This volume presents the results of additional surveys at the Gordon's Ferry and Whitney Island sites. At Gordon's Ferry, 25 bottom cores were taken to examine the three-dimensional distribution of tagged sand in the bottom sediments. The core analyses indicated that much of the tagged sand had been incorporated into the dune structure and that it resided primarily in the crests of the dunes.

  17. Accuracy and Precision in the Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes (SHADOZ) Dataset 1998-2000 in Light of the JOSIE-2000 Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witte, J. C.; Thompson, A. M.; Schmidlin, F. J.; Oltmans, S. J.; McPeters, R. D.; Smit, H. G. J.

    2003-01-01

    A network of 12 southern hemisphere tropical and subtropical stations in the Southern Hemisphere ADditional OZonesondes (SHADOZ) project has provided over 2000 profiles of stratospheric and tropospheric ozone since 1998. Balloon-borne electrochemical concentration cell (ECC) ozonesondes are used with standard radiosondes for pressure, temperature and relative humidity measurements. The archived data are available at:http: //croc.gsfc.nasa.gov/shadoz. In Thompson et al., accuracies and imprecisions in the SHADOZ 1998- 2000 dataset were examined using ground-based instruments and the TOMS total ozone measurement (version 7) as references. Small variations in ozonesonde technique introduced possible biases from station-to-station. SHADOZ total ozone column amounts are now compared to version 8 TOMS; discrepancies between the two datasets are reduced 2\\% on average. An evaluation of ozone variations among the stations is made using the results of a series of chamber simulations of ozone launches (JOSIE-2000, Juelich Ozonesonde Intercomparison Experiment) in which a standard reference ozone instrument was employed with the various sonde techniques used in SHADOZ. A number of variations in SHADOZ ozone data are explained when differences in solution strength, data processing and instrument type (manufacturer) are taken into account.

  18. High SO{sub 2} removal efficiency testing. Topical report - results of sodium formate additive tests at New York State Electric & Gas Corporation`s Kintigh Station

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, J.

    1997-02-14

    Tests were conducted at New York State Gas & Electric`s (NYSEG`s) Kintigh Station to evaluate options for achieving high sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) removal efficiency in the wet limestone flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system. This test program was one of six conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy to evaluate low-capital-cost upgrades to existing FGD systems as a means for utilities to comply with the requirements of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. The upgrade option tested at Kintigh was sodium formate additive. Results from the tests were used to calibrate the Electric Power Research Institute`s (EPRI) FGD PRocess Integration and Simulation Model (FGDPRISM) to the Kintigh scrubber configuration. FGDPRISM was then used to predict system performance for evaluating conditions other than those tested. An economic evaluation was then done to determine the cost effectiveness of various high-efficiency upgrade options. These costs can be compared with the estimated market value of SO{sub 2} allowance or the expected costs of allowances generated by other means, such as fuel switching or new scrubbers, to arrive at the most cost-effective strategy for Clean Air Act compliance.

  19. Prevalence of sexual desire and satisfaction among patients with screen-detected diabetes and impact of intensive multifactorial treatment: Results from the ADDITION-Denmark study

    PubMed Central

    Giraldi, Annamaria; Kristensen, Ellids; Lauritzen, Torsten; Sandbæk, Annelli; Charles, Morten

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective. Sexual problems are common in people with diabetes. It is unknown whether early detection of diabetes and subsequent intensive multifactorial treatment (IT) are associated with sexual health. We report the prevalence of low sexual desire and low sexual satisfaction among people with screen-detected diabetes and compare the impact of intensive multifactorial treatment with the impact of routine care (RC) on these measures. Design. A cross-sectional analysis of the ADDITION-Denmark trial cohort six years post-diagnosis. Setting. 190 general practices around Denmark. Subjects. A total of 968 patients with screen-detected type 2 diabetes. Main outcome measures. Low sexual desire and low sexual satisfaction. Results. Mean (standard deviation, SD) age was 64.9 (6.9) years. The prevalence of low sexual desire was 53% (RC) and 54% (IT) among women, and 24% (RC) and 25% (IT) among men. The prevalence of low sexual satisfaction was 23% (RC) and 18% (IT) among women, and 27% (RC) and 37% (IT) among men. Among men, the prevalence of low sexual satisfaction was significantly higher in the IT group than in the RC group, p = 0.01. Conclusion. Low sexual desire and low satisfaction are frequent among men and women with screen-detected diabetes, and IT may negatively impact men's sexual satisfaction. PMID:25659194

  20. Addition of niclosamide to palladium(II) saccharinate complex of terpyridine results in enhanced cytotoxic activity inducing apoptosis on cancer stem cells of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Karakas, Didem; Cevatemre, Buse; Aztopal, Nazlihan; Ari, Ferda; Yilmaz, Veysel Turan; Ulukaya, Engin

    2015-09-01

    Wnt signaling is one of the core signaling pathways of cancer stem cells (CSCs). It is re-activated in CSCs and plays essential role in the survival, self-renewal and proliferation of these cells. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the cytotoxic effects of palladium(II) complex which is formulated as [PdCl(terpy)](sac)2H2O and its combination with niclosamide which is an inhibitor of Wnt signaling pathway associated with breast cancer stem cells. Characteristic cell surface markers (CD44(+)/CD24(-)) were determined by flow cytometry in CSCs. ATP viability assay was used to determine the cytotoxic activity. The mode of cell death was evaluated morphologically using fluorescence microscopy and biochemically using M30 ELISA assay as well as performing qPCR. Our study demonstrated that the combination of niclosamide (1.5 μM) and Pd(II) complex (12.5, 25 and 50 μM) at 48 h has enhanced cytotoxic activity resulted from the induction of apoptosis (indicated by the presence of pyknotic nuclei, increments in M30 and over expression of proapoptotic genes of TNFRSF10A and FAS). Importantly, the addition of niclosamide resulted in the suppression of autophagy (proved by the decrease in ATG5 gene levels) that might have contributed to the enhanced cytotoxicity. In conclusion, the application of this combination may be regarded as a novel and effective approach for the treatment of breast cancer due to its promising cytotoxic effect on cancer stem cells that cause recurrence of the disease. PMID:26234907

  1. High frequency transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation with diphenidol administration results in an additive antiallodynic effect in rats following chronic constriction injury.

    PubMed

    Lin, Heng-Teng; Chiu, Chong-Chi; Wang, Jhi-Joung; Hung, Ching-Hsia; Chen, Yu-Wen

    2015-03-01

    The impact of coadministration of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) and diphenidol is not well established. Here we estimated the effects of diphenidol in combination with TENS on mechanical allodynia and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) expression. Using an animal chronic constriction injury (CCI) model, the rat was estimated for evidence of mechanical sensitivity via von Frey hair stimulation and TNF-α expression in the sciatic nerve using the ELISA assay. High frequency (100Hz) TENS or intraperitoneal injection of diphenidol (2.0μmol/kg) was applied daily, starting on postoperative day 1 (POD1) and lasting for the next 13 days. We demonstrated that both high frequency TENS and diphenidol groups had an increase in mechanical withdrawal thresholds of 60%. Coadministration of high frequency TENS and diphenidol gives better results of paw withdrawal thresholds in comparison with high frequency TENS alone or diphenidol alone. Both diphenidol and coadministration of high frequency TENS with diphenidol groups showed a significant reduction of the TNF-α level compared with the CCI or HFS group (P<0.05) in the sciatic nerve on POD7, whereas the CCI or high frequency TENS group exhibited a higher TNF-α level than the sham group (P<0.05). Our resulting data revealed that diphenidol alone, high frequency TENS alone, and the combination produced a reduction of neuropathic allodynia. Both diphenidol and the combination of diphenidol with high frequency TENS inhibited TNF-α expression. A moderately effective dose of diphenidol appeared to have an additive effect with high frequency TENS. Therefore, multidisciplinary treatments could be considered for this kind of mechanical allodynia. PMID:25596445

  2. The results with the addition of metronomic cyclophosphamide to palliative radiotherapy for the treatment of non-small cell lung carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Subhash Chandra; Pandey, Kailash Chandra; Rastogi, Madhup; Sharma, Mukesh; Gupta, Manoj

    2015-01-01

    Background A considerable proportion of non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) patients are ineligible for radical therapies. Many are frail not to tolerate intravenous palliative chemotherapy either. These patients often receive palliative radiotherapy (RT), or supportive care alone. We intend to compare outcomes with palliative RT alone, versus palliative RT plus oral low dose metronomic cyclophosphamide. Methods Data was mined from 139 eligible NSCLC patient records. Comparisons were made between 65 patients treated from January 2011 to March 2013 with palliative RT (20-30 Gray in 5-10 fractions) alone, versus 74 patients treated from April 2013 to December 2014 with palliative RT plus oral metronomic cyclophosphamide (50 mg once daily from day of initiation of RT until at least the day of disease progression). Response was assessed after 1-month post-RT by computed tomography. Patients with complete or partial response were recorded as responders. For the determination of progression free survival (PFS), progression would be declared in case of increase in size of lesions, development of new lesions, or development of effusions. The proportions of responders were compared with the Fisher exact test, and the PFS curves were compared with the log-rank test. Results Differences in response rates were statistically insignificant. The PFS was significantly higher when metronomic chemotherapy was added to RT in comparison to treatment with RT alone (mean PFS 3.1 vs. 2.55 months; P=0.0501). Further histological sub-group analysis revealed that the enhanced outcomes with addition of metronomic cyclophosphamide to RT were limited to patients with adenocarcinoma histology (3.5 vs. 2.4 months; P=0.0053), while there was no benefit for those with squamous cell histology (2.6 vs. 2.6 months; P=1). At the dose of oral cyclophosphamide used, there was no recorded instance of any measurable hematological toxicity. Conclusions For pulmonary adenocarcinoma patients, the treatment

  3. Food additives

    MedlinePlus

    Food additives are substances that become part of a food product when they are added during the processing or making of that food. "Direct" food additives are often added during processing to: Add nutrients ...

  4. 5-MW Toronto HALT (Hydrate Addition at Low Temperature) pilot plant testing: Test results: Part 1-A. [Hydrate addition at low temperature for the removal of SO/sub 2/

    SciTech Connect

    Babu, M.; College, J.; Forsythe, R.; Kerivan, D.; Lee, K.; Herbert, R.; Kanary, D.

    1988-12-01

    ''Hydrate Addition at Low Temperature'' of HALT is a dry calcium- based hydrate injection process for the removal of SO/sub 2/ from flue gases off a sulfur bearing fuel. In this process the hydrate is pneumatically conveyed and injected into the flue gas stream as a dry particulate. The flue gas is cooled downstream of the hydrate injection location by spraying the gas with a stream finely atomized water droplets. The water is atomized into a fine spray mist by using air under pressure as the atomizing fluid. The spray nozzles are specially designed. A 5MW pilot HALT was designed, constructed and operated to demonstrate the viability of the HALT process. The unit was designed to use a baghouse for particulate removal. A rented ESP was used for a pre-scheduled test period for comparison with the baghouse. Tests were conducted to cover all of the following variables: humidification, stoichiometric ratio, approach temperature, flue gas velocity, inlet flue gas SO/sub 2/ concentration, and inlet flue gas temperature. Solids samples of hydrates disposal and ESP waste solids were chemically analyzed and are reported. Hydrate samples were analyzed for particle size distribution and surface area. A two month long duration test operating 24 hours/day was successfully concluded. EPA leachate tests were conducted on the solids waste. Corrosion tests were conducted on coupons installed in the baghouse. 79 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. Food additives

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857

  6. Vinyl capped addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vannucci, Raymond D. (Inventor); Malarik, Diane C. (Inventor); Delvigs, Peter (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    Polyimide resins (PMR) are generally useful where high strength and temperature capabilities are required (at temperatures up to about 700 F). Polyimide resins are particularly useful in applications such as jet engine compressor components, for example, blades, vanes, air seals, air splitters, and engine casing parts. Aromatic vinyl capped addition polyimides are obtained by reacting a diamine, an ester of tetracarboxylic acid, and an aromatic vinyl compound. Low void materials with improved oxidative stability when exposed to 700 F air may be fabricated as fiber reinforced high molecular weight capped polyimide composites. The aromatic vinyl capped polyimides are provided with a more aromatic nature and are more thermally stable than highly aliphatic, norbornenyl-type end-capped polyimides employed in PMR resins. The substitution of aromatic vinyl end-caps for norbornenyl end-caps in addition polyimides results in polymers with improved oxidative stability.

  7. Addition of cetuximab to oxaliplatin-based first-line combination chemotherapy for treatment of advanced colorectal cancer: results of the randomised phase 3 MRC COIN trial

    PubMed Central

    Maughan, Timothy S; Adams, Richard A; Smith, Christopher G; Meade, Angela M; Seymour, Matthew T; Wilson, Richard H; Idziaszczyk, Shelley; Harris, Rebecca; Fisher, David; Kenny, Sarah L; Kay, Edward; Mitchell, Jenna K; Madi, Ayman; Jasani, Bharat; James, Michelle D; Bridgewater, John; Kennedy, M John; Claes, Bart; Lambrechts, Diether; Kaplan, Richard; Cheadle, Jeremy P

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background In the Medical Research Council (MRC) COIN trial, the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-targeted antibody cetuximab was added to standard chemotherapy in first-line treatment of advanced colorectal cancer with the aim of assessing effect on overall survival. Methods In this randomised controlled trial, patients who were fit for but had not received previous chemotherapy for advanced colorectal cancer were randomly assigned to oxaliplatin and fluoropyrimidine chemotherapy (arm A), the same combination plus cetuximab (arm B), or intermittent chemotherapy (arm C). The choice of fluoropyrimidine therapy (capecitabine or infused fluouroracil plus leucovorin) was decided before randomisation. Randomisation was done centrally (via telephone) by the MRC Clinical Trials Unit using minimisation. Treatment allocation was not masked. The comparison of arms A and C is described in a companion paper. Here, we present the comparison of arm A and B, for which the primary outcome was overall survival in patients with KRAS wild-type tumours. Analysis was by intention to treat. Further analyses with respect to NRAS, BRAF, and EGFR status were done. The trial is registered, ISRCTN27286448. Findings 1630 patients were randomly assigned to treatment groups (815 to standard therapy and 815 to addition of cetuximab). Tumour samples from 1316 (81%) patients were used for somatic molecular analyses; 565 (43%) had KRAS mutations. In patients with KRAS wild-type tumours (arm A, n=367; arm B, n=362), overall survival did not differ between treatment groups (median survival 17·9 months [IQR 10·3–29·2] in the control group vs 17·0 months [9·4–30·1] in the cetuximab group; HR 1·04, 95% CI 0·87–1·23, p=0·67). Similarly, there was no effect on progression-free survival (8·6 months [IQR 5·0–12·5] in the control group vs 8·6 months [5·1–13·8] in the cetuximab group; HR 0·96, 0·82–1·12, p=0·60). Overall response rate increased from 57% (n=209

  8. BPI-ANCA Provides Additional Clinical Information to Anti-Pseudomonas Serology: Results from a Cohort of 117 Swedish Cystic Fibrosis Patients.

    PubMed

    Lindberg, Ulrika; Carlsson, Malin; Hellmark, Thomas; Segelmark, Mårten

    2015-01-01

    Patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) colonized with Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) have worse prognosis compared with patients who are not. BPI-ANCA is an anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody against BPI (bactericidal/permeability increasing protein) correlating with P. aeruginosa colonization and adverse long time prognosis. Whether it provides additional information as compared to standard anti-P. aeruginosa serology tests is not known. 117 nontransplanted CF patients at the CF centre in Lund, Sweden, were followed prospectively for ten years. Bacterial colonisation was classified according to the Leeds criteria. IgA BPI-ANCA was compared with assays for antibodies against alkaline protease (AP), Elastase (ELA), and Exotoxin A (ExoA). Lung function and patient outcome, alive, lung transplanted, or dead, were registered. BPI-ANCA showed the highest correlation with lung function impairment with an r-value of 0.44. Forty-eight of the 117 patients were chronically colonized with P. aeruginosa. Twenty of these patients experienced an adverse outcome. Receiver operator curve (ROC) analysis revealed that this could be predicted by BPI-ANCA (AUC = 0.77), (p = 0.002) to a better degree compared with serology tests. BPI-ANCA correlates better with lung function impairment and long time prognosis than anti-P. aeruginosa serology and has similar ability to identify patients with chronic P. aeruginosa. PMID:26273683

  9. Phosphazene additives

    SciTech Connect

    Harrup, Mason K; Rollins, Harry W

    2013-11-26

    An additive comprising a phosphazene compound that has at least two reactive functional groups and at least one capping functional group bonded to phosphorus atoms of the phosphazene compound. One of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with cellulose and the other of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with a resin, such as an amine resin of a polycarboxylic acid resin. The at least one capping functional group is selected from the group consisting of a short chain ether group, an alkoxy group, or an aryloxy group. Also disclosed are an additive-resin admixture, a method of treating a wood product, and a wood product.

  10. Additional correction for energy transfer efficiency calculation in filter-based Förster resonance energy transfer microscopy for more accurate results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yuansheng; Periasamy, Ammasi

    2010-03-01

    Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) microscopy is commonly used to monitor protein interactions with filter-based imaging systems, which require spectral bleedthrough (or cross talk) correction to accurately measure energy transfer efficiency (E). The double-label (donor+acceptor) specimen is excited with the donor wavelength, the acceptor emission provided the uncorrected FRET signal and the donor emission (the donor channel) represents the quenched donor (qD), the basis for the E calculation. Our results indicate this is not the most accurate determination of the quenched donor signal as it fails to consider the donor spectral bleedthrough (DSBT) signals in the qD for the E calculation, which our new model addresses, leading to a more accurate E result. This refinement improves E comparisons made with lifetime and spectral FRET imaging microscopy as shown here using several genetic (FRET standard) constructs, where cerulean and venus fluorescent proteins are tethered by different amino acid linkers.

  11. An Economic Evaluation of TENS in Addition to Usual Primary Care Management for the Treatment of Tennis Elbow: Results from the TATE Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Martyn; Chesterton, Linda S.; Sim, Julius; Mallen, Christian D.; Hay, Elaine M.; van der Windt, Daniëlle A.

    2015-01-01

    Background The TATE trial was a multicentre pragmatic randomized controlled trial of supplementing primary care management (PCM)–consisting of a GP consultation followed by information and advice on exercises–with transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS), to reduce pain intensity in patients with tennis elbow. This paper reports the health economic evaluation. Methods and Findings Adults with new diagnosis of tennis elbow were recruited from 38 general practices in the UK, and randomly allocated to PCM (n = 120) or PCM plus TENS (n = 121). Outcomes included reduction in pain intensity and quality-adjusted-life-years (QALYs) based on the EQ5D and SF6D. Two economic perspectives were evaluated: (i) healthcare–inclusive of NHS and private health costs for the tennis elbow; (ii) societal–healthcare costs plus productivity losses through work absenteeism. Mean outcome and cost differences between the groups were evaluated using a multiple imputed dataset as the base case evaluation, with uncertainty represented in cost-effectiveness planes and through probabilistic cost-effectiveness acceptability curves). Incremental healthcare cost was £33 (95%CI -40, 106) and societal cost £65 (95%CI -307, 176) for PCM plus TENS. Mean differences in outcome were: 0.11 (95%CI -0.13, 0.35) for change in pain (0–10 pain scale); -0.015 (95%CI -0.058, 0.029) for QALYEQ5D; 0.007 (95%CI -0.022, 0.035) for QALYSF6D (higher score differences denote greater benefit for PCM plus TENS). The ICER (incremental cost effectiveness ratio) for the main evaluation of mean difference in societal cost (£) relative to mean difference in pain outcome was -582 (95%CI -8666, 8113). However, incremental ICERs show differences in cost–effectiveness of additional TENS, according to the outcome being evaluated. Conclusion Our findings do not provide evidence for or against the cost-effectiveness of TENS as an adjunct to primary care management of tennis elbow. PMID:26317528

  12. Overlapping Repressor Binding Sites Result in Additive Regulation of Escherichia coli FadH by FadR and ArcA▿

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Youjun; Cronan, John E.

    2010-01-01

    Escherichia coli fadH encodes a 2,4-dienoyl reductase that plays an auxiliary role in β-oxidation of certain unsaturated fatty acids. In the 2 decades since its discovery, FadH biochemistry has been studied extensively. However, the genetic regulation of FadH has been explored only partially. Here we report mapping of the fadH promoter and document its complex regulation by three independent regulators, the fatty acid degradation FadR repressor, the oxygen-responsive ArcA-ArcB two-component system, and the cyclic AMP receptor protein-cyclic AMP (CRP-cAMP) complex. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays demonstrated that FadR binds to the fadH promoter region and that this binding can be specifically reversed by long-chain acyl-coenzyme A (CoA) thioesters. In vivo data combining transcriptional lacZ fusion and real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) analyses indicated that fadH is strongly repressed by FadR, in agreement with induction of fadH by long-chain fatty acids. Inactivation of arcA increased fadH transcription by >3-fold under anaerobic conditions. Moreover, fadH expression was increased 8- to 10-fold under anaerobic conditions upon deletion of both the fadR and the arcA gene, indicating that anaerobic expression is additively repressed by FadR and ArcA-ArcB. Unlike fadM, a newly reported member of the E. coli fad regulon that encodes another auxiliary β-oxidation enzyme, fadH was activated by the CRP-cAMP complex in a manner similar to those of the prototypical fad genes. In the absence of the CRP-cAMP complex, repression of fadH expression by both FadR and ArcA-ArcB was very weak, suggesting a possible interplay with other DNA binding proteins. PMID:20622065

  13. The addition of rituximab to fludarabine and cyclophosphamide chemotherapy results in a significant improvement in overall survival in patients with newly diagnosed mantle cell lymphoma: results of a randomized UK National Cancer Research Institute trial

    PubMed Central

    Rule, Simon; Smith, Paul; Johnson, Peter W.M.; Bolam, Simon; Follows, George; Gambell, Joanne; Hillmen, Peter; Jack, Andrew; Johnson, Stephen; Kirkwood, Amy A; Kruger, Anton; Pocock, Christopher; Seymour, John F.; Toncheva, Milena; Walewski, Jan; Linch, David

    2016-01-01

    Mantle cell lymphoma is an incurable and generally aggressive lymphoma that is more common in elderly patients. Whilst a number of different chemotherapeutic regimens are active in this disease, there is no established gold standard therapy. Rituximab has been used widely to good effect in B-cell malignancies but there is no evidence that it improves outcomes when added to chemotherapy in this disease. We performed a randomized, open-label, multicenter study looking at the addition of rituximab to the standard chemotherapy regimen of fludarabine and cyclophosphamide in patients with newly diagnosed mantle cell lymphoma. A total of 370 patients were randomized. With a median follow up of six years, rituximab improved the median progression-free survival from 14.9 to 29.8 months (P<0.001) and overall survival from 37.0 to 44.5 months (P=0.005). This equates to absolute differences of 9.0% and 22.1% for overall and progression-free survival, respectively, at two years. Overall response rates were similar, but complete response rates were significantly higher in the rituximab arm: 52.7% vs. 39.9% (P=0.014). There was no clinically significant additional toxicity observed with the addition of rituximab. Overall, approximately 18% of patients died of non-lymphomatous causes, most commonly infections. The addition of rituximab to fludarabine and cyclophosphamide chemotherapy significantly improves outcomes in patients with mantle cell lymphoma. However, these regimens have significant late toxicity and should be used with caution. This trial has been registered (ISRCTN81133184 and clinicaltrials.gov:00641095) and is supported by the UK National Cancer Research Network. PMID:26611473

  14. The addition of rituximab to fludarabine and cyclophosphamide chemotherapy results in a significant improvement in overall survival in patients with newly diagnosed mantle cell lymphoma: results of a randomized UK National Cancer Research Institute trial.

    PubMed

    Rule, Simon; Smith, Paul; Johnson, Peter W M; Bolam, Simon; Follows, George; Gambell, Joanne; Hillmen, Peter; Jack, Andrew; Johnson, Stephen; Kirkwood, Amy A; Kruger, Anton; Pocock, Christopher; Seymour, John F; Toncheva, Milena; Walewski, Jan; Linch, David

    2016-02-01

    Mantle cell lymphoma is an incurable and generally aggressive lymphoma that is more common in elderly patients. Whilst a number of different chemotherapeutic regimens are active in this disease, there is no established gold standard therapy. Rituximab has been used widely to good effect in B-cell malignancies but there is no evidence that it improves outcomes when added to chemotherapy in this disease. We performed a randomized, open-label, multicenter study looking at the addition of rituximab to the standard chemotherapy regimen of fludarabine and cyclophosphamide in patients with newly diagnosed mantle cell lymphoma. A total of 370 patients were randomized. With a median follow up of six years, rituximab improved the median progression-free survival from 14.9 to 29.8 months (P<0.001) and overall survival from 37.0 to 44.5 months (P=0.005). This equates to absolute differences of 9.0% and 22.1% for overall and progression-free survival, respectively, at two years. Overall response rates were similar, but complete response rates were significantly higher in the rituximab arm: 52.7% vs. 39.9% (P=0.014). There was no clinically significant additional toxicity observed with the addition of rituximab. Overall, approximately 18% of patients died of non-lymphomatous causes, most commonly infections. The addition of rituximab to fludarabine and cyclophosphamide chemotherapy significantly improves outcomes in patients with mantle cell lymphoma. However, these regimens have significant late toxicity and should be used with caution. This trial has been registered (ISRCTN81133184 and clinicaltrials.gov:00641095) and is supported by the UK National Cancer Research Network. PMID:26611473

  15. Structure of transition-metal cluster compounds: Use of an additional orbital resulting from the f, g character of spd bond orbitals*

    PubMed Central

    Pauling, Linus

    1977-01-01

    A general theory of the structure of complexes of the transition metals is developed on the basis of the enneacovalence of the metals and the requirements of the electroneutrality principle. An extra orbital may be provided through the small but not negligible amount of f and g character of spd bond orbitals, and an extra electron or electron pair may be accepted in this orbital for a single metal or a cluster to neutralize the positive electric charge resulting from the partial ionic character of the bonds with ligands, such as the carbonyl group. Examples of cluster compounds of cobalt, ruthenium, rhodium, osmium, and gold are discussed. PMID:16592470

  16. Effect of Using Local Intrawound Vancomycin Powder in Addition to Intravenous Antibiotics in Posterior Lumbar Surgery: Midterm Result in a Single-Center Study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Gun-Ill; Chun, Hyoung-Joon; Choi, Kyu-Sun

    2016-01-01

    Objective We conducted this study to report the efficacy of local application of vancomycin powder in the setting of surgical site infection (SSI) of posterior lumbar surgical procedures and to figure out risk factors of SSIs. Methods From February 2013 to December 2013, SSI rates following 275 posterior lumbar surgeries of which intrawound vancomycin powder was used in combination with intravenous antibiotics (Vanco group) were assessed. Compared with 296 posterior lumbar procedures with intravenous antibiotic only group from February 2012 to December 2012 (non-Vanco group), various infection rates were assessed. Univariate and multivariate analysis to figure out risk factors of infection among Vanco group were done. Results Statistically significant reduction of SSI in Vanco group (5.5%) from non-Vanco group (10.5%) was confirmed (p=0.028). Mean follow-up period was 8 months. Rate of acute staphylococcal SSIs reduced statistically significantly to 4% compared to 7.4% of non-Vanco group (p=0.041). Deep staphylococcal infection decreased to 2 compared to 8 and deep methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection also decreased to 1 compared to 5 in non-Vanco group. No systemic complication was observed. Statistically significant risk factors associated with SSI were diabetes mellitus, history of cardiovascular disease, length of hospital stay, number of instrumented level and history of previous surgery. Conclusion In this series of 571 patients, intrawound vancomycin powder usage resulted in significant decrease in SSI rates in our posterior lumbar surgical procedures. Patients at high risk of infection are highly recommended as a candidate for this technique. PMID:27437012

  17. Does early intensive multifactorial therapy reduce modelled cardiovascular risk in individuals with screen-detected diabetes? Results from the ADDITION-Europe cluster randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    Black, J A; Sharp, S J; Wareham, N J; Sandbæk, A; Rutten, G E H M; Lauritzen, T; Khunti, K; Davies, M J; Borch-Johnsen, K; Griffin, S J; Simmons, R K

    2014-01-01

    Aims Little is known about the long-term effects of intensive multifactorial treatment early in the diabetes disease trajectory. In the absence of long-term data on hard outcomes, we described change in 10-year modelled cardiovascular risk in the 5 years following diagnosis, and quantified the impact of intensive treatment on 10-year modelled cardiovascular risk at 5 years. Methods In a pragmatic, cluster-randomized, parallel-group trial in Denmark, the Netherlands and the UK, 3057 people with screen-detected Type 2 diabetes were randomized by general practice to receive (1) routine care of diabetes according to national guidelines (1379 patients) or (2) intensive multifactorial target-driven management (1678 patients). Ten-year modelled cardiovascular disease risk was calculated at baseline and 5 years using the UK Prospective Diabetes Study Risk Engine (version 3β). Results Among 2101 individuals with complete data at follow up (73.4%), 10-year modelled cardiovascular disease risk was 27.3% (sd 13.9) at baseline and 21.3% (sd 13.8) at 5-year follow-up (intensive treatment group difference –6.9, sd 9.0; routine care group difference –5.0, sd 12.2). Modelled 10-year cardiovascular disease risk was lower in the intensive treatment group compared with the routine care group at 5 years, after adjustment for baseline cardiovascular disease risk and clustering (–2.0; 95% CI –3.1 to –0.9). Conclusions Despite increasing age and diabetes duration, there was a decline in modelled cardiovascular disease risk in the 5 years following diagnosis. Compared with routine care, 10-year modelled cardiovascular disease risk was lower in the intensive treatment group at 5 years. Our results suggest that patients benefit from intensive treatment early in the diabetes disease trajectory, where the rate of cardiovascular disease risk progression may be slowed. PMID:24533664

  18. Addition of GM-CSF to a peptide/KLH vaccine results in increased frequencies of CXCR3-expressing KLH-specific T cells.

