Science.gov

Sample records for addition small amounts

  1. Grain refinement in heavy rare earth element-free sintered Nd–Fe–B magnets by addition of a small amount of molybdenum

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jin Woo; Lee, Won Suk; Byun, Jong Min; Kim, Young Do; Kim, Se Hoon

    2015-05-07

    We employed a modified refractory-metal-addition method to achieve higher coercivity and remanence in heavy rare earth element (HREE)-free Nd–Fe–B sintered magnets. This process involved inducing the formation of a homogeneous secondary phase at the grain boundaries during sintering, making it possible to control the intergrain diffusion by adding small amounts of Mo, a refractory metal. To control the microstructure of the secondary phase effectively, a metal organic compound of the refractory metal was coated on the surfaces of the particles of an HREE-free Nd–Fe–B powder. The average grain size after this process was 5.60 μm, which was approximately 1.8 μm smaller than that of the HREE-free sintered Nd–Fe–B magnets (7.4 μm). The coercivity of the magnets prepared through this process could be increased from 11.88 kOe to 13.91 kOe without decreasing their remanence.

  2. Ataxia induced by small amounts of alcohol

    PubMed Central

    Setta, F; Jacquy, J; Hildebrand, J; Manto, M

    1998-01-01

    A patient is described who exhibited cerebellar ataxia after drinking small amounts of alcohol. Intake of 5 g alcohol induced a gaze evoked nystagmus, a scanning speech, a body sway after eye closure, and bilateral postural leg tremor. Kinematic and EMG analysis of fast wrist movements showed normal movements before and marked hypermetria after alcohol intake. Dysmetria was due to abnormal programming of antagonist muscle activity.

 PMID:9728953

  3. Creep Resistance of ZrO2 Ceramic Improved by the Addition of a Small Amount of Er2O3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martinez-Fernandez, Julian; Sayir, Ali; Farmer, Serene C.

    2003-01-01

    Zirconia (ZrO2) has great technological importance in structural, electrical, and chemical applications. It is the crucial component for state-of-the art thermal barrier coatings and an enabling component as a solid electrolyte for solid-oxide fuel cell systems. Pure ZrO2 is of limited use for industrial applications because of the phase transformations that occur. Upon the addition of stabilizers, cubic (c-ZrO2) and tetragonal (t-ZrO2) forms can be preserved. It is the stabilized and partially stabilized forms of zirconia that function as thermal barrier coatings, solid electrolytes, and oxygen sensors and that have numerous applications in the electrochemical industry. The cubic form of ZrO2 is typically stabilized through Y2O3 additions. However, Y2O3-stabilized zirconia is susceptible to deformation at high temperatures (greater than 900 C) because of the large number of slip systems and the high oxygen diffusion rates, which result in high creep rates at high temperatures. Successful use of ZrO2 at high temperatures requires that new dopant additives be found that will retain or enhance the desirable properties of cubic ZrO2 and yet produce a material with lower creep rates. At the NASA Glenn Research Center, erbium oxide (Er2O3) was identified as a promising dopant for improving the creep resistance of. ZrO2. The selection of Er2O3 was based on the strong interactions of point defects and dislocations. Single crystals of 5 mol% Er2O3- doped ZrO2 rods (4 mm in diameter) and monofilaments (200 to 300 mm in diameter and 30 cm long) were grown using the laser-heated float zone technique, and their creep behavior was measured as a function of temperature. The addition of 5 mol% Er2O3 to single-crystal ZrO2 improved its creep resistance at high temperatures by 2 to 3 orders of magnitude over state-of-the-art Y2O3-doped crystals. Detailed microstructural characterization of ZrO2-Er2O3 single crystals has identified new mechanisms for improving the creep resistance

  4. 75 FR 58285 - Short-Term, Small Amount Loans

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-24

    ... Part 701 RIN 3133-AD71 Short-Term, Small Amount Loans Agency: National Credit Union Administration... unions (FCUs) to offer short-term, small amount loans (STS loans) as a viable alternative to predatory... permitted under the general lending rule, but imposes limitations on the permissible term, amount, and...

  5. 75 FR 24497 - Short-Term, Small Amount Loans

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-05

    ... ADMINISTRATION 12 CFR Part 701 RIN 3133-AD71 Short-Term, Small Amount Loans AGENCY: National Credit Union... federal credit unions (FCUs) to offer short-term, small amount loans (STS loans) as a viable alternative... regcomments@ncua.gov . Include ``[Your name] Comments on Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (Short-term,...

  6. Interior. Distillation apparatus used for extracting small test amounts of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior. Distillation apparatus used for extracting small test amounts of latex from plant fiber. - Thomas A. Edison Laboratories, Building No. 2, Main Street & Lakeside Avenue, West Orange, Essex County, NJ

  7. More on wormholes supported by small amounts of exotic matter

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhfittig, Peter K.F.

    2006-04-15

    Recent papers by Fewster and Roman have emphasized that wormholes supported by arbitrarily small amounts of exotic matter will have to be incredibly fine-tuned if they are to be traversable. This paper discusses a wormhole model that strikes a balance between two conflicting requirements, reducing the amount of exotic matter and fine-tuning the metric coefficients, ultimately resulting in an engineering challenge: one requirement can only be met at the expense of the other. The wormhole model is macroscopic and satisfies various traversability criteria.

  8. More on wormholes supported by small amounts of exotic matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhfittig, Peter K. F.

    2006-04-01

    Recent papers by Fewster and Roman have emphasized that wormholes supported by arbitrarily small amounts of exotic matter will have to be incredibly fine-tuned if they are to be traversable. This paper discusses a wormhole model that strikes a balance between two conflicting requirements, reducing the amount of exotic matter and fine-tuning the metric coefficients, ultimately resulting in an engineering challenge: one requirement can only be met at the expense of the other. The wormhole model is macroscopic and satisfies various traversability criteria.

  9. Abnormal behavior of silica doped with small amounts of aluminum

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jinling; Wang, Yiguang; An, Linan

    2016-01-01

    Silica is the most abundant mineral in the crust of the Earth. It has been demonstrated that the aluminum concentration in silica plays a key role in determining many properties of silica-based components. Although the alumina-silica system has been intensely studied, the effect of very small amounts of aluminum on the structure and properties of silica remains unclear. We report results of first principles calculations showing that small amounts of aluminum could be metastable when located in the center of Si-O rings without breaking the silica network. In contrast, higher aluminum contents will result in the destruction of the Si-O bonds, leading to the formation of triclusters and a 4-, 5-, and 6-fold Al-O coordination, as observed in previous studies. Based on the silica structure obtained through geometric optimization, the properties of silica doped with small amounts of aluminum were calculated. The results can account for many ‘abnormal’ phenomena experimentally observed. The results benefit most areas such as geosciences, microelectronics, glass industry, and ceramic materials. PMID:27752133

  10. Abnormal behavior of silica doped with small amounts of aluminum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jinling; Wang, Yiguang; An, Linan

    2016-10-01

    Silica is the most abundant mineral in the crust of the Earth. It has been demonstrated that the aluminum concentration in silica plays a key role in determining many properties of silica-based components. Although the alumina-silica system has been intensely studied, the effect of very small amounts of aluminum on the structure and properties of silica remains unclear. We report results of first principles calculations showing that small amounts of aluminum could be metastable when located in the center of Si-O rings without breaking the silica network. In contrast, higher aluminum contents will result in the destruction of the Si-O bonds, leading to the formation of triclusters and a 4-, 5-, and 6-fold Al-O coordination, as observed in previous studies. Based on the silica structure obtained through geometric optimization, the properties of silica doped with small amounts of aluminum were calculated. The results can account for many ‘abnormal’ phenomena experimentally observed. The results benefit most areas such as geosciences, microelectronics, glass industry, and ceramic materials.

  11. A patient fatality following the ingestion of a small amount of chlorfenapyr

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Changwoo; Kim, Dong Hoon; Kim, Seong Chun; Kim, Dong Seob

    2014-01-01

    Chlorfenapyr has been used worldwide for agricultural pest control since 1995. Despite its widespread use, acute human poisoning data are insufficient; only a small number of fatalities from chlorfenapyr poisoning have been reported. The signs and symptoms of chlorfenapyr toxicity include nausea, vomiting, fever, rhabdomyolysis, among others. In addition, central nervous system effects in association with delayed toxicity have also been observed. Here, we detail a fatality resulting from delayed chlorfenapyr toxicity following the ingestion of a small amount of pesticide. PMID:25114438

  12. A patient fatality following the ingestion of a small amount of chlorfenapyr.

    PubMed

    Kang, Changwoo; Kim, Dong Hoon; Kim, Seong Chun; Kim, Dong Seob

    2014-07-01

    Chlorfenapyr has been used worldwide for agricultural pest control since 1995. Despite its widespread use, acute human poisoning data are insufficient; only a small number of fatalities from chlorfenapyr poisoning have been reported. The signs and symptoms of chlorfenapyr toxicity include nausea, vomiting, fever, rhabdomyolysis, among others. In addition, central nervous system effects in association with delayed toxicity have also been observed. Here, we detail a fatality resulting from delayed chlorfenapyr toxicity following the ingestion of a small amount of pesticide.

  13. Extraction and labeling methods for microarrays using small amounts of plant tissue.

    PubMed

    Stimpson, Alexander J; Pereira, Rhea S; Kiss, John Z; Correll, Melanie J

    2009-03-01

    Procedures were developed to maximize the yield of high-quality RNA from small amounts of plant biomass for microarrays. Two disruption techniques (bead milling and pestle and mortar) were compared for the yield and the quality of RNA extracted from 1-week-old Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings (approximately 0.5-30 mg total biomass). The pestle and mortar method of extraction showed enhanced RNA quality at the smaller biomass samples compared with the bead milling technique, although the quality in the bead milling could be improved with additional cooling steps. The RNA extracted from the pestle and mortar technique was further tested to determine if the small quantity of RNA (500 ng-7 microg) was appropriate for microarray analyses. A new method of low-quantity RNA labeling for microarrays (NuGEN Technologies, Inc.) was used on five 7-day-old seedlings (approximately 2.5 mg fresh weight total) of Arabidopsis that were grown in the dark and exposed to 1 h of red light or continued dark. Microarray analyses were performed on a small plant sample (five seedlings; approximately 2.5 mg) using these methods and compared with extractions performed with larger biomass samples (approximately 500 roots). Many well-known light-regulated genes between the small plant samples and the larger biomass samples overlapped in expression changes, and the relative expression levels of selected genes were confirmed with quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, suggesting that these methods can be used for plant experiments where the biomass is extremely limited (i.e. spaceflight studies).

  14. Dendrite-Free Li Deposition Using Trace-Amounts of Water as an Electrolyte Additive

    SciTech Connect

    Qian, Jiangfeng; Xu, Wu; Bhattacharya, Priyanka; Engelhard, Mark H.; Henderson, Wesley A.; Zhang, Yaohui; Zhang, Jiguang

    2015-07-01

    Residual water presents in nonaqueous electrolytes has been widely regarded as a detrimental factor for lithium (Li) batteries. This is because water is highly reactive with the commonly used LiPF6 salt and leads to the formation of HF that corrodes battery materials. In this work, we demonstrate that a controlled trace-amount of water (25-100 ppm) can be an effective electrolyte additive for achieving dendrite-free Li metal deposition in LiPF6-based electrolytes and avoid its detrimental effect at the same time. Detailed analyses reveal that the trace amount of HF formed by the decomposition reaction of LiPF6 with water will be electrochemically reduced during initial Li deposition process to form a uniform and dense LiF-rich SEI layer on the surface of the substrate. This LiF-rich SEI layer leads to a uniform distribution of the electric field on the substrate surface and enables uniform and dendrite-free Li deposition. Meanwhile the detrimental effect of HF is diminished due to the consumption of HF in the LiF formation process. Microscopic analysis reveals that the as-deposited dendrite-free Li films exhibit a self-aligned and highly-compacted Li nanorods structure which is consistent with their charming blue color or known as structure color. These findings clearly demonstrate a novel approach to control the nucleation and grow process of Li metal films using well-controlled trace-amount of water. They also shine the light on the effect of water on other electrodeposition processes.

  15. Determination of small amounts of molybdenum in tungsten and molybdenum ores

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grimaldi, F.S.; Wells, R.C.

    1943-01-01

    A rapid method has been developed for the determination of small amounts of molybdenum in tungsten and molybdenum ores. After removing iron and other major constituents the molybdenum thiocyanate color is developed in water-acetone solutions, using ammonium citrate to eliminate the interference of tungsten. Comparison is made by titrating a blank with a standard molybdenum solution. Aliquots are adjusted to deal with amounts of molybdenum ranging from 0.01 to 1.30 mg.

  16. Interactions between cocoa flavanols and inorganic nitrate: additive effects on endothelial function at achievable dietary amounts.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Mateos, Ana; Hezel, Michael; Aydin, Hilal; Kelm, Malte; Lundberg, Jon O; Weitzberg, Eddie; Spencer, Jeremy P E; Heiss, Christian

    2015-03-01

    Dietary intervention studies have shown that flavanols and inorganic nitrate can improve vascular function, suggesting that these two bioactives may be responsible for beneficial health effects of diets rich in fruits and vegetables. We aimed to study interactions between cocoa flavanols (CF) and nitrate, focusing on absorption, bioavailability, excretion, and efficacy to increase endothelial function. In a double-blind randomized, dose-response crossover study, flow-mediated dilation (FMD) was measured in 15 healthy subjects before and at 1, 2, 3, and 4 h after consumption of CF (1.4-10.9 mg/kg bw) or nitrate (0.1-10 mg/kg bw). To study flavanol-nitrate interactions, an additional intervention trial was performed with nitrate and CF taken in sequence at low and high amounts. FMD was measured before (0 h) and at 1h after ingestion of nitrate (3 or 8.5 mg/kg bw) or water. Then subjects received a CF drink (2.7 or 10.9 mg/kg bw) or a micro- and macronutrient-matched CF-free drink. FMD was measured at 1, 2, and 4 h thereafter. Blood and urine samples were collected and assessed for CF and nitric oxide (NO) metabolites with HPLC and gas-phase reductive chemiluminescence. Finally, intragastric formation of NO after CF and nitrate consumption was investigated. Both CF and nitrate induced similar intake-dependent increases in FMD. Maximal values were achieved at 1 h postingestion and gradually decreased to reach baseline values at 4 h. These effects were additive at low intake levels, whereas CF did not further increase FMD after high nitrate intake. Nitrate did not affect flavanol absorption, bioavailability, or excretion, but CF enhanced nitrate-related gastric NO formation and attenuated the increase in plasma nitrite after nitrate intake. Both flavanols and inorganic nitrate can improve endothelial function in healthy subjects at intake amounts that are achievable with a normal diet. Even low dietary intake of these bioactives may exert relevant effects on endothelial

  17. Oxygen additive amount dependence of rate of photoresist removal by H radicals generated on a tungsten hot-wire catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Masashi; Umemoto, Hironobu; Ohdaira, Keisuke; Shikama, Tomokazu; Nishiyama, Takashi; Horibe, Hideo

    2016-07-01

    We examined an environmentally friendly photoresist removal method using radicals produced by decomposing mixtures of hydrogen and oxygen on a hot tungsten catalyst. The photoresist removal rate increased with the oxygen additive amount (the flow rate ratio of oxygen to hydrogen) up to an optimal amount and then decreased gradually. When the catalyst temperature was 1600 °C, the optimal oxygen additive amount was 1.0% and the removal rate was 1.7 times higher than that in the pure hydrogen system. At 2000 °C, the optimal amount increased to 2.5% but the increase ratio decreased by 1.3 times. At high catalyst temperatures, the absolute removal rate as well as the optimal oxygen additive amount is high, but the increase ratio is low. At the optimal oxygen additive amount, H, O, and OH radicals may exert their effects together to decompose photosensitive polymers.

  18. Establishment of powder dustiness evaluation method by dustmeter with small amount of pharmaceutical ingredients.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Tomoaki; Maeda, Hiroyuki; Kubota, Ryuji; Koga, Akiko; Terada, Katsuhide

    2014-09-10

    The ratio of high potent materials in the new chemical entities has recently increased in the pharmaceutical industry. Generally, most of them are highly hazardous, but there is little toxicity information about the active pharmaceutical ingredients in the early development period. Even if their handling amount is quite small, the dustiness of high potent powder generated in the manufacturing process has an important impact on worker health; thus, it is important to understand the powder dustiness. The purpose of this study was to establish a method to evaluate the powder dustiness by the consumption of small amount of samples. The optimized measurement conditions for a commercially available dustmeter were confirmed using lactose monohydrate and naproxen sodium. The optimized test conditions were determined: the dustmeter mode, the flow rate, the drum rotation speed, the total measurement time, and sample loaded weight were type I mode, 4 L/min, 10 rpm, 1 min and 1-10 g , respectively. The setup conditions of the dustmeter are considerably valuable to pharmaceutical industries, especially, at the early development stage and especially for expensive materials, because the amount of air-borne dust can be evaluated with accuracy by the consumption of small amount of samples.

