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Sample records for addition significant progress

  1. Optics of progressive addition lenses.

    PubMed

    Sheedy, J E; Buri, M; Bailey, I L; Azus, J; Borish, I M

    1987-02-01

    The optical characteristics of the major progressive addition lenses were measured using an automated lensometer with a specially designed lens holder to simulate eye rotation. Measurements were made every 3 degrees (about 1.5 mm) and graphs of isospherical equivalent lines and isocylinder lines were developed. Generally the near zone of these lenses is narrower and lower than in bifocal or trifocal lenses. Distinct differences exist between the various progressive lenses. The width of the near zone, rate of power progression, amount of unwanted cylinder (level with the distance center), and clarity of the distance zone are compared for the various lenses. The optical measurements demonstrate an apparent trade-off between the size of the cylinder-free area of the lens and the amount of the cylinder.

  2. Significant Ideas and Progressive Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Gwen; Mitchell, Anne

    2012-01-01

    Ideas are not one-time "Eureka" moments, but are parts of concepts progressing forward. Sometimes years pass before ideas are implemented. They then resurface, connect with other ideas, and move policies ahead. Meanwhile, the idea remains alive in the field, influencing decisions and goals. Ideas build on one another when implemented. The field of…

  3. Design and fabrication of the progressive addition lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Linling; Qian, Lin; Yu, Jingchi

    2011-11-01

    The use of progressive addition lenses (PALs) for the correction of presbyopia has increased dramatically in recent years. These lenses are now being used as the preferred alternative to bifocal and trifocal lenses in many parts of the world. Progressive addition lenses are a kind of opthalmic lenses with freeform surface. The surface curvature of the Progressive addition lenses varies gradually from a minimum value in the upper area, to a maximum value in the lower area. Thus a PAL has a surface with three zones which have very small astigmatism: far-view zone, near-view zone, and intermediate zone. The far view zone and near view zone have relatively constant powers and connected by the intermediate zone with power varies progressively. The design and fabrication technologies of progressive addition lenses have fast progresses because of the massive development of the optical simulation software, multi-axis ultraprecision machining technologies and CNC machining technologies. The design principles of progressive addition lenses are discussed in a historic review. Several kinds of design methods are illustrated, and their advantages and disadvantages are also represented. In the current study, it is shown that the optical characteristics of the different progressive addition lenses designs are significantly different from one another. The different fabrication technologies of Progressive addition lenses are also discussed in the paper. Plastic injection molding and precision-machine turning are the common fabrication technologies for exterior PALs and Interior PALs respectively.

  4. Progressive wave tube facility with additional capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lieberman, Paul; Bocksruker, Ron; Pilgram, Mark; Vallance, Charles

    1993-01-01

    The design and development of a new acoustic progressive wave tube facility was required to test the Titan IV rocket engine. Because of the large 6 feet diameter of the nozzle closure, circular shape, high over-all sound pressure level (OASPL), and high sound pressure levels (SPLs) above 1000 Hz, the acoustic environmental tests required consideration of a custom built facility. This paper describes a new oscillating supersonic shock generator (OSSG) for developing the high OASPL, for developing the high SPLs at above 1000 Hz, and for use with a conventional acoustic modulator. Also, the new OSSG permits impedance matching to the test volume annulus via the special geometry of the annular space between the elliptical containment domes upstream of the test volume annulus. A test annulus gap that is too small causes the test article to vibrate with a severe damping imposed by the pumping of trapped air in the annulus, and too large a gap reduces the OASPL. Consideration is given to tuning the axial and circumferential resonance frequencies of the annulus test space so that there is no coincidence with the principal resonant modes of the test structure. Also consideration is given to establishing the reverberant versus propagating modes of the test annulus.

  5. Addition of Cryoprotectant Significantly Alters the Epididymal Sperm Proteome

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Sung-Jae; Rahman, Md Saidur; Kwon, Woo-Sung; Park, Yoo-Jin; Pang, Myung-Geol

    2016-01-01

    Although cryopreservation has been developed and optimized over the past decades, it causes various stresses, including cold shock, osmotic stress, and ice crystal formation, thereby reducing fertility. During cryopreservation, addition of cryoprotective agent (CPA) is crucial for protecting spermatozoa from freezing damage. However, the intrinsic toxicity and osmotic stress induced by CPA cause damage to spermatozoa. To identify the effects of CPA addition during cryopreservation, we assessed the motility (%), motion kinematics, capacitation status, and viability of epididymal spermatozoa using computer-assisted sperm analysis and Hoechst 33258/chlortetracycline fluorescence staining. Moreover, the effects of CPA addition were also demonstrated at the proteome level using two-dimensional electrophoresis. Our results demonstrated that CPA addition significantly reduced sperm motility (%), curvilinear velocity, viability (%), and non-capacitated spermatozoa, whereas straightness and acrosome-reacted spermatozoa increased significantly (p < 0.05). Ten proteins were differentially expressed (two decreased and eight increased) (>3 fold, p < 0.05) after CPA, whereas NADH dehydrogenase flavoprotein 2, f-actin-capping protein subunit beta, superoxide dismutase 2, and outer dense fiber protein 2 were associated with several important signaling pathways (p < 0.05). The present study provides a mechanistic basis for specific cryostresses and potential markers of CPA-induced stress. Therefore, these might provide information about the development of safe biomaterials for cryopreservation and basic ground for sperm cryopreservation. PMID:27031703

  6. Hyperbolic tangential function-based progressive addition lens design.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Gufeng; Cui, Xudong

    2015-12-10

    The diopter distribution is key to the successful design of a progressive addition lens. A hyperbolic tangential function is then introduced to describe well the desired diopter distribution on the lens. Simulation and fabrication show that the astigmia on the whole surface is very close to the addition, exhibiting superior performance than that of currently used high-order polynomials and cosine functions. Our investigations found that once the diopter distribution design is reasonable, both the direct and indirect methods of constructing a progressive addition lens can give consistent results. With this function we are able to effectively control the design of critical areas, the position, sizes of far-view and near-view zones, as well as the channel of the lens. This study would provide an efficient way to customize different progressive lenses not only for presbyopia, but also for anti-fatigue, office progressive usages, etc.

  7. Surface analysis and evaluation of progressive addition lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhiying; Li, Dan

    2016-10-01

    The Progressive addition lens is used increasingly extensive with its advantages of meeting the requirements of distant and near vision at the same time. Started from the surface equations of progressive addition lens, combined with evaluation method of spherical power and cylinder power, the relationship equations between the surface sag and optical power distribution are derived. According to the requirements on difference of actual and nominal optical power from Chinese National Standard, the tolerance analysis and evaluation of prototype progressive addition surface with addition of 2.5m-1 ( 7.5m-1 10m-1 ) is given in detail. The tolerance analysis method provides theoretical proof for lens processing control accuracy, and the processing feasibility of lens is evaluated much more reasonably.

  8. Additional Guidance on Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) Regulations

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  9. Additional branches of celiac trunk and its clinical significance.

    PubMed

    Nayak, S R; Prabhu, Latha V; Krishnamurthy, A; Ganesh Kumar, C; Ramanathan, Lakshmi A; Acharya, Abhijith; Prasad Sinha, Abhishek

    2008-01-01

    The anatomical variations of the abdominal arteries are important due to its clinical significance. Various types of vascular anomalies are frequently found in human abdominal viscera, during cadaveric dissection and diagnostic radiological imaging. The present report describes a variation in the celiac trunk as found during routine dissection in a 59-year-old male cadaver. The celiac trunk (CT) was unusually lengthy and took origin from the left antero-lateral surface of the abdominal aorta. Altogether, there were five branches, including three classic branches of CT. The left phrenic artery (LPA) was the first branch of the CT. The remaining four branches were left gastric artery (LGA), splenic artery (SA), common hepatic artery (CHA) and gastroduodenal artery (GDA). There was an arterial loop between the posterior branches of the superior pancreatico-duodenal artery (SPDA), arising from the GDA, and the posterior branch of the inferior pancreatico-duodenal artery (IPDA), arising from the superior mesenteric artery (SMA). The arterial loop formed by the above arteries, supplied the head of the pancreas and duodeno-jejunal flexure. The embryological and clinical significance of above variations has been described.

  10. The effect of one additional driver mutation on tumor progression.

    PubMed

    Reiter, Johannes G; Bozic, Ivana; Allen, Benjamin; Chatterjee, Krishnendu; Nowak, Martin A

    2013-01-01

    Tumor growth is caused by the acquisition of driver mutations, which enhance the net reproductive rate of cells. Driver mutations may increase cell division, reduce cell death, or allow cells to overcome density-limiting effects. We study the dynamics of tumor growth as one additional driver mutation is acquired. Our models are based on two-type branching processes that terminate in either tumor disappearance or tumor detection. In our first model, both cell types grow exponentially, with a faster rate for cells carrying the additional driver. We find that the additional driver mutation does not affect the survival probability of the lesion, but can substantially reduce the time to reach the detectable size if the lesion is slow growing. In our second model, cells lacking the additional driver cannot exceed a fixed carrying capacity, due to density limitations. In this case, the time to detection depends strongly on this carrying capacity. Our model provides a quantitative framework for studying tumor dynamics during different stages of progression. We observe that early, small lesions need additional drivers, while late stage metastases are only marginally affected by them. These results help to explain why additional driver mutations are typically not detected in fast-growing metastases.

  11. Progressive addition lens design by optimizing NURBS surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yen-Liang; Hsu, Wei-Yao; Cheng, Yuan-Chieh; Su, Guo-Dung

    2011-10-01

    Progressive addition lenses (PAL) are used to compensate presbyopia, which is induced by losing accommodation of elder eyes. These eyes need different optical power provided by eye glasses while watching objects at different distance. A smaller optical power is required in further distance and a larger one in nearer zone. A progressive addition lens can provides different power requirements in one piece of lens. This paper introduces a whole process of PAL production, from design, fabrication, to measurement. The PAL is designed by optimizing NURBS surface. Parameters of merit function are adjusted to design lenses with different specifications. The simulation results confirm that the power distributes as expected and cylinders are controlled under an acceptable level. Besides, sample lenses have been fabricated and measured. We apply precise-machining to produce the molds for plastic injection. Then, the samples are produced by injecting polycorbonate to the molds. Finally, Ultra Accuracy 3D Profilemeter is used to measure the sample PALs. Practical examinations shows that our designs are achievable and feasible in practice use.

  12. Differential action of glycoprotein hormones: significance in cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Govindaraj, Vijayakumar; Arya, Swathy V; Rao, A J

    2014-02-01

    Growth of multicellular organisms depends on maintenance of proper balance between proliferation and differentiation. Any disturbance in this balance in animal cells can lead to cancer. Experimental evidence is provided to conclude with special reference to the action of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) on Sertoli cells, and luteinizing hormone (LH) on Leydig cells that these hormones exert a differential action on their target cells, i.e., stimulate proliferation when the cells are in an undifferentiated state which is the situation with cancer cells and promote only functional parameters when the cell are fully differentiated. Hormones and growth factors play a key role in cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. There is a growing body of evidence that various tumors express some hormones at high levels as well as their cognate receptors indicating the possibility of a role in progression of cancer. Hormones such as LH, FSH, and thyroid-stimulating hormone have been reported to stimulate cell proliferation and act as tumor promoter in a variety of hormone-dependent cancers including gonads, lung, thyroid, uterus, breast, prostate, etc. This review summarizes evidence to conclude that these hormones are produced by some cancer tissues to promote their own growth. Also an attempt is made to explain the significance of the differential action of hormones in progression of cancer with special reference to prostate cancer.

  13. Freeform surface of progressive addition lens represented by Zernike polynomials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yiyu; Xia, Risheng; Chen, Jiaojie; Feng, Haihua; Yuan, Yimin; Zhu, Dexi; Li, Chaohong

    2016-10-01

    We used the explicit expression of Zernike polynomials in Cartesian coordinates to fit and describe the freeform surface of progressive addition lens (PAL). The derivatives of Zernike polynomials can easily be calculated from the explicit expression and used to calculate the principal curvatures of freeform surface based on differential geometry. The surface spherical power and surface astigmatism of the freeform surface were successfully derived from the principal curvatures. By comparing with the traditional analytical method, Zernike polynomials with order of 20 is sufficient to represent the freeform surface with nanometer accuracy if dense sampling of the original surface is achieved. Therefore, the data files which contain the massive sampling points of the freeform surface for the generation of the trajectory of diamond tool tip required by diamond machine for PAL manufacture can be simplified by using a few Zernike coefficients.

  14. Nitrogen Addition Significantly Affects Forest Litter Decomposition under High Levels of Ambient Nitrogen Deposition

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Gang; Peng, Yong; Xiao, Yin-long; Hu, Ting-xing; Zhang, Jian; Li, Xian-wei; Liu, Li; Tang, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Background Forest litter decomposition is a major component of the global carbon (C) budget, and is greatly affected by the atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition observed globally. However, the effects of N addition on forest litter decomposition, in ecosystems receiving increasingly higher levels of ambient N deposition, are poorly understood. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted a two-year field experiment in five forests along the western edge of the Sichuan Basin in China, where atmospheric N deposition was up to 82–114 kg N ha–1 in the study sites. Four levels of N treatments were applied: (1) control (no N added), (2) low-N (50 kg N ha–1 year–1), (3) medium-N (150 kg N ha–1 year–1), and (4) high-N (300 kg N ha–1 year–1), N additions ranging from 40% to 370% of ambient N deposition. The decomposition processes of ten types of forest litters were then studied. Nitrogen additions significantly decreased the decomposition rates of six types of forest litters. N additions decreased forest litter decomposition, and the mass of residual litter was closely correlated to residual lignin during the decomposition process over the study period. The inhibitory effect of N addition on litter decomposition can be primarily explained by the inhibition of lignin decomposition by exogenous inorganic N. The overall decomposition rate of ten investigated substrates exhibited a significant negative linear relationship with initial tissue C/N and lignin/N, and significant positive relationships with initial tissue K and N concentrations; these relationships exhibited linear and logarithmic curves, respectively. Conclusions/Significance This study suggests that the expected progressive increases in N deposition may have a potential important impact on forest litter decomposition in the study area in the presence of high levels of ambient N deposition. PMID:24551152

  15. Additional Complexities in Nakhlite Pyroxenes: A Progress (?) Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKay, G.; Mikouchi, T.; Schwandt, C.

    2006-01-01

    Nakhlites are olivine-bearing clinopyroxene cumulates [e.g., 1]. Based on petrographic characteristics, they may be divided into groups that cooled at different rates and may have been formed at different depths in a single flow [e.g., 2, 3]. The order of cooling rate is Lafayette < Governador Valadares Nakhla < Yamato000593 < NWA817 MIL03346. Nakhlite cumulus pyroxene grains consist of large cores that are nearly homogeneous in major element composition surrounded by thin rims that are zoned to Fe-rich compositions. Detailed study of these pyroxenes is important because they retain a record of the crystallization history of the nakhlite magma. Moreover, because the composition of the nakhlite parent melt cannot be directly determined, inversion of the major and minor element composition of the cumulate pyroxene cores can be used to estimate the composition of that melt. Thus it is important to understand the major and minor element zoning in the cumulus pyroxenes. We recently reported complications in the minor element zoning of nakhlite pyroxenes, especially for Al and Cr [4]. This abstract reports additional complications noted since that report.

  16. Significance of interstitial tumor-associated macrophages in the progression of lung adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Bing-Sheng; Pei, Bao-Xiang; Zhang, Kang; Zhang, Lu-Chang; Zhang, Guang-Jing; Liu, Ji-Kuan; Cui, Hong-Wei; Pan, Fen; Zhang, Zhen-Fa

    2016-01-01

    Stepwise progression from adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) and minimally invasive adenocarcinoma (MIA) to lepidic predominant adenocarcinoma (LPA) was proposed by various scholars. Interstitial tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) and various potential chemokines involved in the progression from AIS/MIA to LPA were hypothesized. In the present study, immunohistochemistry or immunofluorescent double staining was used to detect the expression of the TAMs marker cluster of differentiation (CD) 68, tumor-derived colony-stimulating factor (CSF)-1, interleukin (IL)-6, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, E-cadherin and Snail in lung adenocarcinoma specimens, including AIS/MIA, LPA and other types. It was observed that infiltrating TAMs were negatively associated with the prognosis of patients, and that the infiltration degree of interstitial TAMs was higher in LPA than that in AIS/MIA. In addition, E-cadherin, Snail and MMP-2 expression were significantly correlated with the infiltration degree of TAMs. Survival analysis revealed that co-expression of CD68, CSF-1 and IL-6 was an independent prognostic factor. Stratified analysis demonstrated that, in AIS/MIA patients, there was a statistically significant difference between the number of TAMs (TAMs ≤25 and TAMs >25) in the CD68+CSF-1+IL-6+ group compared with other groups (including CD68+CSF-1-IL-6-, CD68+CSF-1+IL-6-, CD68+CSF-1-IL-6+ and CD68- groups). By contrast, in patients with TAMs >25 and in patients with positive CD68, CSF-1 and IL-6 expression, the survival rates were not significantly different between AIS/MIA and LPA. These results suggested that co-expression of TAMs marker CD68, CSF-1 and IL-6 may be a valuable independent prognostic predictor in lung adenocarcinoma. TAMs may facilitate AIS/MIA progression to LPA, which may be closely associated with the induction of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition. PMID:28101209

  17. Prevalence and progression of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance and light-chain MGUS in Germany.

    PubMed

    Eisele, Lewin; Dürig, Jan; Hüttmann, Andreas; Dührsen, Ulrich; Assert, Roland; Bokhof, Beate; Erbel, Raimund; Mann, Klaus; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Moebus, Susanne

    2012-02-01

    We determined the prevalence and progression rate of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) and light-chain MGUS (LCMGUS) in Germany utilizing the biobank of the population-based Heinz Nixdorf Recall Study. The Heinz Nixdorf Recall Study comprises 4,814 men and women aged 45-75 years. To detect monoclonal proteins, standard serum electrophoresis was combined with parallel screening immunofixation using pentavalent antisera. Additionally, free light chains (FLC) were measured in all samples. Definition of MGUS included M-protein concentration, laboratory results, and disease history. LCMGUS was defined as abnormal FLC ratio, increase in FLC causing the abnormal ratio, and lack of intact immunoglobulin. One hundred sixty-five MGUS cases were identified among 4,702 screened samples (prevalence 3.5%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.0-4.1; median age 63 years, range 47-75 years; 103 (62%) male; IgG 59%, IgA 17%, IgM 17%, biclonal 4.8%, kappa 56%, and lambda 44%). Five cases progressed (0.6%/year, 95% CI 0.2-1.4). An abnormal FLC ratio was detected in 220 samples. Thirty-nine of these showed intact immunoglobulin. Thirty-four of the remaining met LCMGUS criteria (prevalence 0.7%, 95% CI 0.5-1.0). None of the LCMGUS cases progressed. We demonstrate a MGUS prevalence of 3.5% and a LCMGUS prevalence of 0.7% in the general population aged 45-75 years in Germany using a sensitive screening approach.

  18. Significant Glaucomatous Visual Field Progression in the First Two Years: What Does It Mean?

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose It has been recommended that multiple visual field examinations be performed in the first 2 years after glaucoma diagnosis so that rapid visual field progression (≤−2 dB/year, using ordinary least squares regression over time of the summary index mean deviation [MD]) can be detected. Here I investigate how predictive a statistically significant regression slope is of truly rapid visual field progression. Methods I simulated visual field series (N = 100,000) spaced at 4 monthly intervals for the first 2 years. MD values had a standard deviation of 1 dB. The true underlying rates of progression were selected from a modified hyperbolic secant with parameters averaged from fits to large data sets from Canada, Sweden, and the United States. Results The positive predictive value (PPV) for rapid progression was 0.47 after 2 years, whereas the negative predictive value (NPV) was > 0.99. When using the criterion that a significant regression also had to have a slope of ≤ −2 dB/year, the PPV for rapid progression reduced substantially to 0.18 but the NPV was essentially unchanged (NPV >0.99). Conclusion Although performing multiple visual fields in the first 2 years provides appropriate power to detect rapid progression, a significant regression slope in the first 2 years is not highly predictive of rapid progression, particularly so if slopes ≤ −2 dB/year are considered only. Translational Relevance Statistically significant visual field progression in a short period after diagnosis may not necessarily indicate the presence of rapid progression, and so confirmatory signs of rapid progression should be sought before implementing treatment changes. PMID:27847688

  19. Molecular and biologic markers of progression in monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance to multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Mailankody, Sham; Mena, Esther; Yuan, Constance M; Balakumaran, Arun; Kuehl, W Michael; Landgren, Ola

    2010-12-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a malignant plasma cell dyscrasia localized in the bone marrow. Recent studies have shown that MM is preceded in virtually all cases by a premalignant state called monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS). This review focuses on non-IgM MGUS and its progression to MM. Although certain clinical markers of MGUS progression have been identified, it currently is not possible to accurately determine individual risk of progression. This review focuses on the various biologic and molecular markers that could be used to determine the risk of MM progression. A better understanding of the pathogenesis will allow us to define the biological high-risk precursor disease and, ultimately, to develop early intervention strategies designed to delay and prevent full-blown MM.

  20. Significantly improved cyclability of lithium manganese oxide under elevated temperature by an easily oxidized electrolyte additive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yunmin; Rong, Haibo; Mai, Shaowei; Luo, Xueyi; Li, Xiaoping; Li, Weishan

    2015-12-01

    Spinel lithium manganese oxide, LiMn2O4, is a promising cathode for lithium ion battery in large-scale applications, because it possesses many advantages compared with currently used layered lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO2) and olivine phosphate (LiFePO4), including naturally abundant resource, environmental friendliness and high and long work potential plateau. Its poor cyclability under high temperature, however, limits its application. In this work, we report a significant cyclability improvement of LiMn2O4 under elevated temperature by using dimethyl phenylphonite (DMPP) as an electrolyte additive. Charge/discharge tests demonstrate that the application of 0.5 wt.% DMPP yields a capacity retention improvement from 16% to 82% for LiMn2O4 after 200 cycles under 55 °C at 1 C (1C = 148 mAh g-1) between 3 and 4.5 V. Electrochemical and physical characterizations indicate that DMPP is electrochemically oxidized at the potential lower than that for lithium extraction, forming a protective cathode interphase on LiMn2O4, which suppresses the electrolyte decomposition and prevents LiMn2O4 from crystal destruction.

  1. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  2. Pathogenesis of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance and progression to multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Zingone, Adriana; Kuehl, W Michael

    2011-01-01

    Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), including immunoglobulin light chain only MGUS, is an age-dependent premalignant tumor that is present in about 4% of Caucasian individuals over the age of 50 years. It is comprised of two different kinds of tumors: about 15% lymphoid or lymphoplasmacytoid MGUS and the remainder plasma cell MGUS. Plasma cell MGUS is stable but can sporadically progress to multiple myeloma (MM) at an average rate of about 1% per year. Most, if not all, MM tumors are preceded by plasma cell MGUS, which shares four partially overlapping oncogenic features with MM. It presently is not possible to unequivocally distinguish an MGUS tumor cell from an MM tumor cell. However, two models based on clinical laboratory tests indicate that it is possible to stratify MGUS tumors into groups that have average rates of progression as low as 0.26% per year and as high as 12% per year.

  3. Biological and Clinicopathological Significance of Cripto-1 Expression in the Progression of Human ESCC

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoudian, Reihaneh Alsadat; Abbaszadegan, Mohammad Reza; Forghanifard, Mohammad Mahdi; Moghbeli, Meysam; Moghbeli, Faezeh; Chamani, Jamshidkhan; Gholamin, Mehran

    2017-01-01

    Background: Human Cripto-1, a member of the EGF-CFC family, is involved in embryonic development, embryonic stem cell maintenance, and tumor progression. It also participates in multiple cell signaling pathways including Wnt, Notch, and TGF-β. Remarkably, it is expressed in cancer stem cell (CSC) compartments, boosting tumor cell migration, invasion, and angiogenesis. Although Cripto-1 is overexpressed in a variety of human malignant tumors, its expression in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) remains unclear. Our aim in this study was to evaluate the possible oncogenic role of Cripto-1 in ESCC progression and elucidate its association with clinicopathological parameters in patients. Methods: In this study, Cripto-1 expression in 50 ESCC tissue samples was analyzed and compared to corresponding margin-normal esophageal tissues using quantitative real-time PCR. Results: Cripto-1 was overexpressed in nearly 40% of ESCC samples compared with normal tissue samples. Significant correlations were observed between Cripto-1 expression and tumor differentiation grade, progression stage, and location (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Our results indicate that overexpression of Cripto-1 is involved in the development of ESCC. Further assessment will be necessary to determine the role of Cripto-1 cross talk in ESCC tumorigenesis. PMID:28367468

  4. Nitrite addition to acidified sludge significantly improves digestibility, toxic metal removal, dewaterability and pathogen reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Fangzhou; Keller, Jürg; Yuan, Zhiguo; Batstone, Damien J.; Freguia, Stefano; Pikaar, Ilje

    2016-12-01

    Sludge management is a major issue for water utilities globally. Poor digestibility and dewaterability are the main factors determining the cost for sludge management, whereas pathogen and toxic metal concentrations limit beneficial reuse. In this study, the effects of low level nitrite addition to acidified sludge to simultaneously enhance digestibility, toxic metal removal, dewaterability and pathogen reduction were investigated. Waste activated sludge (WAS) from a full-scale waste water treatment plant was treated at pH 2 with 10 mg NO2‑-N/L for 5 h. Biochemical methane potential tests showed an increase in the methane production of 28%, corresponding to an improvement from 247 ± 8 L CH4/kg VS to 317 ± 1 L CH4/kg VS. The enhanced removal of toxic metals further increased the methane production by another 18% to 360 ± 6 L CH4/kg VS (a total increase of 46%). The solids content of dewatered sludge increased from 14.6 ± 1.4% in the control to 18.2 ± 0.8%. A 4-log reduction for both total coliforms and E. coli was achieved. Overall, this study highlights the potential of acidification with low level nitrite addition as an effective and simple method achieving multiple improvements in terms of sludge management.

  5. Nitrite addition to acidified sludge significantly improves digestibility, toxic metal removal, dewaterability and pathogen reduction

    PubMed Central

    Du, Fangzhou; Keller, Jürg; Yuan, Zhiguo; Batstone, Damien J.; Freguia, Stefano; Pikaar, Ilje

    2016-01-01

    Sludge management is a major issue for water utilities globally. Poor digestibility and dewaterability are the main factors determining the cost for sludge management, whereas pathogen and toxic metal concentrations limit beneficial reuse. In this study, the effects of low level nitrite addition to acidified sludge to simultaneously enhance digestibility, toxic metal removal, dewaterability and pathogen reduction were investigated. Waste activated sludge (WAS) from a full-scale waste water treatment plant was treated at pH 2 with 10 mg NO2−-N/L for 5 h. Biochemical methane potential tests showed an increase in the methane production of 28%, corresponding to an improvement from 247 ± 8 L CH4/kg VS to 317 ± 1 L CH4/kg VS. The enhanced removal of toxic metals further increased the methane production by another 18% to 360 ± 6 L CH4/kg VS (a total increase of 46%). The solids content of dewatered sludge increased from 14.6 ± 1.4% in the control to 18.2 ± 0.8%. A 4-log reduction for both total coliforms and E. coli was achieved. Overall, this study highlights the potential of acidification with low level nitrite addition as an effective and simple method achieving multiple improvements in terms of sludge management. PMID:28004811

  6. Progressive-Addition Lenses versus Single-Vision Lenses for Slowing Progression of Myopia in Children with High Accommodative Lag and Near Esophoria

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. To determine whether progressive-addition lenses (PALs) relative to single-vision lenses (SVLs) slow the progression of low myopia in children with high accommodative lag and near esophoria. Methods. One hundred eighteen children 8 to <12 years of age with spherical equivalent refraction (SER) from −0.75 to −2.50 D and near esophoria ≥2 PD were enrolled in this double-masked multicenter randomized trial. A key additional eligibility criterion was high accommodative lag, initially defined as at least 0.50 D (accommodative response less than 2.50 D for a 3.00-D demand) and later restricted further to at least 1.00 D. One hundred four subjects had accommodative lag of at least 1.00 D, and 14 had lag between 0.50 and 0.99 D. The children were randomized to receive either PALs with a +2.00-D addition or standard SVLs. The clinicians performing the outcome testing, as well as the children and their families, were masked to treatment group. Follow-up visits occurred every 6 months for 3 years. At annual visits, refractive error was assessed in each eye by using cycloplegic autorefraction. The main outcome measure was change from baseline to 3 years in SER by cycloplegic autorefraction. Results. The mean change in SER between baseline and the 3-year primary outcome visit was −0.87 D in the PAL group and −1.15 D in the SVL group, for a difference of 0.28 D (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.01–0.55D). Conclusions. The PALs used in this study were found to have a statistically but not clinically significant effect of slowing myopia progression in children with high accommodative lag and near esophoria. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00320593.) PMID:21282579

  7. Injection Route and TLR9 Agonist Addition Significantly Impact Heroin Vaccine Efficacy

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Active immunization is an effective means of blocking the pharmacodynamic effects of drugs and holds promise as a treatment for heroin addiction. Previously, we demonstrated the efficacy of our first-generation vaccine in blocking heroin self-administration in rats, however, many vaccine components can be modified to further improve performance. Herein we examine the effects of varying heroin vaccine injection route and adjuvant formulation. Mice immunized via subcutaneous (sc) injection exhibited inferior anti-heroin titers compared to intraperitoneal (ip) and sc/ip coadministration injection routes. Addition of TLR9 agonist cytosine-guanine oligodeoxynucleotide 1826 (CpG ODN 1826) to the original alum adjuvant elicited superior antibody titers and opioid affinities compared to alum alone. To thoroughly assess vaccine efficacy, full dose–response curves were generated for heroin-induced analgesia in both hot plate and tail immersion tests. Mice treated with CpG ODN 1826 exhibited greatly shifted dose–response curves (10–13-fold vs unvaccinated controls) while non-CpG ODN vaccine groups did not exhibit the same robust effect (2–7-fold shift for ip and combo, 2–3-fold shift for sc). Our results suggest that CpG ODN 1826 is a highly potent adjuvant, and injection routes should be considered for development of small molecule–protein conjugate vaccines. Lastly, this study has established a new standard for assessing drugs of abuse vaccines, wherein a full dose–response curve should be performed in an appropriate behavioral task. PMID:24517171

  8. Theoretical and experimental investigation of design for multioptical-axis freeform progressive addition lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, HuaZhong; Chen, JiaBi; Zhu, TianFen; Wei, YeFei; Fu, DongXiang

    2015-11-01

    A freeform progressive addition lens (PAL) provides a good solution to correct presbyopia and prevent juvenile myopia by distributing pupils' optical powers of distance zone, near zone, and intermediate zone and is more widely adopted in the present optometric study. However, there is still a lack of a single-optical-axis system for the design of a PAL. This paper focuses on the research for an approach for designing a freeform PAL. A multioptical-axis system based on real viewing conditions using the eyes is employed for the representation of the freeform surface. We filled small pupils in the intermediate zone as a progressive corridor and the distance- and near-vision portions were defined as the standard spherical surfaces delimited by quadratic curves. Three freeform PALs with a spherical surface as the front side and a freeform surface as the backside were designed. We demonstrate the fabrication and measurement technologies for the PAL surface using computer numerical control machine tools from Schneider Smart and a Visionix VM-2000 Lens Power Mapper. Surface power and astigmatic values were obtained. Preliminary results showed that the approach for the design and fabrication is helpful to advance the design procedure optimization and mass production of PALs in optometry.

  9. [Research Progress of circRNA and Its Significance in Forensic Science].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ya-qi; Shao, Cheng-chen; Li, Cheng-tao; Zhao, Zi-qin; Xie, Jian-hui

    2016-04-01

    RNA has received more attention in the field of forensic medicine and the development of the new biological markers based on RNA shows great significance in the analysis of complex cases. circular RNA (circRNA) is a kind of non-coding RNA which is widely reported recently. Although the regulatory mechanisms of generation and expression are not fully clear, the existing research indicates that circRNA has important biological functions. CircRNA has a cell-type-specific expression with great stability and a high expression level, which makes it meaningful in forensic applications potentially. In this paper, the research progress, the generation and regulation of circRNA as well as its biological characteristics and functions are summarized, which will provide references for related studies and forensic applications.

  10. Discovery of CDH23 as a Significant Contributor to Progressive Postlingual Sensorineural Hearing Loss in Koreans

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chung; Kim, So Young; Kim, Nayoung K. D.; Chang, Mun Young; Rhee, Jihye; Park, Mi-Hyun; Koo, Soo Kyung; Kim, Min Young; Han, Jin Hee; Oh, Seung-ha; Park, Woong-Yang; Choi, Byung Yoon

    2016-01-01

    CDH23 mutations have mostly been associated with prelingual severe-to-profound sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) in either syndromic or nonsyndromic SNHL (DFNB12). Herein, we demonstrate the contribution of CDH23 mutations to postlingual nonsyndromic SNHL (NS-SNHL). We screened 32 Korean adult probands with postlingual NS-SNHL sporadically or in autosomal recessive fashion using targeted panel or whole exome sequencing. We identified four (12.5%, 4/32) potential postlingual DFNB12 families that segregated the recessive CDH23 variants, qualifying for our criteria along with rapidly progressive SNHL. Three of the four families carried one definite pathogenic CDH23 variant previously known as the prelingual DFNB12 variant in a trans configuration with rare CDH23 variants. To determine the contribution of rare CDH23 variants to the postlingual NS-SNHL, we checked the minor allele frequency (MAF) of CDH23 variants detected from our postlingual NS-SNHL cohort and prelingual NS-SNHL cohort, among the 2040 normal control chromosomes. The allele frequency of these CDH23 variants in our postlingual cohort was 12.5%, which was significantly higher than that of the 2040 control chromosomes (5.53%), confirming the contribution of these rare CDH23 variants to postlingual NS-SNHL. Furthermore, MAF of rare CDH23 variants from the postlingual NS-SNHL group was significantly higher than that from the prelingual NS-SNHL group. This study demonstrates an important contribution of CDH23 mutations to poslingual NS-SNHL and shows that the phenotypic spectrum of DFNB12 can be broadened even into the presbycusis, depending on the pathogenic potential of variants. We also propose that pathogenic potential of CDH23 variants and the clinical fate of DFNB12 may be predicted by MAF. PMID:27792758

  11. Carfilzomib significantly improves the progression-free survival of high-risk patients in multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Fonseca, Rafael; Siegel, David; Dimopoulos, Meletios A.; Špička, Ivan; Masszi, Tamás; Hájek, Roman; Rosiñol, Laura; Goranova-Marinova, Vesselina; Mihaylov, Georgi; Maisnar, Vladimír; Mateos, Maria-Victoria; Wang, Michael; Niesvizky, Ruben; Oriol, Albert; Jakubowiak, Andrzej; Minarik, Jiri; Palumbo, Antonio; Bensinger, William; Kukreti, Vishal; Ben-Yehuda, Dina; Stewart, A. Keith; Obreja, Mihaela; Moreau, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    The presence of certain high-risk cytogenetic abnormalities, such as translocations (4;14) and (14;16) and deletion (17p), are known to have a negative impact on survival in multiple myeloma (MM). The phase 3 study ASPIRE (N = 792) demonstrated that progression-free survival (PFS) was significantly improved with carfilzomib, lenalidomide, and dexamethasone (KRd), compared with lenalidomide and dexamethasone (Rd) in relapsed MM. This preplanned subgroup analysis of ASPIRE was conducted to evaluate KRd vs Rd by baseline cytogenetics according to fluorescence in situ hybridization. Of 417 patients with known cytogenetic risk status, 100 patients (24%) were categorized with high-risk cytogenetics (KRd, n = 48; Rd, n = 52) and 317 (76%) were categorized with standard-risk cytogenetics (KRd, n = 147; Rd, n = 170). For patients with high-risk cytogenetics, treatment with KRd resulted in a median PFS of 23.1 months, a 9-month improvement relative to treatment with Rd. For patients with standard-risk cytogenetics, treatment with KRd led to a 10-month improvement in median PFS vs Rd. The overall response rates for KRd vs Rd were 79.2% vs 59.6% (high-risk cytogenetics) and 91.2% vs 73.5% (standard-risk cytogenetics); approximately fivefold as many patients with high- or standard-risk cytogenetics achieved a complete response or better with KRd vs Rd (29.2% vs 5.8% and 38.1% vs 6.5%, respectively). KRd improved but did not abrogate the poor prognosis associated with high-risk cytogenetics. This regimen had a favorable benefit-risk profile in patients with relapsed MM, irrespective of cytogenetic risk status, and should be considered a standard of care in these patients. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01080391. PMID:27439911

  12. Application of polymer graded-index materials for aberration correction of progressive addition lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shitanoki, Yuki; Tagaya, Akihiro; Koike, Yasuhiro

    2009-02-01

    Graded-index (GRIN) progressive addition lens (PAL) was successfully fabricated, and GRIN's potential for aberration correction of PAL was confirmed. GRIN material was prepared by partial diffusion of methyl methacrylate (MMA (nd at polymer = 1.492)) monomer into cross-linked benzyl methacrylate (BzMA (nd at polymer=1.568)) flat gel, and GRINPAL was prepared by polymerization of the GRIN material attached to a mold of commercially available PAL. GRIN polymer materials have been used for various applications such as rod lenses and optical fibers. GRIN represents gradual change of refractive index in a material, which adds or reduces light focusing power of the material. PAL is a multifocal spectacle lens for presbyopia. However, some localized aberrations (especially astigmatism) in PAL have not yet been reduced satisfactorily for decades by optimizing surface geometry of a lens. In this research, we propose to employ GRIN materials for astigmatism reduction of PALs. BzMA flat gel was prepared by UV polymerization of BzMA, crosslinking agent ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EDMA) and photopolymerization initiator DAROCURE 1173. MMA monomer was diffused into BzMA flat gel from a portion of periphery for several hours. The obtained GRIN material was attached to a mold of commercially available PAL and polymerized by UV. As a result, reduction of astigmatism was confirmed locally in the fabricated PAL and GRIN-PAL using lens meter. In conclusion, GRIN-PAL was successfully fabricated. The validity of GRIN employment for the astigmatism reduction in PAL was demonstrated experimentally.

  13. CD99 polymorphisms significantly influence the probability to develop Ewing sarcoma in earlier age and patient disease progression

    PubMed Central

    Martinelli, Marcella; Parra, Alessandro; Scapoli, Luca; Sanctis, Paola De; Chiadini, Valentina; Hattinger, Claudia; Picci, Piero

    2016-01-01

    Ewing sarcoma (EWS), the second most common primary bone tumor in pediatric age, is known for its paucity of recurrent somatic abnormalities. Apart from the chimeric oncoprotein that derives from the fusion of EWS and FLI genes, recent genome-wide association studies have identified susceptibility variants near the EGR2 gene that regulate DNA binding of EWS-FLI. However, to induce transformation, EWS-FLI requires the presence of additional molecular events, including the expression of CD99, a cell surface molecule with critical relevance for the pathogenesis of EWS. High expression of CD99 is a common and distinctive feature of EWS cells, and it has largely been used for the differential diagnosis of the disease. The present study first links CD99 germline genetic variants to the susceptibility of EWS development and its progression. In particular, a panel of 25 single nucleotide polymorphisms has been genotyped in a case-control study. The CD99 rs311059 T variant was found to be significantly associated [P value = 0.0029; ORhet = 3.9 (95% CI 1.5-9.8) and ORhom = 5.3 (95% CI 1.2-23.7)] with EWS onset in patients less than 14 years old, while the CD99 rs312257-T was observed to be associated [P value = 0.0265; ORhet = 3.5 (95% CI 1.3-9.9)] with a reduced risk of relapse. Besides confirming the importance of CD99, our findings indicate that polymorphic variations in this gene may affect either development or progression of EWS, leading to further understanding of this cancer and development of better diagnostics/prognostics for children and adolescents with this devastating disease. PMID:27792997

  14. Does the addition of writing into a pharmacy communication skills course significantly impact student communicative learning outcomes? A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Lonie, John M; Rahim, Hamid

    2010-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if the addition of a reflective writing component in a fourth year (P-2) pharmacy communication skills course would significantly affect 2 measures of learning: (1) objective multiple choice examination questions and (2) a patient counseling Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) score. Using a nonequivalent group quasi-experimental retrospective comparison design, 98 randomly selected final examination scores from students taking a non-writing intensive (NWI) communication skills course were compared with 112 randomly selected final examination scores from students that took a communication skills course in which students engaged in several reflective writing assignments. In addition, 91 randomly selected patient counseling OSCE scores from a NWI course were statistically compared with 112 scores from students that took the writing intensive (WI) course. There were statistically significant improvements in multiple choice examination scores in the group that took the reflective writing communication skills course. There was not a statistically significant difference in patient counseling OSCE scores after students completed the WI course. Studying the effects of using reflective writing assignments in communication skills courses may improve the retention and retrieval of information presented within the course.

  15. Mechanical and Electrical Properties of a Polyimide Film Significantly Enhanced by the Addition of Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meador, Michael A.

    2005-01-01

    Single-wall carbon nanotubes have been shown to possess a combination of outstanding mechanical, electrical, and thermal properties. The use of carbon nanotubes as an additive to improve the mechanical properties of polymers and/or enhance their thermal and electrical conductivity has been a topic of intense interest. Nanotube-modified polymeric materials could find a variety of applications in NASA missions including large-area antennas, solar arrays, and solar sails; radiation shielding materials for vehicles, habitats, and extravehicular activity suits; and multifunctional materials for vehicle structures and habitats. Use of these revolutionary materials could reduce vehicle weight significantly and improve vehicle performance and capabilities.

  16. Progress in the genetics of polygenic brain disorders: significant new challenges for neurobiology.

    PubMed

    McCarroll, Steven A; Hyman, Steven E

    2013-10-30

    Advances in genome analysis, accompanied by the assembly of large patient cohorts, are making possible successful genetic analyses of polygenic brain disorders. If the resulting molecular clues, previously hidden in the genomes of affected individuals, are to yield useful information about pathogenesis and inform the discovery of new treatments, neurobiology will have to rise to many difficult challenges. Here we review the underlying logic of the genetic investigations, describe in more detail progress in schizophrenia and autism, and outline the challenges for neurobiology that lie ahead. We argue that technologies at the disposal of neuroscience are adequately advanced to begin to study the biology of common and devastating polygenic disorders.

  17. Progress in Metabolomics Standardisation and its Significance in Future Clinical Laboratory Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Koal, Therese

    2016-01-01

    Today, the technology of ‘targeted’ based metabolomics is pivotal in the clinical analysis workflow as it provides information of metabolic phenotyping (metabotypes) by enhancing our understanding of metabolism of complex diseases, biomarker discovery for disease development, progression, treatment, and drug function and assessment. This review is focused on surveying and providing a gap analysis on metabolic phenotyping with a focus on targeted based metabolomics from an instrumental, technical point-of-view discussing the state-of-the-art instrumentation, pre- to post- analytical aspects as well as an overall future necessity for biomarker discovery and future (pre-) clinical routine application. PMID:28149265

  18. The solubilities of significant organic compounds in HLW tanks upernate solutions - FY 1997 progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Barney, G.S.

    1997-09-16

    The solubilities of seven sodium salts of organic acids that are thought to exist in high-level waste at the Hanford Site were measured in tank supernatant simulant solutions during FY 1997. This solubility information will be used to determine if these organic salts could exist in solid phases (saltcake or sludges) in the waste where they might react violently with the nitrate or nitrite salts present in the tanks. The solubility of sodium acetate was measured in simulated waste supernate solutions at 25C, 30C, 40C, and 50C that were both unsaturated and saturated with sodium nitrate. Solubilities of sodium glycolate, citrate, ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA), nitrilotriacetate (NTA), formate, and oxalate were measured in simulated waste supernate solutions that were saturated with sodium nitrate. In addition, solubilities of sodium EDTA, citrate, glycolate, and NTA were measured in a complex waste matrix. The organic compounds were selected because they are expected to exist in relatively high concentrations in the tanks. The solubilities of sodium glycolate citrate, EDTA, NTA, and formate were high over the temperature and sodium hydroxide concentration ranges expected in the tanks. The solubility of sodium oxalate in solutions saturated with sodium nitrate were quite low. The presence of additional sodium in the waste simulant solutions that were saturated with sodium nitrate slightly lowered the solubilities of each of the organic salts. Solubilities were, however, high enough to prevent solid sodium salts of all the organic acids from precipitating from tank supernate solutions, except for sodium oxalate. The total organic carbon concentrations (TOC) of actual tank supernates are generally much lower than the TOC ranges for the simulated supernate solutions saturated (at the solubility limit) with the organic salts. This is true even if all the dissolved carbon in a given tank supernate is due to only one of these soluble compounds (an unlikely situation

  19. An additive effect of anti-PAI-1 antibody to ACE inhibitor on slowing the progression of diabetic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Gu, Chunyan; Zhang, Jiandong; Noble, Nancy A; Peng, Xiao-Rong; Huang, Yufeng

    2016-11-01

    While angiotensin II blockade slows the progression of diabetic nephropathy, current data suggest that it alone cannot stop the disease process. New therapies or drug combinations will be required to further slow or halt disease progression. Inhibition of plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) aimed at enhancing ECM degradation has shown therapeutic potential in diabetic nephropathy. Here, using a mouse model of type diabetes, the maximally therapeutic dose of the PAI-1-neutralizing mouse monoclonal antibody (MEDI-579) was determined and compared with the maximally effective dose of enalapril. We then examined whether addition of MEDI-579 to enalapril would enhance the efficacy in slowing the progression of diabetic nephropathy. Untreated uninephrectomized diabetic db/db mice developed progressive albuminuria and glomerulosclerosis associated with increased expression of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, PAI-1, type IV collagen, and fibronectin from weeks 18 to 22, which were reduced by MEDI-579 at 3 mg/kg body wt, similar to enalapril given alone from weeks 12 to 22 Adding MEDI-579 to enalapril from weeks 18 to 22 resulted in further reduction in albuminuria and markers of renal fibrosis. Renal plasmin generation was dramatically reduced by 57% in diabetic mice, a decrease that was partially reversed by MEDI-579 or enalapril given alone but was further restored by these two treatments given in combination. Our results suggest that MEDI-579 is effective in slowing the progression of diabetic nephropathy in db/db mice and that the effect is additive to ACEI. While enalapril is renal protective, the add-on PAI-1 antibody may offer additional renoprotection in progressive diabetic nephropathy via enhancing ECM turnover.

  20. Appropriate Fe (II) Addition Significantly Enhances Anaerobic Ammonium Oxidation (Anammox) Activity through Improving the Bacterial Growth Rate

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yiwen; Ni, Bing-Jie

    2015-01-01

    The application of anaerobic ammonium oxidation (Anammox) process is often limited by the slow growth rate of Anammox bacteria. As the essential substrate element that required for culturing Anammox sludge, Fe (II) is expected to affect Anammox bacterial growth. This work systematically studied the effects of Fe (II) addition on Anammox activity based on the kinetic analysis of specific growth rate using data from batch tests with an enriched Anammox sludge at different dosing levels. Results clearly demonstrated that appropriate Fe (II) dosing (i.e., 0.09 mM) significantly enhanced the specific Anammox growth rate up to 0.172 d−1 compared to 0.118 d−1 at regular Fe (II) level (0.03 mM). The relationship between Fe (II) concentration and specific Anammox growth rate was found to be well described by typical substrate inhibition kinetics, which was integrated into currently well-established Anammox model to describe the enhanced Anammox growth with Fe (II) addition. The validity of the integrated Anammox model was verified using long-term experimental data from three independent Anammox reactors with different Fe (II) dosing levels. This Fe (II)-based approach could be potentially implemented to enhance the process rate for possible mainstream application of Anammox technology, in order for an energy autarchic wastewater treatment. PMID:25644239

  1. Carbohydrate antigen sialyl Lewis a--its pathophysiological significance and induction mechanism in cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Kannagi, Reiji

    2007-01-01

    Carbohydrate antigen sialyl Lewis a (CA19-9) is the most frequently applied serum tumor marker for diagnosis of cancers in the digestive organs. Recent progress disclosed the presence of a normal counterpart of the determinant, namely disialyl Lewis a, which is predominantly expressed in non-malignant epithelial cells of the digestive organs, while sialyl Lewis a is preferentially expressed in cancers. The disialyl Lewis a determinant carries one extra sialic residue attached through a 2 --> 6 linkage to the GlcNAc moiety compared to cancer-associated sialyl Lewis a, which carries only one 2 --> 3 linked sialic acid residue (monosialyl Lewis a). Disialyl Lewis a in normal epithelial cells serves as a ligand for immunosuppressive receptors such as sialic acid binding immunoglobulin (Ig)-like lectins (siglec-7) and -9 expressed on resident monocytes/macrophages and maintains immunological homeostasis of mucosal membranes in digestive organs. Epigenetic silencing of a gene for a 2 --> 6 sialyl-transferase in the early stages of carcinogenesis results in an impairment of 2 --> 6 sialylation, leading to incomplete synthesis and accumulation of sialyl Lewis a, which lacks the 2 --> 6 linked sialic acid residue, in cancer cells. Simultaneous determination of serum levels of sialyl- and disialyl Lewis a, and calculation of the monosialyl/disialyl Lewis a ratio provide information useful for excluding a false-positive serum diagnosis, and also for averting the undesired influence of the Lewis blood group of patients on serum antigen levels. During the course of cancer progression in locally advanced cancers, tumor hypoxia induces transcription of several glycogenes involved in sialyl Lewis a synthesis. Expression of the determinant, consequently, is further accelerated in more malignant hypoxia-resistant cancer cell clones, which become predominant clones in advanced stage cancers and frequently develop hematogenous metastasis. Sialyl Lewis a, as well as its positional

  2. Determining significant endpoints for ecological risk analyses. 1997 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Hinton, T.G.; Congdon, J.; Rowe, C.; Scott, D.; Bedford, J.; Whicker, F.W.

    1997-11-01

    'This report summarizes the first year''s progress of research funded under the Department of Energy''s Environmental Management Science Program. The research was initiated to better determine ecological risks from toxic and radioactive contaminants. More precisely, the research is designed to determine the relevancy of sublethal cellular damage to the performance of individuals and to identify characteristics of non-human populations exposed to chronic, low-level radiation, as is typically found on many DOE sites. The authors propose to establish a protocol to assess risks to non-human species at higher levels of biological organization by relating molecular damage to more relevant responses that reflect population health. They think that they can achieve this by coupling changes in metabolic rates and energy allocation patterns to meaningful population response variables, and by using novel biological dosimeters in controlled, manipulative dose/effects experiments. They believe that a scientifically defensible endpoint for measuring ecological risks can only be determined once its understood the extent to which molecular damage from contaminant exposure is detrimental at the individual and population levels of biological organization.'

  3. Progression of pancreatic adenocarcinoma is significantly impeded with a combination of vaccine and COX-2 inhibition.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Pinku; Basu, Gargi D; Tinder, Teresa L; Subramani, Durai B; Bradley, Judy M; Arefayene, Million; Skaar, Todd; De Petris, Giovanni

    2009-01-01

    With a 5-year survival rate of <5%, pancreatic cancer is one of the most rapidly fatal malignancies. Current protocols for the treatment of pancreas cancer are not as effective as we desire. In this study, we show that a novel Mucin-1 (MUC1)-based vaccine in combination with a cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor (celecoxib), and low-dose chemotherapy (gemcitabine) was effective in preventing the progression of preneoplastic intraepithelial lesions to invasive pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas. The study was conducted in an appropriate triple transgenic model of spontaneous pancreatic cancer induced by the KRAS(G12D) mutation and that expresses human MUC1 as a self molecule. The combination treatment elicited robust antitumor cellular and humoral immune responses and was associated with increased apoptosis in the tumor. The mechanism for the increased immune response was attributed to the down-regulation of circulating prostaglandin E(2) and indoleamine 2, 3,-dioxygenase enzymatic activity, as well as decreased levels of T regulatory and myeloid suppressor cells within the tumor microenvironment. The preclinical data provide the rationale to design clinical trials with a combination of MUC1-based vaccine, celecoxib, and gemcitabine for the treatment of pancreatic cancer.

  4. Clinicopathological significance of SPC18 in colorectal cancer: SPC18 participates in tumor progression.

    PubMed

    Hattori, Takuya; Sentani, Kazuhiro; Naohide, Oue; Sakamoto, Naoya; Yasui, Wataru

    2017-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the leading causes of cancer-related death worldwide. In order to identify novel prognostic markers or therapeutic targets for CRC, we searched for candidate genes in our comprehensive gene expression libraries, and focused on SEC11A, which encodes the SPC18 protein. SPC18 plays a key role in the endoplasmic reticulum-Golgi secretory pathway and presumably regulates the secretion of various secretory proteins. An immunohistochemical analysis of SPC18 in 137 CRC tissue samples demonstrated that 79 (58%) CRC cases were positive for SPC18. SPC18-positive CRC cases were more advanced in terms of N classification (P = 0.0315) and tumor stage (P = 0.0240) than SPC18-negative CRC cases. Furthermore, the expression of SPC18 was an independent prognostic classifier for CRC patients. The cell growth and invasiveness of SPC18 siRNA-transfected CRC cell lines was less than that of the negative control siRNA-transfected cell lines. The levels of phosphorylated epidermal growth factor receptor, Erk and Akt were lower in SPC18 siRNA-transfected CRC cells than in control cells. The expression of SPC18 was colocalized with β-catenin nuclear localization and MMP7 at the invasive front. An immunohistochemical analysis of human colorectal polyp specimens revealed a sequential increase in the expression of SPC18 through the conventional adenoma-carcinoma pathway, while SPC18 was not expressed or was expressed to a lesser extent in serrated pathway-related tumors. These results suggest that SPC18 is involved in tumor progression, and is an independent prognostic classifier in patients with CRC.

  5. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved individual actions. Semiannual progress report, January 1996--June 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    This document summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during the period of January-June 1996. The report includes copies of Orders and Notices of Violations sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to individuals with respect to the enforcement actions.

  6. Additive and non-additive effects of mixtures of short-acting intravenous anaesthetic agents and their significance for theories of anaesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Richards, C.D.; White, Ann E.

    1981-01-01

    1 The potency of a series of short-acting anaesthetics was established by measuring the duration of the loss of righting reflex following a single bolus injection into the tail vein of male Wistar rats. The agents were, in order of potency, etomidate, alphaxalone, methohexitone, alphadalone acetate and propanidid. 2 The potency of binary mixtures of these agents was also assessed to see whether the anaesthetic effects of different agents were additive as classical theories of anaesthesia suggest. Mixtures of alphaxalone and alphadalone acetate, alphaxalone and propanidid and methohexitone and propanidid all showed simple additive effects. Mixtures of alphaxalone and etomidate and of alphaxalone and methohexitone showed a greater potency than would be expected if their effects were simply additive. Mixtures of etomidate and methohexitone were not examined. 3 Mixtures of alphaxalone and either methohexitone or pentobarbitone produced a greater depression of synaptic transmission in in vitro preparations of guinea-pig olfactory cortex than would have been expected from the sum of the activities of the individual anaesthetics. Other combinations of anaesthetics did not show similar effects although the interaction between alphaxalone and etomidate was not examined. 4 Neither alphaxalone nor pentobarbitone affected the membrane: buffer partition coefficient of the other for a model membrane system. 5 These results are interpreted as evidence against the classical unitary hypotheses of anaesthetic action based on correlations of anaesthetic potency with lipid solubility and as supporting the view that different anaesthetics act on different structures in the neuronal membranes to produce anaesthesia. PMID:6268237

  7. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved material licensees. Semiannual progress report, July--December 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during the period and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to material licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication.

  8. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved; Quarterly progress report, October--December 1993: Volume 12, No. 4

    SciTech Connect

    1994-03-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October - December 1993) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication.

  9. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved individuals actions. Semiannual progress report, July--December 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during the period (July - December 1996) and includes copies of Orders and Notices of Violation sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to individuals with respect to-these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC. The Commission believes this information may be useful to licensees in making employment decisions.

  10. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved individual actions. Semiannual progress report, January 1997--June 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during the period (January - June 1997) and includes copies of Orders and Notices of Violation sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to individuals with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC. The Commission believes this information may be useful to licensees in making employment decisions.

  11. Significant Change in Marine Plankton Structure and Carbon Production After the Addition of River Water in a Mesocosm Experiment.

    PubMed

    Fouilland, E; Trottet, A; Alves-de-Souza, C; Bonnet, D; Bouvier, T; Bouvy, M; Boyer, S; Guillou, L; Hatey, E; Jing, H; Leboulanger, C; Le Floc'h, E; Liu, H; Mas, S; Mostajir, B; Nouguier, J; Pecqueur, D; Rochelle-Newall, E; Roques, C; Salles, C; Tournoud, M-G; Vasseur, C; Vidussi, F

    2017-03-16

    Rivers are known to be major contributors to eutrophication in marine coastal waters, but little is known on the short-term impact of freshwater surges on the structure and functioning of the marine plankton community. The effect of adding river water, reducing the salinity by 15 and 30%, on an autumn plankton community in a Mediterranean coastal lagoon (Thau Lagoon, France) was determined during a 6-day mesocosm experiment. Adding river water brought not only nutrients but also chlorophyceans that did not survive in the brackish mesocosm waters. The addition of water led to initial increases (days 1-2) in bacterial production as well as increases in the abundances of bacterioplankton and picoeukaryotes. After day 3, the increases were more significant for diatoms and dinoflagellates that were already present in the Thau Lagoon water (mainly Pseudo-nitzschia spp. group delicatissima and Prorocentrum triestinum) and other larger organisms (tintinnids, rotifers). At the same time, the abundances of bacterioplankton, cyanobacteria, and picoeukaryote fell, some nutrients (NH4(+), SiO4(3-)) returned to pre-input levels, and the plankton structure moved from a trophic food web based on secondary production to the accumulation of primary producers in the mesocosms with added river water. Our results also show that, after freshwater inputs, there is rapid emergence of plankton species that are potentially harmful to living organisms. This suggests that flash flood events may lead to sanitary issues, other than pathogens, in exploited marine areas.