    PubMed

    Na, Il-Kang; Keilholz, Ulrich; Letsch, Anne; Bauer, Sandra; Asemissen, Anne Marie; Nagorsen, Dirk; Thiel, Eckhard; Scheibenbogen, Carmen

    2007-03-01

    T-cell trafficking is determined by expression patterns of chemokine receptors. The chemokine receptor CXCR3 is expressed on a subpopulation of type 1 T cells and plays an important role for migration of T cells into inflamed and tumor tissues. Here, we studied the chemokine receptor expression on specific T cells generated against the neoantigen keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) in patients who had been immunized in the context of a tumor peptide vaccination trial with or without the adjuvant granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF). In patients immunized in the presence of GM-CSF the fraction of CXCR3(+) KLH-specific T cells was significantly higher than in patients immunized in the absence of GM-CSF (median 45 vs. 20%, P = 0.001). In contrast, the chemokine receptor CCR4, associated with migration to the skin was found in both cohorts on less than 10% of KLH-specific T cells. These results show that CXCR3 expression on vaccine-induced T cells can be modulated by modifying the local vaccine milieu. PMID:16850346

  19. Soil Greenhouse Gas Fluxes in a Pacific Northwest Douglas-Fir Forest: Results from a Soil Fertilization and Biochar Addition Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawthorne, I.; Johnson, M. S.; Jassal, R. S.; Black, T. A.

    2013-12-01

    evacuated 12-mL vials and analyzed by gas chromatography. Chamber headspace GHG mixing ratios vs. time data were fit to linear and exponential models in R (Version 2.14.0) and fluxes were calculated. Results showed high variability in GHG fluxes over time in all treatments. Higher CO2 emissions were observed during early summer (119 μg CO2 m-2 s-1 in the control plots), decreasing with drought (19 μg CO2 m-2 s-1 in the control plots). CH4 uptake by soil increased during summer months from -0.004 μg CH4 m-2 s-1 to -0.089 μg CH4 m-2 s-1 in the control plots, in response to drying conditions in the upper soil profile. N2O was both consumed and emitted in all treatments, with fluxes ranging from -0.0009 to 0.0019 μg N2O m-2 s-1 in the control plots. Analysis of variance indicated that there were significant differences in GHG fluxes between treatments over time. We also investigated the potential effects of large volume headspace removal, and H2O vapour saturation leading to a dilution effect by using a closed-path infra-red gas analyzer with an inline humidity sensor.

  20. A comparative study of results obtained in magnetotelluric deep soundings in Villarrica active volcano zone (Chile) with gravity investigations, distribution of earthquake foci, heat flow empirical relationships, isotopic geochemistry 87Sr/ 86Sr and SB systematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz, M.; Fournier, H.; Mamani, M.; Febrer, J.; Borzotta, E.; Maidana, A.

    The first magnetotelluric deep soundings in Chile were carried out during 1986 in the Villarrica active volcano zone (39°25'S, 71°57'W). In the TM mode of polarization, the curves show a distorted segment with dispersion. A static distortion at long periods is observed in curves in the TE mode of polarization; the segment was shifted vertically to fit the geomagnetic global model values at daily periods. This modified curve was used for 1D modelling to determine the electrical structure in the study area. The upper level of the intermediate conducting layer of resistivity 20-60 ω m is found to be at 35-50 km depth. A higher resistivity layer (600 ω m), starting at 100 km depth, may be resolved in the intermediate conducting layer. A sharp decrease in the resistivity is shown by the model at 500 km. Large heterogeneities at the level of the conducting layer encountered in the 1D modelling, and increased resistivity of the ultimate layer, may account for distortion observed at long periods. Two-dimensional test models show that the conducting layer in the area of Villarrica volcano may be an anomalous heated layer surrounded by rocks of higher resistivity of about 2 × 10 3 ω m. These features correspond to the interaction with a subsiding oceanic lithosphere resulting in a complex thermal structure and perturbed resistivity distribution in transition zones of the Pacific type such as Chile, and to the existence of a megafault and a system of fractures in the sounding area. These facts make it difficult to determine the conductance of the electrical asthenosphere. The parameters of the model structure correlate well with geophysical and geochemical results obtained in the area by other workers. Gravity studies indicate a maximum crustal thickness of about 37 km, which implies a non-full compensation according to the Airy hypothesis. The morphology of the Wadati-Benioff zone clearly shows a sharp decrease of earthquake foci at 50 km depth, and a reinitiation of

  1. Obtaining and maintaining funding

    SciTech Connect

    Beverly Hartline

    1996-04-01

    Obtaining and maintaining funding is important for individuals, groups, institutions, and fields. This challenge is easier during times of abundant and growing resources than it is now, when funding is tight and shrinking. Thus, to obtain and maintain funding will require: maintaining healthy funding levels for all of science; maintaining healthy funding levels for the field(s) you work in; and competing successfully for the available funds. Everyone should pay attention to the overall prospects for science funding and dedicate some effort to working with others to grow the constituency for science. Public support is likely an important prerequisite for keeping future science budgets high. In this context, researchers should share with society at large the benefits of their research, so that taxpayers can see and appreciate some return from the federal investment in science. Assuming this effort is successful, and there continue to be government and private organizations with substantial resources to invest in research, what can the individual investigator do to improve her chances? She can be clear about her goal(s) and carefully plan her effort to make maximum progress for minimum resources, especially early in her career while she is establishing a solid professional reputation. Specific useful strategies include: brainstorm funding options and select the most promising one(s); be persistent but flexible, responsive to new information and changing circumstances; provide value and assistance to prospective funding sources both before and after receiving funding; know the funding agents and what their goals are, they are the customers; promise a lot and always deliver more; build partnerships and collaboration to leverage interest and resources; and develop capabilities and ideas with a promising, irresistible future. There is no guarantee of success. For the best chances, consistently contribute positively and productively in all your efforts, and continue to

  2. Results of an investigation of the space shuttle integrated vehicle aerodynamic heating characteristics obtained using the 0.0175-scale model 60-OTS in AEDC tunnel A during tests IH41 and IH41A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cummings, J. W.; Dye, W. H.

    1977-01-01

    A thin skin thermocouple test was conducted to obtain heat-transfer data on the space shuttle integrated vehicle during the ascent phase of the flight profile. The test model was the 0.0175-scale thin skin thermocouple model (60-OTS) of the Rockwell International vehicle 5 configuration. The test was conducted at nominal Mach numbers of 2.5, 3.5, 4.5, and 5.5, and a free stream unit Reynolds number of 5 million per ft. Heat transfer data were obtained for angles of attack of 0, + or - 5, and 10 deg and yaw angles of 0, 3, and 6 deg. The integrated vehicle model was tested with the external tank configured with both a smooth ogive nose and an ogive nose with a spherical nose tip (nipple nose). The remainder of the test was conducted with the external tank installed alone in the tunnel.

  3. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fletcher, James C. (Inventor); Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor); Burks, Harold D. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

  4. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor); Burks, Harold D. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of the additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

  5. Results of an investigation of Reynolds effects on integrated vehicle elevon hinge moments and wing panel loads obtained with 0.010 scale model 72 OTS in the Rockwell trisonic wind tunnel (IA141)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mennell, R. C.

    1976-01-01

    Wind tunnel investigations were conducted on an 0.010-scale representation of the VL70-000140C Integrated Space Shuttle Launch Vehicle. The primary test objective was to obtain Reynolds number effects on orbiter elevon hinge moments and wing bending/torsional moments. Launch vehicle aerodynamic force data were also recorded. The elevon hinge moments, wing bending/torsional moments, and vehicle force data were recorded over an angle of attack range of -6 deg to +6 deg, an angle of sideslip range of -6 deg to +6 deg, at Mach numbers of 0.6, 0.975, 1.05 and 1.25. The Reynolds number was varied from a minimum of 4.5 million/foot to a maximum of 11.5 million/foot. The complete integrated configuration was tested with the orbiter elevons set at 0 deg and deflected to 9 deg on the outboard elevon and 10 deg on the inboard elevon. Testing was conducted in the TWT 19.7% porous transonic test section with the model sting mounted through the orbiter base. All aerodynamic force data were obtained from internal strain gage balance located in the orbiter.

  6. Evaluation of two transport aircraft and several ground test vehicle friction measurements obtained for various runway surface types and conditions. A summary of test results from joint FAA/NASA Runway Friction Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yager, Thomas J.; Vogler, William A.; Baldasare, Paul

    1990-01-01

    Tests with specially instrumented NASA Boeing 737 and 727 aircraft together with several different ground friction measuring devices were conducted for a variety of runway surface types and conditions. These tests are part of joint FAA/NASA Aircraft/Ground Vehicle Runway Friction Program aimed at obtaining a better understanding of aircraft ground handling performance under adverse weather conditions and defining relationships between aircraft and ground vehicle tire friction measurements. Aircraft braking performance on dry, wet, snow and ice-covered runway conditions is discussed as well as ground vehicle friction data obtained under similar runway conditions. For a given contaminated runway surface condition, the correlation between ground vehicles and aircraft friction data is identified. The influence of major test parameters on friction measurements such as speed, test tire characteristics, type and amount of surface contaminant, and ambient temperature are discussed. The effect of surface type on wet friction levels is also evaluated from comparative data collected on grooved and ungrooved concrete and asphalt surfaces.

  7. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, J. R.; St. Clair, T. L.; Burks, H. D.; Stoakley, D. M.

    1987-01-01

    A method has been found for enhancing the melt flow of thermoplastic polyimides during processing. A high molecular weight 422 copoly(amic acid) or copolyimide was fused with approximately 0.05 to 5 pct by weight of a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive, and this melt was studied by capillary rheometry. Excellent flow and improved composite properties on graphite resulted from the addition of a PMDA-aniline additive to LARC-TPI. Solution viscosity studies imply that amic acid additives temporarily lower molecular weight and, hence, enlarge the processing window. Thus, compositions containing the additive have a lower melt viscosity for a longer time than those unmodified.

  8. The Conceptual Foundation of a Practical Experiment to Obtain Distinct Which-Way and Non-Which-Way Distributions at a Distance Using Delayed Choice and Without Correlating Measurement Results on Entangled Entities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, Douglas

    2014-03-01

    For a pair of entangled signal idler photons, one may ``lose'' the idler photon that carries which-way information and provides which-way information to the entangled signal photon before the signal photon is detected, thereby losing the entanglement. Over a number of runs, the result is an overall non-ww distribution of the signal photons. If instead the idler photon is not lost, the idler photon continues to supply ww information to the signal photon and over a number of runs the result is an overall ww distribution of the signal photons. These different overall distributions of signal photons do not depend on correlating detections of the entangled paired signal idler photons. The experiment allows for a delayed choice on the idler photons to determine the distribution of distant signal photons (either overall ww or overall not ww) without having to make correlations between signal and idler photon detections.

  9. Results of flutter test OS7 obtained using the 0.14-scale space shuttle orbiter fin/rudder model number 55-0 in the NASA LaRC 16-foot transonic dynamics wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berthold, C. L.

    1977-01-01

    A 0.14-scale dynamically scaled model of the space shuttle orbiter vertical tail was tested in a 16-foot transonic dynamic wind tunnel to determine flutter, buffet, and rudder buzz boundaries. Mach numbers between .5 and 1.11 were investigated. Rockwell shuttle model 55-0 was used for this investigation. A description of the test procedure, hardware, and results of this test is presented.

  10. Results of flutter test OS6 obtained using the 0.14-scale wing/elevon model (54-0) in the NASA LaRC 16-foot transonic dynamics wind tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berthold, C. L.

    1977-01-01

    A 0.14-scale dynamically scaled model of the space shuttle orbiter wing was tested in the Langley Research Center 16-Foot Transonic Dynamics Wind Tunnel to determine flutter, buffet, and elevon buzz boundaries. Mach numbers between 0.3 and 1.1 were investigated. Rockwell shuttle model 54-0 was utilized for this investigation. A description of the test procedure, hardware, and results of this test is presented.

  11. Effect of background and transport dose on the results of the personal dose equivalent Hp(10) measurements in photon fields obtained during the intercomparison 2013 of the African region.

    PubMed

    Arib, M; Herrati, A; Dari, F; Lounis-Mokrani, Z

    2015-12-01

    As part of the intercomparison on the measurement of personal dose equivalent Hp(10), jointly organised by the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Algerian Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory, for the African region, up to 12 dosemeters were added to the packages of the 28 participants to evaluate the background and transport dose (BGTD), received by the dosemeters before and after their irradiation at the SSDL (environmental irradiations, scanning process at the airports, etc.). Out of the 28 participants, only 17 reported the corresponding BGTD measured values, which lied between 0.03 and 0.8 mSv. The mean measured value of BG was (0.25±0.14) mSv, which is significantly high compared with the lowest dose value used in the intercomparison exercise. The BGTD correction shifted the overall results of the intercomparison from an overestimation of dose (∼8 % before applying BGT dose correction) to an underestimation of dose (-9 % after correction). The measurement protocol and the detailed analysis of the results and applied corrections are discussed in this paper. PMID:25433048

  12. 10-7 contrast ratio at 4.5λ/D: New results obtained in laboratory experiments using nano-fabricated coronagraph and multi-Gaussian shaped pupil masks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Abhijit; Thompson, Laird A.; Rogosky, Michael

    2005-04-01

    We present here new experimental results on high contrast imaging of 10-7 at 4.λ/D (λ=0.820 microns) by combining a circular focal plane mask (coronagraph) of 2.5λ/D diameter and a multi-Gaussian pupil plane mask. Both the masks were fabricated on very high surface quality (λ/30) BK7 optical substrates using nano-fabrication techniques of photolithography and metal lift-off. This process ensured that the shaped masks have a useable edge roughness better than λ/4 (rms error better than 0.2 microns), a specification that is necessary to realize the predicted theoretical limits of any mask design. Though a theoretical model predicts a contrast level of 10-12, the background noise of the observed images was speckle dominated which reduced the contrast level to 4x10-7 at 4.5λ/D. The optical setup was built on the University of Illinois Seeing Improvement System (UnISIS) optics table which is at the Coude focus of the 2.5-m telescope of the Mt. Wilson Observatory. We used a 0.820 micron laser source coupled with a 5 micron single-mode fiber to simulate an artificial star on the optical test bench of UnISIS.

  13. 10(-7) contrast ratio at 4.5lambda/D: New results obtained in laboratory experiments using nano-fabricated coronagraph and multi-Gaussian shaped pupil masks.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Abhijit; Thompson, Laird; Rogosky, Michael

    2005-04-01

    We present here new experimental results on high contrast imaging of 10-7 at 4.lambda/D (lambda=0.820 microns) by combining a circular focal plane mask (coronagraph) of 2.5lambda/D diameter and a multi-Gaussian pupil plane mask. Both the masks were fabricated on very high surface quality (lambda/30) BK7 optical substrates using nano-fabrication techniques of photolithography and metal lift-off. This process ensured that the shaped masks have a useable edge roughness better than lambda/4 (rms error better than 0.2 microns), a specification that is necessary to realize the predicted theoretical limits of any mask design. Though a theoretical model predicts a contrast level of 10-12, the background noise of the observed images was speckle dominated which reduced the contrast level to 4x10-7 at 4.5lambda/D. The optical setup was built on the University of Illinois Seeing Improvement System (UnISIS) optics table which is at the Coude focus of the 2.5-m telescope of the Mt. Wilson Observatory. We used a 0.820 micron laser source coupled with a 5 micron single-mode fiber to simulate an artificial star on the optical test bench of UnISIS. PMID:19495130

  14. Nitric acid measurements at Eureka obtained in winter 2001-2002 using solar and lunar Fourier transform infrared absorption spectroscopy: Comparisons with observations at Thule and Kiruna and with results from three-dimensional models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farahani, Elham; Fast, H.; Mittermeier, R. L.; Makino, Y.; Strong, K.; McLandress, C.; Shepherd, T. G.; Chipperfield, M. P.; Hannigan, J. W.; Coffey, M. T.; Mikuteit, S.; Hase, F.; Blumenstock, T.; Raffalski, U.

    2007-01-01

    For the first time, vertical column measurements of nitric acid (HNO3) above Eureka (80.1°N, 86.4°W), Canada, have been made during polar night using lunar spectra recorded with a Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer, from October 2001 to March 2002. This site is part of the primary Arctic station of the Network for the Detection of Stratospheric Change. These measurements were compared with FTIR measurements at two other Arctic sites: Thule, Greenland (76.5°N, 68.8°W), and Kiruna, Sweden (67.8°N, 20.4°E). Eureka lunar measurements are in good agreement with solar ones made with the same instrument. Eureka and Thule HNO3 columns are consistent within measurement error. Differences between HNO3 columns at Kiruna and those at Eureka and Thule can be explained on the basis of available sunlight hours and location of the polar vortex. The measurements were also compared with results from a chemistry-climate model, the Canadian Middle Atmosphere Model (CMAM), and from a three-dimensional chemical transport model, SLIMCAT. This is the first time that CMAM HNO3 columns have been compared with observations in the Arctic. The comparison of CMAM HNO3 columns with Eureka and Kiruna data shows good agreement. The warm 2001-2002 winter with almost no polar stratospheric clouds makes the comparison with this version of CMAM, which has a known warm bias, a good test for CMAM under these conditions. SLIMCAT captures the magnitude of HNO3 columns at Eureka, and the day-to-day variability, but generally reports higher values than were measured at Thule and Kiruna.

  15. Obtaining Functional Results: Relating Needs Assessment, Needs Analysis, and Objectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Roger

    1986-01-01

    An algorithm or decision chart is presented which provides basic decision steps to help management decide what data should be collected to derive valid and correct objectives, and to determine what levels of objectives will be selected relative to products, outputs, or outcomes of an organization. (MBR)

  16. 25 CFR 162.539 - Must I obtain a WEEL before obtaining a WSR lease?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... AND PERMITS Wind and Solar Resource Leases Wsr Leases § 162.539 Must I obtain a WEEL before obtaining... direct result of energy resource information gathered from a WEEL activity, obtaining a WEEL is not...

  17. 25 CFR 162.539 - Must I obtain a WEEL before obtaining a WSR lease?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... AND PERMITS Wind and Solar Resource Leases Wsr Leases § 162.539 Must I obtain a WEEL before obtaining... direct result of energy resource information gathered from a WEEL activity, obtaining a WEEL is not...

  18. Characterization of pyrolysis oils obtained from non-conventional sources

    SciTech Connect

    Houde, J. Jr.; Charland, J.P.

    1995-12-31

    Research in the field of recycling which focusses on generating oil by pyrolysis or thermal conversion has increased considerably, in recent years. CANMET has developed an application for oil for use as an additive in the manufacture of asphalt. The oil is obtained by thermal conversion of municipal sewage sludge. A program is now under way to examine oils obtained from other sources. The project characterizes pyrolysis oils from automobile shredder residue and pulp and paper mill sludge. Analytical results will be presented as well as a comparison of these oils with those obtained from tires and municipal sewage sludge.

  19. Acid Rain Analysis by Standard Addition Titration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ophardt, Charles E.

    1985-01-01

    The standard addition titration is a precise and rapid method for the determination of the acidity in rain or snow samples. The method requires use of a standard buret, a pH meter, and Gran's plot to determine the equivalence point. Experimental procedures used and typical results obtained are presented. (JN)

  20. Recovery of clinical but not radiographic outcomes by the delayed addition of adalimumab to methotrexate-treated Japanese patients with early rheumatoid arthritis: 52-week results of the HOPEFUL-1 trial

    PubMed Central

    Ishiguro, Naoki; Takeuchi, Tsutomu; Miyasaka, Nobuyuki; Mukai, Masaya; Matsubara, Tsukasa; Uchida, Shoji; Akama, Hideto; Kupper, Hartmut; Arora, Vipin; Tanaka, Yoshiya

    2014-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to compare efficacy outcomes of initial treatment with adalimumab + MTX vs adalimumab addition following 26 weeks of MTX monotherapy in Japanese early RA patients naive to MTX with high disease activity. Methods. Patients completing the 26-week, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of adalimumab + MTX were eligible to receive 26 weeks of open-label adalimumab + MTX. Patients were assessed for mean change from baseline in the 28-joint DAS with ESR (DAS28-ESR) and modified total Sharp score (mTSS), and for the proportions of patients achieving clinical, functional or radiographic remission. Results. Of 333 patients assessed, 278 (137 from the initial adalimumab + MTX and 141 from the initial placebo + MTX groups) completed the 52-week study. Significant differences in clinical and functional parameters observed during the 26-week blinded period were not apparent following the addition of open-label adalimumab to MTX. Open-label adalimumab + MTX slowed radiographic progression through week 52 in both groups, but patients who received adalimumab + MTX throughout the study exhibited less radiographic progression than those who received placebo + MTX during the first 26 weeks (mean ΔmTSS at week 52 = 2.56 vs 3.30, P < 0.001). Conclusion. Delayed addition of adalimumab in Japanese MTX-naive early RA patients did not impact clinical and functional outcomes at week 52 compared with the earlier addition of adalimumab. However, the accrual of significant structural damage during blinded placebo + MTX therapy contributed to the persistence of differences between the treatment strategies, suggesting that Japanese patients at risk for aggressive disease should benefit from the early inclusion of adalimumab + MTX combination therapy. Trial registration. ClinicalTrials.gov (http://clinicaltrials.gov/), NCT00870467. PMID:24441150

  1. Smog control fuel additives

    SciTech Connect

    Lundby, W.

    1993-06-29

    A method is described of controlling, reducing or eliminating, ozone and related smog resulting from photochemical reactions between ozone and automotive or industrial gases comprising the addition of iodine or compounds of iodine to hydrocarbon-base fuels prior to or during combustion in an amount of about 1 part iodine per 240 to 10,000,000 parts fuel, by weight, to be accomplished by: (a) the addition of these inhibitors during or after the refining or manufacturing process of liquid fuels; (b) the production of these inhibitors for addition into fuel tanks, such as automotive or industrial tanks; or (c) the addition of these inhibitors into combustion chambers of equipment utilizing solid fuels for the purpose of reducing ozone.

  2. Boron addition to alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Coad, B. C.

    1985-08-20

    A process for addition of boron to an alloy which involves forming a melt of the alloy and a reactive metal, selected from the group consisting of aluminum, titanium, zirconium and mixtures thereof to the melt, maintaining the resulting reactive mixture in the molten state and reacting the boric oxide with the reactive metal to convert at least a portion of the boric oxide to boron which dissolves in the resulting melt, and to convert at least portion of the reactive metal to the reactive metal oxide, which oxide remains with the resulting melt, and pouring the resulting melt into a gas stream to form a first atomized powder which is subsequently remelted with further addition of boric oxide, re-atomized, and thus reprocessed to convert essentially all the reactive metal to metal oxide to produce a powdered alloy containing specified amounts of boron.

  3. Phenylethynyl Containing Reactive Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Phenylethynyl containing reactive additives were prepared from aromatic diamine, containing phenylethvnvl groups and various ratios of phthalic anhydride and 4-phenylethynviphthalic anhydride in glacial acetic acid to form the imide in one step or in N-methyl-2-pvrrolidinone to form the amide acid intermediate. The reactive additives were mixed in various amounts (10% to 90%) with oligomers containing either terminal or pendent phenylethynyl groups (or both) to reduce the melt viscosity and thereby enhance processability. Upon thermal cure, the additives react and become chemically incorporated into the matrix and effect an increase in crosslink density relative to that of the host resin. This resultant increase in crosslink density has advantageous consequences on the cured resin properties such as higher glass transition temperature and higher modulus as compared to that of the host resin.

  4. Astrophysical Reaction Rates Obtained By Indirect Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Tribble, R. E.; Al-Abdullah, T.; Alharbi, A.; Banu, A.; Chen, X.; Clark, H. L.; Fu, C.; Gagliardi, C. A.; Hardy, J. C.; Iacob, V. E.; Lui, Y.-W.; McCleskey, M.; Mukhamedzhanov, A.; Nica, N.; Park, H. I.; Roeder, B.; Simmons, E.; Tabacaru, G.; Tokimoto, Y.; Trache, L.

    2010-08-12

    Indirect techniques have been used to obtain information about reaction rates for several proton capture reactions that occur on short-lived nuclei. The techniques used to carry out the measurements are reviewed and the results obtained are presented. Also future prospects for further measurements with a new facility, T-REX are discussed.

  5. Addition of rapamycin and hydroxychloroquine to metronomic chemotherapy as a second line treatment results in high salvage rates for refractory metastatic solid tumors: a pilot safety and effectiveness analysis in a small patient cohort

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Kwan-Hwa; Ko, Hui-Ling; Yang, Kai-Lin; Lee, Cheng-Yen; Chi, Mau-Shin; Kao, Shang-Jyh

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Autophagy is an important oncotarget that can be modulated during anti-cancer therapy. Enhancing autophagy using chemotherapy and rapamycin (Rapa) treatment and then inhibiting it using hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) could synergistically improve therapy outcome in cancer patients. It is still unclear whether addition of Rapa and HCQ to chemotherapy could be used for reversing drug resistance. PATIENTS AND METHODS Twenty-five stage IV cancer patients were identified. They had no clinical response to first-line metronomic chemotherapy; the patients were salvaged by adding an autophagy inducer (Rapa, 2 mg/day) and an autophagosome inhibitor (HCQ, 400 mg/day) to their current metronomic chemotherapy for at least 3 months. Patients included 4 prostate, 4 bladder, 4 lung, 4 breast, 2 colon, and 3 head and neck cancer patients as well as 4 sarcoma patients. RESULTS Chemotherapy was administered for a total of 137 months. The median duration of chemotherapy cycles per patient was 4 months (95% confidence interval, 3–7 months). The overall response rate to this treatment was of 40%, with an 84% disease control rate. The most frequent and clinically significant toxicities were myelotoxicities. Grade ≥3 leucopenia occurred in 6 patients (24%), grade ≥3 thrombocytopenia in 8 (32%), and anemia in 3 (12%). None of them developed febrile neutropenia. Non-hematologic toxicities were fatigue (total 32%, with 1 patient developing grade 3 fatigue), diarrhea (total 20%, 1 patient developed grade 3 fatigue), reversible grade 3 cardiotoxicity (1 patient), and grade V liver toxicity from hepatitis B reactivation (1 patient). CONCLUSION Our results of Rapa, HCQ and chemotherapy triplet combination suggest autophagy is a promising oncotarget and warrants further investigation in phase II studies. PMID:25944689

  6. Health effects models for nuclear power plant accident consequence analysis. Modification of models resulting from addition of effects of exposure to alpha-emitting radionuclides: Revision 1, Part 2, Scientific bases for health effects models, Addendum 2

    SciTech Connect

    Abrahamson, S.; Bender, M.A.; Boecker, B.B.; Scott, B.R.; Gilbert, E.S.