  19. A simple biosynthetic pathway for large product generation from small substrate amounts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djordjevic, Marko; Djordjevic, Magdalena

    2012-10-01

    A recently emerging discipline of synthetic biology has the aim of constructing new biosynthetic pathways with useful biological functions. A major application of these pathways is generating a large amount of the desired product. However, toxicity due to the possible presence of toxic precursors is one of the main problems for such production. We consider here the problem of generating a large amount of product from a potentially toxic substrate. To address this, we propose a simple biosynthetic pathway, which can be induced in order to produce a large number of the product molecules, by keeping the substrate amount at low levels. Surprisingly, we show that the large product generation crucially depends on fast non-specific degradation of the substrate molecules. We derive an optimal induction strategy, which allows as much as three orders of magnitude increase in the product amount through biologically realistic parameter values. We point to a recently discovered bacterial immune system (CRISPR/Cas in E. coli) as a putative example of the pathway analysed here. We also argue that the scheme proposed here can be used not only as a stand-alone pathway, but also as a strategy to produce a large amount of the desired molecules with small perturbations of endogenous biosynthetic pathways.

  20. View looking west down northeast side of building. Small additions ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View looking west down northeast side of building. Small additions and control tower visible. - Naval Air Station North Island, Seaplane Hangars, Roe Street, North Island, San Diego, San Diego County, CA

  1. Isolation and Functional Assessment of Mitochondria from Small Amounts of Mouse Brain Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Chinopoulos, Christos; Zhang, Steven F.; Thomas, Bobby; Ten, Vadim; Starkov, Anatoly A.

    2013-01-01

    Recent discoveries have brought mitochondria functions in focus of the neuroscience research community and greatly stimulated the demand for approaches to study mitochondria dysfunction in neurodegenerative diseases. Many mouse disease models have been generated, but studying mitochondria isolated from individual mouse brain regions is a challenge because of small amount of the available brain tissue. Conventional techniques for isolation and purification of mitochondria from mouse brain subregions, such as ventral midbrain, hippocampus, or striatum, require pooling brain tissue from six to nine animals for a single mitochondrial preparation. Working with pooled tissue significantly decreases the quality of data because of the time required to dissect several brains. It also greatly increases the labor intensity and the cost of experiments as several animals are required per single data point. We describe a method for isolation of brain mitochondria from mouse striata or other 7–12 mg brain samples. The method utilizes a refrigerated table-top microtube centrifuge, and produces research grade quality mitochondria in amounts sufficient for performing multiple enzymatic and functional assays, thereby eliminating the necessity for pooling mouse brain tissue. We also include a method of measuring ADP-ATP exchange rate as a function of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) in small amounts of isolated mitochondria, adapted to a plate reader format. PMID:21913109

  2. Isolation and functional assessment of mitochondria from small amounts of mouse brain tissue.

    PubMed

    Chinopoulos, Christos; Zhang, Steven F; Thomas, Bobby; Ten, Vadim; Starkov, Anatoly A

    2011-01-01

    Recent discoveries have brought mitochondria functions in focus of the neuroscience research community and greatly stimulated the demand for approaches to study mitochondria dysfunction in neurodegenerative diseases. Many mouse disease models have been generated, but studying mitochondria isolated from individual mouse brain regions is a challenge because of small amount of the available brain tissue. Conventional techniques for isolation and purification of mitochondria from mouse brain subregions, such as ventral midbrain, hippocampus, or striatum, require pooling brain tissue from six to nine animals for a single mitochondrial preparation. Working with pooled tissue significantly decreases the quality of data because of the time required to dissect several brains. It also greatly increases the labor intensity and the cost of experiments as several animals are required per single data point. We describe a method for isolation of brain mitochondria from mouse striata or other 7-12 mg brain samples. The method utilizes a refrigerated table-top microtube centrifuge, and produces research grade quality mitochondria in amounts sufficient for performing multiple enzymatic and functional assays, thereby eliminating the necessity for pooling mouse brain tissue. We also include a method of measuring ADP-ATP exchange rate as a function of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) in small amounts of isolated mitochondria, adapted to a plate reader format.

  3. Maximum yields of microsomal-type membranes from small amounts of plant material without requiring ultracentrifugation.

    PubMed

    Abas, Lindy; Luschnig, Christian

    2010-06-15

    Isolation of a microsomal membrane fraction is a common procedure in studies involving membrane proteins. By conventional definition, microsomal membranes are collected by centrifugation of a postmitochondrial fraction at 100,000g in an ultracentrifuge, a method originally developed for large amounts of mammalian tissue. We present a method for isolating microsomal-type membranes from small amounts of Arabidopsis thaliana plant material that does not rely on ultracentrifugation but instead uses the lower relative centrifugal force (21,000g) of a microcentrifuge. We show that the 21,000g pellet is equivalent to that obtained at 100,000g and that it contains all of the membrane fractions expected in a conventional microsomal fraction. Our method incorporates specific manipulation of sample density throughout the procedure, with minimal preclearance, minimal volumes of extraction buffer, and minimal sedimentation pathlength. These features allow maximal membrane yields, enabling membrane isolation from limited amounts of material. We further demonstrate that conventional ultracentrifuge-based protocols give submaximal yields due to losses during early stages of the procedure; that is, extensive amounts of microsomal-type membranes can sediment prematurely during the typical preclearance steps. Our protocol avoids such losses, thereby ensuring maximal yield and a representative total membrane fraction. The principles of our method can be adapted for nonplant material.

  4. Preferences of dairy cows for three stall surface materials with small amounts of bedding.

    PubMed

    Norring, M; Manninen, E; de Passillé, A M; Rushen, J; Saloniemi, H

    2010-01-01

    Farmers' concerns about the economy, cost of labor, and hygiene have resulted in reduced use of organic bedding in stalls for dairy cows; however, the reduced use of organic bedding possibly impairs cow comfort. The effects of different stall surface materials were evaluated in an unheated building in which only a small amount of bedding was used. The lying time and preferences of 18 cows using 3 stall surface materials (concrete, soft rubber mat, and sand) were compared. All materials were lightly bedded with a small amount of straw, and the amount of straw added to each stall was measured. The cows only had access to stalls of one surface type while their lying time was observed. Lying times were longest on the rubber mats compared with other surfaces (rubber mat 768; concrete 727; sand 707+/-16 min/d). In a preference test, cows had access to 2 of the 3 types of stalls for 10 d and their stall preference was measured. Cows preferred stalls with rubber mats to stalls with a concrete floor (median 73 vs. 18 from a total of 160 observations per day; interquartile range was 27 and 12, respectively), but showed no preference for sand stalls compared with stalls with a concrete floor or with rubber mats. More straw was needed on sand stalls compared with concrete or mat (638+/-13 g/d on sand, 468+/-10 g/d on concrete, and 464+/-8 g/d on rubber mats). Lying times on bedded mats indicated that mats were comfortable for the cows. If availability or cost of bedding material requires limiting the amount of bedding used, rubber mats may help maintain cow comfort.

  5. Determination of phosphorus in small amounts of protein samples by ICP-MS.

    PubMed

    Becker, J Sabine; Boulyga, Sergei F; Pickhardt, Carola; Becker, J; Buddrus, Stefan; Przybylski, Michael

    2003-02-01

    Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) is used for phosphorus determination in protein samples. A small amount of solid protein sample (down to 1 micro g) or digest (1-10 micro L) protein solution was denatured in nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide by closed-microvessel microwave digestion. Phosphorus determination was performed with an optimized analytical method using a double-focusing sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-SFMS) and quadrupole-based ICP-MS (ICP-QMS). For quality control of phosphorus determination a certified reference material (CRM), single cell proteins (BCR 273) with a high phosphorus content of 26.8+/-0.4 mg g(-1), was analyzed. For studies on phosphorus determination in proteins while reducing the sample amount as low as possible the homogeneity of CRM BCR 273 was investigated. Relative standard deviation and measurement accuracy in ICP-QMS was within 2%, 3.5%, 11% and 12% when using CRM BCR 273 sample weights of 40 mg, 5 mg, 1 mg and 0.3 mg, respectively. The lowest possible sample weight for an accurate phosphorus analysis in protein samples by ICP-MS is discussed. The analytical method developed was applied for the analysis of homogeneous protein samples in very low amounts [1-100 micro g of solid protein sample, e.g. beta-casein or down to 1 micro L of protein or digest in solution (e.g., tau protein)]. A further reduction of the diluted protein solution volume was achieved by the application of flow injection in ICP-SFMS, which is discussed with reference to real protein digests after protein separation using 2D gel electrophoresis.The detection limits for phosphorus in biological samples were determined by ICP-SFMS down to the ng g(-1) level. The present work discusses the figure of merit for the determination of phosphorus in a small amount of protein sample with ICP-SFMS in comparison to ICP-QMS.

  6. 76 FR 64354 - Burden of Food and Drug Administration Food Safety Modernization Act Fee Amounts on Small...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-18

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Burden of Food and Drug Administration Food Safety Modernization Act Fee Amounts on Small Business; Extension of Comment Period AGENCY: Food and Drug... Drug Administration Food Safety Modernization Act Fee Amounts on Small Business; Request for...

  7. Boiling point measurement of a small amount of brake fluid by thermocouple and its application.

    PubMed

    Mogami, Kazunari

    2002-09-01

    This study describes a new method for measuring the boiling point of a small amount of brake fluid using a thermocouple and a pear shaped flask. The boiling point of brake fluid was directly measured with an accuracy that was within approximately 3 C of that determined by the Japanese Industrial Standards method, even though the sample volume was only a few milliliters. The method was applied to measure the boiling points of brake fluid samples from automobiles. It was clear that the boiling points of brake fluid from some automobiles dropped to approximately 140 C from about 230 C, and that one of the samples from the wheel cylinder was approximately 45 C lower than brake fluid from the reserve tank. It is essential to take samples from the wheel cylinder, as this is most easily subjected to heating.

  8. The effect of the small amount of formaldehyde in the SurePath liquid when establishing protocols for immunocytochemistry

    PubMed Central

    Bjønness-Jacobsen, Ellen Cathrine; Eriksen, Anne Kristine Kallevåg; Hagen, Vidar Nyløkken; Østbye, Kirsten Margrethe; Wittersø, Anna; Pedersen, Mette Kristin; Sauer, Torill

    2016-01-01

    Background: SurePath® is an ethanol-based liquid fixative. In addition to ethanol, it also contains a small amount of formaldehyde (<0.2%). The aim of this study was to investigate the immunoreactivity of cells stored for different lengths of time in the SurePath liquid. Materials and Methods: Rest material from one malignant and three benign effusions were fixed in SurePath for 1–12 days. Cytospins were incubated with cytokeratin 7 antibody (AB) to evaluate the staining intensity of carcinoma cells and benign, reactive mesothelial cells. Protocols varied as to pretreatment and AB incubation time. Results: Reduced immunostaining intensity was seen within 5 days of storage in the SurePath liquid. It was restored when the pretreatment time was prolonged. Conclusions: The small amount of formaldehyde in the SurePath liquid seems to affect the immunoreactivity. Local immunocytochemistry protocols in the cytology laboratories should consider this when optimizing their procedures. Postfixation with formalin should be omitted. PMID:27994636

  9. Magnetic properties of the ammonolysis product of α-Fe powder containing a small amount of aluminum

    SciTech Connect

    Tsugawa, Yuta; Maubuchi, Yuji; Motohashi, Teruki; Kikkawa, Shinichi

    2015-02-15

    Magnetite was prepared containing a small amount of aluminum and its nitride was generated through low temperature ammonolysis following reduction under hydrogen. The nitrided product was determined by XRD to be a mixture of “α″-Fe{sub 16}N{sub 2}” having a slightly deformed crystal structure from α″-Fe{sub 16}N{sub 2} and the residual α-Fe. Magnetic coercivity of the mixture was decreased from the value of 150 mT obtained for the nitride product made without aluminum, due to the precipitation of nonmagnetic amorphous alumina in the low temperature nitrided bcc (Fe{sub 1−x}Al{sub x}) with x≤0.03. The aluminum-doped nitride product in which the “α″-Fe{sub 16}N{sub 2}” fraction was 30 at% exhibited magnetization at 1.5 T of approximately 200 Am{sup 2}kg{sup −1} at room temperature and its magnetic coercivity was 20 mT. - Graphical abstract: Magnetic iron nitride particles were separated by nonmagnetic amorphous γ-alumina. Magnetic coercivity was decreased by reducing the magnetic interaction between the particles. - Highlights: • Magnetic coercivity decreased in α”-Fe{sub 16}N{sub 2} like compound as a soft magnet. • Small amount of Al addition was effective in its preparation. • Magnetic interaction decreased between the “α”-Fe{sub 16}N{sub 2}” particles.

  10. Spectrophotometric catalytic determination of small amounts of rhenium in mineralized rocks and molybdenite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simon, F.O.; Grimaldi, F.S.

    1962-01-01

    Rhenium is determined by spectrophotometry of the tellurium sol formed by the reduction of tellurate by stannous chloride under the catalytic influence of rhenium. A detailed investigation of the conditions for high sensitivity and stability at lowest concentration levels of rhenium is presented as well as the behavior of 26 ions. The method is applied to the determination of some tenths of 1 p.p.m. or more of rhenium in a 1-mg. aliquot of mineralized rocks, mixtures of molybdenite and rocks, and molybdenite concentrates. The practical quantity limit of detection is 2 ?? 10-10 gram of rhenium. Samples are decomposed with a mixture of CaO, CaCl2, and MgO. On leaching, most constituents of the sample are precipitated either as calcium salts or hydroxides, except for rhenium and a small amount of molybdenum which pass into the filtrate. Residual molybdenum is removed by extraction with 8-quinolinol in chloroform. Better than 95% recoveries are obtained with two fusions with flux.

  11. Quick measurement of electrorheological effect for small amounts of nematic liquid crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tadokoro, Chiharu; Hosomi, Yuki; Nakano, Ken

    2015-08-01

    A quick measurement method of effective viscosity, employing damped oscillation between two parallel plates, was proposed to examine the electrorheological (ER) effect for small amounts of nematic liquid crystal (LC). To demonstrate the validity of the method, the viscosity measurements were conducted for ordinary liquids [polyalphaolefins (PAOs)] and a nematic LC [4-pentyl-4‧-cyanobiphenyl (5CB)] by using a newly developed apparatus that embodied the measurement principle. The viscosity measurements for PAOs showed that when the film thickness is in the submillimeter range (e.g. 0.2 mm), this method provides reliable values of the effective viscosity. The viscosity measurement for 5CB showed that this method evaluates the ER effect with a few dozen cubic millimeters of the sample (e.g. 16 mm3) under the application of a voltage (e.g. 0 to 300 V). It was confirmed that the effective viscosities of 5CB measured at various conditions were scaled to a single master curve as a function of the applied voltage, effective velocity and film thickness.

  12. The effect of yttrium addition on oxidation of a sputtered nanocrystalline coating with moderate amount of tantalum in composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jinlong; Chen, Minghui; Yang, Lanlan; Liu, Li; Zhu, Shenglong; Wang, Fuhui; Meng, Guozhe

    2016-03-01

    The effect of yttrium addition on isothermal oxidation at 1050 °C of a sputtered nanocrystalline coating with moderate amount of tantalum in composition was investigated. Results indicate that yttrium addition delays transformation of metastable θ-Al2O3 to equilibrium α-Al2O3 grown on the nanocrystalline coatings. It prevents scale rumpling and promotes the formation of oxide pegs at interface between the oxide scale and the underlying coating. Besides, yttrium prefers to segregate at grain boundaries of the nanocrystalline coating and retards the outward transportation of tantalum from coating to oxide scale, thus reducing the excessive oxidation of tantalum.

  13. Fabrication of high quality cDNA microarray using a small amount of cDNA.

    PubMed

    Park, Chan Hee; Jeong, Ha Jin; Jung, Jae Jun; Lee, Gui Yeon; Kim, Sang-Chul; Kim, Tae Soo; Yang, Sang Hwa; Chung, Hyun Cheol; Rha, Sun Young

    2004-05-01

    DNA microarray technology has become an essential part of biological research. It enables the genome-scale analysis of gene expression in various types of model systems. Manufacturing high quality cDNA microarrays of microdeposition type depends on some key factors including a printing device, spotting pins, glass slides, spotting solution, and humidity during spotting. UsingEthe Microgrid II TAS model printing device, this study defined the optimal conditions for producing high density, high quality cDNA microarrays with the least amount of cDNA product. It was observed that aminosilane-modified slides were superior to other types of surface modified-slides. A humidity of 30+/-3% in a closed environment and the overnight drying of the spotted slides gave the best conditions for arraying. In addition, the cDNA dissolved in 30% DMSO gave the optimal conditions for spotting compared to the 1X ArrayIt, 3X SSC and 50% DMSO. Lastly, cDNA in the concentration range of 100-300 ng/ micro l was determined to be best for arraying and post-processing. Currently, the printing system in this study yields reproducible 9000 spots with a spot size 150 mm diameter, and a 200 nm spot spacing.

