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Sample records for addition significantly enhanced

  1. Mechanical and Electrical Properties of a Polyimide Film Significantly Enhanced by the Addition of Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meador, Michael A.

    2005-01-01

    Single-wall carbon nanotubes have been shown to possess a combination of outstanding mechanical, electrical, and thermal properties. The use of carbon nanotubes as an additive to improve the mechanical properties of polymers and/or enhance their thermal and electrical conductivity has been a topic of intense interest. Nanotube-modified polymeric materials could find a variety of applications in NASA missions including large-area antennas, solar arrays, and solar sails; radiation shielding materials for vehicles, habitats, and extravehicular activity suits; and multifunctional materials for vehicle structures and habitats. Use of these revolutionary materials could reduce vehicle weight significantly and improve vehicle performance and capabilities.

  2. Appropriate Fe (II) Addition Significantly Enhances Anaerobic Ammonium Oxidation (Anammox) Activity through Improving the Bacterial Growth Rate

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yiwen; Ni, Bing-Jie

    2015-01-01

    The application of anaerobic ammonium oxidation (Anammox) process is often limited by the slow growth rate of Anammox bacteria. As the essential substrate element that required for culturing Anammox sludge, Fe (II) is expected to affect Anammox bacterial growth. This work systematically studied the effects of Fe (II) addition on Anammox activity based on the kinetic analysis of specific growth rate using data from batch tests with an enriched Anammox sludge at different dosing levels. Results clearly demonstrated that appropriate Fe (II) dosing (i.e., 0.09 mM) significantly enhanced the specific Anammox growth rate up to 0.172 d−1 compared to 0.118 d−1 at regular Fe (II) level (0.03 mM). The relationship between Fe (II) concentration and specific Anammox growth rate was found to be well described by typical substrate inhibition kinetics, which was integrated into currently well-established Anammox model to describe the enhanced Anammox growth with Fe (II) addition. The validity of the integrated Anammox model was verified using long-term experimental data from three independent Anammox reactors with different Fe (II) dosing levels. This Fe (II)-based approach could be potentially implemented to enhance the process rate for possible mainstream application of Anammox technology, in order for an energy autarchic wastewater treatment. PMID:25644239

  3. Significantly enhanced production of acarbose in fed-batch fermentation with the addition of S-adenosylmethionine.

    PubMed

    Sun, Li-Hui; Li, Ming-Gang; Wang, Yuan-Shan; Zheng, Yu-Guo

    2012-06-01

    Acarbose, a pseudo-oligosaccharide, is widely used clinically in therapies for non-insulin-dependent diabetes. In the present study, S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) was added to selected media in order to investigate its effect on acarbose fermentation by Actinoplanes utahensis ZJB- 08196. Acarbose titer was seen to increase markedly when concentrations of SAM were added over a period of time. The effects of glucose and maltose on the production of acarbose were investigated in both batch and fed-batch fermentation. Optimal acarbose production was observed at relatively low glucose levels and high maltose levels. Based on these results, a further fed-batch experiment was designed so as to enhance the production of acarbose. Fed-batch fermentation was carried out at an initial glucose level of 10 g/l and an initial maltose level of 60 g/l. Then, 12 h post inoculation, 100 micromol/l SAM was added. In addition, 8 g/l of glucose was added every 24 h, and 20 g/l of maltose was added at 96 h. By way of this novel feeding strategy, the maximum titer of acarbose achieved was 6,113 mg/l at 192 h. To our knowledge, the production level of acarbose achieved in this study is the highest ever reported.

  4. Hydrogen bonding mediated enantioselective organocatalysis in brine: significant rate acceleration and enhanced stereoselectivity in enantioselective Michael addition reactions of 1,3-dicarbonyls to β-nitroolefins.

    PubMed

    Bae, Han Yong; Some, Surajit; Oh, Joong Suk; Lee, Yong Seop; Song, Choong Eui

    2011-09-14

    Brine provides remarkable rate acceleration and a higher level of stereoselectivity over organic solvents, due to the hydrophobic hydration effect, in the enantioselective Michael addition reactions of 1,3-dicarbonyls to β-nitroolefins using chiral H-donors as organocatalysts.

  5. Addition of Cryoprotectant Significantly Alters the Epididymal Sperm Proteome

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Sung-Jae; Rahman, Md Saidur; Kwon, Woo-Sung; Park, Yoo-Jin; Pang, Myung-Geol

    2016-01-01

    Although cryopreservation has been developed and optimized over the past decades, it causes various stresses, including cold shock, osmotic stress, and ice crystal formation, thereby reducing fertility. During cryopreservation, addition of cryoprotective agent (CPA) is crucial for protecting spermatozoa from freezing damage. However, the intrinsic toxicity and osmotic stress induced by CPA cause damage to spermatozoa. To identify the effects of CPA addition during cryopreservation, we assessed the motility (%), motion kinematics, capacitation status, and viability of epididymal spermatozoa using computer-assisted sperm analysis and Hoechst 33258/chlortetracycline fluorescence staining. Moreover, the effects of CPA addition were also demonstrated at the proteome level using two-dimensional electrophoresis. Our results demonstrated that CPA addition significantly reduced sperm motility (%), curvilinear velocity, viability (%), and non-capacitated spermatozoa, whereas straightness and acrosome-reacted spermatozoa increased significantly (p < 0.05). Ten proteins were differentially expressed (two decreased and eight increased) (>3 fold, p < 0.05) after CPA, whereas NADH dehydrogenase flavoprotein 2, f-actin-capping protein subunit beta, superoxide dismutase 2, and outer dense fiber protein 2 were associated with several important signaling pathways (p < 0.05). The present study provides a mechanistic basis for specific cryostresses and potential markers of CPA-induced stress. Therefore, these might provide information about the development of safe biomaterials for cryopreservation and basic ground for sperm cryopreservation. PMID:27031703

  6. Additional Guidance on Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) Regulations

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  7. Additional branches of celiac trunk and its clinical significance.

    PubMed

    Nayak, S R; Prabhu, Latha V; Krishnamurthy, A; Ganesh Kumar, C; Ramanathan, Lakshmi A; Acharya, Abhijith; Prasad Sinha, Abhishek

    2008-01-01

    The anatomical variations of the abdominal arteries are important due to its clinical significance. Various types of vascular anomalies are frequently found in human abdominal viscera, during cadaveric dissection and diagnostic radiological imaging. The present report describes a variation in the celiac trunk as found during routine dissection in a 59-year-old male cadaver. The celiac trunk (CT) was unusually lengthy and took origin from the left antero-lateral surface of the abdominal aorta. Altogether, there were five branches, including three classic branches of CT. The left phrenic artery (LPA) was the first branch of the CT. The remaining four branches were left gastric artery (LGA), splenic artery (SA), common hepatic artery (CHA) and gastroduodenal artery (GDA). There was an arterial loop between the posterior branches of the superior pancreatico-duodenal artery (SPDA), arising from the GDA, and the posterior branch of the inferior pancreatico-duodenal artery (IPDA), arising from the superior mesenteric artery (SMA). The arterial loop formed by the above arteries, supplied the head of the pancreas and duodeno-jejunal flexure. The embryological and clinical significance of above variations has been described.

  8. Porcine JAB1 significantly enhances apoptosis induced by staurosporine

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, P; Wang, J; Kang, Z; Li, D; Zhang, D

    2013-01-01

    c-Jun activation domain-binding protein-1 (JAB1), also known as the subunit 5 of the COP9 signalosome, is a multifunctional protein that regulates cell proliferation, apoptosis and oncogenesis by interacting with and subsequently degrading a large number of proteins. Although human JAB1 (hJAB1) has been studied for a long time, studies on porcine JAB1 (pJAB1) have never been reported. In the present study, we cloned and characterized the pJAB1 gene. The genomic structure of the pJAB1 gene was determined. The open-reading frame of pJAB1 encoded 334 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence was highly similar to homologs in other species. Furthermore, the tertiary structure analysis and phylogenetic analysis indicated that JAB1 was highly conservative among species. pJAB1 may interact with several proteins according to protein–protein interactions analysis. In addition, pJAB1 was found to be universally expressed in porcine tissues. Subcellular localization analysis showed that GFP–pJAB1 fusion protein distributed specifically in the cytoplasm. Flow cytometric analysis proved that pJAB1 significantly enhanced apoptosis induced by staurosporine, which at least partially depended on the activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3. This study is useful for understanding the function of pJAB1 and offers a potential molecular model for the investigation of diseases related to hJAB1. PMID:24091666

  9. Metal-air cell with performance enhancing additive

    DOEpatents

    Friesen, Cody A; Buttry, Daniel

    2015-11-10

    Systems and methods drawn to an electrochemical cell comprising a low temperature ionic liquid comprising positive ions and negative ions and a performance enhancing additive added to the low temperature ionic liquid. The additive dissolves in the ionic liquid to form cations, which are coordinated with one or more negative ions forming ion complexes. The electrochemical cell also includes an air electrode configured to absorb and reduce oxygen. The ion complexes improve oxygen reduction thermodynamics and/or kinetics relative to the ionic liquid without the additive.

  10. Decontamination formulation with additive for enhanced mold remediation

    DOEpatents

    Tucker, Mark D.; Irvine, Kevin; Berger, Paul; Comstock, Robert

    2010-02-16

    Decontamination formulations with an additive for enhancing mold remediation. The formulations include a solubilizing agent (e.g., a cationic surfactant), a reactive compound (e.g., hydrogen peroxide), a carbonate or bicarbonate salt, a water-soluble bleaching activator (e.g., propylene glycol diacetate or glycerol diacetate), a mold remediation enhancer containing Fe or Mn, and water. The concentration of Fe.sup.2+ or Mn.sup.2+ ions in the aqueous mixture is in the range of about 0.0001% to about 0.001%. The enhanced formulations can be delivered, for example, as a foam, spray, liquid, fog, mist, or aerosol for neutralization of chemical compounds, and for killing certain biological compounds or agents and mold spores, on contaminated surfaces and materials.

  11. Molecular Aluminum Additive for Burn Enhancement of Hydrocarbon Fuels.

    PubMed

    Guerieri, Philip M; DeCarlo, Samantha; Eichhorn, Bryan; Connell, Terrence; Yetter, Richard A; Tang, Xin; Hicks, Zachary; Bowen, Kit H; Zachariah, Michael R

    2015-11-12

    Additives to hydrocarbon fuels are commonly explored to change the combustion dynamics, chemical distribution, and/or product integrity. Here we employ a novel aluminum-based molecular additive, Al(I) tetrameric cluster [AlBrNEt3]4 (Et = C2H5), to a hydrocarbon fuel and evaluate the resultant single-droplet combustion properties. This Al4 cluster offers a soluble alternative to nanoscale particulate additives that have recently been explored and may mitigate the observed problems of particle aggregation. Results show the [AlBrNEt3]4 additive to increase the burn rate constant of a toluene-diethyl ether fuel mixture by ∼20% in a room temperature oxygen environment with only 39 mM of active aluminum additive (0.16 wt % limited by additive solubility). In comparison, a roughly similar addition of nano-aluminum particulate shows no discernible difference in burn properties of the hydrocarbon fuel. High speed video shows the [AlBrNEt3]4 to induce microexplosive gas release events during the last ∼30% of the droplet combustion time. We attribute this to HBr gas release based on results of temperature-programmed reaction (TPR) experiments of the [AlBrNEt3]4 dosed with O2 and D2O. A possible mechanism of burn rate enhancement is presented that is consistent with microexplosion observations and TPR results.

  12. Significantly enhanced osteoblast response to nano-grained pure tantalum

    PubMed Central

    Huo, W. T.; Zhao, L. Z.; Yu, S.; Yu, Z. T.; Zhang, P. X.; Zhang, Y. S.

    2017-01-01

    Tantalum (Ta) metal is receiving increasing interest as biomaterial for load-bearing orthopedic applications and the synthetic properties of Ta can be tailored by altering its grain structures. This study evaluates the capability of sliding friction treatment (SFT) technique to modulate the comprehensive performances of pure Ta. Specifically, novel nanocrystalline (NC) surface with extremely small grains (average grain size of ≤20 nm) was fabricated on conventional coarse-grained (CG) Ta by SFT. It shows that NC surface possessed higher surface hydrophilicity and enhanced corrosion resistance than CG surface. Additionally, the NC surface adsorbed a notably higher percentage of protein as compared to CG surface. The in vitro results indicated that in the initial culture stages (up to 24 h), the NC surface exhibited considerably enhanced osteoblast adherence and spreading, consistent with demonstrated superior hydrophilicity on NC surface. Furthermore, within the 14 days culture period, NC Ta surface exhibited a remarkable enhancement in osteoblast cell proliferation, maturation and mineralization as compared to CG surface. Ultimately, the improved osteoblast functions together with the good mechanical and anti-corrosion properties render the SFT-processed Ta a promising alternative for the load-bearing bone implant applications. PMID:28084454

  13. Significant enhancement of neutralino dark matter annihilation from electroweak bremsstrahlung.

    PubMed

    Bringmann, Torsten; Calore, Francesca

    2014-02-21

    Indirect searches for the cosmological dark matter have become ever more competitive during the past years. Here, we report the first full calculation of leading electroweak corrections to the annihilation rate of supersymmetric neutralino dark matter. We find that these corrections can be huge, partially due to contributions that have been overlooked so far. Our results imply a significantly enhanced discovery potential of this well motivated dark matter candidate with current and upcoming cosmic ray experiments, in particular for gamma rays and models with somewhat small annihilation rates at the tree level.

  14. Evaluation of Boundary-Enhancement Additives for Perfluoropolyethers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shogrin, Bradley A.; Jones, William R. , Jr.; Herrera-Fierro, Pilar; Lin, Tzuhn-Yuan; Kawa, Hajimu

    1996-01-01

    Six additives were synthesized and evaluated as boundary lubrication enhancers for perfluoropolyethers. These additives included a phosphonate, a thiophosphonate, a beta-diketone, a benzothiazole, an amide and a sulfite. These additives were evaluated in a vacuum four-ball apparatus, at a one weight percent concentration in a perfluoropolyether based on hexafluoropropene oxide. Tests were performed in vacuum (less than 5.0 x 10(exp 6) Torr), at room temperature (approx. 23 C), at an initial Hertzian stress of 3.5 GPa (200N load), and a sliding velocity of 28.8 mm/sec (100 rpm). Infrared (IR) and Raman spectroscopies were used to analyze the 440 C specimens after testing. Wear rates for each formulation were determined from the slope of wear volume as a function of sliding distance. All additives yielded reductions in mean wear rates of at least 55 percent, with the exception of the benzothiazole which had no effect. Two of the additives, an amide and a sulfite, reduced the mean wear rate by at least 80 percent. IR and Raman analysis indicated the severity of wear can be correlated to the amount of surface fluorinated polymeric acid species (R(sub f)COOH) and amorphous carbon, in and around the wear scar.

  15. Nanostructures Significantly Enhance Thermal Transport across Solid Interfaces.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eungkyu; Zhang, Teng; Yoo, Taehee; Guo, Zhi; Luo, Tengfei

    2016-12-28

    The efficiency of thermal transport across solid interfaces presents large challenges for modern technologies such as thermal management of electronics. In this paper, we report the first demonstration of significant enhancement of thermal transport across solid interfaces by introducing interfacial nanostructures. Analogous to fins that have been used for macroscopic heat transfer enhancement in heat exchangers, the nanopillar arrays patterned at the interface help interfacial thermal transport by the enlarged effective contact area. Such a benefit depends on the geometry of nanopillar arrays (e.g., pillar height and spacing), and a thermal boundary conductance enhancement by as much as ∼88% has been measured using the time-domain thermoreflectance technique. Theoretical analysis combined with low-temperature experiments further indicates that phonons with low frequency are less influenced by the interfacial nanostructures due to their large transmissivity, but the benefit of the nanostructure is fully developed at room temperature where higher frequency phonons dominate interfacial thermal transport. The findings from this work can potentially be generalized to benefit real applications such as the thermal management of electronics.

  16. Significant enhancement of photovoltage in artificially designed perovskite oxide structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Wen-jia; Jin, Kui-juan; Guo, Hai-zhong; He, Xu; He, Meng; Xu, Xiu-lai; Lu, Hui-bin; Yang, Guo-zhen

    2015-03-01

    La0.9Sr0.1MnO3/insulator/SrNb0.007Ti0.993O3 multilayer and La0.9Sr0.1MnO3/SrNb0.007Ti0.993O3/In2O3:SnO2(ITO)/La0.9Sr0.1MnO3/SrNb0.007Ti0.993O3 multilayer structures were designed to enhance the photovoltage. The photovoltages of these two structures under an illumination of 308 nm laser are 410 and 600 mV, respectively. The latter is 20 times larger than that (30 mV) observed in La0.9Sr0.1MnO3/SrNb0.007Ti0.993O3 single junction. The origin of such significant enhancement of photovoltage is discussed in this letter. These results suggest that the photoelectric property of perovskite oxides could be much improved by artificial structure designing. The enhanced photovoltaic effects have potential applications in the ultraviolet photodetection and solar cells.

  17. A Hybrid Actuation System Demonstrating Significantly Enhanced Electromechanical Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Su, Ji; Xu, Tian-Bing; Zhang, Shujun; Shrout, Thomas R.; Zhang, Qiming

    2004-01-01

    A hybrid actuation system (HYBAS) utilizing advantages of a combination of electromechanical responses of an electroactive polymer (EAP), an electrostrictive copolymer, and an electroactive ceramic single crystal, PZN-PT single crystal, has been developed. The system employs the contribution of the actuation elements cooperatively and exhibits a significantly enhanced electromechanical performance compared to the performances of the device made of each constituting material, the electroactive polymer or the ceramic single crystal, individually. The theoretical modeling of the performances of the HYBAS is in good agreement with experimental observation. The consistence between the theoretical modeling and experimental test make the design concept an effective route for the development of high performance actuating devices for many applications. The theoretical modeling, fabrication of the HYBAS and the initial experimental results will be presented and discussed.

  18. Additional Enhancement of Electric Field in Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering due to Fresnel Mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayawardhana, Sasani; Rosa, Lorenzo; Juodkazis, Saulius; Stoddart, Paul R.

    2013-08-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) is attracting increasing interest for chemical sensing, surface science research and as an intriguing challenge in nanoscale plasmonic engineering. Several studies have shown that SERS intensities are increased when metal island film substrates are excited through a transparent base material, rather than directly through air. However, to our knowledge, the origin of this additional enhancement has never been satisfactorily explained. In this paper, finite difference time domain modeling is presented to show that the electric field intensity at the dielectric interface between metal particles is higher for ``far-side'' excitation than ``near-side''. This is reasonably consistent with the observed enhancement for silver islands on SiO2. The modeling results are supported by a simple analytical model based on Fresnel reflection at the interface, which suggests that the additional SERS signal is caused by near-field enhancement of the electric field due to the phase shift at the dielectric interface.

  19. Histone H2A significantly enhances in vitro DNA transfection.

    PubMed Central

    Balicki, D.; Beutler, E.

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Gene transfer is a potential treatment modality of genetic disease. Efficient, practical methods of DNA transfection are currently under investigation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A beta-galactosidase reporter plasmid interacted electrostatically with histones, poly-L-Lys, poly-L-Arg, and a combination of poly-L-Lys and poly-L-Arg. This complex was then used to transfect COS-7 cells. beta-galactosidase activity was quantified and used to compare the efficiency of gene transfection in vitro. A comparison was also made of DNA transfection with the most active histone subclass, i.e., histone H2A, in the absence and presence of an anionic liposome. RESULTS: There was a marked increase in DNA transfection in the presence of histone H2A when compared with the control, whereas each of the other histones and polycations showed little, if any, effect. The extent of activation depends strongly on the DNA/histone ratio and is also a function of the molarity of the final Tris-acetate, pH 8, solution. The anionic liposomes used demonstrated an inhibitory effect. CONCLUSIONS: Histone H2A significantly enhances in vitro DNA transfection whereas other histones and anionic liposomes do not. A study of the difference between histone H2A and other histone subclasses may serve to clarify some of the mechanisms and the essential components of efficient gene delivery. PMID:9407553

  20. Nitrite addition to acidified sludge significantly improves digestibility, toxic metal removal, dewaterability and pathogen reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Fangzhou; Keller, Jürg; Yuan, Zhiguo; Batstone, Damien J.; Freguia, Stefano; Pikaar, Ilje

    2016-12-01

    Sludge management is a major issue for water utilities globally. Poor digestibility and dewaterability are the main factors determining the cost for sludge management, whereas pathogen and toxic metal concentrations limit beneficial reuse. In this study, the effects of low level nitrite addition to acidified sludge to simultaneously enhance digestibility, toxic metal removal, dewaterability and pathogen reduction were investigated. Waste activated sludge (WAS) from a full-scale waste water treatment plant was treated at pH 2 with 10 mg NO2‑-N/L for 5 h. Biochemical methane potential tests showed an increase in the methane production of 28%, corresponding to an improvement from 247 ± 8 L CH4/kg VS to 317 ± 1 L CH4/kg VS. The enhanced removal of toxic metals further increased the methane production by another 18% to 360 ± 6 L CH4/kg VS (a total increase of 46%). The solids content of dewatered sludge increased from 14.6 ± 1.4% in the control to 18.2 ± 0.8%. A 4-log reduction for both total coliforms and E. coli was achieved. Overall, this study highlights the potential of acidification with low level nitrite addition as an effective and simple method achieving multiple improvements in terms of sludge management.

  1. Nitrite addition to acidified sludge significantly improves digestibility, toxic metal removal, dewaterability and pathogen reduction

    PubMed Central

    Du, Fangzhou; Keller, Jürg; Yuan, Zhiguo; Batstone, Damien J.; Freguia, Stefano; Pikaar, Ilje

    2016-01-01

    Sludge management is a major issue for water utilities globally. Poor digestibility and dewaterability are the main factors determining the cost for sludge management, whereas pathogen and toxic metal concentrations limit beneficial reuse. In this study, the effects of low level nitrite addition to acidified sludge to simultaneously enhance digestibility, toxic metal removal, dewaterability and pathogen reduction were investigated. Waste activated sludge (WAS) from a full-scale waste water treatment plant was treated at pH 2 with 10 mg NO2−-N/L for 5 h. Biochemical methane potential tests showed an increase in the methane production of 28%, corresponding to an improvement from 247 ± 8 L CH4/kg VS to 317 ± 1 L CH4/kg VS. The enhanced removal of toxic metals further increased the methane production by another 18% to 360 ± 6 L CH4/kg VS (a total increase of 46%). The solids content of dewatered sludge increased from 14.6 ± 1.4% in the control to 18.2 ± 0.8%. A 4-log reduction for both total coliforms and E. coli was achieved. Overall, this study highlights the potential of acidification with low level nitrite addition as an effective and simple method achieving multiple improvements in terms of sludge management. PMID:28004811

  2. Nitrogen Addition Significantly Affects Forest Litter Decomposition under High Levels of Ambient Nitrogen Deposition

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Gang; Peng, Yong; Xiao, Yin-long; Hu, Ting-xing; Zhang, Jian; Li, Xian-wei; Liu, Li; Tang, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Background Forest litter decomposition is a major component of the global carbon (C) budget, and is greatly affected by the atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition observed globally. However, the effects of N addition on forest litter decomposition, in ecosystems receiving increasingly higher levels of ambient N deposition, are poorly understood. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted a two-year field experiment in five forests along the western edge of the Sichuan Basin in China, where atmospheric N deposition was up to 82–114 kg N ha–1 in the study sites. Four levels of N treatments were applied: (1) control (no N added), (2) low-N (50 kg N ha–1 year–1), (3) medium-N (150 kg N ha–1 year–1), and (4) high-N (300 kg N ha–1 year–1), N additions ranging from 40% to 370% of ambient N deposition. The decomposition processes of ten types of forest litters were then studied. Nitrogen additions significantly decreased the decomposition rates of six types of forest litters. N additions decreased forest litter decomposition, and the mass of residual litter was closely correlated to residual lignin during the decomposition process over the study period. The inhibitory effect of N addition on litter decomposition can be primarily explained by the inhibition of lignin decomposition by exogenous inorganic N. The overall decomposition rate of ten investigated substrates exhibited a significant negative linear relationship with initial tissue C/N and lignin/N, and significant positive relationships with initial tissue K and N concentrations; these relationships exhibited linear and logarithmic curves, respectively. Conclusions/Significance This study suggests that the expected progressive increases in N deposition may have a potential important impact on forest litter decomposition in the study area in the presence of high levels of ambient N deposition. PMID:24551152

  3. Additional Enhancement of Electric Field in Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering due to Fresnel Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Jayawardhana, Sasani; Rosa, Lorenzo; Juodkazis, Saulius; Stoddart, Paul R.

    2013-01-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) is attracting increasing interest for chemical sensing, surface science research and as an intriguing challenge in nanoscale plasmonic engineering. Several studies have shown that SERS intensities are increased when metal island film substrates are excited through a transparent base material, rather than directly through air. However, to our knowledge, the origin of this additional enhancement has never been satisfactorily explained. In this paper, finite difference time domain modeling is presented to show that the electric field intensity at the dielectric interface between metal particles is higher for “far-side” excitation than “near-side”. This is reasonably consistent with the observed enhancement for silver islands on SiO2. The modeling results are supported by a simple analytical model based on Fresnel reflection at the interface, which suggests that the additional SERS signal is caused by near-field enhancement of the electric field due to the phase shift at the dielectric interface. PMID:23903714

  4. Bioavailability enhancement by addition of surfactant and surfactant-like compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Strong-Gunderson, J.M.; Palumbo, A.V.

    1995-12-31

    The bioavailability and microbial degradation of contaminant compounds (e.g., toluene and naphthalene) were enhanced by adding synthetic surfactants, biosurfactants, and nutrients with surfactant like properties. In addition to enhanced contaminant degradation, these surfactant compounds have the potential to change the availability of natural organic matter (NOM), and thus may affect overall site bioremediation. Two bacterial bioreporter strains that are induced by toluene or naphthalene were used to directly measure contaminant bioavailability. A cell-free biosurfactant product, Tween-80, and an oleophilic fertilizer were added to aqueous suspensions and soil slurries containing toluene or naphthalene. The addition of these surfactant compounds at or below the critical micelle concentration (CMC) enhanced bioavailability as measured by increased levels of bioluminescence. Bioluminescence data were coupled with gas chromatographic analyses. The addition of Tween-80 increased not only the bioavailability of the contaminants but also, in a separate assay, the bioavailability of recalcitrant NOM. The enhanced NOM bioavailability was inferred from measurements of biomass by optical density increases and plate counts. Thus, adding surfactant compounds for enhanced contaminant degradation has the potential to introduce additional competition for nutrients and microbial metabolism, a significant area of concern for in situ site remediation.

  5. Cyclase inhibitor tripropylamine significantly enhanced lycopene accumulation in Blakeslea trispora.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanlong; Chen, Xiwen; Hong, Xiao; Du, Shipeng; Liu, Chunxiao; Gong, Wenfang; Chen, Defu

    2016-11-01

    Lycopene is a member of carotenoids that exhibits strong antioxidant activity. In this study, on the basis of screening suitable strain combination [ATCC 14271(+) and ATCC 14272(-)] and establishing the optimal inoculation proportion of mated culture (1/2, +/-, w/w) for carotenoid production, the efficiency of compounds, mainly tertiary amines, on enhancing the lycopene content of Blakeslea trispora was systematically assessed. Of these compounds, tripropylamine showed the best enhancing effect, and then sequentially followed by triethylamine, tributylamine, trimethylamine, diisopropylamine, and isopropylamine. After treated with 1.8 g/L tripropylamine for two days, the lycopene proportion was increased from 1.7% to 90.1%, while the β-carotene proportion was decreased from 91.1% to 6.4% of the total carotenoids. In this case, the lycopene and total carotenoid contents were increased to 83.2 and 92.4 mg/gDW, which were 315.8- and 5.9-fold of that of the untreated control, respectively; while the growth of mycelia was only decreased at 6.0 g/L tripropylamine. Gene expression analysis showed that all the tested genes, especially genes encoding 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (hmgr) and isopentenyl pyrophosphate isomerase (ipi) in mevalonate pathway, as well as phytoene desaturase (carB) in carotenoid biosynthesis process were upregulated. Therefore, tripropylamine enhanced lycopene content of B. trispora by inhibiting the cyclase activity, and by upregulating the expression of genes associated with terpenoid biosynthesis. Besides, a possible association between the structure and the lycopene-enhancing capability of these compounds was also discussed.

  6. Enhancement of Corrosion Resistance of Zinc Coatings Using Green Additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Punith Kumar, M. K.; Srivastava, Chandan

    2014-10-01

    In the present work, morphology, microstructure, and electrochemical behavior of Zn coatings containing non-toxic additives have been investigated. Zn coatings were electrodeposited over mild steel substrates using Zn sulphate baths containing four different organic additives: sodium gluconate, dextrose, dextrin, and saccharin. All these additives are "green" and can be derived from food contents. Morphological and structural characterization using electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and texture co-efficient analysis revealed an appreciable alteration in the morphology and texture of the deposit depending on the type of additive used in the Zn plating bath. All the Zn coatings, however, were nano-crystalline irrespective of the type of additive used. Polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopic analysis, used to investigate the effect of the change in microstructure and morphology on corrosion resistance behavior, illustrated an improved corrosion resistance for Zn deposits obtained from plating bath containing additives as compared to the pure Zn coatings.

  7. Catalyst Additives to Enhance Mercury Oxidation and Capture

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas K. Gale

    2006-06-30

    Catalysis is the key fundamental ingredient to convert elemental mercury in coal-fired power stations into its oxidized forms that are more easily captured by sorbents, ESPs, baghouses, and wet scrubbers, whether the catalyst be unburned carbon (UBC) in the ash or vanadium pentoxide in SCR catalysts. This project has investigated several different types of catalysts that enhance mercury oxidation in several different ways. The stated objective of this project in the Statement of Objectives included testing duct-injection catalysts, catalyst-sorbent hybrids, and coated low-pressure-drop screens. Several different types of catalysts were considered for duct injection, including different forms of iron and carbon. Duct-injection catalysts would have to be inexpensive catalysts, as they would not be recycled. Iron and calcium had been shown to catalyze mercury oxidation in published bench-scale tests. However, as determined from results of an on-going EPRI/EPA project at Southern Research, while iron and calcium did catalyze mercury oxidation, the activity of these catalysts was orders of magnitude below that of carbon and had little impact in the short residence times available for duct-injected catalysts or catalyst-sorbent hybrids. In fact, the only catalyst found to be effective enough for duct injection was carbon, which is also used to capture mercury and remove it from the flue gas. It was discovered that carbon itself is an effective catalyst-sorbent hybrid. Bench-scale carbon-catalyst tests were conducted, to obtain kinetic rates of mercury adsorption (a key step in the catalytic oxidation of mercury by carbon) for different forms of carbon. All carbon types investigated behaved in a similar manner with respect to mercury sorption, including the effect of temperature and chlorine concentration. Activated carbon was more effective at adsorbing mercury than carbon black and unburned carbon (UBC), because their internal surface area of activated carbon was

  8. Surgical enhancement of facial beauty and its psychological significance.

    PubMed

    Baig, Moghees A

    2004-10-01

    Facial beauty is easier to recognize than to define. It is widely agreed that beauty is an evolutionary adoption for ensuring the survival of the species, because physical attractiveness is rated as more vital in mate selection. It includes a combination of qualities, starting from the grace of form to the charm of the colours that delight the sight and other senses. It does not have any norms however individual or societal assessment of attractiveness is greatly influenced by cultural standards. Several soft and hard tissue surgical procedures are therefore performed around the world each year. In this 12 years study from 1992 to 2004 the types of orthognathic surgical procedures performed and their psychological impact on the patients' well-being have been evaluated. By carefully structured interviews and psychosomatic evaluations It has been clinically demonstrated that psychological analysis is as important as soft and hard tissue parameters for patients undergoing surgical procedures to enhance facial beauty.

  9. Trichloroethylene Volatilization Enhancement by the Addition of a Brine Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irizarry, M. L.; Padilla, I. Y.

    2008-12-01

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) is one of the most widely detected organic contaminants at National Priority List (NPL) sites. In many sites, TCE is trapped as a dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) in formations of low permeability, and serves as long-term source of contamination. Cost effective remediation technologies that can be applied to tight formations need to be developed. This study investigates the enhancement of TCE volatilization from unsaturated clayey soils by adding a NaCl brine solution. It is postulated that the overall effect of the brine solution causing structured water around soil particles, increased relative permeability, and increased fugacity into the vapor phase, is to enhance TCE volatilization. TCE removal through the soil vapor extraction (SVE) technique can then be enhanced. Preliminary experimental work involves the use of static and dynamic flux reactors, containing TCE, water and clay. NaCl brine solution is added at different concentrations to evaluate the effect on TCE concentrations and volatilization rates. In the static flux mode, vapor concentrations in the headspace of sealed reactors are measured after a two-day period. In the dynamic flux mode, air is swept through the headspace of the reactors and TCE vapor concentrations are measured over time. Plots relating static TCE vapor concentration to brine concentration are used to show the effect of brine concentrations on TCE fugacity. Temporal concentration distributions of TCE show the effect of brine on the rate of volatilization. Keywords: Trichloroethylene (TCE), Soil vapor extraction (SVE), clay

  10. Enhanced Thermostability of a Fungal Alkaline Protease by Different Additives

    PubMed Central

    Nirmal, Nilesh P.; Laxman, R. Seeta

    2014-01-01

    A fungal strain (Conidiobolus brefeldianus MTCC 5184) isolated from plant detritus secreted a high activity alkaline protease. Thermostability studies of the fungal alkaline protease (FAP) revealed that the protease is stable up to 50°C with 40% residual activity after one hour. Effect of various additives such as sugars, sugar alcohols, polyols, and salts, on the thermostability of FAP was evaluated. Among the additives tested, glycerol, mannitol, xylitol, sorbitol, and trehalose were found to be very effective in increasing the stability of FAP, which was found to be concentration dependent. Fivefold increase in residual activity of FAP was observed in the presence of trehalose (50%) and sorbitol (50%) at 50°C for 4 h, compared to FAP without additive. Other additives like calcium at 20 mM and 10–15% ammonium sulphate showed lower stability improvement than trehalose and sorbitol. NaCl, MgCl2, K2HPO4, and glycine were found to be poor stabilizers and showed only a marginal improvement. PEG 6000 did not show any increase in stability but was found to be slightly inhibitory. PMID:25105022

  11. Synergistic Enhancement of Cellobiohydrolase Performance on Pretreated Corn Stover by Addition of Xylanase and Esterase Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Selig, M. J.; Knoshaug E. P.; Adney, W. S.; Himmel, M. E.; Decker, S. R.

    2007-11-01

    Significant increases in the depolymerization of corn stover cellulose by cellobiohydrolase I (Cel7A) from Trichoderma reesei were observed using small quantities of non-cellulolytic cell wall-degrading enzymes. Purified endoxylanase (XynA), ferulic acid esterase (FaeA), and acetyl xylan esterase (Axe1) all enhanced Cel7A performance on corn stover subjected to hot water pretreatment. In all cases, the addition of these activities improved the effectiveness of the enzymatic hydrolysis in terms of the quantity of cellulose converted per milligram of total protein. Improvement in cellobiose release by the addition of the non-cellulolytic enzymes ranged from a 13-84% increase over Cel7A alone. The most effective combinations included the addition of both XynA and Axe1, which synergistically enhance xylan conversions resulting in additional synergistic improvements in glucan conversion. Additionally, we note a direct relationship between enzymatic xylan removal in the presence of XynA and the enhancement of cellulose hydrolysis by Cel7A.

  12. Novel electrolyte additives to enhance zinc electrode cycle life

    SciTech Connect

    Doddapaneni, N.; Ingersoll, D.

    1995-11-01

    Electrochemical power sources that utilize zinc electrodes possess many advantages. Zinc is abundantly available, benign, inexpensive, stable over a wide operating temperature range, and has a high oxidation potential. In spite of these advantageous characteristics, rechargeable electrochemical systems based on zinc chemistry have not found widespread use. The major disadvantages of zinc electrodes are that they have limited cycle life due to zinc slumping and zinc electrode shape changes in alkaline solutions resulting from the solubility of zincate (Zn(OH){sub 4}{sup 2-}) in these solutions. As a result, premature cell failure often results due to cell shorting caused by dendritic growth as well as zinc slumping. In this paper we describe the chemical and physical characteristics of electrolyte solutions employing additives, particularly for zinc based electrochemical systems. These electrolytes are prepared using the alkali metal salts of 1,3,5-phenyltrisulfonic acid in combination with potassium hydroxide. The alkali metal salts of the acid possess good thermal stability, good ionic conductivity, and have a wide electrochemical voltage window in aqueous systems. With these electrolyte solutions improved cycle life was achieved in Zn/NiOOH and Zn/AgO. Improved cycle life with this additive is attributed to decreased zincate solubility, resulting in reduced zinc slumping and electrode shape changes. In addition, increased shelf-life and reduced self-discharge were also observed in many alkaline power sources.

  13. Carbon Nanotube Chopped Fiber for Enhanced Properties in Additive Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Menchhofer, Paul A.; Johnson, Joseph E.; Lindahl, John M.

    2016-06-06

    Nanocomp Technologies, Inc. is working with Oak Ridge National Laboratory to develop carbon nanotube (CNT) composite materials and evaluate their use in additive manufacturing (3D printing). The first phase demonstrated feasibility and improvements for carbon nanotube (CNT)- acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) composite filaments use in additive manufacturing, with potential future work centering on further improvements. By focusing the initial phase on standard processing methods (developed mainly for the incorporation of carbon fibers in ABS) and characterization techniques, a basis of knowledge for the incorporation of CNTs in ABS was learned. The ability to understand the various processing variables is critical to the successful development of these composites. From the degradation effects on ABS (caused by excessive temperatures), to the length of time the ABS is in the melt state, to the order of addition of constituents, and also to the many possible mixing approaches, a workable flow sequence that addresses each processing step is critical to the final material properties. Although this initial phase could not deal with each of these variables in-depth, a future study is recommended that will build on the lessons learned for this effort.

  14. Significantly improved cyclability of lithium manganese oxide under elevated temperature by an easily oxidized electrolyte additive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yunmin; Rong, Haibo; Mai, Shaowei; Luo, Xueyi; Li, Xiaoping; Li, Weishan

    2015-12-01

    Spinel lithium manganese oxide, LiMn2O4, is a promising cathode for lithium ion battery in large-scale applications, because it possesses many advantages compared with currently used layered lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO2) and olivine phosphate (LiFePO4), including naturally abundant resource, environmental friendliness and high and long work potential plateau. Its poor cyclability under high temperature, however, limits its application. In this work, we report a significant cyclability improvement of LiMn2O4 under elevated temperature by using dimethyl phenylphonite (DMPP) as an electrolyte additive. Charge/discharge tests demonstrate that the application of 0.5 wt.% DMPP yields a capacity retention improvement from 16% to 82% for LiMn2O4 after 200 cycles under 55 °C at 1 C (1C = 148 mAh g-1) between 3 and 4.5 V. Electrochemical and physical characterizations indicate that DMPP is electrochemically oxidized at the potential lower than that for lithium extraction, forming a protective cathode interphase on LiMn2O4, which suppresses the electrolyte decomposition and prevents LiMn2O4 from crystal destruction.

  15. Enhanced shear strength of sodium bentonite using frictional additives

    SciTech Connect

    Schmitt, K.E.; Bowders, J.J.; Gilbert, R.B.; Daniel, D.E.

    1997-12-31

    One of the most important obstacles to using geosynthetic clay liners (GCLs) in landfill cover systems is the low shear strength provided by the bentonitic portion of the GCL. In this study, the authors propose that granular, frictional materials might be added to the bentonite to form an admixture that would have greater shear strength than the bentonite alone while still raining low hydraulic conductivity. Bentonite was mixed with two separate granular additives, expanded shale and recycled to form mixtures consisting of 20-70% bentonite by weight. In direct shear tests at normal stresses of 34.5-103.5 kPa, effective friction angles were measured as 45{degrees} for the expanded 36{degrees} for the recycled glass, and 7{degrees} for the hydrated granular bentonite. The strength of the expanded shale mixtures increased nearly linearly as the percentage shale in the mixture increased, to 44{degrees} for a bentonite mixture with 80% shale. The addition of recycled glass showed little effect on the shear strength of the mixtures of glass and bentonite. Hydraulic conductivity measurements for both types of mixtures indicated a linear increase with log(k) as the amount of granular additive increased. For applications involving geosynthetic clay liners for cover systems, a mixture of 40% expanded shale and 60% bentonite is recommended, although further testing must be done. The 40/60 mixture satisfies the hydraulic equivalency requirement, with k = 5.1X10{sup -9} cm/sec, while increasing the shear strength parameters of the bentonitic mixture to {phi}{prime} = 17{degrees} and c{prime} = 0.

  16. Enhancement of Platinum Cathode Catalysis by Addition of Transition Metals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duong, Hung Tuan

    2009-01-01

    The sluggish kinetics of oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) contributes significantly to the loss of cathode overpotential in fuel cells, thus requiring high loadings of platinum (Pt), which is an expensive metal with limited supply. However, Pt and Pt-based alloys are still the best available electrocatalysts for ORR thus far. The research presented…

  17. Nitrogen Addition Enhances Drought Sensitivity of Young Deciduous Tree Species

    PubMed Central

    Dziedek, Christoph; Härdtle, Werner; von Oheimb, Goddert; Fichtner, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how trees respond to global change drivers is central to predict changes in forest structure and functions. Although there is evidence on the mode of nitrogen (N) and drought (D) effects on tree growth, our understanding of the interplay of these factors is still limited. Simultaneously, as mixtures are expected to be less sensitive to global change as compared to monocultures, we aimed to investigate the combined effects of N addition and D on the productivity of three tree species (Fagus sylvatica, Quercus petraea, Pseudotsuga menziesii) in relation to functional diverse species mixtures using data from a 4-year field experiment in Northwest Germany. Here we show that species mixing can mitigate the negative effects of combined N fertilization and D events, but the community response is mainly driven by the combination of certain traits rather than the tree species richness of a community. For beech, we found that negative effects of D on growth rates were amplified by N fertilization (i.e., combined treatment effects were non-additive), while for oak and fir, the simultaneous effects of N and D were additive. Beech and oak were identified as most sensitive to combined N+D effects with a strong size-dependency observed for beech, suggesting that the negative impact of N+D becomes stronger with time as beech grows larger. As a consequence, the net biodiversity effect declined at the community level, which can be mainly assigned to a distinct loss of complementarity in beech-oak mixtures. This pattern, however, was not evident in the other species-mixtures, indicating that neighborhood composition (i.e., trait combination), but not tree species richness mediated the relationship between tree diversity and treatment effects on tree growth. Our findings point to the importance of the qualitative role (‘trait portfolio’) that biodiversity play in determining resistance of diverse tree communities to environmental changes. As such, they provide

  18. Graphene as conductive additives in binderless activated carbon electrodes for power enhancement of supercapacitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nor, N. S. M.; Deraman, M.; Suleman, M.; Norizam, M. D. M.; Basri, N. H.; Sazali, N. E. S.; Hamdan, E.; Hanappi, M. F. Y. M.; Tajuddin, N. S. M.; Othman, M. A. R.; Shamsudin, S. A.; Omar, R.

    2016-11-01

    Carbon based supercapacitor electrodes from composite of binderless activated carbon and graphene as a conductive additive were fabricated with various amount of graphene (0, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 wt%). Graphene was mixed in self-adhesive carbon grains produced from pre-carbonized powder derived from fibers of oil palm empty fruit bunches and converted into green monoliths (GMs). The GMs were carbonized (N2) and activated (CO2) to produce activated carbon monoliths (ACMs) electrodes. Porosity characterizations by nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherm method shows that the pore characteristics of the ACMs are influenced by the graphene additive. The results of galvanostatic charge-discharge tests carried out on the supercapacitor cells fabricated using these electrodes shows that the addition of graphene additive (even in small amount) decreases the equivalent series resistance and enhances the specific power of the cells but significantly lowers the specific capacitance. The supercapacitor cell constructed with the electrode containing 4 wt % of graphene offers the maximum power (175 W kg-1) which corresponds to an improvement of 55%. These results demonstrate that the addition of graphene as conductive additive in activated carbon electrodes can enhance the specific power of the supercapacitor.

  19. Catalyst Additives to Enhance Mercury Oxidation and Capture

    SciTech Connect

    Jared W. Cannon; Thomas K. Gale

    2005-06-30

    Preliminary research has shown that SCR catalysts employed for nitrogen-oxide reduction can effectively oxidize mercury. This report discusses initial results from fundamental investigations into the behavior of mercury species in the presence of SCR catalysts at Southern Research Institute. The testing was performed at Southern Research's Catalyst Test Facility, a bench-scale reactor capable of simulating gas-phase reactions occurring in coal-fired utility pollution-control equipment. Three different SCR catalysts are currently being studied in this project--honeycomb-type, plate-type, and a hybrid-type catalyst. The catalysts were manufactured and supplied by Cormetech Inc., Hitachi America Ltd., and Haldor-Topsoe Inc., respectively. Parametric testing was performed to investigate the contribution of flue-gas chemistry on mercury oxidation via SCR catalysts. Methods and procedures for experimental testing continue to be developed to produce the highest quality mercury-oxidation data. During this past quarter, it was discovered that long periods (12 - 24 hours) are required to equilibrate the catalysts in the system. In addition, after the system has been equilibrated, operational changes to temperature, gas concentration, or flow rate shifts the equilibrium, and steady-state must be reestablished, which can require as much as twelve additional hours per condition change. In the last quarter of testing, it was shown that the inclusion of ammonia had a strong effect on the oxidation of mercury by SCR catalysts, both in the short-term (a transitional period of elemental and oxidized mercury off gassing) and the long-term (less steady-state mercury oxidation). All experiments so far have focused on testing the catalysts in a simulated Powder River Basin (PRB) flue-gas environment, which contains lower sulfur and chlorine than produced by other coals. In the next quarter, parametric testing will be expanded to include flue gases simulating power plants burning

  20. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  1. Enhancement of the mechanical properties by graphite flake addition

    DOEpatents

    Bunnell, Sr., Lee R.

    1991-01-01

    Compositions in accordance with the invention comprise a polymer and flake reinforcing material distributed throughout the polymer in an effective amount to structurally reinforce the polymer. Individual flakes of the flake material (a) are less than or equal to 1,000 Angstroms in thickness, (b) have an aspect ratio greater than or equal to 100, and (c) are preferably significantly randomly oriented throughout the polymer. A novel apparatus for shear grinding a platy solid material into such individual flakes comprises a cylindrical shearing drum and a shear grinder received therein. The shearing drum has a longitudinal axis and an internal surface formed about a first predetermined radius of curvature. The cylindrical drum is supported for rotation about its longitudinal axis. The shear grinder has an external surface formed about a second predetermined radius of curvature. The second radius of curvature is slightly less than the first radius of curvature.

  2. Social isolation stress significantly enhanced the disruption of prepulse inhibition in mice repeatedly treated with methamphetamine.

    PubMed

    Dai, Hongmei; Okuda, Hirotomo; Iwabuchi, Kentaro; Sakurai, Eiko; Chen, Zhong; Kato, Motohisa; Iinuma, Kazuie; Yanai, Kazuhiko

    2004-10-01

    Repeated administration of methamphetamine (METH) causes reverse tolerance or behavioral sensitization in mice. However, the effects of social isolation stress on the METH-caused reverse tolerance have not been studied until now. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of social isolation stress on METH-caused reverse tolerance by examining the prepulse inhibition of startle response (PPI). PPI was tested in socially isolated and grouped mice after repeated METH injections. Locomotor activity and PPI were also examined just after a four-week isolation rearing period as a control experiment. After completing behavioral experiments, the mice were sacrificed, and the contents of monoamines, including histamine in the brain, were measured. Social isolation stress significantly lowered the locomotion and disrupted PPI. Repeated injections of METH enhanced the effects of social isolation on PPI. The content of dopamine and histamine significantly increased in the cortex, and the turnover rate of dopamine decreased significantly. These findings demonstrate that social isolation stress significantly enhances METH-induced behavioral sensitization and that the altered histaminergic neuron system might play an important role in METH-induced behavioral sensitization in addition to dopaminergic and serotoninergic neurotransmission. Our data suggest that social isolation is involved in the development of METH-induced psychosis, schizophrenia, and other related psychiatric disorders.

  3. Compound coverage enhancement of electrospray ionization mass spectrometry through the addition of a homemade needle.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Shun; Qian, Shuai; Wang, Yi; Zhang, Yufeng; Cheng, Yiyu

    2013-03-21

    The response of many previously low-detectable or undetectable compounds in electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) has been enhanced by the addition of a simple, homemade needle into the traditional ESI interface. The needle located between the ESI emitter and the ion sweep cone (inlet of the detector) would ionize those neutral gaseous compounds, formed during electrospray, by a corona discharge process. The mobile phases, ESI parameters and positions of the needle were investigated and optimized. Several groups of compounds and herbal extracts were tested using the homemade set-up. Both the results of the flow injection and the hyphenated MS analyses showed significant enhancement effects of our homemade needle. The advantages of the proposed method include low cost, simplicity and practicality.

  4. Injection Route and TLR9 Agonist Addition Significantly Impact Heroin Vaccine Efficacy

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Active immunization is an effective means of blocking the pharmacodynamic effects of drugs and holds promise as a treatment for heroin addiction. Previously, we demonstrated the efficacy of our first-generation vaccine in blocking heroin self-administration in rats, however, many vaccine components can be modified to further improve performance. Herein we examine the effects of varying heroin vaccine injection route and adjuvant formulation. Mice immunized via subcutaneous (sc) injection exhibited inferior anti-heroin titers compared to intraperitoneal (ip) and sc/ip coadministration injection routes. Addition of TLR9 agonist cytosine-guanine oligodeoxynucleotide 1826 (CpG ODN 1826) to the original alum adjuvant elicited superior antibody titers and opioid affinities compared to alum alone. To thoroughly assess vaccine efficacy, full dose–response curves were generated for heroin-induced analgesia in both hot plate and tail immersion tests. Mice treated with CpG ODN 1826 exhibited greatly shifted dose–response curves (10–13-fold vs unvaccinated controls) while non-CpG ODN vaccine groups did not exhibit the same robust effect (2–7-fold shift for ip and combo, 2–3-fold shift for sc). Our results suggest that CpG ODN 1826 is a highly potent adjuvant, and injection routes should be considered for development of small molecule–protein conjugate vaccines. Lastly, this study has established a new standard for assessing drugs of abuse vaccines, wherein a full dose–response curve should be performed in an appropriate behavioral task. PMID:24517171

  5. Additive benefits of autonomy support and enhanced expectancies for motor learning.

    PubMed

    Wulf, Gabriele; Chiviacowsky, Suzete; Cardozo, Priscila Lopes

    2014-10-01

    Two factors that have been shown to facilitate motor learning are autonomy support (AS) and enhanced expectancies (EE) for performance. We examined the individual and combined influences of these factors. In a 2 × 2 design, participants learning a novel motor skill (throwing with the non-dominant arm) were or were not provided a choice (AS) about the ball color on each of 6 10-trial blocks during practice, and were or were not given bogus positive social-comparative feedback (EE). This resulted in four groups: AS/EE, AS, EE, and C (control). One day after the practice phase, participants completed 10 retention and 10 transfer trials. The distance to the target--a bull's eye with a 1m radius and 10 concentric circles--was 7.5m during practice and retention, and 8.5m during transfer. Autonomy support and enhanced expectancies had additive advantages for learning, with both main effects being significant for retention and transfer. On both tests, the AS/EE group showed the greatest throwing accuracy. Also, the accuracy scores of the AS and EE groups were higher than those of the C group. Furthermore, self-efficacy measured after practice and before retention and transfer was increased by both AS and EE. Thus, supporting learners' need for autonomy by given them a small choice--even though it was not directly related to task performance--and enhancing their performance expectancies appeared to independently influence learning.

  6. Enhancement of colour stability of anthocyanins in model beverages by gum arabic addition.

    PubMed

    Chung, Cheryl; Rojanasasithara, Thananunt; Mutilangi, William; McClements, David Julian

    2016-06-15

    This study investigated the potential of gum arabic to improve the stability of anthocyanins that are used in commercial beverages as natural colourants. The degradation of purple carrot anthocyanin in model beverage systems (pH 3.0) containing L-ascorbic acid proceeded with a first-order reaction rate during storage (40 °C for 5 days in light). The addition of gum arabic (0.05-5.0%) significantly enhanced the colour stability of anthocyanin, with the most stable systems observed at intermediate levels (1.5%). A further increase in concentration (>1.5%) reduced its efficacy due to a change in the conformation of the gum arabic molecules that hindered their exposure to the anthocyanins. Fluorescence quenching measurements showed that the anthocyanin could have interacted with the glycoprotein fractions of the gum arabic through hydrogen bonding, resulting in enhanced stability. Overall, this study provides valuable information about enhancing the stability of anthocyanins in beverage systems using natural ingredients.

  7. Enhancement of nitrate removal at the sediment-water interface by carbon addition plus vertical mixing.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xuechu; He, Shengbing; Zhang, Yueping; Huang, Xiaobo; Huang, Yingying; Chen, Danyue; Huang, Xiaochen; Tang, Jianwu

    2015-10-01

    Wetlands and ponds are frequently used to remove nitrate from effluents or runoffs. However, the efficiency of this approach is limited. Based on the assumption that introducing vertical mixing to water column plus carbon addition would benefit the diffusion across the sediment-water interface, we conducted simulation experiments to identify a method for enhancing nitrate removal. The results suggested that the sediment-water interface has a great potential for nitrate removal, and the potential can be activated after several days of acclimation. Adding additional carbon plus mixing significantly increases the nitrate removal capacity, and the removal of total nitrogen (TN) and nitrate-nitrogen (NO3(-)-N) is well fitted to a first-order reaction model. Adding Hydrilla verticillata debris as a carbon source increased nitrate removal, whereas adding Eichhornia crassipe decreased it. Adding ethanol plus mixing greatly improved the removal performance, with the removal rate of NO3(-)-N and TN reaching 15.0-16.5 g m(-2) d(-1). The feasibility of this enhancement method was further confirmed with a wetland microcosm, and the NO3(-)-N removal rate maintained at 10.0-12.0 g m(-2) d(-1) at a hydraulic loading rate of 0.5 m d(-1).

  8. Field-enhanced electrodes for additive-injection non-thermal plasma (NTP) processor

    DOEpatents

    Rosocha, Louis A.; Ferreri, Vincent; Kim, Yongho

    2009-04-21

    The present invention comprises a field enhanced electrode package for use in a non-thermal plasma processor. The field enhanced electrode package includes a high voltage electrode and a field-enhancing electrode with a dielectric material layer disposed in-between the high voltage electrode and the field-enhancing electrode. The field-enhancing electrode features at least one raised section that includes at least one injection hole that allows plasma discharge streamers to occur primarily within an injected additive gas.

  9. Unconventional scaling and significant enhancement of the spin Seebeck effect in multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, R.; Kikkawa, T.; Aguirre, M. H.; Lucas, I.; Anadón, A.; Oyake, T.; Uchida, K.; Adachi, H.; Shiomi, J.; Algarabel, P. A.; Morellón, L.; Maekawa, S.; Saitoh, E.; Ibarra, M. R.

    2015-12-01

    Spin Seebeck effects (SSEs) have been investigated in highly crystalline magnetic multilayer [Fe3O4/Pt] n films. Voltage as well as power generated by the SSE were found to be significantly enhanced with increasing the number of layers n . This voltage enhancement defies the simple understanding of the SSE and suggests that spin current flowing between the magnetic layers in the thickness direction plays an important role in multilayer SSE systems and the observed voltage enhancement.

  10. Effect of the additional anode layers on the absorption enhancement characteristic of plasmonic organic solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Sanghyuk; Kim, Jungho

    2014-12-01

    We numerically investigate the effect of additional anode layers on the absorption enhancement characteristic of pyramidal-grating plasmonic organic solar cells (OSCs) using the finite element method. The behaviors of the plasmonic absorption enhancement are compared between a “simple” structure consisting of only the active and metal cathode layers and a “practical” structure with the additional anode layers. The plasmonic absorption enhancement is identified by comparing the polarization-dependent absorbance spectra between the planar and plasmonic OSCs. When the active-layer thickness is small, the plasmonic resonance condition changes owing to the addition of the anode layers. When the active-layer thickness is large, the plasmonic resonance condition and corresponding absorption behavior show a slight difference irrespective of the inclusion of the additional anode layers. Therefore, the additional anode layers should be included in the optical analysis and design of plasmonic OSCs when the active-layer thickness is small.

  11. Photocurrent enhancement in nonpolar liquids by the addition of electron scavengers

    SciTech Connect

    Howell, G.A.; Lee, K.; Tweeten, D.W.; Lipsky, S.

    1988-07-14

    The photocurrent from anthracene, triphenylamine, and N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine excited above their ionization thresholds in liquid n-pentane or n-hexane is found to be enhanced by the addition of low concentrations (/approx lt/0.02 M) of the electron scavengers perfluoromethylcyclohexane or perfluorodecalin. The enhancement is not observed in solvents of higher electron mobility (e.g.,. cyclohexane, isooctane, etc.) or for scavengers of lower electron affinity (e.g., n-perfluorohexane). For the solute naphthalene, no enhancement is observed under any conditions. The effects of excitation energy and applied electric field strength are reported.

  12. Quenching and enhancing of SERS of methyl orange after the addition of chlorine and nitrate anions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Aiping; Zhang, Jinzhi

    2009-08-01

    The influence of Cl - and NO 3- anions on surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) of methyl orange adsorbed on “chemical pure” silver colloids was studied. It was found that NO 3- could give rise to a large enhancement of SERS of methyl orange, while Cl - could obviously weaken the SERS intensity of this molecule. Both quenching and enhancing effects were discussed and compared with each other. It indicated the coadsorbed process of these adsorbed species, and different adsorption behaviors of the molecules on silver surface directly resulted in the difference. In addition, the results of TEM pictures and UV-visible spectral experiments have also confirmed the conclusion above.

  13. Can ligand addition to soil enhance Cd phytoextraction? A mechanistic model study.

    PubMed

    Lin, Zhongbing; Schneider, André; Nguyen, Christophe; Sterckeman, Thibault

    2014-11-01

    Phytoextraction is a potential method for cleaning Cd-polluted soils. Ligand addition to soil is expected to enhance Cd phytoextraction. However, experimental results show that this addition has contradictory effects on plant Cd uptake. A mechanistic model simulating the reaction kinetics (adsorption on solid phase, complexation in solution), transport (convection, diffusion) and root absorption (symplastic, apoplastic) of Cd and its complexes in soil was developed. This was used to calculate plant Cd uptake with and without ligand addition in a great number of combinations of soil, ligand and plant characteristics, varying the parameters within defined domains. Ligand addition generally strongly reduced hydrated Cd (Cd(2+)) concentration in soil solution through Cd complexation. Dissociation of Cd complex ([Formula: see text]) could not compensate for this reduction, which greatly lowered Cd(2+) symplastic uptake by roots. The apoplastic uptake of [Formula: see text] was not sufficient to compensate for the decrease in symplastic uptake. This explained why in the majority of the cases, ligand addition resulted in the reduction of the simulated Cd phytoextraction. A few results showed an enhanced phytoextraction in very particular conditions (strong plant transpiration with high apoplastic Cd uptake capacity), but this enhancement was very limited, making chelant-enhanced phytoextraction poorly efficient for Cd.

  14. Enhanced tetrazolium violet reduction of Salmonella spp. by magnesium addition to the culture media.

    PubMed

    Junillon, Thomas; Morand, Lucie; Flandrois, Jean Pierre

    2014-09-01

    Tetrazolium salts (TTZ), such as tetrazolium violet (TV), have been widely used for microbiological studies. The formation of the colored formazan product due to bacterial reduction of the uncolored reagent is extensively exploited to stain cells or colonies in agar or on filters. But an important toxic effect of tetrazolium salts on bacteria exists that limits their use at high concentrations, impairing the efficient staining of the colonies. This is especially the case for Salmonella spp. where we observed, using a classic photometric approach and mathematical modeling of the growth, an important impact of tetrazolium violet on the apparent growth rate below the inhibitory concentration. In this study, we demonstrate that adding magnesium to the medium in the presence of TV leads to a significant increase in the apparent growth rate. Moreover, when higher TV concentrations are used which lead to total inhibition of Salmonella strains, magnesium addition to the culture media allows growth and TV reduction. This effect of magnesium may allow the use of higher TTZ concentrations in liquid growth media and enhance bacteria detection capabilities.

  15. Enhancement of aluminum tolerance in wheat by addition of chromosomes from the wild relative Leymus racemosus

    PubMed Central

    Mohammed, Yasir Serag Alnor; Eltayeb, Amin Elsadig; Tsujimoto, Hisashi

    2013-01-01

    Aluminum (Al) toxicity is the key factor limiting wheat production in acid soils. Soil liming has been used widely to increase the soil pH, but due to its high cost, breeding tolerant cultivars is more cost-effective mean to mitigate the problem. Tolerant cultivars could be developed by traditional breeding, genetic transformation or introgression of genes from wild relatives. We used 30 wheat alien chromosome addition lines to identify new genetic resources to improve wheat tolerance to Al and to identify the chromosomes harboring the tolerance genes. We evaluated these lines and their wheat background Chinese Spring for Al tolerance in hydroponic culture at various Al concentrations. We also investigated Al uptake, oxidative stress and cell membrane integrity. The L. racemosus chromosomes A and E significantly enhanced the Al tolerance of the wheat in term of relative root growth. At the highest Al concentration tested (200 μM), line E had the greatest tolerance. The introgressed chromosomes did not affect Al uptake of the tolerant lines. We attribute the improved tolerance conferred by chromosome E to improved cell membrane integrity. Chromosome engineering with these two lines could produce Al-tolerant wheat cultivars. PMID:24399913

  16. Continuous background light significantly increases flashing-light enhancement of photosynthesis and growth of microalgae.

    PubMed

    Abu-Ghosh, Said; Fixler, Dror; Dubinsky, Zvy; Iluz, David

    2015-01-01

    Under specific conditions, flashing light enhances the photosynthesis rate in comparison to continuous illumination. Here we show that a combination of flashing light and continuous background light with the same integrated photon dose as continuous or flashing light alone can be used to significantly enhance photosynthesis and increase microalgae growth. To test this hypothesis, the green microalga Dunaliella salina was exposed to three different light regimes: continuous light, flashing light, and concomitant application of both. Algal growth was compared under three different integrated light quantities; low, intermediate, and moderately high. Under the combined light regime, there was a substantial increase in all algal growth parameters, with an enhanced photosynthesis rate, within 3days. Our strategy demonstrates a hitherto undescribed significant increase in photosynthesis and algal growth rates, which is beyond the increase by flashing light alone.

  17. Does the addition of writing into a pharmacy communication skills course significantly impact student communicative learning outcomes? A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Lonie, John M; Rahim, Hamid

    2010-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if the addition of a reflective writing component in a fourth year (P-2) pharmacy communication skills course would significantly affect 2 measures of learning: (1) objective multiple choice examination questions and (2) a patient counseling Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) score. Using a nonequivalent group quasi-experimental retrospective comparison design, 98 randomly selected final examination scores from students taking a non-writing intensive (NWI) communication skills course were compared with 112 randomly selected final examination scores from students that took a communication skills course in which students engaged in several reflective writing assignments. In addition, 91 randomly selected patient counseling OSCE scores from a NWI course were statistically compared with 112 scores from students that took the writing intensive (WI) course. There were statistically significant improvements in multiple choice examination scores in the group that took the reflective writing communication skills course. There was not a statistically significant difference in patient counseling OSCE scores after students completed the WI course. Studying the effects of using reflective writing assignments in communication skills courses may improve the retention and retrieval of information presented within the course.

  18. Enhanced high-solids anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge by the addition of scrap iron.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yaobin; Feng, Yinghong; Yu, Qilin; Xu, Zibin; Quan, Xie

    2014-05-01

    Anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge usually requires pretreatment procedure to improve the bioavailability of sludge, which involves considerable energy and high expenditures. This study proposes a cost-effective method for enhanced anaerobic digestion of sludge without a pretreatment by directly adding iron into the digester. The results showed that addition of Fe(0) powder could enhance 14.46% methane yield, and Fe scrap (clean scrap) could further enhance methane yield (improving rate 21.28%) because the scrap has better mass transfer efficiency with sludge and liquid than Fe(0) powder. The scrap of Fe with rust (rusty scrap) could induce microbial Fe(III) reduction, which resulted in achieving the highest methane yield (improving rate 29.51%), and the reduction rate of volatile suspended solids (VSS) was also highest (48.27%) among Fe powder, clean scrap and rusty scrap. PCR-DGGE proved that the addition of rusty scrap could enhance diversity of acetobacteria and enrich iron-reducing bacteria to enhance degradation of complex substrates.

  19. Enhanced performance of polymer:fullerene bulk heterojunction solar cells upon graphene addition

    SciTech Connect

    Robaeys, Pieter Dierckx, Wouter; Dexters, Wim; Spoltore, Donato; Drijkoningen, Jeroen; Bonaccorso, Francesco; Bourgeois, Emilie; D'Haen, Jan; Haenen, Ken; Manca, Jean V.; Nesladek, Milos; Liesenborgs, Jori; Van Reeth, Frank; Lombardo, Antonio; Ferrari, Andrea C.

    2014-08-25

    Graphene has potential for applications in solar cells. We show that the short circuit current density of P3HT (Poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl):PCBM((6,6)-Phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester) solar cells is enhanced by 10% upon the addition of graphene, with a 15% increase in the photon to electric conversion efficiency. We discuss the performance enhancement by studying the crystallization of P3HT, as well as the electrical transport properties. We show that graphene improves the balance between electron and hole mobilities with respect to a standard P3HT:PCBM solar cell.

  20. A study of pyrazines in cigarettes and how additives might be used to enhance tobacco addiction

    PubMed Central

    Alpert, Hillel R; Agaku, Israel T; Connolly, Gregory N

    2016-01-01

    Background Nicotine is known as the drug that is responsible for the addicted behaviour of tobacco users, but it has poor reinforcing effects when administered alone. Tobacco product design features enhance abuse liability by (A) optimising the dynamic delivery of nicotine to central nervous system receptors, and affecting smokers’ withdrawal symptoms, mood and behaviour; and (B) effecting conditioned learning, through sensory cues, including aroma, touch and visual stimulation, to create perceptions of pending nicotine reward. This study examines the use of additives called ‘pyrazines’, which may enhance abuse potential, their introduction in ‘lights’ and subsequently in the highly market successful Marlboro Lights (Gold) cigarettes and eventually many major brands. Methods We conducted internal tobacco industry research using online databases in conjunction with published scientific literature research, based on an iterative feedback process. Results Tobacco manufacturers developed the use of a range of compounds, including pyrazines, in order to enhance ‘light’ cigarette products’ acceptance and sales. Pyrazines with chemosensory and pharmacological effects were incorporated in the first ‘full-flavour, low-tar’ product achieving high market success. Such additives may enhance dependence by helping to optimise nicotine delivery and dosing and through cueing and learned behaviour. Conclusions Cigarette additives and ingredients with chemosensory effects that promote addiction by acting synergistically with nicotine, increasing product appeal, easing smoking initiation, discouraging cessation or promoting relapse should be regulated by the US Food and Drug Administration. Current models of tobacco abuse liability could be revised to include more explicit roles with regard to non-nicotine constituents that enhance abuse potential. PMID:26063608

  1. Enhancing CBT for Chronic Insomnia: A Randomised Clinical Trial of Additive Components of Mindfulness or Cognitive Therapy.

    PubMed

    Wong, Mei Yin; Ree, Melissa J; Lee, Christopher W

    2016-09-01

    Although cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) for insomnia has resulted in significant reductions in symptoms, most patients are not classified as good sleepers after treatment. The present study investigated whether additional sessions of cognitive therapy (CT) or mindfulness-based therapy (MBT) could enhance CBT in 64 participants with primary insomnia. All participants were given four sessions of standard CBT as previous research had identified this number of sessions as an optimal balance between therapist guidance and patient independence. Participants were then allocated to further active treatment (four sessions of CT or MBT) or a no further treatment control. The additional treatments resulted in significant improvements beyond CBT on self-report and objective measures of sleep and were well tolerated as evidenced by no dropouts from either treatment. The effect sizes for each of these additional treatments were large and clinically significant. The mean scores on the primary outcome measure, the Insomnia Severity Index, were 5.74 for CT and 6.69 for MBT, which are within the good-sleeper range. Treatment effects were maintained at follow-up. There were no significant differences between CT and MBT on any outcome measure. These results provide encouraging data on how to enhance CBT for treatment of insomnia. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. LONG-TERM DEMONSTRATION OF SORBENT ENHANCEMENT ADDITIVE TECHNOLOGY FOR MERCURY CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    Jason D. Laumb; Dennis L. Laudal; Grant E. Dunham; John P. Kay; Christopher L. Martin; Jeffrey S. Thompson; Nicholas B. Lentz; Alexander Azenkeng; Kevin C. Galbreath; Lucinda L. Hamre

    2011-05-27

    Long-term demonstration tests of advanced sorbent enhancement additive (SEA) technologies have been completed at five coal-fired power plants. The targeted removal rate was 90% from baseline conditions at all five stations. The plants included Hawthorn Unit 5, Mill Creek Unit 4, San Miguel Unit 1, Centralia Unit 2, and Hoot Lake Unit 2. The materials tested included powdered activated carbon, treated carbon, scrubber additives, and SEAs. In only one case (San Miguel) was >90% removal not attainable. The reemission of mercury from the scrubber at this facility prevented >90% capture.

  3. New chemical additive to enhance reduction of oil carryover in gas

    SciTech Connect

    Khatib, Z.I.

    1998-12-31

    Foaming and fouling in glycol contactors and/or in amine treating systems are frequent problems in gas treatment processes due to the entrainment of liquid and solid aerosols in the gas stream. Entrainment of these aerosols leads also to mechanical damage of turbines and/or unscheduled shutdown of compressor units. A new chemical additive was developed and applied in the gas stream. The additive was successful in preventing the dissemination of the oil and/or condensate carryover into aerosol sizes, thereby enhancing the performance of coalescer filters and scrubbers.

  4. Significant improvement in the critical current density of MgB2 bulks in situ sintered at low temperature by excess Mg addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Zongqing; Liu, Yongchang; Cai, Qi; Yu, Liming

    2014-01-01

    MgB2 bulks with excess Mg addition were rapidly synthesized by sintering at low temperature in present work. It is found that even after ball milling treatment of original powders, the reaction between Mg and B during subsequent low temperature sintering process was uncompleted within 5 h and there is still some residual Mg. On the other hand, the presence of residual Mg can make the sintering microstructure more homogeneous and dense, and also reduce lattice defects and mechanical strains. All the factors are contributed to the improvement of the grain connectivity in the samples with excess Mg addition sintered at low temperature compared to the reference MgB2 sample sintered at high temperature. Hence, Jc of these prepared samples is enhanced significantly across the whole measured fields. Especially, at 20 K, 2 T, the value of Jc in the 5 h-sintered MgB2 bulk with Mg addition is above 1 × 105 A cm-2. The technique developed in present work is an effective and low-cost way to further enhance Jc in the MgB2 superconductors without using expensive nanometer-size dopants.

  5. The effects of hydrodynamic stretch on the flame propagation enhancement of ethylene by addition of ozone.

    PubMed

    Pinchak, Matthew; Ombrello, Timothy; Carter, Campbell; Gutmark, Ephraim; Katta, Viswanath

    2015-08-13

    The effect of O(3) on C(2)H(4)/synthetic-air flame propagation at sub-atmospheric pressure was investigated through detailed experiments and simulations. A Hencken burner provided an ideal platform to interrogate flame speed enhancement, producing a steady, laminar, nearly one-dimensional, minimally curved, weakly stretched, and nearly adiabatic flame that could be accurately compared with simulations. The experimental results showed enhancement of up to 7.5% in flame speed for 11 000 ppm of O(3) at stoichiometric conditions. Significantly, the axial stretch rate was also found to affect enhancement. Comparison of the flames for a given burner exit velocity resulted in the enhancement increasing almost 9% over the range of axial stretch rates that was investigated. Two-dimensional simulations agreed well with the experiments in terms of flame speed, as well as the trends of enhancement. Rate of production analysis showed that the primary pathway for O(3) consumption was through reaction with H, leading to early heat release and increased production of OH. Higher flame stretch rates resulted in increased flux through the H+O(3) reaction to provide increased enhancement, due to the thinning of the flame that accompanies higher stretch, and thus results in decreased distance for the H to diffuse before reacting with O(3).

  6. Significant light absorption enhancement in silicon thin film tandem solar cells with metallic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Cai, Boyuan; Li, Xiangping; Zhang, Yinan; Jia, Baohua

    2016-05-13

    Enhancing the light absorption in microcrystalline silicon bottom cell of a silicon-based tandem solar cell for photocurrent matching holds the key to achieving the overall solar cell performance breakthroughs. Here, we present a concept for significantly improving the absorption of both subcells simultaneously by simply applying tailored metallic nanoparticles both on the top and at the rear surfaces of the solar cells. Significant light absorption enhancement as large as 56% has been achieved in the bottom subcells. More importantly the thickness of the microcrystalline layer can be reduced by 57% without compromising the optical performance of the tandem solar cell, providing a cost-effective strategy for high performance tandem solar cells.

  7. Addition of Mesenchymal Stem Cells to Autologous Platelet-Enhanced Fibrin Scaffolds in Chondral Defects

    PubMed Central

    Goodrich, Laurie R.; Chen, Albert C.; Werpy, Natasha M.; Williams, Ashley A.; Kisiday, John D.; Su, Alvin W.; Cory, Esther; Morley, Paul S.; McIlwraith, C. Wayne; Sah, Robert L.; Chu, Constance R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The chondrogenic potential of culture-expanded bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMDMSCs) is well described. Numerous studies have also shown enhanced repair when BMDMSCs, scaffolds, and growth factors are placed into chondral defects. Platelets provide a rich milieu of growth factors and, along with fibrin, are readily available for clinical use. The objective of this study was to determine if the addition of BMDMSCs to an autologous platelet-enriched fibrin (APEF) scaffold enhances chondral repair compared with APEF alone. Methods: A 15-mm-diameter full-thickness chondral defect was created on the lateral trochlear ridge of both stifle joints of twelve adult horses. In each animal, one defect was randomly assigned to receive APEF+BMDMSCs and the contralateral defect received APEF alone. Repair tissues were evaluated one year later with arthroscopy, histological examination, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), micro-computed tomography (micro-CT), and biomechanical testing. Results: The arthroscopic findings, MRI T2 map, histological scores, structural stiffness, and material stiffness were similar (p > 0.05) between the APEF and APEF+BMDMSC-treated repairs at one year. Ectopic bone was observed within the repair tissue in four of twelve APEF+BMDMSC-treated defects. Defects repaired with APEF alone had less trabecular bone edema (as seen on MRI) compared with defects repaired with APEF+BMDMSCs. Micro-CT analysis showed thinner repair tissue in defects repaired with APEF+BMDMSCs than in those treated with APEF alone (p < 0.05). Conclusions: APEF alone resulted in thicker repair tissue than was seen with APEF+BMDMSCs. The addition of BMDMSCs to APEF did not enhance cartilage repair and stimulated bone formation in some cartilage defects. Clinical Relevance: APEF supported repair of critical-size full-thickness chondral defects in horses, which was not improved by the addition of BMDMSCs. This work supports further investigation to determine

  8. Different additives to enhance the gelation of surimi gel with reduced sodium content.

    PubMed

    Cando, Deysi; Herranz, Beatriz; Borderías, A Javier; Moreno, Helena M

    2016-04-01

    This study tested the effect of adding tetra-sodium pyrophosphate, cystine and lysine as surimi gelation enhancers (Alaska Pollock) in order to reduce the sodium content of gels up to 0.3%. These gels were compared with others that contained 3% NaCl content (the amount typically used for surimi processing). To induce protein gelation, gels were first heated and then set at 5 °C/24 h. Once the physicochemical and rheological properties of the gels were determined, cystine and lysine were found to be the most effective additives improving the characteristics of low NaCl surimi gels. The action of these additives is mainly based on the induction of myofibrillar protein unfolding thus facilitating the formation of the types of bonds needed to establish an appropriate network. It was found that a setting period was needed for gel processing to maximize the effect of the additives.