    1993-05-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has sponsored several studies to identify and quantify, through the use of models, the potential health effects of accidental releases of radionuclides from nuclear power plants. The Reactor Safety Study provided the basis for most of the earlier estimates related to these health effects. Subsequent efforts by NRC-supported groups resulted in improved health effects models that were published in the report entitled {open_quotes}Health Effects Models for Nuclear Power Plant Consequence Analysis{close_quotes}, NUREG/CR-4214, 1985 and revised further in the 1989 report NUREG/CR-4214, Rev. 1, Part 2. The health effects models presented in the 1989 NUREG/CR-4214 report were developed for exposure to low-linear energy transfer (LET) (beta and gamma) radiation based on the best scientific information available at that time. Since the 1989 report was published, two addenda to that report have been prepared to (1) incorporate other scientific information related to low-LET health effects models and (2) extend the models to consider the possible health consequences of the addition of alpha-emitting radionuclides to the exposure source term. The first addendum report, entitled {open_quotes}Health Effects Models for Nuclear Power Plant Accident Consequence Analysis, Modifications of Models Resulting from Recent Reports on Health Effects of Ionizing Radiation, Low LET Radiation, Part 2: Scientific Bases for Health Effects Models,{close_quotes} was published in 1991 as NUREG/CR-4214, Rev. 1, Part 2, Addendum 1. This second addendum addresses the possibility that some fraction of the accident source term from an operating nuclear power plant comprises alpha-emitting radionuclides. Consideration of chronic high-LET exposure from alpha radiation as well as acute and chronic exposure to low-LET beta and gamma radiations is a reasonable extension of the health effects model.

  7. Overview of differences between microbial feed additives and probiotics for food regarding regulation, growth promotion effects and health properties and consequences for extrapolation of farm animal results to humans.

    PubMed

    Bernardeau, M; Vernoux, J-P

    2013-04-01

    For many years, microbial adjuncts have been used to supplement the diets of farm animals and humans. They have evolved since the 1990s to become known as probiotics, i.e. functional food with health benefits. After the discovery of a possible link between manipulation of gut microflora in mice and obesity, a focus on the use of these beneficial microbes that act on gut microflora in animal farming was undertaken and compared with the use of probiotics for food. Beneficial microbes added to feed are classified at a regulatory level as zootechnical additives, in the category of gut flora stabilizers for healthy animals and are regulated up to strain level in Europe. Intended effects are improvement of performance characteristics, which are strain dependent and growth enhancement is not a prerequisite. In fact, increase of body weight is not commonly reported and its frequency is around 25% of the published data examined here. However, when a Body Weight Gain (BWG) was found in the literature, it was generally moderate (lower than or close to 10%) and this over a reduced period of their short industrial life. When it was higher than 10%, it could be explained as an indirect consequence of the alleviation of the weight losses linked to stressful intensive rearing conditions or health deficiency. However, regulations on feed do not consider the health effects because animals are supposed to be healthy, so there is no requirement for reporting healthy effects in the standard European dossier. The regulations governing the addition of beneficial microorganisms to food are less stringent than for feed and no dossier is required if a species has a Qualified Presumption of Safety status. The microbial strain marketed is not submitted to any regulation and its properties (including BWG) do not need to be studied. Only claims for functional or healthy properties are regulated and again growth effect is not included. However, recent studies on probiotic effects showed that BWG

  8. Employment Obtaining and Business Starting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lan, Jian

    2009-01-01

    The implementation of business starting education in higher vocational colleges is of important and realistic meanings for cultivating advanced technology application-type talents and for releasing the employment obtaining pressure of higher vocational students. Based on the analysis on the employment situation of higher vocational graduates, this…

  9. Obtaining Public Records: Reporter Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, Betsy

    2013-01-01

    Obtaining public records is essential to covering public education. Fortunately, the law is on the side of reporters: Public agencies generally must disclose their records to the public and to the media--with important exceptions. Public agencies are often reluctant to hand over records, however, even when the law clearly says they should.…

  10. Truncated States Obtained by Iteration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardoso B., W.; Almeida G. de, N.

    2008-02-01

    We introduce the concept of truncated states obtained via iterative processes (TSI) and study its statistical features, making an analogy with dynamical systems theory (DST). As a specific example, we have studied TSI for the doubling and the logistic functions, which are standard functions in studying chaos. TSI for both the doubling and logistic functions exhibit certain similar patterns when their statistical features are compared from the point of view of DST.

  11. Improvements in Cd stable isotope analysis achieved through use of liquid–liquid extraction to remove organic residues from Cd separates obtained by extraction chromatography† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5ja00115c Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Rehkämper, Mark; Kreissig, Katharina; Coles, Barry; van de Flierdt, Tina

    2016-01-01

    Organic compounds released from resins that are commonly employed for trace element separations are known to have a detrimental impact on the quality of isotopic analyses by MC-ICP-MS. A recent study highlighted that such effects can be particularly problematic for Cd stable isotope measurements (M. Gault-Ringold and C. H. Stirling, J. Anal. At. Spectrom., 2012, 27, 449–459). In this case, the final stage of sample purification commonly applies extraction chromatography with Eichrom TRU resin, which employs particles coated with octylphenyl-N,N-di-isobutyl carbamoylphosphine oxide (CMPO) dissolved in tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP). During chromatography, it appears that some of these compounds are eluted alongside Cd and cannot be removed by evaporation due to their high boiling points. When aliquots of the zero-ε reference material were processed through the purification procedure, refluxed in concentrated HNO3 and analyzed at minimum dilution (in 1 ml 0.1 M HNO3), they yielded Cd isotopic compositions (ε114/110Cd = 4.6 ± 3.4, 2SD, n = 4) that differed significantly from the expected value, despite the use of a double spike technique to correct for instrumental mass fractionation. This result was accompanied by a 35% reduction in instrumental sensitivity for Cd. With increasing dilution of the organic resin residue, both of these effects are reduced and they are insignificant when the eluted Cd is dissolved in ≥3 ml 0.1 M HNO3. Our results, furthermore, indicate that the isotopic artefacts are most likely related to anomalous mass bias behavior. Previous studies have shown that perchloric acid can be effective at avoiding such effects (Gault-Ringold and Stirling, 2012; K. C. Crocket, M. Lambelet, T. van de Flierdt, M. Rehkämper and L. F. Robinson, Chem. Geol., 2014, 374–375, 128–140), presumably by oxidizing the resin-derived organics, but there are numerous disadvantages to its use. Here we show that liquid–liquid extraction with n-heptane removes the

  12. The impact on outcome of the addition of all-trans retinoic acid to intensive chemotherapy in younger patients with nonacute promyelocytic acute myeloid leukemia: overall results and results in genotypic subgroups defined by mutations in NPM1, FLT3, and CEBPA.

    PubMed

    Burnett, Alan K; Hills, Robert K; Green, Claire; Jenkinson, Sarah; Koo, Kenneth; Patel, Yashma; Guy, Carol; Gilkes, Amanda; Milligan, Donald W; Goldstone, Anthony H; Prentice, Archibald G; Wheatley, Keith; Linch, David C; Gale, Rosemary E

    2010-02-01

    We investigated the benefit of adding all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) to chemotherapy for younger patients with nonacute promyelocytic acute myeloid leukemia and high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome, and considered interactions between treatment and molecular markers. Overall, 1075 patients less than 60 years of age were randomized to receive or not receive ATRA in addition to daunorubicin/Ara-C/thioguanine chemotherapy with Ara-C at standard or double standard dose. There were data on FLT3 internal tandem duplications and NPM1 mutations (n = 592), CEBPA mutations (n = 423), and MN1 expression (n = 195). The complete remission rate was 68% with complete remission with incomplete count recovery in an additional 16%; 8-year overall survival was 32%. There was no significant treatment effect for any outcome, with no significant interactions between treatment and demographics, or cytarabine randomization. Importantly, there were no interactions by FLT3/internal tandem duplications, NPM1, or CEBPA mutation. There was a suggestion that ATRA reduced relapse in patients with lower MN1 levels, but no significant effect on overall survival. Results were consistent when restricted to patients with normal karyotype. ATRA has no overall effect on treatment outcomes in this group of patients. The study did not identify any subgroup of patients likely to derive a significant survival benefit from the addition of ATRA to chemotherapy. PMID:19965647

  13. New addition curing polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frimer, Aryeh A.; Cavano, Paul

    1991-01-01

    In an attempt to improve the thermal-oxidative stability (TOS) of PMR-type polymers, the use of 1,4-phenylenebis (phenylmaleic anhydride) PPMA, was evaluated. Two series of nadic end-capped addition curing polyimides were prepared by imidizing PPMA with either 4,4'-methylene dianiline or p-phenylenediamine. The first resulted in improved solubility and increased resin flow while the latter yielded a compression molded neat resin sample with a T(sub g) of 408 C, close to 70 C higher than PME-15. The performance of these materials in long term weight loss studies was below that of PMR-15, independent of post-cure conditions. These results can be rationalized in terms of the thermal lability of the pendant phenyl groups and the incomplete imidization of the sterically congested PPMA. The preparation of model compounds as well as future research directions are discussed.

  14. Addition of docetaxel, zoledronic acid, or both to first-line long-term hormone therapy in prostate cancer (STAMPEDE): survival results from an adaptive, multiarm, multistage, platform randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    James, Nicholas D; Sydes, Matthew R; Clarke, Noel W; Mason, Malcolm D; Dearnaley, David P; Spears, Melissa R; Ritchie, Alastair W S; Parker, Christopher C; Russell, J Martin; Attard, Gerhardt; de Bono, Johann; Cross, William; Jones, Rob J; Thalmann, George; Amos, Claire; Matheson, David; Millman, Robin; Alzouebi, Mymoona; Beesley, Sharon; Birtle, Alison J; Brock, Susannah; Cathomas, Richard; Chakraborti, Prabir; Chowdhury, Simon; Cook, Audrey; Elliott, Tony; Gale, Joanna; Gibbs, Stephanie; Graham, John D; Hetherington, John; Hughes, Robert; Laing, Robert; McKinna, Fiona; McLaren, Duncan B; O'Sullivan, Joe M; Parikh, Omi; Peedell, Clive; Protheroe, Andrew; Robinson, Angus J; Srihari, Narayanan; Srinivasan, Rajaguru; Staffurth, John; Sundar, Santhanam; Tolan, Shaun; Tsang, David; Wagstaff, John; Parmar, Mahesh K B

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Long-term hormone therapy has been the standard of care for advanced prostate cancer since the 1940s. STAMPEDE is a randomised controlled trial using a multiarm, multistage platform design. It recruits men with high-risk, locally advanced, metastatic or recurrent prostate cancer who are starting first-line long-term hormone therapy. We report primary survival results for three research comparisons testing the addition of zoledronic acid, docetaxel, or their combination to standard of care versus standard of care alone. Methods Standard of care was hormone therapy for at least 2 years; radiotherapy was encouraged for men with N0M0 disease to November, 2011, then mandated; radiotherapy was optional for men with node-positive non-metastatic (N+M0) disease. Stratified randomisation (via minimisation) allocated men 2:1:1:1 to standard of care only (SOC-only; control), standard of care plus zoledronic acid (SOC + ZA), standard of care plus docetaxel (SOC + Doc), or standard of care with both zoledronic acid and docetaxel (SOC + ZA + Doc). Zoledronic acid (4 mg) was given for six 3-weekly cycles, then 4-weekly until 2 years, and docetaxel (75 mg/m2) for six 3-weekly cycles with prednisolone 10 mg daily. There was no blinding to treatment allocation. The primary outcome measure was overall survival. Pairwise comparisons of research versus control had 90% power at 2·5% one-sided α for hazard ratio (HR) 0·75, requiring roughly 400 control arm deaths. Statistical analyses were undertaken with standard log-rank-type methods for time-to-event data, with hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs derived from adjusted Cox models. This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT00268476) and ControlledTrials.com (ISRCTN78818544). Findings 2962 men were randomly assigned to four groups between Oct 5, 2005, and March 31, 2013. Median age was 65 years (IQR 60–71). 1817 (61%) men had M+ disease, 448 (15%) had N+/X M0, and 697 (24%) had N0M0. 165 (6

  15. 38 CFR 61.15 - Obtaining additional information and awarding capital grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... in § 61.16 of this part; (3) Documentation establishing site control described in § 61.17 of this... this part. (Authority: 38 U.S.C. 501, 2002, 2011, 2012, 2061, 2064, 7721 note) (The Office...

  16. IMPACTS OF DRILLING ADDITIVES ON DATA OBTAINED FROM HYDROGEOLOGIC CHARACTERIZATION WELLS AT LOS ALAMOS NATIONAL LABORATORY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Personnel at the EPA Ground Water and Ecosystems Restoration Division (GWERD) were requested by EPA Region 6 to evaluate the impacts of well drilling practices at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The focus of this review involved analysis of the impacts of bentonite- a...

  17. Oxidative addition of carbon-carbon bonds to gold.

    PubMed

    Joost, Maximilian; Estévez, Laura; Miqueu, Karinne; Amgoune, Abderrahmane; Bourissou, Didier

    2015-04-20

    The oxidative addition of strained CC bonds (biphenylene, benzocyclobutenone) to DPCb (diphosphino-carborane) gold(I) complexes is reported. The resulting cationic organogold(III) complexes have been isolated and fully characterized. Experimental conditions can be adjusted to obtain selectively acyl gold(III) complexes resulting from oxidative addition of either the C(aryl)C(O) or C(alkyl)C(O) bond of benzocyclobutenone. DFT calculations provide mechanistic insight into this unprecedented transformation. PMID:25727203

  18. [Food additives and healthiness].

    PubMed

    Heinonen, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Additives are used for improving food structure or preventing its spoilage, for example. Many substances used as additives are also naturally present in food. The safety of additives is evaluated according to commonly agreed principles. If high concentrations of an additive cause adverse health effects for humans, a limit of acceptable daily intake (ADI) is set for it. An additive is a risk only when ADI is exceeded. The healthiness of food is measured on the basis of nutrient density and scientifically proven effects. PMID:24772784

  19. Evaluating Three Different Methods of Determining Addition in Presbyopia

    PubMed Central

    Yazdani, Negareh; Khorasani, Abbas Azimi; Moghadam, Hanieh Mirhajian; Yekta, Abbas Ali; Ostadimoghaddam, Hadi; Shandiz, Javad Heravian

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To compare three different methods for determining addition in presbyopes. Methods: The study included 81 subjects with presbyopia who aged 40-70 years. Reading addition values were measured using 3 approaches including the amplitude of accommodation (AA), dynamic retinoscopy (DR), and increasing plus lens (IPL). Results: IPL overestimated reading addition relative to other methods. Mean near addition obtained by AA, DR and IPL were 1.31, 1.68 and 1.77, respectively. Our results showed that IPL method could provide 20/20 vision at near in the majority of presbyopic subjects (63.4%). Conclusion: The results were approximately the same for 3 methods and provided comparable final addition; however, mean near additions were higher with increasing plus lens compared with the other two methods. In presbyopic individuals, increasing plus lens is recommended as the least time-consuming method with the range of ±0.50 diopter at the 40 cm working distance. PMID:27621785

  20. Intensification of antiretroviral therapy through addition of enfuvirtide in naive HIV-1-infected patients with severe immunosuppression does not improve immunological response: results of a randomized multicenter trial (ANRS 130 Apollo).

    PubMed

    Joly, Véronique; Fagard, Catherine; Grondin, Carine; Descamps, Diane; Yazdanpanah, Yazdan; Charpentier, Charlotte; Colin de Verdiere, Nathalie; Tabuteau, Sophie; Raffi, François; Cabie, André; Chene, Geneviève; Yeni, Patrick

    2013-02-01

    We studied whether addition of enfuvirtide (ENF) to a background combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) would improve the CD4 cell count response at week 24 in naive patients with advanced HIV disease. ANRS 130 Apollo is a randomized study, conducted in naive HIV-1-infected patients, either asymptomatic with CD4 counts of <100/mm(3) or stage B/C disease with CD4 counts of <200/mm(3). Patients received tenofovir-emtricitabine with lopinavir-ritonavir (LPV/r) or efavirenz and were randomized to receive ENF for 24 weeks (ENF arm) or not (control arm). The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients with CD4 counts of ≥ 200/mm(3) at week 24. A total of 195 patients were randomized: 73% had stage C disease, 78% were male, the mean age was 44 years, the median CD4 count was 30/mm(3), and the median HIV-1 RNA load was 5.4 log(10) copies/ml. Eighty-one percent of patients received LPV/r. One patient was lost to follow-up, and eight discontinued the study (four in each arm). The proportions of patients with CD4 counts of ≥ 200/mm(3) at week 24 were 34% and 38% in the ENF and control arms, respectively (P = 0.53). The proportions of patients with HIV-1 RNA loads of <50 copies/ml were 74% and 58% at week 24 in the ENF and control arms, respectively (P < 0.02), and the proportion reached 79% in both arms at week 48. Twenty (20%) and 12 patients (13%) in the ENF and control arms, respectively, experienced at least one AIDS event during follow-up (P = 0.17). Although inducing a more rapid virological response, addition of ENF to a standard cART does not improve the immunological outcome in naive HIV-infected patients with severe immunosuppression. PMID:23165467

  1. Intensification of Antiretroviral Therapy through Addition of Enfuvirtide in Naive HIV-1-Infected Patients with Severe Immunosuppression Does Not Improve Immunological Response: Results of a Randomized Multicenter Trial (ANRS 130 Apollo)

    PubMed Central

    Fagard, Catherine; Grondin, Carine; Descamps, Diane; Yazdanpanah, Yazdan; Charpentier, Charlotte; Colin de Verdiere, Nathalie; Tabuteau, Sophie; Raffi, François; Cabie, André; Chene, Geneviève; Yeni, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    We studied whether addition of enfuvirtide (ENF) to a background combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) would improve the CD4 cell count response at week 24 in naive patients with advanced HIV disease. ANRS 130 Apollo is a randomized study, conducted in naive HIV-1-infected patients, either asymptomatic with CD4 counts of <100/mm3 or stage B/C disease with CD4 counts of <200/mm3. Patients received tenofovir-emtricitabine with lopinavir-ritonavir (LPV/r) or efavirenz and were randomized to receive ENF for 24 weeks (ENF arm) or not (control arm). The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients with CD4 counts of ≥200/mm3 at week 24. A total of 195 patients were randomized: 73% had stage C disease, 78% were male, the mean age was 44 years, the median CD4 count was 30/mm3, and the median HIV-1 RNA load was 5.4 log10 copies/ml. Eighty-one percent of patients received LPV/r. One patient was lost to follow-up, and eight discontinued the study (four in each arm). The proportions of patients with CD4 counts of ≥200/mm3 at week 24 were 34% and 38% in the ENF and control arms, respectively (P = 0.53). The proportions of patients with HIV-1 RNA loads of <50 copies/ml were 74% and 58% at week 24 in the ENF and control arms, respectively (P < 0.02), and the proportion reached 79% in both arms at week 48. Twenty (20%) and 12 patients (13%) in the ENF and control arms, respectively, experienced at least one AIDS event during follow-up (P = 0.17). Although inducing a more rapid virological response, addition of ENF to a standard cART does not improve the immunological outcome in naive HIV-infected patients with severe immunosuppression. PMID:23165467

  2. Environmentally friendly batteries by addition of chitin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campanella, L.; Dragone, R.; Grossi, R.; Meo, A. E.; Visco, G.

    2003-05-01

    In this paper we describe the results of a research performed on pen alkaline-manganese batteries with the aim of checking the possibility of minimizing the release of metals from them when, exhausted, are disposed. This goal was temptatively looked for on inserting in the batteries a certain amount of chitin able to bind the metal ions formed by the natural oxidation of the metals contained in the batteries and by the acid rain dissolving action. The obtained results show that 1.2 g of chitin for each middle size pen model alkaline-manganese battery practically prevent any release of metals, without relevant change of the discharge curve of the battery. The effect of the addition is particularly marked if realised by thé additive as contained in a PVC membrane.

  3. A New Simple Interferometer for Obtaining Quantitatively Evaluable Flow Patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erdmann, S F

    1953-01-01

    The method described in the present report makes it possible to obtain interferometer records with the aid of any one of the available Schlieren optics by the addition of very simple expedients, which fundamentally need not to be inferior to those obtained by other methods, such as the Mach-Zehnder interferometer, for example. The method is based on the fundamental concept of the phase-contrast process developed by Zernike, but which in principle has been enlarged to such an extent that it practically represents an independent interference method for general applications. Moreover, the method offers the possibility, in case of necessity, of superposing any apparent wedge field on the density field to be gauged. The theory is explained on a purely physical basis and illustrated and proved by experimental data. A number of typical cases are cited and some quantitative results reported.

  4. Additive usage levels.

    PubMed

    Langlais, R

    1996-01-01

    With the adoption of the European Parliament and Council Directives on sweeteners, colours and miscellaneous additives the Commission is now embarking on the project of coordinating the activities of the European Union Member States in the collection of the data that are to make up the report on food additive intake requested by the European Parliament. This presentation looks at the inventory of available sources on additive use levels and concludes that for the time being national legislation is still the best source of information considering that the directives have yet to be transposed into national legislation. Furthermore, this presentation covers the correlation of the food categories as found in the additives directives with those used by national consumption surveys and finds that in a number of instances this correlation still leaves a lot to be desired. The intake of additives via food ingestion and the intake of substances which are chemically identical to additives but which occur naturally in fruits and vegetables is found in a number of cases to be higher than the intake of additives added during the manufacture of foodstuffs. While the difficulties are recognized in contributing to the compilation of food additive intake data, industry as a whole, i.e. the food manufacturing and food additive manufacturing industries, are confident that in a concerted effort, use data on food additives by industry can be made available. Lastly, the paper points out that with the transportation of the additives directives into national legislation and the time by which the food industry will be able to make use of the new food legislative environment several years will still go by; food additives use data by the food industry will thus have to be reviewed at the beginning of the next century. PMID:8792135

  5. An additional middle cuneiform?

    PubMed Central

    Brookes-Fazakerley, S.D.; Jackson, G.E.; Platt, S.R.

    2015-01-01

    Additional cuneiform bones of the foot have been described in reference to the medial bipartite cuneiform or as small accessory ossicles. An additional middle cuneiform has not been previously documented. We present the case of a patient with an additional ossicle that has the appearance and location of an additional middle cuneiform. Recognizing such an anatomical anomaly is essential for ruling out second metatarsal base or middle cuneiform fractures and for the preoperative planning of arthrodesis or open reduction and internal fixation procedures in this anatomical location. PMID:26224890

  6. Carbamate deposit control additives

    SciTech Connect

    Honnen, L.R.; Lewis, R.A.

    1980-11-25

    Deposit control additives for internal combustion engines are provided which maintain cleanliness of intake systems without contributing to combustion chamber deposits. The additives are poly(oxyalkylene) carbamates comprising a hydrocarbyloxyterminated poly(Oxyalkylene) chain of 2-5 carbon oxyalkylene units bonded through an oxycarbonyl group to a nitrogen atom of ethylenediamine.

  7. The late addition of core lipids to nascent apolipoprotein B100, resulting in the assembly and secretion of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, is independent of both microsomal triglyceride transfer protein activity and new triglyceride synthesis.

    PubMed

    Pan, Meihui; Liang Js, Jun-shan; Fisher, Edward A; Ginsberg, Henry N

    2002-02-01

    Although microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) and newly synthesized triglyceride (TG) are critical for co-translational targeting of apolipoprotein B (apoB100) to lipoprotein assembly in hepatoma cell lines, their roles in the later stages of lipoprotein assembly remain unclear. Using N-acetyl-Leu-Leu-norleucinal to prevent proteasomal degradation, HepG2 cells were radiolabeled and chased for 0-90 min (chase I). The medium was changed and cells chased for another 150 min (chase II) in the absence (control) or presence of Pfizer MTP inhibitor CP-10447 (CP). As chase I was extended, inhibition of apoB100 secretion by CP during chase II decreased from 75.9% to only 15% of control (no CP during chase II). Additional studies were conducted in which chase I was either 0 or 90 min, and chase II was in the presence of [(3)H]glycerol and either BSA (control), CP (inhibits both MTP activity and TG synthesis),BMS-1976360-1) (BMS) (inhibits only MTP activity), or triacsin C (TC) (inhibits only TG synthesis). When chase I was 0 min, CP, BMS, and TC reduced apoB100 secretion during chase II by 75.3, 73.9, and 53.9%. However, when chase I was 90 min, those agents reduced apoB100 secretion during chase II by only 16.0, 19.2, and 13.9%. Of note, all three inhibited secretion of newly synthesized TG during chase II by 80, 80, and 40%, whether chase I was 0 or 90 min. In both HepG2 cells and McA-RH7777 cells, if chase I was at least 60 min, inhibition of TG synthesis and/or MTP activity did not affect the density of secreted apoB100-lipoproteins under basal conditions. Oleic acid increased secretion of TG-enriched apoB100-lipoproteins similarly in the absence or presence of either of CP, BMS, or TC. We conclude that neither MTP nor newly synthesized TG is necessary for the later stages of apoB100-lipoprotein assembly and secretion in either HepG2 or McA-RH7777 cells. PMID:11704664

  8. Is herpes zoster an additional complication in old age alongside comorbidity and multiple medications? Results of the post hoc analysis of the 12-month longitudinal prospective observational ARIZONA cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Pickering, Gisèle; Gavazzi, Gaëtan; Gaillat, Jacques; Paccalin, Marc; Bloch, Karine; Bouhassira, Didier

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To examine the burden of comorbidity, polypharmacy and herpes zoster (HZ), an infectious disease, and its main complication post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN) in young (50–70 years of age: 70−) and old (≥70 years of age: 70+) patients. Design Post hoc analysis of the results of the 12-month longitudinal prospective multicentre observational ARIZONA cohort study. Settings and participants The study took place in primary care in France from 20 November 2006 to 12 September 2008. Overall, 644 general practitioners (GPs) collected data from 1358 patients aged 50 years or more with acute eruptive HZ. Outcome measures Presence of HZ-related pain or PHN (pain persisting >3 months) was documented at day 0 and at months 3, 6, and 12. To investigate HZ and PHN burden, pain, quality of life (QoL) and mood were self-assessed using validated questionnaires (Zoster Brief Pain Inventory, 12-item Short-Form health survey and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, respectively). Results As compared with younger patients, older patients more frequently presented with comorbidities, more frequently took analgesics and had poorer response on all questionnaires, indicating greater burden, at inclusion. Analgesics were more frequently prescribed to relieve acute pain or PHN in 70+ than 70− patients. Despite higher levels of medication prescription, poorer pain relief and poorer response to all questionnaires were reported in 70+ than 70− patients. Conclusions Occurrence of HZ and progression to PHN adds extra burden on top of pharmacological treatment and impaired quality of life, especially in older patients who already have health problems to cope with in everyday life. PMID:26892790

  9. A Simple Experimental Setup for Teaching Additive Colors with Arduino

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carvalho, Paulo Simeão; Hahn, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    The result of additive colors is always fascinating to young students. When we teach this topic to 14- to 16-year-old students, they do not usually notice we use maximum light quantities of red (R), green (G), and blue (B) to obtain yellow, magenta, and cyan colors in order to build the well-known additive color diagram of Fig. 1. But how about…

  10. Utilization of clay wastes containing boron as cement additives

    SciTech Connect

    Oezdemir, Mine; Oeztuerk, Nese Uygan

    2003-10-01

    The utilization of clay wastes (CW) containing boron as cement additives was investigated. The effect of CW on mechanical and chemical properties of cement prepared by adding CW to clinker and gypsum was determined. The results obtained were compared with Portland cement properties and Turkish standards (TS) values. It was determined that the first clay waste (CW1) and the second clay waste (CW2) may be used as cement additives up to 5% and 10%, respectively.

  11. Microbial phytase addition resulted in a greater increase in phosphorus digestibility in dry-fed compared with liquid-fed non-heat-treated wheat-barley-maize diets for pigs.