  14. Modification of Mo-Si alloy microstructure by small additions of Zr.

    PubMed

    Mousa, M; Wanderka, N; Timpel, M; Singh, S; Krüger, M; Heilmaier, M; Banhart, J

    2011-05-01

    Molybdenum and its alloys are potential materials for high-temperature applications. However, molybdenum is susceptible to embrittlement because of oxygen segregation at the grain boundaries. In order to alleviate the embrittlement small amounts of zirconium were alloyed to a solid solution of Mo-1.5Si alloy. Two Mo-based alloys, namely Mo-1.5Si and Mo-1.5Si-1Zr, were investigated by the complementary high-resolution methods transmission electron microscopy and atom probe tomography. The Mo-1.5Si alloy shows a polycrystalline structure with two silicon-rich intermetallic phases Mo(5)Si(3) and Mo(3)Si located at the grain boundaries and within the grains. In addition, small clusters with up to 10 at% Si were found within the molybdenum solid solution. Addition of a small amount of zirconium to Mo-1.5Si leads to the formation of two intermetallic phases Mo(2)Zr and MoZr(2), which are located at the grain boundaries as well as within the interior of the grain. Transmission electron microscopy shows that small spherical Mo-Zr-rich precipitates (<10nm) decorate the grain boundaries. The stoichiometry of the small precipitates was identified as Mo(2)Zr by atom probe tomography. No Si-enriched small precipitates were detected in the Mo-1.5Si-1Zr alloy. It is concluded that the presence of zirconium hinders their formation.

  15. Monitoring Cellular Events in Living Mast Cells Stimulated with an Extremely Small Amount of Fluid on a Microchip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munaka, Tatsuya; Abe, Hirohisa; Kanai, Masaki; Sakamoto, Takashi; Nakanishi, Hiroaki; Yamaoka, Tetsuji; Shoji, Shuichi; Murakami, Akira

    2006-07-01

    We successfully developed a measurement system for real-time analysis of cellular function using a newly designed microchip. This microchip was equipped with a micro cell incubation chamber (240 nl) and was stimulated by a very small amount of stimuli (as small as 24 nl). Using the microchip system, cultivation of mast cells was successfully carried out. Monitoring of the cellular events after stimulation with an extremely small amount of fluid on a microchip was performed. This system could be applicable for various types of cellular analysis including real-time monitoring of cellular response by stimulation.

  16. Metal ion-mobilizing additives for comprehensive detection of femtomole amounts of phosphopeptides by reversed phase LC-MS.

    PubMed

    Seidler, Joerg; Zinn, Nico; Haaf, Erik; Boehm, Martin E; Winter, Dominic; Schlosser, Andreas; Lehmann, Wolf D

    2011-07-01

    It is hypothesized that metal ion-mediated adsorption of phosphorylated peptides on stationary phases of LC-columns is the major cause for their frequently observed poor detection efficiency in LC-MS. To study this phenomenon in more detail, sample solutions spiked with metal ion-mobilizing additives were analyzed by reversed phase μLC-ICP-MS or nanoLC-ESI-MS. Using μLC-ICP-MS, metal ions were analyzed directly as atomic ions. Using electrospray ionization, either metal ion chelates or phosphopeptide standard mixtures injected in subpicomole amounts were analyzed. Deferoxamine, imidazole, ascorbate, citrate, EDTA, and the tetrapeptide pSpSpSpS were tested as sample additives for the interlinked purposes of metal ion-mobilization and improvement of phosphopeptide recovery. Iron probably represents the major metal ion contamination of reversed phase columns. Based on the certified iron level in LC-grade solvents, a daily metal ion load of >10 pmol was estimated for typical nanoLC flow rates. In addition, phosphopeptide fractions from IMAC columns were identified as source for metal ion contamination of the LC column, as demonstrated for Ga(3+)-IMAC. The three metal ion-chelating additives, EDTA, citrate and pSpSpSpS, were found to perform best for improving the LC recovery of multiply phosphorylated peptides injected at subpicomole amounts. The benefits of metal ion-mobilizing LC (mimLC) characterized by metal ion complexing sample additives is demonstrated for three different instrumental setups comprising (a) a nanoUPLC-system with direct injection on the analytical column, (b) a nanoLC system with inclusion of a trapping column, and (c) the use of a HPLC-Chip system with integrated trapping and analytical column.

  17. The effects of small amounts of H2O on partial melting of model spinel lherzolite in the system CMAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, X.; St. C. Oneill, H.

    2003-04-01

    Water (H_2O) is so effective at lowering the solidus temperatures of silicate systems that even small amounts of H_2O are suspected to be important in the genesis of basaltic magmas. The realization that petrologically significant amounts of H_2O can be stored in nominally anhydrous mantle minerals (olivine and pyroxenes) has fundamental implications for the understanding of partial melting in the mantle, for it implies that the role that H_2O plays in mantle melting may not be appropriately described by models in which the melting is controlled by hydrous phases such as amphibole. Although the effect of water in suppressing the liquidus during crystallization is quite well understood, such observations do not provide direct quantitative information on the solidus. This is because liquidus crystallization occurs at constant major-element composition of the system, but at unbuffered component activities (high thermodynamic variance). By contrast, for partial melting at the solidus the major-element component activities are buffered by the coexisting crystalline phases (low variance), but the major-element composition of the melt can change as a function of added H_2O. Accordingly we have determined both the solidus temperature and the melt composition in the system CMAS with small additions of H_2O, to 4 wt%, in equilibrium with the four-phase lherzolite assemblage of fo+opx+cpx+sp. Experiments were conducted at 1.1 GPa and temperatures from 1473 K to the dry solidus at 1593 K in a piston-cylinder apparatus. Starting materials were pre-synthesised assemblage of fo+opx+cpx+sp, plus an oxide/hydroxide mix of approximately the anticipated melt composition. H_2O was added as either Mg(OH)_2 or Al(OH)_3. The crystalline assemblage and melt starting mix were added as separate layers inside sealed Pt capsules, to ensure large volumes of crystal-free melt. After the run doubly polished sections were prepared in order to analyse the quenched melt by FTIR spectroscopy, to

  18. Small Amounts of Archaic Admixture Provide Big Insights into Human History.

    PubMed

    Vattathil, Selina; Akey, Joshua M

    2015-10-08

    Modern humans overlapped in time and space with other hominins, such as Neanderthals and Denisovans, and limited amounts of hybridization occurred. Here, we review recent work that has identified archaic hominin sequence that survives in modern human genomes and what these genomic excavations reveal about human evolutionary history.

  19. Contribution to the photometric determination of small amounts of boron trioxide in glasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markova, D.

    1985-01-01

    The photometric determination for boron trioxide is described in amounts of 0-75 micrograms B2O3 with an azomethin H reagent. The yellow colored complex which occurs in a medium held at a pH of 4.5 was measured in light of a wavelength of 415 nm.

  20. When gains loom larger than losses: reversed loss aversion for small amounts of money.

    PubMed

    Harinck, Fieke; Van Dijk, Eric; Van Beest, Ilja; Mersmann, Paul

    2007-12-01

    Previous research has generally shown that people are loss averse; that is, they weigh losses more heavily than gains. In a series of three experiments, we found that for small outcomes, this pattern is reversed, and gains loom larger than losses. We explain this reversal on the basis of (a) the hedonic principle, which states that individuals are motivated to maximize pleasure and to minimize pain, and (b) the assumption that small losses are more easily discounted cognitively than large losses are.

  1. A Discounted Cash Flow variant to detect the optimal amount of additional burdens in Public-Private Partnership transactions.

    PubMed

    Copiello, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    The Discounted Cash Flow method is a long since well-known tool to assess the feasibility of investment projects, as the background which shapes a broad range of techniques, from the Cost-Benefit Analysis up to the Life-Cycle Cost Analysis. Its rationale lies in the comparison of deferred values, only once they have been discounted back to the present. The DCF variant proposed here fits into a specific application field. It is well-suited to the evaluations required in order to structure equitable transactions under the umbrella of Public-Private Partnership. •The discount rate relies upon the concept of expected return on equity, instead than on those of weighted average cost of capital, although the latter is the most common reference within the scope of real estate investment valuation.•Given a feasible project, whose Net Present Value is more than satisfactory, we aim to identify the amount of the additional burdens that could be charged to the project, under the condition of keeping the same economically viable.•The DCF variant essentially deals with an optimization problem, which can be solved by means of simple one-shot equations, derived from financial mathematics, or through iterative calculations if additional constraints must be considered.

  2. Health risk assessment of potable water containing small amount of tritium oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Momot, O. A.; Synzynys, B. I.; Oudalova, A. A.

    2017-01-01

    The problem of groundwater pollution with tritium in a vicinity of radiation-dangerous facilities in Obninsk is considered. The information on the specific activity of tritium in Obninsk water sources is provided. The formula for the calculation of the β-radiation absorbed dose from tritium ingestion is proposed, reflecting the biological behavior of tritium in a human body. To establish the extent of tritium effects on human, the health risk is assessed. It is shown that if the specific activity of tritium in drinking water amounts to 10 Bq/l, the risk of stochastic effects of radiation will not exceed the limit of the individual lifetime risk.

  3. Wine metabolomics reveals new sulfonated products in bottled white wines, promoted by small amounts of oxygen.

    PubMed

    Arapitsas, Panagiotis; Ugliano, Maurizio; Perenzoni, Daniele; Angeli, Andrea; Pangrazzi, Paolo; Mattivi, Fulvio

    2016-01-15

    The impact of minute amounts of oxygen in the headspace on the post-bottling development of wine is generally considered to be very important, since oxygen can either damage or improve the quality of wine. This project aimed to gain new experimental evidence about the chemistry of the interaction between wine and oxygen. The experimental design included 216 bottles of 12 different white wines produced from 6 different cultivars (Inzolia, Muller Thurgau, Chardonnay, Grillo, Traminer and Pinot gris). Half of them were bottled using the standard industrial process with inert headspace and the other half without inert gas and with extra headspace. After 60 days of storage at room temperature, the wines were analysed using an untargeted LC-MS method. The use of a detailed holistic analysis workflow, with several levels of quality control and marker selection, gave 35 metabolites putatively induced by the different amounts of oxygen. These metabolite markers included ascorbic acid, tartaric acid and various sulfonated compounds observed in wine for the first time (e.g. S-sulfonated cysteine, glutathione and pantetheine; and sulfonated indole-3-lactic acid hexoside and tryptophol). The consumption of SO2 mediated by these sulfonation reactions was promoted by the presence of higher levels of oxygen on bottling.

  4. Activity Recognition Using Community Data to Complement Small Amounts of Labeled Instances †

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Ceja, Enrique; Brena, Ramon F.

    2016-01-01

    Human Activity Recognition (HAR) is an important part of ambient intelligence systems since it can provide user-context information, thus allowing a greater personalization of services. One of the problems with HAR systems is that the labeling process for the training data is costly, which has hindered its practical application. A common approach is to train a general model with the aggregated data from all users. The problem is that for a new target user, this model can perform poorly because it is biased towards the majority type of users and does not take into account the particular characteristics of the target user. To overcome this limitation, a user-dependent model can be trained with data only from the target user that will be optimal for this particular user; however, this requires a considerable amount of labeled data, which is cumbersome to obtain. In this work, we propose a method to build a personalized model for a given target user that does not require large amounts of labeled data. Our method uses data already labeled by a community of users to complement the scarce labeled data of the target user. Our results showed that the personalized model outperformed the general and the user-dependent models when labeled data is scarce. PMID:27314355

  5. Facile, High Quality Sequencing of Bacterial Genomes from Small Amounts of DNA

    PubMed Central

    Vuyisich, Momchilo; Arefin, Ayesha; Davenport, Karen; Feng, Shihai; Gleasner, Cheryl; McMurry, Kim; Parson-Quintana, Beverly; Price, Jennifer; Scholz, Matthew; Chain, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Sequencing bacterial genomes has traditionally required large amounts of genomic DNA (~1 μg). There have been few studies to determine the effects of the input DNA amount or library preparation method on the quality of sequencing data. Several new commercially available library preparation methods enable shotgun sequencing from as little as 1 ng of input DNA. In this study, we evaluated the NEBNext Ultra library preparation reagents for sequencing bacterial genomes. We have evaluated the utility of NEBNext Ultra for resequencing and de novo assembly of four bacterial genomes and compared its performance with the TruSeq library preparation kit. The NEBNext Ultra reagents enable high quality resequencing and de novo assembly of a variety of bacterial genomes when using 100 ng of input genomic DNA. For the two most challenging genomes (Burkholderia spp.), which have the highest GC content and are the longest, we also show that the quality of both resequencing and de novo assembly is not decreased when only 10 ng of input genomic DNA is used. PMID:25478564

  6. A Small Amount of Dietary Carbohydrate Can Promote the HFD-Induced Insulin Resistance to a Maximal Level

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Huailan; Gu, Haihua; Zha, Longying; Cai, Junwei; Li, Xuefeng; Liu, Zhenqi; Bennett, Brian J.; He, Ling; Cao, Wenhong

    2014-01-01

    Both dietary fat and carbohydrates (Carbs) may play important roles in the development of insulin resistance. The main goal of this study was to further define the roles for fat and dietary carbs in insulin resistance. C57BL/6 mice were fed normal chow diet (CD) or HFD containing 0.1–25.5% carbs for 5 weeks, followed by evaluations of calorie consumption, body weight and fat gains, insulin sensitivity, intratissue insulin signaling, ectopic fat, and oxidative stress in liver and skeletal muscle. The role of hepatic gluconeogenesis in the HFD-induced insulin resistance was determined in mice. The role of fat in insulin resistance was also examined in cultured cells. HFD with little carbs (0.1%) induced severe insulin resistance. Addition of 5% carbs to HFD dramatically elevated insulin resistance and 10% carbs in HFD was sufficient to induce a maximal level of insulin resistance. HFD with little carbs induced ectopic fat accumulation and oxidative stress in liver and skeletal muscle and addition of carbs to HFD dramatically enhanced ectopic fat and oxidative stress. HFD increased hepatic expression of key gluconeogenic genes and the increase was most dramatic by HFD with little carbs, and inhibition of hepatic gluconeogenesis prevented the HFD-induced insulin resistance. In cultured cells, development of insulin resistance induced by a pathological level of insulin was prevented in the absence of fat. Together, fat is essential for development of insulin resistance and dietary carb is not necessary for HFD-induced insulin resistance due to the presence of hepatic gluconeogenesis but a very small amount of it can promote HFD-induced insulin resistance to a maximal level. PMID:25055153

  7. Method for determination of small amounts of rare earths and thorium in phosphate rocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waring, C.L.; Mela, H.

    1953-01-01

    In laboratory investigations, interest developed in the possible rare-earth content of phosphate samples from Florida and the northwestern United States. Because of the difficulty of making chemical determinations of traces of individual rare earths, a combined chemical-spectrographic method was investigated. After removal of iron by the extraction of the chloride with ether, the rare earths and thorium are concentrated by double oxalate precipitation, using calcium as a carrier. The rare earths are freed from calcium by an ammonium hydroxide precipitation with a fixed amount of aluminum as a carrier. The aluminum also serves as an internal standard in the final spectrographic analysis. The method will determine from 0.02 to 2 mg. of each rare earth with an error no greater than 10%. The investigation has resulted in a fairly rapid and precise procedure, involving no special spectrographic setup. The method could be applied to other types of geologic materials with the same expected accuracy.

  8. Mesothelioma: has patient had contact with even small amount of asbestos

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-03-27

    Mesothelioma, primarily an asbestos-related cancer, has traditionally been tracked through the incidence rate in workers handling asbestos directly. Now, epidemiologists are recording cases of the tumor in persons who have worked with materials containing even small quantities of asbestos. The lower concentrations of asbestos were thought by many to have minimized the susceptibility of workers to mesothelioma. But as cases of the malignant tumor appeared in tradesmen, epidemiologists began to suspect that the concentration level of the fibers was not the prime concern. Further studies showed that one fiber of a certain length can lodge in the pleura of the lung, and 40 years later, the patient will exhibit signs of dyspnea, chest pain, or both.