  12. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved. Quarterly progress report, April--June 1993: Volume 12, No. 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (April--June 1993) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication.

  13. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved material licensees. Quarterly progress report, April 1995--June 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (April-June 1995) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to material licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication.

  14. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved reactor licensees. Semiannual progress report, July 1996--December 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during the period (July-December 1996) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to reactor licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication.

  15. Marine research in Greece and the additional Greek marine research centres: Progress and present situation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haritonidis, S.

    1995-03-01

    Greece, as is known, has a coastline of 17 000 km, and over 2000 small and large islands. As expected, the quest of humankind for new sources of matter and energy has been focussed on the sea, with fishery being its primary interest. A number of philosophers and scientists have been involved in the study of this vast ecosystem since ancient times (Aristotle). The political, social and geographical upheavals witnessed in the Greek area, have, however resulted in bringing all these activities to a halt. The first contemporary research work commenced at the end of the 18th century/beginning of the 19th — with marine flora and fauna as its starting point. The first investigations had, of course, been limited to random collections of marine material done in the frame of international exploratory expeditions. Studies became more systematic by the end of the 19th and beginning of the 20th century, with priority being given to the animal kingdom (fish, molluscs, etc.). Investigation of the marine phytobenthos (macrophyceae, phytoplankton) was to follow. The past 40 years research has been more extensive, not limited only to biogeographical evaluations, but also having expanded to physiological and ecological levels. The relevant institutes of Greek universities have all the while watched and contributed to this effort. Today, this kind of research is being supported by the N.M.R.C., the Center of Marine Research, University of Crete, and two research boats which sail the Greek seas. In the ever-changing world, the study of marine flora and fauna has certainly made great progress; however, there are still two big problems to be faced. The first deals with increasing pollution of the seas, the second, with the difficulties in finding and affording adequate financial resources that would enable a more detailed and complete execution of this research work.

  16. Glassy slags for minimum additive waste stabilization. Interim progress report, May 1993--February 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, X.; Wronkiewicz, D.J.; Bates, J.K.; Brown, N.R.; Buck, E.C.; Dietz, N.L.; Gong, M.; Emery, J.W.

    1994-05-01

    Glassy slag waste forms are being developed to complement glass waste forms in implementing Minimum Additive Waste Stabilization (MAWS) for supporting DOE`s environmental restoration efforts. The glassy slag waste form is composed of various crystalline and metal oxide phases embedded in a silicate glass phase. The MAWS approach was adopted by blending multiple waste streams to achieve up to 100% waste loadings. The crystalline phases, such as spinels, are very durable and contain hazardous and radioactive elements in their lattice structures. These crystalline phases may account for up to 80% of the total volume of slags having over 80% metal loading. The structural bond strength model was used to quantify the correlation between glassy slag composition and chemical durability so that optimized slag compositions were obtained with limited crucible melting and testing. Slag compositions developed through crucible melts were also successfully generated in a pilot-scale Retech plasma centrifugal furnace at Ukiah, California. Utilization of glassy slag waste forms allows the MAWS approach to be applied to a much wider range of waste streams than glass waste forms. The initial work at ANL has indicated that glassy slags are good final waste forms because of (1) their high chemical durability; (2) their ability to incorporate large amounts of metal oxides; (3) their ability to incorporate waste streams having low contents of flux components; (4) their less stringent requirements on processing parameters, compared to glass waste forms; and (5) their low requirements for purchased additives, which means greater waste volume reduction and treatment cost savings.

  17. Progress Towards Metal Additive Manufacturing Standardization to Support Qualification and Certification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seifi, Mohsen; Gorelik, Michael; Waller, Jess; Hrabe, Nik; Shamsaei, Nima; Daniewicz, Steve; Lewandowski, John J.

    2017-03-01

    As the metal additive manufacturing (AM) industry moves towards industrial production, the need for qualification standards covering all aspects of the technology becomes ever more prevalent. While some standards and specifications for documenting the various aspects of AM processes and materials exist and continue to evolve, many such standards still need to be matured or are under consideration/development within standards development organizations. An important subset of this evolving the standardization domain has to do with critical property measurements for AM materials. While such measurement procedures are well documented, with various legacy standards for conventional metallic material forms such as cast or wrought structural alloys, many fewer standards are currently available to enable systematic evaluation of those properties in AM-processed metallic materials. This is due in part to the current lack of AM-specific standards and specifications for AM materials and processes, which are a logical precursor to the material characterization standards for any material system. This paper summarizes some of the important standardization activities, as well as limitations associated with using currently available standards for metal AM with a focus on measuring mission-critical properties. Technical considerations in support of future standards development, as well as a pathway for qualification/certification of AM parts enabled by the appropriate standardization landscape, are discussed.

  18. Disparities in the prevalence, pathogenesis and progression of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance and multiple myeloma between blacks and whites

    PubMed Central

    Greenberg, AJ; Vachon, CM; Rajkumar, SV

    2013-01-01

    There is marked racial disparity in the incidence of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) and multiple myeloma, with a two to threefold increased risk in blacks compared with whites. The increased risk has been seen both in Africans and African Americans. Similarly, an increased risk of monoclonal gammopathies in blacks compared with whites has been noted after adjusting for socioeconomic and other risk factors, suggesting a genetic predisposition. The higher risk of multiple myeloma in blacks is likely a result of the higher prevalence of the premalignant MGUS stage; there are no data to suggest that blacks have a higher progression rate of MGUS to myeloma. Studies are emerging that suggest the baseline cytogenetic characteristics, and progression may differ by race. In contrast, to the increased risk noted in blacks, studies suggest that the risk may be lower in certain racial and ethnic groups, notably persons from Japan and Mexico. We review the literature on racial disparity in the prevalence, pathogenesis and progression of MGUS and multiple myeloma between blacks and whites. We also discuss future directions for research that could inform management of these conditions and positively influence patient outcomes. PMID:22193966

  19. Disparities in the prevalence, pathogenesis and progression of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance and multiple myeloma between blacks and whites.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, A J; Vachon, C M; Rajkumar, S V

    2012-04-01

    There is marked racial disparity in the incidence of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) and multiple myeloma, with a two to threefold increased risk in blacks compared with whites. The increased risk has been seen both in Africans and African Americans. Similarly, an increased risk of monoclonal gammopathies in blacks compared with whites has been noted after adjusting for socioeconomic and other risk factors, suggesting a genetic predisposition. The higher risk of multiple myeloma in blacks is likely a result of the higher prevalence of the premalignant MGUS stage; there are no data to suggest that blacks have a higher progression rate of MGUS to myeloma. Studies are emerging that suggest the baseline cytogenetic characteristics, and progression may differ by race. In contrast, to the increased risk noted in blacks, studies suggest that the risk may be lower in certain racial and ethnic groups, notably persons from Japan and Mexico. We review the literature on racial disparity in the prevalence, pathogenesis and progression of MGUS and multiple myeloma between blacks and whites. We also discuss future directions for research that could inform management of these conditions and positively influence patient outcomes.

  20. Gluten-free dough-making of specialty breads: Significance of blended starches, flours and additives on dough behaviour.

    PubMed

    Collar, Concha; Conte, Paola; Fadda, Costantino; Piga, Antonio

    2015-10-01

    The capability of different gluten-free (GF) basic formulations made of flour (rice, amaranth and chickpea) and starch (corn and cassava) blends, to make machinable and viscoelastic GF-doughs in absence/presence of single hydrocolloids (guar gum, locust bean and psyllium fibre), proteins (milk and egg white) and surfactants (neutral, anionic and vegetable oil) have been investigated. Macroscopic (high deformation) and macromolecular (small deformation) mechanical, viscometric (gelatinization, pasting, gelling) and thermal (gelatinization, melting, retrogradation) approaches were performed on the different matrices in order to (a) identify similarities and differences in GF-doughs in terms of a small number of rheological and thermal analytical parameters according to the formulations and (b) to assess single and interactive effects of basic ingredients and additives on GF-dough performance to achieve GF-flat breads. Larger values for the static and dynamic mechanical characteristics and higher viscometric profiles during both cooking and cooling corresponded to doughs formulated with guar gum and Psyllium fibre added to rice flour/starch and rice flour/corn starch/chickpea flour, while surfactant- and protein-formulated GF-doughs added to rice flour/starch/amaranth flour based GF-doughs exhibited intermediate and lower values for the mechanical parameters and poorer viscometric profiles. In addition, additive-free formulations exhibited higher values for the temperature of both gelatinization and retrogradation and lower enthalpies for the thermal transitions. Single addition of 10% of either chickpea flour or amaranth flour to rice flour/starch blends provided a large GF-dough hardening effect in presence of corn starch and an intermediate effect in presence of cassava starch (chickpea), and an intermediate reinforcement of GF-dough regardless the source of starch (amaranth). At macromolecular level, both chickpea and amaranth flours, singly added, determined

  1. Significant photoelectric property change caused by additional nano-confinement: a study of half-dimensional nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Chengming; Song, Jinhui

    2014-12-29

    How properties change as 1D nanomaterials reduce in length to 0D, that is, the properties of 0.5D nanomaterial, are studied via photoelectric changes in ZnO nanowires. The photoelectric property of this 0.5D nanomaterial changes significantly as the 3D nanoconfinement is reinforced. This finding can be expanded to more properties and materials to profoundly impact fields of nanoscience, nanodevices, and nanoelectronics.

  2. Significantly enhanced production of acarbose in fed-batch fermentation with the addition of S-adenosylmethionine.

    PubMed

    Sun, Li-Hui; Li, Ming-Gang; Wang, Yuan-Shan; Zheng, Yu-Guo

    2012-06-01

    Acarbose, a pseudo-oligosaccharide, is widely used clinically in therapies for non-insulin-dependent diabetes. In the present study, S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) was added to selected media in order to investigate its effect on acarbose fermentation by Actinoplanes utahensis ZJB- 08196. Acarbose titer was seen to increase markedly when concentrations of SAM were added over a period of time. The effects of glucose and maltose on the production of acarbose were investigated in both batch and fed-batch fermentation. Optimal acarbose production was observed at relatively low glucose levels and high maltose levels. Based on these results, a further fed-batch experiment was designed so as to enhance the production of acarbose. Fed-batch fermentation was carried out at an initial glucose level of 10 g/l and an initial maltose level of 60 g/l. Then, 12 h post inoculation, 100 micromol/l SAM was added. In addition, 8 g/l of glucose was added every 24 h, and 20 g/l of maltose was added at 96 h. By way of this novel feeding strategy, the maximum titer of acarbose achieved was 6,113 mg/l at 192 h. To our knowledge, the production level of acarbose achieved in this study is the highest ever reported.

  3. TMPRSS2-ERG Fusion Gene Expression in Prostate Tumor Cells and Its Clinical and Biological Significance in Prostate Cancer Progression

    PubMed Central

    St. John, Jason; Powell, Katelyn; Conley-LaComb, M. Katie; Chinni, Sreenivasa R.

    2012-01-01

    TMPRSS2-Ets gene fusions were identified in prostate cancers where the promoter of transmembrane protease, serine 2 (TMPRSS2) fused with coding sequence of the erythroblastosis virus E26 (Ets) gene family members. TMPRSS2 is an androgen responsive transmembrane serine protease. Ets family members are oncogenic transcription factors that contain a highly conserved Ets DNA binding domain and an N-terminal regulatory domain. Fusion of these gene results in androgen dependent transcription of Ets factor in prostate tumor cells. The ERG is the most common fusion partner with TMPRSS2 promoter in prostate cancer patients. The high prevalence of these gene fusions, in particular TMPRSS2-ERG, makes them attractive as potential diagnostic and prognostic indicators, as well as making them a potential target for tailored therapies. This review focuses on the clinical and biological significance of TMPRSS2-ERG fusions and their role in PC development and progression. PMID:23264855

  4. Anti-Platelet Factor 4/Heparin Antibody Plays a Significant Role in Progression of Arterial Stiffness among Hemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Chieh; Tsai, Chiang-Chin; Chen, Chien-An; Tsai, Yueh-Feng; Chen, Yen-Hsun

    2017-01-01

    Background Arterial stiffness is a determinant of cardiovascular disease in end stage renal disease. Hemodialysis patients may develop anti-platelet factor 4/heparin antibody (PF4-H Ab) because of heparin treatment in dialysis. We tested whether PF4-H Ab was associated with progression of arterial stiffness in a 3-year follow-up. Methods We enrolled 74 hemodialysis patients and studied their clinical, biochemical and arterial stiffness measurement with brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) over 3 years. Baseline and changes in baPWV after 3 years (ΔbaPWV) were collected and compared with related clinical and biochemical parameters. PF4-H Ab was evaluated by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and titer ≥ 0.4 was defined to have PF4-H Ab. Results We found a positive PF4-H Ab status in 25 of 74 patients. Mean baPWV was 16.1 ± 3.8 (m/s) at baseline and 17.6 ± 4.0 (m/s) after 3 years. Mean ΔbaPWV was 3.4 ± 2.2 (m/s) in the PF4-H Ab positive group, and 0.6 ± 1.2 (m/s) in the PF4-H Ab negative group. Baseline baPWV was only significantly associated with age (β = 0.49, p < 0.01). ΔbaPWV was significantly different between the PF4-H Ab positive and negative groups (p < 0.01). In multivariate regression analysis, only PF4-H Ab was positively associated with ΔbaPWV (β = 0.71, p < 0.01). Conclusions Our study concluded that PF4-H Ab was associated with progression of arterial stiffness in hemodialysis patients. PMID:28344423

  5. The Significance of Long Noncoding RNA H19 in Predicting Progression and Metastasis of Cancers: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Shan-shan

    2016-01-01

    Recently, numerous studies indicate that H19 plays a key role in tumorigenesis, but the results have been disputed, especially in the aspects of tumor progression and metastasis. Therefore, we performed this meta-analysis to systematically summarize the relationship between H19 and cancers. We searched PubMed, the Cochrane Library, CNKI, and Chinese Wan Fang to identify eligible studies. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated to assess the effect size. A total of 13 studies were enrolled in this meta-analysis, which was performed by Revman5.3 and Stata11.0 software. Our meta-analysis showed that the expression of H19 was associated with distant metastasis in nongastrointestinal tumors (OR = 3.85, 95% CI = 1.31–11.36, P = 0.01) and, in gastrointestinal tumors (OR = 0.34, 95% CI = 0.15–0.78, P = 0.01), lymph node metastasis (OR = 2.04, 95% CI = 1.19–3.48, P = 0.009). Moreover, in gastric cancer, H19 expression was significantly related to histological grade (OR = 0.50, 95% CI = 0.29–0.86, P = 0.01), TNM stage (OR = 0.19, 95% CI = 0.11–0.33, P < 0.01), and tumor invasion depth (OR = 0.11, 95% CI = 0.04–0.27, P < 0.01). Therefore, H19 could serve as a potential marker for progression and metastasis evaluation of cancers. PMID:27672656

  6. Wavefront holoscopy: application of digital in-line holography for the inspection of engraved marks in progressive addition lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perucho, Beatriz; Micó, Vicente

    2014-01-01

    Progressive addition lenses (PALs) are engraved with permanent marks at standardized locations in order to guarantee correct centering and alignment throughout the manufacturing and mounting processes. Out of the production line, engraved marks provide useful information about the PAL as well as act as locator marks to re-ink again the removable marks. Even though those marks should be visible by simple visual inspection with the naked eye, engraving marks are often faint and weak, obscured by scratches, and partially occluded and difficult to recognize on tinted or antireflection-coated lenses. Here, we present an extremely simple optical device (named as wavefront holoscope) for visualization and characterization of permanent marks in PAL based on digital in-line holography. Essentially, a point source of coherent light illuminates the engraved mark placed just before a CCD camera that records a classical Gabor in-line hologram. The recorded hologram is then digitally processed to provide a set of high-contrast images of the engraved marks. Experimental results are presented showing the applicability of the proposed method as a new ophthalmic instrument for visualization and characterization of engraved marks in PALs.

  7. The addition of rituximab to fludarabine and cyclophosphamide chemotherapy results in a significant improvement in overall survival in patients with newly diagnosed mantle cell lymphoma: results of a randomized UK National Cancer Research Institute trial

    PubMed Central

    Rule, Simon; Smith, Paul; Johnson, Peter W.M.; Bolam, Simon; Follows, George; Gambell, Joanne; Hillmen, Peter; Jack, Andrew; Johnson, Stephen; Kirkwood, Amy A; Kruger, Anton; Pocock, Christopher; Seymour, John F.; Toncheva, Milena; Walewski, Jan; Linch, David

    2016-01-01

    Mantle cell lymphoma is an incurable and generally aggressive lymphoma that is more common in elderly patients. Whilst a number of different chemotherapeutic regimens are active in this disease, there is no established gold standard therapy. Rituximab has been used widely to good effect in B-cell malignancies but there is no evidence that it improves outcomes when added to chemotherapy in this disease. We performed a randomized, open-label, multicenter study looking at the addition of rituximab to the standard chemotherapy regimen of fludarabine and cyclophosphamide in patients with newly diagnosed mantle cell lymphoma. A total of 370 patients were randomized. With a median follow up of six years, rituximab improved the median progression-free survival from 14.9 to 29.8 months (P<0.001) and overall survival from 37.0 to 44.5 months (P=0.005). This equates to absolute differences of 9.0% and 22.1% for overall and progression-free survival, respectively, at two years. Overall response rates were similar, but complete response rates were significantly higher in the rituximab arm: 52.7% vs. 39.9% (P=0.014). There was no clinically significant additional toxicity observed with the addition of rituximab. Overall, approximately 18% of patients died of non-lymphomatous causes, most commonly infections. The addition of rituximab to fludarabine and cyclophosphamide chemotherapy significantly improves outcomes in patients with mantle cell lymphoma. However, these regimens have significant late toxicity and should be used with caution. This trial has been registered (ISRCTN81133184 and clinicaltrials.gov:00641095) and is supported by the UK National Cancer Research Network. PMID:26611473

  8. The addition of rituximab to fludarabine and cyclophosphamide chemotherapy results in a significant improvement in overall survival in patients with newly diagnosed mantle cell lymphoma: results of a randomized UK National Cancer Research Institute trial.

    PubMed

    Rule, Simon; Smith, Paul; Johnson, Peter W M; Bolam, Simon; Follows, George; Gambell, Joanne; Hillmen, Peter; Jack, Andrew; Johnson, Stephen; Kirkwood, Amy A; Kruger, Anton; Pocock, Christopher; Seymour, John F; Toncheva, Milena; Walewski, Jan; Linch, David

    2016-02-01

    Mantle cell lymphoma is an incurable and generally aggressive lymphoma that is more common in elderly patients. Whilst a number of different chemotherapeutic regimens are active in this disease, there is no established gold standard therapy. Rituximab has been used widely to good effect in B-cell malignancies but there is no evidence that it improves outcomes when added to chemotherapy in this disease. We performed a randomized, open-label, multicenter study looking at the addition of rituximab to the standard chemotherapy regimen of fludarabine and cyclophosphamide in patients with newly diagnosed mantle cell lymphoma. A total of 370 patients were randomized. With a median follow up of six years, rituximab improved the median progression-free survival from 14.9 to 29.8 months (P<0.001) and overall survival from 37.0 to 44.5 months (P=0.005). This equates to absolute differences of 9.0% and 22.1% for overall and progression-free survival, respectively, at two years. Overall response rates were similar, but complete response rates were significantly higher in the rituximab arm: 52.7% vs. 39.9% (P=0.014). There was no clinically significant additional toxicity observed with the addition of rituximab. Overall, approximately 18% of patients died of non-lymphomatous causes, most commonly infections. The addition of rituximab to fludarabine and cyclophosphamide chemotherapy significantly improves outcomes in patients with mantle cell lymphoma. However, these regimens have significant late toxicity and should be used with caution. This trial has been registered (ISRCTN81133184 and clinicaltrials.gov:00641095) and is supported by the UK National Cancer Research Network.

  9. Background Languages, Learner Motivation and Self-Assessed Progress in Learning Zulu as an Additional Language in the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marten, Lutz; Mostert, Carola

    2012-01-01

    The article reports results of a study of beginner-level learners of Zulu in higher education in the UK, focussing on learners' linguistic background, their motivation and reasons for studying Zulu, and their self-assessed progress at the beginning of the second term of teaching. The study shows that participants typically studied Zulu as an…

  10. Tribological characteristics of bisphenol AF bis(diphenyl phosphate) as an antiwear additive in polyalkylene glycol and polyurea grease for significantly improved lubrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Lili; Wu, Xinhu; Zhao, Gaiqing; Wang, Xiaobo

    2016-02-01

    A new antiwear additive of Bisphenol AF bis(diphenyl phosphate) (BAFDP) was synthesized and characterized. The tribological behaviors of the additive for polyalkylene glycol (PAG) and polyurea grease (PG) application in steel/steel contacts were evaluated on an Optimol SRV-IV oscillating reciprocating friction and wear tester at elevated temperature. The results revealed that BAFDP could drastically reduce friction and wear of sliding pairs in both PAG and also in PG at 100 °C. The tribological properties of BAFDP are superior to the normally used zinc dialkyldithiophosphate-based additive package (ZDDP) in PAG and PG. Moreover, BAFDP as additive for PAG and PG displays relatively significant tribological properties in temperature-ramp tests by performing well at 50-300 °C, indicating the excellent high temperature friction reduction and anti-wear capacity of BAFDP. XPS results showed that boundary lubrication films composed of Fe(OH)O, Fe3O4, FePO4, FeF2, FeF3, compounds containing the Psbnd O bonds, nitrogen oxide, and so forth, were formed on the worn surface, which contributed to excellent friction reduction and antiwear performance.

  11. An additive effect of eplerenone to ACE inhibitor on slowing the progression of diabetic nephropathy in the db/db mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Guangyu; Johansson, Ulrika; Peng, Xiao-Rong; Bamberg, Krister; Huang, Yufeng

    2016-01-01

    Although blockade of the renin-angiotensin-system (RAS) has become standard therapy for diabetic nephropathy (DN), decline in kidney function towards end-stage renal disease is seen in many patients. Elevated plasma aldosterone often accompanies RAS blockade by a phenomenon known as “aldosterone escape” and activates the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR). We therefore examined whether addition of the MR antagonist eplerenone to an ACEI would enhance the efficacy in slowing the progression of DN. Untreated uninephrectomized diabetic db/db mice developed progressive albuminuria and glomerulosclerosis between weeks 18 and 22, associated with decreased number of podocytes and increased renal expression of fibrotic markers. The therapeutic effect of eplerenone at 100 mg/kg BW/d on albuminuria, podocyte injury and renal fibrosis was similar to that of enalapril given alone at maximally effective doses. Adding eplerenone to enalapril resulted in further reduction in these measurements. Renal expressions of TNF-α, MCP-1, Nox2 and p47phox and renal TBARS levels, markers of inflammation and oxidative stress, were increased during disease progression in diabetic mice, which were reduced by eplerenone or enalapril given alone and further reduced by the two drugs given in combination. However, there were no treatment related effects on plasma K+. Our results suggest that eplerenone is effective in slowing the progression of DN in db/db mice and that the effect is additive to an ACEI. The addition of an MR antagonist void of effects on plasma K+ to an ACEI may offer additional renoprotection in progressive DN via blocking the effects of aldosterone due to escape or diabetes-induction. PMID:27186263

  12. Treatment of severe hypothyroidism in a patient with progressive renal failure leads to significant improvement of renal function.

    PubMed

    van Welsem, M E; Lobatto, S

    2007-06-01

    The case of a 41-year-old patient with end-stage renal failure and diabetes mellitus Type 1 who was being prepared for renal replacement therapy is described. After severe hypothyroidism was diagnosed, thyroid hormone substitution therapy was started. Subsequently, a substantial decline in serum creatinine was observed. Creatinine clearance rose from 19 to 40 ml/min and renal replacement therapy was no longer imminent. Several studies have described the pathophysiology of diminished renal function in hypothyroidism. Few studies or case reports have shown amelioration of end-stage renal failure as seen in our patient. The etiology is presumed to be multifactorial, in which hemodynamic effects and a direct effect of thyroid hormone on the kidney play an important role. Diagnosing signs of hypothyroidism and therapy with thyroid hormone in progressive renal failure could be very important in delaying the need for renal replacement therapy.

  13. Significance of Selective Predation and Development of Prey Protection Measures for Juvenile Salmonids in the Columbia and Snake River Reservoirs: Annual Progress Report, February 1991-February 1992.

    SciTech Connect

    Poe, Thomas P.

    1992-12-31

    This document is the 1991 annual report of progress for the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) research Project conducted by the US Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS). Our approach was to present the progress achieved during 1991 in a series of separate reports for each major project task. Each report is prepared in the format of a scientific paper and is able to stand alone, whatever the state of progress or completion. This project has two major goals. One is to understand the significance of selective predation and prey vulnerability by determining if substandard juvenile salmonids (dead, injured, stressed, diseased, or naive) are more vulnerable to predation by northern squawfish, than standard or normal juvenile salmonids. The second goal is to develop and test prey protection measures to control predation on juvenile salmonids by reducing predator-smolt encounters or predator capture efficiency.

  14. Expression and clinical significance of the Kv3.4 potassium channel subunit in the development and progression of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Menéndez, Sofía Tirados; Rodrigo, Juan P; Allonca, Eva; García-Carracedo, Darío; Alvarez-Alija, Gustavo; Casado-Zapico, Sara; Fresno, Manuel F; Rodríguez, Carmen; Suárez, Carlos; García-Pedrero, Juana M

    2010-08-01

    The concept of ion channels as membrane therapeutic targets and diagnostic/prognostic biomarkers has attracted growing attention. We therefore investigated the expression pattern and clinical significance of the Kv3.4 potassium channel subunit during the development and progression of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs). KCNC4 mRNA levels were determined by real-time RT-PCR in both HNSCC tissue specimens and derived cell lines. Kv3.4 protein expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in paraffin-embedded tissue specimens from 84 patients with laryngeal/pharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas and 67 patients with laryngeal dysplasias. Molecular alterations were correlated with clinicopathological parameters and patient outcome. Increased KCNC4 mRNA levels were found in 15 (54%) of 28 tumours, compared to the corresponding normal epithelia and varied mRNA levels were detected in 12 HNSCC-derived cell lines analysed. Increased Kv3.4 protein expression was observed in 34 (40%) of 84 carcinomas and also at early stages of HNSCC tumourigenesis. Thus, 35 (52%) of 67 laryngeal lesions displayed Kv3.4-positive staining in the dysplastic areas, whereas both stromal cells and normal adjacent epithelia exhibited negligible expression. No significant correlations were found between Kv3.4-positive expression in HNSCC and clinical data; however, Kv3.4 expression tended to diminish in advanced-stage tumours. Interestingly, patients carrying Kv3.4-positive dysplasias experienced a significantly higher laryngeal cancer incidence than did those with negative lesions (p = 0.0209). In addition, functional studies using HNSCC cells revealed that inhibition of Kv3.4 expression by siRNA leads to the inhibition of cell proliferation via selective cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase without affecting apoptosis. Collectively, these data demonstrate for the first time that Kv3.4 expression is frequently increased during HNSCC tumourigenesis and correlated significantly with a

  15. Significant improvement in the critical current density of MgB2 bulks in situ sintered at low temperature by excess Mg addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Zongqing; Liu, Yongchang; Cai, Qi; Yu, Liming

    2014-01-01

    MgB2 bulks with excess Mg addition were rapidly synthesized by sintering at low temperature in present work. It is found that even after ball milling treatment of original powders, the reaction between Mg and B during subsequent low temperature sintering process was uncompleted within 5 h and there is still some residual Mg. On the other hand, the presence of residual Mg can make the sintering microstructure more homogeneous and dense, and also reduce lattice defects and mechanical strains. All the factors are contributed to the improvement of the grain connectivity in the samples with excess Mg addition sintered at low temperature compared to the reference MgB2 sample sintered at high temperature. Hence, Jc of these prepared samples is enhanced significantly across the whole measured fields. Especially, at 20 K, 2 T, the value of Jc in the 5 h-sintered MgB2 bulk with Mg addition is above 1 × 105 A cm-2. The technique developed in present work is an effective and low-cost way to further enhance Jc in the MgB2 superconductors without using expensive nanometer-size dopants.

  16. Progression of Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma Is Significantly Impeded with a Combination of Vaccine and COX-2 Inhibition1

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Pinku; Basu, Gargi D.; Tinder, Teresa L.; Subramani, Durai B.; Bradley, Judy M.; Arefayene, Million; Skaar, Todd; De Petris, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    With a 5-year survival rate of <5%, pancreatic cancer is one of the most rapidly fatal malignancies. Current protocols for the treatment of pancreas cancer are not as effective as we desire. In this study, we show that a novel Mucin-1 (MUC1)-based vaccine in combination with a cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor (celecoxib), and low-dose chemotherapy (gemcitabine) was effective in preventing the progression of preneoplastic intraepithelial lesions to invasive pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas. The study was conducted in an appropriate triple transgenic model of spontaneous pancreatic cancer induced by the KRASG12D mutation and that expresses human MUC1 as a self molecule. The combination treatment elicited robust antitumor cellular and humoral immune responses and was associated with increased apoptosis in the tumor. The mechanism for the increased immune response was attributed to the down-regulation of circulating prostaglandin E2 and indoleamine 2, 3,-dioxygenase enzymatic activity, as well as decreased levels of T regulatory and myeloid suppressor cells within the tumor microenvironment. The preclinical data provide the rationale to design clinical trials with a combination of MUC1-based vaccine, celecoxib, and gemcitabine for the treatment of pancreatic cancer. PMID:19109152

  17. Natalizumab Significantly Improves Cognitive Impairment over Three Years in MS: Pattern of Disability Progression and Preliminary MRI Findings

    PubMed Central

    Mattioli, Flavia; Stampatori, Chiara; Bellomi, Fabio; Scarpazza, Cristina; Capra, Ruggero

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies reported that Multiple Sclerosis (MS) patients treated with natalizumab for one or two years exhibit a significant reduction in relapse rate and in cognitive impairment, but the long term effects on cognitive performance are unknown. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of natalizumab on cognitive impairment in a cohort of 24 consecutive patients with relapsing remitting MS treated for 3 years. The neuropsychological tests, as well as relapse number and EDSS, were assessed at baseline and yearly for three years. The impact on cortical atrophy was also considered in a subgroup of them, and are thus to be considered as preliminary. Results showed a significant reduction in the number of impaired neuropsychological tests after three years, a significant decrease in annualized relapse rate at each time points compared to baseline and a stable EDSS. In the neuropsychological assessment, a significant improvement in memory, attention and executive function test scores was detected. Preliminary MRI data show that, while GM volume did not change at 3 years, a significantly greater parahippocampal and prefrontal gray matter density was noticed, the former correlating with neuropsychological improvement in a memory test. This study showed that therapy with Natalizumab is helpful in improving cognitive performance, and is likely to have a protective role on grey matter, over a three years follow-up. PMID:26148120

  18. Over-expression of miR-196b-5p is significantly associated with the progression of myelodysplastic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wen, Jing; Huang, Ying; Li, Hongying; Zhang, Xupai; Cheng, Peng; Deng, Donghong; Peng, Zhigang; Luo, Jun; Zhao, Weihua; Lai, Yongrong; Liu, Zhenfang

    2017-02-21

    Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is a clonal stem cell disorder characterized by ineffective hematopoiesis with a high risk of transformation to acute myeloid leukemia (AML). miRNAs function as tumor suppressors and oncogenes in various cancers and regulate the differentiation potential of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs). It has been suggested that miRNAs may play an important role in progression of MDS. We analyzed bone marrow samples collected from MDS patients according to different risk stratification indicated by the International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS). We demonstrated that miR-196b-5p was up-regulated in intermediate II and higher groups, and in secondary AML (s-AML) patients in particular (P < 0.01) compared with healthy controls, suggesting that the higher expression levels are associated with increased risk of the development of MDS. We observed changes in proliferation and apoptosis in MDS-L cells following transfection with miR-196-5p mimics or inhibitors. After up-regulating the expression of miR-196b-5p, proliferation of MDS-L cells was up-regulated, whereas apoptosis was down-regulated (P < 0.05). In contrast, down-regulation of miR-196b-5p expression decreased cell proliferation and increased apoptosis (P < 0.05). We concluded that over-expression of miR-196b-5p may be closely associated with the risk of transformation to leukemia in MDS patients.

  19. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved. Volume 14, No. 2, Part 1: Individual actions. Quarterly progress report, April--June 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (April--June 1995) and includes copies of Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to individuals with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC. The Commission believes this information may be useful to licensees in making employment decisions.

  20. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved -- individual actions. Semiannual progress report, July--December 1997; Volume 16, Number 2, Part 1

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during the period (July--December 1997) and includes copies of Orders and Notices of Violation sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to individuals with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC. The Commission believes this information may be useful to licensees in making employment decisions.

  1. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved, reactor licensees. Semiannual progress report, January--June 1997; Volume 16, Number 1, Part 2

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during the period (January--June 1997) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to reactor licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication.

  2. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved, material licensees. Semiannual progress report, July--December 1997; Volume 16, Number 2, Part 3

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during the period (July--December 1997) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to material licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication.

  3. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved reactor licensees. Quarterly progress report, October--December 1994, Volume 13, No. 4, Part 1

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October--December 1994) and includes copies of letters Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to reactor licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication.

  4. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved material licensees (non-medical). Quarterly progress report, October 1994--December 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October - December 1994) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to material licensees (non-medical) with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication.

  5. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved reactor licensees. Volume 14, No. 2, Part 2, Quarterly progress report, April--June 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (April--June 1995) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to reactor licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication.

  6. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved medical licensees. Quarterly progress report, January 1995--March 1995. Volume 14, No. 1, Part 2

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January-March 1995) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to medical licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication.

  7. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved, reactor licensees. Semiannual progress report, July--December 1997; Volume 16, Number 2, Part 2

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during the period (July--December 1997) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to reactor licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication.

  8. Expression and clinical significance of estrogen-regulated long non-coding RNAs in estrogen receptor α-positive ovarian cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Jun-Jun; Ye, Le-Chi; Ding, Jing-Xin; Feng, Wei-Wei; Jin, Hong-Yan; Zhang, Ying; Li, Qing; Hua, Ke-Qin

    2014-04-01

    Estrogen (E2) has long been implicated in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) progression. The effects of E2 on cancer progression can be mediated by numerous target genes, including coding RNAs and, more recently, non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs). Among the ncRNAs, long ncRNAs (lncRNAs) have emerged as new regulators in cancer progression; therefore, our aim was to determine whether the expression of any lncRNAs is regulated by E2 and, if so, whether a subset of these lncRNAs have some clinical significance in EOC progression. A microarray was performed to identify E2-regulated lncRNAs in E2 receptor (ER) α-positive EOC cells. Bioinformatics analyses of lncRNAs were conducted, focusing on gene ontology and pathway analyses. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reactions were performed to confirm the expression of certain lncRNAs in ERα-positive EOC tissues. The correlation between certain lncRNA expression and clinicopathological factors as well as prognosis in ERα-positive EOC patients was then analyzed. We showed that 115 lncRNAs exhibited significant changes in E2-treated SKOV3 cells compared with untreated controls. Most of these lncRNAs were predicated to have potential to contribute to cancer progression. Notably, three candidates (TC0100223, TC0101686 and TC0101441) were aberrantly expressed in ERα-positive compared to ERα-negative EOC tissues, showing correlations with some malignant cancer phenotypes such as advanced FIGO stage and/or high histological grade. Furthermore, multivariate analysis indicated that TC0101441 was an independent prognostic factor for overall survival. Taken together, these results indicate for the first time that E2 can modulate lncRNA expression in ERα-positive EOC cells and that certain lncRNAs are correlated with advanced cancer progression and suggestive of a prognostic indicator in ERα-positive EOC patients. Knowledge of these E2-regulated lncRNAs could aid in the future understanding of the estrogenic effect on EOC progression

  9. Significant thrombocytopenia associated with the addition of rituximab to a combination of fludarabine and cyclophosphamide in the treatment of relapsed follicular lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Leo, Eugen; Scheuer, Lars; Schmidt-Wolf, Ingo G H; Kerowgan, Mohammed; Schmitt, Christina; Leo, Albrecht; Baumbach, Tanja; Kraemer, Alwin; Mey, Ulrich; Benner, Axel; Parwaresch, Reza; Ho, Anthony D

    2004-10-01

    Fludarabine in combination with cyclophosphamide is an effective treatment for newly diagnosed as well as relapsed follicular lymphoma. The anti-CD20 antibody rituximab has been employed successfully for the same indications. No such data were available on a combined use of these agents. Therefore, we conducted a phase II study to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a combination of rituximab (375 mg/m2), fludarabine (4 x 25 mg/m2) and cyclophosphamide (1 x 750 mg/m2), for the treatment of relapsed follicular lymphoma. An unexpected, severe hematologic toxicity with significant, prolonged thrombocytopenias WHO grade III/IV in 6 (35%) of 17 patients treated in total occurred, leading to early termination of the trial. Cytologic and serologic analyses point toward a direct toxic effect. Older patients (mean age 64.7 vs. 56.5 yr) were significantly (P = 0.02) more likely to suffer from this toxicity, whereas no other clinical or hematologic parameter differed statistically between the patients suffering from thrombocytopenia and those who did not. The addition of rituximab to fludarabine/cyclophosphamide employed at doses given above in relapsed follicular lymphoma may have led to this increase in thrombocytopenias. Therefore, caution should be exercised when combining these drugs for the treatment of patients with relapsed follicular lymphoma, especially when treating older patients.

  10. Tumor-promoting/progressing role of additional chromosome instability in hepatic carcinogenesis in Sgo1 (Shugoshin 1) haploinsufficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Hiroshi Y.; Zhang, Yuting; Reddy, Arun; Mohammed, Altaf; Lightfoot, Stan; Dai, Wei

    2015-01-01

    A major etiological risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is infection by Hepatitis viruses, especially hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus. Hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus do not cause aggressive activation of an oncogenic pathway, but they transactivate a broad array of genes, cause chronic inflammation, and, through interference with mitotic processes, lead to mitotic error-induced chromosome instability (ME-CIN). However, how ME-CIN is involved in the development of HCC remains unclear. Delineating the effect of ME-CIN on HCC development should help in identifying measures to combat HCC. In this study, we used ME-CIN model mice haploinsufficient in Shugoshin 1 (Sgo1−/+) to assess the role of ME-CIN in HCC development. Treatment with the carcinogen azoxymethane caused Sgo1−/+ ME-CIN model mice to develop HCCs within 6 months, whereas control mice developed no HCC (P < 0.003). The HCC development was associated with expression of early HCC markers (glutamine synthetase, glypican 3, heat shock protein 70, and the serum marker alpha fetoprotein), although without fibrosis. ME-CIN preceded the expression of HCC markers, suggesting that ME-CIN is an important early event in HCC development. In 12-month-old untreated Sgo1 mice, persistent DNA damage, altered gene expression, and spontaneous HCCs were observed. Sgo1 protein accumulated in response to DNA damage in vitro. Overall, Sgo1−/+-mediated ME-CIN strongly promoted/progressed development of HCC in the presence of an initiator carcinogen, and it had a mild initiator effect by itself. Use of the ME-CIN model mice should help in identifying drugs to counteract the effects of ME-CIN and should accelerate anti-HCC drug development. PMID:25740822

  11. The effect of chemical additives on the synthesis of ethanol. Technical progress report 6, December 16, 1988--March 15, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Chuang, S.S.C.

    1989-04-30

    The objective of this research is to elucidate the role of various chemical additives on ethanol synthesis over Rh- and Ni-based catalysts. Chemical additives used for this study will include S, P, Ag, Cu, Mn, and Na which have different electronegativeities. The effect of additives on the surface state of the catalysts, heat of adsorption of reactant molecules, reaction intermediates, reaction pathways, reaction kinetics, and product distributions is/will be investigated by a series of experimental studies of NO adsorption, reactive probing, steady state rate measurement, and transient kinetic study. CO insertion is known to be a key step to the formation of acetaldehyde and ethanol from CO hydrogenation. Reaction of ethylene with syngas is used as a probe to determine CO insertion capabilities of metal catalysts. During the sixth quarter of the project, the mechanism of CO insertion on Ni/SiO{sub 2} was investigated by in-situ infrared spectroscopy. Ni/SiO{sub 2}, a methanation catalyst, has been shown to exhibit CO insertion activity. In situ infrared studies of CO/H{sub 2} and C{sub 2}H{sub 4}/CO/H{sub 2} reactions show that the carbonylation of Ni/SiO{sub 2} to Ni(CO){sub 4} leads to an inhibition of methanation in CO hydrogenation but an enhancement of formation of propionaldehyde in C{sub 2}H{sub 4}/CO/H{sub 2} reaction. The results suggest that the sites for propionaldehyde formation is different from those for methanation.

  12. Malignant progressive tumor cell clone exhibits significant up-regulation of cofilin-2 and 27-kDa modified form of cofilin-1 compared to regressive clone.

    PubMed

    Kuramitsu, Yasuhiro; Wang, Yufeng; Okada, Futoshi; Baron, Byron; Tokuda, Kazuhiro; Kitagawa, Takao; Akada, Junko; Nakamura, Kazuyuki

    2013-09-01

    QR-32 is a regressive murine fibrosarcoma cell clone which cannot grow when they are transplanted in mice; QRsP-11 is a progressive malignant tumor cell clone derived from QR-32 which shows strong tumorigenicity. A recent study showed there to be differentially expressed up-regulated and down-regulated proteins in these cells, which were identified by proteomic differential display analyses by using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. Cofilins are small proteins of less than 20 kDa. Their function is the regulation of actin assembly. Cofilin-1 is a small ubiquitous protein, and regulates actin dynamics by means of binding to actin filaments. Cofilin-1 plays roles in cell migration, proliferation and phagocytosis. Cofilin-2 is also a small protein, but it is mainly expressed in skeletal and cardiac muscles. There are many reports showing the positive correlation between the level of cofilin-1 and cancer progression. We have also reported an increased expression of cofilin-1 in pancreatic cancer tissues compared to adjacent paired normal tissues. On the other hand, cofilin-2 was significantly less expressed in pancreatic cancer tissues. Therefore, the present study investigated the comparison of the levels of cofilin-1 and cofilin-2 in regressive QR-32 and progressive QRsP-11cells by western blotting. Cofilin-2 was significantly up-regulated in QRsP-11 compared to QR-32 cells (p<0.001). On the other hand, the difference of the intensities of the bands of cofilin-1 (18 kDa) in QR-32 and QRsP-11 was not significant. However, bands of 27 kDa showed a quite different intensity between QR-32 and QRsP-11, with much higher intensities in QRsP-11 compared to QR-32 (p<0.001). These results suggested that the 27-kDa protein recognized by the antibody against cofilin-1 is a possible biomarker for progressive tumor cells.

  13. Addition of a third field significantly increases dose to the brachial plexus for patients undergoing tangential whole-breast therapy after lumpectomy

    SciTech Connect

    Stanic, Sinisa; Mathai, Mathew; Mayadev, Jyoti S.; Do, Ly V.; Purdy, James A.; Chen, Allen M.

    2012-07-01

    Our goal was to evaluate brachial plexus (BP) dose with and without the use of supraclavicular (SCL) irradiation in patients undergoing breast-conserving therapy with whole-breast radiation therapy (RT) after lumpectomy. Using the standardized Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG)-endorsed guidelines delineation, we contoured the BP for 10 postlumpectomy breast cancer patients. The radiation dose to the whole breast was 50.4 Gy using tangential fields in 1.8-Gy fractions, followed by a conedown to the operative bed using electrons (10 Gy). The prescription dose to the SCL field was 50.4 Gy, delivered to 3-cm depth. The mean BP volume was 14.5 {+-} 1.5 cm{sup 3}. With tangential fields alone, the median mean dose to the BP was 0.57 Gy, the median maximum dose was 1.93 Gy, and the irradiated volume of the BP receiving 40, 45, and 50 Gy was 0%. When the third (SCL field) was added, the dose to the BP was significantly increased (P = .01): the median mean dose to the BP was 40.60 Gy, and the median maximum dose was 52.22 Gy. With 3-field RT, the median irradiated volume of the BP receiving 40, 45, and 50 Gy was 83.5%, 68.5%, and 24.6%, respectively. The addition of the SCL field significantly increases dose to the BP. The possibility of increasing the risk of BP morbidity should be considered in the context of clinical decision making.

  14. An additional fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl (Fmoc) moiety in di-Fmoc-functionalized L-lysine induces pH-controlled ambidextrous gelation with significant advantages.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Samala Murali Mohan; Shanmugam, Ganesh; Duraipandy, Natarajan; Kiran, Manikantan Syamala; Mandal, Asit Baran

    2015-11-07

    In recent years, several fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl (Fmoc)-functionalized amino acids and peptides have been used to construct hydrogels, which find a wide range of applications. Although several hydrogels have been prepared from mono Fmoc-functionalized amino acids, herein, we demonstrate the importance of an additional Fmoc-moiety in the hydrogelation of double Fmoc-functionalized L-lysine [Fmoc(Nα)-L-lysine(NεFmoc)-OH, (Fmoc-K(Fmoc))] as a low molecular weight gelator (LMWG). Unlike other Fmoc-functionalized amino acid gelators, Fmoc-K(Fmoc) exhibits pH-controlled ambidextrous gelation (hydrogelation at different pH values as well as organogelation), which is significant among the gelators. Distinct fibrous morphologies were observed for Fmoc-K(Fmoc) hydrogels formed at different pH values, which are different from organogels in which Fmoc-K(Fmoc) showed bundles of long fibers. In both hydrogels and organogels, the self-assembly of Fmoc-K(Fmoc) was driven by aromatic π-π stacking and hydrogen bonding interactions, as evidenced from spectroscopic analyses. Characterization of Fmoc-K(Fmoc) gels using several biophysical methods indicates that Fmoc-K(Fmoc) has several advantages and significant importance as a LMWG. The advantages of Fmoc-K(Fmoc) include pH-controlled ambidextrous gelation, pH stimulus response, high thermal stability (∼100 °C) even at low minimum hydrogelation concentration (0.1 wt%), thixotropic property, high kinetic and mechanical stability, dye removal properties, cell viability to the selected cell type, and as a drug carrier. While single Fmoc-functionalized L-lysine amino acids failed to exhibit gelation under similar experimental conditions, the pH-controlled ambidextrous gelation of Fmoc-K(Fmoc) demonstrates the benefit of a second Fmoc moiety in inducing gelation in a LMWG. We thus strongly believe that the current findings provide a lead to construct or design various new synthetic Fmoc-based LMW organic gelators for several

  15. Addition of an N-terminal epitope tag significantly increases the activity of plant fatty acid desaturases expressed in yeast cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae shows great potential for development of bioreactor systems geared towards the production of high-value lipids such as polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids, the yields of which are largely dependent on the activity of ectopically-expressed enzymes. Here we show that the addit...

  16. Hydrogen bonding mediated enantioselective organocatalysis in brine: significant rate acceleration and enhanced stereoselectivity in enantioselective Michael addition reactions of 1,3-dicarbonyls to β-nitroolefins.

    PubMed

    Bae, Han Yong; Some, Surajit; Oh, Joong Suk; Lee, Yong Seop; Song, Choong Eui

    2011-09-14

    Brine provides remarkable rate acceleration and a higher level of stereoselectivity over organic solvents, due to the hydrophobic hydration effect, in the enantioselective Michael addition reactions of 1,3-dicarbonyls to β-nitroolefins using chiral H-donors as organocatalysts.

  17. Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) and smoldering (asymptomatic) multiple myeloma: IMWG consensus perspectives risk factors for progression and guidelines for monitoring and management.

    PubMed

    Kyle, R A; Durie, B G M; Rajkumar, S V; Landgren, O; Blade, J; Merlini, G; Kröger, N; Einsele, H; Vesole, D H; Dimopoulos, M; San Miguel, J; Avet-Loiseau, H; Hajek, R; Chen, W M; Anderson, K C; Ludwig, H; Sonneveld, P; Pavlovsky, S; Palumbo, A; Richardson, P G; Barlogie, B; Greipp, P; Vescio, R; Turesson, I; Westin, J; Boccadoro, M

    2010-06-01

    Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) was identified in 3.2% of 21 463 residents of Olmsted County, Minnesota, 50 years of age or older. The risk of progression to multiple myeloma, Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia, AL amyloidosis or a lymphoproliferative disorder is approximately 1% per year. Low-risk MGUS is characterized by having an M protein <15 g/l, IgG type and a normal free light chain (FLC) ratio. Patients should be followed with serum protein electrophoresis at six months and, if stable, can be followed every 2-3 years or when symptoms suggestive of a plasma cell malignancy arise. Patients with intermediate and high-risk MGUS should be followed in 6 months and then annually for life. The risk of smoldering (asymptomatic) multiple myeloma (SMM) progressing to multiple myeloma or a related disorder is 10% per year for the first 5 years, 3% per year for the next 5 years and 1-2% per year for the next 10 years. Testing should be done 2-3 months after the initial recognition of SMM. If the results are stable, the patient should be followed every 4-6 months for 1 year and, if stable, every 6-12 months.

  18. Prevalence and Risk of Progression of Light-Chain Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance (LC-MGUS): A newly defined entity

    PubMed Central

    Dispenzieri, Angela; Katzmann, Jerry A.; Kyle, Robert A.; Larson, Dirk R.; Melton, L. Joseph; Colby, Colin L.; Therneau, Terry M.; Clark, Raynell; Kumar, Shaji K.; Bradwell, Arthur; Fonseca, Rafael; Jelinek, D. F.; Rajkumar, S. Vincent

    2010-01-01

    Background Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) is a common premalignant plasma cell disorder defined by evidence of immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH expression). MGUS is the precursor lesion for most cases of multiple myeloma (MM), but up to 20% of MM is characterized by complete lack of IgH expression; the prevalence of a corresponding precursor entity, light chain MGUS (LC-MGUS) is unknown. Methods We studied 18,357 Olmsted County, Minnesota, residents age 50 years or older with the serum free light chain (FLC) assay. LC-MGUS was defined as an abnormal FLC-R with complete lack of IgH expression, plus elevation in the appropriate involved FLC. Findings An abnormal FLC-R was observed in 3.3% persons tested. Of these, 213 had IgH expression on immunofixation diagnostic of conventional MGUS, 57 of whom were previously undetected. Among the remaining 397 individuals, 146 had elevation of at least one FLC and met criteria for LC-MGUS. The prevalence of LC-MGUS was 0.8%, bringing the overall prevalence of MGUS+LC-MGUS to 4.2% among persons age 50-years and older. The risk of progression to MM among the LC-MGUS patients was 0.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.1 to 0.8%)/year. Twenty-three percent of LC-MGUS patients had renal disease either at the time of or subsequent to acquisition of the test sample. Interpretation LC-MGUS is prevalent in approximately 1% of a predominantly Caucasian, general population and poses a risk of progression to light-chain MM and related conditions comparable to that of low-risk MGUS. LC-MGUS was also associated with a risk for renal disease. PMID:20472173

  19. Clinical significance of Anoctamin-1 gene at 11q13 in the development and progression of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigo, Juan P.; Menéndez, Sofía Tirados; Hermida-Prado, Francisco; Álvarez-Teijeiro, Saúl; Villaronga, M. Ángeles; Alonso-Durán, Laura; Vallina, Aitana; Martínez-Camblor, Pablo; Astudillo, Aurora; Suárez, Carlos; María García-Pedrero, Juana

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the clinical significance of Anoctamin-1 gene mapping at 11q13 amplicon in both the development and progression of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC). ANO1 protein expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in a cohort of 372 surgically treated HNSCC patients and also in 35 laryngeal precancerous lesions. ANO1 gene amplification was determined by real-time PCR in all the laryngeal premalignancies and 60 of the HNSCCs, and molecular data correlated with clinical outcome. ANO1 gene amplification was frequently detected in both premalignant lesions (63%) and HNSCC tumours (58%), whereas concomitant ANO1 expression occurred at a much lower frequency (20 and 22%). Interestingly, laryngeal dysplasias harbouring ANO1 gene amplification showed a higher risk of malignant transformation (HR = 3.62; 95% CI 0.79–16.57; P = 0.097; Cox regression). ANO1 expression and gene amplification showed no significant associations with clinicopathological parameters in HNSCC. However, remarkably ANO1 expression differentially influenced patient survival depending on the tumour site. Collectively, this study provides original evidence demonstrating the distinctive impact of ANO1 expression on HNSCC prognosis depending on the tumour site. PMID:26498851

  20. Clinical significance of Anoctamin-1 gene at 11q13 in the development and progression of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Rodrigo, Juan P; Menéndez, Sofía Tirados; Hermida-Prado, Francisco; Álvarez-Teijeiro, Saúl; Villaronga, M Ángeles; Alonso-Durán, Laura; Vallina, Aitana; Martínez-Camblor, Pablo; Astudillo, Aurora; Suárez, Carlos; María García-Pedrero, Juana

    2015-10-26

    This study investigates the clinical significance of Anoctamin-1 gene mapping at 11q13 amplicon in both the development and progression of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC). ANO1 protein expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in a cohort of 372 surgically treated HNSCC patients and also in 35 laryngeal precancerous lesions. ANO1 gene amplification was determined by real-time PCR in all the laryngeal premalignancies and 60 of the HNSCCs, and molecular data correlated with clinical outcome. ANO1 gene amplification was frequently detected in both premalignant lesions (63%) and HNSCC tumours (58%), whereas concomitant ANO1 expression occurred at a much lower frequency (20 and 22%). Interestingly, laryngeal dysplasias harbouring ANO1 gene amplification showed a higher risk of malignant transformation (HR = 3.62; 95% CI 0.79-16.57; P = 0.097; Cox regression). ANO1 expression and gene amplification showed no significant associations with clinicopathological parameters in HNSCC. However, remarkably ANO1 expression differentially influenced patient survival depending on the tumour site. Collectively, this study provides original evidence demonstrating the distinctive impact of ANO1 expression on HNSCC prognosis depending on the tumour site.

  1. Recovery of genomic DNA from archived PCR product mixes for subsequent multiplex amplification and typing of additional loci: forensic significance for older unsolved criminal cases.

    PubMed

    Patchett, Kylie L; Cox, Ken J; Burns, Dennis M

    2002-07-01

    A method for genomic DNA recovery from different types of PCR product mixes suitable for multiplex amplification and typing using the Profiler Plus STR typing system has been investigated. The application of this method is of significance in cases where the original DNA samples have been exhausted due to repeated typing analyses in an effort to maximize their evidentiary value. Such cases typically involve samples analyzed using the available DNA typing systems of the time which gave a markedly lower power of discrimination, either alone or in combination, compared to that of modern multiplex STR typing systems. It was found that an effective method for recovering genomic DNA from HLA-DQA1 +PM and CTT triplex amplification mixes, suitable for reproducible achievement of the complete Profiler Plus profile, involved the use of Amicon Microcon-100 microconcentrators. Interestingly, this method was not required to achieve the complete nine STR profile using D1S80 amplification mixes.

  2. Re-sequencing of the APOL1-APOL4 and MYH9 gene regions in African Americans does not identify additional risks for CKD progression

    PubMed Central

    Hawkins, Gregory A.; Friedman, David J.; Lu, Lingyi; McWilliams, David R.; Chou, Jeff W.; Sajuthi, Satria; Divers, Jasmin; Parekh, Rulan; Li, Man; Genovese, Giulio; Pollak, Martin R.; Hicks, Pamela J.; Bowden, Donald W.; Ma, Lijun; Freedman, Barry I.; Langefeld, Carl D.

    2015-01-01

    Background APOL1 G1 and G2 nephropathy risk variants are associated with non-diabetic end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) in African Americans (AAs) in an autosomal recessive pattern. Additional risk and protective genetic variants may be present near the APOL1 loci since earlier age ESKD is observed in some AAs with one APOL1 renal-risk variant and because the adjacent gene MYH9 is associated with nephropathy in populations lacking G1 and G2 variants. Methods Re-sequencing was performed across a ~275 kb region encompassing the APOL1-APOL4 and MYH9 genes in 154 AA cases with non-diabetic ESKD and 38 controls without nephropathy who were heterozygous for a single APOL1 G1 or G2 risk variant. Results Sequencing identified 3246 non-coding single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), 55 coding SNPs, and 246 insertion/deletions (InDels). No new coding variations were identified. Eleven variants, including a rare APOL3 Gln58Ter null variant (rs11089781), were genotyped in a replication panel of 1571 AA ESKD cases and 1334 controls. After adjusting for APOL1 G1 and G2 risk effects, these variations were not significantly associated with ESKD. In subjects with <2 APOL1 G1 and/or G2 alleles (849 cases; 1139 controls), the APOL3 null variant was nominally associated with ESKD (recessive model, OR 1.81; p=0.026); however, analysis in 807 AA cases and 634 controls from the Family Investigation of Nephropathy and Diabetes (FIND) did not replicate this association. Conclusion Additional common variants in the APOL1-APOL4-MYH9 region do not contribute significantly to ESKD risk beyond the APOL1 G1 and G2 alleles. PMID:26343748

  3. [The significance of activities in the Imperial Orthodox Palestine Society for progression of medicine in the Middle East (to the 130th anniversary of foundation)].

    PubMed

    Gorelova, L Ye; Afanasiyeva, Ye A

    2012-01-01

    The article deals with the history of foundation of the Imperial Orthodox Palestine Society in Jerusalem and its input into progression of medicine in the Middle east. The medical activity of Russian physicians in medical institutions of the Society is reflected too.

  4. Marker-Based Estimates Reveal Significant Non-additive Effects in Clonally Propagated Cassava (Manihot esculenta): Implications for the Prediction of Total Genetic Value and the Selection of Varieties.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Marnin D; Kulakow, Peter; Rabbi, Ismail Y; Jannink, Jean-Luc

    2016-08-31

    In clonally propagated crops, non-additive genetic effects can be effectively exploited by the identification of superior genetic individuals as varieties. Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a clonally propagated staple food crop that feeds hundreds of millions. We quantified the amount and nature of non-additive genetic variation for three key traits in a breeding population of cassava from sub-Saharan Africa using additive and non-additive genome-wide marker-based relationship matrices. We then assessed the accuracy of genomic prediction for total (additive plus non-additive) genetic value. We confirmed previous findings based on diallel populations, that non-additive genetic variation is significant for key cassava traits. Specifically, we found that dominance is particularly important for root yield and epistasis contributes strongly to variation in CMD resistance. Further, we showed that total genetic value predicted observed phenotypes more accurately than additive only models for root yield but not for dry matter content, which is mostly additive or for CMD resistance, which has high narrow-sense heritability. We address the implication of these results for cassava breeding and put our work in the context of previous results in cassava, and other plant and animal species.