    PubMed

    Blaabjerg, K; Thomassen, A-M; Poulsen, H D

    2015-02-01

    The objective was to evaluate the effect of microbial phytase (1250 FTU/kg diet with 88% dry matter (DM)) on apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of phosphorus (P) in pigs fed a dry or soaked diet. Twenty-four pigs (65±3 kg) from six litters were used. Pigs were housed in metabolism crates and fed one of four diets for 12 days; 5 days for adaptation and 7 days for total, but separate collection of feces and urine. The basal diet was composed of wheat, barley, maize, soybean meal and no mineral phosphate. Dietary treatments were: basal dry-fed diet (BDD), BDD with microbial phytase (BDD+phy), BDD soaked for 24 h at 20°C before feeding (BDS) and BDS with microbial phytase (BDS+phy). Supplementation of microbial phytase increased ATTD of DM and crude protein (N×6.25) by 2 and 3 percentage units (P<0.0001; P<0.001), respectively. The ATTD of P was affected by the interaction between microbial phytase and soaking (P=0.02). This was due to a greater increase in ATTD of P by soaking of the diet containing solely plant phytase compared with the diet supplemented with microbial phytase: 35%, 65%, 44% and 68% for BDD, BDD+phy, BSD and BSD+phy, respectively. As such, supplementation of microbial phytase increased ATTD of P in the dry-fed diet, but not in the soaked diet. The higher ATTD of P for BDS compared with BDD resulted from the degradation of 54% of the phytate in BDS by wheat and barley phytases during soaking. On the other hand, soaking of BDS+phy did not increase ATTD of P significantly compared with BDD+phy despite that 76% of the phytate in BDS+phy was degraded before feeding. In conclusion, soaking of BDS containing solely plant phytase provided a great potential for increasing ATTD of P. However, this potential was not present when microbial phytase (1250 FTU/kg diet) was supplemented, most likely because soaking of BDS+phy for 24 h at 20°C did not result in a complete degradation of phytate before feeding. PMID:25245085

  12. Food Additives and Hyperkinesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wender, Ester H.

    1977-01-01

    The hypothesis that food additives are causally associated with hyperkinesis and learning disabilities in children is reviewed, and available data are summarized. Available from: American Medical Association 535 North Dearborn Street Chicago, Illinois 60610. (JG)

  13. Additional Types of Neuropathy

    MedlinePlus

    ... A A Listen En Español Additional Types of Neuropathy Charcot's Joint Charcot's Joint, also called neuropathic arthropathy, ... can stop bone destruction and aid healing. Cranial Neuropathy Cranial neuropathy affects the 12 pairs of nerves ...

  14. Femtosecond fiber laser additive manufacturing of tungsten

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Shuang; Liu, Jian; Yang, Pei; Zhai, Meiyu; Huang, Huan; Yang, Lih-Mei

    2016-04-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) is promising to produce complex shaped components, including metals and alloys, to meet requirements from different industries such as aerospace, defense and biomedicines. Current laser AM uses CW lasers and very few publications have been reported for using pulsed lasers (esp. ultrafast lasers). In this paper, additive manufacturing of Tungsten materials is investigated by using femtosecond (fs) fiber lasers. Various processing conditions are studied, which leads to desired characteristics in terms of morphology, porosity, hardness, microstructural and mechanical properties of the processed components. Fully dense Tungsten part with refined grain and increased hardness was obtained and compared with parts made with different pulse widths and CW laser. The results are evidenced that the fs laser based AM provides more dimensions to modify mechanical properties with controlled heating, rapid melting and cooling rates compared with a CW or long pulsed laser. This can greatly benefit to the make of complicated structures and materials that could not be achieved before.

  15. Obtaining railpad properties via dynamic mechanical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oregui, M.; de Man, A.; Woldekidan, M. F.; Li, Z.; Dollevoet, R.

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we propose combining dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) and the time-temperature superposition principle to determine various railpad dynamic properties. Having accurate information regarding the dynamic properties of a railpad is a fundamental requirement for designing tracks and understanding track deterioration. By testing three different railpad types, we demonstrate that the dynamic behavior of railpads over a wide frequency range can be successfully obtained under different preloads and temperatures if time-temperature superposition can be applied. To investigate railpad aging, worn railpads taken from a mainline in the Netherlands are tested. In this case, worn railpads are softer and possess a lower damping capacity than new railpads. In addition to performing these measurements, a Prony series material model is proposed to reproduce the dynamic behavior of railpads. The Prony series model is in good agreement with the measurements. Measured railpad dynamic properties and the corresponding Prony series numerical model provide valuable information for track design and modeling.

  16. Additive Manufacturing Infrared Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaddy, Darrell

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing is a rapid prototyping technology that allows parts to be built in a series of thin layers from plastic, ceramics, and metallics. Metallic additive manufacturing is an emerging form of rapid prototyping that allows complex structures to be built using various metallic powders. Significant time and cost savings have also been observed using the metallic additive manufacturing compared with traditional techniques. Development of the metallic additive manufacturing technology has advanced significantly over the last decade, although many of the techniques to inspect parts made from these processes have not advanced significantly or have limitations. Several external geometry inspection techniques exist such as Coordinate Measurement Machines (CMM), Laser Scanners, Structured Light Scanning Systems, or even traditional calipers and gages. All of the aforementioned techniques are limited to external geometry and contours or must use a contact probe to inspect limited internal dimensions. This presentation will document the development of a process for real-time dimensional inspection technique and digital quality record of the additive manufacturing process using Infrared camera imaging and processing techniques.

  17. Application of rational functions for the standard addition method.

    PubMed

    Gorazda, Katarzyna; Michałowska-Kaczmarczyk, Anna M; Asuero, Agustin G; Michałowski, Tadeusz

    2013-11-15

    Some rational functions are considered as the basis for calculation of unknown concentration (x0) of an analyte X determined according to the standard addition method (SAM). The correction for dilution of the sample tested during addition of successive increments of standard(ised) solution of X is involved in the related algorithm applied for calculation of the x0 value. The formulae derived were put in context with experimental data, obtained according to the AAS method from Cu-measurements in samples obtained by digestion of an ash obtained from incinerated sludge. It was stated that the use of rational functions for modeling purposes strengthens the robustness of the results thus obtained. PMID:24148496

  18. Additives in plastics.

    PubMed Central

    Deanin, R D

    1975-01-01

    The polymers used in plastics are generally harmless. However, they are rarely used in pure form. In almost all commercial plastics, they are "compounded" with monomeric ingredients to improve their processing and end-use performance. In order of total volume used, these monomeric additives may be classified as follows: reinforcing fibers, fillers, and coupling agents; plasticizers; colorants; stabilizers (halogen stabilizers, antioxidants, ultraviolet absorbers, and biological preservatives); processing aids (lubricants, others, and flow controls); flame retardants, peroxides; and antistats. Some information is already available, and much more is needed, on potential toxicity and safe handling of these additives during processing and manufacture of plastics products. PMID:1175566

  19. Additional results on orbits of Hilda-type asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schubart, J.

    1991-01-01

    The long period evolution of the Hilda-type orbits is studied by numerical integration. Three characteristic parameters are derived for Hildas numbered during the 1982-89 period. The distribution of orbits and subgroups of orbits is considered with respect to these parameters. Special attention is given to low-eccentricity orbits and to the observation conditions. The numerical integrations depend on a model of the forces due to Jupiter and Saturn.

  20. Biobased lubricant additives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fully biobased lubricants are those formulated using all biobased ingredients, i.e. biobased base oils and biobased additives. Such formulations provide the maximum environmental, safety, and economic benefits expected from a biobased product. Currently, there are a number of biobased base oils that...

  1. Multifunctional fuel additives

    SciTech Connect

    Baillargeon, D.J.; Cardis, A.B.; Heck, D.B.

    1991-03-26

    This paper discusses a composition comprising a major amount of a liquid hydrocarbyl fuel and a minor low-temperature flow properties improving amount of an additive product of the reaction of a suitable diol and product of a benzophenone tetracarboxylic dianhydride and a long-chain hydrocarbyl aminoalcohol.

  2. Tackifier for addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, J. M.; St.clair, T. L.

    1980-01-01

    A modification to the addition polyimide, LaRC-160, was prepared to improve tack and drape and increase prepeg out-time. The essentially solventless, high viscosity laminating resin is synthesized from low cost liquid monomers. The modified version takes advantage of a reactive, liquid plasticizer which is used in place of solvent and helps solve a major problem of maintaining good prepeg tack and drape, or the ability of the prepeg to adhere to adjacent plies and conform to a desired shape during the lay up process. This alternate solventless approach allows both longer life of the polymer prepeg and the processing of low void laminates. This approach appears to be applicable to all addition polyimide systems.

  3. [Biologically active food additives].

    PubMed

    Velichko, M A; Shevchenko, V P

    1998-07-01

    More than half out of 40 projects for the medical science development by the year of 2000 have been connected with the bio-active edible additives that are called "the food of XXI century", non-pharmacological means for many diseases. Most of these additives--nutricevtics and parapharmacevtics--are intended for the enrichment of food rations for the sick or healthy people. The ecologicaly safest and most effective are combined domestic adaptogens with immuno-modulating and antioxidating action that give anabolic and stimulating effect,--"leveton", "phytoton" and "adapton". The MKTs-229 tablets are residue discharge means. For atherosclerosis and general adiposis they recommend "tsar tablets" and "aiconol (ikhtien)"--on the base of cod-liver oil or "splat" made out of seaweed (algae). All these preparations have been clinically tested and received hygiene certificates from the Institute of Dietology of the Russian Academy of Medical Science. PMID:9752776

  4. (Al, B)-ZSM-11 FCC additive performance

    SciTech Connect

    Hsing, L.H.; O`Young, C.L.

    1996-10-01

    ZSM-5 additive has been used extensively in the petroleum refining industry to enhance the light olefins production from the FCCU operation. In this paper, an FCC additive, (Al, B)-ZSM-11 was evaluated for its performance on a circulated FCC pilot unit. This additive was prepared by partially replacing the frame-work aluminum with boron, which in turn, will alternate its acid characteristics and performance as an FCC additive in promoting light olefin production. The (Al, B)-ZSM-11 additive increased C3=, C4=, and C5= yields, but was less effective in increasing C3=, C4= yields, particularly I-C4= than ZSM-5 additive. The (Al, B)-ZSM-11 additive increased branched C5= and decreased linear C5= yields resulting from skeletal isomerization. C5= and FC naphtha yields with (Al, B)-ZSM-11 additive are higher than those obtained with ZSM-5 additive indicating lower cracking of FC naphtha and C%= to lower olefins with (Al, B)-ZSM-11 additive than ZSM-5. The product selectivity difference between ZSM-5 and (Al, B)-ZSM-11 additives can be correlated with their respective acidity.

  5. Hydrocarbon fuel additive

    SciTech Connect

    Ambrogio, S.

    1989-02-28

    This patent describes the method of fuel storage or combustion, wherein the fuel supply contains small amounts of water, the step of adding to the fuel supply an additive comprising a blend of a hydrophilic agent chosen from the group of ethylene glycol, n-butyl alcohol, and cellosolve in the range of 22-37% by weight; ethoxylated nonylphenol in the range of 26-35% by weight; nonylphenol polyethylene glycol ether in the range of 32-43% by weight.

  6. Functional Generalized Additive Models.

    PubMed

    McLean, Mathew W; Hooker, Giles; Staicu, Ana-Maria; Scheipl, Fabian; Ruppert, David

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the functional generalized additive model (FGAM), a novel regression model for association studies between a scalar response and a functional predictor. We model the link-transformed mean response as the integral with respect to t of F{X(t), t} where F(·,·) is an unknown regression function and X(t) is a functional covariate. Rather than having an additive model in a finite number of principal components as in Müller and Yao (2008), our model incorporates the functional predictor directly and thus our model can be viewed as the natural functional extension of generalized additive models. We estimate F(·,·) using tensor-product B-splines with roughness penalties. A pointwise quantile transformation of the functional predictor is also considered to ensure each tensor-product B-spline has observed data on its support. The methods are evaluated using simulated data and their predictive performance is compared with other competing scalar-on-function regression alternatives. We illustrate the usefulness of our approach through an application to brain tractography, where X(t) is a signal from diffusion tensor imaging at position, t, along a tract in the brain. In one example, the response is disease-status (case or control) and in a second example, it is the score on a cognitive test. R code for performing the simulations and fitting the FGAM can be found in supplemental materials available online. PMID:24729671

  7. Siloxane containing addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maudgal, S.; St. Clair, T. L.

    1984-01-01

    Addition polyimide oligomers have been synthesized from bis(gamma-aminopropyl) tetramethyldisiloxane and 3, 3', 4, 4'-benzophenonetetracarboxylic dianhydride using a variety of latent crosslinking groups as endcappers. The prepolymers were isolated and characterized for solubility (in amide, chlorinated and ether solvents), melt flow and cure properties. The most promising systems, maleimide and acetylene terminated prepolymers, were selected for detailed study. Graphite cloth reinforced composites were prepared and properties compared with those of graphite/Kerimid 601, a commercially available bismaleimide. Mixtures of the maleimide terminated system with Kerimid 601, in varying proportions, were also studied.

  8. Oil additive process

    SciTech Connect

    Bishop, H.

    1988-10-18

    This patent describes a method of making an additive comprising: (a) adding 2 parts by volume of 3% sodium hypochlorite to 45 parts by volume of diesel oil fuel to form a sulphur free fuel, (b) removing all water and foreign matter formed by the sodium hypochlorite, (c) blending 30 parts by volume of 24% lead naphthanate with 15 parts by volume of the sulphur free fuel, 15 parts by volume of light-weight material oil to form a blended mixture, and (d) heating the blended mixture slowly and uniformly to 152F.

  9. Interpretation of tandem mass spectra obtained from cyclic nonribosomal peptides.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei-Ting; Ng, Julio; Meluzzi, Dario; Bandeira, Nuno; Gutierrez, Marcelino; Simmons, Thomas L; Schultz, Andrew W; Linington, Roger G; Moore, Bradley S; Gerwick, William H; Pevzner, Pavel A; Dorrestein, Pieter C

    2009-06-01

    Natural and non-natural cyclic peptides are a crucial component in drug discovery programs because of their considerable pharmaceutical properties. Cyclosporin, microcystins, and nodularins are all notable pharmacologically important cyclic peptides. Because these biologically active peptides are often biosynthesized nonribosomally, they often contain nonstandard amino acids, thus increasing the complexity of the resulting tandem mass spectrometry data. In addition, because of the cyclic nature, the fragmentation patterns of many of these peptides showed much higher complexity when compared to related counterparts. Therefore, at the present time it is still difficult to annotate cyclic peptides MS/MS spectra. In this current work, an annotation program was developed for the annotation and characterization of tandem mass spectra obtained from cyclic peptides. This program, which we call MS-CPA is available as a web tool (http://lol.ucsd.edu/ms-cpa_v1/Input.py). Using this program, we have successfully annotated the sequence of representative cyclic peptides, such as seglitide, tyrothricin, desmethoxymajusculamide C, dudawalamide A, and cyclomarins, in a rapid manner and also were able to provide the first-pass structure evidence of a newly discovered natural product based on predicted sequence. This compound is not available in sufficient quantities for structural elucidation by other means such as NMR. In addition to the development of this cyclic annotation program, it was observed that some cyclic peptides fragmented in unexpected ways resulting in the scrambling of sequences. In summary, MS-CPA not only provides a platform for rapid confirmation and annotation of tandem mass spectrometry data obtained with cyclic peptides but also enables quantitative analysis of the ion intensities. This program facilitates cyclic peptide analysis, sequencing, and also acts as a useful tool to investigate the uncommon fragmentation phenomena of cyclic peptides and aids the

  10. Results of tests in the NASA/LaRC 31 inch CFHT on an 0.010-scale model (32-OT) of the space shuttle configuration 3 to obtain hypersonic aerodynamic characteristics for second stage operation during nominal boost and the abort RTLS mode (IA58)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornton, D. E.

    1974-01-01

    Tests were conducted to obtain hypersonic aerodynamic forces and moments on an 0.010-scale model of the space shuttle vehicle configuration 3. Hypersonic stability data were obtained from tests at Mach 10.3 and dynamic pressure of 150 psf for the integrated orbiter and external tank, orbiter alone, and external tank alone. The effects of solid plume simulation from the main propulsion system as well as elevon, aileron, and rudder deflections were also investigated.

  11. Performance Boosting Additive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Mainstream Engineering Corporation was awarded Phase I and Phase II contracts from Goddard Space Flight Center's Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program in early 1990. With support from the SBIR program, Mainstream Engineering Corporation has developed a unique low cost additive, QwikBoost (TM), that increases the performance of air conditioners, heat pumps, refrigerators, and freezers. Because of the energy and environmental benefits of QwikBoost, Mainstream received the Tibbetts Award at a White House Ceremony on October 16, 1997. QwikBoost was introduced at the 1998 International Air Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Exposition. QwikBoost is packaged in a handy 3-ounce can (pressurized with R-134a) and will be available for automotive air conditioning systems in summer 1998.

  12. Sewage sludge additive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalvinskas, J. J.; Mueller, W. A.; Ingham, J. D. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    The additive is for a raw sewage treatment process of the type where settling tanks are used for the purpose of permitting the suspended matter in the raw sewage to be settled as well as to permit adsorption of the dissolved contaminants in the water of the sewage. The sludge, which settles down to the bottom of the settling tank is extracted, pyrolyzed and activated to form activated carbon and ash which is mixed with the sewage prior to its introduction into the settling tank. The sludge does not provide all of the activated carbon and ash required for adequate treatment of the raw sewage. It is necessary to add carbon to the process and instead of expensive commercial carbon, coal is used to provide the carbon supplement.

  13. Perspectives on Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourell, David L.

    2016-07-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has skyrocketed in visibility commercially and in the public sector. This article describes the development of this field from early layered manufacturing approaches of photosculpture, topography, and material deposition. Certain precursors to modern AM processes are also briefly described. The growth of the field over the last 30 years is presented. Included is the standard delineation of AM technologies into seven broad categories. The economics of AM part generation is considered, and the impacts of the economics on application sectors are described. On the basis of current trends, the future outlook will include a convergence of AM fabricators, mass-produced AM fabricators, enabling of topology optimization designs, and specialization in the AM legal arena. Long-term developments with huge impact are organ printing and volume-based printing.

  14. Obtaining useful information from expert based sources.

    PubMed Central

    Slawson, D. C.; Shaughnessy, A. F.

    1997-01-01

    Clinicians rely heavily on expert based systems-consultation with colleagues, journal reviews and textbooks, and continuing education activities-to obtain new information. The usefulness of sources such as these depends on the relevance and validity of the information and the work it takes to obtain it. Useful information can be distinguished from the useless by asking three questions: Does the information focus on an outcome that my patients care about? Is the issue common to my practice, and is the intervention feasible? If the information is true, will it require me to change my practice? If the answer to all three questions is yes, then the information is a common POEM (patient oriented evidence that matters), capable of improving the lives of your patients and must be evaluated for validity. Conclusions based on results of well designed clinical trials are more likely to be valid than those drawn from observations based on experience in clinical practice. Both members of the team, clinicians and experts, must take responsibility for their respective roles. PMID:9099121

  15. 5 CFR 2422.33 - Relief obtainable under part 2423.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Relief obtainable under part 2423. 2422... obtainable under part 2423. Remedial relief that was or could have been obtained as a result of a motion, objection, or challenge filed or raised under this subpart, may not be the basis for similar relief if...

  16. The Additional-Mass Effect of Plates as Determined by Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gracey, William

    1941-01-01

    The apparent increase in the inertia properties of a body moving in a fluid medium has been called the additional-mass effect. This report presents a resume of test procedures and results of experimental determinations of the additional-mass effect of flat plates. In addition to data obtained from various foreign sources and from a NACA investigation in 1933, the results of tests recently conducted by the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics are included.

  17. 48 CFR 1353.107 - Obtaining forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Obtaining forms. 1353.107 Section 1353.107 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CLAUSES AND FORMS FORMS General 1353.107 Obtaining forms. The DOC forms may be obtained from any DOC contracting office....

  18. 48 CFR 1353.107 - Obtaining forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Obtaining forms. 1353.107 Section 1353.107 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CLAUSES AND FORMS FORMS General 1353.107 Obtaining forms. The DOC forms may be obtained from any DOC contracting office....

  19. 48 CFR 1353.107 - Obtaining forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Obtaining forms. 1353.107 Section 1353.107 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CLAUSES AND FORMS FORMS General 1353.107 Obtaining forms. The DOC forms may be obtained from any DOC contracting office....

  20. 48 CFR 1353.107 - Obtaining forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Obtaining forms. 1353.107 Section 1353.107 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CLAUSES AND FORMS FORMS General 1353.107 Obtaining forms. The DOC forms may be obtained from any DOC contracting office....

  1. 48 CFR 1353.107 - Obtaining forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Obtaining forms. 1353.107 Section 1353.107 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CLAUSES AND FORMS FORMS General 1353.107 Obtaining forms. The DOC forms may be obtained from any DOC contracting office....

  2. Pozzolan Obtained by Mechanochemical Treatment of Kaolinite Clay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitrović, Aleksandra A.

    2011-12-01

    Pozzolans are supplementary materials added to Portland cement in order to increase the mechanical strength and durability of concrete structures. A number of thermal, mechanical and chemical methods have been used to activate the reactive potential of pozzolanic materials. The aim of the study is to obtain pozzolana, from Serbian kaolinite clay by mechanochemical treatment. Kaolinite clay Garaši was subjected to mechanical treatment during different times of milling. The changes were monitored using particle size distribution (PSD) analyses, thermal methods [thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and differential thermal analysis (DTA)] and X-ray diffraction methods (XRD). The pozzolanic activity was determined using Chapelle method. Milling withing 20 min influences particle size decrease and after that time continuous increase. XDR analysis indicates gradual decrease of cristallinity with prolonged milling time. The higher values for pozzolanic activitie, expressed through consumption of gCa(OH)2 per gPozzolana are 0.78 and 0.77, and they were obtained for milling times 20 and 40 min, respectively. The values are comparable with commercial pozzolan—metakaolin. The results indicates that milling has caused the disintegration of particles and the consequent formation of new active surfaces in addition to changes in its physico-chemical properties that decrease its crystallinity (through amorphization) and increase it reactivity.

  3. Obtaining Reimbursement in France and Italy for New Diabetes Products

    PubMed Central

    Schaefer, Elmar; Sonsalla, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Manufacturers launching next-generation or innovative medical devices in Europe face a very heterogeneous reimbursement landscape, with each country having its own pathways, timing, requirements and success factors. We selected 2 markets for a deeper look into the reimbursement landscape: France, representing a country with central decision making with defined processes, and Italy, which delegates reimbursement decisions to the regional level, resulting in a less transparent approach to reimbursement. Based on our experience in working on various new product launches and analyzing recent reimbursement decisions, we found that payers in both countries do not reward improved next-generation products with incremental reimbursement. Looking at innovations, we observe that manufacturers face a challenging and lengthy process to obtain reimbursement. In addition, requirements and key success factors differ by country: In France, comparative clinical evidence and budget impact very much drive reimbursement decisions in terms of pricing and restrictions, whereas in Italy, regional key opinion leader (KOL) support and additional local observational data are key. PMID:25550411

  4. Intracranial CT angiography obtained from a cerebral CT perfusion examination

    SciTech Connect

    Gratama van Andel, H. A. F.; Venema, H. W.; Majoie, C. B.; Den Heeten, G. J.; Grimbergen, C. A.; Streekstra, G. J.

    2009-04-15

    CT perfusion (CTP) examinations of the brain are performed increasingly for the evaluation of cerebral blood flow in patients with stroke and vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage. Of the same patient often also a CT angiography (CTA) examination is performed. This study investigates the possibility to obtain CTA images from the CTP examination, thereby possibly obviating the CTA examination. This would save the patient exposure to radiation, contrast, and time. Each CTP frame is a CTA image with a varying amount of contrast enhancement and with high noise. To improve the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) we combined all 3D images into one 3D image after registration to correct for patient motion between time frames. Image combination consists of weighted averaging in which the weighting factor of each frame is proportional to the arterial contrast. It can be shown that the arterial CNR is maximized in this procedure. An additional advantage of the use of the time series of CTP images is that automatic differentiation between arteries and veins is possible. This feature was used to mask veins in the resulting 3D images to enhance visibility of arteries in maximum intensity projection (MIP) images. With a Philips Brilliance 64 CT scanner (64x0.625 mm) CTP examinations of eight patients were performed on 80 mm of brain using the toggling table technique. The CTP examination consisted of a time series of 15 3D images (2x64x0.625 mm; 80 kV; 150 mAs each) with an interval of 4 s. The authors measured the CNR in images obtained with weighted averaging, images obtained with plain averaging, and images with maximal arterial enhancement. The authors also compared CNR and quality of the images with that of regular CTA examinations and examined the effectiveness of automatic vein masking in MIP images. The CNR of the weighted averaged images is, on the average, 1.73 times the CNR of an image at maximal arterial enhancement in the CTP series, where the use of plain averaging

  5. Research Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-12-01

    Research on Global Carbon Emission and Sequestration NSFC Funded Project Made Significant Progress in Quantum Dynamics Functional Human Blood Protein Obtained from Rice How Giant Pandas Thrive on a Bamboo Diet New Evidence of Interpersonal Violence from 129,000 Years Ago Found in China Aptamer-Mediated Efficient Capture and Release of T Lymphocytes on Nanostructured Surfaces BGI Study Results on Resequencing 50 Accessions of Rice Cast New Light on Molecular Breeding BGI Reports Study Results on Frequent Mutation of Genes Encoding UMPP Components in Kidney Cancer Research on Habitat Shift Promoting Species Diversification

  6. Results of tests OA26 and IA16 in the NASA/ARC 3.5-foot hypersonic wind tunnel on an 0.015-scale model (36-OTS) of the space shuttle configuration 140A/B to obtain pressures for venting analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spangler, R. H.; Thornton, D. E.; Polek, T. E.

    1974-01-01

    Tests were conducted, from November 15 to December 4, 1973, to obtain surface pressure data on an 0.015-scale replica of the Space Shuttle Vehicle 4. Data were obtained at Mach numbers of 5.3, 7.4, and 10.3, to support the venting analysis for both launch and entry conditions. These tests were the final tests in a series covering a Mach number range from 0.6 to 10.3. The model was instrumented with pressure orifices in the vicinity of the cargo bay door hinge and parting lines, and on the side of the fuselage at the crew compartment, and below the orbital maneuvering system pods at the aft compartment. The model was tested at angles of attack and sideslip consistent with expected divergencies from the nominal trajectory.

  7. Antioedematogenic effect of marrubiin obtained from Marrubium vulgare.

    PubMed

    Stulzer, Hellen K; Tagliari, Monika P; Zampirolo, Julio A; Cechinel-Filho, Valdir; Schlemper, Valfredo

    2006-12-01

    This paper describes the antioedematogenic profile of marrubiin (1), the main constituent of Marrubium vulgare, a medicinal plant used in folk medicine of several countries to treat different pathologies. Compound (1) was analyzed in a model of microvascular leakage in mice ears. The results show that it exhibits significant and dose-related antioedematogenic effects. The results obtained for ID50 values (mg/kg, i.p.) and maximal inhibition (%) for the different phlogistic agents used were as follows: histamine (HIS, 13.84 mg/kg and 73.7%); (BK, 18.82 mg/kg and 70.0%); carrageenan (CAR, 13.61 mg/kg and 63.0%). The other phlogistic agonists, such as prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), caused inhibition of less than 50%. In addition, (1) (100 mg/kg) significantly inhibited the OVO-induced allergic edema in actively sensitized animals (maximal inhibition 67.6+/-4%). Our results demonstrate that the systemic administration of marrubiin exerts a non-specific inhibitory effect on pro-inflammatory agent-induced microvascular extravasation of Evans blue in mouse ear. PMID:16846706

  8. Mechanical properties of additively manufactured octagonal honeycombs.

    PubMed

    Hedayati, R; Sadighi, M; Mohammadi-Aghdam, M; Zadpoor, A A

    2016-12-01

    Honeycomb structures have found numerous applications as structural and biomedical materials due to their favourable properties such as low weight, high stiffness, and porosity. Application of additive manufacturing and 3D printing techniques allows for manufacturing of honeycombs with arbitrary shape and wall thickness, opening the way for optimizing the mechanical and physical properties for specific applications. In this study, the mechanical properties of honeycomb structures with a new geometry, called octagonal honeycomb, were investigated using analytical, numerical, and experimental approaches. An additive manufacturing technique, namely fused deposition modelling, was used to fabricate the honeycomb from polylactic acid (PLA). The honeycombs structures were then mechanically tested under compression and the mechanical properties of the structures were determined. In addition, the Euler-Bernoulli and Timoshenko beam theories were used for deriving analytical relationships for elastic modulus, yield stress, Poisson's ratio, and buckling stress of this new design of honeycomb structures. Finite element models were also created to analyse the mechanical behaviour of the honeycombs computationally. The analytical solutions obtained using Timoshenko beam theory were close to computational results in terms of elastic modulus, Poisson's ratio and yield stress, especially for relative densities smaller than 25%. The analytical solutions based on the Timoshenko analytical solution and the computational results were in good agreement with experimental observations. Finally, the elastic properties of the proposed honeycomb structure were compared to those of other honeycomb structures such as square, triangular, hexagonal, mixed, diamond, and Kagome. The octagonal honeycomb showed yield stress and elastic modulus values very close to those of regular hexagonal honeycombs and lower than the other considered honeycombs. PMID:27612831

  9. SOFIA Observatory Obtains 'First Light' Images

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy, or SOFIA, successfully obtained its "First Light"" images during an overnight flight May 26. Scientists are now processing the data gathered...