  9. A DNA/HDAC dual-targeting drug CY190602 with significantly enhanced anticancer potency

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chuan; Ding, Hongyu; Li, Xiaoxi; Pallasch, Christian P; Hong, Liya; Guo, Dianwu; Chen, Yi; Wang, Difei; Wang, Wei; Wang, Yajie; Hemann, Michael T; Jiang, Hai

    2015-01-01

    Genotoxic drugs constitute a major treatment modality for human cancers; however, cancer cells' intrinsic DNA repair capability often increases the threshold of lethality and renders these drugs ineffective. The emerging roles of HDACs in DNA repair provide new opportunities for improving traditional genotoxic drugs. Here, we report the development and characterization of CY190602, a novel bendamustine-derived drug with significantly enhanced anticancer potency. We show that CY190602's enhanced potency can be attributed to its newly gained ability to inhibit HDACs. Using this novel DNA/HDAC dual-targeting drug as a tool, we further explored HDAC's role in DNA repair. We found that HDAC activities are essential for the expression of several genes involved in DNA synthesis and repair, including TYMS, Tip60, CBP, EP300, and MSL1. Importantly, CY190602, the first-in-class example of such DNA/HDAC dual-targeting drugs, exhibited significantly enhanced anticancer activity in vitro and in vivo. These findings provide rationales for incorporating HDAC inhibitory moieties into genotoxic drugs, so as to overcome the repair capacity of cancer cells. Systematic development of similar DNA/HDAC dual-targeting drugs may represent a novel opportunity for improving cancer therapy. PMID:25759362

  10. A DNA/HDAC dual-targeting drug CY190602 with significantly enhanced anticancer potency.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chuan; Ding, Hongyu; Li, Xiaoxi; Pallasch, Christian P; Hong, Liya; Guo, Dianwu; Chen, Yi; Wang, Difei; Wang, Wei; Wang, Yajie; Hemann, Michael T; Jiang, Hai

    2015-03-09

    Genotoxic drugs constitute a major treatment modality for human cancers; however, cancer cells' intrinsic DNA repair capability often increases the threshold of lethality and renders these drugs ineffective. The emerging roles of HDACs in DNA repair provide new opportunities for improving traditional genotoxic drugs. Here, we report the development and characterization of CY190602, a novel bendamustine-derived drug with significantly enhanced anticancer potency. We show that CY190602's enhanced potency can be attributed to its newly gained ability to inhibit HDACs. Using this novel DNA/HDAC dual-targeting drug as a tool, we further explored HDAC's role in DNA repair. We found that HDAC activities are essential for the expression of several genes involved in DNA synthesis and repair, including TYMS, Tip60, CBP, EP300, and MSL1. Importantly, CY190602, the first-in-class example of such DNA/HDAC dual-targeting drugs, exhibited significantly enhanced anticancer activity in vitro and in vivo. These findings provide rationales for incorporating HDAC inhibitory moieties into genotoxic drugs, so as to overcome the repair capacity of cancer cells. Systematic development of similar DNA/HDAC dual-targeting drugs may represent a novel opportunity for improving cancer therapy.

  11. Enhancement of Pt/SnO2 Catalysts by Addition of H2O

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schryer, David R.; Sidney, Barry D.; Van Norman, John D.; Brown, Kenneth G.; Schryer, Jacqueline; Upchurch, Billy T.

    1990-01-01

    Water vapor in pretreatment gas restores essential hydroxyl groups. Platinum on tin oxide (Pt/SnO2) is good catalyst for oxidation of carbon monoxide (CO) at temperatures from about 25 degrees C to 100 degress C. Activity of Pt/SnO2 for CO oxidation significantly enhanced by pretreating it at approximately 225 degrees C with reducing gas such as CO. Technique useful in manufacture of high-power CO2 lasers for industrial and scientific uses.

  12. Additive and non-additive effects of mixtures of short-acting intravenous anaesthetic agents and their significance for theories of anaesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Richards, C.D.; White, Ann E.

    1981-01-01

    1 The potency of a series of short-acting anaesthetics was established by measuring the duration of the loss of righting reflex following a single bolus injection into the tail vein of male Wistar rats. The agents were, in order of potency, etomidate, alphaxalone, methohexitone, alphadalone acetate and propanidid. 2 The potency of binary mixtures of these agents was also assessed to see whether the anaesthetic effects of different agents were additive as classical theories of anaesthesia suggest. Mixtures of alphaxalone and alphadalone acetate, alphaxalone and propanidid and methohexitone and propanidid all showed simple additive effects. Mixtures of alphaxalone and etomidate and of alphaxalone and methohexitone showed a greater potency than would be expected if their effects were simply additive. Mixtures of etomidate and methohexitone were not examined. 3 Mixtures of alphaxalone and either methohexitone or pentobarbitone produced a greater depression of synaptic transmission in in vitro preparations of guinea-pig olfactory cortex than would have been expected from the sum of the activities of the individual anaesthetics. Other combinations of anaesthetics did not show similar effects although the interaction between alphaxalone and etomidate was not examined. 4 Neither alphaxalone nor pentobarbitone affected the membrane: buffer partition coefficient of the other for a model membrane system. 5 These results are interpreted as evidence against the classical unitary hypotheses of anaesthetic action based on correlations of anaesthetic potency with lipid solubility and as supporting the view that different anaesthetics act on different structures in the neuronal membranes to produce anaesthesia. PMID:6268237

  13. Enhanced performance of a submerged membrane bioreactor with powdered activated carbon addition for municipal secondary effluent treatment.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hongjun; Wang, Fangyuan; Ding, Linxian; Hong, Huachang; Chen, Jianrong; Lu, Xiaofeng

    2011-09-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of PAC-MBR process treating municipal secondary effluent. Two laboratory-scale submerged MBRs (SMBR) with and without PAC addition were continuously operated in parallel for secondary effluent treatment. Approximately 63%TOC, 95% NH(4)(+)-N and 98% turbidity in secondary effluent were removed by the PAC-MBR process. Most organics in the secondary effluent were found to be low molecular weight (MW) substances, which could be retained in the reactor and then removed to some extent by using PAC-MBR process. Parallel experiments showed that the addition of PAC significantly increased organic removal and responsible for the largest fraction of organic removal. Membrane fouling analysis showed the enhanced membrane performance in terms of sustainable operational time and filtration resistances by PAC addition. Based on these results, the PAC-MBR process was considered as an attractive option for the reduction of pollutants in secondary effluent.

  14. [Electricity generation of surplus sludge microbial fuel cells enhanced by additional enzyme].

    PubMed

    Yang, Hui; Liu, Zhi-Hu; Li, Xiao-Ming; Yang, Qi; Fang, Li; Huang, Hua-Jun; Zeng, Guang-Ming; Li, Shuo

    2012-01-01

    In this paper the feasibility of enhanced electricity generation of microbial fuel cell fed surplus sludge by additional enzymes (neutral protease and alpha-amylase) was discussed. The effect of dosage of additional enzyme on characteristics of electricity generation of the surplus sludge microbial fuel cell (SSMFC) and the reduction of surplus sludge were investigated. The results indicated that the maximum output power destiny of the group of experiment was higher than that of control under the same condition. Moreover, the maximum output power density, coulomb efficiency, efficiency of reducing TCOD, efficiency of reducing TSS and efficiency of reducing VSS reached up to 507 W x m(-2) (700 mW x m(-2)), 3.98% (5.11%), 88.31% (94.09%), 83.18% (98.02%) and 89.03% (98.80%) respectively for protease (alpha-amylase) at the dosage of 10 mg x g(-1). This study demonstrated that additional enzyme greatly enhanced the electricity generation of MFC with simultaneous accomplishments of sludge treatment, providing a novel approach for the practical application of microbial fuel cell.

  15. Significant Change in Marine Plankton Structure and Carbon Production After the Addition of River Water in a Mesocosm Experiment.

    PubMed

    Fouilland, E; Trottet, A; Alves-de-Souza, C; Bonnet, D; Bouvier, T; Bouvy, M; Boyer, S; Guillou, L; Hatey, E; Jing, H; Leboulanger, C; Le Floc'h, E; Liu, H; Mas, S; Mostajir, B; Nouguier, J; Pecqueur, D; Rochelle-Newall, E; Roques, C; Salles, C; Tournoud, M-G; Vasseur, C; Vidussi, F

    2017-03-16

    Rivers are known to be major contributors to eutrophication in marine coastal waters, but little is known on the short-term impact of freshwater surges on the structure and functioning of the marine plankton community. The effect of adding river water, reducing the salinity by 15 and 30%, on an autumn plankton community in a Mediterranean coastal lagoon (Thau Lagoon, France) was determined during a 6-day mesocosm experiment. Adding river water brought not only nutrients but also chlorophyceans that did not survive in the brackish mesocosm waters. The addition of water led to initial increases (days 1-2) in bacterial production as well as increases in the abundances of bacterioplankton and picoeukaryotes. After day 3, the increases were more significant for diatoms and dinoflagellates that were already present in the Thau Lagoon water (mainly Pseudo-nitzschia spp. group delicatissima and Prorocentrum triestinum) and other larger organisms (tintinnids, rotifers). At the same time, the abundances of bacterioplankton, cyanobacteria, and picoeukaryote fell, some nutrients (NH4(+), SiO4(3-)) returned to pre-input levels, and the plankton structure moved from a trophic food web based on secondary production to the accumulation of primary producers in the mesocosms with added river water. Our results also show that, after freshwater inputs, there is rapid emergence of plankton species that are potentially harmful to living organisms. This suggests that flash flood events may lead to sanitary issues, other than pathogens, in exploited marine areas.

  16. Motivationally significant self-control: enhanced action withholding involves the right inferior frontal junction.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, David A; Upton, Daniel J; Moore, Jennifer; Hester, Robert

    2015-01-01

    In everyday life, people use self-control to withhold actions. This ability is particularly important when the consequences of action withholding have an impact on the individual's well-being. Despite its importance, it is unclear as to how the neural nodes implicated in action withholding contribute to this real-world type of self-control. By modifying an action withholding paradigm, the go/no-go task, we examined how the brain exerts self-control during a scenario in which the implications of withholding an action are meaningful and motivationally significant. A successfully withheld response contributed to long-term monetary rewards, whereas failure to withhold a response incurred an immediate monetary punishment. Compared with neutral action withholding, participants significantly improved their performance when these contingencies were applied. Crucially, although the right IFG and pre-SMA were found to promote overall action withholding, the enhancement in behavioral performance relative to a neutral condition was only reflected by a physiological change in a region encompassing the right inferior frontal junction and precentral gyrus. We speculate that the ability to flexibly modulate attention to goal-relevant stimuli is crucial to enhanced, motivationally driven action withholding and that this ability is subserved by the right inferior frontal junction. These findings suggest that control-modulating factors, rather than action withholding processes per se, can be critical to improving motivationally significant action withholding outcomes.

  17. Enhanced magnetocrystalline anisotropy of Fe30Co70 nanowires by Cu additives and annealing.

    PubMed

    Palmero, Ester M; Salikhov, Ruslan; Wiedwald, Ulf; Bran, Cristina; Spasova, Marina; Vázquez, Manuel; Farle, Michael

    2016-09-09

    The use of 3d transition metal-based magnetic nanowires (NWs) for permanent magnet applications requires large magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy (MAE), which in combination with the NWs' magnetic shape anisotropy yields magnetic hardening and an enhancement of the magnetic energy product. Here, we report on the significant increase in MAE by 125 kJ m(-3) in Fe30Co70 NWs with diameters of 20-150 nm embedded in anodic aluminum oxide templates by adding 5 at.% Cu and subsequent annealing at 900 K. Ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) reveals that this enhancement of MAE is twice as large as the enhancement of MAE in annealed, but undoped NWs. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis suggests that upon annealing the immiscible Cu in FeCo NWs causes a crystal reorientation with respect to the NW axis with a considerable distortion of the bcc FeCo lattice. This strain is most likely the origin of the strongly enhanced MAE.

  18. Enhanced Electrical Properties of La(CaSr) MnO Polycrystalline Composites with Ag Addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Xuejiao; Zhan, Yanhong; Liu, Xiang; Gu, Gang; Wang, Qiangshen; Yin, Xuepeng

    2015-09-01

    La(CaSr)MnO:Ag(LCSMO:Ag, x = 0, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3, mol%) polycrystalline composites were prepared by a solid-state reaction method. With the increasing of Ag addition, the temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) and the metal-to-insulator transition temperature () reach the maximum values of 9.1 % K and 258 K for LCSMO:Ag ( x = 0.3) sample, which can be used as a candidate of bolometer or infrared detectors. The improvement of Mn concentration and grain connectivity by Ag addition is responsible for the enhancement of and TCR values. The fitting curves of electrical resistivity show that the low temperature region () is fitted with grain/domain boundary, electron-electron, and magnon scattering mechanisms, as well as the high temperature region () is fitted with adiabatic small-polaron hopping mechanism.

  19. Enhancing quantum entanglement for continuous variables by a coherent superposition of photon subtraction and addition

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Su-Yong; Kim, Ho-Joon; Ji, Se-Wan; Nha, Hyunchul

    2011-07-15

    We investigate how the entanglement properties of a two-mode state can be improved by performing a coherent superposition operation ta+ra{sup {dagger}} of photon subtraction and addition, proposed by Lee and Nha [Phys. Rev. A 82, 053812 (2010)], on each mode. We show that the degree of entanglement, the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-type correlation, and the performance of quantum teleportation can be all enhanced for the output state when the coherent operation is applied to a two-mode squeezed state. The effects of the coherent operation are more prominent than those of the mere photon subtraction a and the addition a{sup {dagger}} particularly in the small-squeezing regime, whereas the optimal operation becomes the photon subtraction (case of r=0) in the large-squeezing regime.

  20. Alkyl Pyrocarbonate Electrolyte Additives for Performance Enhancement of Li Ion Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smart, M. C.; Ratnakumar, B. V.; Surampudi, S.

    2000-01-01

    Lithium ion rechargeable batteries are being developed for various aerospace applications under a NASA-DoD Interagency program. These applications require further improvements in several areas, specifically in the cycle life for LEO and GEO satellites and in the low temperature performance for the Mars Lander and Rover missions. Accordingly, we have been pursuing research studies to achieve improvement in the low temperature performance, long cycle life and active life of Li ion cells. The studies are mainly focused on electrolytes, to identify newer formulations of new electrolyte additives to enhance Li permeability (at low temperatures) and stability towards the electrode. The latter approach is particularly aimed at the formation suitable SEI (solid electrolyte interphase) on carbon electrodes. In this paper, we report the beneficial effect of using alkyl pyrocarbonates as electrolyte additives to improve the low temperature performance of Li ion cells.

  1. Enhanced electrochemical performance of monoclinic WO3 thin film with redox additive aqueous electrolyte.

    PubMed

    Shinde, Pragati A; Lokhande, Vaibhav C; Chodankar, Nilesh R; Ji, Taeksoo; Kim, Jin Hyeok; Lokhande, Chandrakant D

    2016-12-01

    To achieve the highest electrochemical performance for supercapacitor, it is very essential to find out a suitable pair of an active electrode material and an electrolyte. In the present work, a simple approach is employed to enhance the supercapacitor performance of WO3 thin film. The WO3 thin film is prepared by a simple and cost effective chemical bath deposition method and its electrochemical performance is tested in conventional (H2SO4) and redox additive [H2SO4+hydroquinone (HQ)] electrolytes. Two-fold increment in electrochemical performance for WO3 thin film is observed in redox additive aqueous electrolyte compared to conventional electrolyte. WO3 thin film showed maximum specific capacitance of 725Fg(-1), energy density of 25.18Whkg(-1) at current density of 7mAcm(-2) with better cycling stability in redox electrolyte. This strategy provides the versatile way for designing the high performance energy storage devices.

  2. Enhanced Performance of Li|LiFePO4 Cells Using CsPF6 as an Electrolyte Additive

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, Liang; Chen, Xilin; Cao, Ruiguo; Qian, Jiangfeng; Xiang, Hongfa; Zheng, Jianming; Zhang, Jiguang; Xu, Wu

    2015-10-20

    The practical application of lithium (Li) metal anode in rechargeable Li batteries is hindered by both the growth of Li dendrites and the low Coulombic efficiency (CE) during repeated charge/discharge cycles. Recently, we have discovered that CsPF6 as an electrolyte additive can significantly suppress Li dendrite growth and lead to highly compacted and well aligned Li nanorod structure during Li deposition on copper substrates. In this paper, the effect of CsPF6 additive on the performance of rechargeable Li metal batteries with lithium iron phosphate (LFP) cathode was further studied. Li|LFP coin cells with CsPF6 additive in electrolytes show well protected Li anode surface, decreased resistance, enhanced rate capability and extended cycling stability. In Li|LFP cells, the electrolyte with CsPF6 additive shows excellent long-term cycling stability (at least 500 cycles) at a charge current density of 0.5 mA cm-2 without internal short circuit. At high charge current densities, the effect of CsPF6 additive becomes less significant. Future work needs to be done to protect Li metal anode, especially at high charge current densities and for long cycle life.

  3. Enhanced performance of Li|LiFePO4 cells using CsPF6 as an electrolyte additive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Liang; Chen, Xilin; Cao, Ruiguo; Qian, Jiangfeng; Xiang, Hongfa; Zheng, Jianming; Zhang, Ji-Guang; Xu, Wu

    2015-10-01

    The practical application of lithium (Li) metal anode in rechargeable Li batteries is hindered by both the growth of Li dendrites and the low Coulombic efficiency (CE) during repeated charge/discharge cycles. Recently, we have discovered that CsPF6 as an electrolyte additive can significantly suppress Li dendrite growth and lead to highly compacted and well aligned Li nanorod structures during Li deposition on copper substrates. In this paper, the effect of CsPF6 additive on the performance of rechargeable Li metal batteries with lithium iron phosphate (LFP) cathode is further studied. Li|LFP coin cells with CsPF6 additive in electrolytes show well protected Li anode surface, decreased resistance, enhanced rate capability and extended cycling stability. In Li|LFP cells, the electrolyte with CsPF6 additive shows excellent long-term cycling stability (at least 500 cycles) at a charge current density of 0.5 mA cm-2 without internal short circuit. At high charge current densities, the effect of CsPF6 additive becomes less significant. Future work needs to be done to protect Li metal anode, especially at high charge current densities and for long cycle life.

  4. The mother as hunter: significant reduction in foraging costs through enhancements of predation in maternal rats.

    PubMed

    Kinsley, Craig Howard; Blair, Jamie C; Karp, Natalie E; Hester, Naomi W; McNamara, Ilan M; Orthmeyer, Angela L; McSweeney, Molly C; Bardi, Massimo M; Karelina, Kate; Christon, Lillian M; Sirkin, Maxwell R; Victoria, Lindsay W; Skurka, Danielle J; Fyfe, Christian R; Hudepohl, Margaret B; Felicio, Luciano F; Franssen, R Adam; Meyer, Elizabeth E A; da Silva, Ilton S; Lambert, Kelly G

    2014-09-01

    In previous laboratory investigations, we have identified enhanced cognition and reduced stress in parous rats, which are likely adaptations in mothers needing to efficiently exploit resources to maintain, protect and provision their immature offspring. Here, in a series of seven behavioral tests on rats, we examined a natural interface between cognition and resource gathering: predation. Experiment 1 compared predatory behavior (toward crickets) in age-matched nulliparous mothers (NULLs) and postpartum lactating mothers (LACTs), revealing a highly significant enhancement of predation in LACT females (mean = -65s in LACTs, vs. -270s in NULLs). Experiment 2 examined the possibility that LACTs, given their increased metabolic rate, were hungrier, and thus more motivated to hunt; doubling the length of time of food deprivation in NULLs did not decrease their predatory latencies. Experiments 3-5, which examined sensory regulation of the effect, indicated that olfaction (anosmia), audition (blockade with white noise), and somatosensation (trimming the vibrissae) appear to play little role in the behavioral enhancement observed in the LACTs; Experiment 6 examined the possibility that visual augmentations may facilitate the improvements in predation; testing LACTs in a 0-lux environment eliminated the behavioral advantage (increasing their latencies from -65s to -212s), which suggests that temporary augmentation to the visual system may be important, and with hormone-neural alterations therein a likely candidate for further study. In contrast, testing NULLS in the 0-lux environment had the opposite effect, reducing their latency to catch the cricket (from -270s to -200s). Finally, Experiment 7 examined the development of predatory behavior in Early-pregnant (PREG), Mid-PREG, and Late-PREG females. Here, we observed a significant enhancement of predation in Mid-PREG and Late-PREG females--at a time when maternity-associated bodily changes would be expected to diminish

  5. Enhanced camptothecin production by ethanol addition in the suspension culture of the endophyte, Fusarium solani.

    PubMed

    Venugopalan, Aarthi; Srivastava, Smita

    2015-01-01

    Ethanolic extract of a non-camptothecin producing plant, Catharanthus roseus when added in the suspension culture of the endophyte Fusarium solani known to produce camptothecin, resulted in enhanced production of camptothecin by 10.6-fold in comparison to that in control (2.8 μg/L). Interestingly, addition of pure ethanol (up to 5% v/v) in the suspension culture of F. solani resulted in maximum enhancement in camptothecin production (up to 15.5-fold) from that obtained in control. In the presence of ethanol, a reduced glucose uptake (by ∼ 40%) and simultaneous ethanol consumption (up to 9.43 g/L) was observed during the cultivation period (14 days). Also, the total NAD level and the protein content in the biomass increased by 3.7- and 1.9-fold, respectively, in comparison to that in control. The study indicates a dual role of ethanol, presumably as an elicitor and also as a carbon/energy source, leading to enhanced biomass and camptothecin production.

  6. Multivariate qualitative analysis of banned additives in food safety using surface enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Shixuan; Xie, Wanyi; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Liqun; Wang, Yunxia; Liu, Xiaoling; Liu, Yulong; Du, Chunlei

    2015-02-01

    A novel strategy which combines iteratively cubic spline fitting baseline correction method with discriminant partial least squares qualitative analysis is employed to analyze the surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy of banned food additives, such as Sudan I dye and Rhodamine B in food, Malachite green residues in aquaculture fish. Multivariate qualitative analysis methods, using the combination of spectra preprocessing iteratively cubic spline fitting (ICSF) baseline correction with principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant partial least squares (DPLS) classification respectively, are applied to investigate the effectiveness of SERS spectroscopy for predicting the class assignments of unknown banned food additives. PCA cannot be used to predict the class assignments of unknown samples. However, the DPLS classification can discriminate the class assignment of unknown banned additives using the information of differences in relative intensities. The results demonstrate that SERS spectroscopy combined with ICSF baseline correction method and exploratory analysis methodology DPLS classification can be potentially used for distinguishing the banned food additives in field of food safety.

  7. Multivariate qualitative analysis of banned additives in food safety using surface enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    He, Shixuan; Xie, Wanyi; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Liqun; Wang, Yunxia; Liu, Xiaoling; Liu, Yulong; Du, Chunlei

    2015-02-25

    A novel strategy which combines iteratively cubic spline fitting baseline correction method with discriminant partial least squares qualitative analysis is employed to analyze the surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy of banned food additives, such as Sudan I dye and Rhodamine B in food, Malachite green residues in aquaculture fish. Multivariate qualitative analysis methods, using the combination of spectra preprocessing iteratively cubic spline fitting (ICSF) baseline correction with principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant partial least squares (DPLS) classification respectively, are applied to investigate the effectiveness of SERS spectroscopy for predicting the class assignments of unknown banned food additives. PCA cannot be used to predict the class assignments of unknown samples. However, the DPLS classification can discriminate the class assignment of unknown banned additives using the information of differences in relative intensities. The results demonstrate that SERS spectroscopy combined with ICSF baseline correction method and exploratory analysis methodology DPLS classification can be potentially used for distinguishing the banned food additives in field of food safety.

  8. LETTER TO THE EDITOR: Enhancement of neutron radiation dose by the addition of sulphur-33 atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porras, I.

    2008-04-01

    The use of neutrons in radiotherapy allows the possibility of producing nuclear reactions in a specific target inserted in the medium. 10B is being used to induce reactions (n, α), a technique called boron neutron capture therapy. I have studied the possibility of inducing a similar reaction using the nucleus of 33S, for which the reaction cross section presents resonances for keV neutrons, the highest peak occurring at 13.5 keV. Here shown, by means of Monte Carlo simulation of point-like sources of neutrons in this energy range, is an enhancement effect on the absorbed dose in water by the addition of 33S atoms. In addition to this, as the range of the alpha particle is of the order of a mammalian cell size, the energy deposition via this reaction results mainly inside the cells adjacent to the interaction site. The main conclusion of the present work is that the insertion of these sulphur atoms in tumoral cells would enhance the effect of neutron irradiation in the keV range.

  9. Significantly Enhanced Visible Light Photoelectrochemical Activity in TiO₂ Nanowire Arrays by Nitrogen Implantation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Gongming; Xiao, Xiangheng; Li, Wenqing; Lin, Zhaoyang; Zhao, Zipeng; Chen, Chi; Wang, Chen; Li, Yongjia; Huang, Xiaoqing; Miao, Ling; Jiang, Changzhong; Huang, Yu; Duan, Xiangfeng

    2015-07-08

    Titanium oxide (TiO2) represents one of most widely studied materials for photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting but is severely limited by its poor efficiency in the visible light range. Here, we report a significant enhancement of visible light photoactivity in nitrogen-implanted TiO2 (N-TiO2) nanowire arrays. Our systematic studies show that a post-implantation thermal annealing treatment can selectively enrich the substitutional nitrogen dopants, which is essential for activating the nitrogen implanted TiO2 to achieve greatly enhanced visible light photoactivity. An incident photon to electron conversion efficiency (IPCE) of ∼10% is achieved at 450 nm in N-TiO2 without any other cocatalyst, far exceeding that in pristine TiO2 nanowires (∼0.2%). The integration of oxygen evolution reaction (OER) cocatalyst with N-TiO2 can further increase the IPCE at 450 nm to ∼17% and deliver an unprecedented overall photocurrent density of 1.9 mA/cm(2), by integrating the IPCE spectrum with standard AM 1.5G solar spectrum. Systematic photoelectrochemical and electrochemical studies demonstrated that the enhanced PEC performance can be attributed to the significantly improved visible light absorption and more efficient charge separation. Our studies demonstrate the implantation approach can be used to reliably dope TiO2 to achieve the best performed N-TiO2 photoelectrodes to date and may be extended to fundamentally modify other semiconductor materials for PEC water splitting.

  10. Significantly improving trace thallium removal from surface waters during coagulation enhanced by nanosized manganese dioxide.

    PubMed

    Huangfu, Xiaoliu; Ma, Chengxue; Ma, Jun; He, Qiang; Yang, Chun; Jiang, Jin; Wang, Yaan; Wu, Zhengsong

    2017-02-01

    Thallium (Tl) is an element of high toxicity and significant accumulation in human body. There is an urgent need for the development of appropriate strategies for trace Tl removal in drinking water treatment plants. In this study, the efficiency and mechanism of trace Tl (0.5 μg/L) removal by conventional coagulation enhanced by nanosized manganese dioxide (nMnO2) were explored in simulated water and two representative surface waters (a river water and a reservoir water obtained from Northeast China). Experimental results showed that nMnO2 significantly improve Tl(I) removal from selected waters. The removal efficiency was dramatically higher in the simulated water, demonstrating by less than 0.1 μg/L Tl residual. The enhancement of trace Tl removal in the surface waters decreased to a certain extent. Both adjusting water pH to alkaline condition and preoxidation of Tl(I) to Tl(III) benefit trace Tl removal from surface waters. Data also indicated that competitive cation of Ca(2+) decreased the efficiency of trace Tl removal, resulting from the reduction of Tl adsorption on nMnO2. Humic acid could largely low Tl removal efficiency during nMnO2 enhanced coagulation processes. Trace elemental Tl firstly adsorbed on nMnO2 and then removed accompanying with nMnO2 settling. The information obtained in the present study may provide a potential strategy for drinking water treatment plants threatened by trace Tl.

  11. Feeding enhances skeletal growth and energetic stores of an Atlantic coral under significantly elevated CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drenkard, L.; Cohen, A. L.; McCorkle, D. C.; dePutron, S.; Zicht, A.

    2011-12-01

    Many corals living under the relatively acidic conditions of naturally high-CO2 reefs are calcifying as fast or faster than their conspecifics on naturally low CO2 reefs. These observations are inconsistent with most experimental work that shows a negative impact of ocean acidification on coral calcification. We investigated the link between coral nutritional (energetic) status and the calcification response to significantly elevated CO2. Juveniles of the Atlantic brooding coral, Favia fragum were reared for three weeks under fully crossed CO2 and feeding conditions: ambient (μar =1.6+-0.2) and high CO2 (μar =3.7+-0.3); fed and unfed. In most measured parameters, the effect of feeding is much stronger than the effect of CO2. Nutritionally enhanced (fed) corals, regardless of CO2 condition, have higher concentrations of total lipid and their skeletons are both significantly larger and more developmentally advanced than those of corals relying solely on autotrophy. In measurements of corallite weight, where the impact of CO2 is most apparent, no statistical difference is observed between unfed corals under ambient CO2 conditions and fed corals reared under 1600 ppm CO2. Our results suggest that coral energetic status, which can be enhanced by heterotrophic feeding but depleted by stressors such as bleaching, will play a key role in the coral response to ocean acidification and thus, in the resilience of reef ecosystems under climate change.

  12. Evaluating enhanced sulfate reduction and optimized volatile fatty acids (VFA) composition in anaerobic reactor by Fe (III) addition.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yiwen; Zhang, Yaobin; Ni, Bing-Jie

    2015-02-17

    Anaerobic reactors with ferric iron addition have been experimentally demonstrated to be able to simultaneously improve sulfate reduction and organic matter degradation during sulfate-containing wastewater treatment. In this work, a mathematical model is developed to evaluate the impact of ferric iron addition on sulfate reduction and organic carbon removal as well as the volatile fatty acids (VFA) composition in anaerobic reactor. The model is successfully calibrated and validated using independent long-term experimental data sets from the anaerobic reactor with Fe (III) addition under different operational conditions. The model satisfactorily describes the sulfate reduction, organic carbon removal and VFA production. Results show Fe (III) addition induces the microbial reduction of Fe (III) by iron reducing bacteria (IRB), which significantly enhances sulfate reduction by sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) and subsequently changes the VFA composition to acetate-dominating effluent. Simultaneously, the produced Fe (II) from IRB can alleviate the inhibition of undissociated H2S on microorganisms through iron sulfide precipitation, resulting in further improvement of the performance. In addition, the enhancement on reactor performance by Fe (III) is found to be more significantly favored at relatively low organic carbon/SO4(2-) ratio (e.g., 1.0) than at high organic carbon/SO4(2-) ratio (e.g., 4.5). The Fe (III)-based process of this work can be easily integrated with a commonly used strategy for phosphorus recovery, with the produced sulfide being recovered and then deposited into conventional chemical phosphorus removal sludge (FePO4) to achieve FeS precipitation for phosphorus recovery while the required Fe (III) being acquired from the waste ferric sludge of drinking water treatment process, to enable maximum resource recovery/reuse while achieving high-rate sulfate removal.

  13. Carotenoid absorption from salad and salsa by humans is enhanced by the addition of avocado or avocado oil.

    PubMed

    Unlu, Nuray Z; Bohn, Torsten; Clinton, Steven K; Schwartz, Steven J

    2005-03-01

    Dietary lipids are hypothesized to be an important factor for carotenoid bioavailability. However, most carotenoid-rich fruits and vegetables are low in lipids. The objective of this study was to assess whether the addition of avocado fruit as a lipid source enhances carotenoid absorption in humans. Healthy subjects (n = 11/study) were recruited for 2 crossover, postprandial studies. The effect of avocado addition (150 g) to salsa on lycopene and beta-carotene absorption was examined in Study 1, and the absorption of lutein, alpha-carotene, and beta-carotene from salad in Study 2. Furthermore, the effects of avocado dose (75 vs. 150 g containing 12 vs. 24 g lipid, respectively) and of lipid source (avocado fruit vs. avocado oil) on carotenoid absorption were examined in Study 2. Intact carotenoids were quantified in the plasma triacylglycerol-rich lipoprotein (TRL) fraction during the 9.5 h after consumption of the test meal and expressed as baseline-corrected area under the concentration-vs.-time curve (AUC). The addition of avocado to salsa enhanced lycopene and beta-carotene absorption (P < 0.003), resulting in 4.4 and 2.6 times the mean AUC after intake of avocado-free salsa, respectively. In Study 2, supplementing 150 g avocado or 24 g avocado oil to salad similarly enhanced alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, and lutein absorption (P < 0.01), resulting in 7.2, 15.3, and 5.1 times the mean AUC after intake of avocado-free salad, respectively (150 g avocado). Neither the avocado dose nor the lipid source affected carotenoid absorption. In conclusion, adding avocado fruit can significantly enhance carotenoid absorption from salad and salsa, which is attributed primarily to the lipids present in avocado.

  14. Enhanced L-lactic acid production in Lactobacillus paracasei by exogenous proline addition based on comparative metabolite profiling analysis.

    PubMed

    Tian, Xiwei; Wang, Yonghong; Chu, Ju; Zhuang, Yingping; Zhang, Siliang

    2016-03-01

    This study investigated cell physiological and metabolic responses of Lactobacillus paracasei to osmotic stresses. Both cellular fatty acid composition and metabolite profiling were responded by increasing unsaturated and epoxy-fatty acid proportions, as well as accumulating some specific intracellular metabolites. Simultaneously, metabolite profiling was adopted to rationally and systematically discover potential osmoprotectants. Consequently, exogenous addition of proline or aspartate was validated to be a feasible and efficacious approach to improve cell growth under hyperosmotic stress in shake flasks. Particularly, with 5-L cultivation system, L-lactic acid concentration increased from 108 to 150 g/L during the following 16-h fermentation in 2 g/L proline addition group, while it only increased from 110 to 140 g/L in no proline addition group. Moreover, glucose consumption rate with proline addition reached 3.49 g/L/h during this phase, 35.8 % higher than that with no proline addition. However, extreme high osmotic pressure would significantly limit the osmoprotection of proline, and the osmolality threshold for L. paracasei was approximately 3600 mOsm/kg. It was suggested that proline principally played a role as a compatible solute accumulated in the cell for hyperosmotic preservation. The strategies of exploiting osmotic protectant with metabolite profiling and enhancing L-lactic acid production by osmoprotectant addition would be potential to provide a new insight for other microorganisms and organic acids production.

  15. Polydimethylsiloxane as a Macromolecular Additive for Enhanced Performance of Molecular Bulk Heterojunction Organic Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, Kenneth R.; Mei, Jianguo; Stalder, Romain; Shim, Jae Won; Cheun, Hyeunseok; Steffy, Fred; So, Franky; Kippelen, Bernard; Reynolds, John R.

    2011-03-15

    The effect of the macromolecular additive, polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), on the performance of solution processed molecular bulk heterojunction solar cells is investigated, and the addition of PDMS is shown to improve device power conversion efficiency by ~70% and significantly reduce cell-to-cell variation, from a power conversion efficiency of 1.25 ± 0.37% with no PDMS to 2.16 ± 0.09% upon the addition of 0.1 mg/mL PDMS to the casting solution. The cells are based on a thiophene and isoindigo containing oligomer as the electron donor and [6,6]-phenyl-C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PC61BM) as the electron acceptor. PDMS is shown to have a strong influence on film morphology, with a significant decrease in film roughness and feature size observed. The morphology change leads to improved performance parameters, most notably an increase in the short circuit current density from 4.3 to 6.8 mA/cm2 upon addition of 0.1 mg/mL PDMS. The use of PDMS is of particular interest, as this additive appears frequently as a lubricant in plastic syringes commonly used in device fabrication; therefore, PDMS may unintentionally be incorporated into device active layers.

  16. Comparison of additive image fusion vs. feature-level image fusion techniques for enhanced night driving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bender, Edward J.; Reese, Colin E.; Van Der Wal, Gooitzen S.

    2003-02-01

    The Night Vision & Electronic Sensors Directorate (NVESD) has conducted a series of image fusion evaluations under the Head-Tracked Vision System (HTVS) program. The HTVS is a driving system for both wheeled and tracked military vehicles, wherein dual-waveband sensors are directed in a more natural head-slewed imaging mode. The HTVS consists of thermal and image-intensified TV sensors, a high-speed gimbal, a head-mounted display, and a head tracker. A series of NVESD field tests over the past two years has investigated the degree to which additive (A+B) image fusion of these sensors enhances overall driving performance. Additive fusion employs a single (but user adjustable) fractional weighting for all the features of each sensor's image. More recently, NVESD and Sarnoff Corporation have begun a cooperative effort to evaluate and refine Sarnoff's "feature-level" multi-resolution (pyramid) algorithms for image fusion. This approach employs digital processing techniques to select at each image point only the sensor with the strongest features, and to utilize only those features to reconstruct the fused video image. This selection process is performed simultaneously at multiple scales of the image, which are combined to form the reconstructed fused image. All image fusion techniques attempt to combine the "best of both sensors" in a single image. Typically, thermal sensors are better for detecting military threats and targets, while image-intensified sensors provide more natural scene cues and detect cultural lighting. This investigation will address the differences between additive fusion and feature-level image fusion techniques for enhancing the driver's overall situational awareness.

  17. Enhanced Production of Green Tide Algal Biomass through Additional Carbon Supply

    PubMed Central

    de Paula Silva, Pedro H.; Paul, Nicholas A.; de Nys, Rocky; Mata, Leonardo

    2013-01-01

    Intensive algal cultivation usually requires a high flux of dissolved inorganic carbon (Ci) to support productivity, particularly for high density algal cultures. Carbon dioxide (CO2) enrichment can be used to overcome Ci limitation and enhance productivity of algae in intensive culture, however, it is unclear whether algal species with the ability to utilise bicarbonate (HCO3−) as a carbon source for photosynthesis will benefit from CO2 enrichment. This study quantified the HCO3− affinity of three green tide algal species, Cladophora coelothrix, Cladophora patentiramea and Chaetomorpha linum, targeted for biomass and bioenergy production. Subsequently, we quantified productivity and carbon, nitrogen and ash content in response to CO2 enrichment. All three species had similar high pH compensation points (9.7–9.9), and grew at similar rates up to pH 9, demonstrating HCO3− utilization. Algal cultures enriched with CO2 as a carbon source had 30% more total Ci available, supplying twenty five times more CO2 than the control. This higher Ci significantly enhanced the productivity of Cladophora coelothrix (26%), Chaetomorpha linum (24%) and to a lesser extent for Cladophora patentiramea (11%), compared to controls. We demonstrated that supplying carbon as CO2 can enhance the productivity of targeted green tide algal species under intensive culture, despite their clear ability to utilise HCO3−. PMID:24324672

  18. Enhanced production of green tide algal biomass through additional carbon supply.

    PubMed

    de Paula Silva, Pedro H; Paul, Nicholas A; de Nys, Rocky; Mata, Leonardo

    2013-01-01

    Intensive algal cultivation usually requires a high flux of dissolved inorganic carbon (Ci) to support productivity, particularly for high density algal cultures. Carbon dioxide (CO2) enrichment can be used to overcome Ci limitation and enhance productivity of algae in intensive culture, however, it is unclear whether algal species with the ability to utilise bicarbonate (HCO3 (-)) as a carbon source for photosynthesis will benefit from CO2 enrichment. This study quantified the HCO3 (-) affinity of three green tide algal species, Cladophora coelothrix, Cladophora patentiramea and Chaetomorpha linum, targeted for biomass and bioenergy production. Subsequently, we quantified productivity and carbon, nitrogen and ash content in response to CO2 enrichment. All three species had similar high pH compensation points (9.7-9.9), and grew at similar rates up to pH 9, demonstrating HCO3 (-) utilization. Algal cultures enriched with CO2 as a carbon source had 30% more total Ci available, supplying twenty five times more CO2 than the control. This higher Ci significantly enhanced the productivity of Cladophora coelothrix (26%), Chaetomorpha linum (24%) and to a lesser extent for Cladophora patentiramea (11%), compared to controls. We demonstrated that supplying carbon as CO2 can enhance the productivity of targeted green tide algal species under intensive culture, despite their clear ability to utilise HCO3 (-).

  19. Performance enhancement with powdered activated carbon (PAC) addition in a membrane bioreactor (MBR) treating distillery effluent.

    PubMed

    Satyawali, Yamini; Balakrishnan, Malini

    2009-10-15

    This work investigated the effect of powdered activated carbon (PAC) addition on the operation of a membrane bioreactor (MBR) treating sugarcane molasses based distillery wastewater (spentwash). The 8L reactor was equipped with a submerged 30 microm nylon mesh filter with 0.05 m(2) filtration area. Detailed characterization of the commercial wood charcoal based PAC was performed before using it in the MBR. The MBR was operated over 200 days at organic loading rates (OLRs) varying from 4.2 to 6.9 kg m(-3)d(-1). PAC addition controlled the reactor foaming during start up and enhanced the critical flux by around 23%; it also prolonged the duration between filter cleaning. Operation at higher loading rates was possible and for a given OLR, the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal was higher with PAC addition. However, biodegradation in the reactor was limited and the high molecular weight compounds were not affected by PAC supplementation. The functional groups on PAC appear to interact with the polysaccharide portion of the sludge, which may reduce its propensity to interact with the nylon mesh.

  20. OX40 expression enhances the prognostic significance of CD8 positive lymphocyte infiltration in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Weixler, Benjamin; Cremonesi, Eleonora; Sorge, Roberto; Muraro, Manuele Giuseppe; Delko, Tarik; Nebiker, Christian A.; Däster, Silvio; Governa, Valeria; Amicarella, Francesca; Soysal, Savas D.; Kettelhack, Christoph; von Holzen, Urs W.; Eppenberger-Castori, Serenella; Spagnoli, Giulio C.; Oertli, Daniel; Iezzi, Giandomenica; Terracciano, Luigi; Tornillo, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    Background OX40 is a TNF receptor family member expressed by activated T cells. Its triggering by OX40 ligand promotes lymphocyte survival and memory generation. Anti-OX40 agonistic monoclonal antibodies (mAb) are currently being tested in cancer immunotherapy. We explored the prognostic significance of tumor infiltration by OX40+ cells in a large colorectal cancer (CRC) collective. Methods OX40 gene expression was analyzed in 50 freshly excised CRC and corresponding healthy mucosa by qRT-PCR. A tissue microarray including 657 clinically annotated CRC specimens was stained with anti-OX40, -CD8 and -FOXP3 mAbs by standard immunohistochemistry. The CRC cohort was randomly split into training and validation sets. Correlations between CRC infiltration by OX40+ cells alone, or in combination with CD8+ or FOXP3+ cells, and clinical-pathological data and overall survival were comparatively evaluated. Results OX40 gene expression in CRC significantly correlated with FOXP3 and CD8 gene expression. High CRC infiltration by OX40+ cells was significantly associated with favorable prognosis in training and validation sets in univariate, but not multivariate, Cox regression analysis. CRC with OX40high/CD8high infiltration were characterized by significantly prolonged overall survival, as compared to tumors with OX40low/CD8high, OX40high/CD8low or OX40low/CD8low infiltration in both uni- and multivariate analysis. In contrast, prognostic significance of OX40+ and FOXP3+ cell infiltration was not enhanced by a combined evaluation. Irrespective of TNM stage, CRC with OX40high/CD8high density infiltrates showed an overall survival similar to that of all stage I CRC included in the study. Conclusions OX40high/CD8high density tumor infiltration represents an independent, favorable, prognostic marker in CRC with an overall survival similar to stage I cancers. PMID:26439988

  1. Significant Broadband Photocurrent Enhancement by Au-CZTS Core-Shell Nanostructured Photocathodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xuemei; Wu, Xu; Centeno, Anthony; Ryan, Mary P.; Alford, Neil M.; Riley, D. Jason; Xie, Fang

    2016-03-01

    Copper zinc tin sulfide (CZTS) is a promising material for harvesting solar energy due to its abundance and non-toxicity. However, its poor performance hinders their wide application. In this paper gold (Au) nanoparticles are successfully incorporated into CZTS to form Au@CZTS core-shell nanostructures. The photocathode of Au@CZTS nanostructures exhibits enhanced optical absorption characteristics and improved incident photon-to-current efficiency (IPCE) performance. It is demonstrated that using this photocathode there is a significant increase of the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of a photoelectrochemical solar cell of 100% compared to using a CZTS without Au core. More importantly, the PCE of Au@CZTS photocathode improved by 15.8% compared to standard platinum (Pt) counter electrode. The increased efficiency is attributed to plasmon resonance energy transfer (PRET) between the Au nanoparticle core and the CZTS shell at wavelengths shorter than the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) peak of the Au and the semiconductor bandgap.

  2. Enhanced ferroelectric phase content of polyvinylidene difluoride fibers with the addition of magnetic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Andrew, J S; Clarke, D R

    2008-08-19

    Polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) fibers with continuously dispersed ferrite (Ni 0.5Zn 0.5Fe 2O 4) nanoparticles were prepared by electrospinning from dimethyl formamide (DMF) solutions. The effects of the electrospinning processing conditions and nanoparticle loading on the formation of the alpha, beta, and gamma phases of PVDF were studied using infrared spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. The amount of the ferroelectric beta and gamma phases present in the fibers was found to increase with increased nanoparticle loading. We have shown that the formation of PVDF phases with extended chain conformations can be enhanced by the addition of a well-dispersed nanoparticle phase. At increased nanoparticle loadings, the alpha phase is completely converted to the more extended beta and gamma phases.

  3. Mechanism of wiggling enhancement due to HBr gas addition during amorphous carbon etching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kofuji, Naoyuki; Ishimura, Hiroaki; Kobayashi, Hitoshi; Une, Satoshi

    2015-06-01

    The effect of gas chemistry during etching of an amorphous carbon layer (ACL) on wiggling has been investigated, focusing especially on the changes in residual stress. Although the HBr gas addition reduces critical dimension loss, it enhances the surface stress and therefore increases wiggling. Attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy revealed that the increase in surface stress was caused by hydrogenation of the ACL surface with hydrogen radicals. Three-dimensional (3D) nonlinear finite element method analysis confirmed that the increase in surface stress is large enough to cause the wiggling. These results also suggest that etching with hydrogen compound gases using an ACL mask has high potential to cause the wiggling.

  4. Power conversion efficiency enhancement in OPV devices using spin 1/2 molecular additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basel, Tek; Vardeny, Valy; Yu, Luping

    2014-03-01

    We investigated the power conversion efficiency of bulk heterojunction OPV cells based on the low bandgap polymer PTB7, blend with C61-PCBM. We also employed the technique of photo-induced absorption, PA; electrical and magneto-PA (MPA) techniques to understand the details of the photocurrent generation process in this blend. We found that spin 1/2 molecular additives, such as Galvinoxyl (Gxl) radicals dramatically enhance the cell efficiency; we obtained 20% increase in photocurrent upon Gxl doping with 2% weight. We explain our finding by the ability of the spin 1/2 radicals to interfere with the known major loss mechanism in the cell due to recombination of charge transfer exciton at the D-A interface via triplet excitons in the polymer donors. Supported by National Science Foundation-Material Science & Engineering Center (NSF-MRSEC), University of Utah.

  5. Behaviorally inhibited individuals demonstrate significantly enhanced conditioned response acquisition under non-optimal learning conditions.

    PubMed

    Holloway, J L; Allen, M T; Myers, C E; Servatius, R J

    2014-03-15

    Behavioral inhibition (BI) is an anxiety vulnerability factor associated with hypervigilance to novel stimuli, threat, and ambiguous cues. The progression from anxiety risk to a clinical disorder is unknown, although the acquisition of defensive learning and avoidance may be a critical feature. As the expression of avoidance is also central to anxiety development, the present study examined avoidance acquisition as a function of inhibited temperament using classical eyeblink conditioning. Individuals were classified as behaviorally inhibited (BI) or non-inhibited (NI) based on combined scores from the Adult and Retrospective Measures of Behavioural Inhibition (AMBI and RMBI, respectively). Acquisition was assessed using delay, omission, or yoked conditioning schedules of reinforcement. Omission training was identical to delay, except that the emission of an eyeblink conditioned response (CR) resulted in omission of the unconditioned airpuff stimulus (US) on that trial. Each subject in the yoked group was matched on total BI score to a subject in the omission group, and received the same schedule of CS and US delivery, resulting in a partial reinforcement training schedule. Delay conditioning elicited significantly more CRs compared to the omission and yoked contingencies, the latter two of which did not differ from each other. Thus, acquisition of an avoidance response was not apparent. BI individuals demonstrated enhanced acquisition overall, while partial reinforcement training significantly distinguished between BI and NI groups. Enhanced learning in BI may be a function of an increased defensive learning capacity, or sensitivity to uncertainty. Further work examining the influence of BI on learning acquisition is important for understanding individual differences in disorder etiology in anxiety vulnerable cohorts.

  6. Zero Valent Iron Significantly Enhances Methane Production from Waste Activated Sludge by Improving Biochemical Methane Potential Rather Than Hydrolysis Rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yiwen; Wang, Qilin; Zhang, Yaobin; Ni, Bing-Jie

    2015-02-01

    Anaerobic digestion has been widely applied for waste activated sludge (WAS) treatment. However, methane production from anaerobic digestion of WAS is usually limited by the slow hydrolysis rate and/or poor biochemical methane potential of WAS. This work systematically studied the effects of three different types of zero valent iron (i.e., iron powder, clean scrap and rusty scrap) on methane production from WAS in anaerobic digestion, by using both experimental and mathematical approaches. The results demonstrated that both the clean and the rusty iron scrap were more effective than the iron powder for improving methane production from WAS. Model-based analysis showed that ZVI addition significantly enhanced methane production from WAS through improving the biochemical methane potential of WAS rather than its hydrolysis rate. Economic analysis indicated that the ZVI-based technology for enhancing methane production from WAS is economically attractive, particularly considering that iron scrap can be freely acquired from industrial waste. Based on these results, the ZVI-based anaerobic digestion process of this work could be easily integrated with the conventional chemical phosphorus removal process in wastewater treatment plant to form a cost-effective and environment-friendly approach, enabling maximum resource recovery/reuse while achieving enhanced methane production in wastewater treatment system.

  7. Zero Valent Iron Significantly Enhances Methane Production from Waste Activated Sludge by Improving Biochemical Methane Potential Rather Than Hydrolysis Rate

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yiwen; Wang, Qilin; Zhang, Yaobin; Ni, Bing-Jie

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion has been widely applied for waste activated sludge (WAS) treatment. However, methane production from anaerobic digestion of WAS is usually limited by the slow hydrolysis rate and/or poor biochemical methane potential of WAS. This work systematically studied the effects of three different types of zero valent iron (i.e., iron powder, clean scrap and rusty scrap) on methane production from WAS in anaerobic digestion, by using both experimental and mathematical approaches. The results demonstrated that both the clean and the rusty iron scrap were more effective than the iron powder for improving methane production from WAS. Model-based analysis showed that ZVI addition significantly enhanced methane production from WAS through improving the biochemical methane potential of WAS rather than its hydrolysis rate. Economic analysis indicated that the ZVI-based technology for enhancing methane production from WAS is economically attractive, particularly considering that iron scrap can be freely acquired from industrial waste. Based on these results, the ZVI-based anaerobic digestion process of this work could be easily integrated with the conventional chemical phosphorus removal process in wastewater treatment plant to form a cost-effective and environment-friendly approach, enabling maximum resource recovery/reuse while achieving enhanced methane production in wastewater treatment system. PMID:25652244

  8. Zero valent iron significantly enhances methane production from waste activated sludge by improving biochemical methane potential rather than hydrolysis rate.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yiwen; Wang, Qilin; Zhang, Yaobin; Ni, Bing-Jie

    2015-02-05

    Anaerobic digestion has been widely applied for waste activated sludge (WAS) treatment. However, methane production from anaerobic digestion of WAS is usually limited by the slow hydrolysis rate and/or poor biochemical methane potential of WAS. This work systematically studied the effects of three different types of zero valent iron (i.e., iron powder, clean scrap and rusty scrap) on methane production from WAS in anaerobic digestion, by using both experimental and mathematical approaches. The results demonstrated that both the clean and the rusty iron scrap were more effective than the iron powder for improving methane production from WAS. Model-based analysis showed that ZVI addition significantly enhanced methane production from WAS through improving the biochemical methane potential of WAS rather than its hydrolysis rate. Economic analysis indicated that the ZVI-based technology for enhancing methane production from WAS is economically attractive, particularly considering that iron scrap can be freely acquired from industrial waste. Based on these results, the ZVI-based anaerobic digestion process of this work could be easily integrated with the conventional chemical phosphorus removal process in wastewater treatment plant to form a cost-effective and environment-friendly approach, enabling maximum resource recovery/reuse while achieving enhanced methane production in wastewater treatment system.

  9. Experimental study of enhanced heat transfer by addition of CuO nanoparticle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jesumathy, Stella; Udayakumar, M.; Suresh, S.

    2012-06-01

    An energy storage system has been designed to study the thermal characteristics of paraffin wax with an embedded nano size copper oxide (CuO) particle. This paper presents studies conducted on phase transition times, heat fraction as well as heat transfer characteristics of paraffin wax as phase change material (PCM) embedded with CuO nanoparticles. 40 nm mean size CuO particles of 2, 5 and 10% by weight were dispersed in PCM for this study. Experiments were performed on a heat exchanger with 1.5-10 l/min of heat transfer fluid (HTF) flow. Time-based variations of the temperature distributions are revealed from the results of observations of melting and solidification curves. The results strongly suggested that the thermal conductivity enhances 6, 6.7 and 7.8% in liquid state and in dynamic viscosity it enhances by 5, 14 and 30% with increasing mass fraction of the CNEPs. The thermal conductivity ratio of the composites can be augmented by a factor up to 1.3. The heat transfer coefficient during solidification increased about 78% for the maximum flow rate. The analysis of experimental results reveals that the addition of copper oxide nanoparticles to the paraffin wax enhances both the conduction and natural convection very effectively in composites and in paraffin wax. The paraffin wax-based composites have great potential for energy storage applications like industrial waste heat recovery, solar thermal applications and solar based dynamic space power generation with optimal fraction of copper oxide nanoparticles.

  10. Additively enhanced antiproliferative effect of interferon combined with proanthocyanidin on bladder cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Fishman, Andrew I; Johnson, Blake; Alexander, Bobby; Won, John; Choudhury, Muhammad; Konno, Sensuke

    2012-01-01

    Although interferon (IFN) has been often used as immunotherapy for bladder cancer, its efficacy is rather unsatisfactory, demanding further improvement. Combination therapy is one of viable options, and grape seed proanthocyanidin (GSP) could be such an agent to be used with IFN because it has been shown to have anticancer activity. We thus investigated whether combination of IFN and GSP might enhance the overall antiproliferative effect on bladder cancer cells in vitro. Human bladder cancer T24 cells were employed and treated with the varying concentrations of recombinant IFN-α(2b) (0-100,000 IU/ml), GSP (0-100 μg/ml), or their combinations. IFN-α(2b) alone led to a ~50% growth reduction at 20,000 (20K) IU/ml, which further declined to ~67% at ≥50K IU/ml. Similarly, GSP alone induced a ~35% and ~100% growth reduction at 25 and ≥50 μg/ml, respectively. When IFN-α(2b) and GSP were then combined, combination of 50K IU/ml IFN-α(2b) and 25 μg/ml GSP resulted in a drastic >95% growth reduction. Cell cycle analysis indicated that such an enhanced growth inhibition was accompanied by a G(1) cell cycle arrest. This was further confirmed by Western blot analysis revealing that expressions of G(1)-specific cell cycle regulators (CDK2, CDK4, cyclin E and p27/Kip1) were distinctly modulated with such IFN-α(2b)/GSP treatment. Therefore, these findings support the notion that combination of IFN-α(2b) and GSP is capable of additively enhancing antiproliferative effect on T24 cells with a G(1) cell cycle arrest, implying an adjuvant therapeutic modality for superficial bladder cancer.

  11. Enhancing the adsorption of ionic liquids onto activated carbon by the addition of inorganic salts

    PubMed Central

    Neves, Catarina M. S. S.; Lemus, Jesús; Freire, Mara G.; Palomar, Jose; Coutinho, João A. P.

    2014-01-01

    Most ionic liquids (ILs) are either water soluble or present a non-negligible miscibility with water that may cause some harmful effects upon their release into the environment. Among other methods, adsorption of ILs onto activated carbon (AC) has shown to be an effective technique to remove these compounds from aqueous solutions. However, this method has proved to be viable only for hydrophobic ILs rather than for the hydrophilic that, being water soluble, have a larger tendency for contamination. In this context, an alternative approach using the salting-out ability of inorganic salts is here proposed to enhance the adsorption of hydrophilic ILs onto activated carbon. The effect of the concentrations of Na2SO4 on the adsorption of five ILs onto AC was investigated. A wide range of ILs that allow the inspection of the IL cation family (imidazolium- and pyridinium-based) and the anion nature (accounting for its hydrophilicity and fluorination) through the adsorption onto AC was studied. In general, it is shown that the use of Na2SO4 enhances the adsorption of ILs onto AC. In particular, this effect is highly relevant when dealing with hydrophilic ILs that are those that are actually poorly removed by AC. In addition, the COnductor like Screening MOdel for Real Solvents (COSMO-RS) was used aiming at complementing the experimental data obtained. This work contributes with the development of novel methods to remove ILs from water streams aiming at creating “greener” processes. PMID:25516713

  12. [The role of additives in bio-mass coal briquette on sulfur retention enhancement].

    PubMed

    Lu, Yongqi; Xu, Kangfu; Ma, Yongliang; Wei, Tiejun; Hao, Jiming

    2002-01-30

    The research first conducted the sulfur-fixing experiment of bio-mass coal briquette in a tubular furnace. The impacts of three additives Al2O3, Fe2O3 and MnO2 on the sulfur retention by calcium-based sorbent in briquette were investigated, and only Al2O3 displayed the enhancement of sulfur retention. The TGA experiment was further carried out, and proved that the high-temperature decomposition of CaSO4 in the deoxidization atmosphere was effectively inhibited with the addition of Al2O3. The XPS and XRD analyses of briquette ash showed that due to the interaction among Al2O3, CaSO4 and CaO, the composite CaSO4.3CaO.3Al2O3 which has more thermal stability was formed. With its wrapping or binding onto the surface of CaSO4 crystal, the decomposition of CaSO4 was mitigated.

  13. Ethanol Addition for Enhancing Denitrification at the Uranium Mill Tailing Site in Monument Valley, AZ

    SciTech Connect

    Borden, A. K.; Brusseau, M. L.; Carroll, Kenneth C.; McMillan, Andrew; Akyol, N. H.; Berkompas, J.; Miao, Z.; Jordan, F.; Tick, Geoff; Waugh, W. J.; Glenn, E. P.

    2012-01-01

    Uranium mining and processing near Monument Valley, Arizona resulted in the formation of a large nitrate plume in a shallow alluvial aquifer. The results of prior field characterization studies indicate that the nitrate plume is undergoing a slow rate of attenuation via denitrification, and the results of bench-scale studies suggest that denitrification rates can potentially be increased by an order of magnitude with the addition of ethanol as a carbon substrate. The objective of the study was to investigate the potential of ethanol amendment for enhancing the natural denitrification occurring in the alluvial aquifer. Pilot tests were conducted using the single well, push-pull method and a natural-gradient test. The results showed that the concentration of nitrate decreased, while the concentration of nitrous oxide (a product of denitrification) increased. In addition, changes in aqueous concentrations of sulfate, iron, and manganese indicate the ethanol amendment effected a change in prevailing redox conditions. The results of compound-specific stable isotope analysis for nitrogen indicated that the nitrate concentration reductions were biologically mediated. Continued monitoring after completion of the pilot tests has shown that nitrate concentrations in the injection zone have remained at levels three orders of magnitude lower than the initial values, indicating that the impacts of the pilot tests have been sustained for several months.

  14. Graphene Oxide Quantum Dots Covalently Functionalized PVDF Membrane with Significantly-Enhanced Bactericidal and Antibiofouling Performances

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Zhiping; Yu, Dingshan; He, Ziming; Liu, Jing; Xiao, Fang-Xing; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Rong; Bhattacharyya, Dibakar; Tan, Timothy Thatt Yang

    2016-01-01

    Covalent bonding of graphene oxide quantum dots (GOQDs) onto amino modified polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane has generated a new type of nano-carbon functionalized membrane with significantly enhanced antibacterial and antibiofouling properties. A continuous filtration test using E. coli containing feedwater shows that the relative flux drop over GOQDs modified PVDF is 23%, which is significantly lower than those over pristine PVDF (86%) and GO-sheet modified PVDF (62%) after 10 h of filtration. The presence of GOQD coating layer effectively inactivates E. coli and S. aureus cells, and prevents the biofilm formation on the membrane surface, producing excellent antimicrobial activity and potentially antibiofouling capability, more superior than those of previously reported two-dimensional GO sheets and one-dimensional CNTs modified membranes. The distinctive antimicrobial and antibiofouling performances could be attributed to the unique structure and uniform dispersion of GOQDs, enabling the exposure of a larger fraction of active edges and facilitating the formation of oxidation stress. Furthermore, GOQDs modified membrane possesses satisfying long-term stability and durability due to the strong covalent interaction between PVDF and GOQDs. This study opens up a new synthetic avenue in the fabrication of efficient surface-functionalized polymer membranes for potential waste water treatment and biomolecules separation. PMID:26832603

  15. Significant enhancement of the charging efficiency in the cavities of ferroelectrets through gas exchange during charging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Xunlin

    2016-11-01

    Ferroelectrets are non-polar polymer foams or polymer systems with internally charged cavities. They are charged through a series of dielectric barrier discharges (DBDs) that are caused by the electrical breakdown of the gas inside the cavities. Thus, the breakdown strength of the gas strongly influences the charging process of ferroelectrets. A gas with a lower breakdown strength has a lower threshold voltage, thus decreasing the onset voltage for DBD charging. However, a lower threshold voltage also leads to a lower value for the remanent polarization, as back discharges that are caused by the electric field of the internally deposited charges can take place already at lower charge levels. On this basis, a charging strategy is proposed where the DBDs start in a gas with a lower breakdown strength (in the present example, helium) and are completed at a higher breakdown strength (e.g., nitrogen or atmospheric air). Thus, the exchange of the gas in the cavities during charging can significantly enhance the charging efficiency, i.e., yield much higher piezoelectric coefficients in ferroelectrets at significantly lower charging voltages.

  16. Graphene Oxide Quantum Dots Covalently Functionalized PVDF Membrane with Significantly-Enhanced Bactericidal and Antibiofouling Performances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Zhiping; Yu, Dingshan; He, Ziming; Liu, Jing; Xiao, Fang-Xing; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Rong; Bhattacharyya, Dibakar; Tan, Timothy Thatt Yang

    2016-02-01

    Covalent bonding of graphene oxide quantum dots (GOQDs) onto amino modified polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane has generated a new type of nano-carbon functionalized membrane with significantly enhanced antibacterial and antibiofouling properties. A continuous filtration test using E. coli containing feedwater shows that the relative flux drop over GOQDs modified PVDF is 23%, which is significantly lower than those over pristine PVDF (86%) and GO-sheet modified PVDF (62%) after 10 h of filtration. The presence of GOQD coating layer effectively inactivates E. coli and S. aureus cells, and prevents the biofilm formation on the membrane surface, producing excellent antimicrobial activity and potentially antibiofouling capability, more superior than those of previously reported two-dimensional GO sheets and one-dimensional CNTs modified membranes. The distinctive antimicrobial and antibiofouling performances could be attributed to the unique structure and uniform dispersion of GOQDs, enabling the exposure of a larger fraction of active edges and facilitating the formation of oxidation stress. Furthermore, GOQDs modified membrane possesses satisfying long-term stability and durability due to the strong covalent interaction between PVDF and GOQDs. This study opens up a new synthetic avenue in the fabrication of efficient surface-functionalized polymer membranes for potential waste water treatment and biomolecules separation.

  17. Graphene Oxide Quantum Dots Covalently Functionalized PVDF Membrane with Significantly-Enhanced Bactericidal and Antibiofouling Performances.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Zhiping; Yu, Dingshan; He, Ziming; Liu, Jing; Xiao, Fang-Xing; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Rong; Bhattacharyya, Dibakar; Tan, Timothy Thatt Yang

    2016-02-02

    Covalent bonding of graphene oxide quantum dots (GOQDs) onto amino modified polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane has generated a new type of nano-carbon functionalized membrane with significantly enhanced antibacterial and antibiofouling properties. A continuous filtration test using E. coli containing feedwater shows that the relative flux drop over GOQDs modified PVDF is 23%, which is significantly lower than those over pristine PVDF (86%) and GO-sheet modified PVDF (62%) after 10 h of filtration. The presence of GOQD coating layer effectively inactivates E. coli and S. aureus cells, and prevents the biofilm formation on the membrane surface, producing excellent antimicrobial activity and potentially antibiofouling capability, more superior than those of previously reported two-dimensional GO sheets and one-dimensional CNTs modified membranes. The distinctive antimicrobial and antibiofouling performances could be attributed to the unique structure and uniform dispersion of GOQDs, enabling the exposure of a larger fraction of active edges and facilitating the formation of oxidation stress. Furthermore, GOQDs modified membrane possesses satisfying long-term stability and durability due to the strong covalent interaction between PVDF and GOQDs. This study opens up a new synthetic avenue in the fabrication of efficient surface-functionalized polymer membranes for potential waste water treatment and biomolecules separation.

  18. Carbon materials as additives to WO3 for an enhanced conversion of simulated solar light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmona, Rocío; Velasco, Leticia; Laurenti, Enzo; Maurino, Valter; Ania, Conchi

    2016-02-01

    We have explored the impact of the incorporation of nanoporous carbons as additives to tungsten oxide on the photocatalytic degradation of two recalcitrant pollutants: rhodamine B and phenol, under simulated solar light. For this purpose, WO3/carbon mixtures were prepared using three carbon materials with different properties (in terms of porosity, structural order and surface chemistry). Despite the low carbon content used (2 wt. %), a significant increase in the photocatalytic performance of the semiconductor was observed for all the catalysts. Moreover, the influence of the carbon additive on the performance of the photocatalysts was found to be very different for the two pollutants. Carbon additives of hydrophobic nature increased the photodegradation yield of phenol compared to bare WO3, likely due to the higher affinity and stronger interactions of phenol molecules towards basic nanoporous carbons. Oppositely, the use of acidic carbon additives led to higher rhodamine B conversions due to increased acidity of the WO3/carbon mixtures and the stronger affinity of the pollutant for acidic catalyst’s surfaces. As a result, the photooxidation of rhodamine B is favored by means of a coupled (photosensitized and photocatalytic) degradation mechanism. All these results highlight the importance of favoring the interactions of the pollutant with the catalyst’s surface through a detailed design of the features of the photocatalyst.

  19. MEETING REPORT: OMG Technical Committee Meeting in Orlando, FL, sees significant enhancement to CORBA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-06-01

    The Object Management Group (OMG) Platform Technology Committee (PTC) ratified its support for a new asynchronous messaging service for CORBA at OMG's recent Technical Committee Meeting in Orlando, FL. The meeting, held from 8 - 12 June, saw the PTC send the Messaging Service out for a final vote among the OMG membership. The Messaging Service, which will integrate Message Oriented Middleware (MOM) with CORBA, will give CORBA a true asynchronous messaging capability - something of great interest to users and developers. Formal adoption of the specification will most likely occur by the end of the year. The Messaging Service The Messaging Service, when adopted, will be the world's first standard for Message Oriented Middleware and will give CORBA a true asynchronous messaging capability. Asynchronous messaging allows developers to build simpler, richer client environments. With asynchronous messaging there is less need for multi-threaded clients because the Asynchronous Method Invocation is non-blocking, meaning the client thread can continue work while the application waits for a reply. David Curtis, Director of Platform Technology for OMG, said: `This messaging service is one of the more valuable additions to CORBA. It enhances CORBA's existing asynchronous messaging capabilities which is a feature of many popular message oriented middleware products. This service will allow better integration between ORBs and MOM products. This enhanced messaging capability will only make CORBA more valuable for builders of distributed object systems.' The Messaging Service is one of sixteen technologies currently being worked on by the PTC. Additionally, seventeen Revision Task Forces (RTFs) are working on keeping OMG specifications up to date. The purpose of these Revision Task Forces is to take input from the implementors of OMG specifications and clarify or make necessary changes based on the implementor's input. The RTFs also ensure that the specifications remain up to date

  20. Effects of ethanol addition on micellar solubilization and plume migration during surfactant enhanced recovery of tetrachloroethene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Tammy P.; Rathfelder, Klaus M.; Pennell, Kurt D.; Abriola, Linda M.

    2004-03-01

    Alcohol addition has been suggested for use in combination with surfactant flushing to enhance solubilization kinetics and permit density control of dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL)-laden surfactant plumes. This study examined the effects of adding ethanol (EtOH) to a 4% Tween 80 (polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monooleate) solution used to flush tetrachloroethene (PCE)-contaminated porous media. The influence of EtOH concentration, subsurface layering and scale on flushing solution delivery and PCE recovery was investigated through a combination of experimental and mathematical modeling studies. Results of batch experiments demonstrated that the addition of 2.5%, 5% and 10% (wt.) EtOH incrementally increased the PCE solubilization capacity and viscosity of the surfactant solution, while reducing solution density from 1.002 to 0.986 g/cm 3. Effluent concentration data obtained from one-dimensional (1-D) column experiments were used to characterize rate-limited micellar solubilization of residual PCE, which was strongly dependent upon flow velocity and weakly dependent upon EtOH concentration. Two-dimensional (2-D) box studies illustrated that minor differences (0.008 g/cm 3) between flushing and resident solution density can strongly influence surfactant front propagation. A two-dimensional multiphase simulator, MISER, was used to model the influence of EtOH composition on the aqueous flow field and PCE mass recovery. The ability of the numerical simulator to predict effluent concentrations and front propagation was demonstrated for both 1-D columns and 2-D boxes flushed with EtOH-amended Tween 80 solutions. Results of this study quantify the potential influence of alcohol addition on surfactant solution properties and solubilization capacity, and demonstrate the importance of considering small density variations in remedial design.

  1. Gluten-free dough-making of specialty breads: Significance of blended starches, flours and additives on dough behaviour.

    PubMed

    Collar, Concha; Conte, Paola; Fadda, Costantino; Piga, Antonio

    2015-10-01

    The capability of different gluten-free (GF) basic formulations made of flour (rice, amaranth and chickpea) and starch (corn and cassava) blends, to make machinable and viscoelastic GF-doughs in absence/presence of single hydrocolloids (guar gum, locust bean and psyllium fibre), proteins (milk and egg white) and surfactants (neutral, anionic and vegetable oil) have been investigated. Macroscopic (high deformation) and macromolecular (small deformation) mechanical, viscometric (gelatinization, pasting, gelling) and thermal (gelatinization, melting, retrogradation) approaches were performed on the different matrices in order to (a) identify similarities and differences in GF-doughs in terms of a small number of rheological and thermal analytical parameters according to the formulations and (b) to assess single and interactive effects of basic ingredients and additives on GF-dough performance to achieve GF-flat breads. Larger values for the static and dynamic mechanical characteristics and higher viscometric profiles during both cooking and cooling corresponded to doughs formulated with guar gum and Psyllium fibre added to rice flour/starch and rice flour/corn starch/chickpea flour, while surfactant- and protein-formulated GF-doughs added to rice flour/starch/amaranth flour based GF-doughs exhibited intermediate and lower values for the mechanical parameters and poorer viscometric profiles. In addition, additive-free formulations exhibited higher values for the temperature of both gelatinization and retrogradation and lower enthalpies for the thermal transitions. Single addition of 10% of either chickpea flour or amaranth flour to rice flour/starch blends provided a large GF-dough hardening effect in presence of corn starch and an intermediate effect in presence of cassava starch (chickpea), and an intermediate reinforcement of GF-dough regardless the source of starch (amaranth). At macromolecular level, both chickpea and amaranth flours, singly added, determined

  2. Weak magnetic field significantly enhances selenite removal kinetics by zero valent iron.

    PubMed

    Liang, Liping; Sun, Wu; Guan, Xiaohong; Huang, Yuying; Choi, Wonyong; Bao, Hongliang; Li, Lina; Jiang, Zheng

    2014-02-01

    The effect of weak magnetic field (WMF) on Se(IV) removal by zero valent iron (ZVI) was investigated as functions of pH and initial Se(IV) concentrations. The presence of WMF significantly accelerated Se(IV) removal and extended the working pH range of ZVI from 4.0-6.0 to 4.0-7.2. The WMF induced greater enhancement in Se(IV) removal by ZVI at lower initial Se(IV) concentrations. The influence of WMF on Se(IV) removal by ZVI was associated with a more dramatic drop in ORP and a more rapid release of Fe(2+) compared to the case without WMF. SEM and XRD analysis revealed that WMF accelerated the corrosion of ZVI and the transformation of amorphous iron (hdyr)oxides to lepidocrocite. XANES analyses showed that WMF expedited the reduction of Se(IV) to Se(0) by ZVI at pH 6.0 when its initial concentration was ≤20.0 mg L(-1). Se(IV) dosed at 40.0 mg L(-1) was removed by ZVI via adsorption followed by reduction to Se(0) at pH 7.0 but via adsorption at 7.2 in the presence of WMF. Regardless of WMF, Se(IV) applied at 40.0 mg L(-1) was removed by reduction at pH 4.0-6.0. The WMF-induced improvement in Se(IV) removal by ZVI may be mainly attributable to the Lorentz force and magnetic field gradient force. Employing WMF to enhance Se(IV) removal by ZVI is a promising and environmental-friendly method since it does not need extra energy and costly reagents.

  3. Overexpression of AKR1C3 significantly enhances human prostate cancer cells resistance to radiation

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xian-Shu; Li, Yi; Yu, Hongliang; Xiong, Wei; Yu, Hao; Wang, Wen; Li, Yingbo; Teng, Yingqi; Zhou, Demin

    2016-01-01

    Aldo-keto reductase 1C3(AKR1C3) is an enzyme involved in prostaglandins metabolism. Studies suggest that AKR1C3 has a pivotal role in the radioresistance of esophageal cancer and non-small-cell lung cancer, yet the role of AKR1C3 in prostate cancer cells radiation resistance has not yet been clarified. In our study, we established a stable overexpressing AKR1C3 cell line (AKR1C3-over) derived from the prostate cell line DU145 and its control cell line (Control). We conducted colony formation assay to determine the role of AKR1C3 in radioresistance and we used its chemical inhibitor to detect whether it can restored the sensitivity of the acquired tumor cells. Flow cytometry assay was carried out to detect IR-induced ROS accumulation. Elisa was adopted to dedect the concentration of PGF2α in the suspension of the cells after 6GY radiation. Western blotting was used to dedect the MAPK and PPAR γ. The results demonstrated that overexpression of AKR1C3 in prostate cancer can result in radioresistance and suppression of AKR1C3 via its chemical inhibitor indocin restored the sensitivity of the acquired tumor cells. According to the flow cytometry assay, ROS was decreased by 80% in DU145-over cells. Also overexpression of AKR1C3 could result in the accumulation of prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α), which can not only promote prostate cancer cell 's proliferation but also could enhance prostate cancer cells resistance to radiation and activated the MAPK pathway and inhibited the expression of PPARγ. In conclusion, we found that overexpression of AKR1C3 significantly enhanced human prostate cancer cells resistance to radiation through activation of MAPK pathway. PMID:27385003

  4. Exogenous N addition enhances the responses of gross primary productivity to individual precipitation events in a temperate grassland

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Qun; Hu, Zhong-min; Li, Sheng-gong; Yu, Gui-rui; Sun, Xiao-min; Li, Ling-hao; Liang, Nai-shen; Bai, Wen-ming

    2016-01-01

    Predicted future shifts in the magnitude and frequency (larger but fewer) of precipitation events and enhanced nitrogen (N) deposition may interact to affect grassland productivity, but the effects of N enrichment on the productivity response to individual precipitation events remain unclear. In this study, we quantified the effects of N addition on the response patterns of gross primary productivity (GPP) to individual precipitation events of different sizes (Psize) in a temperate grassland in China. The results showed that N enrichment significantly increased the time-integrated amount of GPP in response to an individual precipitation event (GPPtotal), and the N-induced stimulation of GPP increased with increasing Psize. N enrichment rarely affected the duration of the GPP response, but it significantly stimulated the maximum absolute GPP response. Higher foliar N content might play an important role in the N-induced stimulation of GPP. GPPtotal in both the N-addition and control treatments increased linearly with Psize with similar Psize intercepts (approximately 5 mm, indicating a similar lower Psize threshold to stimulate the GPP response) but had a steeper slope under N addition. Our work indicates that the projected larger precipitation events will stimulate grassland productivity, and this stimulation might be amplified by increasing N deposition. PMID:27264386

  5. Additives enhancing the catalytic properties of lipase from Burkholderia cepacia immobilized on mixed-function-grafted mesoporous silica gel.

    PubMed

    Abaházi, Emese; Boros, Zoltán; Poppe, László

    2014-07-08

    Effects of various additives on the lipase from Burkholderia cepacia (BcL) immobilized on mixed-function-grafted mesoporous silica gel support by hydrophobic adsorption and covalent attachment were investigated. Catalytic properties of the immobilized biocatalysts were characterized in kinetic resolution of racemic 1-phenylethanol (rac-1a) and 1-(thiophen-2-yl)ethan-1-ol (rac-1b). Screening of more than 40 additives showed significantly enhanced productivity of immobilized BcL with several additives such as PEGs, oleic acid and polyvinyl alcohol. Effects of substrate concentration and temperature between 0-100 °C on kinetic resolution of rac-1a were studied with the best adsorbed BcLs containing PEG 20 k or PVA 18-88 additives in continuous-flow packed-bed reactor. The optimum temperature of lipase activity for BcL co-immobilized with PEG 20k found at around 30 °C determined in the continuous-flow system increased remarkably to around 80 °C for BcL co-immobilized with PVA 18-88.

  6. Advax-adjuvanted recombinant protective antigen provides protection against inhalational anthrax that is further enhanced by addition of murabutide adjuvant.