  9. Possible mechanism for seismic attenuation in rocks containing small amounts of volatiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tittmann, B. R.; Clark, V. A.; Richardson, J. M.; Spencer, T. W.

    1980-10-01

    Measurements were made of the specific dissipation factor of rocks with small contents of volatiles. The factor was measured for shear waves as a function of relative partial pressure for benzene, hexane, ethanol, methanol and water at 10 kHz with the vibrating bar method in a chamber with relative partial pressures between zero and 0.9. The one- or two-monolayer coverage of absorbed volatiles increased the shear wave dissipation factor with exposure to alcohols and water, but only slightly when exposed to hexane and benzene. Direct ellipsometry data and absorption isotherm results are given for thin films or adsorbed volatiles at low partial pressures; the measurements are analyzed in terms of a model relating the dissipation factor to the relative mass of the adsorbed volatiles, the surface area of the rock, and the rock temperature.

  10. Plastic-Syringe Induced Silicone Contamination in Organic Photvoltaic Fabrication: Implications for Small-Volume Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, John A.; Nalwa, Kanwar S.; Mahadevapuram, Rakesh; Chen, Yuqing; Anderegg, James; Chaudhary, Sumit

    2012-05-15

    Herein, the implications of silicone contamination found in solution-processed conjugated polymer solar cells are explored. Similar to a previous work based on molecular cells, we find this contamination as a result of the use of plastic syringes during fabrication. However, in contrast to the molecular case, we find that glass-syringe fabricated devices give superior performance than plastic-syringe fabricated devices in poly(3-hexylthiophene)-based cells. We find that the unintentional silicone addition alters the solution’s wettability, which translates to a thinner, less absorbent film on spinning. With many groups studying the effects of small-volume additives, this work should be closely considered as many of these additives may also directly alter the solutions’ wettability, or the amount of silicone dissolved off the plastic syringes, or both. Thereby, film thickness, which generally is not reported in detail, can vary significantly from device to device.

  11. Plastic-syringe induced silicone contamination in organic photovoltaic fabrication: implications for small-volume additives.

    PubMed

    Carr, John A; Nalwa, Kanwar S; Mahadevapuram, Rakesh; Chen, Yuqing; Anderegg, James; Chaudhary, Sumit

    2012-06-27

    Herein, the implications of silicone contamination found in solution-processed conjugated polymer solar cells are explored. Similar to a previous work based on molecular cells, we find this contamination as a result of the use of plastic syringes during fabrication. However, in contrast to the molecular case, we find that glass-syringe fabricated devices give superior performance than plastic-syringe fabricated devices in poly(3-hexylthiophene)-based cells. We find that the unintentional silicone addition alters the solution's wettability, which translates to a thinner, less absorbent film on spinning. With many groups studying the effects of small-volume additives, this work should be closely considered as many of these additives may also directly alter the solutions' wettability, or the amount of silicone dissolved off the plastic syringes, or both. Thereby, film thickness, which generally is not reported in detail, can vary significantly from device to device.

  12. Using magnetization measurements to detect small amounts of plutonium hydride formation in plutonium metal

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jae Wook; Mielke, Charles H.; Zapf, Vivien; Baiardo, Joseph P.; Mitchell, Jeremy N.; Richmond, Scott; Schwartz, Daniel S.; Mun, Eun D.; Smith, Alice Iulia

    2014-10-20

    We report the formation of plutonium hydride in 2 at % Ga-stabilized δ-Pu, with 1 atomic % H charging. We show that magnetization measurements are a sensitive, quantitative measure of ferromagnetic plutonium hydride against the nonmagnetic background of plutonium. It was previously shown that at low hydrogen concentrations, hydrogen forms super-abundant vacancy complexes with plutonium, resulting in a bulk lattice contraction. Here we use magnetization, X-ray and neutron diffraction measurements to show that in addition to forming vacancy complexes, at least 30% of the H atoms bond with Pu to precipitate PuHx, largely on the surface of the sample with x ~ 1.9. We observe magnetic hysteresis loops below 40 K with magnetic remanence, consistent with precipitates of ferromagnetic PuH1.9.

  13. Application of Triple Coincidence for the Detection of Small Amounts of Special Nuclear Materials

    SciTech Connect

    DIOSZEGI, I.; Salwen, C.; and Forman, L.

    2011-06-12

    We constructed a device that measures two {gamma}-rays and one neutron from spontaneous fission and any resulting multiplication chains. It extends the associated particle technique based upon correlated counting of the multiplicity of gamma-rays and neutrons released in spontaneous- or neutron-induced fission. There are two advantages in incorporating a third detector in the design over the standard two-detector version. First, we found that random uncorrelated events dominate the background of coincident counting with a gamma-ray- and neutron-detector. These might be suppressed by requiring an additional coincidence. Second, the time history of gamma-ray emission between the two gamma-ray detectors is related to multiplication in the target media. Multiplication in highly enriched uranium is much greater than in depleted uranium.

  14. Small-Scale Spray Releases: Additional Aerosol Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Schonewill, Philip P.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Kimura, Marcia L.; Brown, G. N.; Mahoney, Lenna A.; Tran, Diana N.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Kurath, Dean E.

    2013-08-01

    One of the events postulated in the hazard analysis at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities is a breach in process piping that produces aerosols with droplet sizes in the respirable range. The current approach for predicting the size and concentration of aerosols produced in a spray leak involves extrapolating from correlations reported in the literature. These correlations are based on results obtained from small engineered spray nozzles using pure liquids with Newtonian fluid behavior. The narrow ranges of physical properties on which the correlations are based do not cover the wide range of slurries and viscous materials that will be processed in the WTP and across processing facilities in the DOE complex. To expand the data set upon which the WTP accident and safety analyses were based, an aerosol spray leak testing program was conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL’s test program addressed two key technical areas to improve the WTP methodology (Larson and Allen 2010). The first technical area was to quantify the role of slurry particles in small breaches where slurry particles may plug the hole and prevent high-pressure sprays. The results from an effort to address this first technical area can be found in Mahoney et al. (2012a). The second technical area was to determine aerosol droplet size distribution and total droplet volume from prototypic breaches and fluids, including sprays from larger breaches and sprays of slurries for which literature data are largely absent. To address the second technical area, the testing program collected aerosol generation data at two scales, commonly referred to as small-scale and large-scale. The small-scale testing and resultant data are described in Mahoney et al. (2012b) and the large-scale testing and resultant data are presented in Schonewill et al. (2012). In tests at both scales, simulants were used to mimic the

  15. Novel extraction method of genomic DNA suitable for long-fragment amplification from small amounts of milk.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y F; Gao, J L; Yang, Y F; Ku, T; Zan, L S

    2014-11-01

    Isolation of genomic DNA is a prerequisite for assessment of milk quality. As a source of genomic DNA, milk somatic cells from milking ruminants are practical, animal friendly, and cost-effective sources. Extracting DNA from milk can avoid the stress response caused by blood and tissue sampling of cows. In this study, we optimized a novel DNA extraction method for amplifying long (>1,000 bp) DNA fragments and used it to evaluate the isolation of DNA from small amounts of milk. The techniques used for the separation of milk somatic cell were explored and combined with a sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-phenol method for optimizing DNA extraction from milk. Spectrophotometry was used to determine the concentration and purity of the extracted DNA. Gel electrophoresis and DNA amplification technologies were used for to determine DNA size and quality. The DNA of 112 cows was obtained from milk (samples of 13 ± 1 mL) and the corresponding optical density ratios at 260:280 nm were between 1.65 and 1.75. Concentrations were between 12 and 45 μg/μL and DNA size and quality were acceptable. The specific PCR amplification of 1,019- and 729-bp bovine DNA fragments was successfully carried out. This novel method can be used as a practical, fast, and economical mean for long genomic DNA extraction from a small amount of milk.

  16. Study on the Microstructure and Wettability of an Al-Cu-Si Braze Containing Small Amounts of Rare Earth Erbium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Yaowu; Yu, Yang; Li, Yapeng; Xia, Zhidong; Lei, Yongping; Li, Xiaoyan; Guo, Fu

    2009-04-01

    The effect of adding small amounts of rare earth Er on the microstructure of an Al-Cu-Si braze alloy has been investigated. Several Al-20Cu-7Si braze alloys containing various contents of Er were prepared, and their melting temperature, microstructure, hardness, and wettability in contact with 3003 aluminum alloy substrates were determined. The results indicate that the constituents of the microstructure of Al-20Cu-7Si-Er braze alloys are similar to those in the Al-20Cu-7Si alloy, and comprise of solid solutions of aluminum, silicon, and the intermetallic compound CuAl2. When the Er content increases, the size of the Al phase decreases, and the needle-like Si phase is thickened, and transformed to a blocky shape. Moreover, small amounts of Er can improve the wettability and hardness of the Al-20Cu-7Si braze alloy; however, the melting temperature of the Al-20Cu-7Si alloy does not change.

  17. Effect of minimizing amount of template by addition of macromolecular crowding agent on preparation of molecularly imprinted monolith.

    PubMed

    Sun, Guang-Ying; Zhong, Dan-Dan; Li, Xiang-Jie; Luo, Yu-Qing; Ba, Hang; Liu, Zhao-Sheng; Aisa, Haji Akber

    2015-09-01

    One of the main challenges in the preparation of molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) is the substantial initial amount of template needed because of the requirement of high load capacities for most applications. A new strategy of macromolecular crowding was suggested to solve this problem by reducing the amount of template in the polymerization recipe. In a ternary porogenic system of polystyrene (PS) (crowding agent), tetrahydrofuran, and toluene, an imprinted monolithic column with high porosity and good permeability was synthesized using a mixture of ellagic acid (template), acrylamide, and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate. The effect of polymerization factors, including monomer-template molar ratio and the molecular weight and concentration of PS, on the imprinting effect of the resulting MIP monoliths was systematically investigated. At a high ratio of monomer-template (120:1), the greatest imprinting factor of 32.4 was obtained on the MIP monolith with the aid of macromolecular crowding agent. The PS-based imprinted monolith had imprinting even at the extremely high ratio of functional monomer to template of 1510:1. Furthermore, an off-line solid-phase extraction based on the ground MIP was conducted, and the purification recovery of ellagic acid from pomegranate-rind extract was up to 80 %. In conclusion, this approach based on macromolecular crowding is simple, and is especially valuable for those applications of MIP preparation for which a rare template is used.

  18. /sup 14/C-lactose breath tests during pelvic radiotherapy: the effect of the amount of small bowel irradiated

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, R.G.; Stryker, J.A.

    1982-02-01

    Thirty patients who were undergoing pelvic radiotherapy had /sup 14/C-lactose breath tests performed in the first and fifth weeks of treatment. In Group I (21 patients), a significant portion of the small intestine was irradiated, and in Group II (9 patients), only a small portion of the small intestine was irradiated. In Group I, the average reductions in the excretion of ingested /sup 14/C between the first- and fifth-week tests were 41.5% at 1/2 hour postingestion (p less than 0.05), and 21.8% at 1 hour postingestion (p less than 0.05). In Group II, the percentage reductions were 11.8% and 3.7% at 1/2 and 1 hour, respectively (p greater than 0.05). The data suggest that lactose malabsorption is a factor in the etiology of the nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea experienced by patients who are undergoing pelvic radiotherapy, and that the amount of bowel included in the treatment volume significantly influences the degree of malabsorption.

  19. /sup 14/C-lactose breath tests during pelvic radiotherapy: the effect of the amount of small bowel irradiated

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, R.G.; Stryker, J.A.

    1982-02-01

    Thirty patients who were undergoing pelvic radiotherapy had /sup 14/C-lactose breath tests performed in the first and fifth weeks of treatment. In Group I (21 patients), a significant portion of the small intestine was irradiated, and in Group II (9 patients), only a small portion of the small intestine was irradiated. In Group I, the average reductions in the excretion of ingested /sup 14/C between the first- and fifth-week tests were 41.5% at 1/2 hour postingestion (p<0.05), and 21.8% at 1 hour postingestion (p<0.05). In Group II, the prercentage reduction were 11.8% and 3.7% at 1/2 and 1 hour, respectively (p>0.05). The data suggest that lactose malabsorption is a factor in the etiology of the nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea experienced by patients who are undergoing pelvic radiotherapy, and that the amount of bowel included in the treatment volume significantly influences the degree of malabsorption.

  20. Are There Additional Benefits from Being in Small Classes for More than One Year?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konstantopoulos, Spyros; Li, Wei

    2012-01-01

    Evidence from Project STAR has suggested a considerable advantage of being in small classes in early grades. However, the extra benefits of additional years in small classes have not been discussed in detail. The present study examined the additional effects of being in small classes for more than 1 year. We find that once previous grade…

  1. Sucrose taken during mixed meal has no additional hyperglycaemic action over isocaloric amounts of starch in well-controlled diabetics.

    PubMed

    Slama, G; Haardt, M J; Jean-Joseph, P; Costagliola, D; Goicolea, I; Bornet, F; Elgrably, F; Tchobroutsky, G

    1984-07-21

    The hyperglycaemic effect of 20 g sucrose taken at the end of a regular mixed meal by diabetic patients was measured in six adult type 1 diabetics, C-peptide negative, controlled by the artificial pancreas, and twelve adult type 2 diabetics, with fasting plasma glucose levels below 7.2 mmol/l (130 mg/100 ml) and post-prandial plasma glucose levels below 10.0 mmol/l (180 mg/100 ml), treated by diet alone or with glibenclamide and/or metformin. All the patients were given on consecutive days, in random order, two mixed meals of grilled meat, green beans, and cheese, as well as a cake made either of rice, skimmed milk, and saccharine (meal A) or rice, skimmed milk, and 20 g sucrose (meal B). The meals contained equal amounts of calories and of carbohydrate. There was no difference between the meals in plasma glucose curves and plasma insulin or insulin infusion rate variations whether in peak values, peaking times, or areas under the curves, in either group of patients. Sparing use of sucrose taken during mixed meals might help well-controlled diabetic patients to comply with their daily dietary prescription while maintaining good blood glucose control.

  2. Influence of small amorphous amounts in hydrophilic and hydrophobic APIs on storage stability of dry powder inhalation products.

    PubMed

    Müller, Thorsten; Krehl, Regina; Schiewe, Jörg; Weiler, Claudius; Steckel, Hartwig

    2015-05-01

    The effects of different manufacturing methods to induce formation of amorphous content, changes of physico-chemical characteristics of powder blends and changes of aerodynamic properties over storage time (6months) analyzed with the Next Generation Impactor (NGI) are investigated. Earlier studies have shown that standard pharmaceutical operations lead to structural disorders which may influence drug delivery and product stability. In this investigation, fully amorphous drug samples produced by spray-drying (SD) and ball-milling (BM) as well as semi-crystalline samples (produced by blending and micronization) are studied and compared to fully crystalline starting material. The amorphous content of these hydrophilic and hydrophobic active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) was determined using a validated one-step DVS-method. For the conducted blending and micronization tests, amorphous amounts up to a maximum of 5.1% for salbutamol sulfate (SBS) and 17.0% for ciclesonide (CS) were measured. In order to investigate the impact of small amorphous amounts, inhalable homogenous powder mixtures with very high and low amorphous content and a defined particle size were prepared with a Turbula blender for each API. These blends were stored (6months, 45% RH, room temperature) to evaluate the influence of amorphous amounts on storage stability. The fine particle fraction (FPF: % of emitted dose<5μm) was determined with the NGI at defined time points. The amorphous amounts showed a major effect on dispersion behavior, the mixtures of the two APIs showed differences at the beginning of the study and significant differences in storage stability. The FPF values for SBS decreased during storage (FPF: from 35% to <27%) for the blend with high amorphous amounts, in contrast the initially re-crystallized sample achieved a comparable constant level of about 25%. For the hydrophobic CS a constantly increasing FPF (from 6% to >15%) over storage time for both types of blends was

  3. Color Change of Sudan III against Concentrated Sulfuric Acid in Acetonitrile and Quantification for a Small Amount of Concentrated Sulfuric Acid.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Takao; Kurata, Shoji; Ogino, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    The color-changing phenomenon of hydrophobic bisazo dye, Sudan III in an acetonitrile solution against the addition of concentrated sulfuric acid has been discovered and the chromic properties investigated. Based on observations, a novel quantification method of concentrated sulfuric acid has been developed. Sudan III changes its color from orange to blue against a small volume of sulfuric acid, and the acetonitrile solution of Sudan III is the most suitable for observing the color-change phenomenon. (1)H-NMR and UV-Vis spectroscopic studies showed that the color-change mechanism of Sudan III against sulfuric acid is due to the protonation of the dye by sulfuric acid. This phenomenon is applicable to the quantification of concentrated sulfuric acid by introducing the Hammett acidity function. The proposed method requires only a small amount of the sample, 0.04 mL, and enables rapid quantification.