  10. Foam concrete of increased strength with the thermomodified peat additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudyakov, A. I.; Kopanitsa, N. O.; Sarkisov, Ju S.; Kasatkina, A. V.; Prischepa, I. A.

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents the results of research of foam concrete with thermomodified peat additives. The aim of the research was to study the effect of modifying additives on cement stone and foam concrete properties. Peat additives are prepared by heat treatment of peat at 600 °C. Two approaches of obtaining additives are examined: in condition of open air access (TMT-600) and in condition of limited air access (TMT-600-k). Compressive strength of a cement stone with modifiers found to be increased by 28.9 - 65.2%. Introducing peat modifiers into foam concrete mix leads to increase of compressive strength by 44-57% at 28- day age and heat conductivity of foam concrete decreases by 0.089 W/(m·°C).

  11. Femtosecond laser additive manufacturing of iron and tungsten parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Bai; Yang, Lihmei; Huang, Huan; Bai, Shuang; Wan, Peng; Liu, Jian

    2015-06-01

    For the first time, femtosecond laser additive manufacturing is demonstrated. Pure iron and tungsten powders, having very different melting temperature and mechanical properties, are used for the demonstration. Parts with various shapes, such as ring and cube, are fabricated. Micro-hardness and ultimate tensile strength are investigated for the fabricated samples. The results are also compared to the similar parts made by a continuous-wave laser. It is found that fs laser additive manufacturing can obtain better mechanical properties and fabricate materials that are not possible before.

  12. Density functional for ternary non-additive hard sphere mixtures.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Matthias

    2011-10-19

    Based on fundamental measure theory, a Helmholtz free energy density functional for three-component mixtures of hard spheres with general, non-additive interaction distances is constructed. The functional constitutes a generalization of the previously given theory for binary non-additive mixtures. The diagrammatic structure of the spatial integrals in both functionals is of star-like (or tree-like) topology. The ternary diagrams possess a higher degree of complexity than the binary diagrams. Results for partial pair correlation functions, obtained via the Ornstein-Zernike route from the second functional derivatives of the excess free energy functional, agree well with Monte Carlo simulation data. PMID:21946780

  13. Utilizing therapists to obtain death penalty verdicts.

    PubMed

    Weinstock, R

    1994-01-01

    As a result of recent decisions by the United States and California Supreme Courts, therapists now have been placed in a position in which they can be forced to testify in death penalty cases for the only purposes of achieving a conviction and a death penalty verdict. Zeal for the death penalty seems to have overcome any concern for the ethics of psychiatrists or even for the welfare of society. In California, therapists can now be forced to testify against their own patients in capital cases even if the patient does not tender his mental state as an issue, despite the presence of a psychotherapist-patient privilege in the state for criminal matters. In California, the only option for therapists who wish to treat potentially dangerous patients may be to conduct the therapy under the umbrella of attorney-client privilege. Otherwise they may not be able to avoid serious ethical problems and personal danger if the patient actually does kill someone during or after therapy. They may be unable honestly and ethically to treat such patients without obtaining truly informed consent to therapy under these potentially "undercover policeman" circumstances. Hopefully, professional organizations will take a more activist position, and courts will appreciate the folly of these decisions and reverse them. Otherwise, they may spread to other states, for which California frequently sets precedents. PMID:8193387

  14. 33 CFR 118.20 - Obtaining information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Obtaining information. 118.20 Section 118.20 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.20 Obtaining information. Persons desiring information concerning...

  15. 38 CFR 21.5725 - Obtaining benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Obtaining benefits. 21... benefits. (a) Actions required of the individual. In order to obtain benefits under the educational assistance and subsistence allowance program, an individual must— (1) File a claim for benefits with VA,...

  16. 33 CFR 118.20 - Obtaining information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Obtaining information. 118.20 Section 118.20 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES BRIDGE LIGHTING AND OTHER SIGNALS § 118.20 Obtaining information. Persons desiring information concerning...

  17. 47 CFR 54.615 - Obtaining services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Obtaining services. 54.615 Section 54.615 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) UNIVERSAL SERVICE Universal Service Support for Health Care Providers § 54.615 Obtaining services. (a) Selecting a provider. In selecting...

  18. 42 CFR 442.101 - Obtaining certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... section states the requirements for obtaining notice of an ICF/MR's certification before a Medicaid agency... Secretary for an ICF/MR located on an Indian reservation. (c) The agency must obtain notice of certification... provisions pertains to the ICF/MR: (1) An ICF/MR meets the conditions of participation set forth in subpart...

  19. 38 CFR 21.5725 - Obtaining benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Obtaining benefits. 21... benefits. (a) Actions required of the individual. In order to obtain benefits under the educational assistance and subsistence allowance program, an individual must— (1) File a claim for benefits with VA,...

  20. 38 CFR 21.5725 - Obtaining benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Obtaining benefits. 21... benefits. (a) Actions required of the individual. In order to obtain benefits under the educational assistance and subsistence allowance program, an individual must— (1) File a claim for benefits with VA,...

  1. 38 CFR 21.5725 - Obtaining benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Obtaining benefits. 21... benefits. (a) Actions required of the individual. In order to obtain benefits under the educational assistance and subsistence allowance program, an individual must— (1) File a claim for benefits with VA,...

  2. 38 CFR 21.5725 - Obtaining benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Obtaining benefits. 21... benefits. (a) Actions required of the individual. In order to obtain benefits under the educational assistance and subsistence allowance program, an individual must— (1) File a claim for benefits with VA,...

  3. Ready Reference. How To Obtain an ISBN; How To Obtain an ISSN; How To Obtain an SAN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koltay, Emery

    2003-01-01

    These three articles describe ISBNs (International Standard Book Numbers); ISSNs (International Standard Serial Numbers); and SANs (Standard Address Numbers), for organizations served by the book industry; and explains how to apply to obtain the appropriate numbers. (LRW)

  4. Additive manufacturing of hybrid circuits

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Bell, Nelson S.; Sarobol, Pylin; Cook, Adam; Clem, Paul G.; Keicher, David M.; Hirschfeld, Deidre; Hall, Aaron Christopher

    2016-03-26

    There is a rising interest in developing functional electronics using additively manufactured components. Considerations in materials selection and pathways to forming hybrid circuits and devices must demonstrate useful electronic function; must enable integration; and must complement the complex shape, low cost, high volume, and high functionality of structural but generally electronically passive additively manufactured components. This article reviews several emerging technologies being used in industry and research/development to provide integration advantages of fabricating multilayer hybrid circuits or devices. First, we review a maskless, noncontact, direct write (DW) technology that excels in the deposition of metallic colloid inks for electrical interconnects.more » Second, we review a complementary technology, aerosol deposition (AD), which excels in the deposition of metallic and ceramic powder as consolidated, thick conformal coatings and is additionally patternable through masking. As a result, we show examples of hybrid circuits/devices integrated beyond 2-D planes, using combinations of DW or AD processes and conventional, established processes.« less

  5. Towards new mathematical tools for obtaining chronologies in discontinuous archives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donner, Reik V.

    2014-05-01

    In the last years, a variety of new mathematical approaches has been developed for obtaining reliable chronologies of geological and geomorphological archives based on a limited set of dating horizons. These new approaches work relatively well for continuous archives, but quickly approach their conceptual limits in the presence of discontinuities. Here, I report first steps towards improving existing mathematical algorithms in their performance regarding unknown discontinuities by integrating complementary information based on variations encoded in other archives. The proposed method is based on the following ingredients: (1) a correlation estimator for arbitrarily spaced time series, (2) a maximization criterion for correlations based on a linear rescaling of the unknown time axis, (3) a procedure allowing an automatic evaluation of minimum-cost paths for performing a sophisticated version of "wiggle-matching", and (4) improving the relative chronologies by adding explicit dates via some additional penalty term. To this end, I will mainly focus on the methodological details associated with the first two steps. Here, correlations between the data set under study and the "reference" archive are evaluated for running windows along the records utilizing a recently developed non-parametric correlation estimator based on a Gaussian kernel function. Allowing for an arbitrary rescaling of the time axis around the respective window midpoint, maximum correlations arise when the windows represent the same time intervals and the rescaled time axis corrects for different material accumulation rates. For sufficiently high-resolution records, the proposed approach can be extended to account also for possible non-linear co-variations between the two considered archives or proxies. By identifying sequences of subsequent windows with particularly high correlations, relative chronologies can be obtained. Moreover, gaps in such sequences are indicative of archive discontinuities and

  6. Mass culture of photobacteria to obtain luciferase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chappelle, E. W.; Picciolo, G. L.; Rich, E., Jr.

    1969-01-01

    Inoculating preheated trays containing nutrient agar with photobacteria provides a means for mass culture of aerobic microorganisms in order to obtain large quantities of luciferase. To determine optimum harvest time, growth can be monitored by automated light-detection instrumentation.

  7. 48 CFR 53.107 - Obtaining forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... (see 41 CFR 101-26.302). Standard forms adapted for computer preparation (see 53.105) or with special... Government Printing Office (GPO). (b) Contractors and other parties may obtain standard and optional...

  8. Treatment of biomass to obtain ethanol

    DOEpatents

    Dunson, Jr., James B.; Elander, Richard T.; Tucker, III, Melvin P.; Hennessey, Susan Marie

    2011-08-16

    Ethanol was produced using biocatalysts that are able to ferment sugars derived from treated biomass. Sugars were obtained by pretreating biomass under conditions of high solids and low ammonia concentration, followed by saccharification.

  9. 47 CFR 54.615 - Obtaining services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... provided under § 54.621, that the requester cannot obtain toll-free access to an Internet service provider... thing of value; (6) If the service or services are being purchased as part of an aggregated...

  10. 47 CFR 54.615 - Obtaining services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... provided under § 54.621, that the requester cannot obtain toll-free access to an Internet service provider... thing of value; (6) If the service or services are being purchased as part of an aggregated...

  11. 40 CFR 35.6305 - Obtaining supplies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....6325 through 35.6340, and 35.6350. Supplies obtained with Core Program funds must be for non-site-specific purposes. All purchases of supplies under the Core Program must comply with the requirements...

  12. Nitrogen as a friendly addition to steel

    SciTech Connect

    Rawers, J.C.

    2006-01-01

    Interstitial alloying with nitrogen or carbon is a common means of enhancing properties of iron-based alloys. Interstitial nitrogen addition to fcc-phase Fe-Cr-Mn/Ni alloys results in improved mechanical properties, whereas addition of carbon can result in the formation of unwanted carbides. Carbon addition to low alloy, bcc-phase iron alloys significantly improves strength through the formation of carbides, whereas addition of nitrogen in bcc-phase iron alloys can result in porous casting and reduced mechanical properties. This study will show that alloying iron-based alloys with both nitrogen and carbon can produce positive results. Nitrogen addition to Fe-C and Fe-Cr-C alloys, and both nitrogen and nitrogen-carbon additions to Fe-Cr-Mn/Ni alloys altered the microstructure, improved mechanical properties, increased hardness, and reduced wear by stabilizing the fcc-phase and altering (possibly eliminating) precipitate formation.

  13. Targeted estimation of nuisance parameters to obtain valid statistical inference.

    PubMed

    van der Laan, Mark J

    2014-01-01

    In order to obtain concrete results, we focus on estimation of the treatment specific mean, controlling for all measured baseline covariates, based on observing independent and identically distributed copies of a random variable consisting of baseline covariates, a subsequently assigned binary treatment, and a final outcome. The statistical model only assumes possible restrictions on the conditional distribution of treatment, given the covariates, the so-called propensity score. Estimators of the treatment specific mean involve estimation of the propensity score and/or estimation of the conditional mean of the outcome, given the treatment and covariates. In order to make these estimators asymptotically unbiased at any data distribution in the statistical model, it is essential to use data-adaptive estimators of these nuisance parameters such as ensemble learning, and specifically super-learning. Because such estimators involve optimal trade-off of bias and variance w.r.t. the infinite dimensional nuisance parameter itself, they result in a sub-optimal bias/variance trade-off for the resulting real-valued estimator of the estimand. We demonstrate that additional targeting of the estimators of these nuisance parameters guarantees that this bias for the estimand is second order and thereby allows us to prove theorems that establish asymptotic linearity of the estimator of the treatment specific mean under regularity conditions. These insights result in novel targeted minimum loss-based estimators (TMLEs) that use ensemble learning with additional targeted bias reduction to construct estimators of the nuisance parameters. In particular, we construct collaborative TMLEs (C-TMLEs) with known influence curve allowing for statistical inference, even though these C-TMLEs involve variable selection for the propensity score based on a criterion that measures how effective the resulting fit of the propensity score is in removing bias for the estimand. As a particular special

  14. An Additive Manufacturing Test Artifact

    PubMed Central

    Moylan, Shawn; Slotwinski, John; Cooke, April; Jurrens, Kevin; Donmez, M Alkan

    2014-01-01

    A test artifact, intended for standardization, is proposed for the purpose of evaluating the performance of additive manufacturing (AM) systems. A thorough analysis of previously proposed AM test artifacts as well as experience with machining test artifacts have inspired the design of the proposed test artifact. This new artifact is designed to provide a characterization of the capabilities and limitations of an AM system, as well as to allow system improvement by linking specific errors measured in the test artifact to specific sources in the AM system. The proposed test artifact has been built in multiple materials using multiple AM technologies. The results of several of the builds are discussed, demonstrating how the measurement results can be used to characterize and improve a specific AM system. PMID:26601039

  15. An Additive Manufacturing Test Artifact.

    PubMed

    Moylan, Shawn; Slotwinski, John; Cooke, April; Jurrens, Kevin; Donmez, M Alkan

    2014-01-01

    A test artifact, intended for standardization, is proposed for the purpose of evaluating the performance of additive manufacturing (AM) systems. A thorough analysis of previously proposed AM test artifacts as well as experience with machining test artifacts have inspired the design of the proposed test artifact. This new artifact is designed to provide a characterization of the capabilities and limitations of an AM system, as well as to allow system improvement by linking specific errors measured in the test artifact to specific sources in the AM system. The proposed test artifact has been built in multiple materials using multiple AM technologies. The results of several of the builds are discussed, demonstrating how the measurement results can be used to characterize and improve a specific AM system. PMID:26601039

  16. 32 CFR 564.40 - Procedures for obtaining medical care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... that failure to promptly report the occurrence of a disease or injury may result in the loss of medical... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Procedures for obtaining medical care. 564.40... RESERVES NATIONAL GUARD REGULATIONS Medical Attendance and Burial § 564.40 Procedures for obtaining...

  17. Component Repair Times Obtained from MSPI Data

    SciTech Connect

    Eide, Steven A.

    2015-05-01

    Information concerning times to repair or restore equipment to service given a failure is valuable to probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs). Examples of such uses in modern PRAs include estimation of the probability of failing to restore a failed component within a specified time period (typically tied to recovering a mitigating system before core damage occurs at nuclear power plants) and the determination of mission times for support system initiating event (SSIE) fault tree models. Information on equipment repair or restoration times applicable to PRA modeling is limited and dated for U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. However, the Mitigating Systems Performance Index (MSPI) program covering all U.S. commercial nuclear power plants provides up-to-date information on restoration times for a limited set of component types. This paper describes the MSPI program data available and analyzes the data to obtain median and mean component restoration times as well as non-restoration cumulative probability curves. The MSPI program provides guidance for monitoring both planned and unplanned outages of trains of selected mitigating systems deemed important to safety. For systems included within the MSPI program, plants monitor both train UA and component unreliability (UR) against baseline values. If the combined system UA and UR increases sufficiently above established baseline results (converted to an estimated change in core damage frequency or CDF), a “white” (or worse) indicator is generated for that system. That in turn results in increased oversight by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and can impact a plant’s insurance rating. Therefore, there is pressure to return MSPI program components to service as soon as possible after a failure occurs. Three sets of unplanned outages might be used to determine the component repair durations desired in this article: all unplanned outages for the train type that includes the component of interest, only

  18. Methods of obtaining meaningful information from disperse media holograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyomin, Victor V.

    1997-05-01

    The problem of nondestructive testing of microstructure parameters, both aerosols and water suspension, is actual for biology, medicine, and environmental control. Among the methods of optical investigations and diagnostics of light scattering media the holographic method plays a special role. A hologram of scattering volume allows us to reproduce the optical wave field to obtain information on the parameters of microparticles: size, shape, and spatial position. Usually this is done by analysis of the particle images reconstructed from the hologram. On the basis of calculated and experimental results, characteristics of holographic methods are analyzed in this paper. These estimations demonstrate a possibility to use the above methods for investigation of media in biomedical science and clinical practice. A lot of micro-organisms and other living particles are transparent or semitransparent ones. In this case the reconstructed image of the particle will show a spot formed due to light focusing by the particle in addition to its cross section. This circumstance allowed us to propose a method of determining of refractive index of transparent and semitransparent microparticles, that, in turn, can provide identification of the particles type. The development of this method is presented. To make measurement of the size-distribution of particles one can do this simultaneously with the reconstruction of scattering optical field from the hologram. In this case a small angle optical meter (for example, focusing lens) can be placed just behind the illuminated hologram. The reconstructed field is composed of the initial one and its conjugate. Each of these components as well as interference between them can bear an additional information on the medium. The possibility of extraction of this information is also discussed.

  19. Non-autoclaved aerated concrete with mineral additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Il'ina, L. V.; Rakov, M. A.

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effect of joint grinding of Portland cement clinker, silica and carbonate components and mineral additives to specific surface of 280 - 300 m2/kg on the properties (strength, average density and thermal conductivity) of non-autoclaved aerated concrete, and the porosity of the hardened cement paste produced from Portland cement clinker with mineral additives. The joint grinding of the Portland cement clinker with silica and carbonate components and mineral additives reduces the energy consumption of non-autoclaved aerated concrete production. The efficiency of mineral additives (diopside, wollastonite) is due to the closeness the composition, the type of chemical bonds, physical and chemical characteristics (specific enthalpy of formation, specific entropy) to anhydrous clinker minerals and their hydration products. Considering the influence of these additions on hydration of clinker minerals and formation of hardened cement paste structure, dispersed wollastonite and diopside should be used as mineral additives. The hardness and, consequently, the elastic modulus of diopside are higher than that of hardened cement paste. As a result, there is a redistribution of stresses in the hardened cement paste interporous partitions and hardening, both the partitions and aerated concrete on the whole. The mineral additives introduction allowed to obtain the non-autoclaved aerated concrete with average density 580 kg/m3, compressive strength of 3.3 MPa and thermal conductivity of 0.131 W/(m.°C).

  20. Thermal Effusivity of Vegetable Oils Obtained by a Photothermal Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cervantes-Espinosa, L. M.; de L. Castillo-Alvarado, F.; Lara-Hernández, G.; Cruz-Orea, A.; Hernández-Aguilar, C.; Domínguez-Pacheco, A.

    2014-10-01

    Thermal properties of several vegetable oils such as soy, corn, and avocado commercial oils were obtained by using a photopyroelectric technique. The inverse photopyroelectric configuration was used in order to obtain the thermal effusivity of the oil samples. The theoretical equation for the photopyroelectric signal in this configuration, as a function of the incident light modulation frequency, was fitted to the experimental data in order to obtain the thermal effusivity of these samples. The obtained results are in good agreement with the thermal effusivity reported for other vegetable oils. All measurements were done at room temperature.

  1. Obtaining reliable phase-gradient delays from otoacoustic emission data

    PubMed Central

    Shera, Christopher A.; Bergevin, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Reflection-source otoacoustic emission phase-gradient delays are widely used to obtain noninvasive estimates of cochlear function and properties, such as the sharpness of mechanical tuning and its variation along the length of the cochlear partition. Although different data-processing strategies are known to yield different delay estimates and trends, their relative reliability has not been established. This paper uses in silico experiments to evaluate six methods for extracting delay trends from reflection-source otoacoustic emissions (OAEs). The six methods include both previously published procedures (e.g., phase smoothing, energy-weighting, data exclusion based on signal-to-noise ratio) and novel strategies (e.g., peak-picking, all-pass factorization). Although some of the methods perform well (e.g., peak-picking), others introduce substantial bias (e.g., phase smoothing) and are not recommended. In addition, since standing waves caused by multiple internal reflection can complicate the interpretation and compromise the application of OAE delays, this paper develops and evaluates two promising signal-processing strategies, the first based on time-frequency filtering using the continuous wavelet transform and the second on cepstral analysis, for separating the direct emission from its subsequent reflections. Altogether, the results help to resolve previous disagreements about the frequency dependence of human OAE delays and the sharpness of cochlear tuning while providing useful analysis methods for future studies. PMID:22894215

  2. Obtaining high thermally conductive materials by pressing from the granulate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ditts, A.; Revva, I.; Pautova, Y.; Pogrebenkov, V.; Nepochatov, Y.; Galashov, E.; Tarnovskiy, R.

    2015-01-01

    This work contains results of investigation of obtaining high thermally conductive ceramics from commercial powders of aluminum nitride and yttrium oxide by the method of monoaxial compaction of granulate. The principal scheme of preparation is proposed and technological properties of granulate are defined. Compaction conditions for simple items to use as heat removal in microelectronics and power electrical engineering have been established. Investigations of thermophysical properties of obtained ceramics and its structure by the XRD and SEM methods have been carried out. Ceramics with thermal conductivity from 172 to 174 W/m·K has been obtained as result of this work.

  3. Thermodynamically consistent microstructure prediction of additively manufactured materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Jacob; Xiong, Wei; Cao, Jian; Liu, Wing Kam

    2016-03-01

    Additive manufacturing has risen to the top of research interest in advanced manufacturing in recent years due to process flexibility, achievability of geometric complexity, and the ability to locally modify and optimize materials. The present work is focused on providing an approach for incorporating thermodynamically consistent properties and microstructure evolution for non-equilibrium supercooling, as observed in additive manufacturing processes, into finite element analysis. There are two primary benefits of this work: (1) the resulting prediction is based on the material composition and (2) the nonlinear behavior caused by the thermodynamic properties of the material during the non-equilibrium solution is accounted for with extremely high resolution. The predicted temperature response and microstructure evolution for additively manufactured stainless steel 316L using standard handbook-obtained thermodynamic properties are compared with the thermodynamic properties calculated using the CALculation of PHAse Diagrams (CALPHAD) approach. Data transfer from the CALPHAD approach to finite element analysis is discussed.

  4. Photostability of pyrromethene 567 doped in ORMOSILs with various additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yu; Qian, Guodong; Su, Deliang; Wang, Minquan

    2004-09-01

    In this work, laser dye pyrromethene 567 (p567) was doped into methyltriethoxysilane (MTES)-derived organically modified silicate (ORMOSIL) monolith with various photo-stable additives including 1,4-diazobicyclo[2,2,2]octane (DABCO), 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperdin (TMP) and coumarin 440 (C440). The photostability of p567 was determined under continuous ultraviolet irradiation and its dependence on the concentration of each additive was studied. The results illustrated that the photostability of p567 in ORMOSIL with the optimized concentration of DABCO or TMP was improved by at least 100%. The highest photostability of p567 was obtained with the presence of C440, where at least four times of improvement has been observed. The photo-stable mechanisms of additives have also been discussed.

  5. 40 CFR 761.208 - Obtaining manifests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... print the manifest under 40 CFR 262.21 (c) and (e). A registered source may be a: (i) State agency; (ii) Commercial printer; (iii) PCB waste generator, transporter or, designated facility; or (iv) PCB waste broker... PROHIBITIONS PCB Waste Disposal Records and Reports § 761.208 Obtaining manifests. (a)(1) A generator may...

  6. 40 CFR 761.208 - Obtaining manifests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... print the manifest under 40 CFR 262.21 (c) and (e). A registered source may be a: (i) State agency; (ii) Commercial printer; (iii) PCB waste generator, transporter or, designated facility; or (iv) PCB waste broker... PROHIBITIONS PCB Waste Disposal Records and Reports § 761.208 Obtaining manifests. (a)(1) A generator may...

  7. 42 CFR 442.101 - Obtaining certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Obtaining certification. 442.101 Section 442.101 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS STANDARDS FOR PAYMENT TO NURSING FACILITIES AND INTERMEDIATE...

  8. 42 CFR 442.101 - Obtaining certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Obtaining certification. 442.101 Section 442.101 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS STANDARDS FOR PAYMENT TO NURSING FACILITIES AND INTERMEDIATE...

  9. 42 CFR 442.101 - Obtaining certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Obtaining certification. 442.101 Section 442.101 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS STANDARDS FOR PAYMENT TO NURSING FACILITIES AND INTERMEDIATE...

  10. Obtaining Your License: Careers in Real Estate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyon, Robert

    Two steps are required to obtain a real estate salesperson's license in Texas: (1) selecting a broker to serve as an advisor, and (2) meeting personal requirements (at least 18 years old, a Texas resident, completion of a minimum of 12 semester hours of real estate and related courses, application, acceptable score on state exam, and payment of…

  11. 15 CFR 285.15 - Obtaining documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Obtaining documents. 285.15 Section 285.15 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ACCREDITATION AND ASSESSMENT PROGRAMS...

  12. Obtaining Funding and Support for Undergraduate Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorff, Michael; Narayan, Darren A.

    2013-01-01

    Over the past decade there has been a dramatic increase in undergraduate research activities at colleges and universities nationwide. However, this comes at a time when budgets are being tightened and some institutions do not have the resources to pursue new initiatives. In this article we present some ideas for obtaining funding and support for…

  13. 15 CFR 285.15 - Obtaining documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...; phone: 301-975-4016; fax: 301-926-2884; e-mail: nvlap@nist.gov. (b) Copies of all ISO/IEC documents are..., Gaithersburg, MD. For access to the NIST campus, please contact NVLAP by phone at 301-975-4016 or by e-mail at NVLAP@nist.gov to obtain instructions for visitor registration....

  14. Method of Obtaining Uniform Coatings on Graphite

    DOEpatents

    Campbell, I. E.

    1961-04-01

    A method is given for obtaining uniform carbide coatings on graphite bodies. According to the invention a metallic halide in vapor form is passed over the graphite body under such conditions of temperature and pressure that the halide reacts with the graphite to form a coating of the metal carbide on the surface of the graphite.

  15. METHOD OF OBTAINING UNIFORM COATINGS ON GRAPHITE

    DOEpatents

    Campbell, I.E.

    1961-04-01

    A method is given for obtaining uniform carbide coatings on graphite bodies. According to the invention a metallic halide in vapor form is passed over the graphite body under such conditions of temperature and pressure that the halide reacts with the graphite to form a coating of the metal carbide on the surface of the graphite.

  16. Addition polyimide end cap study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St.clair, T. L.

    1980-01-01

    The characterization of addition polyimides with various end caps for adhesive applications at 120-250 C environments is discussed. Oligometric polyimides were prepared from 3,3',4,4'-benzophenone tetracarboxylic dianhydride and 3,3'-methylenedianiline which were end-capped with functionally reactive moities which cause crosslinking when the oligomers are heated to 200-400 C. The syntheses of the oligomers are outlined. The thermolysis of the oligomers was studied by differential scanning calorimetry and the resulting polymers were characterized by differential thermal analysis and adhesive performance. The adhesive data include lap shear strengths on titanium 6-4 adherends both before and after aging for 1000 hours at 121 C and/or 232 C.