  5. The Significance of α-Synuclein, Amyloid-β and Tau Pathologies in Parkinson’s Disease Progression and Related Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Compta, Y.; Parkkinen, L.; Kempster, P.; Selikhova, M.; Lashley, T.; Holton, J.L.; Lees, A.J.; Revesz, T.

    2014-01-01

    Background Dementia is one of the milestones of advanced Parkinson’s disease (PD), with its neuropathological substrate still being a matter of debate, particularly regarding its potential mechanistic implications. Objective The aim of this study was to review the relative importance of Lewy-related α-synuclein and Alzheimer’s tau and amyloid-β (Aβ) pathologies in disease progression and dementia in PD. Methods We reviewed studies conducted at the Queen Square Brain Bank, Institute of Neurology, University College London, using large PD cohorts. Results Cortical Lewy- and Alzheimer-type pathologies are associated with milestones of poorer prognosis and with non-tremor predominance, which have been, in turn, linked to dementia. The combination of these pathologies is the most robust neuropathological substrate of PD-related dementia, with cortical Aβ burden determining a faster progression to dementia. Conclusion The shared relevance of these pathologies in PD progression and dementia is in line with experimental data suggesting synergism between α-synuclein, tau and Aβ and with studies testing these proteins as disease biomarkers, hence favouring the eventual testing of therapeutic strategies targeting these proteins in PD. PMID:24028925

  6. Sulfate specifications as a constraint to gypsum addition to cement and possible replacement of gypsum as an additive. Phase I. Final quarterly technical progress report, December 1979-January-February 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Kantro, D.L.

    1980-04-01

    The results obtained during this quarter indicate that, based on x ray diffraction observations, rapid uptake of sulfate can be effected in low C/sub 3/A systems. This uptake is of sulfate accompanying akali and is by the aluminoferrite phase. Expansion studies indicate low expansions by low C/sub 3/A systems. Further reductions in expansion occur with the use of admixtures. The lowest expansions occur in high alkai sulfate containing systems. This result is consistent with the observation of rapid sulfate uptake in such systems. Carbonate addition results indicate that increasing carbonate content decreases rate and extent of outside sulfate attack. With respect to compressive strength, there appears to be an optimum value for carbonate addition to a high akali-high C/sub 3/A clinker. Addition of ground dolomite gives results similar to those for limestone. Use of a high-fineness limestone has a strength-enhancing effect and no adverse effect on flow.

  7. The effect of chemical additives on the synthesis of ethanol. Technical progress report No. 9, September 16, 1989--December 15, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Chuang, S.S.C.

    1990-04-09

    The objective of this research is to elucidate the role of various chemical additives on ethanol synthesis over Rh- and Ni-based catalysts. Chemical additives used for this study will include S, P, Ag, Cu, Mn, and Na which have different electronegativities. The effect of additives on the surface state of the catalysts, heat of adsorption of reactant molecules, reaction intermediates, reaction pathways, reaction kinetics, and product distributions is/will be investigated by a series of experimental studies of NO adsorption, reaction probing, study state rate measurement, and transient kinetic study. A better understanding of the role of additive on the synthesis reaction may allow us to use chemical additives to manipulate the catalytic properties of Rh- and Ni-based catalysts for producing high yields of ethanol from syngas.

  8. The effect of chemical additives on the synthesis of ethanol. Technical progress report No. 10, December 16, 1989--March 15, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Chuang, S.S.C.

    1990-07-01

    The objective of this research is to elucidate the role of various chemical additives on ethanol synthesis over Rh- and Ni-based catalysts. Chemical additives used for this study will include S, P, Ag, Cu, Mn, and Na which have different electronegativities. The effect of additives on the surface state of the catalysts, heat of adsorption of reactant molecules, reaction intermediates, reaction pathways, reaction kinetics, and product distributions is/will be investigated by a series of experimental studies of NO adsorption, reaction probing, study state rate measurement, and transient kinetic study. A better understanding of the role of additive on the synthesis reaction may allow us to use chemical additives to manipulate the catalytic properties of Rh- and Ni-based catalysts for producing high yields of ethanol from syngas.

  9. Hepatic Fibrosis Progression in HIV-Hepatitis C Virus Co-Infection – The Effect of Sex on Risk of Significant Fibrosis Measured by Aspartate-to-Platelet Ratio Index

    PubMed Central

    Rollet-Kurhajec, Kathleen C.; Moodie, Erica E. M.; Walmsley, Sharon; Cooper, Curtis; Pick, Neora; Klein, Marina B.

    2015-01-01

    Background In Hepatitis C virus (HCV) mono-infection, male sex is associated with faster liver fibrosis progression but the effects of sex have not been well studied in HIV-HCV co-infected patients. We examined the influence of sex on progression to significant liver fibrosis in HIV-HCV co-infected adults receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) using the aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index (APRI) as a surrogate biomarker of liver fibrosis. Methods We evaluated 308 HIV infected, HCV RNA positive participants of a Canadian multicentre prospective cohort receiving antiretrovirals and without significant liver fibrosis or end-stage liver disease at baseline. We used multivariate discrete-time proportional hazards models to assess the effect of sex on time to significant fibrosis (APRI≥1.5) adjusting for baseline age, alcohol use, cigarette smoking, HCV duration, and APRI and time-updated CD4 count and HIV RNA. Results Overall, 55 (18%) participants developed an APRI ≥ 1.5 over 544 person-years of at-risk follow-up time; 18 (21%) women (incidence rate (IR)=14.0/100 PY; 7.5-20.4) and 37 (17%) men (IR=8.9/100 PY; 6.0-11.8). Women had more favourable profiles with respect to traditional risk factors for liver disease progression (younger, shorter duration of HCV infection and less alcohol use). Despite this, female sex was associated with a greater than two-fold increased risk of fibrosis progression (adjusted hazard rate (HR) =2.23; 1.22-4.08). Conclusions HIV-HCV co-infected women receiving antiretroviral therapy were at significantly greater risk of progressing to liver fibrosis as measured by APRI compared with men. Enhanced efforts to engage and treat co-infected women for HCV are needed. PMID:26090666

  10. Teachers' Awareness and Use of Scales to Map the Progress of Children Who Speak English as an Additional Language or Dialect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Courcy, Michele; Adoniou, Misty; Ngoc, Doan Ba

    2014-01-01

    With the development of the English as an Additional Language or Dialect (EAL/D) Teacher Resource, the educational needs and outcomes of refugee and immigrant children have been placed on the national mainstream teaching agenda. This new national resource sits alongside a plethora of other resources, known as scales and standards, which have been…

  11. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved individual actions. Volume 14, Nos. 3 and 4, Part 1. Semiannual progress report, July--December 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during the period (July - December 1995) and includes copies of Orders and Notices of Violation sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to individuals with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC. The Commission believes this information may be useful to licensees in making employment decisions.

  12. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved, reactor licensees. Semiannual progress report, July--December 1995. Volume 14, Numbers 3 and 4, Part 2

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during the period (July--December 1995) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to reactor licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication.

  13. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved, material licensees. Semiannual progress report, July--December 1995: Volume 14, Numbers 3 and 4, Part 3

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during the period (July--December 1995) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to material licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication.

  14. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved material licensees (non-medical). Volume 14, No. 1, Part 3, Quarterly progress report, January--March 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January--March 1995) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to Material Licensees (non-Medical) with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication.

  15. Advanced Communications Architecture Demonstration Made Significant Progress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carek, David Andrew

    2004-01-01

    Simulation for a ground station located at 44.5 deg latitude. The Advanced Communications Architecture Demonstration (ACAD) is a concept architecture to provide high-rate Ka-band (27-GHz) direct-to-ground delivery of payload data from the International Space Station. This new concept in delivering data from the space station targets scientific experiments that buffer data onboard. The concept design provides a method to augment the current downlink capability through the Tracking Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) Ku-band (15-GHz) communications system. The ACAD concept pushes the limits of technology in high-rate data communications for space-qualified systems. Research activities are ongoing in examining the various aspects of high-rate communications systems including: (1) link budget parametric analyses, (2) antenna configuration trade studies, (3) orbital simulations (see the preceding figure), (4) optimization of ground station contact time (see the following graph), (5) processor and storage architecture definition, and (6) protocol evaluations and dependencies.

  16. Prognostic significance of the 2004 WHO/ISUP classification for prediction of recurrence, progression, and cancer-specific mortality of non-muscle-invasive urothelial tumors of the urinary bladder: a clinicopathologic study of 1,515 cases.

    PubMed

    Pan, Chin-Chen; Chang, Yen-Hwa; Chen, Kuang-Kuo; Yu, Hui-Jung; Sun, Chih-Hao; Ho, Donald M T

    2010-05-01

    To verify prognostic significance of the 2004 World Health Organization (WHO)/International Society of Urological Pathology (ISUP) grading systems, we retrospectively studied the tumors of 1,515 patients who underwent transurethral resection of primary non-muscle-invasive urothelial tumors (pTa, 1,006 patients; pT1, 509 patients) confined to the bladder. Cases were classified according to the 2004 WHO/ISUP systems as 212 cases of papillary urothelial neoplasm of low malignant potential (PUNLMP), 706 low-grade papillary urothelial carcinomas (LPUCs), and 597 high-grade papillary urothelial carcinomas (HPUCs). PUNLMP showed the statistically significantly lowest recurrence cumulative incidence compared with the other tumor types. There were significant differences and trends for higher progression and cancer-specific mortality cumulative incidence in the following order: PUNLMP, LPUC, pTa HPUC, and pT1 HPUC. No differences of progression and cancer-specific mortality cumulative incidence were found between pTa and pT1 LPUC. Our study validates the usefulness of the 2004 WHO/ISUP system to classify urothelial tumors into prognostically distinct categories that would contribute to the design of therapeutic and monitoring strategies for patients with non-muscle-invasive bladder urothelial tumors.

  17. Targeting ECM Disrupts Cancer Progression.

    PubMed

    Venning, Freja A; Wullkopf, Lena; Erler, Janine T

    2015-01-01

    Metastatic complications are responsible for more than 90% of cancer-related deaths. The progression from an isolated tumor to disseminated metastatic disease is a multistep process, with each step involving intricate cross talk between the cancer cells and their non-cellular surroundings, the extracellular matrix (ECM). Many ECM proteins are significantly deregulated during the progression of cancer, causing both biochemical and biomechanical changes that together promote the metastatic cascade. In this review, the influence of several ECM proteins on these multiple steps of cancer spread is summarized. In addition, we highlight the promising (pre-)clinical data showing benefits of targeting these ECM macromolecules to prevent cancer progression.

  18. Targeting ECM Disrupts Cancer Progression

    PubMed Central

    Venning, Freja A.; Wullkopf, Lena; Erler, Janine T.

    2015-01-01

    Metastatic complications are responsible for more than 90% of cancer-related deaths. The progression from an isolated tumor to disseminated metastatic disease is a multistep process, with each step involving intricate cross talk between the cancer cells and their non-cellular surroundings, the extracellular matrix (ECM). Many ECM proteins are significantly deregulated during the progression of cancer, causing both biochemical and biomechanical changes that together promote the metastatic cascade. In this review, the influence of several ECM proteins on these multiple steps of cancer spread is summarized. In addition, we highlight the promising (pre-)clinical data showing benefits of targeting these ECM macromolecules to prevent cancer progression. PMID:26539408

  19. Food additives

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857

  20. Addition of Rice Bran Arabinoxylan to Curcumin Therapy May Be of Benefit to Patients With Early-Stage B-Cell Lymphoid Malignancies (Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance, Smoldering Multiple Myeloma, or Stage 0/1 Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia): A Preliminary Clinical Study.

    PubMed

    Golombick, Terry; Diamond, Terrence H; Manoharan, Arumugam; Ramakrishna, Rajeev

    2016-06-01

    Hypothesis Prior studies on patients with early B-cell lymphoid malignancies suggest that early intervention with curcumin may lead to delay in progressive disease and prolonged survival. These patients are characterized by increased susceptibility to infections. Rice bran arabinoxylan (Ribraxx) has been shown to have immunostimulatory, anti-inflammatory, and proapoptotic effects. We postulated that addition of Ribraxx to curcumin therapy may be of benefit. Study design Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS)/smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM) or stage 0/1 chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients who had been on oral curcumin therapy for a period of 6 months or more were administered both curcumin (as Curcuforte) and Ribraxx. Methods Ten MGUS/SMM patients and 10 patients with stage 0/1 CLL were administered 6 g of curcumin and 2 g Ribraxx daily. Blood samples were collected at baseline and at 2-month intervals for a period of 6 months, and various markers were monitored. MGUS/SMM patients included full blood count (FBC); paraprotein; free light chains/ratio; C-reactive protein (CRP)and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR); B2 microglobulin and immunological markers. Markers monitored for stage 0/1 CLL were FBC, CRP and ESR, and immunological markers. Results Of 10 MGUS/SMM patients,5 (50%) were neutropenic at baseline, and the Curcuforte/Ribraxx combination therapy showed an increased neutrophil count, varying between 10% and 90% among 8 of the 10 (80%) MGUS/SMM patients. An additional benefit of the combination therapy was the potent effect in reducing the raised ESR in 4 (44%) of the MGUS/SMM patients. Conclusion Addition of Ribraxx to curcumin therapy may be of benefit to patients with early-stage B-cell lymphoid malignancies.

  1. Food additives

    MedlinePlus

    ... or natural. Natural food additives include: Herbs or spices to add flavor to foods Vinegar for pickling ... Certain colors improve the appearance of foods. Many spices, as well as natural and man-made flavors, ...

  2. Potlining Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolf Keller

    2004-08-10

    In this project, a concept to improve the performance of aluminum production cells by introducing potlining additives was examined and tested. Boron oxide was added to cathode blocks, and titanium was dissolved in the metal pool; this resulted in the formation of titanium diboride and caused the molten aluminum to wet the carbonaceous cathode surface. Such wetting reportedly leads to operational improvements and extended cell life. In addition, boron oxide suppresses cyanide formation. This final report presents and discusses the results of this project. Substantial economic benefits for the practical implementation of the technology are projected, especially for modern cells with graphitized blocks. For example, with an energy savings of about 5% and an increase in pot life from 1500 to 2500 days, a cost savings of $ 0.023 per pound of aluminum produced is projected for a 200 kA pot.

  3. Phosphazene additives

    DOEpatents

    Harrup, Mason K; Rollins, Harry W

    2013-11-26

    An additive comprising a phosphazene compound that has at least two reactive functional groups and at least one capping functional group bonded to phosphorus atoms of the phosphazene compound. One of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with cellulose and the other of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with a resin, such as an amine resin of a polycarboxylic acid resin. The at least one capping functional group is selected from the group consisting of a short chain ether group, an alkoxy group, or an aryloxy group. Also disclosed are an additive-resin admixture, a method of treating a wood product, and a wood product.

  4. Polylactides in additive biomanufacturing.

    PubMed

    Poh, Patrina S P; Chhaya, Mohit P; Wunner, Felix M; De-Juan-Pardo, Elena M; Schilling, Arndt F; Schantz, Jan-Thorsten; van Griensven, Martijn; Hutmacher, Dietmar W

    2016-12-15

    New advanced manufacturing technologies under the alias of additive biomanufacturing allow the design and fabrication of a range of products from pre-operative models, cutting guides and medical devices to scaffolds. The process of printing in 3 dimensions of cells, extracellular matrix (ECM) and biomaterials (bioinks, powders, etc.) to generate in vitro and/or in vivo tissue analogue structures has been termed bioprinting. To further advance in additive biomanufacturing, there are many aspects that we can learn from the wider additive manufacturing (AM) industry, which have progressed tremendously since its introduction into the manufacturing sector. First, this review gives an overview of additive manufacturing and both industry and academia efforts in addressing specific challenges in the AM technologies to drive toward AM-enabled industrial revolution. After which, considerations of poly(lactides) as a biomaterial in additive biomanufacturing are discussed. Challenges in wider additive biomanufacturing field are discussed in terms of (a) biomaterials; (b) computer-aided design, engineering and manufacturing; (c) AM and additive biomanufacturing printers hardware; and (d) system integration. Finally, the outlook for additive biomanufacturing was discussed.

  5. Gammasphere software development. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Piercey, R.B.

    1994-01-01

    This report describes the activities of the nuclear physics group at Mississippi State University which were performed during 1993. Significant progress has been made in the focus areas: chairing the Gammasphere Software Working Group (SWG); assisting with the porting and enhancement of the ORNL UPAK histogramming software package; and developing standard formats for Gammasphere data products. In addition, they have established a new public ftp archive to distribute software and software development tools and information.

  6. Genetic Association Analysis of Drusen Progression

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Joshua D.; van Grinsven, Mark J. J. P.; Li, Chun; Brantley, Milam; McGrath, Josephine; Agarwal, Anita; Scott, William K.; Schwartz, Stephen G.; Kovach, Jaclyn; Pericak-Vance, Margaret; Sanchez, Clara I.; Haines, Jonathan L.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Age-related macular degeneration is a common form of vision loss affecting older adults. The etiology of AMD is multifactorial and is influenced by environmental and genetic risk factors. In this study, we examine how 19 common risk variants contribute to drusen progression, a hallmark of AMD pathogenesis. Methods Exome chip data was made available through the International AMD Genomics Consortium (IAMDGC). Drusen quantification was carried out with color fundus photographs using an automated drusen detection and quantification algorithm. A genetic risk score (GRS) was calculated per subject by summing risk allele counts at 19 common genetic risk variants weighted by their respective effect sizes. Pathway analysis of drusen progression was carried out with the software package Pathway Analysis by Randomization Incorporating Structure. Results We observed significant correlation with drusen baseline area and the GRS in the age-related eye disease study (AREDS) dataset (ρ = 0.175, P = 0.006). Measures of association were not statistically significant between drusen progression and the GRS (P = 0.54). Pathway analysis revealed the cell adhesion molecules pathway as the most highly significant pathway associated with drusen progression (corrected P = 0.02). Conclusions In this study, we explored the potential influence of known common AMD genetic risk factors on drusen progression. Our results from the GRS analysis showed association of increasing genetic burden (from 19 AMD associated loci) to baseline drusen load but not drusen progression in the AREDS dataset while pathway analysis suggests additional genetic contributors to AMD risk. PMID:27116550

  7. Additive Manufacturing Infrared Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaddy, Darrell

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing is a rapid prototyping technology that allows parts to be built in a series of thin layers from plastic, ceramics, and metallics. Metallic additive manufacturing is an emerging form of rapid prototyping that allows complex structures to be built using various metallic powders. Significant time and cost savings have also been observed using the metallic additive manufacturing compared with traditional techniques. Development of the metallic additive manufacturing technology has advanced significantly over the last decade, although many of the techniques to inspect parts made from these processes have not advanced significantly or have limitations. Several external geometry inspection techniques exist such as Coordinate Measurement Machines (CMM), Laser Scanners, Structured Light Scanning Systems, or even traditional calipers and gages. All of the aforementioned techniques are limited to external geometry and contours or must use a contact probe to inspect limited internal dimensions. This presentation will document the development of a process for real-time dimensional inspection technique and digital quality record of the additive manufacturing process using Infrared camera imaging and processing techniques.

  8. Progressive hemifacial atrophy. A natural history study.

    PubMed Central

    Miller, M T; Spencer, M A

    1995-01-01

    PURPOSE: To describe two very different natural history courses in 2 patients with hemifacial atrophy. Progressive hemifacial atrophy (Parry-Romberg syndrome, Romberg syndrome, PHA) is characterized by slowly progressive atrophy, frequently involving only one side of the face, primarily affecting the subcutaneous tissue and fat. The onset usually occurs during the first 2 decades of life. The cause and pathophysiology are unknown. Ophthalmic involvement is common, with progressive enophthalmos a frequent finding. Pupillary disturbances, heterochromia, uveitis, pigmentary disturbances of the ocular fundus, and restrictive strabismus have also been reported. Neurologic findings may be present, but the natural history and progression of ocular findings are often not described in the literature. METHODS: We studied the records and present findings of 2 patients with progressive hemifacial atrophy who were observed in our institution over a 10-year period. RESULTS: Both patients showed progression of ophthalmic findings, primarily on the affected side. One patient has had chronic uveitis with secondary cataract and glaucoma, in addition to retinal pigmentary changes. She also had a third-nerve paresis of the contralateral eye and mild seizure activity. The other patient had mild uveitis, some progression of unilateral retinal pigmentary changes, and a significant increase in hyperopia in the affected eye, in addition to hypotony at age 19 without a clear cause, but with secondary retinal and refractive changes. CONCLUSION: Ocular manifestations of progressive hemifacial atrophy are varied, but can progress from mild visual impairment to blindness. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3A FIGURE 3B FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 PMID:8719679

  9. Polymethylmethacrylate bone cements and additives: A review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Manit; Chan, Edward KS; Gupta, Sunil; Diwan, Ashish D

    2013-01-01

    Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) bone cement technology has progressed from industrial Plexiglass administration in the 1950s to the recent advent of nanoparticle additives. Additives have been trialed to address problems with modern bone cements such as the loosening of prosthesis, high post-operative infection rates, and inflammatory reduction in interface integrity. This review aims to assess current additives used in PMMA bone cements and offer an insight regarding future directions for this biomaterial. Low index (< 15%) vitamin E and low index (< 5 g) antibiotic impregnated additives significantly address infection and inflammatory problems, with only modest reductions in mechanical strength. Chitosan (15% w/w PMMA) and silver (1% w/w PMMA) nanoparticles have strong antibacterial activity with no significant reduction in mechanical strength. Future work on PMMA bone cements should focus on trialing combinations of these additives as this may enhance favourable properties. PMID:23610754

  10. Nano-encapsulated chlorophyllin significantly delays progression of lung cancer both in in vitro and in vivo models through activation of mitochondrial signaling cascades and drug-DNA interaction.

    PubMed

    Das, Jayeeta; Samadder, Asmita; Mondal, Jesmin; Abraham, Suresh K; Khuda-Bukhsh, Anisur Rahman

    2016-09-01

    Chlorophyllin (CHL), a sodium-copper-salt derived from chlorophyll, has been widely used as a food-dye, also reportedly having some anti-cancer effect. We tested if PLGA-loaded CHL (NCHL) could have additional protective abilities through its faster and targeted drug delivery in cancer cells. Physico-chemical characterization of NCHL was done through atomic-force microscopy and UV-spectroscopy. NCHL demonstrated greater ability of drug uptake and strong anti-cancer potentials in non-small cell lung cancer cells, A549, as revealed from data of% cell viability, generation of reactive-oxygen-species and expression of bax, bcl2, caspase3, p53 and cytochrome c proteins. Circular dichroic spectral data indicated strong binding of NCHL with calf-thymus-DNA, causing a conformational/structural change in DNA. Further, NCHL could cross the blood-brain-barrier in mice and showed greater efficacy in recovery process of tissue damage, reduction in chromosomal aberrations and% of micronuclei in co-mutagens (Sodiumarsenite+Benzo[a]Pyrene)-treated mice at a much reduced dose, indicating its use in therapeutic oncology.

  11. EUV progress toward HVM readiness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turkot, Britt; Carson, Steven L.; Lio, Anna; Liang, Ted; Phillips, Mark; McCool, Brian; Stenehjem, Eric; Crimmins, Tim; Zhang, Guojing; Sivakumar, Sam

    2016-03-01

    This past year has witnessed a sharp increase in EUV lithography progress spanning production tools, source and infrastructure to better position the technology for HVM readiness. While the exposure source remains the largest contributor to downtime and availability, significant strides in demonstrated source power have bolstered confidence in the viability of EUVL for insertion into HVM production. The ongoing development of an EUV pellicle solution alleviates industry concern about one significant source of line-yield risk. In addition to continued expected improvements in EUV source power and availability, the ability to deliver predictable yield remains an ultimate gate to HVM insertion. Ensuring predictable yield requires significant emphasis on reticles. This includes continued pellicle development to enable the readiness and supply of a robust pellicle solution in advance of 250W source power, as well as improvements in mask blank defectivity and techniques to detect and mitigate reticle blank and pattern defects.

  12. Significant Tsunami Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunbar, P. K.; Furtney, M.; McLean, S. J.; Sweeney, A. D.

    2014-12-01

    Tsunamis have inflicted death and destruction on the coastlines of the world throughout history. The occurrence of tsunamis and the resulting effects have been collected and studied as far back as the second millennium B.C. The knowledge gained from cataloging and examining these events has led to significant changes in our understanding of tsunamis, tsunami sources, and methods to mitigate the effects of tsunamis. The most significant, not surprisingly, are often the most devastating, such as the 2011 Tohoku, Japan earthquake and tsunami. The goal of this poster is to give a brief overview of the occurrence of tsunamis and then focus specifically on several significant tsunamis. There are various criteria to determine the most significant tsunamis: the number of deaths, amount of damage, maximum runup height, had a major impact on tsunami science or policy, etc. As a result, descriptions will include some of the most costly (2011 Tohoku, Japan), the most deadly (2004 Sumatra, 1883 Krakatau), and the highest runup ever observed (1958 Lituya Bay, Alaska). The discovery of the Cascadia subduction zone as the source of the 1700 Japanese "Orphan" tsunami and a future tsunami threat to the U.S. northwest coast, contributed to the decision to form the U.S. National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program. The great Lisbon earthquake of 1755 marked the beginning of the modern era of seismology. Knowledge gained from the 1964 Alaska earthquake and tsunami helped confirm the theory of plate tectonics. The 1946 Alaska, 1952 Kuril Islands, 1960 Chile, 1964 Alaska, and the 2004 Banda Aceh, tsunamis all resulted in warning centers or systems being established.The data descriptions on this poster were extracted from NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) global historical tsunami database. Additional information about these tsunamis, as well as water level data can be found by accessing the NGDC website www.ngdc.noaa.gov/hazard/

  13. Annual Progress Report and Report of Significant Accomplishments.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-04-01

    lithium niobate, Z-cut lithium niobate, Y-cut quartz) before attempting measure- ments on GMO and NPP. The electronics will also be modified to permit...chamber for the laser melting and pulling unit, tests performed on hot- pressed powder seeds with molybdenum enrichment, and extensive diagnostic...tests of the GMO samples produced. The project is also closely linked to two fiber materials character- ization projects under the NSF Thrust Program: (1

  14. [Bowel preparation for colonoscopy. Any significant progress on the horizon?].

    PubMed

    Rivero-Sánchez, Liseth; Pellisé, María

    2015-04-01

    Colonoscopy is the method of choice for colorectal cancer screening. To be effective, screening colonoscopy must have high quality standards. The key element is the quality of the preparation. However, up to 20% of patients are inadequately prepared and, at present, anterograde washing is the least tolerated part of the procedure. In the choice of preparation, safety is a prerequisite and efficacy is a priority. Tolerance is a secondary but nevertheless influential factor in the quality of preparation and has consequently been the primary focus of many recent studies. In the last few years, a rapidly increasing number of studies have evaluated new drugs, dosages and adjuvant therapies to improve efficacy and tolerability. These studies have collaterally shown that inadequate preparation and lack of adherence to the prescribed regimen can be partially predicted, making it essential to identify this patient subgroup and invest the necessary effort in their instruction. New individualized and flexible approaches are expected for the different clinical scenarios. The search for the ideal colonoscopy preparation, which would be tolerable, safe and above all effective, remains open.

  15. Black Faculty at Research Universities: Has Significant Progress Occurred?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modica, Jonathon L.; Mamiseishvili, Ketevan

    2010-01-01

    Changes in the representation, career advancement, and workplace perceptions of Black faculty at research universities in the United States over time, in comparison to White faculty were examined. Based on the analysis of data from the 1993, 1999, and 2004 National Study of Postsecondary Faculty (NSOPF) surveys, we found that although the overall…

  16. Genetics Home Reference: progressive familial heart block

    MedlinePlus

    ... disease Lev syndrome Lev's disease PCCD progressive cardiac conduction defect Related Information How are genetic conditions and ... Diseases Information Center (1 link) Familial progressive cardiac conduction defect Additional NIH Resources (1 link) National Heart, ...

  17. Developing Multiplicative Thinking from Additive Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobias, Jennifer M.; Andreasen, Janet B.

    2013-01-01

    As students progress through elementary school, they encounter mathematics concepts that shift from additive to multiplicative situations (NCTM 2000). When they encounter fraction problems that require multiplicative thinking, they tend to incorrectly extend additive properties from whole numbers (Post et al. 1985). As a result, topics such as …

  18. Annual Technical Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    Ayman I. Hawari

    2002-10-02

    This report describes the results generated during phase 1 of this project. During this phase, the main tools that are used to compute the thermal neutron scattering kernels for graphite, beryllium, beryllium oxide, zirconium hydride, light water, polyethylene were implemented and tested. This includes a modified NJOY/LEAPR code system, the GASKET code, and the ab initio condensed matter codes VASP and PHONON. Thermal neutron scattering kernels were generated for graphite, beryllium, beryllium oxide. In the case of graphite, new phonon spectra were examined. The first is a spectrum based on experiments performed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in the early seventies, and the second is generated using the ab initio methods. In the case of beryllium, and beryllium oxide, a synthetic approach for generating the phonon spectra was implemented. In addition, significant progress was made on an experiment to benchmark the graphite scattering kernels was made. The simulations of this experiment show that differences on the order of a few percent, in Pu-239 detector responses, can be expected due to the use of different scattering kernels. (B204) NOT A FINAL REPORT

  19. Teardrop bladder: additional considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Wechsler, R.J.; Brennan, R.E.

    1982-07-01

    Nine cases of teardrop bladder (TDB) seen at excretory urography are presented. In some of these patients, the iliopsoas muscles were at the upper limit of normal in size, and additional evaluation of the perivesical structures with computed tomography (CT) was necessary. CT demonstrated only hypertrophied muscles with or without perivesical fat. The psoas muscles and pelvic width were measured in 8 patients and compared with the measurements of a control group of males without TDB. Patients with TDB had large iliopsoas muscles and narrow pelves compared with the control group. The psoas muscle width/pelvic width ratio was significantly greater (p < 0.0005) in patients with TDB than in the control group, with values of 1.04 + 0.05 and 0.82 + 0.09, respectively. It is concluded that TDB is not an uncommon normal variant in black males. Both iliopsoas muscle hypertrophy and a narrow pelvis are factors that predispose a patient to TDB.

  20. Effect of pre-freezing conditions on the progressive motility recovery rate of human frozen spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Zhang, X; Zhou, Y; Xia, W; Wu, H; Yao, K; Liu, H; Xiong, C

    2012-10-01

    We evaluated the effects of sperm concentration, progressive motility, sperm morphology, duration of abstinence and collection season on the progressive motility recovery rate of human frozen spermatozoa to identify characteristics that predict the progressive motility recovery rate of human frozen spermatozoa and improve the protocol for sperm collecting in sperm banks. A total of 14 190 semen samples donated at Zhejiang human sperm bank of China between September 2006 and June 2011 were collected from 1624 donors. Semen was evaluated according to WHO standard procedures for sperm concentration. Progressive motility, sperm morphology, ejaculate collection season and abstinence time were recorded. After freezing and thawing, the progressive motility was assessed. Results showed that sperm concentration, progressive motility and normal morphology were significantly associated with the progressive motility recovery rate of human frozen spermatozoa. In addition, the abstinence time and collection season also significantly affected progressive motility recovery rate. Our results indicated that sperm concentration, progressive motility and normal morphology could be valuable in predicting the progressive motility recovery rate of human frozen spermatozoa. As such, progressive motility recovery may be improved by donating semen when abstinent for 3-5 days and during seasons other than summer.

  1. Progressive multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Ontaneda, Daniel; Fox, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose to Review To highlight the pathological features and clinical aspects of progressive multiple sclerosis (PMS). To highlight results of clinical trial experience to date and review ongoing clinical trials and perspective new treatment options. Explain the challenges of clinical trial design in PMS. Recent Findings MS has been identified as a chronic immune mediated disease, and the progressive phase of the disease appears to have significant neurodegenerative mechanisms. The classification of the course of PMS has been re-organized into categories of active vs. inactive inflammatory disease and the presence vs. absence of gradual disease progression. This differentiation allows clearer conceptualization of PMS and possibly even more efficient recruitment of PMS subjects into clinical trials. Clinical trial experience to date in PMS has been negative with anti-inflammatory medications used in relapsing MS. Simvastatin was recently tested in a phase II trial and showed a 43% reduction on annualized atrophy progression in secondary progressive MS. Ongoing PMS trials are currently being conducted with the phosphodiesterase inhibitor ibudilast, S1P modulator siponimod, and anti-B-cell therapy ocrelizumab. Several efforts for development of outcome measures in PMS are ongoing. Summary PMS represents a significant challenge, as the pathogenesis of the disease is not well understood, no validated outcome metrics have been established, and clinical trial experience to date has been disappointing. Advances in the understanding of the disease and lessons learned in previous clinical trials are paving the way for successful development of disease modifying agents for this disease. PMID:25887766

  2. Report of Significant Accomplishments.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-04-01

    developed good theoretical models . These theoretical models should help give us the theoretical foundation for further progress in these devices. -5 -- A5Or...programmable surface acoustic wave device using zinc oxide (ZnO) acoustic waveguides on a semiconducting silicon substrate. Surface acoustic wave (SAW...ferroelectric-cum-ferroelastic materials) with potential applications in acoustic waveguiding , steering, and signal processing devices. During the past

  3. Additive Similarity Trees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sattath, Shmuel; Tversky, Amos

    1977-01-01

    Tree representations of similarity data are investigated. Hierarchical clustering is critically examined, and a more general procedure, called the additive tree, is presented. The additive tree representation is then compared to multidimensional scaling. (Author/JKS)

  4. Fluor Hanford Project Focused Progress at Hanford

    SciTech Connect

    HANSON, R.D.

    2000-02-01

    Fluor Hanford is making significant progress in accelerating cleanup at the Hanford site. This progress consistently aligns with a new strategic vision established by the U.S. Department of Energy's Richland Operations Office (RL).

  5. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, J. R.; St. Clair, T. L.; Burks, H. D.; Stoakley, D. M.

    1987-01-01

    A method has been found for enhancing the melt flow of thermoplastic polyimides during processing. A high molecular weight 422 copoly(amic acid) or copolyimide was fused with approximately 0.05 to 5 pct by weight of a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive, and this melt was studied by capillary rheometry. Excellent flow and improved composite properties on graphite resulted from the addition of a PMDA-aniline additive to LARC-TPI. Solution viscosity studies imply that amic acid additives temporarily lower molecular weight and, hence, enlarge the processing window. Thus, compositions containing the additive have a lower melt viscosity for a longer time than those unmodified.

  6. [Food additives and healthiness].

    PubMed

    Heinonen, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Additives are used for improving food structure or preventing its spoilage, for example. Many substances used as additives are also naturally present in food. The safety of additives is evaluated according to commonly agreed principles. If high concentrations of an additive cause adverse health effects for humans, a limit of acceptable daily intake (ADI) is set for it. An additive is a risk only when ADI is exceeded. The healthiness of food is measured on the basis of nutrient density and scientifically proven effects.

  7. Significance of research.

    PubMed

    Kanpolat, Y

    2002-01-01

    The development of the central nervous system (CNS) in humans is the most important factor differentiating the human being from other species. Intelligence is the most important result of evolution of the CNS in humans. However, human intelligence is not a static factor, having evolved during the historical progression of cultural factors and educational systems. Since the Middle Ages, universities have been the most dominant open-society institutions to regulate intellectual influences, share scientific knowledge and values, and promote research in natural sciences. Research is particularly important in contemporary neurosurgery and neurological sciences with regard to the development of new techniques and testing of the acquired knowledge of the CNS. Research activities in neuroscience and neurosurgery have especially involved anatomical and functional aspects. However, advances in molecular biology and genetics have been remarkably effective in research activities in neurosciences. Such progress will help us to understand nature, environment and humans. Of course, research is now a domain of method, organisation and financial gain. The dedication, heroism and creativity which used to be the driving forces behind scientific research are now diminishing in value and are a source of controversy.

  8. Significance Analysis of Prognostic Signatures

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Andrew H.; Knoblauch, Nicholas W.; Hefti, Marco M.; Kaplan, Jennifer; Schnitt, Stuart J.; Culhane, Aedin C.; Schroeder, Markus S.; Risch, Thomas; Quackenbush, John; Haibe-Kains, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    A major goal in translational cancer research is to identify biological signatures driving cancer progression and metastasis. A common technique applied in genomics research is to cluster patients using gene expression data from a candidate prognostic gene set, and if the resulting clusters show statistically significant outcome stratification, to associate the gene set with prognosis, suggesting its biological and clinical importance. Recent work has questioned the validity of this approach by showing in several breast cancer data sets that “random” gene sets tend to cluster patients into prognostically variable subgroups. This work suggests that new rigorous statistical methods are needed to identify biologically informative prognostic gene sets. To address this problem, we developed Significance Analysis of Prognostic Signatures (SAPS) which integrates standard prognostic tests with a new prognostic significance test based on stratifying patients into prognostic subtypes with random gene sets. SAPS ensures that a significant gene set is not only able to stratify patients into prognostically variable groups, but is also enriched for genes showing strong univariate associations with patient prognosis, and performs significantly better than random gene sets. We use SAPS to perform a large meta-analysis (the largest completed to date) of prognostic pathways in breast and ovarian cancer and their molecular subtypes. Our analyses show that only a small subset of the gene sets found statistically significant using standard measures achieve significance by SAPS. We identify new prognostic signatures in breast and ovarian cancer and their corresponding molecular subtypes, and we show that prognostic signatures in ER negative breast cancer are more similar to prognostic signatures in ovarian cancer than to prognostic signatures in ER positive breast cancer. SAPS is a powerful new method for deriving robust prognostic biological signatures from clinically annotated

  9. Large Scale Metal Additive Techniques Review

    SciTech Connect

    Nycz, Andrzej; Adediran, Adeola I; Noakes, Mark W; Love, Lonnie J

    2016-01-01

    In recent years additive manufacturing made long strides toward becoming a main stream production technology. Particularly strong progress has been made in large-scale polymer deposition. However, large scale metal additive has not yet reached parity with large scale polymer. This paper is a review study of the metal additive techniques in the context of building large structures. Current commercial devices are capable of printing metal parts on the order of several cubic feet compared to hundreds of cubic feet for the polymer side. In order to follow the polymer progress path several factors are considered: potential to scale, economy, environment friendliness, material properties, feedstock availability, robustness of the process, quality and accuracy, potential for defects, and post processing as well as potential applications. This paper focuses on current state of art of large scale metal additive technology with a focus on expanding the geometric limits.

  10. Scientific progress: Knowledge versus understanding.

    PubMed

    Dellsén, Finnur

    2016-04-01

    What is scientific progress? On Alexander Bird's epistemic account of scientific progress, an episode in science is progressive precisely when there is more scientific knowledge at the end of the episode than at the beginning. Using Bird's epistemic account as a foil, this paper develops an alternative understanding-based account on which an episode in science is progressive precisely when scientists grasp how to correctly explain or predict more aspects of the world at the end of the episode than at the beginning. This account is shown to be superior to the epistemic account by examining cases in which knowledge and understanding come apart. In these cases, it is argued that scientific progress matches increases in scientific understanding rather than accumulations of knowledge. In addition, considerations having to do with minimalist idealizations, pragmatic virtues, and epistemic value all favor this understanding-based account over its epistemic counterpart.

  11. Stromal p16 expression is significantly increased in endometrial carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Gun; Koh, Chang Won; Yoon, Nara; Kim, Ji-Ye; Kim, Hyun-Soo

    2017-01-17

    p16 is a negative regulator of cell proliferation and is considered a tumor suppressor protein. Alterations in p16 protein expression are associated with tumor development and progression. However, the p16 expression status in the peritumoral stroma has not been investigated in the endometrium. Therefore, we evaluated stromal p16 expression in different types of endometrial lesions using immunohistochemistry. Differences in the p16 expression status according to the degree of malignancy and histological type were analyzed. This study included 62, 26, and 36 cases of benign, precancerous, and malignant endometrial lesions, respectively. Most benign lesions showed negative or weak expression, whereas precancerous lesions showed a variable degree of staining proportion and intensity. Atypical hyperplasia/endometrial intraepithelial neoplasia (AH/EIN) and serous endometrial intraepithelial carcinoma (SEIC) had significantly higher stromal p16 expression levels than benign lesions. Endometrioid carcinoma (EC), serous carcinoma (SC), and carcinosarcoma showed significantly elevated stromal p16 expression levels compared with benign and precancerous lesions. In addition, there were significant differences in stromal p16 expression between AH/EIN and SEIC and between EC and SC. In contrast, differences in stromal p16 expression among nonpathological endometrium, atrophic endometrium, endometrial polyp, and hyperplasia without atypia were not statistically significant. Our observations suggest that stromal p16 expression is involved in the development and progression of endometrial carcinoma, and raise the possibility that p16 overexpression in the peritumoral stroma is associated with aggressive oncogenic behavior of endometrial SC.

  12. Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy

    MedlinePlus

    ... clumsiness; progressive weakness; and visual, speech, and sometimes personality changes. The progression of deficits leads to life- ... clumsiness; progressive weakness; and visual, speech, and sometimes personality changes. The progression of deficits leads to life- ...

  13. Additive Manufactured Product Integrity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waller, Jess; Wells, Doug; James, Steve; Nichols, Charles

    2017-01-01

    NASA is providing key leadership in an international effort linking NASA and non-NASA resources to speed adoption of additive manufacturing (AM) to meet NASA's mission goals. Participants include industry, NASA's space partners, other government agencies, standards organizations and academia. Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) is identified as a universal need for all aspects of additive manufacturing.

  14. [Progress in optical imaging].

    PubMed

    Bremer, C; Ntziachristos, V; Mahmood, U; Tung, C H; Weissleder, R

    2001-02-01

    Different optical imaging technologies have significantly progressed over the last years. Besides advances in imaging techniques and image reconstruction, new "smart" optical contrast agents have been developed which can be used to detect molecular targets (such as endogenous enzymes) in vivo. The combination of novel imaging technologies coupled with smart agents bears great diagnostic potential both clinically and experimentally. This overview outlines the basic principles of optical imaging and summarizes the current state of the art.

  15. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fletcher, James C. (Inventor); Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor); Burks, Harold D. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

  16. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor); Burks, Harold D. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of the additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

  17. Adverse reactions to drug additives.

    PubMed

    Simon, R A

    1984-10-01

    There is a long list of additives used by the pharmaceutical industry. Most of the agents used have not been implicated in hypersensitivity reactions. Among those that have, only reactions to parabens and sulfites have been well established. Parabens have been shown to be responsible for rare immunoglobulin E-mediated reactions that occur after the use of local anesthetics. Sulfites, which are present in many drugs, including agents commonly used to treat asthma, have been shown to provoke severe asthmatic attacks in sensitive individuals. Recent studies indicate that additives do not play a significant role in "hyperactivity." The role of additives in urticaria is not well established and therefore the incidence of adverse reactions in this patient population is simply not known. In double-blind, placebo-controlled studies, reactions to tartrazine or additives other than sulfites, if they occur at all, are indeed quite rare for the asthmatic population, even for the aspirin-sensitive subpopulation.

  18. Significance of periodogram peaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Süveges, Maria; Guy, Leanne; Zucker, Shay

    2016-10-01

    Three versions of significance measures or False Alarm Probabilities (FAPs) for periodogram peaks are presented and compared for sinusoidal and box-like signals, with specific application on large-scale surveys in mind.

  19. Significant Scales in Community Structure

    PubMed Central

    Traag, V. A.; Krings, G.; Van Dooren, P.

    2013-01-01

    Many complex networks show signs of modular structure, uncovered by community detection. Although many methods succeed in revealing various partitions, it remains difficult to detect at what scale some partition is significant. This problem shows foremost in multi-resolution methods. We here introduce an efficient method for scanning for resolutions in one such method. Additionally, we introduce the notion of “significance” of a partition, based on subgraph probabilities. Significance is independent of the exact method used, so could also be applied in other methods, and can be interpreted as the gain in encoding a graph by making use of a partition. Using significance, we can determine “good” resolution parameters, which we demonstrate on benchmark networks. Moreover, optimizing significance itself also shows excellent performance. We demonstrate our method on voting data from the European Parliament. Our analysis suggests the European Parliament has become increasingly ideologically divided and that nationality plays no role. PMID:24121597

  20. Significance of the IGY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akasofu, S.

    The IGY was the greatest scientific enterprise during that period and perhaps still is in the history of geoscience and solar-terrestrial physics. It was a non-governmental organization project. Great efforts were made to standardize the observations in each discipline and were well documented in many volumes of Annals of IGY. Further, great efforts were made to secure the assembled data and, thus, the World Data Centers were established. The IGY was successful because of these efforts; the data became easily available to researchers. Sydney Chapman was the president of the IGY and exerted strong leadership in these efforts. I happened to be his student at that time and witnessed his efforts. I believe that the IGY spirit in this regard is still being carried out in geosciences and solar-terrestrial physics. I will attempt to review the knowledge in solar-terrestrial physics at the dawn of the IGY, the progresses made on the basis of IGY data, and compare IGY results briefly with our present day knowledge.

  1. Prostate Cancer Progression and Serum Sibling (Small Integrin Binding N-Linked Glycoprotein) Levels

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-01

    treatment ; and to establish serum-based measurements which maximize sensitivity and specificity of SIBLINGs as markers for prostate cancer detection as...well as for prostate cancer progression and response to treatment . Although the laboratory is still blinded to staging and progression data at this...significant financial costs and mental stress. In addition both DRE and PSA can’t detect early tumors and are sometimes uninformative in terms of predicting

  2. Food Additives and Hyperkinesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wender, Ester H.

    1977-01-01

    The hypothesis that food additives are causally associated with hyperkinesis and learning disabilities in children is reviewed, and available data are summarized. Available from: American Medical Association 535 North Dearborn Street Chicago, Illinois 60610. (JG)

  3. Smog control fuel additives

    SciTech Connect

    Lundby, W.

    1993-06-29

    A method is described of controlling, reducing or eliminating, ozone and related smog resulting from photochemical reactions between ozone and automotive or industrial gases comprising the addition of iodine or compounds of iodine to hydrocarbon-base fuels prior to or during combustion in an amount of about 1 part iodine per 240 to 10,000,000 parts fuel, by weight, to be accomplished by: (a) the addition of these inhibitors during or after the refining or manufacturing process of liquid fuels; (b) the production of these inhibitors for addition into fuel tanks, such as automotive or industrial tanks; or (c) the addition of these inhibitors into combustion chambers of equipment utilizing solid fuels for the purpose of reducing ozone.

  4. Rate of decline in progressive supranuclear palsy.

    PubMed

    Litvan, Irene; Kong, Maiying

    2014-04-01

    The rate of patients' decline is critical to properly design trials of disease-modifying agents. We prospectively quantified the progression of 27 progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) patients for at least 1 year to determine the rate of decline of motor, ocular-motor, neuropsychological, and neuropsychiatric features. PSP patients meeting the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and the Society for Progressive Supranuclear Palsy criteria were assessed using the PSP Rating Scale (PSP-RS) and modified UPDRS. The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Frontal Assessment Battery assessed cognitive decline, the Neuropsychiatric Inventory assessed behavior, and the modified Schwab and England scale and UPDRS ADL assessed activities of daily living (ADL). The rate of change of each score was calculated as 1-year worsening score. Power and sample sizes were estimated. PSP patients showed a significant yearly decline in total and subtotal scores of the PSP-RS and UPDRS, as well as in MMSE, and UPDRS and Schwab and England ADL scores. In addition, they had significant deterioration of individual item scores reflecting major aspects of the disease (i.e., ocular-motor). The rate of decline reflected in the UPDRS mirrored that of the PSP-RS. The worsening of the ADL score was positively correlated with the PSP-RS progression of falls and ocular-motor subitem scores and with executive dysfunction. PSP patients showed a significant yearly decline in motor, ocular-motor, and ADL functions. Our findings suggest that using more-advanced technology to measure ocular-motor, postural instability, and ADL will be helpful in planning future therapeutic trials.

  5. Tectonic significance of serpentinites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillot, Stéphane; Schwartz, Stéphane; Reynard, Bruno; Agard, Philippe; Prigent, Cécile

    2015-04-01

    At plate boundaries, where deformation is localized along centimetre- to kilometre-scale shear zones, the influence of serpentinite on tectonic processes is linked to its unique rheological properties. In this paper we review the physical properties of serpentinites and their role in tectonic processes. At the ocean-continent transition, serpentinization weakens the upper mantle layer, promoting strain localization and allowing the normal faults in the distal margin to root at low angle. Similarly, at slow to ultra-slow spreading ridges, serpentinite is potentially very abundant at the seafloor and locally associated with domal structures. Extensional deformation is localized in a ~ 100 m thick shear zone at the footwall of detachment zones dominated by serpentine derived minerals. Within subduction zone, the depth of decoupling between the mantle wedge and the subducting slab corresponds to the stability depth of serpentine weak mineral. Dehydration of serpentine has also been hypothesized to play an important role in the origin of double seismic zones, however the exact mechanism through which dehydration promotes seismicity remains a matter of debate. During exhumation of high-pressure or ultrahigh-pressure rocks, the opposite trajectories of exhumation and subduction require a decoupling zone within the subducting slab. A serpentinized layer has the potential to become a decoupling zone between the oceanic crust and underlying lithosphere. The buoyancy of serpentinite also likely contributes to eclogite exhumation. Finally, along major strike-slip faults, serpentinites have been associated with fault creep, as well as low fault strength. The presence of serpentinite blocks along creeping segments of active faults worldwide is therefore likely to originate from fluids deriving from the progressive dehydration of the mantle wedge that move such bodies upward.

  6. Group Sparse Additive Models

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Junming; Chen, Xi; Xing, Eric P.

    2016-01-01

    We consider the problem of sparse variable selection in nonparametric additive models, with the prior knowledge of the structure among the covariates to encourage those variables within a group to be selected jointly. Previous works either study the group sparsity in the parametric setting (e.g., group lasso), or address the problem in the nonparametric setting without exploiting the structural information (e.g., sparse additive models). In this paper, we present a new method, called group sparse additive models (GroupSpAM), which can handle group sparsity in additive models. We generalize the ℓ1/ℓ2 norm to Hilbert spaces as the sparsity-inducing penalty in GroupSpAM. Moreover, we derive a novel thresholding condition for identifying the functional sparsity at the group level, and propose an efficient block coordinate descent algorithm for constructing the estimate. We demonstrate by simulation that GroupSpAM substantially outperforms the competing methods in terms of support recovery and prediction accuracy in additive models, and also conduct a comparative experiment on a real breast cancer dataset.

  7. Tougher Addition Polyimides Containing Siloxane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St. Clair, T. L.; Maudgal, S.

    1986-01-01

    Laminates show increased impact resistances and other desirable mechanical properties. Bismaleamic acid extended by reaction of diaminosiloxane with maleic anhydride in 1:1 molar ratio, followed by reaction with half this molar ratio of aromatic dianhydride. Bismaleamic acid also extended by reaction of diaminosiloxane with maleic anhydride in 1:2 molar ratio, followed by reaction with half this molar ratio of aromatic diamine (Michael-addition reaction). Impact resistances improved over those of unmodified bismaleimide, showing significant increase in toughness. Aromatic addition polyimides developed as both matrix and adhesive resins for applications on future aircraft and spacecraft.

  8. Statistical Significance Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLean, James E., Ed.; Kaufman, Alan S., Ed.

    1998-01-01

    The controversy about the use or misuse of statistical significance testing has become the major methodological issue in educational research. This special issue contains three articles that explore the controversy, three commentaries on these articles, an overall response, and three rejoinders by the first three authors. They are: (1)…

  9. Significance of brown dwarfs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, D. C.

    1986-01-01

    The significance of brown dwarfs for resolving some major problems in astronomy is discussed. The importance of brown dwarfs for models of star formation by fragmentation of molecular clouds and for obtaining independent measurements of the ages of stars in binary systems is addressed. The relationship of brown dwarfs to planets is considered.

  10. Phenylethynyl Containing Reactive Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Phenylethynyl containing reactive additives were prepared from aromatic diamine, containing phenylethvnvl groups and various ratios of phthalic anhydride and 4-phenylethynviphthalic anhydride in glacial acetic acid to form the imide in one step or in N-methyl-2-pvrrolidinone to form the amide acid intermediate. The reactive additives were mixed in various amounts (10% to 90%) with oligomers containing either terminal or pendent phenylethynyl groups (or both) to reduce the melt viscosity and thereby enhance processability. Upon thermal cure, the additives react and become chemically incorporated into the matrix and effect an increase in crosslink density relative to that of the host resin. This resultant increase in crosslink density has advantageous consequences on the cured resin properties such as higher glass transition temperature and higher modulus as compared to that of the host resin.

  11. Fused Lasso Additive Model

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Ashley; Witten, Daniela; Simon, Noah

    2016-01-01

    We consider the problem of predicting an outcome variable using p covariates that are measured on n independent observations, in a setting in which additive, flexible, and interpretable fits are desired. We propose the fused lasso additive model (FLAM), in which each additive function is estimated to be piecewise constant with a small number of adaptively-chosen knots. FLAM is the solution to a convex optimization problem, for which a simple algorithm with guaranteed convergence to a global optimum is provided. FLAM is shown to be consistent in high dimensions, and an unbiased estimator of its degrees of freedom is proposed. We evaluate the performance of FLAM in a simulation study and on two data sets. Supplemental materials are available online, and the R package flam is available on CRAN. PMID:28239246

  12. Phenylethynyl Containing Reactive Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Phenylethynyl containing reactive additives were prepared from aromatic diamines containing phenylethynyl groups and various ratios of phthalic anhydride and 4-phenylethynylphthalic anhydride in glacial acetic acid to form the imide in one step or in N-methyl-2-pyrrolidi none to form the amide acid intermediate. The reactive additives were mixed in various amounts (10% to 90%) with oligomers containing either terminal or pendent phenylethynyl groups (or both) to reduce the melt viscosity and thereby enhance processability. Upon thermal cure, the additives react and become chemically incorporated into the matrix and effect an increase in crosslink density relative to that of the host resin. This resultant increase in crosslink density has advantageous consequences on the cured resin properties such as higher glass transition temperature and higher modulus as compared to that of the host resin.

  13. Additives in plastics.

    PubMed Central

    Deanin, R D

    1975-01-01

    The polymers used in plastics are generally harmless. However, they are rarely used in pure form. In almost all commercial plastics, they are "compounded" with monomeric ingredients to improve their processing and end-use performance. In order of total volume used, these monomeric additives may be classified as follows: reinforcing fibers, fillers, and coupling agents; plasticizers; colorants; stabilizers (halogen stabilizers, antioxidants, ultraviolet absorbers, and biological preservatives); processing aids (lubricants, others, and flow controls); flame retardants, peroxides; and antistats. Some information is already available, and much more is needed, on potential toxicity and safe handling of these additives during processing and manufacture of plastics products. PMID:1175566

  14. Additives in plastics.

    PubMed

    Deanin, R D

    1975-06-01

    The polymers used in plastics are generally harmless. However, they are rarely used in pure form. In almost all commercial plastics, they are "compounded" with monomeric ingredients to improve their processing and end-use performance. In order of total volume used, these monomeric additives may be classified as follows: reinforcing fibers, fillers, and coupling agents; plasticizers; colorants; stabilizers (halogen stabilizers, antioxidants, ultraviolet absorbers, and biological preservatives); processing aids (lubricants, others, and flow controls); flame retardants, peroxides; and antistats. Some information is already available, and much more is needed, on potential toxicity and safe handling of these additives during processing and manufacture of plastics products.

  15. Significance of biofilms in dentistry.

    PubMed

    Wróblewska, Marta; Strużycka, Izabela; Mierzwińska-Nastalska, Elżbieta

    2015-01-01

    In the past decades significant scientific progress has taken place in the knowledge about biofilms. They constitute multilayer conglomerates of bacteria and fungi, surrounded by carbohydrates which they produce, as well as substances derived from saliva and gingival fluid. Modern techniques showed significant diversity of the biofilm environment and a system of microbial communication (quorum sensing), enhancing their survival. At present it is believed that the majority of infections, particularly chronic with exacerbations, are a result of biofilm formation, particularly in the presence of biomaterials. It should be emphasised that penetration of antibiotics and other antimicrobial agents into deeper layers of a biofilm is poor, causing therapeutic problems and necessitating sometimes removal of the implant or prosthesis. Biofilms play an increasing role in dentistry as a result of more and more broad use in dental practice of plastic and implantable materials. Biofilms are produced on the surfaces of teeth as dental plaque, in the para-nasal sinuses, on prostheses, dental implants, as well as in waterlines of a dental unit, constituting a particular risk for severely immunocompromised patients. New methods of therapy and prevention of infections linked to biofilms are under development.

  16. Biobased lubricant additives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fully biobased lubricants are those formulated using all biobased ingredients, i.e. biobased base oils and biobased additives. Such formulations provide the maximum environmental, safety, and economic benefits expected from a biobased product. Currently, there are a number of biobased base oils that...