  4. An efficient visible-light photocatalyst prepared by modifying AgBr particles with a small amount of activated carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Desong Zhao, Mangmang; Luo, Qingzhi; Yin, Rong; An, Jing; Li, Xueyan

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • An efficient visible-light photocatalyst was prepared by modifying AgBr particles. • A small amount of activated carbon was used to modify AgBr particles. • The modified AgBr exhibited improved visible-light photocatalytic performances. - Abstract: An efficient visible-light photocatalyst was successfully prepared by modifying AgBr particles with a small amount of activated carbon (AC) via a simple chemical precipitation approach. The AC/AgBr composite was characterized by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, UV–vis diffuse reflection spectroscopy, photoluminescence spectroscopy, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The photocatalytic performances of the AC/AgBr composite were investigated by evaluating photodegradation of methyl orange (MO) and phenol under visible light irradiation, and the effects of the AC content in the composite, concentrations of AC/AgBr composite and MO, carrier scavengers on MO photodegradation rate were systematically investigated. The results indicated that the modification of AC can hardly change the crystalline and crystal size of AgBr particles, while significantly improve their specific surface areas, visible-light absorption and separation efficiency of photogenerated electron–hole pairs. Compared with pure AgBr, the AC/AgBr composite exhibited drastically enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activity and stability. The photogenerated electrons and holes, hydroxyl radicals are responsible to the photodegradation of organic pollutants, and the photogenerated holes are the main active species. On the basis of the results and the properties of AC and AgBr, the visible-light photocatalytic mechanism of the AC/AgBr composite was discussed.

  5. Ignition delays in methane-oxygen mixture in the presence of small amount of iron or carbon nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eremin, A. V.; Gurentsov, E. V.

    2016-11-01

    The influence of small additions (0.3-2 ppm) of iron or carbon nanoparticles on ignition delay times in stoichiometric mixture of 20% (methane + oxygen) diluted in argon was investigated. The experiments were performed in 50 mm diameter shock tube behind reflected shock waves. The nanoparticles were synthesized in pyrolysis of 0.5-1% Fe(CO)5 and 1-2% of C6H6 diluted in argon in the experiment before the ignition test. The residual nanoparticles were pulled into the flow behind incident and reflected shock wave from the shock tube walls and their volume fraction was measured by laser light extinction at the wavelength 633 nm. Additions of 0.3-2 ppm of iron nanoparticles to stoichiometric methane-oxygen mixture resulted in twofold decrease of ignition delays at temperatures below 1400 K relatively to calculated and experimental data for the mixture without nanoparticle addition. At additions of 0.4-1 ppm of carbon nanoparticles to stoichiometric methane-oxygen mixture a weak decrease of ignition delay relatively to the calculated data for the mixture without additives of carbon nanoparticles was observed.

  6. Dissolution kinetics of small amounts of oxygen in tantalum alloy T-111 and internal oxide displacement reactions during annealing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecura, S.

    1976-01-01

    Oxygen was added to T-111 (Ta-8W-2Hf, wt. %) at 820 and 990 C at an oxygen pressure of about 0.0003 torr. The technique employed permitted predetermined and reproducible doping of T-111 up to 3.0 at. % oxygen. Based on the temperature dependence of the doping reaction, it is concluded that the initial rates of oxygen pickup are probably controlled by solution of oxygen into the T-111 lattice. Although hafnium oxides are more stable than those of tantalum or tungsten, analyses of extracted residues indicate that the latter oxides predominate in the as-doped specimens, presumably because of the higher concentrations of tantalum and tungsten in the alloy. However, high-temperature annealing promotes gettering of dissolved oxygen and of other oxides to form hafnium oxides. Small amounts of tantalum and tungsten oxides were still present after high-temperature annealing. Tungsten oxide (WO3) volatilizes slightly from the surface of T-111 at 990 C. The vaporization of WO3 has no apparent affect on the doping reaction.

  7. Modeling of recovery mechanism of ozone zero phenomenaby adding small amount of nitrogen in atmospheric pressure oxygen dielectric barrier discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akashi, Haruaki; Yoshinaga, Tomokazu

    2013-09-01

    Ozone zero phenomena in an atmospheric pressure oxygen dielectric barrier discharges have been one of the major problems during a long time operation of ozone generators. But it is also known that the adding a small amount of nitrogen makes the recover from the ozone zero phenomena. To make clear the mechanism of recovery, authors have been simulated the discharges with using the results of Ref. 3. As a result, the recovery process can be seen and ozone density increased. It is found that the most important species would be nitrogen atoms. The reaction of nitrogen atoms and oxygen molecules makes oxygen atoms which is main precursor species of ozone. This generation of oxygen atoms is effective to increase ozone. The dependence of oxygen atom density (nO) and nitrogen atom density (nN) ratio was examined in this paper. In the condition of low nN/nO ratio case, generation of nitrogen oxide is low, and the quenching of ozone by the nitrogen oxide would be low. But in the high ratio condition, the quenching of ozone by nitrogen oxide would significant. This work was supported by KAKENHI(23560352).

  8. Oscillating Positive Expiratory Pressure on Respiratory Resistance in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease With a Small Amount of Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Gastaldi, Ada Clarice; Paredi, Paolo; Talwar, Anjana; Meah, Sally; Barnes, Peter J.; Usmani, Omar S.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This study aims to evaluate the acute effects of an oscillating positive expiratory pressure device (flutter) on airways resistance in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Randomized crossover study: 15 COPD outpatients from Asthma Lab–Royal Brompton Hospital underwent spirometry, impulse oscillometry (IOS) for respiratory resistance (R) and reactance (X), and fraction exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) measures. Thirty minutes of flutter exercises: a “flutter-sham” procedure was used as a control, and airway responses after a short-acting bronchodilator were also assessed. Respiratory system resistance (R): in COPD patients an increase in X5insp (−0.21 to −0.33 kPa/L/s) and Fres (24.95 to 26.16 Hz) occurred immediately after flutter exercises without bronchodilator. Following 20 min of rest, a decrease in the R5, ΔR5, R20, X5, and Ax was observed, with R5, R20, and X5 values lower than baseline, with a moderate effect size; there were no changes in FeNO levels or spirometry. The use of flutter can decrease the respiratory system resistance and reactance and expiratory flow limitation in stable COPD patients with small amounts of secretions. PMID:26496331

  9. Detection of IL28B SNP DNA from Buccal Epithelial Cells, Small Amounts of Serum, and Dried Blood Spots

    PubMed Central

    Halfon, Philippe; Ouzan, Denis; Khiri, Hacène; Pénaranda, Guillaume; Castellani, Paul; Oulès, Valerie; Kahloun, Asma; Amrani, Nolwenn; Fanteria, Lise; Martineau, Agnès; Naldi, Lou; Bourlière, Marc

    2012-01-01

    Background & Aims Point mutations in the coding region of the interleukin 28 gene (rs12979860) have recently been identified for predicting the outcome of treatment of hepatitis C virus infection. This polymorphism detection was based on whole blood DNA extraction. Alternatively, DNA for genetic diagnosis has been derived from buccal epithelial cells (BEC), dried blood spots (DBS), and genomic DNA from serum. The aim of the study was to investigate the reliability and accuracy of alternative routes of testing for single nucleotide polymorphism allele rs12979860CC. Methods Blood, plasma, and sera samples from 200 patients were extracted (400 µL). Buccal smears were tested using an FTA card. To simulate postal delay, we tested the influence of storage at ambient temperature on the different sources of DNA at five time points (baseline, 48 h, 6 days, 9 days, and 12 days) Results There was 100% concordance between blood, plasma, sera, and BEC, validating the use of DNA extracted from BEC collected on cytology brushes for genetic testing. Genetic variations in HPTR1 gene were detected using smear technique in blood smear (3620 copies) as well as in buccal smears (5870 copies). These results are similar to those for whole blood diluted at 1/10. A minimum of 0.04 µL, 4 µL, and 40 µL was necessary to obtain exploitable results respectively for whole blood, sera, and plasma. No significant variation between each time point was observed for the different sources of DNA. IL28B SNPs analysis at these different time points showed the same results using the four sources of DNA. Conclusion We demonstrated that genomic DNA extraction from buccal cells, small amounts of serum, and dried blood spots is an alternative to DNA extracted from peripheral blood cells and is helpful in retrospective and prospective studies for multiple genetic markers, specifically in hard-to-reach individuals. PMID:22412970

  10. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  11. Evaluation of library preparation methods for Illumina next generation sequencing of small amounts of DNA from foodborne parasites.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Fernanda S; Wei-Pridgeon, Yuping; Arrowood, Michael J; Moss, Delynn; da Silva, Alexandre J; Talundzic, Eldin; Qvarnstrom, Yvonne

    2016-11-01

    Illumina library preparation methods for ultra-low input amounts were compared using genomic DNA from two foodborne parasites (Angiostrongylus cantonensis and Cyclospora cayetanensis) as examples. The Ovation Ultralow method resulted in libraries with the highest concentration and produced quality sequencing data, even when the input DNA was in the picogram range.

  12. 76 FR 45818 - Burden of Food and Drug Administration Food Safety Modernization Act Fee Amounts on Small...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-01

    ...,000 die from food borne diseases, according to recent data from the Centers for Disease Control and... there ways to alleviate any burden on small business other than a fee reduction? Please explain. B. How... announcing the establishment of a docket to obtain information that will be used to formulate a proposed...

  13. Solvent additive effects on small molecule crystallization in bulk heterojunction solar cells probed during spin casting.

    PubMed

    Perez, Louis A; Chou, Kang Wei; Love, John A; van der Poll, Thomas S; Smilgies, Detlef-M; Nguyen, Thuc-Quyen; Kramer, Edward J; Amassian, Aram; Bazan, Guillermo C

    2013-11-26

    Solvent additive processing can lead to drastic improvements in the power conversion efficiency (PCE) in solution processable small molecule (SPSM) bulk heterojunction solar cells. In situ grazing incidence wide-angle X-ray scattering is used to investigate the kinetics of crystallite formation during and shortly after spin casting. The additive is shown to have a complex effect on structural evolution invoking polymorphism and enhanced crystalline quality of the donor SPSM.

  14. 77 FR 56874 - Extension of Comment Period: Remedies for Small Copyright Claims: Additional Comments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-14

    ... Copyright Office Extension of Comment Period: Remedies for Small Copyright Claims: Additional Comments AGENCY: Copyright Office, Library of Congress. ACTION: Extension of comment period. SUMMARY: The Copyright Office is extending the period of public comment in response to its August 23, 2012 Notice...

  15. Effect of Ozone Addition on Combustion Efficiency of Hydrogen: Liquid-Oxygen Propellant in Small Rockets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Riley O.; Brown, Dwight D.

    1959-01-01

    An experimental study shows that 2 percent by weight ozone in oxygen has little effect on overall reactivity for a range of oxidant-fuel weight ratios from 1 to 6. This conclusion is based on characteristic-velocity measurements in 200-pound-thrust chambers at a pressure of 300 pounds per square inch absolute with low-efficiency injectors. The presence of 9 percent ozone in oxygen also did not affect performance in an efficient chamber. Explosions were encountered when equipment or procedure permitted ozone to concentrate locally. These experiments indicate that even small amounts of ozone in oxygen can cause operational problems.

  16. The Use of Additive Manufacturing for Fabrication of Multi-Function Small Satellite Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Horais, Brian J; Love, Lonnie J; Dehoff, Ryan R

    2013-01-01

    The use of small satellites in constellations is limited only by the growing functionality of smallsats themselves. Additive manufacturing provides exciting new design opportunities for development of multifunction CubeSat structures that integrate such functions as propulsion and thermal control into the satellite structures themselves. Manufacturing of these complex multifunction structures is now possible in lightweight, high strength, materials such as titanium by using existing electron beam melting additive manufacturing processes. However, the use of today's additive manufacturing capabilities is often cost-prohibitive for small companies due to the large capital investments required. To alleviate this impediment the U.S. Department of Energy has established a Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (MDF) at their Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Tennessee that provides industry access to a broad range of energy-efficient additive manufacturing equipment for collaborative use by both small and large organizations. This paper presents a notional CubeSat multifunction design that integrates the propulsion system into a three-unit (3U) CubeSat structure. The full-scale structure has been designed and fabricated at the ORNL MDF. The use of additive manufacturing for spacecraft fabrication is opening up many new possibilities in design and fabrication capabilities for what had previously been impossible structures to fabricate.

  17. Source Distribution Method for Unsteady One-Dimensional Flows With Small Mass, Momentum, and Heat Addition and Small Area Variation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mirels, Harold

    1959-01-01

    A source distribution method is presented for obtaining flow perturbations due to small unsteady area variations, mass, momentum, and heat additions in a basic uniform (or piecewise uniform) one-dimensional flow. First, the perturbations due to an elemental area variation, mass, momentum, and heat addition are found. The general solution is then represented by a spatial and temporal distribution of these elemental (source) solutions. Emphasis is placed on discussing the physical nature of the flow phenomena. The method is illustrated by several examples. These include the determination of perturbations in basic flows consisting of (1) a shock propagating through a nonuniform tube, (2) a constant-velocity piston driving a shock, (3) ideal shock-tube flows, and (4) deflagrations initiated at a closed end. The method is particularly applicable for finding the perturbations due to relatively thin wall boundary layers.

  18. Phase Segregation and Dynamics in Strongly Interacting Small Molecule Additive - Block Copolymer Surfactant Complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kothari, Rohit; Khalil, Ahmed; Henning Winter, H.; Watkins, James J.

    2012-02-01

    Rheology and Small Angle X-Ray Scattering (SAXS) were used to investigate order to disorder transitions (ODTs) and disorder to order transitions (DOTs) of poly(ethyleneoxide-b-propyleneoxide-b-ethyleneoxide) block copolymer surfactants mixed with hydrogen-bond-donating small molecule additives. A series of additives having a core benzene ring and systematic variation in the number of carboxylic or hydroxyl groups attached to the ring were of particular interest. Ordered cylindrical morphologies, confirmed using SAXS, were obtained only in a certain additive concentration region. ODTs were characterized by sudden changes in the linear viscoelastic properties in low frequency region upon increasing temperature. The locations of ODTs varied widely with hydrogen-bond-donating ability of the functional group and were found to be strongly dependent on the number of functional groups attached to the ring. For a given additive, the temperature at which ODT occur was strong function of the additive loading, whereas the linear viscoelastic properties of the ordered state were little changed upon varying additive concentration in ordered region. The location and dynamics of DOTs upon cooling were comparable to the ODTs upon heating. Studies using these model systems provide insight into the design of well-ordered hybrid materials.

  19. Preparation of small amounts of sterile siRNA-liposomes with high entrapping efficiency by dual asymmetric centrifugation (DAC).

    PubMed

    Hirsch, Markus; Ziroli, Vittorio; Helm, Mark; Massing, Ulrich

    2009-04-02

    Liposomal formulation of siRNA is an attractive approach for improving its delivery in vivo, shielding the RNA from nucleases and promoting tumor targeting. Here, the production of very small batch sizes of siRNA-liposomes by using the "dual asymmetric centrifugation (DAC)" technique was investigated. This new technique combines rapid and sterile liposome preparation with very high entrapping efficiencies. DAC is here presented in conjunction with a non-destructive microscale analysis based on double fluorescence labeling, which enables monitoring of siRNA integrity during the liposomal preparation. Integrity is reflected in spatial proximity of the dyes, which results in measurable fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). The combination of DAC and the sensitive FRET analysis allows the handling of batch sizes down to 20 mg of conventional liposomes (CL) and sterically stabilized liposomes (SL). These were prepared in common 2 ml reaction tubes and loaded with calcein or labeled siRNA. Liposome sizes were 79+/-16 nm for CL and 109+/-9 nm for SL loaded with siRNA. Trapping efficiencies ranged from 43 to 81%, depending on batch size, enclosed compound, and liposome composition. FRET monitoring showed that the siRNA remained intact throughout DAC and that liposomal formulations protected the siRNA from nucleases. siRNA-liposomes remained stable for at least 3 months.

  20. Oral contrast agents for small bowel MRI: comparison of different additives to optimize bowel distension.

    PubMed

    Ajaj, Waleed; Goehde, Susanne C; Schneemann, Hubert; Ruehm, Stefan G; Debatin, Jörg F; Lauenstein, Thomas C

    2004-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare two osmotic carbohydrate sugar alcohols (mannitol 2.5% and sorbitol 2.5%, 2.0%, and 1.5% watery solutions) in combination with 0.2% locust bean gum (LBG) for small bowel distension for MR imaging. Small bowel distension was quantified on coronal 2D TrueFISP images by measuring the diameters of 16 small bowel loops in each of 12 healthy subjects (age range 31-55 years). Additionally, the grade of small bowel distension was rated qualitatively. Patient acceptance concerning nausea, vomiting, flatulence, and diarrhea was noted for each solution, and all results were compared by a Wilcoxon test or t test, respectively. The ingestion of water combined with LBG and either 2.5% mannitol or 2.0% sorbitol showed the best distension of the small bowel. The lowest side effect rate was observed following ingestion of sorbitol in a concentration of 2.0 and 1.5%. Based on these data, we recommend a combination of LBG and 2% sorbitol use for optimal bowel distension and minimal side effects resulting in enhanced patient acceptance.