  17. Obtaining and Investigating Unconventional Sources of Radioactivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapp, David R.

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides examples of naturally radioactive items that are likely to be found in most communities. Additionally, there is information provided on how to acquire many of these items inexpensively. I have found that the presence of these materials in the classroom is not only useful for teaching about nuclear radiation and debunking the…

  18. [Quality assurance in therapy of chronic pain. Results obtained by a taskforce of the German Section of the Association for the Study of Pain on psychological assessment of chronic pain. V. Instruments for the assessment of pain-related cognitions and coping with pain.].

    PubMed

    Denecke, H; Klinger, R; Kröner-Herwig, B; Nilges, P; Redegeld, M; Weiß, L; Glier, B

    1995-07-01

    The present paper is one of a series of publications, reviewing German instruments for psychological assessment of pain. Their main focus is on the results of a task force on quality testing for each subject. This paper describes and comments on methods regarding self-reporting of pain cognitions and both cognitive and behavioral strategies for coping with pain. Concerning pain cognitions one focus is on patients' attributions of causes of pain and the modes of controlling pain (subjective pain model). The other focus is on instruments recording "pain beliefs" in the sense of dysfunctional congitions associated with the experience of pain. Each instrument was examined with reference to approved psychometric criteria, empirical foundation and clinical relevance. It was noted that several instruments are deficient in their psychometric criteria and their empirical foundations. We used these data as a basis to elaborate a specific and differential recommendation. A similar procedure was followed with instruments for the assessment of pain-related coping strategies. According to our research there are two subgroups of coping instruments, one more specifically for cognitive coping with pain, and the other combined with behavioral coping strategies. Once again, we elaborated a specific and differential recommendation, giving priority to instruments taking account of both cognitive and behavioral dimensions of coping with pain. PMID:18415489

  19. Additives for cement compositions based on modified peat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopanitsa, Natalya; Sarkisov, Yurij; Gorshkova, Aleksandra; Demyanenko, Olga

    2016-01-01

    High quality competitive dry building mixes require modifying additives for various purposes to be included in their composition. There is insufficient amount of quality additives having stable properties for controlling the properties of cement compositions produced in Russia. Using of foreign modifying additives leads to significant increasing of the final cost of the product. The cost of imported modifiers in the composition of the dry building mixes can be up to 90% of the material cost, depending on the composition complexity. Thus, the problem of import substitution becomes relevant, especially in recent years, due to difficult economic situation. The article discusses the possibility of using local raw materials as a basis for obtaining dry building mixtures components. The properties of organo-mineral additives for cement compositions based on thermally modified peat raw materials are studied. Studies of the structure and composition of the additives are carried out by physicochemical research methods: electron microscopy and X-ray analysis. Results of experimental research showed that the peat additives contribute to improving of cement-sand mortar strength and hydrophysical properties.

  20. How to obtain confirmation for revalidation.

    PubMed

    Middleton, Lyn; Llewellyn, Denise

    2016-07-27

    Rationale and key points This is the seventh in a series of eight articles providing information about the Nursing and Midwifery Council revalidation process. This article focuses on obtaining confirmation for revalidation. » Revalidation is a mandatory process for nurses and midwives, enabling them to demonstrate their ability to practise safely and effectively. » Confirmation provides assurance that nurses and midwives have met the requirements of revalidation. » Confirmation does not involve making judgements about whether a nurse or midwife is fit to practise. Reflective activity 'How to' revalidate articles can help to update your practice and provide information about the revalidation process, including how you can obtain confirmation for revalidation. Reflect on and write a short account of: 1. The information that nurses and midwives are required to collect to meet the revalidation requirements. 2. How you could use this article to educate your colleagues. Subscribers can upload their reflective accounts at: rcni.com/portfolio. PMID:27461327

  1. Processing to obtain high-purity gallium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bautista, Renato G.

    2003-03-01

    Gallium has become increasingly popular as a substrate material for electronic devices. Aside from ore, gallium can be obtained from such industrial sources as the Bayer process caustic liquor that is a byproduct of bauxite processing, flue dust removed from the fume-collection system in plants that produce aluminum by the electrolytic process, zinc refinery residues, gallium scrap materials, and coal fly ash. The purification process for gallium can start with solvent-extraction processes where the concentrations of impurities, especially metals, are reduced to the ppm range. This article describes how ultra-purification techniques can be employed to reduce the undesirable impurities to the low ppb range. The various procedures described give an idea as to the extent of work needed to obtain and prepare high-purity gallium for electronic application.

  2. Incorporation of additives into polymers

    DOEpatents

    McCleskey, T. Mark; Yates, Matthew Z.

    2003-07-29

    There has been invented a method for incorporating additives into polymers comprising: (a) forming an aqueous or alcohol-based colloidal system of the polymer; (b) emulsifying the colloidal system with a compressed fluid; and (c) contacting the colloidal polymer with the additive in the presence of the compressed fluid. The colloidal polymer can be contacted with the additive by having the additive in the compressed fluid used for emulsification or by adding the additive to the colloidal system before or after emulsification with the compressed fluid. The invention process can be carried out either as a batch process or as a continuous on-line process.

  3. 26 CFR 301.6110-5 - Notice and time requirements; actions to restrain disclosure; actions to obtain additional...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) Intervention. Any person who is entitled to receive notice pursuant to paragraph (b)(4) of this section shall... pursuant to section 6110(f)(4) is served on the Secretary. (5) Intervention. Any person who is entitled...

  4. Deciphering the roles of multiple additives in organocatalyzed Michael additions.

    PubMed

    Günler, Z Inci; Companyó, Xavier; Alfonso, Ignacio; Burés, Jordi; Jimeno, Ciril; Pericàs, Miquel A

    2016-05-21

    The synergistic effects of multiple additives (water and acetic acid) on the asymmetric Michael addition of acetone to nitrostyrene catalyzed by primary amine-thioureas (PAT) were precisely determined. Acetic acid facilitates hydrolysis of the imine intermediates, thus leading to catalytic behavior, and minimizes the formation of the double addition side product. In contrast, water slows down the reaction but minimizes catalyst deactivation, eventually leading to higher final yields. PMID:27128165

  5. Obtaining the new HIV treatment guidelines.

    PubMed

    2001-02-28

    How to order the new HIV/AIDS official adult treatment guidelines by mail if you do not have computer access; how to get your questions about treatments answered at the same office; and other guidelines available including prevention of opportunistic infections, and what to do in case of occupational exposure to HIV. In addition, the official Web site for the guidelines has a marked copy which shows where the current adult guidelines are changed from the previous version. PMID:12765150

  6. Sufficient dimension reduction with additional information.

    PubMed

    Hung, Hung; Liu, Chih-Yen; Horng-Shing Lu, Henry

    2016-07-01

    Sufficient dimension reduction is widely applied to help model building between the response [Formula: see text] and covariate [Formula: see text] In some situations, we also collect additional covariate [Formula: see text] that has better performance in predicting [Formula: see text], but has a higher obtaining cost, than [Formula: see text] While constructing a predictive model for [Formula: see text] based on [Formula: see text] is straightforward, this strategy is not applicable since [Formula: see text] is not available for future observations in which the constructed model is to be applied. As a result, the aim of the study is to build a predictive model for [Formula: see text] based on [Formula: see text] only, where the available data is [Formula: see text] A naive method is to conduct analysis using [Formula: see text] directly, but ignoring [Formula: see text] can cause the problem of inefficiency. On the other hand, it is not trivial to utilize the information of [Formula: see text] to infer [Formula: see text], either. In this article, we propose a two-stage dimension reduction method for [Formula: see text] that is able to utilize the information of [Formula: see text] In the breast cancer data, the risk score constructed from the two-stage method can well separate patients with different survival experiences. In the Pima data, the two-stage method requires fewer components to infer the diabetes status, while achieving higher classification accuracy than the conventional method. PMID:26704765

  7. The Additive Coloration of Alkali Halides

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jirgal, G. H.; and others

    1969-01-01

    Describes the construction and use of an inexpensive, vacuum furnace designed to produce F-centers in alkali halide crystals by additive coloration. The method described avoids corrosion or contamination during the coloration process. Examination of the resultant crystals is discussed and several experiments using additively colored crystals are…

  8. Developing Multiplicative Thinking from Additive Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobias, Jennifer M.; Andreasen, Janet B.

    2013-01-01

    As students progress through elementary school, they encounter mathematics concepts that shift from additive to multiplicative situations (NCTM 2000). When they encounter fraction problems that require multiplicative thinking, they tend to incorrectly extend additive properties from whole numbers (Post et al. 1985). As a result, topics such as …

  9. Addition polyimide adhesives containing various end groups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saint Clair, A. K.; Saint Clair, T. L.

    1982-01-01

    Addition polyimode oligomers have been synthesized from 3,3 prime, 4,4 prime-benzophenone tetracarboxylic acid dianhydride and 3,3 prime-methylenedianiline using a variety of latent crosslinking groups as end-caps. The nominal 1300 molecular weight imide prepolymers were isolated and characterized for solubility in amide, chlorinated and ether solvents, melt-flow and cure properties, glass transition temperature, and thermal stability on heating in an air atmosphere. Adhesive strengths of the polyimides were obtained both at ambient and elevated temperatures before and after aging at 232 C. Properties of the novel addition polyimides were compared to a known nadic end-capped adhesive, LARC-13.

  10. Improvement of cement concrete strength properties by carbon fiber additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nevsky, Andrey; Kudyakov, Konstantin; Danke, Ilia; Kudyakov, Aleksandr; Kudyakov, Vitaly

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents the results of studies of fiber-reinforced concrete with carbon fibers. The effectiveness of carbon fibers uniform distribution in the concrete was obtained as a result of its preliminary mechanical mixing in water solution with chemical additives. Additives are to be used in the concrete technology as modifiers at initial stage of concrete mix preparing. The technology of preparing of fiber-reinforced concrete mix with carbon fibers is developed. The superplasticizer is based on ether carboxylates as a separator for carbon fibers. The technology allows increasing of concrete compressive strength up to 43.4% and tensile strength up to 17.5% as well as improving stability of mechanical properties.

  11. Quality assessment of electroencephalography obtained from a "dry electrode" system.

    PubMed

    Slater, Jeremy D; Kalamangalam, Giridhar P; Hope, Omotola

    2012-07-15

    This study examines the difference in application times for routine electroencephalography (EEG) utilizing traditional electrodes and a "dry electrode" headset. The primary outcome measure was the time to interpretable EEG (TIE). A secondary outcome measure of recording quality and interpretability was obtained from EEG sample review by two blinded clinical neurophysiologists. With EEG samples obtained from 10 subjects, the average TIE for the "dry electrode" system was 139s, and for the conventional recording 873s (p<0.001). The results support the hypothesis that such a "dry electrode" system can be applied with more than an 80% reduction in the TIE while still obtaining interpretable EEG. PMID:22633894

  12. Obtaining growth hormone from calf blood

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalchev, L. A.; Ralchev, K. K.; Nikolov, I. T.

    1979-01-01

    The preparation of a growth hormone from human serum was used for the isolation of the hormone from calf serum. The preparation was biologically active - it increased the quantity of the free fatty acids released in rat plasma by 36.4 percent. Electrophoresis in Veronal buffer, ph 8.6, showed the presence of a single fraction having mobility intermediate between that of alpha and beta globulins. Gel filtration through Sephadex G 100 showed an elutriation curve identical to that obtained by the growth hormone prepared from pituitary glands.

  13. Enantioselective Michael Addition of Water

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Bi-Shuang; Resch, Verena; Otten, Linda G; Hanefeld, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    The enantioselective Michael addition using water as both nucleophile and solvent has to date proved beyond the ability of synthetic chemists. Herein, the direct, enantioselective Michael addition of water in water to prepare important β-hydroxy carbonyl compounds using whole cells of Rhodococcus strains is described. Good yields and excellent enantioselectivities were achieved with this method. Deuterium labeling studies demonstrate that a Michael hydratase catalyzes the water addition exclusively with anti-stereochemistry. PMID:25529526

  14. Obtaining information by dynamic (effortful) touching.

    PubMed

    Turvey, M T; Carello, Claudia

    2011-11-12

    Dynamic touching is effortful touching. It entails deformation of muscles and fascia and activation of the embedded mechanoreceptors, as when an object is supported and moved by the body. It is realized as exploratory activities that can vary widely in spatial and temporal extents (a momentary heft, an extended walk). Research has revealed the potential of dynamic touching for obtaining non-visual information about the body (e.g. limb orientation), attachments to the body (e.g. an object's height and width) and the relation of the body both to attachments (e.g. hand's location on a grasped object) and surrounding surfaces (e.g. places and their distances). Invariants over the exploratory activity (e.g. moments of a wielded object's mass distribution) seem to ground this 'information about'. The conception of a haptic medium as a nested tensegrity structure has been proposed to express the obtained information realized by myofascia deformation, by its invariants and transformations. The tensegrity proposal rationalizes the relative indifference of dynamic touch to the site of mechanical contact (hand, foot, torso or probe) and the overtness of exploratory activity. It also provides a framework for dynamic touching's fractal nature, and the finding that its degree of fractality may matter to its accomplishments. PMID:21969694

  15. Obtaining information by dynamic (effortful) touching

    PubMed Central

    Turvey, M. T.; Carello, Claudia

    2011-01-01

    Dynamic touching is effortful touching. It entails deformation of muscles and fascia and activation of the embedded mechanoreceptors, as when an object is supported and moved by the body. It is realized as exploratory activities that can vary widely in spatial and temporal extents (a momentary heft, an extended walk). Research has revealed the potential of dynamic touching for obtaining non-visual information about the body (e.g. limb orientation), attachments to the body (e.g. an object's height and width) and the relation of the body both to attachments (e.g. hand's location on a grasped object) and surrounding surfaces (e.g. places and their distances). Invariants over the exploratory activity (e.g. moments of a wielded object's mass distribution) seem to ground this ‘information about’. The conception of a haptic medium as a nested tensegrity structure has been proposed to express the obtained information realized by myofascia deformation, by its invariants and transformations. The tensegrity proposal rationalizes the relative indifference of dynamic touch to the site of mechanical contact (hand, foot, torso or probe) and the overtness of exploratory activity. It also provides a framework for dynamic touching's fractal nature, and the finding that its degree of fractality may matter to its accomplishments. PMID:21969694

  16. Acoustic barriers obtained from industrial wastes.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Valles, M; Avila, G; Martinez, S; Terradas, R; Nogués, J M

    2008-07-01

    Acoustic pollution is an environmental problem that is becoming increasingly more important in our society. Likewise, the accumulation of generated waste and the need for waste management are also becoming more and more pressing. In this study we describe a new material--called PROUSO--obtained from industrial wastes. PROUSO has a variety of commercial and engineering, as well as building, applications. The main raw materials used for this environmentally friendly material come from slag from the aluminium recycling process, dust from the marble industry, foundry sands, and recycled expanded polystyrene from recycled packaging. Some natural materials, such as plastic clays, are also used. To obtain PROUSO we used a conventional ceramic process, forming new mineral phases and incorporating polluted elements into the structure. Its physical properties make PROUSO an excellent acoustic and thermal insulation material. It absorbs 95% of the sound in the frequency band of the 500 Hz. Its compressive strength makes it ideal for use in ceramic wall building. PMID:18514765

  17. Gasoline additives, emissions, and performance

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    The papers included in this publication deal with the influence of fuel, additive, and hardware changes on a variety of vehicle performance characteristics. Advanced techniques for measuring these performance parameters are also described. Contents include: Fleet test evaluation of gasoline additives for intake valve and combustion chamber deposit clean up; A technique for evaluating octane requirement additives in modern engines on dynamometer test stands; A fleet test of two additive technologies comparing their effects on tailpipe emissions; Investigation into the vehicle exhaust emissions of high percentage ethanol blends; Variability in hydrocarbon speciation measurements at low emission (ULEV) levels; and more.

  18. A neon-E rich phase in Orgueil - Results obtained on density separates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eberhardt, P.; Jungck, M. H. A.; Meier, F. O.; Niederer, F. R.

    1981-09-01

    A stepwise heating technique was used on eight density separates from the neon-E rich phase G4j of the carbonaceous chondrite Orgueil to measure He, Ne and Ar. The density separation technique was found to further enrich the Ne-E carrier phases, allowing the Ne-E to be identified as virtually pure Ne-22. At least two separable carrier phases exist: (1) the l-carrier phase, which releases its Ne-E at temperatures below 900 C and is heavily enriched in the low-density separate; and (2) the h-carrier phase. The h-carrier is found to be highly retentive, with release temperatures above 900 C, and is associated with higher-density material. It is concluded that Ne-E and its carrier phases are probably of presolar origin.

  19. Preliminary Results Obtained in Integrated Safety Analysis of NASA Aviation Safety Program Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This is a listing of recent unclassified RTO technical publications for January 1, 2005 through March 31, 2005 processed by the NASA Center for AeroSpace Center available on the NASA Aeronautics and Space Database. Contents include 1) Electronic Information Management; 2) Decision Support to Combined Joint Task Force and Component Commanders; 3) RTO Technical Publications : A Quarterly Listing (December 2004); 4) The Role of Humans in Intelligent and Automated Systems.

  20. Using Asymptotic Results to Obtain a Confidence Interval for the Population Median

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jamshidian, M.; Khatoonabadi, M.

    2007-01-01

    Almost all introductory and intermediate level statistics textbooks include the topic of confidence interval for the population mean. Almost all these texts introduce the median as a robust measure of central tendency. Only a few of these books, however, cover inference on the population median and in particular confidence interval for the median.…

  1. Effect of blood handling conditions on progesterone assay results obtained by chemiluminescence in the bitch.

    PubMed

    Tahir, M Z; Thoumire, S; Raffaelli, M; Grimard, B; Reynaud, K; Chastant-Maillard, S

    2013-10-01

    Assay of blood progesterone (P4) is commonly practiced to determine the time of ovulation, diagnose luteal insufficiency, and predict time of parturition in bitches. Because of practical constraints, most blood samples cannot be assayed on site immediately after collection. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of various sampling and storage conditions on concentrations of P4 as determined by chemiluminescence immunoassay. The blood of 5 Beagle bitches was collected from the jugular vein to study the effect of the type of collection tube (silicone, lithium heparin, EDTA), the storage time of unseparated or separated plasma (2 h to 14 d), and the number of freeze-thaw cycles (1-10) on P4. The effect of each factor was tested within one assay session. None of the factors significantly affected P4. Thus, P4 appears to remain relatively stable in canine blood samples exposed to various processing and storage conditions. PMID:23988180

  2. Obtaining chicken primordial germ cells used for gene transfer: in vitro and in vivo results.

    PubMed

    Chojnacka-Puchta, Luiza; Sawicka, Dorota; Lakota, Paweł; Plucienniczak, Grazyna; Bednarczyk, Marek; Plucienniczak, Andrzej

    2015-11-01

    Recently, several attempts have been made to create a generation of transgenic chickens via chimeric intermediates produced by primordial germ cells (PGCs) transfer. This study aimed to compare the influences of different chicken PGCs isolated from circulating blood (bPGCs) or gonads (gPGCs), purification (ACK, Percoll or trypsin) and transfection methods (electroporation or lipofection) on the expression of transgenes in vitro and the migration of modified donor cells to the recipient gonads. The highest average frequency of pEGFP-N1 plasmid-transfected bPGCs (75.8%) was achieved with Percoll density gradient centrifugation and electroporation. After ammonium chloride-potassium (ACK) treatment and lipofection, in vitro transgene expression was only detected in 35.2% of bPGCs. Chimeric chickens were produced from these purified, transfected and cultured cells, and the transgene was detected in the gonads of 44 and 42% of the recipient embryos that had been injected with bPGCs and gPGCs, respectively. These data confirmed that the combination of PGC purification via Percoll centrifugation and electroporation was an effective method for producing transgenic chickens. Subsequently, we used this method with expression vectors for gene hIFNα 2a/hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) under the control of the ovalbumin promoter to generate G0 transgenic chickens. Consequently, we observed that 4.9% of the hens and 3.5% of the roosters carried the hIFNα 2a gene, whereas 16.7% of the hens and 2.4% of the roosters carried the HBsAg gene, thus undisputedly confirming the exceptional effectiveness of the applied methods. PMID:25737138

  3. Spacecraft materials: Comparison between flight results obtained on LDEF and MIR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guillaumon, Jean-Claude; Paillous, Alain

    1993-01-01

    Two flight experiments dedicated to the study of the performance of materials in space have been carried out. Material samples have been exposed passively to low-Earth orbit (LEO) environment, then retrieved for laboratory study. The first experiment was conducted in the framework of the FRECOPA project and was flown on the trailing edge of the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) (exposure to vacuum and ultraviolet (UV) radiation for 5.5 years). The experiment COMES was installed outside of the MIR space station during an extravehicular activity; it was exposed to vacuum, O-atoms, and UV radiation for 1.1 year; and it was brought back to Earth by cosmonauts. The difference in exposure conditions and the use of transparent filters protecting some samples of COMES enable to differentiate the effects of UV radiation and oxygen atoms. The degradations of several thermal control coatings (paints, metalized polymeric films with and without ITO), structural materials, and optical components have been observed, measured, and compared after these two flight experiments. This paper summarizes various 'lessons learned' that can be used to identify aspects of space aging, to orient future research in this field, and to assist in spacecraft design.

  4. Research done at DERAT (October 1982 through September 1983); summary of principal results obtained

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The progress in the following areas is described: measurement equipment; F2 FAUGA wind tunnel tests; unsteady boundary layers; body and axisymmetrical boundary layers; wing fuselage interactions; turbulence; subsonic-transonic flow; cryogenic wind tunnel tests; and profile testing.

  5. New results obtained by the Rome data on {bar p}d annihilation at rest

    SciTech Connect

    Gaspero, M.

    1994-10-01

    The reanalysis of the {bar p}n annihilations at rest made using the Rome bubble-chamber data has shown a better way for writing the amplitude of the S{sub 0}(1390){pi}{sup {minus}} channel in the 2{pi}{sup +}3{pi}{sup {minus}} final state, has given a new evaluation of the {pi}{sup {minus}}{pi}{sup 0} and {pi}{sup {minus}}{omega} frequencies, and has found no evidence of the S{sub 0}(1390) decay into {omega}{omega} and K{sup 0}{bar K}{sup 0}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup {minus}}. 14 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Results from CrIS/ATMS Obtained Using an "AIRS Version-6 Like" Retrieval Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Susskind, Joel; Kouvaris, Louis; Iredell, Lena

    2015-01-01

    A main objective of AIRS/AMSU on EOS is to provide accurate sounding products that are used to generate climate data sets. Suomi NPP carries CrIS/ATMS that were designed as follow-ons to AIRS/AMSU. Our objective is to generate a long term climate data set of products derived from CrIS/ATMS to serve as a continuation of the AIRS/AMSU products. We have modified an improved version of the operational AIRS Version-6 retrieval algorithm for use with CrIS/ATMS. CrIS/ATMS products are of very good quality, and are comparable to, and consistent with, those of AIRS.

  7. Results from CrIS/ATMS Obtained Using an "AIRS Version-6 Like" Retrieval Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Susskind, Joel; Kouvaris, Louis; Iredell, Lena; Blaisdell, John

    2015-01-01

    AIRS and CrIS Version-6.22 O3(p) and q(p) products are both superior to those of AIRS Version-6.Monthly mean August 2014 Version-6.22 AIRS and CrIS products agree reasonably well with OMPS, CERES, and witheach other. JPL plans to process AIRS and CrIS for many months and compare interannual differences. Updates to thecalibration of both CrIS and ATMS are still being finalized. We are also working with JPL to develop a joint AIRS/CrISlevel-1 to level-3 processing system using a still to be finalized Version-7 retrieval algorithm. The NASA Goddard DISCwill eventually use this system to reprocess all AIRS and recalibrated CrIS/ATMS. .

  8. [Vestibular influences on human locomotion: results obtained using galvanic vestibular stimulation].

    PubMed

    Stolbkov, Iu K; Gerasimenko, Iu P

    2014-06-01

    Locomotion is the most important mode of our movement in space. The role of the vestibular system during human locomotion is not well studied, mainly due to problems associated with its isolation stimulation. It is difficult to stimulate this system in isolation during locomotion because the real movement of the head to activate the vestibular end-organs inevitably leads to the activation of other sensory inputs. Galvanic stimulation is not a natural way to stimulate the vestibular system, but it has the advantage providing an isolated stimulation of the vestibular inputs. This technique is relatively novel in the examination of vestibular contributions during human locomotion. In our review we consider the current data regarding the effect of vestibular signals on human locomotion by using galvanic vestibular stimulation. PMID:25665394

  9. Overview of SAM results obtained at Gale Crater during the 180 first sols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coll, P.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Cabane, M.; Webster, C. R.; Archer, D.; Atreya, S. K.; Benna, M.; Brinckerhoff, W. B.; Brunner, A.; Buch, A.; Conrad, P.; Coscia, D.; Dobson, N.; Dworkin, J.; Eigenbrode, J.; Farley, K.; Flesch, G.; Franz, H.; Freissinet, C.; Galvin, D.; Gorevan, S.; Harpold, D.; Hengemihle, J.; Jaeger, F.; Johnson, C.; Johnson, M.; Jones, J.; Lefavor, M.; Leshin, L.; Lyness, E.; Malespin, C.; Manning, H.; Martin, D.; McAdam, A.; McKay, C.; Miller, K.; Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.; Navarro-González, R.; Niles, P.; Nolan, T.; Owen, T.; Pavolv, A.; Prats, B.; Pepin, R.; Raaen, E.; Raulin, F.; Steele, A.; Stern, J.; Squyres, S.; Sutter, B.; Summons, R. E.; Szopa, C.; Tan, F.; Teinturier, S.; Trainer, M.; Wong, M.; Wray, J.

    2013-09-01

    During the first 180 sols of Curiosity's landed mission on Mars (8/6/2012 to 2/7/2013) SAM sampled the atmosphere more than a dozen times, the dusty sandpile named Rocknest and a basin site named John Klein on the floor of Gale crater. The atmospheric experiments utilized SAM's quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) and its tunable laser spectrometer (TLS) while the solid sample experiments also utilized the gas chromatograph (GC). Although a number of core experiments were pre-programmed and stored in SAM EEProm, the high level SAM scripting language enabled the team to often optimize experiments based on prior runs. SAM and its Experiment Sequences exercised during the First 120 Sols: The SAM instruments, its gas processing system (GPS) and its sample manipulation system (SMS) have been already described [1]. During the first few weeks of the landed mission SAM carried out a variety of instrument health checks and then began a series of atmospheric experiments to measure atmospheric composition and isotope ratios. From sol 56 to 102 Curiosity lingered at Rocknest to clean out the surfaces of the sample processing system by scooping several times into this fine grained material, vibrating to abrade possible contamination from surfaces, and then discarding before delivery of sample to SAM from the 5th scoop.

  10. Detailed analysis of the first MOAO results obtained by CANARY at the WHT.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidal, F.; Gendron, E.; Brangier, M.; Morris, T.; Basden, A.; Myers, R.; Rousset, G.; Hubert, Z.; Chemla, F.; Longmore, A.; Butterley, T.; Dipper, N.; Dunlop, C.; Geng, D.; Gratadour, D.; Henry, D.; Laporte, P.; Looker, N.; Perret, D.; Sevin, A.; Talbot, G.; Younger, E.

    2011-09-01

    CANARY is the multi-object adaptive optics (MOAO) pathfinder for the multi object IR spectrometer EAGLE currently proposed on the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT). CANARY was installed in September 2010 on the William Herschel Telescope (WHT) Canary Islands, Spain. For the first time, MOAO correction has been demonstrated using 3 widely separated off-axis natural guide stars and one deformable mirror in open loop in a target direction. A fourth on-axis wavefront sensor (WFS), called truth sensor (TS) was used to characterise the residual error of the MOAO correction. As the TS is placed after the deformable mirror it also permits CANARY to operate as a classical on-axis closed-loop AO system for performance comparison purposes. We present the detailed analysis of the fourth night of the September observation run (2010 Sep. 27th). Strehls ratios of 0.20 in H band were measured in MOAO mode while achieving 0.25 in close loop configuration (r0 = 15 cm at 0.5 microns). We also acquired synchronised slopes from the 3 off-axis WFS and the TS and from these data we derive the full error budget of CANARY. We pay particular attention to the performance of the tomographic reconstruction and the open loop error. We also discuss the turbulence profile retrieved during the night that was directly measured from the instrument data in order to compute an optimized tomographic reconstruction of the on-axis wavefront.