  17. More Than Additional Space...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CEFP Journal, 1973

    1973-01-01

    A much needed addition to the Jamestown Elementary School turned out to be more than an expansion of walls for more space. A new educational program, a limited budget, and a short time line were tackled on a team approach basis and were successfully resolved. (Author)

  18. Composite Defect Significance.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-07-13

    A12i 299 COMPOSITE DEFECT SIGNIFICANCE(U) MATERIALS SCIENCES 1/1 \\ CORP SPRING HOUSE PA S N CHATTERJEE ET AL. 13 JUL 82 MSC/TFR/1288/il87 NADC-80848...Directorate 30 Sensors & Avionics Technology Directorate 40 Communication & Navigation Technology Directorate 50 Software Computer Directorate 60 Aircraft ...instructions concerning commercial products herein do not constitute an endorsement by the Government nor do they convey or imply the license or right to use

  19. EDITORIAL: Catalysing progress Catalysing progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demming, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Examples of the merits of blue-sky research in the history of science are legion. The invention of the laser, celebrating its 50th anniversary this year, is an excellent example. When it was invented it was considered to be 'a solution waiting for a problem', and yet the level to which it has now infiltrated our day-to-day technological landscape speaks volumes. At the same time it is also true to say that the direction of research is also at times rightly influenced by the needs and concerns of the general public. Over recent years, growing concerns about the environment have had a noticeable effect on research in nanotechnology, motivating work on a range of topics from green nanomaterial synthesis [1] to high-efficiency solar cells [2] and hydrogen storage [3]. The impact of the world's energy consumption on the welfare of the planet is now an enduring and well founded concern. In the face of an instinctive reluctance to curtail habits of comfort and convenience and the appendages of culture and consumerism, research into renewable and more efficient energy sources seem an encouraging approach to alleviating an impending energy crisis. Fuel cells present one alternative to traditional combustion cells that have huge benefits in terms of the efficiency of energy conversion and the limited harmful emissions. In last week's issue of Nanotechnology, Chuan-Jian Zhong and colleagues at the State University of New York at Binghamton in the USA presented an overview of research on nanostructured catalysts in fuel cells [4]. The topical review includes insights into the interactions between nanoparticles and between nanoparticles and their substrate as well as control over the composition and nanostructure of catalysts. The review also serves to highlight how the flourishing of nanotechnology research has heralded great progress in the exploitation of catalysts with nanostructures ingeniously controlled to maximize surface area and optimize energetics for synthesis

  20. Vinyl capped addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vannucci, Raymond D. (Inventor); Malarik, Diane C. (Inventor); Delvigs, Peter (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    Polyimide resins (PMR) are generally useful where high strength and temperature capabilities are required (at temperatures up to about 700 F). Polyimide resins are particularly useful in applications such as jet engine compressor components, for example, blades, vanes, air seals, air splitters, and engine casing parts. Aromatic vinyl capped addition polyimides are obtained by reacting a diamine, an ester of tetracarboxylic acid, and an aromatic vinyl compound. Low void materials with improved oxidative stability when exposed to 700 F air may be fabricated as fiber reinforced high molecular weight capped polyimide composites. The aromatic vinyl capped polyimides are provided with a more aromatic nature and are more thermally stable than highly aliphatic, norbornenyl-type end-capped polyimides employed in PMR resins. The substitution of aromatic vinyl end-caps for norbornenyl end-caps in addition polyimides results in polymers with improved oxidative stability.

  1. Electrophilic addition of astatine

    SciTech Connect

    Norseev, Yu.V.; Vasaros, L.; Nhan, D.D.; Huan, N.K.

    1988-03-01

    It has been shown for the first time that astatine is capable of undergoing addition reactions to unsaturated hydrocarbons. A new compound of astatine, viz., ethylene astatohydrin, has been obtained, and its retention numbers of squalane, Apiezon, and tricresyl phosphate have been found. The influence of various factors on the formation of ethylene astatohydrin has been studied. It has been concluded on the basis of the results obtained that the univalent cations of astatine in an acidic medium is protonated hypoastatous acid.

  2. Functional Generalized Additive Models.

    PubMed

    McLean, Mathew W; Hooker, Giles; Staicu, Ana-Maria; Scheipl, Fabian; Ruppert, David

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the functional generalized additive model (FGAM), a novel regression model for association studies between a scalar response and a functional predictor. We model the link-transformed mean response as the integral with respect to t of F{X(t), t} where F(·,·) is an unknown regression function and X(t) is a functional covariate. Rather than having an additive model in a finite number of principal components as in Müller and Yao (2008), our model incorporates the functional predictor directly and thus our model can be viewed as the natural functional extension of generalized additive models. We estimate F(·,·) using tensor-product B-splines with roughness penalties. A pointwise quantile transformation of the functional predictor is also considered to ensure each tensor-product B-spline has observed data on its support. The methods are evaluated using simulated data and their predictive performance is compared with other competing scalar-on-function regression alternatives. We illustrate the usefulness of our approach through an application to brain tractography, where X(t) is a signal from diffusion tensor imaging at position, t, along a tract in the brain. In one example, the response is disease-status (case or control) and in a second example, it is the score on a cognitive test. R code for performing the simulations and fitting the FGAM can be found in supplemental materials available online.

  3. Primary Progressive Aphasia

    MedlinePlus

    Primary progressive aphasia Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff Primary progressive aphasia (uh-FAY-zhuh) is a rare nervous system (neurological) syndrome ... your ability to communicate. People with primary progressive aphasia can have trouble expressing their thoughts and understanding ...

  4. Ongoing Progress in Spacecraft Controls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghosh, Dave (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    This publication is a collection of papers presented at the Mars Mission Research Center workshop on Ongoing Progress in Spacecraft Controls. The technical program addressed additional Mars mission control problems that currently exist in robotic missions in addition to human missions. Topics include control systems design in the presence of large time delays, fuel-optimal propulsive control, and adaptive control to handle a variety of unknown conditions.

  5. Siloxane containing addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maudgal, S.; St. Clair, T. L.

    1984-01-01

    Addition polyimide oligomers have been synthesized from bis(gamma-aminopropyl) tetramethyldisiloxane and 3, 3', 4, 4'-benzophenonetetracarboxylic dianhydride using a variety of latent crosslinking groups as endcappers. The prepolymers were isolated and characterized for solubility (in amide, chlorinated and ether solvents), melt flow and cure properties. The most promising systems, maleimide and acetylene terminated prepolymers, were selected for detailed study. Graphite cloth reinforced composites were prepared and properties compared with those of graphite/Kerimid 601, a commercially available bismaleimide. Mixtures of the maleimide terminated system with Kerimid 601, in varying proportions, were also studied.

  6. Platelet additive solution - electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Azuma, Hiroshi; Hirayama, Junichi; Akino, Mitsuaki; Ikeda, Hisami

    2011-06-01

    Recent attention to solutions that replace most or all plasma in platelet concentrates, while maintaining satisfactory platelet function, is motivated by the potential of plasma reduction or depletion to mitigate various transfusion-related adverse events. This report considers the electrolytic composition of previously described platelet additive solutions, in order to draw general conclusions about what is required for platelet function and longevity. The optimal concentrations of Na(+) and Cl(-) are 69-115 mM. The presence of both K(+) and Mg(2+) in platelet suspension at nearly physiological concentrations (3-5mM and 1.5-3mM, respectively) is indispensable for good preservation capacity because both electrolytes are required to prevent platelet activation. In contrast to K(+) and Mg(2+), Ca(2+) may not be important because no free Ca(2+) is available in M-sol, which showed excellent platelet preservation capacity at less than 5% plasma concentration. The importance of bicarbonate (approximately 40 mM) can be recognized when the platelets are suspended in additive solution under less than 5% residual plasma concentration.

  7. Fungi producing significant mycotoxins.

    PubMed

    2012-01-01

    Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites of microfungi that are known to cause sickness or death in humans or animals. Although many such toxic metabolites are known, it is generally agreed that only a few are significant in causing disease: aflatoxins, fumonisins, ochratoxin A, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, and ergot alkaloids. These toxins are produced by just a few species from the common genera Aspergillus, Penicillium, Fusarium, and Claviceps. All Aspergillus and Penicillium species either are commensals, growing in crops without obvious signs of pathogenicity, or invade crops after harvest and produce toxins during drying and storage. In contrast, the important Fusarium and Claviceps species infect crops before harvest. The most important Aspergillus species, occurring in warmer climates, are A. flavus and A. parasiticus, which produce aflatoxins in maize, groundnuts, tree nuts, and, less frequently, other commodities. The main ochratoxin A producers, A. ochraceus and A. carbonarius, commonly occur in grapes, dried vine fruits, wine, and coffee. Penicillium verrucosum also produces ochratoxin A but occurs only in cool temperate climates, where it infects small grains. F. verticillioides is ubiquitous in maize, with an endophytic nature, and produces fumonisins, which are generally more prevalent when crops are under drought stress or suffer excessive insect damage. It has recently been shown that Aspergillus niger also produces fumonisins, and several commodities may be affected. F. graminearum, which is the major producer of deoxynivalenol and zearalenone, is pathogenic on maize, wheat, and barley and produces these toxins whenever it infects these grains before harvest. Also included is a short section on Claviceps purpurea, which produces sclerotia among the seeds in grasses, including wheat, barley, and triticale. The main thrust of the chapter contains information on the identification of these fungi and their morphological characteristics, as well as factors

  8. Additive composition, for gasoline

    SciTech Connect

    Vataru, M.

    1989-01-10

    An admixture is described that comprises Diesel fuel and an additive composition added thereto which is between about 0.05 to about 2.0 percent by weight of the fuel, the composition comprising: (a) between about 0.05 and 25% relative weight parts of an organic peroxide, and (b) between about 0.1 and 25% relative weight parts of detergent selected from the component group that consists of: (i) fatty amines; (ii) ethoxylated and propoxylated derivatives of fatty amines; (iii) fatty diamines; (iv) fatty imidazlines; (v) polymeric amines and derivatives thereof; (vi) combination of one or more of the (i) through (v) components with carboxylic acid or acids having from three to forth carbon atoms, (c) from about 99.0 to about 50% by weight of a hydrocarbon solvent.

  9. New addition curing polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frimer, Aryeh A.; Cavano, Paul

    1991-01-01

    In an attempt to improve the thermal-oxidative stability (TOS) of PMR-type polymers, the use of 1,4-phenylenebis (phenylmaleic anhydride) PPMA, was evaluated. Two series of nadic end-capped addition curing polyimides were prepared by imidizing PPMA with either 4,4'-methylene dianiline or p-phenylenediamine. The first resulted in improved solubility and increased resin flow while the latter yielded a compression molded neat resin sample with a T(sub g) of 408 C, close to 70 C higher than PME-15. The performance of these materials in long term weight loss studies was below that of PMR-15, independent of post-cure conditions. These results can be rationalized in terms of the thermal lability of the pendant phenyl groups and the incomplete imidization of the sterically congested PPMA. The preparation of model compounds as well as future research directions are discussed.

  10. Perspectives on Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourell, David L.

    2016-07-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has skyrocketed in visibility commercially and in the public sector. This article describes the development of this field from early layered manufacturing approaches of photosculpture, topography, and material deposition. Certain precursors to modern AM processes are also briefly described. The growth of the field over the last 30 years is presented. Included is the standard delineation of AM technologies into seven broad categories. The economics of AM part generation is considered, and the impacts of the economics on application sectors are described. On the basis of current trends, the future outlook will include a convergence of AM fabricators, mass-produced AM fabricators, enabling of topology optimization designs, and specialization in the AM legal arena. Long-term developments with huge impact are organ printing and volume-based printing.

  11. Sewage sludge additive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalvinskas, J. J.; Mueller, W. A.; Ingham, J. D. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    The additive is for a raw sewage treatment process of the type where settling tanks are used for the purpose of permitting the suspended matter in the raw sewage to be settled as well as to permit adsorption of the dissolved contaminants in the water of the sewage. The sludge, which settles down to the bottom of the settling tank is extracted, pyrolyzed and activated to form activated carbon and ash which is mixed with the sewage prior to its introduction into the settling tank. The sludge does not provide all of the activated carbon and ash required for adequate treatment of the raw sewage. It is necessary to add carbon to the process and instead of expensive commercial carbon, coal is used to provide the carbon supplement.

  12. Additive lattice kirigami.

    PubMed

    Castle, Toen; Sussman, Daniel M; Tanis, Michael; Kamien, Randall D

    2016-09-01

    Kirigami uses bending, folding, cutting, and pasting to create complex three-dimensional (3D) structures from a flat sheet. In the case of lattice kirigami, this cutting and rejoining introduces defects into an underlying 2D lattice in the form of points of nonzero Gaussian curvature. A set of simple rules was previously used to generate a wide variety of stepped structures; we now pare back these rules to their minimum. This allows us to describe a set of techniques that unify a wide variety of cut-and-paste actions under the rubric of lattice kirigami, including adding new material and rejoining material across arbitrary cuts in the sheet. We also explore the use of more complex lattices and the different structures that consequently arise. Regardless of the choice of lattice, creating complex structures may require multiple overlapping kirigami cuts, where subsequent cuts are not performed on a locally flat lattice. Our additive kirigami method describes such cuts, providing a simple methodology and a set of techniques to build a huge variety of complex 3D shapes.

  13. Ceramics with Different Additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Juanjuan; Feng, Lajun; Lei, Ali; Zhao, Kang; Yan, Aijun

    2014-09-01

    Li2CO3, MgCO3, BaCO3, and Bi2O3 dopants were introduced into CaCu3Ti4O12 (CCTO) ceramics in order to improve the dielectric properties. The CCTO ceramics were prepared by conventional solid-state reaction method. The phase structure, microstructure, and dielectric behavior were carefully investigated. The pure structure without any impurity phases can be confirmed by the x-ray diffraction patterns. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) analysis illuminated that the grains of Ca0.90Li0.20Cu3Ti4O12 ceramics were greater than that of pure CCTO. It was important for the properties of the CCTO ceramics to study the additives in complex impedance spectroscopy. It was found that the Ca0.90Li0.20Cu3Ti4O12 ceramics had the higher permittivity (>45000), the lower dielectric loss (<0.025) than those of CCTO at 1 kHz at room temperature and good temperature stability from -30 to 75 °C.

  14. Additive lattice kirigami

    PubMed Central

    Castle, Toen; Sussman, Daniel M.; Tanis, Michael; Kamien, Randall D.

    2016-01-01

    Kirigami uses bending, folding, cutting, and pasting to create complex three-dimensional (3D) structures from a flat sheet. In the case of lattice kirigami, this cutting and rejoining introduces defects into an underlying 2D lattice in the form of points of nonzero Gaussian curvature. A set of simple rules was previously used to generate a wide variety of stepped structures; we now pare back these rules to their minimum. This allows us to describe a set of techniques that unify a wide variety of cut-and-paste actions under the rubric of lattice kirigami, including adding new material and rejoining material across arbitrary cuts in the sheet. We also explore the use of more complex lattices and the different structures that consequently arise. Regardless of the choice of lattice, creating complex structures may require multiple overlapping kirigami cuts, where subsequent cuts are not performed on a locally flat lattice. Our additive kirigami method describes such cuts, providing a simple methodology and a set of techniques to build a huge variety of complex 3D shapes. PMID:27679822

  15. The Mozart Effect: Additional Data.

    PubMed

    Hughes, John R.

    2002-04-01

    After the review of the Mozart effect was published in this journal (Hughes JR. Epilepsy Behav 2001;2:369-417), additional data from the music of Haydn and Liszt have been analyzed that may account for the decrease in seizure activity originally reported during Mozart music. Even with these added data Mozart music continued to score significantly higher than the selections from the other six composers in one of the important characteristics of this music, namely, the repetition of the melody. However Haydn's values were second highest among Mozart, J. S. Bach, Wagner, Beethoven, Chopin, and Liszt.

  16. [Domestic violence: any progress?].

    PubMed

    Henrion, Roger

    2014-01-01

    Since the publication of the French national survey of violence against women in 2000, the fight against domestic violence has made steady progress. Knowledge of the phenomenon has significantly improved. A nationwide study of murders and manslaughters perpetrated by one partner of a couple against the other has been published annually since 2006. In 2012, domestic violence resulted in the deaths of 314 persons: 166 women, 31 men, 25 children, 9 collateral victims, 14 rivals, and two former spouses killed by their ex-fathers in law. In addition, 67 perpetrators committed suicide (51 men and3 women). The number of victims fluctuates from year to year but has remained fairly stable since 2006 (n=168). Legislation has improved significantly: eight new laws have been passed since 2004, all designed to protect women and to ensure that violent men are restrained and treated. New measures to inform and protect women have been implemented and others have been improved, such as the anonymous helpline (phone no 3919, "domestic violence information"). An inter-ministerial committee on the protection of women from violence and the prevention of human trafficking (MIPROF) was created on 3 January 2013. A website entitled "Stop violence against women " (Stop violences faites aux femmes) is now available. The "Imminent Danger" mobile phone system, designed to alert police if a suspected or known perpetrator breaches restraint conditions, will be extended to the entire country from January 2014. Referees charged with coordinating comprehensive long-tern care of women victims have been deployed at the county level. Information centers on the rights of women and families (CIDFF) now form a local nationwide network. Routine interviews with a midwife during the fourth month of pregnancy, focusing on the woman's emotional, economic and social conditions, have been implemented in 21 % of maternity units and should gradually be generalized. The authorities who have enforced the law have

  17. Foot Progression Angle Walking Test

    PubMed Central

    Ranawat, Anil S.; Gaudiani, Michael A.; Slullitel, Pablo A.; Satalich, James; Rebolledo, Brian J.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Determining an accurate clinical diagnosis for nonarthritic hip pain may be challenging, as symptoms related to femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) or hip instability can be difficult to elucidate with current testing methods. In addition, commonly utilized physical examination maneuvers are static and do not include a dynamic or weightbearing assessment to reproduce activity-related symptoms. Therefore, implementing a dynamic assessment for FAI and hip instability could help to improve diagnostic accuracy for routine clinical examinations of patients with nonarthritic hip pain. Purpose: To assess the efficacy of a novel diagnostic foot progression angle walking (FPAW) test for identifying hip pathology related to FAI or hip instability. Study Design: Prospective cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: This prospective study included 199 consecutive patients who were evaluated for unilateral hip pain and who underwent FPAW testing along with standard physical examination testing. Demographic data, including age, sex and hip laterality, were collected from each patient. FPAW testing was performed with directed internal and external foot progression angles from their baseline measurements, with a positive test reproducing pain and/or discomfort. Comparisons were then made with flexion adduction internal rotation (FADIR) and flexion abduction external rotation (FABER) tests as the designated diagnostic standard examinations for FAI and hip instability, respectively. Sensitivity and specificity, along with the McNemar chi-square test for group comparison, were used to generate summary statistics. In addition, areas under the combined receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC) of test performance were calculated for both FPAW and the designated standard examination tests (FADIR, FABER). Radiographic imaging was used subsequently to confirm the diagnosis. Results: The average age of the study cohort was 35.4 ± 11.8 years, with 114 patients being

  18. Progressive Band Selection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Kevin; Chang, Chein-I

    2009-01-01

    Progressive band selection (PBS) reduces spectral redundancy without significant loss of information, thereby reducing hyperspectral image data volume and processing time. Used onboard a spacecraft, it can also reduce image downlink time. PBS prioritizes an image's spectral bands according to priority scores that measure their significance to a specific application. Then it uses one of three methods to select an appropriate number of the most useful bands. Key challenges for PBS include selecting an appropriate criterion to generate band priority scores, and determining how many bands should be retained in the reduced image. The image's Virtual Dimensionality (VD), once computed, is a reasonable estimate of the latter. We describe the major design details of PBS and test PBS in a land classification experiment.

  19. Gender differences in treatment progress of drug-addicted patients.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Montalvo, Javier; López-Goñi, José J; Azanza, Paula; Arteaga, Alfonso; Cacho, Raúl

    2017-03-01

    The authors of this study explored the differences in treatment progress between men and women who were addicted to drugs. The differential rate of completion of/dropout from treatment in men and women with substance dependence was established. Moreover, comparisons between completers and dropouts, accounting for gender, were carried out for several variables related to treatment progress and clinical profile. A sample of 183 addicted patients (96 male and 87 female) who sought outpatient treatment between 2002 and 2006 was assessed. Information on socio-demographic, consumption, and associated characteristics was collected. A detailed tracking of each patient's progress was maintained for a minimum period of 8 years to assess treatment progression. The treatment dropout rate in the whole sample was 38.8%, with statistically significant differences between women (47.1%) and men (31.3%). Women who dropped out of treatment presented a more severe profile in most of the psychopathologic variables than women who completed it. Moreover, women who dropped out from treatment presented a more severe profile than men who dropped out. According to these results, drug-addicted women showed worse therapeutic progress than men with similar histories. Thus, women must be provided with additional targeted intervention to promote better treatment outcomes.

  20. Progress in Induction Linacs

    SciTech Connect

    Caporaso, G J

    2000-09-27

    This presentation will be a broad survey of progress in induction technology over the past four years. Much work has been done on accelerators for hydrodynamic test radiography and other applications. Solid-state pulsers have been developed which can provide unprecedented flexibility and precision in pulse format and accelerating voltage for both ion and electron induction machines. Induction linacs can now be built which can operate with MHz repetition rates. Solid-state technology has also made possible the development of fast kickers for precision control of high current beams. New insulator technology has been developed which will improve conventional induction linacs in addition to enabling a new class of high gradient induction linacs.

  1. Risk factor reduction in progression of angiographic coronary artery disease

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Hoang M.; Mercando, Anthony D.; Kalen, Phoenix; Desai, Harit V.; Gandhi, Kaushang; Sharma, Mala; Amin, Harshad; Lai, Trung M.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction To investigate differences between outpatients with progressive and nonprogressive coronary artery disease (CAD) measured by coronary angiography. Material and methods Chart reviews were performed in patients in an outpatient cardiology practice having ≥ 2 coronary angiographies ≥ 1 year apart. Progressive CAD was defined as 1) new non-obstructive or obstructive CAD in a previously disease-free vessel; or 2) new obstruction in a previously non-obstructive vessel. Coronary risk factors, comorbidities, cardiovascular events, medication use, serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and blood pressure were used for analysis. Results The study included 183 patients, mean age 71 years. Mean follow-up duration was 11 years. Mean follow-up between coronary angiographies was 58 months. Of 183 patients, 108 (59%) had progressive CAD, and 75 (41%) had nonprogressive CAD. The use of statins, β-blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers, and aspirin was not significantly different in patient with progressive CAD or nonprogressive CAD Mean arterial pressure was higher in patients with progressive CAD than in patients with nonprogressive CAD (97±13 mm Hg vs. 92±12 mm Hg) (p<0.05). Serum LDL-C was insignificantly higher in patients with progressive CAD (94±40 mg/dl) than in patients with nonprogressive CAD (81±34 mg/dl) (p=0.09). Conclusions Our data suggest that in addition to using appropriate medical therapy, control of blood pressure and serum LDL-C level may reduce progression of CAD. PMID:22851998

  2. Healthy brain connectivity predicts atrophy progression in non-fluent variant of primary progressive aphasia.

    PubMed

    Mandelli, Maria Luisa; Vilaplana, Eduard; Brown, Jesse A; Hubbard, H Isabel; Binney, Richard J; Attygalle, Suneth; Santos-Santos, Miguel A; Miller, Zachary A; Pakvasa, Mikhail; Henry, Maya L; Rosen, Howard J; Henry, Roland G; Rabinovici, Gil D; Miller, Bruce L; Seeley, William W; Gorno-Tempini, Maria Luisa

    2016-10-01

    Neurodegeneration has been hypothesized to follow predetermined large-scale networks through the trans-synaptic spread of toxic proteins from a syndrome-specific epicentre. To date, no longitudinal neuroimaging study has tested this hypothesis in vivo in frontotemporal dementia spectrum disorders. The aim of this study was to demonstrate that longitudinal progression of atrophy in non-fluent/agrammatic variant primary progressive aphasia spreads over time from a syndrome-specific epicentre to additional regions, based on their connectivity to the epicentre in healthy control subjects. The syndrome-specific epicentre of the non-fluent/agrammatic variant of primary progressive aphasia was derived in a group of 10 mildly affected patients (clinical dementia rating equal to 0) using voxel-based morphometry. From this region, the inferior frontal gyrus (pars opercularis), we derived functional and structural connectivity maps in healthy controls (n = 30) using functional magnetic resonance imaging at rest and diffusion-weighted imaging tractography. Graph theory analysis was applied to derive functional network features. Atrophy progression was calculated using voxel-based morphometry longitudinal analysis on 34 non-fluent/agrammatic patients. Correlation analyses were performed to compare volume changes in patients with connectivity measures of the healthy functional and structural speech/language network. The default mode network was used as a control network. From the epicentre, the healthy functional connectivity network included the left supplementary motor area and the prefrontal, inferior parietal and temporal regions, which were connected through the aslant, superior longitudinal and arcuate fasciculi. Longitudinal grey and white matter changes were found in the left language-related regions and in the right inferior frontal gyrus. Functional connectivity strength in the healthy speech/language network, but not in the default network, correlated with

  3. MAGNETOMETRY, SELF-POTENTIAL, AND SEISMIC - ADDITIONAL GEOPHYSICAL METHODS HAVING POTENTIALLY SIGNIFICANT FUTURE UTILIZATION IN AGRICULTURE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Geophysical methods can provide important information in agricultural settings, and the use of these techniques are becoming more and more widespread. Magnetrometry, self-potential, and seismic are three geophysical methods, all of which have the potential for substantial future use in agriculture, ...

  4. Lesinurad: A significant advancement or just another addition to existing therapies of gout?

    PubMed

    Gupta, Ajay; Sharma, Pramod Kumar; Misra, Arup Kumar; Singh, Surjit

    2016-01-01

    Gout is a metabolic disorder that usually presents as recurrent episodes of acute arthritis due to deposition of crystals in joints and cartilages. Despite the availability of several drugs for gout, its management is still less than adequate. There is always a search for newer, safer, and more potent urate-lowering therapies for treating patients inadequately controlled with available drugs. Lesinurad in combination with a xanthine oxidase inhibitor provides an effective mode of therapy in the management of hyperuricemia associated with gout. Lesinurad is a selective uric acid transporter 1 (URAT1) inhibitor. URAT1 is responsible for the majority of uric acid absorption from kidneys to the circulation. Lesinurad was granted marketing approval based on three randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled; phase III clinical trials. It is devoid of interaction with organic anion transporters (OATs) such as OAT1 and 3, responsible for drug-drug interactions, an undesirable property associated with probenecid. On-going research is more focused on reducing inflammation consequent to deposition of crystals rather than production and excretion of urate. Various targets are being explored, and interleukin-1 beta inhibition seems to be one of the most promising approaches.

  5. Lesinurad: A significant advancement or just another addition to existing therapies of gout?

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Ajay; Sharma, Pramod Kumar; Misra, Arup Kumar; Singh, Surjit

    2016-01-01

    Gout is a metabolic disorder that usually presents as recurrent episodes of acute arthritis due to deposition of crystals in joints and cartilages. Despite the availability of several drugs for gout, its management is still less than adequate. There is always a search for newer, safer, and more potent urate-lowering therapies for treating patients inadequately controlled with available drugs. Lesinurad in combination with a xanthine oxidase inhibitor provides an effective mode of therapy in the management of hyperuricemia associated with gout. Lesinurad is a selective uric acid transporter 1 (URAT1) inhibitor. URAT1 is responsible for the majority of uric acid absorption from kidneys to the circulation. Lesinurad was granted marketing approval based on three randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled; phase III clinical trials. It is devoid of interaction with organic anion transporters (OATs) such as OAT1 and 3, responsible for drug-drug interactions, an undesirable property associated with probenecid. On-going research is more focused on reducing inflammation consequent to deposition of crystals rather than production and excretion of urate. Various targets are being explored, and interleukin-1 beta inhibition seems to be one of the most promising approaches. PMID:28163535

  6. Progression of Liver Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... The Progression of Liver Disease The Progression of Liver Disease There are many different types of liver ... may put your life in danger. The Healthy Liver Your liver helps fight infections and cleans your ...

  7. The Development of Comprehension and Reading-Related Skills in Children Learning English as an Additional Language and Their Monolingual, English-Speaking Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgoyne, K.; Whiteley, H. E.; Hutchinson, J. M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: A significant number of pupils in UK schools learn English as an additional language (EAL). Relative differences between the educational attainment of this group and monolingual, English-speaking pupils call for an exploration of the literacy needs of EAL learners. Aims: This study explores the developmental progression of reading and…

  8. An additional step toward comprehensive paleoclimate reanalyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goosse, Hugues

    2016-09-01

    Although data assimilation in paleoclimatology has shown significant progress, the model data comparison step remains a limiting factor because paleoclimate (proxy) records have generally a complex response to both climatic and nonclimatic factors. In experiments performed in a controlled framework, Dee et al. (2016) have applied proxy system models that simulate tree ring width, isotopic composition of corals and isotopic composition of ice cores from the results of a climate model. The difference between those simulated variables and the value measured on the natural archive can then be computed directly, improving significantly the performance of the data assimilation method.

  9. Progress in NTHMP Hazard Assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gonzalez, F.I.; Titov, V.V.; Mofjeld, H.O.; Venturato, A.J.; Simmons, R.S.; Hansen, R.; Combellick, R.; Eisner, R.K.; Hoirup, D.F.; Yanagi, B.S.; Yong, S.; Darienzo, M.; Priest, G.R.; Crawford, G.L.; Walsh, T.J.

    2005-01-01

    The Hazard Assessment component of the U.S. National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program has completed 22 modeling efforts covering 113 coastal communities with an estimated population of 1.2 million residents that are at risk. Twenty-three evacuation maps have also been completed. Important improvements in organizational structure have been made with the addition of two State geotechnical agency representatives to Steering Group membership, and progress has been made on other improvements suggested by program reviewers. ?? Springer 2005.

  10. Association of Y chromosome haplogroup I with HIV progression, and HAART outcome.

    PubMed

    Sezgin, Efe; Lind, Joanne M; Shrestha, Sadeep; Hendrickson, Sher; Goedert, James J; Donfield, Sharyne; Kirk, Gregory D; Phair, John P; Troyer, Jennifer L; O'Brien, Stephen J; Smith, Michael W

    2009-04-01

    The host genetic basis of differential outcomes in HIV infection, progression, viral load set point and highly active retroviral therapy (HAART) responses was examined for the common Y haplogroups in European Americans and African Americans. Accelerated progression to acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and related death in European Americans among Y chromosome haplogroup I (Y-I) subjects was discovered. Additionally, Y-I haplogroup subjects on HAART took a longer time to HIV-1 viral suppression and were more likely to fail HAART. Both the accelerated progression and longer time to viral suppression results observed in haplogroup Y-I were significant after false-discovery-rate corrections. A higher frequency of AIDS-defining illnesses was also observed in haplogroup Y-I. These effects were independent of the previously identified autosomal AIDS restriction genes. When the Y-I haplogroup subjects were further subdivided into six I subhaplogroups, no one subhaplogroup accounted for the effects on HIV progression, viral load or HAART response. Adjustment of the analyses for population stratification found significant and concordant haplogroup Y-I results. The Y chromosome haplogroup analyses of HIV infection and progression in African Americans were not significant. Our results suggest that one or more loci on the Y chromosome found on haplogroup Y-I have an effect on AIDS progression and treatment responses in European Americans.

  11. 1992 PVUSA progress report

    SciTech Connect

    1992-12-31

    Photovoltaics for Utility Scale Applications (PVUSA) is a national public-private partnership that is assessing and demonstrating the viability of utility-scale photovoltaic (PV) electric generating systems. This report updates the progress of the PVUSA project, reviews the status and performance of the various PV installations during 1992, and summarizes key accomplishments and conclusions from work to date. Fall PV module costs and rising environmental pressures could make PV a significant source of large-scale power within the next decade. However, utility acceptance of this technology requires knowledge of PV operational characteristics in a utility system and confidence in predicting PV performance, reliability, and economics. PVUSA consists of two types of demonstrations: Emerging Module Technologies (EMTs), which are unproven but promising state-of-the-art PV technologies in 20-kW (nominal) arrays; and Utility Scale (US) systems, which represent more mature PV technologies in 200- to 500-kW (nominal) turnkey systems.

  12. Short communication: Progressive motility of frozen-thawed canine semen is highest five minutes after thawing.

    PubMed

    Karger, S; Geiser, B; Grau, M; Heuwieser, W; Arlt, S P

    2017-04-01

    Progressive motility is usually estimated by visual inspection using a light contrast microscope at X 100 immediately after semen collection or immediately after thawing frozen semen. Standard operating procedures have never been established for this test. The objective of this experiment was to examine time-dependent changes of motility after thawing cryopreserved canine semen. Semen of 35 dogs was collected, and volume, concentration, progressive motility, morphology, membrane integrity and HOS test were evaluated. For cryopreservation, CaniPRO(®) Freeze A&B was used. Semen was thawed and diluted using CaniPRO(®) culture medium. After thawing, semen was evaluated as before. In addition, every sample was evaluated for progressively motile sperm cells 0, 5, 20 and 60 min after thawing. Progressive semen motility was significantly highest five minutes after thawing.

  13. Progress in advanced high temperature materials technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freche, J. C.; Ault, G. M.

    1976-01-01

    Significant progress has recently been made in many high temperature material categories pertinent to such applications by the industrial community. These include metal matrix composites, superalloys, directionally solidified eutectics, coatings, and ceramics. Each of these material categories is reviewed and the current state-of-the-art identified, including some assessment, when appropriate, of progress, problems, and future directions.

  14. Reconstructing Progressive Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Andy

    2013-01-01

    The work of Colonel Francis W. Parker, the man whom Dewey called "the father of progressive education," provides a starting point for reconstructing the loose ambiguities of progressive education into a coherent social and educational philosophy. Although progressives have claimed their approach is more humane and sensitive to children, we need…

  15. Defining secondary progressive multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Lorscheider, Johannes; Buzzard, Katherine; Jokubaitis, Vilija; Spelman, Tim; Havrdova, Eva; Horakova, Dana; Trojano, Maria; Izquierdo, Guillermo; Girard, Marc; Duquette, Pierre; Prat, Alexandre; Lugaresi, Alessandra; Grand'Maison, François; Grammond, Pierre; Hupperts, Raymond; Alroughani, Raed; Sola, Patrizia; Boz, Cavit; Pucci, Eugenio; Lechner-Scott, Jeanette; Bergamaschi, Roberto; Oreja-Guevara, Celia; Iuliano, Gerardo; Van Pesch, Vincent; Granella, Franco; Ramo-Tello, Cristina; Spitaleri, Daniele; Petersen, Thor; Slee, Mark; Verheul, Freek; Ampapa, Radek; Amato, Maria Pia; McCombe, Pamela; Vucic, Steve; Sánchez Menoyo, José Luis; Cristiano, Edgardo; Barnett, Michael H; Hodgkinson, Suzanne; Olascoaga, Javier; Saladino, Maria Laura; Gray, Orla; Shaw, Cameron; Moore, Fraser; Butzkueven, Helmut; Kalincik, Tomas

    2016-09-01

    A number of studies have been conducted with the onset of secondary progressive multiple sclerosis as an inclusion criterion or an outcome of interest. However, a standardized objective definition of secondary progressive multiple sclerosis has been lacking. The aim of this work was to evaluate the accuracy and feasibility of an objective definition for secondary progressive multiple sclerosis, to enable comparability of future research studies. Using MSBase, a large, prospectively acquired, global cohort study, we analysed the accuracy of 576 data-derived onset definitions for secondary progressive multiple sclerosis and first compared these to a consensus opinion of three neurologists. All definitions were then evaluated against 5-year disease outcomes post-assignment of secondary progressive multiple sclerosis: sustained disability, subsequent sustained progression, positive disability trajectory, and accumulation of severe disability. The five best performing definitions were further investigated for their timeliness and overall disability burden. A total of 17 356 patients were analysed. The best definition included a 3-strata progression magnitude in the absence of a relapse, confirmed after 3 months within the leading Functional System and required an Expanded Disability Status Scale step ≥4 and pyramidal score ≥2. It reached an accuracy of 87% compared to the consensus diagnosis. Seventy-eight per cent of the identified patients showed a positive disability trajectory and 70% reached significant disability after 5 years. The time until half of all patients were diagnosed was 32.6 years (95% confidence interval 32-33.6) after disease onset compared with the physicians' diagnosis at 36 (35-39) years. The identified patients experienced a greater disease burden [median annualized area under the disability-time curve 4.7 (quartiles 3.6, 6.0)] versus non-progressive patients [1.8 (1.2, 1.9)]. This objective definition of secondary progressive multiple

  16. Soil biochemical responses to nitrogen addition in a bamboo forest.

    PubMed

    Tu, Li-hua; Chen, Gang; Peng, Yong; Hu, Hong-ling; Hu, Ting-xing; Zhang, Jian; Li, Xian-wei; Liu, Li; Tang, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Many vital ecosystem processes take place in the soils and are greatly affected by the increasing active nitrogen (N) deposition observed globally. Nitrogen deposition generally affects ecosystem processes through the changes in soil biochemical properties such as soil nutrient availability, microbial properties and enzyme activities. In order to evaluate the soil biochemical responses to elevated atmospheric N deposition in bamboo forest ecosystems, a two-year field N addition experiment in a hybrid bamboo (Bambusa pervariabilis × Dendrocalamopsis daii) plantation was conducted. Four levels of N treatment were applied: (1) control (CK, without N added), (2) low-nitrogen (LN, 50 kg N ha(-1) year(-1)), (3) medium-nitrogen (MN, 150 kg N ha(-1) year(-1)), and (4) high-nitrogen (HN, 300 kg N ha(-1) year(-1)). Results indicated that N addition significantly increased the concentrations of NH4(+), NO3(-), microbial biomass carbon, microbial biomass N, the rates of nitrification and denitrification; significantly decreased soil pH and the concentration of available phosphorus, and had no effect on the total organic carbon and total N concentration in the 0-20 cm soil depth. Nitrogen addition significantly stimulated activities of hydrolytic enzyme that acquiring N (urease) and phosphorus (acid phosphatase) and depressed the oxidative enzymes (phenol oxidase, peroxidase and catalase) activities. Results suggest that (1) this bamboo forest ecosystem is moving towards being limited by P or co-limited by P under elevated N deposition, (2) the expected progressive increases in N deposition may have a potential important effect on forest litter decomposition due to the interaction of inorganic N and oxidative enzyme activities, in such bamboo forests under high levels of ambient N deposition.

  17. Neutron Characterization for Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watkins, Thomas; Bilheux, Hassina; An, Ke; Payzant, Andrew; DeHoff, Ryan; Duty, Chad; Peter, William; Blue, Craig; Brice, Craig A.

    2013-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is leveraging decades of experience in neutron characterization of advanced materials together with resources such as the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) and the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) shown in Fig. 1 to solve challenging problems in additive manufacturing (AM). Additive manufacturing, or three-dimensional (3-D) printing, is a rapidly maturing technology wherein components are built by selectively adding feedstock material at locations specified by a computer model. The majority of these technologies use thermally driven phase change mechanisms to convert the feedstock into functioning material. As the molten material cools and solidifies, the component is subjected to significant thermal gradients, generating significant internal stresses throughout the part (Fig. 2). As layers are added, inherent residual stresses cause warping and distortions that lead to geometrical differences between the final part and the original computer generated design. This effect also limits geometries that can be fabricated using AM, such as thin-walled, high-aspect- ratio, and overhanging structures. Distortion may be minimized by intelligent toolpath planning or strategic placement of support structures, but these approaches are not well understood and often "Edisonian" in nature. Residual stresses can also impact component performance during operation. For example, in a thermally cycled environment such as a high-pressure turbine engine, residual stresses can cause components to distort unpredictably. Different thermal treatments on as-fabricated AM components have been used to minimize residual stress, but components still retain a nonhomogeneous stress state and/or demonstrate a relaxation-derived geometric distortion. Industry, federal laboratory, and university collaboration is needed to address these challenges and enable the U.S. to compete in the global market. Work is currently being conducted on AM technologies at the ORNL

  18. Progress in video immersion using Panospheric imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogner, Stephen L.; Southwell, David T.; Penzes, Steven G.; Brosinsky, Chris A.; Anderson, Ron; Hanna, Doug M.

    1998-09-01

    Having demonstrated significant technical and marketplace advantages over other modalities for video immersion, PanosphericTM Imaging (PI) continues to evolve rapidly. This paper reports on progress achieved since AeroSense 97. The first practical field deployment of the technology occurred in June-August 1997 during the NASA-CMU 'Atacama Desert Trek' activity, where the Nomad mobile robot was teleoperated via immersive PanosphericTM imagery from a distance of several thousand kilometers. Research using teleoperated vehicles at DRES has also verified the exceptional utility of the PI technology for achieving high levels of situational awareness, operator confidence, and mission effectiveness. Important performance enhancements have been achieved with the completion of the 4th Generation PI DSP-based array processor system. The system is now able to provide dynamic full video-rate generation of spatial and computational transformations, resulting in a programmable and fully interactive immersive video telepresence. A new multi- CCD camera architecture has been created to exploit the bandwidth of this processor, yielding a well-matched PI system with greatly improved resolution. While the initial commercial application for this technology is expected to be video tele- conferencing, it also appears to have excellent potential for application in the 'Immersive Cockpit' concept. Additional progress is reported in the areas of Long Wave Infrared PI Imaging, Stereo PI concepts, PI based Video-Servoing concepts, PI based Video Navigation concepts, and Foveation concepts (to merge localized high-resolution views with immersive views).

  19. Study of atmospheric pollution scavenging. Twenty-fourth progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, A.L.

    1990-08-01

    Atmospheric scavenging research conducted by the Illinois State Water Survey under contract with the Department of Energy has been a significant factor in the historical development of the field of precipitation scavenging. Emphasis of the work during the 1980`s became focused on the problem of acid rain problem with the Survey being chosen as the Central Analytical Laboratory for sample analysis of the National Atmospheric Deposition Program National Trends Network (NADP/NTN). The DOE research was responsible for laying the groundwork from the standpoint of sampling and chemical analysis that has now become routine features of NADP/NTN. A significant aspect of the research has been the participation by the Water Survey in the MAP3S precipitation sampling network which is totally supported by DOE, is the longest continuous precipitation sampling network in existence, and maintains an event sampling protocol. The following review consists of a short description of each of the papers appearing in the Study of Atmospheric Scavenging progress reports starting with the Eighteenth Progress Report in 1980 to the Twenty- Third Progress Report in 1989. In addition a listing of the significant publications and interviews associated with the program are given in the bibliography.

  20. FY 2011 Progress Report for Lightweighting Materials

    SciTech Connect

    2012-02-28

    The FY 2011 Progress Report for Lightweighting Materials focuses on the development and validation of advanced materials and manufacturing technologies to significantly reduce light and heavy duty vehicle weight without compromising other attributes such as safety, performance, recyclability, and cost.

  1. Spatiotemporal progression of cell death in the zone of ischemia surrounding burns

    PubMed Central

    Lanier, Steven T.; McClain, Steve A.; Lin, Fubao; Singer, Adam J.; Clark, Richard A.F.

    2013-01-01

    Burns are dynamic injuries, characterized by progressive death of surrounding tissue over time. Though central to an understanding of burn injury progression, the spatiotemporal degrees and rates of cellular necrosis and apoptosis in the zone of ischemia surrounding burns are not well characterized. Using a validated porcine hot comb model, we probed periburn tissue at 1, 4, and 24 hours after injury for high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) as a marker of necrosis and activated cleaved caspase 3 (CC3a) as a marker of apoptosis, followed by spatiotemporal morphometric analysis. We found that necrosis was the most prominent mechanism of cell death in burn injury progression, with significant progression between 1 and 4 hours post-burn. Apoptosis appeared not to play a role in early burn injury progression, but was observed in cells at the interface of necrotic and viable tissue at 24 hours post-burn. Our findings imply that intervention within the first 4 hours following injury is likely necessary to limit burn injury progression. Additionally, based on HMGB1 staining patterns, we define distinct early, intermediate and late pathological signs of cell necrosis that may facilitate delineation of causal mechanistic relationships of burn injury progression in vivo. PMID:22092800

  2. Nitrogen as a friendly addition to steel

    SciTech Connect

    Rawers, J.C.

    2006-01-01

    Interstitial alloying with nitrogen or carbon is a common means of enhancing properties of iron-based alloys. Interstitial nitrogen addition to fcc-phase Fe-Cr-Mn/Ni alloys results in improved mechanical properties, whereas addition of carbon can result in the formation of unwanted carbides. Carbon addition to low alloy, bcc-phase iron alloys significantly improves strength through the formation of carbides, whereas addition of nitrogen in bcc-phase iron alloys can result in porous casting and reduced mechanical properties. This study will show that alloying iron-based alloys with both nitrogen and carbon can produce positive results. Nitrogen addition to Fe-C and Fe-Cr-C alloys, and both nitrogen and nitrogen-carbon additions to Fe-Cr-Mn/Ni alloys altered the microstructure, improved mechanical properties, increased hardness, and reduced wear by stabilizing the fcc-phase and altering (possibly eliminating) precipitate formation.

  3. Recent progress on the total synthesis of acetogenins from Annonaceae

    PubMed Central

    Li, Nianguang; Shi, Zhihao; Tang, Yuping; Chen, Jianwei

    2008-01-01

    Summary An overview of recent progress on the total synthesis of acetogenins from Annonaceae during the past 12 years is provided. These include mono-tetrahydrofurans, adjacent bis-tetrahydrofurans, nonadjacent bis-tetrahydrofurans, tri-tetrahydrofurans, adjacent tetrahydrofuran-tetrahydropyrans, nonadjacent tetrahydrofuran-tetrahydropyrans, mono-tetrahydropyrans, and acetogenins containing only γ-lactone. This review emphasizes only the first total synthesis of molecules of contemporary interest and syntheses that have helped to correct structures. In addition, some significant results on the novel synthesis and structure–activity relationship studies of annonaceous acetogenins are also introduced. PMID:19190742

  4. A progress report - Induction plasma simulation of the GCNR.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vogel, C. E.

    1971-01-01

    Significant progress has been made in the design, construction and operation of induction coupled devices which simulate the open cycle Gas Core Nuclear Rocket. These devices incorporate solid feed of the plasma forming material (uranium and uranium simulating materials), permeable walls, seeding of the propellant, and transpiration cooled, choked flow nozzles. Operating parameters and performance data of devices employing these design features are discussed. A uranium plasma experiment is included. In addition, operating data of several devices which compare theoretical and actual performance at a variety of powers, pressures, frequencies, and sizes are discussed.

  5. Technical progress report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    This report summarizes experimental and theoretical work in basic nuclear physics carried out between October 1, 1995, the closing of our last Progress Report, and September 30, 1996 at the Nuclear Physics Laboratory of the University of Colorado, Boulder, under contracts DE-FG03-93ER-40774 and DE-FG03-95ER-40913 with the United States Department of Energy. The experimental contract supports broadly-based experimental research in intermediate energy nuclear physics. This report includes results from studies of Elementary Systems involving the study of the structure of the nucleon via polarized high-energy positron scattering (the HERMES experiment) and lower energy pion scattering from both polarized and unpolarized nucleon targets. Results from pion- and kaon-induced reactions in a variety of nuclear systems are reported under the section heading Meson Reactions; the impact of these and other results on understanding the nucleus is presented in the Nuclear Structure section. In addition, new results from scattering of high-energy electrons (from CEBAF/TJNAF) and pions (from KEK) from a broad range of nuclei are reported in the section on Incoherent Reactions. Finally, the development and performance of detectors produced by the laboratory are described in the section titled Instrumentation.

  6. Nuclear chemistry progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Viola, V.E.; Kwiatkowski, K.

    1993-08-01

    This is the annual progress report for the Indiana University nuclear chemistry program for the 1992/1993 year. Accomplishments include the construction, testing, and initial experimental runs of the Indiana Silicon Sphere (ISiS) 4{pi} charged particle detector. ISiS is designed to study energy dissipation and multifragmentation phenomena in light-ion-induced nuclear reactions at medium-to-high energies. Its second test run was to examine 3.6 GeV {sup 3}He beam reactions at Laboratoire National Saturne (LNS) in Saclay. The development and deployment of this system has occupied a great deal of the groups effort this reporting period. Additional work includes: calculations of isotopic IMF yields in the {sup 4}He + {sup 116,124}Sn reaction; cross sections for A = 6 - 30 fragments from the {sup 4}He + {sup 28}Si reaction at 117 and 198 MeV; charging effects of passivated silicon detectors; neck emission of intermediate-mass fragments in the fission of hot heavy nuclei.

  7. Prognostic significance of WNT signaling in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Nakamoto, Mitsuhiro; Matsuyama, Atsuji; Shiba, Eisuke; Shibuya, Ryo; Kasai, Takahiko; Yamaguchi, Koji; Hisaoka, Masanori

    2014-10-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) is one of the most lethal human malignancies and is associated with a variety of molecular abnormalities. Although WNT signaling through its canonical/non-canonical pathways is one of the major factors involved in oncogenesis or progression of PDA, the prognostic significance of WNT signaling still remains poorly investigated. In this study, the status of the WNT signaling pathways was immunohistochemically analyzed in 101 PDAs, and its potential association with patient postoperative survival was assessed. Nuclear expression of beta-catenin, a hallmark of the activated canonical pathway, was identified in 59 cases, and was associated with reduced survival compared to the patients lacking nuclear beta-catenin expression (P = 0.002). In contrast, activation of the non-canonical pathway (25 cases), as indicated by co-expression of WNT2/5a and nuclear NFATc1, was not correlated with reduced survival (P = 0.268). Co-activation of both pathways (16 cases) was associated with worse prognosis in comparison with cases with an activated non-canonical pathway (P = 0.034). In addition, nuclear beta-catenin expression was an independent unfavorable prognostic factor (P = 0.006). Our data indicate that activated WNT signaling through its canonical pathway has a significantly negative effect on the clinical course of PDA, and the canonical WNT pathway should be considered as a future therapeutic target for PDA.

  8. How Safe Are Color Additives?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home For Consumers Consumer Updates How Safe are Color Additives? Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... Consumer Updates RSS Feed Download PDF (380 K) Color additives give the red tint to your fruit ...

  9. Detergent Additive for Lubricating Oils,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The Russian patent pertains to a method of producing additives for lubricating oils . A method is known for producing an antiwear additive for... lubricating oils by processing phenols with phosphorus oxychloride, phosphoric acid esters are obtained. In order to give the additive detergent properties

  10. PROGRESS IN ACUTE MYELOID LEUKEMIA

    PubMed Central

    Kadia, Tapan M.; Ravandi, Farhad; O’Brien, Susan; Cortes, Jorge; Kantarjian, Hagop M.

    2014-01-01

    Significant progress has been made in the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Steady gains in clinical research and a renaissance of genomics in leukemia have led to improved outcomes. The recognition of tremendous heterogeneity in AML has allowed individualized treatments of specific disease entities within the context of patient age, cytogenetics, and mutational analysis. The following is a comprehensive review of the current state of AML therapy and a roadmap of our approach to these distinct disease entities. PMID:25441110

  11. Progress in breast cancer: overview.

    PubMed

    Arteaga, Carlos L

    2013-12-01

    This edition of CCR Focus titled Research in Breast Cancer: Frontiers in Genomics, Biology, and Clinical Investigation reviews six topics that cover areas of translational research of high impact in breast cancer. These topics represent areas of breast cancer research where significant progress has occurred but also where very important challenges remain. The papers in this CCR Focus section are contributed by experts in the respective areas of investigation. Herein, key aspects of these contributions and the research directions they propose are reviewed.

  12. Recent Progress in Terahertz Metasurfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Naib, Ibraheem; Withayachumnankul, Withawat

    2017-03-01

    In the past decade, the concept of metasurfaces has gradually dominated the field of metamaterials owing to their fascinating optical properties and simple planar geometries. At terahertz frequencies, the concept has been driven further by the availability of advanced micro-fabrication technologies that deliver sub-micron accuracy, well below the terahertz wavelengths. Furthermore, terahertz spectrometers with high dynamic range and amplitude and phase sensitivity provide valuable information for the study of metasurfaces in general. In this paper, we review recent progress in terahertz metasurfaces mainly in the last 5 years. The first part covers nonuniform metasurfaces that perform beamforming in reflection and transmission. In addition, we briefly overview four different methodologies that can be utilized in realizing high-quality-factor metasurfaces. We also describe two recent approaches to tuning the frequency response of terahertz metasurfaces using graphene as an active medium. Finally, we provide a brief summary and outlook for future developments in this rapidly progressing field.

  13. Progress Toward National Aeronautics Goals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russo, Carlo J.; Sehra, Arun K.

    1999-01-01

    NASA has made definitive progress towards achieving several bold U.S. goals in aeronautics related to air breathing engines. The advanced technologies developed towards these goals span applications from general aviation to large subsonic and supersonic aircraft. The proof of successful technology development is demonstrated through successful technology transfer to U.S. industry and projected fleet impact. Specific examples of progress are discussed that quantifies the achievement towards these goals. In addition, a more detailed vision for NASA aeronautics is defined and key strategic issues are explored which invite international and national debate and involvement especially in reduced environmental impact for subsonic and supersonic aircraft, dramatic new capabilities in general aviation engines, and reduced development cycle time and costs.

  14. Incorporation of additives into polymers

    DOEpatents

    McCleskey, T. Mark; Yates, Matthew Z.

    2003-07-29

    There has been invented a method for incorporating additives into polymers comprising: (a) forming an aqueous or alcohol-based colloidal system of the polymer; (b) emulsifying the colloidal system with a compressed fluid; and (c) contacting the colloidal polymer with the additive in the presence of the compressed fluid. The colloidal polymer can be contacted with the additive by having the additive in the compressed fluid used for emulsification or by adding the additive to the colloidal system before or after emulsification with the compressed fluid. The invention process can be carried out either as a batch process or as a continuous on-line process.

  15. Additive manufacturing of optical components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinrich, Andreas; Rank, Manuel; Maillard, Philippe; Suckow, Anne; Bauckhage, Yannick; Rößler, Patrick; Lang, Johannes; Shariff, Fatin; Pekrul, Sven

    2016-08-01

    The development of additive manufacturing methods has enlarged rapidly in recent years. Thereby, the work mainly focuses on the realization of mechanical components, but the additive manufacturing technology offers a high potential in the field of optics as well. Owing to new design possibilities, completely new solutions are possible. This article briefly reviews and compares the most important additive manufacturing methods for polymer optics. Additionally, it points out the characteristics of additive manufactured polymer optics. Thereby, surface quality is of crucial importance. In order to improve it, appropriate post-processing steps are necessary (e.g. robot polishing or coating), which will be discussed. An essential part of this paper deals with various additive manufactured optical components and their use, especially in optical systems for shape metrology (e.g. borehole sensor, tilt sensor, freeform surface sensor, fisheye lens). The examples should demonstrate the potentials and limitations of optical components produced by additive manufacturing.

  16. High blood pressure and cerebral white matter lesion progression in the general population.

    PubMed

    Verhaaren, Benjamin F J; Vernooij, Meike W; de Boer, Renske; Hofman, Albert; Niessen, Wiro J; van der Lugt, Aad; Ikram, M Arfan

    2013-06-01

    High blood pressure is considered an important risk factor for cerebral white matter lesions (WMLs) in the aging population. In a longitudinal population-based study of 665 nondemented persons, we investigated the longitudinal relationship of systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and pulse pressure with annual progression of WMLs. Means of blood pressure were calculated over a 5-year period before longitudinal MRI scanning. WML progression was subsequently measured on 2 scans 3.5 years apart. We performed analyses with linear regression models and evaluated adjustments for age, sex, cardiovascular risk factors, and baseline WML volume. In addition, we evaluated whether treatment of hypertension is related to less WML progression. Both systolic and diastolic blood pressures were significantly associated with annual WML progression (regression coefficient [95% confidence interval], 0.08 [0.03; 0.14] mL/y and 0.09 [0.03; 0.15] mL/y per SD increase in systolic and diastolic blood pressure, respectively). Pulse pressure was also significantly associated with WML progression, but not independent from hypertension. After adjustment for baseline WML volume, only systolic blood pressure remained significantly associated: 0.05 (0.00; 0.09) mL/y per SD increase. People with uncontrolled untreated hypertension had significantly more WML progression than people with uncontrolled treated hypertension (difference [95% confidence interval], 0.12 [0.00; 0.23] mL/y). The present study further establishes high blood pressure to precede WMLs and implies that hypertension treatment could reduce WML progression in the general population.

  17. Sanitary Surveys & Significant Deficiencies Presentation

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Sanitary Surveys & Significant Deficiencies Presentation highlights some of the things EPA looks for during drinking water system site visits, how to avoid significant deficiencies and what to do if you receive one.

  18. Accretionary orogens: definition, character, significance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cawood, P. A.; Kroener, A.; Windley, B. F.

    2003-04-01

    Classic models of orogens involve a Wilson cycle of ocean opening and closing with orogenesis related to continent-continent collision. Such models fail to explain the geological history of a significant number of orogenic belts throughout the world in which deformation, metamorphism and crustal growth took place in an environment of on-going plate convergence. These belts are termed accretionary orogens but have also been refereed to as non-collisional orogens, Pacific-type orogens, Turkic-type and exterior orogens. Accretionary orogens evolve in generally curvilinear belts comprising dominantly mafic to silicic igneous rocks and their sedimentary products and accumulated largely in marine settings. They are variably deformed and metamorphosed by tectono-thermal events aligned parallel to, and punctuating, facies trends. Accretionary orogens form at sites of subduction of oceanic lithosphere and consist of magmatic arcs systems along with material accreted from the downgoing plate and eroded from the upper plate. Deformational features include structures formed in extension and compressive environments during steady-state convergence (arc/backarc vs. accretionary prism) that are overprinted by short regional compressive orogenic events. Orogenesis takes place through coupling across the plate boundary with strain concentrated in zones of mechanical and thermal weakening such as the magmatic arc and back arc region. Potential driving mechanisms for coupling include accretion of buoyant lithosphere (terrane accretion), flat slab subduction, and rapid absolute upper plate motion over-riding the downgoing plate. The Circum-Pacific region provides outstanding examples of accretionary orogens. The Pacific formed during breakup of Rodinia in the Neoproterozoic and has never subsequently closed, resulting in a series of overall ocean-ward younging orogenic systems that have always faced an open ocean, yet have been the sites of repeated tectono-thermal events and

  19. Effect of glutathione addition in sparkling wine.

    PubMed

    Webber, Vanessa; Dutra, Sandra Valduga; Spinelli, Fernanda Rodrigues; Marcon, Ângela Rossi; Carnieli, Gilberto João; Vanderlinde, Regina

    2014-09-15

    This study aims to evaluate the effect of the addition of glutathione (GSH) on secondary aromas and on the phenolic compounds of sparkling wine elaborated by traditional method. It was added 10 and 20 mg L(-1) of GSH to must and to base wine. The determination of aroma compounds was performed by gas chromatography. Phenolic compounds and glutathione content were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography. Sparkling wines with addition of GSH to must showed lower levels of total phenolic compounds and hydroxycinnamic acids. Furthermore, the sparkling wine with addition of GSH to must showed higher levels of 2-phenylethanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol and diethyl succinate, and lower concentrations of ethyl decanoate, octanoic and decanoic acids. The GSH addition to the must show a greater influence on sparkling wine than to base wine, however GSH addition to base wine seems retain higher SO2 free levels. The concentration of GSH added showed no significant difference.