    PubMed

    Feinen, Brandon; Petrovsky, Nikolai; Verma, Anita; Merkel, Tod J

    2014-04-01

    Subunit vaccines against anthrax based on recombinant protective antigen (PA) potentially offer more consistent and less reactogenic anthrax vaccines but require adjuvants to achieve optimal immunogenicity. This study sought to determine in a murine model of pulmonary anthrax infection whether the polysaccharide adjuvant Advax or the innate immune adjuvant murabutide alone or together could enhance PA immunogenicity by comparison to an alum adjuvant. A single immunization with PA plus Advax adjuvant afforded significantly greater protection against aerosolized Bacillus anthracis Sterne strain 7702 than three immunizations with PA alone. Murabutide had a weaker adjuvant effect than Advax when used alone, but when murabutide was formulated together with Advax, an additive effect on immunogenicity and protection was observed, with complete protection after just two doses. The combined adjuvant formulation stimulated a robust, long-lasting B-cell memory response that protected mice against an aerosol challenge 18 months postimmunization with acceleration of the kinetics of the anamnestic IgG response to B. anthracis as reflected by ∼4-fold-higher anti-PA IgG titers by day 2 postchallenge versus mice that received PA with Alhydrogel. In addition, the combination of Advax plus murabutide induced approximately 3-fold-less inflammation than Alhydrogel as measured by in vivo imaging of cathepsin cleavage resulting from injection of ProSense 750. Thus, the combination of Advax and murabutide provided enhanced protection against inhalational anthrax with reduced localized inflammation, making this a promising next-generation anthrax vaccine adjuvanting strategy.

  7. Enhanced coding in a cochlear-implant model using additive noise: Aperiodic stochastic resonance with tuning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morse, Robert P.; Roper, Peter

    2000-05-01

    Analog electrical stimulation of the cochlear nerve (the nerve of hearing) by a cochlear implant is an effective method of providing functional hearing to profoundly deaf people. Recent physiological and computational experiments have shown that analog cochlear implants are unlikely to convey certain speech cues by the temporal pattern of evoked nerve discharges. However, these experiments have also shown that the optimal addition of noise to cochlear implant signals can enhance the temporal representation of speech cues [R. P. Morse and E. F. Evans, Nature Medicine 2, 928 (1996)]. We present a simple model to explain this enhancement of temporal representation. Our model derives from a rate equation for the mean threshold-crossing rate of an infinite set of parallel discriminators (level-crossing detectors); a system that well describes the time coding of information by a set of nerve fibers. Our results show that the optimal transfer of information occurs when the threshold level of each discriminator is equal to the root-mean-square noise level. The optimal transfer of information by a cochlear implant is therefore expected to occur when the internal root-mean-square noise level of each stimulated fiber is approximately equal to the nerve threshold. When interpreted within the framework of aperiodic stochastic resonance, our results indicate therefore that for an infinite array of discriminators, a tuning of the noise is still necessary for optimal performance. This is in contrast to previous results [Collins, Chow, and Imhoff, Nature 376, 236 (1995); Chialvo, Longtin, and Müller-Gerking, Phys. Rev. E 55, 1798 (1997)] on arrays of FitzHugh-Nagumo neurons.

  8. Significant performance enhancement in continuous wave terahertz photomixers based on fractal structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jafari, H.; Heidarzadeh, H.; Rostami, A.; Rostami, G.; Dolatyari, M.

    2017-01-01

    A photoconductive fractal antenna significantly improves the performance of photomixing-based continuous wave (CW) terahertz (THz) systems. An analysis has been carried out for the generation of CW-THz radiation by photomixer photoconductive antenna technique. To increase the active area for generation and hence the THz radiation power we used interdigitated electrodes that are coupled with a fractal tree antenna. In this paper, both semiconductor and electromagnetic problems are considered. Here, photomixer devices with Thue-Morse fractal tree antennas in two configurations (narrow and wide) are discussed. This new approach gives better performance, especially in the increasing of THz output power of photomixer devices, when compared with the conventional structures. In addition, applying the interdigitated electrodes improved THz photocurrent, considerably. It produces THz radiation power several times higher than the photomixers with simple gap.

  9. Significant photoelectric property change caused by additional nano-confinement: a study of half-dimensional nanomaterials.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Chengming; Song, Jinhui

    2014-12-29

    How properties change as 1D nanomaterials reduce in length to 0D, that is, the properties of 0.5D nanomaterial, are studied via photoelectric changes in ZnO nanowires. The photoelectric property of this 0.5D nanomaterial changes significantly as the 3D nanoconfinement is reinforced. This finding can be expanded to more properties and materials to profoundly impact fields of nanoscience, nanodevices, and nanoelectronics.

  10. Individual versus Significant Other-Enhanced Brief Motivational Intervention for Alcohol in Emergency Care

    PubMed Central

    Monti, Peter M.; Colby, Suzanne M.; Mastroleo, Nadine R.; Barnett, Nancy P.; Gwaltney, Chad J.; Apodaca, Timothy R.; Rohsenow, Damaris J.; Magill, Molly; Gogineni, Aruna; Mello, Michael J.; Biffl, Walter L.; Cioffi, William G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Effects of brief motivational interventions (BMIs) for heavy drinkers identified by alcohol-related emergency department (ED) visits are mixed. The successes of including significant others (SOs) in behavioral treatment suggest that involving SOs in ED-delivered BMI might prove beneficial. This study investigated the relative efficacy of an SO-enhanced Motivational Intervention (SOMI) compared to an Individual Motivational Intervention (IMI) to address heavy drinking in emergency care settings. Method ED (n = 317) or trauma unit (n = 89) patients were randomly assigned to receive either an IMI or an SOMI and were re-assessed at 6 and 12 months for alcohol consumption, alcohol-related consequences, and perceived alcohol-specific SO support. Results GEE analyses showed consistent reductions over time for both alcohol consumption and consequences. At one-year follow up, the average reduction in total drinks consumed per week was greater for patients in the SOMI condition than the IMI condition. In SOMI, 9.4% more patients moved to within the national guidelines for weekly drinking than did IMI patients. Frequency of heavy drinking and negative alcohol consequences showed no differential effects of intervention. Conclusions Emergence of a modest treatment effect at 12 months suggests that SO involvement in the SOMI condition may have led to more sustained positive influence on patient drinking than in the IMI condition. Implications and limitations regarding SO involvement in brief treatment are discussed. PMID:25111430

  11. Affective significance enhances covert attention: roles of anxiety and word familiarity.

    PubMed

    Calvo, Manuel G; Eysenck, Michael W

    2008-11-01

    To investigate the processing of emotional words by covert attention, threat-related, positive, and neutral word primes were presented parafoveally (2.2 degrees away from fixation) for 150 ms, under gaze-contingent foveal masking, to prevent eye fixations. The primes were followed by a probe word in a lexical-decision task. In Experiment 1, results showed a parafoveal threat-anxiety superiority: Parafoveal prime threat words facilitated responses to probe threat words for high-anxiety individuals, in comparison with neutral and positive words, and relative to low-anxiety individuals. This reveals an advantage in threat processing by covert attention, without differences in overt attention. However, anxiety was also associated with greater familiarity with threat words, and the parafoveal priming effects were significantly reduced when familiarity was covaried out. To further examine the role of word knowledge, in Experiment 2, vocabulary and word familiarity were equated for low- and high-anxiety groups. In these conditions, the parafoveal threat-anxiety advantage disappeared. This suggests that the enhanced covert-attention effect depends on familiarity with words.

  12. A Novel Peptide from Soybean Protein Isolate Significantly Enhances Resistance of the Organism under Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Heran; Liu, Rui; Zhao, Ziyuan; Zhang, Zhixian; Cao, Yue; Ma, Yudan; Guo, Yi; Xu, Li

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have indicated that protein hydrolysates have broad biological effects. In the current study we describe a novel antioxidative peptide, FDPAL, from soybean protein isolate (SPI). The aim of this study was to purify and characterize an antioxidative peptide from SPI and determine its antioxidative mechanism. LC–MS/MS was used to isolate and identify the peptide from SPI. The sequence of the peptide was determined to be Phe-Asp-Pro-Ala-Leu (FDPAL, 561 Da). FDPAL can cause significant enhancement of resistance to oxidative stress both in cells as well as simple organisms. In Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans), FDPAL can up-regulate the expression of certain genes associated with resistance. The antioxidant activity of this peptide can be attributed to the presence of a specific amino acid sequence. Results from our work suggest that FDPAL can facilitate potential applications of proteins carrying this sequence in the nutraceutical, bioactive material and clinical medicine areas, as well as in cosmetics and health care products. PMID:27455060

  13. Carbon-tuned bonding method significantly enhanced the hydrogen storage of BN-Li complexes.

    PubMed

    Deng, Qing-ming; Zhao, Lina; Luo, You-hua; Zhang, Meng; Zhao, Li-xia; Zhao, Yuliang

    2011-11-01

    Through first-principles calculations, we found doping carbon atoms onto BN monolayers (BNC) could significantly strengthen the Li bond on this material. Unlike the weak bond strength between Li atoms and the pristine BN layer, it is observed that Li atoms are strongly hybridized and donate their electrons to the doped substrate, which is responsible for the enhanced binding energy. Li adsorbed on the BNC layer can serve as a high-capacity hydrogen storage medium, without forming clusters, which can be recycled at room temperature. Eight polarized H(2) molecules are attached to two Li atoms with an optimal binding energy of 0.16-0.28 eV/H(2), which results from the electrostatic interaction of the polarized charge of hydrogen molecules with the electric field induced by positive Li atoms. This practical carbon-tuned BN-Li complex can work as a very high-capacity hydrogen storage medium with a gravimetric density of hydrogen of 12.2 wt%, which is much higher than the gravimetric goal of 5.5 wt % hydrogen set by the U.S. Department of Energy for 2015.

  14. Significant Broadband Photocurrent Enhancement by Au-CZTS Core-Shell Nanostructured Photocathodes

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xuemei; Wu, Xu; Centeno, Anthony; Ryan, Mary P.; Alford, Neil M.; Riley, D. Jason; Xie, Fang

    2016-01-01

    Copper zinc tin sulfide (CZTS) is a promising material for harvesting solar energy due to its abundance and non-toxicity. However, its poor performance hinders their wide application. In this paper gold (Au) nanoparticles are successfully incorporated into CZTS to form Au@CZTS core-shell nanostructures. The photocathode of Au@CZTS nanostructures exhibits enhanced optical absorption characteristics and improved incident photon-to-current efficiency (IPCE) performance. It is demonstrated that using this photocathode there is a significant increase of the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of a photoelectrochemical solar cell of 100% compared to using a CZTS without Au core. More importantly, the PCE of Au@CZTS photocathode improved by 15.8% compared to standard platinum (Pt) counter electrode. The increased efficiency is attributed to plasmon resonance energy transfer (PRET) between the Au nanoparticle core and the CZTS shell at wavelengths shorter than the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) peak of the Au and the semiconductor bandgap. PMID:26997140

  15. Amorphous Semiconductor Nanowires Created by Site-Specific Heteroatom Substitution with Significantly Enhanced Photoelectrochemical Performance.

    PubMed

    He, Ting; Zu, Lianhai; Zhang, Yan; Mao, Chengliang; Xu, Xiaoxiang; Yang, Jinhu; Yang, Shihe

    2016-08-23

    Semiconductor nanowires that have been extensively studied are typically in a crystalline phase. Much less studied are amorphous semiconductor nanowires due to the difficulty for their synthesis, despite a set of characteristics desirable for photoelectric devices, such as higher surface area, higher surface activity, and higher light harvesting. In this work of combined experiment and computation, taking Zn2GeO4 (ZGO) as an example, we propose a site-specific heteroatom substitution strategy through a solution-phase ions-alternative-deposition route to prepare amorphous/crystalline Si-incorporated ZGO nanowires with tunable band structures. The substitution of Si atoms for the Zn or Ge atoms distorts the bonding network to a different extent, leading to the formation of amorphous Zn1.7Si0.3GeO4 (ZSGO) or crystalline Zn2(GeO4)0.88(SiO4)0.12 (ZGSO) nanowires, respectively, with different bandgaps. The amorphous ZSGO nanowire arrays exhibit significantly enhanced performance in photoelectrochemical water splitting, such as higher and more stable photocurrent, and faster photoresponse and recovery, relative to crystalline ZGSO and ZGO nanowires in this work, as well as ZGO photocatalysts reported previously. The remarkable performance highlights the advantages of the ZSGO amorphous nanowires for photoelectric devices, such as higher light harvesting capability, faster charge separation, lower charge recombination, and higher surface catalytic activity.

  16. Additive enhancement of wound healing in diabetic mice by low level light and topical CoQ10

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Zhigang; Wu, Jeffrey H.; Dong, Tingting; Wu, Mei X.

    2016-02-01

    Diabetes, a highly prevalent disease that affects 9.3% of Americans, often leads to severe complications and slow wound healing. Preclinical studies have suggested that low level light therapy (LLLT) can accelerate wound healing in diabetic subjects, but significant improvements must be made to overcome the absence of persuasive evidence for its clinical use. We demonstrate here that LLLT can be combined with topical Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) to heal wounds in diabetic mice significantly faster than LLLT alone, CoQ10 alone, or controls. LLLT followed by topical CoQ10 enhanced wound healing by 68~103% in diabetic mice in the first week and more than 24% in the second week compared with untreated controls. All wounds were fully healed in two weeks following the dual treatment, in contrast to only 50% wounds or a fewer being fully healed for single or sham treatment. The accelerated healing was corroborated by at least 50% higher hydroxyproline levels, and tripling cell proliferation rates in LLLT and CoQ10 treated wounds over controls. The beneficial effects on wound healing were probably attributed to additive enhancement of ATP production by LLLT and CoQ10 treatment. The combination of LLLT and topical CoQ10 is safe and convenient, and merits further clinical study.

  17. Additive enhancement of wound healing in diabetic mice by low level light and topical CoQ10

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Zhigang; Wu, Jeffrey H.; Dong, Tingting; Wu, Mei X.

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes, a highly prevalent disease that affects 9.3% of Americans, often leads to severe complications and slow wound healing. Preclinical studies have suggested that low level light therapy (LLLT) can accelerate wound healing in diabetic subjects, but significant improvements must be made to overcome the absence of persuasive evidence for its clinical use. We demonstrate here that LLLT can be combined with topical Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) to heal wounds in diabetic mice significantly faster than LLLT alone, CoQ10 alone, or controls. LLLT followed by topical CoQ10 enhanced wound healing by 68~103% in diabetic mice in the first week and more than 24% in the second week compared with untreated controls. All wounds were fully healed in two weeks following the dual treatment, in contrast to only 50% wounds or a fewer being fully healed for single or sham treatment. The accelerated healing was corroborated by at least 50% higher hydroxyproline levels, and tripling cell proliferation rates in LLLT and CoQ10 treated wounds over controls. The beneficial effects on wound healing were probably attributed to additive enhancement of ATP production by LLLT and CoQ10 treatment. The combination of LLLT and topical CoQ10 is safe and convenient, and merits further clinical study. PMID:26830658

  18. Addition of Vital Wheat Gluten to Enhance the Quality Characteristics of Frozen Dough Products.

    PubMed

    Giannou, Virginia; Tzia, Constantina

    2016-01-06

    The aim of this study was to enhance the quality and sensory characteristics of bread made from frozen dough. Both white and whole-wheat flour were used. In order to improve dough strength and stability during frozen storage, samples were supplemented with vital wheat gluten at the levels of 2%, 4%, 5%, and 6% of flour weight. The characteristics of baked samples were determined through weight loss, specific volume, crust, and crumb color, texture, and sensory evaluation. Dough behavior at sub-zero temperatures was further examined for control samples and samples with 6% gluten using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), while their low molecular sugar content (fructose, glucose, sucrose) was measured using High Pressure Liquid Chromatography (HPLC), as it can be associated with yeast viability and dough freezing point depression. The most stable samples were those with 4% and 6% gluten (for white flour) and those with 4% and 5% gluten (for whole-wheat flour). Gluten addition raised the freezing point of dough samples and preserved low molecular sugar generation after prolonged storage.

  19. Enhancement of hydrocarbon waste biodegradation by addition of a biosurfactant from Bacillus subtilis O9.

    PubMed

    Morán, A C; Olivera, N; Commendatore, M; Esteves, J L; Siñeriz, F

    2000-01-01

    A non-sterile biosurfactant preparation (surfactin) was obtained from a 24-h culture of Bacillus subtilis O9 grown on sucrose and used to study its effect on the biodegradation of hydrocarbon wastes by an indigenous microbial community at the Erlenmeyer-flask scale. Crude biosurfactant was added to the cultures to obtain concentrations above and below the critical micelle concentration (CMC). Lower concentration affected neither biodegradation nor microbial growth. Higher concentration gave higher cell concentrations. Biodegradation of aliphatic hydrocarbons increased from 20.9 to 35.5% and in the case of aromatic hydrocarbons from nil to 41%, compared to the culture without biosurfactant. The enhancement effect of biosurfactant addition was more noticeable in the case of long chain alkanes. Pristane and phytane isoprenoids were degraded to the same extent as n-C17 and n-C18 alkanes and, consequently, no decrease in the ratios n-C17/pri and n-C18/phy was observed. Rapid production of surfactin crude preparation could make it practical for bioremediation of ship bilge wastes.

  20. Enhancement of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) thermal and processing stability using a bio-waste derived additive.

    PubMed

    Persico, Paola; Ambrogi, Veronica; Baroni, Antonio; Santagata, Gabriella; Carfagna, Cosimo; Malinconico, Mario; Cerruti, Pierfrancesco

    2012-12-01

    Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) is a biodegradable polymer, whose applicability is limited by its brittleness and narrow processing window. In this study a pomace extract (EP), from the bio-waste of winery industry, was used as thermal and processing stabilizer for PHB, aimed to engineer a totally bio-based system. The results showed that EP enhanced the thermal stability of PHB, which maintained high molecular weights after processing. This evidence was in agreement with the slower decrease in viscosity over time observed by rheological tests. EP also affected the melt crystallization kinetics and the overall crystallinity extent. Finally, dynamic mechanical and tensile tests showed that EP slightly improved the polymer ductility. The results are intriguing, in view of the development of sustainable alternatives to synthetic polymer additives, thus increasing the applicability of bio-based materials. Moreover, the reported results demonstrated the feasibility of the conversion of an agro-food by-product into a bio-resource in an environmentally friendly and cost-effective way.

  1. Phosphate addition enhanced soil inorganic nutrients to a large extent in three tropical forests.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Feifei; Lu, Xiankai; Liu, Lei; Mo, Jiangming

    2015-01-21

    Elevated nitrogen (N) deposition may constrain soil phosphorus (P) and base cation availability in tropical forests, for which limited evidence have yet been available. In this study, we reported responses of soil inorganic nutrients to full factorial N and P treatments in three tropical forests different in initial soil N status (N-saturated old-growth forest and two less-N-rich younger forests). Responses of microbial biomass, annual litterfall production and nutrient input were also monitored. Results showed that N treatments decreased soil inorganic nutrients (except N) in all three forests, but the underlying mechanisms varied depending on forests: through inhibition on litter decomposition in the old-growth forest and through Al(3+) replacement of Ca(2+) in the two younger forests. In contrast, besides great elevation in soil available P, P treatments induced 60%, 50%, 26% increases in sum of exchangeable (K(+)+Ca(2+)+Mg(2+)) in the old-growth and the two younger forests, respectively. These positive effects of P were closely related to P-stimulated microbial biomass and litter nutrient input, implying possible stimulation of nutrient return. Our results suggest that N deposition may result in decreases in soil inorganic nutrients (except N) and that P addition can enhance soil inorganic nutrients to support ecosystem processes in these tropical forests.

  2. Value addition in sesame: A perspective on bioactive components for enhancing utility and profitability

    PubMed Central

    Pathak, Niti; Rai, A.K.; Kumari, Ratna; Bhat, K.V.

    2014-01-01

    Sesame seed is a reservoir of nutritional components with numerous beneficial effects along with health promotion in humans. The bioactive components present in the seed include vital minerals, vitamins, phytosterols, polyunsaturated fatty acids, tocopherols and unique class of lignans such as sesamin and sesamolin. The presence of phenylpropanoid compounds namely lignans along with tocopherols and phytosterols provide defense mechanism against reactive oxygen species and increases keeping quality of oil by preventing oxidative rancidity. In this article, we have reviewed the nutraceutical, pharmacological, traditional and industrial value of sesame seeds with respect to bioactive components that hold high antioxidant value. Valuable information on superior functional components of sesame will strongly promote the use of sesame seeds in the daily diet world-wide. In spite of huge repertoire of sesame germplasm collection, limited research efforts on the use of conventional and biotechnological methodologies have resulted in minimal success in developing nutritionally superior cultivars. In consequence, value addition efforts in sesame would enable development of genotypes with high antioxidant activity and subsequently prevention of free radical related diseases. Modification of bioactive components in sesame would enable production of stabilized sesame oil with enhanced shelf life and better market value. PMID:25125886

  3. Significant reduction of endemic MRSA acquisition and infection in cardiothoracic patients by means of an enhanced targeted infection control programme.

    PubMed

    Schelenz, S; Tucker, D; Georgeu, C; Daly, S; Hill, M; Roxburgh, J; French, G L

    2005-06-01

    Due to increasing methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection in cardiothoracic patients at St Thomas' Hospital, an enhanced infection control programme was introduced in September 2000. It was based on UK national guidelines on the control of MRSA and targeted additional identified risk factors for surgical site infection (SSI). It included recognition of the problem by senior staff and their taking responsibility for it; intensive support, education and advice from the infection control team; improved ward and theatre hygiene; pre-admission, admission and weekly MRSA screening; isolation and clearance treatment; nursing care pathways for MRSA colonized patients; and teicoplanin plus gentamicin surgical prophylaxis. The effectiveness of the programme was assessed by retrospective analysis of computerized patient data for the 16 months before and after the introduction of the programme. There was no significant change in the number of operations or the proportion of patients admitted with MRSA, although nine patients were cleared of carriage before admission. However, there were significant falls in the proportion of patients acquiring MRSA on the ward [38/1036 to 14/921, P=0.003, RR 2.4 (95%CI 1.32-4.42)] and in the rate of bloodstream MRSA infections [12/1075 to 2/956, P=0.014, RR 5.34 (95%CI 1.20-23.78)]. Sternal and leg wound infections both halved (from 28/1075 to 13/956 and 16/1075 to 7/956, respectively) but this did not reach statistical significance. These results demonstrate that an enhanced, targeted infection control programme based on the UK national guidelines, SSI prevention guidelines and local risk assessment can reduce the incidence of nosocomial MRSA acquisition and invasive infection in cardiothoracic patients in the face of continuing endemic risk.

  4. Significant metal enhanced fluorescence of Ag2S quantum dots in the second near-infrared window

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theodorou, I. G.; Jawad, Z. A. R.; Qin, H.; Aboagye, E. O.; Porter, A. E.; Ryan, M. P.; Xie, F.

    2016-06-01

    The amplification of light in NIR-II from Ag2S QDs via metal enhanced fluorescence (MEF) is reported for the first time. Significant fluorescence enhancement of over 100 times for Ag2S QDs deposited on Au-nanostructured arrays, paves the way for novel sensing and imaging applications based on Ag2S QDs, with improved detection sensitivity and contrast enhancement.The amplification of light in NIR-II from Ag2S QDs via metal enhanced fluorescence (MEF) is reported for the first time. Significant fluorescence enhancement of over 100 times for Ag2S QDs deposited on Au-nanostructured arrays, paves the way for novel sensing and imaging applications based on Ag2S QDs, with improved detection sensitivity and contrast enhancement. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Detailed description of experimental methods. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr03220f

  5. Focused R&D For Electrochromic Smart Windowsa: Significant Performance and Yield Enhancements

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Burdis; Neil Sbar

    2003-01-31

    There is a need to improve the energy efficiency of building envelopes as they are the primary factor governing the heating, cooling, lighting and ventilation requirements of buildings--influencing 53% of building energy use. In particular, windows contribute significantly to the overall energy performance of building envelopes, thus there is a need to develop advanced energy efficient window and glazing systems. Electrochromic (EC) windows represent the next generation of advanced glazing technology that will (1) reduce the energy consumed in buildings, (2) improve the overall comfort of the building occupants, and (3) improve the thermal performance of the building envelope. ''Switchable'' EC windows provide, on demand, dynamic control of visible light, solar heat gain, and glare without blocking the view. As exterior light levels change, the window's performance can be electronically adjusted to suit conditions. A schematic illustrating how SageGlass{reg_sign} electrochromic windows work is shown in Figure I.1. SageGlass{reg_sign} EC glazings offer the potential to save cooling and lighting costs, with the added benefit of improving thermal and visual comfort. Control over solar heat gain will also result in the use of smaller HVAC equipment. If a step change in the energy efficiency and performance of buildings is to be achieved, there is a clear need to bring EC technology to the marketplace. This project addresses accelerating the widespread introduction of EC windows in buildings and thus maximizing total energy savings in the U.S. and worldwide. We report on R&D activities to improve the optical performance needed to broadly penetrate the full range of architectural markets. Also, processing enhancements have been implemented to reduce manufacturing costs. Finally, tests are being conducted to demonstrate the durability of the EC device and the dual pane insulating glass unit (IGU) to be at least equal to that of conventional windows.

  6. Electrophoretic Particle Guidance Significantly Enhances Olfactory Drug Delivery: A Feasibility Study

    PubMed Central

    Xi, Jinxiang; Si, Xiuhua A.; Gaide, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    Background Intranasal olfactory drug delivery provides a non-invasive method that bypasses the Blood-Brain-Barrier and directly delivers medication to the brain and spinal cord. However, a device designed specifically for olfactory delivery has not yet been found. Methods In this study, a new delivery method was proposed that utilized electrophoretic forces to guide drug particles to the olfactory region. The feasibility of this method was numerically evaluated in both idealized 2-D and anatomically accurate 3-D nose models. The influence of nasal airflow, electrode strength, and drug release position were also studied on the olfactory delivery efficiency. Findings Results showed that by applying electrophoretic forces, the dosage to the olfactory region was significantly enhanced. In both 2-D and 3-D cases, electrophoretic-guided delivery achieved olfactory dosages nearly two orders of magnitude higher than that without electrophoretic forces. Furthermore, releasing drugs into the upper half of the nostril (i.e., partial release) led to olfactory dosages two times higher than releasing drugs over the entire area of the nostril. By combining the advantages of pointed drug release and appropriate electrophoretic guidance, olfactory dosages of more than 90% were observed as compared to the extremely low olfactory dosage (<1%) with conventional inhaler devices. Conclusion Results of this study have important implications in developing personalized olfactory delivery protocols for the treatment of neurological disorders. Moreover, a high sensitivity of olfactory dosage was observed in relation to different pointed release positions, indicating the importance of precise particle guidance for effective olfactory delivery. PMID:24497957

  7. Significant enhancement in atmospheric biweekly disturbance over Northeast Asia during the recent warming hiatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Sang; Gong, Daoyi; Qu, Jingxuan

    2016-08-01

    Based on daily 500-hPa geopotential height from ERA-Interim reanalysis data, this study analyzed the day-to-day circulation variance in cold season (October-March) by composite and correlation analysis. Two same-length time periods were compared, namely, the hiatus period (1999-2013) and the rapid warming period (1984-1998). Spectral analysis revealed that over the mid-high latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere, the most outstanding peak in the daily 500-hPa geopotential height variance was of quasi-biweekly timescale (about 10-20 days), accounting for about 32% of the total variance. During the warming hiatus, quasibiweekly disturbance (QBD) changed remarkably in Northeast Asia. On average, within the domain 42°-50 °N, 128°-142 °E, the QBD variance changed from 1860 m2 in the rapid warming period to 2475 m2 in the hiatus period, increasing by about 33% and statistically significant at the 95% confidence level. Lead-lag analysis showed that the QBD signal could be traced back by about 14 days, with an origin around the Ural Mountains. Then, the signal developed and propogated southeastward, with its location about 10 days prior to its peak in West Siberia, and about 6 days prior to its peak in the Sayan Mountains, and finally moving to Northeast Asia. By comparing the propagation process between the two periods, we found that the propagation paths were basically the same, but there were evident differences in the intensity of the signals. The intensification of QBD may have been related to the increased energy conversion from mean flow to QBD transients. The frequency of low-temperature extremes in negative QBD phases was much higher than under normal conditions or in positive phases. Associated with the enhanced QBD, the probability of extreme low temperature increased from 19% during the rapid warming period to 27% during the warming hiatus.

  8. Radiation dose enhancement in skin therapy with nanoparticle addition: A Monte Carlo study on kilovoltage photon and megavoltage electron beams

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Xiao J; Chow, James C L

    2017-01-01

    AIM To investigated the dose enhancement due to the incorporation of nanoparticles in skin therapy using the kilovoltage (kV) photon and megavoltage (MV) electron beams. Monte Carlo simulations were used to predict the dose enhancement when different types and concentrations of nanoparticles were added to skin target layers of varying thickness. METHODS Clinical kV photon beams (105 and 220 kVp) and MV electron beams (4 and 6 MeV), produced by a Gulmay D3225 orthovoltage unit and a Varian 21 EX linear accelerator, were simulated using the EGSnrc Monte Carlo code. Doses at skin target layers with thicknesses ranging from 0.5 to 5 mm for the photon beams and 0.5 to 10 mm for the electron beams were determined. The skin target layer was added with the Au, Pt, I, Ag and Fe2O3 nanoparticles with concentrations ranging from 3 to 40 mg/mL. The dose enhancement ratio (DER), defined as the dose at the target layer with nanoparticle addition divided by the dose at the layer without nanoparticle addition, was calculated for each nanoparticle type, nanoparticle concentration and target layer thickness. RESULTS It was found that among all nanoparticles, Au had the highest DER (5.2-6.3) when irradiated with kV photon beams. Dependence of the DER on the target layer thickness was not significant for the 220 kVp photon beam but it was for 105 kVp beam for Au nanoparticle concentrations higher than 18 mg/mL. For other nanoparticles, the DER was dependent on the atomic number of the nanoparticle and energy spectrum of the photon beams. All nanoparticles showed an increase of DER with nanoparticle concentration during the photon beam irradiations regardless of thickness. For electron beams, the Au nanoparticles were found to have the highest DER (1.01-1.08) when the beam energy was equal to 4 MeV, but this was drastically lower than the DER values found using photon beams. The DER was also found affected by the depth of maximum dose of the electron beam and target thickness. For

  9. The atomic-scale mechanism for the enhanced glass-forming-ability of a Cu-Zr based bulk metallic glass with minor element additions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Q.; Liu, C. T.; Yang, Y.; Liu, J. B.; Dong, Y. D.; Lu, J.

    2014-04-01

    It is known that the glass forming-ability (GFA) of bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) can be greatly enhanced via minor element additions. However, direct evidence has been lacking to reveal its structural origin despite different theories hitherto proposed. Through the high-resolution transmission-electron-microscopy (HRTEM) analysis, here we show that the content of local crystal-like orders increases significantly in a Cu-Zr-Al BMG after a 2-at% Y addition. Contrasting the previous studies, our current results indicate that the formation of crystal-like order at the atomic scale plays an important role in enhancing the GFA of the Cu-Zr-Al base BMG.

  10. Biochar Addition to Stormwater Treatment Media for Enhanced Removal of Nitrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imhoff, P. T.; Jin, J.; Tian, J.; Chiu, P.; Guo, M.

    2015-12-01

    Urban stormwater management systems, such as bioretention facilities, require substantial land area and are often ineffective in removing nitrogen. This project seeks to improve nitrogen removal in bioretention media by modifying the hydraulic and treatment characteristics of the infiltration medium with biochar addition. A commercial wood biochar pyrolyzed from Southern Yellow Pine at 500°C was used. Laboratory experiments demonstrated that biochar addition to a typical bioretention medium (soil-mix: 4% saw dust, 88% sand, 8% clay) increased ammonium sorption at typical stormwater concentrations (2 mg/L) by a factor of 6, total porosity by 16.6%, and water retention at most matric potentials. The effect of the biochar-amended medium on nitrate removal was evaluated in pilot-scale experiments. Side-by-side experimental cells (91 cm dia., 1.2 m deep) were constructed to treat stormwater runoff from a parking lot. The control cell contained 100% soil mix while the biochar cell contained 4% biochar and 96% soil-mix by mass. Treatment media were 76.2 cm in depth and overlain by 5.1 cm of wood mulch in both cells, with a water table maintained at the bottom of the treatment zones. Cells were instrumented with TDR moisture sensors, pressure transducers, and redox and temperature sensors. Two pilot-scale experiments were conducted that included a bromide tracer and nitrate with a hydraulic loading of 5.5cm/h for 24 h in early spring and 36 h in summer. Effluent was continuously sampled for nitrogen compounds during these tests. Tracer tests and TDR measurements showed that biochar increased the average volumetric water content of the vadose zone by 14.7% and the mean residence time by 12.6%. For the spring field test at 14°C, nitrate in the control cell effluent increased by 6.1% but decreased by 43.5% for the biochar cell. For the summer field test at 22°C, 30.6% and 84.7% of influent nitrate was removed in the control and biochar cells, respectively. In the summer

  11. Protect and enhance: Lowi's juridical democracy and the prevention of significant deterioration of air quality

    SciTech Connect

    Meiburg, A.S.

    1986-01-01

    The capture of Federal regulatory agencies by the groups they were supposed to be regulating has been a topic of concern in the traditional literature of public administration. In his influential book The End of Liberalism, Professor Theordore Lowi suggested that capture resulted in part from vauge delegations of authority of Congress to regulatory agencies. Lowi argued that democracy would be better served if Congress were more specific in drafting laws, if agencies made greater use of formal rulemaking in implementing them, and if the courts rejected statutes which contained excessively vague delegations of authority - a remedy which he labeled juridicial democracy. This dissertation examines Lowi's theory in light of the experience of Congress and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) with the requirements of the Clean Air Act to prevent the significant deterioration of air quality in areas where air was already relatively clean. The history of the program to develop and carry out these requirements, known as PSD, is described in detail from its inception in the late 1960's through EPA's final regulations in 1980. Special attention is given to the actions taken by EPA after environmental groups successfully used the courts to force EPA to develop a PSD program in 1974, how Congress responded by amending the Clean Air Act in 1977, and the difficulties these amendments and subsequent additional court reviews caused for EPA.

  12. Significant enhancement of the Stille reaction with a new combination of reagents-copper(I) iodide with cesium fluoride.

    PubMed

    Mee, Simon P H; Lee, Victor; Baldwin, Jack E

    2005-05-20

    The combination of copper(I) iodide and cesium fluoride significantly enhances the Stille reaction. After extensive optimisation, a variety of electronically unfavourable and sterically hindered substrates were coupled in very high yields under mild conditions.

  13. Liposomes encapsulating Aloe vera leaf gel extract significantly enhance proliferation and collagen synthesis in human skin cell lines.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Makoto; Kitamoto, Dai; Asikin, Yonathan; Takara, Kensaku; Wada, Koji

    2009-01-01

    Aloe vela leaf gel extract (AGE) are widely used as cosmetic and pharmaceutical ingredients because of its versatile skin care properties. In order to enhance the bioavailability of AGE, liposomes encapsulating AGE were prepared and examined for their interfacial and biochemical properties. The liposomes prepared from a soybean lecithin (SLP-WHITE, 1.0 wt%) by the Bangham method gave relatively a good trapping efficiency up to the AGE concentration of 0.5 wt%. The stable liposomes were then prepared from 1.0 wt% of SLP-WHITE and different concentrations of AGE by the mechanochemical method using a homogenizer and microfluidizer. The liposomes obtained from 0.25 wt% of AGE were confirmed to be small unilamellar vesicles with a diameter of less than 200 nm, and remained well dispersed for at least two weeks. The obtained liposomes encapsulating AGE were further examined for the effects on proliferation and type I collagen synthesis in normal human neonatal skin fibroblasts, NB1RGB cells. Liposomal AGE clearly showed higher proliferation rate than that of AGE alone. In addition, compared to the control, liposomal AGE significantly increased the collagen synthesis by 23%, while AGE alone showed a small effect. Liposomal AGE was also assayed for the effect on proliferation in normal human epidermal keratinocytes, NHEK(F) cells. Interestingly, liposomal AGE fractions containing 4 and 20 microg/mL of the extract considerably increased the proliferation rate by 77% and 101%, respectively. In contrast, AGE alone fractions containing 4 and 20 microg/mL of the extract increased the rate by 41% and 60%, respectively. Accordingly, the bioavailability and skin care properties of AGE will be significantly enhanced by liposome encapsulation, and the present liposomal AGE should have a great potential as an effective skin care formulation.

  14. Tantalum trabecular metal - addition of human skeletal cells to enhance bone implant interface strength and clinical application.

    PubMed

    Smith, J O; Sengers, B G; Aarvold, A; Tayton, E R; Dunlop, D G; Oreffo, R O C

    2014-04-01

    The osteo-regenerative properties of allograft have recently been enhanced by addition of autogenous human bone marrow stromal cells (HBMSCs). Limitations in the use of allograft have prompted the investigation of tantalum trabecular metal (TTM) as a potential alternative. TTM is already in widespread orthopaedic use, although in applications where there is poor initial stability, or when TTM is used in conjunction with bone grafting, initial implant loading may need to be limited. The aim of this study was to evaluate the osteo-regenerative potential of TTM with HBMSCs, in direct comparison to human allograft and autograft. HBMSCs were cultured on blocks of TTM, allograft or autograft in basal and osteogenic media. Molecular profiling, confocal and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and biochemical assays were used to characterize cell adherence, proliferation and phenotype. Mechanical testing was used to define the tensile characteristics of the constructs. HBMSCs displayed adherence and proliferation throughout TTM, evidenced by immunocytochemistry and SEM, with significant cellular ingrowth and matrix production through TTM. In contrast to cells cultured with allograft, cell proliferation assays showed significantly higher activity with TTM (p < 0.001), although molecular profiling confirmed no significant difference in expression of osteogenic genes. In contrast to acellular constructs, mechanical testing of cell-TTM constructs showed enhanced tensile characteristics, which compared favourably to cell-allograft constructs. These studies demonstrated the ability of TTM to support HBMSC growth and osteogenic differentiation comparable to allograft. Thus, TTM represents an alternative to allograft for osteo-regenerative strategies, extending its clinical applications as a substitute for allograft.

  15. Addition of ferrocene controls polymorphism and enhances charge mobilities in poly(3-hexylthiophene) thin-film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Brandon; Clark, Michael; Grieco, Christopher; Larsen, Alec; Asbury, John; Gomez, Enrique

    2015-03-01

    Crystalline organic molecules often exhibit the ability to form multiple crystal structures depending on the processing conditions. Exploiting this polymorphism to optimize molecular orbital overlap between adjacent molecules within the unit lattice of conjugated polymers is an approach to enhance charge transport within the material. We have demonstrated the formation of tighter π- π stacking poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) polymorphs in films spin coated from ferrocene-containing solutions using grazing incident X-ray diffraction. As a result, we found that the addition of ferrocene to casting solutions yields thin-film transistors which exhibit significantly higher source-drain current and charge mobilities than neat polymer devices. Insights gleaned from ferrocene/poly(3-hexylthiophene) mixtures can serve as a template for selection and optimization of next generation small molecule/polymer systems possessing greater baseline charge mobilities. Ultimately, the development of such techniques to enhance the characteristics of organic transistors without imparting high costs or loss of advantageous properties will be a critical factor determining the future of organic components within the electronics market.

  16. Solvating additives drive solution-mediated electrochemistry and enhance toroid growth in non-aqueous Li-O2 batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aetukuri, Nagaphani B.; McCloskey, Bryan D.; García, Jeannette M.; Krupp, Leslie E.; Viswanathan, Venkatasubramanian; Luntz, Alan C.

    2015-01-01

    Given their high theoretical specific energy, lithium-oxygen batteries have received enormous attention as possible alternatives to current state-of-the-art rechargeable Li-ion batteries. However, the maximum discharge capacity in non-aqueous lithium-oxygen batteries is limited to a small fraction of its theoretical value due to the build-up of insulating lithium peroxide (Li2O2), the battery’s primary discharge product. The discharge capacity can be increased if Li2O2 forms as large toroidal particles rather than as a thin conformal layer. Here, we show that trace amounts of electrolyte additives, such as H2O, enhance the formation of Li2O2 toroids and result in significant improvements in capacity. Our experimental observations and a growth model show that the solvating properties of the additives prompt a solution-based mechanism that is responsible for the growth of Li2O2 toroids. We present a general formalism describing an additive’s tendency to trigger the solution process, providing a rational design route for electrolytes that afford larger lithium-oxygen battery capacities.

  17. Enhanced methylene blue oxidative removal by copper electrode-based plasma irradiation with the addition of hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Son, Guntae; Kim, Do-Hyung; Lee, Jung Seok; Lee, Hongshin

    2016-08-01

    Submerged plasma irradiation (SPI)-based advanced oxidation processes have been studied for the oxidation of recalcitrant organic compounds because of their various physical and chemical properties. However, SPI technologies still have a few drawbacks such as relatively low efficiency for wastewater treatment and high energy consumption. In order to overcome these drawbacks, in this study, we proposed the combination of SPI and the Cu(II)-catalyzed Fenton-like system. The removal of methylene blue (MB) by the SPI system was significantly enhanced upon the addition of H2O2. The pseudo-first-order rate constants of MB removal increased with the increase of applied voltage. In addition, the optimum H2O2 dose and initial solution pH were 100 mM and 9, respectively. The reactive oxidants responsible for MB removal in copper electrode-based SPI/H2O2 systems are likely to be hydroxyl radicals (OH) or cupryl ion (Cu(III)), wherein Cu(III) is especially important. Furthermore, the copper electrode-based SPI/H2O2 system is a novel advanced oxidation process capable of oxidizing water recalcitrant and toxic organic pollutants at neutral pH.

  18. Low hygroscopic spray-dried powders with trans-glycosylated food additives enhance the solubility and oral bioavailability of ipriflavone.

    PubMed

    Fujimori, Miki; Kadota, Kazunori; Kato, Kouki; Seto, Yoshiki; Onoue, Satomi; Sato, Hideyuki; Ueda, Hiroshi; Tozuka, Yuichi

    2016-01-01

    The improvement in the solubility and dissolution rate may promote a superior absorption property towards the human body. The spray-dried powders (SDPs) of ipriflavone, which was used as a model hydrophobic flavone, with trans-glycosylated rutin (Rutin-G) showed the highest solubilizing effect of ipriflavone among three types of trans-glycosylated food additives. The SDPs of ipriflavone with Rutin-G have both a significant higher dissolution rate and solubility enhancement of ipriflavone. This spray-dried formulation of ipriflavone with Rutin-G exhibited a low hygroscopicity as a critical factor in product preservation. In addition, an improvement in the oral absorption of ipriflavone was achieved by means of preparing composite particles of ipriflavone/Rutin-G via spray drying, indicating a 4.3-fold increase in the area under the plasma concentration-time curve compared with that of untreated ipriflavone. These phenomena could be applicable to food ingredients involving hydrophobic flavones for producing healthy food with a high quality.

  19. The Effects of Hydrodynamic Stretch on the Flame Propagation Enhancement of Ethylene by Addition of Ozone

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-13

    enhancement increasing almost 9% over the range of axial stretch rates that was investigated. Two- dimensional simulations agreed well with the...experiments in terms of flame speed, as well as the trends of enhancement. Rate of production analysis showed that the primary pathway for O3 consumption was...directly into a flame front or into the reactants. Over the past several decades, the application of plasma to combustion systems has been shown to help

  20. The enhanced stability and biodegradation of dispersed crude oil droplets by Xanthan Gum as an additive of chemical dispersant.

    PubMed

    Wang, Aiqin; Li, Yiming; Yang, Xiaolong; Bao, Mutai; Cheng, Hua

    2017-03-07

    It is necessary for chemical dispersant to disperse oil effectively and maintain the stability of oil droplets. In this work, Xanthan Gum (XG) was used as an environmentally friendly additive in oil dispersant formulation to enhance the stability and biodegradation of dispersed crude oil droplets. When XG was used together with chemical dispersant 9500A, the dispersion effectiveness of crude oil in artificial sea water (ASW) and the oil droplet stability were both greatly enhanced. In the presence of XG, lower concentration of 9500A was needed to achieve the effective dispersion and stabilization. In addition to the enhancement of dispersion and stabilization, it was found that the biodegradation rate of crude oil by bacteria was dramatically enhanced when a mixture of 9500A and XG was used as a dispersant. Because of the low environmental impact of XG, this would be a potential way to formulate the dispersant with lower toxicity.

  1. Addition of Autologous Mesenchymal Stem Cells to Whole Blood for Bio-Enhanced ACL Repair has No Benefit in the Porcine Model

    PubMed Central

    Proffen, Benedikt L.; Vavken, Patrick; Haslauer, Carla M.; Fleming, Braden C.; Harris, Chad E.; Machan, Jason T.; Murray, Martha M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Co-culture of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from the retropatellar fat pad and peripheral blood has been shown to stimulate anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) fibroblast proliferation and collagen production in vitro. Current techniques of bio-enhanced ACL repair in animal studies involve adding a biologic scaffold, in this case an extracellular matrix based scaffold saturated with autologous whole blood, to a simple suture repair of the ligament. Whether the enrichment of whole blood with MSCs would further improve the in vivo results of bio-enhanced ACL repair was investigated. Hypothesis/Purpose The hypothesis was that the addition of MSCs derived from adipose tissue or peripheral blood to the blood-extracellular matrix composite, which is used in bio-enhanced ACL repair to stimulate healing, would improve the biomechanical properties of a bio-enhanced ACL repair after 15 weeks of healing. Study Design Controlled laboratory study. Methods Twenty-four adolescent Yucatan mini-pigs underwent ACL transection followed by: 1) bio-enhanced ACL repair, 2) bio-enhanced ACL repair with the addition of autologous adipose-derived MSCs and 3) bio-enhanced ACL repair with the addition of autologous peripheral blood derived MSCs. After fifteen weeks of healing, structural properties of the ACL (yield & failure load, linear stiffness) were measured. Cell and vascular density were measured in the repaired ACL via histology, and its tissue structure was qualitatively evaluated using the Advanced Ligament Maturity Index. Results After fifteen weeks of healing, there were no significant improvements in the biomechanical or histological properties with the addition of adipose-derived MSCs. The only significant change with the addition of peripheral blood MSCs was an increase in knee anteroposterior (AP) laxity when measured at 30 degrees of flexion. Conclusions These findings suggest that the addition of adipose or peripheral blood MSCs to whole blood prior to saturation of

  2. Enhancement in colonization of bovine spermatogonial stem cells following addition of knock-out serum replacement to culture medium

    PubMed Central

    Youssefi, Reza; Tajik, Parviz; Movahedin, Mansoureh; Akbarinejad, Vahid

    2016-01-01

    Enrichment of cell suspension with germ cells prior to injection into recipient seminiferous tubules is of importance in spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) transplantation. Knock-out serum replacement (KSR) has been reported to enhance the proliferation of murine SSCs and human embryonic stem cells. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of KSR versus fetal bovine serum (FBS) and their interaction on colonization of bovine SSCs in vitro. When FBS (10%) was replaced with KSR (10%), a significant increase in the colonization of SSCs and the expression of Thy1, as marker for enrichment of SSCs, was observed. It was revealed that the lesser proliferative effect of FBS as well as the greater proliferative impact of KSR on SSCs colonization were not irreversible as cells having been cultured with FBS (10%) for three days with low colonization showed high rate of colonization in response to KSR (10%) and cells having been cultured with KSR (10%) with high colonization experienced low rate of colonization in response to FBS (10%). Further, it was shown that FBS did not contain factors inhibiting SSCs colonization and it simply lacked factors essential for SSCs proliferation because the combination of FBS (5%) and KSR (5%) resulted in even greater rate of colonization than did KSR (10%). In conclusion, the present study showed that addition of KSR to culture medium would significantly increase SSCs proliferation. PMID:28144417

  3. Image enhancement filters significantly improve reading performance for low vision observers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawton, T. B.

    1992-01-01

    As people age, so do their photoreceptors; many photoreceptors in central vision stop functioning when a person reaches their late sixties or early seventies. Low vision observers with losses in central vision, those with age-related maculopathies, were studied. Low vision observers no longer see high spatial frequencies, being unable to resolve fine edge detail. We developed image enhancement filters to compensate for the low vision observer's losses in contrast sensitivity to intermediate and high spatial frequencies. The filters work by boosting the amplitude of the less visible intermediate spatial frequencies. The lower spatial frequencies. These image enhancement filters not only reduce the magnification needed for reading by up to 70 percent, but they also increase the observer's reading speed by 2-4 times. A summary of this research is presented.

  4. Significant Enhancement of H2 Formation in Disk Galaxies under Strong Ram Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, Benjamin; Bekki, Kenji

    2016-05-01

    We show for the first time that H2 formation on dust grains can be enhanced in disk galaxies under strong ram pressure (RP). We numerically investigate how the time evolution of H i and H2 components in disk galaxies orbiting a group/cluster of galaxies can be influenced by the hydrodynamical interaction between the gaseous components of the galaxies and the hot intracluster medium. We find that compression of H i caused by RP increases H2 formation in disk galaxies before RP rapidly strips H i, cutting off the fuel supply and causing a drop in H2 density. We also find that the level of this H2 formation enhancement in a disk galaxy under RP depends on the mass of its host cluster dark matter halo, the initial positions and velocities of the disk galaxy, and the disk inclination angle with respect to the orbital plane. We demonstrate that dust growth is a key factor in the evolution of the H i and H2 mass in disk galaxies under strong RP. We discuss how the correlation between H2 fractions and surface gas densities of disk galaxies evolves with time in the galaxies under RP. We also discuss whether galaxy-wide star formation rates (SFRs) in cluster disk galaxies can be enhanced by RP if the SFRs depend on H2 densities.

  5. Observation of Significant Quantum Efficiency Enhancement from a Polarized Photocathode with Distributed Bragg Reflector

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Shukui; Poelker, Matthew; Stutzman, Marcy L.; Chen, Yiqiao; Moy, Aaron

    2015-09-01

    Polarized photocathodes with higher Quantum efficiency (QE) would help to reduce the technological challenge associated with producing polarized beams at milliampere levels, because less laser light would be required, which simplifies photocathode cooling requirements. And for a given amount of available laser power, higher QE would extend the photogun operating lifetime. The distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) concept was proposed to enhance the QE of strained-superlattice photocathodes by increasing the absorption of the incident photons using a Fabry-Perot cavity formed between the front surface of the photocathode and the substrate that includes a DBR, without compromising electron polarization. Here we present recent results showing QE enhancement of a GaAs/GaAsP strained-superlattice photocathode made with a DBR structure. Typically, a GaAs/GaAsP strained-superlattice photocathode without DBR provides a QE of 1%, at a laser wavelength corresponding to peak polarization. In comparison, the GaAs/GaAsP strained-superlattice photocathodes with DBR exhibited an enhancement of over 2 when the incident laser wavelength was tuned to meet the resonant condition for the Fabry-Perot resonator.

  6. Evaluation of Five Additional Enhancements to the Building Loads Analysis and System Thermodynamics (BLAST) Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-04-01

    FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS OF TEST/DEMONSTRATION U’ WORK UNIT NO./TITLE OF TEST: T3B, Blast Enhancements Evaluation PERFORMING LABORATORY: USACERL...gram, work unit EA-KAI, "Test New BLAST Enhancements," and project 4A162784AT45, "Energy and Energy Conservation," work unit XG2, "Energy Analysis...air economy cycle. 2. SZDT-DX. Single zone draw-through fan systems with a direct expansion condensing unit tor zones 1, 2, and 3. Zone I

  7. Enhancing the Curriculum through the Addition of Rich and Diverse Language Development Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anen, Judith

    The primary goal of this practicum was to provide opportunities for rich and diverse language activities designed to enhance the kindergarten curriculum. New instructional guidelines were designed that encouraged daily classroom time devoted to language development activities. These activities replaced all formal isolated skill instruction.…

  8. Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive for Enhanced Mercury Control - Pilot-Scale Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Gary M. Blythe

    2006-03-01

    This Topical Report summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42309, ''Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive.'' The objective of the project is to demonstrate the use of a flue gas desulfurization (FGD) additive, Degussa Corporation's TMT-15, to prevent the reemissions of elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) in flue gas exiting wet FGD systems on coal-fired boilers. Furthermore, the project intends to demonstrate that the additive can be used to precipitate most of the mercury (Hg) removed in the wet FGD system as a fine TMT salt that can be separated from the FGD liquor and bulk solid byproducts for separate disposal. The project will conduct pilot and full-scale tests of the TMT-15 additive in wet FGD absorbers. The tests are intended to determine required additive dosage requirements to prevent Hg{sup 0} reemissions and to separate mercury from the normal FGD byproducts for three coal types: Texas lignite/Power River Basin (PRB) coal blend, high-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal, and low-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal. The project team consists of URS Group, Inc., EPRI, TXU Generation Company LP, Southern Company, and Degussa Corporation. TXU Generation has provided the Texas lignite/PRB co-fired test site for pilot FGD tests, Monticello Steam Electric Station Unit 3. Southern Company is providing the low-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal host site for wet scrubbing tests, as well as the pilot and full-scale jet bubbling reactor (JBR) FGD systems to be tested. A third utility, to be named later, will provide the high-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal full-scale FGD test site. Degussa Corporation is providing the TMT-15 additive and technical support to the test program. The project is being conducted in six tasks. Of the six project tasks, Task 1 involves project planning and Task 6 involves management and reporting. The other four tasks involve field testing on FGD systems, either at pilot or full scale. The four tasks include: Task 2 - Pilot Additive Testing in

  9. High Energy Density Additives for Hybrid Fuel Rockets to Improve Performance and Enhance Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, Richard L.

    2014-01-01

    We propose a conceptual study of prototype strained hydrocarbon molecules as high energy density additives for hybrid rocket fuels to boost the performance of these rockets without compromising safety and reliability. Use of these additives could extend the range of applications for which hybrid rockets become an attractive alternative to conventional solid or liquid fuel rockets. The objectives of the study were to confirm and quantify the high enthalpy of these strained molecules and to assess improvement in rocket performance that would be expected if these additives were blended with conventional fuels. We confirmed the chemical properties (including enthalpy) of these additives. However, the predicted improvement in rocket performance was too small to make this a useful strategy for boosting hybrid rocket performance.

  10. ENHANCED FORMATION OF DIOXINS AND FURANS FROM COMBUSTION DEVICES BY ADDITION OF TRACE QUANTITIES OF BROMINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Past pilot-scale experimental studies have shown a dramatic increase in the formation of certain chlorinated products of incomplete combustion (PICs) caused by the addition of trace amounts of bromine (Br). Emissions of trichloroethylene and tetrachloorethylene, generated as PICs...

  11. Enhanced dark hydrogen fermentation by addition of ferric oxide nanoparticles using Enterobacter aerogenes.

    PubMed

    Lin, Richen; Cheng, Jun; Ding, Lingkan; Song, Wenlu; Liu, Min; Zhou, Junhu; Cen, Kefa

    2016-05-01

    Ferric oxide nanoparticles (FONPs) were used to facilitate dark hydrogen fermentation using Enterobacter aerogenes. The hydrogen yield of glucose increased from 164.5±2.29 to 192.4±1.14mL/g when FONPs concentration increased from 0 to 200mg/L. SEM images of E. aerogenes demonstrated the existence of bacterial nanowire among cells, suggesting FONPs served as electron conduits to enhance electron transfer. TEM showed cellular internalization of FONPs, indicating hydrogenase synthesis and activity was potentially promoted due to the released iron element. When further increasing FONPs concentration to 400mg/L, the hydrogen yield of glucose decreased to 147.2±2.54mL/g. Soluble metabolic products revealed FONPs enhanced acetate pathway of hydrogen production, but weakened ethanol pathway. This shift of metabolic pathways allowed more nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide for reducing proton to hydrogen.

  12. Significantly enhanced giant Rashba splitting in a thin film of binary alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Shu-Jung; Chen, Wei-Chuan; Chang, Tay-Rong; Tsai, Sun-Ting; Kuo, Je-Ming; Yamamoto, Sh.; Cheng, Cheng-Maw; Tsuei, Ku-Ding; Yaji, Koichiro; Lin, Hsin; Jeng, Horng-Tay; Mou, Chung-Yu; Matsuda, Iwao

    Dirac cones in a 2D environment have attracted much attention not only because of the massless Dirac fermions but also due to their capability to lock the spin direction with the momentum. Here we demonstrate that the Rashba effect within a single layer of a binary alloy composed of heavy atoms, Pb and Au, can be driven by and even tweaked with the adjacent top and bottom layers to yield cones-like structures and further enhance the Rashba coupling strength. Two cones are observed at the surface zone center Γ with giant Rashba parameters 1.53 and 4.45 eVÅ an anisotropic giant Rashba splitting at the surface zone boundary M has a great value, 6.26 eVÅ, inferring the critical role of p- dhybridization between Pb and Au. Our results reveal not only an interesting natural phenomenon but also a feasible method of tweaking the Rashba effect of a 2D system.

  13. Combustion Enhancement of Liquid Fuels via Nanoparticle Additions: Screening, Dispersion, and Characterization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-04

    affordability of a large variety of nano-sized particles, understanding of nano-sized particle ignition and combustion, and advances in colloidal science of...generate a suitable long-term stable colloidal suspension. 15. SUBJECT TERMS N/A 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18...advances in colloidal science of nano-sized metal particle/liquid suspensions, now allow for the development of enhanced nano-fluid fuels. To evaluate

  14. Transepithelial Transport of Curcumin in Caco-2 Cells Is significantly Enhanced by Micellar Solubilisation.

    PubMed

    Frank, Jan; Schiborr, Christina; Kocher, Alexa; Meins, Jürgen; Behnam, Dariush; Schubert-Zsilavecz, Manfred; Abdel-Tawab, Mona

    2017-03-01

    Curcumin, the active constituent of Curcuma longa L. (family Zingiberaceae), has gained increasing interest because of its anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, and anti-rheumatic properties associated with good tolerability and safety up to very high doses of 12 g. Nanoscaled micellar formulations on the base of Tween 80 represent a promising strategy to overcome its low oral bioavailability. We therefore aimed to investigate the uptake and transepithelial transport of native curcumin (CUR) vs. a nanoscaled micellar formulation (Sol-CUR) in a Caco-2 cell model. Sol-CUR afforded a higher flux than CUR (39.23 vs. 4.98 μg min(-1) cm(-2), respectively). This resulted in a higher Papp value of 2.11 × 10(-6) cm/s for Sol-CUR compared to a Papp value of 0.56 × 10(-6) cm/s for CUR. Accordingly a nearly 9.5 fold higher amount of curcumin was detected on the basolateral side at the end of the transport experiments after 180 min with Sol-CUR compared to CUR. The determined 3.8-fold improvement in the permeability of curcumin is in agreement with an up to 185-fold increase in the AUC of curcumin observed in humans following the oral administration of the nanoscaled micellar formulation compared to native curcumin. The present study demonstrates that the enhanced oral bioavailability of micellar curcumin formulations is likely a result of enhanced absorption into and increased transport through small intestinal epithelial cells.

  15. Polymeric additives to enhance the functional properties of calcium phosphate cements

    PubMed Central

    Perez, Roman A; Kim, Hae-Won

    2012-01-01

    The vast majority of materials used in bone tissue engineering and regenerative medicine are based on calcium phosphates due to their similarity with the mineral phase of natural bone. Among them, calcium phosphate cements, which are composed of a powder and a liquid that are mixed to obtain a moldable paste, are widely used. These calcium phosphate cement pastes can be injected using minimally invasive surgery and adapt to the shape of the defect, resulting in an entangled network of calcium phosphate crystals. Adding an organic phase to the calcium phosphate cement formulation is a very powerful strategy to enhance some of the properties of these materials. Adding some water-soluble biocompatible polymers in the calcium phosphate cement liquid or powder phase improves physicochemical and mechanical properties, such as injectability, cohesion, and toughness. Moreover, adding specific polymers can enhance the biological response and the resorption rate of the material. The goal of this study is to overview the most relevant advances in this field, focusing on the different types of polymers that have been used to enhance specific calcium phosphate cement properties. PMID:22511991

  16. Hydrostatic pressure: A very effective approach to significantly enhance critical current density in granular iron pnictide superconductors

    PubMed Central

    Shabbir, Babar; Wang, Xiaolin; Ghorbani, S. R.; Shekhar, Chandra; Dou, Shixue; Srivastava, O. N.

    2015-01-01

    Pressure is well known to significantly raise the superconducting transition temperature, Tc, in both iron pnictides and cuprate based superconductors. Little work has been done, however, on how pressure can affect the flux pinning and critical current density in the Fe-based superconductors. Here, we propose to use hydrostatic pressure to significantly enhance flux pinning and Tc in polycrystalline pnictide bulks. We have chosen Sr4V2O6Fe2As2 polycrystalline samples as a case study. We demonstrate that the hydrostatic pressure up to 1.2 GPa can not only significantly increase Tc from 15 K (underdoped) to 22 K, but also significantly enhance the irreversibility field, Hirr, by a factor of 4 at 7 K, as well as the critical current density, Jc, by up to 30 times at both low and high fields. It was found that pressure can induce more point defects, which are mainly responsible for the Jc enhancement. Our findings provide an effective method to significantly enhance Tc, Jc, Hirr, and the upper critical field, Hc2, for other families of Fe-based superconductors in the forms of wires/tapes, films, and single crystal and polycrystalline bulks. PMID:25645351

  17. Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive for Enhanced Mercury Control

    SciTech Connect

    Gary Blythe; MariJon Owens

    2007-12-31

    This document is the final report for DOE-NETL Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42309, 'Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive'. The objective of the project has been to demonstrate the use of two flue gas desulfurization (FGD) additives, Evonik Degussa Corporation's TMT-15 and Nalco Company's Nalco 8034, to prevent the re-emission of elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) in flue gas exiting wet FGD systems on coal-fired boilers. Furthermore, the project was intended to demonstrate whether such additives can be used to precipitate most of the mercury (Hg) removed in the wet FGD system as a fine salt that can be separated from the FGD liquor and bulk solid byproducts for separate disposal. The project involved pilot- and full-scale tests of the additives in wet FGD absorbers. The tests were intended to determine required additive dosages to prevent Hg{sup 0} re-emissions and to separate mercury from the normal FGD byproducts for three coal types: Texas lignite/Powder River Basin (PRB) coal blend, high-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal, and low-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal. The project team consists of URS Group, Inc., EPRI, Luminant Power (was TXU Generation Company LP), Southern Company, IPL (an AES company), Evonik Degussa Corporation and the Nalco Company. Luminant Power provided the Texas lignite/PRB co-fired test site for pilot FGD tests and project cost sharing. Southern Company provided the low-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal host site for wet scrubbing tests, the pilot- and full-scale jet bubbling reactor (JBR) FGD systems tested, and project cost sharing. IPL provided the high-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal full-scale FGD test site and cost sharing. Evonik Degussa Corporation provided the TMT-15 additive, and the Nalco Company provided the Nalco 8034 additive. Both companies also supplied technical support to the test program as in-kind cost sharing. The project was conducted in six tasks. Of the six tasks, Task 1 involved project planning and Task 6 involved

  18. Separating the effects of shelter from additional cage enhancements for group-housed BALB/cJ mice.

    PubMed

    Swetter, Brentt J; Karpiak, Christie P; Cannon, J Timothy

    2011-05-20

    Enrichment studies with rodents have demonstrated that cage enhancements can improve animal welfare and performance on common behavioral measures, but few studies have compared more than one type of enrichment or controlled for confounds, and some have revealed undesirable effects including increased aggression. We compared effects on male (n=51) and female (n=52) BALB/cJ mice of three common additions to a standard home cage: shelter, shelter+running wheel, and shelter+novel objects. Mice in all conditions lived in standard sized cages with 3-4 mice per cage. Males evidenced significant condition effects. Shelter increased longevity and maintained low levels of aggression. Adding a running wheel increased aggression over shelter alone, changed behavior in the elevated plus (EP) and open field (OF), and maintained the improved longevity seen in all shelter conditions. Novel objects impacted behavioral measures compared to the standard condition. An Igloo shelter without running wheel creates a very different home cage environment than the same shelter with the running wheel attached. Shelter, with positive impact on animal welfare, minimal effects on some common behavioral measures, and some positive effects on test variance, warrants consideration for routine inclusion with group-housed BALB/cJ males.

  19. Ion acceleration enhanced by additional neutralizing electrons in a magnetically expanding double layer plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Kazunori; Fujiwara, Tamiya

    2010-10-15

    Electrons neutralizing an ion beam are additionally supplied to a magnetically expanding double layer (DL) plasma from the downstream side of the DL. The rf power and the argon gas pressure are maintained at 200 W and 55 mPa, respectively, and the source magnetic field is varied in the range of about 70-550 G. It is observed that the ion beam energy corresponding to the DL potential drop increases up to 30 eV with an increase in the magnetic field when supplying the additional electrons, while it saturates at 20 eV for the case of the absence of the additional electrons. The supplied electrons are believed to be an energy source for the DL such that increasing the magnetic field is able to increase the potential drop beyond the limit found in the absence of the supplied electrons.

  20. Alumina Matrix Composites with Non-Oxide Nanoparticle Addition and Enhanced Functionalities

    PubMed Central

    Galusek, Dušan; Galusková, Dagmar

    2015-01-01

    The addition of SiC or TiC nanoparticles to polycrystalline alumina matrix has long been known as an efficient way of improving the mechanical properties of alumina-based ceramics, especially strength, creep, and wear resistance. Recently, new types of nano-additives, such as carbon nanotubes (CNT), carbon nanofibers (CNF), and graphene sheets have been studied in order not only to improve the mechanical properties, but also to prepare materials with added functionalities, such as thermal and electrical conductivity. This paper provides a concise review of several types of alumina-based nanocomposites, evaluating the efficiency of various preparation methods and additives in terms of their influence on the properties of composites.

  1. The significant adhesion enhancement of Ag-polytetrafluoroethylene antibacterial coatings by using of molecular bridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Ruijie; Yin, Guangda; Sha, Xiaojuan; Zhao, Qi; Wei, Liqiao; Wang, Huifang

    2015-06-01

    Weak adhesion between the metal-based antibacterial coatings and polymer substrates limits their clinical applications; surface modification is an effective way to solve this intrinsic problem. In this study, UV irradiation was employed to activate the inert silicon rubber substrates, and the grafting of coupling agent (3-mercaptopropyl) trimethoxy silane into the UV-irradiated substrates generated reactive surface containing sbnd SH groups. During electroless plating S which has lone pair electrons anchored Ag+ and produced antibacterial coatings with improved adhesion. The grafting of (3-mercaptopropyl) trimethoxy silane into silicon rubber was verified by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The adhesion was tested by American Society of Testing Materials (ASTM D 3359-02). Surface elements content and distribution were observed and analyzed by X-ray energy disperse spectroscopy (EDS). The antibacterial performance was characterized by inhibition halo test and shake flash method. The results showed that the as-prepared composite Ag-polytetrafluoroethylene coatings possessed remarkably enhanced adhesion and superior antibacterial activity.

  2. Significantly enhanced giant Rashba splitting in a thin film of binary alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wei-Chuan; Chang, Tay-Rong; Tsai, Sun-Ting; Yamamoto, S.; Kuo, Je-Ming; Cheng, Cheng-Maw; Tsuei, Ku-Ding; Yaji, Koichiro; Lin, Hsin; Jeng, H.-T.; Mou, Chung-Yu; Matsuda, Iwao; Tang, S.-J.

    2015-08-01

    Dirac cones in a two-dimensional environment have attracted much attention not only because of the massless Dirac fermions but also due to their capability to lock the spin direction with the momentum. Here we demonstrate that the Rashba effect within a single layer of a binary alloy composed of heavy atoms, Pb and Au, can be driven by and even tweaked with the adjacent top and bottom layers to yield cone-like structures and further enhance the Rashba coupling strength. Two cones are observed at the surface zone center \\bar{Γ } with giant Rashba parameters 1.53 and 4.45 eVÅ an anisotropic giant Rashba splitting at the surface zone boundary \\bar{M} has a great value, 6.26 eVÅ, inferring the critical role of p-d hybridization between Pb and Au. Our results reveal not only an interesting natural phenomenon but also a feasible method of tweaking the Rashba effect of a two-dimensional system.

  3. Using E-Learning to Enhance the Learning of Additional Languages--A Pilot Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilton, Gillian L. S.

    2013-01-01

    This paper is concerned with a small pilot study to ascertain the use of, and changes in the use of e-learning to promote the learning of foreign and additional languages in a variety of countries in Europe. It was undertaken by individual researchers in an attempt to examine how the drive towards the teaching of new languages, encouraged by the…

  4. Carcass analog addition enhances juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) growth and condition

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guyette, Margaret Q.; Loftin, Cynthia S.; Zydlewski, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Our study used historic marine-derived nutrient (MDN) delivery timing to simulate potential effects of restored connectivity on juvenile Atlantic salmon (ATS; Salmo salar) growth and condition. Four headwater streams were stocked with ATS young of the year (YOY) and received carcass analog additions (0.10 kg·m–2 wetted area) in treatment reaches to match the timing of sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) spawning. Individual ATS mass was 33%–48% greater and standard length was 9%–15% greater in treatment reaches relative to control reaches for 4 months following nutrient additions. Percent total lipids in YOY ATS were twice as great in treatment reaches 1 month following carcass analog additions and remained elevated in treatment fish for 2 more months. Absolute growth rates, based on otolith microstructure analysis, correlated with water temperature fluctuations in all reaches and were elevated by an average of 0.07 mm·day–1 in treatment reaches for 1 month following carcass analog additions. Simulated sea lamprey MDNs increased juvenile ATS growth, which, via potential increases in overwinter survival and decreases in smolt age, may contribute to population persistence and ecosystem productivity.

  5. SIMPLE MACHINE PERFUSION SIGNIFICANTLY ENHANCES HEPATOCYTE YIELDS OF ISCHEMIC AND FRESH RAT LIVERS.

    PubMed

    Izamis, Maria-Louisa; Calhoun, Candice; Uygun, Basak E; Guzzardi, Maria Angela; Price, Gavrielle; Luitje, Martha; Saeidi, Nima; Yarmush, Martin L; Uygun, Korkut

    2013-01-01

    The scarcity of viable hepatocytes is a significant bottleneck in cell transplantation, drug discovery, toxicology, tissue engineering, and bioartificial assist devices, where trillions of high-functioning hepatocytes are needed annually. We took the novel approach of using machine perfusion to maximize cell recovery, specifically from uncontrolled cardiac death donors, the largest source of disqualified donor organs. In a rat model, we developed a simple 3 hour room temperature (20±2°C) machine perfusion protocol to treat non-premedicated livers exposed to 1 hour of warm (34°C) ischemia. Treated ischemic livers were compared to fresh, fresh-treated and untreated ischemic livers using viable hepatocyte yields and in vitro performance as quantitative endpoints. Perfusion treatment resulted in both a 25-fold increase in viable hepatocytes from ischemic livers, and a 40% increase from fresh livers. While cell morphology and function in suspension and plate cultures of untreated warm ischemic cells was significantly impaired, treated warm ischemic cells were indistinguishable from fresh hepatocytes. Further, a strong linear correlation between tissue ATP and cell yield enabled accurate evaluation of the extent of perfusion recovery. Maximal recovery of warm ischemic liver ATP content appears to be correlated with optimal flow through the microvasculature. These data demonstrate that the inclusion of a simple perfusion-preconditioning step can significantly increase the efficiency of functional hepatocyte yields and the number of donor livers that can be gainfully utilized.

  6. Simple Machine Perfusion Significantly Enhances Hepatocyte Yields of Ischemic and Fresh Rat Livers

    PubMed Central

    Izamis, Maria-Louisa; Calhoun, Candice; Uygun, Basak E.; Guzzardi, Maria Angela; Price, Gavrielle; Luitje, Martha; Saeidi, Nima; Yarmush, Martin L.; Uygun, Korkut

    2013-01-01

    The scarcity of viable hepatocytes is a significant bottleneck in cell transplantation, drug discovery, toxicology, tissue engineering, and bioartificial assist devices, where trillions of high-functioning hepatocytes are needed annually. We took the novel approach of using machine perfusion to maximize cell recovery, specifically from uncontrolled cardiac death donors, the largest source of disqualified donor organs. In a rat model, we developed a simple 3-h room temperature (20 ± 2°C) machine perfusion protocol to treat nonpremedicated livers exposed to 1 h of warm (34°C) ischemia. Treated ischemic livers were compared to fresh, fresh-treated, and untreated ischemic livers using viable hepatocyte yields and in vitro performance as quantitative endpoints. Perfusion treatment resulted in both a 25-fold increase in viable hepatocytes from ischemic livers and a 40% increase from fresh livers. While cell morphology and function in suspension and plate cultures of untreated warm ischemic cells was significantly impaired, treated warm ischemic cells were indistinguishable from fresh hepatocytes. Furthermore, a strong linear correlation between tissue ATP and cell yield enabled accurate evaluation of the extent of perfusion recovery. Maximal recovery of warm ischemic liver ATP content appears to be correlated with optimal flow through the microvasculature. These data demonstrate that the inclusion of a simple perfusion-preconditioning step can significantly increase the efficiency of functional hepatocyte yields and the number of donor livers that can be gainfully utilized. PMID:25431743

  7. Enhancement of intergranular current density of Sm-based oxypnictide superconductors with Sn addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Shiv Jee; Shimoyama, Jun-ichi; Ogino, Hiraku; Yamamoto, Akiyasu; Kishio, Kohji

    2014-08-01

    A series of Sn-added Sm1111 sintered bulks (SmFeAs(O, F) + xSn x = 0-0.8) was synthesized, and the influence of Sn addition on the superconducting properties of SmFeAs(O, F) was studied. The cell volume (V) slightly increases with Sn addition in the lightly F-doped Sm1111 (SmFeAsO0.88F0.12), suggesting a slight reduction of F concentration in the lattice, whereas there is almost no change in V for the optimally F-doped sample (SmFeAsO0.8F0.2). The transition temperature (Tc) of SmFeAsO0.88F0.12 decreased from 50 to 40 K for x = 0.35, with another maximum at x = 0.27 (Tc = 50 K). On the other hand, SmFeAsO0.8F0.2 remained an almost constant Tc ˜ 56 K up to x = 0.8. Microstructural analysis depicts that the impurity phases in SmFeAsO0.8F0.2 were reduced by Sn addition, resulting in an increase in clean and well connected grain boundaries. Remanent magnetization measurements revealed that Sn addition improved the intergrain Jc at 5 K from 1 × 102 to 1.1 × 104 A cm-2 for SmFeAsO0.8F0.2 and from 4 × 103 to 9.7 × 103 A cm-2 for SmFeAsO0.88F0.12. We believe this superior intergrain Jc to be attributable to the strong intergrain coupling due to grain connectivity improved by the Sn addition.

  8. Aflatoxin Toxicity Reduction in Feed by Enhanced Binding to Surface-Modified Clay Additives

    PubMed Central

    Jaynes, William F.; Zartman, Richard E.

    2011-01-01

    Animal feeding studies have demonstrated that clay additives, such as bentonites, can bind aflatoxins in ingested feed and reduce or eliminate the toxicity. Bentonite deposits are found throughout the world and mostly consist of expandable smectite minerals, such as montmorillonite. The surfaces of smectite minerals can be treated with organic compounds to create surface-modified clays that more readily bind some contaminants than the untreated clay. Montmorillonites treated with organic cations, such as hexadecyltrimethylammonium (HDTMA) and phenyltrimethylammonium (PTMA), more effectively remove organic contaminants, such as benzene and toluene, from water than untreated clay. Similarly, montmorillonite treated with PTMA (Kd = 24,100) retained more aflatoxin B1 (AfB1) from aqueous corn flour than untreated montmorillonite (Kd = 944). Feed additives that reduced aflatoxin toxicity in animal feeding studies adsorbed more AfB1 from aqueous corn flour than feed additives that were less effective. The organic cations HDTMA and PTMA are considered toxic and would not be suitable for clay additives used in feed or food, but other non-toxic or nutrient compounds can be used to prepare surface-modified clays. Montmorillonite (SWy) treated with choline (Kd = 13,800) and carnitine (Kd = 3960) adsorbed much more AfB1 from aqueous corn flour than the untreated clay (Kd = 944). A choline-treated clay prepared from a reduced-charge, high-charge montmorillonite (Kd = 20,100) adsorbed more AfB1 than the choline-treated high-charge montmorillonite (Kd = 1340) or the untreated montmorillonite (Kd = 293). Surface-modified clay additives prepared using low-charge smectites and nutrient or non-toxic organic compounds might be used to more effectively bind aflatoxins in contaminated feed or food and prevent toxicity. PMID:22069725

  9. Enhanced magnetic behaviors of CoPt nanoparticles by addition of SiO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yaxin; Zhang, Xiaolong; Liu, Yang; Jiang, Yuhong; Zhang, Yongjun; Yang, Jinghai

    2014-05-01

    Equiatomic L1{sub 0} CoPt alloy nanoparticles (NPs) with various contents of SiO{sub 2} are synthesized by the simple sol–gel method. The SiO{sub 2} additions restrain the growth of grain and hinder the agglomeration formation. The coercivity increases first and then decreases with SiO{sub 2} addition. Compared to the 0 μl-SiO{sub 2} CoPt NPs, the higher ordering degree and better magnetic properties are obtained by the addition of amount 10 μl SiO{sub 2} in our sample. And the coercivity is two times as large as that of 0 μl-SiO{sub 2} NPs. When the addition of SiO{sub 2} is more than 10 μl, the deteriorated magnetic properties are ascribed to the transformation from hard magnetically phase to soft magnetically phase due to the decrease of particle size. - Graphical abstract: L1{sub 0} CoPt alloy nanoparticles with various contents of SiO{sub 2} are synthesized by sol–gel method. The effects of SiO{sub 2} on the structure and magnetic properties of CoPt nanoparticles are investigated. - Highlights: • The L1{sub 0} CoPt–SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized by sol–gel method. • Effects of SiO{sub 2} content on the structure and magnetic properties were investigated. • The addition of SiO{sub 2} restrained the growth of particle size. • CoPt–10 μl SiO{sub 2} NPs showed a higher ordering degree and better magnetic properties.