  1. Investigation of mechanical properties of masterbatches and composites with small additions of CNTs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burmistrov, I. N.; Yudintseva, T. I.; Ilinykh, I. A.; Khaydarov, B. B.; Mazov, I. N.; Anshin, S. M.; Kuznetsov, D. V.

    2016-01-01

    The present paper investigated physical and mechanical properties of the nanotube masterbatches and the polymer composites with low contents of carbon nanotubes (CNTs), which were obtained by diluting masterbatches. Ethylene-octene copolymer was used as the binder for the masterbatches, which provides the elasticity of the material at a content 20 wt% of CNT. Masterbatches were obtained with a 2-roller mixer, and their additive to polypropylene was carried out on a single screw injection molding machine. Strength properties of ethylene-octene copolymer increased when additing CNTs in an amount of 5-20 wt%. When the concentration of CNT in masterbatches is reduced to 0.01-0.1 wt% its strength characteristics increased up to 4-18%. The most effective strengthening of polypropylene was observed with the content of CNTs 0.1 wt%.

  2. Influence of small Pt additions on Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ scale adherence

    SciTech Connect

    Allam, I.M.; Akuezue, H.C.; Whittle, D.P.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of small Pt additions (1 or 3 wt %) on the oxidation behavior of Co-10Cr-11Al and a similar alloy containing Hf have been studied. An intermetallic phase was present in the alloy containing Hf and Pt but not in that containing Pt alone. The size and distribution of the intermetallic was comparable to that of similar alloys containing oxide dispersions produced by a controlled internal oxidation treatment. As a consequence it promoted the formation of inwardly growing Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ pegs that helped key the surface scale to the substrate and improve the scale-metal adhesion in both isothermal and cyclic oxidation tests. The improvement in overall oxidation resistance relative to an addition-free alloy was considerable, and similar to that of the best oxide dispersion-containing alloys.

  3. Morphology-Controlled High-Efficiency Small Molecule Organic Solar Cells without Additive Solvent Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Il Ku; Jo, Jun Hyung; Yun, Jung-Ho

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on nano-morphology-controlled small-molecule organic solar cells without solvent treatment for high power-conversion efficiencies (PCEs). The maximum high PCE reaches up to 7.22% with a bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) thickness of 320 nm. This high efficiency was obtained by eliminating solvent additives such as 1,8-diiodooctane (DIO) to find an alternative way to control the domain sizes in the BHJ layer. Furthermore, the generalized transfer matrix method (GTMM) analysis has been applied to confirm the effects of applying a different thickness of BHJs for organic solar cells from 100 to 320 nm, respectively. Finally, the study showed an alternative way to achieve high PCE organic solar cells without additive solvent treatments to control the morphology of the bulk-heterojunction.

  4. Diets with no or low amounts of dietary fiber can reduce small intestinal ulcers induced by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in dogs.

    PubMed

    Satoh, H; Kondo, R; Shinoda, T; Idaka, S; Ishigami, K; Shiotani, S

    2016-08-01

    Recent progress in endoscopic techniques has revealed that non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) often cause ulcers in the small intestine in humans, but effective therapy is not available at present. In the present study, we investigated the effects of feeding condition and the amount of dietary fiber (DF) in the diet on the formation of gastrointestinal ulcers induced by NSAIDs in dogs. Several types of diets containing various percentages of DF were given to dogs. Indomethacin (1 or 3 mg/kg, p.o.), ketoprofen (2 mg/kg, s.c.), or fulnixin (1 mg/kg, s.c.) was administered once daily at 10 a.m. after a morning meal or without a morning meal (fasted condition) for 3 - 7 days. Gastrointestinal lesions were examined 24 h after the final dose of the drugs. When indomethacin (3 mg/kg) was administered after a morning meal (fed condition) for 7 days, it produced many lesions in the small intestine. However, when it was given in the fasted condition without the morning meal, the lesions were markedly decreased. All the NSAIDs given after feeding of regular dry food containing 6% DF once a day for 3 days produced many lesions in the small intestine. The lesions were decreased or increased in dogs given prescription diets containing low DF (1.1%) and high DF (15.4%), respectively. Furthermore, lesions were not observed in dogs given canned diet containing very low DF (< 0.1%), whereas lesions appeared again in dogs given canned diet supplemented with cellulose (3 or 10%) but not with pectin (10%). These results suggested that both feeding condition and insoluble DF, such as cellulose in the diet, play an important role in the formation of NSAID-induced small intestinal lesions, and that a diet with no or low amounts of DF may decrease gastrointestinal side-effects associated with the use of NSAIDs.

  5. Chelex without boiling, a rapid and easy technique to obtain stable amplifiable DNA from small amounts of ethanol-stored spiders.

    PubMed

    Casquet, Juliane; Thebaud, Christophe; Gillespie, Rosemary G

    2012-01-01

    DNA barcoding projects require high-throughput generation of sequence data to assemble the comprehensive reference databases that are required to perform large-scale biodiversity inventories and molecular ecology studies. With the advent of new sequencing technologies, the extraction step, which often requires a considerable amount of time and money, represents a significant bottleneck in many studies. Here, we present a one-step Chelex double-stranded DNA extraction protocol that is quick, cheap, easy and works with a small quantity of ethanol-stored tissue. We developed this protocol by removing the denaturation step appearing in classic methods. This modification reduces the number of handling steps to one, thus simplifying the extraction procedure and reducing the risk of sample contamination, and yields double-stranded DNA instead of the single-stranded form that classical Chelex extraction protocols usually release. DNA obtained through our method is then suitable for long-term conservation (over 1.5 years). We tested our protocol on a highly diverse genus of spiders comprised of mainly very small species. We also apply the method to two other genera of spiders, one with average size species, the other one with giant species, to test the efficacy of the method with varying amounts of input tissue. We also discuss the advantages and limitations of this DNA extraction technique when working with arthropods.

  6. One-step, low-temperature deposited perovskite solar cell utilizing small molecule additive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chun-Chao; Hong, Zirou; Li, Gang; Chen, Qi; Zhou, Huanping; Yang, Yang

    2015-01-01

    In the current study, the perovskite absorber (CH3NH3PbI3) is processed via one-step deposition employing the small molecule additive, BmPyPhB, which can be dissolved in dimethylformamide along with precursors. Here, 1,3-Bis[3,5-di(pyridin-3-yl)phenyl]benzene (BmPyPhB) functions as the morphology controller to introduce an intermediate phase during perovskite film growth, which allows well-defined and precrystallized domains formed before the annealing treatment. Furthermore, a chloroform solvent wash procedure is applied afterward to remove BmPyPhB from perovskite without damaging the predetermined morphology. Thus, postannealing as low as 100°C for 5 min can achieve the optimal power conversion efficiency of 8% in a planar-structured inverted solar cell.

  7. Separation and indirect detection of small-chain peptides using chromophoric mobile phase additives.

    PubMed

    Yuan, D X; Pietrzyk, D J

    1990-06-22

    Ruthenium(II) 1,10-phenanthroline, Ru(phen)3(2+), and ruthenium(II) 2,2'-bipyridyl, Ru(bipy)3(2+), salts were evaluated as mobile phase additives for the liquid chromatographic separation of small-chain peptides on a polystyrene-divinylbenzene copolymeric (Hamilton PRP-1) stationary phase. In a basic mobile phase peptides are anions, and retention, resolution and detection occur because of the interactions between the stationary phase, the RuII complex and the peptide anion. Since the RuII complex concentration changes in the analyte band relative to the background eluent RuII complex concentration, the peptide can be detected by indirect photometric detection using the wavelength where the RuII complex absorbs. Peptide analyte peaks may be positive or negative depending on the counter-anion and its concentration. Small-chain peptides that do not contain chromophoric side-chains are detected without derivatization at about 0.1 nmol injected at a 3:1 signal-to-noise ratio. Factors that affect retention, resolution and indirect photometric detection are the RuII complex, its mobile phase concentration, mobile phase pH and solvent composition, and the type and concentration of the mobile phase counter-anion and/or buffer anion.

  8. Radiation of nitrogen molecules in a dielectric barrier discharge with small additives of chlorine and bromine

    SciTech Connect

    Avtaeva, S. V.; Avdeev, S. M.; Sosnin, E. A.

    2010-08-15

    Spectral and energy characteristics of nitrogen molecule radiation in dielectric barrier discharges in Ar-N{sub 2}, Ar-N{sub 2}-Cl{sub 2}, and Ar-N{sub 2}-Br{sub 2} mixtures were investigated experimentally. Small additives of molecular chlorine or bromine to an Ar-N{sub 2} mixture are found to increase the radiation intensity of the second positive system of nitrogen. The conditions at which the radiation spectrum predominantly consists of vibronic bands of this system are determined. Using a numerical model of plasmachemical processes, it is shown that, at electron temperatures typical of gas discharges (2-4 eV), a minor additive of molecular chlorine to an Ar-N{sub 2} mixture leads to an increase in the concentrations of electrons, positive ions, and metastable argon atoms. In turn, collisional energy transfer from metastable argon atoms to nitrogen molecules results in the excitation of the N{sub 2}(C{sup 3{Pi}}{sub u}) state.

  9. Infrared Spectroscopy of Ionic Liquids Consisting of Imidazolium Cations with Different Alkyl Chain Lengths and Various Halogen or Molecular Anions with and Without a Small Amount of Water.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Toshiki; Tominari, Yukihiro; Tanaka, Shukichi; Mizuno, Maya

    2017-03-27

    Infrared spectroscopy was performed on ionic liquids (ILs) that had imidazolium cations with different alkyl chain lengths and various halogen or molecular anions with and without a small amount of water. The molar concentration normalized absorbance due to +C-H vibrational modes in the range of 3000 to 3200 cm-1 was nearly identical for ILs that had imidazolium cations with different alkyl chain lengths and the same anions. A close correlation was found between the red-shifted +C-H vibrational modes, the chemical shift of +C(2)-H proton, and the energy stabilization of hydrogen-bonding interaction. The vibrational modes of the water molecules interacting with anions in the range between 3300 and 3800 cm-1 was examined. The correlation between the vibrational frequencies of water, the frequencies of +C-H vibrational modes, and the center frequency of intermolecular vibrational modes due to ion pairs was discussed.

  10. Enhancing the strain sensitivity of CoFe₂O₄ at low magnetic fields without affecting the magnetostriction coefficient by substitution of small amounts of Mg for Fe.

    PubMed

    Anantharamaiah, P N; Joy, P A

    2016-04-21

    Attaining high magnetostrictive strain sensitivity (dλ/dH) with high magnetostriction strain (λ) is desirable for sintered polycrystalline cobalt ferrite for various applications. It is shown that substitution of a small amount of Fe(3+) by Mg(2+) in CoMgxFe2-xO4 (x < 0.1) gives a comparable maximum magnetostriction coefficient to that of the unsubstituted counterpart, with large improvement in the strain sensitivity at relatively low magnetic fields. A large increase in the magnetostriction coefficient is obtained at low magnetic fields for the substituted compositions. The magnetostriction parameters are further enhanced by magnetic field annealing of the sintered products. The results are analyzed based on powder XRD, Raman spectroscopy, XPS and magnetic measurements and based on the results from these studies, the changes in the magnetostriction parameters are correlated with the changes in the cation distribution, magnetic anisotropy and microstructure.

  11. A general strategy for cloning viroids and other small circular RNAs that uses minimal amounts of template and does not require prior knowledge of its sequence.

    PubMed

    Navarro, B; Daròs, J A; Flores, R

    1996-01-01

    Two PCR-based methods are described for obtaining clones of small circular RNAs of unknown sequence and for which only minute amounts are available. To avoid introducing any assumption about the RNA sequence, synthesis of the cDNAs is initiated with random primers. The cDNA population is then PCR-amplified using a primer whose sequence is present at both sides of the cDNAs, since they have been obtained with random hexamers and then a linker with the sequence of the PCR primer has been ligated to their termini, or because the cDNAs have been synthesized with an oligonucleotide that contains the sequence of the PCR primer at its 5' end and six randomized positions at its 3' end. The procedures need only approximately 50 ng of purified RNA template. The reasons for the emergence of cloning artifacts and precautions to avoid them are discussed.

  12. Fabrication of transparent, tough, and conductive shape-memory polyurethane films by incorporating a small amount of high-quality graphene.

    PubMed

    Jung, Yong Chae; Kim, Jin Hee; Hayashi, Takuya; Kim, Yoong Ahm; Endo, Morinobu; Terrones, Mauricio; Dresselhaus, Mildred S

    2012-04-23

    We report a mechanically strong, electrically and thermally conductive, and optically transparent shape-memory polyurethane composite which was fabricated by introducing a small amount (0.1 wt%) of high-quality graphene as a filler. Geometrically large (≈4.6 μm(2)), but highly crystallized few-layer graphenes, verified by Raman spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy, were prepared by the sonication of expandable graphite in an organic solvent. Oxygen- containing functional groups at the edge plane of graphene were crucial for an effective stress transfer from the graphene to polyurethane. Homogeneously dispersed few-layered graphene enabled polyurethane to have a high shape recovery force of 1.8 MPa cm(-3). Graphene, which is intrinsically stretchable up to 10%, will enable high-performance composites to be fabricated at relatively low cost and we thus envisage that such composites may replace carbon nanotubes for various applications in the near future.

  13. Detecting Small Changes and Additional Peptides in the Canine Parvovirus Capsid Structure▿

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Christian D. S.; Minkkinen, Eveliina; Bergkvist, Magnus; Hoelzer, Karin; Fisher, Mathew; Bothner, Brian; Parrish, Colin R.

    2008-01-01

    Parvovirus capsids are assembled from multiple forms of a single protein and are quite stable structurally. However, in order to infect cells, conformational plasticity of the capsid is required and this likely involves the exposure of structures that are buried within the structural models. The presence of functional asymmetry in the otherwise icosahedral capsid has also been proposed. Here we examined the protein composition of canine parvovirus capsids and evaluated their structural variation and permeability by protease sensitivity, spectrofluorometry, and negative staining electron microscopy. Additional protein forms identified included an apparent smaller variant of the virus protein 1 (VP1) and a small proportion of a cleaved form of VP2. Only a small percentage of the proteins in intact capsids were cleaved by any of the proteases tested. The capsid susceptibility to proteolysis varied with temperature but new cleavages were not revealed. No global change in the capsid structure was observed by analysis of Trp fluorescence when capsids were heated between 40°C and 60°C. However, increased polarity of empty capsids was indicated by bis-ANS binding, something not seen for DNA-containing capsids. Removal of calcium with EGTA or exposure to pHs as low as 5.0 had little effect on the structure, but at pH 4.0 changes were revealed by proteinase K digestion. Exposure of viral DNA to the external environment started above 50°C. Some negative stains showed increased permeability of empty capsids at higher temperatures, but no effects were seen after EGTA treatment. PMID:18701590

  14. Additive interfacial chiral interaction in multilayers for stabilization of small individual skyrmions at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreau-Luchaire, C.; Moutafis, C.; Reyren, N.; Sampaio, J.; Vaz, C. A. F.; van Horne, N.; Bouzehouane, K.; Garcia, K.; Deranlot, C.; Warnicke, P.; Wohlhüter, P.; George, J.-M.; Weigand, M.; Raabe, J.; Cros, V.; Fert, A.

    2016-05-01

    Facing the ever-growing demand for data storage will most probably require a new paradigm. Nanoscale magnetic skyrmions are anticipated to solve this issue as they are arguably the smallest spin textures in magnetic thin films in nature. We designed cobalt-based multilayered thin films in which the cobalt layer is sandwiched between two heavy metals and so provides additive interfacial Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interactions (DMIs), which reach a value close to 2 mJ m-2 in the case of the Ir|Co|Pt asymmetric multilayers. Using a magnetization-sensitive scanning X-ray transmission microscopy technique, we imaged small magnetic domains at very low fields in these multilayers. The study of their behaviour in a perpendicular magnetic field allows us to conclude that they are actually magnetic skyrmions stabilized by the large DMI. This discovery of stable sub-100 nm individual skyrmions at room temperature in a technologically relevant material opens the way for device applications in the near future.