  20. Progressive dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumour.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Hamish; Tannenburg, Anthony; Walker, David G; Coyne, Terry

    2015-01-01

    Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumour (DNET) is a benign tumour characterised by cortical location and presentation with drug resistant partial seizures in children. Recently the potential for malignant transformation has been reported, however progression without malignant transformation remains rare. We report a case of clinical and radiologic progression of a DNET in a girl 10 years after initial biopsy.

  1. RIPK3-Mediated Necroptosis and Apoptosis Contributes to Renal Tubular Cell Progressive Loss and Chronic Kidney Disease Progression in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yongjun; Cui, Hongwang; Xia, Yunfeng; Gan, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Tubulointerstitial fibrosis (TIF) is caused by the progressive loss of renal tubular cells and the consequent replacement of the extracellular matrix. The progressive depletion of renal tubular cells results from apoptosis and necroptosis; however, the relative significance of each of these cell death mechanisms at different stages during the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) remains unclear. We sought to explore the mechanisms of renal tubular cell death during the early and intermediate stages of chronic renal damage of subtotal nephrectomied (SNx) rats. The results of tissue histological assays indicated that the numbers of necrotic dying cells and apoptotic cells were significantly higher in kidney tissues derived from a rat model of CKD. In addition, there was a significant increase in necroptosis observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and an increase in the proportion of TUNEL-positive cells in kidney tissues from SNx rats compared with control rats, and necrostatin-1 (Nec-1) could inhibit necroptosis and reduce the proportion of TUNEL-positive cells. More importantly, we observed a significant increase in the incidence of necroptosis compared with apoptosis by TEM in vivo and in vitro and a significant increase in the proportion of TUNEL-positive tubular epithelial cells that did not express caspase-3 compared with those expressing cleaved caspase-3 in vitro. Furthermore, treatment with Nec-1 and zVAD strongly reduced necroptosis- and apoptosis-mediated renal tubular cell death and decreased the levels of blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine and tubular damage scores of SNx rats. These results suggest that necroptotic cell death plays a more significant role than apoptosis in mediating the loss of renal tubular cells in SNx rats and that effectively blocking both necroptosis and apoptosis improves renal function and tubular damage at early and intermediate stages of CKD. PMID:27281190

  2. Enantioselective Michael addition of water.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bi-Shuang; Resch, Verena; Otten, Linda G; Hanefeld, Ulf

    2015-02-09

    The enantioselective Michael addition using water as both nucleophile and solvent has to date proved beyond the ability of synthetic chemists. Herein, the direct, enantioselective Michael addition of water in water to prepare important β-hydroxy carbonyl compounds using whole cells of Rhodococcus strains is described. Good yields and excellent enantioselectivities were achieved with this method. Deuterium labeling studies demonstrate that a Michael hydratase catalyzes the water addition exclusively with anti-stereochemistry.

  3. Enantioselective Michael Addition of Water

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Bi-Shuang; Resch, Verena; Otten, Linda G; Hanefeld, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    The enantioselective Michael addition using water as both nucleophile and solvent has to date proved beyond the ability of synthetic chemists. Herein, the direct, enantioselective Michael addition of water in water to prepare important β-hydroxy carbonyl compounds using whole cells of Rhodococcus strains is described. Good yields and excellent enantioselectivities were achieved with this method. Deuterium labeling studies demonstrate that a Michael hydratase catalyzes the water addition exclusively with anti-stereochemistry. PMID:25529526

  4. Fully biodegradable coronary stents : progress to date.

    PubMed

    Ramcharitar, Steve; Serruys, Patrick W

    2008-01-01

    The limitations of currently available metallic drug-eluting stents have renewed interest in biodegradable stents (BDS). Apart from removing the (offending) foreign material that may potentiate a thrombotic event, BDS have the advantage of avoiding 'full metal jackets,' and thus can preclude subsequent coronary surgery. In addition, they do not interfere with the diagnostic evaluation of non-invasive imaging such as cardiac magnetic resonance and CT. There are now several BDS in development or in clinical trials that incorporate a variety of biodegradable polymer technologies. Two broad categories of materials are generally used: those made from organic biopolymers and those made from corrodible metals. However, to date, none of the materials/stents tested have been able to establish a perfect balance between biocompatibility, the kinetics of degradation needed to maintain mechanical strength to limit recoil, and inflammation. However, studies, such as the ABSORB trial with the everolimus eluting poly-L-lactide stent, which demonstrated comparable restenotic rates with bare metallic stents and a low incidence of major adverse cardiac events (MACE) at 12 months of 3.3%, with only one patient having a non-Q-wave myocardial infarction and no target lesion revascularization, suggest that there has been significant progress with respect to the earlier prototypes. The acute recoil observed could potentially be addressed with the polytyrosine REVA stent currently being evaluated in the RESORB trial, which incorporates a novel locking mechanism within its design. Alternative BDS designs include the combination of an antiproliferative drug with endothelial progenitor cell capturing antibodies to facilitate epithelialization and/or dual eluting having, in addition to the antiproliferative drug, polymeric salicyclic acid to limit inflammation. Compared with biodegradable polymers, there are fewer metals used in the manufacture of BDS. The only metal BDS in trials is the

  5. Progress toward hydrogen peroxide micropulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Whitehead, J C; Dittman, M D; Ledebuhr, A G

    1999-07-08

    A new self-pressurizing propulsion system has liquid thrusters and gas jet attitude control without heavy gas storage vessels. A pump boosts the pressure of a small fraction of the hydrogen peroxide, so that reacted propellant can controllably pressurize its own source tank. The warm decomposition gas also powers the pump and is supplied to the attitude control jets. The system has been incorporated into a prototype microsatellite for terrestrial maneuvering tests. Additional progress includes preliminary testing of a bipropellant thruster, and storage of unstabilized hydrogen peroxide in small sealed tanks.

  6. Progress towards clinically useful aldosterone synthase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Cerny, Matthew A

    2013-01-01

    Owing to the high degree of similarity between aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) and cortisol synthase (CYP11B1), the design of selective inhibitors of one or the other of these two enzymes was, at one time, thought to be impossible. Through development of novel enzyme screening assays and significant medicinal chemistry efforts, highly potent inhibitors of CYP11B2 have been identified with selectivities approaching 1000-fold between the two enzymes. Many of these molecules also possess selectivity against other steroidogenic cytochromes P450 (e.g. CYP17A1 and CYP19A1) as well as hepatic drug metabolizing P450s. Though not as well developed or explored, inhibitors of CYP11B1, with selectivities approaching 50-fold, have also been identified. The therapeutic benefits of affecting the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system have been well established with the therapeutically useful angiotensin-converting enzymes inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, and mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists. Data regarding the additional benefits of an aldosterone synthase inhibitor (ASi) are beginning to emerge from animal models and human clinical trials. Despite great promise and much progress, additional challenges still exist in the path towards development of a therapeutically useful ASi.

  7. [Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance and monoclonal B-lymphocytosis].

    PubMed

    Hübel, K; Hallek, M

    2013-06-01

    Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) and monoclonal B lymphocytosis (MBL) are asymptomatic premalignant conditions which can progress to a symptomatic disease state requiring therapy. Considering the high prevalence rate of these disorders, precursor patients are often diagnosed during routine clinical examinations. Only a minor portion of cases progress to overt malignancies, which raises the question of how to identify patients with the probability of progression. In recent years improvements in the understanding of the pathogenesis of both disorders led to the development of risk models and the estimation of the individual risk of progression. The definition of high-risk and low-risk patients allows a tailored clinical management. This report provides information on the biology, risk stratification, diagnosis, and follow-up of patients with MGUS and MBL.

  8. Tideglusib reduces progression of brain atrophy in progressive supranuclear palsy in a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Höglinger, Günter U; Huppertz, Hans-Jürgen; Wagenpfeil, Stefan; Andrés, María V; Belloch, Vincente; León, Teresa; Del Ser, Teodoro

    2014-04-01

    It is believed that glycogen synthase kinase-3 hyperphosphorylates tau protein in progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). The Tau Restoration on PSP (TAUROS) trial assessed the glycogen synthase kinase-3 inhibitor tideglusib as potential treatment. For the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) substudy reported here, we assessed the progression of brain atrophy. TAUROS was a multinational, phase 2, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in patients with mild-to-moderate PSP who were treated with oral tideglusib (600 mg or 800 mg daily) or with placebo for 1 year. A subset of patients underwent baseline and 52-week MRI. Automated, observer-independent, atlas-based, and mask-based volumetry was done on high-resolution, T1-weighted, three-dimensional data. For primary outcomes, progression of atrophy was compared both globally (brain, cerebrum) and regionally (third ventricle, midbrain, pons) between the active and placebo groups (Bonferroni correction). For secondary outcomes, 15 additional brain structures were explored (Benjamini & Yekutieli correction). In total, MRIs from 37 patient were studied (placebo group, N = 9; tideglusib 600 mg group, N = 19; tideglusib 800 mg group, N = 9). The groups compared well in their demographic characteristics. Clinical results showed no effect of tideglusib over placebo. Progression of atrophy was significantly lower in the active group than in the placebo group for the brain (mean ± standard error of the mean: -1.3% ± 1.4% vs. -3.1% ± 2.3%, respectively), cerebrum (-1.3% ± 1.5% vs. -3.2% ± 2.1%, respectively), parietal lobe (-1.6% ± 1.9% vs. -4.1% ± 3.0%, respectively), and occipital lobe (-0.3% ± 1.8% vs. -2.7% ± 3.2%, respectively). A trend toward reduced atrophy also was observed in the frontal lobe, hippocampus, caudate nucleus, midbrain, and brainstem. In patients with PSP, tideglusib reduced the progression of atrophy in the whole brain, particularly in the parietal and occipital lobes.

  9. Color Addition and Subtraction Apps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz, Frances; Ruiz, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Color addition and subtraction apps in HTML5 have been developed for students as an online hands-on experience so that they can more easily master principles introduced through traditional classroom demonstrations. The evolution of the additive RGB color model is traced through the early IBM color adapters so that students can proceed step by step…

  10. Additive Effects on Asymmetric Catalysis.

    PubMed

    Hong, Liang; Sun, Wangsheng; Yang, Dongxu; Li, Guofeng; Wang, Rui

    2016-03-23

    This review highlights a number of additives that can be used to make asymmetric reactions perfect. Without changing other reaction conditions, simply adding additives can lead to improved asymmetric catalysis, such as reduced reaction time, improved yield, or/and increased selectivity.

  11. Addition and Subtraction by Students with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrera, Aurelia Noda; Bruno, Alicia; Gonzalez, Carina; Moreno, Lorenzo; Sanabria, Hilda

    2011-01-01

    We present a research report on addition and subtraction conducted with Down syndrome students between the ages of 12 and 31. We interviewed a group of students with Down syndrome who executed algorithms and solved problems using specific materials and paper and pencil. The results show that students with Down syndrome progress through the same…

  12. Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) research progress in 1988: Proceedings from the ninth annual EPRI NDE information meeting

    SciTech Connect

    Avioli, M.J. Jr.; Dau, G.J.; Liu, S.N.; Stein, J.; Welty, C.S.

    1989-05-01

    The increasing cost of equipment for power generating plants and the potential increases in productivity and safety analysis through rapidly developing Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) technology led EPRI to initiate a Nondestructive Evaluation Program in 1974. To date, the major focus has been on light water reactor inspection problems; however, increased application to other systems is now underway. This report presents a comprehensive review of the EPRI effort in the NDE area. Most of the report consists of contractor-supplied progress reports on each current project. An organizational plan of the program is presented in overview. In addition, organization from several viewpoints is presented, e.g., in-service inspection operators, R and D personnel, and utility representatives. As the tenth in a planned series of annual progress reports of EPRI-funded NDE activities, this report also serves as the proceedings of the Ninth Annual EPRI NDE Information Meeting held in Charlotte, North Carolina, on November 15--16, 1988. It summarizes significant progress made since the previous EPRI Special Report NP-5490-SR was issued in June 1988. Section 1 contains information about the program organization, and the sections that follow contain contractor-supplied progress reports on each current project. The progress reports are grouped by plant components -- pipe, pressure vessel, and steam generator and boiler tubes. In addition, Part 5 is devoted to discussions of technology transfer.

  13. Nondestructive evaluation research progress in 1989: Proceedings from the tenth annual EPRI NDE information meeting

    SciTech Connect

    Avioli, M.J. Jr.; Behravesh, M.M.; Gehl, S.M.; Liu, S.N.; Stein, J.; Welty, C.S. )

    1990-06-01

    The increasing cost of equipment for power generating plants and the potential increases in productivity and safety available through rapidity developing nondestructive evaluation (NDE) technology led EPRI to initiate a Nondestructive Evaluation Program in 1974. To date, the major focus has been on light water reactor (LWR) inspection problems; however, increased application to other systems is now under way. This report presents a comprehensive review of the EPRI effort in the NDE area. Most of the report consists of contractor-supplied progress reports on each current project. An organizational plan of the program is presented in overview. In addition, organization from several viewpoints is presented, e.g., in-service inspection operators, R D personnel, and utility representatives. As the eleventh in a planned series of annual progress reports of EPRI-funded NDE activities, this report also serves as the proceedings of the Tenth Annual EPRI NDE Information Meeting held in Palo Alto, California, on November 14-15, 1989. It summarizes significant progress made since the previous EPRI Special Report NP-6075-SR was issued in May 1989. Section 1 contains information about the program organization, and the sections that follow contain contractor-supplied progress reports on each current project. The progress reports are grouped by plant components -- pipe and nozzle, pressure vessel, and boilers and steam generators. In addition, Part 5 is devoted to discussions of technology transfer. The individual papers have been cataloged separately.

  14. Failed Tubule Recovery, AKI-CKD Transition, and Kidney Disease Progression

    PubMed Central

    Weinberg, Joel M.; Kriz, Wilhelm; Bidani, Anil K.

    2015-01-01

    The transition of AKI to CKD has major clinical significance. As reviewed here, recent studies show that a subpopulation of dedifferentiated, proliferating tubules recovering from AKI undergo pathologic growth arrest, fail to redifferentiate, and become atrophic. These abnormal tubules exhibit persistent, unregulated, and progressively increasing profibrotic signaling along multiple pathways. Paracrine products derived therefrom perturb normal interactions between peritubular capillary endothelium and pericyte-like fibroblasts, leading to myofibroblast transformation, proliferation, and fibrosis as well as capillary disintegration and rarefaction. Although signals from injured endothelium and inflammatory/immune cells also contribute, tubule injury alone is sufficient to produce the interstitial pathology required for fibrosis. Localized hypoxia produced by microvascular pathology may also prevent tubule recovery. However, fibrosis is not intrinsically progressive, and microvascular pathology develops strictly around damaged tubules; thus, additional deterioration of kidney structure after the transition of AKI to CKD requires new acute injury or other mechanisms of progression. Indeed, experiments using an acute-on-chronic injury model suggest that additional loss of parenchyma caused by failed repair of AKI in kidneys with prior renal mass reduction triggers hemodynamically mediated processes that damage glomeruli to cause progression. Continued investigation of these pathologic mechanisms should reveal options for preventing renal disease progression after AKI. PMID:25810494

  15. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Soft X-ray Laser Program: Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Trebes, J.; Brown, S.; Campbell, E.M.; Ceglio, N.; Eder, D.; Gaines, D.; Hawryluk, A.; Keane, C.; London, R.; MacGowan, B.

    1987-08-01

    Significant progress toward the goal of producing high power, high coherence x-ray lasers has been made. Lasing at wavelengths as low as 66 A has been achieved in a nickel like laser scheme which is scalable to sub-44 A wavelengths. In addition, x-ray laser cavities, x-ray holography, and an applications beamline have been demonstrated. 15 refs., 3 figs.

  16. The pathological significance of Notch1 in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Ryoji; Nagata, Masashi; Nakayama, Hideki; Niimori-Kita, Kanako; Hassan, Wael; Tanaka, Takuji; Shinohara, Masanori; Ito, Takaaki

    2013-10-01

    Notch signaling has been reported to be involved in several types of malignant tumors; however, the role and activation mechanism of Notch signaling in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) remains poorly characterized. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the pathological significance of Notch signaling and its activation mechanism in the development and progression of OSCC. In this study, we showed that the expression of Notch1 and intracellular Notch domain (NICD) are upregulated in OSCCs. In addition, Notch1 and NICD were found to be characteristically localized at the invasive tumor front. TNF-α, a major inflammatory cytokine, significantly activated Notch signaling in vitro. In a clinicopathological analysis, Notch1 expression correlated with both the T-stage and the clinical stage. Furthermore, loss of Notch1 expression correlated with the inhibition of cell proliferation and TNF-α-dependent invasiveness in an OSCC cell line. In addition, γ-secretase inhibitor (GSI) prevented cell proliferation and TNF-α-dependent invasion of OSCC cells in vitro. These results indicate that altered expression of Notch1 is associated with increased cancer progression and that Notch1 regulates the steps involved in cell metastasis in OSCC. Moreover, inactivating Notch signaling with GSI could therefore be a useful approach for treating patients with OSCC.

  17. 78 FR 16476 - Procurement List Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-15

    ... Attendant Service McConnell Air Force Base, KS. NPA: Training, Rehabilitation, & Development Institute, Inc... service and impact of the additions on the current or most recent contractors, the Committee has... following action will not have a significant impact on a substantial number of small entities. The...

  18. 76 FR 23997 - Procurement List; Addition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-29

    ... impact of the addition on the current or most recent contractors, the Committee has determined that the... a significant impact on a substantial number of small entities. The major factors considered for... other compliance requirements for small entities other than the small organization that will provide...

  19. Rapidly progressive Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Christian; Wolff, Martin; Weitz, Michael; Bartlau, Thomas; Korth, Carsten; Zerr, Inga

    2011-09-01

    Different rates of progression have been observed among patients with Alzheimer disease. Risk factors that accelerate deterioration have been identified and some are being discussed, such as genetics, comorbidity, and the early appearance of Alzheimer disease motor signs. Progressive forms of Alzheimer disease have been reported with rapid cognitive decline and disease duration of only a few years. This short review aims to provide an overview of the current knowledge of rapidly progressive Alzheimer disease. Furthermore, we suggest that rapid, in this context, should be defined as a Mini-Mental State Examination score decrease of 6 points per year.

  20. Rapidly Progressive Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Geschwind, Michael D.; Shu, Huidy; Haman, Aissa; Sejvar, James J.; Miller, Bruce L.

    2009-01-01

    In contrast with more common dementing conditions that typically develop over years, rapidly progressive dementias can develop subacutely over months, weeks, or even days and be quickly fatal. Because many rapidly progressive dementias are treatable, it is paramount to evaluate and diagnose these patients quickly. This review summarizes recent advances in the understanding of the major categories of RPD and outlines efficient approaches to the diagnosis of the various neurodegenerative, toxic-metabolic, infectious, autoimmune, neoplastic, and other conditions that may progress rapidly. PMID:18668637

  1. Progression of coronary artery calcification at the crossroads: sign of progression or stabilization of coronary atherosclerosis?

    PubMed Central

    Carrascosa, Patricia; Bruining, Nico

    2016-01-01

    Coronary artery calcification (CAC) has been strongly established as an independent predictor of adverse events, with a significant incremental prognostic value over traditional risk stratification algorithms. CAC progression has been associated with a higher rate of events. In parallel, several randomized studies and meta-analysis have shown the effectiveness of statins to slow progression and even promote plaque regression. However, evidence regarding the effect of routine medical therapy on CAC has yielded conflicting results, with initial studies showing significant CAC regression, and contemporaneous data showing rather the opposite. Accordingly, there is currently a great controversy on whether progression of CAC is a sign of progression or stabilization of coronary artery disease (CAD). The finding of inexorable CAC progression despite the implementation of intensive contemporaneous medical therapy suggests that further understanding of this phenomenon should be undertaken before the implementation of CAC as a surrogate endpoint for longitudinal studies, or for prospective follow-up of patients under routine medical treatment. PMID:27280088

  2. Progress in nemertean biology: development and phylogeny.

    PubMed

    Turbeville, J M

    2002-07-01

    This paper reviews progress in developmental biology and phylogeny of the Nemertea, a common but poorly studied spiralian taxon of considerable ecological and evolutionary significance. Analyses of reproductive biology (including calcium dynamics during fertilization and oocyte maturation), larval morphology and development and developmental genetics have significantly extended our knowledge of spiralian developmental biology. Developmental genetics studies have in addition provided characters useful for reconstructing metazoan phylogeny. Reinvestigation of the cell lineage of Cerebratulus lacteus using fluorescent tracers revealed that endomesoderm forms from the 4d cell as in other spiralians and that ectomesoderm is derived from the 3a and 3b cells as in annelids, echiurans and molluscs. Studies examining blastomere specification show that cell fates are established precociously in direct developers and later in indirect developers. Morphological characters used to estimate the phylogenetic position of nemerteans are critically re-evaluated, and cladistic analyses of morphology reveal that conflicting hypotheses of nemertean relationships result because of different provisional homology statements. Analyses that include disputed homology statements (1, gliointerstitial cell system 2, coelomic circulatory system) suggest that nemerteans form the sister taxon to the coelomate spiralian taxa rather than the sister taxon to Platyhelminthes. Analyses of small subunit rRNA (18S rDNA) sequences alone or in combination with morphological characters support the inclusion of the nemerteans in a spiralian coelomate clade nested within a more inclusive lophotrochozoan clade. Ongoing evaluation of nemertean relationships with mitochondrial gene rearrangements and other molecular characters is discussed.

  3. Color Addition and Subtraction Apps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz, Frances; Ruiz, Michael J.

    2015-10-01

    Color addition and subtraction apps in HTML5 have been developed for students as an online hands-on experience so that they can more easily master principles introduced through traditional classroom demonstrations. The evolution of the additive RGB color model is traced through the early IBM color adapters so that students can proceed step by step in understanding mathematical representations of RGB color. Finally, color addition and subtraction are presented for the X11 colors from web design to illustrate yet another real-life application of color mixing.

  4. Anaerobic sludge digestion with a biocatalytic additive

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, S.; Henry, M.P.; Fedde, P.A.

    1982-01-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of a lactobacillus additive an anaerobic sludge digestion under normal, variable, and overload operating conditions. The additive was a whey fermentation product of an acid-tolerant strain of Lactobacillus acidophilus fortified with CaCO/sub 3/, (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/HPO/sub 4/, ferrous lactate, and lactic acid. The lactobacillus additive is multifunctional in nature and provides growth factors, metabolic intermediates, and enzymes needed for substrate degradation and cellular synthesis. The experimental work consisted of several pairs of parallel mesophilic (35/sup 0/C) digestion runs (control and test) conducted in five experimental phases. Baseline runs without the additive showed that the two experimental digesters had the same methane content, gas production rate (GPR), and ethane yield. The effect of the additive was to increase methane yield and GPR by about 5% (which was statistically significant) during digester operation at a loading rate (LR) of 3.2 kg VS/m/sup 3/-day and a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 14 days. Data collected from the various experimental phases showed that the biochemical additive increased methane yield, gas production rate, and VS reduction, and decreased volatile acids accumulation. In addition, it enhanced digester buffer capacity and improved the fertilizer value and dewatering characteristics of the digested residue.

  5. Progress for the Paralyzed

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: NIBIB Robotics Progress for the Paralyzed Past Issues / Spring 2013 ... Paralyzed —The expanding options for paralyzed individuals include: robotic arms spinal cord stimulation improved prosthetic limbs restored ...

  6. Progressive hemifacial atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Sande, Abhijeet; Risbud, Mukund; Kshar, Avinash; Paranjpe, Arati Oka

    2013-01-01

    Progressive hemifacial atrophy, also known as Parry-Romberg Syndrome, is an uncommon degenerative and poorly understood condition. It is characterized by a slow and progressive but self-limited atrophy affecting one side of the face. The incidence and the cause of this alteration are unknown. A cerebral disturbance of fat metabolism has been proposed as a primary cause. Possible factors that are involved in the pathogenesis include trauma, viral infections, heredity, endocrine disturbances and auto-immunity. The most common complications that appear in association to this disorder are: trigeminal neuralgia, facial paresthesia, severe headache and epilepsy. Characteristically, the atrophy progresses slowly for several years and, it becomes stable. The objective of this work is, through the presentation of a clinical case, to accomplish a literature review concerning general characteristics, etiology, physiopathology and treatment of progressive hemifacial atrophy. PMID:23878573

  7. Orion Progress - Spring 2010

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA and contractor teams are designing, building and testing the next generation human spacecraft Orion. Progress on Orion is highlighted by employees working on the project, along with video of t...

  8. Progressive Supranuclear Palsy

    MedlinePlus

    Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is a rare brain disease. It affects brain cells that control the movement of your eyes. This leads to ... speech, vision and swallowing problems. Doctors sometimes confuse PSP with Parkinson's disease or Alzheimer's disease. PSP has ...

  9. Immunotherapy Slows TNBC Progression.

    PubMed

    2015-06-01

    The experimental monoclonal antibody MPDL3280A extended progression-free survival and produced durable responses in some patients with triple-negative breast cancer, according to preliminary results from a phase I trial.

  10. Radiation Therapy: Additional Treatment Options

    MedlinePlus

    ... SNIPEND SNIPSTART Find A Radiation Oncologist SNIPEND Additional Treatment Options SNIPSTART A A SNIPEND Chemotherapy Medicines prescribed ... such as antibodies, to fight cancer. Novel Targeted Therapies Cancer doctors now know much more about how ...

  11. Calculators and Computers: Graphical Addition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spero, Samuel W.

    1978-01-01

    A computer program is presented that generates problem sets involving sketching graphs of trigonometric functions using graphical addition. The students use calculators to sketch the graphs and a computer solution is used to check it. (MP)

  12. FAK kinase activity is required for the progression of c-Met/β-catenin-driven HCC

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Na; Arteaga, Maribel; Zaidi, Ali; Cotler, Scott J.; Breslin, Peter; Ding, Xianzhong; Kuo, Paul; Nishimura, Michael; Zhang, Jiwang; Qiu, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Background & Aims There is an urgent need to develop new and more effective therapeutic strategies and agents to treat hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We have recently found that deletion of Fak in hepatocytes before tumors form inhibits tumor development and prolongs survival of animals in a c-Met (MET)/β-catenin (CAT)-driven HCC mouse model. However, it has yet to be determined whether FAK expression in hepatocytes promotes MET/CAT-induced HCC progression after tumor initiation. In addition, it remains unclear whether FAK promotes HCC development through its kinase activity. Methods We generated hepatocyte-specific inducible Fak-deficient mice (Alb-creERT2; Fakflox/flox) to examine the role of FAK in HCC progression. We re-expressed wild-type and mutant FAK in Fak-deficient mice to determine FAK’s kinase activity in HCC development. We also examined the efficacy of a FAK kinase inhibitor PF-562271 on HCC inhibition. Results We found that deletion of Fak after tumors form significantly repressed MET/CAT-induced tumor progression. Ectopic FAK expression restored HCC formation in hepatocyte-specific Fak-deficient mice. However, overexpression of a FAK kinase-dead mutant led to reduced tumor load compared to mice which express wild-type FAK. Furthermore, PF-562271 significantly suppressed progression of MET/CAT-induced HCC. Conclusion Fak kinase activity is important for MET/CAT-induced HCC progression. Inhibiting FAK kinase activity provides a potential therapeutic strategy to treat HCC. PMID:27142958

  13. [Ten years progression-free survival obtained in a patient with mantle cell lymphoma].

    PubMed

    Wysokińska, Elwira; Kolak, Agnieszka; Starosławska, Elżbieta; Kieszko, Dariusz; Kamińska, Marzena; Surdyka, Dariusz; Mocarska, Agnieszka; Burdan, Franciszek

    2015-05-01

    Mantle cell lymphoma is a rare aggressive lymphoma derived from B cells, characterized by rapid progression and subsequent recurrence. It is considered to be an incurable disease, with exception of a certain group of patients treated with an autogenic stem cell transplantation. The mean survival time is three years, after applying the conventional regimen based on COP (cyclophosphamide, vincristine, prednisone) or CHOP chemotherapy (COP + doxorubicin). An addition of rituximab to CHOP regimen significantly prolongs progression-free survival. The present case reports ten years progression-free survival in a female patient with mantle cell lymphoma with baseline clinical stage IVB (MIPI 5), treated with nine courses of CHOP chemotherapy. Rituximab was added from 3 to 8 course. The complete clinical, radiological and histopathological response has been obtained.

  14. Microbial biosurfactants as additives for food industries.

    PubMed

    Campos, Jenyffer Medeiros; Stamford, Tânia Lúcia Montenegro; Sarubbo, Leonie Asfora; de Luna, Juliana Moura; Rufino, Raquel Diniz; Banat, Ibrahim M

    2013-01-01

    Microbial biosurfactants with high ability to reduce surface and interfacial surface tension and conferring important properties such as emulsification, detergency, solubilization, lubrication and phase dispersion have a wide range of potential applications in many industries. Significant interest in these compounds has been demonstrated by environmental, bioremediation, oil, petroleum, food, beverage, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries attracted by their low toxicity, biodegradability and sustainable production technologies. Despite having significant potentials associated with emulsion formation, stabilization, antiadhesive and antimicrobial activities, significantly less output and applications have been reported in food industry. This has been exacerbated by uneconomical or uncompetitive costing issues for their production when compared to plant or chemical counterparts. In this review, biosurfactants properties, present uses and potential future applications as food additives acting as thickening, emulsifying, dispersing or stabilising agents in addition to the use of sustainable economic processes utilising agro-industrial wastes as alternative substrates for their production are discussed.

  15. Significant Decisions in Labor Cases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monthly Labor Review, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Several significant court decisions involving labor cases are discussed including a series of decisions concerning constitutional protections afforded aliens; the First Amendment and national labor relations laws; and the bifurcated backpay rule. (BM)

  16. Astronomical Significance of Ancient Monuments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonia, I.

    2011-06-01

    Astronomical significance of Gokhnari megalithic monument (eastern Georgia) is considered. Possible connection of Amirani ancient legend with Gokhnari monument is discussed. Concepts of starry practicality and solar stations are proposed.

  17. Progressive supranuclear palsy.

    PubMed

    Kent, Anna

    Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), or Steele-Richardson-Olszewski syndrome, is a rare, progressive neurodegenerative condition with cognitive and motor involvement. Diagnosis can be challenging as some people do not display the classic symptoms of the condition and there are no specific investigations to confirm diagnosis. Timely discussions and access to symptom management and palliative care services need to be provided from diagnosis throughout the disease trajectory to ensure holistic care of people with PSP.

  18. Food additives and preschool children.

    PubMed

    Martyn, Danika M; McNulty, Breige A; Nugent, Anne P; Gibney, Michael J

    2013-02-01

    Food additives have been used throughout history to perform specific functions in foods. A comprehensive framework of legislation is in place within Europe to control the use of additives in the food supply and ensure they pose no risk to human health. Further to this, exposure assessments are regularly carried out to monitor population intakes and verify that intakes are not above acceptable levels (acceptable daily intakes). Young children may have a higher dietary exposure to chemicals than adults due to a combination of rapid growth rates and distinct food intake patterns. For this reason, exposure assessments are particularly important in this age group. The paper will review the use of additives and exposure assessment methods and examine factors that affect dietary exposure by young children. One of the most widely investigated unfavourable health effects associated with food additive intake in preschool-aged children are suggested adverse behavioural effects. Research that has examined this relationship has reported a variety of responses, with many noting an increase in hyperactivity as reported by parents but not when assessed using objective examiners. This review has examined the experimental approaches used in such studies and suggests that efforts are needed to standardise objective methods of measuring behaviour in preschool children. Further to this, a more holistic approach to examining food additive intakes by preschool children is advisable, where overall exposure is considered rather than focusing solely on behavioural effects and possibly examining intakes of food additives other than food colours.

  19. Interleukin-6 promotes tumor progression in colitis-associated colorectal cancer through HIF-1α regulation

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jun; Xi, Qiulei; Meng, Qingyang; Liu, Jingzheng; Zhang, Yongxian; Han, Yusong; Zhuang, Qiulin; Jiang, Yi; Ding, Qiurong; Wu, Guohao

    2016-01-01

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a well-known etiological factor of colitis-associated colorectal cancer (CAC) and has a significant role in CAC progression. In addition, hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) serves a primary role in the progression of CAC. However, the association between IL-6 and HIF-1α during the progression of CAC remains unclear. To investigate this association, the present study induced CAC in a mouse model using azoxymethane and dextran sulfate sodium. In addition, an anti-IL-6 receptor antibody was used to inhibit IL-6. In this model, anti-IL-6 receptor antibody treatment significantly inhibited the development of CAC and the expression of HIF-1α, in colorectal adenomas and adenocarcinomas. In patients with CAC, the HIF-1α gene was demonstrated to be overexpressed in tumor tissue compared with adjacent non-malignant tissue. Furthermore, HIF-1α mRNA expression was positively correlated with serum IL-6 concentration. The results of the present study suggest that IL-6 promotes CAC progression, in the early stage of the disease, through HIF-1α regulation. PMID:28105173

  20. [Progressive visual agnosia].

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Azusa; Futamura, Akinori; Kawamura, Mitsuru

    2011-10-01

    Progressive visual agnosia was discovered in the 20th century following the discovery of classical non-progressive visual agnosia. In contrast to the classical type, which is caused by cerebral vascular disease or traumatic injury, progressive visual agnosia is a symptom of neurological degeneration. The condition of progressive visual loss, including visual agnosia, and posterior cerebral atrophy was named posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) by Benson et al. (1988). Progressive visual agnosia is also observed in semantic dementia (SD) and other degenerative diseases, but there is a difference in the subtype of visual agnosia associated with these diseases. Lissauer (1890) classified visual agnosia into apperceptive and associative types, and it in most cases, PCA is associated with the apperceptive type. However, SD patients exhibit symptoms of associative visual agnosia before changing to those of semantic memory disorder. Insights into progressive visual agnosia have helped us understand the visual system and discover how we "perceive" the outer world neuronally, with regard to consciousness. Although PCA is a type of atypical dementia, its diagnosis is important to enable patients to live better lives with appropriate functional support.

  1. Statistical Significance vs. Practical Significance: An Exploration through Health Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Brittany L.; DeMaria, Andrea L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the differences between statistical and practical significance, including strengths and criticisms of both methods, as well as provide information surrounding the application of various effect sizes and confidence intervals within health education research. Provided are recommendations, explanations and…

  2. Enumerating the Progress of SETI Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesh, Lindsay; Tarter, Jill C.

    2015-01-01

    In a long-term project like SETI, accurate archiving of observations is imperative. This requires a database that is both easy to search - in order to know what data has or hasn't been acquired - and easy to update, no matter what form the results of an observation might be reported in. If the data can all be standardized, then the parameters of the nine-dimensional search space (including space, time, frequency (and bandwidth), sensitivity, polarization and modulation scheme) of completed observations for engineered signals can be calculated and compared to the total possible search volume. Calculating a total search volume that includes more than just spatial dimensions needs an algorithm that can adapt to many different variables, (e.g. each receiving instrument's capabilities). The method of calculation must also remain consistent when applied to each new SETI observation if an accurate fraction of the total search volume is to be found. Any planned observations can be evaluated against what has already been done in order to assess the efficacy of a new search. Progress against a desired goal can be evaluated, and the significance of null results can be properly understood.This paper describes a new, user-friendly archive and standardized computational tool that are being built at the SETI Institute in order to greatly ease the addition of new entries and the calculation of the search volume explored to date. The intent is to encourage new observers to better report the parameters and results of their observations, and to improve public understanding of ongoing progress and the importance of continuing the search for ETI signals into the future.

  3. Progressive myoclonus epilepsy of Unverricht-Lundborg type.

    PubMed

    Lehesjoki, A E; Koskiniemi, M

    1999-01-01

    Progressive myoclonus epilepsy of Unverricht-Lundborg type (EPM1) is characterized by onset at age 6-15 years, stimulus-sensitive myoclonus, tonic-clonic seizures, and typical EEG findings, with marked sensitivity to photic stimulation. Previously the course of the disease was progressive throughout the life, and no biochemical or pathologic marker existed for the diagnosis of EPM1. With modern anticonvulsive therapy, the prognosis has improved significantly, the symptoms are nowadays relatively well controlled, and the disease may not always progress. Moreover, the molecular genetic findings have now made possible an etiologic diagnosis of EPM1. The positional cloning strategy was applied to identify the gene whose defects are responsible for EPM1. The underlying gene encodes cystatin B, a cysteine protease inhibitor. The major mutation worldwide is an unstable expansion of a dodecamer minisatellite repeat unit in the promoter region of the cystatin B gene. In addition, five "minor" mutations have been described. Cystatin B mutations are now known to account for both Mediterranean myoclonus and for "Baltic" myoclonus, described mainly from Finland, thus solving a long-term controversy and proving that these two disorders are one single disease entity. The pathogenetic mechanisms in EPM1 are yet unknown, but in the majority of patients, a reduced level of the cystatin B gene product seems to be the primary mechanism in the pathology. Understanding the molecular pathogenesis of EPM1 may lead to the development of specific therapies for the disease.

  4. Progressive image data compression with adaptive scale-space quantization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Przelaskowski, Artur

    1999-12-01

    Some improvements of embedded zerotree wavelet algorithm are considere. Compression methods tested here are based on dyadic wavelet image decomposition, scalar quantization and coding in progressive fashion. Profitable coders with embedded form of code and rate fixing abilities like Shapiro EZW and Said nad Pearlman SPIHT are modified to improve compression efficiency. We explore the modifications of the initial threshold value, reconstruction levels and quantization scheme in SPIHT algorithm. Additionally, we present the result of the best filter bank selection. The most efficient biorthogonal filter banks are tested. Significant efficiency improvement of SPIHT coder was finally noticed even up to 0.9dB of PSNR in some cases. Because of the problems with optimization of quantization scheme in embedded coder we propose another solution: adaptive threshold selection of wavelet coefficients in progressive coding scheme. Two versions of this coder are tested: progressive in quality and resolution. As a result, improved compression effectiveness is achieved - close to 1.3 dB in comparison to SPIHT for image Barbara. All proposed algorithms are optimized automatically and are not time-consuming. But sometimes the most efficient solution must be found in iterative way. Final results are competitive across the most efficient wavelet coders.

  5. Directed Progression Brain Networks in Alzheimer's Disease: Properties and Classification

    PubMed Central

    Young, Karl; Asif, Danial; Jutla, Inderjit; Liang, Michael; Wilson, Scott; Landsberg, Adam S.; Schuff, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This article introduces a new approach in brain connectomics aimed at characterizing the temporal spread in the brain of pathologies like Alzheimer's disease (AD). The main instrument is the development of “directed progression networks” (DPNets), wherein one constructs directed edges between nodes based on (weakly) inferred directions of the temporal spreading of the pathology. This stands in contrast to many previously studied brain networks where edges represent correlations, physical connections, or functional progressions. In addition, this is one of a few studies showing the value of using directed networks in the study of AD. This article focuses on the construction of DPNets for AD using longitudinal cortical thickness measurements from magnetic resonance imaging data. The network properties are then characterized, providing new insights into AD progression, as well as novel markers for differentiating normal cognition (NC) and AD at the group level. It also demonstrates the important role of nodal variations for network classification (i.e., the significance of standard deviations, not just mean values of nodal properties). Finally, the DPNets are utilized to classify subjects based on their global network measures using a variety of data-mining methodologies. In contrast to most brain networks, these DPNets do not show high clustering and small-world properties. PMID:24901258

  6. Progress in the reprogramming of somatic cells.

    PubMed

    Ma, Tianhua; Xie, Min; Laurent, Timothy; Ding, Sheng

    2013-02-01

    Pluripotent stem cells can differentiate into nearly all types of cells in the body. This unique potential provides significant promise for cell-based therapies to restore tissues or organs destroyed by injuries, degenerative diseases, aging, or cancer. The discovery of induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology offers a possible strategy to generate patient-specific pluripotent stem cells. However, because of concerns about the specificity, efficiency, kinetics, and safety of iPSC reprogramming, improvements or fundamental changes in this process are required before their effective clinical use. A chemical approach is regarded as a promising strategy to improve and change the iPSC process. Dozens of small molecules have been identified that can functionally replace reprogramming factors and significantly improve iPSC reprogramming. In addition to the prospect of deriving patient-specific tissues and organs from iPSCs, another attractive strategy for regenerative medicine is transdifferentiation-the direct conversion of one somatic cell type to another. Recent studies revealed a new paradigm of transdifferentiation: using transcription factors used in iPSC generation to induce transdifferentiation or called iPSC transcription factor-based transdifferentiation. This type of transdifferentiation not only reveals and uses the developmentally plastic intermediates generated during iPSC reprogramming but also produces a wide range of cells, including expandable tissue-specific precursor cells. Here, we review recent progress of small molecule approaches in the generation of iPSCs. In addition, we summarize the new concept of iPSC transcription factor-based transdifferentiation and discuss its application in generating various lineage-specific cells, especially cardiovascular cells.

  7. Evaluation of certain food additives.

    PubMed

    2015-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives, including flavouring agents, and to prepare specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation of and assessment of dietary exposure to food additives, including flavouring agents. A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and dietary exposure data for eight food additives (Benzoe tonkinensis; carrageenan; citric and fatty acid esters of glycerol; gardenia yellow; lutein esters from Tagetes erecta; octenyl succinic acid-modified gum arabic; octenyl succinic acid-modified starch; paprika extract; and pectin) and eight groups of flavouring agents (aliphatic and alicyclic hydrocarbons; aliphatic and aromatic ethers; ionones and structurally related substances; miscellaneous nitrogen-containing substances; monocyclic and bicyclic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters; phenol and phenol derivatives; phenyl-substituted aliphatic alcohols and related aldehydes and esters; and sulfur-containing heterocyclic compounds). Specifications for the following food additives were revised: citric acid; gellan gum; polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monostearate; potassium aluminium silicate; and Quillaia extract (Type 2). Annexed to the report are tables summarizing the Committee's recommendations for dietary exposures to and toxicological evaluations of all of the food additives and flavouring agents considered at this meeting.

  8. [INVITED] Lasers in additive manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinkerton, Andrew J.

    2016-04-01

    Additive manufacturing is a topic of considerable ongoing interest, with forecasts predicting it to have major impact on industry in the future. This paper focusses on the current status and potential future development of the technology, with particular reference to the role of lasers within it. It begins by making clear the types and roles of lasers in the different categories of additive manufacturing. This is followed by concise reviews of the economic benefits and disadvantages of the technology, current state of the market and use of additive manufacturing in different industries. Details of these fields are referenced rather than expanded in detail. The paper continues, focusing on current indicators to the future of additive manufacturing. Barriers to its development, trends and opportunities in major industrial sectors, and wider opportunities for its development are covered. Evidence indicates that additive manufacturing may not become the dominant manufacturing technology in all industries, but represents an excellent opportunity for lasers to increase their influence in manufacturing as a whole.

  9. [Research progress on wetland ecotourism].

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-Long; Lu, Lin

    2009-06-01

    Wetland is rich in biodiversity and cultural diversity, possessing higher tourism value and environmental education and community participation functions. Wetland ecotourism reflects the sustainable development of tourism economy and wetland protection, having received great concern from governments and scholars at home and abroad. This paper summarized the related theories and practices, discussed the research advances in wetland ecotourism from the aspects of significance, progress, contents, methods and results, and pointed out the important research fields in the future, aimed to accelerate the development of wetland ecotourism research and to provide reference about the resources exploitation, environment protection, and scientific administration of wetland and related scenic areas.

  10. Additive manufacturing of hybrid circuits

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, Nelson S.; Sarobol, Pylin; Cook, Adam; Clem, Paul G.; Keicher, David M.; Hirschfeld, Deidre; Hall, Aaron Christopher

    2016-03-26

    There is a rising interest in developing functional electronics using additively manufactured components. Considerations in materials selection and pathways to forming hybrid circuits and devices must demonstrate useful electronic function; must enable integration; and must complement the complex shape, low cost, high volume, and high functionality of structural but generally electronically passive additively manufactured components. This article reviews several emerging technologies being used in industry and research/development to provide integration advantages of fabricating multilayer hybrid circuits or devices. First, we review a maskless, noncontact, direct write (DW) technology that excels in the deposition of metallic colloid inks for electrical interconnects. Second, we review a complementary technology, aerosol deposition (AD), which excels in the deposition of metallic and ceramic powder as consolidated, thick conformal coatings and is additionally patternable through masking. As a result, we show examples of hybrid circuits/devices integrated beyond 2-D planes, using combinations of DW or AD processes and conventional, established processes.

  11. Inflammatory Leukocyte Phenotypes Correlate with Disease Progression in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Bethany B.; Fry, Chris; Zhou, Yueren; Murray, Susan; Han, MeiLan K.; Martinez, Fernando J.; Flaherty, Kevin R.

    2014-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is characterized by progressive deposition of extracellular matrix, worsening dyspnea, and eventual mortality. Pathogenesis of IPF is poorly understood and the role inflammation and activated leukocytes play in the disease process is controversial. Previous studies demonstrated that activated leukocyte subsets characterize IPF patients. We sought to validate this observation in a well-defined cohort of 35 IPF patients and to correlate the observed leukocyte phenotypes with robust parameters of disease progression. We demonstrate that in univariate and multivariate analyses, increases in the CD14hi, CD16hi subset of monocytes measured at baseline correlated with disease progression, with a threshold value >0.5% of the total peripheral blood mononuclear cells being a significant predictor for worse outcome. In addition, several T cell subsets, including CD25 expressing CD4 cells, and CXCR3 expressing CD4 and CD8 subsets correlated with disease progression when found in increased percentages in the peripheral blood of IPF patients when sampled at baseline. Somewhat surprising in comparison to previous literature, the CD4 T cells did not appear to have lost expression of the co-stimulatory molecule, CD28, but the CD8 T cells did. Taken together, these results are consistent with the presence of an inflammatory process in IPF patients who eventually progress. However, when longitudinal measurements of these same markers were examined, there was significant heterogeneity of expression and these biomarkers did not necessarily remain elevated in IPF patients with progressive disease. We interpret this heterogeneity to suggest that IPF patients experience episodic inflammatory events that once triggered, may lead to disease progression. This longitudinal heterogeneity in biomarker analyses may explain why such markers are not consistently measured in all IPF cohorts. PMID:25580363

  12. Significance of nano- and microtopography for cell-surface interactions in orthopaedic implants.

    PubMed

    Jäger, M; Zilkens, C; Zanger, K; Krauspe, R

    2007-01-01

    Cell-surface interactions play a crucial role for biomaterial application in orthopaedics. It is evident that not only the chemical composition of solid substances influence cellular adherence, migration, proliferation and differentiation but also the surface topography of a biomaterial. The progressive application of nanostructured surfaces in medicine has gained increasing interest to improve the cytocompatibility and osteointegration of orthopaedic implants. Therefore, the understanding of cell-surface interactions is of major interest for these substances. In this review, we elucidate the principle mechanisms of nano- and microscale cell-surface interactions in vitro for different cell types onto typical orthopaedic biomaterials such as titanium (Ti), cobalt-chrome-molybdenum (CoCrMo) alloys, stainless steel (SS), as well as synthetic polymers (UHMWPE, XLPE, PEEK, PLLA). In addition, effects of nano- and microscaled particles and their significance in orthopaedics were reviewed. The significance for the cytocompatibility of nanobiomaterials is discussed critically.

  13. Significance of Nano- and Microtopography for Cell-Surface Interactions in Orthopaedic Implants

    PubMed Central

    Jäger, M.; Zilkens, C.; Zanger, K.; Krauspe, R.

    2007-01-01

    Cell-surface interactions play a crucial role for biomaterial application in orthopaedics. It is evident that not only the chemical composition of solid substances influence cellular adherence, migration, proliferation and differentiation but also the surface topography of a biomaterial. The progressive application of nanostructured surfaces in medicine has gained increasing interest to improve the cytocompatibility and osteointegration of orthopaedic implants. Therefore, the understanding of cell-surface interactions is of major interest for these substances. In this review, we elucidate the principle mechanisms of nano- and microscale cell-surface interactions in vitro for different cell types onto typical orthopaedic biomaterials such as titanium (Ti), cobalt-chrome-molybdenum (CoCrMo) alloys, stainless steel (SS), as well as synthetic polymers (UHMWPE, XLPE, PEEK, PLLA). In addition, effects of nano- and microscaled particles and their significance in orthopaedics were reviewed. The significance for the cytocompatibility of nanobiomaterials is discussed critically. PMID:18274618

  14. Dirty ducting poses significant risks.

    PubMed

    Norman, Richard

    2010-06-01

    Richard Norman, managing director of ventilation system cleaning specialist Indepth Hygiene, discusses the importance of ensuring that such systems are properly cleaned in healthcare facilities, especially, he argues, as dust and debris on internal surfaces of ducting are potentially "ideal nutrients" for the growth of microorganisms such as MRSA and Clostridium difficile. In addition he warns that, if not properly and regularly cleaned, grease extract ventilation systems linked to catering facilities are a potential source of danger to hospital patients, staff, and visitors alike.

  15. Significant results: statistical or clinical?

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The null hypothesis significance test method is popular in biological and medical research. Many researchers have used this method for their research without exact knowledge, though it has both merits and shortcomings. Readers will know its shortcomings, as well as several complementary or alternative methods, as such the estimated effect size and the confidence interval. PMID:27066201

  16. Status and Significance of Credentialing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musgrave, Dorothea

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the current status, significance, and future of credentialing in the field of environmental health. Also discusses four phases of a Bureau of Health Professions (BHP) Credentialing Program and BHP-funded projects related to their development and implementation. Phases include role delineation, resources development, examination…

  17. The Additive Property of Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsaoussis, Dimitris S.

    1995-01-01

    Presents exercises that analyze the additive property of energy. Concludes that if a body has more than one component of energy depending on the same physical quantity, the body's total energy will be the algebraic sum of the components if a linear relationship exists between the energy components and that physical quantity. (JRH)

  18. Tetrasulfide extreme pressure lubricant additives

    SciTech Connect

    Gast, L.E.; Kenney, H.E.; Schwab, A.W.

    1980-08-19

    A novel class of compounds has been prepared comprising the tetrasulfides of /sup 18/C hydrocarbons, /sup 18/C fatty acids, and /sup 18/C fatty and alkyl and triglyceride esters. These tetrasulfides are useful as extreme pressure lubricant additives and show potential as replacements for sulfurized sperm whale oil.

  19. Out of bounds additive manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Holshouser, Chris; Newell, Clint; Palas, Sid; Love, Lonnie J.; Kunc, Vlastimil; Lind, Randall F.; Lloyd, Peter D.; Rowe, John C.; Blue, Craig A.; Duty, Chad E.; Peter, William H.; Dehoff, Ryan R.

    2013-03-01

    Lockheed Martin and Oak Ridge National Laboratory are working on an additive manufacturing system capable of manufacturing components measured not in terms of inches or feet, but multiple yards in all dimensions with the potential to manufacture parts that are completely unbounded in size.

  20. Role of mitochondrial dysfunction in cancer progression

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Chia-Chi; Tseng, Ling-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Deregulated cellular energetics was one of the cancer hallmarks. Several underlying mechanisms of deregulated cellular energetics are associated with mitochondrial dysfunction caused by mitochondrial DNA mutations, mitochondrial enzyme defects, or altered oncogenes/tumor suppressors. In this review, we summarize the current understanding about the role of mitochondrial dysfunction in cancer progression. Point mutations and copy number changes are the two most common mitochondrial DNA alterations in cancers, and mitochondrial dysfunction induced by chemical depletion of mitochondrial DNA or impairment of mitochondrial respiratory chain in cancer cells promotes cancer progression to a chemoresistance or invasive phenotype. Moreover, defects in mitochondrial enzymes, such as succinate dehydrogenase, fumarate hydratase, and isocitrate dehydrogenase, are associated with both familial and sporadic forms of cancer. Deregulated mitochondrial deacetylase sirtuin 3 might modulate cancer progression by regulating cellular metabolism and oxidative stress. These mitochondrial defects during oncogenesis and tumor progression activate cytosolic signaling pathways that ultimately alter nuclear gene expression, a process called retrograde signaling. Changes in the intracellular level of reactive oxygen species, Ca2+, or oncometabolites are important in the mitochondrial retrograde signaling for neoplastic transformation and cancer progression. In addition, altered oncogenes/tumor suppressors including hypoxia-inducible factor 1 and tumor suppressor p53 regulate mitochondrial respiration and cellular metabolism by modulating the expression of their target genes. We thus suggest that mitochondrial dysfunction plays a critical role in cancer progression and that targeting mitochondrial alterations and mitochondrial retrograde signaling might be a promising strategy for the development of selective anticancer therapy. PMID:27022139

  1. Evaluation of certain food additives.

    PubMed

    2012-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives, including flavouring agents, with a view to concluding as to safety concerns and to preparing specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation of and assessment of dietary exposure to food additives, including flavouring agents. A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and dietary exposure data for five food additives (magnesium dihydrogen diphosphate; mineral oil (medium and low viscosity) classes II and III; 3-phytase from Aspergillus niger expressed in Aspergillus niger; serine protease (chymotrypsin) from Nocardiopsis prasina expressed in Bacillus licheniformis; and serine protease (trypsin) from Fusarium oxysporum expressed in Fusarium venenatum) and 16 groups of flavouring agents (aliphatic and aromatic amines and amides; aliphatic and aromatic ethers; aliphatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids and related esters, sulfides, disulfides and ethers containing furan substitution; aliphatic linear alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes, acids and related alcohols, acetals and esters; amino acids and related substances; epoxides; furfuryl alcohol and related substances; linear and branched-chain aliphatic, unsaturated, unconjugated alcohols, aldehydes, acids and related esters; miscellaneous nitrogen-containing substances; phenol and phenol derivatives; pyrazine derivatives; pyridine, pyrrole and quinoline derivatives; saturated aliphatic acyclic branched-chain primary alcohols, aldehydes and acids; simple aliphatic and aromatic sulfides and thiols; sulfur-containing heterocyclic compounds; and sulfur-substituted furan derivatives). Specifications for the following food additives were revised: ethyl cellulose, mineral oil (medium viscosity), modified starches and titanium

  2. Differences in the progress of discharged and undischarged patients in a medium secure unit: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Heap, M

    2003-10-01

    This study compared 15 patients ('undischarged' group) who were showing little sign of progress in a medium secure unit (MSU) after 2 years with 15 who had been discharged from the same unit 1-2 years following admission. The two groups were compared across a number of broadly defined behavioural indices during their first 6 months and first 12 months following admission. The measures used were indices of progress to wards of lower security (highest ward status and transfers to wards of higher security) and progress in terms of leave (highest leave status and reductions in leave status). In addition, the two groups were compared on number of recorded incidents attributable to them. Discharged patients were significantly older at the time of their admission than the undischarged patients (median ages 33 and 26 years, respectively). They made more progress in their first year in terms of ward security and leave status and were responsible for fewer recorded incidents. These results were also obtained at 6 months following admission with the exception that the difference for highest ward status was not statistically significant. The findings of this small-scale study suggest that within the first 6 months of admission, it may be possible to distinguish patients who will probably make good progress in a MSU from those whose progress is likely to be very slow. Implications of the study are discussed.

  3. Statistical Significance of Threading Scores

    PubMed Central

    Fayyaz Movaghar, Afshin; Launay, Guillaume; Schbath, Sophie; Gibrat, Jean-François

    2012-01-01

    Abstract We present a general method for assessing threading score significance. The threading score of a protein sequence, thread onto a given structure, should be compared with the threading score distribution of a random amino-acid sequence, of the same length, thread on the same structure; small p-values point significantly high scores. We claim that, due to general protein contact map properties, this reference distribution is a Weibull extreme value distribution whose parameters depend on the threading method, the structure, the length of the query and the random sequence simulation model used. These parameters can be estimated off-line with simulated sequence samples, for different sequence lengths. They can further be interpolated at the exact length of a query, enabling the quick computation of the p-value. PMID:22149633

  4. Progression Rate From Intermediate to Advanced Age-Related Macular Degeneration Is Correlated With the Number of Risk Alleles at the CFH Locus

    PubMed Central

    Sardell, Rebecca J.; Persad, Patrice J.; Pan, Samuel S.; Whitehead, Patrice; Adams, Larry D.; Laux, Reneé A.; Fortun, Jorge A.; Brantley, Milam A.; Kovach, Jaclyn L.; Schwartz, Stephen G.; Agarwal, Anita; Haines, Jonathan L.; Scott, William K.; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Progression rate of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) varies substantially, yet its association with genetic variation has not been widely examined. Methods We tested whether progression rate from intermediate AMD to geographic atrophy (GA) or choroidal neovascularization (CNV) was correlated with genotype at seven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the four genes most strongly associated with risk of advanced AMD. Cox proportional hazards survival models examined the association between progression time and SNP genotype while adjusting for age and sex and accounting for variable follow-up time, right censored data, and repeated measures (left and right eyes). Results Progression rate varied with the number of risk alleles at the CFH:rs10737680 but not the CFH:rs1061170 (Y402H) SNP; individuals with two risk alleles progressed faster than those with one allele (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.61, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.08–2.40, P < 0.02, n = 547 eyes), although this was not significant after Bonferroni correction. This signal was likely driven by an association at the correlated protective variant, CFH:rs6677604, which tags the CFHR1-3 deletion; individuals with at least one protective allele progressed more slowly. Considering GA and CNV separately showed that the effect of CFH:rs10737680 was stronger for progression to CNV. Conclusions Results support previous findings that AMD progression rate is influenced by CFH, and suggest that variants within CFH may have different effects on risk versus progression. However, since CFH:rs10737680 was not significant after Bonferroni correction and explained only a relatively small portion of variation in progression rate beyond that explained by age, we suggest that additional factors contribute to progression. PMID:27832277

  5. The magnesium chelation step in chlorophyll biosynthesis. Progress report 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Weinstein, J.D.