  10. Enhancing average ZT in pristine PbSe by over-stoichiometric Pb addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Chao-Feng; Wei, Tian-Ran; Li, Jing-Feng

    2016-10-01

    PbSe is an inexpensive alternative for PbTe as a mid-temperature thermoelectric material, but few investigations have been reported about its intrinsic properties despite recent efforts on doping techniques. In this work, pristine PbSe bulk materials were synthesized by a process combining mechanical alloying and spark plasma sintering, which is increasingly used for processing thermoelectric materials, and their electrical and thermal transport properties as well as thermoelectric performance were investigated in a wide temperature range. A maximum ZT ˜0.83 was obtained at 673 K in nominal composition PbSe + 3 or 4 at. % Pb, leading to nearly 50% enhancement from reported n-type pristine PbSe, mainly benefitting from the improved electrical performance. Furthermore, the potential thermoelectric efficiency was also improved due to the enhanced low-temperature performance, showing a high average ZT of 0.6 that is even comparable to that of commercial n-type Bi2Te3 materials.

  11. Highly enhanced energy conversion from the streaming current by polymer addition.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Trieu; Xie, Yanbo; de Vreede, Lennart J; van den Berg, Albert; Eijkel, Jan C T

    2013-08-21

    In this contribution, we present for the first time the experimental results of energy conversion from the streaming current when a polymer is added to the working solution. We added polyacrylic acid (PAA) in concentrations of 200 ppm to 4000 ppm to a KCl solution. By introducing PAA, the input power, which is the product of volumetric flow rate and the applied pressure, reduced rapidly as compared to the case of using only a normal viscous electrolyte KCl solution. The output power at the same time remained largely constant, whereby an increase of the streaming current and a decrease of the streaming potential simultaneously occurred. These combined factors led to the massive increase of the energy conversion efficiency. Particularly, the results showed that when PAA was in a 0.01 mM KCl solution, the energy conversion efficiency of the system was enhanced by a factor of 447 (±2%), as compared to the case of the solution containing only 0.01 mM KCl. An enhancement factor of 249 (±4%) was also observed when PAA was added to the higher ionic strength background solution, 1 mM KCl. This finding can have practical use in microchannel-array energy conversion systems. When, instead of the negatively charged PAA, a non-ionic polymer polyethylene oxide (PEO) was added to the solution, no efficiency increase was observed, probably due to polymer wall adsorption.

  12. Fire retardancy enhancement of unsaturated polyester polymer resin filled with nano and micro particulate oxide additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, M. C. S.; Sousa, S. P. B.; Nóvoa, P. R. O.; Pereira, C. M.; Ferreira, A. J. M.

    2014-06-01

    In the last years the traditional construction materials, such as wood, glass and steel, have been increasingly replaced by polymer composite materials due to their superior properties. However, this feature has also raised buildings' combustibility fire hazards. Polymer modification with inorganic nanoparticles can be a potential and efficient solution to control matrix flammability without sacrificing other important properties. In this study a new type of unsaturated polyester based composite materials with enhanced fire retardancy are developed, through polymer modification with nano/micro oxide particles and common flame retardants systems. For this purpose, the design of experiments based on Taguchi methodology and analyses of variance were applied. Samples with different material contents and processing parameters resultant from the L9 Taguchi orthogonal array were produced, and their fire properties assessed and quantified by single-flame source and vertical flammability tests. It was found that material and processing parameters have different effects on different properties. Unsaturated polyester composites modified with nano and micro oxide particles showed better fire performance compared to the neat composite improving at least one fire property whatever the nature of the filler. More thorough studies are required in order to improve mix design formulations towards further fire retardancy enhancement.

  13. Enhanced anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge digestion by the addition of zero valent iron.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yinghong; Zhang, Yaobin; Quan, Xie; Chen, Suo

    2014-04-01

    Anaerobic digestion is promising technology to recover energy from waste activated sludge. However, the sludge digestion is limited by its low efficiency of hydrolysis-acidification. Zero valent iron (ZVI) as a reducing material is expected to enhance anaerobic process including the hydrolysis-acidification process. Considering that, ZVI was added into an anaerobic sludge digestion system to accelerate the sludge digestion in this study. The results indicated that ZVI effectively enhanced the decomposition of protein and cellulose, the two main components of the sludge. Compared to the control test without ZVI, the degradation of protein increased 21.9% and the volatile fatty acids production increased 37.3% with adding ZVI. More acetate and less propionate are found during the hydrolysis-acidification with ZVI. The activities of several key enzymes in the hydrolysis and acidification increased 0.6-1 time. ZVI made the methane production raise 43.5% and sludge reduction ratio increase 12.2 percent points. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis showed that the abundances of hydrogen-consuming microorganisms including homoacetogens and hydrogenotrophic methanogens with ZVI were higher than the control, which reduced the H2 accumulation to create a beneficial condition for the sludge digestion in thermodynamics.

  14. Monitoring hillslope moisture dynamics with surface ERT for enhancing spatial significance of hydrometric point measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hübner, R.; Heller, K.; Günther, T.; Kleber, A.

    2015-01-01

    Besides floodplains, hillslopes are basic units that mainly control water movement and flow pathways within catchments of subdued mountain ranges. The structure of their shallow subsurface affects water balance, e.g. infiltration, retention, and runoff. Nevertheless, there is still a gap in the knowledge of the hydrological dynamics on hillslopes, notably due to the lack of generalization and transferability. This study presents a robust multi-method framework of electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) in addition to hydrometric point measurements, transferring hydrometric data into higher spatial scales to obtain additional patterns of distribution and dynamics of soil moisture on a hillslope. A geoelectrical monitoring in a small catchment in the eastern Ore Mountains was carried out at weekly intervals from May to December 2008 to image seasonal moisture dynamics on the hillslope scale. To link water content and electrical resistivity, the parameters of Archie's law were determined using different core samples. To optimize inversion parameters and methods, the derived spatial and temporal water content distribution was compared to tensiometer data. The results from ERT measurements show a strong correlation with the hydrometric data. The response is congruent to the soil tension data. Water content calculated from the ERT profile shows similar variations as that of water content from soil moisture sensors. Consequently, soil moisture dynamics on the hillslope scale may be determined not only by expensive invasive punctual hydrometric measurements, but also by minimally invasive time-lapse ERT, provided that pedo-/petrophysical relationships are known. Since ERT integrates larger spatial scales, a combination with hydrometric point measurements improves the understanding of the ongoing hydrological processes and better suits identification of heterogeneities.

  15. FOCUSED R&D FOR ELECTROCHROMIC SMART WINDOWS: SIGNIFICANT PERFORMANCE AND YIELD ENHANCEMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Marcus Milling

    2004-09-23

    Developments made under this program will play a key role in underpinning the technology for producing EC devices. It is anticipated that the work begun during this period will continue to improve materials properties, and drive yields up and costs down, increase durability and make manufacture simpler and more cost effective. It is hoped that this will contribute to a successful and profitable industry, which will help reduce energy consumption and improve comfort for building occupants worldwide. The first major task involved improvements to the materials used in the process. The improvements made as a result of the work done during this project have contributed to the enhanced performance, including dynamic range, uniformity and electrical characteristics. Another major objective of the project was to develop technology to improve yield, reduce cost, and facilitate manufacturing of EC products. Improvements directly attributable to the work carried out as part of this project and seen in the overall EC device performance, have been accompanied by an improvement in the repeatability and consistency of the production process. Innovative test facilities for characterizing devices in a timely and well-defined manner have been developed. The equipment has been designed in such a way as to make scaling-up to accommodate higher throughput necessary for manufacturing relatively straightforward. Finally, the third major goal was to assure the durability of the EC product, both by developments aimed at improving the product performance, as well as development of novel procedures to test the durability of this new product. Both aspects have been demonstrated, both by carrying out a number of different durability tests, both in-house and by independent third-party testers, and also developing several novel durability tests.

  16. Enhancing Surface Finish of Additively Manufactured Titanium and Cobalt Chrome Elements Using Laser Based Finishing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gora, Wojciech S.; Tian, Yingtao; Cabo, Aldara Pan; Ardron, Marcus; Maier, Robert R. J.; Prangnell, Philip; Weston, Nicholas J.; Hand, Duncan P.

    Additive manufacturing (AM) offers the possibility of creating a complex free form object as a single element, which is not possible using traditional mechanical machining. Unfortunately the typically rough surface finish of additively manufactured parts is unsuitable for many applications. As a result AM parts must be post-processed; typically mechanically machined and/or and polished using either chemical or mechanical techniques (both of which have their limitations). Laser based polishing is based on remelting of a very thin surface layer and it offers potential as a highly repeatable, higher speed process capable of selective area polishing, and without any waste problems (no abrasives or liquids). In this paper an in-depth investigation of CW laser polishing of titanium and cobalt chrome AM elements is presented. The impact of different scanning strategies, laser parameters and initial surface condition on the achieved surface finish is evaluated.

  17. Preliminary result on the enhancement of Ufer electrodes using recycle additives materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zulkifli, Muhammad Haziq Aniq Bin; Ahmad, Hussein Bin

    2016-11-01

    Ground building pillars is to be used as ground rod. The pillars are design, fabricated, and formulated with new ground fillers. The additives will be used from recycle waste materials mainly from the palm oil plant process. Micro scale building pillars will be fabricated and install in the test ground at all of the location. Earth tester meter are used to measure and collect the data of the soil resistivity when the research is conducted. In collecting these data, 3-terminal methods are used to carry the measurements. This experiment will be conducted for 30 weeks and regular measurements at the test ground copper grids will be conducted to measure the ground electrode resistance. The study will mainly base on IEC 62503-3. The used of reinforcing rods and mixture of recycle additives could produce a better grounding system that are suitable and can be used in all kind of soil condition and large industries.

  18. Enhancing Fullerene-Based Solar Cell Lifetimes by Addition of a Fullerene Dumbbell**

    PubMed Central

    Schroeder, Bob C; Li, Zhe; Brady, Michael A; Faria, Gregório Couto; Ashraf, Raja Shahid; Takacs, Christopher J; Cowart, John S; Duong, Duc T; Chiu, Kar Ho; Tan, Ching-Hong; Cabral, João T; Salleo, Alberto; Chabinyc, Michael L; Durrant, James R; McCulloch, Iain

    2014-01-01

    Cost-effective, solution-processable organic photovoltaics (OPV) present an interesting alternative to inorganic silicon-based solar cells. However, one of the major remaining challenges of OPV devices is their lack of long-term operational stability, especially at elevated temperatures. The synthesis of a fullerene dumbbell and its use as an additive in the active layer of a PCDTBT:PCBM-based OPV device is reported. The addition of only 20 % of this novel fullerene not only leads to improved device efficiencies, but more importantly also to a dramatic increase in morphological stability under simulated operating conditions. Dynamic secondary ion mass spectrometry (DSIMS) and TEM are used, amongst other techniques, to elucidate the origins of the improved morphological stability. PMID:25264304

  19. Significant enhancement of PEDOT thin film adhesion to inorganic solid substrates with EDOT-acid.

    PubMed

    Wei, Bin; Liu, Jinglin; Ouyang, Liangqi; Kuo, Chin-Chen; Martin, David C

    2015-07-22

    With its high conductivity, tunable surface morphology, relatively soft mechanical response, high chemical stability, and excellent biocompatibility, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) has become a promising coating material for a variety of electronic biomedical devices. However, the relatively poor adhesion of PEDOT to inorganic metallic and semiconducting substrates still poses challenges for long-term applications. Here, we report that 2,3-dihydrothieno(3,4-b)(1,4)dioxine-2-carboxylic acid (EDOT-acid) significantly improves the adhesion between PEDOT thin films and inorganic solid electrodes. EDOT-acid molecules were chemically bonded onto activated oxide substrates via the chemisorption of the carboxylic groups. PEDOT was then polymerized onto the EDOT-acid modified substrates, forming covalently bonded coatings. The adsorption of EDOT-acid onto the electrode surfaces was characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV), contact angle measurements, atomic force microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The electrical properties of the subsequently coated PEDOT films were studied by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and CV. An aggressive ultrasonication test confirmed the significantly improved adhesion and mechanical stability of the PEDOT films on electrodes with EDOT-acid treatment over those without treatment.

  20. Self-cloning significantly enhances the production of catalase in Bacillus subtilis WSHDZ-01.

    PubMed

    Xu, Sha; Guo, Yaqiong; Du, Guocheng; Zhou, Jingwen; Chen, Jian

    2014-08-01

    The katA gene that encodes catalase (CAT) in Bacillus subtilis WSHDZ-01 was overexpressed in B. subtilis WB600 and B. subtilis WSHDZ-01. The CAT yield in both transformed strains was significantly improved compared to that in the wild-type WSHDZ-01 in shake flask culture. When cultured in a 3-L stirred tank reactor (STR), the recombinant CAT activity in B. subtilis WSHDZ-01 could be improved by 419 %, reaching up to 39,117 U/mL and was 8,149.4 U/mg dry cell weight, which is the highest activity reported in Bacillus sp. However, the recombinant CAT in B. subtilis WB600 cultured in a 3-L STR was not significantly improved by any of the common means for process optimization, and the highest CAT activity was 3,673.5 U/mg dry cell weight. The results suggest that self-cloning of the complete expression cassette in the original strain is a reasonable strategy to improve the yield of wild-type enzymes.

  1. Evaluating research for clinical significance: using critically appraised topics to enhance evidence-based neuropsychology.

    PubMed

    Bowden, Stephen C; Harrison, Elise J; Loring, David W

    2014-01-01

    Meehl's (1973, Psychodiagnosis: Selected papers. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press) distinction between statistical and clinical significance holds special relevance for evidence-based neuropsychological practice. Meehl argued that despite attaining statistical significance, many published findings have limited practical value since they do not inform clinical care. In the context of an ever expanding clinical research literature, accessible methods to evaluate clinical impact are needed. The method of Critically Appraised Topics (Straus, Richardson, Glasziou, & Haynes, 2011, Evidence-based medicine: How to practice and teach EBM (4th ed.). Edinburgh: Elsevier Churchill-Livingstone) was developed to provide clinicians with a "toolkit" to facilitate implementation of evidence-based practice. We illustrate the Critically Appraised Topics method using a dementia screening example. We argue that the skills practiced through critical appraisal provide clinicians with methods to: (1) evaluate the clinical relevance of new or unfamiliar research findings with a focus on patient benefit, (2) help focus of research quality, and (3) incorporate evaluation of clinical impact into educational and professional development activities.

  2. Use of additives to enhance the removal of phenols from water treated with horseradish and hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Tonegawa, Masami; Dec, Jerzy; Bollag, Jean-Marc

    2003-01-01

    Use of additives, such as polyethylene glycol (PEG), selected surfactants, chitosan gel, or activated carbon, has been shown to enhance enzymatic treatment of water polluted with organic compounds. In this study, additives were used to facilitate the removal of 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) from water using minced horseradish (Armoracia rusticana P. Gaertn. et al.) as a carrier of peroxidase activity. The specific objectives of the study were to (i) enhance the pollutant removal activity of minced horseradish by the addition of PEG and other additives (e.g., Tween 20, Triton X-100, and rhamnolipid); (ii) eliminate colored reaction products by the addition of chitosan; and (iii) eliminate color by amending treated water with activated carbon. The disappearance of 2,4-DCP in horseradish-treated water samples amended with PEG or various surfactants (75-90%) was greatly increased over that observed in nonamended samples (29%). The effect of PEG depended on its average molecular weight. As indicated by visible spectrophotometry, enclosing horseradish pieces between two sealed chitosan films completely eliminated colored reaction products; however, the decolorization was accompanied by a reduction in 2,4-DCP removal (from 95 to 60%). On the other hand, commercially available activated carbon completely removed colored reaction products from the treated water without reducing the removal efficiency. Based on the results obtained, it can be concluded that the use of additives may considerably improve the quality of wastewater treated by plant materials.

  3. Additive manufacturing of scaffolds with dexamethasone controlled release for enhanced bone regeneration.

    PubMed

    Costa, Pedro F; Puga, Ana M; Díaz-Gomez, Luis; Concheiro, Angel; Busch, Dirk H; Alvarez-Lorenzo, Carmen

    2015-12-30

    The adoption of additive manufacturing in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine (TERM) strategies greatly relies on the development of novel 3D printable materials with advanced properties. In this work we have developed a material for bone TERM applications with tunable bioerosion rate and dexamethasone release profile which can be further employed in fused deposition modelling (the most common and accessible 3D printing technology in the market). The developed material consisted of a blend of poly-ϵ-caprolactone (PCL) and poloxamine (Tetronic®) and was processed into a ready-to-use filament form by means of a simplified melt-based methodology, therefore eliminating the utilization of solvents. 3D scaffolds composed of various blend formulations were additively manufactured and analyzed revealing blend ratio-specific degradation rates and dexamethasone release profiles. Furthermore, in vitro culture studies revealed a similar blend ratio-specific trend concerning the osteoinductive activity of the fabricated scaffolds when these were seeded and cultured with human mesenchymal stem cells. The developed material enables to specifically address different regenerative requirements found in various tissue defects. The versatility of such strategy is further increased by the ability of additive manufacturing to accurately fabricate implants matching any given defect geometry.

  4. Enhanced production of triterpenoid in submerged cultures of Antrodia cinnamomea with the addition of citrus peel extract.

    PubMed

    Ma, Te-Wei; Lai, Yueting; Yang, Fan-Chiang

    2014-11-01

    In recent years, Antrodia cinnamomea has become a well-known medicinal mushroom in Taiwan. Triterpenoids are considered one of the most biologically active components found in A. cinnamomea. The aim of this research is to investigate the feasibility of enhancing triterpenoid production in shake flask cultures of A. cinnamomea by adding citrus peel extract. As a result of its containing essential oils, citrus peel extract is inhibitory to mycelial growth. In the experiments, the appropriate adding time is determined to be on day 7. Of the various citrus peel extracts tested, tangerine proves to be the most effective in enhancing polyphenol and triterpenoid production. With an addition of 2% (v/v), the content and production of total polyphenols rises from 5.95 mg/g DW of the control and 56.73 mg/L to 23.52 mg/g DW and 224.39 mg/L, respectively, on day 28. The production of triterpenoids also increases from 99.93 to 1,028.02 mg/L, for more than a tenfold increase. An optimal level of tangerine peel additive is determined to be around 4%. Furthermore, when compared with the mycelia of the control culture, the profiles of the HPLC analysis show that the mycelia cultured with the tangerine-peel addition contain more kinds of triterpenoids. This study demonstrates that the addition of citrus peel extract effectively enhances the production of bioactive metabolites in the submerged cultures of A. cinnamomea.

  5. Mutation of Escherichia coli cytosine deaminase significantly enhances molecular chemotherapy of human glioma.

    PubMed

    Kaliberov, S A; Market, J M; Gillespie, G Y; Krendelchtchikova, V; Della Manna, D; Sellers, J C; Kaliberova, L N; Black, M E; Buchsbaum, D J

    2007-07-01

    Combined treatment using adenoviral (Ad)-directed enzyme/prodrug therapy and radiation therapy has the potential to become a powerful method of cancer therapy. We have developed an Ad vector encoding a mutant bacterial cytosine deaminase (bCD) gene (AdbCD-D314A), which has a higher affinity for cytosine than wild-type bCD (bCDwt). The purpose of this study was to evaluate cytotoxicity in vitro and therapeutic efficacy in vivo of the combination of AdbCD-D314A with the prodrug 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) and ionizing radiation against human glioma. The present study demonstrates that AdbCD-D314A infection resulted in increased 5-FC-mediated cell killing, compared with AdbCDwt. Furthermore, a significant increase in cytotoxicity following AdbCD-D314A and radiation treatment of glioma cells in vitro was demonstrated as compared to AdbCDwt. Animal studies showed significant inhibition of subcutaneous or intracranial tumor growth of D54MG glioma xenografts by the combination of AdbCD-D314A/5-FC with ionizing radiation as compared with either agent alone, and with AdbCDwt/5-FC plus radiation. The results suggest that the combination of AdbCD-D314A/5-FC with radiation produces markedly increased cytotoxic effects in cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. These data indicate that combined treatment with this novel mutant enzyme/prodrug therapy and radiotherapy provides a promising approach for cancer therapy.

  6. Nanodiamonds on tetrahedral amorphous carbon significantly enhance dopamine detection and cell viability.

    PubMed

    Peltola, Emilia; Wester, Niklas; Holt, Katherine B; Johansson, Leena-Sisko; Koskinen, Jari; Myllymäki, Vesa; Laurila, Tomi

    2017-02-15

    We hypothesize that by using integrated carbon nanostructures on tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C), it is possible to take the performance and characteristics of these bioelectrodes to a completely new level. The integrated carbon electrodes were realized by combining nanodiamonds (NDs) with ta-C thin films coated on Ti-coated Si-substrates. NDs were functionalized with mixture of carboxyl and amine groups NDandante or amine NDamine, carboxyl NDvox or hydroxyl groups NDH and drop-casted or spray-coated onto substrate. By utilizing these novel structures we show that (i) the detection limit for dopamine can be improved by two orders of magnitude [from 10µM to 50nM] in comparison to ta-C thin film electrodes and (ii) the coating method significantly affects electrochemical properties of NDs and (iii) the ND coatings selectively promote cell viability. NDandante and NDH showed most promising electrochemical properties. The viability of human mesenchymal stem cells and osteoblastic SaOS-2 cells was increased on all ND surfaces, whereas the viability of mouse neural stem cells and rat neuroblastic cells was improved on NDandante and NDH and reduced on NDamine and NDvox. The viability of C6 cells remained unchanged, indicating that these surfaces will not cause excess gliosis. In summary, we demonstrated here that by using functionalized NDs on ta-C thin films we can significantly improve sensitivity towards dopamine as well as selectively promote cell viability. Thus, these novel carbon nanostructures provide an interesting concept for development of various in vivo targeted sensor solutions.

  7. Chemical additive to enhance antimicrobial efficacy of chlorine and control cross-contamination during immersion chill of broiler carcasses.

    PubMed

    Schambach, B T; Berrang, M E; Harrison, M A; Meinersmann, R J

    2014-09-01

    Immersion chilling of broiler carcasses can be a site for cross-contamination between the occasional highly contaminated carcass and those that are co-chilled. Chlorine is often used as an antimicrobial but can be overcome by organic material. A proprietary chlorine stabilizer (T-128) based on phosphoric acid-propylene glycol was tested as a chill tank additive in experiments simulating commercial broiler chilling. In bench-scale experiments, 0.5% T-128 was compared with plain water (control), 50 ppm of chlorine, and the combination of 0.5% T-128 with 50 ppm of chlorine to control transfer of Salmonella and Campylobacter from inoculated wing drummettes to co-chilled uninoculated drummettes. Both chlorine and T-128 lessened cross-contamination with Salmonella (P < 0.05); T-128 and T-128 with chlorine were significantly more effective (P < 0.05) than the control or plain chlorine for control of Campylobacter. T-128 treatments were noted to have a pH of less than 4.0; an additional experiment demonstrated that the antimicrobial effect of T-128 was not due merely to a lower pH. In commercial broiler chilling, a pH close to 6.0 is preferred to maximize chlorine effectiveness, while maintaining water-holding capacity of the meat. In a set of pilot-scale experiments with T-128, a near-ideal pH of 6.3 was achieved by using tap water instead of the distilled water used in bench-scale experiments. Pilot-scale chill tanks were used to compare the combination of 0.5% T-128 and 50 ppm of chlorine with 50 ppm of plain chlorine for control of cross-contamination between whole carcasses inoculated with Salmonella and Campylobacter and co-chilled uninoculated carcasses. The T-128 treatment resulted in significantly less crosscontamination by either direct contact or water transfer with both organisms compared with plain chlorine treatment. T-128 may have use in commercial broiler processing to enhance the effectiveness of chlorine in processing water.

  8. Cationic Polymethacrylate-Modified Liposomes Significantly Enhanced Doxorubicin Delivery and Antitumor Activity

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wenxi; Shao, Anna; Zhang, Nan; Fang, Jinzhang; Ruan, Jennifer Jin; Ruan, Benfang Helen

    2017-01-01

    Liposome (LP) encapsulation of doxorubicin (DOX) is a clinically validated method for cancer drug delivery, but its cellular uptake is actually lower than the free DOX. Therefore, we modified DOX-LP with a cationic polymer (Eudragit RL100; ER) to improve its cellular uptake and antitumor activity. The resulting DOX-ERLP was a 190 nm nanoparticle that was absorbed efficiently and caused cancer cell death in 5 hrs. Growth as measured by the MTT assay or microscopic imaging demonstrated that DOX-ERLP has at least a two-fold greater potency than the free DOX in inhibiting the growth of a DOX resistant (MCF7/adr) cell and an aggressive liver cancer H22 cell. Further, its in vivo efficacy was tested in H22-bearing mice, where four injections of DOX-ERLP reduced the tumor growth by more than 60% and caused an average of 60% tumor necrosis, which was significantly better than the DOX and DOX-LP treated groups. Our work represents the first use of polymethacrylate derivatives for DOX liposomal delivery, demonstrating the great potential of cationic polymethacrylate modified liposomes for improving cancer drug delivery. PMID:28225062

  9. Arsenic Remediation Enhancement Through Chemical Additions to Pump and Treat Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wovkulich, K.; Mailloux, B. J.; Stute, M.; Simpson, H. J.; Keimowitz, A. R.; Powell, A.; Lacko, A.; Chillrud, S. N.

    2008-12-01

    Arsenic is a contaminant found at more than 500 US Superfund sites. Since pump and treat technologies are widely used for remediation of contaminated groundwater, increasing the efficiency of contaminant removal at such sites should allow limited financial resources to clean up more sites. The Vineland Chemical Company Superfund site is extensively contaminated with arsenic after waste arsenic salts were stored and disposed of improperly for much of the company's 44 year manufacturing lifetime. Despite approximately eight years of pump and treat remediation, arsenic concentrations in the recovery wells can still be greater than 1000 ppb. The arsenic concentrations in the groundwater remain high because of slow desorption of arsenic from contaminated aquifer solids. Extrapolation of laboratory column experiments suggest that continuing the current groundwater remediation practice based on flushing ambient groundwater through the system may require on the order of hundreds of years to clean the site. However, chemical additions of phosphate or oxalic acid into the aquifer could decrease the remediation time scale substantially. Laboratory results from a soil column experiment using input of 10 mM oxalic acid suggest that site clean up of groundwater could be decreased to as little as four years. Pilot scale forced gradient field experiments will help establish whether chemical additions can be effective for increasing arsenic mobilization from aquifer solids and thus substantially decrease pump and treat clean up time.

  10. Enhancing current-induced torques by abutting additional spin polarizer layer to nonmagnetic metal layer.

    PubMed

    Go, Gyungchoon; Lee, Kyung-Jin; Kim, Young Keun

    2017-04-04

    Recently, the switching of a perpendicularly magnetized ferromagnet (FM) by injecting an in-plane current into an attached non-magnet (NM) has become of emerging technological interest. This magnetization switching is attributed to the spin-orbit torque (SOT) originating from the strong spin-orbit coupling of the NM layer. However, the switching efficiency of the NM/FM structure itself may be insufficient for practical use, as for example, in spin transfer torque (STT)-based magnetic random access memory (MRAM) devices. Here we investigate spin torque in an NM/FM structure with an additional spin polarizer (SP) layer abutted to the NM layer. In addition to the SOT contribution, a spin-polarized current from the SP layer creates an extra spin chemical potential difference at the NM/FM interface and gives rise to a STT on the FM layer. We show that, using typical parameters including device width, thickness, spin diffusion length, and the spin Hall angle, the spin torque from the SP layer can be much larger than that from the spin Hall effect (SHE) of the NM.

  11. Enhanced anaerobic biodegradability of real coal gasification wastewater with methanol addition.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Han, Hongjun; Yuan, Min; Li, Huiqiang

    2010-01-01

    Coal gasification effluent is a typical refractory industrial wastewater with a very poor anaerobic biodegradability due to its toxicity. Methanol was introduced to improve anaerobic biodegradability of real coal gasification wastewater, and the effect of methanol addition on the performance was investigated in a mesophilic upflow anaerobic sludge bed reactor with a hydraulic retention time of 24 hr. Experimental results indicated that anaerobic treatment of coal gasification wastewater was feasible with the addition of methanol. The corresponding maximum COD and phenol removal rates were 71% and 75%, respectively, with methanol concentration of 500 mg COD/L for a total organic loading rate of 3.5 kg COD/(m3 x day) and a phenol loading rate of 0.6 kg/(m3 x day). The phenol removal rate was not improved with a higher methanol concentration of 1000 mg COD/L. Substrate utilization rate (SUR) tests indicated that the SURs of phenol were 106, 132, and 83 mg phenol/(g VSS x day) at methanol concentrations of 250, 500, and 1000 mg COD/L, respectively, and only 45 mg phenol/(g VSS x day) in the control reactor. The presence of methanol could reduce the toxicity of coal gasification wastewater and increase the biodegradation of phenolic compounds.

  12. Enhancing current-induced torques by abutting additional spin polarizer layer to nonmagnetic metal layer

    PubMed Central

    Go, Gyungchoon; Lee, Kyung-Jin; Kim, Young Keun

    2017-01-01

    Recently, the switching of a perpendicularly magnetized ferromagnet (FM) by injecting an in-plane current into an attached non-magnet (NM) has become of emerging technological interest. This magnetization switching is attributed to the spin-orbit torque (SOT) originating from the strong spin-orbit coupling of the NM layer. However, the switching efficiency of the NM/FM structure itself may be insufficient for practical use, as for example, in spin transfer torque (STT)-based magnetic random access memory (MRAM) devices. Here we investigate spin torque in an NM/FM structure with an additional spin polarizer (SP) layer abutted to the NM layer. In addition to the SOT contribution, a spin-polarized current from the SP layer creates an extra spin chemical potential difference at the NM/FM interface and gives rise to a STT on the FM layer. We show that, using typical parameters including device width, thickness, spin diffusion length, and the spin Hall angle, the spin torque from the SP layer can be much larger than that from the spin Hall effect (SHE) of the NM. PMID:28374805

  13. Sodium borohydride as an additive to enhance the performance of direct ethanol fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lianqin; Bambagioni, Valentina; Bevilacqua, Manuela; Bianchini, Claudio; Filippi, Jonathan; Lavacchi, Alessandro; Marchionni, Andrea; Vizza, Francesco; Fang, Xiang; Shen, Pei Kang

    The effect of adding small quantities (0.1-1 wt.%) of sodium borohydride (NaBH 4) to the anolyte solution of direct ethanol fuel cells (DEFCs) with membrane-electrode assemblies constituted by nanosized Pd/C anode, Fe-Co cathode and anion-exchange membrane (Tokuyama A006) was investigated by means of various techniques. These include cyclic voltammetry, in situ FTIR spectroelectrochemistry, a study of the performance of monoplanar fuel cells and an analysis of the ethanol oxidation products. A comparison with fuel cells fed with aqueous solutions of ethanol proved unambiguously the existence of a promoting effect of NaBH 4 on the ethanol oxidation. Indeed, the potentiodynamic curves of the ethanol-NaBH 4 mixtures showed higher power and current densities, accompanied by a remarkable increase in the fuel consumption at comparable working time of the cell. A 13C and 11B { 1H}NMR analysis of the cell exhausts and an in situ FTIR spectroelectrochemical study showed that ethanol is converted selectively to acetate while the oxidation product of NaBH 4 is sodium metaborate (NaBO 2). The enhancement of the overall cell performance has been explained in terms of the ability of NaBH 4 to reduce the PdO layer on the catalyst surface.

  14. A novel approach for phosphorus recovery and no wasted sludge in enhanced biological phosphorus removal process with external COD addition.

    PubMed

    Xia, Cheng-Wang; Ma, Yun-Jie; Zhang, Fang; Lu, Yong-Ze; Zeng, Raymond J

    2014-01-01

    In enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) process, phosphorus (P) in wastewater is removed via wasted sludge without actual recovery. A novel approach to realize phosphorus recovery with special external chemical oxygen demand (COD) addition in EBPR process was proposed. During the new operating approach period, it was found that (1) no phosphorus was detected in the effluent; (2) with an external addition of 10 % of influent COD amount, 79 % phosphorus in the wastewater influent was recovered; (3) without wasted sludge, the MLVSS concentration in the system increased from 2,010 to 3,400 mg/L and kept stable after day 11 during 24-day operating period. This demonstrates that the novel approach is feasible to realize phosphorus recovery with no wasted sludge discharge in EBPR process. Furthermore, this approach decouples P removal and sludge age, which may enhance the application of membrane bioreactor for P removal.

  15. Enhanced critical currents in (Gd,Y)Ba2Cu3Ox superconducting tapes with high levels of Zr addition

    SciTech Connect

    Selvamanickam, V; Chen, Y; Shi, T; Liu, Y; Khatri, ND; Liu, J; Yao, Y; Xiong, X; Lei, C; Soloveichik, S; Galstyan, E; Majkic, G

    2013-01-21

    The critical current and structural properties of (Gd,Y)BaCuO tapes made by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) with Zr addition levels up to 30 at.% have been investigated. The reduction in critical current beyond the previously optimized Zr addition level of 7.5 at.% was found to be due to structural deterioration of the (Gd,Y)Ba2Cu3Ox film. By a modified MOCVD process,enhanced critical current densities have been achieved with high levels of Zr addition,including 3.83 MA cm(-2) in 15 at.% Zr- added 1.1 mu m thick film at 77 K in zero magnetic field. Critical currents as high as 1072 A/ 12 mm have been reached in (Gd,Y) BaCuO tapes with 15 at.% Zr addition at 30 K in a field of 3 T applied perpendicular to the tape,corresponding to a pinning force value of 268 GN m(-3). The enhanced critical currents achievable with a high density of nanoscale defects by employing high levels of second- phase additions enable the performance targets needed for the use of HTS tapes in coil applications involving high magnetic fields at temperatures below 50 K to be met.

  16. Enhanced critical currents in (Gd,Y)Ba2Cu3Ox superconducting tapes with high levels of Zr addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selvamanickam, V.; Chen, Y.; Shi, T.; Liu, Y.; Khatri, N. D.; Liu, J.; Yao, Y.; Xiong, X.; Lei, C.; Soloveichik, S.; Galstyan, E.; Majkic, G.

    2013-03-01

    The critical current and structural properties of (Gd,Y)BaCuO tapes made by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) with Zr addition levels up to 30 at.% have been investigated. The reduction in critical current beyond the previously optimized Zr addition level of 7.5 at.% was found to be due to structural deterioration of the (Gd,Y)Ba2Cu3Ox film. By a modified MOCVD process, enhanced critical current densities have been achieved with high levels of Zr addition, including 3.83 MA cm-2 in 15 at.% Zr-added 1.1 μm thick film at 77 K in zero magnetic field. Critical currents as high as 1072 A/12 mm have been reached in (Gd,Y)BaCuO tapes with 15 at.% Zr addition at 30 K in a field of 3 T applied perpendicular to the tape, corresponding to a pinning force value of 268 GN m-3. The enhanced critical currents achievable with a high density of nanoscale defects by employing high levels of second-phase additions enable the performance targets needed for the use of HTS tapes in coil applications involving high magnetic fields at temperatures below 50 K to be met.

  17. Enhancing the linear flow of fine granules through the addition of elongated particles

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Zhiguo; Chen, Xueli; Xu, Yang; Liu, Haifeng

    2015-01-01

    Sandglasses have been used to record time for thousands of years because of their constant flow rates; however, they now are drawing attention for their substantial scientific importance and extensive industrial applications. The presence of elongated particles in a binary granular system is believed to result in undesired flow because their shape implies a larger resistance to flow. However, our experiments demonstrate that the addition of elongated particles can substantially reduce the flow fluctuation of fine granules and produce a stable linear flow similar to that in an hourglass. On the basis of experimental data and previous reports of flow dynamics, we observed that the linear flow is driven by the “needle particle effect,” including flow orientation, reduced agglomeration, and local perturbation. This phenomenon is observed in several binary granular systems, including fine granules and secondary elongated particles, which demonstrates that our simple method can be widely applied to the accurate measurement of granular flows in industry. PMID:26551736

  18. Enhancement of ferromagnetic properties in Zn1-xCoxO by additional Cu doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Hung-Ta; Chin, Tsung-Shune; Shih, Jhy-Chau; Lin, Show-Hau; Hong, Tzay-Ming; Huang, Rong-Tan; Chen, Fu-Rong; Kai, Ji-Jung

    2004-07-01

    The high-temperature ferromagnetism in Co-doped ZnO samples fabricated by the standard solid-state reaction method is reported. Additional Cu doping into bulk Zn0.98Co0.02O is essential to achieve room-temperature ferromagnetism. Structure and composition analyses revealed that cobalt is incorporated into the lattice structure, forming a solid solution instead of precipitates. In the case of Zn0.97Cu0.01Co0.02O, the coercive field measured by a vibrating sample magnetometer at room temperature is 60Oe. The implication of the effect of Cu doping in bulk Zn0.98Co0.02O is also discussed.

  19. Intensified nitrogen removal in immobilized nitrifier enhanced constructed wetlands with external carbon addition.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Ding, Yi; Wang, Yuhui; Song, Xinshan; Ambrose, Richard F; Ullman, Jeffrey L

    2016-10-01

    Nitrogen removal performance response of twelve constructed wetlands (CWs) to immobilized nitrifier pellets and different influent COD/N ratios (chemical oxygen demand: total nitrogen in influent) were investigated via 7-month experiments. Nitrifier was immobilized on a carrier pellet containing 10% polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), 2.0% sodium alginate (SA) and 2.0% calcium chloride (CaCl2). A batch experiment demonstrated that 73% COD and 85% ammonia nitrogen (NH4-N) were degraded using the pellets with immobilized nitrifier cells. In addition, different carbon source supplement strategies were applied to remove the nitrate (NO3-N) transformed from NH4-N. An increase in COD/N ratio led to increasing reduction in NO3-N. Efficient nitrification and denitrification promoted total nitrogen (TN) removal in immobilized nitrifier biofortified constructed wetlands (INB-CWs). The results suggested that immobilized nitrifier pellets combined with high influent COD/N ratios could effectively improve the nitrogen removal performance in CWs.

  20. Nitrogen balancing and xylose addition enhances growth capacity and protein content in Chlorella minutissima cultures.

    PubMed

    Freitas, B C B; Esquível, M G; Matos, R G; Arraiano, C M; Morais, M G; Costa, J A V

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed to examine the metabolic changes in Chlorella minutissima cells grown under nitrogen-deficient conditions and with the addition of xylose. The cell density, maximum photochemical efficiency, and chlorophyll and lipid levels were measured. The expression of two photosynthetic proteins, ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) and the beta subunit (AtpB) of adenosine triphosphate synthase, were measured. Comparison of cells grown in medium with a 50% reduction in the nitrogen concentration versus the traditional medium solution revealed that the cells grown under nitrogen-deficient conditions exhibited an increased growth rate, higher maximum cell density (12.7×10(6)cellsmL(-1)), optimal PSII efficiency (0.69) and decreased lipid level (25.08%). This study has taken the first steps toward protein detection in Chlorella minutissima, and the results can be used to optimize the culturing of other microalgae.

  1. Enhanced Optical Properties of Cu-In-S Quantum Dots with Zn Addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, Tran Thi Kim; Thuy, Ung Thi Dieu; Huyen, Tran Thi Thuong; Thuy, Nguyen Thi Minh; Le, Nguyen Thi; Liem, Nguyen Quang

    2016-05-01

    Quaternary Cu-In-Zn-S (CIZS) alloy quantum dots (QDs) have been chemically synthesized by a hydrothermal method at 120°C and heating-up method using diesel as a high-boiling-point reaction solvent at 220°C. The resulting CuInS2 (CIS) QDs with small Zn addition of 10% into the precursors possessed tetragonal structure, spherical morphology, and small size of 3 nm, as characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, Raman spectroscopy, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM). The absorption (Abs) and photoluminescence (PL) spectra of the CIZS alloy QDs both shifted to shorter wavelength (higher energy) in comparison with CIS QDs. The absorption edge and PL peak of the CIZS alloy QDs shifted to shorter wavelength, and the corresponding intensity increased with decreasing temperature in the range of 15 K to 300 K.

  2. Addition of L-arginine to the fertilization medium enhances subsequent bovine embryo development rates.

    PubMed

    Santana, Priscila P B; da Silva, Bruno B; Silva, Thiago V G; Costa, Nathalia N; Cordeiro, Marcela S; Santos, Simone S D; Ohashi, Otávio M; Miranda, Moysés S

    2016-04-01

    Although L-Arginine (ARG) has been reported as a promising bovine sperm capacitation agent, its effects on embryo development are still poorly understood. Herein, we compared the effects of ARG and/or heparin (HEP) addition to the fertilization medium for bovine oocytes on sperm capacitation and embryo development. We chose 10 mM ARG based on blastocyst development rates in a titration experiment. Addition of ARG and/or HEP to the fertilization medium resulted in similar rates of blastocyst development (P > 0.05). However, when ARG, but not HEP, was combined with a nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor (N-Nitro-L-ARG-methyl ester, 10 mM) blastocyst development was decreased (P < 0.05). To assess the effects on capacitation, bovine sperm were incubated for 0, 3, and 6 hours in fertilization medium containing ARG and/or HEP and/or N-Nitro-L-ARG-methyl esterand acrosomal exocytosis rates were evaluated using fluorescein isothiocyanate conjugated Pisum sativum lectin (FITC-PSA) staining and flow cytometry. With HEP, acrosomal exocytosis rates were highest by 3 hours of incubation; however, by 6 hours, rates were similar for HEP and/or ARG (P > 0.05) and higher than those in control media (P < 0.05). Although both ARG and HEP increased sperm NO production (P < 0.05), combination with L-NAME only precluded acrosomal exocytosis when ARG added alone in the medium (P > 0.05). These results suggest that although both ARG and HEP supported sperm capacitation, only the effects of the former were driven via NO production. Moreover, ARG was also as effective as HEP at improving blastocyst development rates. Therefore, ARG may be used as a low-cost alternative sperm capacitation agent for bovine in vitro embryo production.

  3. Evaluating leachate recirculation with cellulase addition to enhance waste biostabilisation and landfill gas production.

    PubMed

    Frank, R R; Davies, S; Wagland, S T; Villa, R; Trois, C; Coulon, F

    2016-09-01

    The effect of leachate recirculation with cellulase augmentation on municipal solid waste (MSW) biostabilisation and landfill gas production was investigated using batch bioreactors to determine the optimal conditions of moisture content, temperature and nutrients. Experimentation was thereafter scaled-up in 7L bioreactors. Three conditions were tested including (1) leachate recirculation only, (2) leachate recirculation with enzyme augmentation and (3) no leachate recirculation (control). Cumulative biogas production of the batch tests indicated that there was little difference between the leachate and control test conditions, producing on average 0.043m(3)biogaskg(-1) waste. However the addition of cellulase at 15×10(6)Utonne(-1) waste doubled the biogas production (0.074m(3)biogaskg(-1) waste). Similar trend was observed with the bioreactors. Cellulase addition also resulted in the highest COD reduction in both the waste and the leachate samples (47% and 42% COD reduction, respectively). In both cases, the quantity of biogas produced was closer to the lower value of theoretical and data-based biogas prediction indicators (0.05-0.4m(3)biogaskg(-1) waste). This was likely due to a high concentration of heavy metals present in the leachate, in particular Cr and Mn, which are known to be toxic to methanogens. The cost-benefit analysis (CBA) based on the settings of the study (cellulase concentration of 15×10(6)Utonne(-1) waste) showed that leachate bioaugmentation using cellulase is economically viable, with a net benefit of approximately €12.1million on a 5Mt mixed waste landfill.

  4. Enhanced therapeutic response with addition of loratadine in subserosal eosinophilic gastroenteritis.

    PubMed

    Salkić, Nermin N; Mustedanagić-Mujanović, Jasminka; Jovanović, Predrag; Alibegović, Ervin

    2013-02-01

    A case of a 45-year-old Caucasian male initially reported with symptoms of acute intestinal obstruction was presented. Diagnostic tests revealed presence of eosinophilic ascites with marked peripheral eosinophilia, a significant thickening of stomach and intestinal wall and infiltration of gastric and duodenal mucosa with eosinophiles. Findings were conclusive with subserosal type of eosinophilic gastroenteritis and the patient's treatment started with a combination of parenteral methylprednisolone and oral loratadine. A prompt clinical response was encountered after 5 days of treatment with complete resolution.

  5. Failure of Immune Sera to Enhance Significantly Phagocytosis of Staphylococus aureus: Nonspecific Adsorption of Phagocytosis-Promoting Factors.

    PubMed

    Shayegani, M

    1970-12-01

    Serum from rabbits immunized with either heat-killed or live nonencapsulated Staphylococcus aureus failed further to enhance phagocytosis and intracellular killing of the homologous organism by either normal rabbit polymorphonuclear leukocytes or monocytes, when compared with normal rabbit serum. These immune sera did, however, show an increase in agglutinating and precipitating antibody level. Adsorption of normal human serum with some gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, yeast, and some inert particles significantly reduced the phagocytosis-promoting factors of the serum. It would seem, then, that nonencapsulated S. aureus differs from other pathogenic bacteria in that the humoral antibacterial factors promoting its phagocytosis and intracellular killing are not significantly enhanced by infection or immunization.

  6. Flux and Passage Enhancement in Hemodialysis by Incorporating Compound Additive into PVDF Polymer Matrix

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qinglei; Lu, Xiaolong; Zhang, Qingzhao; Zhang, Lei; Li, Suoding; Liu, Shaobin

    2016-01-01

    In this study, Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) hollow fiber hemodialysis membranes were prepared by non-solvent induced phase separation (NIPS) with compound addtive. The compound additive was made with polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) and Poly ethylene glycol (PEG). The results showed that the modified PVDF membrane had better separation performance than virgin PVDF membrane. The UF flux of modified PVDF membrane can reach 684 L·h−1·m−2 and lysozyme (LZM) passage is 72.6% while virgin PVDF membrane is 313 L·h−1·m−2 and 53.2%. At the same time, the biocompatibility of PVDF membranes was also improved. Compared with commercial polysulfone hemodialysis membrane (Fresenius F60S membrane), the modified PVDF membrane had better mechanical and separation performance. The stress and tensile elongation of modified PVDF membrane was 0.94 MPa and 352% while Fresenius F60S membrane was 0.79 MPa and 59%. The LZM passage reached 72.6% while Fresenius F60S membrane was 54.4%. It was proven that the modified PVDF membrane showed better hydrophilicity, antithrombogenicity, less BSA adsorption, and lower hemolytic ratio and adhesion of platelets. Water contact angle and BSA adsorption of the modified PVDF membrane are 38° and 45 mg/m2 while Fresenius F60S membrane are 64° and 235 mg/m2. Prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) of the modified PVDF membrane are 56.5 s and 25.8 s while Fresenius F60S membrane is 35.7 s and 16.6 s. However, further biocompatibility evaluation is needed to obtain a more comprehensive conclusion. PMID:27775566

  7. GABA Production in Lactococcus lactis Is Enhanced by Arginine and Co-addition of Malate

    PubMed Central

    Laroute, Valérie; Yasaro, Chonthicha; Narin, Waranya; Mazzoli, Roberto; Pessione, Enrica; Cocaign-Bousquet, Muriel; Loubière, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Lactococcus lactis NCDO 2118 was previously selected for its ability to decarboxylate glutamate to γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), an interesting nutritional supplement able to improve mood and relaxation. Amino acid decarboxylation is generally considered as among the biochemical systems allowing lactic acid bacteria to counteracting acidic stress and obtaining metabolic energy. These strategies also include arginine deiminase pathway and malolactic fermentation but little is known about their possible interactions of with GABA production. In the present study, the effects of glutamate, arginine, and malate (i.e., the substrates of these acid-resistance pathways) on L. lactis NCDO 2118 growth and GABA production performances were analyzed. Both malate and arginine supplementation resulted in an efficient reduction of acidity and improvement of bacterial biomass compared to glutamate supplementation. Glutamate decarboxylation was limited to narrow environmental conditions (pH < 5.1) and physiological state (stationary phase). However, some conditions were able to improve GABA production or activate glutamate decarboxylation system even outside of this compass. Arginine clearly stimulated glutamate decarboxylation: the highest GABA production (8.6 mM) was observed in cultures supplemented with both arginine and glutamate. The simultaneous addition of arginine, malate, and glutamate enabled earlier GABA production (i.e., during exponential growth) at relatively high pH (6.5). As far as we know, no previous study has reported GABA production in such conditions. Although further studies are needed to understand the molecular basis of these phenomena, these results represent important keys suitable of application in GABA production processes. PMID:27458444

  8. Enhancing the Oxidation Performance of Wrought Ni-Base Superalloy by Minor Additions of Active Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tawancy, H. M.

    2016-12-01

    We show that the oxidation performance of Cr2O3-forming superalloy based upon the Ni-Cr-W system is significantly improved by the presence of minor concentrations of La, Si and Mn, which outweigh the detrimental effect of high W concentration in the alloy. Although Cr2O3 is known to transform into volatile CrO3 at temperatures ≥950 °C, the respective protection is extended to temperatures reaching 1150 °C, which has also been correlated with the beneficial effects of La, Si and Mn. During high-temperature oxidation, an inner protective La- and Si-modified layer of α-Cr2O3 in contact with the superalloy substrate is developed and shielded by an outermost layer of MnCr2O4. The distribution of La and Si in the inner oxide layer has been characterized down to the scale of transmission electron microscopy, and the possible mechanisms underlying their beneficial effects are elucidated.

  9. Tribological characteristics of bisphenol AF bis(diphenyl phosphate) as an antiwear additive in polyalkylene glycol and polyurea grease for significantly improved lubrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Lili; Wu, Xinhu; Zhao, Gaiqing; Wang, Xiaobo

    2016-02-01

    A new antiwear additive of Bisphenol AF bis(diphenyl phosphate) (BAFDP) was synthesized and characterized. The tribological behaviors of the additive for polyalkylene glycol (PAG) and polyurea grease (PG) application in steel/steel contacts were evaluated on an Optimol SRV-IV oscillating reciprocating friction and wear tester at elevated temperature. The results revealed that BAFDP could drastically reduce friction and wear of sliding pairs in both PAG and also in PG at 100 °C. The tribological properties of BAFDP are superior to the normally used zinc dialkyldithiophosphate-based additive package (ZDDP) in PAG and PG. Moreover, BAFDP as additive for PAG and PG displays relatively significant tribological properties in temperature-ramp tests by performing well at 50-300 °C, indicating the excellent high temperature friction reduction and anti-wear capacity of BAFDP. XPS results showed that boundary lubrication films composed of Fe(OH)O, Fe3O4, FePO4, FeF2, FeF3, compounds containing the Psbnd O bonds, nitrogen oxide, and so forth, were formed on the worn surface, which contributed to excellent friction reduction and antiwear performance.

  10. Remarkable enhancement of charge carrier mobility of conjugated polymer field-effect transistors upon incorporating an ionic additive.

    PubMed

    Luo, Hewei; Yu, Chenmin; Liu, Zitong; Zhang, Guanxin; Geng, Hua; Yi, Yuanping; Broch, Katharina; Hu, Yuanyuan; Sadhanala, Aditya; Jiang, Lang; Qi, Penglin; Cai, Zhengxu; Sirringhaus, Henning; Zhang, Deqing

    2016-05-01

    Organic semiconductors with high charge carrier mobilities are crucial for flexible electronic applications. Apart from designing new conjugated frameworks, different strategies have been explored to increase charge carrier mobilities. We report a new and simple approach to enhancing the charge carrier mobility of DPP-thieno[3,2-b]thiophene-conjugated polymer by incorporating an ionic additive, tetramethylammonium iodide, without extra treatments into the polymer. The resulting thin films exhibit a very high hole mobility, which is higher by a factor of 24 than that of thin films without the ionic additive under the same conditions. On the basis of spectroscopic grazing incidence wide-angle x-ray scattering and atomic force microscopy studies as well as theoretical calculations, the remarkable enhancement of charge mobility upon addition of tetramethylammonium iodide is attributed primarily to an inhibition of the torsion of the alkyl side chains by the presence of the ionic species, facilitating a more ordered lamellar packing of the alkyl side chains and interchain π-π interactions.

  11. Remarkable enhancement of charge carrier mobility of conjugated polymer field-effect transistors upon incorporating an ionic additive

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Hewei; Yu, Chenmin; Liu, Zitong; Zhang, Guanxin; Geng, Hua; Yi, Yuanping; Broch, Katharina; Hu, Yuanyuan; Sadhanala, Aditya; Jiang, Lang; Qi, Penglin; Cai, Zhengxu; Sirringhaus, Henning; Zhang, Deqing

    2016-01-01

    Organic semiconductors with high charge carrier mobilities are crucial for flexible electronic applications. Apart from designing new conjugated frameworks, different strategies have been explored to increase charge carrier mobilities. We report a new and simple approach to enhancing the charge carrier mobility of DPP-thieno[3,2-b]thiophene–conjugated polymer by incorporating an ionic additive, tetramethylammonium iodide, without extra treatments into the polymer. The resulting thin films exhibit a very high hole mobility, which is higher by a factor of 24 than that of thin films without the ionic additive under the same conditions. On the basis of spectroscopic grazing incidence wide-angle x-ray scattering and atomic force microscopy studies as well as theoretical calculations, the remarkable enhancement of charge mobility upon addition of tetramethylammonium iodide is attributed primarily to an inhibition of the torsion of the alkyl side chains by the presence of the ionic species, facilitating a more ordered lamellar packing of the alkyl side chains and interchain π-π interactions. PMID:27386541

  12. Electroactive biodegradable polyurethane significantly enhanced Schwann cells myelin gene expression and neurotrophin secretion for peripheral nerve tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yaobin; Wang, Ling; Guo, Baolin; Shao, Yongpin; Ma, Peter X

    2016-05-01

    Myelination of Schwann cells (SCs) is critical for the success of peripheral nerve regeneration, and biomaterials that can promote SCs' neurotrophin secretion as scaffolds are beneficial for nerve repair. Here we present a biomaterials-approach, specifically, a highly tunable conductive biodegradable flexible polyurethane by polycondensation of poly(glycerol sebacate) and aniline pentamer, to significantly enhance SCs' myelin gene expression and neurotrophin secretion for peripheral nerve tissue engineering. SCs are cultured on these conductive polymer films, and the biocompatibility of these films and their ability to enhance myelin gene expressions and sustained neurotrophin secretion are successfully demonstrated. The mechanism of SCs' neurotrophin secretion on conductive films is demonstrated by investigating the relationship between intracellular Ca(2+) level and SCs' myelination. Furthermore, the neurite growth and elongation of PC12 cells are induced by adding the neurotrophin medium suspension produced from SCs-laden conductive films. These data suggest that these conductive degradable polyurethanes that enhance SCs' myelin gene expressions and sustained neurotrophin secretion perform great potential for nerve regeneration applications.

  13. Substrate co-doping modulates electronic metal-support interactions and significantly enhances single-atom catalysis.

    PubMed

    Shi, J L; Wu, J H; Zhao, X J; Xue, X L; Gao, Y F; Guo, Z X; Li, S F

    2016-11-24

    Transitional metal nanoparticles or atoms deposited on appropriate substrates can lead to highly economical, efficient, and selective catalysis. One of the greatest challenges is to control the electronic metal-support interactions (EMSI) between the supported metal atoms and the substrate so as to optimize their catalytic performance. Here, from first-principles calculations, we show that an otherwise inactive Pd single adatom on TiO2(110) can be tuned into a highly effective catalyst, e.g. for O2 adsorption and CO oxidation, by purposefully selected metal-nonmetal co-dopant pairs in the substrate. Such an effect is proved here to result unambiguously from a significantly enhanced EMSI. A nearly linear correlation is noted between the strength of the EMSI and the activation of the adsorbed O2 molecule, as well as the energy barrier for CO oxidation. Particularly, the enhanced EMSI shifts the frontier orbital of the deposited Pd atom upward and largely enhances the hybridization and charge transfer between the O2 molecule and the Pd atom. Upon co-doping, the activation barrier for CO oxidation on the Pd monomer is also reduced to a level comparable to that on the Pd dimer which was experimentally reported to be highly efficient for CO oxidation. The present findings provide new insights into the understanding of the EMSI in heterogeneous catalysis and can open new avenues to design and fabricate cost-effective single-atom-sized and/or nanometer-sized catalysts.

  14. Thermoelectric Performance Enhancement of Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):Poly(styrenesulfonate) Composite Films by Addition of Dimethyl Sulfoxide and Urea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Fangfang; Liu, Congcong; Xu, Jingkun; Huang, Yao; Wang, Jianmin; Sun, Zhi

    2012-09-01

    Significant enhancement of thermoelectric (TE) performance was observed for free-standing poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT: PSS) composite films obtained from a PEDOT:PSS aqueous solution by simultaneous addition of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and different concentrations of urea. The electrical conductivity was enhanced from 8.16 S cm-1 to over 400 S cm-1, and the maximum Seebeck coefficient reached a value of 18.81 μV K-1 at room temperature. The power factor of the PEDOT:PSS composite films reached 8.81 μW m-1 K-2. The highest thermoelectric figure of merit ( ZT) in this study was 0.024 at room temperature, which is at least one order of magnitude higher than most polymers and bulk Si. These results indicate that the obtained composite films are a promising thermoelectric material for applications in thermoelectric refrigeration and thermoelectric microgeneration.

  15. Enhanced CO2 adsorptive performance of PEI/SBA-15 adsorbent using phosphate ester based surfactants as additives.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Dandan; Liu, Yue; Wang, Haiqiang; Weng, Xiaole; Wu, Zhongbiao

    2015-12-01

    In this study, a series of polyetherimide/SBA-15: 2-D hexagonal P6mm, Santa Barbara USA (PEI/SBA-15) adsorbents modified by phosphoric ester based surfactants (including tri(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate (TEP), bis(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate (BEP) and trimethyl phosphonoacetate (TMPA)) were prepared for CO2 adsorption. Experimental results indicated that the addition of TEP and BEP had positive effects on CO2 adsorption capacity over PEI/SBA-15. In particular, the CO2 adsorption amount could be improved by around 20% for 45PEI-5TEP/SBA-15 compared to the additive-free adsorbent. This could be attributed to the decrease of CO2 diffusion resistance in the PEI bulk network due to the interactions between TEP and loaded PEI molecules, which was further confirmed by adsorption kinetics results. In addition, it was also found that the cyclic performance of the TEP-modified adsorbent was better than the surfactant-free one. This could be due to two main reasons, based on the results of in situ DRIFT and TG-DSC tests. First and more importantly, adsorbed CO2 species could be desorbed more rapidly over TEP-modified adsorbent during the thermal desorption process. Furthermore, the enhanced thermal stability after TEP addition ensured lower degradation of amine groups during adsorption/desorption cycles.

  16. Enhancement of Glossiness Perception by Retinal-Image Motion: Additional Effect of Head-Yoked Motion Parallax

    PubMed Central

    Tani, Yusuke; Araki, Keisuke; Nagai, Takehiro; Koida, Kowa; Nakauchi, Shigeki; Kitazaki, Michiteru

    2013-01-01

    It has been argued that when an observer moves, a contingent retinal-image motion of a stimulus would strengthen the perceived glossiness. This would be attributed to the veridical perception of three-dimensional structure by motion parallax. However, it has not been investigated whether the effect of motion parallax is more than that of retinal-image motion of the stimulus. Using a magnitude estimation method, we examine in this paper whether cross-modal coordination of the stimulus change and the observer's motion (i.e., motion parallax) is essential or the retinal-image motion alone is sufficient for enhancing the perceived glossiness. Our data show that a retinal-image motion simulating motion parallax without head motion strengthened the perceived glossiness but that its effect was weaker than that of motion parallax with head motion. These results suggest the existence of an additional effect of the cross-modal coordination between vision and proprioception on glossiness perception. That is, motion parallax enhances the perception of glossiness, in addition to retinal-image motions of specular surfaces. PMID:23336006

  17. Significantly enhanced high-frequency permeability for composites with amorphous-membrane-fillers prepared using an infiltration method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Z. W.; Yang, Z. H.

    2016-03-01

    Amorphous-membrane-filler composites have been fabricated using an infiltration method. The composites are able to significantly increase the permeability by 200%, as compared to general amorphous flake composites. SEM and magnetic measurement show that the amorphous flakes in membrane are in-plane arrangement. A model, which considers the effect of flake arrangement on demagnetizing factor Nd and permeability, is proposed. The effect of the arrangement of flakes is equivalent to an effective Nd, which is equal to 1/3 and zero for random and complete in-plane arrangements, respectively. Due to in-plane arrangement of amorphous flakes, the decreased Nd leads to significantly enhanced permeability for the amorphous-membrane-filler composites, based on the Maxwell-Garret mixing law.

  18. ZnO nanowire/reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites for significantly enhanced photocatalytic degradation of Rhodamine 6G

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chao; Zhang, Jing; Su, Yanjie; Xu, Minghan; Yang, Zhi; Zhang, Yafei

    2014-02-01

    We have demonstrated a facile and low-cost approach to synthesize ZnO nanowire (NW)/reduced graphene oxide (RGO) nanocomposites, in which ZnO NWs and graphene oxide (GO) were produced in large scale separately and then hybridized into ZnO NW/RGO nanocomposites by mechanical mixing and low-temperature thermal reduction. Rhodamine 6G (Rh6G) was used as a model dye to evaluate the photocatalytic properties of ZnO NW/RGO nanocomposites. The obtained nanocomposites show significantly enhanced photocatalytic performance, which took only 10 min to decompose over 98% Rh6G. Finally the mechanism of the great enhancement about photocatalytic activity of ZnO NW/RGO nanocomposites is studied. It is mainly attributed to that RGO nanosheets can transfer the electrons of ZnO NWs excited by ultraviolet (UV) irradiation, increase electron migration efficiency, and then longer the lifetime of the holes in ZnO NWs. The high charge separation efficiency of photo-generated electron-hole pairs directly leads to the lower recombination rate of ZnO NW/RGO nanocomposites, makes more effective electrons and holes to participate the radical reactions with Rh6G, thus significantly improving the photocatalytic properties. The high degradation efficiency makes the ZnO NW/RGO nanocomposites promising candidates in the application of environmental pollutant and wastewater treatment.

  19. Complete suppression of metastable phase and significant enhancement of magnetic properties of B-rich PrFeB nanocomposites prepared by devitrifying amorphous ribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, W. Y.; Chiu, C. H.; Zhang, L. C.; Biswas, K.; Ehrenberg, H.; Chang, W. C.; Eckert, J.

    2007-01-01

    The effect of refractory element addition on phase transformation, crystallization behavior and magnetic properties of Pr 8.5Fe 81.5B 10 (addition-free) and Pr 8.5Fe 81.5M 2B 10 (M=V, Cr, Nb, Zr, Ti) ribbons has been investigated. The annealed addition-free ribbon as well as the samples with V or Cr additions are mainly composed of the metastable Pr 2Fe 23B 3 phase, whereas annealed ribbons with Nb, Zr or Ti additions primarily consist of Pr 2Fe 14B and a minor amount of Fe 3B/boride. The complete suppression of the metastable Pr 2Fe 23B 3 phase due to Nb, Zr or Ti additions leads to a significant enhancement of the magnetic properties. For example, the remanence, the coercivity and the energy product are remarkably increased from 2.5 kG, 0.4 kOe and 0.2 MG Oe for the addition-free material to 9.2 kG, 4.7 kOe and 7.6 MG Oe for the specimens with Nb addition. The successful elimination of the metastable Pr 2Fe 23B 3 phase is believed to profit from two factors: (a) Nb, Zr or Ti atoms substitute the Pr site, comparatively increase the Pr content, and thus inhibit the nucleation of Pr-lean Pr 2Fe 23B 3 phases, and (b) the formation of Nb, Zr, or Ti borides consumes some part of B, which hinders the generation of the B-rich Pr 2Fe 23B 3 phase.

  20. Increased microcirculation detected by dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging is of prognostic significance in asymptomatic myeloma.

    PubMed

    Hillengass, Jens; Ritsch, Judith; Merz, Maximilian; Wagner, Barbara; Kunz, Christina; Hielscher, Thomas; Laue, Hendrik; Bäuerle, Tobias; Zechmann, Christian M; Ho, Anthony D; Schlemmer, Heinz-Peter; Goldschmidt, Hartmut; Moehler, Thomas M; Delorme, Stefan

    2016-07-01

    This prospective study aimed to investigate the prognostic significance of dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) as a non-invasive imaging technique delivering the quantitative parameters amplitude A (reflecting blood volume) and exchange rate constant kep (reflecting vascular permeability) in patients with asymptomatic monoclonal plasma cell diseases. We analysed DCE-MRI parameters in 33 healthy controls and 148 patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) or smouldering multiple myeloma (SMM) according to the 2003 IMWG guidelines. All individuals underwent standardized DCE-MRI of the lumbar spine. Regions of interest were drawn manually on T1-weighted images encompassing the bone marrow of each of the 5 lumbar vertebrae sparing the vertebral vessel. Prognostic significance for median of amplitude A (univariate: P < 0·001, hazard ratio (HR) 2·42, multivariate P = 0·02, HR 2·7) and exchange rate constant kep (univariate P = 0·03, HR 1·92, multivariate P = 0·46, HR 1·5) for time to progression of 79 patients with SMM was found. Patients with amplitude A above the optimal cut-off point of 0·89 arbitrary units had a 2-year progression rate into symptomatic disease of 80%. In conclusion, DCE-MRI parameters are of prognostic significance for time to progression in patients with SMM but not in individuals with MGUS.

  1. Enhancement of mercury capture by the simultaneous addition of hydrogen bromide (HBr) and fly ashes in a slipstream facility.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yan; Wang, Quan-Hai; Li, Jun; Cheng, Jen-Chieh; Chan, Chia-Chun; Cohron, Marten; Pan, Wei-Ping

    2009-04-15

    Low halogen content in tested Powder River Basin (PRB) coals and low loss of ignition content (LOI) in PRB-derived fly ash were likely responsible for higher elemental mercury content (averaging about 75%) in the flue gas and also lower mercury capture efficiency by electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and wet-FGD. To develop a cost-effective approach to mercury capture in a full-scale coal-fired utility boiler burning PRB coal, experiments were conducted adding hydrogen bromide (HBr) or simultaneously adding HBr and selected fly ashes in a slipstream reactor (0.152 x 0.152 m) under real flue gas conditions. The residence time of the flue gas inside the reactorwas about 1.4 s. The average temperature of the slipstream reactor was controlled at about 155 degrees C. Tests were organized into two phases. In Phase 1, only HBr was added to the slipstream reactor, and in Phase 2, HBr and selected fly ash were added simultaneously. HBr injection was effective (>90%) for mercury oxidation at a low temperature (155 degrees C) with an HBr addition concentration of about 4 ppm in the flue gas. Additionally, injected HBr enhanced mercury capture by PRB fly ash in the low-temperature range. The mercury capture efficiency, attesting conditions of the slipstream reactor, reached about 50% at an HBr injection concentration of 4 ppm in the flue gas. Compared to only the addition of HBr, simultaneously adding bituminous-derived fly ash in a minimum amount (30 lb/MMacf), together with HBr injection at 4 ppm, could increase mercury capture efficiency by 30%. Injection of lignite-derived fly ash at 30 lb/MMacf could achieve even higher mercury removal efficiency (an additional 35% mercury capture efficiency compared to HBr addition alone).

  2. Enhancement of mercury capture by the simultaneous addition of hydrogen bromide (HBr) and fly ashes in a slipstream facility

    SciTech Connect

    Yan Cao; Quan-Hai Wang; Jun Li; Jen-Chieh Cheng; Chia-Chun Chan; Marten Cohron; Wei-Ping Pan

    2009-04-15

    Low halogen content in tested Powder River Basin (PRB) coals and low loss of ignition content (LOI) in PRB-derived fly ash were likely responsible for higher elemental mercury content (averaging about 75%) in the flue gas and also lower mercury capture efficiency by electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and wet-FGD. To develop a cost-effective approach to mercury capture in a full-scale coal-fired utility boiler burning PRB coal, experiments were conducted adding hydrogen bromide (HBr) or simultaneously adding HBr and selected fly ashes in a slipstream reactor (0.152 x 0.152 m) under real flue gas conditions. The residence time of the flue gas inside the reactor was about 1.4 s. The average temperature of the slipstream reactor was controlled at about 155{sup o}C. Tests were organized into two phases. In Phase 1, only HBr was added to the slipstream reactor, and in Phase 2, HBr and selected fly ash were added simultaneously. HBr injection was effective (>90%) for mercury oxidation at a low temperature (155{sup o}C) with an HBr addition concentration of about 4 ppm in the flue gas. Additionally, injected HBr enhanced mercury capture by PRB fly ash in the low-temperature range. The mercury capture efficiency, at testing conditions of the slipstream reactor, reached about 50% at an HBr injection concentration of 4 ppm in the flue gas. Compared to only the addition of HBr, simultaneously adding bituminous-derived fly ash in a minimum amount (30 lb/MMacf), together with HBr injection at 4 ppm, could increase mercury capture efficiency by 30%. Injection of lignite-derived fly ash at 30 lb/MMacf could achieve even higher mercury removal efficiency (an additional 35% mercury capture efficiency compared to HBR addition alone). 25 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Complete Au@ZnO core-shell nanoparticles with enhanced plasmonic absorption enabling significantly improved photocatalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yiqiang; Sun, Yugang; Zhang, Tao; Chen, Guozhu; Zhang, Fengshou; Liu, Dilong; Cai, Weiping; Li, Yue; Yang, Xianfeng; Li, Cuncheng

    2016-05-01

    Nanostructured ZnO exhibits high chemical stability and unique optical properties, representing a promising candidate among photocatalysts in the field of environmental remediation and solar energy conversion. However, ZnO only absorbs the UV light, which accounts for less than 5% of total solar irradiation, significantly limiting its applications. In this article, we report a facile and efficient approach to overcome the poor wettability between ZnO and Au by carefully modulating the surface charge density on Au nanoparticles (NPs), enabling rapid synthesis of Au@ZnO core-shell NPs at room temperature. The resulting Au@ZnO core-shell NPs exhibit a significantly enhanced plasmonic absorption in the visible range due to the Au NP cores. They also show a significantly improved photocatalytic performance in comparison with their single-component counterparts, i.e., the Au NPs and ZnO NPs. Moreover, the high catalytic activity of the as-synthesized Au@ZnO core-shell NPs can be maintained even after many cycles of photocatalytic reaction. Our results shed light on the fact that the Au@ZnO core-shell NPs represent a promising class of candidates for applications in plasmonics, surface-enhanced spectroscopy, light harvest devices, solar energy conversion, and degradation of organic pollutants.Nanostructured ZnO exhibits high chemical stability and unique optical properties, representing a promising candidate among photocatalysts in the field of environmental remediation and solar energy conversion. However, ZnO only absorbs the UV light, which accounts for less than 5% of total solar irradiation, significantly limiting its applications. In this article, we report a facile and efficient approach to overcome the poor wettability between ZnO and Au by carefully modulating the surface charge density on Au nanoparticles (NPs), enabling rapid synthesis of Au@ZnO core-shell NPs at room temperature. The resulting Au@ZnO core-shell NPs exhibit a significantly enhanced plasmonic

  4. Significant thrombocytopenia associated with the addition of rituximab to a combination of fludarabine and cyclophosphamide in the treatment of relapsed follicular lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Leo, Eugen; Scheuer, Lars; Schmidt-Wolf, Ingo G H; Kerowgan, Mohammed; Schmitt, Christina; Leo, Albrecht; Baumbach, Tanja; Kraemer, Alwin; Mey, Ulrich; Benner, Axel; Parwaresch, Reza; Ho, Anthony D

    2004-10-01

    Fludarabine in combination with cyclophosphamide is an effective treatment for newly diagnosed as well as relapsed follicular lymphoma. The anti-CD20 antibody rituximab has been employed successfully for the same indications. No such data were available on a combined use of these agents. Therefore, we conducted a phase II study to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a combination of rituximab (375 mg/m2), fludarabine (4 x 25 mg/m2) and cyclophosphamide (1 x 750 mg/m2), for the treatment of relapsed follicular lymphoma. An unexpected, severe hematologic toxicity with significant, prolonged thrombocytopenias WHO grade III/IV in 6 (35%) of 17 patients treated in total occurred, leading to early termination of the trial. Cytologic and serologic analyses point toward a direct toxic effect. Older patients (mean age 64.7 vs. 56.5 yr) were significantly (P = 0.02) more likely to suffer from this toxicity, whereas no other clinical or hematologic parameter differed statistically between the patients suffering from thrombocytopenia and those who did not. The addition of rituximab to fludarabine/cyclophosphamide employed at doses given above in relapsed follicular lymphoma may have led to this increase in thrombocytopenias. Therefore, caution should be exercised when combining these drugs for the treatment of patients with relapsed follicular lymphoma, especially when treating older patients.

  5. Enhancement mechanism of the additional absorbent on the absorption of the absorbing composite using a type-based mixing rule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yonggang; Yuan, Liming; Zhang, Deyuan

    2016-04-01

    A silicone rubber composite filled with carbonyl iron particles and four different carbonous materials (carbon black, graphite, carbon fiber or multi-walled carbon nanotubes) was prepared using a two-roller mixture. The complex permittivity and permeability were measured using a vector network analyzer at the frequency of 2-18 GHz. Then a type-based mixing rule based on the dielectric absorbent and magnetic absorbent was proposed to reveal the enhancing mechanism on the permittivity and permeability. The enforcement effect lies in the decreased percolation threshold and the changing pending parameter as the carbonous materials were added. The reflection loss (RL) result showed the added carbonous materials enhanced the absorption in the lower frequency range, the RL decrement value being about 2 dB at 4-5 GHz with a thickness of 1 mm. All the added carbonous materials reinforced the shielding effectiveness (SE) of the composites. The maximum increment value of the SE was about 3.23 dB at 0.5 mm and 4.65 dB at 1 mm, respectively. The added carbonous materials could be effective additives for enforcing the absorption and shielding property of the absorbers.

  6. Simultaneously Enhanced Efficiency and Stability of Polymer Solar Cells by Employing Solvent Additive and Upside-down Drying Method.

    PubMed

    Sun, Qianqian; Zhang, Fujun; An, Qiaoshi; Zhang, Miao; Ma, Xiaoling; Zhang, Jian

    2017-03-15

    The morphology of active layer plays an important role in determining the power conversion efficiency (PCE) and stability of polymer solar cells (PSCs), which strongly depend on the dynamic drying process of active layer. In this work, an efficient and universal method was developed to let active layer undergo upside-down drying process in a covered glass Petri dish. For the PSCs based on PTB7-Th:PC71BM, the champion PCEs were improved from 8.58% to 9.64% by mixing 3 vol % 1,8-di-iodooctane and further to 10.30% by employing upside-down drying method. The enhanced PCEs of PSCs with active layers undergoing upside-down drying process are mainly attributed to the optimized vertical phase separation, the more ordered and tightly packed π-π stacking of polymer molecules. Meanwhile, PC71BM molecules can be frozen in more ordered and tightly packed π-π stacking polymer network, which lead to the enhanced stability of PSCs. The universality of upside-down drying method can be solidly confirmed from PSCs with PTB7:PC71BM, PffBT4T-2OD:PC71BM, or PBDT-TS1:PC71BM as active layers, respectively. The molecular packing and phase separation of blend films with different solvent additives and drying methods were investigated by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

  7. Amplification of an MFS transporter encoding gene penT significantly stimulates penicillin production and enhances the sensitivity of Penicillium chrysogenum to phenylacetic acid.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jing; Xu, Xinxin; Liu, Gang

    2012-11-20

    Penicillin is historically important as the first discovered drug against bacterial infections in human. Although the penicillin biosynthetic pathway and regulatory mechanism have been well studied in Penicillium chrysogenum, the compartmentation and molecular transport of penicillin or its precursors are still poorly understood. In search of the genomic database, more than 830 open reading frames (ORFs) were found to encode transmembrane proteins of P. chrysogenum. In order to investigate their roles on penicillin production, one of them (penT) was selected and cloned. The deduced protein of penT belongs to the major facilitator superfamily (MFS) and contains 12 transmembrane spanning domains (TMS). During fermentation, the transcription of penT was greatly induced by penicillin precursors phenylacetic acid (PAA) and phenoxyacetic acid (POA). Knock-down of penT resulted in significant decrease of penicillin production, while over-expression of penT under the promoter of trpC enhanced the penicillin production. Introduction of an additional penT in the wild-type strain of P. chrysogenum doubled the penicillin production and enhanced the sensitivity of P. chrysogenum to the penicillin precursors PAA or POA. These results indicate that penT stimulates penicillin production probably through enhancing the translocation of penicillin precursors across fungal cellular membrane.