  11. Simulation Shows Hospitals That Cooperate On Infection Control Obtain Better Results Than Hospitals Acting Alone

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Bruce Y.; Bartsch, Sarah M.; Wong, Kim F.; Yilmaz, S. Levent; Avery, Taliser R.; Singh, Ashima; Song, Yeohan; Kim, Diane S.; Brown, Shawn T.; Potter, Margaret A.; Platt, Richard; Huang, Susan S.

    2013-01-01

    Efforts to control life-threatening infections, such as with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), can be complicated when patients are transferred from one hospital to another. Using a detailed computer simulation model of all hospitals in Orange County, California, we explored the effects when combinations of hospitals tested all patients at admission for MRSA and adopted procedures to limit transmission among patients who tested positive. Called “contact isolation,” these procedures specify precautions for health care workers interacting with an infected patient, such as wearing gloves and gowns. Our simulation demonstrated that each hospital’s decision to test for MRSA and implement contact isolation procedures could affect the MRSA prevalence in all other hospitals. Thus, our study makes the case that further cooperation among hospitals—which is already reflected in a few limited collaborative infection control efforts under way—could help individual hospitals achieve better infection control than they could achieve on their own. PMID:23048111

  12. Molecular engineering of polymer alloys: A final report of results obtained on CRADA No. 1078

    SciTech Connect

    Curro, J.G.; Schweizer, K.S.; Honeycutt, J.D.

    1995-12-01

    This report summarizes the technical progress made in the past three years on CRADA No. 1078, Molecular Engineering of Polymer Alloys. The thrust of this CRADA was to start with the basic ideas of PRISM theory and develop it to the point where it could be applied to modeling of polymer alloys. In this program, BIOSYM, Sandia and the University of Illinois worked jointly to develop the theoretical techniques and numerical formalisms necessary to implement the theoretical ideas into commercial software aimed at molecular engineering of polymer alloys. This CRADA focused on developing the techniques required to make the transition from theory to practice. These techniques were then used by BIOSYM to incorporate PRISM theory and other new developments into their commercial software.

  13. Obtaining Accurate Change Detection Results from High-Resolution Satellite Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, N.; Bunch, W.; Fretz, R.; Kim, P.; Logan, T.; Smyth, M.; Zobrist, A.

    2012-01-01

    Multi-date acquisitions of high-resolution imaging satellites (e.g. GeoEye and WorldView), can display local changes of current economic interest. However, their large data volume precludes effective manual analysis, requiring image co-registration followed by image-to-image change detection, preferably with minimal analyst attention. We have recently developed an automatic change detection procedure that minimizes false-positives. The processing steps include: (a) Conversion of both the pre- and post- images to reflectance values (this step is of critical importance when different sensors are involved); reflectance values can be either top-of-atmosphere units or have full aerosol optical depth calibration applied using bi-directional reflectance knowledge. (b) Panchromatic band image-to-image co-registration, using an orthorectified base reference image (e.g. Digital Orthophoto Quadrangle) and a digital elevation model; this step can be improved if a stereo-pair of images have been acquired on one of the image dates. (c) Pan-sharpening of the multispectral data to assure recognition of change objects at the highest resolution. (d) Characterization of multispectral data in the post-image ( i.e. the background) using unsupervised cluster analysis. (e) Band ratio selection in the post-image to separate surface materials of interest from the background. (f) Preparing a pre-to-post change image. (g) Identifying locations where change has occurred involving materials of interest.

  14. Preliminary Results Obtained in Integrated Safety Analysis of NASA Aviation Safety Program Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This is a listing of recent unclassified RTO technical publications processed by the NASA Center for AeroSpace Information from January 1, 2001 through March 31, 2001 available on the NASA Aeronautics and Space Database. Contents include 1) Cognitive Task Analysis; 2) RTO Educational Notes; 3) The Capability of Virtual Reality to Meet Military Requirements; 4) Aging Engines, Avionics, Subsystems and Helicopters; 5) RTO Meeting Proceedings; 6) RTO Technical Reports; 7) Low Grazing Angle Clutter...; 8) Verification and Validation Data for Computational Unsteady Aerodynamics; 9) Space Observation Technology; 10) The Human Factor in System Reliability...; 11) Flight Control Design...; 12) Commercial Off-the-Shelf Products in Defense Applications.

  15. 75 FR 36362 - Procurement List Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-25

    ... agency, where they will obtain their raw materials, and the actual sewing and packaging process they will... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Additions On 1/22/2010 (75 FR 3714); 3/19/2010 (75 FR 13263-13264); 4/9/2010 (75 FR 18164-18165); and 4/30/2010 (75 FR 22744-22745), the Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind...

  16. Additively manufactured porous tantalum implants.

    PubMed

    Wauthle, Ruben; van der Stok, Johan; Amin Yavari, Saber; Van Humbeeck, Jan; Kruth, Jean-Pierre; Zadpoor, Amir Abbas; Weinans, Harrie; Mulier, Michiel; Schrooten, Jan

    2015-03-01

    The medical device industry's interest in open porous, metallic biomaterials has increased in response to additive manufacturing techniques enabling the production of complex shapes that cannot be produced with conventional techniques. Tantalum is an important metal for medical devices because of its good biocompatibility. In this study selective laser melting technology was used for the first time to manufacture highly porous pure tantalum implants with fully interconnected open pores. The architecture of the porous structure in combination with the material properties of tantalum result in mechanical properties close to those of human bone and allow for bone ingrowth. The bone regeneration performance of the porous tantalum was evaluated in vivo using an orthotopic load-bearing bone defect model in the rat femur. After 12 weeks, substantial bone ingrowth, good quality of the regenerated bone and a strong, functional implant-bone interface connection were observed. Compared to identical porous Ti-6Al-4V structures, laser-melted tantalum shows excellent osteoconductive properties, has a higher normalized fatigue strength and allows for more plastic deformation due to its high ductility. It is therefore concluded that this is a first step towards a new generation of open porous tantalum implants manufactured using selective laser melting. PMID:25500631

  17. Color Addition and Subtraction Apps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz, Frances; Ruiz, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Color addition and subtraction apps in HTML5 have been developed for students as an online hands-on experience so that they can more easily master principles introduced through traditional classroom demonstrations. The evolution of the additive RGB color model is traced through the early IBM color adapters so that students can proceed step by step…

  18. 75 FR 27313 - Proposed Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-14

    ... FROM PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED PROCUREMENT LIST Proposed Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Proposed additions to the... or Severely Disabled, Jefferson Plaza 2, Suite 10800, 1421 Jefferson Davis Highway,...

  19. Additive effect of Lygodium venustum SW. in association with gentamicin.

    PubMed

    Morais-Braga, Maria F B; Souza, Teógenes M; Santos, Karla K A; Guedes, Gláucia M M; Andrade, Jacqueline C; Tintino, Saulo R; Sobral-Souza, Celestina E; Costa, José G M; Saraiva, Antonio A F; Coutinho, Henrique D M

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the interactions between gentamicin and the ethanol extract of the fern Lygodium venustum SW (EELV). The ethanol extract of L. venustum was obtained, the phytocompounds were identified and the EELV was assayed by the checkerboard method with gentamicin against two bacterial strains multiresistant to antibiotics. The antibiotic activity of gentamicin, when associated with the extract, was enhanced in an additive manner against both strains. The results indicated that L. venustum can be a source of secondary metabolites to be used in association with antibiotics as aminoglycosides in the antibiotic chemotherapy against resistant bacteria. PMID:26284428

  20. Discovery of two additional Jovian irregulars.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandersen, M.; Gladman, B.; Jacobson, R.; Brozovic, M.; Veillet, C.

    2011-10-01

    In September 2010 Jupiter and Uranus passed each other on the sky. This allowed our team to easily recover many Jovian and Uranian irregular satellites with uncertain orbits. In addition to the planned recoveries, our observations revealed two previously undetected Jovian irregular satellites. Jacobson et al. [3] and Veillet et al. [7] provided the discovery data for S/2010 J 1 and S/2010 J 2, respectively. Follow up observations in October 2010 to January 2011 indicates that these are ˜1 km objects on bound retrograde orbits. However, the fitted orbits are still too uncertain to determine which, if any, satellite group these additional satellites belong to [2]. We will obtain additional observations in July and August 2011, allowing us to present accurate orbital and grouping information.

  1. Surveyor 3 Preliminary Science Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1967-01-01

    Surveyor III soft-landed on the Moon at 00:04 GMT on April 20, 1967. Data obtained have significantly increased our knowledge of the Moon. The Surveyor III spacecraft was similar to Surveyor I; the only major change in scientific instrumentation was the addition of a soil mechanics surface sampler. Surveyor III results at this preliminary evaluation of data give valuable information about the relation between the surface skin of under-dense material responsible for the photometric properties and the deeper layers of material whose properties resemble those of ordinary terrestrial soils. In addition, they provide new insight into the relation between the general lunar surface as seen by Surveyor I and the interior of a large subdued crater. The new results have also contributed to our understanding of the mechanism of downhill transport. Many critical questions cannot, however, be answered until final reduction of experimental data.

  2. Daily data - obtain modeled daily data

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-02-19

    ... list Select one parameter of those just chosen from the "Plot one parameter" list. Select "Submit". The resulting page displays a plot of the selected parameter with an option to view the parameters chosen for ...

  3. Color Addition and Subtraction Apps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz, Frances; Ruiz, Michael J.

    2015-10-01

    Color addition and subtraction apps in HTML5 have been developed for students as an online hands-on experience so that they can more easily master principles introduced through traditional classroom demonstrations. The evolution of the additive RGB color model is traced through the early IBM color adapters so that students can proceed step by step in understanding mathematical representations of RGB color. Finally, color addition and subtraction are presented for the X11 colors from web design to illustrate yet another real-life application of color mixing.

  4. Plasticity characteristics obtained through hardness measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Milman, Y.V.; Galanov, B.A.; Chugunova, S.I. )

    1993-09-01

    A characteristic of material plasticity [delta][sub H] is proposed. [delta][sub H] is determined as a part of plastic deformation in the total deformation during indentation. The following analytic expressions for the elastic deformation [epsilon][sub e] and for the total deformation [epsilon] on the contact area indenter-specimen in the direction of loading force are obtained, [epsilon][sub e] = 1.08(1 [minus] v [minus] 2v[sup 2])H[sub V/E], [epsilon] [approx] 0.076, where H[sub V] is the Vickers hardness, E is Young's modulus, v is the Poisson ratio, and [delta][sub H] = 1 [minus] ([epsilon][sub e]/[epsilon]). The [delta][sub H] value is calculated for various crystalline materials at different temperatures and in different structural states. [delta][sub H] is consistent with the concept of plasticity established before, and to characterize the influence of temperature, alloying and strain hardening on plasticity. The necessary condition for revealing ductility at tension and bending is [delta][sub H] [>=] 0.9. [delta][sub H] can be used as a plasticity characteristic of brittle materials.

  5. Comparison of hearing thresholds obtained with Baha preoperative assessment tools and those obtained with the osseointegrated implant.

    PubMed

    Heywood, Rebecca L; Patel, Parag M; Jonathan, David A

    2011-05-01

    We conducted a study of the Baha bone-anchored hearing aid system to quantify the difference between (1) hearing thresholds obtained through preoperative testing methods with the Baha sound processor attached to three different bone-conduction testing devices and (2) thresholds obtained postoperatively with the sound processor attached to a surgically placed osseointegrated titanium implant. Twenty-three patients underwent free-field testing in four situations: with the Baha sound processor attached to (1) the Baha Testband (transcutaneous transmission), (2) the Baha Softband (transcutaneous transmission), (3) a test rod (bone conduction via the teeth), and (4) the osseointegrated implant (percutaneous transmission). The main outcome measure was the result of a comparison of the thresholds obtained with the three preoperative test methods and those obtained with the osseointegrated implant. We found that aided thresholds obtained with the osseointegrated implant were significantly better (p < 0.05) than those obtained with the three preoperative test methods. The degree of superiority increased with higher frequencies. We conclude that thresholds of 1 to 18 dB better than those obtained by preoperative test methods can be expected postoperatively with the osseointegrated implant. The damping effect of sound transmission via the teeth or transcutaneously must be accounted for in making predictions of postoperative outcome. PMID:21563076

  6. Calculators and Computers: Graphical Addition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spero, Samuel W.

    1978-01-01

    A computer program is presented that generates problem sets involving sketching graphs of trigonometric functions using graphical addition. The students use calculators to sketch the graphs and a computer solution is used to check it. (MP)

  7. LACHESIS -- An instrumentation system for obtaining containment and environmental data

    SciTech Connect

    Deupree, R.G.; Oblad, F.R.

    1995-09-01

    The instrumentation system developed to obtain containment and environmental data in the LYNER complex is presented. The primary purpose of this report is to familiarize potential operators of the system with the details of its use. The instrumentation system has three major hardware modules: (1) the sensor power source, amplifier, and signal conditioner module, (2) the digitizers, and (3) the computer controller. Each of these is described with emphasis on the steps required to make that component perform effectively. In addition the roles of activities of other people besides the Los Alamos shot engineer who are required to ensure the success of the system are outlined.

  8. Strategies of Intracellular Pathogens for Obtaining Iron from the Environment

    PubMed Central

    Leon-Sicairos, Nidia; Reyes-Cortes, Ruth; Guadrón-Llanos, Alma M.; Madueña-Molina, Jesús; Leon-Sicairos, Claudia; Canizalez-Román, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    Most microorganisms are destroyed by the host tissues through processes that usually involve phagocytosis and lysosomal disruption. However, some organisms, called intracellular pathogens, are capable of avoiding destruction by growing inside macrophages or other cells. During infection with intracellular pathogenic microorganisms, the element iron is required by both the host cell and the pathogen that inhabits the host cell. This minireview focuses on how intracellular pathogens use multiple strategies to obtain nutritional iron from the intracellular environment in order to use this element for replication. Additionally, the implications of these mechanisms for iron acquisition in the pathogen-host relationship are discussed. PMID:26120582

  9. Polyolefins as additives in plastics

    SciTech Connect

    Deanin, R.D.

    1993-12-31

    Polyolefins are not only major commodity plastics - they are also very useful as additives, both in other polyolefins and also in other types of plastics. This review covers ethylene, propylene, butylene and isobutylene polymers, in blends with each other, and as additives to natural rubber, styrene/butadiene rubber, polystyrene, polyvinyl chloride, polymethyl methacrylate, polyphenylene oxide, polycarbonate, thermoplastic polyesters, polyurethanes, polyamides, and mixed automotive plastics recycling.

  10. The Viking biology results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, Harold P.

    1989-01-01

    A brief review of the purposes and the results from the Viking Biology experiments is presented, in the expectation that the lessons learned from this mission will be useful in planning future approaches to the biological exploration of Mars. Since so little was then known about potential micro-environments on Mars, three different experiments were included in the Viking mission, each one based on different assumptions about what Martian organisms might be like. In addition to the Viking Biology Instrument (VBI), important corollary information was obtained from the Viking lander imaging system and from the molecular analysis experiments that were conducted using the gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GCMS) instrument. No biological objects were noted by the lander imaging instrument. The GCMS did not detect any organic compounds. A description of the tests conducted by the Gas Exchange Experiment, the Labeled Release experiment, and the Pyrolytic Release experiment is given. Results are discussed. Taken as a whole, the Viking data yielded no unequivocal evidence for a Martian biota at either landing site. The results also revealed the presence of one or more reactive oxidants in the surface material and these need to be further characterized, as does the range of micro-environments, before embarking upon future searches for extant life on Mars.

  11. Using FLCT to Obtain Spectral Information From MOSES Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Courrier, Hans; Kankelborg, Charles

    2014-06-01

    The Multi-Order Solar EUV Spectrograph (MOSES) is a high cadence slitless spectrograph that images in He II 304Å. The large field of view (20’x10’) combined with the ability to quickly obtain images containing both spectral and spatial information makes MOSES an ideal platform for probing small scale, short duration flows resulting from magnetic reconnection in the solar transition region. The ease of obtaining co-temporal spectral and spatial data with a slitless spectrograph is counterbalanced by increased difficulty required to disentangling the information captured in the images. The Fourier Local Correlation Tracking (FLCT) routine developed by Fischer and Welch (2007) is developed as a technique for obtaining Doppler shifts and line widths from small scale flows imaged by MOSES. Results are reported utilizing this technique on simulated images and MOSES data.

  12. Simulating heat addition via mass addition in constant area compressible flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heiser, W. H.; McClure, W. B.; Wood, C. W.

    1995-01-01

    A study conducted demonstrated the striking similarity between the influence of heat addition and mass addition on compressible flows. These results encourage the belief that relatively modest laboratory experiments employing mass addition can be devised that will reproduce the leading phenomena of heat addition, such as the axial variation of properties, choking, and wall-boundary-layer separation. These suggest that some aspects of the complex behavior of dual-mode ramjet/scramjet combustors could be experimentally evaluated or demonstrated by replacing combustion with less expensive, more easily controlled, and safer mass addition.

  13. 29 CFR 4.4 - Obtaining a wage determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... under the contract, the agency shall identify the employees and/or work subject to the collective... employees performing work on the contract. The contracting agency, therefore, must obtain a wage... resultant contract documents and shall be applicable to all work performed thereunder (regardless of...

  14. Pharmacological and Chemical Effects of Cigarette Additives

    PubMed Central

    Rabinoff, Michael; Caskey, Nicholas; Rissling, Anthony; Park, Candice

    2007-01-01

    We investigated tobacco industry documents and other sources for evidence of possible pharmacological and chemical effects of tobacco additives. Our findings indicated that more than 100 of 599 documented cigarette additives have pharmacological actions that camouflage the odor of environmental tobacco smoke emitted from cigarettes, enhance or maintain nicotine delivery, could increase the addictiveness of cigarettes, and mask symptoms and illnesses associated with smoking behaviors. Whether such uses were specifically intended for these agents is unknown. Our results provide a clear rationale for regulatory control of tobacco additives. PMID:17666709

  15. ADDITIVITY ASSESSMENT OF TRIHALOMETHANE MIXTURES BY PROPORTIONAL RESPONSE ADDITION

    EPA Science Inventory

    If additivity is known or assumed, the toxicity of a chemical mixture may be predicted from the dose response curves of the individual chemicals comprising the mixture. As single chemical data are abundant and mixture data sparse, mixture risk methods that utilize single chemical...

  16. Using USNO's API to Obtain Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesniak, Michael V.; Pozniak, Daniel; Punnoose, Tarun

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Naval Observatory (USNO) is in the process of modernizing its publicly available web services into APIs (Application Programming Interfaces). Services configured as APIs offer greater flexibility to the user and allow greater usage. Depending on the particular service, users who implement our APIs will receive either a PNG (Portable Network Graphics) image or data in JSON (JavaScript Object Notation) format. This raw data can then be embedded in third-party web sites or in apps.Part of the USNO's mission is to provide astronomical and timing data to government agencies and the general public. To this end, the USNO provides accurate computations of astronomical phenomena such as dates of lunar phases, rise and set times of the Moon and Sun, and lunar and solar eclipse times. Users who navigate to our web site and select one of our 18 services are prompted to complete a web form, specifying parameters such as date, time, location, and object. Many of our services work for years between 1700 and 2100, meaning that past, present, and future events can be computed. Upon form submission, our web server processes the request, computes the data, and outputs it to the user.Over recent years, the use of the web by the general public has vastly changed. In response to this, the USNO is modernizing its web-based data services. This includes making our computed data easier to embed within third-party web sites as well as more easily querying from apps running on tablets and smart phones. To facilitate this, the USNO has begun converting its services into APIs. In addition to the existing web forms for the various services, users are able to make direct URL requests that return either an image or numerical data.To date, four of our web services have been configured to run with APIs. Two are image-producing services: "Apparent Disk of a Solar System Object" and "Day and Night Across the Earth." Two API data services are "Complete Sun and Moon Data for One Day" and "Dates

  17. Syngas Production from Pyrolysis of Nine Composts Obtained from Nonhybrid and Hybrid Perennial Grasses

    PubMed Central

    Hlavsová, Adéla; Raclavská, Helena; Juchelková, Dagmar; Škrobánková, Hana; Frydrych, Jan

    2014-01-01

    A pyrolysis of compost for the production of syngas with an explicit H2/CO = 2 or H2/CO = 3 was investigated in this study. The composts were obtained from nonhybrid (perennial) grasses (NHG) and hybrid (perennial) grasses (HG). Discrepancies in H2 evolution profiles were found between NHG and HG composts. In addition, positive correlations for NHG composts were obtained between (i) H2 yield and lignin content, (ii) H2 yield and potassium content, and (iii) CO yield and cellulose content. All composts resulted in H2/CO = 2 and five of the nine composts resulted in H2/CO = 3. Exceptionally large higher heating values (HHVs) of pyrolysis gas, very close to HHVs of feedstock, were obtained for composts made from mountain brome (MB, 16.23 MJ/kg), hybrid Becva (FB, 16.45 MJ/kg), and tall fescue (TF, 17.43 MJ/kg). The MB and FB composts resulted in the highest syngas formation with H2/CO = 2, whereas TF compost resulted in the highest syngas formation with H2/CO = 3. PMID:25101320

  18. [INVITED] Lasers in additive manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinkerton, Andrew J.

    2016-04-01

    Additive manufacturing is a topic of considerable ongoing interest, with forecasts predicting it to have major impact on industry in the future. This paper focusses on the current status and potential future development of the technology, with particular reference to the role of lasers within it. It begins by making clear the types and roles of lasers in the different categories of additive manufacturing. This is followed by concise reviews of the economic benefits and disadvantages of the technology, current state of the market and use of additive manufacturing in different industries. Details of these fields are referenced rather than expanded in detail. The paper continues, focusing on current indicators to the future of additive manufacturing. Barriers to its development, trends and opportunities in major industrial sectors, and wider opportunities for its development are covered. Evidence indicates that additive manufacturing may not become the dominant manufacturing technology in all industries, but represents an excellent opportunity for lasers to increase their influence in manufacturing as a whole.

  19. Evaluation of certain food additives.

    PubMed

    2015-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives, including flavouring agents, and to prepare specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation of and assessment of dietary exposure to food additives, including flavouring agents. A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and dietary exposure data for eight food additives (Benzoe tonkinensis; carrageenan; citric and fatty acid esters of glycerol; gardenia yellow; lutein esters from Tagetes erecta; octenyl succinic acid-modified gum arabic; octenyl succinic acid-modified starch; paprika extract; and pectin) and eight groups of flavouring agents (aliphatic and alicyclic hydrocarbons; aliphatic and aromatic ethers; ionones and structurally related substances; miscellaneous nitrogen-containing substances; monocyclic and bicyclic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters; phenol and phenol derivatives; phenyl-substituted aliphatic alcohols and related aldehydes and esters; and sulfur-containing heterocyclic compounds). Specifications for the following food additives were revised: citric acid; gellan gum; polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monostearate; potassium aluminium silicate; and Quillaia extract (Type 2). Annexed to the report are tables summarizing the Committee's recommendations for dietary exposures to and toxicological evaluations of all of the food additives and flavouring agents considered at this meeting. PMID:26118220

  20. Hydrodesulfurization and hydrodenitrogenation catalysts obtained from coal mineral matter

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Kindtoken H. D.; Hamrin, Jr., Charles E.

    1982-01-01

    A hydrotreating catalyst is prepared from coal mineral matter obtained by low temperature ashing coals of relatively low bassanite content by the steps of: (a) depositing on the low temperature ash 0.25-3 grams of an iron or nickel salt in water per gram of ash and drying a resulting slurry; (b) crushing and sizing a resulting solid; and (c) heating the thus-sized solid powder in hydrogen.

  1. Manipulating crystallization with molecular additives.

    PubMed

    Shtukenberg, Alexander G; Lee, Stephanie S; Kahr, Bart; Ward, Michael D

    2014-01-01

    Given the importance of organic crystals in a wide range of industrial applications, the chemistry, biology, materials science, and chemical engineering communities have focused considerable attention on developing methods to control crystal structure, size, shape, and orientation. Tailored additives have been used to control crystallization to great effect, presumably by selectively binding to particular crystallographic surfaces and sites. However, substantial knowledge gaps still exist in the fundamental mechanisms that govern the formation and growth of organic crystals in both the absence and presence of additives. In this review, we highlight research discoveries that reveal the role of additives, either introduced by design or present adventitiously, on various stages of formation and growth of organic crystals, including nucleation, dislocation spiral growth mechanisms, growth inhibition, and nonclassical crystal morphologies. The insights from these investigations and others of their kind are likely to guide the development of innovative methods to manipulate crystallization for a wide range of materials and applications. PMID:24579880

  2. Additive Manufacturing of Hybrid Circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarobol, Pylin; Cook, Adam; Clem, Paul G.; Keicher, David; Hirschfeld, Deidre; Hall, Aaron C.; Bell, Nelson S.

    2016-07-01

    There is a rising interest in developing functional electronics using additively manufactured components. Considerations in materials selection and pathways to forming hybrid circuits and devices must demonstrate useful electronic function; must enable integration; and must complement the complex shape, low cost, high volume, and high functionality of structural but generally electronically passive additively manufactured components. This article reviews several emerging technologies being used in industry and research/development to provide integration advantages of fabricating multilayer hybrid circuits or devices. First, we review a maskless, noncontact, direct write (DW) technology that excels in the deposition of metallic colloid inks for electrical interconnects. Second, we review a complementary technology, aerosol deposition (AD), which excels in the deposition of metallic and ceramic powder as consolidated, thick conformal coatings and is additionally patternable through masking. Finally, we show examples of hybrid circuits/devices integrated beyond 2-D planes, using combinations of DW or AD processes and conventional, established processes.

  3. Lunar tidal acceleration obtained from satellite-derived ocean tide parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goad, C. C.; Douglas, B. C.

    1978-01-01

    One hundred sets of mean elements of GEOS-3 computed at 2-day intervals yielded observation equations for the M sub 2 ocean tide from the long periodic variations of the inclination and node of the orbit. The 2nd degree Love number was given the value k sub 2 = 0.30 and the solid tide phase angle was taken to be zero. Combining obtained equations with results for the satellite 1967-92A gives the M sub 2 ocean tide parameter values. Under the same assumption of zero solid tide phase lag, the lunar tidal acceleration was found mostly due to the C sub 22 term in the expansion of the M sub 2 tide with additional small contributions from the 0 sub 1 and N sub 2 tides. Using Lambeck's (1975) estimates for the latter, the obtained acceleration in lunar longitudal in excellent agreement with the most recent determinations from ancient and modern astronomical data.

  4. Tougher Addition Polyimides Containing Siloxane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St. Clair, T. L.; Maudgal, S.

    1986-01-01

    Laminates show increased impact resistances and other desirable mechanical properties. Bismaleamic acid extended by reaction of diaminosiloxane with maleic anhydride in 1:1 molar ratio, followed by reaction with half this molar ratio of aromatic dianhydride. Bismaleamic acid also extended by reaction of diaminosiloxane with maleic anhydride in 1:2 molar ratio, followed by reaction with half this molar ratio of aromatic diamine (Michael-addition reaction). Impact resistances improved over those of unmodified bismaleimide, showing significant increase in toughness. Aromatic addition polyimides developed as both matrix and adhesive resins for applications on future aircraft and spacecraft.

  5. Characterization of a rare earth oxide obtained from xenotime mineral

    SciTech Connect

    Vernilli, Fernando . E-mail: fernando.vernilli@demar.faenquil.br; Camargo Vernilli, Daniela; Ferreira, Bento; Silva, Gilbert

    2007-01-15

    This paper reports on the characterization of a rare earth oxide obtained by hydrometallurgy of the mineral xenotime, an yttrium phosphate containing other rare earths, and comparison with mixtures of rare earth oxides prepared in different ways. The results indicated that hydrometallurgy from xenotime yielded a solid solution of the rare earth oxides. However, when the pure rare earth oxides were simply mixed physically then heat-treated at 1000 deg. C, a similar solid solution was not obtained. On the other hand, when the mixtures were prepared using a co-precipitation process, subsequent heat treatment did produce oxide solid solutions similar to that produced by hydrometallurgy of xenotime.