    1993-12-31

    Progress is reported on the identification and fractionation of Magnesium chealatase, an enzyme involved in addition of Mg to chlorophyll during the later`s biosynthesis. Progress is documented as a series of synopsis of published and unpublished papers by the author.

  6. Effect of Progressive Muscle Relaxation on the Fatigue and Quality of Life Among Iranian Aging Persons.

    PubMed

    Hassanpour-Dehkordi, Ali; Jalali, Amir

    2016-07-01

    Since the elderly population is increasing rapidly in developing countries which may decrease the physical activity and exercise and in turn could affect the elderly's quality of life, this study aimed to investigate the effect of progressive muscle relaxation on the elderly's quality of life in Iran. In a randomized clinical trial, participants were randomly divided into intervention and control groups. For the intervention group, muscular progressive relaxation was run three days per week for three months (totally 36 sessions). In relaxation, a patient contract a group of his/her muscles in each step and relaxes them after five seconds and finally loosens all muscles and takes five deep breaths. Each session lasts for 45 minutes. The instrument of data gathering consisted of questionnaires on individual's demographic data and quality of life SF-36. After intervention, quality of life increased significantly in the patients undergoing muscular progressive relaxation and fatigue severity decreased significantly in the intervention group compared to prior to intervention. In addition, there was a statistically significant difference in mean score of physical performance, restricted activity after physical problem, energy, socially function, physical pain, overall hygiene, and quality of life between intervention and control groups. By implementing regular and continuous progressive muscle relaxation, quality of life could be increased in different dimensions in the elderly and the context could be provided to age healthily and enjoy higher health and autonomy. Therefore, all of the therapeutic staffs are recommended to implement this plan to promote the elderly's quality of life.

  7. Evolution of the Significant Figure Rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, Ashley R.

    2013-09-01

    Today, almost all introductory physics textbooks include standardized "rules" on how to find the number of significant figures in a calculated value. And yet, 30 years ago these rules were almost nonexistent. Whyhave we increased the role of significant figures in introductory classes, and should we continue this trend? A look back at the evolution of significant figures over the last 300 years, from Newton to Millikan to modern authors, sheds some light on their purpose moving forward. While there is much discussion for and against their use, especially in chemistry, a review of earlier versions of the rules suggests that we have lost some items of value, most notably, a significant figure rule for angles. In addition, we have lost the emphasis that the significant figure rules were designed to calculate an approximate (not exact) precision. Now that the significant figure rules are ingrained into our introductory physics sequence, we would be wise to reiterate that these are just general "rules of thumb."

  8. Progressive supranuclear palsy: progression and survival.

    PubMed

    Arena, Julieta E; Weigand, Stephen D; Whitwell, Jennifer L; Hassan, Anhar; Eggers, Scott D; Höglinger, Günter U; Litvan, Irene; Josephs, Keith A

    2016-02-01

    Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by postural instability and falls, vertical supranuclear gaze palsy, parkinsonism with poor levodopa response, pseudobulbar palsy, and frontal release signs. The natural history of the disease has been previously described. However, the time frame of appearance of clinical milestones and how these symptoms may relate to survival in PSP are unknown. The primary objective was to determine the prevalence of symptoms at different stages of PSP and to estimate the time of appearance of clinical symptoms characteristic of the disease. Second, we determined the association between clinical symptoms and survival. We prospectively studied 35 PSP patients during assessments scheduled every 6 months for up to 2 years. We estimated symptoms prevalence and the association between symptoms and survival. The median age of onset was 65.9 years (IQR 60.6-70.0), and the median time from onset to first assessment was 3.0 years (IQR 2.4-3.9). The most commonly reported symptoms at baseline were: motor (100%) followed by cognitive/behavioral (89%), systemic and bulbar (80%), and sleep disturbances (60%). Slowness of movement, falls, neck stiffness and difficulty looking up/down had high prevalence from baseline, while balance and gait impairment were less common at baseline but increased in prevalence over time. The presence of sleep disturbances, and possibly hallucinations, was associated with increased death risk. Improved recognition of the clinical spectrum and milestones of PSP advances knowledge of the disease, helps earlier diagnosis, and allows prognostic predictions.

  9. Materials as additives for advanced lubrication

    DOEpatents

    Pol, Vilas G.; Thackeray, Michael M.; Mistry, Kuldeep; Erdemir, Ali

    2016-09-13

    This invention relates to carbon-based materials as anti-friction and anti-wear additives for advanced lubrication purposes. The materials comprise carbon nanotubes suspended in a liquid hydrocarbon carrier. Optionally, the compositions further comprise a surfactant (e.g., to aid in dispersion of the carbon particles). Specifically, the novel lubricants have the ability to significantly lower friction and wear, which translates into improved fuel economies and longer durability of mechanical devices and engines.

  10. Pesticide reregistration progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The report is produced by the Special Review and Reregistration Division (SRRD), Office of Pesticide Programs, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), on progress towards pesticide reregistration as mandated under 1988 amendments to the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act. The report shows the status of reregistration through the first quarter of the 1993 fiscal year. SRRD is in the process of re-evaluating the format and information in the Progress Report, as a result of the October 1992 Customer Survey sent to the recipients of the report. Results of the survey will be incorporated in the April 1993 issue of the report.

  11. PATHWAYS OF MEDICAL PROGRESS.

    PubMed

    Wiggers, C J

    1940-01-12

    During the three decades that have passed, medical science has ascended to a high plateau of achievement. The climb has involved several pathways; among them: (1) the physiological approach toward disease as experiments which nature performs on organisms, (2) the more intelligent interpretation of the functional reactions of the body in disease in accordance with latest discoveries in physiology, (3) the supplementation of observable phenomena through use of laboratory instruments, (4) the assumption of active investigation both on patients and experimental animals by clinicians themselves, (5) the shuttling of problems between clinical and experimental laboratories and (6) correlated research in clinical and physiological departments. As we look down from the heights we have reached, we have reason to be pleased with our progress; but when we look ahead we become aware that there are still high mountain ranges to be climbed. We realize that their ascent can not be accomplished by employing merely the methods, equipment and strategy that have proved successful so far; we must improve the application of principles that are old and well established, and evolve others that are new. Above all, we from laboratories and clinics must join hands to help each other climb; and through correlated team-work overcome the great obstacles that jealous nature places in our way. I have ventured to suggest a few directions which such mutual help may take. They include (1) means by which new fundamental discoveries can be utilized more quickly by clinicians and practitioners of medicine; (2) plans by which younger clinical investigators can be given approximately the same opportunity for training in research technique as their colleagues entering experimental sciences; (3) pleas that the shuttling of problems between hospitals and laboratories of fundamental science may continue in order that the ultimate significance of clinical results may be better understood and that the

  12. The Frontiers of Additive Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Grote, Christopher John

    2016-03-03

    Additive manufacturing, more commonly known as 3-D printing, has become a ubiquitous tool in science for its precise control over mechanical design. For additive manufacturing to work, a 3-D structure is split into thin 2D slices, and then different physical properties, such as photo-polymerization or melting, are used to grow the sequential layers. The level of control allows not only for devices to be made with a variety of materials: e.g. plastics, metals, and quantum dots, but to also have finely controlled structures leading to other novel properties. While 3-D printing is widely used by hobbyists for making models, it also has industrial applications in structural engineering, biological tissue scaffolding, customized electric circuitry, fuel cells, security, and more.

  13. Decontamination formulation with sorbent additive

    DOEpatents

    Tucker; Mark D. , Comstock; Robert H.

    2007-10-16

    A decontamination formulation and method of making that neutralizes the adverse health effects of both chemical and biological compounds, especially chemical warfare (CW) and biological warfare (BW) agents, and toxic industrial chemicals. The formulation provides solubilizing compounds that serve to effectively render the chemical and biological compounds, particularly CW and BW compounds, susceptible to attack, and at least one reactive compound that serves to attack (and detoxify or kill) the compound. The formulation includes at least one solubilizing agent, a reactive compound, a bleaching activator, a sorbent additive, and water. The highly adsorbent, water-soluble sorbent additive (e.g., sorbitol or mannitol) is used to "dry out" one or more liquid ingredients, such as the liquid bleaching activator (e.g., propylene glycol diacetate or glycerol diacetate) and convert the activator into a dry, free-flowing powder that has an extended shelf life, and is more convenient to handle and mix in the field.

  14. Wavelet encoding and variable resolution progressive transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanford, Ronald P.

    1993-01-01

    Progressive transmission is a method of transmitting and displaying imagery in stages of successively improving quality. The subsampled lowpass image representations generated by a wavelet transformation suit this purpose well, but for best results the order of presentation is critical. Candidate data for transmission are best selected using dynamic prioritization criteria generated from image contents and viewer guidance. We show that wavelets are not only suitable but superior when used to encode data for progressive transmission at non-uniform resolutions. This application does not preclude additional compression using quantization of highpass coefficients, which to the contrary results in superior image approximations at low data rates.

  15. Efficiently and Effectively Evaluating Public Service Announcements: Additional Evidence for the Utility of Perceived Effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Bigsby, Elisabeth; Cappella, Joseph N; Seitz, Holli H

    2013-03-01

    Recent research has made significant progress identifying measures of the perceived effectiveness (PE) of persuasive messages and providing evidence of a causal link from PE to actual effectiveness (AE). This article provides additional evidence of the utility of PE through unique analysis and consideration of another dimension of PE important to understanding the PE-AE association. Current smokers (N =1,139) watched four randomly selected anti-smoking Public Service Announcements (PSAs). PE scores aggregated by message were used instead of individual PE scores to create a summed total, minimizing the likelihood that PE perceptions are consequences of an individual's intention to quit, supporting instead the PE→AE order. Linear regression analyses provide evidence of PE's positive and significant influence on smoking cessation-related behavioral intentions.

  16. Efficiently and Effectively Evaluating Public Service Announcements: Additional Evidence for the Utility of Perceived Effectiveness

    PubMed Central

    Bigsby, Elisabeth; Cappella, Joseph N.; Seitz, Holli H.

    2014-01-01

    Recent research has made significant progress identifying measures of the perceived effectiveness (PE) of persuasive messages and providing evidence of a causal link from PE to actual effectiveness (AE). This article provides additional evidence of the utility of PE through unique analysis and consideration of another dimension of PE important to understanding the PE-AE association. Current smokers (N =1,139) watched four randomly selected anti-smoking Public Service Announcements (PSAs). PE scores aggregated by message were used instead of individual PE scores to create a summed total, minimizing the likelihood that PE perceptions are consequences of an individual’s intention to quit, supporting instead the PE→AE order. Linear regression analyses provide evidence of PE’s positive and significant influence on smoking cessation-related behavioral intentions. PMID:25568588

  17. Additive Manufacturing Integrated Energy Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, Roderick; Lee, Brian; Love, Lonnie; Mabe, Gavin; Keller, Martin; Curran, Scott; Chinthavali, Madhu; Green, Johney; Sawyer, Karma; Enquist, Phil

    2016-02-05

    Meet AMIE - the Additive Manufacturing Integrated Energy demonstration project. Led by Oak Ridge National Laboratory and many industry partners, the AMIE project changes the way we think about generating, storing, and using electrical power. AMIE uses an integrated energy system that shares energy between a building and a vehicle. And, utilizing advanced manufacturing and rapid innovation, it only took one year from concept to launch.

  18. Robust stability under additive perturbations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhaya, A.; Desoer, C. A.

    1985-01-01

    A MIMO linear time-invariant feedback system 1S(P,C) is considered which is assumed to be U-stable. The plant P is subjected to an additive perturbation Delta P which is proper but not necessarily stable. It is proved that the perturbed system is U-stable if and only if Delta P(I + Q x Delta P) exp -1 is U-stable.

  19. Additive Manufacturing Integrated Energy Demonstration

    ScienceCinema

    Jackson, Roderick; Lee, Brian; Love, Lonnie; Mabe, Gavin; Keller, Martin; Curran, Scott; Chinthavali, Madhu; Green, Johney; Sawyer, Karma; Enquist, Phil

    2016-07-12

    Meet AMIE - the Additive Manufacturing Integrated Energy demonstration project. Led by Oak Ridge National Laboratory and many industry partners, the AMIE project changes the way we think about generating, storing, and using electrical power. AMIE uses an integrated energy system that shares energy between a building and a vehicle. And, utilizing advanced manufacturing and rapid innovation, it only took one year from concept to launch.

  20. Nanoengineered Additives for Active Coatings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-01

    commercial ad bial activ component from the coating, leading to eventual depletion of the film. Small TPU samples were evaluated using a Kirby - Bauer ...7 Table 5. Summary of 24-hr ASTM E 2180 tests with 1 weight-percent additive in PUr (solvent dispersible) based on 6-log loading of...Noveon X-1150). The ASTM E 2180 test is run in triplicate (Note that alternative ro 1° amines) was suspended in dry tetrahydrofuran (THF) (150 mL) in

  1. Clinically significant drug interactions with atypical antipsychotics.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, William Klugh; Jann, Michael W; Kutscher, Eric C

    2013-12-01

    Atypical antipsychotics [also known as second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs)] have become a mainstay therapeutic treatment intervention for patients with schizophrenia, bipolar disorders and other psychotic conditions. These agents are commonly used with other medications--most notably, antidepressants and antiepileptic drugs. Drug interactions can take place by various pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic and pharmaceutical mechanisms. The pharmacokinetic profile of each SGA, especially with phase I and phase II metabolism, can allow for potentially significant drug interactions. Pharmacodynamic interactions arise when agents have comparable receptor site activity, which can lead to additive or competitive effects without alterations in measured plasma drug concentrations. Additionally, the role of drug transporters in drug interactions continues to evolve and may effect both pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions. Pharmaceutical interactions occur when physical incompatibilities take place between agents prior to drug absorption. Approximate therapeutic plasma concentration ranges have been suggested for a number of SGAs. Drug interactions that markedly increase or decrease the concentrations of these agents beyond their ranges can lead to adverse events or diminished clinical efficacy. Most clinically significant drug interactions with SGAs occur via the cytochrome P450 (CYP) system. Many but not all drug interactions with SGAs are identified during drug discovery and pre-clinical development by employing a series of standardized in vitro and in vivo studies with known CYP inducers and inhibitors. Later therapeutic drug monitoring programmes, clinical studies and case reports offer methods to identify additional clinically significant drug interactions. Some commonly co-administered drugs with a significant potential for drug-drug interactions with selected SGAs include some SSRIs. Antiepileptic mood stabilizers such as carbamazepine and valproate, as

  2. Reversible Oxidative Addition at Carbon.

    PubMed

    Eichhorn, Antonius F; Fuchs, Sonja; Flock, Marco; Marder, Todd B; Radius, Udo

    2017-04-07

    The reactivity of N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) and cyclic alkyl amino carbenes (cAACs) with arylboronate esters is reported. The reaction with NHCs leads to the reversible formation of thermally stable Lewis acid/base adducts Ar-B(OR)2 ⋅NHC (Add1-Add6). Addition of cAAC(Me) to the catecholboronate esters 4-R-C6 H4 -Bcat (R=Me, OMe) also afforded the adducts 4-R-C6 H4 Bcat⋅cAAC(Me) (Add7, R=Me and Add8, R=OMe), which react further at room temperature to give the cAAC(Me) ring-expanded products RER1 and RER2. The boronate esters Ar-B(OR)2 of pinacol, neopentylglycol, and ethyleneglycol react with cAAC at RT via reversible B-C oxidative addition to the carbene carbon atom to afford cAAC(Me) (B{OR}2 )(Ar) (BCA1-BCA6). NMR studies of cAAC(Me) (Bneop)(4-Me-C6 H4 ) (BCA4) demonstrate the reversible nature of this oxidative addition process.

  3. Additive manufacturing of hybrid circuits

    DOE PAGES

    Bell, Nelson S.; Sarobol, Pylin; Cook, Adam; ...

    2016-03-26

    There is a rising interest in developing functional electronics using additively manufactured components. Considerations in materials selection and pathways to forming hybrid circuits and devices must demonstrate useful electronic function; must enable integration; and must complement the complex shape, low cost, high volume, and high functionality of structural but generally electronically passive additively manufactured components. This article reviews several emerging technologies being used in industry and research/development to provide integration advantages of fabricating multilayer hybrid circuits or devices. First, we review a maskless, noncontact, direct write (DW) technology that excels in the deposition of metallic colloid inks for electrical interconnects.more » Second, we review a complementary technology, aerosol deposition (AD), which excels in the deposition of metallic and ceramic powder as consolidated, thick conformal coatings and is additionally patternable through masking. As a result, we show examples of hybrid circuits/devices integrated beyond 2-D planes, using combinations of DW or AD processes and conventional, established processes.« less

  4. PSD Significance Levels for Monitoring

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  5. Where boosted significances come from

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plehn, Tilman; Schichtel, Peter; Wiegand, Daniel

    2014-03-01

    In an era of increasingly advanced experimental analysis techniques it is crucial to understand which phase space regions contribute a signal extraction from backgrounds. Based on the Neyman-Pearson lemma we compute the maximum significance for a signal extraction as an integral over phase space regions. We then study to what degree boosted Higgs strategies benefit ZH and tt¯H searches and which transverse momenta of the Higgs are most promising. We find that Higgs and top taggers are the appropriate tools, but would profit from a targeted optimization towards smaller transverse momenta. MadMax is available as an add-on to MadGraph 5.

  6. SIM Lite Astrometric Observatory progress report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marr, James C., IV; Shao, Michael; Goullioud, Renaud

    2010-07-01

    The SIM Lite Astrometric Observatory (aka SIM Lite), a micro-arcsecond astrometry space mission, has been developed in response to NASA's indefinite deferral of the SIM PlanetQuest mission. The SIM Lite mission, while significantly more affordable than the SIM PlanetQuest mission concept, still addresses the full breadth of SIM science envisioned by two previous National Research Council (NRC) Astrophysics Decadal Surveys at the most stringent "Goal" level of astrometric measurement performance envisioned in those surveys. Over the past two years, the project has completed the conceptual design of the SIM Lite mission using only the completed SIM technology; published a 250 page book describing the science and mission design (available at the SIM website: http://sim.jpl.nasa.gov); been subject to an independent cost and technical readiness assessment by the Aerospace Corporation; and submitted a number of information responses to the NRC Astro2010 Decadal Survey. The project also conducted an exoplanet-finding capability double blind study that clearly demonstrated the ability of the mission to survey 60 to 100 nearby sun-like dwarf stars for terrestrial, habitable zone planets in complex planetary systems. Additionally, the project has continued Engineering Risk Reduction activities by building brassboard (form, fit & function to flight) version of key instrument elements and subjecting them to flight qualification environmental and performance testing. This paper summarizes the progress over the last two years and the current state of the SIM Lite project.

  7. Challenges and progress in digital photography standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holm, Jack M.

    2003-12-01

    The ISO TC42/WG18-20-22-23 and ANSI/I3A IT10 Technical Committees have now been developing digital photography standards for over a decade. This work has led to the publication of standards on digital imaging terminology, digital camera ISO speed measurements, resolution measurements, OECF (linearity) measurements, image formats and metadata, and picture transfer protocol (PTP). More recently, standards on color encoding specifications and color architectures, a JPEG 2000 profile for digital cameras, camera noise and dynamic range measurements, digital camera specification reporting, and scanner resolution have been finalized. Work in progress includes image quality subjective testing methods, digital camera color characterization, and scanner dynamic range measurements. This paper will review past and current technical challenges, and the state of the solutions provided. In most cases, development includes a significant and innovative research component, which is discussed in relation to fundamental imaging issues. These standards are viewed from a broad digital photography perspective, and placed in context with other work in this area. In addition to providing a forum for the development of standards, technical committees are an important avenue for interaction between companies, user groups, and the government. Such avenues can have a great impact on emerging technologies.

  8. SIM Lite Astrometric Observatory Progress Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marr, James C., IV; Shao, Michael; Goullioud, Renaud

    2010-01-01

    The SIM Lite Astrometric Observatory (aka SIM Lite), a micro-arcsecond astrometry space mission, has been developed in response to NASA's indefinite deferral of the SIM PlanetQuest mission. The SIM Lite mission, while significantly more affordable than the SIM PlanetQuest mission concept, still addresses the full breadth of SIM science envisioned by two previous National Research Council (NRC) Astrophysics Decadal Surveys at the most stringent 'Goal' level of astrometric measurement performance envisioned in those surveys. Over the past two years, the project has completed the conceptual design of the SIM Lite mission using only the completed SIM technology; published a 250 page book describing the science and mission design (available at the SIM website: http://sim.jpl.nasa.gov); been subject to an independent cost and technical readiness assessment by the Aerospace Corporation; and submitted a number of information responses to the NRC Astro2010 Decadal Survey. The project also conducted an exoplanet-finding capability double blind study that clearly demonstrated the ability of the mission to survey 60 to 100 nearby sun-like dwarf stars for terrestrial, habitable zone planets in complex planetary systems. Additionally, the project has continued Engineering Risk Reduction activities by building brassboard (form, fit and function to flight) version of key instrument elements and subjecting them to flight qualification environmental and performance testing. This paper summarizes the progress over the last two years and the current state of the SIM Lite project.

  9. Beneficial uses program. Progress report ending December 31, 1979

    SciTech Connect

    1980-06-01

    Progress is reported in research on uses of irradiated sewage sludge, particularly as a cattle feed supplement and commercial fertilizer additive, on potential sites for irradiator demonstration plants, and on the inactivation of enteric bacteria by radiation treatment. (LCL)

  10. Fire-Retardant Polymeric Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Martha K.; Smith, Trent M.

    2011-01-01

    Polyhydroxyamide (PHA) and polymethoxyamide (PMeOA) are fire-retardant (FR) thermoplastic polymers and have been found to be useful as an additive for imparting fire retardant properties to other compatible, thermoplastic polymers (including some elastomers). Examples of compatible flammable polymers include nylons, polyesters, and acrylics. Unlike most prior additives, PHA and PMeOA do not appreciably degrade the mechanical properties of the matrix polymer; indeed, in some cases, mechanical properties are enhanced. Also, unlike some prior additives, PHA and PMeOA do not decompose into large amounts of corrosive or toxic compounds during combustion and can be processed at elevated temperatures. PMeOA derivative formulations were synthesized and used as an FR additive in the fabrication of polyamide (PA) and polystyrene (PS) composites with notable reduction (>30 percent for PS) in peak heat release rates compared to the neat polymer as measured by a Cone Calorimeter (ASTM E1354). Synergistic effects were noted with nanosilica composites. These nanosilica composites had more than 50-percent reduction in peak heat release rates. In a typical application, a flammable thermoplastic, thermoplastic blend, or elastomer that one seeks to render flame-retardant is first dry-mixed with PHA or PMeOA or derivative thereof. The proportion of PHA or PMeOA or derivative in the mixture is typically chosen to lie between 1 and 20 weight percent. The dry blend can then be melt-extruded. The extruded polymer blend can further be extruded and/or molded into fibers, pipes, or any other of a variety of objects that may be required to be fire-retardant. The physical and chemical mechanisms which impart flame retardancy of the additive include inhibiting free-radical oxidation in the vapor phase, preventing vaporization of fuel (the polymer), and cooling through the formation of chemical bonds in either the vapor or the condensed phase. Under thermal stress, the cyclic hydroxyl/ methoxy

  11. Evaluation of certain food additives.

    PubMed

    2009-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives, including flavouring agents, with a view to recommending acceptable daily intakes (ADIs) and to preparing specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation and assessment of intake of food additives (in particular, flavouring agents). A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and intake data for certain food additives (asparaginase from Aspergillus niger expressed in A. niger, calcium lignosulfonate (40-65), ethyl lauroyl arginate, paprika extract, phospholipase C expressed in Pichia pastoris, phytosterols, phytostanols and their esters, polydimethylsiloxane, steviol glycosides and sulfites [assessment of dietary exposure]) and 10 groups of related flavouring agents (aliphatic branched-chain saturated and unsaturated alcohols, aldehydes, acids and related esters; aliphatic linear alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes, acids and related alcohols, acetals and esters; aliphatic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters; alkoxy-substituted allylbenzenes present in foods and essential oils and used as flavouring agents; esters of aliphatic acyclic primary alcohols with aliphatic linear saturated carboxylic acids; furan-substituted aliphatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids and related esters, sulfides, disulfides and ethers; miscellaneous nitrogen-containing substances; monocyclic and bicyclic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters; hydroxy- and alkoxy-substituted benzyl derivatives; and substances structurally related to menthol). Specifications for the following food additives were revised: canthaxanthin; carob bean gum and carob bean gum (clarified); chlorophyllin copper complexes, sodium and potassium salts; Fast Green FCF; guar gum and guar gum (clarified

  12. Public health significance of neuroticism.

    PubMed

    Lahey, Benjamin B

    2009-01-01

    The personality trait of neuroticism refers to relatively stable tendencies to respond with negative emotions to threat, frustration, or loss. Individuals in the population vary markedly on this trait, ranging from frequent and intense emotional reactions to minor challenges to little emotional reaction even in the face of significant difficulties. Although not widely appreciated, there is growing evidence that neuroticism is a psychological trait of profound public health significance. Neuroticism is a robust correlate and predictor of many different mental and physical disorders, comorbidity among them, and the frequency of mental and general health service use. Indeed, neuroticism apparently is a predictor of the quality and longevity of our lives. Achieving a full understanding of the nature and origins of neuroticism, and the mechanisms through which neuroticism is linked to mental and physical disorders, should be a top priority for research. Knowing why neuroticism predicts such a wide variety of seemingly diverse outcomes should lead to improved understanding of commonalities among those outcomes and improved strategies for preventing them.

  13. The glycemic index: physiological significance.

    PubMed

    Esfahani, Amin; Wong, Julia M W; Mirrahimi, Arash; Srichaikul, Korbua; Jenkins, David J A; Kendall, Cyril W C

    2009-08-01

    The glycemic index (GI) is a physiological assessment of a food's carbohydrate content through its effect on postprandial blood glucose concentrations. Evidence from trials and observational studies suggests that this physiological classification may have relevance to those chronic Western diseases associated with overconsumption and inactivity leading to central obesity and insulin resistance. The glycemic index classification of foods has been used as a tool to assess potential prevention and treatment strategies for diseases where glycemic control is of importance, such as diabetes. Low GI diets have also been reported to improve the serum lipid profile, reduce C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations, and aid in weight control. In cross-sectional studies, low GI or glycemic load diets (mean GI multiplied by total carbohydrate) have been associated with higher levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), with reduced CRP concentrations, and, in cohort studies, with decreased risk of developing diabetes and cardiovascular disease. In addition, some case-control and cohort studies have found positive associations between dietary GI and risk of various cancers, including those of the colon, breast, and prostate. Although inconsistencies in the current findings still need to be resolved, sufficient positive evidence, especially with respect to renewed interest in postprandial events, suggests that the glycemic index may have a role to play in the treatment and prevention of chronic diseases.

  14. Mystery in Progress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Kristen

    1989-01-01

    Describes "Mystery in Progress," a traveling exhibit which traces the development of Predynastic Egypt. The exhibit provides a time line for Predynastic Egypt, depicts the history of the Hierakonpolis expedition, documents the formation of Egypt's first centralized nation state, and summarizes the emergence of a unified Egypt. (LS)

  15. [Progress on transgenic mosquitoes].

    PubMed

    Yang, Pin

    2011-04-30

    The genetically modified mosquitoes have been developed aiming to control mosquito-borne diseases by either reducing population sizes or replacing existing populations with vectors unable to transmit the disease. introduces some progress on the generation of transgenic mosquitoes and their fitness in wild population. This paper

  16. 1992 PVUSA progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Ellyn, W.

    1992-12-31

    Photovoltaics for Utility Scale Applications (PVUSA) is a national public-private partnership that is assessing and demonstrating the viability of utility-scale photovoltaic (PV) electric generating systems. This report updates the progress of the PVUSA project, reviews the status and performance of the various PV installations during 1992, and summarizes key accomplishments and conclusions from work to date.

  17. Basic Measures of Progress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calkins, Julia; Ling, Thomson; Moore, Eric; Halle, Tamara; Hair, Beth; Moore, Kris; Zaslow, Marty

    This document provides a compilation of measures of progress toward school readiness and three contributing conditions as used in several local, state, and national surveys. The report begins with a legend listing the surveys examined, their acronyms, and contact information. The remainder of the report, in tabular format, lists measures of…

  18. MCNP Progress & Performance Improvements

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Forrest B.; Bull, Jeffrey S.; Rising, Michael Evan

    2015-04-14

    Twenty-eight slides give information about the work of the US DOE/NNSA Nuclear Criticality Safety Program on MCNP6 under the following headings: MCNP6.1.1 Release, with ENDF/B-VII.1; Verification/Validation; User Support & Training; Performance Improvements; and Work in Progress. Whisper methodology will be incorporated into the code, and run speed should be increased.

  19. Learning Progressions & Climate Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Joyce M.; de los Santos, Elizabeth X.; Anderson, Charles W.

    2015-01-01

    Our society is currently having serious debates about sources of energy and global climate change. But do students (and the public) have the requisite knowledge to engage these issues as informed citizenry? The learning-progression research summarized here indicates that only 10% of high school students typically have a level of understanding…

  20. Progress in physiological optics.

    PubMed

    Boynton, R M

    1967-08-01

    A survey is made of the current state of physiological optics, broadly defined as equated with visual science. After a survey of some historical and definitional matters, recent progress in a number of areas is critically reviewed. Finally, seven examples of important recent discoveries in physiological optics are given.

  1. Opportunities and progress.

    PubMed

    Litchfield, John H

    2014-01-01

    In this review, I cover my professional experiences in food science and technology and related areas of applied and industrial microbiology over the span of my career. It emphasizes opportunities and technological problems that I encountered together with my progress in follow-up development of products and processes.

  2. Poor R wave progression in the precordial leads: clinical implications for the diagnosis of myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    DePace, N L; Colby, J; Hakki, A H; Manno, B; Horowitz, L N; Iskandrian, A S

    1983-12-01

    A definite diagnosis of anterior myocardial infarction is often difficult to make in patients when a pattern of poor R wave progression in the precordial leads is present on the electrocardiogram. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a mathematical model could be devised to identify patients with anterior infarction among 102 consecutive patients with poor R wave progression. Each patient underwent exercise testing with thallium scanning. The diagnosis of anterior infarction was established in 20 (20%) of the 102 patients by the presence of fixed thallium-201 perfusion defects in the anterior wall or septum, or both. With the use of a multivariate stepwise discriminant analysis of clinical and electrocardiographic variables, five variables (sex, ST-T changes, S wave amplitude in leads V2 and V3 and the sum of the R wave amplitude in leads V3 and V4) that were statistically significant by univariate analysis were selected by the model to identify patients with anterior infarction (sensitivity 85%, specificity 71%). The discriminant model was subsequently applied prospectively to an additional 21 patients with poor R wave progression and provided a sensitivity of 85% and a specificity of 88%. Thus, anterior infarction (fixed thallium-201 defects in the anteroseptal segments) was present in 20% of patients with poor R wave progression in the precordial leads; and a mathematical model can be used to identify a subset of patients with anterior infarction in a group of patients with poor R wave progression.

  3. Pathological Significance of Mitochondrial Glycation

    PubMed Central

    Pun, Pamela Boon Li; Murphy, Michael P.

    2012-01-01

    Glycation, the nonenzymatic glycosylation of biomolecules, is commonly observed in diabetes and ageing. Reactive dicarbonyl species such as methylglyoxal and glyoxal are thought to be major physiological precursors of glycation. Because these dicarbonyls tend to be formed intracellularly, the levels of advanced glycation end products on cellular proteins are higher than on extracellular ones. The formation of glycation adducts within cells can have severe functional consequences such as inhibition of protein activity and promotion of DNA mutations. Although several lines of evidence suggest that there are specific mitochondrial targets of glycation, and mitochondrial dysfunction itself has been implicated in disease and ageing, it is unclear if glycation of biomolecules specifically within mitochondria induces dysfunction and contributes to disease pathology. We discuss here the possibility that mitochondrial glycation contributes to disease, focussing on diabetes, ageing, cancer, and neurodegeneration, and highlight the current limitations in our understanding of the pathological significance of mitochondrial glycation. PMID:22778743

  4. [Hypertriglyceridemia: concept and clinical significance].

    PubMed

    Hirano, Tsutomu

    2013-09-01

    Hypertriglyceridemia is a common lipid disorder as well as hypercholesterolemia. However clinical significance of hypertriglyceridemia is not fully understood because of its heterogeneous lipoprotein phenotypes and complex etiology. Severe hypertriglyceridemia increases the risk for pancreatitis, whereas mild or moderate hypertriglyceridemia may be a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Patients with hypertriglyceridemia are usually accompanied by other cardiovascular related disorders, such as central obesity, type 2 diabetes, and liver steatosis. Ectopic fat accumulation is often seen in hypertriglyceridemic subjects and various organ injuries are developed by the lipotoxicity. Hypertriglyceridemia is strongly associated with remnant lipoprotein accumulation, increased small dense LDL, and low HDL-cholesterol. All these lipid abnormalities are recognized as cardiovascular risk factors. The pathophysiology of lipoprotein metabolism related to the hypertriglyceridemia is summarized in this brief review.

  5. The U.S. RERTR program status and progress.

    SciTech Connect

    Travelli, A.

    1998-01-21

    The progress of the Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactor (RERTR) Program since its inception in 1978 is described. A brief summary of the results which the RERTR Program had achieved by the end of 1996 in collaboration with its many international partners is followed by a detailed review of the major events, findings, and activities of 1997. Significant progress has been made during the past year. In the area of U.S. acceptance of spent fuel from foreign research reactors, several shipments have taken place and additional are being planned. Intense fuel development activities are in progress, including procurement of equipment, screening of candidate materials, and production of microplates. Irradiation of the first series of microplates began in August 1997 in the Advanced Test Reactor, in Idaho. Progress has been made in the Russian RERTR program, which aims to develop and demonstrate within five years the technical means needed to convert Russian-supplied research reactors to LEU fuels. The study of an alternative LEU core for the FRM-II design has been extended to address, with favorable results, controversial performance issues which were raised at last year's meeting. Progress was also made on several aspects of producing molybdenum-99 from fission targets utilizing LEU instead of HEU. Various types of targets and processes are being pursued, with FDA approval of an LEU process projected to occur within two years. The feasibility of LEU Fuel conversion for three important DOE research reactors (BMRR, HFBR, and HFIR) has been evaluated by the RERTR program. In spite of the many momentous events which have occurred during the intervening years, and the excellent progress achieved, the most important challenges that the RERTR program faces today are not very different in type from those that were faced during the first RERTR meeting. Now, as then, the most important task is to develop new LEU fuels satisfying requirements which cannot be satisfied by any

  6. CERN ELENA project progress report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartmann, Wolfgang; Belochitskii, Pavel; Breuker, Horst; Butin, François; Carli, C.; Eriksson, Tommy; Oelert, Walter; Maury, Stephan; Pasinelli, Sergio; Tranquille, Gerard

    2015-05-01

    The Extra Low Energy Antiproton ring (ELENA) is a CERN project aiming at constructing a 30 m circumference synchrotron to further decelerate antiprotons from the Antiproton Decelerator (AD) from 5.3 MeV to 100 keV. The additional deceleration complemented by an electron cooler to reduce emittances will allow the existing AD experiments to increase substantially their antiproton capture efficiencies and render new experiments possible. The ELENA design is now well advanced and the project has entered the construction stage, in particular for what concerns the infrastructure. Installation of the machine components is foreseen during the second half of 2015 and beginning of 2016 followed by ring commissioning until the end of 2016. New electrostatic transfer lines to the experiments will be installed and commissioned during the first half of 2017 followed by the first physics operation with AD/ELENA end of 2017. Main ELENA related infrastructure progresses as well as the status of the project are reported.

  7. Progress on the Cluster Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kivelson, Margaret; Khurana, Krishan; Acuna, Mario (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Prof M. G. Kivelson and Dr. K. K. Khurana (UCLA (University of California, Los Angeles)) are co-investigators on the Cluster Magnetometer Consortium (CMC) that provided the fluxgate magnetometers and associated mission support for the Cluster Mission. The CMC designated UCLA as the site with primary responsibility for the inter-calibration of data from the four spacecraft and the production of fully corrected data critical to achieving the mission objectives. UCLA will also participate in the analysis and interpretation of the data. The UCLA group here reports its excellent progress in developing fully intra-calibrated data for large portions of the mission and an excellent start in developing inter-calibrated data for selected time intervals, especially extended intervals in August, 2001 on which a workshop held at ESTEC in March, 2002 focused. In addition, some scientific investigations were initiated and results were reported at meetings.

  8. PROGRESSIVE OSSIFYING FIBRODYSPLASIA: CASE REPORT

    PubMed Central

    Romani, Fabiana; de Menezes Karam, Simone

    2015-01-01

    Progressive ossifying fibrodysplasia is a rare genetic disease that affects one individual in every two million births. Its main consequence is heterotopic ossification, i.e. formation of additional bone in abnormal locations. It is an autosomal dominant disease, usually caused by a new mutation in the ACVR1 receptor gene, which is in the signaling pathway for bone morphogenic protein. This abnormality is not related to gender, ethnicity or consanguinity. The present study reports the case of A.C., a 17-year-old girl. Her clinical investigation began at the age of four years, but she was only diagnosed with FOP at the age of 15 years, after being evaluated by several specialists in different centers. The patient has two siblings, but her family history did not reveal any similar cases. PMID:27047836

  9. Progressive Dyslexia: Evidence from Hungarian and English

    PubMed Central

    Druks, Judit; Aydelott, Jennifer; Genethliou, Marios; Jacobs, Helen; Weekes, Brendan

    2012-01-01

    We report a patient with non-fluent Primary Progressive Aphasia who was premorbidly literate in two alphabetic scripts, Hungarian (L1) and English (L2). Testing was performed over a two-year period to assess the impact of progressive illness on oral reading and repetition of single words. Results showed significant decline in oral reading in both languages, and an effect of language status in favour of oral reading in L1. Phonological complexity was a significant predictor of oral reading decline in both languages. Of interest, we observed an effect of language status on task performance whereby repetition was better in L2 than L1 but oral reading was better in L1 than L2. We conclude that language status has an effect on repetition and oral reading abilities for bilingual speakers with non-fluent Primary Progressive Aphasia. PMID:22713383

  10. Progressive Response Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romero, V. J.; Swiler, L. P.

    2004-01-01

    Response surface functions are often used as simple and inexpensive replacements for computationally expensive computer models that simulate the behavior of a complex system over some parameter space. Progressive response surfaces are ones that are built up progressively as global information is added from new sample points in the parameter space. As the response surfaces are globally upgraded based on new information, heuristic indications of the convergence of the response surface approximation to the exact (fitted) function can be inferred. Sampling points can be incrementally added in a structured fashion, or in an unstructured fashion. Whatever the approach, at least in early stages of sampling it is usually desirable to sample the entire parameter space uniformly. At later stages of sampling, depending on the nature of the quantity being resolved, it may be desirable to continue sampling uniformly over the entire parameter space (Progressive response surfaces), or to switch to a focusing/economizing strategy of preferentially sampling certain regions of the parameter space based on information gained in early stages of sampling (Adaptive response surfaces). Here we consider Progressive response surfaces where a balanced indication of global response over the parameter space is desired.We use a variant of Moving Least Squares to fit and interpolate structured and unstructured point sets over the parameter space. On a 2-D test problem we compare response surface accuracy for three incremental sampling methods: Progressive Lattice Sampling; Simple-Random Monte Carlo; and Halton Quasi-Monte-Carlo sequences. We are ultimately after a system for constructing efficiently upgradable response surface approximations with reliable error estimates.

  11. Comparing Acute Bouts of Sagittal Plane Progression Foam Rolling vs. Frontal Plane Progression Foam Rolling.

    PubMed

    Peacock, Corey A; Krein, Darren D; Antonio, Jose; Sanders, Gabriel J; Silver, Tobin A; Colas, Megan

    2015-08-01

    Many strength and conditioning professionals have included the use of foam rolling devices within a warm-up routine prior to both training and competition. Multiple studies have investigated foam rolling in regards to performance, flexibility, and rehabilitation; however, additional research is necessary in supporting the topic. Furthermore, as multiple foam rolling progressions exist, researching differences that may result from each is required. To investigate differences in foam rolling progressions, 16 athletically trained males underwent a 2-condition within-subjects protocol comparing the differences of 2 common foam rolling progressions in regards to performance testing. The 2 conditions included a foam rolling progression targeting the mediolateral axis of the body (FRml) and foam rolling progression targeting the anteroposterior axis (FRap). Each was administered in adjunct with a full-body dynamic warm-up. After each rolling progression, subjects performed National Football League combine drills, flexibility, and subjective scaling measures. The data demonstrated that FRml was effective at improving flexibility (p ≤ 0.05) when compared with FRap. No other differences existed between progressions.

  12. Water based drilling mud additive

    SciTech Connect

    McCrary, J.L.

    1983-12-13

    A water based fluid additive useful in drilling mud used during drilling of an oil or gas well is disclosed, produced by reacting water at temperatures between 210/sup 0/-280/sup 0/ F. with a mixture comprising in percent by weight: gilsonite 25-30%, tannin 7-15%, lignite 25-35%, sulfonating compound 15-25%, water soluble base compound 5-15%, methylene-yielding compound 1-5%, and then removing substantially all of the remaining water to produce a dried product.

  13. Metal Additive Manufacturing: A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frazier, William E.

    2014-06-01

    This paper reviews the state-of-the-art of an important, rapidly emerging, manufacturing technology that is alternatively called additive manufacturing (AM), direct digital manufacturing, free form fabrication, or 3D printing, etc. A broad contextual overview of metallic AM is provided. AM has the potential to revolutionize the global parts manufacturing and logistics landscape. It enables distributed manufacturing and the productions of parts-on-demand while offering the potential to reduce cost, energy consumption, and carbon footprint. This paper explores the material science, processes, and business consideration associated with achieving these performance gains. It is concluded that a paradigm shift is required in order to fully exploit AM potential.

  14. Theatre fleet's vital additional capacity.

    PubMed

    2012-11-01

    Vanguard Healthcare's fleet of mobile surgical facilities has been deployed to healthcare sites throughout Europe and beyond for over a decade, providing vital additional clinical capacity when existing buildings are refurbished or upgraded, in the event of flood or fire, or simply to help hospitals cater for rising demand. It is a combination of careful planning, teamwork, and the specialist expertise of Vanguard's personnel--many with a clinical background--that ensures not only each unit's successful installation, but equally its subsequent running, servicing, and maintenance, the company explains.

  15. Shale JP-4 Additive Evaluation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-10-01

    8217. •% . , ’ ,,,r ,% . -- - ,.-. ’ ’ 4,w% %’. " - ,’ . . . * ’, .* . TABLE OF CONTENTS .4q ,4 . * SECTION PAGE I. INTRODUCTION 1 II. TEST PARAMETERS 2 1...42 PRECEDING PAGE BLANK TABLE OF CONTENTS (CON’T) SECT ION PAGE V. CONCLUSIONS 44 REFERENCES 46 APPENDIX A Drum to Test Sample Relationship 47 APPENDIX...B.O.C.L.E. Results 40 vii LIST OF TABLES TABLE PAGE 1 Antioxidants 3 2 Raw Shale/Petroleum Fuel Properties 10 3 Drum Sample Additive Content 13 4

  16. Responses to additional JAPC questions

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, T.M.

    1998-02-03

    The goals are to improve performance and reduce costs; the variables tested are fuel fabrication and assembly tolerances and cladding materials. Significant results are: goal lifetimes achieved; D9/HT9 alloys superior--reduced swelling potential duct mechanical attachment methods viable; test performance per design predictions.

  17. Interventions to Reduce Myopia Progression in Children.

    PubMed

    Tay, Su Ann; Farzavandi, Sonal; Tan, Donald

    2017-03-01

    Efforts to reduce the progression of myopia in childhood are on the rise, due to an increasing incidence of myopia worldwide and its associated sight-threatening complications. Interventions are aimed at reducing myopia in childhood and include environmental considerations, spectacles, contact lenses, and pharmacological agents. We reviewed recent literature with interventions aimed at reducing myopia progression in children and found that a number of interventions were significant in reducing the progression of myopia. Of these interventions, atropine showed the largest dose-related effect on myopia progression control. Although higher doses are associated with side effects of pupil dilatation, loss of accommodation, near vision blur, and rebound phenomenon, low-dose atropine has also been shown to provide effective myopia control with minimal side effects and rebound. To a lesser degree, bifocal soft contact lenses have also been shown to be effective in reducing the progression of myopia, though compliance is an issue. Similarly, orthokeratology lenses have also been shown to be effective in reducing axial length elongation and myopia progression, though long-term data on its rebound effects are unavailable.

  18. Family Medicine Mandatory Assessment of Progress

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Fok-Han; Herold, Jodi; Iglar, Karl

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To report the results of a pilot in-training progress test, the Family Medicine Mandatory Assessment of Progress, taken by first- and second-year postgraduate family medicine trainees. Design Assessment of resident performance on a key-features approach multiple-choice progress test. Test questions were developed by competency content area experts. Setting University of Toronto in Ontario. Participants First- and second-year family medicine residents. Main outcome measures Construct validity was assessed based on performance on the test by first- and second-year residents, Canadian and international medical graduates, and residents with more or less than 1 month of relevant clinical experience. Results Pilot progress testing of family medicine residents (N = 255) at the University of Toronto revealed a significant 1.6% difference (P < .01) in mean scores between first- and second-year postgraduate family medicine trainees and achieved construct validity across many parameters studied. The agreement coefficients for residents being identified as the poorest performers ranged from 0.88 to 0.90 depending on the domain of practice assessed. Conclusion Competency-based progress testing using the key-features model is a valid means of assessing the progress of family medicine residents.

  19. Significance of ERa and c-Src Interaction in the Progression of Hormone Independent Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-12-01

    1998). Interestingly, the region of the kinase domain of ErbB-2 that correlates with c-Src association, referred to as TK2 ( Segatto et al., 1991...Biol., 17, 5410–5425. Di Fiore PP, Segatto O, Taylor WG, Aaronson SA and Pierce JH. (1990). Science, 248, 79–83. Fincham VJ, James M, Frame MC and

  20. Determining significant endpoints for ecological risk analyses. 1998 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Hinton, T.G.; Congdon, J.; Scott, D.; Rowe, C.; Bedford, J.; Whicker, W.

    1998-06-01

    'The goal of this report is to establish a protocol for assessing risks to non-human populations exposed to environmental stresses typically found on many DOE sites. The authors think that they can achieve this by using novel biological dosimeters in controlled, manipulative dose/effects experiments, and by coupling changes in metabolic rates and energy allocation patterns to meaningful population response variables (such as age-specific survivorship, reproductive output, age at maturity and longevity). This research is needed to determine the relevancy of sublethal cellular damage to the performance of individuals and populations exposed to chronic, low-level radiation, and radiation with concomitant exposure to chemicals. They believe that a scientifically defensible endpoint for measuring ecological risks can only be determined once its understood the extent to which molecular damage from contaminant exposure is detrimental at the individual and population levels of biological organization. The experimental facility will allow them to develop a credible assessment tool for appraising ecological risks, and to evaluate the effects of radionuclide/chemical synergisms on non-human species. This report summarizes work completed midway of a 3-year project that began in November 1996. Emphasis to date has centered on three areas: (1) developing a molecular probe to measure stable chromosomal aberrations known as reciprocal translocations, (2) constructing an irradiation facility where the statistical power inherent in replicated mesocosms can be used to address the response of non-human organisms to exposures from low levels of radiation and metal contaminants, and (3) quantifying responses of organisms living in contaminated mesocosms and field sites.'

  1. The Endothelin System Has a Significant Role in the Pathogenesis and Progression of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection

    PubMed Central

    Correa, Andre F.; Bailão, Alexandre M.; Bastos, Izabela M. D.; Orme, Ian M.; Soares, Célia M. A.; Kipnis, Andre

    2014-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major global health problem, and although multiple studies have addressed the relationship between Mycobacterium tuberculosis and the host on an immunological level, few studies have addressed the impact of host physiological responses. Proteases produced by bacteria have been associated with important alterations in the host tissues, and a limited number of these enzymes have been characterized in mycobacterial species. M. tuberculosis produces a protease called Zmp1, which appears to be associated with virulence and has a putative action as an endothelin-converting enzyme. Endothelins are a family of vasoactive peptides, of which 3 distinct isoforms exist, and endothelin 1 (ET-1) is the most abundant and the best-characterized isoform. The aim of this work was to characterize the Zmp1 protease and evaluate its role in pathogenicity. Here, we have shown that M. tuberculosis produces and secretes an enzyme with ET-1 cleavage activity. These data demonstrate a possible role of Zmp1 for mycobacterium-host interactions and highlights its potential as a drug target. Moreover, the results suggest that endothelin pathways have a role in the pathogenesis of M. tuberculosis infections, and ETA or ETB receptor signaling can modulate the host response to the infection. We hypothesize that a balance between Zmp1 control of ET-1 levels and ETA/ETB signaling can allow M. tuberculosis adaptation and survival in the lung tissues. PMID:25267836

  2. Significant forefoot varus deformity resulting in progressive stress fractures of all lesser metatarsal bones.

    PubMed

    van der Vlies, Cornelis H; Ponsen, Kees J; Besselaar, Philip P; Goslings, J Carel

    2007-01-01

    Stress fractures may occur in any bone, but appear most frequently in the metatarsal bones. Consecutive stress fractures of all lesser metatarsals in a short period are rare, and only a few cases have been described in the literature. We report an unusual case of a young man with consecutive stress fractures of four adjacent lesser metatarsal bones. The etiology was in all probability the fixed forefoot varus deformity. This foot deformity may impose increased mechanical loads across the lateral aspect of the foot that, in turn, may result in stress fractures involving the lesser metatarsals. In our patient conservative treatment finally resulted in a satisfactory outcome.

  3. Social Science Progress and Potential; A significant Contribution from World War II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cushing, Robert G.

    1970-01-01

    Quarterly articles in six substantive areas in sociology are historically reviewed (minorities, social control, theory, power, demography, research methods). Henry A. Bullock's Some Readjustments of the Texas Negro Family to the Emergency of War", 1944, is reprinted. A critique by Bullock is included. (SE)

  4. Progress in MELCOR development and assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Summers, R.M.; Kmetyk, L.N.; Cole, R.K. Jr.; Smith, R.C.; Elsbernd, A.E.; Stuart, D.S.; Thompson, S.L.

    1995-04-01

    MELCOR models the progression of severe accidents in light water reactor nuclear power plants. Recent efforts in MELCOR development to incorporate CORCON-Mod3 models for core-concrete interactions, new models for advanced reactors, and improvements to several other existing models have resulted in release of MELCOR 1.8.3. In addition, continuing efforts to expand the code assessment database have filled in many of the gaps in phenomenological coverage. Efforts are now under way to develop models for chemical interactions of fission products with structural surfaces and for reactions of iodine in the presence of water, and work is also in progress to improve models for the scrubbing of fission products by water pools, the chemical reactions of boron carbide with steam, and the coupling of flow blockages with the hydrodynamics. Several code assessment analyses are in progress, and more are planned.

  5. Neutrophil extracellular traps in cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Cools-Lartigue, Jonathan; Spicer, Jonathan; Najmeh, Sara; Ferri, Lorenzo

    2014-11-01

    Neutrophils are being increasingly recognized as an important element in tumor progression. They have been shown to exert important effects at nearly every stage of tumor progression with a number of studies demonstrating that their presence is critical to tumor development. Novel aspects of neutrophil biology have recently been elucidated and its contribution to tumorigenesis is only beginning to be appreciated. Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are neutrophil-derived structures composed of DNA decorated with antimicrobial peptides. They have been shown to trap and kill microorganisms, playing a critical role in host defense. However, their contribution to tumor development and metastasis has recently been demonstrated in a number of studies highlighting NETs as a potentially important therapeutic target. Here, studies implicating NETs as facilitators of tumor progression and metastasis are reviewed. In addition, potential mechanisms by which NETs may exert these effects are explored. Finally, the ability to target NETs therapeutically in human neoplastic disease is highlighted.

  6. Liver proteomics in progressive alcoholic steatosis

    SciTech Connect

    Fernando, Harshica; Wiktorowicz, John E.; Soman, Kizhake V.; Kaphalia, Bhupendra S.; Khan, M. Firoze; Shakeel Ansari, G.A.

    2013-02-01

    Fatty liver is an early stage of alcoholic and nonalcoholic liver disease (ALD and NALD) that progresses to steatohepatitis and other irreversible conditions. In this study, we identified proteins that were differentially expressed in the livers of rats fed 5% ethanol in a Lieber–DeCarli diet daily for 1 and 3 months by discovery proteomics (two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry) and non-parametric modeling (Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines). Hepatic fatty infiltration was significantly higher in ethanol-fed animals as compared to controls, and more pronounced at 3 months of ethanol feeding. Discovery proteomics identified changes in the expression of proteins involved in alcohol, lipid, and amino acid metabolism after ethanol feeding. At 1 and 3 months, 12 and 15 different proteins were differentially expressed. Of the identified proteins, down regulation of alcohol dehydrogenase (− 1.6) at 1 month and up regulation of aldehyde dehydrogenase (2.1) at 3 months could be a protective/adaptive mechanism against ethanol toxicity. In addition, betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase 2 a protein responsible for methionine metabolism and previously implicated in fatty liver development was significantly up regulated (1.4) at ethanol-induced fatty liver stage (1 month) while peroxiredoxin-1 was down regulated (− 1.5) at late fatty liver stage (3 months). Nonparametric analysis of the protein spots yielded fewer proteins and narrowed the list of possible markers and identified D-dopachrome tautomerase (− 1.7, at 3 months) as a possible marker for ethanol-induced early steatohepatitis. The observed differential regulation of proteins have potential to serve as biomarker signature for the detection of steatosis and its progression to steatohepatitis once validated in plasma/serum. -- Graphical abstract: The figure shows the Hierarchial cluster analysis of differentially expressed protein spots obtained after ethanol feeding for 1 (1–3

  7. High Flow Addition Curing Polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chuang, Kathy C.; Vannucci, Raymond D.; Ansari, Irfan; Cerny, Lawrence L.; Scheiman, Daniel A.

    1994-01-01

    A new series of high flow PMR-type addition curing polyimides was developed, which employed the substitution of 2,2'-bis (trifluoromethyl) -4,4'-diaminobiphenyl (BTDB) for p-phenylenediamine (p -PDA) in a PMR-IL formulation. These thermoset polyimides, designated as 12F resins, were prepared from BTDB and the dimethyl ester of 4,4'- (hexafluo- roisopropylidene) -diphthalic acid (HFDE) with either nadic ester (NE) or p-aminostyrene (PAS) as the endcaps for addition curing. The 12F prepolymers displayed lower melting temperatures in DSC analysis, and higher melt flow in rheological studies than the cor- responding PMR-11 polyimides. Long-term isothermal aging studies showed that BTDB- based 12F resins exhibited comparable thermo-oxidative stability to P-PDA based PMR-11 polyimides. The noncoplanar 2- and 2'-disubstituted biphenyldiamine (BTDB) not only lowered the melt viscosities of 12F prepolymers, but also retained reasonable thermal sta- bility of the cured resins. The 12F polyimide resin with p-aminostyrene endcaps showed the best promise for long-term, high-temperature application at 343 C (650 F).

  8. Fuel Additives: Canada bans MMT

    SciTech Connect

    Sissell, K.

    1997-04-16

    The Canadian Senate voted late last week to ban use of the manganese-based fuel additive MMT, produced only in the US by Ethyl. MMT, which has been sold in Canada for the past 20 years and accounts for about half of Ethyl`s Canadian sales, has been criticized by environmentalists, who have raised public health concerns, and automakers, who say it harms emission control systems. {open_quotes}Canada`s vote is a great victory for public health and the environment,{close_quotes} says Environmental Defense Fund executive director Fred Krupp. {open_quotes}The US should move swiftly to follow suit and suspend sales of MMT until adequate toxicity testing on the additive is completed.{close_quotes} EPA had refused to approve MMT for sale because of health concerns but was compelled to do so by a December 1995 court ruling. Ethyl asserts the ban violates Canada`s obligations under Nafta and says it will file a damage claim with the Nafta arbitration panel.

  9. Additive interaction between heterogeneous environmental ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    BACKGROUND Environmental exposures often occur in tandem; however, epidemiological research often focuses on singular exposures. Statistical interactions among broad, well-characterized environmental domains have not yet been evaluated in association with health. We address this gap by conducting a county-level cross-sectional analysis of interactions between Environmental Quality Index (EQI) domain indices on preterm birth in the Unites States from 2000-2005.METHODS: The EQI, a county-level index constructed for the 2000-2005 time period, was constructed from five domain-specific indices (air, water, land, built and sociodemographic) using principal component analyses. County-level preterm birth rates (n=3141) were estimated using live births from the National Center for Health Statistics. Linear regression was used to estimate prevalence differences (PD) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) comparing worse environmental quality to the better quality for each model for a) each individual domain main effect b) the interaction contrast and c) the two main effects plus interaction effect (i.e. the “net effect”) to show departure from additive interaction for the all U.S counties. Analyses were also performed for subgroupings by four urban/rural strata. RESULTS: We found the suggestion of antagonistic interactions but no synergism, along with several purely additive (i.e., no interaction) associations. In the non-stratified model, we observed antagonistic interac

  10. Additive manufacturing of RF absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, Matthew S.

    The ability of additive manufacturing techniques to fabricate integrated electromagnetic absorbers tuned for specific radio frequency bands within structural composites allows for unique combinations of mechanical and electromagnetic properties. These composites and films can be used for RF shielding of sensitive electromagnetic components through in-plane and out-of-plane RF absorption. Structural composites are a common building block of many commercial platforms. These platforms may be placed in situations in which there is a need for embedded RF absorbing properties along with structural properties. Instead of adding radar absorbing treatments to the external surface of existing structures, which adds increased size, weight and cost; it could prove to be advantageous to integrate the microwave absorbing properties directly into the composite during the fabrication process. In this thesis, a method based on additive manufacturing techniques of composites structures with prescribed electromagnetic loss, within the frequency range 1 to 26GHz, is presented. This method utilizes screen printing and nScrypt micro dispensing to pattern a carbon based ink onto low loss substrates. The materials chosen for this study will be presented, and the fabrication technique that these materials went through to create RF absorbing structures will be described. The calibration methods used, the modeling of the RF structures, and the applications in which this technology can be utilized will also be presented.