  8. Addition of a third field significantly increases dose to the brachial plexus for patients undergoing tangential whole-breast therapy after lumpectomy

    SciTech Connect

    Stanic, Sinisa; Mathai, Mathew; Mayadev, Jyoti S.; Do, Ly V.; Purdy, James A.; Chen, Allen M.

    2012-07-01

    Our goal was to evaluate brachial plexus (BP) dose with and without the use of supraclavicular (SCL) irradiation in patients undergoing breast-conserving therapy with whole-breast radiation therapy (RT) after lumpectomy. Using the standardized Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG)-endorsed guidelines delineation, we contoured the BP for 10 postlumpectomy breast cancer patients. The radiation dose to the whole breast was 50.4 Gy using tangential fields in 1.8-Gy fractions, followed by a conedown to the operative bed using electrons (10 Gy). The prescription dose to the SCL field was 50.4 Gy, delivered to 3-cm depth. The mean BP volume was 14.5 {+-} 1.5 cm{sup 3}. With tangential fields alone, the median mean dose to the BP was 0.57 Gy, the median maximum dose was 1.93 Gy, and the irradiated volume of the BP receiving 40, 45, and 50 Gy was 0%. When the third (SCL field) was added, the dose to the BP was significantly increased (P = .01): the median mean dose to the BP was 40.60 Gy, and the median maximum dose was 52.22 Gy. With 3-field RT, the median irradiated volume of the BP receiving 40, 45, and 50 Gy was 83.5%, 68.5%, and 24.6%, respectively. The addition of the SCL field significantly increases dose to the BP. The possibility of increasing the risk of BP morbidity should be considered in the context of clinical decision making.

  9. Role of different additives and metallic micro minerals on the enhanced citric acid production by Aspergillus niger MNNG-115 using different carbohydrate materials.

    PubMed

    Ali, Sikander; Haq, Ikram-ul

    2005-01-01

    The present investigation deals with the promotry effect of different additives and metallic micro minerals on citric acid production by Aspergillus niger MNNG-115 using different carbohydrate materials. For this, sugar cane bagasse was fortified with sucrose salt medium. Ethanol and coconut oil at 3.0% (v/w) level increased citric acid productivity. Fluoroacetate at a concentration of 1.0 mg/ml bagasse enhanced the yield of citric acid significantly. However, the addition of ethanol and fluoroacetate after 6 h of growth gave the maximum conversion of available sugar to citric acid. In another study, influence of some metallic micro-minerals viz. copper sulphate, molybdenum sulphate, zinc sulphate and cobalt sulphate on microbial synthesis of citric acid using molasses medium was also carried out. It was found that copper sulphate and molybdenum sulphate remarkably enhanced the production of citric acid while zinc sulphate was not so effective. However, cobalt sulphate was the least effective for microbial biosynthesis of citric acid under the same experimental conditions. In case of CuSO(4), the strain of Aspergillus niger MNNG-115 showed enhanced citric productivity with experimental (9.80%) over the control (7.54%). In addition, the specific productivity of the culture at 30 ppm CuSO(4) (Q(p) = 0.012a g/g cells/h) was several folds higher than other all other concentrations. All kinetic parameters including yield coefficients and volumetric rates revealed the hyper productivity of citric acid by CuSO(4) using blackstrap molasses as the basal carbon source.

  10. Clinicopathologic and Prognostic Significance of Transducin-Like Enhancer of Split 1 Protein Expression in Invasive Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ji-Hye; Bae, Sang Byung; Oh, Mee-Hye; Cho, Hyun Deuk; Jang, Si-Hyong; Hong, Soon Auck; Cho, Junhun; Kim, Sung Yong; Han, Sun Wook; Lee, Jong Eun; Kim, Han Jo

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Transducin-like enhancer of split 1 (TLE1) is a member of the TLE family of transcriptional co-repressors that control the transcription of a wide range of genes. We investigated the prognostic significance of TLE1 protein expression in breast cancers by using immunohistochemistry and explored the relationship of TLE1 with clinicopathological parameters. Methods Immunohistochemistry was performed on 456 cases of breast cancer tiled on tissue microarrays. The relationship between TLE1 expression in normal breast specimens and ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) was also analyzed. Results TLE1 was highly expressed in 57 of 456 (12.5%) carcinoma samples. TLE1 was more frequently expressed in DCIS and invasive breast cancers than in normal breast tissue (p=0.002). High expression of TLE1 significantly correlated with negative lymph node (LN) metastasis (p=0.007), high histologic grade (p<0.001), estrogen receptor negativity (p<0.001), progesterone receptor negativity (p<0.001), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) positivity (p<0.001), and high Ki-67 proliferation index (p<0.001). Based on intrinsic subtypes, high TLE1 expression was strongly associated with HER2+ and triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC) (p<0.001). Survival analysis demonstrated no significant association between TLE1 expression and disease-free survival (DFS) (p=0.167) or overall survival (OS) (p=0.286). In subgroup analyses, no correlation was found between TLE1 expression and DFS or OS according to LN status or intrinsic subtype. Conclusion High TLE1 expression is significantly associated with the HER2+ and TNBC subtypes. This is the first study documenting immunohistochemical expression of TLE1 in invasive breast cancer and its association with clinicopathological parameters, prognosis, and intrinsic subtype. PMID:28382094

  11. Study on the Reutilization of Clear Fracturing Flowback Fluids in Surfactant Flooding with Additives for Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR)

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Caili; Wang, Kai; Liu, Yifei; Fang, Jichao; Zhao, Mingwei

    2014-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to study the reutilization of clear fracturing flowback fluids composed of viscoelastic surfactants (VES) with additives in surfactant flooding, making the process more efficient and cost-effective. The clear fracturing flowback fluids were used as surfactant flooding system with the addition of α-olefin sulfonate (AOS) for enhanced oil recovery (EOR). The interfacial activity, emulsification activity and oil recovery capability of the recycling system were studied. The interfacial tension (IFT) between recycling system and oil can be reduced by 2 orders of magnitude to 10−3 mN/m, which satisfies the basic demand of surfactant flooding. The oil can be emulsified and dispersed more easily due to the synergetic effect of VES and AOS. The oil-wet surface of quartz can be easily converted to water-wet through adsorption of surfactants (VES/AOS) on the surface. Thirteen core plug flooding tests were conducted to investigate the effects of AOS concentrations, slug sizes and slug types of the recycling system on the incremental oil recovery. The investigations prove that reclaiming clear fracturing flowback fluids after fracturing operation and reuse it in surfactant flooding might have less impact on environment and be more economical. PMID:25409507

  12. Enhanced production of Monacolin K by addition of precursors and surfactants in submerged fermentation of Monascus purpureus 9901.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jun; Wang, Yuan-Long; Lu, Li-Ping; Zhang, Bo-Bo; Xu, Gan-Rong

    2014-01-01

    The main problem in Monacolin K (MK) production by submerged fermentation of Monascus purpureus is low productivity. In this study, on one hand, addition of precursors was used to activate the biosynthesis of MK. When 4.0 g/L of sodium citrate was supplemented at the 48th H of the fermentation, the final MK production reached to 1,658.9 ± 28.5 mg/L after 20 day of fermentation, which was improved by 52.6% compared with that of the control. On the other hand, addition of surfactants could increase the permeability of cell membrane, thus driving more intracellular metabolites secreted into the fermentation broth and alleviating the product inhibition. When 40.0 g/L of Triton X-100 was added at the beginning of the fermentation, the final MK production reached to 2,026.0 ± 30.4 mg/L after 20 day of fermentation, which was improved by 84.9% compared with that of the control. These results are helpful to provide some new insights into the biosynthetic regulation on MK production; the approach can be applied to other fungal fermentation processes for enhancing production of useful metabolites.

  13. Study on the reutilization of clear fracturing flowback fluids in surfactant flooding with additives for Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR).

    PubMed

    Dai, Caili; Wang, Kai; Liu, Yifei; Fang, Jichao; Zhao, Mingwei

    2014-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to study the reutilization of clear fracturing flowback fluids composed of viscoelastic surfactants (VES) with additives in surfactant flooding, making the process more efficient and cost-effective. The clear fracturing flowback fluids were used as surfactant flooding system with the addition of α-olefin sulfonate (AOS) for enhanced oil recovery (EOR). The interfacial activity, emulsification activity and oil recovery capability of the recycling system were studied. The interfacial tension (IFT) between recycling system and oil can be reduced by 2 orders of magnitude to 10(-3) mN/m, which satisfies the basic demand of surfactant flooding. The oil can be emulsified and dispersed more easily due to the synergetic effect of VES and AOS. The oil-wet surface of quartz can be easily converted to water-wet through adsorption of surfactants (VES/AOS) on the surface. Thirteen core plug flooding tests were conducted to investigate the effects of AOS concentrations, slug sizes and slug types of the recycling system on the incremental oil recovery. The investigations prove that reclaiming clear fracturing flowback fluids after fracturing operation and reuse it in surfactant flooding might have less impact on environment and be more economical.

  14. Efficiency enhancement of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) by addition of synthetic dye into natural dye (anthocyanin)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratiwi, D. D.; Nurosyid, F.; Supriyanto, A.; Suryana, R.

    2017-02-01

    This article reported combination of anthocyanin and synthetic dyes in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) applications. This study aims was to improve the performance of DSSC by addition of synthetic dye into anthocyanin dye. Anthocyanin dye was extracted from red cabbage and synthetic dye was obtained from N719. We prepared anthocyanin and synthetic dyes at 2 different volume, anthocyanin dye at volume of 10 ml and combination dyes with anthocyanin and synthetic dyes at volume of 8 mL : 2 mL. The DSSCs were designed into sandwich structure on the fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrates using TiO2 electrode, carbon electrode, anthocyanin and synthetic dyes, and redox electrolyte. The absorption wavelength of anthocyanin dye of red cabbage was 450 nm – 580 nm, the combination of anthocyanin and synthetic dyes can increase the absorbance peak only. The IPCE characteristic with anthocyanin dye of red cabbage and combination dyes resulted quantum efficiency of 0.081% and 0.092% at wavelength maximum about 430 nm. The DSSC by anthocyanin dye of red cabbage achieved a conversion efficiency of 0.024%, while the DSSC by combination dyes achieved a conversion efficiency of 0.054%, combination dyes by addition synthetic dye into anthocyanin dye enhanced the conversion efficiency up to 125%.

  15. Significant enhancement of fatty acid composition in seeds of the allohexaploid, Camelina sativa, using CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wen Zhi; Henry, Isabelle M; Lynagh, Peter G; Comai, Luca; Cahoon, Edgar B; Weeks, Donald P

    2016-11-11

    The CRISPR/Cas9 nuclease system is a powerful and flexible tool for genome editing, and novel applications of this system are being developed rapidly. Here, we used CRISPR/Cas9 to target the FAD2 gene in Arabidopsis thaliana and in the closely related emerging oil seed plant, Camelina sativa, with the goal of improving seed oil composition. We successfully obtained Camelina seeds in which oleic acid content was increased from 16% to over 50% of the fatty acid composition. These increases were associated with significant decreases in the less desirable polyunsaturated fatty acids, linoleic acid (i.e. a decrease from ~16% to <4%) and linolenic acid (a decrease from ~35% to <10%). These changes result in oils that are superior on multiple levels: they are healthier, more oxidatively stable and better suited for production of certain commercial chemicals, including biofuels. As expected, A. thaliana T2 and T3 generation seeds exhibiting these types of altered fatty acid profiles were homozygous for disrupted FAD2 alleles. In the allohexaploid, Camelina, guide RNAs were designed that simultaneously targeted all three homoeologous FAD2 genes. This strategy that significantly enhanced oil composition in T3 and T4 generation Camelina seeds was associated with a combination of germ-line mutations and somatic cell mutations in FAD2 genes in each of the three Camelina subgenomes.

  16. Clinical significance of mammillary body enhancement in Wernicke encephalopathy: report of 2 cases and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Konno, Yoshihiro; Kanoto, Masafumi; Hosoya, Takaaki; Toyoguchi, Yuki; Kawanami, Toru; Kato, Takeo

    2014-01-01

    In 2 cases of Wernicke encephalopathy in which the initial symptom was double vision, the only abnormal finding on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging was abnormal enhancement of the mammillary bodies. The mammillary bodies are the region most vulnerable to abnormal enhancement. Because MR imaging with contrast enhancement can detect such abnormal enhancement at an early stage, it should be performed more often in patients with oculomotor disorders to avoid underdiagnosis of Wernicke encephalopathy.

  17. Enhancing the Effectiveness of Significant Event Analysis: Exploring Personal Impact and Applying Systems Thinking in Primary Care

    PubMed Central

    McNaughton, Elaine; Bruce, David; Holly, Deirdre; Forrest, Eleanor; Macleod, Marion; Kennedy, Susan; Power, Ailsa; Toppin, Denis; Black, Irene; Pooley, Janet; Taylor, Audrey; Swanson, Vivien; Kelly, Moya; Ferguson, Julie; Stirling, Suzanne; Wakeling, Judy; Inglis, Angela; McKay, John; Sargeant, Joan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Significant event analysis (SEA) is well established in many primary care settings but can be poorly implemented. Reasons include the emotional impact on clinicians and limited knowledge of systems thinking in establishing why events happen and formulating improvements. To enhance SEA effectiveness, we developed and tested “guiding tools” based on human factors principles. Methods: Mixed-methods development of guiding tools (Personal Booklet—to help with emotional demands and apply a human factors analysis at the individual level; Desk Pad—to guide a team-based systems analysis; and a written Report Format) by a multiprofessional “expert” group and testing with Scottish primary care practitioners who submitted completed enhanced SEA reports. Evaluation data were collected through questionnaire, telephone interviews, and thematic analysis of SEA reports. Results: Overall, 149/240 care practitioners tested the guiding tools and submitted completed SEA reports (62.1%). Reported understanding of how to undertake SEA improved postintervention (P < .001), while most agreed that the Personal Booklet was practical (88/123, 71.5%) and relevant to dealing with related emotions (93/123, 75.6%). The Desk Pad tool helped focus the SEA on systems issues (85/123, 69.1%), while most found the Report Format clear (94/123, 76.4%) and would recommend it (88/123, 71.5%). Most SEA reports adopted a systems approach to analyses (125/149, 83.9%), care improvement (74/149, 49.7), or planned actions (42/149, 28.2%). Discussion: Applying human factors principles to SEA potentially enables care teams to gain a systems-based understanding of why things go wrong, which may help with related emotional demands and with more effective learning and improvement. PMID:27583996

  18. An additional fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl (Fmoc) moiety in di-Fmoc-functionalized L-lysine induces pH-controlled ambidextrous gelation with significant advantages.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Samala Murali Mohan; Shanmugam, Ganesh; Duraipandy, Natarajan; Kiran, Manikantan Syamala; Mandal, Asit Baran

    2015-11-07

    In recent years, several fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl (Fmoc)-functionalized amino acids and peptides have been used to construct hydrogels, which find a wide range of applications. Although several hydrogels have been prepared from mono Fmoc-functionalized amino acids, herein, we demonstrate the importance of an additional Fmoc-moiety in the hydrogelation of double Fmoc-functionalized L-lysine [Fmoc(Nα)-L-lysine(NεFmoc)-OH, (Fmoc-K(Fmoc))] as a low molecular weight gelator (LMWG). Unlike other Fmoc-functionalized amino acid gelators, Fmoc-K(Fmoc) exhibits pH-controlled ambidextrous gelation (hydrogelation at different pH values as well as organogelation), which is significant among the gelators. Distinct fibrous morphologies were observed for Fmoc-K(Fmoc) hydrogels formed at different pH values, which are different from organogels in which Fmoc-K(Fmoc) showed bundles of long fibers. In both hydrogels and organogels, the self-assembly of Fmoc-K(Fmoc) was driven by aromatic π-π stacking and hydrogen bonding interactions, as evidenced from spectroscopic analyses. Characterization of Fmoc-K(Fmoc) gels using several biophysical methods indicates that Fmoc-K(Fmoc) has several advantages and significant importance as a LMWG. The advantages of Fmoc-K(Fmoc) include pH-controlled ambidextrous gelation, pH stimulus response, high thermal stability (∼100 °C) even at low minimum hydrogelation concentration (0.1 wt%), thixotropic property, high kinetic and mechanical stability, dye removal properties, cell viability to the selected cell type, and as a drug carrier. While single Fmoc-functionalized L-lysine amino acids failed to exhibit gelation under similar experimental conditions, the pH-controlled ambidextrous gelation of Fmoc-K(Fmoc) demonstrates the benefit of a second Fmoc moiety in inducing gelation in a LMWG. We thus strongly believe that the current findings provide a lead to construct or design various new synthetic Fmoc-based LMW organic gelators for several

  19. Postexercise whole body heat stress additively enhances endurance training-induced mitochondrial adaptations in mouse skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Yuki; Matsunaga, Yutaka; Masuda, Hiroyuki; Takahashi, Yumiko; Takahashi, Yuki; Terada, Shin; Hoshino, Daisuke; Hatta, Hideo

    2014-10-01

    A recent study demonstrated that heat stress induces mitochondrial biogenesis in C2C12 myotubes, thereby implying that heat stress may be an effective treatment to enhance endurance training-induced mitochondrial adaptations in skeletal muscle. However, whether heat stress actually induces mitochondrial adaptations in skeletal muscle in vivo is unclear. In the present study, we report the novel findings that 1) whole body heat stress produced by exposure of ICR mice to a hot environment (40°C, 30 min/day, 5 days/wk, 3 wk) induced mitochondrial adaptations such as increased mitochondrial enzyme activity (citrate synthase and 3-hydroxyacyl CoA dehydrogenase) and respiratory chain protein content (complexes I-V) in skeletal muscle in vivo and 2) postexercise whole body heat stress additively enhanced endurance training-induced mitochondrial adaptations (treadmill running, 25 m/min, 30 min/day, 5 days/wk, 3 wk). Moreover, to determine the candidate mechanisms underlying mitochondrial adaptations, we investigated the acute effects of postexercise whole body heat stress on the phosphorylation status of cellular signaling cascades that subsequently induce mitochondrial gene transcription. We found that whole body heat stress boosted the endurance exercise-induced phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, increased the phosphorylation status of p70S6K, a biomarker of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 activity, and unexpectedly dephosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase and its downstream target acetyl-CoA carboxylase in skeletal muscle. Our present observations suggest that heat stress can act as an effective postexercise treatment. Heat stress treatment appeared to be clinically beneficial for people who have difficulty participating in sufficient exercise training, such as the elderly, injured athletes, and patients.

  20. Yerba mate enhances probiotic bacteria growth in vitro but as a feed additive does not reduce Salmonella Enteritidis colonization in vivo.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Gil, Francisco; Diaz-Sanchez, Sandra; Pendleton, Sean; Andino, Ana; Zhang, Nan; Yard, Carrie; Crilly, Nate; Harte, Federico; Hanning, Irene

    2014-02-01

    Yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis) is a tea known to have beneficial effects on human health and antimicrobial activity against some foodborne pathogens. Thus, the application of yerba mate as a feed additive for broiler chickens to reduce Salmonella colonization was evaluated. The first in vitro evaluation was conducted by suspending Salmonella Enteritidis and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in yerba mate extract. The in vivo evaluations were conducted using preventative and horizontal transmission experiments. In all experiments, day-of-hatch chicks were treated with one of the following 1) no treatment (control); 2) ground yerba mate in feed; 3) probiotic treatment (Lactobacillus acidophilus and Pediococcus; 9:1 administered once on day of hatch by gavage); or 4) both yerba mate and probiotic treatments. At d 3, all chicks were challenged with Salmonella Enteritidis (preventative experiment) or 5 of 20 chicks (horizontal transmission experiment). At d 10, all birds were euthanized, weighed, and cecal contents enumerated for Salmonella. For the in vitro evaluation, antimicrobial activity was observed against Salmonella and the same treatment enhanced growth of LAB. For in vivo evaluations, none of the yerba mate treatments significantly reduced Salmonella Enteritidis colonization, whereas the probiotic treatment significantly reduced Salmonella colonization in the horizontal transmission experiment. Yerba mate decreased chicken BW and decreased the performance of the probiotic treatment when used in combination. In conclusion, yerba mate had antimicrobial activity against foodborne pathogens and enhanced the growth of LAB in vitro, but in vivo yerba mate did not decrease Salmonella Enteritidis colonization.

  1. Significant enhancement of photoreactivity of graphitic carbon nitride catalysts under acidic conditions and the underlying H(+)-mediated mechanism.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xue-Song; Tian, Ke; Hu, Jian-Yang; Jiang, Hong

    2015-12-01

    Graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) is an emerging photocatalyst for organic pollutants degradation owing to its excellent stability and metal-free property. In this study, the photocatalytic activity of acidified g-C3N4 (ag-C3N4) was systematically investigated using rhodamine B (rhB) as a model organic pollutant. The results showed the photoreactivity of ag-C3N4 is significantly enhanced with the decrease of pH values. The apparent rate constant (kapp) of rhB degradation over ag-C3N4 is 11.59×10(-3)min(-1) at pH7.0 and it increases to 103.50×10(-3)min(-1) at pH3.0 under visible light. A series of analyses demonstrate that the photodegradation mechanism is a combination of a H(+)-promoted generation of OH and elevation of the redox potential of conduct band of C3N4. The change of surface properties of C3N4 caused by pH variation also affects the degradation of some zwitterionic compounds by changing the adsorption orientation of pollutants. The revealed mechanism of visible light-C3N4-rhB system is meaningful to broaden the usage of C3N4 to the photodegradation of other organic pollutants.

  2. Boron Doping of Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes Significantly Enhances Hole Extraction in Carbon-Based Perovskite Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xiaoli; Chen, Haining; Li, Qiang; Yang, Yinglong; Wei, Zhanhua; Bai, Yang; Qiu, Yongcai; Zhou, Dan; Wong, Kam Sing; Yang, Shihe

    2017-03-15

    Compared to the conventional perovskite solar cells (PSCs) containing hole-transport materials (HTM), carbon materials based HTM-free PSCs (C-PSCs) have often suffered from inferior power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) arising at least partially from the inefficient hole extraction at the perovskite-carbon interface. Here, we show that boron (B) doping of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (B-MWNTs) electrodes are superior in enabling enhanced hole extraction and transport by increasing work function, carrier concentration, and conductivity of MWNTs. The C-PSCs prepared using the B-MWNTs as the counter electrodes to extract and transport hole carriers have achieved remarkably higher performances than that with the undoped MWNTs, with the resulting PCE being considerably improved from 10.70% (average of 9.58%) to 14.60% (average of 13.70%). Significantly, these cells show negligible hysteretic behavior. Moreover, by coating a thin layer of insulating aluminum oxide (Al2O3) on the mesoporous TiO2 film as a physical barrier to substantially reduce the charge losses, the PCE has been further pushed to 15.23% (average 14.20%). Finally, the impressive durability and stability of the prepared C-PSCs were also testified under various conditions, including long-term air exposure, heat treatment, and high humidity.

  3. Why Sn doping significantly enhances the dielectric properties of Ba(Ti1-xSnx)O3

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Tao; Xie, Lin; Gu, Lin; Zhu, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Through appropriate doping, the properties of BaTiO3-based ferroelectrics can be significantly enhanced. To determine the physical process induced by the doping of Sn atoms in Ba(Ti0.8Sn0.2)O3, we performed high-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy experiments and observed that the regions with low Sn content formed polar nano regions (PNRs) embedded in the matrix in Ba(Ti0.8Sn0.2)O3. The interactions among Sn, Ti, Ba and O atoms were determined using first principles calculations. Based on the characteristics of the electronic structure and crystal lattice strain fields, the effects of doping with Sn were investigated. The Sn doping not only changed the electronic structure of the crystal but also increased the dielectric properties of the PNRs. Moreover, the Sn doping was also responsible for the diffuse phase transition of the Ba(Ti1-xSnx)O3 material. The effects mentioned in this paper are universal in lead-free ferroelectrics, and similar elements such as Sb, Mg, and Zr may have the same functions in other systems. Thus, these results provide guidance for the design of the doping process and new systems of ferroelectric or relaxor materials. PMID:25721479

  4. Significant fluorescence enhancement by supramolecular complex formation between berberine chloride and cucurbit(n=7)uril and its analytical application.

    PubMed

    Dong, Nan; Cheng, Li-na; Wang, Xiu-lin; Li, Qin; Dai, Chuan-yu; Tao, Zhu

    2011-05-15

    The supramolecular interaction of cucurbit(n=7)uril (Q[7]) with berberine chloride (BER) has been studied in aqueous solution at pH 2.0 and room temperature by spectro-fluorimetry. The association constant of the complex was 2.07 × 10(6) L mol(-1) calculated by using a nonlinear least squares method. (1)H NMR spectra confirmed that a 1:1 stable complex is formed between Q[7] and BER. This work proposes a possible interaction mode, in which the guest BER is incorporated inside the hydrophobic cavity of the host Q[7] via the isoquinoline ring part of the guest molecule. Based on a significant enhancement of the fluorescence intensity of this supramolecular complex, a spectrofluorimetric method with high sensitivity and selectivity has been developed for the determination of BER in aqueous solution in the presence of Q[7]. The linear range of the method was from 7.43 to 11.2 × 10(3) ng mL(-1)with the detection limit 4.2 ng mL(-1). There was no interference from the compounds normally used in tablets, serum or urine constituents. The proposed method was applied to the determination of BER in tablets, serum and urine samples with satisfactory results and good consistency with those obtained by the pharmacopoeia method. This shows that it has promising potential for therapeutic drug monitoring and pharmacokinetics and for clinical application.

  5. Field-scale investigation of enhanced petroleum hydrocarbon biodegradation in the vadose zone combining soil venting as an oxygen source with moisture and nutrient addition. Appendices. Doctoral thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.N.

    1990-01-01

    This document contains appendices regarding a reprint on a field scale investigation of enhanced petroleum hydrocarbon biodegradation in the vadose zone combining soil venting as a oxygen source with moisture and nutrient addition.

  6. Ionic Liquids as Multi-Functional Lubricant Additives to Enhance Engine Efficiency (final report NFE-12-03876)

    SciTech Connect

    Qu, Jun; Luo, Huimin; Toops, Todd J.; West, Brian H.; Blau, Peter Julian; Dai, Sheng; Papke, Brian L.; Gao, Hong; Kheireddin, Bassem; Chen, Cheng

    2016-04-01

    This ORNL-Shell CRADA developed and investigated ionic liquids (ILs) as multifunctional additives for next-generation low-viscosity engine oils. Several groups of oil-miscible ILs were successfully designed and synthesized with high thermal stability, non-corrosiveness, excellent wettability, and most importantly effective anti-scuffing/anti-wear and friction reduction characteristics. Synergistic effects between the common anti-wear additive zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDDP) and a particular group of ILs were discovered with > 30% friction reduction and 70% wear reduction compared with using ZDDP or IL alone. The IL+ZDDP tribofilm distinguishes itself from the IL or ZDDP tribofilms with substantially higher contents of metal phosphates but less metal oxides and sulfur compounds. Notably, it was revealed that the actual concentrations of functional elements on the droplet surface of the oil containing IL+ZDDP are one order magnitude higher than their nominal values. Such significantly increased concentrations of anti-wear agents are presumably expected for the oilsolid interface and believed to be responsible for the superior lubricating performance. A prototype SAE 0W-16 engine oil using a synergistic IL+ZDDP pair as the anti-wear additive has been formulated based on the compatibility between the IL and other additives. Sequence VIE full-scale engine dynamometer tests demonstrated fuel economy improvement (FEI) for this prototype oil and revealed the individual contributions from the lower oil viscosity and reduced boundary friction. The impact of IL and IL+ZDDP on exhaust emission catalyst was investigated using an accelerated small engine aging test and results were benchmarked against ZDDP.

  7. Additional Targeted Biopsy in Clinically Suspected Prostate Cancer: Prospective Randomized Comparison between Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound and Sonoelastography Guidance.

    PubMed

    Koh, Jieun; Jung, Dae Chul; Oh, Young Taik; Yoo, Moon Gyu; Noh, Songmi; Han, Kyung Hwa; Rha, Koon-Ho; Choi, Young Deuk; Hong, Sung Joon

    2015-11-01

    Our aim was to improve the detection of prostate cancer by evaluating whether contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) or sonoelastography (SE) is more helpful in guiding targeted biopsy (TB) performed before systematic biopsy (SB). A total of 52 patients suspected of having prostate cancer were prospectively included and randomly assigned to either the CEUS or SE group. Different, independent radiologists performed TB and twelve-core SB. Within each group, cancer detection rates based on core number were compared between SB and TB. We evaluated the effect of TB on core-based cancer detection rates between the CEUS and SE groups. Cancer detection was higher in overall TB cores 16.4% (28/171) than SB cores 11.4% (71/624) in both groups. In the SE group, TB cores revealed higher cancer detection than did SB cores from 4.49% (14/312) to 12.86% (9/70) (p = 0.01). Compared with CEUS, SE may improve detection rates when considering additional TB guidance methods.

  8. Enhancement of zinc oxide-mediated solar light decoloration of Acid Yellow 99 dye by addition of β-CD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitchaimuthu, Sakthivel; Rajalakshmi, Subramanian; Kannan, Nagarathinam; Velusamy, Ponnusamy

    2015-06-01

    In the current work, the commercially available ZnO photocatalyst was used to investigate the photodecoloration of Acid yellow 99 (AY99) dye under solar light radiation. Promising enhancement of photodecoloration of AY99 dye was also achieved by the addition of β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) with the ZnO (ZnO-β-CD). The effects of process parameters such as initial concentration, pH, catalyst loading, and illumination time on the extent of decoloration were investigated. The optimum catalyst loading was observed at 2.0 g/L. The higher photoactivity of ZnO-β-CD/solar light system than ZnO/solar light system can be ascribed due to the ligand to metal charge transfer (LMCT) from β-CD to ZnII. The complexation patterns have been confirmed with UV-visible and FT-IR spectroscopy and the interaction between ZnO and β-CD has been characterized by FE-SEM, powder XRD analysis, and UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy.

  9. Fluorescence enhancement in rare earth doped sol-gel glass by N , N dimethylformamide as a drying control chemical additive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyler, A. P.; Boye, D. M.; Hoffman, K. R.; Silversmith, A. J.

    Studies of terbium fluorescence intensity as a function of annealing temperature reveal the cause of increased fluorescence yields observed in rare earth doped sol-gel silicates prepared using N , N-dimethylformamide (DMF) as a drying control chemical additive (DCCA). While gels prepared with DMF actually have lower fluorescence yields than gels prepared without DMF at lower annealing temperatures, DMF gels can be annealed at much higher temperatures while retaining high optical quality. At these higher temperatures, terbium fluorescence yields increase dramatically as the sol-gel network undergoes densification, closing the pores of the network and eliminating the fluorescence quenching silanols on pore surfaces. DMF is therefore found to enhance the fluorescence properties of rare earth sol-gel glasses by reducing micro-fracturing and facilitating network densification. Further investigations are underway to determine the effectiveness of other promising DCCAs, such as glycerol, and to explore the possibility of exploiting the solubility properties of DCCAs to improve rare earth dopant dispersion.

  10. An enhanced anaerobic membrane bioreactor treating bamboo industry wastewater by bamboo charcoal addition: Performance and microbial community analysis.

    PubMed

    Xia, Tian; Gao, Xinyi; Wang, Caiqin; Xu, Xiangyang; Zhu, Liang

    2016-11-01

    In this study, two anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBRs) were operated for 150days to treat bamboo industry wastewater (BIWW), and one of them was enhanced with bamboo charcoal (B-AnMBR). During the steady period, average chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiencies of 94.5±2.9% and 89.1±3.1% were achieved in B-AnMBR and AnMBR, respectively. The addition of bamboo charcoal (BC) increased the amount of biomass and improved the performance of the systems. A higher biogas production and methane yield were also observed in B-AnMBR. Regarding the issue of membrane fouling, BC lowered the soluble microbial product (SMP) content by approximately 62.73mg/L and decreased the membrane resistance, thereby mitigating membrane fouling. Analysis of the microbial communities demonstrated that BC increased the microbial diversity and promoted the activity of Methanosaeta, Methanospirillum, and Methanobacterium, which are dominant in methane production.

  11. DOD Business Systems Modernization: Additional Enhancements Are Needed for Army Business System Schedule and Cost Estimates to Fully Meet Best Practices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    DOD BUSINESS SYSTEMS MODERNIZATION Additional Enhancements Are Needed for Army Business System Schedule and Cost...DATE SEP 2014 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE DOD Business Systems Modernization: Additional...Enhancements Are Needed for Army Business System Schedule and Cost Estimates to Fully Meet Best Practices 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c

  12. Enhanced photo-fermentative H2 production using Rhodobacter sphaeroides by ethanol addition and analysis of soluble microbial products

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Biological fermentation routes can provide an environmentally friendly way of producing H2 since they use renewable biomass as feedstock and proceed under ambient temperature and pressure. In particular, photo-fermentation has superior properties in terms of achieving high H2 yield through complete degradation of substrates. However, long-term H2 production data with stable performance is limited, and this data is essential for practical applications. In the present work, continuous photo-fermentative H2 production from lactate was attempted using the purple non-sulfur bacterium, Rhodobacter sphaeroides KD131. As a gradual drop in H2 production was observed, we attempted to add ethanol (0.2% v/v) to the medium. Results As continuous operation went on, H2 production was not sustained and showed a negligible H2 yield (< 0.5 mol H2/mol lactateadded) within two weeks. Electron balance analysis showed that the reason for the gradual drop in H2 production was ascribed to the increase in production of soluble microbial products (SMPs). To see the possible effect of ethanol addition, a batch test was first conducted. The presence of ethanol significantly increased the H2 yield from 1.15 to 2.20 mol H2/mol lactateadded, by suppressing the production of SMPs. The analysis of SMPs by size exclusion chromatography showed that, in the later period of fermentation, more than half of the low molecular weight SMPs (< 1 kDa) were consumed and used for H2 production when ethanol had been added, while the concentration of SMPs continuously increased in the absence of ethanol. It was found that the addition of ethanol facilitated the utilization of reducing power, resulting in an increase in the cellular levels of NAD+ and NADP+. In continuous operation, ethanol addition was effective, such that stable H2 production was attained with an H2 yield of 2.5 mol H2/mol lactateadded. Less than 15% of substrate electrons were used for SMP production, whereas 35% were used in

  13. Significant enhancement of compositional and superconducting homogeneity in Ti rather than Ta-doped Nb3Sn

    DOE PAGES

    Tarantini, C.; Sung, Z. -H.; Lee, P. J.; ...

    2016-01-25

    Nb3Sn wires are now very close to their final optimization but despite its classical nature, detailed understanding of the role of Ta and Ti doping in the A15 is not fully understood. Long thought to be essentially equivalent in their influence on Hc2, they were interchangeably applied. Here we show that Ti produces significantly more homogeneous chemical and superconducting properties. Despite Ta-doped samples having a slightly higher Tc onset in zero-field, they always have a wider Tc-distribution. In particular, whereas the Ta-doped A15 has a Tc-distribution extending from 18 down to 5-6 K (the lowest expected Tc for the binarymore » A15 phase), the Ti-doped samples have no A15 phase with Tc below ~12 K. The much narrower Tc distribution in the Ti-doped samples has a positive effect on their in-field Tc-distribution too, leading to an extrapolated μ0Hc2(0) 2 Tesla larger than the Ta-doped one. Ti-doping also appears to be very homogeneous even when the Sn content is reduced in order to inhibit breakdown of the diffusion barriers in very high Jc conductors. As a result, the enhanced homogeneity of the Ti-doped samples appears to result from its assistance of rapid diffusion of Sn into the filaments and by its incorporation into the A15 phase interchangeably with Sn on the Sn sites of the A15 phase.« less

  14. Enhancing Neoplasm Expression in Field Pea (Pisum sativum) via Intercropping and Its Significance to Pea Weevil (Bruchus pisorum) Management

    PubMed Central

    Teshome, Abel; Bryngelsson, Tomas; Mendesil, Esayas; Marttila, Salla; Geleta, Mulatu

    2016-01-01

    Neoplasm formation, a non-meristematic tissue growth on young field pea (Pisum sativum L.) pods is triggered in the absence of UV light and/or in response to oviposition by pea weevil (Bruchus pisorum L.). This trait is expressed in some genotypes [neoplastic (Np) genotypes] of P. sativum and has the capacity to obstruct pea weevil larval entry into developing seeds. In the present study, 26% of the tested accessions depicted the trait when grown under greenhouse conditions. However, UV light inhibits full expression of this trait and subsequently it is inconspicuous at the field level. In order to investigate UV light impact on the expression of neoplasm, particular Np genotypes were subjected to UV lamp light exposure in the greenhouse and sunlight at the field level. Under these different growing conditions, the highest mean percentage of Np pods was in the control chamber in the greenhouse (36%) whereas in single and double UV lamp chambers, the percentage dropped to 10 and 15%, respectively. Furthermore, when the same Np genotypes were grown in the field, the percentage of Np pods dropped significantly (7%). In order to enhance Np expression at the field level, intercropping of Np genotypes with sorghum was investigated. As result, the percentage of Np pods was threefold in intercropped Np genotypes as compared to those without intercropping. Therefore, intercropping Np genotypes with other crops such as sorghum and maize can facilitate neoplasm formation, which in turn can minimize the success rate of pea weevil larvae entry into developing seeds. Greenhouse artificial infestation experiments showed that pea weevil damage in Np genotypes is lower in comparison to wild type genotypes. Therefore, promoting Np formation under field conditions via intercropping can serve as part of an integrated pea weevil management strategy especially for small scale farming systems. PMID:27242855

  15. Enhanced anti-inflammatory activities of Monascus pilosus fermented products by addition of ginger to the medium.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chin-Chu; Chyau, Charng-Cherng; Liao, Chen-Chung; Hu, Tzu-Jung; Kuo, Chia-Feng

    2010-11-24

    Hypercholesterolemia initiates the atherogenic process; however, chronic inflammation promotes atherogenesis. Monascus spp. fermented products are recognized for their anti-hypercholesterolemic effect, but their anti-inflammatory activity is not as significant as that of many plant-derived foods. To enhance the anti-inflammatory function of Monascus pilosus fermented products, ginger was added to the PDB medium at a ratio of 20% (v/v). The mycelia and broth were collected, freeze-dried, and extracted by ethanol for assays. Macrophage RAW264.7 was challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and coincubated with the extracts of fermented product cultured in ginger-supplemented medium (MPG) or extracts of fermented product cultured in regular PDB medium (MP) for 18 h. Human umbilical vein endothelial cell HUVEC was challenged with tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and coincubated with the extracts of either MPG or MP for 6 h. The results showed that MPG significantly (p<0.05) lowered the production of macrophage pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, nitric oxide (NO), interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) by 68.53%, 84.29%, 32.55%, 84.49%, and 69.49%, respectively; however, MP had no inhibitory effect. MPG significantly downregulated the expression of p-IκB, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in macrophage by 42.16%, 50.87%, and 51.35%, respectively, while MP had no inhibition on COX-2 expression and only 16.64% and 19.22% downregulatory effect on iNOS and phosphorylated-IκB (p-IκB), respectively. Moreover, MPG significantly suppressed the expression of vessel cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and p-IκB in endothelial cell by 63.48% and 63.41%, respectively. LC/MS/MS analysis indicated that 6-gingerdiol was formed in the ginger-modified medium during fermentation. The results of this study will facilitate the development of Monascus spp. fermented products as antiatherosclerotic nutraceuticals.

  16. Power of screening tests for colorectal cancer enhanced by high levels of M2-PK in addition to FOBT.

    PubMed

    Zaccaro, Cristina; Saracino, Ilaria Maria; Fiorini, Giulia; Figura, Natale; Holton, John; Castelli, Valentina; Pesci, Valeria; Gatta, Luigi; Vaira, Dino

    2017-02-02

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a multistep process that involves adenoma-carcinoma sequence. CRC can be prevented by routine screening, which can detect precancerous lesions. The aim of this study is to clarify whether faecal occult blood test (i-FOBT), tumor M2 pyruvate kinase (t-M2-PK), and endocannabinoid system molecules (cannabinoid receptors type 1-CB1, type 2-CB2, and fatty acid amide hydrolase-FAAH) might represent better diagnostic tools, alone or in combination, for an early diagnosis of CRC. An immunochemical FOB test (i-FOBT) and quantitative ELISA stool test for t-M2-PK were performed in 127 consecutive patients during a 12 month period. Endocannabinoid system molecules and t-M2-PK expression were detected by immunostaining in healthy tissues and normal mucosa surrounding adenomatous and cancerous colon lesions. i-FOBT and t-M2-PK combination leads to a better diagnostic accuracy for pre-neoplastic and neoplastic colon lesions. T-M2-PK quantification in stool samples and in biopsy samples (immunostaining) correlates with tumourigenesis stages. CB1 and CB2 are well expressed in healthy tissues, and their expression decreases in the presence of advanced stages of carcinogenesis and disappears in CRC. FAAH signal is well expressed in normal mucosa and low-risk adenoma, and increased in high-risk adenoma and carcinoma adjacent tissues. This study shows that high levels of t-M2-PK in addition to FOBT enhance the power of a CRC screening test. Endocannabinoid system molecule expression correlates with colon carcinogenesis stages. Developing future faecal tests for their quantification must be undertaken to obtain a more accurate early non-invasive diagnosis for CRC.

  17. Addition of an N-terminal epitope tag significantly increases the activity of plant fatty acid desaturases expressed in yeast cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae shows great potential for development of bioreactor systems geared towards the production of high-value lipids such as polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids, the yields of which are largely dependent on the activity of ectopically-expressed enzymes. Here we show that the addit...

  18. Enhanced osteogenic activity and anti-inflammatory properties of Lenti-BMP-2-loaded TiO2 nanotube layers fabricated by lyophilization following trehalose addition

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaochen; Zhang, Zhiyuan; Shen, Gang; Zhao, Jun

    2016-01-01

    To enhance biocompatibility and osseointegration between titanium implants and surrounding bone tissue, numerous efforts have been made to modify the surface topography and composition of Ti implants. In this paper, Lenti-BMP-2-loaded TiO2 nanotube coatings were fabricated by lyophilization in the presence of trehalose to functionalize the surface. We characterized TiO2 nanotube layers in terms of the following: surface morphology; Lenti-BMP-2 and trehalose release; their ability to induce osteogenesis, proliferation, and anti-inflammation in vitro; and osseointegration in vivo. The anodized TiO2 nanotube surfaces exhibited an amorphous glassy matrix perpendicular to the Ti surface. Both Lenti-BMP-2 and trehalose showed sustained release over the course of 8 days. Results from real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction studies demonstrated that lyophilized Lenti-BMP-2/TiO2 nanotubes constructed with trehalose (Lyo-Tre-Lenti-BMP-2) significantly promoted osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells but not their proliferation. In addition, Lyo-Tre-Lenti-BMP-2 nanotubes effectively inhibited lipopolysaccharide-induced interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α production. In vivo, the formulation also promoted osseointegration. This study presents a promising new method for surface-modifying biomedical Ti-based implants to simultaneously enhance their osteogenic potential and anti-inflammatory properties, which can better satisfy clinical needs. PMID:26869786

  19. Evaluation of five additional enhancements to the building loads analysis and system thermodynamics (BLAST) program. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Nemeth, R.J.

    1993-04-01

    The Building Loads Analysis and System Thermodynamics (BLAST) energy analysis computer program has undergone a multiyear enhancement program based on feedback and priorities of the BLAST users' group. This project was conducted to evaluate the convenience and applicability of the following BLAST enhancements: Air-to-Air Heat Pump; Expanded Baseboard Heat Options; Report Writer; Thermal Comfort Model. Ice Storage Model; Evaluation responses indicate that the enhancements satisfied users' needs for advanced building energy analysis tools. Although the evaluations revealed program bugs and the lack of documentation in some areas, the programs were easy to install and use. The bugs have been removed and the documentation expanded in the BLAST Users Reference. It is recommended that the enhancements be distributed with future updates and releases of the BLAST program.... BLAST, Enhancements, Energy efficient, Comfort analysis, Technology Transfer Test Bed(T3B).

  20. Growth enhancement of Picea abies trees under long-term, low-dose N addition is due to morphological more than to physiological changes.

    PubMed

    Krause, Kim; Cherubini, Paolo; Bugmann, Harald; Schleppi, Patrick

    2012-12-01

    Human activities have drastically increased nitrogen (N) inputs into natural and near-natural terrestrial ecosystems such that critical loads are now being exceeded in many regions of the world. This implies that these ecosystems are shifting from natural N limitation to eutrophication or even N saturation. This process is expected to modify the growth of forests and thus, along with management, to affect their carbon (C) sequestration. However, knowledge of the physiological mechanisms underlying tree response to N inputs, especially in the long term, is still lacking. In this study, we used tree-ring patterns and a dual stable isotope approach (δ(13)C and δ(18)O) to investigate tree growth responses and the underlying physiological reactions in a long-term, low-dose N addition experiment (+23 kg N ha(-1) a(-1)). This experiment has been conducted for 14 years in a mountain Picea abies (L.) Karst. forest in Alptal, Switzerland, using a paired-catchment design. Tree stem C sequestration increased by ∼22%, with an N use efficiency (NUE) of ca. 8 kg additional C in tree stems per kg of N added. Neither earlywood nor latewood δ(13)C values changed significantly compared with the control, indicating that the intrinsic water use efficiency (WUE(i)) (A/g(s)) did not change due to N addition. Further, the isotopic signal of δ(18)O in early- and latewood showed no significant response to the treatment, indicating that neither stomatal conductance nor leaf-level photosynthesis changed significantly. Foliar analyses showed that needle N concentration significantly increased in the fourth to seventh treatment year, accompanied by increased dry mass and area per needle, and by increased tree height growth. Later, N concentration and height growth returned to nearly background values, while dry mass and area per needle remained high. Our results support the hypothesis that enhanced stem growth caused by N addition is mainly due to an increased leaf area index (LAI

  1. Significant Enhancement of the Chiral Correlation Length in Nematic Liquid Crystals by Gold Nanoparticle Surfaces Featuring Axially Chiral Binaphthyl Ligands.

    PubMed

    Mori, Taizo; Sharma, Anshul; Hegmann, Torsten

    2016-01-26

    surface is diminished as the size of the particle is reduced. However, in comparison to the free ligands, per chiral molecule all tested gold nanoparticles induce helical distortions in a 10- to 50-fold larger number of liquid crystal host molecules surrounding each particle, indicating a significantly enhanced chiral correlation length. We propose that both the helicity and the chirality transfer efficiency of axially chiral binaphthyl derivatives can be controlled at metal nanoparticle surfaces by adjusting the particle size and curvature as well as the number and density of the chiral ligands to ultimately measure and tune the chiral correlation length.

  2. Addition of glutamine to essential amino acids and carbohydrate does not enhance anabolism in young human males following exercise.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Sarah B; Kim, Paul L; Armstrong, David; Phillips, Stuart M

    2006-10-01

    We examined the effect of a post-exercise oral carbohydrate (CHO, 1 g.kg(-1).h(-1)) and essential amino acid (EAA, 9.25 g) solution containing glutamine (0.3 g/kg BW; GLN trial) versus an isoenergetic CHO-EAA solution without glutamine (control, CON trial) on muscle glycogen resynthesis and whole-body protein turnover following 90 min of cycling at 65% VO2 peak. Over the course of 3 h of recovery, muscle biopsies were taken to measure glycogen resynthesis and mixed muscle protein synthesis (MPS), by incorporation of [ring-2H5] phenylalanine. Infusion of [1-13C] leucine was used to measure whole-body protein turnover. Exercise resulted in a significant decrease in muscle glycogen (p < 0.05) with similar declines in each trial. Glycogen resynthesis following 3 h of recovery indicated no difference in total accumulation or rate of repletion. Leucine oxidation increased 2.5 fold (p < 0.05) during exercise, returned to resting levels immediately post-exercise,and was again elevated at 3 h post-exercise (p < 0.05). Leucine flux, an index of whole-body protein breakdown rate, was reduced during exercise, but increased to resting levels immediately post-exercise, and was further increased at 3 h post-exercise (p < 0.05), but only during the CON trial. Exercise resulted in a marked suppression of whole-body protein synthesis (50% of rest; p < 0.05), which was restored post-exercise; however, the addition of glutamine did not affect whole-body protein synthesis post-exercise. The rate of MPS was not different between trials. The addition of glutamine to a CHO + EAA beverage had no effect on post-exercise muscle glycogen resynthesis or muscle protein synthesis, but may suppress a rise in whole-body proteolysis during the later stages of recovery.

  3. The combination of trastuzumab and pertuzumab administered at approved doses may delay development of trastuzumab resistance by additively enhancing antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Tóth, Gábor; Szöőr, Árpád; Simon, László; Yarden, Yosef; Szöllősi, János; Vereb, György

    2016-10-01

    Although the recently concluded CLEOPATRA trial showed clinical benefits of combining trastuzumab and pertuzumab for treating HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer, trastuzumab monotherapy is still the mainstay in adjuvant settings. Since trastuzumab resistance occurs in over half of these cancers, we examined the mechanisms by which treatment of intrinsically trastuzumab-resistant and -sensitive tumors can benefit from the combination of these antibodies. F(ab')2 of both trastuzumab and pertuzumab were generated and validated in order to separately analyze antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC)-based and direct biological effects of the antibodies. Compared to monotherapy, combination of the two antibodies at clinically permitted doses enhanced the recruitment of natural killer cells responsible for ADCC, and significantly delayed the outgrowth of xenografts from intrinsically trastuzumab-resistant JIMT-1 cells. Antibody dose-response curves of in vitro ADCC showed that antibody-mediated killing can be saturated, and the two antibodies exert an additive effect at sub-saturation doses. Thus, the additive effect in vivo indicates that therapeutic tissue levels likely do not saturate ADCC. Additionally, isobole studies with the in vitro trastuzumab-sensitive BT-474 cells showed that the direct biological effect of combined treatment is additive, and surpasses the maximum effect of either monotherapy. Our results suggest the combined therapy is expected to give results that are superior to monotherapy, whatever the type of HER2-positive tumor may be. The combination of both antibodies at maximum clinically approved doses should thus be administered to patients to recruit maximum ADCC and cause maximum direct biological growth inhibition.

  4. The combination of trastuzumab and pertuzumab administered at approved doses may delay development of trastuzumab resistance by additively enhancing antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Tóth, Gábor; Szöőr, Árpád; Simon, László; Yarden, Yosef; Szöllősi, János; Vereb, György

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Although the recently concluded CLEOPATRA trial showed clinical benefits of combining trastuzumab and pertuzumab for treating HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer, trastuzumab monotherapy is still the mainstay in adjuvant settings. Since trastuzumab resistance occurs in over half of these cancers, we examined the mechanisms by which treatment of intrinsically trastuzumab-resistant and -sensitive tumors can benefit from the combination of these antibodies. F(ab′)2 of both trastuzumab and pertuzumab were generated and validated in order to separately analyze antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC)-based and direct biological effects of the antibodies. Compared to monotherapy, combination of the two antibodies at clinically permitted doses enhanced the recruitment of natural killer cells responsible for ADCC, and significantly delayed the outgrowth of xenografts from intrinsically trastuzumab-resistant JIMT-1 cells. Antibody dose-response curves of in vitro ADCC showed that antibody-mediated killing can be saturated, and the two antibodies exert an additive effect at sub-saturation doses. Thus, the additive effect in vivo indicates that therapeutic tissue levels likely do not saturate ADCC. Additionally, isobole studies with the in vitro trastuzumab-sensitive BT-474 cells showed that the direct biological effect of combined treatment is additive, and surpasses the maximum effect of either monotherapy. Our results suggest the combined therapy is expected to give results that are superior to monotherapy, whatever the type of HER2-positive tumor may be. The combination of both antibodies at maximum clinically approved doses should thus be administered to patients to recruit maximum ADCC and cause maximum direct biological growth inhibition. PMID:27380003

  5. A significant enhancement of color transition from an on-off type achromatic colorimetric nanosensor for highly sensitive multi-analyte detection with the naked eye.

    PubMed

    Heo, Jun Hyuk; Yi, Gyu Sung; Lee, Byoung Sang; Cho, Hui Hun; Lee, Jin Woong; Lee, Jung Heon

    2016-11-03

    Here, we report the development of an achromatic nanoparticle-based colorimetric sensor (achromatic nanosensor) with an on-off type color change that significantly enhances the color transition and increases the sensitivity of the sensor for naked-eye inspection. The achromatic nanosensor was prepared via a modified CMYK (CRYK) subtractive color model by combining DNA-functionalized gold nanoparticles (AuNPs-DNA), silver nanoparticles (AgNPs-DNA), and gold nanorods (AuNRs-DNA). The initially black-colored achromatic nanosensor not only allowed multiplexed detection by generating target-specific diverse color changes, but also improved the recognition of color changes by the naked eye. Thus, this on-off type color change enabled analysis near the limit of detection (LOD) with the naked eye. In addition, we developed a new image processing method adapted for this achromatic sensor. By quantifying the saturation value of the color images of the achromatic sensor, we could significantly amplify the color signal of the samples, which is difficult to achieve with general colorimetric sensors. The practical application of this achromatic nanosensor for biomarker detection was demonstrated with thrombin and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) in human blood plasma. These results provide a new sensing platform that is applicable to most NP-based colorimetric sensing systems for a wide range of applications, including biomolecular diagnosis, chemical pollutant sensing, environmental monitoring, etc.

  6. Exogenous addition of arachidonic acid to the culture media enhances the functionality of dendritic cells for their possible use in cancer immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Jeetendra; Gurav, Rupali; Kale, Vaijayanti; Limaye, Lalita

    2014-01-01

    The development of dendritic cell based vaccines is a promising approach in cancer immunotherapy. For their successful use in the clinics, the propagation and functionality of DCs is crucial. We earlier established a two-step method for the large scale generation of DCs from umbilical cord blood derived MNCs/CD34(+) cells. This work aims at improving their functionality based on the following observations: in vitro generated DCs can be less efficient in migration and other functional activities due to lower eicosanoid levels. The production of eicosanoids from Arachidonic Acid (AA) can be hampered due to suppression of the enzyme phospholipase A2 by IL-4, an essential cytokine required for the differentiation of DCs. We hypothesized that exogenous addition of AA to the culture media during DC generation may result in DCs with improved functionality. DCs were generated with and without AA. The two DC sets were compared by phenotypic analysis, morphology and functional assays like antigen uptake, MLR, CTL assay and in vitro and in vivo migration. Though there were no differences between the two types of DCs in terms of morphology, phenotype and antigen uptake, AA(+) DCs exhibited an enhanced in vitro and in vivo migration, T cell stimulatory capacity, CTL activity and significantly higher transcript levels of COX-2. AA(+) DCs also show a favorable Th1 cytokine profile than AA- DCs. Thus addition of AA to the culture media is skewing the DCs towards the secretion of more IL-12 and less of IL-10 along with the restoration of eicosanoids levels in a COX-2 mediated pathway thereby enhancing the functionality of these cells to be used as a potent cellular vaccine. Taken together, these findings will be helpful in the better contriving of DC based vaccines for cancer immunotherapy.

  7. Next generation enhancement of cements by the addition of industrial wastes and subsequent treatment with supercritical CO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, C.M.V.; Rubin, J.B.; Carey, J.W.; Jones, R.; Baglin, F.G.

    1997-09-01

    The natural curing reactions which occur in a standard portland cement involve the formation of portlandite, Ca(OH){sub 2}, and calcium silicate hydrates, CSH. Over time, the cured cement abstracts carbon dioxide, CO{sub 2}, from the air, converting the portlandite and CSH to calcium carbonate, CaCO{sub 3}. It turns out, however, that this secondary conversion results in the blockage and/or closure of pores, drastically slowing the reaction rate with time. By exposing a portland cement to supercritical CO{sub 2} (SCCO{sub 2}), it is found that the carbonation reaction can be greatly accelerated. This acceleration is due to (1) the ability of the supercritical fluid to penetrate into the pores of the cement, providing continuous availability of fresh reactant, in hyper-stoichiometric concentrations; and (2) the solubility of the reaction product in the supercritical fluid, facilitating its removal. By accelerating the natural aging reactions, a chemically stable product is formed having reduced porosity, permeability and pH, while at the same time significantly enhancing the mechanical strength. The supercritical CO{sub 2} treatment process also removes a majority of the hydrogenous material from the cement, and sequesters large amounts of carbon dioxide, permanently removing it from the environment. The authors describe the general features of supercritical fluids, as well as the application of these fluids to the treatment of cements containing industrial waste. Some of the issues concerning the economic feasibility of industrial scale-up will be addressed. Finally, some initial results of physical property measurements made on portland cements before and after supercritical fluid CO{sub 2} treatment will be presented.

  8. Significantly Enhanced Energy Density in Nanocomposite Capacitors Combining the TiO2 Nanorod Array with Poly(vinylidene fluoride).

    PubMed

    Yao, Lingmin; Pan, Zhongbin; Liu, Shaohui; Zhai, Jiwei; Chen, Haydn H D

    2016-10-05

    A novel inorganic/polymer nanocomposite, using 1-dimensional TiO2 nanorod array as fillers (TNA) and poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) as matrix, has been successfully synthesized for the first time. A carefully designed process sequence includes several steps with the initial epitaxial growth of highly oriented TNA on the fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) conductive glass. Subsequently, PVDF is embedded into the nanorods by the spin-coating method followed by annealing and quenching processes. This novel structure with dispersive fillers demonstrates a successful compromise between the electric displacement and breakdown strength, resulting in a dramatic increase in the electric polarization which leads to a significant improvement on the energy density and discharge efficiency. The nanocomposites with various height ratios of fillers between the TNA and total film thickness were investigated by us. The results show that nanocomposite with 18% height ratio fillers obtains maximum increase in the energy density (10.62 J cm(-3)) at a lower applied electric field of 340 MV m(-1), and it also illustrates a higher efficiency (>85%) under the electric field less than 100 MV m(-1). Even when the electric field reached 340 MV m(-1), the efficiency of nanocomposites can still maintained at ∼70%. This energy density exceeds most of the previously reported TiO2-based nanocomposite values at such a breakdown strength, which provides another promising design for the next generation of dielectric nanocomposite material, by using the highly oriented nanorod array as fillers for the higher energy density capacitors. Additionally, the finite element simulation has been employed to analyze the distribution of electric fields and electric flux density to explore the inherent mechanism of the higher performance of the TNA/PVDF nanocomposites.

  9. Titanate nanotube thin films with enhanced thermal stability and high-transparency prepared from additive-free sols

    SciTech Connect

    Koroesi, Laszlo; Papp, Szilvia; Hornok, Viktoria; Oszko, Albert; Petrik, Peter; Patko, Daniel; Horvath, Robert; Dekany, Imre

    2012-08-15

    Titanate nanotubes were synthesized from TiO{sub 2} in alkaline medium by a conventional hydrothermal method (150 Degree-Sign C, 4.7 bar). To obtain hydrogen titanates, the as-prepared sodium titanates were treated with either HCl or H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} aqueous solutions. A simple synthesis procedure was devised for stable titanate nanotube sols without using any additives. These highly stable ethanolic sols can readily be used to prepare transparent titanate nanotube thin films of high quality. The resulting samples were studied by X-ray diffraction, N{sub 2}-sorption measurements, Raman spectroscopy, transmission and scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and spectroscopic ellipsometry. The comparative results of using two kinds of acids shed light on the superior thermal stability of the H{sub 3}PO{sub 4}-treated titanate nanotubes (P-TNTs). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed that P-TNTs contains P in the near-surface region and the thermal stability was enhanced even at a low ({approx}0.5 at%) concentration of P. After calcination at 500 Degree-Sign C, the specific surface areas of the HCl- and H{sub 3}PO{sub 4}-treated samples were 153 and 244 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}, respectively. The effects of H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} treatment on the structure, morphology and porosity of titanate nanotubes are discussed. - Graphical Abstract: TEM picture (left) shows P-TNTs with diameters about 5-6 nm. Inset shows a stable titanate nanotube sol illuminated by a 532 nm laser beam. Due to the presence of the nanoparticles the way of the light is visible in the sol. Cross sectional SEM picture (right) as well as ellipsometry revealed the formation of optical quality P-TNT films with thicknesses below 50 nm. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} treatment led to TNTs with high surface area even after calcination at 500 Degree-Sign C. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer H{sub 3}PO{sub 4}-treated TNTs preserved their nanotube morphology up to 500

  10. Security Assistance: DOD’s Ongoing Reforms Address Some Challenges, but Additional Information Is Needed to Further Enhance Program Management

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-01

    Abbreviations BPC building partner capacity DOD Department of Defense DSCA Defense Security Cooperation Agency EFTS Enhanced Freight Tracking System...SCOs are ready to receive a planned delivery. For both FMS and pseudo-FMS processes, DOD uses the Enhanced Freight Tracking System ( EFTS ), a secure...providing data for this system. The Security Assistance Management Manual recommends that SCOs use the EFTS to maintain awareness of incoming shipments

  11. Water in the hydration shell of halide ions has significantly reduced Fermi resonance and moderately enhanced Raman cross section in the OH stretch regions.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Mohammed; Singh, Ajay K; Mondal, Jahur A; Sarkar, Sisir K

    2013-08-22

    Water in the presence of electrolytes plays an important role in biological and industrial processes. The properties of water, such as the intermolecular coupling, Fermi resonance (FR), hydrogen-bonding, and Raman cross section were investigated by measuring the Raman spectra in the OD and OH stretch regions in presence of alkali halides (NaX; X = F, Cl, Br, I). It is observed that the changes in spectral characteristics by the addition of NaX in D2O are similar to those obtained by the addition of H2O in D2O. The spectral width decreases significantly by the addition of NaX in D2O (H2O) than that in the isotopically diluted water. Quantitative estimation, on the basis of integrated Raman intensity, revealed that the relative Raman cross section, σ(H)/σ(b) (σ(H) and σ(b) are the average Raman cross section of water in the first hydration shell of X(-) and in bulk, respectively), in D2O and H2O is higher than those in the respective isotopically diluted water. These results suggest that water in the hydration shell has reduced FR and intermolecular coupling compared to those in bulk. In the isotopically diluted water, the relative Raman cross section increases with increase in size of the halide ions (σ(H)/σ(b) = 0.6, 1.1, 1.5, and 1.9 for F(-), Cl(-), Br(-), and I(-), respectively), which is assignable to the enhancement of Raman cross section by charge transfer from halide ions to the hydrating water. Nevertheless, the experimentally determined σ(H)/σ(b) is lower than the calculated values obtained on the basis of the energy of the charge transfer state of water. The weak enhancement of σ(H)/σ(b) signifies that the charge transfer transition in the hydration shell of halide ions causes little change in the OD (OH) bond lengths of hydrating water.

  12. Recovery of genomic DNA from archived PCR product mixes for subsequent multiplex amplification and typing of additional loci: forensic significance for older unsolved criminal cases.

    PubMed

    Patchett, Kylie L; Cox, Ken J; Burns, Dennis M

    2002-07-01

    A method for genomic DNA recovery from different types of PCR product mixes suitable for multiplex amplification and typing using the Profiler Plus STR typing system has been investigated. The application of this method is of significance in cases where the original DNA samples have been exhausted due to repeated typing analyses in an effort to maximize their evidentiary value. Such cases typically involve samples analyzed using the available DNA typing systems of the time which gave a markedly lower power of discrimination, either alone or in combination, compared to that of modern multiplex STR typing systems. It was found that an effective method for recovering genomic DNA from HLA-DQA1 +PM and CTT triplex amplification mixes, suitable for reproducible achievement of the complete Profiler Plus profile, involved the use of Amicon Microcon-100 microconcentrators. Interestingly, this method was not required to achieve the complete nine STR profile using D1S80 amplification mixes.

  13. Enhancement of the nutritional status and quality of fresh pork sausages following the addition of linseed oil, fish oil and natural antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Valencia, I; O'Grady, M N; Ansorena, D; Astiasarán, I; Kerry, J P

    2008-12-01

    Fresh pork sausages (pork shoulder, pork back fat, water, rusk and seasoning) were manufactured where 15% of the pork back fat was substituted with linseed oil (LO) or fish oil (FO). Green tea catechins (GTC) and green coffee antioxidant (GCA) were added to both LO (LGTC 200 and LGCA 200) and FO (FGTC 200 and FGCA 200) substituted sausages at a level of 200mg/kg. Raw and cooked pork sausages were either over-wrapped with oxygen permeable film (aerobic storage) or stored in modified atmosphere packages (MAP) containing 80% O(2):20% CO(2) or 70% N(2):30% CO(2), respectively for 7 days at 4°C. Effects on fatty acid profiles, lipid oxidation, colour and sensorial properties were investigated. α-Linolenic acid increased from 1.34% (control) to 8.91% (LO) and up to 11.2% (LGTC 200 and LGCA 200). Addition of fish oil increased levels of EPA from 0.05% (control) to 2.83% (FO), 3.02% (FGTC 200) and 2.87% (FGCA 200) and DHA levels increased from 0.04% (control) to a maximum of 1.93% (FGTC 200). Lipid oxidation was low in raw and cooked linseed oil containing sausages. GTC (200mg/kg) significantly (P<0.05) reduced lipid oxidation in raw fish oil containing sausages after 7 days of storage. Colour parameters in raw pork sausages were unaffected by the packaging atmosphere. L(∗) lightness values were lower (P<0.05) in LGTC 200 and a(∗) redness values lower (P<0.05) in LGTC 200 and FGTC 200 after 7 days of storage. Sensory scores of cooked pork sausages were unaffected by linseed oil addition. Flavour and overall acceptability scores in cooked fish oil containing sausages were improved by GTC addition. Results obtained demonstrate potential for the production of nutritionally enhanced fresh pork sausages.

  14. Enhancement of the Performance of Perovskite Solar Cells, LEDs, and Optical Amplifiers by Anti-Solvent Additive Deposition.

    PubMed

    Ngo, Thi Tuyen; Suarez, Isaac; Antonicelli, Gabriella; Cortizo-Lacalle, Diego; Martinez-Pastor, Juan P; Mateo-Alonso, Aurelio; Mora-Sero, Ivan

    2017-02-01

    The efficiency of perovskite optoelectronic devices is increased by a novel method; its suitability for perovskite solar cells, light-emitting diodes, and optical amplifiers is demonstrated. The method is based on the introduction of organic additives during the anti-solvent step in the perovskite thin-film deposition process. Additives passivate grain boundaries reducing non-radiative recombination. The method can be easily extended to other additives.

  15. Poly(lactic-co-glycolide) polymer constructs cross-linked with human BMP-6 and VEGF protein significantly enhance rat mandible defect repair.

    PubMed

    Das, Anusuya; Fishero, Brian A; Christophel, J Jared; Li, Ching-Ju; Kohli, Nikita; Lin, Yong; Dighe, Abhijit S; Cui, Quanjun

    2016-04-01

    We have previously shown that the combined delivery of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and bone morphogenetic protein 6 (BMP-6) induces significantly more bone formation than that induced by the delivery of any single factor or a combination of any two factors. We now determine whether the exogenous addition of VEGF and BMP-6 is sufficient for bone healing when MSCs are not provided. Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLAGA) microsphere-based three-dimensional scaffolds (P) were fabricated by thermal sintering of PLAGA microspheres. The scaffolds were chemically cross-linked with 200 ng recombinant human VEGF (P(VEGF)) or BMP-6 (P(BMP-6)) or both (P(VEGF+BMP-6)) by the EDC-NHS-MES method. Release of the proteins from the scaffolds was detected for 21 days in vitro which confirmed their comparable potential to supply the proteins in vivo. The scaffolds were delivered to a critical-sized mandibular defect created in 32 Sprague Dawley rats. Significant bone regeneration was observed only in rats with P(VEGF+BMP-6) scaffolds at weeks 2, 8 and 12 as revealed by micro-computer tomography. Vascular ingrowth was higher in the P(VEGF+BMP-6) group as seen by microfil imaging than in other groups. Trichrome staining revealed that a soft callus formed in P(VEGF), P(BMP-6) and P(VEGF+BMP-6) but not in P. MSCs isolated from rat femurs displayed expression of the bone-specific marker osteocalcin when cultured with P(VEGF), P(BMP-6), or P(VEGF+BMP-6) but not with P. Robust mineralization and increased alkaline phosphatase gene expression were seen in rat MSCs when cultured on P(VEGF+BMP-6) but not on P, P(VEGF), or P(BMP-6). Thus, unlike the delivery of VEGF or BMP-6 alone, the combined delivery of VEGF and BMP-6 to the bone defect significantly enhanced bone repair through the enhancement of angiogenesis and the differentiation of endogenously recruited MSCs into the bone repair site.

  16. Fluorescence enhancement of single-phase red-blue emitting Ba3MgSi2O8:Eu2+,Mn2+ phosphors via Dy3+ addition for plant cultivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ling-Yun; Wang, Da-Jian; Mao, Zhi-Yong; Liu, Yan-Hua; Li, Xue-Zheng; Lu, Qi-Fei

    2009-01-01

    Fluorescence enhancement of red and blue concurrently emitting Ba3MgSi2O8:Eu2+,Mn2+ phosphors for plant cultivation has been investigated by Dy3+ addition. The Ba3MgSi2O8:Eu2+,Mn2+,Dy3+(BMS-EMD) phosphors have two-color emissions at the wavelength peak values of 437 nm and 620 nm at the excitation of 350 nm. The two emission bands are coincident with the absorption spectrum for photosynthesis of plants. An obvious enhancement effect has been observed upon addition of Dy3+ with amount of 0.03 mol%, in which the intensities of both blue and red bands reach a maximum. The origin of red and blue emission bands is analysed. The photochromic parameters of the samples at the nearly UV excitation are tested. This fluoresence enhancement is of great significance for special solid state lighting equipment used in plant cultivation.

  17. Hydrogenation of Ferrimagnetic Graphene on a Co Surface: Significant Enhancement of Spin Moments by C-H Functionality.

    PubMed

    Kaul, Indu; Joshi, Niharika; Ballav, Nirmalya; Ghosh, Prasenjit

    2012-09-20

    Using ab initio density functional theory, we present a novel way of simultaneously enhancing the induced magnetic moment and opening up the band gap of a graphene sheet supported on ferromagnetic transition metal surface. Specifically, we have demonstrated that by simply hydrogenating graphene supported on ferromagnetic Co surface at saturation coverage, (i) there is a six-fold increase in the magnitude of the induced magnetic moment compared with the pristine graphene on the Co surface and (ii) for both the spin-up and the spin-down channels there is a band gap opening at the K-point of the Brillouin zone.

  18. Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive for Enhanced Mercury Control - Task 3 Full-scale Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Gary Blythe

    2007-05-01

    This Topical Report summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42309, 'Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive'. The objective of the project is to demonstrate the use of a flue gas desulfurization (FGD) additive, Degussa Corporation's TMT-15, to prevent the reemission of elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) in flue gas exiting wet FGD systems on coal-fired boilers. Furthermore, the project intends to demonstrate whether the additive can be used to precipitate most of the mercury (Hg) removed in the wet FGD system as a fine TMT salt that can be separated from the FGD liquor and bulk solid byproducts for separate disposal. The project is conducting pilot- and full-scale tests of the TMT-15 additive in wet FGD absorbers. The tests are intended to determine required additive dosages to prevent Hg{sup 0} reemissions and to separate mercury from the normal FGD byproducts for three coal types: Texas lignite/Power River Basin (PRB) coal blend, high-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal, and low-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal. The project team consists of URS Group, Inc., EPRI, TXU Generation Company LP, Southern Company, and Degussa Corporation. TXU Generation has provided the Texas lignite/PRB cofired test site for pilot FGD tests, Monticello Steam Electric Station Unit 3. Southern Company is providing the low-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal host site for wet scrubbing tests, as well as the pilot- and full-scale jet bubbling reactor (JBR) FGD systems to be tested. IPL, an AES company, provided the high-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal full-scale FGD test site and cost sharing. Degussa Corporation is providing the TMT-15 additive and technical support to the test program as cost sharing. The project is being conducted in six tasks. Of the six project tasks, Task 1 involves project planning and Task 6 involves management and reporting. The other four tasks involve field testing on FGD systems, either at pilot or full scale. The four tasks include: Task 2 - Pilot Additive Testing

  19. Chronic Lymphocytic Inflammation with Pontine Perivascular Enhancement Responsive to Steroids with a Significant Elevation of β-2 Microglobulin Levels

    PubMed Central

    Fujisawa, Naoaki; Mori, Harushi; Matsui, Toru

    2015-01-01

    Chronic lymphocytic inflammation with pontine perivascular enhancement responsive to steroids (CLIPPERS) is a relapsing-remitting disorder for which steroid administration is a key to control the progression. CLIPPERS can exhibit radiological features similar to malignant lymphoma, whose diagnosis is confounded by prior steroid administration. We report a case of CLIPPERS accompanied by abnormal elevation of β-2 microglobulin in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). A 62-year-old man started to experience numbness in all fingers of his left hand one year ago, which gradually extended to his body trunk and legs on both sides. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated numerous small enhancing spots scattered in his brain and spinal cord. CSF levels of β-2 microglobulin were elevated; although this often indicates central nervous system involvement in leukemia and lymphoma, the lesions were diagnosed as CLIPPERS based on the pathological findings from a biopsy specimen. We emphasize the importance of biopsy to differentiate between CLIPPERS and malignant lymphoma because the temporary radiological response to steroid might be the same in both diseases but the treatment strategies regarding the use of steroid are quite different. PMID:26713153

  20. Chronic Lymphocytic Inflammation with Pontine Perivascular Enhancement Responsive to Steroids with a Significant Elevation of β-2 Microglobulin Levels.

    PubMed

    Fujisawa, Naoaki; Oya, Soichi; Mori, Harushi; Matsui, Toru

    2015-11-01

    Chronic lymphocytic inflammation with pontine perivascular enhancement responsive to steroids (CLIPPERS) is a relapsing-remitting disorder for which steroid administration is a key to control the progression. CLIPPERS can exhibit radiological features similar to malignant lymphoma, whose diagnosis is confounded by prior steroid administration. We report a case of CLIPPERS accompanied by abnormal elevation of β-2 microglobulin in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). A 62-year-old man started to experience numbness in all fingers of his left hand one year ago, which gradually extended to his body trunk and legs on both sides. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated numerous small enhancing spots scattered in his brain and spinal cord. CSF levels of β-2 microglobulin were elevated; although this often indicates central nervous system involvement in leukemia and lymphoma, the lesions were diagnosed as CLIPPERS based on the pathological findings from a biopsy specimen. We emphasize the importance of biopsy to differentiate between CLIPPERS and malignant lymphoma because the temporary radiological response to steroid might be the same in both diseases but the treatment strategies regarding the use of steroid are quite different.

  1. Two step novel hydrogen system using additives to enhance hydrogen release from the hydrolysis of alane and activated aluminum

    SciTech Connect

    Zidan, Ragaiy; Teprovich, Joseph A.; Motyka, Theodore

    2015-12-01

    A system for the generation of hydrogen for use in portable power systems is set forth utilizing a two-step process that involves the thermal decomposition of AlH.sub.3 (10 wt % H.sub.2) followed by the hydrolysis of the activated aluminum (Al*) byproduct to release additional H.sub.2. Additionally, a process in which water is added directly without prior history to the AlH.sub.3:PA composite is also disclosed.

  2. Plant tolerance to mercury in a contaminated soil is enhanced by the combined effects of humic matter addition and inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.

    PubMed

    Cozzolino, V; De Martino, A; Nebbioso, A; Di Meo, V; Salluzzo, A; Piccolo, A

    2016-06-01

    In a greenhouse pot experiment, lettuce plants (Lactuca sativa L.) were grown in a Hg-contaminated sandy soil with and without inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) (a commercial inoculum containing infective propagules of Rhizophagus irregularis and Funneliformis mosseae) amended with different rates of a humic acid (0, 1, and 2 g kg(-1) of soil), with the objective of verifying the synergistic effects of the two soil treatments on the Hg tolerance of lettuce plants. Our results indicated that the plant biomass was significantly increased by the combined effect of AMF and humic acid treatments. Addition of humic matter to soil boosted the AMF effect on improving the nutritional plant status, enhancing the pigment content in plant leaves, and inhibiting both Hg uptake and Hg translocation from the roots to the shoots. This was attributed not only to the Hg immobilization by stable complexes with HA and with extraradical mycorrhizal mycelium in soil and root surfaces but also to an improved mineral nutrition promoted by AMF. This work indicates that the combined use of AMF and humic acids may become a useful practice in Hg-contaminated soils to reduce Hg toxicity to crops.