  15. Irreversible Wash Aid Additive for Cesium Mitigation. Small-Scale Demonstration and Lessons Learned

    SciTech Connect

    Kaminski, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The Irreversible Wash Aid Additive process has been under development by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne). This process for radioactive cesium mitigation consists of a solution to wash down contaminated structures, roadways, and vehicles and a sequestering agent to bind the radionuclides from the wash water and render them environmentally immobile. The purpose of this process is to restore functionality to basic services and immediately reduce the consequences of a radiologically-contaminated urban environment. Research and development have resulted in a down-selection of technologies for integration and demonstration at the pilot-scale level as part of the Wide Area Recovery and Resiliency Program (WARRP) under the Department of Homeland Security and the Denver Urban Area Security Initiative. As part of developing the methods for performing a pilot-scale demonstration at the WARRP conference in Denver in 2012, Argonne conducted small-scale field experiments at Separmatic Systems. The main purpose of these experiments was to refine the wash water collection and separations systems and demonstrate key unit operations to help in planning for the large scale demonstration in Denver. Since the purpose of these tests was to demonstrate the operations of the system, we used no radioactive materials. After a brief set of experiments with the LAKOS unit to familiarize ourselves with its operation, two experiments were completed on two separate dates with the Separmatic systems.

  16. Enhanced visible-light photocatalytic performances of Ag3PO4 surface-modified with small amounts of TiO2 and Ag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Desong; Li, Lei; Luo, Qingzhi; An, Jing; Li, Xueyan; Yin, Rong; Zhao, Mangmang

    2014-12-01

    A novel approach has been developed to prepare an efficient visible-light photocatalyst using Ag3PO4 and TiO2 sol as precursors. First, Ag3PO4 particles were dipped into TiO2 sol for 5 min and were filtered quickly. Second, Ag3PO4 particles adsorbing a small amount of TiO2 sol were aged for 24 h to form TiO2 gel on their surface. Finally, Ag3PO4 particles covered by TiO2 gel were calcined at 450 °C for 2 h to obtain the surface-modified Ag3PO4 sample. The surface-modified Ag3PO4 was characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, UV-vis diffuse reflection spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The visible-light photocatalytic performances of the surface-modified Ag3PO4 were evaluated by the photodegradation of methyl orange or phenol solution. The results showed that the surface-modified Ag3PO4 exhibited much higher visible-light photocatalytic activity and stability than pure Ag3PO4. As the amount of TiO2 gel on the Ag3PO4 surface increased, the visible-light photocatalytic activity increased first and then decreased. The surface-modification of Ag3PO4 obviously decreased its solubility in water environment due to the protection of TiO2 and Ag nanocrystals on the surface. The visible-light photocatalytic mechanism of the surface-modified Ag3PO4 has been discussed.

  17. A sensitive and rapid HPLC-MS/MS method for the quantitative determination of trace amount of bromocriptine in small clinical prolactinoma tissue.

    PubMed

    Zang, Qingce; Liu, Yang; He, Jiuming; Yue, Xiaofei; Zhang, Ruiping; Wang, Renzhi; Abliz, Zeper

    2015-05-01

    Usually, insufficient intratumoral concentration of therapeutic drugs is one of the reasons for tumor treatment failure. However, little is known about intratumoral distribution of bromocriptine in non-responding prolactinomas because of extremely low drug concentration and small prolactinoma tissue samples. In this study, a sensitive, rapid and high-throughput quantitative bioanalytical method has been established by using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) for the determination of bromocriptine at trace level in human prolactinoma tissue. As little as 20 mg (wet weight) tissue sample was required and total analysis time was 6 min in this method. The assay quantifies over a linear range of 50 fg/mg to 5 pg/mg, and has a 25 fg/mg limit of detection at a signal/noise ratio of 3. This validated method was successfully used to quantitatively determine bromocriptine in clinical post-operative bromocriptine-sensitive and -resistant prolactinomas. The results revealed bromocriptine concentration in resistant prolactinomas (0.49-1.25 pg/mg) was significantly higher than that in sensitive prolactinomas (0.057-0.47 pg/mg). These results provided direct evidence to demonstrate the reseaon for failure of bromocriptine treatment in some patients with prolactinoma was "intrinsic" tumor (cell) resistence, rather than insufficient drug concentration in tumor tissue. Additionaly, this HPLC-MS/MS method has been shown to be suitable for bromocriptine analysis in small amount tissue sample and could be adapted for therapeutic drug monitoring of other clinical medicine.

  18. Small and similar amounts of micromotion in an anatomical stem and a customized cementless femoral stem in regular-shaped femurs

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose High primary stability is important for long-term survival of uncemented femoral stems. Different stem designs are currently in use. The ABG-I is a well-documented anatomical stem with a press-fit design. The Unique stem is designed for a tight customized fit to the cortical bone of the upper femur. This implant was initially developed for patients with abnormal anatomy, but the concept can also be used in patients with normal femoral anatomy. We present 5-year radiostereometric analysis (RSA) results from a randomized study comparing the ABG-I anatomical stem with the Unique femoral stem. Patients and methods 100 hips with regular upper femur anatomy were randomized to either the ABG-I stem or the Unique femoral stem. RSA measurements were performed postoperatively and after 3, 6, 12, 24, and 60 months. Results RSA measurements from 80 hips were available for analysis at the 5-year follow-up. Small amounts of movement were observed for both stems, with no statistically significant differences between the 2 types. Interpretation No improvement in long-term stability was found from using a customized stem design. However, no patients with abnormal geometry of the upper femur were included in this study. PMID:24650024

  19. [Risk hidden in the small print? : Some food additives may trigger pseudoallergic reactions].

    PubMed

    Zuberbier, Torsten; Hengstenberg, Claudine

    2016-06-01

    Some food additives may trigger pseudoallergenic reactions. However, the prevalence of such an overreaction is - despite the increasing number of food additives - rather low in the general population. The most common triggers of pseudoallergic reactions to food are naturally occurring ingredients. However, symptoms in patients with chronic urticaria should improve significantly on a pseudoallergen-free diet. In addition, some studies indicate that certain food additives may also have an impact on the symptoms of patients with neurodermatitis and asthma.

  20. Toward Additive-Free Small-Molecule Organic Solar Cells: Roles of the Donor Crystallization Pathway and Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Abdelsamie, Maged; Treat, Neil D; Zhao, Kui; McDowell, Caitlin; Burgers, Mark A; Li, Ruipeng; Smilgies, Detlef-M; Stingelin, Natalie; Bazan, Guillermo C; Amassian, Aram

    2015-12-02

    The ease with which small-molecule donors crystallize during solution processing is directly linked to the need for solvent additives. Donor molecules that get trapped in disordered (H1) or liquid crystalline (T1) mesophases require additive processing to promote crystallization, phase separation, and efficient light harvesting. A donor material (X2) that crystallizes directly from solution yields additive-free solar cells with an efficiency of 7.6%.

  1. Additions to the reptile fauna of Paraguay with notes on a small herpetological collection from Amambay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McDiarmid, Roy W.; Foster, Mercedes S.

    1987-01-01

    Specimens in a small collections of reptiles and amphibians from Parque Nacional Cerro Cora, Departamento Amambay, Paraguay are reported. Included are the first records of Bachia bresslaui, Phrynops gibbus, and Ololygon fuscomarginata for that country. Brief notes on morphology, distribution, and natural history of species collected are included. The systematic status of Phrynops tuberculatus vanderhaegei is evaluated.

  2. Nonmetals Test and Evaluation. Delivery Order 0003: Fuel System Materials Compatibility Testing of Fuel Additives for Reducing the Amount of Small Particulate in Turbine Engine Exhaust

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-10-01

    JAMES J. MAZZA MARY ANN PHILLIPS Team Lead Chief Adhesives, Composites, and Elastomers Team Materials Integrity Branch Materials...P-24441 (Epoxy Polyamide ) Pencil Hardness Unaged 7d/200°F/JP-8+100 (Control) 7d/200°F/Control + #1 (RXP) 7d/200°F/Control + #2...Description Test Conditioning Results MIL-P-24441 (Epoxy Polyamide ) Taber Test (Wear Index) Unaged 7d/200°F/JP-8+100

  3. Dithienobenzodithiophene-Based Small Molecule Organic Solar Cells with over 7% Efficiency via Additive- and Thermal-Annealing-Free Processing.

    PubMed

    Song, Hyeng Gun; Kim, Yu Jin; Lee, Ji Sang; Kim, Yun-Hi; Park, Chan Eon; Kwon, Soon-Ki

    2016-12-21

    Here we introduce a novel small molecule based on dithienobenzodithiophene and rhodanine, DTBDT-Rho, developed to study the effect of the rhodanine substitutuent on small molecule bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells. DTBDT-Rho possesses distinct crystalline characteristics, sufficient solubility in chlorinated solvents, and broad absorption properties. Therefore, solution-processed BHJ photovoltaic cells made with DTBDT-Rho:PC71BM blends showed an extremely high power conversion efficiency (PCE; 7.10%); notably, this PCE value was obtained without the use of additives or thermal treatments. To our knowledge, the PCE over 7% is a significantly powerful value among rhodanine-based small molecule BHJ solar cells without additives or thermal treatments.

  4. Improved adhesive strength and toughness of polyvinyl acetate glue on addition of small quantities of graphene.

    PubMed

    Khan, Umar; May, Peter; Porwal, Harshit; Nawaz, Khalid; Coleman, Jonathan N

    2013-02-01

    We have prepared composites of polyvinyl acetate (PVAc) reinforced with solution exfoliated graphene. We observe a 50% increase in stiffness and a 100% increase in tensile strength on addition of 0.1 vol % graphene compared to the pristine polymer. As PVAc is commonly used commercially as a glue, we have tested such composites as adhesives. The adhesive strength and toughness of the composites were up to 4 and 7 times higher, respectively, than the pristine polymer.

  5. The influence of small additions of diethylenetriamine on the detonation waves stability for nitromethane/acetone solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mochalova, V.; Utkin, A.

    2014-05-01

    Instability of detonation front in the nitromethane/acetone (NM/A) solution was observed in our previous work: at 10% of acetone the amplitude of heterogeneities was about 20 microns and at 20% of acetone this size was 50 microns. It is known that small additions of diethylenetriamine (DETA) considerably increase the initial rate of chemical reaction in detonation waves for NM. It was expected that DETA would influence the stability of detonation waves in the NM/A solution too. To investigate this phenomenon the laser interferometer VISAR was used for the recording of particle velocity profiles in detonation waves for NM/A. It was found that at the addition of 0.5% DETA to NM/A 90/10 the oscillations in the velocity profile decreased several times over. At the addition of 1% DETA the profile is smooth, i.e. the heterogeneities disappear and detonation wave becomes steady-state. In NM/A 80/20 at the addition of 5% DETA the heterogeneities size is reduced by the order. The increase of detonation wave velocity of NM/A grater than 1% was observed at small concentrations of DETA. Thus it was found that small additions of DETA to the NM/A solution with an unstable detonation front resulted not only in the decrease of heterogeneities size but in their disappearance and stabilization of detonation waves.

  6. Deterministic fractals: extracting additional information from small-angle scattering data.

    PubMed

    Cherny, A Yu; Anitas, E M; Osipov, V A; Kuklin, A I

    2011-09-01

    The small-angle scattering curves of deterministic mass fractals are studied and analyzed in momentum space. In the fractal region, the curve I(q)q(D) is found to be log-periodic with good accuracy, and the period is equal to the scaling factor of the fractal. Here, D and I(q) are the fractal dimension and the scattering intensity, respectively. The number of periods of this curve coincides with the number of fractal iterations. We show that the log-periodicity of I(q)q(D) in the momentum space is related to the log-periodicity of the quantity g(r)r(3-D) in the real space, where g(r) is the pair distribution function. The minima and maxima positions of the scattering intensity are estimated explicitly by relating them to the pair distance distribution in real space. It is shown that the minima and maxima are damped with increasing polydispersity of the fractal sets; however, they remain quite pronounced even at sufficiently large values of polydispersity. A generalized self-similar Vicsek fractal with controllable fractal dimension is introduced, and its scattering properties are studied to illustrate the above findings. In contrast with the usual methods, the present analysis allows us to obtain not only the fractal dimension and the edges of the fractal region, but also the fractal iteration number, the scaling factor, and the number of structural units from which the fractal is composed.

  7. Design rules for rational control of polymer glass formation behavior and mechanical properties with small molecular additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangalara, Jayachandra Hari; Simmons, David

    Small molecule additives have long been employed to tune polymers' glass formation, mechanical and transport properties. For example, plasticizers are commonly employed to suppress polymer Tg and soften the glassy state, while antiplasticizers, which stiffen the glassy state of a polymer while suppressing its Tg, are employed to enhance protein and tissue preservation in sugar glasses. Recent literature indicates that additives can have a wide range of possible effects, but all of these have not been clearly understood and well appreciated. Here we employ molecular dynamics simulations to establish design rules for the selection of small molecule additives with size, molecular stiffness, and interaction energy chosen to achieve targeted effects on polymer properties. We furthermore find that a given additive's effect on a polymer's Tg can be predicted from its Debye-Waller factor via a function previously found to describe nanoconfinement effects on the glass transition. These results emphasize the potential for a new generation of targeted molecular additives to contribute to more targeted rational design of polymers. We acknowledge the Keck Foundation and the Ohio Supercomputing Center for financial and computational support of this effort, respectively.

  8. Providing for energy efficiency in homes and small buildings. Part II. Determining amount of energy lost or gained in a building

    SciTech Connect

    1980-06-01

    The training program is designed to educate students and individuals in the importance of conserving energy and to provide for developing skills needed in the application of energy-saving techniques that result in energy-efficient buildings. There are 3 parts to the training program. They are entitled: Understanding and Practicing Energy Conservation in Buildings; Determining Amount of Energy Lost or Gained in a Building; and Determining Which Practices Are Most Efficient and Installing Materials. For Part Two, it is recommended that cooling and heating load calculation manual (GRP 158) ASHRAE, 1979, be used. Specific subjects covered in Part II are: Terms Used to Measure Energy in Buildings; Understanding Heat Losses and Gains in Buildings; Estimating Heating Loads in Buildings; Special Applications for Estimating Cooling Loads in Buildings; Estimating Cooling Loads in Buildings; and Determining Cost Benefits of Using Energy-Saving Practices.

  9. Novel chemical vapor deposition process of ZnO films using nonequilibrium N2 plasma generated near atmospheric pressure with small amount of O2 below 1%

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nose, Yukinori; Yoshimura, Takeshi; Ashida, Atsushi; Uehara, Tsuyoshi; Fujimura, Norifumi

    2016-05-01

    We propose a novel chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process of ZnO films involving a nonequilibrium N2 plasma generated near atmospheric pressure with small O2 concentration (O2%) below 1%. In the optical emission (OE) spectra of the plasma, OE lines corresponding to the NO-γ system ( A 2 Σ + → X 2 Πγ + ) were observed, despite the only introduced gases being N2 and O2; these vanish at an O2% of more than 1%. ZnO films were grown on a glass substrate placed in the plasma at a growth temperature of as low as 200 °C and at an O2% of below 1% in the presence of the NO-γ system. This plasma yielded almost the same growth rate for ZnO films as O2 plasma including atomic O radicals that are often observed in low-pressure O2 plasma, suggesting that some highly reactive oxidant was sufficiently generated in such a small O2%. ZnO films synthesized using this plasma exhibited excellent ( 0001 ) preferred orientation without other diffractions such as 10 1 ¯ 1 diffraction, and with an optical bandgap of 3.30 eV. Based on the analyses of the plasma and the exhaust gases, the coexistence state of NO-γ and O3 should be essential and useful for the decomposition and oxidation of Zn source material in the proposed CVD process.

  10. Optimizing the use of natural and synthetic magnetites with very small amounts of coarse Fe(0) particles for reduction of aqueous Cr(VI).

    PubMed

    Villacís-García, Milton; Villalobos, Mario; Gutiérrez-Ruiz, Margarita

    2015-01-08

    Remediation of highly toxic aqueous Cr(VI) includes its chemical reduction to the very insoluble Cr(III) species. In this work we investigated the Cr(VI) reduction performance of synthetic and natural magnetites of different particle size sat three pH values (4, 6, 8), with the purpose of cost-optimizing the procedure at the laboratory scale. Only the finest magnetite showed considerable Cr(VI) reduction yields, but rates were low and after 25 days no equilibrium was attained. Mechano chemical mixing of the finer magnetites with 5% micron-sized Fe(0) increased dramatically their reductive reactivity, especially at pH 4 and 6, and at pH 8 only for the finest sample, despite the fact that the same quantity of Fe(0) added by itself reducednegligible amounts of Cr(VI). Increasing Fe(0) concentrations in the mixtures to 10 and 15% allowed considerable improvements in the reactivity of the intermediate-sized magnetites (of ca. 7m(2)/g), but not that of the coarser samples for up to 20% Fe(0). This promises to be an optimal technology for remediation or treatment of Cr(VI) polluted aqueous environments and residues, that may prove beneficial for industries and pollution clean-up government agencies, because it uses readily available solid mineral samples and minimizes the use of acid reagents.