  6. Lipoate ester multifunctional lubricant additives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seven lipoate esters were synthesized by esterification of lipoic acid with different structures of alcohols in the presence of a solid acid catalyst and without solvent. The esters were obtained in good yield, characterized using 1H NMR and GPC; and their physical properties investigated. Four of t...

  7. Obtaining genetic testing in pediatric epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Ream, Margie A; Patel, Anup D

    2015-10-01

    The steps from patient evaluation to genetic diagnosis remain complicated. We discuss some of the genetic testing methods available along with their general advantages and disadvantages. We briefly review common pediatric epilepsy syndromes with strong genetic association and provide a potentially useful algorithm for genetic testing in drug-resistant epilepsy. We performed an extensive literature review of available information as it pertains to genetic testing and genetics in pediatric epilepsy. If a genetic disorder is suspected as the cause of epilepsy, based on drug resistance, family history, or clinical phenotype, timely diagnosis may reduce overall cost, limit the diagnostic odyssey that can bring much anxiety to families, improve prognostic accuracy, and lead to targeted therapy. Interpretation of complicated results should be performed only in collaboration with geneticists and genetic counselors, unless the ordering neurologist has a strong background in and understanding of genetics. Genetic testing can play an important role in the care provided to patients with epilepsy. PMID:26345167

  8. Superoleophobic Surfaces Obtained via Hierarchical Metallic Meshes.

    PubMed

    Grynyov, Roman; Bormashenko, Edward; Whyman, Gene; Bormashenko, Yelena; Musin, Albina; Pogreb, Roman; Starostin, Anton; Valtsifer, Viktor; Strelnikov, Vladimir; Schechter, Alex; Kolagatla, Srikanth

    2016-05-01

    Hierarchical metallic surfaces demonstrating pronounced water and oil repellence are reported. The surfaces were manufactured with stainless-steel microporous meshes, which were etched with perfluorononanoic acid. As a result, a hierarchical relief was created, characterized by roughness at micro- and sub-microscales. Pronounced superoleophobicity was registered with regard to canola, castor, sesame, flax, crude (petroleum), and engine oils. Relatively high sliding angles were recorded for 5 μL turpentine, olive, and silicone oil droplets. The stability of the Cassie-like air trapping wetting state, established with water/ethanol solutions, is reported. The omniphobicity of the surfaces is due to the interplay of their hierarchical relief and surface fluorination. PMID:27077637

  9. A Simple Experimental Setup for Teaching Additive Colors with Arduino

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, Paulo Simeão; Hahn, Marcelo

    2016-04-01

    The result of additive colors is always fascinating to young students. When we teach this topic to 14- to 16-year-old students, they do not usually notice we use maximum light quantities of red (R), green (G), and blue (B) to obtain yellow, magenta, and cyan colors in order to build the well-known additive color diagram of Fig. 1. But how about using different light intensities for R, G, and B? What colors do we get? This problem of color mixing has been intensively discussed for decades by several authors, as pointed out by Ruiz's "Color Addition and Subtraction Apps" work and the references included therein. An early LED demonstrator for additive color mixing dates back to 1985, and apps to illustrate color mixing are available online. In this work, we describe an experimental setup making use of a microcontroller device: the Arduino Uno. This setup is designed as a game in order to improve students' understanding of color mixing.

  10. Does finger sense predict addition performance?

    PubMed

    Newman, Sharlene D

    2016-05-01

    The impact of fingers on numerical and mathematical cognition has received a great deal of attention recently. However, the precise role that fingers play in numerical cognition is unknown. The current study explores the relationship between finger sense, arithmetic and general cognitive ability. Seventy-six children between the ages of 5 and 12 participated in the study. The results of stepwise multiple regression analyses demonstrated that while general cognitive ability including language processing was a predictor of addition performance, finger sense was not. The impact of age on the relationship between finger sense, and addition was further examined. The participants were separated into two groups based on age. The results showed that finger gnosia score impacted addition performance in the older group but not the younger group. These results appear to support the hypothesis that fingers provide a scaffold for calculation and that if that scaffold is not properly built, it has continued differential consequences to mathematical cognition. PMID:26993292

  11. Evaluating open-path FTIR spectrometer data using different quantification methods, libraries, and background spectra obtained under varying environmental conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Tomasko, M.S.

    1995-12-31

    Studies were performed to evaluate the accuracy of open-path Fourier Transform Infrared (OP-FTIR) spectrometers using a 35 foot outdoor exposure chamber in Pittsboro, North Carolina. Results obtained with the OP-FTIR spectrometer were compared to results obtained with a reference method (a gas chromatograph equipped with a flame ionization detector, GC-FID). Concentration results were evaluated in terms of the mathematical methods and spectral libraries used for quantification. In addition, the research investigated the effect on quantification of using different backgrounds obtained at various times during the day. The chemicals used in this study were toluene, cyclohexane, and methanol; and these were evaluated over the concentration range of 5-30 ppm.

  12. Promoting Additive Acculturation in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Margaret A.

    1995-01-01

    A study focusing on 113 ninth graders of Mexican descent indicates that most students and their parents adhere to a strategy of additive acculturation (incorporating skills of the new culture and language), but that the school curriculum and general school climate devalue Mexican culture. (SLD)

  13. Individualized Additional Instruction for Calculus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takata, Ken

    2010-01-01

    College students enrolling in the calculus sequence have a wide variance in their preparation and abilities, yet they are usually taught from the same lecture. We describe another pedagogical model of Individualized Additional Instruction (IAI) that assesses each student frequently and prescribes further instruction and homework based on the…

  14. Out of bounds additive manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Holshouser, Chris; Newell, Clint; Palas, Sid; Love, Lonnie J.; Kunc, Vlastimil; Lind, Randall F.; Lloyd, Peter D.; Rowe, John C.; Blue, Craig A.; Duty, Chad E.; Peter, William H.; Dehoff, Ryan R.

    2013-03-01

    Lockheed Martin and Oak Ridge National Laboratory are working on an additive manufacturing system capable of manufacturing components measured not in terms of inches or feet, but multiple yards in all dimensions with the potential to manufacture parts that are completely unbounded in size.

  15. The Additive Property of Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsaoussis, Dimitris S.

    1995-01-01

    Presents exercises that analyze the additive property of energy. Concludes that if a body has more than one component of energy depending on the same physical quantity, the body's total energy will be the algebraic sum of the components if a linear relationship exists between the energy components and that physical quantity. (JRH)

  16. Tinkertoy Color-Addition Device.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Joe L.

    1995-01-01

    Describes construction and use of a simple home-built device, using an overhead projector, for use in demonstrations of the addition of various combinations of red, green, and blue light. Useful in connection with discussions of color, color vision, or color television. (JRH)

  17. Silage Additives and Management Issues

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Inoculants are the most common silage additives in the United States. These products contain lactic acid bacteria to supplement the lactic acid bacteria naturally on the crop and help insure a consistent fermentation in the silo. There are three types of inoculants: homofermentative lactic acid bact...

  18. Tetrasulfide extreme pressure lubricant additives

    SciTech Connect

    Gast, L.E.; Kenney, H.E.; Schwab, A.W.

    1980-08-19

    A novel class of compounds has been prepared comprising the tetrasulfides of /sup 18/C hydrocarbons, /sup 18/C fatty acids, and /sup 18/C fatty and alkyl and triglyceride esters. These tetrasulfides are useful as extreme pressure lubricant additives and show potential as replacements for sulfurized sperm whale oil.

  19. Obtaining Stokes Parameters from the SUMI Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fayock, Brian; Winebarger, Amy; Cirtain, Jonathan; Kobayashi, Ken; West, Ed

    2014-01-01

    A sounding rocket experiment designed at the Marshall Space Flight Center, named the Solar Ultraviolet Magnetograph Investigation, had its second launch in July of 2012 to test the feasibility of measuring polarization signals of the ionized magnesium resonance doublet near 280 nm, originating from the transition region. The rocket housed a telescope at the front end and an imaging system at the rear end. Placed at the focal point of the self-filtering telescope, a wave plate rotated through 12 predefined angular orientations to restrict the measurements to specific combinations of circular and linear polarization. Coupled with a double Wollaston analyzer, the linearly polarized ordinary and extraordinary beams were measured for the 12 combinations, each containing different fractions of the Stokes parameters (I, Q, U, V). A thorough analysis of the data has allowed us to come to several conclusions regarding the design of the experiment. 1) We are confident that polarization can be measured. A sunspot region was determined to exhibit similar results over multiple pixels. 2) Measurements are limited by resolution, i.e. regions smaller than the angular resolution per pixel cannot be resolved with any certainty. 3) Temporal evolution of magnetic features must be considered in future experimental designs. Measurements need to be taken in repeated cycles as opposed to a single cycle over the duration of the experiment. In our presentation, we will provide a summary of the observations along with the methods of our analysis, including the limitations that we've encountered.

  20. Evaluation of certain food additives.

    PubMed

    2012-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives, including flavouring agents, with a view to concluding as to safety concerns and to preparing specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation of and assessment of dietary exposure to food additives, including flavouring agents. A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and dietary exposure data for five food additives (magnesium dihydrogen diphosphate; mineral oil (medium and low viscosity) classes II and III; 3-phytase from Aspergillus niger expressed in Aspergillus niger; serine protease (chymotrypsin) from Nocardiopsis prasina expressed in Bacillus licheniformis; and serine protease (trypsin) from Fusarium oxysporum expressed in Fusarium venenatum) and 16 groups of flavouring agents (aliphatic and aromatic amines and amides; aliphatic and aromatic ethers; aliphatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids and related esters, sulfides, disulfides and ethers containing furan substitution; aliphatic linear alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes, acids and related alcohols, acetals and esters; amino acids and related substances; epoxides; furfuryl alcohol and related substances; linear and branched-chain aliphatic, unsaturated, unconjugated alcohols, aldehydes, acids and related esters; miscellaneous nitrogen-containing substances; phenol and phenol derivatives; pyrazine derivatives; pyridine, pyrrole and quinoline derivatives; saturated aliphatic acyclic branched-chain primary alcohols, aldehydes and acids; simple aliphatic and aromatic sulfides and thiols; sulfur-containing heterocyclic compounds; and sulfur-substituted furan derivatives). Specifications for the following food additives were revised: ethyl cellulose, mineral oil (medium viscosity), modified starches and titanium

  1. Active mineral additives of sapropel ashes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khomich, V. A.; Danilina, E. V.; Krivonos, O. I.; Plaksin, G. V.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the presented research is to establish a scientific rational for the possibility of sapropel ashes usage as an active mineral additive. The research included the study of producing active mineral additives from sapropels by their thermal treatment at 850900 °C and afterpowdering, the investigation of the properties of paste matrix with an ash additive, and the study of the ash influence on the cement bonding agent. Thermogravimetric analysis and X-ray investigations allowed us to establish that while burning, organic substances are removed, clay minerals are dehydrated and their structure is broken. Sapropel ashes chemical composition was determined. An amorphous ash constituent is mainly formed from silica of the mineral sapropel part and alumosilicagels resulted from clay minerals decomposition. Properties of PC 400 and PC 500A0 sparopel ash additives were studied. Adding ashes containing Glenium plasticizer to the cement increases paste matrix strength and considerably reduces its water absorption. X-ray phase analysis data shows changes in the phase composition of the paste matrix with an ash additive. Ash additives produce a pozzolanic effect on the cement bonding agent. Besides, an ash additive due to the alumosilicagels content causes transformation from unstable calcium aluminate forms to the stable ones.

  2. Measuring additive interaction using odds ratios

    PubMed Central

    Kalilani, Linda; Atashili, Julius

    2006-01-01

    Interaction measured on the additive scale has been argued to be better correlated with biologic interaction than when measured on the multiplicative scale. Measures of interaction on the additive scale have been developed using risk ratios. However, in studies that use odds ratios as the sole measure of effect, the calculation of these measures of additive interaction is usually performed by directly substituting odds ratios for risk ratios. Yet assessing additive interaction based on replacing risk ratios by odds ratios in formulas that were derived using the former may be erroneous. In this paper, we evaluate the extent to which three measures of additive interaction – the interaction contrast ratio (ICR), the attributable proportion due to interaction (AP), and the synergy index (S), estimated using odds ratios versus using risk ratios differ as the incidence of the outcome of interest increases in the source population and/or as the magnitude of interaction increases. Our analysis shows that the difference between the two depends on the measure of interaction used, the type of interaction present, and the baseline incidence of the outcome. Substituting odds ratios for risk ratios, when calculating measures of additive interaction, may result in misleading conclusions. Of the three measures, AP appears to be the most robust to this direct substitution. Formulas that use stratum specific odds and odds ratios to accurately calculate measures of additive interaction are presented. PMID:16620385

  3. [Trends in the utilization of food additives].

    PubMed

    Szűcs, Viktória; Bánáti, Diána

    2013-11-17

    The frequent media reports on food additives weakened consumers' trust in food producers and food control authorities as well. Furthermore, consumers' uncertainty is also raised by the fact that they obtain their information from inadequate, mistrustful sources and, therefore, consumers might avoid the consumption of certain foodstuffs. While food producers may react by replacing artificial components by natural ones, they try to emphasize the favourable characteristics of their products. The authors describe the main trends and efforts related to food additives. On the basis of the overview it can be concluded that - besides taking into consideration consumers' needs - product development and research directions are promising. Food producers' efforts may help to restore consumer confidence and trust and they may help them to have informed choice. PMID:24212041

  4. Manipulation of microstructure in laser additive manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Shuang; Yang, Lihmei; Liu, Jian

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, additive manufacturing (AM) of tungsten parts is investigated by using femtosecond fiber lasers. For the first time, manipulating microstructures of AM parts is systematically investigated and reported. Various processing conditions are studied, which leads to desired characteristics in terms of morphology, porosity, hardness, and microstructural and mechanical properties of the processed components. Fully dense tungsten part with refined grain and increased hardness was obtained for femtosecond laser, compared with parts made with different pulse widths and CW laser. Micro-hardness is investigated for the fabricated samples. This can greatly benefit to the make of complicated structures and materials that could not be achieved before.

  5. Peptide ligation from alkoxyamine based radical addition.

    PubMed

    Trimaille, Thomas; Autissier, Laurent; Rakotonirina, Mamy Daniel; Guillaneuf, Yohann; Villard, Claude; Bertin, Denis; Gigmes, Didier; Mabrouk, Kamel

    2014-03-14

    Intermolecular radical 1,2-addition (IRA) of N-tert-butyl-N-(1-diethylphosphono-2,2-dimethylpropyl)aminoxyl (SG1) based alkoxyamines onto activated olefins is used as a tool for peptide ligation. This strategy relies on simple peptide pre-derivatization to obtain (i) a SG1 nitroxide functionalized resin peptide at its N-terminus (SG1-peptide alkoxyamine), (ii) a vinyl functionalized peptide (either at its C-terminus or N-terminus), and does not require any coupling agents. PMID:24476638

  6. A method for predicting DCT-based denoising efficiency for grayscale images corrupted by AWGN and additive spatially correlated noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubel, Aleksey S.; Lukin, Vladimir V.; Egiazarian, Karen O.

    2015-03-01

    Results of denoising based on discrete cosine transform for a wide class of images corrupted by additive noise are obtained. Three types of noise are analyzed: additive white Gaussian noise and additive spatially correlated Gaussian noise with middle and high correlation levels. TID2013 image database and some additional images are taken as test images. Conventional DCT filter and BM3D are used as denoising techniques. Denoising efficiency is described by PSNR and PSNR-HVS-M metrics. Within hard-thresholding denoising mechanism, DCT-spectrum coefficient statistics are used to characterize images and, subsequently, denoising efficiency for them. Results of denoising efficiency are fitted for such statistics and efficient approximations are obtained. It is shown that the obtained approximations provide high accuracy of prediction of denoising efficiency.

  7. 40 CFR 80.162 - Additive compositional data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., together with the actual infrared spectra of the detergent additive package and each detergent-active component obtained by this test method. The FTIR infrared spectra submitted in connection with...

  8. 40 CFR 80.162 - Additive compositional data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., together with the actual infrared spectra of the detergent additive package and each detergent-active component obtained by this test method. The FTIR infrared spectra submitted in connection with...

  9. 40 CFR 80.162 - Additive compositional data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., together with the actual infrared spectra of the detergent additive package and each detergent-active component obtained by this test method. The FTIR infrared spectra submitted in connection with...

  10. Decontamination formulation with sorbent additive

    DOEpatents

    Tucker; Mark D. , Comstock; Robert H.

    2007-10-16

    A decontamination formulation and method of making that neutralizes the adverse health effects of both chemical and biological compounds, especially chemical warfare (CW) and biological warfare (BW) agents, and toxic industrial chemicals. The formulation provides solubilizing compounds that serve to effectively render the chemical and biological compounds, particularly CW and BW compounds, susceptible to attack, and at least one reactive compound that serves to attack (and detoxify or kill) the compound. The formulation includes at least one solubilizing agent, a reactive compound, a bleaching activator, a sorbent additive, and water. The highly adsorbent, water-soluble sorbent additive (e.g., sorbitol or mannitol) is used to "dry out" one or more liquid ingredients, such as the liquid bleaching activator (e.g., propylene glycol diacetate or glycerol diacetate) and convert the activator into a dry, free-flowing powder that has an extended shelf life, and is more convenient to handle and mix in the field.

  11. Robust stability under additive perturbations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhaya, A.; Desoer, C. A.

    1985-01-01

    A MIMO linear time-invariant feedback system 1S(P,C) is considered which is assumed to be U-stable. The plant P is subjected to an additive perturbation Delta P which is proper but not necessarily stable. It is proved that the perturbed system is U-stable if and only if Delta P(I + Q x Delta P) exp -1 is U-stable.

  12. Uncertainties in obtaining high reliability from stress-strength models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neal, Donald M.; Matthews, William T.; Vangel, Mark G.

    1992-01-01

    There has been a recent interest in determining high statistical reliability in risk assessment of aircraft components. The potential consequences are identified of incorrectly assuming a particular statistical distribution for stress or strength data used in obtaining the high reliability values. The computation of the reliability is defined as the probability of the strength being greater than the stress over the range of stress values. This method is often referred to as the stress-strength model. A sensitivity analysis was performed involving a comparison of reliability results in order to evaluate the effects of assuming specific statistical distributions. Both known population distributions, and those that differed slightly from the known, were considered. Results showed substantial differences in reliability estimates even for almost nondetectable differences in the assumed distributions. These differences represent a potential problem in using the stress-strength model for high reliability computations, since in practice it is impossible to ever know the exact (population) distribution. An alternative reliability computation procedure is examined involving determination of a lower bound on the reliability values using extreme value distributions. This procedure reduces the possibility of obtaining nonconservative reliability estimates. Results indicated the method can provide conservative bounds when computing high reliability. An alternative reliability computation procedure is examined involving determination of a lower bound on the reliability values using extreme value distributions. This procedure reduces the possibility of obtaining nonconservative reliability estimates. Results indicated the method can provide conservative bounds when computing high reliability.

  13. Surface study of cerium oxide based coatings obtained by cathodic electrodeposition on zinc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez, L.; Román, E.; de Segovia, J. L.; Poupard, S.; Creus, J.; Pedraza, F.

    2011-05-01

    A surface study of electrodeposited cerium oxide based coatings is presented. Different surface analytical techniques were used in order to obtain complementary information to fully characterize such complex systems. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy was used as the main technique to determine the surface composition of the coating. The analysis of the core level peaks of the elements provides additional information about the functional groups present on the surface. A mixture of Ce (III) and Ce (IV) was found in the coating and their proportion was calculated at different depths. The analysis of the O 1s core level peak revealed a triple structure whose origin will be discussed. To support the results obtained, electron stimulated desorption was performed. The study was completed with Auger electron spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy, both techniques having different surface sensitivities. From all these results, it is derived that incomplete electrochemical reactions occurred during the growth of the coatings. This led to rather complex compositions, in which defective cerium oxides are the major species. In addition, hydroxides, carbonates and nitrates are also present, together with adsorbed water.

  14. Evaluation of certain food additives.

    PubMed

    2009-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives, including flavouring agents, with a view to recommending acceptable daily intakes (ADIs) and to preparing specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation and assessment of intake of food additives (in particular, flavouring agents). A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and intake data for certain food additives (asparaginase from Aspergillus niger expressed in A. niger, calcium lignosulfonate (40-65), ethyl lauroyl arginate, paprika extract, phospholipase C expressed in Pichia pastoris, phytosterols, phytostanols and their esters, polydimethylsiloxane, steviol glycosides and sulfites [assessment of dietary exposure]) and 10 groups of related flavouring agents (aliphatic branched-chain saturated and unsaturated alcohols, aldehydes, acids and related esters; aliphatic linear alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes, acids and related alcohols, acetals and esters; aliphatic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters; alkoxy-substituted allylbenzenes present in foods and essential oils and used as flavouring agents; esters of aliphatic acyclic primary alcohols with aliphatic linear saturated carboxylic acids; furan-substituted aliphatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids and related esters, sulfides, disulfides and ethers; miscellaneous nitrogen-containing substances; monocyclic and bicyclic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters; hydroxy- and alkoxy-substituted benzyl derivatives; and substances structurally related to menthol). Specifications for the following food additives were revised: canthaxanthin; carob bean gum and carob bean gum (clarified); chlorophyllin copper complexes, sodium and potassium salts; Fast Green FCF; guar gum and guar gum (clarified

  15. Fire-Retardant Polymeric Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Martha K.; Smith, Trent M.

    2011-01-01

    Polyhydroxyamide (PHA) and polymethoxyamide (PMeOA) are fire-retardant (FR) thermoplastic polymers and have been found to be useful as an additive for imparting fire retardant properties to other compatible, thermoplastic polymers (including some elastomers). Examples of compatible flammable polymers include nylons, polyesters, and acrylics. Unlike most prior additives, PHA and PMeOA do not appreciably degrade the mechanical properties of the matrix polymer; indeed, in some cases, mechanical properties are enhanced. Also, unlike some prior additives, PHA and PMeOA do not decompose into large amounts of corrosive or toxic compounds during combustion and can be processed at elevated temperatures. PMeOA derivative formulations were synthesized and used as an FR additive in the fabrication of polyamide (PA) and polystyrene (PS) composites with notable reduction (>30 percent for PS) in peak heat release rates compared to the neat polymer as measured by a Cone Calorimeter (ASTM E1354). Synergistic effects were noted with nanosilica composites. These nanosilica composites had more than 50-percent reduction in peak heat release rates. In a typical application, a flammable thermoplastic, thermoplastic blend, or elastomer that one seeks to render flame-retardant is first dry-mixed with PHA or PMeOA or derivative thereof. The proportion of PHA or PMeOA or derivative in the mixture is typically chosen to lie between 1 and 20 weight percent. The dry blend can then be melt-extruded. The extruded polymer blend can further be extruded and/or molded into fibers, pipes, or any other of a variety of objects that may be required to be fire-retardant. The physical and chemical mechanisms which impart flame retardancy of the additive include inhibiting free-radical oxidation in the vapor phase, preventing vaporization of fuel (the polymer), and cooling through the formation of chemical bonds in either the vapor or the condensed phase. Under thermal stress, the cyclic hydroxyl/ methoxy

  16. Computational Process Modeling for Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bagg, Stacey; Zhang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Computational Process and Material Modeling of Powder Bed additive manufacturing of IN 718. Optimize material build parameters with reduced time and cost through modeling. Increase understanding of build properties. Increase reliability of builds. Decrease time to adoption of process for critical hardware. Potential to decrease post-build heat treatments. Conduct single-track and coupon builds at various build parameters. Record build parameter information and QM Meltpool data. Refine Applied Optimization powder bed AM process model using data. Report thermal modeling results. Conduct metallography of build samples. Calibrate STK models using metallography findings. Run STK models using AO thermal profiles and report STK modeling results. Validate modeling with additional build. Photodiode Intensity measurements highly linear with power input. Melt Pool Intensity highly correlated to Melt Pool Size. Melt Pool size and intensity increase with power. Applied Optimization will use data to develop powder bed additive manufacturing process model.

  17. Immobilization of uranium in contaminated soil by natural apatite addition

    SciTech Connect

    Mrdakovic Popic, Jelena; Stojanovic, Mirjana; Milosevic, Sinisa; Iles, Deana; Zildzovic, Snezana

    2007-07-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: The goal of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Serbian natural mineral apatite as soil additive for reducing the migration of uranium from contaminated sediments. In laboratory study we investigated the sorption properties of domestic apatite upon different experimental conditions, such as pH, adsorbent mass, reaction period, concentration of P{sub 2}O{sub 5} in apatite, solid/liquid ratio. In second part of study, we did the quantification of uranium in soil samples, taken from uranium mine site 'Kalna', by sequential extraction method. The same procedure was, also, used for uranium determination in contaminated soil samples after apatite addition, in order to determine the changes in U distribution in soil fraction. The obtained results showed the significant level of immobilization (96.7%) upon certain conditions. Increase of %P{sub 2}O{sub 5} in apatite and process of mechano-chemical activation led to increase of immobilization capacity from 17.50% till 91.64%. The best results for uranium binding were obtained at pH 5.5 and reaction period 60 days (98.04%) The sequential extraction showed the presence of uranium (48.2%) in potentially available soil fractions, but with the apatite addition uranium content in these fractions decreased (30.64%), what is considering environmental aspect significant fact. In situ immobilization of radionuclide using inexpensive sequestering agents, such as apatite, is very adequate for big contaminated areas of soil with low level of contamination. This investigation study on natural apatite from deposit 'Lisina' Serbia was the first one of this type in our country. Key words: apatite, uranium, immobilization, soil, contamination. (authors)

  18. The abundant symmetry structure of hierarchies of nonlinear equations obtained by reciprocal links

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carillo, Sandra; Fuchssteiner, Benno

    1989-07-01

    Explicit computation for a Kawamoto-type equation shows that there is a rich associated symmetry structure for four separate hierarchies of nonlinear integrodifferential equations. Contrary to the general belief that symmetry groups for nonlinear evolution equations in 1+1 dimensions have to be Abelian, it is shown that, in this case, the symmetry group is noncommutative. Its semisimple part is isomorphic to the affine Lie algebra A(1)1 associated to sl(2,C). In two of the additional hierarchies that were found, an explicit dependence of the independent variable occurs. Surprisingly, the generic invariance for the Kawamoto-type equation obtained in Rogers and Carillo [Phys. Scr. 36, 865 (1987)] via a reciprocal link to the Möbius invariance of the singularity equation of the Kaup-Kupershmidt (KK) equation only holds for one of the additional hierarchies of symmetry groups. Thus the generic invariance is not a universal property for the complete symmetry group of equations obtained by reciprocal links. In addition to these results, the bi-Hamiltonian formulation of the hierarchy is given. A direct Bäcklund transformation between the (KK) hierarchy and the hierarchy of singularity equation for the Caudrey-Dodd-Gibbon-Sawada-Kotera equation is exhibited: This shows that the abundant symmetry structure found for the Kawamoto equation must exist for all fifth-order equations, which are known to be completely integrable since these equations are connected either by Bäcklund transformations or reciprocal links. It is shown that similar results must hold for all hierarchies emerging out of singularity hierarchies via reciprocal links. Furthermore, general aspects of the results are discussed.

  19. Hydroxylapatite nanoparticles obtained by fiber laser-induced fracture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boutinguiza, M.; Lusquiños, F.; Riveiro, A.; Comesaña, R.; Pou, J.

    2009-03-01

    This work presents the results of laser-induced fragmentation of hydroxylapatite microparticles in water dissolution. Calcined fish bones in form of powder, which were previously milled to achieve microsized particles, were used as precursor material. Two different laser sources were employed to reduce the size of the suspended particles: a pulsed Nd:YAG laser and a Ytterbium doped fiber laser working in continuous wave mode. The morphology as well as the composition of the obtained particles was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy and conventional and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM, HRTEM). The results show that nanometric particles of hydroxylapatite and β-tricalcium phosphate as small as 10 nm diameter can be obtained.

  20. Application of Microwaves for Obtaining Ground Solid Fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salomatov, Vl. V.; Pashchenko, S. É.; Sladkov, S. O.; Salomatov, Vas. V.

    2016-01-01

    This paper gives an analytical overview of theoretical and experimental data on the microwave grinding of coal. As a result of the work done, we have substantiated the urgency of microwave treatment (MWT) of coal for obtaining ground coal, which in turn has a positive effect on the operation efficiency of TPPs. Moreover, we have considered the positive effects of microwave grinding as applied to coke.