  3. Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive for Enhanced Mercury Control - Task 5 Full-Scale Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Gary Blythe; MariJon Owens

    2007-12-01

    This Topical Report summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42309, 'Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive'. The objective of the project is to demonstrate the use of two flue gas desulfurization (FGD) additives, Evonik Degussa Corporation's TMT-15 and Nalco Company's Nalco 8034, to prevent the re-emission of elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) in flue gas exiting wet FGD systems on coal-fired boilers. Furthermore, the project intends to demonstrate whether the additive can be used to precipitate most of the mercury (Hg) removed in the wet FGD system as a fine salt that can be separated from the FGD liquor and bulk solid byproducts for separate disposal. The project is conducting pilot- and full-scale tests of the additives in wet FGD absorbers. The tests are intended to determine required additive dosages to prevent Hg{sup 0} re-emissions and to separate mercury from the normal FGD byproducts for three coal types: Texas lignite/Powder River Basin (PRB) coal blend, high-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal, and low-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal. The project team consists of URS Group, Inc., EPRI, Luminant Power (was TXU Generation Company LP), Southern Company, IPL (an AES company), Evonik Degussa Corporation and the Nalco Company. Luminant Power has provided the Texas lignite/PRB co-fired test site for pilot FGD tests and cost sharing. Southern Company has provided the low-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal host site for wet scrubbing tests, as well as the pilot- and full-scale jet bubbling reactor (JBR) FGD systems tested. IPL provided the high-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal full-scale FGD test site and cost sharing. Evonik Degussa Corporation is providing the TMT-15 additive, and the Nalco Company is providing the Nalco 8034 additive. Both companies are also supplying technical support to the test program as in-kind cost sharing. The project is being conducted in six tasks. Of the six project tasks, Task 1 involves project planning and Task 6 involves management

  4. Enhanced properties of MgO-Al2O3 composite materials with Al powder addition under 1300 °C creep test and its mechanism analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Peng; Ma, Jiajia; Li, Yong; Yue, Dandan; Tong, Shanghao; Xue, Wendong

    2017-04-01

    The Al-MgO-Al2O3 composite samples were prepared with alumina (fused corundum and sintered alumina), high purity sintered magnesia and aluminum powder. Creep test was carried out at 1300 °C and studied. The results show that the creep rate of sample without aluminum addition decreases gradually. The creep properties of the MgO-Al2O3 composite material are improved by aluminum powder addition, with the sample demonstrating an increase creep rate. The physical properties of the samples are enhanced by aluminum powder addition as well. The mechanism of the improvement on the sample is analyzed by different characterization methods and kinetics calculations. Our results indicates that the AlN and MgAl2O4 spinel phases which are formed during the creep test are acting as the reinforcing phases and therefore enhance the creep performance of the samples.

  5. Remote sulfonamido group enhances reactivity and selectivity for asymmetric Michael addition of nitroalkanes to α,β-unsaturated aldehydes.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yu-Chao; Uang, Biing-Jiun

    2014-09-01

    The pyrrolidine-camphorsulfonamide-based catalyst 1 a catalyzes the enantioselective conjugate addition of nitroalkanes to α,β-unsaturated aldehydes in the presence of five equivalents of water in iPrOH to give the corresponding chiral Michael adducts in good yields and high enantioselectivities (up to 99% ee) with a catalyst loading as low as 1 mol%.

  6. Enhancing Specific Energy and Power in Asymmetric Supercapacitors - A Synergetic Strategy based on the Use of Redox Additive Electrolytes

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Arvinder; Chandra, Amreesh

    2016-01-01

    The strategy of using redox additive electrolyte in combination with multiwall carbon nanotubes/metal oxide composites leads to a substantial improvements in the specific energy and power of asymmetric supercapacitors (ASCs). When the pure electrolyte is optimally modified with a redox additive viz., KI, ~105% increase in the specific energy is obtained with good cyclic stability over 3,000 charge-discharge cycles and ~14.7% capacitance fade. This increase is a direct consequence of the iodine/iodide redox pairs that strongly modifies the faradaic and non-faradaic type reactions occurring on the surface of the electrodes. Contrary to what is shown in few earlier reports, it is established that indiscriminate increase in the concentration of redox additives will leads to performance loss. Suitable explanations are given based on theoretical laws. The specific energy or power values being reported in the fabricated ASCs are comparable or higher than those reported in ASCs based on toxic acetonitrile or expensive ionic liquids. The paper shows that the use of redox additive is economically favorable strategy for obtaining cost effective and environmentally friendly ASCs. PMID:27184260

  7. ENHANCED GROWTH RATE AND SILANE UTILIZATION IN AMORPHOUS SILICON AND NANOCRYSTALLINE-SILICON SOLAR CELL DEPOSITION VIA GAS PHASE ADDITIVES

    SciTech Connect

    Ridgeway, R G; Hegedus, S S; Podraza, N J

    2012-08-31

    Air Products set out to investigate the impact of additives on the deposition rate of both CSi and Si-H films. One criterion for additives was that they could be used in conventional PECVD processing, which would require sufficient vapor pressure to deliver material to the process chamber at the required flow rates. The flow rate required would depend on the size of the substrate onto which silicon films were being deposited, potentially ranging from 200 mm diameter wafers to the 5.7 m2 glass substrates used in GEN 8.5 flat-panel display tools. In choosing higher-order silanes, both disilane and trisilane had sufficient vapor pressure to withdraw gas at the required flow rates of up to 120 sccm. This report presents results obtained from testing at Air Products electronic technology laboratories, located in Allentown, PA, which focused on developing processes on a commercial IC reactor using silane and mixtures of silane plus additives. These processes were deployed to compare deposition rates and film properties with and without additives, with a goal of maximizing the deposition rate while maintaining or improving film properties.

  8. Enhancing Specific Energy and Power in Asymmetric Supercapacitors - A Synergetic Strategy based on the Use of Redox Additive Electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Singh, Arvinder; Chandra, Amreesh

    2016-05-17

    The strategy of using redox additive electrolyte in combination with multiwall carbon nanotubes/metal oxide composites leads to a substantial improvements in the specific energy and power of asymmetric supercapacitors (ASCs). When the pure electrolyte is optimally modified with a redox additive viz., KI, ~105% increase in the specific energy is obtained with good cyclic stability over 3,000 charge-discharge cycles and ~14.7% capacitance fade. This increase is a direct consequence of the iodine/iodide redox pairs that strongly modifies the faradaic and non-faradaic type reactions occurring on the surface of the electrodes. Contrary to what is shown in few earlier reports, it is established that indiscriminate increase in the concentration of redox additives will leads to performance loss. Suitable explanations are given based on theoretical laws. The specific energy or power values being reported in the fabricated ASCs are comparable or higher than those reported in ASCs based on toxic acetonitrile or expensive ionic liquids. The paper shows that the use of redox additive is economically favorable strategy for obtaining cost effective and environmentally friendly ASCs.

  9. Enhancing Specific Energy and Power in Asymmetric Supercapacitors - A Synergetic Strategy based on the Use of Redox Additive Electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Arvinder; Chandra, Amreesh

    2016-05-01

    The strategy of using redox additive electrolyte in combination with multiwall carbon nanotubes/metal oxide composites leads to a substantial improvements in the specific energy and power of asymmetric supercapacitors (ASCs). When the pure electrolyte is optimally modified with a redox additive viz., KI, ~105% increase in the specific energy is obtained with good cyclic stability over 3,000 charge-discharge cycles and ~14.7% capacitance fade. This increase is a direct consequence of the iodine/iodide redox pairs that strongly modifies the faradaic and non-faradaic type reactions occurring on the surface of the electrodes. Contrary to what is shown in few earlier reports, it is established that indiscriminate increase in the concentration of redox additives will leads to performance loss. Suitable explanations are given based on theoretical laws. The specific energy or power values being reported in the fabricated ASCs are comparable or higher than those reported in ASCs based on toxic acetonitrile or expensive ionic liquids. The paper shows that the use of redox additive is economically favorable strategy for obtaining cost effective and environmentally friendly ASCs.

  10. Enhanced photovoltaic properties of modified redox electrolyte in dye-sensitized solar cells using tributyl phosphate as additive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afrooz, Malihe; Dehghani, Hossein

    2014-09-01

    In this study, we report the influence of a phosphate additive on the performance of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) based on 2-cyano-3-(4-(diphenylamino)phenyl)acrylic acid (TPA) as sensitizer. The DSSCs are fabricated by incorporating tributyl phosphate (TBPP) as an additive in the electrolyte and is attained an efficiency of about 3.03% under standard air mass 1.5 global (AM 1.5G) simulated sunlight, corresponding to 35% efficiency increment compare to the standard liquid electrolyte. An improvement in both open circuit voltage (Voc) and short circuit current (Jsc) obtains by adjusting the concentration of TBPP in the electrolyte, which attributes to enlarge energy difference between the Fermi level (EF) of TiO2 and the redox potential of electrolyte and suppression of charge recombination from the conduction band (CB) of TiO2 to the oxidized ions in the redox electrolyte. Electrochemical impedance analyses (EIS) reveals a dramatic increase in charge transfer resistance at the dyed-TiO2/electrolyte interface and the electron density in the CB of TiO2 that the more prominent photoelectric conversion efficiency (η) improvement with TBPP additive results by the efficient inhibition of recombination processes. This striking result leads to use a family of electron donor groups in many compounds as highly efficient additive.

  11. Highly enhanced in-field critical current density of MgB 2 superconductor by combined addition of burned rice husk and nano Ho 2O 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinod, K.; Varghese, Neson; Sundaresan, A.; Syamaprasad, U.

    2010-04-01

    With the aim of improving flux pinning and in-field critical current density [ JC( H)], two physically and chemically different additives - burned rice husk (BRH) and nano Ho 2O 3 were introduced into in situ MgB 2 superconductor. The effects of the above two additives were studied individually and combinedly. Ho 2O 3 decomposed and reacted with B to form HoB 4, without any substitution. BRH caused considerable amount of C substitution at B site and formed Mg 2Si and Mg 2C 3 secondary phases. Addition of Ho 2O 3 improved the JC( H) only marginally, but BRH improved the JC( H) strongly. Combined addition of Ho 2O 3 with BRH was found to be much more effective than their solo addition for the enhancement of JC( H) of MgB 2.

  12. Human Capital: Additional Actions Needed to Enhance DOD’s Efforts to Address Mental Health Care Stigma

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-01

    stress disorder or traumatic brain injury. Additionally, the Defense Suicide Prevention Office reports through the Executive Director of the Office of...Efforts to Address Mental Health Care Stigma Why GAO Did This Study A 2010 DOD task force on suicide prevention concluded that stigma—the negative...Representatives A 2010 Department of Defense (DOD) Task Force on the Prevention of Suicide by Members of the Armed Forces concluded that

  13. Enhancing intermolecular benzoyl-transfer reactivity in crystals by growing a "reactive" metastable polymorph by using a chiral additive.

    PubMed

    Murali, Chebrolu; Shashidhar, Mysore S; Gonnade, Rajesh G; Bhadbhade, Mohan M

    2009-01-01

    Racemic 2,4-di-O-benzoyl-myo-inositol-1,3,5-orthoacetate, which normally crystallizes in a monoclinic form (form I, space group P2(1)/n) could be persuaded to crystallize out as a metastable polymorph (form II, space group C2/c) by using a small amount of either D- or L- 2,4-di-O-benzoyl-myo-inositol-1,3,5-orthoformate as an additive in the crystallization medium. The structurally similar enantiomeric additive was chosen by the scrutiny of previous experimental results on the crystallization of racemic 2,4-di-O-benzoyl-myo-inositol-1,3,5-orthoacetate. Form II crystals can be thermally transformed to form I crystals at about 145 degrees C. The relative organization of the molecules in these dimorphs vary slightly in terms of the helical assembly of molecules, that is, electrophile (El)...nucleophile (Nu) and C-H...pi interactions, but these minor variations have a profound effect on the facility and specificity of benzoyl-group-transfer reactivity in the two crystal forms. While form II crystals undergo a clean intermolecular benzoyl-group-transfer reaction, form I crystals are less reactive and undergo non-specific benzoyl-group transfer leading to a mixture of products. The role played by the additive in fine-tuning small changes that are required in the molecular packing opens up the possibility of creating new polymorphs that show varied physical and chemical properties. Crystals of D-2,6-di-O-benzoyl-myo-inositol-1,3,5-orthoformate (additive) did not show facile benzoyl-group-transfer reactivity (in contrast to the corresponding racemic compound) due to the lack of proper juxtaposition and assembly of molecules.

  14. EDTA addition enhances bacterial respiration activities and hydrocarbon degradation in bioaugmented and non-bioaugmented oil-contaminated desert soils.

    PubMed

    Al Kharusi, Samiha; Abed, Raeid M M; Dobretsov, Sergey

    2016-03-01

    The low number and activity of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria and the low solubility and availability of hydrocarbons hamper bioremediation of oil-contaminated soils in arid deserts, thus bioremediation treatments that circumvent these limitations are required. We tested the effect of Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) addition, at different concentrations (i.e. 0.1, 1 and 10 mM), on bacterial respiration and biodegradation of Arabian light oil in bioaugmented (i.e. with the addition of exogenous alkane-degrading consortium) and non-bioaugmented oil-contaminated desert soils. Post-treatment shifts in the soils' bacterial community structure were monitored using MiSeq sequencing. Bacterial respiration, indicated by the amount of evolved CO2, was highest at 10 mM EDTA in bioaugmented and non-bioaugmented soils, reaching an amount of 2.2 ± 0.08 and 1.6 ± 0.02 mg-CO2 g(-1) after 14 days of incubation, respectively. GC-MS revealed that 91.5% of the C14-C30 alkanes were degraded after 42 days when 10 mM EDTA and the bacterial consortium were added together. MiSeq sequencing showed that 78-91% of retrieved sequences in the original soil belonged to Deinococci, Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteia and Bacilli. The same bacterial classes were detected in the 10 mM EDTA-treated soils, however with slight differences in their relative abundances. In the bioaugmented soils, only Alcanivorax sp. MH3 and Parvibaculum sp. MH21 from the exogenous bacterial consortium could survive until the end of the experiment. We conclude that the addition of EDTA at appropriate concentrations could facilitate biodegradation processes by increasing hydrocarbon availability to microbes. The addition of exogenous oil-degrading bacteria along with EDTA could serve as an ideal solution for the decontamination of oil-contaminated desert soils.

  15. Malachite green bioremoval by a newly isolated strain Citrobacter sedlakii RI11; enhancement of the treatment by biosurfactant addition.

    PubMed

    Mnif, Inès; Fendri, Raouia; Ghribi, Dhouha

    2015-01-01

    Citrobacter sedlackii RI11, isolated from acclimated textile effluent after selective enrichment on synthetic dyes, was assessed for malachite green (MG) biotreatment potency. Results indicate that this bacterium has potential for use in effective treatment of MG contaminated wastewaters under shaking conditions at neutral and alkaline pH value, characteristic of typical textile effluents. Also, the newly isolated strain can tolerate higher doses of dye and decolorize up to 1,000 mg/l of dye. When used as microbial surfactant to enhance MG biodecolorization, Bacillus subtilis SPB1-derived lipopeptide accelerated the decolorization rate and maximized the decolorization efficiency at an optimal concentration of biosurfactant of about 0.075%. Studies ensured that MG removal by this strain could be due to biodegradation and/or adsorption. Results on germination potencies of different seeds using the treated dyes under different conditions favor the use of SPB1 biosurfactant for the treatment of MG.

  16. Influence of nanographene platelets (NGP) incorporation on Fe3O4 nanoparticles as materials additives for enhancement thermal properties stearic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuryadin, M. K.; Andiarto, R.; Taufik, A.; Saleh, R.

    2016-11-01

    In this work, Fe3O4 nanoparticles, and Fe3O4/NGP composite were used as material additive for enhancement thermal properties of stearic acid (SA). The both material additive were synthesized using sol-gel method. Phase change material (PCM) composites SA-Fe3O4 and Sa-Fe3O4/NGP mixtures were made through the dispersion technique with three different weight % ratio of material additives into stearic acid: 1 wt.%, 3 wt.%, and 5 wt.%. X-Ray Diffractometer (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy were used to investigate the structural properties. Magnetic properties also measured by vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) to see influence of NGP in PCM composites. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) were used in order to analyse the thermal properties of the samples. The results show an enhancement of the latent heat, thermal stability as well as specific heat by the presence of material additives in SA. Compare to SA- Fe3O4, SA-Fe3O4/NGP show better improvement in enhancement of thermal performance of SA. The improvement by about 41.2% in specific heat and 21.2% in latent heat.

  17. Acellular Bone Marrow Extracts Significantly Enhance Engraftment Levels of Human Hematopoietic Stem Cells in Mouse Xeno-Transplantation Models

    PubMed Central

    Zibara, Kazem; Hamdan, Rima; Dib, Leila; Sindet-Pedersen, Steen; Kharfan-Dabaja, Mohamed; Bazarbachi, Ali; El-Sabban, Marwan

    2012-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) derived from cord blood (CB), bone marrow (BM), or mobilized peripheral blood (PBSC) can differentiate into multiple lineages such as lymphoid, myeloid, erythroid cells and platelets. The local microenvironment is critical to the differentiation of HSCs and to the preservation of their phenotype in vivo. This microenvironment comprises a physical support supplied by the organ matrix as well as tissue specific cytokines, chemokines and growth factors. We investigated the effects of acellular bovine bone marrow extracts (BME) on HSC in vitro and in vivo. We observed a significant increase in the number of myeloid and erythroid colonies in CB mononuclear cells (MNC) or CB CD34+ cells cultured in methylcellulose media supplemented with BME. Similarly, in xeno-transplantation experiments, pretreatment with BME during ex-vivo culture of HSCs induced a significant increase in HSC engraftment in vivo. Indeed, we observed both an increase in the number of differentiated myeloid, lymphoid and erythroid cells and an acceleration of engraftment. These results were obtained using CB MNCs, BM MNCs or CD34+ cells, transplanted in immuno-compromised mice (NOD/SCID or NSG). These findings establish the basis for exploring the use of BME in the expansion of CB HSC prior to HSC Transplantation. This study stresses the importance of the mechanical structure and soluble mediators present in the surrounding niche for the proper activity and differentiation of stem cells. PMID:22768336

  18. Soil mulching significantly enhances yields and water and nitrogen use efficiencies of maize and wheat: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Qin, Wei; Hu, Chunsheng; Oenema, Oene

    2015-11-20

    Global crop yields are limited by water and nutrient availability. Soil mulching (with plastic or straw) reduces evaporation, modifies soil temperature and thereby affects crop yields. Reported effects of mulching are sometimes contradictory, likely due to differences in climatic conditions, soil characteristics, crop species, and also water and nitrogen (N) input levels. Here we report on a meta-analysis of the effects of mulching on wheat and maize, using 1310 yield observations from 74 studies conducted in 19 countries. Our results indicate that mulching significantly increased yields, WUE (yield per unit water) and NUE (yield per unit N) by up to 60%, compared with no-mulching. Effects were larger for maize than wheat, and larger for plastic mulching than straw mulching. Interestingly, plastic mulching performed better at relatively low temperature while straw mulching showed the opposite trend. Effects of mulching also tended to decrease with increasing water input. Mulching effects were not related to soil organic matter content. In conclusion, soil mulching can significantly increase maize and wheat yields, WUE and NUE, and thereby may contribute to closing the yield gap between attainable and actual yields, especially in dryland and low nutrient input agriculture. The management of soil mulching requires site-specific knowledge.

  19. Soil mulching significantly enhances yields and water and nitrogen use efficiencies of maize and wheat: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Wei; Hu, Chunsheng; Oenema, Oene

    2015-01-01

    Global crop yields are limited by water and nutrient availability. Soil mulching (with plastic or straw) reduces evaporation, modifies soil temperature and thereby affects crop yields. Reported effects of mulching are sometimes contradictory, likely due to differences in climatic conditions, soil characteristics, crop species, and also water and nitrogen (N) input levels. Here we report on a meta-analysis of the effects of mulching on wheat and maize, using 1310 yield observations from 74 studies conducted in 19 countries. Our results indicate that mulching significantly increased yields, WUE (yield per unit water) and NUE (yield per unit N) by up to 60%, compared with no-mulching. Effects were larger for maize than wheat, and larger for plastic mulching than straw mulching. Interestingly, plastic mulching performed better at relatively low temperature while straw mulching showed the opposite trend. Effects of mulching also tended to decrease with increasing water input. Mulching effects were not related to soil organic matter content. In conclusion, soil mulching can significantly increase maize and wheat yields, WUE and NUE, and thereby may contribute to closing the yield gap between attainable and actual yields, especially in dryland and low nutrient input agriculture. The management of soil mulching requires site-specific knowledge. PMID:26586114

  20. Soil mulching significantly enhances yields and water and nitrogen use efficiencies of maize and wheat: a meta-analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Wei; Hu, Chunsheng; Oenema, Oene

    2015-11-01

    Global crop yields are limited by water and nutrient availability. Soil mulching (with plastic or straw) reduces evaporation, modifies soil temperature and thereby affects crop yields. Reported effects of mulching are sometimes contradictory, likely due to differences in climatic conditions, soil characteristics, crop species, and also water and nitrogen (N) input levels. Here we report on a meta-analysis of the effects of mulching on wheat and maize, using 1310 yield observations from 74 studies conducted in 19 countries. Our results indicate that mulching significantly increased yields, WUE (yield per unit water) and NUE (yield per unit N) by up to 60%, compared with no-mulching. Effects were larger for maize than wheat, and larger for plastic mulching than straw mulching. Interestingly, plastic mulching performed better at relatively low temperature while straw mulching showed the opposite trend. Effects of mulching also tended to decrease with increasing water input. Mulching effects were not related to soil organic matter content. In conclusion, soil mulching can significantly increase maize and wheat yields, WUE and NUE, and thereby may contribute to closing the yield gap between attainable and actual yields, especially in dryland and low nutrient input agriculture. The management of soil mulching requires site-specific knowledge.

  1. A more robust model of the biodiesel reaction, allowing identification of process conditions for significantly enhanced rate and water tolerance.

    PubMed

    Eze, Valentine C; Phan, Anh N; Harvey, Adam P

    2014-03-01

    A more robust kinetic model of base-catalysed transesterification than the conventional reaction scheme has been developed. All the relevant reactions in the base-catalysed transesterification of rapeseed oil (RSO) to fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) were investigated experimentally, and validated numerically in a model implemented using MATLAB. It was found that including the saponification of RSO and FAME side reactions and hydroxide-methoxide equilibrium data explained various effects that are not captured by simpler conventional models. Both the experiment and modelling showed that the "biodiesel reaction" can reach the desired level of conversion (>95%) in less than 2min. Given the right set of conditions, the transesterification can reach over 95% conversion, before the saponification losses become significant. This means that the reaction must be performed in a reactor exhibiting good mixing and good control of residence time, and the reaction mixture must be quenched rapidly as it leaves the reactor.

  2. Significant enhancement in energy density of polymer composites induced by dopamine-modified Ba0.6Sr0.4TiO3 nanofibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Yu; Shen, Yang; Hu, Penghao; Lin, Yuanhua; Li, Ming; Nan, C. W.

    2012-10-01

    Ba0.6Sr0.4TiO3 (BST) nanofibers prepared via electrospinning and modified by dopamine are used as dielectric fillers in polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF)-based composites. With 4.4 vol. % of BST nanofibers, the extractable energy density of the BST/PVDF composites is more than doubled as compared with pure PVDF matrix. Such significant enhancement is attributed to the combined effect of both surface modification by dopamine and large aspect ratio of the BST nanofibers. Paraelectric or anti-ferroelectric fillers of large aspect ratio may serve as a general strategy for enhanced electric energy density in polymer composites.

  3. Adult acclimation to combined temperature and pH stressors significantly enhances reproductive outcomes compared to short-term exposures.

    PubMed

    Suckling, Coleen C; Clark, Melody S; Richard, Joelle; Morley, Simon A; Thorne, Michael A S; Harper, Elizabeth M; Peck, Lloyd S

    2015-05-01

    This study examined the effects of long-term culture under altered conditions on the Antarctic sea urchin, Sterechinus neumayeri. Sterechinus neumayeri was cultured under the combined environmental stressors of lowered pH (-0.3 and -0.5 pH units) and increased temperature (+2 °C) for 2 years. This time-scale covered two full reproductive cycles in this species and analyses included studies on both adult metabolism and larval development. Adults took at least 6-8 months to acclimate to the altered conditions, but beyond this, there was no detectable effect of temperature or pH. Animals were spawned after 6 and 17 months exposure to altered conditions, with markedly different outcomes. At 6 months, the percentage hatching and larval survival rates were greatest in the animals kept at 0 °C under current pH conditions, whilst those under lowered pH and +2 °C performed significantly less well. After 17 months, performance was not significantly different across treatments, including controls. However, under the altered conditions urchins produced larger eggs compared with control animals. These data show that under long-term culture adult S. neumayeri appear to acclimate their metabolic and reproductive physiology to the combined stressors of altered pH and increased temperature, with relatively little measureable effect. They also emphasize the importance of long-term studies in evaluating effects of altered pH, particularly in slow developing marine species with long gonad maturation times, as the effects of altered conditions cannot be accurately evaluated unless gonads have fully matured under the new conditions.

  4. Additive effects due to biochar and endophyte application enable soybean to enhance nutrient uptake and modulate nutritional parameters* #

    PubMed Central

    Waqas, Muhammad; Kim, Yoon-Ha; Khan, Abdul Latif; Shahzad, Raheem; Asaf, Sajjad; Hamayun, Muhammad; Kang, Sang-Mo; Khan, Muhammad Aaqil; Lee, In-Jung

    2017-01-01

    We studied the effects of hardwood-derived biochar (BC) and the phytohormone-producing endophyte Galactomyces geotrichum WLL1 in soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) with respect to basic, macro-and micronutrient uptakes and assimilations, and their subsequent effects on the regulation of functional amino acids, isoflavones, fatty acid composition, total sugar contents, total phenolic contents, and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)-scavenging activity. The assimilation of basic nutrients such as nitrogen was up-regulated, leaving carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen unaffected in BC+G. geotrichum-treated soybean plants. In comparison, the uptakes of macro-and micronutrients fluctuated in the individual or co-application of BC and G. geotrichum in soybean plant organs and rhizospheric substrate. Moreover, the same attribute was recorded for the regulation of functional amino acids, isoflavones, fatty acid composition, total sugar contents, total phenolic contents, and DPPH-scavenging activity. Collectively, these results showed that BC+G. geotrichum-treated soybean yielded better results than did the plants treated with individual applications. It was concluded that BC is an additional nutriment source and that the G. geotrichum acts as a plant biostimulating source and the effects of both are additive towards plant growth promotion. Strategies involving the incorporation of BC and endophytic symbiosis may help achieve eco-friendly agricultural production, thus reducing the excessive use of chemical agents. PMID:28124840

  5. Addition of nanoparticle dispersions to enhance flux pinning of the YBa2Cu3O7-x superconductor.

    PubMed

    Haugan, T; Barnes, P N; Wheeler, R; Meisenkothen, F; Sumption, M

    2004-08-19

    Following the discovery of type-II high-temperature superconductors in 1986 (refs 1, 2), work has proceeded to develop these materials for power applications. One of the problems, however, has been that magnetic flux is not completely expelled, but rather is contained within magnetic fluxons, whose motion prevents larger supercurrents. It is known that the critical current of these materials can be enhanced by incorporating a high density of extended defects to act as pinning centres for the fluxons. YBa2Cu3O7 (YBCO or 123) is the most promising material for such applications at higher temperatures (liquid nitrogen). Pinning is optimized when the size of the defects approaches the superconducting coherence length ( approximately 2-4 nm for YBCO at temperatures < or =77 K) and when the areal number density of defects is of the order of (H/2) x 10(11) cm(-2), where H is the applied magnetic field in tesla. Such a high density has been difficult to achieve by material-processing methods that maintain a nanosize defect, except through irradiation. Here we report a method for achieving a dispersion of approximately 8-nm-sized nanoparticles in YBCO with a high number density, which increases the critical current (at 77 K) by a factor of two to three for high magnetic fields.

  6. Enhancing the Liquid-Phase Exfoliation of Graphene in Organic Solvents upon Addition of n-Octylbenzene

    PubMed Central

    Haar, Sébastien; El Gemayel, Mirella; Shin, Yuyoung; Melinte, Georgian; Squillaci, Marco A.; Ersen, Ovidiu; Casiraghi, Cinzia; Ciesielski, Artur; Samorì, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Due to a unique combination of electrical and thermal conductivity, mechanical stiffness, strength and elasticity, graphene became a rising star on the horizon of materials science. This two-dimensional material has found applications in many areas of science ranging from electronics to composites. Making use of different approaches, unfunctionalized and non-oxidized graphene sheets can be produced; among them an inexpensive and scalable method based on liquid-phase exfoliation of graphite (LPE) holds potential for applications in opto-electronics and nanocomposites. Here we have used n-octylbenzene molecules as graphene dispersion-stabilizing agents during the graphite LPE process. We have demonstrated that by tuning the ratio between organic solvents such as N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone or ortho-dichlorobenzene, and n-octylbenzene molecules, the concentration of exfoliated graphene can be enhanced by 230% as a result of the high affinity of the latter molecules for the basal plane of graphene. The LPE processed graphene dispersions were further deposited onto solid substrates by exploiting a new deposition technique called spin-controlled drop casting, which was shown to produce uniform highly conductive and transparent graphene films. PMID:26573383

  7. Mussel-inspired Fluoro-Polydopamine Functionalization of Titanium Dioxide Nanowires for Polymer Nanocomposites with Significantly Enhanced Energy Storage Capability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guanyao; Huang, Xingyi; Jiang, Pingkai

    2017-02-01

    High-dielectric-constant polymer nanocomposites are demonstrated to show great promise as energy storage materials. However, the large electrical mismatch and incompatibility between nanofillers and polymer matrix usually give rise to significantly reduced breakdown strength and weak energy storage capability. Therefore, rational selection and elaborate functionalization of nanofillers to optimize the performance of polymer nanocomposites are vital. Herein, inspired by adhesive proteins in mussels, a facile modification by fluoro-polydopamine is employed to reinforce the compatibility of TiO2 nanowires in the fluoropolymer matrix. The loading of 2.5 vol % f-DOPA@TiO2 NWs leads to an ultrahigh discharged energy density of 11.48 J cm‑3 at 530 MV m‑1, more than three times of commercial biaxial-oriented polypropylene (BOPP, 3.56 J cm‑3 at 600 MV m‑1). A gratifying high energy density of 9.12 J cm‑3 has also been obtained with nanofiller loading as high as 15 vol % at 360 MV m‑1, which is nearly double to that of pure P(VDF-HFP) (4.76 J cm‑3 at 360 MV m‑1). This splendid energy storage capability seems to rival or exceed most of previously reported nano-TiO2 based nanocomposites. The methods presented here provide deep insights into the design of polymer nanocomposites for energy storage applications.

  8. Mussel-inspired Fluoro-Polydopamine Functionalization of Titanium Dioxide Nanowires for Polymer Nanocomposites with Significantly Enhanced Energy Storage Capability.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guanyao; Huang, Xingyi; Jiang, Pingkai

    2017-02-22

    High-dielectric-constant polymer nanocomposites are demonstrated to show great promise as energy storage materials. However, the large electrical mismatch and incompatibility between nanofillers and polymer matrix usually give rise to significantly reduced breakdown strength and weak energy storage capability. Therefore, rational selection and elaborate functionalization of nanofillers to optimize the performance of polymer nanocomposites are vital. Herein, inspired by adhesive proteins in mussels, a facile modification by fluoro-polydopamine is employed to reinforce the compatibility of TiO2 nanowires in the fluoropolymer matrix. The loading of 2.5 vol % f-DOPA@TiO2 NWs leads to an ultrahigh discharged energy density of 11.48 J cm(-3) at 530 MV m(-1), more than three times of commercial biaxial-oriented polypropylene (BOPP, 3.56 J cm(-3) at 600 MV m(-1)). A gratifying high energy density of 9.12 J cm(-3) has also been obtained with nanofiller loading as high as 15 vol % at 360 MV m(-1), which is nearly double to that of pure P(VDF-HFP) (4.76 J cm(-3) at 360 MV m(-1)). This splendid energy storage capability seems to rival or exceed most of previously reported nano-TiO2 based nanocomposites. The methods presented here provide deep insights into the design of polymer nanocomposites for energy storage applications.

  9. Enhanced activity of the free radical producing enzyme xanthine oxidase in hypoxic rat liver. Regulation and pathophysiologic significance.

    PubMed Central

    Brass, C A; Narciso, J; Gollan, J L

    1991-01-01

    It has been widely proposed that conversion of xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) to its free radical-producing form, xanthine oxidase (XOD), underlies ischemic/reperfusion injury, although the relationship of this conversion to hypoxia and its physiologic control have not been defined. This study details the time course and control of this enzymatic interconversion. In a functionally intact, isolated perfused rat liver model, mean % XOD activity increased as a function of both the duration (25 to 45% in 3 h) and degree (r = 0.97) of hypoxia. This process was markedly accelerated in ischemic liver by an overnight fast (45 vs. 30% at 2 h), and by imposing a short period of in vivo ischemia (cardiopulmonary arrest 72%). Moreover, only under these conditions was there a significant rise in the XOD activity due to the conformationally altered XDH molecule (XODc, 18%), as well as concomitant morphologic injury. Neither circulating white blood cells nor thrombosis appeared to contribute to the effects of in vivo ischemia on enzyme conversion. Thus, it is apparent that conversion to the free radical-producing state, with high levels of XOD activity and concurrent cellular injury, can be achieved during a relatively short period of hypoxia under certain well-defined physiologic conditions, in a time course consistent with its purported role in modulating reperfusion injury. These data also suggest that the premorbid condition of organ donors (e.g., nutritional status and relative state of hypoxia) is important in achieving optimal organ preservation. Images PMID:1991828

  10. Mussel-inspired Fluoro-Polydopamine Functionalization of Titanium Dioxide Nanowires for Polymer Nanocomposites with Significantly Enhanced Energy Storage Capability

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guanyao; Huang, Xingyi; Jiang, Pingkai

    2017-01-01

    High-dielectric-constant polymer nanocomposites are demonstrated to show great promise as energy storage materials. However, the large electrical mismatch and incompatibility between nanofillers and polymer matrix usually give rise to significantly reduced breakdown strength and weak energy storage capability. Therefore, rational selection and elaborate functionalization of nanofillers to optimize the performance of polymer nanocomposites are vital. Herein, inspired by adhesive proteins in mussels, a facile modification by fluoro-polydopamine is employed to reinforce the compatibility of TiO2 nanowires in the fluoropolymer matrix. The loading of 2.5 vol % f-DOPA@TiO2 NWs leads to an ultrahigh discharged energy density of 11.48 J cm−3 at 530 MV m−1, more than three times of commercial biaxial-oriented polypropylene (BOPP, 3.56 J cm−3 at 600 MV m−1). A gratifying high energy density of 9.12 J cm−3 has also been obtained with nanofiller loading as high as 15 vol % at 360 MV m−1, which is nearly double to that of pure P(VDF-HFP) (4.76 J cm−3 at 360 MV m−1). This splendid energy storage capability seems to rival or exceed most of previously reported nano-TiO2 based nanocomposites. The methods presented here provide deep insights into the design of polymer nanocomposites for energy storage applications. PMID:28225047

  11. Acid Additives Enhancing the Conductivity of Spiro-OMeTAD Toward High-Efficiency and Hysteresis-Less Planar Perovskite Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Zhen; Tinkham, Jonathan; Schulz, Philip; Yang, Mengjin; Kim, Dong Hoe; Berry, Joseph; Sellinger, Alan; Zhu, Kai

    2016-10-28

    A general doping strategy, using a wide range of acids with different pKa values as additive, is demonstrated to enhance the conductivity of spiro-OMeTAD, the dominant hole transport material in perovskite solar cells (PSCs). Hysteresis-less planar PSCs with ~19% efficiency and better open-circuit voltage and fill factor is achieved with acid doped spiro-OMeTAD.

  12. Marker-Based Estimates Reveal Significant Non-additive Effects in Clonally Propagated Cassava (Manihot esculenta): Implications for the Prediction of Total Genetic Value and the Selection of Varieties.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Marnin D; Kulakow, Peter; Rabbi, Ismail Y; Jannink, Jean-Luc

    2016-08-31

    In clonally propagated crops, non-additive genetic effects can be effectively exploited by the identification of superior genetic individuals as varieties. Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a clonally propagated staple food crop that feeds hundreds of millions. We quantified the amount and nature of non-additive genetic variation for three key traits in a breeding population of cassava from sub-Saharan Africa using additive and non-additive genome-wide marker-based relationship matrices. We then assessed the accuracy of genomic prediction for total (additive plus non-additive) genetic value. We confirmed previous findings based on diallel populations, that non-additive genetic variation is significant for key cassava traits. Specifically, we found that dominance is particularly important for root yield and epistasis contributes strongly to variation in CMD resistance. Further, we showed that total genetic value predicted observed phenotypes more accurately than additive only models for root yield but not for dry matter content, which is mostly additive or for CMD resistance, which has high narrow-sense heritability. We address the implication of these results for cassava breeding and put our work in the context of previous results in cassava, and other plant and animal species.

  13. Enhancing the Performance of the Rechargeable Iron Electrode in Alkaline Batteries with Bismuth Oxide and Iron Sulfide Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Manohar, AK; Yang, CG; Malkhandi, S; Prakash, GKS; Narayanan, SR

    2013-09-07

    Iron-based alkaline rechargeable batteries have the potential of meeting the needs of large-scale electrical energy storage because of their low-cost, robustness and eco-friendliness. However, the widespread commercial deployment of iron-based batteries has been limited by the low charging efficiency and the poor discharge rate capability of the iron electrode. In this study, we have demonstrated iron electrodes containing bismuth oxide and iron sulfide with a charging efficiency of 92% and capable of being discharged at the 3C rate. Such a high value of charging efficiency combined with the ability to discharge at high rates is being reported for the first time. The bismuth oxide additive led to the in situ formation of elemental bismuth and a consequent increase in the overpotential for the hydrogen evolution reaction leading to an increase in the charging efficiency. We observed that the sulfide ions added to the electrolyte and iron sulfide added to the electrode mitigated-electrode passivation and allowed for continuous discharge at high rates. At the 3C discharge rate, a utilization of 0.2 Ah/g was achieved. The performance level of the rechargeable iron electrode demonstrated here is attractive for designing economically-viable large-scale energy storage systems based on alkaline nickel-iron and iron-air batteries. (C) 2013 The Electrochemical Society. All rights reserved.

  14. Niosomes containing hydroxyl additives as percutaneous penetration enhancers: effect on the transdermal delivery of sulfadiazine sodium salt.

    PubMed

    Muzzalupo, Rita; Tavano, Lorena; Lai, Francesco; Picci, Nevio

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to improve the transdermal permeation of sulfadiazine sodium, employing synergistic combination of surfactants (in the form of niosomes) and additives with different number of hydroxylic groups, (following referred to as "alcohol"), as component of the bilayer. In particular the effect of different concentration of each alcohol (ethanol, propylene glycol or glycerol, from 5%, to 40% v/v) on niosomes size and distribution, drug entrapment efficiencies and ex vivo drug percutaneous permeation were evaluated, identifying formulations giving the best performances. The findings revealed that the presence of alcohol critically affect the physico-chemical properties of niosomes, with regards to dimensions, drug encapsulation and permeation. Vesicular size increased with the amount of alcohol and at the same alcohol concentration, follow the sequence ethanol>propylene glycol>glycerol. Loaded niosomes were larger than empty ones. Low E% values were found for ethanol, even less in propylene glycol and glycerol based samples, confirming that the chemical structure of the alcohol and its physico-chemical properties, affected the sulfadiazine entrapment efficiency. The comparative evaluation of percutaneous permeation profiles showed that the cumulative amount of permeated drug increases with alcohol concentration up to 20% v/v. Higher concentration (40% v/v) resulted in a strong decrease of the potential skin permeation. Best performances were obtained with glycerol. In all cases ex vivo sulfadiazine percutaneous permeations are controlled and improved respect to the corresponding free drug solutions and traditional niosomes used as controls.

  15. Enhancement of mechanical properties of polymers by thin flake addition and apparatus for producing such thin flakes

    DOEpatents

    Bunnell, Sr., Lee R.

    1991-01-01

    Compositions in accordance with the invention comprise a polymer and flake reinforcing material distributed throughout the polymer in an effective amount to structurally reinforce the polymer. Individual flakes of the flake material (a) are less than or equal to 1,000 Angstroms in thickness, (b) have an aspect ratio greater than or equal to 100, and (c) are preferably significantly randomly oriented throughout the polymer. A novel apparatus for shear grinding a platy solid material into such individual flakes comprises a cylindrical shearing drum and a shear grinder received therein. The shearing drum has a longitudinal axis and an internal surface formed about a first predetermined radius of curvature. The cylindrical drum is supported for rotation about its longitudinal axis. The shear grinder has an external surface formed about a second predetermined radius of curvature. The second radius of curvature is slightly less than the first radius of curvature.

  16. Enhancement of critical heat flux in subcooled flow boiling of water by use of a volatile additive

    SciTech Connect

    Pabisz, R.A. Jr.; Bergles, A.E.

    1996-12-31

    The present investigation considers the effect of a 1-pentanol additive in water on the critical heat flux (CHF) and pressure drop in forced subcooled boiling. A small quantity of 1-pentanol was added to distilled water with the objective of getting an approximate 2% by weight mixture, which had been found to give superior performance in previous studies of pool and flow boiling. Experiments were performed using stainless steel tubes with internal diameters of 4.4 and 6.1 mm. Tests were conducted with mass fluxes of 4,400 kg/m{sup 2}s, exit pressures of 9 bar, length-to-diameter ratios of 25, and exit subcoolings from 65 to 90 C. Test sections were heated directly by DC power, and critical heat flux data were inferred from test-section burnout. The alcohol concentration was periodically checked by draining off a sample and performing a Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance scan on the mixture. At high subcoolings, the mixture exhibited an increase in the critical heat flux over that of pure water. However at low subcoolings there is a decrease in the critical heat flux. The increases in critical heat flux noted with the 1-pentanol mixture in this experiment were not as large as would be expected from saturated pool boiling results published by Van Stralen (1959). Pressure drop data for both the mixture and the pure water also were recorded. The 1-pentanol mixture, in general, exhibited larger pressure drops for the same conditions. Subcooled flow boiling has a wide array of commercial cooling applications, including blades in gas turbines, high power laser optics, plasma-facing components in fusion reactors, supercomputers, etc.

  17. Effects of additional fermented food wastes on nitrogen removal enhancement and sludge characteristics in a sequential batch reactor for wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yongmei; Wang, Xiaochang C; Cheng, Zhe; Li, Yuyou; Tang, Jialing

    2016-07-01

    In order to enhance nitrogen removal from domestic wastewater with a carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratio as low as 2.2:1, external carbon source was prepared by short-term fermentation of food wastes and its effect was evaluated by experiments using sequencing batch reactors (SBRs). The addition of fermented food wastes, with carbohydrate (42.8 %) and organic acids (24.6 %) as the main organic carbon components, could enhance the total nitrogen (TN) removal by about 25 % in contrast to the 20 % brought about by the addition of sodium acetate when the C/N ratio was equally adjusted to 6.6:1. The fermented food waste addition resulted in more efficient denitrification in the first anoxic stage of the SBR operation cycle than sodium acetate. In order to characterize the metabolic potential of microorganisms by utilizing different carbon sources, Biolog-ECO tests were conducted with activated sludge samples from the SBRs. As a result, in comparison with sodium acetate, the sludge sample by fermented food waste addition showed a greater average well color development (AWCD590), better utilization level of common carbon sources, and higher microbial diversity indexes. As a multi-organic mixture, fermented food wastes seem to be superior over mono-organic chemicals as an external carbon source.

  18. Miscellaneous additives can enhance plant uptake and affect geochemical fractions of copper in a heavily polluted riparian grassland soil.

    PubMed

    Rinklebe, Jörg; Shaheen, Sabry M

    2015-09-01

    The problem of copper (Cu) pollution in riverine ecosystems is world-wide and has significant environmental, eco-toxicological, and agricultural relevance. We assessed the suitability and effectiveness of application rate of 1% of activated charcoal, bentonite, biochar, cement kiln dust, chitosan, coal fly ash, limestone, nano-hydroxyapatite, organo-clay, sugar beet factory lime, and zeolite as soil amendments together with rapeseed as bioenergy crop as a possible remediation option for a heavily Cu polluted floodplain soil (total Cu=3041.9mgkg(-1)) that has a very high proportion of sorbed/carbonate fraction (484.6mgkg(-1)) and potential mobile fraction of Cu (1611.9mgkg(-1)). Application changed distribution of Cu among geochemical fractions: alkaline materials lead to increased carbonate bounded fraction and the acid rhizosphere zone might cause release of this Cu. Thus, mobilization of Cu and uptake of Cu by rapeseed were increased compared to the control (except for organo-clay) under the prevailing conditions.

  19. Cooperative redox-active additives of anthraquinone-2,7-disulphonate and K4Fe(CN)6 for enhanced performance of active carbon-based capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Ying; Liu, Ming; Che, Ruxing; Xue, Rong; Huang, Liping

    2016-08-01

    Two redox additives of anthraquinone-2,7-disulphonate (AQDS) and K4Fe(CN)6 are introduced into the neutral medium of KNO3 for enhanced performance of active carbon-based (AC) capacitor. The Faradaic redox reactions of AQ/H2AQ and Fe(CN)63-/Fe(CN)64- are diffusion-controlled and occurred on the negative electrode and the positive electrode respectively and simultaneously, resulting in the enhancement of specific capacitance, power density and energy density of 240 F g-1, 527 W kg-1 and 26.3 Wh kg-1, respectively at a current density of 1.0 A g-1 for a symmetric AC capacitor in the electrolyte of 1 M KNO3-0.017 M K4Fe(CN)6-0.017 M AQDS. These values are much higher than those in the controls of either 1 M KNO3-0.017 M K4Fe(CN)6 or 1 M KNO3-0.017 M AQDS with only one pair of redox additives. These results demonstrate the cooperative K4Fe(CN)6 and AQDS for enhanced performance of AC capacitor, and thus provide an alternative approach for efficient capacitors.

  20. Enhanced performance of starter lighting ignition type lead-acid batteries with carbon nanotubes as an additive to the active mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marom, Rotem; Ziv, Baruch; Banerjee, Anjan; Cahana, Beni; Luski, Shalom; Aurbach, Doron

    2015-11-01

    Addition of various carbon materials into lead-acid battery electrodes was studied and examined in order to enhance the power density, improve cycle life and stability of both negative and positive electrodes in lead acid batteries. High electrical-conductivity, high-aspect ratio, good mechanical properties and chemical stability of multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT, unmodified and mofified with carboxylic groups) position them as viable additives to enhance the electrodes' electrical conductivity, to mitigate the well-known sulfation failure mechanism and improve the physical integration of the electrodes. In this study, we investigated the incorporation-effect of carbon nanotubes (CNT) to the positive and the negative active materials in lead-acid battery prototypes in a configuration of flooded cells, as well as gelled cells. The cells were tested at 25% and 30% depth-of-discharge (DOD). The positive effect of the carbon nanotubes (CNT) utilization as additives to both positive and negative electrodes of lead-acid batteries was clearly demonstrated and is explained herein based on microscopic studies.

  1. Enhancement of the anaerobic hydrolysis and fermentation of municipal solid waste in leachbed reactors by varying flow direction during water addition and leachate recycle

    SciTech Connect

    Uke, Matthew N.; Stentiford, Edward

    2013-06-15

    Highlights: ► Combined downflow and upflow water addition improved hydraulic conductivity. ► Upflow water addition unclogged perforated screen leading to more leachate flow. ► The volume of water added and transmitted positively correlated with hydrolysis process. ► Combined downflow and upflow water addition increased COD production and yield. ► Combined downflow and upflow leachate recycle improved leachate and COD production. - Abstract: Poor performance of leachbed reactors (LBRs) is attributed to channelling, compaction from waste loading, unidirectional water addition and leachate flow causing reduced hydraulic conductivity and leachate flow blockage. Performance enhancement was evaluated in three LBRs M, D and U at 22 ± 3 °C using three water addition and leachate recycle strategies; water addition was downflow in D throughout, intermittently upflow and downflow in M and U with 77% volume downflow in M, 54% volume downflow in U while the rest were upflow. Leachate recycle was downflow in D, alternately downflow and upflow in M and upflow in U. The strategy adopted in U led to more water addition (30.3%), leachate production (33%) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) solubilisation (33%; 1609 g against 1210 g) compared to D (control). The total and volatile solids (TS and VS) reductions were similar but the highest COD yield (g-COD/g-TS and g-COD/g-VS removed) was in U (1.6 and 1.9); the values were 1.33 and 1.57 for M, and 1.18 and 1.41 for D respectively. The strategy adopted in U showed superior performance with more COD and leachate production compared to reactors M and D.

  2. Enhancement on wettability and intermetallic compound formation with an addition of Al on Sn-0.7Cu lead-free solder fabricated via powder metallurgy method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adli, Nisrin; Razak, Nurul Razliana Abdul; Saud, Norainiza

    2016-07-01

    Due to the toxicity of lead (Pb), the exploration of another possibility for lead-free solder is necessary. Nowadays, SnCu alloys are being established as one of the lead-free solder alternatives. In this study, Sn-0.7Cu lead-free solder with an addition of 1wt% and 5wt% Al were investigated by using powder metallurgy method. The effect of Al addition on the wettability and intermetallic compound thickness (IMC) of Sn-0.7Cu-Al lead-free solder were appraised. Results showed that Al having a high potential to enhance Sn-0.7Cu lead-free solder due to its good wetting and reduction of IMC thickness. The contact angle and IMC of the Sn-0.7Cu-Al lead-free solder were decreased by 14.32% and 40% as the Al content increased from 1 wt% to 5 wt%.

  3. Do We Really Need Additional Contrast-Enhanced Abdominal Computed Tomography for Differential Diagnosis in Triage of Middle-Aged Subjects With Suspected Biliary Pain

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, In Kyeom; Lee, Yoon Suk; Kim, Jaihwan; Lee, Yoon Jin; Park, Ji Hoon; Hwang, Jin-Hyeok

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Enhanced computed tomography (CT) is widely used for evaluating acute biliary pain in the emergency department (ED). However, concern about radiation exposure from CT has also increased. We investigated the usefulness of pre-contrast CT for differential diagnosis in middle-aged subjects with suspected biliary pain. A total of 183 subjects, who visited the ED for suspected biliary pain from January 2011 to December 2012, were included. Retrospectively, pre-contrast phase and multiphase CT findings were reviewed and the detection rate of findings suggesting disease requiring significant treatment by noncontrast CT (NCCT) was compared with cases detected by multiphase CT. Approximately 70% of total subjects had a significant condition, including 1 case of gallbladder cancer and 126 (68.8%) cases requiring intervention (122 biliary stone-related diseases, 3 liver abscesses, and 1 liver hemangioma). The rate of overlooking malignancy without contrast enhancement was calculated to be 0% to 1.5%. Biliary stones and liver space-occupying lesions were found equally on NCCT and multiphase CT. Calculated probable rates of overlooking acute cholecystitis and biliary obstruction were maximally 6.8% and 4.2% respectively. Incidental significant finding unrelated with pain consisted of 1 case of adrenal incidentaloma, which was also observed in NCCT. NCCT might be sufficient to detect life-threatening or significant disease requiring early treatment in young adults with biliary pain. PMID:25700321

  4. Segmented post-column analyte addition; a concept for continuous response control of liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry peaks affected by signal suppression/enhancement.

    PubMed

    Kaufmann, Anton; Butcher, Patrick

    2005-01-01

    A novel technique, "segmented post-column analyte addition", is proposed to visualize and compensate signal suppression/enhancement effects in electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS). Instead of delivering a constant flow of analyte solution between the liquid chromatography (LC) column exit and the ESI interface into the eluent resulting from LC separation of analyte-free matrix in order to determine retention time widows in which suppression/enhancement is unimportant (King et al., J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom. 2000; 11: 942), segmented packets of analyte-containing solvent and analyte-free solvent were infused into an LC eluent resulting from separation of an analyte-containing sample. The obtained, superimposed, periodic spikes are much narrower than the analyte peak eluting from the column. The height of the spikes is affected by signal suppression phenomena to the same extent as the analyte signal, and hence variations of the spike height can be used to correct the peak area of analyte peaks affected by signal suppression/enhancement.

  5. Enhancing acetone biosynthesis and acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation performance by co-culturing Clostridium acetobutylicum/Saccharomyces cerevisiae integrated with exogenous acetate addition.

    PubMed

    Luo, Hongzhen; Ge, Laibing; Zhang, Jingshu; Ding, Jian; Chen, Rui; Shi, Zhongping

    2016-01-01

    Acetone is the major by-product in ABE fermentations, most researches focused on increasing butanol/acetone ratio by decreasing acetone biosynthesis. However, economics of ABE fermentation industry strongly relies on evaluating acetone as a valuable platform chemical. Therefore, a novel ABE fermentation strategy focusing on bio-acetone production by co-culturing Clostridium acetobutylicum/Saccharomyces cerevisiae with exogenous acetate addition was proposed. Experimental and theoretical analysis revealed the strategy could, enhance C. acetobutylicum survival oriented amino acids assimilation in the cells; control NADH regeneration rate at moderately lower level to enhance acetone synthesis but without sacrificing butanol production; enhance the utilization ability of C. acetobutylicum on glucose and direct most of extra consumed glucose into acetone/butanol synthesis routes. By implementing the strategy using synthetic or acetate fermentative supernatant, acetone concentrations increased to 8.27-8.55g/L from 5.86g/L of the control, while butanol concentrations also elevated to the higher levels of 13.91-14.23g/L from 11.63g/L simultaneously.

  6. Enhancement of the anaerobic hydrolysis and fermentation of municipal solid waste in leachbed reactors by varying flow direction during water addition and leachate recycle.

    PubMed

    Uke, Matthew N; Stentiford, Edward

    2013-06-01

    Poor performance of leachbed reactors (LBRs) is attributed to channelling, compaction from waste loading, unidirectional water addition and leachate flow causing reduced hydraulic conductivity and leachate flow blockage. Performance enhancement was evaluated in three LBRs M, D and U at 22 ± 3°C using three water addition and leachate recycle strategies; water addition was downflow in D throughout, intermittently upflow and downflow in M and U with 77% volume downflow in M, 54% volume downflow in U while the rest were upflow. Leachate recycle was downflow in D, alternately downflow and upflow in M and upflow in U. The strategy adopted in U led to more water addition (30.3%), leachate production (33%) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) solubilisation (33%; 1609 g against 1210 g) compared to D (control). The total and volatile solids (TS and VS) reductions were similar but the highest COD yield (g-COD/g-TS and g-COD/g-VS removed) was in U (1.6 and 1.9); the values were 1.33 and 1.57 for M, and 1.18 and 1.41 for D respectively. The strategy adopted in U showed superior performance with more COD and leachate production compared to reactors M and D.

  7. Addition of BMP-2 or BMP-6 to dexamethasone, ascorbic acid, and β-glycerophosphate may not enhance osteogenic differentiation of human periodontal ligament cells.

    PubMed

    Khanna-Jain, Rashi; Agata, Hideki; Vuorinen, Annukka; Sándor, George K B; Suuronen, Riitta; Miettinen, Susanna

    2010-12-01

    This study was designed to investigate the potential merits of the combined use of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 or BMP-6 and osteogenic supplements (OS) [dexamethasone, ascorbic acid (AA), and β-glycerophosphate] on osteogenic differentiation of periodontal ligament cells (PDLCs). Osteogenic differentiation was evaluated by quantitative alkaline phosphatase (ALP) assay, alizarin red staining, quantitative calcium assay, and the qRT-PCR analysis for the expression of collagen type I, runt-related transcription factor-2, osteopontin (OPN), and osteocalcin in PDLCs. Culture with BMP-2 or BMP-6+AA increased ALP activity of PDLCs, suggesting their osteo-inductive effects. However, longer duration of culture showed neither of the BMPs induced in vitro mineralization. In contrast, OS were able to increase ALP activity and OPN expressions, and also induced in vitro mineralization. The mineralization ability was not enhanced by the addition of BMP-2 or BMP-6. These findings suggest that the addition of BMP-2 or BMP-6 to OS may not enhance an osteogenic differentiation of hPDLCs.

  8. The addition of rituximab to fludarabine and cyclophosphamide chemotherapy results in a significant improvement in overall survival in patients with newly diagnosed mantle cell lymphoma: results of a randomized UK National Cancer Research Institute trial

    PubMed Central

    Rule, Simon; Smith, Paul; Johnson, Peter W.M.; Bolam, Simon; Follows, George; Gambell, Joanne; Hillmen, Peter; Jack, Andrew; Johnson, Stephen; Kirkwood, Amy A; Kruger, Anton; Pocock, Christopher; Seymour, John F.; Toncheva, Milena; Walewski, Jan; Linch, David

    2016-01-01

    Mantle cell lymphoma is an incurable and generally aggressive lymphoma that is more common in elderly patients. Whilst a number of different chemotherapeutic regimens are active in this disease, there is no established gold standard therapy. Rituximab has been used widely to good effect in B-cell malignancies but there is no evidence that it improves outcomes when added to chemotherapy in this disease. We performed a randomized, open-label, multicenter study looking at the addition of rituximab to the standard chemotherapy regimen of fludarabine and cyclophosphamide in patients with newly diagnosed mantle cell lymphoma. A total of 370 patients were randomized. With a median follow up of six years, rituximab improved the median progression-free survival from 14.9 to 29.8 months (P<0.001) and overall survival from 37.0 to 44.5 months (P=0.005). This equates to absolute differences of 9.0% and 22.1% for overall and progression-free survival, respectively, at two years. Overall response rates were similar, but complete response rates were significantly higher in the rituximab arm: 52.7% vs. 39.9% (P=0.014). There was no clinically significant additional toxicity observed with the addition of rituximab. Overall, approximately 18% of patients died of non-lymphomatous causes, most commonly infections. The addition of rituximab to fludarabine and cyclophosphamide chemotherapy significantly improves outcomes in patients with mantle cell lymphoma. However, these regimens have significant late toxicity and should be used with caution. This trial has been registered (ISRCTN81133184 and clinicaltrials.gov:00641095) and is supported by the UK National Cancer Research Network. PMID:26611473

  9. The addition of rituximab to fludarabine and cyclophosphamide chemotherapy results in a significant improvement in overall survival in patients with newly diagnosed mantle cell lymphoma: results of a randomized UK National Cancer Research Institute trial.

    PubMed

    Rule, Simon; Smith, Paul; Johnson, Peter W M; Bolam, Simon; Follows, George; Gambell, Joanne; Hillmen, Peter; Jack, Andrew; Johnson, Stephen; Kirkwood, Amy A; Kruger, Anton; Pocock, Christopher; Seymour, John F; Toncheva, Milena; Walewski, Jan; Linch, David

    2016-02-01

    Mantle cell lymphoma is an incurable and generally aggressive lymphoma that is more common in elderly patients. Whilst a number of different chemotherapeutic regimens are active in this disease, there is no established gold standard therapy. Rituximab has been used widely to good effect in B-cell malignancies but there is no evidence that it improves outcomes when added to chemotherapy in this disease. We performed a randomized, open-label, multicenter study looking at the addition of rituximab to the standard chemotherapy regimen of fludarabine and cyclophosphamide in patients with newly diagnosed mantle cell lymphoma. A total of 370 patients were randomized. With a median follow up of six years, rituximab improved the median progression-free survival from 14.9 to 29.8 months (P<0.001) and overall survival from 37.0 to 44.5 months (P=0.005). This equates to absolute differences of 9.0% and 22.1% for overall and progression-free survival, respectively, at two years. Overall response rates were similar, but complete response rates were significantly higher in the rituximab arm: 52.7% vs. 39.9% (P=0.014). There was no clinically significant additional toxicity observed with the addition of rituximab. Overall, approximately 18% of patients died of non-lymphomatous causes, most commonly infections. The addition of rituximab to fludarabine and cyclophosphamide chemotherapy significantly improves outcomes in patients with mantle cell lymphoma. However, these regimens have significant late toxicity and should be used with caution. This trial has been registered (ISRCTN81133184 and clinicaltrials.gov:00641095) and is supported by the UK National Cancer Research Network.

  10. Significant enhancement in the photocatalytic activity of N, W co-doped TiO2 nanomaterials for promising environmental applications.

    PubMed

    Thind, Sapanbir S; Wu, Guosheng; Tian, Min; Chen, Aicheng

    2012-11-30

    In this work, a mesoporous N, W co-doped TiO(2) photocatalyst was synthesized via a one-step solution combustion method, which utilized urea as the nitrogen source and sodium tungstate as the tungsten source. The photocatalytic activity of the N, W co-doped TiO(2) photocatalyst was significantly enhanced by a facile UV pretreatment approach and was evaluated by measuring the rate of photodegradation of Rhodamine B under both UV and visible (λ > 420) light. Following the UV pretreatment, the UV photocatalytic activity of the N, W co-doped TiO(2) was doubled. In terms of visible light activity, the UV pretreatment resulted in an extraordinary >12 fold improvement. In order to gain insight into this substantial enhancement, the N, W co-doped TiO(2) photocatalysts were studied using x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, N(2) physisorption, UV-vis absorbance spectroscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy prior to and following the UV pretreatment. Our experimental results have revealed that this significant augmentation of photocatalytic activity may be attributed to several synergetic factors, including increase of the specific surface area, reduction of the band gap energy and the removal of carbon impurities.

  11. Significant enhancements of nitrogen oxides, black carbon, and ozone in the North Atlantic lower free troposphere resulting from North American boreal wildfires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Val MartíN, M.; Honrath, R. E.; Owen, R. C.; Pfister, G.; Fialho, P.; Barata, F.

    2006-12-01

    Extensive wildfires burned in northern North America during summer 2004, releasing large amounts of trace gases and aerosols into the atmosphere. Emissions from these wildfires frequently impacted the PICO-NARE station, a mountaintop site situated 6-15 days downwind from the fires in the Azores Islands. To assess the impacts of the boreal wildfire emissions on the levels of aerosol black carbon (BC), nitrogen oxides and O3 downwind from North America, we analyzed measurements of CO, BC, total reactive nitrogen oxides (NOy), NOx (NO + NO2) and O3 made from June to September 2004 in combination with MOZART chemical transport model simulations. Long-range transport of boreal wildfire emissions resulted in large enhancements of CO, BC, NOy and NOx, with levels up to 250 ppbv, 665 ng m-3, 1100 pptv and 135 pptv, respectively. Enhancement ratios relative to CO were variable in the plumes sampled, most likely because of variations in wildfire emissions and removal processes during transport. Analyses of ΔBC/ΔCO, ΔNOy/ΔCO and ΔNOx/ΔCO ratios indicate that NOy and BC were on average efficiently exported in these plumes and suggest that decomposition of PAN to NOx was a significant source of NOx. High levels of NOx suggest continuing formation of O3 in these well-aged plumes. O3 levels were also significantly enhanced in the plumes, reaching up to 75 ppbv. Analysis of ΔO3/ΔCO ratios showed distinct behaviors of O3 in the plumes, which varied from significant to lower O3 production. We identify several potential reasons for the complex effects of boreal wildfire emissions on O3 and conclude that this behavior needs to be explored further in the future. These observations demonstrate that boreal wildfire emissions significantly contributed to the NOx and O3 budgets in the central North Atlantic lower free troposphere during summer 2004 and imply large-scale impacts on direct radiative forcing of the atmosphere and on tropospheric NOx and O3.

  12. Powerful Complex Immunoadjuvant Based on Synergistic Effect of Combined TLR4 and NOD2 Activation Significantly Enhances Magnitude of Humoral and Cellular Adaptive Immune Responses

    PubMed Central

    Dzharullaeva, Alina S.; Tukhvatulina, Natalia M.; Shcheblyakov, Dmitry V.; Shmarov, Maxim M.; Dolzhikova, Inna V.; Stanhope-Baker, Patricia; Naroditsky, Boris S.; Gudkov, Andrei V.; Logunov, Denis Y.; Gintsburg, Alexander L.

    2016-01-01

    Binding of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) by pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) activates innate immune responses and contributes to development of adaptive immunity. Simultaneous stimulation of different types of PRRs can have synergistic immunostimulatory effects resulting in enhanced production of molecules that mediate innate immunity such as inflammatory cytokines, antimicrobial peptides, etc. Here, we evaluated the impact of combined stimulation of PRRs from different families on adaptive immunity by generating alum-based vaccine formulations with ovalbumin as a model antigen and the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) agonist MPLA and the Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein 2 (NOD2) agonist MDP adsorbed individually or together on the alum-ovalbumin particles. Multiple in vitro and in vivo readouts of immune system activation all showed that while individual PRR agonists increased the immunogenicity of vaccines compared to alum alone, the combination of both PRR agonists was significantly more effective. Combined stimulation of TLR4 and NOD2 results in a stronger and broader transcriptional response in THP-1 cells compared to individual PRR stimulation. Immunostimulatory composition containing both PRR agonists (MPLA and MDP) in the context of the alum-based ovalbumin vaccine also enhanced uptake of vaccine particles by bone marrow derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) and promoted maturation (up-regulation of expression of CD80, CD86, MHCII) and activation (production of cytokines) of BMDCs. Finally, immunization of mice with vaccine particles containing both PRR agonists resulted in enhanced cellular immunity as indicated by increased proliferation and activation (IFN-γ production) of splenic CD4+ and CD8+ T cells following in vitro restimulation with ovalbumin and enhanced humoral immunity as indicated by higher titers of ovalbumin-specific IgG antibodies. These results indicate that combined stimulation of TLR4 and NOD2

  13. Powerful Complex Immunoadjuvant Based on Synergistic Effect of Combined TLR4 and NOD2 Activation Significantly Enhances Magnitude of Humoral and Cellular Adaptive Immune Responses.

    PubMed

    Tukhvatulin, Amir I; Dzharullaeva, Alina S; Tukhvatulina, Natalia M; Shcheblyakov, Dmitry V; Shmarov, Maxim M; Dolzhikova, Inna V; Stanhope-Baker, Patricia; Naroditsky, Boris S; Gudkov, Andrei V; Logunov, Denis Y; Gintsburg, Alexander L

    2016-01-01

    Binding of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) by pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) activates innate immune responses and contributes to development of adaptive immunity. Simultaneous stimulation of different types of PRRs can have synergistic immunostimulatory effects resulting in enhanced production of molecules that mediate innate immunity such as inflammatory cytokines, antimicrobial peptides, etc. Here, we evaluated the impact of combined stimulation of PRRs from different families on adaptive immunity by generating alum-based vaccine formulations with ovalbumin as a model antigen and the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) agonist MPLA and the Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein 2 (NOD2) agonist MDP adsorbed individually or together on the alum-ovalbumin particles. Multiple in vitro and in vivo readouts of immune system activation all showed that while individual PRR agonists increased the immunogenicity of vaccines compared to alum alone, the combination of both PRR agonists was significantly more effective. Combined stimulation of TLR4 and NOD2 results in a stronger and broader transcriptional response in THP-1 cells compared to individual PRR stimulation. Immunostimulatory composition containing both PRR agonists (MPLA and MDP) in the context of the alum-based ovalbumin vaccine also enhanced uptake of vaccine particles by bone marrow derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) and promoted maturation (up-regulation of expression of CD80, CD86, MHCII) and activation (production of cytokines) of BMDCs. Finally, immunization of mice with vaccine particles containing both PRR agonists resulted in enhanced cellular immunity as indicated by increased proliferation and activation (IFN-γ production) of splenic CD4+ and CD8+ T cells following in vitro restimulation with ovalbumin and enhanced humoral immunity as indicated by higher titers of ovalbumin-specific IgG antibodies. These results indicate that combined stimulation of TLR4 and NOD2

  14. Enhanced MC3T3-E1 preosteoblast response and bone formation on the addition of nano-needle and nano-porous features to microtopographical titanium surfaces.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, X-M; Zhou, B; Ouyang, J-L; Sun, H-P; Wu, Y-L; Liu, Q; Deng, F-L

    2014-08-01

    Micro/nanotopographical modifications on titanium surfaces constitute a new process to increase osteoblast response to enhance bone formation. In this study, we utilized alkali heat treatment at high (SB-AH1) and low temperatures (SB-AH2) to nano-modify sandblasted titanium with microtopographical surfaces. Then, we evaluated the surface properties, biocompatibility and osteogenic capability of SB-AH1 and SB-AH2 in vitro and in vivo, and compared these with conventional sandblast-acid etching (SLA) and Ti control surfaces. SB-AH1 and SB-AH2 surfaces exhibited micro/nanotopographical modifications of nano-needle structures and nano-porous network layers, respectively, compared with the sole microtopographical surface of macro and micro pits on the SLA surface and the relatively smooth surface on the Ti control. SB-AH1 and SB-AH2 showed different roughness and elemental components, but similar wettability. MC3T3-E1 preosteoblasts anchored closely on the nanostructures of SB-AH1 and SB-AH2 surfaces, and these two surfaces more significantly enhanced cell proliferation and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity than others, while the SB-AH2 surface exhibited better cell proliferation and higher ALP activity than SB-AH1. All four groups of titanium domes with self-tapping screws were implanted in rabbit calvarial bone models, and these indicated that SB-AH1 and SB-AH2 surfaces achieved better peri-implant bone formation and implant stability, while the SB-AH2 surface achieved the best percentage of bone-implant contact (BIC%). Our study demonstrated that the micro/nanotopographical surface generated by sandblasting and alkali heat treatment significantly enhanced preosteoblast proliferation, ALP activity and bone formation in vitro and in vivo, and nano-porous network topography may further induce better preosteoblast proliferation, ALP activity and BIC%.

  15. Dramatic enhancement of solar disinfection (SODIS) of wild Salmonella sp. in PET bottles by H2O2 addition on natural water of Burkina Faso containing dissolved iron.

    PubMed

    Sciacca, Frédéric; Rengifo-Herrera, Juliàn A; Wéthé, Joseph; Pulgarin, César

    2010-02-01

    Disinfection of surface water containing dissolved iron (0.3 mg L(-1)) at natural neutral pH ( approximately 7.5) was carried out via solar disinfection (SODIS) treatment in PET bottles with H(2)O(2) (10 mg L(-1)). Wild coliforms and Salmonella sp. were monitored for 6 h of sunlight irradiation and 72 h of dark post-treatment period. In our conditions, SODIS treatment could not avoid Salmonella sp. re-growth during dark storage, meanwhile the addition of 10 mg L(-1) of H(2)O(2) showed a strong enhancement of the inactivation rate without any re-growth of both bacteria. Finally, total coliforms (Escherichia coli included) demonstrated to be an inappropriate indicator for monitoring bacterial contamination in water during solar disinfection processes.

  16. Significantly enhanced piezoelectricity in low-temperature sintered Aurivillius-type ceramics with ultrahigh Curie temperature of 800 °C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Kai; Huang, Chengcheng; Guo, Dong

    2017-04-01

    We report an Aurivillius-type piezoelectric ceramic (Ca1‑2x (LiCe) x Bi4Ti3.99Zn0.01O15) that has an ultrahigh Curie temperature (T c) around 800 °C and a significantly enhanced piezoelectric coefficient (d 33), comparable to that of textured ceramics fabricated using the complicated templating method. Surprisingly, the highest d 33 of 26 pC/N was achieved at an unexpectedly low sintering temperature (T s) of only 920 °C (~200 °C lower than usual) despite the non-ideal density. Study of different synthesized samples indicates that a relatively low T s is crucial for suppressing Bi evaporation and abnormal grain growth, which are indispensable for high resistivity and effective poling due to decreased carrier density and restricted anisotropic conduction. Because the layered structure is sensitive to lattice defects, controlled Bi loss is considered to be crucial for maintaining structural order and spontaneous polarization. This low-T s system is very promising for practical applications due to its high piezoelectricity, low cost and high reproducibility. Contrary to our usual understanding, the results reveal that a delicate balance of density, Bi loss and grain morphology achieved by adjusting the sintering temperature is crucial for the enhancing performance in Aurivillius-type high-T c ceramics.

  17. Blooming gelatin: an individual additive for enhancing nanoapatite precipitation, physical properties, and osteoblastic responses of nanostructured macroporous calcium phosphate bone cements

    PubMed Central

    Orshesh, Ziba; Hesaraki, Saeed; Khanlarkhani, Ali

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a great interest in using natural polymers in the composition of calcium phosphate bone cements to enhance their physical, mechanical, and biological performance. Gelatin is a partially hydrolyzed form of collagen, a natural component of bone matrix. In this study, the effect of blooming gelatin on the nanohydroxyapatite precipitation, physical and mechanical properties, and cellular responses of a calcium phosphate bone cement (CPC) was investigated. Various concentrations of blooming gelatin (2, 5, and 8 wt.%) were used as the cement liquid and an equimolar mixture of tetracalcium phosphate and dicalcium phosphate was used as solid phase. The CPC without any gelatin additive was also evaluated as a control group. The results showed that gelatin accelerated hydraulic reactions of the cement paste, in which the reactants were immediately converted into nanostructured apatite precipitates after hardening. Gelatin molecules induced 4%–10% macropores (10–300 μm) into the cement structure, decreased initial setting time by ~190%, and improved mechanical strength of the as-set cement. Variation in the above-mentioned properties was influenced by the gelatin concentration and progressed with increasing the gelatin content. The numbers of the G-292 osteoblastic cells on gelatin-containing CPCs were higher than the control group at entire culture times (1–14 days), meanwhile better alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity was determined using blooming gelatin additive. The observation of cell morphologies on the cement surfaces revealed an appropriate cell attachment with extended cell membranes on the cements. Overall, adding gelatin to the composition of CPC improved the handling characteristics such as setting time and mechanical properties, enhanced nanoapatite precipitation, and augmented the early cell proliferation rate and ALP activity. PMID:28176961

  18. Blooming gelatin: an individual additive for enhancing nanoapatite precipitation, physical properties, and osteoblastic responses of nanostructured macroporous calcium phosphate bone cements.

    PubMed

    Orshesh, Ziba; Hesaraki, Saeed; Khanlarkhani, Ali

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a great interest in using natural polymers in the composition of calcium phosphate bone cements to enhance their physical, mechanical, and biological performance. Gelatin is a partially hydrolyzed form of collagen, a natural component of bone matrix. In this study, the effect of blooming gelatin on the nanohydroxyapatite precipitation, physical and mechanical properties, and cellular responses of a calcium phosphate bone cement (CPC) was investigated. Various concentrations of blooming gelatin (2, 5, and 8 wt.%) were used as the cement liquid and an equimolar mixture of tetracalcium phosphate and dicalcium phosphate was used as solid phase. The CPC without any gelatin additive was also evaluated as a control group. The results showed that gelatin accelerated hydraulic reactions of the cement paste, in which the reactants were immediately converted into nanostructured apatite precipitates after hardening. Gelatin molecules induced 4%-10% macropores (10-300 μm) into the cement structure, decreased initial setting time by ~190%, and improved mechanical strength of the as-set cement. Variation in the above-mentioned properties was influenced by the gelatin concentration and progressed with increasing the gelatin content. The numbers of the G-292 osteoblastic cells on gelatin-containing CPCs were higher than the control group at entire culture times (1-14 days), meanwhile better alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity was determined using blooming gelatin additive. The observation of cell morphologies on the cement surfaces revealed an appropriate cell attachment with extended cell membranes on the cements. Overall, adding gelatin to the composition of CPC improved the handling characteristics such as setting time and mechanical properties, enhanced nanoapatite precipitation, and augmented the early cell proliferation rate and ALP activity.

  19. Enhancement of anti-complementary and radical scavenging activities in the submerged culture of Cordyceps sinensis by addition of citrus peel.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jang Won; Ra, Kyung Soo; Kim, Seong Yeong; Yoon, Taek Joon; Yu, Kwang-Won; Shin, Kwang-Soon; Lee, Sam Pin; Suh, Hyung Joo

    2010-08-01

    To investigate the optimal conditions for the production of Cordyceps sinensis by the submerged culture method, glucosamine and exopolysaccharide (EPS) productivities were determined in culture broth containing different carbon sources, principally rice bran and citrus peel. An optimal medium composition (1.5% rice bran, 0.5% molasses, 3% CSL, 0.1% KH(2)PO(4), and 0.05% MgSO(4)) and the optimal condition (25 degrees C and 5-6 d culture time) for high EPS productivity with potent immune-stimulating activities were obtained. The addition of citrus peel to the culture of C. sinensis under the optimized conditions improved EPS productivity and glucosamine content. Furthermore, anti-complementary activity was higher (58.0-80.8%) using citrus peel as compared to no addition of citrus peel (48.2-68.7%). Antioxidant activity (AEAC value) of the citrus peel culture was high (284.3-384.6 mg/100g) compared to that of the culture without citrus peel (142.8-219.5mg/100g), indicating that the citrus peel helped enhance the anti-complementary and antioxidant activities of C. sinensis.

  20. Antileishmanial Activity of Disulfiram and Thiuram Disulfide Analogs in an Ex Vivo Model System Is Selectively Enhanced by the Addition of Divalent Metal Ions

    PubMed Central

    Peniche, Alex G.; Renslo, Adam R.; Melby, Peter C.