  11. Clinical significance of MET in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Inokuchi, Mikito; Otsuki, Sho; Fujimori, Yoshitaka; Sato, Yuya; Nakagawa, Masatoshi; Kojima, Kazuyuki

    2015-01-01

    Chemotherapy has become the global standard treatment for patients with metastatic or unresectable gastric cancer (GC), although outcomes remain unfavorable. Many molecular-targeted therapies inhibiting signaling pathways of various tyrosine kinase receptors have been developed, and monoclonal antibodies targeting human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 or vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 have become standard therapy for GC. Hepatocyte growth factor and its receptor, c-MET (MET), play key roles in tumor growth through activated signaling pathways from receptor in GC cells. Genomic amplification of MET leads to the aberrant activation found in GC tumors and is related to survival in patients with GC. This review discusses the clinical significance of MET in GC and examines MET as a potential therapeutic target in patients with GC. Preclinical studies in animal models have shown that MET antibodies or small-molecule MET inhibitors suppress tumor-cell proliferation and tumor progression in MET-amplified GC cells. These drugs are now being evaluated in clinical trials as treatments for metastatic or unresectable GC. PMID:26600931

  12. A 110-year perspective of significant tornadoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grazulis, Thomas P.

    A tornado documentation project began in 1980 as an effort to resolve differences between the two independently designed tornado data bases used by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). One was established for the NRC at the University of Chicago (UC) by T. T. Fujita for the years 1916-1985. In addition, the NRC assisted the National Severe Storms Forecast Center (NSSFC) in adding F scale ratings to the existing NSSFC data base in Kansas City, from 1950 to the present. The final task of this effort (hereinafter called the project) was to locate and list all significant tornadoes from 1880 through 1989. Significant is defined here as all tornadoes doing confirmable F-2 or greater damage or causing a death.

  13. The significance of methane ebullition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, K.; Draluk, D. A.; Zimov, S. A.; Chapin, T.

    2003-12-01

    Ebullition is often the dominant pathway of methane release from aquatic ecosystems, yet it has seldom been carefully measured, due to heterogeneity in the spatial distribution and episodic release of gas bubbles. This likely results in an underestimation of total methane emission. We took advantage of ice formation over lake surfaces in NE Siberia to map patterns of ebullition. As ice forms in autumn, bubbles released from lake sediments are continually trapped under the ice at the water surface resulting in stacks of bubbles separated by thin films of ice called `koshkas'. Mapping the distribution of koshkas enabled us to identify `background' patterns of ebullition. In addition, we located `hot-spot' ebullition sites that remain permanently open throughout winter due to exceptionally high rates of methane bubbling. We used random and selective placement of underwater/ under-ice chambers to measure `background' and `hot-spot' fluxes annually. The combination of mapping and chamber measurements among different types of lakes and along lake margins varying in intensity of thermokarst erosion or aquatic plant growth enabled us to 1) improve estimates of total methane emissions from NE Siberian lakes, and to 2) identify landscape processes (thermokarst erosion vs. wetland mat formation) that enhance methane production and emission. Ignoring the contribution from hotspots, background ebullition comprised more than 75% of total methane emissions from lakes. From hotspot sites we measured up to 10-L m-2 of methane per day in early summer. Although hotspots comprised roughly 0.05% of the area along thermokarst margins, where they were most common, ebullition from hotspots contributed approximately 69% of the total ebullition flux. Including the flux from hotspots could increase estimates of CH4 ebullition from thermokarst margins 300%! Thermokarst lakes in Russia comprise a large proportion of the world's high latitude lakes; yet they are understudied. North Siberian

  14. Astrobiological Significance of Chemolithoautotrophic Acidophiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pikuta, Elena V.; Hoover, Richard B.

    2003-01-01

    For more than a century (since Winogradsky discovered lithoautotrophic bacteria) a dilemma in microbiology has concerned life that first inhabited the Earth. Which types of life forms first appeared in the primordial oceans during the earliest geological period on Earth as the primary ancestors of modem biological diversity? How did a metabolism of ancestors evolve: from lithoautotrophic to lithohetherotrophic and organoheterotrophic or from organoheterotrophic to organoautotrophic and lithomixotrophic types? At the present time, it is known that chemolithoheterotrophic and chemolithoautotrophic metabolizing bacteria are wide spread in different ecosystems. On Earth the acidic ecosystems are associated with geysers, volcanic fumaroles, hot springs, deep sea hydrothermal vents, caves, acid mine drainage and other technogenic ecosystems. Bioleaching played a significant role on a global geological scale during the Earth's formation. This important feature of bacteria has been successfully applied in industry. The lithoautotrophs include Bacteria and Archaea belonging to diverse genera containing thermophilic and mesophilic species. In this paper we discuss the lithotrophic microbial acidophiles and present some data with a description of new acidophilic iron- and sulfur- oxidizing bacterium isolated from the Chena Hot Springs in Alaska. We also consider the possible relevance of microbial acidophiles to Venus, Io, and acidic inclusions in glaciers and icy moons.

  15. Statistically significant relational data mining :

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, Jonathan W.; Leung, Vitus Joseph; Phillips, Cynthia Ann; Pinar, Ali; Robinson, David Gerald; Berger-Wolf, Tanya; Bhowmick, Sanjukta; Casleton, Emily; Kaiser, Mark; Nordman, Daniel J.; Wilson, Alyson G.

    2014-02-01

    This report summarizes the work performed under the project (3z(BStatitically significant relational data mining.(3y (BThe goal of the project was to add more statistical rigor to the fairly ad hoc area of data mining on graphs. Our goal was to develop better algorithms and better ways to evaluate algorithm quality. We concetrated on algorithms for community detection, approximate pattern matching, and graph similarity measures. Approximate pattern matching involves finding an instance of a relatively small pattern, expressed with tolerance, in a large graph of data observed with uncertainty. This report gathers the abstracts and references for the eight refereed publications that have appeared as part of this work. We then archive three pieces of research that have not yet been published. The first is theoretical and experimental evidence that a popular statistical measure for comparison of community assignments favors over-resolved communities over approximations to a ground truth. The second are statistically motivated methods for measuring the quality of an approximate match of a small pattern in a large graph. The third is a new probabilistic random graph model. Statisticians favor these models for graph analysis. The new local structure graph model overcomes some of the issues with popular models such as exponential random graph models and latent variable models.

  16. Determining Semantically Related Significant Genes.

    PubMed

    Taha, Kamal

    2014-01-01

    GO relation embodies some aspects of existence dependency. If GO term xis existence-dependent on GO term y, the presence of y implies the presence of x. Therefore, the genes annotated with the function of the GO term y are usually functionally and semantically related to the genes annotated with the function of the GO term x. A large number of gene set enrichment analysis methods have been developed in recent years for analyzing gene sets enrichment. However, most of these methods overlook the structural dependencies between GO terms in GO graph by not considering the concept of existence dependency. We propose in this paper a biological search engine called RSGSearch that identifies enriched sets of genes annotated with different functions using the concept of existence dependency. We observe that GO term xcannot be existence-dependent on GO term y, if x- and y- have the same specificity (biological characteristics). After encoding into a numeric format the contributions of GO terms annotating target genes to the semantics of their lowest common ancestors (LCAs), RSGSearch uses microarray experiment to identify the most significant LCA that annotates the result genes. We evaluated RSGSearch experimentally and compared it with five gene set enrichment systems. Results showed marked improvement.

  17. The Progressive BSSG Rat Model of Parkinson's: Recapitulating Multiple Key Features of the Human Disease.

    PubMed

    Van Kampen, Jackalina M; Baranowski, David C; Robertson, Harold A; Shaw, Christopher A; Kay, Denis G

    2015-01-01

    The development of effective neuroprotective therapies for Parkinson's disease (PD) has been severely hindered by the notable lack of an appropriate animal model for preclinical screening. Indeed, most models currently available are either acute in nature or fail to recapitulate all characteristic features of the disease. Here, we present a novel progressive model of PD, with behavioural and cellular features that closely approximate those observed in patients. Chronic exposure to dietary phytosterol glucosides has been found to be neurotoxic. When fed to rats, β-sitosterol β-d-glucoside (BSSG) triggers the progressive development of parkinsonism, with clinical signs and histopathology beginning to appear following cessation of exposure to the neurotoxic insult and continuing to develop over several months. Here, we characterize the progressive nature of this model, its non-motor features, the anatomical spread of synucleinopathy, and response to levodopa administration. In Sprague Dawley rats, chronic BSSG feeding for 4 months triggered the progressive development of a parkinsonian phenotype and pathological events that evolved slowly over time, with neuronal loss beginning only after toxin exposure was terminated. At approximately 3 months following initiation of BSSG exposure, animals displayed the early emergence of an olfactory deficit, in the absence of significant dopaminergic nigral cell loss or locomotor deficits. Locomotor deficits developed gradually over time, initially appearing as locomotor asymmetry and developing into akinesia/bradykinesia, which was reversed by levodopa treatment. Late-stage cognitive impairment was observed in the form of spatial working memory deficits, as assessed by the radial arm maze. In addition to the progressive loss of TH+ cells in the substantia nigra, the appearance of proteinase K-resistant intracellular α-synuclein aggregates was also observed to develop progressively, appearing first in the olfactory bulb, then

  18. 40 CFR 725.950 - Additional recordkeeping requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT REPORTING REQUIREMENTS AND REVIEW PROCESSES FOR MICROORGANISMS Additional Procedures for Reporting on Significant New Uses of Microorganisms § 725.950 Additional recordkeeping requirements. Persons submitting a MCAN for a significant new use of a microorganism must comply with...

  19. 40 CFR 725.950 - Additional recordkeeping requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT REPORTING REQUIREMENTS AND REVIEW PROCESSES FOR MICROORGANISMS Additional Procedures for Reporting on Significant New Uses of Microorganisms § 725.950 Additional recordkeeping requirements. Persons submitting a MCAN for a significant new use of a microorganism must comply with...

  20. 40 CFR 725.950 - Additional recordkeeping requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT REPORTING REQUIREMENTS AND REVIEW PROCESSES FOR MICROORGANISMS Additional Procedures for Reporting on Significant New Uses of Microorganisms § 725.950 Additional recordkeeping requirements. Persons submitting a MCAN for a significant new use of a microorganism must comply with...

  1. 40 CFR 725.950 - Additional recordkeeping requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT REPORTING REQUIREMENTS AND REVIEW PROCESSES FOR MICROORGANISMS Additional Procedures for Reporting on Significant New Uses of Microorganisms § 725.950 Additional recordkeeping requirements. Persons submitting a MCAN for a significant new use of a microorganism must comply with...

  2. 40 CFR 725.950 - Additional recordkeeping requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT REPORTING REQUIREMENTS AND REVIEW PROCESSES FOR MICROORGANISMS Additional Procedures for Reporting on Significant New Uses of Microorganisms § 725.950 Additional recordkeeping requirements. Persons submitting a MCAN for a significant new use of a microorganism must comply with...

  3. Additives in fibers and fabrics.

    PubMed Central

    Barker, R H

    1975-01-01

    The additives and contaminants which occur in textile fibers vary widely, depending on the type of fiber and the pretreatment which it has received. Synthetic fibers such as nylon and polyester contain trace amounts of contaminants such as catalysts and catalyst deactivators which remain after the synthesis of the basic polymers. In addition, there are frequently a number of materials which are added to perform specific functions in almost all man-made fibers. Examples of these would include traces of metals or metal salts used as tracers for identification of specific lots of fiber, TiO2 or similar materials added as delustrants, and a host of organic species added for such special purposes as antistatic agents or flame retardants. There may also be considerable quantities of residual monomer or small oligomers dissolved in the polymer matrix. The situation becomes even more complex after the fibers are converted into fabric form. Numerous materials are applied at various stages of fabric preparation to act as lubricants, sizing agents, antistats, bleaches, and wetting agents to facilitate the processing, but these are normally removed before the fabric reaches the cutters of the ultimate consumers and therefore usually do not constitute potential hazards. However, there are many other chemical agents which are frequently added during the later stages of fabric preparation and which are not designed to be removed. Aside from dyes and printing pigments, the most common additive for apparel fabrics is a durable press treatment. This generally involves the use of materials capable of crosslinking cellulosics by reacting through such functions as N-methylolated amides or related compounds such as ureas and carbamates. These materials pose some potential hazards due to both the nitrogenous bases and the formaldehyde which they usually release. There is usually also some residual catalyst in fabrics which have received such treatments. Other types of chemical treatments

  4. NAFLD and NASH in HCV Infection: Prevalence and Significance in Hepatic and Extrahepatic Manifestations.

    PubMed

    Adinolfi, Luigi Elio; Rinaldi, Luca; Guerrera, Barbara; Restivo, Luciano; Marrone, Aldo; Giordano, Mauro; Zampino, Rosa

    2016-05-25

    The aim of this paper is to review and up to date the prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV)-associated non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and their significance in both accelerating progression of HCV-related liver disease and development of HCV-associated extrahepatic diseases. The reported mean prevalence of HCV-related NAFLD was 55%, whereas NASH was reported in 4%-10% of cases. HCV genotype 3 directly induces fatty liver deposition, namely "viral steatosis" and it is associated with the highest prevalence and degree of severity, whereas, HCV non-3 genotype infection showed lower prevalence of steatosis, which is associated with metabolic factors and insulin resistance. The host's genetic background predisposes him or her to the development of steatosis. HCV's impairment of lipid and glucose metabolism causes fatty liver accumulation; this seems to be a viral strategy to optimize its life cycle. Irrespective of insulin resistance, HCV-associated NAFLD, in a degree-dependent manner, contributes towards accelerating the liver fibrosis progression and development of hepatocellular carcinoma by inducing liver inflammation and oxidative stress. Furthermore, NAFLD is associated with the presence of metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, and atherosclerosis. In addition, HCV-related "metabolic steatosis" impairs the response rate to interferon-based treatment, whereas it seems that "viral steatosis" may harm the response rate to new oral direct antiviral agents. In conclusion, a high prevalence of NAFLD occurs in HCV infections, which is, at least in part, induced by the virus, and that NAFLD significantly impacts progression of the liver disease, therapeutic response, and some extrahepatic diseases.

  5. NAFLD and NASH in HCV Infection: Prevalence and Significance in Hepatic and Extrahepatic Manifestations

    PubMed Central

    Adinolfi, Luigi Elio; Rinaldi, Luca; Guerrera, Barbara; Restivo, Luciano; Marrone, Aldo; Giordano, Mauro; Zampino, Rosa

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to review and up to date the prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV)-associated non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and their significance in both accelerating progression of HCV-related liver disease and development of HCV-associated extrahepatic diseases. The reported mean prevalence of HCV-related NAFLD was 55%, whereas NASH was reported in 4%–10% of cases. HCV genotype 3 directly induces fatty liver deposition, namely “viral steatosis” and it is associated with the highest prevalence and degree of severity, whereas, HCV non-3 genotype infection showed lower prevalence of steatosis, which is associated with metabolic factors and insulin resistance. The host’s genetic background predisposes him or her to the development of steatosis. HCV’s impairment of lipid and glucose metabolism causes fatty liver accumulation; this seems to be a viral strategy to optimize its life cycle. Irrespective of insulin resistance, HCV-associated NAFLD, in a degree-dependent manner, contributes towards accelerating the liver fibrosis progression and development of hepatocellular carcinoma by inducing liver inflammation and oxidative stress. Furthermore, NAFLD is associated with the presence of metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, and atherosclerosis. In addition, HCV-related “metabolic steatosis” impairs the response rate to interferon-based treatment, whereas it seems that “viral steatosis” may harm the response rate to new oral direct antiviral agents. In conclusion, a high prevalence of NAFLD occurs in HCV infections, which is, at least in part, induced by the virus, and that NAFLD significantly impacts progression of the liver disease, therapeutic response, and some extrahepatic diseases. PMID:27231906

  6. Which Factors Are Associated with Monitoring Goal Progress?

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Betty P. I.; Webb, Thomas L.; Benn, Yael; Stride, Chris B.

    2017-01-01

    Three studies examined how people assess their progress on personal goals (e.g., whether they compare their progress to the past and/or to a desired target state), along with factors that might influence the nature of progress monitoring (e.g., whether the goal involves attaining a positive outcome or avoiding a negative outcome). Study 1 involved semi-structured interviews with 40 participants, in which we examined how participants monitored their progress and whether this was related to: (a) their level of self-efficacy, (b) whether the goal was prevention focused, and (c) whether goal progress was represented in quantifiable terms. Studies 2 (N = 492) and 3 (N = 481) were conducted online and additionally examined whether how participants monitored their progress differed as a function of the domain of the goal (i.e., whether it was related to physical development/health, finances, work/study, or social relationships). The findings suggest that participants: (i) were less likely to monitor their progress toward goals that were related to avoiding negative outcomes, (ii) were less likely to monitor their progress toward goals related to finances, work, or study with reference to the past, than progress toward other goals (e.g., those relating to physical development and health), (iii) found it easier to monitor their progress toward goals that they felt confident of attaining, but harder to monitor their progress toward goals related to work or study. Finally, the more participants thought about their goal in quantifiable terms, the more likely they were to monitor their progress, and the easier they found monitoring their progress to be. Taken together, these studies begin to describe the nature of progress monitoring and the factors that influence this important self-regulatory process. PMID:28392775

  7. Better Plants Progress Update Fall 2013

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2013-09-23

    This Progress Update summarizes the significant energy saving achievements and cumulative cost savings made by these industry leaders from 2010-2012. The update also shares the plans and priorities over the next year for the Better Plants Program to continue to advance energy efficiency in the industrial sector.

  8. Developmental Progress in Institutional and Community Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sokol-Kessler, Leslie E.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Comparison of developmental growth for 104 matched pairs from mentally retarded residents of a public institution and of community living arrangements (CLA) revealed that CLA Ss showed significant developmental progress in reduction of maladaptive behavior while institutionalized Ss showed no change over 2 years. (Author/CL)

  9. The Glass Ceiling: Progress and Persistent Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLlwain, Wendy M.

    2012-01-01

    It has been written that since 2001, there has not been any significant progress and the glass ceiling is still intact. Women are still underrepresented in top positions (Anonymous, 2004). If this is true, the glass ceiling presents a major barrier between women and their desire to advance into executive or senior management positions. In addition…

  10. An Additive Manufacturing Test Artifact

    PubMed Central

    Moylan, Shawn; Slotwinski, John; Cooke, April; Jurrens, Kevin; Donmez, M Alkan

    2014-01-01

    A test artifact, intended for standardization, is proposed for the purpose of evaluating the performance of additive manufacturing (AM) systems. A thorough analysis of previously proposed AM test artifacts as well as experience with machining test artifacts have inspired the design of the proposed test artifact. This new artifact is designed to provide a characterization of the capabilities and limitations of an AM system, as well as to allow system improvement by linking specific errors measured in the test artifact to specific sources in the AM system. The proposed test artifact has been built in multiple materials using multiple AM technologies. The results of several of the builds are discussed, demonstrating how the measurement results can be used to characterize and improve a specific AM system. PMID:26601039

  11. An Additive Manufacturing Test Artifact.

    PubMed

    Moylan, Shawn; Slotwinski, John; Cooke, April; Jurrens, Kevin; Donmez, M Alkan

    2014-01-01

    A test artifact, intended for standardization, is proposed for the purpose of evaluating the performance of additive manufacturing (AM) systems. A thorough analysis of previously proposed AM test artifacts as well as experience with machining test artifacts have inspired the design of the proposed test artifact. This new artifact is designed to provide a characterization of the capabilities and limitations of an AM system, as well as to allow system improvement by linking specific errors measured in the test artifact to specific sources in the AM system. The proposed test artifact has been built in multiple materials using multiple AM technologies. The results of several of the builds are discussed, demonstrating how the measurement results can be used to characterize and improve a specific AM system.

  12. Incidence and progression of aortic valve calcium in the Multi-ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA).

    PubMed

    Owens, David S; Katz, Ronit; Takasu, Junichiro; Kronmal, Richard; Budoff, Matthew J; O'Brien, Kevin D

    2010-03-01

    Aortic valve calcium (AVC) is common among older adults and shares epidemiologic and histopathologic similarities to atherosclerosis. However, prospective studies have failed to identify meaningful risk associations with incident ("new") AVC or its progression. In the present study, AVC was quantified from serial computed tomographic images from 5,880 participants (aged 45 to 84 years) in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, using the Agatston method. Multivariate backward selection modeling was used to identify the risk factors for incident AVC and AVC progression. During a mean follow-up of 2.4 +/- 0.9 years, 210 subjects (4.1%) developed incident AVC. The incidence rate (mean 1.7%/year) increased significantly with age (p <0.001). The risk factors for incident AVC included age, male gender, body mass index, current smoking, and the use of lipid-lowering and antihypertensive medications. Among those with AVC at baseline, the median rate of AVC progression was 2 Agatston units/year (interquartile range -21 to 37). The baseline Agatston score was a strong, independent predictor of progression, especially among those with high calcium scores at baseline. In conclusion, in this ethnically diverse, preclinical cohort, the rate of incident AVC increased significantly with age. The incident AVC risk was associated with several traditional cardiovascular risk factors, specifically age, male gender, body mass index, current smoking, and the use of both antihypertensive and lipid-lowering medications. AVC progression risk was associated with male gender and the baseline Agatston score. Additional research is needed to determine whether age- and stage-specific mechanisms underlie the risk of AVC progression.

  13. TNF-α augments CXCR2 and CXCR3 to promote progression of renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Sun, Kuang-Hui; Sun, Guang-Huan; Wu, Yi-Ching; Ko, Bai-Jiun; Hsu, Hui-Tzu; Wu, Sheng-Tang

    2016-11-01

    Within the tumour microenvironment, a complex network of chemokines and their receptors affects the initiation and progression of tumours. The higher levels of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) are associated with tumour progression and an anti-TNF-α monoclonal antibody has been used successfully to treat patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC). However, the role of chemokines and their receptors in the TNF-α-promoted progression of RCC remains unclear. In this study, TNF-α was found to enhance the migration, invasion and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of RCC cells. To further investigate the molecular mechanism of TNF-α on the progression of RCC, reverse transcription and quantitative PCR was used to screen chemokines and chemokine receptors that were associated with tumorigenesis. The results showed that TNF-α significantly increased the expressions of CXCR2 and CXCR3 and their related ligands in RCC cells. Subsequently, we used a lentiviral shRNA system to knockdown the expression of CXCR2 and/or CXCR3 in RCC cells. CXCR2 and CXCR3 silencing inhibited the induction of Slug and ZEB-1 with TNF-α treatment of RCC cells. In addition, the knockdown of both CXCR2 and CXCR3 resulted in a greater decrease in cell migration, invasion and clonogenic ability compared with either CXCR2 or CXCR3 knockdown alone. Moreover, CXCR2 and CXCR3 silencing significantly reduced the sphere-forming ability of RCC cells. High expression levels of CXCR2 and CXCR3 in cancer tissues correlated with tumour progression of renal cell carcinoma. These findings suggest that TNF-α augments CXCR2 and CXCR3 to promote the progression of renal cell carcinoma leading to a poor prognosis.

  14. Myeloma cell–derived Runx2 promotes myeloma progression in bone

    PubMed Central

    Trotter, Timothy N.; Li, Mei; Pan, Qianying; Peker, Deniz; Rowan, Patrick D.; Li, Juan; Zhan, Fenghuang; Suva, Larry J.; Javed, Amjad

    2015-01-01

    The progression of multiple myeloma (MM) is governed by a network of molecular signals, the majority of which remain to be identified. Recent studies suggest that Runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), a well-known bone-specific transcription factor, is also expressed in solid tumors, where expression promotes both bone metastasis and osteolysis. However, the function of Runx2 in MM remains unknown. The current study demonstrated that (1) Runx2 expression in primary human MM cells is significantly greater than in plasma cells from healthy donors and patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance; (2) high levels of Runx2 expression in MM cells are associated with a high-risk population of MM patients; and (3) overexpression of Runx2 in MM cells enhanced tumor growth and disease progression in vivo. Additional studies demonstrated that MM cell–derived Runx2 promotes tumor progression through a mechanism involving the upregulation of Akt/β-catenin/Survivin signaling and enhanced expression of multiple metastatic genes/proteins, as well as the induction of a bone-resident cell-like phenotype in MM cells. Thus, Runx2 expression supports the aggressive phenotype of MM and is correlated with poor prognosis. These data implicate Runx2 expression as a major regulator of MM progression in bone and myeloma bone disease. PMID:25862559

  15. The Progressive Era.

    PubMed

    Chambers, David W

    2005-01-01

    The American College of Dentists was founded in 1920 for the purpose of encouraging young dentists to continue study and to apply science to their practices. This ideal emerged in the Progressive Era, which lasted roughly from 1895 to 1920. The animating spirit of this period was that the human condition could be improved and that the way to achieve this was through science and the use of experts working together. The Progressive Era saw inventions, such as automobiles and airplanes, telephone and radio, that required mass production and brought people together. It also spawned many political and legislative innovations that we now take for granted. Among these are the Food and Drug Administration, the Department of Commerce, and the Federal Trade Commission. Workers' compensation and other social protections were introduced, as were city commissions; the income tax; women's suffrage; and initiative, referendum, and recall. Medicine, for the first time, became an effective way to treat disease as it developed a scientific foundation.

  16. MMSA-1 expression pattern in multiple myeloma and its clinical significance.

    PubMed

    Meng, Shan; Lu, Chenyang; Zhang, Wanggang; Shen, Wenjun; Wei, Yongchang; Su, Dan; Zhou, Fuling

    2016-11-01

    Multiple myeloma-associated antigen-1 (MMSA-1) is a novel multiple myeloma (MM)-associated antigen which has been recently identified. Herein, we have tried to examine its clinical significance by studying the relationship between its expression and selected clinicopathological features. We extracted mononuclear cells from the bone marrow of MM patients and healthy donors and compared the MMSA-1 expression by RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. In addition, we also analyzed MMSA-1 expression in patients that were grouped based on selected clinical parameters. Moreover, the impact of MMSA-1 on patients' survival was also explored. MMSA-1 mRNA and protein were significantly upregulated in MM patients in comparison with healthy donors. Moreover, among the newly diagnosed and relapsed/refractory patients, the MMSA-1 expression was higher in relapsed/refractory patients. In addition, MMSA-1 mRNA expression not only showed significantly higher correlation with clinical parameters such as age, Durie and Salmon stage, bone lesion condition, albumin, creatinine and lactate dehydrogenase but also has a close relationship with myeloma bone disease-related cytokines, genetic abnormalities and treatment response. Multivariate COX analysis predicted MMSA-1 and LDH levels to be independently associated with a poor progression-free survival and overall survival in myeloma patients. Our findings provide initial proof of concept that MMSA-1 is a potent gene that is specifically expressed in MM patients and could be a feasible biomarker and independent prognostic factor.

  17. Progress In Holographic Cinematography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smigielski, P.; Fagot, H.; Albe, F.

    1986-06-01

    Two important progresses were achieved for the first time: 1) recording of single exposure cineholograms of living bodies on a 126-mm film, at a frequency of 25 holograms per second. Limitations of 3-D movies by holography are described. 2) recording of double-exposure cineholograms of reflecting objects, a loudspeaker membrane and the vertex cranii of a bald-headed man. These experiments show the interest of interferometric cineholography for industrial applications.

  18. Xenon Feed System Progress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    From - To) 13-06-2006 Technical Paper 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER F04611-00-C-0055 Xenon Feed System Progress (Preprint) 5b. GRANT...propulsion xenon feed system for a flight technology demonstration program. Major accomplishments include: 1) Utilization of the Moog...successfully fed xenon to a 200 watt Hall Effect Thruster in a Technology Demonstration Program. The feed system has demonstrated throttling of xenon

  19. COSMIC monthly progress report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Activities of the Computer Software Management and Information Center (COSMIC) are summarized for the month of January 1994. Tables showing the current inventory of programs available from COSMIC are presented and program processing and evaluation activities are discussed. Marketing and customer service activities in this period are presented as is the progress report of NASTRAN maintenance and support. Tables of disseminations and budget summary conclude the report.

  20. ISABELLE: a progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, H

    1980-01-01

    This paper discusses the ISABELLE project, which has the objective of constructing a high-energy proton colliding beam facility at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The major technical features of the intersecting storage accelerators with their projected performance are described. Application of over 1000 superconducting magnets in the two rings represents the salient characteristic of the machine. The status of the entire project, the technical progress made so far, and difficulties encountered are reviewed.

  1. Progress in Scientific Visualization

    SciTech Connect

    Max, N

    2004-11-15

    Visualization of observed data or simulation output is important to science and engineering. I have been particularly interested in visualizing 3-D structures, and report here my personal impressions on progress in the last 20 years in visualizing molecules, scalar fields, and vector fields and their associated flows. I have tried to keep the survey and list of references manageable, so apologize to those authors whose techniques I have not mentioned, or have described without a reference citation.

  2. Progressive Pseudorheumatoid Dysplasia or JIA?

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Progressive pseudorheumatoid dysplasia (PPD) or spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia tarda with progressive arthropathy (SEDT-PA) is a rare arthropathy of childhood involving the axial skeleton as well as small peripheral joints. A 10-year-old boy was referred by a general practitioner with pain and deformity in the fingers of hands and limping gait. There was no joint synovitis although the finger joints were bulky on examination with mild flexion deformity. Patient had exaggerated kyphosis and lumbar lordosis with pigeon chest and restricted hip joint movements. Anteroposterior X-rays of the hip joints revealed widened and flattened epiphyses of the femoral heads with narrow and irregular joint spaces. Hand X-rays revealed periarticular osteopenia, significant narrowing of the joint spaces of proximal interphalangeal, and distal interphalangeal joints, together with osseous enlargement of the basis of metacarpal bones and phalanges. Spinal X-rays revealed generalized platyspondyly and anterior beaking of vertebral bodies. There was a clear mega os trigonum in his feet images. All blood investigations were normal with no evidence of inflammation and thyroid hormone levels were normal. The diagnosis of PPD was favored by imaging studies and normal inflammatory markers and the patient was treated with physiotherapy, family counseling, and anti-inflammatory medications. PMID:28316857

  3. Assessing motivation in children using a progressive ratio task.

    PubMed

    Chelonis, John J; Gravelin, Claire R; Paule, Merle G

    2011-06-01

    The association of age and sex on the performance of a progressive ratio task was studied in 847 children, ages 4-14 years. Variations of this task have been used extensively with animals and to a lesser extent with humans to study factors that affect aspects of motivation. The participants in this study were required to press a response lever for nickel reinforcers during a 10 min period. One response was required to earn the first nickel and each subsequent nickel required an additional 10 more responses. Older children had a significantly higher breakpoint than younger children. This appeared to be mostly the result of older children having significantly shorter inter-response times than younger children. In addition, boys had significantly higher breakpoints than girls, especially at older ages. The results of this study illustrate that both age and sex influence the performance of this task and thus suggest that age and sex influence aspects of motivation in children. Further, characterization of performance of this task by humans facilitates comparisons with animal models and, thus, enhances its translational utility.

  4. Topiramate in migraine progression.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Luigi; Ferrandi, Delfina

    2009-12-01

    Increasing evidence shows that migraine, typically considered as an episodic disease, is a chronic and, in some patients, progressive disorder. Among neuromodulators used for migraine prevention, topiramate has a high level of evidence-based efficacy. Through its wide range of mechanisms of action topiramate increases the activation threshold resulting in neuronal stabilization and thereby reducing cortical neurons hyperexcitability, which is believed to be an important electrophysiological feature underlying the pathogenesis of epilepsy and migraine. Recent studies show that migraineurs have subclinical structural brain changes and persistent alteration of pain perception, in some cases correlated with the duration of the disease and the frequency of attacks that might play a role in the transformation of episodic migraine to chronic forms. An early and prolonged preventive treatment might reduce the risk of such transformation. Recent evidence suggests that topiramate, by reducing migraine frequency and use of acute medication, may prevent the negative progression of migraine. Furthermore, two recently completed multicenter, randomised, placebo-controlled trials have shown that treatment with topiramate 100 mg/day is effective and well tolerated in patients already progressed to chronic migraine and difficult to treat conditions associated with medication-overuse. Topiramate seems to be a preventive treatment, which might be able to act at different levels of the migraine cycle: reduction of frequency in episodic migraine, prevention, and treatment of chronic migraine.

  5. Defense Business Transformation: Improvements Made but Additional Steps Needed to Strengthen Strategic Planning and Assess Progress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-02-01

    chosen. GAO also recommends that DOD further define its performance management approach. DOD partially concurred with our first recommendation and...to regularly review performance results or defined how these structures will routinely integrate various sources of performance data to assess...measures related to supply and security, which are key areas in DOD’s strategy for achieving operational energy efficiency. Better defining and

  6. Modeling probability of additional cases of natalizumab-associated JCV sero-negative progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Carruthers, Robert L; Chitnis, Tanuja; Healy, Brian C

    2014-05-01

    JCV serologic status is used to determine PML risk in natalizumab-treated patients. Given two cases of natalizumab-associated PML in JCV sero-negative patients and two publications that question the false negative rate of the JCV serologic test, clinicians may question whether our understanding of PML risk is adequate. Given that there is no gold standard for diagnosing previous JCV exposure, the test characteristics of the JCV serologic test are unknowable. We propose a model of PML risk in JCV sero-negative natalizumab patients. Using the numbers of JCV sero-positive and -negative patients from a study of PML risk by JCV serologic status (sero-positive: 13,950 and sero-negative: 11,414), we apply a range of sensitivities and specificities in order calculate the number of JCV-exposed but JCV sero-negative patients (false negatives). We then apply a range of rates of developing PML in sero-negative patients to calculate the expected number of PML cases. By using the binomial function, we calculate the probability of a given number of JCV sero-negative PML cases. With this model, one has a means to establish a threshold number of JCV sero-negative natalizumab-associated PML cases at which it is improbable that our understanding of PML risk in JCV sero-negative patients is adequate.

  7. Astrobiological Significance of Microbial Extremophiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pikuta, Elena V.; Hoover, Richard B.

    2007-01-01

    The microflora of the cryosphere of planet Earth provides the best analogs for life forms that might be found in the permafrost or polar ice caps of Mars, near the surface of the cometary nuclei, or in the liquid water beneath and the ice crusts of icy moons of Jupiter and Saturn. The importance of study alkaliphilic microorganisms for astrobiology was enhanced by the findings of abundant carbonates and carbonate globules rimmed with possibly biogenic magnetites in association with the putative microfossils in the ALH84001 meteorite. Although the ALH84001 "nanofossils" were to small and simple to be unambiguously recognized as biogenic, they stimulated Astrobiology research and studies of microbial extremophiles and biomarkers in ancient rocks and meteorites. Recent studies of CI and CM carbonaceous meteorites have resulted in the detection of the well-preserved mineralized remains of coccoidal and filamentous microorganisms in cyanobacterial mats. Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis has shown anomalous biogenic element ratios clearly indicating they are not recent biological contaminants. This paper reviews microbial extremophiles in context of their significance to Astrobiology. The study of halophilic microorganisms was started from work with saline soils and lakes, and one of the record of good growth for Haloferax mediterranei was shown at 30 percent NaC1. Although alkali-tolerant nitrifying bacteria had previously been reported, the first described alkaliphilic microorganism was the bacterium Streptococcus faecalis. Halophilic and alkaliphilic forms are relevant to conditions that might be found in closed impact basins and craters on Mars filled with evaporite deposits. The first obligately acidophilic bacterium described was Acidithiobacillus ferrooxydans (formally Thiobacillus ferrooxidans). Later thermophilic lithotrophic acidophiles were found, and the hyperacidophilic moderately thermophilic species of the genus Picrophilus were found to grow at negative p

  8. Rapidly-progressive catatonia responsive to zolpidem in a patient with ovarian teratoma-associated paraneoplastic encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Amorim, Edilberto; McDade, Eric M

    2016-08-01

    Psychiatric symptoms and catatonia are key components of the clinical presentation of paraneoplastic encephalitis; additionally symptoms can be long-lasting and often difficult to treat. We report a 73-year-old patient with rapidly progressive catatonia not responsive to immunotherapy, tumor resection, electroconvulsive therapy, or benzodiazepines who had significant improvement after zolpidem administration. This report suggests that zolpidem is an option in the treatment of patients with refractory catatonia and paraneoplastic encephalitis.

  9. Disease progression in Chinese patients with hepatitis C virus RNA-positive infection via blood transfusion

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Yan-Feng; Zheng, Yan; Qin, Tao; Feng, Lei; Zhang, Qian; Ping, Xiao-Gong; Pan, Yan-Ting; Wang, Xiao-Ping; Bai, Li; Li, Hua-Hua

    2016-01-01

    The majority of patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) in China were infected via blood transfusion prior to the year 1996. In this systematic retrospective cohort study, disease progression in 804 consecutive patients with transfusion-acquired HCV is investigated. In addition, the occurrence of compensated cirrhosis, decompensated cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is analyzed among these patients, along with the risk factors for disease progression. Patients with cirrhosis or HCC were classified as the serious development group (SD group) and the remaining patients with chronic hepatitis were classified as the hepatitis group (H group). Significant differences were found between the two groups in age at the time of infection, duration of infection and age at the time of observation. SD group patients were significantly older at the time of transfusion (33.73 vs. 23.56 years; P<0.001), with a significantly longer mean duration of HCV infection (21.88 vs. 21.15 years; P=0.029) compared with that in the H group. Male gender and age at the time of transfusion were significant risk factors for HCC (OR=2.48, P=0.031 and OR=1.07, P=0.002, respectively). Age was a significant risk factor for disease progression in older Chinese patients with transfusion-acquired HCV, and there were significant differences in the prevalence of compensated cirrhosis, decompensated cirrhosis and HCC between the age groups (P<0.001), suggesting that more patients with HCV may develop cirrhosis or HCC in their third and fourth decades of infection. Results of the present study will be helpful for predicting disease progression in Chinese patients with HCV infected via blood transfusion. PMID:27882182

  10. Longitudinal gray matter contraction in three variants of primary progressive aphasia: A tenser-based morphometry study

    PubMed Central

    Brambati, Simona Maria; Amici, Serena; Racine, Caroline A.; Neuhaus, John; Miller, Zachary; Ogar, Jenny; Dronkers, Nina; Miller, Bruce L.; Rosen, Howard; Gorno-Tempini, Maria Luisa

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the pattern of longitudinal changes in cognition and anatomy in three variants of primary progressive aphasia (PPA). Eight patients with the non-fluent variant of PPA (nfvPPA), 13 patients with the semantic variant (svPPA), seven patients with the logopenic variant (lvPPA), and 29 age-matched, neurologically healthy controls were included in the study. All participants underwent longitudinal MRI, neuropsychological and language testing at baseline and at a 1-year follow-up. Tenser-based morphometry (TBM) was applied to T1-weighted MRI images in order to map the progression of gray and white matter atrophy over a 1-year period. Results showed that each patient group was characterized by a specific pattern of cognitive and anatomical changes. Specifically, nfvPPA patients showed gray matter atrophy progression in the left frontal and subcortical areas as well as a decline in motor speech and executive functions; svPPA patients presented atrophy progression in the medial and lateral temporal lobe and decline in semantic memory abilities; and lvPPA patients showed atrophy progression in lateral/posterior temporal and medial parietal regions with a decline in memory, sentence repetition and calculations. In addition, in all three variants, the white matter fibers underlying the abovementioned cortical areas underwent significant volume contraction over a 1-year period. Overall, these results indicate that the three PPA variants present distinct patterns of neuroanatomical contraction, which reflect their clinical and cognitive progression. PMID:26106560

  11. Additively manufactured porous tantalum implants.

    PubMed

    Wauthle, Ruben; van der Stok, Johan; Amin Yavari, Saber; Van Humbeeck, Jan; Kruth, Jean-Pierre; Zadpoor, Amir Abbas; Weinans, Harrie; Mulier, Michiel; Schrooten, Jan

    2015-03-01

    The medical device industry's interest in open porous, metallic biomaterials has increased in response to additive manufacturing techniques enabling the production of complex shapes that cannot be produced with conventional techniques. Tantalum is an important metal for medical devices because of its good biocompatibility. In this study selective laser melting technology was used for the first time to manufacture highly porous pure tantalum implants with fully interconnected open pores. The architecture of the porous structure in combination with the material properties of tantalum result in mechanical properties close to those of human bone and allow for bone ingrowth. The bone regeneration performance of the porous tantalum was evaluated in vivo using an orthotopic load-bearing bone defect model in the rat femur. After 12 weeks, substantial bone ingrowth, good quality of the regenerated bone and a strong, functional implant-bone interface connection were observed. Compared to identical porous Ti-6Al-4V structures, laser-melted tantalum shows excellent osteoconductive properties, has a higher normalized fatigue strength and allows for more plastic deformation due to its high ductility. It is therefore concluded that this is a first step towards a new generation of open porous tantalum implants manufactured using selective laser melting.

  12. Additive Transforms Paint into Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Tech Traders Inc. sought assistance developing low-cost, highly effective coatings and paints that created useful thermal reflectance and were safe and non-toxic. In cooperation with a group of engineers at Kennedy Space Center., Tech Traders created Insuladd, a powder additive made up of microscopic, inert gas-filled, ceramic microspheres that can be mixed into ordinary interior or exterior paint, allowing the paint to act like a layer of insulation. When the paint dries, this forms a radiant heat barrier, turning the ordinary house paint into heat-reflecting thermal paint. According to Tech Traders, the product works with all types of paints and coatings and will not change the coverage rate, application, or adhesion of the paint. Other useful applications include feed storage silos to help prevent feed spoilage, poultry hatcheries to reduce the summer heat and winter cold effects, and on military vehicles and ships. Tech Traders has continued its connection to the aerospace community by recently providing Lockheed Martin Corporation with one of its thermal products for use on the F-22 Raptor.

  13. Sustainability Characterization for Additive Manufacturing

    PubMed Central

    Mani, Mahesh; Lyons, Kevin W; Gupta, SK

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has the potential to create geometrically complex parts that require a high degree of customization, using less material and producing less waste. Recent studies have shown that AM can be an economically viable option for use by the industry, yet there are some inherent challenges associated with AM for wider acceptance. The lack of standards in AM impedes its use for parts production since industries primarily depend on established standards in processes and material selection to ensure the consistency and quality. Inability to compare AM performance against traditional manufacturing methods can be a barrier for implementing AM processes. AM process sustainability has become a driver due to growing environmental concerns for manufacturing. This has reinforced the importance to understand and characterize AM processes for sustainability. Process characterization for sustainability will help close the gaps for comparing AM performance to traditional manufacturing methods. Based on a literature review, this paper first examines the potential environmental impacts of AM. A methodology for sustainability characterization of AM is then proposed to serve as a resource for the community to benchmark AM processes for sustainability. Next, research perspectives are discussed along with relevant standardization efforts. PMID:26601038

  14. Sustainability Characterization for Additive Manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Mani, Mahesh; Lyons, Kevin W; Gupta, S K

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has the potential to create geometrically complex parts that require a high degree of customization, using less material and producing less waste. Recent studies have shown that AM can be an economically viable option for use by the industry, yet there are some inherent challenges associated with AM for wider acceptance. The lack of standards in AM impedes its use for parts production since industries primarily depend on established standards in processes and material selection to ensure the consistency and quality. Inability to compare AM performance against traditional manufacturing methods can be a barrier for implementing AM processes. AM process sustainability has become a driver due to growing environmental concerns for manufacturing. This has reinforced the importance to understand and characterize AM processes for sustainability. Process characterization for sustainability will help close the gaps for comparing AM performance to traditional manufacturing methods. Based on a literature review, this paper first examines the potential environmental impacts of AM. A methodology for sustainability characterization of AM is then proposed to serve as a resource for the community to benchmark AM processes for sustainability. Next, research perspectives are discussed along with relevant standardization efforts.

  15. Dynamics of ultrasonic additive manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Hehr, Adam; Dapino, Marcelo J

    2017-01-01

    Ultrasonic additive manufacturing (UAM) is a solid-state technology for joining similar and dissimilar metal foils near room temperature by scrubbing them together with ultrasonic vibrations under pressure. Structural dynamics of the welding assembly and work piece influence how energy is transferred during the process and ultimately, part quality. To understand the effect of structural dynamics during UAM, a linear time-invariant model is proposed to relate the inputs of shear force and electric current to resultant welder velocity and voltage. Measured frequency response and operating performance of the welder under no load is used to identify model parameters. Using this model and in-situ measurements, shear force and welder efficiency are estimated to be near 2000N and 80% when welding Al 6061-H18 weld foil, respectively. Shear force and welder efficiency have never been estimated before in UAM. The influence of processing conditions, i.e., welder amplitude, normal force, and weld speed, on shear force and welder efficiency are investigated. Welder velocity was found to strongly influence the shear force magnitude and efficiency while normal force and weld speed showed little to no influence. The proposed model is used to describe high frequency harmonic content in the velocity response of the welder during welding operations and coupling of the UAM build with the welder.

  16. Dimensionless numbers in additive manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, T.; Manvatkar, V.; De, A.; DebRoy, T.

    2017-02-01

    The effects of many process variables and alloy properties on the structure and properties of additively manufactured parts are examined using four dimensionless numbers. The structure and properties of components made from 316 Stainless steel, Ti-6Al-4V, and Inconel 718 powders for various dimensionless heat inputs, Peclet numbers, Marangoni numbers, and Fourier numbers are studied. Temperature fields, cooling rates, solidification parameters, lack of fusion defects, and thermal strains are examined using a well-tested three-dimensional transient heat transfer and fluid flow model. The results show that lack of fusion defects in the fabricated parts can be minimized by strengthening interlayer bonding using high values of dimensionless heat input. The formation of harmful intermetallics such as laves phases in Inconel 718 can be suppressed using low heat input that results in a small molten pool, a steep temperature gradient, and a fast cooling rate. Improved interlayer bonding can be achieved at high Marangoni numbers, which results in vigorous circulation of liquid metal, larger pool dimensions, and greater depth of penetration. A high Fourier number ensures rapid cooling, low thermal distortion, and a high ratio of temperature gradient to the solidification growth rate with a greater tendency of plane front solidification.

  17. Children's understanding of additive concepts.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Katherine M; Dubé, Adam K; Beatch, Jacqueline-Ann

    2017-04-01

    Most research on children's arithmetic concepts is based on one concept at a time, limiting the conclusions that can be made about how children's conceptual knowledge of arithmetic develops. This study examined six arithmetic concepts (identity, negation, commutativity, equivalence, inversion, and addition and subtraction associativity) in Grades 3, 4, and 5. Identity (a-0=a) and negation (a-a=0) were well understood, followed by moderate understanding of commutativity (a+b=b+a) and inversion (a+b-b=a), with weak understanding of equivalence (a+b+c=a+[b+c]) and associativity (a+b-c=[b-c]+a). Understanding increased across grade only for commutativity and equivalence. Four clusters were found: The Weak Concept cluster understood only identity and negation; the Two-Term Concept cluster also understood commutativity; the Inversion Concept cluster understood identity, negation, and inversion; and the Strong Concept cluster had the strongest understanding of all of the concepts. Grade 3 students tended to be in the Weak and Inversion Concept clusters, Grade 4 students were equally likely to be in any of the clusters, and Grade 5 students were most likely to be in the Two-Term and Strong Concept clusters. The findings of this study highlight that conclusions about the development of arithmetic concepts are highly dependent on which concepts are being assessed and underscore the need for multiple concepts to be investigated at the same time.

  18. Rapidly Progressing Alzheimer's: Something Else?

    MedlinePlus

    ... speed of progression varies, depending on a person's genetic makeup, environmental factors, age at diagnosis and other medical conditions. Still, anyone diagnosed with Alzheimer's whose symptoms seem to be progressing quickly — or ...

  19. Current progress in 3D printing for cardiovascular tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Mosadegh, Bobak; Xiong, Guanglei; Dunham, Simon; Min, James K

    2015-03-16

    3D printing is a technology that allows the fabrication of structures with arbitrary geometries and heterogeneous material properties. The application of this technology to biological structures that match the complexity of native tissue is of great interest to researchers. This mini-review highlights the current progress of 3D printing for fabricating artificial tissues of the cardiovascular system, specifically the myocardium, heart valves, and coronary arteries. In addition, how 3D printed sensors and actuators can play a role in tissue engineering is discussed. To date, all the work with building 3D cardiac tissues have been proof-of-principle demonstrations, and in most cases, yielded products less effective than other traditional tissue engineering strategies. However, this technology is in its infancy and therefore there is much promise that through collaboration between biologists, engineers and material scientists, 3D bioprinting can make a significant impact on the field of cardiovascular tissue engineering.

  20. Ceramic Technology Project semiannual progress report, April 1992--September 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, D.R.

    1993-07-01

    This project was developed to meet the ceramic technology requirements of the DOE Office of Transportation Systems` automotive technology programs. Significant progress in fabricating ceramic components for DOE, NASA, and DOE advanced heat engine programs show that operation of ceramic parts in high-temperature engines is feasible; however, addition research is needed in materials and processing, design, and data base and life prediction before industry will have a sufficient technology base for producing reliable cost-effective ceramic engine components commercially. A 5-yr project plan was developed, with focus on structural ceramics for advanced gas turbine and diesel engines, ceramic bearings and attachments, and ceramic coatings for thermal barrier and wear applications in these engines.

  1. Progress in InP solar cell research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinberg, Irving; Brinker, David J.

    1988-01-01

    Progress, in the past year, in InP solar cell research is reviewed. Small area cells with AMO, total area efficiencies of 18.8 percent were produced by OMCVD and Ion Implantation. Larger area cells (2 and 4 sq cm) were processed on a production basis. One thousand of the 2 sq cm cells will be used to supply power to a small piggyback lunar orbiter scheduled for launch in February 1990. Laboratory tests of ITO/InP cells, under 10 MeV proton irradiation, indicate radiation resistance comparable to InP n/p homojunction cells. Computer modeling studies indicate that, for identical geometries and dopant concentrations, InP solar cells are significantly more radiation resistant than GaAs under 1 MeV electron irradiation. Additional computer modeling calculations were used to produce rectangular and circular InP concentrator cell designs for both the low concentration SLATS and higher concentration Cassegrainian Concentrators.

  2. Progress with a global branded food composition database.

    PubMed

    2013-10-01

    Excess energy, saturated fat, sugar and salt from processed and fast foods are a major cause of chronic disease worldwide. In 2010 The Food Monitoring Group established a global branded food composition database to track the nutritional content of foods and make comparisons between countries, food companies and over time. A protocol for the project was agreed and published in 2011 with 24 collaborating countries. Standardised tools and a website have been developed to facilitate data collection and entry. In 2010 data were obtained from nine countries, in 2011 from 12 and in 2012 data are anticipated from 10 additional countries. This collaborative approach to the collation of food composition data offers potential for cross-border collaboration and support in developed and developing countries. The project should contribute significantly to tracking progress of the food industry and governments towards commitments made at the recent UN high level meeting on chronic disease.

  3. Recent progress in planetary balloons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerzhanovich, Viktor V.; Cutts, James A.

    2001-08-01

    In the last 15 years several balloon mission cencepts have been proposed for Mars and Venus, one of them - Russian-French Mars Aerostat - was extensively developed in 1988-1995 but was terminated before completion. It became clear that a number of critical technologies still needed to be developed prior to committing a costly space mission. In recent years significant progress has been made in two critical fields: aerial deployment and inflation of thin-film balloons for specific planetary applications, and in the development of envelope design for stratospheric applications. This paper describes requirements, proposed concepts, critical elements and trade-offs in planetary balloon missions as well as current results of some of JPL balloon programs.

  4. Progress toward single cell metabolomics

    PubMed Central

    Rubakhin, Stanislav S.; Lanni, Eric J.; Sweedler, Jonathan V.

    2012-01-01

    The metabolome refers to the entire set of small molecules, or metabolites, within a biological sample. These molecules are involved in many fundamental intracellular functions and reflect the cell’s physiological condition. The ability to detect and identify metabolites and determine and monitor their amounts at the single cell level enables an exciting range of studies of biological variation and functional heterogeneity between cells, even within a presumably homogenous cell population. Significant progress has been made in the development and application of bioanalytical tools for single cell metabolomics based on mass spectrometry, microfluidics, and capillary separations. Remarkable improvements in the sensitivity, specificity, and throughput of these approaches enable investigation of multiple metabolites simultaneously in a range of individual cell samples. PMID:23246232

  5. Research Progress on Vertebrobasilar Dolichoectasia

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Yong-Jie; Xu, Kan; Luo, Qi; Yu, Jin-Lu

    2014-01-01

    Vertebrobasilar dolichoectasia (VBD) is a rare disease characterized by significant expansion, elongation, and tortuosity of the vertebrobasilar arteries. Current data regarding VBD are very limited. Here we systematically review VBD incidence, etiology, characteristics, clinical manifestations, treatment strategies, and prognosis. The exact incidence rate of VBD remains unclear, but is estimated to be 1.3% of the population. The occurrence of VBD is thought to be due to the cooperation of multiple factors, including congenital factors, infections and immune status, and degenerative diseases. The VBD clinical manifestations are complex with ischemic stroke as the most common, followed by progressive compression of cranial nerves and the brain stem, cerebral hemorrhage, and hydrocephalus. Treatment of VBD remains difficult. Currently, there are no precise and effective treatments, and available treatments mainly target the complications of VBD. With the development of stent technology, however, it may become an effective treatment for VBD. PMID:25136259

  6. Hidden progress: broadband plasmonic invisibility.

    PubMed

    Renger, Jan; Kadic, Muamer; Dupont, Guillaume; Aćimović, Srdjan S; Guenneau, Sébastien; Quidant, Romain; Enoch, Stefan

    2010-07-19

    One of the key challenges in current research into electromagnetic cloaking is to achieve invisibility at optical frequencies and over an extended bandwidth. There has been significant progress towards this using the idea of cloaking by sweeping under the carpet of Li and Pendry. Here, we show that we can harness surface plasmon polaritons at a metal surface structured with a dielectric material to obtain a unique control of their propagation. We exploit this control to demonstrate both theoretically and experimentally cloaking over an unprecedented bandwidth (650-900 nm). Our non-resonant plasmonic metamaterial is designed using transformational optics extended to plasmonics and allows a curved reflector to mimic a flat mirror. Our theoretical predictions are validated by experiments mapping the surface light intensity at a wavelength of 800 nm.

  7. Developments in Assisting Countries in Implementing the IAEA Additional Protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Killinger, Mark H.; Hansen, Linda H.; Cain, Ronald A.; Kovacic, Don N.; Apt, Kenneth E.; VanSickle, Matthew

    2010-08-11

    In 2008, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) began assisting selected non-nuclear weapon states in planning and preparing for implementation of the International Atomic Energy Agency’s Additional Protocol (AP). Since then, the AP international implementation program has contributed to the substantial progress made by Vietnam, Thailand, Iraq, and Malaysia in preparing for entry-into-force of the AP. An overall engagement plan has been developed with components designed to train government AP implementing agencies, inform policy makers, conduct outreach to industry and universities, make AP reporting software available and useful, and plan a detailed approach for implementing the declaration and complementary access provisions of the AP. DOE recently began collaborating with Indonesia, which has already entered the AP into force, requiring a second method of engagement somewhat different from that taken with countries that have not entered the AP into force. The AP international implementation program, administered by the International Nuclear Safeguards and Engagement Program, is working more closely with DOE’s International Nonproliferation Export Control Program to ensure countries are aware of and prepared to implement the export/import provisions of the AP. As the AP implementation program matures and helps move countries closer to entry-into-force or improved AP implementation, it is identifying characteristics of a country’s “end-state” that indicate that DOE assistance is no longer required. The U.S. AP Implementation Act and Senate Resolution of Ratification require the Administration to report annually to Congress on measures taken to achieve the adoption of the AP in non-nuclear weapon states. DOE’s AP international implementation program is a significant part of these measures. This paper describes recent developments to increase the scope and effectiveness of the program.

  8. Combined additive manufacturing approaches in tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Giannitelli, S M; Mozetic, P; Trombetta, M; Rainer, A

    2015-09-01

    Advances introduced by additive manufacturing (AM) have significantly improved the control over the microarchitecture of scaffolds for tissue engineering. This has led to the flourishing of research works addressing the optimization of AM scaffolds microarchitecture to optimally trade-off between conflicting requirements (e.g. mechanical stiffness and porosity level). A fascinating trend concerns the integration of AM with other scaffold fabrication methods (i.e. "combined" AM), leading to hybrid architectures with complementary structural features. Although this innovative approach is still at its beginning, significant results have been achieved in terms of improved biological response to the scaffold, especially targeting the regeneration of complex tissues. This review paper reports the state of the art in the field of combined AM, posing the accent on recent trends, challenges, and future perspectives.

  9. World progress toward fusion energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, J. F.

    1989-09-01

    This paper will describe the progress in fusion science and technology from a world perspective. The paper will cover the current technical status, including the understanding of fusion's economic, environmental, and safety characteristics. Fusion experiments are approaching the energy breakeven condition. An energy gain (Q) of 30 percent has been achieved in magnetic confinement experiments. In addition, temperatures required for an ignited plasma (Ti = 32 KeV) and energy confinements (about 75 percent of that required for ignition) have been achieved in separate experiments. Two major facilities have started the experimental campaign to extend these results and achieve or exceed Q = 1 plasma conditions by 1990. Inertial confinement fusion experiments are also approaching thermonuclear conditions and have achieved a compression factor 100-200 times liquid D-T. Because of this progress, the emphasis in fusion research is turning toward questions of engineering feasibility. Leaders of the major fusion R and D programs in the European Community (EC), Japan, the United States, and the U.S.S.R. have agreed on the major steps that are needed to reach the point at which a practical fusion system can be designed. The United States is preparing for an experiment to address the last unexplored scientific issue, the physics of an ignited plasma, during the late 1990's. The EC, Japan, U.S.S.R., and the United States have joined together under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to jointly design and prepare the validating R&D for an international facility, the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), to address all the remaining scientific issues and to explore the engineering technology of fusion around the turn of the century.