    2015-01-01

    Current treatments for cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis are toxic, expensive, difficult to administer, and limited in efficacy and availability. Disulfiram has primarily been used to treat alcoholism. More recently, it has shown some efficacy as therapy against protozoan pathogens and certain cancers, suggesting a wide range of biological activities. We used an ex vivo system to screen several thiuram disulfide compounds for antileishmanial activity. We found five compounds (compound identifier [CID] 7188, 5455, 95876, 12892, and 3117 [disulfiram]) with anti-Leishmania activity at nanomolar concentrations. We further evaluated these compounds with the addition of divalent metal salts based on studies that indicated these salts could potentiate the action of disulfiram. In addition, clinical studies suggested that zinc has some efficacy in treating cutaneous leishmaniasis. Several divalent metal salts were evaluated at 1 μM, which is lower than the normal levels of copper and zinc in plasma of healthy individuals. The leishmanicidal activity of disulfiram and CID 7188 were enhanced by several divalent metal salts at 1 μM. The in vitro therapeutic index (IVTI) of disulfiram and CID 7188 increased 12- and 2.3-fold, respectively, against L. major when combined with ZnCl2. The combination of disulfiram with ZnSO4 resulted in a 1.8-fold increase in IVTI against L. donovani. This novel combination of thiuram disulfides and divalent metal ions salts could have application as topical and/or oral therapies for treatment of cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis. PMID:26239994

  1. Effects of Interface Coating and Nitride Enhancing Additive on Properties of Hi-Nicalon SiC Fiber Reinforced Reaction-Bonded Silicon Nitride Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhatt, Ramakrishana T.; Hull, David R.; Eldridge, Jeffrey I.; Babuder, Raymond

    2000-01-01

    Strong and tough Hi-Nicalon SiC fiber reinforced reaction-bonded silicon nitride matrix composites (SiC/ RBSN) have been fabricated by the fiber lay-up approach. Commercially available uncoated and PBN, PBN/Si-rich PBN, and BN/SiC coated SiC Hi-Nicalon fiber tows were used as reinforcement. The composites contained approximately 24 vol % of aligned 14 micron diameter SiC fibers in a porous RBSN matrix. Both one- and two-dimensional composites were characterized. The effects of interface coating composition, and the nitridation enhancing additive, NiO, on the room temperature physical, tensile, and interfacial shear strength properties of SiC/RBSN matrix composites were evaluated. Results indicate that for all three coated fibers, the thickness of the coatings decreased from the outer periphery to the interior of the tows, and that from 10 to 30 percent of the fibers were not covered with the interface coating. In the uncoated regions, chemical reaction between the NiO additive and the SiC fiber occurs causing degradation of tensile properties of the composites. Among the three interface coating combinations investigated, the BN/SiC coated Hi-Nicalon SiC fiber reinforced RBSN matrix composite showed the least amount of uncoated regions and reasonably uniform interface coating thickness. The matrix cracking stress in SiC/RBSN composites was predicted using a fracture mechanics based crack bridging model.

  2. An enhanced plant lipidomics method based on multiplexed liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry reveals additional insights into cold- and drought-induced membrane remodeling.

    PubMed

    Tarazona, Pablo; Feussner, Kirstin; Feussner, Ivo

    2015-11-01

    Within the lipidome of plants a few bulk molecular species hamper the detection of the rest, which are present at relatively low levels. In addition, low-abundance species are often masked by numerous isobaric interferences, such as those caused by isoelemental species and isotopologues. This scenario not only means that minor species are underrepresented, but also leads to potential misidentifications and limits the structural information gathered by lipidomics approaches. In order to overcome these limitations we have developed a multiplexed liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry lipidomics platform able to achieve an enhanced coverage of plant lipidomes. The platform is based on a single extraction step followed by a series of ultra-performance liquid chromatography separations. Post-column flow is then directed to both a triple quadrupole analyzer for targeted profiling and a time-of-flight analyzer for accurate mass analysis. As a proof of concept, plants were subjected to cold or drought, which are known to trigger widespread remodeling events in plant cell membranes. Analysis of the leaf lipidome yielded 393 molecular species within 23 different lipid classes. This enhanced coverage allowed us to identify lipid molecular species and even classes that are altered upon stress, allowing hypotheses on role of glycosylinositolphosphoceramides (GIPC), steryl glycosides (SG) and acylated steryl glycosides (ASG) in drought stress to be addressed and confirming the findings from numerous previous studies with a single, wide-ranging lipidomics approach. This extended our knowledge on membrane remodeling during the drought response, integrating sphingolipids and sterol lipids into the current glycerolipid-based model.

  3. Degradation of PAHs in soil by Lasiodiplodia theobromae and enhanced benzo[a]pyrene degradation by the addition of Tween-80.

    PubMed

    Wang, Cuiping; Liu, Haibin; Li, Jing; Sun, Hongwen

    2014-09-01

    Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), a five-ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), which has carcinogenic potency, is highly recalcitrant and resistant to microbial degradation. A novel fungus, Lasiodiplodia theobromae (L. theobromae), which can degrade BaP as a sole carbon source in liquid, was isolated in our laboratory. To prompt the further application of L. theobromae in remediation of sites polluted by BaP and other PAHs, the present study was targeted toward the removal of BaP and PAHs from soil by L. theobromae. The degradation of BaP by L. theobromae was studied using a soil spiked with 50 mg/kg BaP. L. theobromae could remove 32.1 % of the BaP after 35 days of cultivation. Phenanthrene (PHE) inhibited BaP degradation as a competitive substrate. The tested surfactants enhanced BaP degradation in soil by different extents, and a removal rate of 92.1 % was achieved at a Tween-80 (TW-80) concentration of 5 g/kg. It was revealed that TW-80 could not only enhance BaP bioavailability by increasing its aqueous solubility and decreasing the size of its colloid particles but also increase enzyme secretion from L. theobromae and the population of L. theobromae. Moreover, ergosterol content together with the biomass C indicated the increase in L. theobromae biomass during the BaP biodegradation process in soils. Finally, a soil from a historically PAH-contaminated field at Beijing Coking Plant in China was tested to assess the feasibility of applying L. theobromae in the remediation of polluted sites. The total removal rate of PAHs by L. theobromae was 53.3 %, which is 13.1 % higher than that by Phanerochaete chrysosporium (P. chrysosporium), an effective PAH degrader. The addition of TW-80 to the field soil further enhanced PAH degradation to 73.2 %. Hence, L. theobromae is a promising novel strain to be implemented in the remediation of soil polluted by PAHs.

  4. The fluorescence of a chelating two-photon-absorbing dye is enhanced with the addition of transition metal ions but quenched in the presence of acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, David J.; Long, Stephanie L.; Yu, Zhenning; Kannan, Ramamurthi; Mikhailov, Alexandr; Rebane, Aleksander; Tan, Loon-Seng; Haley, Joy E.

    2016-09-01

    A pseudo-symmetric two-photon absorbing dye (1) containing a central piperazine unit substituted with (benzothiazol-2- yl)-9,9-diethylfluoren-2-yl pendant groups has been synthesized and characterized. The molecule has a two-photonabsorption cross-section of σ2 = 140 GM in tetrahydrofuran at 740 nm and shows significant solvatochromism in the excited-state fluorescence spectra. The emission spectra broaden and the maxima bathochromically shift from 411 nm to 524 nm in n-hexane and acetonitrile, respectively. Moreover, the central piperazine moiety serves as a potential chelation site for ions. Addition of copper(I) hexafluorophosphate and zinc(II) triflate in acetonitrile indicate ground-state complexation with a shift in the emission maximum from 524 nm to 489 nm and 487 nm, respectively. Interestingly, the newly formed Cu and Zn complexes are more strongly emissive than the free dye. Finally, addition of p-toluenesulfonic acid in tetrahydrofuran also blue-shifts the emission maximum, but the intensity is quenched. Due to the photophysical changes induced by addition of metal ions and protons, the dye shows promise as a potential sensor.

  5. A Field Scale Investigation of Enhanced Petroleum Hydrocarbon Biodegradation in the Vadose Zone Combining Soil Venting as an Oxygen Source with Moisture and Nutrient Addition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    AND SUBTITLF A Field Scale Investigation of Enhanced 5. FUNDING NUMBERS Petroleum Hydrocarbon Biodegradation in the Vadose Zone Combining Soil Venting...24 Enhanced Biodegradation Through Soil Venting ...................... 30 MATERIALS AND METHODS...378 ABSTRACT xx’ A Field Scale Investigation of Enhanced Petroleum Hydrocarbon Biodegradation in the Vadose Zone Combining Soil Venting as an

  6. Conjugation of 10 kDa Linear PEG onto Trastuzumab Fab' Is Sufficient to Significantly Enhance Lymphatic Exposure while Preserving in Vitro Biological Activity.

    PubMed

    Chan, Linda J; Ascher, David B; Yadav, Rajbharan; Bulitta, Jürgen B; Williams, Charlotte C; Porter, Christopher J H; Landersdorfer, Cornelia B; Kaminskas, Lisa M

    2016-04-04

    The lymphatic system is a major conduit by which many diseases spread and proliferate. There is therefore increasing interest in promoting better lymphatic drug targeting. Further, antibody fragments such as Fabs have several advantages over full length monoclonal antibodies but are subject to rapid plasma clearance, which can limit the lymphatic exposure and activity of Fabs against lymph-resident diseases. This study therefore explored ideal PEGylation strategies to maximize biological activity and lymphatic exposure using trastuzumab Fab' as a model. Specifically, the Fab' was conjugated with single linear 10 or 40 kDa PEG chains at the hinge region. PEGylation led to a 3-4-fold reduction in binding affinity to HER2, but antiproliferative activity against HER2-expressing BT474 cells was preserved. Lymphatic pharmacokinetics were then examined in thoracic lymph duct cannulated rats after intravenous and subcutaneous dosing at 2 mg/kg, and the data were evaluated via population pharmacokinetic modeling. The Fab' displayed limited lymphatic exposure, but conjugation of 10 kDa PEG improved exposure by approximately 11- and 5-fold after intravenous (15% dose collected in thoracic lymph over 30 h) and subcutaneous (9%) administration, respectively. Increasing the molecular weight of the PEG to 40 kDa, however, had no significant impact on lymphatic exposure after intravenous (14%) administration and only doubled lymphatic exposure after subcutaneous administration (18%) when compared to 10 kDa PEG-Fab'. The data therefore suggests that minimal PEGylation has the potential to enhance the exposure and activity of Fab's against lymph-resident diseases, while no significant benefit is achieved with very large PEGs.

  7. Significantly Enhanced Dielectric Performance of Poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropylene)-based Composites Filled with Hierarchical Flower-like TiO₂ Particles.

    PubMed

    Xu, Nuoxin; Hu, Liang; Zhang, Qilong; Xiao, Xingrong; Yang, Hui; Yu, Enjie

    2015-12-16

    In this study, we report a feasible strategy for fabricating high-dielectric-constant polymer composites for applications in energy storage devices and embedded capacitors. Hierarchical flower-like TiO2 particles were prepared via a facile solvothermal process and incorporated into the P(VDF-HFP) matrix. The temperature and frequency dependent dielectric properties of flower-like TiO2/P(VDF-HFP) composites as well as commercial TiO2/P(VDF-HFP) composites were investigated. The results reveal that the flower-like TiO2 particles are more effective in increasing the dielectric constant of P(VDF-HFP) when compared with commercial TiO2. Typically, the dielectric constant of the P(VDF-HFP) composite filled with 20 vol % flower-like TiO2 reaches 83.1 at 100 Hz, in contrast to 43.4 for the composite filled with 20 vol % commercial TiO2 and 11.3 for pristine P(VDF-HFP). Also, the flower-like TiO2-filled composites exhibit similar characteristic breakdown strengths to their commercial TiO2-filled counterparts. The significant improvement in the dielectric constant could be attributed to the enhancement of Maxwell-Wagner-Sillars polarization, which originates from the sophisticated morphology of flower-like TiO2 particles.

  8. Significant Stability Enhancement in High-Efficiency Polymer:Fullerene Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells by Blocking Ultraviolet Photons from Solar Light.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Jaehoon; Seo, Jooyeok; Nam, Sungho; Han, Hyemi; Kim, Hwajeong; Anthopoulos, Thomas D; Bradley, Donal D C; Kim, Youngkyoo

    2016-04-01

    Achievement of extremely high stability for inverted-type polymer:fullerene solar cells is reported, which have bulk heterojunction (BHJ) layers consisting of poly[4,8-bis(5-(2-ethylhexyl)thiophen-2-yl)benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene-alt-3-fluorothieno[3,4-b]thiophene-2-carboxylate] (PTB7-Th) and [6,6]-phenyl-C71-butyric acid methyl ester (PC71BM), by employing UV-cut filter (UCF) that is mounted on the front of glass substrates. The UCF can block most of UV photons below 403 nm at the expense of ≈20% reduction in the total intensity of solar light. Results show that the PTB7-Th:PC71BM solar cell with UCF exhibits extremely slow decay in power conversion efficiency (PCE) but a rapidly decayed PCE is measured for the device without UCF. The poor device stability without UCF is ascribed to the oxidative degradation of constituent materials in the BHJ layers, which give rise to the formation of PC71BM aggregates, as measured with high resolution and scanning transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The device stability cannot be improved by simply inserting poly(ethylene imine) (PEI) interfacial layer without UCF, whereas the lifetime of the PEI-inserted PTB7-Th:PC71BM solar cells is significantly enhanced when UCF is attached.

  9. Functional solid additive modified PEDOT:PSS as an anode buffer layer for enhanced photovoltaic performance and stability in polymer solar cells

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Binrui; Gopalan, Sai-Anand; Gopalan, Anantha-Iyengar; Muthuchamy, Nallal; Lee, Kwang-Pill; Lee, Jae-Sung; Jiang, Yu; Lee, Sang-Won; Kim, Sae-Wan; Kim, Ju-Seong; Jeong, Hyun-Min; Kwon, Jin-Beon; Bae, Jin-Hyuk; Kang, Shin-Won

    2017-01-01

    Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) is most commonly used as an anode buffer layer in bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) polymer solar cells (PSCs). However, its hygroscopic and acidic nature contributes to the insufficient electrical conductivity, air stability and restricted photovoltaic (PV) performance for the fabricated PSCs. In this study, a new multifunctional additive, 2,3-dihydroxypyridine (DOH), has been used in the PEDOT: PSS buffer layer to obtain modified properties for PEDOT: PSS@DOH and achieve high PV performances. The electrical conductivity of PEDOT:PSS@DOH films was markedly improved compared with that of PEDOT:PSS. The PEDOT:PSS@DOH film exhibited excellent optical characteristics, appropriate work function alignment, and good surface properties in BHJ-PSCs. When a poly(3-hexylthiohpene):[6,6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester blend system was applied as the photoactive layer, the power conversion efficiency of the resulting PSCs with PEDOT:PSS@DOH(1.0%) reached 3.49%, outperforming pristine PEDOT:PSS, exhibiting a power conversion enhancement of 20%. The device fabricated using PEDOT:PSS@DOH (1.0 wt%) also exhibited improved thermal and air stability. Our results also confirm that DOH, a basic pyridine derivative, facilitates adequate hydrogen bonding interactions with the sulfonic acid groups of PSS, induces the conformational transformation of PEDOT chains and contributes to the phase separation between PEDOT and PSS chains. PMID:28338088

  10. Functional solid additive modified PEDOT:PSS as an anode buffer layer for enhanced photovoltaic performance and stability in polymer solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Binrui; Gopalan, Sai-Anand; Gopalan, Anantha-Iyengar; Muthuchamy, Nallal; Lee, Kwang-Pill; Lee, Jae-Sung; Jiang, Yu; Lee, Sang-Won; Kim, Sae-Wan; Kim, Ju-Seong; Jeong, Hyun-Min; Kwon, Jin-Beon; Bae, Jin-Hyuk; Kang, Shin-Won

    2017-03-01

    Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) is most commonly used as an anode buffer layer in bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) polymer solar cells (PSCs). However, its hygroscopic and acidic nature contributes to the insufficient electrical conductivity, air stability and restricted photovoltaic (PV) performance for the fabricated PSCs. In this study, a new multifunctional additive, 2,3-dihydroxypyridine (DOH), has been used in the PEDOT: PSS buffer layer to obtain modified properties for PEDOT: PSS@DOH and achieve high PV performances. The electrical conductivity of PEDOT:PSS@DOH films was markedly improved compared with that of PEDOT:PSS. The PEDOT:PSS@DOH film exhibited excellent optical characteristics, appropriate work function alignment, and good surface properties in BHJ-PSCs. When a poly(3-hexylthiohpene):[6,6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester blend system was applied as the photoactive layer, the power conversion efficiency of the resulting PSCs with PEDOT:PSS@DOH(1.0%) reached 3.49%, outperforming pristine PEDOT:PSS, exhibiting a power conversion enhancement of 20%. The device fabricated using PEDOT:PSS@DOH (1.0 wt%) also exhibited improved thermal and air stability. Our results also confirm that DOH, a basic pyridine derivative, facilitates adequate hydrogen bonding interactions with the sulfonic acid groups of PSS, induces the conformational transformation of PEDOT chains and contributes to the phase separation between PEDOT and PSS chains.

  11. Improving methane production in cow dung and corn straw co-fermentation systems via enhanced degradation of cellulose by cabbage addition

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Wenyang; Chen, Yong; Faisal, Shah; Khan, Aman; Chen, Zhengjun; Ling, Zhenmin; Liu, Pu; Li, Xiangkai

    2016-01-01

    The effects of cabbage waste (CW) addition on methane production in cow dung and corn straw co-fermentation systems were investigated. Four experimental groups, each containing 55 g of substrate, were set up as follows: 100% cow dung (C); 36% cabbage and 64% cow dung (CC); 36% straw and 64% cow dung (SC); and 18% cabbage, 18% straw, and 64% cow dung (CSC). After seven days of fermentation, the maximum methane yield was 134 mL in the CSC group, which was 2.81-fold, 1.78-fold, and 1340-fold higher than that obtained in the CC, SC, and C groups, respectively. CW treatment of the CSC group enhanced cellulase activity and enriched culturable cellulose-degrading bacterial strains. Miseq sequencing data revealed that the predominant phylum in the CSC group was Bacteroidetes, which contains most of the cellulose-degrading bacteria. Our results suggested that CW treatment elevated cellulose degradation and promoted methane production. PMID:27641709

  12. Enhancing Butanol Production under the Stress Environments of Co-Culturing Clostridium acetobutylicum/Saccharomyces cerevisiae Integrated with Exogenous Butyrate Addition.

    PubMed

    Luo, Hongzhen; Ge, Laibing; Zhang, Jingshu; Zhao, Yanli; Ding, Jian; Li, Zhigang; He, Zhenni; Chen, Rui; Shi, Zhongping

    2015-01-01

    In this study, an efficient acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation strategy integrating Clostridium acetobutylicum/Saccharomyces cerevisiae co-culturing system with exogenous butyrate addition, was proposed and experimentally conducted. In solventogenic phase, by adding 0.2 g-DCW/L-broth viable S. cerevisiae cells and 4.0 g/L-broth concentrated butyrate solution into C. acetobutylicum culture broth, final butanol concentration and butanol/acetone ratio in a 7 L anaerobic fermentor reached the highest levels of 15.74 g/L and 2.83 respectively, with the increments of 35% and 43% as compared with those of control. Theoretical and experimental analysis revealed that, the proposed strategy could, 1) extensively induce secretion of amino acids particularly lysine, which are favorable for both C. acetobutylicum survival and butanol synthesis under high butanol concentration environment; 2) enhance the utilization ability of C. acetobutylicum on glucose and over-produce intracellular NADH for butanol synthesis in C. acetobutylicum metabolism simultaneously; 3) direct most of extra consumed glucose into butanol synthesis route. The synergetic actions of effective amino acids assimilation, high rates of substrate consumption and NADH regeneration yielded highest butanol concentration and butanol ratio in C. acetobutylicum under this stress environment. The proposed method supplies an alternative way to improve ABE fermentation performance by traditional fermentation technology.

  13. Enhanced Polysaccharide Binding and Activity on Linear β-Glucans through Addition of Carbohydrate-Binding Modules to Either Terminus of a Glucooligosaccharide Oxidase.

    PubMed

    Foumani, Maryam; Vuong, Thu V; MacCormick, Benjamin; Master, Emma R

    2015-01-01

    The gluco-oligosaccharide oxidase from Sarocladium strictum CBS 346.70 (GOOX) is a single domain flavoenzyme that favourably oxidizes gluco- and xylo- oligosaccharides. In the present study, GOOX was shown to also oxidize plant polysaccharides, including cellulose, glucomannan, β-(1→3,1→4)-glucan, and xyloglucan, albeit to a lesser extent than oligomeric substrates. To improve GOOX activity on polymeric substrates, three carbohydrate binding modules (CBMs) from Clostridium thermocellum, namely CtCBM3 (type A), CtCBM11 (type B), and CtCBM44 (type B), were separately appended to the amino and carboxy termini of the enzyme, generating six fusion proteins. With the exception of GOOX-CtCBM3 and GOOX-CtCBM44, fusion of the selected CBMs increased the catalytic activity of the enzyme (kcat) on cellotetraose by up to 50%. All CBM fusions selectively enhanced GOOX binding to soluble and insoluble polysaccharides, and the immobilized enzyme on a solid cellulose surface remained stable and active. In addition, the CBM fusions increased the activity of GOOX on soluble glucomannan by up to 30% and on insoluble crystalline as well as amorphous cellulose by over 50%.

  14. Enhanced Polysaccharide Binding and Activity on Linear β-Glucans through Addition of Carbohydrate-Binding Modules to Either Terminus of a Glucooligosaccharide Oxidase

    PubMed Central

    Foumani, Maryam; Vuong, Thu V.; MacCormick, Benjamin; Master, Emma R.

    2015-01-01

    The gluco-oligosaccharide oxidase from Sarocladium strictum CBS 346.70 (GOOX) is a single domain flavoenzyme that favourably oxidizes gluco- and xylo- oligosaccharides. In the present study, GOOX was shown to also oxidize plant polysaccharides, including cellulose, glucomannan, β-(1→3,1→4)-glucan, and xyloglucan, albeit to a lesser extent than oligomeric substrates. To improve GOOX activity on polymeric substrates, three carbohydrate binding modules (CBMs) from Clostridium thermocellum, namely CtCBM3 (type A), CtCBM11 (type B), and CtCBM44 (type B), were separately appended to the amino and carboxy termini of the enzyme, generating six fusion proteins. With the exception of GOOX-CtCBM3 and GOOX-CtCBM44, fusion of the selected CBMs increased the catalytic activity of the enzyme (kcat) on cellotetraose by up to 50%. All CBM fusions selectively enhanced GOOX binding to soluble and insoluble polysaccharides, and the immobilized enzyme on a solid cellulose surface remained stable and active. In addition, the CBM fusions increased the activity of GOOX on soluble glucomannan by up to 30 % and on insoluble crystalline as well as amorphous cellulose by over 50 %. PMID:25932926

  15. Functional solid additive modified PEDOT:PSS as an anode buffer layer for enhanced photovoltaic performance and stability in polymer solar cells.

    PubMed

    Xu, Binrui; Gopalan, Sai-Anand; Gopalan, Anantha-Iyengar; Muthuchamy, Nallal; Lee, Kwang-Pill; Lee, Jae-Sung; Jiang, Yu; Lee, Sang-Won; Kim, Sae-Wan; Kim, Ju-Seong; Jeong, Hyun-Min; Kwon, Jin-Beon; Bae, Jin-Hyuk; Kang, Shin-Won

    2017-03-24

    Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) is most commonly used as an anode buffer layer in bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) polymer solar cells (PSCs). However, its hygroscopic and acidic nature contributes to the insufficient electrical conductivity, air stability and restricted photovoltaic (PV) performance for the fabricated PSCs. In this study, a new multifunctional additive, 2,3-dihydroxypyridine (DOH), has been used in the PEDOT: PSS buffer layer to obtain modified properties for PEDOT: PSS@DOH and achieve high PV performances. The electrical conductivity of PEDOT:PSS@DOH films was markedly improved compared with that of PEDOT:PSS. The PEDOT:PSS@DOH film exhibited excellent optical characteristics, appropriate work function alignment, and good surface properties in BHJ-PSCs. When a poly(3-hexylthiohpene):[6,6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester blend system was applied as the photoactive layer, the power conversion efficiency of the resulting PSCs with PEDOT:PSS@DOH(1.0%) reached 3.49%, outperforming pristine PEDOT:PSS, exhibiting a power conversion enhancement of 20%. The device fabricated using PEDOT:PSS@DOH (1.0 wt%) also exhibited improved thermal and air stability. Our results also confirm that DOH, a basic pyridine derivative, facilitates adequate hydrogen bonding interactions with the sulfonic acid groups of PSS, induces the conformational transformation of PEDOT chains and contributes to the phase separation between PEDOT and PSS chains.

  16. Enhanced sugar production from pretreated barley straw by additive xylanase and surfactants in enzymatic hydrolysis for acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ming; Zhang, Junhua; Kuittinen, Suvi; Vepsäläinen, Jouko; Soininen, Pasi; Keinänen, Markku; Pappinen, Ari

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to improve enzymatic sugar production from dilute sulfuric acid-pretreated barley straw for acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation. The effects of additive xylanase and surfactants (polyethylene glycol [PEG] and Tween) in an enzymatic reaction system on straw hydrolysis yields were investigated. By combined application of 2g/100g dry-matter (DM) xylanase and PEG 4000, the glucose yield was increased from 53.2% to 86.9% and the xylose yield was increased from 36.2% to 70.2%, which were considerably higher than results obtained with xylanase or surfactant alone. The ABE fermentation of enzymatic hydrolysate produced 10.8 g/L ABE, in which 7.9 g/L was butanol. The enhanced sugar production increased the ABE yield from 93.8 to 135.0 g/kg pretreated straw. The combined application of xylanase and surfactants has a large potential to improve sugar production from barley straw pretreated with a mild acid and that the hydrolysate showed good fermentability in ABE production.

  17. Enhancing Butanol Production under the Stress Environments of Co-Culturing Clostridium acetobutylicum/Saccharomyces cerevisiae Integrated with Exogenous Butyrate Addition

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Hongzhen; Ge, Laibing; Zhang, Jingshu; Zhao, Yanli; Ding, Jian; Li, Zhigang; He, Zhenni; Chen, Rui; Shi, Zhongping

    2015-01-01

    In this study, an efficient acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation strategy integrating Clostridium acetobutylicum/Saccharomyces cerevisiae co-culturing system with exogenous butyrate addition, was proposed and experimentally conducted. In solventogenic phase, by adding 0.2 g-DCW/L-broth viable S. cerevisiae cells and 4.0 g/L-broth concentrated butyrate solution into C. acetobutylicum culture broth, final butanol concentration and butanol/acetone ratio in a 7 L anaerobic fermentor reached the highest levels of 15.74 g/L and 2.83 respectively, with the increments of 35% and 43% as compared with those of control. Theoretical and experimental analysis revealed that, the proposed strategy could, 1) extensively induce secretion of amino acids particularly lysine, which are favorable for both C. acetobutylicum survival and butanol synthesis under high butanol concentration environment; 2) enhance the utilization ability of C. acetobutylicum on glucose and over-produce intracellular NADH for butanol synthesis in C. acetobutylicum metabolism simultaneously; 3) direct most of extra consumed glucose into butanol synthesis route. The synergetic actions of effective amino acids assimilation, high rates of substrate consumption and NADH regeneration yielded highest butanol concentration and butanol ratio in C. acetobutylicum under this stress environment. The proposed method supplies an alternative way to improve ABE fermentation performance by traditional fermentation technology. PMID:26489085

  18. Metallic MoO₂ cocatalyst significantly enhances visible-light photocatalytic hydrogen production over Mo₂/Zn₀.₅Cd₀.₅S heterojunction.

    PubMed

    Du, Hong; Xie, Xiao; Zhu, Qing; Lin, Ling; Jiang, Yi-Fan; Yang, Zheng-Kun; Zhou, Xiao; Xu, An-Wu

    2015-03-19

    As semiconductor-based nanoheterostructures play a decisive role in current electronics and optoelectronics, the introduction of active heterojunctions can afford new and improved capabilities that will enhance the conversion of solar energy into chemical energy. In this work, a novel metal/semiconductor MoO₂/Zn₀.₅Cd₀.₅S heterojunction has been designed and prepared to significantly enhance photocatalytic H₂ production efficiency. The photocatalytic activity of the as-prepared MoO₂/Zn₀.₅Cd₀.₅S for H₂ generation from water under visible-light irradiation (λ ≥ 420 nm) is measured. MoO₂/Zn₀.₅Cd₀.₅S hybrid nanoparticles have a higher photocatalytic activity than Zn₀.₅Cd₀.₅S even without the noble metal cocatalyst. The results show that the rate of H₂ evolution over annealed MoO₂/Zn₀.₅Cd₀.₅S is about 13 times higher than that of Zn₀.₅Cd₀.₅S alone, and 10 times higher than that of simply mixed MoO₂/Zn₀.₅Cd₀.₅S. Implying that the strong coupling at the interface of MoO₂ and Zn₀.₅Cd₀.₅S facilitates electron transfer from the conduction band of Zn₀.₅Cd₀.₅S to metallic MoO₂, thus promoting the separation of photogenerated electrons and holes. MoO₂ (2 wt%)/Zn₀.₅Cd₀.₅S heterostructured photocatalyst calcined at 673 K achieves the optimal overall activity for H₂ evolution. The introduction of metallic MoO₂ cocatalyst leads to a remarkable improvement in the photo current and photocatalytic H₂ production activity of Zn₀.₅Cd₀.₅S, and the content of MoO₂ in this catalyst has an important influence on the photocatalytic activity. It is shown that 2 wt% metallic MoO₂ loaded on Zn₀.₅Cd₀.₅S sample produces a maximum photocatalytic H₂ production rate of 252.4 μmol h(-1). The junctions formed between metallic MoO₂ and semiconductor Zn₀.₅Cd₀.₅S by calcination play a key role in high photocatalytic water splitting to produce H₂. Our study

  19. Significant enhancement of compositional and superconducting homogeneity in Ti rather than Ta-doped Nb3Sn

    SciTech Connect

    Tarantini, C.; Sung, Z. -H.; Lee, P. J.; Ghosh, A. K.; Larbalestier, D. C.

    2016-01-25

    Nb3Sn wires are now very close to their final optimization but despite its classical nature, detailed understanding of the role of Ta and Ti doping in the A15 is not fully understood. Long thought to be essentially equivalent in their influence on Hc2, they were interchangeably applied. Here we show that Ti produces significantly more homogeneous chemical and superconducting properties. Despite Ta-doped samples having a slightly higher Tc onset in zero-field, they always have a wider Tc-distribution. In particular, whereas the Ta-doped A15 has a Tc-distribution extending from 18 down to 5-6 K (the lowest expected Tc for the binary A15 phase), the Ti-doped samples have no A15 phase with Tc below ~12 K. The much narrower Tc distribution in the Ti-doped samples has a positive effect on their in-field Tc-distribution too, leading to an extrapolated μ0Hc2(0) 2 Tesla larger than the Ta-doped one. Ti-doping also appears to be very homogeneous even when the Sn content is reduced in order to inhibit breakdown of the diffusion barriers in very high Jc conductors. As a result, the enhanced homogeneity of the Ti-doped samples appears to result from its assistance of rapid diffusion of Sn into the filaments and by its incorporation into the A15 phase interchangeably with Sn on the Sn sites of the A15 phase.

  20. Delayed remote ischemic preconditioning produces an additive cardioprotection to sevoflurane postconditioning through an enhanced heme oxygenase 1 level partly via nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 nuclear translocation.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chenghui; Li, Huatong; Yao, Yuntai; Li, Lihuan

    2014-11-01

    Although both sevoflurane postconditioning (SPoC) and delayed remote ischemic preconditioning (DRIPC) have been proved effective in various animal and human studies, the combined effect of these 2 strategies remains unclear. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate this effect and elucidate the related signal mechanisms in a Langendorff perfused rat heart model. After 30-minute balanced perfusion, isolated hearts were subjected to 30-minute ischemia followed by 60-minute reperfusion except 90-minute perfusion for control. A synergic cardioprotective effect of SPoC (3% v/v) and DRIPC (4 cycles 5-minute occlusion/5-minute reflow at the unilateral hindlimb once per day for 3 days before heart isolation) was observed with facilitated cardiac functional recovery and decreased cardiac enzyme release. The infarct size-limiting effect was more pronounced in the combined group (6.76% ± 2.18%) than in the SPoC group (16.50% ± 4.55%, P < .001) or in the DRIPC group (10.22% ± 2.57%, P = .047). Subsequent analysis revealed that an enhanced heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) expression, but not protein kinase B/AKt or extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 activation, was involved in the synergic cardioprotective effect, which was further confirmed in the messenger RNA level of HO-1. Such trend was also observed in the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) nuclear translocation, an upstream regulation of HO-1. In addition, correlation analysis showed a significantly positive relationship between HO-1 expression and Nrf2 translocation (r = 0.729, P < .001). Hence, we conclude that DRIPC may produce an additive cardioprotection to SPoC through an enhanced HO-1 expression partly via Nrf2 translocation.

  1. Probing the Role of Zr Addition versus Textural Properties in Enhancement of CO 2 Adsorption Performance in Silica/PEI Composite Sorbents

    DOE PAGES

    Sakwa-Novak, Miles A.; Holewinski, Adam; Hoyt, Caroline B.; ...

    2015-08-08

    Polymeric amines such as poly(ethylenimine) (PEI) supported on mesoporous oxides are promising candidate adsorbents for CO2 capture processes. One important aspect to the design and optimization of these materials is a fundamental understanding of how the properties of the oxide support such as pore structure, particle morphology, and surface properties affect the efficiency of the guest polymer in its interactions with CO2. Previously, the efficiency of impregnated PEI to adsorb CO2 was shown to increase upon the addition of Zr as a surface modifier in SBA-15. But, the efficacy of this method to tune the adsorption performance has not beenmore » explored in materials of differing textural and morphological nature. These issues are directly addressed via the preparation of an array of SBA-15 support materials with varying textural and morphological properties, as well as varying content of zirconium doped into the material. Zirconium is incorporated into the SBA-15 either during the synthesis of the SBA-15, or postsynthetically via deposition of Zr species onto pure-silica SBA-15. The method of Zr incorporation alters the textural and morphological properties of the parent SBA-15 in different ways. Importantly, the CO2 capacity of SBA-15 impregnated with PEI increases by a maximum of ~60% with the quantity of doped Zr for a “standard” SBA-15 containing significant microporosity, while no increase in the CO2 capacity is observed upon Zr incorporation for an SBA-15 with reduced microporosity and a larger pore size, pore volume, and particle size. Finally, adsorbents supported on SBA-15 with controlled particle morphology show only modest increases in CO2 capacity upon inclusion of Zr to the silica framework. The data demonstrate that the textural and morphological properties of the support have a more significant impact on the ability of PEI to capture CO2 than the support surface composition.« less

  2. Tumor-targeted delivery of a C-terminally truncated FADD (N-FADD) significantly suppresses the B16F10 melanoma via enhancing apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yun-Wen; Zhang, Chun-Mei; Huang, Xian-Jie; Zhang, Xiao-Xin; Zhang, Lin-Kai; Li, Jia-Huang; Hua, Zi-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Fas-associated protein with death domain (FADD), a pivotal adaptor protein transmitting apoptotic signals, is indispensable for the induction of extrinsic apoptosis. However, overexpression of FADD can form large, filamentous aggregates, termed death effector filaments (DEFs) by self-association and initiate apoptosis independent of receptor cross-linking. A mutant of FADD, which is truncated of the C-terminal tail (m-FADD, 182–205 aa) named N-FADD (m-FADD, 1–181 aa), can dramatically up-regulate the strength of FADD self-association and increase apoptosis. In this study, it was found that over-expression of FADD or N-FADD caused apoptosis of B16F10 cells in vitro, even more, N-FADD showed a more potent apoptotic effect than FADD. Meanwhile, Attenuated Salmonella Typhimurium strain VNP20009 was engineered to express FADD or N-FADD under the control of a hypoxia-induced NirB promoter and each named VNP-pN-FADD and VNP-pN-N-FADD. The results showed both VNP-pN-FADD and VNP-pN-N-FADD delayed tumor growth in B16F10 mice model, while VNP-pN-N-FADD suppressed melanoma growth more significantly than VNP-pN-FADD. Additionally, VNP-pN-FADD and VNP-pN-N-FADD induced apoptosis of tumor cells by activating caspase-dependent apoptotic pathway. Our results show that N-FADD is a more potent apoptotic inducer and VNP20009-mediated targeted expression of N-FADD provides a possible cancer gene therapeutic approach for the treatment of melanoma. PMID:27767039

  3. Significant performance enhancement of InGaN/GaN nanorod LEDs with multi-layer graphene transparent electrodes by alumina surface passivation.

    PubMed

    Latzel, M; Büttner, P; Sarau, G; Höflich, K; Heilmann, M; Chen, W; Wen, X; Conibeer, G; Christiansen, S H

    2017-02-03

    Nanotextured surfaces provide an ideal platform for efficiently capturing and emitting light. However, the increased surface area in combination with surface defects induced by nanostructuring e.g. using reactive ion etching (RIE) negatively affects the device's active region and, thus, drastically decreases device performance. In this work, the influence of structural defects and surface states on the optical and electrical performance of InGaN/GaN nanorod (NR) light emitting diodes (LEDs) fabricated by top-down RIE of c-plane GaN with InGaN quantum wells was investigated. After proper surface treatment a significantly improved device performance could be shown. Therefore, wet chemical removal of damaged material in KOH solution followed by atomic layer deposition of only 10 [Formula: see text] alumina as wide bandgap oxide for passivation were successfully applied. Raman spectroscopy revealed that the initially compressively strained InGaN/GaN LED layer stack turned into a virtually completely relaxed GaN and partially relaxed InGaN combination after RIE etching of NRs. Time-correlated single photon counting provides evidence that both treatments-chemical etching and alumina deposition-reduce the number of pathways for non-radiative recombination. Steady-state photoluminescence revealed that the luminescent performance of the NR LEDs is increased by about 50% after KOH and 80% after additional alumina passivation. Finally, complete NR LED devices with a suspended graphene contact were fabricated, for which the effectiveness of the alumina passivation was successfully demonstrated by electroluminescence measurements.

  4. Significant performance enhancement of InGaN/GaN nanorod LEDs with multi-layer graphene transparent electrodes by alumina surface passivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latzel, M.; Büttner, P.; Sarau, G.; Höflich, K.; Heilmann, M.; Chen, W.; Wen, X.; Conibeer, G.; Christiansen, S. H.

    2017-02-01

    Nanotextured surfaces provide an ideal platform for efficiently capturing and emitting light. However, the increased surface area in combination with surface defects induced by nanostructuring e.g. using reactive ion etching (RIE) negatively affects the device’s active region and, thus, drastically decreases device performance. In this work, the influence of structural defects and surface states on the optical and electrical performance of InGaN/GaN nanorod (NR) light emitting diodes (LEDs) fabricated by top-down RIE of c-plane GaN with InGaN quantum wells was investigated. After proper surface treatment a significantly improved device performance could be shown. Therefore, wet chemical removal of damaged material in KOH solution followed by atomic layer deposition of only 10 {nm} alumina as wide bandgap oxide for passivation were successfully applied. Raman spectroscopy revealed that the initially compressively strained InGaN/GaN LED layer stack turned into a virtually completely relaxed GaN and partially relaxed InGaN combination after RIE etching of NRs. Time-correlated single photon counting provides evidence that both treatments—chemical etching and alumina deposition—reduce the number of pathways for non-radiative recombination. Steady-state photoluminescence revealed that the luminescent performance of the NR LEDs is increased by about 50% after KOH and 80% after additional alumina passivation. Finally, complete NR LED devices with a suspended graphene contact were fabricated, for which the effectiveness of the alumina passivation was successfully demonstrated by electroluminescence measurements.

  5. Food additives

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857

  6. A significant cathodic shift in the onset potential and enhanced photoelectrochemical water splitting using Au nanoparticles decorated WO3 nanorod array.

    PubMed

    Xu, Fang; Yao, Yanwen; Bai, Dandan; Xu, Ruishu; Mei, Jingjing; Wu, Dapeng; Gao, Zhiyong; Jiang, Kai

    2015-11-15

    Au nanoparticles decorated WO3 nanorod array was prepared and applied for solar water oxidation. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscop images showed that Au distributed on the surface of WO3 nanorod array. The surface plasmon resonance effect of Au nanoparticles contributed to the enhancement of photoelectrochemical performance of Au-WO3 photoanode, such as enhanced photocurrent density of 1.17mA/cm(2) at 1.0V vs Ag/AgCl, a cathodic shift of onset of ∼0.2V and higher stability. UV-vis absorption, electrochemical impedance and Mott-Schottky measurements proved that Au-WO3 photoanode has enhanced light absorption, lower transfer resistance, increased photogenerated carriers density and higher hole injection yield. Therefore, Au-WO3 photoanode exhibited higher photoelectrochemical performance than WO3 photoanode.

  7. Probing the Role of Zr Addition versus Textural Properties in Enhancement of CO 2 Adsorption Performance in Silica/PEI Composite Sorbents

    SciTech Connect

    Sakwa-Novak, Miles A.; Holewinski, Adam; Hoyt, Caroline B.; Yoo, Chun-Jae; Chai, Song-Hai; Dai, Sheng; Jones, Christopher W.

    2015-08-08

    Polymeric amines such as poly(ethylenimine) (PEI) supported on mesoporous oxides are promising candidate adsorbents for CO2 capture processes. One important aspect to the design and optimization of these materials is a fundamental understanding of how the properties of the oxide support such as pore structure, particle morphology, and surface properties affect the efficiency of the guest polymer in its interactions with CO2. Previously, the efficiency of impregnated PEI to adsorb CO2 was shown to increase upon the addition of Zr as a surface modifier in SBA-15. But, the efficacy of this method to tune the adsorption performance has not been explored in materials of differing textural and morphological nature. These issues are directly addressed via the preparation of an array of SBA-15 support materials with varying textural and morphological properties, as well as varying content of zirconium doped into the material. Zirconium is incorporated into the SBA-15 either during the synthesis of the SBA-15, or postsynthetically via deposition of Zr species onto pure-silica SBA-15. The method of Zr incorporation alters the textural and morphological properties of the parent SBA-15 in different ways. Importantly, the CO2 capacity of SBA-15 impregnated with PEI increases by a maximum of ~60% with the quantity of doped Zr for a “standard” SBA-15 containing significant microporosity, while no increase in the CO2 capacity is observed upon Zr incorporation for an SBA-15 with reduced microporosity and a larger pore size, pore volume, and particle size. Finally, adsorbents supported on SBA-15 with controlled particle morphology show only modest increases in CO2 capacity upon inclusion of Zr to the silica framework. The data demonstrate that the textural and morphological properties of the support have a more significant impact on the ability of PEI to capture CO2 than the support surface composition.

  8. Durability to oxygen reactive ion etching enhanced by addition of synthesized bis(trimethylsilyl)phenyl-containing (meth)acrylates in ultraviolet nanoimprint lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Shunya; Sato, Hiroki; Tasaki, Yuhei; Watanuki, Kimihito; Nemoto, Nobukatsu; Nakagawa, Masaru

    2016-06-01

    We investigated the selection of bis(trimethylsilyl)phenyl-containing (meth)acrylates as additives to improve the durability to oxygen reactive ion etching (O2 RIE) of sub-50 nm imprint resist patterns suitable for bubble-defect-free UV nanoimprinting with a readily condensable gas. 2,5-Bis(2-acryloyloxyethoxy)-1,4-bis(trimethylsilyl)benzene, which has a diacrylate chemical structure similar to that of glycerol 1,3-diglycerolate diacrylate used as a base monomer, and 3-(2-methacryloyloxyethoxy)-1-(hydroxylethoxy)-2-propoxy-3,5-bis(trimethylsilyl)benzene, which has a hydroxy group similar to the base monomer, were synthesized taking into consideration the Ohnishi and ring parameters, and the oxidization of the trimethylsilyl moiety to inorganic species during O2 RIE. The addition of the latter liquid additive to the base monomer decreased etching rate owing to the good miscibility of the additive in the base monomer, while the addition of the former crystalline additive caused phase separation after UV nanoimprinting. The latter additive worked as a compatibilizer to the former additive, which is preferred for etching durability improvement. The coexistence of the additives enabled the fabrication of a 45 nm line-and-space resist pattern by UV nanoimprinting, and its residual layer could be removed by O2 RIE.

  9. Food additives

    MedlinePlus

    ... or natural. Natural food additives include: Herbs or spices to add flavor to foods Vinegar for pickling ... Certain colors improve the appearance of foods. Many spices, as well as natural and man-made flavors, ...

  10. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, J. R.; St. Clair, T. L.; Burks, H. D.; Stoakley, D. M.

    1987-01-01

    A method has been found for enhancing the melt flow of thermoplastic polyimides during processing. A high molecular weight 422 copoly(amic acid) or copolyimide was fused with approximately 0.05 to 5 pct by weight of a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive, and this melt was studied by capillary rheometry. Excellent flow and improved composite properties on graphite resulted from the addition of a PMDA-aniline additive to LARC-TPI. Solution viscosity studies imply that amic acid additives temporarily lower molecular weight and, hence, enlarge the processing window. Thus, compositions containing the additive have a lower melt viscosity for a longer time than those unmodified.

  11. A transferrin-target magnetic/fluorescent dual-mode probe significantly enhances the diagnosis of non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Fengwen; Liu, Shiyuan

    2016-01-01

    To enhance the diagnosis of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), we prepared a dual-modal probe Cy5.5-Tf-Gd-DTPA. Gd-DTPA and near-infrared (NIR) dyes were conjugated to holo-Transferrin (Tf) sequentially, the result of ICP-AES and UV showed 25 Gd ions and 1 Cy5.5 could be loaded per protein, respectively. The calculated longitudinal relaxivity R1 of Cy5.5-Tf-DTPA-Gd was 4.21 mM−1S−1 per Gd while that of Magnevist (Gd-DTPA) was only 4.02 mM−1S−1. Confocal laser scanning microscopy and immunohistochemical analyses revealed that the Cy5.5-Tf-DTPA-Gd was localized and accumulated in cytoplasmic vesicles; the cell toxicity assay showed no apparent toxicity. MR and NIR imaging of mice with subcutaneous H1299 xenografte tumors following intravenous injection of Cy5.5-Tf-DTPA-Gd revealed a strong positive contrast of the tumors, which caused a longer lasting enhancement of the MRI signal and fluorescence signal. Taken together, these studies indicate that Cy5.5-Tf-DTPA-Gd could be a good agent for MR/NIRF dual mode applications to detect both tumor in situ and its metastasis. PMID:27223075

  12. h-BN nanosheets as simple and effective additives to largely enhance the activity of Au/TiO2 plasmonic photocatalysts.

    PubMed

    Ide, Y; Nagao, K; Saito, K; Komaguchi, K; Fuji, R; Kogure, A; Sugahara, Y; Bando, Y; Golberg, D

    2016-01-07

    The activity of Au nanoparticle-loaded P25 TiO2 (Au/P25) plasmonic photocatalysts, evaluated by the oxidative decomposition of formic acid in water under visible light irradiation, was enhanced up to 3 times by simply mixing Au/P25 with photocatalytically inactive h-BN nanosheets as a result of electron transfer from photoexcited Au/TiO2 to the h-BN nanosheets and retardation of the charge recombination.

  13. Au plasmonics in a WS{sub 2}-Au-CuInS{sub 2} photocatalyst for significantly enhanced hydrogen generation

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Zhongzhou; Wang, Zhenxing E-mail: hej@nanoctr.cn; Shifa, Tofik Ahmed; Wang, Fengmei; Zhan, Xueying; Xu, Kai; He, Jun E-mail: hej@nanoctr.cn; Liu, Quanlin

    2015-11-30

    Promoting the activities of photocatalysts is still the critical challenge in H{sub 2} generation area. Here, a Au plasmon enhanced photocatalyst of WS{sub 2}-Au-CuInS{sub 2} is developed by inserting Au nanoparticles between WS{sub 2} nanotubes and CuInS{sub 2} (CIS) nanoparticles. Due to the localized surface plasmonic resonance properties from Au nanoparticles, WS{sub 2}-Au-CIS shows the best performance as compared to Au-CIS, CIS, WS{sub 2}-CIS, CIS-Au, WS{sub 2}-Au, and WS{sub 2}-CIS-Au. The surface plasmonic resonance effects dramatically intensify the absorption of visible light and help to inject hot electrons into the semiconductors. Our findings open up an efficient method to optimize the type-II structures for photocatalytic water splitting.

  14. Enhancing biochar yield by co-pyrolysis of bio-oil with biomass: impacts of potassium hydroxide addition and air pretreatment prior to co-pyrolysis.

    PubMed

    Veksha, Andrei; Zaman, Waheed; Layzell, David B; Hill, Josephine M

    2014-11-01

    The influence of KOH addition and air pretreatment on co-pyrolysis (600 °C) of a mixture of bio-oil and biomass (aspen wood) was investigated with the goal of increasing biochar yield. The bio-oil was produced as a byproduct of the pyrolysis of biomass and recycled in subsequent runs. Co-pyrolysis of the biomass with the recycled bio-oil resulted in a 16% mass increase in produced biochar. The yields were further increased by either air pretreatment or KOH addition prior to co-pyrolysis. Air pretreatment at 220 °C for 3 h resulted in the highest mass increase (32%) compared to the base case of pyrolysis of biomass only. No synergistic benefit was observed by combining KOH addition with air pretreatment. In fact, KOH catalyzed reactions that increased the bed temperature resulting in carbon loss via formation of CO and CO2.

  15. Elevated CO2, not defoliation, enhances N cycling and increases short-term soil N immobilization regardless of N addition in a semiarid grassland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Elevated CO2 and defoliation effects on nitrogen (N) cycling in rangeland soils remain poorly understood. Here we tested whether effects of elevated CO2 and defoliation (clipping to 2.5 cm height) on N cycling depended on soil N availability (addition of 1 vs. 11 g N/m2) in intact mesocosms extracte...

  16. Cost Reduction through the Use of Additive Manufacturing (3D Printing) and Collaborative Product Lifecycle Management Technologies to Enhance the Navy’s Maintenance Programs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-30

    Intermediate Level Military and Civilian Medium Medium Depot Level Civilian High High D. ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING AM, more commonly known as 3D...eutectic metals, edible materials Granular Direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) Most metal alloys Electron beam melting (EBM) Titanium alloys ...Selective laser melting (SLM) Titanium alloys , cobalt chrome alloys , stainless steel, aluminum Selective heat sintering (SHS) Thermoplastic powder

  17. Role of Additives in Composite PEI/Oxide CO₂ Adsorbents: Enhancement in the Amine Efficiency of Supported PEI by PEG in CO₂ Capture from Simulated Ambient Air.

    PubMed

    Sakwa-Novak, Miles A; Tan, Shuai; Jones, Christopher W

    2015-11-11

    Supported amines are promising candidate adsorbents for the removal of CO2 from flue gases and directly from ambient air. The incorporation of additives into polymeric amines such as poly(ethylenimine) (PEI) supported on mesoporous oxides is an effective strategy to improve the performance of the materials. Here, several practical aspects of this strategy are addressed with regards to direct air capture. The influence of three additives (CTAB, PEG200, PEG1000) was systematically explored under dry simulated air capture conditions (400 ppm of CO2, 30 °C). With SBA-15 as a model support for poly(ethylenimine) (PEI), the nature of the additive induced heterogeneities in the deposition of organic on the interior and exterior of the particles, an important consideration for future scale up to practical systems. The PEG200 additive increased the observed thermodynamic performance (∼60% increase in amine efficiency) of the adsorbents regardless of the PEI content, while the other molecules had less positive effects. A threshold PEG200/PEI value was identified at which the diffusional limitations of CO2 within the materials were nearly eliminated. The threshold PEG/PEI ratio may have physical origin in the interactions between PEI and PEG, as the optimal ratio corresponded to nearly equimolar OH/reactive (1°, 2°) amine ratios. The strategy is shown to be robust to the characteristics of the host support, as PEG200 improved the amine efficiency of PEI when supported on two varieties of mesoporous γ-alumina with PEI.

  18. Potlining Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolf Keller

    2004-08-10

    In this project, a concept to improve the performance of aluminum production cells by introducing potlining additives was examined and tested. Boron oxide was added to cathode blocks, and titanium was dissolved in the metal pool; this resulted in the formation of titanium diboride and caused the molten aluminum to wet the carbonaceous cathode surface. Such wetting reportedly leads to operational improvements and extended cell life. In addition, boron oxide suppresses cyanide formation. This final report presents and discusses the results of this project. Substantial economic benefits for the practical implementation of the technology are projected, especially for modern cells with graphitized blocks. For example, with an energy savings of about 5% and an increase in pot life from 1500 to 2500 days, a cost savings of $ 0.023 per pound of aluminum produced is projected for a 200 kA pot.

  19. Phosphazene additives

    DOEpatents

    Harrup, Mason K; Rollins, Harry W

    2013-11-26

    An additive comprising a phosphazene compound that has at least two reactive functional groups and at least one capping functional group bonded to phosphorus atoms of the phosphazene compound. One of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with cellulose and the other of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with a resin, such as an amine resin of a polycarboxylic acid resin. The at least one capping functional group is selected from the group consisting of a short chain ether group, an alkoxy group, or an aryloxy group. Also disclosed are an additive-resin admixture, a method of treating a wood product, and a wood product.

  20. Significantly enhanced dye removal performance of hollow tin oxide nanoparticles via carbon coating in dark environment and study of its mechanism

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the correlation between physicochemical properties and morphology of nanostructures is a prerequisite for widespread applications of nanomaterials in environmental application areas. Herein, we illustrated that the uniform-sized SnO2@C hollow nanoparticles were large-scale synthesized by a facile hydrothermal method. The size of the core-shell hollow nanoparticles was about 56 nm, and the shell was composed of a solid carbon layer with a thickness of 2 ~ 3 nm. The resulting products were characterized in terms of morphology, composition, and surface property by various analytical techniques. Moreover, the SnO2@C hollow nanoparticles are shown to be effective adsorbents for removing four different dyes from aqueous solutions, which is superior to the pure hollow SnO2 nanoparticles and commercial SnO2. The enhanced mechanism has also been discussed, which can be attributed to the high specific surface areas after carbon coating. PMID:25221462

  1. The +37 kb Cebpa Enhancer Is Critical for Cebpa Myeloid Gene Expression and Contains Functional Sites that Bind SCL, GATA2, C/EBPα, PU.1, and Additional Ets Factors.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Stacy; Guo, Hong; Friedman, Alan D

    2015-01-01

    The murine Cebpa gene contains an evolutionarily conserved 453 bp enhancer located at +37 kb that, together with its promoter, directs expression to myeloid progenitors and to long-term hematopoietic stem cells in transgenic mice. In human acute myeloid leukemia cases, the enhancer lacks point mutations but binds the RUNX1-ETO oncoprotein. The enhancer contains the H3K4me1 and H3K27Ac histone modifications, denoting an active enhancer, at progressively increasing levels as long-term hematopoietic stem cells transition to granulocyte-monocyte progenitors. We previously identified four enhancer sites that bind RUNX1 and demonstrated that their integrity is required for maximal enhancer activity in 32Dcl3 myeloid cells. The +37 kb Cebpa enhancer also contains C/EBP, Ets factor, Myb, GATA, and E-box consensus sites conserved in the human +42 kb CEBPA enhancer. Mutation of the two C/EBP, seven Ets, one Myb, two GATA, or two E-box sites reduces activity of an enhancer-promoter reporter in 32Dcl3 cells. In 293T gel shift assays, exogenous C/EBPα binds both C/EBP sites, c-Myb binds the Myb site, PU.1 binds the second Ets site, PU.1, Fli-1, ERG, and Ets1 bind the sixth Ets site, GATA2 binds both GATA sites, and SCL binds the second E-box. Endogenous hematopoietic RUNX1, PU.1, Fli-1, ERG, C/EBPα, GATA2, and SCL were previously shown to bind the enhancer, and we find that endogenous PU.1 binds the second Ets site in 32Dcl3 cells. Using CRISPR/Cas9, we developed 32Dcl3 lines in which the wild-type enhancer alleles are replaced with a variant mutant in the seven Ets sites. These lines have 20-fold reduced Cebpa mRNA when cultured in IL-3 or G-CSF, demonstrating a critical requirement for enhancer integrity for optimal Cebpa expression. In addition, these results indicate that the +37 kb Cebpa enhancer is the focus of multiple regulatory transcriptional pathways that impact its expression during normal hematopoiesis and potentially during myeloid transformation.

  2. Significantly enhanced creep resistance of low volume fraction in-situ TiBw/Ti6Al4V composites by architectured network reinforcements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, S.; Huang, L. J.; Geng, L.; Scarpa, F.; Jiao, Y.; Peng, H. X.

    2017-01-01

    We present a new class of TiBw/Ti6Al4V composites with a network reinforcement architecture that exhibits a significant creep resistance compared to monolithic Ti6Al4V alloys. Creep tests performed at temperatures between 773 K and 923 K and stress range of 100 MPa-300 MPa indicate both a significant improvement of the composites creep resistance due to the network architecture made by the TiB whiskers (TiBw), and a decrease of the steady-state creep rates by augmenting the local volume fractions of TiBw in the network region. The deformation behavior is driven by a diffusion-controlled dislocation climb process. Moreover, the activation energies of these composites are significantly higher than that of Ti6Al4V alloys, indicating a higher creep resistance. The increase of the activation energy can be attributed to the TiBw architecture that severely impedes the movements of dislocation and grain boundary sliding and provides a tailoring of the stress transfer. These micromechanical mechanisms lead to a remarkable improvement of the creep resistance of these networked TiBw/Ti6Al4V composites featuring the special networked architecture.

  3. Significantly enhanced creep resistance of low volume fraction in-situ TiBw/Ti6Al4V composites by architectured network reinforcements

    PubMed Central

    Wang, S.; Huang, L. J.; Geng, L.; Scarpa, F.; Jiao, Y.; Peng, H. X.

    2017-01-01

    We present a new class of TiBw/Ti6Al4V composites with a network reinforcement architecture that exhibits a significant creep resistance compared to monolithic Ti6Al4V alloys. Creep tests performed at temperatures between 773 K and 923 K and stress range of 100 MPa-300 MPa indicate both a significant improvement of the composites creep resistance due to the network architecture made by the TiB whiskers (TiBw), and a decrease of the steady-state creep rates by augmenting the local volume fractions of TiBw in the network region. The deformation behavior is driven by a diffusion-controlled dislocation climb process. Moreover, the activation energies of these composites are significantly higher than that of Ti6Al4V alloys, indicating a higher creep resistance. The increase of the activation energy can be attributed to the TiBw architecture that severely impedes the movements of dislocation and grain boundary sliding and provides a tailoring of the stress transfer. These micromechanical mechanisms lead to a remarkable improvement of the creep resistance of these networked TiBw/Ti6Al4V composites featuring the special networked architecture. PMID:28094350

  4. Mono- and disaccharides enhance the activity and enantioselectivity of Burkholderia cepacia lipase in organic solvent but do not significantly affect its conformation.

    PubMed

    Secundo, Francesco; Carrea, Giacomo

    2005-11-20

    Sucrose, trehalose, and mannitol were colyophilized with lipase from Burkholderia cepacia and their effects on the activity and enantioselectitivity of the enzyme evaluated using as model reactions the transesterification between n-octanol or 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-ol with vinyl acetate. The lipase co-lyophilized with sugars showed an activity which was up to 4.7-fold higher (at a sugar/lipase ratio >or= 20) than that observed without sugar. Analogously, lipase enantioselectivity, expressed as the enantiomeric ratio, increased up to 2.8-fold in the presence of sugars. The conformation of the lipase was investigated by means of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT/IR) in water and as lyophilized powder. The infrared spectra of lyophilized lipase in the presence and, even more so, in the absence of sugars were different from that of the enzyme in water. In particular, the band at around 1,654/cm, typically assigned to alpha-helix, was less intense in the lyophilized samples. Nevertheless, the enzyme in the presence of sugars showed a decrease of the bands at 1,614-1,620/cm and at 1,680-1,695/cm that indicates a lower content of intermolecular beta-sheets (typical of protein aggregates). Additionally the increase of the component at 1,546/cm in the amide II region is consistent with a hydrogen bond pattern of the enzyme more similar to that shown in water. These results suggest that although sugars are not able to fully preserve the native secondary structure, they might contribute to reduce the conformational changes caused by protein/protein interactions. These factors in combinations with others (e.g., ability to reduce deleterious interactions between the enzyme and inert supports) make sugars (both mono- and disaccharides) an interesting class of additives for improving the performance of biocatalysts in organic solvents.

  5. Cost Reduction Through the Use of Additive Manufacturing (3d Printing) and Collaborative Product Life Cycle Management Technologies to Enhance the Navy’s Maintenance Programs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    Level Military and Civilian Medium Medium Depot Level Civilian High High D. ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING AM, more commonly known as 3D printing, is a...Thermoplastics (e.g., PLA, ABS), HDPE, eutectic metals, edible materials Granular Direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) Most metal alloys ...Electron beam melting (EBM) Titanium alloys Selective laser melting (SLM) Titanium alloys , cobalt chrome alloys , stainless steel, aluminum Selective heat

  6. Nitrogen and oxygen functionalized hollow carbon materials: The capacitive enhancement by simply incorporating novel redox additives into H2SO4 electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Yong Fu; Wang, Qian; Chen, Xiang Ying; Zhang, Zhong Jie

    2016-07-01

    In present work, we have developed a simple but effective template carbonization method for producing hollow carbon materials with high content of nitrogen and oxygen from thiocarbanilide. Among all samples, the NPC-1 exhibits high specific surface area (736 m2 g-1) and large pore volume (5.93 cm3 g-1) with high content of heteroatoms (∼11.25 at% nitrogen and ∼5.74 at% oxygen), which is conducive to the improvement of electrochemical performance. Specifically, the high specific capacitance and excellent cycling stability over 5000 cycles of the NPC-1-based electrode are achieved in 1 mol L-1 H2SO4 electrolyte. Additionally, pyrocatechol and rutin as novel redox additives that can easily cause redox-reactions have been incorporated into H2SO4 electrolyte to improve the capacitances. As a result, the NPC-1-R-0.15 and NPC-1-P-0.15 samples deliver high specific capacitances of 120.5 and 368.7 F g-1 at 2 A g-1, respectively, which are much higher than that of the NPC-1 sample (66.2 F g-1) without redox-additives at same current density. Furthermore, the large energy density of 18.9 and 11.9 Wh kg-1 of the NPC-1-based symmetric supercapacitors have been obtained in H2SO4+pyrocatechol and H2SO4+rutin electrolyte, respectively, and both samples also demonstrate excellent cyclic performance for 5000 cycles.

  7. Association of colony morphology with coenzyme Q(10) production and its enhancement from Rhizobium radiobacter T6102W by addition of isopentenyl alcohol as a precursor.

    PubMed

    Seo, Myung-Ji; Kook, Moo-Chang; Kim, Soon-Ok

    2012-02-01

    Rhizobium radiobacter T6102 was morphologically purified by the aniline blue agar plates to give two distinct colonies; white smooth mucoid colony (T6102W) and blue rough colony (T6102B). The coenzyme Q(10) (CoQ(10)) was produced just by T6102W, showing 2.0 mg/g of CoQ(10) content, whereas the T6102B did not produce the CoQ(10). All of the used CoQ(10) biosynthetic precursors enhanced the CoQ(10) production by T6102W. Specifically, the supplementation of 0.75 mM isopentenyl alcohol improved the CoQ(10) concentration (19.9 mg/l) and content (2.4 mg/g) by 42% and 40%, respectively.

  8. Novel Anti-Adhesive CMC-PE Hydrogel Significantly Enhanced Morphological and Physiological Recovery after Surgical Decompression in an Animal Model of Entrapment Neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Urano, Hideki; Iwatsuki, Katsuyuki; Yamamoto, Michiro; Ohnisi, Tetsuro; Kurimoto, Shigeru; Endo, Nobuyuki; Hirata, Hitoshi

    2016-01-01

    We developed a novel hydrogel derived from sodium carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) in which phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) was introduced into the carboxyl groups of CMC to prevent perineural adhesions. This hydrogel has previously shown excellent anti-adhesive effects even after aggressive internal neurolysis in a rat model. Here, we confirmed the effects of the hydrogel on morphological and physiological recovery after nerve decompression. We prepared a rat model of chronic sciatic nerve compression using silicone tubing. Morphological and physiological recovery was confirmed at one, two, and three months after nerve decompression by assessing motor conduction velocity (MCV), the wet weight of the tibialis anterior muscle and morphometric evaluations of nerves. Electrophysiology showed significantly quicker recovery in the CMC-PE group than in the control group (24.0 ± 3.1 vs. 21.0± 2.1 m/s (p < 0.05) at one months and MCV continued to be significantly faster thereafter. Wet muscle weight at one month significantly differed between the CMC-PE (BW) and control groups (0.148 ± 0.020 vs. 0.108 ± 0.019%BW). The mean wet muscle weight was constantly higher in the CMC-PE group than in the control group throughout the experimental period. The axon area at one month was twice as large in the CMC-PE group compared with the control group (24.1 ± 17.3 vs. 12.3 ± 9 μm2) due to the higher ratio of axons with a larger diameter. Although the trend continued throughout the experimental period, the difference decreased after two months and was not statistically significant at three months. Although anti-adhesives can reduce adhesion after nerve injury, their effects on morphological and physiological recovery after surgical decompression of chronic entrapment neuropathy have not been investigated in detail. The present study showed that the new anti-adhesive CMC-PE gel can accelerate morphological and physiological recovery of nerves after decompression surgery.

  9. Novel Anti-Adhesive CMC-PE Hydrogel Significantly Enhanced Morphological and Physiological Recovery after Surgical Decompression in an Animal Model of Entrapment Neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Urano, Hideki; Iwatsuki, Katsuyuki; Yamamoto, Michiro; Ohnisi, Tetsuro; Kurimoto, Shigeru; Endo, Nobuyuki; Hirata, Hitoshi

    2016-01-01

    We developed a novel hydrogel derived from sodium carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) in which phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) was introduced into the carboxyl groups of CMC to prevent perineural adhesions. This hydrogel has previously shown excellent anti-adhesive effects even after aggressive internal neurolysis in a rat model. Here, we confirmed the effects of the hydrogel on morphological and physiological recovery after nerve decompression. We prepared a rat model of chronic sciatic nerve compression using silicone tubing. Morphological and physiological recovery was confirmed at one, two, and three months after nerve decompression by assessing motor conduction velocity (MCV), the wet weight of the tibialis anterior muscle and morphometric evaluations of nerves. Electrophysiology showed significantly quicker recovery in the CMC-PE group than in the control group (24.0 ± 3.1 vs. 21.0± 2.1 m/s (p < 0.05) at one months and MCV continued to be significantly faster thereafter. Wet muscle weight at one month significantly differed between the CMC-PE (BW) and control groups (0.148 ± 0.020 vs. 0.108 ± 0.019%BW). The mean wet muscle weight was constantly higher in the CMC-PE group than in the control group throughout the experimental period. The axon area at one month was twice as large in the CMC-PE group compared with the control group (24.1 ± 17.3 vs. 12.3 ± 9 μm2) due to the higher ratio of axons with a larger diameter. Although the trend continued throughout the experimental period, the difference decreased after two months and was not statistically significant at three months. Although anti-adhesives can reduce adhesion after nerve injury, their effects on morphological and physiological recovery after surgical decompression of chronic entrapment neuropathy have not been investigated in detail. The present study showed that the new anti-adhesive CMC-PE gel can accelerate morphological and physiological recovery of nerves after decompression surgery. PMID:27741280

  10. Anabolic-androgenic steroid does not enhance compensatory muscle hypertrophy but significantly diminish muscle damages in the rat surgical ablation model.

    PubMed

    Tamaki, Tetsuro; Uchiyama, Yoshiyasu; Okada, Yoshinori; Tono, Kayoko; Nitta, Masahiro; Hoshi, Akio; Akatsuka, Akira

    2009-07-01

    Cellular responses in the compensatory hypertrophied (plantaris) muscle induced by surgical ablation of synergistic muscles (soleus and gastrocnemius) were determined during 10-week anabolic androgenic steroid (AAS) treatment. Adult Wistar male rats were divided randomly into the Control and Steroid groups, and contralateral surgery was performed. Nandrolone decanoate was administered to the Steroid group. [3H]thymidine and [14C]leucine labeling were used to determine the serial changes in cellular mitotic activity and amino acid uptake. Myogenic cells and cellular responses in blood vessels and nerve fibers were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Significantly lower cellular mitotic activity associated with lower volume of muscle fiber necrosis was observed in the Steroid group during the first week. However, amino acid uptake and final muscle wet weight gain did not differ between the groups. Marked activation/proliferation of muscular, vascular, and peripheral nerve-related cells was seen with the inflammatory responses in both groups. However, this activation was dependent on the volume of muscle fiber damage and was not preferentially accelerated by AAS loading. These results indicated that AAS loading significantly diminished muscle fiber damages, but they did not accelerate final muscle wet weight gain and activation of myogenic, vascular, and peripheral nerve related cells in the compensatory enlarged muscles.

  11. Additional N-glycosylation in the N-terminal region of recombinant human alpha-1 antitrypsin enhances the circulatory half-life in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Chung, Hye-Shin; Kim, Ji-Sun; Lee, Sang Mee; Park, Soon Jae

    2016-04-01

    Glycosylation affects the circulatory half-lives of therapeutic proteins. However, the effects of an additional N-glycosylation in the unstructured region or the loop region of alpha-1 antitrypsin (A1AT) on the circulatory half-life of the protein are largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the role of an additional N-glycosylation site (Q4N/D6T, Q9N, D12N/S14T, A70N, G148T, R178N, or V212N) to the three naturally occurring N-glycosylation sites in human A1AT. A single-dose (445 μg/kg) pharmacokinetic study using male Sprague-Dawley rats showed that, among the seven recombinant A1AT (rA1AT) mutants, Q9N and D12N/S14T showed the highest serum concentration and area under the curve values, as well as similar circulatory half-lives that were 2.2-fold higher than plasma-derived A1AT and 1.7-fold higher than wild-type rA1AT. We further characterized the Q9N mutant regarding the N-glycan profile, sialic acid content, protease inhibitory activity, and protein stability. The results indicate that an additional N-glycosylation in the flexible N-terminal region increases the circulatory half-life of rA1AT without altering its protease inhibitory activity. Our study provides novel insight into the use of rA1AT for the treatment of emphysema with an increased injection interval relative to the clinically used plasma-derived A1AT.

  12. Enhanced luminescence properties of CaTiO(3):Pr(3+) phosphor with addition of SiO(2) by solid-state reaction.

    PubMed

    Chen, Rui; Chen, Donghua

    2014-06-05

    Red phosphors CaTiO3:Pr(3+) with addition of SiO2 were prepared by solid-state reaction technique (SS). The effect of SiO2 on the crystalline phase, surface morphology and luminescence properties of CaTiO3:Pr(3+) was studied by X-ray diffractometer, transmission electron microscope, brightness meter and photoluminescence spectrometer, respectively. The results indicated that the content of SiO2 has influence on luminescence intensity, initial brightness and persistent time of samples. The red phosphor CaTi0.5Si0.5O3:Pr(3+) exhibited the optimal luminescence properties.

  13. Superhydrophobic powder additives to enhance chemical agent resistant coating systems for military equipment for the U.S. Marine Corps (USMC) Corrosion Prevention and Control (CPAC) Program

    SciTech Connect

    Pawel, Steven J.; Armstrong, Beth L.; Haynes, James A.

    2015-07-01

    The primary goal of the CPAC program at ORNL was to explore the feasibility of introducing various silica-based superhydrophobic (SH) powder additives as a way to improve the corrosion resistance of US Department of Defense (DOD) military-grade chemical agent resistant coating (CARC) systems. ORNL had previously developed and patented several SH technologies of interest to the USMC, and one of the objectives of this program was to identify methods to incorporate these technologies into the USMC’s corrosion-resistance strategy. This report discusses findings of the CPAC and their application.

  14. Inclusion of a universal tetanus toxoid CD4+ T cell epitope P2 significantly enhanced the immunogenicity of recombinant rotavirus ΔVP8* subunit parenteral vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Xiaobo; Wen, Ke; Cao, Dianjun; Li, Guohua; Jones, Ronald W.; Li, Jianping; Szu, Shousun; Hoshino, Yasutaka; Yuan, Lijuan

    2014-01-01

    Currently available live oral rotavirus vaccines, Rotarix® and RotaTeq®, are highly efficacious in developed countries. However, the immunogenicity and efficacy of such vaccines in some developing countries are low. We reported previously that bacterially-expressed rotavirus ΔVP8* subunit vaccine candidates with P[8], P[4] or P[6] specificity elicited high-titer virus neutralizing antibodies in animals immunized intramuscularly. Of note was the finding that antibodies induced with the P[8]ΔVP8* vaccine neutralized both homotypic P[8] and heterotypic P[4] rotavirus strains to high titer. To further improve its vaccine potential, a tetanus toxoid universal CD4+ T cell epitope P2 was introduced into P[8] or P[6]ΔVP8* construct. The resulting recombinant fusion proteins expressed in Escherichia coli were of high solubility and were produced with high yield. Two doses (10 or 20μg/dose) of the P2-P[8]ΔVP8* vaccine or P2-P[6]ΔVP8* vaccine with aluminum phosphate adjuvant elicited significantly higher geometric mean homologous neutralizing antibody titers than the vaccines without P2 in intramuscularly immunized guinea pigs. Interestingly, high levels of neutralizing antibody responses induced in guinea pigs with 3 doses of the P2-P[8]ΔVP8* vaccine persisted for at least 6 months. Furthermore, in the gnotobiotic piglet challenge study, three intramuscular doses (50μg/dose) of the P2-P[8]ΔVP8* vaccine with aluminum phosphate adjuvant significantly delayed the onset of diarrhea and significantly reduced the duration of diarrhea and the cumulative diarrhea score after oral challenge with virulent human rotavirus Wa (G1P[8]) strain. The P2-P[8]ΔVP8* vaccine induced serum virus neutralizing antibody and VP4-specific IgG antibody production prechallenge, and primed the pigs for higher antibody and intestinal and systemic virus-specific IFN-γ producing CD4+ T cell responses postchallenge. These two subunit vaccines could be used at a minimum singly or preferably in

  15. School Improvement Grants: Education Should Take Additional Steps to Enhance Accountability for Schools and Contractors. Report to Congressional Requesters. GAO-12-373

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, George A.

    2012-01-01

    The School Improvement Grant (SIG) program funds reforms in low performing schools. Congress provided $3.5 billion for SIG in fiscal year 2009, and a total of about $1.6 billion was appropriated in fiscal years 2010-2012. SIG requirements changed significantly in 2010. Many schools receiving SIG funds must now use the funding for specific…

  16. Solcoseryl, a tissue respiration stimulating agent, significantly enhances the effect of capacitively coupled electric field on the promotion of bone formation around dental implants.

    PubMed

    Ochi, Morio; Wang, Pao-Li; Ohura, Kiyoshi; Takashima, Shigenori; Kagami, Hiroyuki; Hirose, Yukito; Kaku, Tohru; Sakaguchi, Kunihiko

    2003-06-01

    In the present study we examined the combined effect of application of a capacitively coupled electric field (CCEF) and the tissue respiration stimulating agent, Solcoseryl, on the promotion of bone formation around dental implants histologically and mechanically. After a dental implant was inserted into each femur of Japanese white rabbits, Solcoseryl (2 ml/kg) was administered intravenously in the ear vein and a CCEF was applied for 4 h per day for 14 days. The degree of bone formation on microscopic observation, bone contact ratio, bone surface area ratio, and the level of removal torque of the implant in the Solcoseryl- and CCEF-treated group were significantly higher than the respective value in the control group, which had not been treated with Solcoseryl nor CCEF. Thus, the combination of CCEF stimulation and Solcoseryl effectively promoted the formation of new bone. It is suggested that the clinical use of a combination of CCEF stimulation and Solcoseryl for dental implants promotes osseointegration.

  17. Enhancing Cognitive Functioning in Healthly Older Adults: a Systematic Review of the Clinical Significance of Commercially Available Computerized Cognitive Training in Preventing Cognitive Decline.

    PubMed

    Shah, Tejal M; Weinborn, Michael; Verdile, Giuseppe; Sohrabi, Hamid R; Martins, Ralph N

    2017-03-01

    Successfully assisting older adults to maintain or improve cognitive function, particularly when they are dealing with neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), remains a major challenge. Cognitive training may stimulate neuroplasticity thereby increasing cognitive and brain reserve. Commercial brain training programs are computerized, readily-available, easy-to-administer and adaptive but often lack supportive data and their clinical validation literature has not been previously reviewed. Therefore, in this review, we report the characteristics of commercially available brain training programs, critically assess the number and quality of studies evaluating the empirical evidence of these programs for promoting brain health in healthy older adults, and discuss underlying causal mechanisms. We searched PubMed, Google Scholar and each program's website for relevant studies reporting the effects of computerized cognitive training on cognitively healthy older adults. The evidence for each program was assessed via the number and quality (PEDro score) of studies, including Randomized Control Trials (RCTs). Programs with clinical studies were subsequently classified as possessing Level I, II or III evidence. Out of 18 identified programs, 7 programs were investigated in 26 studies including follow-ups. Two programs were identified as possessing Level I evidence, three programs demonstrated Level II evidence and an additional two programs demonstrated Level III evidence. Overall, studies showed generally high methodological quality (average PEDro score = 7.05). Although caution must be taken regarding any potential bias due to selective reporting, current evidence supports that at least some commercially available computerized brain training products can assist in promoting healthy brain aging.

  18. Enhanced salt-removal percentage in capacitive deionization with addition of ion-exchange membrane using carbon electrode synthesized with freezing thawing method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sari, Intan Permata; Endarko

    2016-04-01

    Ion-exchange membrane technology has shown a great potential to enhance the desalting efficiency. Ion-exchange membranes are placed in front of the electrodes so that the charged ions can be selectively passed through the membrane layer and captured by the oppositely charged electrode more quickly, so as to increase the efficiency of desalination. In this research, carbon electrodes have been synthesized from an activated carbon (700 - 1400 m2/g) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as a binder using freezing thawing method. A solution with 180 µS/cm NaCl was pumped to the capacitive deionization (CDI) cell using a Boyu Submersible pump (model SP-601) at a flow rate of 25 mL/min and the voltage was set at 2 V. The result showed that the CDI cell with ion-exchange membrane (MCDI) has the salt removal efficiency greater than the CDI cell without ion-exchange membrane. The salt-removal percentage of MCDI was achieved at 66.36%, meanwhile the CDI cell without ion-exchange membrane resulted in 54.4%.

  19. A novel zinc-finger HIT protein with an additional PAPA-1-like region from Suaeda liaotungensis K. enhanced transgenic Arabidopsis drought and salt stresses tolerance.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-Lan; Hu, Yu-Xin; Yang, Xing; Yu, Xiao-Dong; Li, Qiu-Li

    2014-12-01

    Zinc-finger HIT belongs to the cross-brace zinc finger protein family and is involved in the regulation of plant defense and stress responses. In this study, we cloned a full-length zinc-finger HIT gene (1,377 bp) named SlPAPA1 using polymerase chain reaction from Suaeda liaotungensis K. and investigated its function by overexpression in transgenic Arabidopsis. SlPAPA1 contains a zinc-finger HIT domain and a Pim-1-associated protein-1 (PAP-1)-associated protein-1-like (PAPA-1-like) conserved region. Its expression in S. liaotungensis was induced by drought, high-salt, and cold (4 °C) stresses and by abscisic acid (ABA). Subcellular localization experiments in onion epidermal cells indicated that SlPAPA1 is localized in the nucleus. Yeast-one hybrid assays showed that SlPAPA1 functions as a transcriptional activator. SlPAPA1 transgenic Arabidopsis displayed a higher survival ratio and lower rate of water loss under drought stress; a higher germination ratio, higher survival ratio, and lower root inhibition rate under salt stress; and a lower germination ratio and root inhibition rate under ABA treatment, compared with wild-type Arabidopsis. These results suggested that SlPAPA1 functions as a stress-responsive zinc-finger HIT protein involved in the ABA-dependent signaling pathway and may have potential applications in transgenic breeding to enhance crops abiotic stress tolerances.

  20. Effects of boron addition on a-Si(90)Ge(10):H films obtained by low frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Arllene M; Renero, Francisco J; Zúñiga, Carlos; Torres, Alfonso; Santiago, César

    2005-06-29

    Optical, structural and electric properties of (a-(Si(90)Ge(10))(1-y)B(y):H) thin film alloys, deposited by low frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition, are presented. The chemical bonding structure has been studied by IR spectroscopy, while the composition was investigated by Raman spectroscopy. A discussion about boron doping effects, in the composition and bonding of samples, is presented. Transport of carriers has been studied by measurement of the conductivity dependence on temperature, which increases from 10(-3) to 10(1) Ω(-1) cm(-1) when the boron content varies from 0 to 50%. Similarly, the activation energy is between 0.62 and 0.19 eV when the doping increases from 0 to 83%. The optical properties have been determined from the film's optical transmission, using Swanepoel's method. It is shown that the optical gap varies from 1.3 to 0.99 eV.

  1. miR-181a/b significantly enhances drug sensitivity in chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells via targeting multiple anti-apoptosis genes.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Dan-Xia; Zhu, Wei; Fang, Cheng; Fan, Lei; Zou, Zhi-Jian; Wang, Yin-Hua; Liu, Ping; Hong, Min; Miao, Kou-Rong; Liu, Peng; Xu, Wei; Li, Jian-Yong

    2012-07-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been shown to play critical roles in regulating the progress of leukemia. We performed miRNA expression profile in six Chinese patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), and in peripheral B cells from pooled 30 healthy donors, using a platform containing 866 human miRNAs. The most frequent changes in miRNAs in CLL cells included downregulation of miR-126, miR-572, miR-494, miR-923, miR-638, miR-130a, miR-181a and miR-181b and up-regulation of miR-29a, miR-660, miR-20a, miR-106b, miR-142-5p, miR-101, miR-30b, miR-34a, miR-let-7f, miR-21 and miR-155. Among the miRNAs down-regulated in CLL cells, we showed that miR-181a/b expression levels were significantly lower in poor prognostic subgroups defined by unmutated immunoglobulin heavy chain variable status and p53 aberrations. Furthermore, under-expression of miR-181a and miR-181b was associated with shorter overall survival and treatment-free survival in CLL patients. We further evaluated fludarabine-induced apoptosis after transfection of primary CLL cells from 40 patients with miR-15a, miR-16-1, miR-34a, miR-181a and miR-181b mimics. Transfection of miR-34a, miR-181a and miR-181b mimics into CLL cells from p53 wild-type patients led to significant increase in apoptosis compared with miRNA control. However, enforced expression of these miRNAs had no effect on B-CLL cells from p53-attenuated patients. We further demonstrated that miR-181a and miR-181b inhibiting BCL-2, MCL-1 and X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein by direct binding to 3'UTR. Thus, these results suggest that miR-181a/b may play important roles in the pathogenesis of CLL and may provide a possible therapeutic avenue and a sensitive indicator of the activity of the p53 axis in CLL.

  2. Significant enhancement of optical absorption through nano-structuring of copper based oxide semiconductors: possible future materials for solar energy applications.

    PubMed

    Bhaumik, Anagh; Shearin, Austin M; Patel, Rishi; Ghosh, Kartik

    2014-06-14

    The optical absorption coefficient is a crucial parameter in determining solar cell efficiency under operational conditions. It is well known that inorganic nanocrystals are a benchmark model for solar cell nanotechnology, given that the tunability of optical properties and stabilization of specific phases are uniquely possible at the nanoscale. A hydrothermal method was employed to fabricate nanostructured copper oxides where the shape, size and phase were tailored by altering the growth parameters, namely the base media used, the reaction temperature, and the reaction time. The nano crystalline structures, phases, morphology, molecular vibrational modes, and optical properties were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Raman spectroscopy, photoluminescence (PL), and UV-vis spectroscopy. A significantly large optical absorption coefficient, of the order of twice that of Si in the visible range, was observed in a particular phase mixture of nanostructured copper oxides. An optical absorption coefficient of 7.05 10(+5) cm(-1) at 525 nm was observed in a particular nanostructured phase mixture of copper oxides which is appreciably larger than commercially pure CuO (1.19 10(+5) cm(-1)) and Si (1.72 10(+5) cm(-1)). A possible mechanism of formation of phase mixtures and morphology of copper oxides has also been discussed, which opens up a roadmap in synthesis of similar morphology nanostructures for efficient solar cells.

  3. Significant degradability enhancement in multilayer coating of polycaprolactone-bioactive glass/gelatin-bioactive glass on magnesium scaffold for tissue engineering applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yazdimamaghani, Mostafa; Razavi, Mehdi; Vashaee, Daryoosh; Pothineni, Venkata Raveendra; Rajadas, Jayakumar; Tayebi, Lobat

    2015-05-01

    Magnesium (Mg) is a promising candidate to be used in medical products especially as bone tissue engineering scaffolds. The main challenge for using Mg in biomedical applications is its high degradation rate in the body. For this reason, in this study, a multilayer polymeric layer composed of polycaprolactone (PCL) and gelatin (Gel) reinforced with bioactive glass (BaG) particles has been applied on the surface of Mg scaffolds. The materials characteristics of uncoated Mg scaffold, Mg scaffold coated only with PCL-BaG and Mg scaffold coated with PCL-BaG and Gel-BaG have been analyzed and compared in detail. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were utilized for microstructural studies. In vitro bioactivity and biodegradation evaluations were carried out by submerging the scaffolds in simulated body fluid (SBF) at pre-determined time points. The results demonstrated that Mg scaffold coated with PCL-BaG and Gel-BaG exhibited significant improvement in biodegradability.

  4. Highly Efficient Deep Blue Organic Light-Emitting Diodes Based on Imidazole: Significantly Enhanced Performance by Effective Energy Transfer with Negligible Efficiency Roll-off.

    PubMed

    Shan, Tong; Liu, Yulong; Tang, Xiangyang; Bai, Qing; Gao, Yu; Gao, Zhao; Li, Jinyu; Deng, Jian; Yang, Bing; Lu, Ping; Ma, Yuguang

    2016-10-10

    Great efforts have been devoted to develop efficient deep blue organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) materials meeting the standards of European Broadcasting Union (EBU) standard with Commission International de L'Eclairage (CIE) coordinates of (0.15, 0.06) for flat-panel displays and solid-state lightings. However, high-performanced deep blue OLEDs are still rare for applications. Herein, two efficient deep blue emitters, PIMNA and PyINA, are designed and synthesized by coupling naphthalene with phenanthreneimidazole and pyreneimidazole, respectively. The balanced ambipolar transporting natures of them are demonstrated by single-carrier devices. Their non-doped OLEDs show deep blue emissions with extremely small CIEy of 0.034 for PIMNA and 0.084 for PyINA, with negligible efficiency roll-off. To take advantage of high photoluminescence quantum efficiency of PIMNA and large fraction of singlet exciton formation of PyINA, doped devices are fabricated by dispersing PyINA into PIMNA, a significantly improved maximum external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 5.05% is obtained through very effective energy transfer with CIE coordinates of (0.156, 0.060), and the EQE remains 4.67% at 1000 cd m-2, which is among the best of deep blue OLEDs reported matching stringent EBU standard well.

  5. Double mutation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for enhanced β-d-fructofuranosidase fructohydrolase productivity and application of growth kinetics for parametric significance analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Sikander; Aslam, Aafia; Hayyat, Muhammad Umar

    2016-01-01

    The kinetics of an extracellular β-d-fructofuranosidase fructohydrolase production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae in a chemically defined medium, i.e., sucrose peptone agar yeast extract at pH 6, was investigated. The wild-type was treated with a chemical mutagen, methyl methane sulfonate. Among the six mutants isolated, methyl methane sulfonate-V was found to be a better enzyme producing strain (52 ± 2.4a U/mL). The maximum production (74 ± 3.1a U/mL) was accomplished after at 48 h (68 ± 2.7a mg/mL protein). The mutants were stabilized at low levels of 5-fluoro-cytocine and the viable ones were further processed for optimization of cultural conditions and nutritional requirements. The sucrose concentration, incubation period and pH were optimized to be 30 g/L, 28 °C, and 6.5, respectively. The methyl methane sulfonate-V exhibited an improvement of over 10 folds in enzyme production when 5 g/L ammonium sulfate was used as a nitrogen source. Thin layer chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography analysis illustrated the optimal enzyme activity supported by the higher rate of hydrolysis of sucrose into monosaccharides, particularly α-d-glucose and β-d-fructose. The values for Qp (2 ± 0.12c U/mL/h) and Yp/s (4 ± 1.24b U/g) of the mutant were considerably increased in comparison with other yeast strains (both isolates and viable mutants). The mutant could be exploited for enzyme production over a wider temperature range (26–34 °C), with significantly high enzyme activity (LSD 0.048, HS) at the optimal temperature. PMID:26887236

  6. Reducing Human-Tsetse Contact Significantly Enhances the Efficacy of Sleeping Sickness Active Screening Campaigns: A Promising Result in the Context of Elimination

    PubMed Central

    Courtin, Fabrice; Camara, Mamadou; Rayaisse, Jean-Baptiste; Kagbadouno, Moise; Dama, Emilie; Camara, Oumou; Traoré, Ibrahima S.; Rouamba, Jérémi; Peylhard, Moana; Somda, Martin B.; Leno, Mamadou; Lehane, Mike J.; Torr, Steve J.; Solano, Philippe; Jamonneau, Vincent; Bucheton, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Background Control of gambiense sleeping sickness, a neglected tropical disease targeted for elimination by 2020, relies mainly on mass screening of populations at risk and treatment of cases. This strategy is however challenged by the existence of undetected reservoirs of parasites that contribute to the maintenance of transmission. In this study, performed in the Boffa disease focus of Guinea, we evaluated the value of adding vector control to medical surveys and measured its impact on disease burden. Methods The focus was divided into two parts (screen and treat in the western part; screen and treat plus vector control in the eastern part) separated by the Rio Pongo river. Population census and baseline entomological data were collected from the entire focus at the beginning of the study and insecticide impregnated targets were deployed on the eastern bank only. Medical surveys were performed in both areas in 2012 and 2013. Findings In the vector control area, there was an 80% decrease in tsetse density, resulting in a significant decrease of human tsetse contacts, and a decrease of disease prevalence (from 0.3% to 0.1%; p=0.01), and an almost nil incidence of new infections (<0.1%). In contrast, incidence was 10 times higher in the area without vector control (>1%, p<0.0001) with a disease prevalence increasing slightly (from 0.5 to 0.7%, p=0.34). Interpretation Combining medical and vector control was decisive in reducing T. b. gambiense transmission and in speeding up progress towards elimination. Similar strategies could be applied in other foci. PMID:26267667

  7. Addition of vasopressin synthetic analogue [V(4)Q(5)]dDAVP to standard chemotherapy enhances tumour growth inhibition and impairs metastatic spread in aggressive breast tumour models.

    PubMed

    Garona, Juan; Pifano, Marina; Pastrian, Maria B; Gomez, Daniel E; Ripoll, Giselle V; Alonso, Daniel F

    2016-08-01

    [V(4)Q(5)]dDAVP is a novel 2nd generation vasopressin analogue with robust antitumour activity against metastatic breast cancer. We recently reported that, by acting on vasopressin V2r membrane receptor present in tumour cells and microvascular endothelium, [V(4)Q(5)]dDAVP inhibits angiogenesis and metastatic progression of the disease without overt toxicity. Despite chemotherapy remaining as a primary therapeutic option for aggressive breast cancer, its use is limited by low selectivity and associated adverse effects. In this regard, we evaluated potential combinational benefits by adding [V(4)Q(5)]dDAVP to standard-of-care chemotherapy. In vitro, combination of [V(4)Q(5)]dDAVP with sub-IC50 concentrations of paclitaxel or carmustine resulted in a cooperative inhibition of breast cancer cell growth in comparison to single-agent therapy. In vivo antitumour efficacy of [V(4)Q(5)]dDAVP addition to chemotherapy was first evaluated using the triple-negative MDA-MB-231 breast cancer xenograft model. Tumour-bearing mice were treated with i.v. injections of [V(4)Q(5)]dDAVP (0.3 μg/kg, thrice weekly) in combination with weekly cycles of paclitaxel (10 mg/kg i.p.). After 6 weeks of treatment, combination regimen resulted in greater tumour growth inhibition compared to monotherapy. [V(4)Q(5)]dDAVP addition was also associated with reduction of local aggressiveness, and impairment of tumour invasion and infiltration of the skin. Benefits of combined therapy were confirmed in the hormone-independent and metastatic F3II breast cancer model by combining [V(4)Q(5)]dDAVP with carmustine (25 mg/kg i.p.). Interestingly, [V(4)Q(5)]dDAVP plus cytotoxic agents severely impaired colony forming ability of tumour cells and inhibited breast cancer metastasis to lung. The present study shows that [V(4)Q(5)]dDAVP may complement conventional chemotherapy by modulating metastatic progression and early stages of microtumour establishment, and thus supports further preclinical testing of

  8. Cough reflex is additively potentiated by inputs from the laryngeal and tracheobronchial [corrected] receptors and enhanced by stimulation of the central respiratory neurons.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Tetsuri; Hayama, Naoki

    2009-09-01

    The cough is an essential airway defense reflex. In this study we investigated the coordination of inputs from the laryngeal and tracheobronchial receptors in the cough reflex. In 15 beagle dogs (7-9 kg) lightly anesthetized with intravenous profobol (20-30 mg/kg/h), the cough response was elicited with mechanical stimulation of either the vocal chord or tracheal bifurcation. Simultaneous stimulation of both sites increased all the parameters of cough strength, that is, mean pleural pressure (P (pl)), mean expiratory flow, number of cough bouts, and cough duration, in comparison with stimulation of the sites individually. The increases in mean P (pl) and cough duration reached statistical significance (13.3 vs. 18.4 cmH(2)O and 13.3 vs. 18.2 s, respectively). When the anesthetic level became deeper, the prolongation of cough duration almost disappeared, but the augmentation of mean P (pl) was much less affected. During stimulation of the central respiratory neurons by intravenous dimorphoramine or acute hyperoxic hypercapnia, the cough strength increased significantly. We concluded that inputs from the laryngeal and tracheobonchial cough receptors acted in concert and potentiated the cough reflex. Furthermore, stimulation of the central respiratory neurons may increase the intensity of a cough response.

  9. Technical Project Plan for The Enhanced Thermal Conductivity of Oxide Fuels Through the Addition of High Thermal Conductivity Fibers and Microstructural Engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Hollenbach, Daniel F; Ott, Larry J; Besmann, Theodore M; Armstrong, Beth L; Wereszczak, Andrew A; Lin, Hua-Tay; Ellis, Ronald James; Becher, Paul F; Jubin, Robert Thomas; Voit, Stewart L

    2010-09-01

    The commercial nuclear power industry is investing heavily in advanced fuels that can produce higher power levels with a higher safety margin and be produced at low cost. Although chemically stable and inexpensive to manufacture, the in-core performance of UO{sub 2} fuel is limited by its low thermal conductivity. There will be enormous financial benefits to any utility that can exploit a new type of fuel that is chemically stable, has a high thermal conductivity, and is inexpensive to manufacture. At reactor operating temperatures, UO{sub 2} has a very low thermal conductivity (<5 W/m {center_dot}K), which decreases with temperature and fuel burnup. This low thermal conductivity limits the rate at which energy can be removed from the fuel, thus limiting the total integrated reactor power. If the fuel thermal conductivity could be increased, nuclear reactors would be able to operate at higher powers and larger safety margins thus decreasing the overall cost of electricity by increasing the power output from existing reactors and decreasing the number of new electrical generating plants needed to meet base load demand. The objective of the work defined herein is to produce an advanced nuclear fuel based on the current UO{sub 2} fuel with superior thermal conductivity and structural integrity that is suitable for current and future nuclear reactors, using the existing fuel fabrication infrastructure with minimal modifications. There are two separate components to the research: (1) Enhanced Thermal Conductivity (ETC) - adding high conductivity fibers to the UO{sub 2} prior to sintering, which act as conduits for moving the heat energy generated within the pellet to the outer surface, (2) Microstructural Engineering (ME) - adding second phase particulates to UO{sub 2} bodies to retard grain growth and to increase thermal conductivity, as well as improve fracture and creep resistance. Different groups will perform the laboratory work for each of these research

  10. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fletcher, James C. (Inventor); Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor); Burks, Harold D. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

  11. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor); Burks, Harold D. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of the additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

  12. Electrochemical Analysis for Enhancing Interface Layer of Spinel Li4Ti5O12: p-Toluenesulfonyl Isocyanate as Electrolyte Additive.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ren-Heng; Li, Xin-Hai; Wang, Zhi-Xing; Guo, Hua-Jun; He, Zhen-Jiang

    2015-10-28

    An electrolyte additive, p-toluenesulfonyl isocyanate (PTSI), is evaluated in our work to overcome the poor cycling performance of spinel lithium titanate (Li4Ti5O12) lithium-ion batteries. We find that the cycling performance of a Li/Li4Ti5O12 cell with 0.5 wt % PTSI after 400 cycles is obviously improved. Remarkably, we also find that a solid electrolyte interface (SEI) film is formed about 1.2 V, which has higher potential to generate a stable SEI film than do carbonate solvents in the voltage range of 3.0-0 V. The stable SEI film derived from PTSI can effectively suppress the decomposition of electrolyte, HF generation, interfacial reaction, and LiF formation upon cycling. These observations are explained in terms of PTSI including SO3. The S═O groups can delocalize the nitrogen core, which acts as the weak base site to hinder the reactivity of PF5. Hence, HF generation and LiF formation are suppressed.

  13. Addition of D-penicillamine, hypotaurine, and epinephrine (PHE) mixture to IVF medium maintains motility and longevity of bovine sperm and enhances stable production of blastocysts in vitro.

    PubMed

    Kang, Sung-Sik; Koyama, Keisuke; Huang, Weiping; Yang, Yinghua; Yanagawa, Yojiro; Takahashi, Yoshiyuki; Nagano, Masashi

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to establish an efficient system for bovine embryo production by in vitro fertilization (IVF) that can achieve stable normal fertilization and blastocyst developmental rates in any bull without optimization of the sperm concentration in IVF medium. We examined the effects of a PHE mixture (20 μM D-penicillamine, 10 μM hypotaurine and 1 μM epinephrine), theophylline (2.5 mM), and sperm concentration (1, 2 or 5 × 10(6) cells/ml) on fertilization and blastocyst developmental rates. High cleavage rates (78.3 to 92.4%) and blastocyst developmental rates (31.9 to 62.0%) at day 7 were obtained in the presence of PHE and theophylline in IVF medium with a sperm concentration of 2 × 10(6) cells/ml using sperm from 9 bulls. In addition, the synergistic effect of PHE and theophylline on normal fertilization (2 pronuclei) was clarified at 12 h after IVF with a sperm concentration of 1 × 10(6) cells/ml. Moreover, high linearity, high flagellar beat cross frequency, and low amplitude of lateral head of motile sperm were found by computer-assisted sperm analysis. In conclusion, the combination of the PHE mixture and theophylline synergistically accelerates sperm motility and sperm penetration of bovine oocytes. Theophylline activates sperm motility with increasing intracellular cAMP. However, PHE prevents an excessive increase of cAMP and maintains sperm motility without hyperactivation. When the combination of PHE and theophylline is added to IVF medium at a sperm concentration of 2 × 10(6) cells/ml, we can achieve stable normal fertilization and blastocyst development in any bull.

  14. Addition of D-penicillamine, hypotaurine, and epinephrine (PHE) mixture to IVF medium maintains motility and longevity of bovine sperm and enhances stable production of blastocysts in vitro

    PubMed Central

    KANG, Sung-Sik; KOYAMA, Keisuke; HUANG, Weiping; YANG, Yinghua; YANAGAWA, Yojiro; TAKAHASHI, Yoshiyuki; NAGANO, Masashi

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to establish an efficient system for bovine embryo production by in vitro fertilization (IVF) that can achieve stable normal fertilization and blastocyst developmental rates in any bull without optimization of the sperm concentration in IVF medium. We examined the effects of a PHE mixture (20 μM D-penicillamine, 10 μM hypotaurine and 1 μM epinephrine), theophylline (2.5 mM), and sperm concentration (1, 2 or 5 × 106 cells/ml) on fertilization and blastocyst developmental rates. High cleavage rates (78.3 to 92.4%) and blastocyst developmental rates (31.9 to 62.0%) at day 7 were obtained in the presence of PHE and theophylline in IVF medium with a sperm concentration of 2 × 106 cells/ml using sperm from 9 bulls. In addition, the synergistic effect of PHE and theophylline on normal fertilization (2 pronuclei) was clarified at 12 h after IVF with a sperm concentration of 1 × 106 cells/ml. Moreover, high linearity, high flagellar beat cross frequency, and low amplitude of lateral head of motile sperm were found by computer-assisted sperm analysis. In conclusion, the combination of the PHE mixture and theophylline synergistically accelerates sperm motility and sperm penetration of bovine oocytes. Theophylline activates sperm motility with increasing intracellular cAMP. However, PHE prevents an excessive increase of cAMP and maintains sperm motility without hyperactivation. When the combination of PHE and theophylline is added to IVF medium at a sperm concentration of 2 × 106 cells/ml, we can achieve stable normal fertilization and blastocyst development in any bull. PMID:25501343

  15. Enhancement of glycoprotein-based DNA vaccine for viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) via addition of the molecular adjuvant, DDX41.

    PubMed

    Lazarte, Jassy Mary S; Kim, Young Rim; Lee, Jung Seok; Im, Se Pyeong; Kim, Si Won; Jung, Jae Wook; Kim, Jaesung; Lee, Woo Jai; Jung, Tae Sung

    2017-03-01

    The use of molecular adjuvants to improve the immunogenicity of DNA vaccines has been thoroughly studied in recent years. Glycoprotein (G)-based DNA vaccines had been proven to be effective in combating infection against Rhabdovirus (especially infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus, IHNV) in salmonids. DDX41 is a helicase known to induce antiviral and inflammatory responses by inducing a type I IFN innate immune response. To gain more information regarding G-based DNA vaccines in olive flounder (Paralicthys olivaceus), we tried to develop a more efficient G-based DNA vaccine by adding a molecular adjuvant, DDX41. We designed a DNA vaccine in which the VHSV glycoprotein (G-protein) and DDX41 were driven by the EF-1α and CMV promoters, respectively. Olive flounders were intramuscularly immunized with 1 μg of plasmids encoding the G-based DNA vaccine alone (pEF-G), the molecular adjuvant alone (pEF-D), or the vaccine-adjuvant construct (pEF-GD). At two different time points, 15 and 30 days later, the fish were intraperitoneally infected with VHSV (100 μL; 1 × 10(6) TCID50/mL). Our assays revealed that the plasmid constructs showed up-regulated expression of IFN-1 and its associated genes at day 3 post-vaccination in both kidney and spleen samples. Specifically, pEF-GD showed statistically higher expression of immune response genes than pEF-G and pEF-D treated group (p < 0.05/p < 0.001). After VHSV challenge, the fish group treated with pEF-GD showed higher survival rate than the pEF-G treated group, though difference was not statistically significant in the 15 dpv challenged group however in the 30 dpv challenged group, the difference was statistically significant (p < 0.05). Together, these results clearly demonstrate that DDX41 is an effective adjuvant for the G-based DNA vaccine in olive flounder. Our novel findings could facilitate the development of more effective DNA vaccines for the aquaculture industry.

  16. Thermophile-fermented compost extract as a possible feed additive to enhance fecundity in the laying hen and pig: Modulation of gut metabolism.

    PubMed

    Ito, Toshiyuki; Miyamoto, Hirokuni; Kumagai, Yoshifumi; Udagawa, Motoaki; Shinmyo, Toshihito; Mori, Kenichi; Ogawa, Kazuo; Miyamoto, Hisashi; Kodama, Hiroaki

    2016-06-01

    Recently, we reported that the oral administration of an extract of compost fermented with marine animal resources and thermophilic Bacillus species should confer health benefits in fish, pigs and rodents. Herein, the relations between fecundity and gut metabolites in laying hens and pigs on farms after oral exposure to compost were investigated. On the hen farms, the egg production of hens continuously administered the extract was maintained at significantly higher levels compared with the hens not administered the extract. On the swine farms, after the compost treatment, the shipping dates of fattening pigs were shortened, with an improvement in the death rate of the pigs. When the levels of fecal organic acids, such as short-chain fatty acids, lactate, and ammonium, as indicators of gut metabolism and energy sources for peripheral tissues, were examined, the levels of the acetate, propionate, and butyrate in the feces of the hens and pigs in the compost-treated group were not always different from those in the untreated control group. However, the levels of lactate were consistently low in the feces of both animals after the compost treatment. The fecal ammonium concentrations in old hens (age 597-672 days) and 2-month-old piglets from the compost-fed mother sows were low when compared with the untreated groups. The concentrations of free organic acids and their related compounds in the animal products (eggs and pig loins) were nearly equal to those in the untreated control products. Thus, the oral administration of the thermophile-fermented compost should improve the fecundity of hens and pigs by modifying their gut metabolism.

  17. Nitrogen as a friendly addition to steel

    SciTech Connect

    Rawers, J.C.

    2006-01-01

    Interstitial alloying with nitrogen or carbon is a common means of enhancing properties of iron-based alloys. Interstitial nitrogen addition to fcc-phase Fe-Cr-Mn/Ni alloys results in improved mechanical properties, whereas addition of carbon can result in the formation of unwanted carbides. Carbon addition to low alloy, bcc-phase iron alloys significantly improves strength through the formation of carbides, whereas addition of nitrogen in bcc-phase iron alloys can result in porous casting and reduced mechanical properties. This study will show that alloying iron-based alloys with both nitrogen and carbon can produce positive results. Nitrogen addition to Fe-C and Fe-Cr-C alloys, and both nitrogen and nitrogen-carbon additions to Fe-Cr-Mn/Ni alloys altered the microstructure, improved mechanical properties, increased hardness, and reduced wear by stabilizing the fcc-phase and altering (possibly eliminating) precipitate formation.

  18. Significant enhancement of the in-field critical current density of the MgB2 superconductor through codoping of nano-TiC with nano-SiC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinod, K.; Varghese, Neson; Roy, S. B.; Syamaprasad, U.

    2009-05-01

    Nanoparticles of two carbides, SiC and TiC, having different reactivities with the Mg/B are doped into the MgB2 system. These carbides are added in mono-and codoping conditions through the in situ solid state reaction, and the structural and superconducting properties are studied. The results show distinct modifications in the structural and superconducting properties by the two dopants. SiC causes considerable C substitution at the B site and the formation of intragrain inclusions, whereas TiC remains unreacted and does not cause any substitution. The codoped samples show significantly enhanced JC(H) performance compared to the undoped and monodoped samples. Compared to the undoped sample, the enhancement of JC is more than two orders of magnitude at 15 K for fields >7 T for the best sample. The results of JC(H) performance of the samples are discussed.

  19. Indirect antiglobulin test-crossmatch using low-ionic-strength saline-albumin enhancement medium and reduced incubation time: effectiveness in the detection of most clinically significant antibodies and impact on blood utilization.

    PubMed

    Dinardo, C L; Bonifácio, S L; Mendrone, A

    2014-01-01

    Indirect antiglobulin test-crossmatch (IAT-XM) using enhancement media such as low-ionic-strength saline (LISS) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) usually requires 15 minutes of incubation. These methods are necessary when testing samples from blood recipients who have a higher risk of alloimmunization. In emergency situations, IAT-XM can be time-consuming and can influence presurgery routine, resulting in more red blood cell (RBC) units being tested and stored to avoid the transfusion of uncrossmatched ones. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of a LISS-albumin enhancer to intensify antigen-antibody reaction after 5 minutes of 37oC incubation and compare this performance with that of other enhancers, gel, and conventional tube testing. Second, the study evaluated the impact of this method's implementation in the C:T ratio (crossmatched to transfused RBC units) of a transfusion laboratory. Ninety serum samples containing alloantibodies of potential clinical significance were tested against phenotyped RBCs using four different methods: (1) tube with LISS-albumin enhancer (5 minutes of incubation), (2) tube with LISS-albumin and PEG (15 minutes of incubation), (3) gel, and (4) conventional tube method (60 minutes of incubation). In parallel, the study compared the C:T ratio of a tertiary-hospital transfusion laboratory in two different periods: 3 months before and 3 months after the implementation of the 5-minute IAT-XM protocol. The use of LISS-albumin with 5 minutes of incubation exhibited the same performance as LISS-albumin, PEG, and gel with 15 minutes of incubation. Conventional tube method results were equally comparable, but reactions were significantly less intense, except for anti-c (p = 0.406). Accuracy was 100 percent for all selected methods. After the implementation of the 5-minute IAT-XM protocol, the C:T ratio fell from 2.74 to 1.29 (p < 0.001). IAT-XM can have its incubation time reduced to 5 minutes with the use of LISS

  20. Phenylethynyl Containing Reactive Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Phenylethynyl containing reactive additives were prepared from aromatic diamine, containing phenylethvnvl groups and various ratios of phthalic anhydride and 4-phenylethynviphthalic anhydride in glacial acetic acid to form the imide in one step or in N-methyl-2-pvrrolidinone to form the amide acid intermediate. The reactive additives were mixed in various amounts (10% to 90%) with oligomers containing either terminal or pendent phenylethynyl groups (or both) to reduce the melt viscosity and thereby enhance processability. Upon thermal cure, the additives react and become chemically incorporated into the matrix and effect an increase in crosslink density relative to that of the host resin. This resultant increase in crosslink density has advantageous consequences on the cured resin properties such as higher glass transition temperature and higher modulus as compared to that of the host resin.

  1. Phenylethynyl Containing Reactive Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Phenylethynyl containing reactive additives were prepared from aromatic diamines containing phenylethynyl groups and various ratios of phthalic anhydride and 4-phenylethynylphthalic anhydride in glacial acetic acid to form the imide in one step or in N-methyl-2-pyrrolidi none to form the amide acid intermediate. The reactive additives were mixed in various amounts (10% to 90%) with oligomers containing either terminal or pendent phenylethynyl groups (or both) to reduce the melt viscosity and thereby enhance processability. Upon thermal cure, the additives react and become chemically incorporated into the matrix and effect an increase in crosslink density relative to that of the host resin. This resultant increase in crosslink density has advantageous consequences on the cured resin properties such as higher glass transition temperature and higher modulus as compared to that of the host resin.

  2. Additive Manufacturing Infrared Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaddy, Darrell

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing is a rapid prototyping technology that allows parts to be built in a series of thin layers from plastic, ceramics, and metallics. Metallic additive manufacturing is an emerging form of rapid prototyping that allows complex structures to be built using various metallic powders. Significant time and cost savings have also been observed using the metallic additive manufacturing compared with traditional techniques. Development of the metallic additive manufacturing technology has advanced significantly over the last decade, although many of the techniques to inspect parts made from these processes have not advanced significantly or have limitations. Several external geometry inspection techniques exist such as Coordinate Measurement Machines (CMM), Laser Scanners, Structured Light Scanning Systems, or even traditional calipers and gages. All of the aforementioned techniques are limited to external geometry and contours or must use a contact probe to inspect limited internal dimensions. This presentation will document the development of a process for real-time dimensional inspection technique and digital quality record of the additive manufacturing process using Infrared camera imaging and processing techniques.

  3. Enhanced durability for high-temperature desulfurization sorbents for moving-bed applications -- Option 3 program: Development and testing of additional zinc titanate sorbents. Final report, September 1992--May 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Ayala, R.E.; Chuck, T.L.

    1996-12-31

    GE is developing a moving-bed, high-temperature desulfurization system for the integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) power cycle in which zinc-based regenerable sorbents are currently being used as desulfurization sorbents. Zinc titanate and other zinc-based oxides are being considered as sorbents for use in the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program at Tampa Electric Co.`s Polk Power Station. A key to success in the development of high-temperature desulfurization systems is the matching of sorbent properties for the selected process operating conditions, namely, sustainable desulfurization kinetics, high sulfur capacity, and mechanical durability over multiple cycles. Additionally, the sulfur species produced during regeneration of the sorbent must be in a form compatible with sulfur recovery systems, such as sulfuric acid or elemental sulfur processes. The objective of this contract is to identify and test sorbent fabrication methods and chemical compositions that enhance the long-term chemical reactivity and mechanical strength of zinc titanate and other novel sorbents for moving-bed, high-temperature desulfurization of coal-derived gases. A parametric study on the use of calcium sulfate additives to zinc titanate was conducted for zinc titanates having a 2:1 and 1.5:1 zinc-to-titanium molar ratio, and they showed a beneficial effect on crush strength of fresh 2:1 zinc titanate sorbents. In addition, a test procedure was developed to screen sorbent formulations based on resistance to spalling and pellet breakage induced by zinc sulfate formation in the presence of sulfur dioxide and excess oxygen conditions.

  4. Pre-irradiation with low-dose 12C6+ beam significantly enhances the efficacy of AdCMV-p53 gene therapy in human non-small lung cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Bing; Zhang, Hong; Li, Wenjian; Li, Qiang; Zhou, Guangming; Xie, Yi; Hao, Jifang; Min, Fengling; Zhou, Qingming; Duan, Xin

    2007-04-01

    The combination of ionizing radiation and gene therapy has been investigated. However, there are very few reports about the combination of heavy-ion irradiation and gene therapy. To determine if the pre-exposure to low-dose heavy ion beam enhances the suppression of AdCMV-p53 on non-small lung cancer (NSLC), the cells pre-irradiated or non-irradiated were infected with 20, 40 MOI of AdCMV-p53. Survival fraction and the relative biology effect (RBE) were determined by clonogenic assay. The results showed that the proportions of p53 positive cells in 12C6+ beam induced AdCMV-p53 infected cells were more than 90%, which were significantly more than those in γ-ray induced AdCMV-p53 infected cells. The pre-exposure to low-dose 12C6+ beam significantly prevented the G0/G1 arrest and activated G2/M checkpoints. The pre-exposure to 12C6+ beam significantly improved cell to apoptosis. RBEs for the 12C6+ + AdCMV-p53 infection groups were 30% 60%, 20% 130% and 30% 70% more than those for the 12C6+-irradiated only, AdCMV-p53 infected only, and γ-irradiation induced AdCMVp53 infected groups, respectively. The data suggested that the pre-exposure to low-dose 12C6+ beam significantly promotes exogenous p53 expression in NSLC, and the suppression of AdCMV-p53 gene therapy on NSLC.

  5. Anaerobic sludge digestion with a biocatalytic additive

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, S.; Henry, M.P.; Fedde, P.A.

    1982-01-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of a lactobacillus additive an anaerobic sludge digestion under normal, variable, and overload operating conditions. The additive was a whey fermentation product of an acid-tolerant strain of Lactobacillus acidophilus fortified with CaCO/sub 3/, (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/HPO/sub 4/, ferrous lactate, and lactic acid. The lactobacillus additive is multifunctional in nature and provides growth factors, metabolic intermediates, and enzymes needed for substrate degradation and cellular synthesis. The experimental work consisted of several pairs of parallel mesophilic (35/sup 0/C) digestion runs (control and test) conducted in five experimental phases. Baseline runs without the additive showed that the two experimental digesters had the same methane content, gas production rate (GPR), and ethane yield. The effect of the additive was to increase methane yield and GPR by about 5% (which was statistically significant) during digester operation at a loading rate (LR) of 3.2 kg VS/m/sup 3/-day and a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 14 days. Data collected from the various experimental phases showed that the biochemical additive increased methane yield, gas production rate, and VS reduction, and decreased volatile acids accumulation. In addition, it enhanced digester buffer capacity and improved the fertilizer value and dewatering characteristics of the digested residue.

  6. Intra-Myocardial Injection of Both Growth Factors and Heart Derived Sca-1+/CD31− Cells Attenuates Post-MI LV Remodeling More Than Does Cell Transplantation Alone: Neither Intervention Enhances Functionally Significant Cardiomyocyte Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaohong; Li, Qinglu; Hu, Qingsong; Suntharalingam, Piradeep; From, Arthur H. L.; Zhang, Jianyi

    2014-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) are two potent cell survival and regenerative factors in response to myocardial injury (MI). We hypothesized that simultaneous delivery of IGF+HGF combined with Sca-1+/CD31− cells would improve the outcome of transplantation therapy in response to the altered hostile microenvironment post MI. One million adenovirus nuclear LacZ-labeled Sca-1+/CD31− cells were injected into the peri-infarction area after left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) ligation in mice. Recombinant mouse IGF-1+HGF was added to the cell suspension prior to the injection. The left ventricular (LV) function was assessed by echocardiography 4 weeks after the transplantation. The cell engraftment, differentiation and cardiomyocyte regeneration were evaluated by histological analysis. Sca-1+/CD31− cells formed viable grafts and improved LV ejection fraction (EF) (Control, 54.5+/−2.4; MI, 17.6+/−3.1; Cell, 28.2+/−4.2, n = 9, P<0.01). IGF+HGF significantly enhanced the benefits of cell transplantation as evidenced by increased EF (38.8+/−2.2; n = 9, P<0.01) and attenuated adverse structural remodeling. Furthermore, IGF+HGF supplementation increased the cell engraftment rate, promoted the transplanted cell survival, enhanced angiogenesis, and minimally stimulated endogenous cardiomyocyte regeneration in vivo. The in vitro experiments showed that IGF+HGF treatment stimulated Sca-1+/CD31− cell proliferation and inhibited serum free medium induced apoptosis. Supperarray profiling of Sca-1+/CD31− cells revealed that Sca-1+/CD31− cells highly expressed various trophic factor mRNAs and IGF+HGF treatment altered the mRNAs expression patterns of these cells. These data indicate that IGF-1+HGF could serve as an adjuvant to cell transplantation for myocardial repair by stimulating donor cell and endogenous cardiac stem cell survival, regeneration and promoting angiogenesis. PMID:24919180

  7. Development of a Mo-Si-B coating for Nb-based Alloys and the Effects of Zr Additions to Mo-Si-B Coatings for Enhanced Oxidation Protection in Ultra-High Temperature Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu-Steffes, Otto John

    Higher efficiencies and reduced emissions performance of fossil fuel energy systems are achieved with increasing operation temperatures. This increase in operating temperature requires the use of materials with higher melting points such as refractory metal alloys. However, refractory metals suffer from catastrophic oxidation in this type of environment. Thus, oxidation protection for refractory metal alloys is a crucial step in developing next generation ultra-high temperature materials. To meet this challenge, an oxidation resistant coating for Nb based alloys has been designed as well as the incorporation of zirconium into the Mo-Si-B coating to provide further corrosion protection and a reduction in temperature for the underlying multi-layered structure. Niobium samples coated with a Mo-Si-B coating demonstrate enhanced oxidation protection compared to samples only coated with Si-B. Thermogravimetric analysis testing at 1300°C for 24 hours for both the Mo-Si-B coated Nb and Nb-based alloys show enhanced oxidation protection with mass changes of 0.44 mg/cm2 and 0.55 mg/cm2, respectively, compared to the uncoated alloy that had a mass change of 87.6 mg/cm2. To demonstrate the design concept for a coating with thermal barrier behavior, Zr is added to the Mo-Si-B coating through the pack cementation technique. The resulting coating shows that the Zr reacts with the aluminosilica top layer to form Zr silicides and ZrO2. Upon oxidation, the coating forms a mixed top layer composed of borosilica, ZrO2 and ZrSiO 4. Oxidation testing of the Zr modified Mo-Si-B coating exhibits low mass change indicating that the coating provides oxidation protection and that the Zr additions do not interfere with the oxidation protection of the Mo-Si-B coating. Finite element modeling using object oriented finite element analysis of the coating structures yielded an evaluation of the mechanical and thermal properties of the coatings, providing insight into the thermal performance and

  8. Growth sensitivity in the epiphyseal growth plate, liver and muscle of SD rats is significantly enhanced by treatment with a fermented soybean product (cheonggukjang) through stimulation of growth hormone secretion.

    PubMed

    Hwang, In Sik; Kim, Ji Eun; Lee, Young Ju; Kwak, Mun Hwa; Lee, Hong Gu; Kim, Hye Sung; Lee, Hee Seob; Hwang, Dae Youn

    2014-01-01

    Cheonggukjang (CKJ), a fermented soybean product, has been reported to have beneficial effects on various chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease, cancer and immune diseases. To investigate whether CKJ induces growth sensitivity in mammals, alterations of key parameters related to their growth were analyzed. Sprague‑Dawley (SD) rats were treated with a high concentration of CKJ (H‑CKJ) or a low concentration of CKJ (L‑CKJ) for 10 days, and compared with vehicle-treated rats. The CKJ contained a high concentration of total flavonoids, phenolic compounds, daidzein and genistein, compared with the non-fermented soybean product. Body weight was higher in the H‑CKJ‑treated group compared with that in the vehicle‑ and L‑CKJ‑treated groups, whereas the weights of three organs (the brain, liver and kidney) were higher in the L‑CKJ‑treated group compared with the remaining two groups. However, no significant differences in femur length and weight were detected between the CKJ‑ and vehicle‑treated groups. The thickness of the epiphyseal growth plate in proximal femoral epiphysis was broadest in the H‑CKJ‑treated group compared with the vehicle- and L‑CKJ‑treated groups. Furthermore, the level of growth hormone (GH) was highest in the serum of the L‑CKJ‑treated group, although that of the H‑CKJ‑treated group was lower compared with that in the L‑CKJ group. Moreover, the expression levels of the GH receptor increased in the liver tissue, but not in the muscle tissue, of the L‑CKJ‑ and H‑CKJ‑treated groups. In the downstream signaling pathway of the GH receptor, the phosphorylation levels of Akt and Erk were differentially regulated between the liver and muscle. These results suggest that CKJ extract may enhance the sensitivity of the femur, liver and muscle epiphyseal growth plate in SD rats, through the upregulation of GH secretion.

  9. Significant Tsunami Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunbar, P. K.; Furtney, M.; McLean, S. J.; Sweeney, A. D.

    2014-12-01

    Tsunamis have inflicted death and destruction on the coastlines of the world throughout history. The occurrence of tsunamis and the resulting effects have been collected and studied as far back as the second millennium B.C. The knowledge gained from cataloging and examining these events has led to significant changes in our understanding of tsunamis, tsunami sources, and methods to mitigate the effects of tsunamis. The most significant, not surprisingly, are often the most devastating, such as the 2011 Tohoku, Japan earthquake and tsunami. The goal of this poster is to give a brief overview of the occurrence of tsunamis and then focus specifically on several significant tsunamis. There are various criteria to determine the most significant tsunamis: the number of deaths, amount of damage, maximum runup height, had a major impact on tsunami science or policy, etc. As a result, descriptions will include some of the most costly (2011 Tohoku, Japan), the most deadly (2004 Sumatra, 1883 Krakatau), and the highest runup ever observed (1958 Lituya Bay, Alaska). The discovery of the Cascadia subduction zone as the source of the 1700 Japanese "Orphan" tsunami and a future tsunami threat to the U.S. northwest coast, contributed to the decision to form the U.S. National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program. The great Lisbon earthquake of 1755 marked the beginning of the modern era of seismology. Knowledge gained from the 1964 Alaska earthquake and tsunami helped confirm the theory of plate tectonics. The 1946 Alaska, 1952 Kuril Islands, 1960 Chile, 1964 Alaska, and the 2004 Banda Aceh, tsunamis all resulted in warning centers or systems being established.The data descriptions on this poster were extracted from NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) global historical tsunami database. Additional information about these tsunamis, as well as water level data can be found by accessing the NGDC website www.ngdc.noaa.gov/hazard/

  10. Polymethylmethacrylate bone cements and additives: A review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Manit; Chan, Edward KS; Gupta, Sunil; Diwan, Ashish D

    2013-01-01

    Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) bone cement technology has progressed from industrial Plexiglass administration in the 1950s to the recent advent of nanoparticle additives. Additives have been trialed to address problems with modern bone cements such as the loosening of prosthesis, high post-operative infection rates, and inflammatory reduction in interface integrity. This review aims to assess current additives used in PMMA bone cements and offer an insight regarding future directions for this biomaterial. Low index (< 15%) vitamin E and low index (< 5 g) antibiotic impregnated additives significantly address infection and inflammatory problems, with only modest reductions in mechanical strength. Chitosan (15% w/w PMMA) and silver (1% w/w PMMA) nanoparticles have strong antibacterial activity with no significant reduction in mechanical strength. Future work on PMMA bone cements should focus on trialing combinations of these additives as this may enhance favourable properties. PMID:23610754

  11. Addition of Rice Bran Arabinoxylan to Curcumin Therapy May Be of Benefit to Patients With Early-Stage B-Cell Lymphoid Malignancies (Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance, Smoldering Multiple Myeloma, or Stage 0/1 Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia): A Preliminary Clinical Study.

    PubMed

    Golombick, Terry; Diamond, Terrence H; Manoharan, Arumugam; Ramakrishna, Rajeev

    2016-06-01

    Hypothesis Prior studies on patients with early B-cell lymphoid malignancies suggest that early intervention with curcumin may lead to delay in progressive disease and prolonged survival. These patients are characterized by increased susceptibility to infections. Rice bran arabinoxylan (Ribraxx) has been shown to have immunostimulatory, anti-inflammatory, and proapoptotic effects. We postulated that addition of Ribraxx to curcumin therapy may be of benefit. Study design Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS)/smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM) or stage 0/1 chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients who had been on oral curcumin therapy for a period of 6 months or more were administered both curcumin (as Curcuforte) and Ribraxx. Methods Ten MGUS/SMM patients and 10 patients with stage 0/1 CLL were administered 6 g of curcumin and 2 g Ribraxx daily. Blood samples were collected at baseline and at 2-month intervals for a period of 6 months, and various markers were monitored. MGUS/SMM patients included full blood count (FBC); paraprotein; free light chains/ratio; C-reactive protein (CRP)and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR); B2 microglobulin and immunological markers. Markers monitored for stage 0/1 CLL were FBC, CRP and ESR, and immunological markers. Results Of 10 MGUS/SMM patients,5 (50%) were neutropenic at baseline, and the Curcuforte/Ribraxx combination therapy showed an increased neutrophil count, varying between 10% and 90% among 8 of the 10 (80%) MGUS/SMM patients. An additional benefit of the combination therapy was the potent effect in reducing the raised ESR in 4 (44%) of the MGUS/SMM patients. Conclusion Addition of Ribraxx to curcumin therapy may be of benefit to patients with early-stage B-cell lymphoid malignancies.

  12. Teardrop bladder: additional considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Wechsler, R.J.; Brennan, R.E.

    1982-07-01

    Nine cases of teardrop bladder (TDB) seen at excretory urography are presented. In some of these patients, the iliopsoas muscles were at the upper limit of normal in size, and additional evaluation of the perivesical structures with computed tomography (CT) was necessary. CT demonstrated only hypertrophied muscles with or without perivesical fat. The psoas muscles and pelvic width were measured in 8 patients and compared with the measurements of a control group of males without TDB. Patients with TDB had large iliopsoas muscles and narrow pelves compared with the control group. The psoas muscle width/pelvic width ratio was significantly greater (p < 0.0005) in patients with TDB than in the control group, with values of 1.04 + 0.05 and 0.82 + 0.09, respectively. It is concluded that TDB is not an uncommon normal variant in black males. Both iliopsoas muscle hypertrophy and a narrow pelvis are factors that predispose a patient to TDB.

  13. Photoluminescence enhancement of aligned arrays of single-walled carbon nanotubes by polymer transfer† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr05163k Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Schweiger, Manuel; Zakharko, Yuriy; Gannott, Florentina; Grimm, Stefan B.

    2015-01-01

    The photoluminescence of as-grown, aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) on quartz is strongly quenched and barely detectable. Here we show that transferring these SWNTs to another substrate such as clean quartz or glass increases their emission efficiency by up to two orders of magnitude. By statistical analysis of large nanotube arrays we show at what point of the transfer process the emission enhancement occurs and how it depends on the receiving substrate and the employed transfer polymer. We find that hydrophobic polystyrene (PS) as the transfer polymer results in higher photoluminescence enhancement than the more hydrophilic poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA). Possible mechanisms for this enhancement such as strain relief, disruption of the strong interaction of SWNTs with the substrate and localized emissive states are discussed. PMID:26400227

  14. Palladium-catalyzed addition of disulfides and diselenides to alkynes under solvent free conditions.

    PubMed

    Ananikov, Valentine P; Beletskaya, Irina P

    2004-02-07

    An efficient methodology was developed for performing palladium-catalyzed E-E (E = S, Se) bond addition to alkynes under solvent free conditions. Compared to reaction in solvent significant enhancement of reaction rate, improved efficiency and remarkable catalyst stability were observed under solvent free conditions. The addition reactions were carried out with high stereoselectivity and yields in a short reaction time.

  15. The oxidation capacity of Mn3O4 nanoparticles is significantly enhanced by anchoring them onto reduced graphene oxide to facilitate regeneration of surface-associated Mn(III).

    PubMed

    Duan, Lin; Wang, Zhongyuan; Hou, Yan; Wang, Zepeng; Gao, Guandao; Chen, Wei; Alvarez, Pedro J J

    2016-10-15

    Metal oxides are often anchored to graphene materials to achieve greater contaminant removal efficiency. To date, the enhanced performance has mainly been attributed to the role of graphene materials as a conductor for electron transfer. Herein, we report a new mechanism via which graphene materials enhance oxidation of organic contaminants by metal oxides. Specifically, Mn3O4-rGO nanocomposites (Mn3O4 nanoparticles anchored to reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanosheets) enhanced oxidation of 1-naphthylamine (used here as a reaction probe) compared to bare Mn3O4. Spectroscopic analyses (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy) show that the rGO component of Mn3O4-rGO was further reduced during the oxidation of 1-naphthylamine, although rGO reduction was not the result of direct interaction with 1-naphthylamine. We postulate that rGO improved the oxidation efficiency of anchored Mn3O4 by re-oxidizing Mn(II) formed from the reaction between Mn3O4 and 1-naphthylamine, thereby regenerating the surface-associated oxidant Mn(III). The proposed role of rGO was verified by separate experiments demonstrating its ability to oxidize dissolved Mn(II) to Mn(III), which subsequently can oxidize 1-naphthylamine. The role of dissolved oxygen in re-oxidizing Mn(II) was ruled out by anoxic (N2-purged) control experiments showing similar results as O2-sparged tests. Opposite pH effects on the oxidation efficiency of Mn3O4-rGO versus bare Mn3O4 were also observed, corroborating the proposed mechanism because higher pH facilitates oxidation of surface-associated Mn(II) even though it lowers the oxidation potential of Mn3O4. Overall, these findings may guide the development of novel metal oxide-graphene nanocomposites for contaminant removal.

  16. Evaluation of biodegradation-promoting additives for plastics.

    PubMed

    Selke, Susan; Auras, Rafael; Nguyen, Tuan Anh; Castro Aguirre, Edgar; Cheruvathur, Rijosh; Liu, Yan

    2015-03-17

    Biodegradation-promoting additives for polymers are increasingly being used around the world with the claim that they effectively render commercial polymers biodegradable. However, there is a lot of uncertainty about their effectiveness in degrading polymers in different environments. In this study, we evaluated the effect of biodegradation-promoting additives on the biodegradation of polyethylene (PE) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET). Biodegradation was evaluated in compost, anaerobic digestion, and soil burial environments. None of the five different additives tested significantly increased biodegradation in any of these environments. Thus, no evidence was found that these additives promote and/or enhance biodegradation of PE or PET polymers. So, anaerobic and aerobic biodegradation are not recommended as feasible disposal routes for nonbiodegradable plastics containing any of the five tested biodegradation-promoting additives.

  17. Additive Similarity Trees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sattath, Shmuel; Tversky, Amos

    1977-01-01

    Tree representations of similarity data are investigated. Hierarchical clustering is critically examined, and a more general procedure, called the additive tree, is presented. The additive tree representation is then compared to multidimensional scaling. (Author/JKS)

  18. Additive-driven assembly of block copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Ying; Daga, Vikram; Anderson, Eric; Watkins, James

    2011-03-01

    One challenge to the formation of well ordered hybrid materials is the incorporation of nanoscale additives including metal, semiconductor and dielectric nanoparticles at high loadings while maintaining strong segregation. Here we describe the molecular and functional design of small molecule and nanoparticle additives that enhance phase segregation in their block copolymer host and enable high additive loadings. Our approach includes the use of hydrogen bond interactions between the functional groups on the additive or particle that serve as hydrogen bond donors and one segment of the block copolymer containing hydrogen bond acceptors. Further, the additives show strong selectively towards the targeted domains, leading to enhancements in contrast between properties of the phases. In addition to structural changes, we explore how large changes in the thermal and mechanical properties occur upon incorporation of the additives. Generalization of this additive-induced ordering strategy to various block copolymers will be discussed.

  19. Enhancement of persistent luminescence of ZnTa{sub 2}O{sub 6}:Pr{sup 3+} by addition Li{sup +}, Na{sup +}, K{sup +} and Cs{sup +} ions

    SciTech Connect

    Noto, Luyanda L. Ntwaeaborwa, Orileng M.; Yagoub, Mubarak Y.A.; Swart, Hendrik C.

    2015-10-15

    Graphical abstract: The incorporation of the alkali metals (Li, Na, K and Cs) as co-dopants in ZnTa{sub 2}O{sub 6}:Pr{sup 3+} phosphor improved the lifetime of the persistent emission by increasing the quantity of the electron trapping centres. - Highlights: • ZnTa{sub 2}O{sub 6}:Pr{sup 3+} was co-doped with Li{sup +}, Na{sup +}, K{sup +} or Cs{sup +} ions. • Phase pure samples were synthesised. • Enhancement of the persistent emission was achieved by co-doping. • Corresponding electron trapping centres were quantified by a TL reader. - Abstract: Enhancement of the persistent emission was achieved by co-doping ZnTa{sub 2}O{sub 6}:Pr{sup 3+} with Li{sup +}, Na{sup +}, K{sup +} or Cs{sup +} ions. Phase pure samples were synthesised and it was confirmed by the X-ray diffraction pattern which matches that of the standard data. Incorporation of the co-dopant ions introduced strain into the phosphor, which increased with an increase in the ionic radius of the co-dopant ion. The scanning electron microscope image shows that the particles were agglomerated, and the surface images obtained using the Time of flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy showed that the dopant and the co-dopant ions in the phosphor were homogeneously distributed. The persistent emission was enhanced by the co-dopant ions as shown by the lifetime values calculated from the phosphorescence decay curves, and the corresponding electron trapping centres were quantified by thermoluminescence reader.

  20. [Food additives and healthiness].

    PubMed

    Heinonen, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Additives are used for improving food structure or preventing its spoilage, for example. Many substances used as additives are also naturally present in food. The safety of additives is evaluated according to commonly agreed principles. If high concentrations of an additive cause adverse health effects for humans, a limit of acceptable daily intake (ADI) is set for it. An additive is a risk only when ADI is exceeded. The healthiness of food is measured on the basis of nutrient density and scientifically proven effects.

  1. Effects of meat addition on pasta structure, nutrition and in vitro digestibility.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tingting; Hamid, Nazimah; Kantono, Kevin; Pereira, Loveena; Farouk, Mustafa M; Knowles, Scott O

    2016-12-15

    In our study, semolina flour was substituted with beef emulsion (EM) at three different levels of 15, 30 and 45% (w/w) to develop a pasta with enhanced nutritional profile. The protein, fat, and water content significantly increased with addition of meat. The addition of meat enhanced the pasta gluten network. The redness and yellowness of cooked pasta increased with meat addition. Tensile strength increased from 0.018N/mm(2) in the control sample to 0.046N/mm(2) in 45% beef emulsion (45EM) sample. All meat-containing samples had significantly higher elasticity than control (0.039N/mm(2)). GI significantly decreased and IVPD value increased in 45EM sample. Five essential amino acids (leucine, lysine, methionine, threonine, tryptophan) in pasta digesta increased significantly with increasing meat addition.

  2. Photovoltaic efficiency enhancement by the generation of an embedded silica-like passivation layer along the P3HT/PCBM interface using an asymmetric block-copolymer additive.

    PubMed

    Han, Mingu; Kim, Hyungsoo; Seo, Hyungtak; Ma, Biwu; Park, Ji-Woong

    2012-12-11

    A new approach to improve the power conversion efficiency of polymer bulk-heterojunction solar cells is demonstrated by generating a silica-like passivation layer embedded along the three-dimensionally intertwined interfaces between the nanoscopic domains of P3HT and PCBM by addition of an aymmetric block copolymer containing a short organo-silica precursor.

  3. Photoelectrochemical water splitting strongly enhanced in fast-grown ZnO nanotree and nanocluster structures† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c6ta02788a Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Sangle, Abhijeet; Zhang, Siyuan; Yuan, Shuai; Zhao, Yin; Shi, Liyi; Hoye, Robert L. Z.; Cho, Seungho; Li, Dongdong

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate selective growth of ZnO branched nanostructures: from nanorod clusters (with branches parallel to parent rods) to nanotrees (with branches perpendicular to parent rods). The growth of these structures was realized using a three-step approach: electrodeposition of nanorods (NRs), followed by the sputtering of ZnO seed layers, followed by the growth of branched arms using hydrothermal growth. The density, size and direction of the branches were tailored by tuning the deposition parameters. To our knowledge, this is the first report of control of branch direction. The photoelectrochemical (PEC) performance of the ZnO nanostructures follows the order: nanotrees (NTs) > nanorod clusters (NCs) > parent NRs. The NT structure with the best PEC performance also possesses the shortest fabrication period which had never been reported before. The photocurrent of the NT and NC photoelectrodes is 0.67 and 0.56 mA cm–2 at 1 V vs. Ag/AgCl, respectively, an enhancement of 139% and 100% when compared to the ZnO NR structures. The key reason for the improved performance is shown to be the very large surface-to-volume ratios in the branched nanostructures, which gives rise to enhanced light absorption, improved charge transfer across the nanostructure/electrolyte interfaces to the electrolyte and efficient charge transport within the material. PMID:27774147

  4. Enhanced enzyme activities of inclusion bodies of recombinant beta-galactosidase via the addition of inducer analog after L-arabinose induction in the araBAD promoter system of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Jung, Kyung-Hwan

    2008-03-01

    We observed that an inclusion body (IB) of recombinant beta-galactosidase that was produced by the araBAD promoter system in Escherichia coli (E. coli) showed enzyme activity. In order to improve its activity, the lowering of the transcription rate of the beta-galactosidase structural gene was attempted through competition between an inducer (L-arabinose) and an inducer analog (D-fucose). In the deep-well microtiter plate culture and lab-scale fermentor culture, it was demonstrated that the addition of D-fucose caused an improvement in specific beta-galactosidase production, although beta-galactosidase was produced as an IB. In particular, the addition of D-fucose after induction led to an increase in the specific activity of beta-galactosidase IB. Finally, we confirmed that the addition of D-fucose after induction caused changes in the structure of beta-galactosidase IB, with higher enzyme activity. Based on these results, we expect that an improved enzyme IB will be used as a biocatalyst of the enzyme bioprocess, because an enzyme IB can be purified easily and has physical durability.

  5. Significant enhancement of 11-Hydroxy-THC detection by formation of picolinic acid esters and application of liquid chromatography/multi stage mass spectrometry (LC-MS(3) ): Application to hair and oral fluid analysis.

    PubMed

    Thieme, Detlef; Sachs, Ulf; Sachs, Hans; Moore, Christine

    2015-07-01

    Formation of picolinic acid esters of hydroxylated drugs or their biotransformation products is a promising tool to improve their mass spectrometric ionization efficiency, alter their fragmentation behaviour and enhance sensitivity and specificity of their detection. The procedure was optimized and tested for the detection of cannabinoids, which proved to be most challenging when dealing with alternative specimens, for example hair and oral fluid. In particular, the detection of the THC metabolites hydroxyl-THC and carboxy-THC requires ultimate sensitivity because of their poor incorporation into hair or saliva. Both biotransformation products are widely accepted as incorporation markers to distinguish drug consumption from passive contamination. The derivatization procedure was carried out by adding a mixture of picolinic acid, 4-(dimethylamino)pyridine and 2-methyl-6-nitrobenzoic anhydride in tetrahydrofuran/triethylamine to the dry extraction residues. Resulting derivatives were found to be very stable and could be reconstituted in aqueous or organic buffers and subsequently analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Owing to the complex consecutive fragmentation patterns, the application of multistage MS3 proved to be extremely useful for a sensitive identification of doubly picolinated hydroxy-THC in complex matrices. The detection limits - estimated by comparison of corresponding signal-to-noise ratios - increased by a factor of 100 following picolination. All other species examined, like cannabinol, THC, cannabidiol, and carboxy-THC, could also be derivatized exhibiting only moderate sensitivity improvements. The assay was systematically tested using hair samples and exemplarily applied to oral fluid. Concentrations of OH-THC identified in THC-positive hair samples ranged from 0.02 to 0.29pg/mg.

  6. Polylactides in additive biomanufacturing.

    PubMed

    Poh, Patrina S P; Chhaya, Mohit P; Wunner, Felix M; De-Juan-Pardo, Elena M; Schilling, Arndt F; Schantz, Jan-Thorsten; van Griensven, Martijn; Hutmacher, Dietmar W

    2016-12-15

    New advanced manufacturing technologies under the alias of additive biomanufacturing allow the design and fabrication of a range of products from pre-operative models, cutting guides and medical devices to scaffolds. The process of printing in 3 dimensions of cells, extracellular matrix (ECM) and biomaterials (bioinks, powders, etc.) to generate in vitro and/or in vivo tissue analogue structures has been termed bioprinting. To further advance in additive biomanufacturing, there are many aspects that we can learn from the wider additive manufacturing (AM) industry, which have progressed tremendously since its introduction into the manufacturing sector. First, this review gives an overview of additive manufacturing and both industry and academia efforts in addressing specific challenges in the AM technologies to drive toward AM-enabled industrial revolution. After which, considerations of poly(lactides) as a biomaterial in additive biomanufacturing are discussed. Challenges in wider additive biomanufacturing field are discussed in terms of (a) biomaterials; (b) computer-aided design, engineering and manufacturing; (c) AM and additive biomanufacturing printers hardware; and (d) system integration. Finally, the outlook for additive biomanufacturing was discussed.

  7. Additive Manufactured Product Integrity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waller, Jess; Wells, Doug; James, Steve; Nichols, Charles

    2017-01-01

    NASA is providing key leadership in an international effort linking NASA and non-NASA resources to speed adoption of additive manufacturing (AM) to meet NASA's mission goals. Participants include industry, NASA's space partners, other government agencies, standards organizations and academia. Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) is identified as a universal need for all aspects of additive manufacturing.

  8. Post-Synthetic Modification of Porphyrin-Encapsulating Metal-Organic Materials by Cooperative Addition of Inorganic Salts to Enhance CO2/CH4 Selectivity

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Zhenjie; Gao, Wen-Yang; Wojtas, Lukasz; Ma, Shengqian; Eddaoudi, Mohamed; Zaworotko, Michael J

    2012-11-26

    Keeping MOM: Reaction of biphenyl-3,4',5-tricarboxylate and Cd(NO3)2 in the presence of meso-tetra(N-methyl-4-pyridyl)porphine tetratosylate afforded porph@MOM-11, a microporous metal–organic material (MOM) that encapsulates cationic porphyrins and solvent in alternating open channels. Porph@MOM-11 has cation and anion binding sites that facilitate cooperative addition of inorganic salts (such as M+Cl-) in a stoichiometric fashion.

  9. Over-expression of Brassica napus phosphatidylinositol-phospholipase C2 in canola induces significant changes in gene expression and phytohormone distribution patterns, enhances drought tolerance and promotes early flowering and maturation.

    PubMed

    Georges, Fawzy; DAS, Shankar; Ray, Heather; Bock, Cheryl; Nokhrina, Kateryna; Kolla, Venkat Apparao; Keller, Wilf

    2009-12-01

    Phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PtdIns-PLC2) plays a central role in the phosphatidylinositol-specific signal transduction pathway. It catalyses the hydrolysis of membrane-bound phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate to produce two second messengers, sn-1,2-diacylglycerol and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate. The former is a membrane activator of protein kinase C in mammalian systems, and the latter is a Ca(2+) modulator which induces distinctive oscillating bursts of cytosolic Ca(2+), resulting in regulation of gene expression and activation of proteins. Sustained over-expression of BnPtdIns-PLC2 in transgenic Brassica napus lines brought about an early shift from vegetative to reproductive phases, and shorter maturation periods, accompanied by notable alterations in hormonal distribution patterns in various tissues. The photosynthetic rate increased, while stomata were partly closed. Numerous gene expression changes that included induction of stress-related genes such as glutathione S-transferase, hormone-regulated and regulatory genes, in addition to a number of kinases, calcium-regulated factors and transcription factors, were observed. Other changes included increased phytic acid levels and phytohormone organization patterns. These results suggest the importance of PtdIns-PLC2 as an elicitor of a battery of events that systematically control hormone regulation, and plant growth and development in what may be a preprogrammed mode.

  10. DECISION-MAKING, SCIENCE AND GASOLINE ADDITIVES

    EPA Science Inventory


    Methyl-tert butyl ether (MTBE) has been used as a gasoline additive to serve two major purposes. The first use was as an octane-enhancer to replace organic lead, beginning in 1979. The second use, which began about 1992, was as an oxygenated additive to meet requirements ...

  11. Enhanced mRNA-protein fusion efficiency of a single-domain antibody by selection of mRNA display with additional random sequences in the terminal translated regions

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Kazuki; Sunohara, Masato; Terai, Takuya; Kumachi, Shigefumi; Nemoto, Naoto

    2017-01-01

    In vitro display technologies such as mRNA and cDNA display are powerful tools to create and select functional peptides. However, in some cases, efficiency of mRNA-protein fusion is very low, which results in decreased library size and lower chance of successful selection. In this study, to improve mRNA-protein fusion efficiency, we prepared an mRNA display library of a protein with random N- and C-terminal coding regions consisting of 12 nucleotides (i.e. four amino acids), and performed an electrophoresis mobility shift assay (EMSA)-based selection of successfully formed mRNA display molecules. A single-domain antibody (Nanobody, or VHH) was used as a model protein, and as a result, a pair of sequences was identified that increased mRNA-protein fusion efficiency of this protein by approximately 20%. Interestingly, enhancement of the fusion efficiency induced by the identified sequences was protein-specific, and different results were obtained for other proteins including VHHs with different CDRs. The results suggested that conformation of mRNA as a whole, rather than the amino acid sequence of the translated peptide, is an important factor to determine mRNA-protein fusion efficiency. PMID:28275529

  12. Enhanced mRNA-protein fusion efficiency of a single-domain antibody by selection of mRNA display with additional random sequences in the terminal translated regions.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Kazuki; Sunohara, Masato; Terai, Takuya; Kumachi, Shigefumi; Nemoto, Naoto

    2017-01-01

    In vitro display technologies such as mRNA and cDNA display are powerful tools to create and select functional peptides. However, in some cases, efficiency of mRNA-protein fusion is very low, which results in decreased library size and lower chance of successful selection. In this study, to improve mRNA-protein fusion efficiency, we prepared an mRNA display library of a protein with random N- and C-terminal coding regions consisting of 12 nucleotides (i.e. four amino acids), and performed an electrophoresis mobility shift assay (EMSA)-based selection of successfully formed mRNA display molecules. A single-domain antibody (Nanobody, or VHH) was used as a model protein, and as a result, a pair of sequences was identified that increased mRNA-protein fusion efficiency of this protein by approximately 20%. Interestingly, enhancement of the fusion efficiency induced by the identified sequences was protein-specific, and different results were obtained for other proteins including VHHs with different CDRs. The results suggested that conformation of mRNA as a whole, rather than the amino acid sequence of the translated peptide, is an important factor to determine mRNA-protein fusion efficiency.

  13. Adverse reactions to drug additives.

    PubMed

    Simon, R A

    1984-10-01

    There is a long list of additives used by the pharmaceutical industry. Most of the agents used have not been implicated in hypersensitivity reactions. Among those that have, only reactions to parabens and sulfites have been well established. Parabens have been shown to be responsible for rare immunoglobulin E-mediated reactions that occur after the use of local anesthetics. Sulfites, which are present in many drugs, including agents commonly used to treat asthma, have been shown to provoke severe asthmatic attacks in sensitive individuals. Recent studies indicate that additives do not play a significant role in "hyperactivity." The role of additives in urticaria is not well established and therefore the incidence of adverse reactions in this patient population is simply not known. In double-blind, placebo-controlled studies, reactions to tartrazine or additives other than sulfites, if they occur at all, are indeed quite rare for the asthmatic population, even for the aspirin-sensitive subpopulation.

  14. Significance of periodogram peaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Süveges, Maria; Guy, Leanne; Zucker, Shay

    2016-10-01

    Three versions of significance measures or False Alarm Probabilities (FAPs) for periodogram peaks are presented and compared for sinusoidal and box-like signals, with specific application on large-scale surveys in mind.

  15. Significant Scales in Community Structure

    PubMed Central

    Traag, V. A.; Krings, G.; Van Dooren, P.

    2013-01-01

    Many complex networks show signs of modular structure, uncovered by community detection. Although many methods succeed in revealing various partitions, it remains difficult to detect at what scale some partition is significant. This problem shows foremost in multi-resolution methods. We here introduce an efficient method for scanning for resolutions in one such method. Additionally, we introduce the notion of “significance” of a partition, based on subgraph probabilities. Significance is independent of the exact method used, so could also be applied in other methods, and can be interpreted as the gain in encoding a graph by making use of a partition. Using significance, we can determine “good” resolution parameters, which we demonstrate on benchmark networks. Moreover, optimizing significance itself also shows excellent performance. We demonstrate our method on voting data from the European Parliament. Our analysis suggests the European Parliament has become increasingly ideologically divided and that nationality plays no role. PMID:24121597

  16. Enhanced optophysical properties of poly[(9,9-di-n-octylfluorenyl-2,7-diyl)-alt-(benzo[2,1,3] thiadiazol-4,8-diyl)] via addition of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Fuzi, Siti Aishah Ahmad Jumali, Mohammad Hafizuddin Hj Al-Asbahi, Bandar Ali Abdulqader

    2015-09-25

    This work investigated the effect on 5 wt% addition of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles (NPs) on the optical absorption characteristics of Poly[(9,9-di-n-octylfluorenyl-2,7-diyl)-alt-(benzo[2,1,3] thiadiazol-4,8-diyl)] (F8BT). Both materials were mixed using solution blending method and then spin coated onto ITO-coated glass substrate at 1000 rpm for 30s. The optical properties of the nanocomposite were determined using UV-Vis spectroscopy. Compares to pristine film, the absorption peak of the nanocomposite film improved and shifted to longer wavelength indicating reduction in the direct and indirect band gaps. Better optophysical properties of F8BT/TiO{sub 2} nanocomposites is believed due to compatible band structures and efficient charge trapping effect displayed by the NPs.

  17. Food Additives and Hyperkinesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wender, Ester H.

    1977-01-01

    The hypothesis that food additives are causally associated with hyperkinesis and learning disabilities in children is reviewed, and available data are summarized. Available from: American Medical Association 535 North Dearborn Street Chicago, Illinois 60610. (JG)

  18. Smog control fuel additives

    SciTech Connect

    Lundby, W.

    1993-06-29

    A method is described of controlling, reducing or eliminating, ozone and related smog resulting from photochemical reactions between ozone and automotive or industrial gases comprising the addition of iodine or compounds of iodine to hydrocarbon-base fuels prior to or during combustion in an amount of about 1 part iodine per 240 to 10,000,000 parts fuel, by weight, to be accomplished by: (a) the addition of these inhibitors during or after the refining or manufacturing process of liquid fuels; (b) the production of these inhibitors for addition into fuel tanks, such as automotive or industrial tanks; or (c) the addition of these inhibitors into combustion chambers of equipment utilizing solid fuels for the purpose of reducing ozone.

  19. Immunogenicity of a reduced-dose whole killed rabies vaccine is significantly enhanced by ISCOMATRIX™ adjuvant, Merck amorphous aluminum hydroxylphosphate sulfate (MAA) or a synthetic TLR9 agonist in rhesus macaques.

    PubMed

    DiStefano, Daniel; Antonello, Joseph M; Bett, Andrew J; Medi, Muneeswara B; Casimiro, Danilo R; ter Meulen, Jan

    2013-10-01

    There is a need for novel rabies vaccines suitable for short course, pre- and post-exposure prophylactic regimens which require reduced doses of antigen to address the current worldwide supply issue. We evaluated in rhesus macaques the immunogenicity of a quarter-dose of a standard rabies vaccine formulated with Merck's amorphous aluminum hydroxylphosphate sulfate adjuvant, the saponin-based ISCOMATRIX™ adjuvant, or a synthetic TLR9 agonist. All adjuvants significantly increased the magnitude and durability of the humoral immune response as measured by rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test (RFFIT). Several three-dose vaccine regimens resulted in adequate neutralizing antibody of ≥ 0.5 IU/ml earlier than the critical day seven post the first dose. Rabies vaccine with ISCOMATRIX™ adjuvant given at days 0 and 3 resulted in neutralizing antibody titers which developed faster and were up to one log10 higher compared to WHO-recommended intramuscular and intradermal regimens and furthermore, passive administration of human rabies immunoglobulin did not interfere with immunogenicity of this reduced dose, short course vaccine regimen. Adjuvantation of whole-killed rabies vaccine for intramuscular injection may therefore be a viable alternative to intradermal application of non-adjuvanted vaccine for both pre- and post-exposure regimens.

  20. Inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and addition of composted olive-mill waste enhance plant establishment and soil properties in the regeneration of a heavy metal-polluted environment.

    PubMed

    Curaqueo, Gustavo; Schoebitz, Mauricio; Borie, Fernando; Caravaca, Fuensanta; Roldán, Antonio

    2014-06-01

    A greenhouse experiment was carried out in order to investigate the effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi inoculation and the use of composted olive waste (COW) in the establishment of Tetraclinis articulata and soil properties in a heavy metal-polluted soil. The treatments assayed were as follows: AM + 0% COW, AM + 1% COW, and AM + 3% COW. The higher doses of COW in combination with AM fungi increased shoot and root biomass production of T. articulata by 96 and 60%, respectively. These treatments trended to improve the soil properties evaluated, highlighting the C compounds and N as well as the microbiological activities. In relation to the metal translocation in T. articulata, doses of COW applied decreased the Cr, Ni, and Pb contents in shoot, as well as Cr and As in root, although the most of them reached low levels and far from phytotoxic. The COW amendment aided