  10. Genetics of Progressive Supranuclear Palsy.

    PubMed

    Im, Sun Young; Kim, Young Eun; Kim, Yun Joong

    2015-09-01

    Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is a neurodegenerative syndrome that is clinically characterized by progressive postural instability, supranuclear gaze palsy, parkinsonism and cognitive decline. Pathologically, diagnosis of PSP is based on characteristic features, such as neurofibrillary tangles, neutrophil threads, tau-positive astrocytes and their processes in basal ganglia and brainstem, and the accumulation of 4 repeat tau protein. PSP is generally recognized as a sporadic disorder; however, understanding of genetic background of PSP has been expanding rapidly. Here we review relevant publications to outline the genetics of PSP. Although only small number of familial PSP cases have been reported, the recognition of familial PSP has been increasing. In some familial cases of clinically probable PSP, PSP pathologies were confirmed based on NINDS neuropathological diagnostic criteria. Several mutations in MAPT, the gene that causes a form of familial frontotemporal lobar degeneration with tauopathy, have been identified in both sporadic and familial PSP cases. The H1 haplotype of MAPT is a risk haplotype for PSP, and within H1, a sub-haplotype (H1c) is associated with PSP. A recent genome-wide association study on autopsyproven PSP revealed additional PSP risk alleles in STX6 and EIF2AK3. Several heredodegenerative parkinsonian disorders are referred to as PSP-look-alikes because their clinical phenotype, but not their pathology, mimics PSP. Due to the fast development of genomics and bioinformatics, more genetic factors related to PSP are expected to be discovered. Undoubtedly, these studies will provide a better understanding of the pathogenesis of PSP and clues for developing therapeutic strategies.

  11. Genetics of Progressive Supranuclear Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Im, Sun Young; Kim, Young Eun; Kim, Yun Joong

    2015-01-01

    Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is a neurodegenerative syndrome that is clinically characterized by progressive postural instability, supranuclear gaze palsy, parkinsonism and cognitive decline. Pathologically, diagnosis of PSP is based on characteristic features, such as neurofibrillary tangles, neutrophil threads, tau-positive astrocytes and their processes in basal ganglia and brainstem, and the accumulation of 4 repeat tau protein. PSP is generally recognized as a sporadic disorder; however, understanding of genetic background of PSP has been expanding rapidly. Here we review relevant publications to outline the genetics of PSP. Although only small number of familial PSP cases have been reported, the recognition of familial PSP has been increasing. In some familial cases of clinically probable PSP, PSP pathologies were confirmed based on NINDS neuropathological diagnostic criteria. Several mutations in MAPT, the gene that causes a form of familial frontotemporal lobar degeneration with tauopathy, have been identified in both sporadic and familial PSP cases. The H1 haplotype of MAPT is a risk haplotype for PSP, and within H1, a sub-haplotype (H1c) is associated with PSP. A recent genome-wide association study on autopsyproven PSP revealed additional PSP risk alleles in STX6 and EIF2AK3. Several heredodegenerative parkinsonian disorders are referred to as PSP-look-alikes because their clinical phenotype, but not their pathology, mimics PSP. Due to the fast development of genomics and bioinformatics, more genetic factors related to PSP are expected to be discovered. Undoubtedly, these studies will provide a better understanding of the pathogenesis of PSP and clues for developing therapeutic strategies. PMID:26413239

  12. Additives In Meat and Poultry Products

    MedlinePlus

    ... What is a food additive? What is a "direct" food additive? What is an 'indirect" food additive? ... convenience foods. [ Top of Page ] What is a “direct” food additive? According to the FDA, “Direct food ...

  13. Polymer: bioceramic composites optimization by tetracycline addition.

    PubMed

    Pataro, André L; Oliveira, Michele F; Teixeira, Karina I R; Turchetti-Maia, Regina M M; Lopes, Miriam T P; Wykrota, Francisco H L; Sinisterra, Rubén D; Cortés, Maria E

    2007-05-04

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the biocompatibility of composites of poly-lactic acid polymer (PLA) and copolymer of lactic and glycolic acid (PLGA), dispersed in a bioceramic matrix, Osteosynt (BC), to which tetracycline (TC) was added. The in vitro test used direct contact test (ASTM F-813) and elution test (USP-XXIII, ISO 10993-5), and in vivo evaluation was performed after subcutaneous implantation in outbread Swiss mice. The 0.01% (w/w) TC addition did not affect composite cytotoxicity in vitro. The macroscopic and histologic evaluation in vivo after 1, 7, 13, 21, 28 and 56 days showed an initial intense infiltrate of inflammatory cells for most of the groups. The tissue showed normal pattern after 21 days for all the groups. TC addition exhibited significantly larger reduction of inflammation signs (Mann-Whitney test, p<0.05) in the critical period of the resolution of the inflammatory process. Angiogenesis, cellular adsorption and fibrous deposit were observed on SEM evaluation. In conclusion, TC addition optimized composites polymer/bioceramic biocompatibility, contributing to anti-inflammatory response during the early phases of the wound healing process.

  14. Progressive image denoising.

    PubMed

    Knaus, Claude; Zwicker, Matthias

    2014-07-01

    Image denoising continues to be an active research topic. Although state-of-the-art denoising methods are numerically impressive and approch theoretical limits, they suffer from visible artifacts.While they produce acceptable results for natural images, human eyes are less forgiving when viewing synthetic images. At the same time, current methods are becoming more complex, making analysis, and implementation difficult. We propose image denoising as a simple physical process, which progressively reduces noise by deterministic annealing. The results of our implementation are numerically and visually excellent. We further demonstrate that our method is particularly suited for synthetic images. Finally, we offer a new perspective on image denoising using robust estimators.

  15. Post Kalman progress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonnabend, David

    1995-01-01

    In a paper here last year, an idea was put forward that much greater performance could be obtained from an observer, relative to a Kalman filter if more general performance indices were adopted, and the full power spectra of all the noises were employed. The considerable progress since then is reported here. Included are an extension of the theory to regulators, direct calculation of the theory's fundamental quantities - the noise effect integrals - for several theoretical spectra, and direct derivations of the Riccati equations of LQG (Linear-Quadratic-Gaussian) and Kalman theory yielding new insights.

  16. [Progress in eyeglass optics].

    PubMed

    Köppen, W

    1995-08-01

    In this article product developments for ophthalmic lenses are discussed: new materials, designs and coatings. High-index plastic substrates allow to offer corrections which are simultaneously light and thin and for the first time there are high performant plastic photochromic lenses. Head and eye movements with latest generation's progressives are very similar to natural vision behaviour. Special aspheric designs have been developed for comfortable vision for near and intermediate distances. Finally there are new coatings which protect the high quality surfaces of plastic lenses distinctly longer than before.

  17. MEIC Design Progress

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Y; Douglas, D; Hutton, A; Krafft, G A; Li, R; Lin, F; Morozov, V S; Nissen, E W; Pilat, F C; Satogata, T; Tennant, C; Terzic, B; Yunn, C; Barber, D P; Filatov, Y; Hyde, C; Kondratenko, A M; Manikonda, S L; Ostroumov, P N; Sullivan, M K

    2012-07-01

    This paper will report the recent progress in the conceptual design of MEIC, a high luminosity medium energy polarized ring-ring electron-ion collider at Jefferson lab. The topics and achievements that will be covered are design of the ion large booster and the ERL-circulator-ring-based electron cooling facility, optimization of chromatic corrections and dynamic aperture studies, schemes and tracking simulations of lepton and ion polarization in the figure-8 collider ring, and the beam-beam and electron cooling simulations. A proposal of a test facility for the MEIC electron cooler will also be discussed.

  18. HSX progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    Brief statements on the progress of the design and construction of the HSX experiment are reported. Topics covered include the modular and auxiliary coil systems, the coil support structure, vacuum vessel, the ECH system, the magnet power supply and site. The proposed budget for Year 2 (August 1, 1994 through July 31, 1995) is presented. The effects of a flat funding profile (based on Year 2 budget level of $1137K) on out-years and the HSX project schedule are discussed. The stretching out of the program to accommodate the reduced funding profile should result in only a slight delay in HSX operations.

  19. Advanced electrolyte/additive for lithium-ion batteries with silicon anode

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Shuo; He, Meinan; Su, Chi-Cheung; Zhang, Zhengcheng

    2016-08-01

    State-of-the-art lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are based on a lithium transition metal oxide cathode, a graphite anode and a nonaqueous carbonate electrolyte. To further increase the energy and power density of LIBs, silicon anodes have been intensively explored due to their high theoretical capacity, low operation potential, and low cost. However, the main challenges for Si anode are the large volume change during lithiation/delithiation process and the instability of the solid-electrolyte-interphase associated with this process. Recently, significant progress has been achieved via advanced material fabrication technologies and rational electrolyte design in terms of improving the Coulombic efficiency and capacity retention. In this paper, new developments in advanced electrolyte and additive for LIBs with Si anode were systematically reviewed, and perspectives over future research were suggested.

  20. Expression and clinicopathological significance of the lncRNA HOXA11-AS in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Li, Tong; Xu, Chengfei; Cai, Bin; Zhang, Meng; Gao, Feng; Gan, Jialiang

    2016-01-01

    HOXA11 antisense RNA (HOXA11-AS) is a long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) that is important in determining cancer progression. HOXA11-AS was recently identified as a novel biomarker in lung cancer progression. However, its role in colorectal cancer (CRC) remains poorly understood. The present study aimed to analyze lncRNA HOXA11-AS expression in CRC and investigate a possible association between HOXA11-AS and clinicopathological factors. HOXA11-AS expression was examined by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) in 84 CRC tissues and adjacent non-cancerous tissues, in addition to 3 CRC cell lines and 1 human normal colorectal cell line. The results demonstrated that HOXA11-AS expression was decreased in the CRC tissues and cell lines compared with that of the controls (P<0.05). Clinicopathological analysis indicated that low HOXA11-AS expression was significantly correlated with tumor size, advanced tumor-node-metastasis stage, lymph node metastasis and carcinoembryonic antigen level of patients with CRC (P<0.05). Furthermore, the areas under the curve (AUC) were 0.613 and 0.628 for HOXA11-AS, indicating that the lncRNA is able to distinguish CRC tissue from non-cancerous tissue, and CRC tissue with lymph node metastasis from CRC without lymph node metastasis. Therefore, HOXA11-AS may function as a potential biomarker and target for novel therapeutic strategies to treat CRC. PMID:27895785

  1. Conceptions of Progress: How Is Progress Perceived? Mainstream versus Alternative Conceptions of Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Itay, Anat

    2009-01-01

    Progress is a powerful political concept, encompassing different and sometimes contradictory conceptions. This paper examines the results of a survey on progress conducted at the OECD World Forum entitled "Measuring and Fostering the Progress of Societies" held in Istanbul in June 2007. First, a distinction is drawn between the two approaches to…

  2. Progress in ferrite phase shifters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyd, C. R., Jr.

    1983-10-01

    Advances in the technology of reciprocal ferrite phase shifters are outlined. Nonlatching rotary-field phase shifters have been produced with enhanced phase accuracy and modest control power. A significant quantity of dual-mode latching units has been built at 35 GHz, with good results. Both types of phase shifter can be adapted to perform other functions in addition to phase shifting. Examples of phase shifters that perform duplexing and polarization switching functions are given.

  3. EU assessment of enterococci as feed additives.

    PubMed

    Becquet, Philippe

    2003-12-01

    Particular micro-organisms such as enterococcal strains are used as probiotics in feed. Observations indicate a positive effect of such strains on the gut flora, especially for young animals or during feed transition phases. This favourable effect is perceived by the farmers as a means of maintenance of the health status of the animals (e.g. less diarrhoea) and results in significant improvement of animal performance. Micro-organisms have been used since the end of the 1980s in animal feeds and were strictly regulated in 1993, when they were introduced under the scope of Council Directive 70/524/EEC of 23 November 1970 on additives in animal nutrition on feed additives. After a transition period, which ended in the year 2000, every microbial strain must now be assessed by the EU bodies and authorised by a Commission Regulation, before it can be placed on the market for use in feedingstuffs. Council Directive 70/524/EEC on feed additives is based on three main principles: (1) pre-market authorisation, (2) positive list principle, and (3) thorough risk assessment of the effect of a particular strain on human and animal health as well as on the environment. Therefore, before introducing a new enterococcal strain preparation or promote a new use of an approved product, a dossier has to be submitted to the authorities, following the guidelines, as published in Commission Directive 94/40/EEC [Commission Directive 94/40/EC of 22 July 1994 amending Council Directive 87/153/EEC fixing guidelines for the assessment of additives in animal nutrition]. These guidelines contain detailed evaluation methods. The safety requirements refer to (1) the target animal categories, (2) the consumer and the environment (presence of toxins and virulence factors as well as antibiotic resistance and transferability are assessed), and (3) the workers, based on requirements of Council Directive 89/391/EEC.

  4. Minimum Additive Waste Stabilization (MAWS). Technology summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    In the Minimum Additive Waste Stabilization(MAWS) concept, actual waste streams are utilized as additive resources for vitrification, which may contain the basic components (glass formers and fluxes) for making a suitable glass or glassy slag. If too much glass former is present, then the melt viscosity or temperature will be too high for processing; while if there is too much flux, then the durability may suffer. Therefore, there are optimum combinations of these two important classes of constituents depending on the criteria required. The challenge is to combine these resources in such a way that minimizes the use of non-waste additives yet yields a processable and durable final waste form for disposal. The benefit to this approach is that the volume of the final waste form is minimized (waste loading maximized) since little or no additives are used and vitrification itself results in volume reduction through evaporation of water, combustion of organics, and compaction of the solids into a non-porous glass. This implies a significant reduction in disposal costs due to volume reduction alone, and minimizes future risks/costs due to the long term durability and leach resistance of glass. This is accomplished by using integrated systems that are both cost-effective and produce an environmentally sound waste form for disposal. individual component technologies may include: vitrification; thermal destruction; soil washing; gas scrubbing/filtration; and, ion-exchange wastewater treatment. The particular combination of technologies will depend on the waste streams to be treated. At the heart of MAWS is vitrification technology, which incorporates all primary and secondary waste streams into a final, long-term, stabilized glass wasteform. The integrated technology approach, and view of waste streams as resources, is innovative yet practical to cost effectively treat a broad range of DOE mixed and low-level wastes.

  5. Supplier Selection Using Weighted Utility Additive Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karande, Prasad; Chakraborty, Shankar

    2015-10-01

    Supplier selection is a multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) problem which mainly involves evaluating a number of available suppliers according to a set of common criteria for choosing the best one to meet the organizational needs. For any manufacturing or service organization, selecting the right upstream suppliers is a key success factor that will significantly reduce purchasing cost, increase downstream customer satisfaction and improve competitive ability. The past researchers have attempted to solve the supplier selection problem employing different MCDM techniques which involve active participation of the decision makers in the decision-making process. This paper deals with the application of weighted utility additive (WUTA) method for solving supplier selection problems. The WUTA method, an extension of utility additive approach, is based on ordinal regression and consists of building a piece-wise linear additive decision model from a preference structure using linear programming (LP). It adopts preference disaggregation principle and addresses the decision-making activities through operational models which need implicit preferences in the form of a preorder of reference alternatives or a subset of these alternatives present in the process. The preferential preorder provided by the decision maker is used as a restriction of a LP problem, which has its own objective function, minimization of the sum of the errors associated with the ranking of each alternative. Based on a given reference ranking of alternatives, one or more additive utility functions are derived. Using these utility functions, the weighted utilities for individual criterion values are combined into an overall weighted utility for a given alternative. It is observed that WUTA method, having a sound mathematical background, can provide accurate ranking to the candidate suppliers and choose the best one to fulfill the organizational requirements. Two real time examples are illustrated to prove

  6. Transient design of landfill liquid addition systems.

    PubMed

    Jain, Pradeep; Townsend, Timothy G; Tolaymat, Thabet M

    2014-09-01

    This study presents the development of design charts that can be used to estimate lateral and vertical spacing of liquids addition devices (e.g., vertical well, horizontal trenches) and the operating duration needed for transient operating conditions (conditions until steady-state operating conditions are achieved). These design charts should be used in conjunction with steady-state design charts published earlier by Jain et al. (2010a, 2010b). The data suggest that the liquids addition system operating time can be significantly reduced by utilizing moderately closer spacing between liquids addition devices than the spacing needed for steady-state conditions. These design charts can be used by designers to readily estimate achievable flow rate and lateral and vertical extents of the zone of impact from liquid addition devices, and analyze the sensitivity of various input variables (e.g., hydraulic conductivity, anisotropy, well radius, screen length) to the design. The applicability of the design charts, which are developed based on simulations of a continuously operated system, was also evaluated for the design of a system that would be operated intermittently (e.g., systems only operated during facility operating hours). The design charts somewhat underestimates the flow rate achieved and overestimates the lateral extent of the zone of impact over an operating duration for an intermittently operated system. The associated estimation errors would be smaller than the margin of errors associated with measurement of other key design inputs such as waste properties (e.g., hydraulic conductivity) and wider variation of these properties at a given site due to heterogeneous nature of waste.

  7. Naming vs knowing faces in primary progressive aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Wieneke, Christina; Martersteck, Adam; Whitney, Kristen; Weintraub, Sandra; Mesulam, M.-Marsel; Rogalski, Emily

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: This study examines the anatomical correlates of naming vs recognizing faces using a novel measure that utilizes culturally relevant and age-appropriate items, the Northwestern University Famous Faces (NUFFACE) Test, in primary progressive aphasia (PPA), a syndrome characterized by progressive language deficits and associated with cortical atrophy in areas important for word and object representations. Methods: NUFFACE Test performance of 27 controls (mean age 62.3 years) was compared with that of 30 patients with PPA (mean age 62 years). Associations between NUFFACE Test performance and cortical thickness measures were quantified within the PPA group. Results: Patients with PPA displayed significant impairment on the NUFFACE Test, demonstrating that it is a useful measure of famous-face identification for individuals with relatively young-onset dementias. Despite widespread distribution of atrophy in the PPA group, face naming impairments were correlated with atrophy of the left anterior temporal lobe while face recognition impairments were correlated with bitemporal atrophy. Conclusions: In addition to their clinical relevance for highlighting the distinction between face naming and recognition impairments in individuals with young-onset dementia, these findings add new insights into the dissociable clinico-anatomical substrates of lexical retrieval and object knowledge. PMID:23940020

  8. Fifty years of progress in speech and speaker recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furui, Sadaoki

    2004-10-01

    Speech and speaker recognition technology has made very significant progress in the past 50 years. The progress can be summarized by the following changes: (1) from template matching to corpus-base statistical modeling, e.g., HMM and n-grams, (2) from filter bank/spectral resonance to Cepstral features (Cepstrum + DCepstrum + DDCepstrum), (3) from heuristic time-normalization to DTW/DP matching, (4) from gdistanceh-based to likelihood-based methods, (5) from maximum likelihood to discriminative approach, e.g., MCE/GPD and MMI, (6) from isolated word to continuous speech recognition, (7) from small vocabulary to large vocabulary recognition, (8) from context-independent units to context-dependent units for recognition, (9) from clean speech to noisy/telephone speech recognition, (10) from single speaker to speaker-independent/adaptive recognition, (11) from monologue to dialogue/conversation recognition, (12) from read speech to spontaneous speech recognition, (13) from recognition to understanding, (14) from single-modality (audio signal only) to multi-modal (audio/visual) speech recognition, (15) from hardware recognizer to software recognizer, and (16) from no commercial application to many practical commercial applications. Most of these advances have taken place in both the fields of speech recognition and speaker recognition. The majority of technological changes have been directed toward the purpose of increasing robustness of recognition, including many other additional important techniques not noted above.

  9. Progress on the Fabric for Frontier Experiments Project at Fermilab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Box, Dennis; Boyd, Joseph; Dykstra, Dave; Garzoglio, Gabriele; Herner, Kenneth; Kirby, Michael; Kreymer, Arthur; Levshina, Tanya; Mhashilkar, Parag; Sharma, Neha

    2015-12-01

    The FabrIc for Frontier Experiments (FIFE) project is an ambitious, major-impact initiative within the Fermilab Scientific Computing Division designed to lead the computing model for Fermilab experiments. FIFE is a collaborative effort between experimenters and computing professionals to design and develop integrated computing models for experiments of varying needs and infrastructure. The major focus of the FIFE project is the development, deployment, and integration of Open Science Grid solutions for high throughput computing, data management, database access and collaboration within experiment. To accomplish this goal, FIFE has developed workflows that utilize Open Science Grid sites along with dedicated and commercial cloud resources. The FIFE project has made significant progress integrating into experiment computing operations several services including new job submission services, software and reference data distribution through CVMFS repositories, flexible data transfer client, and access to opportunistic resources on the Open Science Grid. The progress with current experiments and plans for expansion with additional projects will be discussed. FIFE has taken a leading role in the definition of the computing model for Fermilab experiments, aided in the design of computing for experiments beyond Fermilab, and will continue to define the future direction of high throughput computing for future physics experiments worldwide.

  10. The role of individual inheritance in tumor progression and metastasis.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Kent

    2015-07-01

    Metastasis, the dissemination and growth of tumor cells at secondary sites, is the primary cause of patient mortality from solid tumors. Metastasis is an extremely complex, inefficient process requiring contributions of not only the tumor cell but also local and distant environmental factors, at both the cellular and molecular level. Variation in the function of any of the steps in the metastatic cascade may therefore have profound implications for the ultimate course of the disease. In addition to the somatic and cellular heterogeneity that can affect cancer outcome, an individual's specific ancestry or genetic background can also significantly influence metastatic progression. These inherited variants not only encoded for metastatic susceptibility but also provided a window to study critical factors that are not easily accessible with current technologies. Furthermore, investigations into inherited metastatic susceptibility enable identification of important molecular and cellular processes that are not subject to mutation and are consequently not detectable by standard cancer genome sequencing strategies. Incorporation of inherited variation into metastasis research therefore provides methods to more comprehensively investigate the etiology of the lethal consequences of tumor progression.

  11. TES inhibits colorectal cancer progression through activation of p38

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Lu; Wang, Lixia; Niu, Yanfeng; Liu, Hongli; Wang, Zheng; Wang, Lin; Wang, Guobin; Wang, Jiliang

    2016-01-01

    The human TESTIN (TES) gene has been identified as a candidate tumor suppressor based on its location at a common fragile site – a region where loss of heterozygosity has been detected in numerous types of tumors. To investigate its role in colorectal cancer (CRC), we examined TES protein levels in CRC tissue samples and cell lines. We observed that TES was markedly reduced in both CRC tissue and cell lines. Additionally, overexpression of TES significantly inhibited cell proliferation, migration, and invasion, while increasing cell apoptosis in colon cancer cells. By contrast, shRNA-mediated TES knockdown elicited the opposite effects. TES inhibited the progression of CRC by up-regulating pro-apoptotic proteins, down-regulating anti-apoptotic proteins, and simultaneously activating p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways. Collectively, these data indicate that TES functions as a necessary suppressor of CRC progression by activating p38-MAPK signaling pathways. This suggests that TES may have a potential application in CRC diagnosis and targeted gene therapy. PMID:27323777

  12. Rapidly Progressive Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Geschwind, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of Review This article presents a practical and informative approach to the evaluation of a patient with a rapidly progressive dementia (RPD). Recent Findings Prion diseases are the prototypical causes of RPD, but reversible causes of RPD might mimic prion disease and should always be considered in a differential diagnosis. Aside from prion diseases, the most common causes of RPD are atypical presentations of other neurodegenerative disorders, curable disorders including autoimmune encephalopathies, as well as some infections, and neoplasms. Numerous recent case reports suggest dural arterial venous fistulas sometimes cause RPDs. Summary RPDs, in which patients typically develop dementia over weeks to months, require an alternative differential than the slowly progressive dementias that occur over a few years. Because of their rapid decline, patients with RPDs necessitate urgent evaluation and often require an extensive workup, typically with multiple tests being sent or performed concurrently. Jakob-Creutzfeldt disease, perhaps the prototypical RPD, is often the first diagnosis many neurologists consider when treating a patient with rapid cognitive decline. Many conditions other than prion disease, however, including numerous reversible or curable conditions, can present as an RPD. This chapter discusses some of the major etiologies for RPDs and offers an algorithm for diagnosis. PMID:27042906

  13. Tumour progression and metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Arvelo, Francisco; Sojo, Felipe; Cotte, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    The two biological mechanisms that determine types of malignancy are infiltration and metastasis, for which tumour microenvironment plays a key role in developing and establishing the morphology, growth and invasiveness of a malignancy. The microenvironment is formed by complex tissue containing the extracellular matrix, tumour and non-tumour cells, a signalling network of cytokines, chemokines, growth factors, and proteases that control autocrine and paracrine communication among individual cells, facilitating tumour progression. During the development of the primary tumour, the tumour stroma and continuous genetic changes within the cells makes it possible for them to migrate, having to count on a pre-metastatic niche receptor that allows the tumour’s survival and distant growth. These niches are induced by factors produced by the primary tumour; if it is eradicated, the active niches become responsible for activating the latent disseminated cells. Due to the importance of these mechanisms, the strategies that develop tumour cells during tumour progression and the way in which the microenvironment influences the formation of metastasis are reviewed. It also suggests that the metastatic niche can be an ideal target for new treatments that make controlling metastasis possible. PMID:26913068

  14. Progressive supranuclear palsy.

    PubMed

    Golbe, Lawrence I

    2014-04-01

    Progressive supranuclear palsy is a disorder of tau protein aggregation. Its clinical spectrum is now known to be wider than originally described, with a phenotype resembling Parkinson disease accounting for a third of cases. However, at least half of the patients with PSP exhibit the classic bradykinesia with disproportionate postural instability, erect posture with nuchal rigidity, frontal behavioral and cognitive changes, vertical gaze palsy, and other disabling brainstem deficits. Nonmendelian genetic risk factors exist, but PSP is almost entirely sporadic, with a prevalence of five to six persons per 100,000, mean onset age of 63, and median survival of 7 years. Clinical diagnostic criteria with excellent specificity and a clinical rating scale sensitive to progression are available. Diagnosis remains clinical, although magnetic resonance imaging and cerebrospinal fluid measures are showing promise as early-stage screening tools. Multiple candidate neuroprotective medications have proven ineffective to date. Treatment remains supportive, although coenzyme Q-10 has shown preliminary symptomatic efficacy and levodopa may provide transient, modest benefit.

  15. [Progressive facial hemiatrophy].

    PubMed

    Naumbaev, A N; Sharipov, A Sh; Iakhontov, B V

    1991-01-01

    The authors describe a case of progressive facial hemiatrophy in a woman aged 26 years, coming from the Isfarin region of Tadzhikistan. The patient views herself as being ill for 14 years, since the moment of an epileptic attack with tonic and clonic convulsions. Approximately at the same time she noted a small dry ulcer on the left on the vertex. The ulcer slowly increased, followed by skin atrophy. The disease progressed for 4 to 5 years. At present to the left there are folds in the form of scars on the face. The skin is thinned, united with the bones in the frontal and parietal areas, the subcutaneous fat is atrophic. The lips and nose at the left are subatrophic. Negligible enophthalmos, hemiatrophy of the tongue at the left. Alopecia. A certain deterioration of memory and reduction of the critical attitude are recorded. The patient is in a state of euphoria. Left-sided anosmia. The left auricular floor is subatrophic, hearing is almost lacking. Diffuse elevation of the tendinous reflexes of the limbs on the left side. X-ray signs of osteoporosis of the bones of the cranial vault on the left.

  16. Addition of n-butyl cyanoacrylate to classic transarterial chemoembolization may improve the radiological response in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Monsignore, Lucas Moretti; Elias-Junior, Jorge; Muglia, Valdair Francisco; Teixeira, Andreza Correa; Mente, Enio David; de Lourdes Candolo Martinelli, Ana; Abud, Daniel Giansante

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Transarterial chemoembolization is the treatment of choice for intermediate-stage hepatocellular carcinoma. However, there are no clear data supporting transarterial chemoembolization vs. transarterial embolization or regarding the best chemotherapeutic agent, which may suggest a preponderant role of ischemia over chemotherapeutic action. This study sought to evaluate the radiological response and outcome of transarterial chemoembolization modified by n-butyl cyanoacrylate addition compared to conventional transarterial chemoembolization in hepatocellular carcinoma patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective review identified forty-seven patients who underwent modified chemoembolization and thirty-three who underwent conventional chemoembolization between June 2006 and December 2011. The radiological response was reassessed using the modified Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors. The sustained complete response, time to progression and overall survival rates were also analyzed. RESULTS: Complete response rates were significantly higher in patients who had undergone modified chemoembolization compared to those who had undergone conventional treatment (61.7% and 24.3%, respectively; p<0.001). The rate of sustained complete response was significantly higher in the modified chemoembolization group compared to the conventional chemoembolization group (median of 236 and 37 days, respectively; p<0.001). Time to progression was significantly higher in the modified chemoembolization group compared to the conventional chemoembolization group (median of 424 and 201 days, respectively; p=0.042). Overall survival rates revealed no difference between patients who received modified chemoembolization and conventional chemoembolization (median of 483 and 399 days, respectively; p=0.316). CONCLUSION: Transarterial chemoembolization modified by n-butyl cyanoacrylate addition was superior to conventional transarterial chemoembolization in terms of the

  17. Shuttle Risk Progression: Use of the Shuttle Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) to Show Reliability Growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamlin, Teri L.

    2011-01-01

    It is important to the Space Shuttle Program (SSP), as well as future manned spaceflight programs, to understand the early mission risk and progression of risk as the program gains insights into the integrated vehicle through flight. The risk progression is important to the SSP as part of the documentation of lessons learned. The risk progression is important to future programs to understand reliability growth and the first flight risk. This analysis uses the knowledge gained from 30 years of operational flights and the current Shuttle PRA to calculate the risk of Loss of Crew and Vehicle (LOCV) at significant milestones beginning with the first flight. Key flights were evaluated based upon historical events and significant re-designs. The results indicated that the Shuttle risk tends to follow a step function as opposed to following a traditional reliability growth pattern where risk exponentially improves with each flight. In addition, it shows that risk can increase due to trading safety margin for increased performance or due to external events. Due to the risk drivers not being addressed, the risk did not improve appreciably during the first 25 flights. It was only after significant events occurred such as Challenger and Columbia, where the risk drivers were apparent, that risk was significantly improved. In addition, this paper will show that the SSP has reduced the risk of LOCV by almost an order of magnitude. It is easy to look back afte r 30 years and point to risks that are now obvious, however; the key is to use this knowledge to benefit other programs which are in their infancy stages. One lesson learned from the SSP is understanding risk drivers are essential in order to considerably reduce risk. This will enable the new program to focus time and resources on identifying and reducing the significant risks. A comprehensive PRA, similar to that of the Shuttle PRA, is an effective tool quantifying risk drivers if support from all of the stakeholders is

  18. Changes in prevalence of progressive feline leukaemia virus infection in cats with lymphoma in Germany.

    PubMed

    Meichner, K; Kruse, D B; Hirschberger, J; Hartmann, K

    2012-10-06

    Progressive infection with feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) is considered one of the major risk factors for development of feline lymphoma. The aim of this study was to compare cats with lymphoma between 1980 and 1994 (first period) and between 1995 and 2009 (second period) concerning FeLV antigenaemia and age distribution. In addition, differences between FeLV antigen-positive and antigen-negative cats with lymphoma regarding patients' characteristics, tumour location and outcome were evaluated. There was a significant decrease in the percentage of lymphoma cases associated with progressive FeLV infection from the first (59 per cent) to the second (13 per cent) observation period. FeLV antigen-positive cats were significantly younger (median 3.7 v 11.3 years), and had significantly shorter response duration (median 25 days v 472 days) with therapy. In the cats of the second period, gastrointestinal and extranodal lymphomas were the most common anatomical sites, and the majority of those cats were FeLV antigen-negative. Thus, other aetiologies than progressive FeLV infection must have a greater impact on cancerogenesis among affected cats with lymphoma to date.

  19. Novel Technique of Transepithelial Corneal Cross-Linking Using Iontophoresis in Progressive Keratoconus

    PubMed Central

    Raffa, Paolo; Rosati, Marianna

    2016-01-01

    In this work, the authors presented the techniques and the preliminary results at 6 months of a randomized controlled trial (NCT02117999) comparing a novel transepithelial corneal cross-linking protocol using iontophoresis with the Dresden protocol for the treatment of progressive keratoconus. At 6 months, there was a significant average improvement with an average flattening of the maximum simulated keratometry reading of 0.72 ± 1.20 D (P = 0.01); in addition, corrected distance visual acuity improved significantly (P = 0.08) and spherical equivalent refraction was significantly less myopic (P = 0.02) 6 months after transepithelial corneal cross-linking with iontophoresis. The novel protocol using iontophoresis showed comparable results with standard corneal cross-linking to halt progression of keratoconus during 6-month follow-up. Investigation of the long-term RCT outcomes are ongoing to verify the efficacy of this transepithelial corneal cross-linking protocol and to determine if it may be comparable with standard corneal cross-linking in the management of progressive keratoconus. PMID:27597895

  20. The Effect of Conditional Probability of Chord Progression on Brain Response: An MEG Study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seung-Goo; Kim, June Sic; Chung, Chun Kee

    2011-01-01

    Background Recent electrophysiological and neuroimaging studies have explored how and where musical syntax in Western music is processed in the human brain. An inappropriate chord progression elicits an event-related potential (ERP) component called an early right anterior negativity (ERAN) or simply an early anterior negativity (EAN) in an early stage of processing the musical syntax. Though the possible underlying mechanism of the EAN is assumed to be probabilistic learning, the effect of the probability of chord progressions on the EAN response has not been previously explored explicitly. Methodology/Principal Findings In the present study, the empirical conditional probabilities in a Western music corpus were employed as an approximation of the frequencies in previous exposure of participants. Three types of chord progression were presented to musicians and non-musicians in order to examine the correlation between the probability of chord progression and the neuromagnetic response using magnetoencephalography (MEG). Chord progressions were found to elicit early responses in a negatively correlating fashion with the conditional probability. Observed EANm (as a magnetic counterpart of the EAN component) responses were consistent with the previously reported EAN responses in terms of latency and location. The effect of conditional probability interacted with the effect of musical training. In addition, the neural response also correlated with the behavioral measures in the non-musicians. Conclusions/Significance Our study is the first to reveal the correlation between the probability of chord progression and the corresponding neuromagnetic response. The current results suggest that the physiological response is a reflection of the probabilistic representations of the musical syntax. Moreover, the results indicate that the probabilistic representation is related to the musical training as well as the sensitivity of an individual. PMID:21364895

  1. Radiological progression and lung function in silicosis: a ten year follow up study.

    PubMed Central

    Ng, T P; Chan, S L; Lam, K P

    1987-01-01

    Chest radiographs and spirometric tests were performed on 81 patients who had silicosis from two granite quarries in 1975, 73 of whom were followed up for two to 10 (mean 7.2) years. Each patient's initial and most recent chest radiographs were assessed independently by three experienced readers, and the yearly declines in forced expiratory volume in one second and forced vital capacity were estimated from two to four (mean 3.45) serial spirometric readings. Estimates of individual dust exposure were based on extensive historical data on hygiene. All but 11 patients were no longer exposed to dust by the start of follow up, but 24 (45%) of 53 patients who had simple silicosis and 11 (55%) of 20 who had the complicated disease showed radiological evidence of disease progression. In patients who had simple silicosis and showed no radiological progression the yearly declines in forced expiratory volume in one second and forced vital capacity were modest (64 ml/year and 59 ml/year, respectively), whereas significantly greater declines in lung function were seen in those who showed radiological evidence of progression (97 ml/year and 95 ml/year, respectively). In addition to radiological progression the previous average dust concentration to which patients had been exposed also influenced declines in both forced expiratory volume in one second and forced vital capacity after allowing for the effects of age, smoking, duration of exposure, history of tuberculosis, initial state of disease, and baseline lung function. The probability of radiological progression was most strongly influenced by the average dust concentration previously exposed to. The progression of simple silicosis is thus accompanied by appreciable declines in lung function and is strongly affected by previous levels of exposure to dust. PMID:3115361

  2. High-performance semiconducting nanotube inks: progress and prospects.

    PubMed

    Rouhi, Nima; Jain, Dheeraj; Burke, Peter John

    2011-11-22

    While the potential for high mobility printed semiconducting nanotube inks has been clear for over a decade, a myriad of scientific and technological issues has prevented commercialization and practical use. One of the most challenging scientific problems has been to understand the relationship between the pristine, individual nanotube mobility (known to be in the 10,000 cm(2)/V·s range) and the as-deposited random network mobility (recently demonstrated in the 100 cm(2)/V·s range). An additional significant scientific hurdle has been to understand, manage, and ultimately eliminate the effects of metallic nanotubes on the network performance, specifically the on/off ratio. Additional scientific progress is important in understanding the dependence of nanotube length, diameter, and density on device performance. Finally, the development of ink formulations that are of practical use in manufacturing is of paramount importance, especially with regard to drying time and uniformity, and ultimately, the issue of scalability and cost must be addressed. Many of these issues have recently been investigated from a phenomenological point of view, and a comprehensive understanding is beginning to emerge. In this paper, we present an overview of solution-based printed carbon nanotube devices and discuss long-term technology prospects. While significant technical challenges still remain, it is clear that the prospects for the use of nanotube ink in a myriad of systems is feasible given their unmatched mobility and compatibility with heterogeneous integration into a variety of applications in printed and flexible electronics.

  3. The clinical significance of preoperative brain magnetic resonance imaging in pediatric cochlear implant recipients.

    PubMed

    Moon, Il Joon; Kim, Eun Yeon; Park, Ga-Young; Jang, Min Seok; Kim, Ji Hye; Lee, Jeehun; Chung, Won-Ho; Cho, Yang-Sun; Hong, Sung Hwa

    2012-01-01

    Although central nervous system abnormalities are incidentally detected in preoperative brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies in pediatric cochlear implant (CI) candidates, the clinical significance of the abnormalities remains unclear. We aimed to assess post-implantation auditory and speech performance in patients with brain lesions seen on MRI. Pediatric CI recipients (n = 177) who underwent preoperative MRI scans of the brain between January 2002 and June 2009 were included in this study. Patients with brain lesions on MRI were reviewed and categorized into the following groups: brain parenchymal lesions (focal vs. diffuse), ventriculomegaly, and extra-axial lesion. The main communication mode as well as progress in auditory perception and speech production were evaluated preoperatively and at 3, 6, 12, and 24 months postoperatively. Performance in patients with brain lesions was compared with the age- and sex-matched control group. Various brain lesions were found in 27 out of 177 patients. Children with brain lesions who received CIs showed gradual progress in auditory and speech outcomes for 2 years, though performance was reduced compared with the control group. In addition, there was a significant difference in the main communication mode between the two groups at 2 years following cochlear implantation. This difference was especially significant in patients with diffuse brain parenchymal lesions after further stratification of the brain lesion group. Preoperative brain MRI may have a role in improving the prediction of adverse outcomes in pediatric CI recipients. In particular, children with diffuse brain parenchymal lesions should be counseled regarding the poor prognosis preoperatively, and followed up with special attention.

  4. The effects of progressing and non-progressing Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection on milk production in dairy cows

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Rebecca L.; Gröhn, Y. T.; Pradhan, A.K.; Whitlock, R. H.; Van Kessel, J. S.; Smith, J. M.; Wolfgang, D.R.; Schukken, Y. H.

    2016-01-01

    Longitudinal data from 3 commercial dairy herds in the northeast United States, collected from 2004 to 2011, were analyzed to determine the effect of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) infection status and progression path on milk production. Disease status, as indicated by MAP test results, was determined through quarterly ELISA serum testing, biannual fecal culture, and culture of tissues and feces at slaughter. Milk production data were collected from the Dairy Herd Information Association. Animals with positive MAP test results were categorized, based on test results over the full course of the study, as high path (at least one high-positive culture) or low path (at least one positive culture or ELISA). The cumulative number of positive ELISA and culture results were recorded. The effects of both MAP infection path, status, and number of positive tests on milk production were analyzed using a mixed linear model with an autocorrelation random effect structure. Low and high path animals produced more milk prior to their first positive test than always-negative animals, especially high path animals. While mean production decreased after a first positive test, low path animals were shown to recover some productivity. High path animals continued to exhibit a decrease in milk production, especially after their first high-positive fecal culture. These results show that not all animals that test positive for MAP will have long-term production losses. Milk production decreased significantly with each additional positive test. Ultimately, production loss appeared to be a function of MAP infection progression. PMID:26686721

  5. Autonomous motivation, controlled motivation, and goal progress.

    PubMed

    Koestner, Richard; Otis, Nancy; Powers, Theodore A; Pelletier, Luc; Gagnon, Hugo

    2008-10-01

    Although the self-concordance of goals has been repeatedly shown to predict better goal progress, recent research suggests potential problems with aggregating autonomous and controlled motivations to form a summary index of self-concordance (Judge, Bono, Erez, & Locke, 2005). The purpose of the present investigation was to further examine the relations among autonomous motivation, controlled motivation, and goal progress to determine the relative importance of autonomous motivation and controlled motivation in the pursuit of personal goals. The results of three studies and a meta-analysis indicated that autonomous motivation was substantially related to goal progress whereas controlled motivation was not. Additionally, the relation of autonomous motivation to goal progress was shown to involve implementation planning. Together, the three studies highlight the importance for goal setters of having autonomous motivation and developing implementation plans, especially ones formulated in terms of approach strategies rather than avoidance strategies. The present research suggests that individuals pursuing goals should focus relatively greater attention on enhancing their autonomous motivation rather than reducing their controlled motivation.

  6. Finding of No Significant Impact: Environmental Assessment Construction of Hangar Addition Building 820 Tinker Air Force Base, Oklahoma

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-06

    Haza rdous materia ls are used by military personnel and on-base contractors throughout the base. The location of hazardous materials, procedures and...implemented by the DoD to identify and evaluate areas and constituents o f concern of toxic and hazardous materia l disposal and spill sites. Once the areas...to hazardous materia ls and wastes, including ERP sites. 4.2.6.1 Haza1·dous Materials 4.2.6.1.1 Preferred Alternative Construction Impacts: The

  7. Gut Microbiota in HIV Infection: Implication for Disease Progression and Management

    PubMed Central

    Nwosu, Felix Chinweije; Avershina, Ekaterina; Wilson, Robert; Rudi, Knut

    2014-01-01

    Survival rates among HIV patients have significantly improved since the introduction of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in HIV management. However, persistent disease progression and clinical complications in virally suppressed individuals point to additional contributing factors other than HIV replication; microbial translocation is one such factor. The role of underlying commensal microbes and microbial products that traverse the intestinal lumen into systemic circulation in the absence of overt bacteraemia is under current investigation. This review focuses on current knowledge of the complex microbial communities and microbial markers involved in the disruption of mucosal immune T-cells in the promotion of inflammatory processes in HIV infections. Unanswered questions and aims for future studies are addressed. We provide perspective for discussing potential future therapeutic strategies focused on modulating the gut microbiota to abate HIV disease progression. PMID:25024700

  8. [Progressive supranuclear palsy: what's new?].

    PubMed

    Levy, Richard

    2011-06-01

    Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) has been described as a clinical syndrome characterized by an impairment of voluntary control of gaze (supranuclear palsy), postural and gait instability, and behavioral and cognitive deficits including a frontal syndrome and psychic retardation. However, in the recent years, at least four other clinical forms of PSP have been recognized: PSP-Parkinsonism, "pure akinesia with gait freezing", PSP with cortico-basal syndrome, and PSP with speech apraxia. PSP-Parkinsonism mimics the signs and symptoms of idiopathic Parkinson's disease, including a significant reactivity to levodopa. "Pure akinesia with gait freezing" is characterized by a difficulty of self-initiation of motor programs, usually walking program. PSP with cortico-basal syndrome mimics cortico-basal degeneration (CBD) in that unilateral or asymmetric limb dystonia and apraxia are prominent signs. PSP with speech apraxia is an isolated syndrome of progressive anarthria. All these clinical syndromes are due to brain accumulation of phosphorylated tau protein. The differences in clinical expression within the framework of PSP can be explained by the differences in the topographical distribution of the lesions. PSP is considered as a primary tau disease ("tauopathy") such as CBD and some forms of fronto-temporal lobar degeneration. At the level of neuropathology, the pattern of tau abnormal inclusions differentiates PSP from other tau diseases, but some overlaps are reported. Moreover, several of the clinical forms of PSP partially or fully overlap with the other tauopathies. As a whole, the emergence of new clinical forms of PSP challenges the nosology of tauopathies and our understanding of these diseases.

  9. Interventions to slow progression of myopia in children

    PubMed Central

    Walline, Jeffrey J; Lindsley, Kristina; Vedula, Satyanarayana S; Cotter, Susan A; Mutti, Donald O; Twelker, J. Daniel

    2012-01-01

    .25 diopters (D) spherical equivalent myopia. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed the risk of bias for each included study. When possible, we analyzed data with the inverse variance method using a fixed-effect or random-effects model, depending on the number of studies and amount of heterogeneity detected. Main results We included 23 studies (4696 total participants) in this review, with 17 of these studies included in quantitative analysis. Since we only included RCTs in the review, the studies were generally at low risk of bias for selection bias. Undercorrection of myopia was found to increase myopia progression slightly in two studies; children who were undercorrected progressed on average 0.15 D (95% confidence interval (CI) −0.29 to 0.00) more than the fully corrected SVLs wearers at one year. Rigid gas permeable contact lenses (RGPCLs) were found to have no evidence of effect on myopic eye growth in two studies (no meta-analysis due to heterogeneity between studies). Progressive addition lenses (PALs), reported in four studies, and bifocal spectacles, reported in four studies, were found to yield a small slowing of myopia progression. For seven studies with quantitative data at one year, children wearing multifocal lenses, either PALs or bifocals, progressed on average 0.16 D (95% CI 0.07 to 0.25) less than children wearing SVLs. The largest positive effects for slowing myopia progression were exhibited by anti-muscarinic medications. At one year, children receiving pirenzepine gel (two studies), cyclopentolate eye drops (one study), or atropine eye drops (two studies) showed significantly less myopic progression compared with children receiving placebo (mean differences (MD) 0.31 (95% CI 0.17 to 0.44), 0.34 (95% CI 0.08 to 0.60), and 0.80 (95% CI 0.70 to 0.90), respectively). Authors’ conclusions The most likely effective treatment to slow myopia progression thus far is anti-muscarinic topical medication

  10. Autophagy is required for efficient meiosis progression and proper meiotic chromosome segregation in fission yeast.

    PubMed

    Matsuhara, Hirotada; Yamamoto, Ayumu

    2016-01-01

    Autophagy is a conserved intracellular degradation system, which contributes to development and differentiation of various organisms. Yeast cells undergo meiosis under nitrogen-starved conditions and require autophagy for meiosis initiation. However, the precise roles of autophagy in meiosis remain unclear. Here, we show that autophagy is required for efficient meiosis progression and proper meiotic chromosome segregation in fission yeast. Autophagy-defective strains bearing a mutation in the autophagy core factor gene atg1, atg7, or atg14 exhibit deformed nuclear structures during meiosis. These mutant cells require an extracellular nitrogen supply for meiosis progression following their entry into meiosis and show delayed meiosis progression even with a nitrogen supply. In addition, they show frequent chromosome dissociation from the spindle together with spindle overextension, forming extra nuclei. Furthermore, Aurora kinase, which regulates chromosome segregation and spindle elongation, is significantly increased at the centromere and spindle in the mutant cells. Aurora kinase down-regulation eliminated delayed initiation of meiosis I and II, chromosome dissociation, and spindle overextension, indicating that increased Aurora kinase activity may cause these aberrances in the mutant cells. Our findings show a hitherto unrecognized relationship of autophagy with the nuclear structure, regulation of cell cycle progression, and chromosome segregation in meiosis.

  11. Contrasting breast cancer molecular subtypes across serial tumor progression stages: biological and prognostic implications

    PubMed Central

    Kimbung, Siker; Kovács, Anikó; Danielsson, Anna; Bendahl, Pär-Ola; Lövgren, Kristina; Stolt, Marianne Frostvik; Tobin, Nicholas P.; Lindström, Linda; Bergh, Jonas; Einbeigi, Zakaria; Fernö, Mårten; Hatschek, Thomas; Hedenfalk, Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    The relevance of the intrinsic subtypes for clinical management of metastatic breast cancer is not comprehensively established. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence and prognostic significance of drifts in tumor molecular subtypes during breast cancer progression. A well-annotated cohort of 304 women with advanced breast cancer was studied. Tissue microarrays of primary tumors and synchronous lymph node metastases were constructed. Conventional biomarkers were centrally assessed and molecular subtypes were assigned following the 2013 St Gallen guidelines. Fine-needle aspirates of asynchronous metastases were transcriptionally profiled and subtyped using PAM50. Discordant expression of individual biomarkers and molecular subtypes was observed during tumor progression. Primary luminal-like tumors were relatively unstable, frequently adopting a more aggressive subtype in the metastases. Notably, loss of ER expression and a luminal to non-luminal subtype conversion was associated with an inferior post-recurrence survival. In addition, ER and molecular subtype assessed at all tumor progression stages were independent prognostic factors for post-recurrence breast cancer mortality in multivariable analyses. Our results demonstrate that drifts in tumor molecular subtypes may occur during tumor progression, conferring adverse consequences on outcome following breast cancer relapse. PMID:26375671

  12. The Effectiveness of Additional Literacy Support (ALS) in Years 3 and 4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunn, Tim

    2008-01-01

    This study compared the progress in reading and spelling of 256 children in 11 classes in 9 English primary schools in Years 3 and 4, and a partially overlapping sample of 126 children who received additional help with literacy during 1 year. Teachers and teaching assistants used either Additional Literacy Support (ALS), a highly structured set of…

  13. Progressing batch hydrolysis process

    DOEpatents

    Wright, J.D.

    1985-01-10

    A progressive batch hydrolysis process is disclosed for producing sugar from a lignocellulosic feedstock. It comprises passing a stream of dilute acid serially through a plurality of percolation hydrolysis reactors charged with feed stock, at a flow rate, temperature and pressure sufficient to substantially convert all the cellulose component of the feed stock to glucose. The cooled dilute acid stream containing glucose, after exiting the last percolation hydrolysis reactor, serially fed through a plurality of pre-hydrolysis percolation reactors, charged with said feedstock, at a flow rate, temperature and pressure sufficient to substantially convert all the hemicellulose component of said feedstock to glucose. The dilute acid stream containing glucose is cooled after it exits the last prehydrolysis reactor.

  14. Progressing batch hydrolysis process

    DOEpatents

    Wright, John D.

    1986-01-01

    A progressive batch hydrolysis process for producing sugar from a lignocellulosic feedstock, comprising passing a stream of dilute acid serially through a plurality of percolation hydrolysis reactors charged with said feedstock, at a flow rate, temperature and pressure sufficient to substantially convert all the cellulose component of the feedstock to glucose; cooling said dilute acid stream containing glucose, after exiting the last percolation hydrolysis reactor, then feeding said dilute acid stream serially through a plurality of prehydrolysis percolation reactors, charged with said feedstock, at a flow rate, temperature and pressure sufficient to substantially convert all the hemicellulose component of said feedstock to glucose; and cooling the dilute acid stream containing glucose after it exits the last prehydrolysis reactor.

  15. Sphingosylphosphorylcholine in cancer progress

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Hong-Wei; Jing, Qing-Chuan; Liu, Ping-Ping; Liu, Jing; Li, Wen-Jing; Zhao, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Sphingosylphosphorylcholine (SPC) is a naturally occurring bioactive sphingolipid in blood plasma, metabolizing from the hydrolysis of the membrane sphingolipid. It has been shown to exert multifunctional role in cell physiological regulation either as an intracellular second messenger or as an extracellular agent through G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs). Because of elevated levels of SPC in malicious ascites of patients with cancer, the role of SPC in tumor progression has prompted wide interest. The factor was reported to affect the proliferation and/or migration of many cancer cells, including pancreatic cancer cells, epithelial ovarian carcinoma cells, rat C6 glioma cells, neuroblastoma cells, melanoma cells, and human leukemia cells. This review covers current knowledge of the role of SPC in tumor. PMID:26550104

  16. Progress Toward Future Runway Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lohr, Gary W.; Brown, Sherilyn A.; Atkins, Stephen; Eisenhawer, Stephen W.; Bott, Terrance F.; Long, Dou; Hasan, Shahab

    2011-01-01

    The runway is universally acknowledged as a constraining factor to capacity in the National Airspace System (NAS). It follows that investigation of the effective use of runways, both in terms of selection and assignment, is paramount to the efficiency of future NAS operations. The need to address runway management is not a new idea; however, as the complexities of factors affecting runway selection and usage increase, the need for effective research in this area correspondingly increases. Under the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s Airspace Systems Program, runway management is a key research area. To address a future NAS which promises to be a complex landscape of factors and competing interests among users and operators, effective runway management strategies and capabilities are required. This effort has evolved from an assessment of current practices, an understanding of research activities addressing surface and airspace operations, traffic flow management enhancements, among others. This work has yielded significant progress. Systems analysis work indicates that the value of System Oriented Runway Management tools is significantly increased in the metroplex environment over that of the single airport case. Algorithms have been developed to provide runway configuration recommendations for a single airport with multiple runways. A benefits analysis has been conducted that indicates the SORM benefits include supporting traffic growth, cost reduction as a result of system efficiency, NAS optimization from metroplex operations, fairness in aircraft operations, and rational decision making.

  17. Progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Anshu

    2014-03-01

    Progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis (PFIC) is a group of rare disorders which are caused by defect in bile secretion and present with intrahepatic cholestasis, usually in infancy and childhood. These are autosomal recessive in inheritance. The estimated incidence is about 1 per 50,000 to 1 per 100,000 births, although exact prevalence is not known. These diseases affect both the genders equally and have been reported from all geographical areas. Based on clinical presentation, laboratory findings, liver histology and genetic defect, these are broadly divided into three types-PFIC type 1, PFIC type 2 and PFIC type 3. The defect is in ATP8B1 gene encoding the FIC1 protein, ABCB 11 gene encoding BSEP protein and ABCB4 gene encoding MDR3 protein in PFIC1, 2 and 3 respectively. The basic defect is impaired bile salt secretion in PFIC1/2 whereas in PFIC3, it is reduced biliary phospholipid secretion. The main clinical presentation is in the form of cholestatic jaundice and pruritus. Serum gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) is normal in patients with PFIC1/2 while it is raised in patients with PFIC3. Treatment includes nutritional support (adequate calories, supplementation of fat soluble vitamins and medium chain triglycerides) and use of medications to relieve pruritus as initial therapy followed by biliary diversion procedures in selected patients. Ultimately liver transplantation is needed in most patients as they develop progressive liver fibrosis, cirrhosis and end stage liver disease. Due to the high risk of developing liver tumors in PFIC2 patients, monitoring is recommended from infancy. Mutation targeted pharmacotherapy, gene therapy and hepatocyte transplantation are being explored as future therapeutic options.

  18. Oxystressed tumor microenvironment potentiates epithelial to mesenchymal transition and alters cellular bioenergetics towards cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Sridaran, Dhivya; Ramamoorthi, Ganesan; MahaboobKhan, Rasool; Kumpati, Premkumar

    2016-10-01

    During tumorigenesis, cancer cells generate complex, unresolved interactions with the surrounding oxystressed cellular milieu called tumor microenvironment (TM) that favors spread of cancer to other body parts. This dissemination of cancer cells from the primary tumor site is the main clinical challenge in cancer treatment. In addition, the significance of enhanced oxidative stress in TM during cancer progression still remains elusive. Thus, the present study was performed to investigate the molecular and cytoskeletal alterations in breast cancer cells associated with oxystressed TM that potentiates metastasis. Our results showed that depending on the extent of oxidative stress in TM, cancer cells exhibited enhanced migration and survival with reduction of chemosensitivity. Corresponding ultrastructural analysis showed radical cytoskeletal modifications that reorganize cell-cell interactions fostering transition of epithelial cells to mesenchymal morphology (EMT) marking metastasis, which was reversed upon antioxidant treatment. Decreased E-cadherin and increased vimentin, Twist1/2 expression corroborated the initiation of EMT in oxystressed TM-influenced cells. Further evaluation of cellular energetics demonstrated significant metabolic reprogramming with inclination towards glucose or external glutamine from TM as energy source depending on the breast cancer cell type. These observations prove the elemental role of oxystressed TM in cancer progression, initiating EMT and metabolic reprogramming. Further cell-type specific metabolomic analysis would unravel the alternate mechanisms in cancer progression for effective therapeutic intervention. Graphical abstract Schematic representation of the study and proposed mechanism of oxystressed TM influenced cancer progression. Cancer cells exhibit a close association with tumor microenvironment (TM), and oxystressed TM enhances cancer cell migration and survival and reduces chemosensitivity. Oxystressed TM induces dynamic

  19. Academic progress of students across inclusive and traditional settings.

    PubMed

    Cole, Cassandra M; Waldron, Nancy; Majd, Massoumeh

    2004-04-01

    Effects of inclusive school settings for students in six Indiana school corporations were investigated. Results reveal that students without disabilities educated in inclusive settings made significantly greater academic progress in mathematics and reading. For students with disabilities, there were no significant differences in reading and math achievement across the comparison groups. However, a review of group means and the percentage of students making comparable or greater than average academic progress when compared to students without disabilities indicates a pattern in favor of inclusive settings. The academic progress of students with specific disability labels, namely, learning disabilities and mild mental handicaps, also supported inclusive education.

  20. 78 FR 66105 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

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    2013-11-04

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  1. 77 FR 22846 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

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  2. 78 FR 8701 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

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  3. 75 FR 65554 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

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  4. 77 FR 58912 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

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  5. 77 FR 36041 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

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  6. 77 FR 838 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

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  7. 77 FR 69706 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

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  8. 75 FR 64781 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

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  9. 78 FR 29814 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

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  10. 78 FR 3083 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

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  11. 78 FR 53007 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

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  12. 77 FR 14592 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

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  13. 77 FR 56271 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

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  14. 77 FR 4400 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

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  15. 76 FR 56875 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

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  16. 76 FR 25407 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

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  17. 76 FR 5857 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

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  18. 77 FR 28670 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

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  19. 77 FR 48609 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

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    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act... Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act (``Kingpin Act''). DATES: The designation by the Director of OFAC of the... of significant foreign narcotics traffickers and their organizations on a worldwide basis....

  20. 76 FR 25405 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

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