  11. Triose phosphate isomerase from the coelacanth. An approach to the rapid determination of an amino acid sequence with small amounts of material.

    PubMed

    Kolb, E; Harris, J I; Bridgen, J

    1974-02-01

    The preparation and purification of cyanogen bromide fragments from [(14)C]carboxymethylated coelacanth triose phosphate isomerase is presented. The automated sequencing of these fragments, the lysine-blocked tryptic peptides derived from them, and also of the intact protein, is described. Combination with results from manual sequence analysis has given the 247-residue amino acid sequence of coelacanth triose phosphate isomerase in 4 months, by using 100mg of enzyme. (Two small adjacent peptides were placed by homology with the rabbit enzyme.) Comparison of this sequence with that of the rabbit muscle enzyme shows that 207 (84%) of the residues are identical. This slow rate of evolutionary change (corresponding to two amino acid substitutions per 100 residues per 100 million years) is similar to that found for glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase. The reliability of sequence information obtained by automated methods is discussed.

  12. Turbulence computations with 3-D small-scale additive turbulent decomposition and data-fitting using chaotic map combinations

    SciTech Connect

    Mukerji, Sudip

    1997-01-01

    Although the equations governing turbulent fluid flow, the Navier-Stokes (N.S.) equations, have been known for well over a century and there is a clear technological necessity in obtaining solutions to these equations, turbulence remains one of the principal unsolved problems in physics today. It is still not possible to make accurate quantitative predictions about turbulent flows without relying heavily on empirical data. In principle, it is possible to obtain turbulent solutions from a direct numerical simulation (DNS) of the N.-S. equations. The author first provides a brief introduction to the dynamics of turbulent flows. The N.-S. equations which govern fluid flow, are described thereafter. Then he gives a brief overview of DNS calculations and where they stand at present. He next introduces the two most popular approaches for doing turbulent computations currently in use, namely, the Reynolds averaging of the N.-S. equations (RANS) and large-eddy simulation (LES). Approximations, often ad hoc ones, are present in these methods because use is made of heuristic models for turbulence quantities (the Reynolds stresses) which are otherwise unknown. They then introduce a new computational method called additive turbulent decomposition (ATD), the small-scale version of which is the topic of this research. The rest of the thesis is organized as follows. In Chapter 2 he describes the ATD procedure in greater detail; how dependent variables are split and the decomposition into large- and small-scale sets of equations. In Chapter 3 the spectral projection of the small-scale momentum equations are derived in detail. In Chapter 4 results of the computations with the small-scale ATD equations are presented. In Chapter 5 he describes the data-fitting procedure which can be used to directly specify the parameters of a chaotic-map turbulence model.

  13. Estimating the CCSD basis-set limit energy from small basis sets: basis-set extrapolations vs additivity schemes

    SciTech Connect

    Spackman, Peter R.; Karton, Amir

    2015-05-15

    Coupled cluster calculations with all single and double excitations (CCSD) converge exceedingly slowly with the size of the one-particle basis set. We assess the performance of a number of approaches for obtaining CCSD correlation energies close to the complete basis-set limit in conjunction with relatively small DZ and TZ basis sets. These include global and system-dependent extrapolations based on the A + B/L{sup α} two-point extrapolation formula, and the well-known additivity approach that uses an MP2-based basis-set-correction term. We show that the basis set convergence rate can change dramatically between different systems(e.g.it is slower for molecules with polar bonds and/or second-row elements). The system-dependent basis-set extrapolation scheme, in which unique basis-set extrapolation exponents for each system are obtained from lower-cost MP2 calculations, significantly accelerates the basis-set convergence relative to the global extrapolations. Nevertheless, we find that the simple MP2-based basis-set additivity scheme outperforms the extrapolation approaches. For example, the following root-mean-squared deviations are obtained for the 140 basis-set limit CCSD atomization energies in the W4-11 database: 9.1 (global extrapolation), 3.7 (system-dependent extrapolation), and 2.4 (additivity scheme) kJ mol{sup –1}. The CCSD energy in these approximations is obtained from basis sets of up to TZ quality and the latter two approaches require additional MP2 calculations with basis sets of up to QZ quality. We also assess the performance of the basis-set extrapolations and additivity schemes for a set of 20 basis-set limit CCSD atomization energies of larger molecules including amino acids, DNA/RNA bases, aromatic compounds, and platonic hydrocarbon cages. We obtain the following RMSDs for the above methods: 10.2 (global extrapolation), 5.7 (system-dependent extrapolation), and 2.9 (additivity scheme) kJ mol{sup –1}.

  14. Small amounts of tissue preserve pancreatic function

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Zipeng; Yin, Jie; Wei, Jishu; Dai, Cuncai; Wu, Junli; Gao, Wentao; Xu, Qing; Dai, Hao; Li, Qiang; Guo, Feng; Chen, Jianmin; Xi, Chunhua; Wu, Pengfei; Zhang, Kai; Jiang, Kuirong; Miao, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Middle-segment preserving pancreatectomy (MPP) is a novel procedure for treating multifocal lesions of the pancreas while preserving pancreatic function. However, long-term pancreatic function after this procedure remains unclear. The aims of this current study are to investigate short- and long-term outcomes, especially long-term pancreatic endocrine function, after MPP. From September 2011 to December 2015, 7 patients underwent MPP in our institution, and 5 cases with long-term outcomes were further analyzed in a retrospective manner. Percentage of tissue preservation was calculated using computed tomography volumetry. Serum insulin and C-peptide levels after oral glucose challenge were evaluated in 5 patients. Beta-cell secreting function including modified homeostasis model assessment of beta-cell function (HOMA2-beta), area under the curve (AUC) for C-peptide, and C-peptide index were evaluated and compared with those after pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) and total pancreatectomy. Exocrine function was assessed based on questionnaires. Our case series included 3 women and 2 men, with median age of 50 (37–81) years. Four patients underwent pylorus-preserving PD together with distal pancreatectomy (DP), including 1 with spleen preserved. The remaining patient underwent Beger procedure and spleen-preserving DP. Median operation time and estimated intraoperative blood loss were 330 (250–615) min and 800 (400–5500) mL, respectively. Histological examination revealed 3 cases of metastatic lesion to the pancreas, 1 case of chronic pancreatitis, and 1 neuroendocrine tumor. Major postoperative complications included 3 cases of delayed gastric emptying and 2 cases of postoperative pancreatic fistula. Imaging studies showed that segments representing 18.2% to 39.5% of the pancreas with good blood supply had been preserved. With a median 35.0 months of follow-ups on pancreatic functions, only 1 patient developed new-onset diabetes mellitus of the 4 preoperatively euglycemic patients. Beta-cell function parameters in this group of patients were quite comparable to those after Whipple procedure, and seemed better than those after total pancreatectomy. No symptoms of hypoglycemia were identified in any patient, although half of the patients reported symptoms of exocrine insufficiency. In conclusion, MPP is a feasible and effective procedure for middle-segment sparing multicentric lesions in the pancreas, and patients exhibit satisfied endocrine function after surgery. PMID:27861351

  15. Small angle neutron scattering study of sodium dodecyl sulfate micellar growth driven by addition of a hydrotropic salt.

    PubMed

    Hassan, P A; Fritz, Gerhard; Kaler, Eric W

    2003-01-01

    The structures of aggregates formed in aqueous solutions of an anionic surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), with the addition of a cationic hydrotropic salt, p-toluidine hydrochloride (PTHC), have been investigated by small angle neutron scattering (SANS). The SANS spectra exhibit a pronounced peak at low salt concentration, indicating the presence of repulsive intermicellar interactions. Model-independent real space information about the structure is obtained from a generalized indirect Fourier transformation (GIFT) technique in combination with a suitable model for the interparticle structure factor. The interparticle interaction is captured using the rescaled mean spherical approximation (RMSA) closure relation and a Yukawa form of the interaction potential. Further quantification of the geometrical parameters of the micelles was achieved by a complete fit of the SANS data using a prolate ellipsoidal form factor and the RMSA structure factor. The present study shows that PTHC induces a decrease in the fractional charge of the micelles due to adsorption at the micellar surface and consequent growth of the SDS micelles from nearly globular to rodlike as the concentration of PTHC increases.

  16. Effect of variations in the amounts of P-glycoprotein (ABCB1), BCRP (ABCG2) and CYP3A4 along the human small intestine on PBPK models for predicting intestinal first pass.

    PubMed

    Bruyère, Arnaud; Declèves, Xavier; Bouzom, Francois; Ball, Kathryn; Marques, Catie; Treton, Xavier; Pocard, Marc; Valleur, Patrice; Bouhnik, Yoram; Panis, Yves; Scherrmann, Jean-Michel; Mouly, Stephane

    2010-10-04

    It is difficult to predict the first-pass effect in the human intestine due to a lack of scaling factors for correlating in vitro and in vivo data. We have quantified cytochrome P450/3A4 (CYP3A4) and two ABC transporters, P-glycoprotein (P-gp, ABCB1) and the breast cancer resistant protein BCRP (ABCG2), throughout the human small intestine to determine the scaling factors for predicting clearance from intestinal microsomes and develop a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model. CYP3A4, P-gp and BCRP proteins were quantified by Western blotting and/or enzyme activities in small intestine samples from 19 donors, and mathematical trends of these expressions with intestinal localization were established. Microsome fractions were prepared and used to calculate the amount of microsomal protein per gram of intestine (MPPGI). Our results showed a trend in CYP3A4 expression decrease from the upper to the lower small intestine while P-gp expression is increasing. In contrast, BCRP expression did not vary significantly with position, but varied greatly between individuals. The MPPGI (mg microsomal protein per centimeter intestine) remained constant along the length of the small intestine, at about 1.55 mg/cm. Moreover, intrinsic clearance measured with specific CYP3A4 substrates (midazolam and an in-house Servier drug) and intestinal microsomes was well correlated with the amount of CYP3A4 (R(2) > 0.91, p < 0.01). In vivo data were more accurately predicted using PBPK models of blood concentrations of these two substrates based on the segmental distributions of these enzymes and MPPGI determined in this study. Thus, these mathematical trends can be used to predict drug absorption at different intestinal sites and their metabolism can be predicted with the MPPGI.

  17. 40 CFR 80.1165 - What are the additional requirements under this subpart for a foreign small refiner?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... using the following equation: Bond = G * $0.01 Where: Bond = amount of the bond in United States dollars... is a refinery that is located outside the United States, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the U.S... referred to in this section as “the United States”). (2) Foreign refiner is a person that meets...

  18. Modulation of chicken intestinal immune gene expression by small cationic peptides as feed additives during the first week posthatch

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have been investigating modulation strategies tailored around the selective stimulation of the host’s immune system as an alternative to direct targeting of microbial pathogens by antibiotics. One such approach is the use of a group of small cationic peptides (BT) produced by a Gram-positive soi...

  19. Effects of solvent additive on “s-shaped” curves in solution-processed small molecule solar cells

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Shu-Hua; Huang, Ye

    2016-01-01

    A novel molecular chromophore, p-SIDT(FBTThCA8)2, is introduced as an electron-donor material for bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells with broad absorption and near ideal energy levels for the use in combination with common acceptor materials. It is found that films cast from chlorobenzene yield devices with strongly s-shaped current–voltage curves, drastically limiting performance. We find that addition of the common solvent additive diiodooctane, in addition to facilitating crystallization, leads to improved vertical phase separation. This yields much better performing devices, with improved curve shape, demonstrating the importance of morphology control in BHJ devices and improving the understanding of the role of solvent additives. PMID:28144323

  20. Highly sensitive detection of neodymium ion in small amount of spent nuclear fuel samples using novel fluorescent macrocyclic hexadentate polyaminocarboxylate probe in capillary electrophoresis-laser-induced fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Saito, Shingo; Sato, Yoshiyuki; Haraga, Tomoko; Nakano, Yuta; Asai, Shiho; Kameo, Yutaka; Takahashi, Kuniaki; Shibukawa, Masami

    2012-04-06

    A rapid and high-sensitive detection method for the total concentration of Nd ion (total Nd) in a small amount of a spent nuclear fuel sample is urgently required since the precise quantification of total Nd ion makes it possible for burnup (degree of fuel consumption) to be determined. In this work, a capillary electrophoresis-laser-induced fluorescent detection method (CE-LIF) is proposed for the analysis of total Nd in a spent fuel sample solution, with the use of a newly synthesized metal fluorescent probe which has a fluorescein and a macrocylic hexadentate chelating group, FTC-ABNOTA, for lanthanide (Ln) ions. Ln ions were derivatized to form a strongly fluorescent complex with the probe to suppress the quenching of the ligand-centered emission. The detection of Ln complexes in the CE-LIF indicated that the interaction between Ln ions and the FTC-ABNOTA was strong enough not to dissociate during migration. The mutual separation among the Ln-FTC-ABNOTA complexes in CE-LIF was achieved by pH control providing a dynamic ternary complexation (DTC) with hydroxide ions. Using the DTC separation mode, a high resolution of Nd from other Ln ions with high resolution of 1.3-1.9 and a theoretical plate number of 68,000, and a very low detection limit of 22 pM (3.2 ppt, 0.11 attomole amount basis) were successfully obtained. A simulated spent fuel sample containing various metal ions was examined in this method with a good quantification result of 102.1% recovery obtained even with a large excess of U.

  1. On the Problem-Size Effect in Small Additions: Can We Really Discard Any Counting-Based Account?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrouillet, Pierre; Thevenot, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    The problem-size effect in simple additions, that is the increase in response times (RTs) and error rates with the size of the operands, is one of the most robust effects in cognitive arithmetic. Current accounts focus on factors that could affect speed of retrieval of the answers from long-term memory such as the occurrence of interference in a…

  2. 78 FR 59624 - Guidance for Industry #223: Small Entity Compliance Guide-Declaring Color Additives in Animal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-27

    .... FDA issued the regulation in response to the Nutrition Labeling and Education Act of 1990 (the 1990... to the Communications Staff (HFV-12), Center for Veterinary Medicine, Food and Drug Administration... Additives'' (21 CFR 501.22(k)(1) and (2)) have been approved under OMB control number 0910-0721....

  3. Small

    SciTech Connect

    Montoya, Joseph

    2013-07-18

    Representing the Center on Nanostructuring for Efficient Energy Conversion (CNEEC), this document is one of the entries in the Ten Hundred and One Word Challenge. As part of the challenge, the 46 Energy Frontier Research Centers were invited to represent their science in images, cartoons, photos, words and original paintings, but any descriptions or words could only use the 1000 most commonly used words in the English language, with the addition of one word important to each of the EFRCs and the mission of DOE energy. The mission of CNEEC is to understand how nanostructuring can enhance efficiency for energy conversion and solve fundamental cross-cutting problems in advanced energy conversion and storage systems.

  4. In vivo-detection, localization and measurement of radionuclides in man: a detection system for the localization amd measurement of small amounts of photon emitters. Progress report, March 1, 1981-October 31, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Laurer, G. R.

    1981-11-01

    The design, construction, and testing of a photon detection system which will yield, simultaneously, information proportional to both the magnitude and location of sources of radioactivity are under investigation. The operating principle of the detector system, active collimation, allows spatial resolution by utilizing the crystal elements themselves as the collimating device; hence a greater counting efficiency is attainable. Two approaches have been tested thus far: in the first, the differences in characteristics of various crystals are utilized as the means of separating events occurring in each of five crystals viewed by a single phototube; in the second, smaller, single crystal/phototube elements are used in the array. Mathematical processing of the counts from the individual crystal elements is then employed in conjunction with their geometric relationship to develop both positional data and to quantify the amount of radioactivity. By utilizing crystal elements in an active collimation configuration and incorporating them in an array which permits these crystals to be alternately advanced and retracted in a programmed, ordered manner, a high degree of spatial resolution is achievable without compromising system sensitivity. The experiments include development of the optimal crystal configuration and the evolving of data processing techniques to translate detector response into precise source position information for localization or imaging purposes. Such a system could add another dimension in studies involving uptake, distribution, and retention of radionuclide labeled compounds because of its ability to actively track, in vivo, the distribution of these compounds. In addition, it should be possible to study, dynamically, the motion of organs, such as the heart or lungs, through which these compounds move. (ERB)

  5. Outpatient Management of Postbiopsy Pneumothorax with Small-Caliber Chest Tubes: Factors Affecting the Need for Prolonged Drainage and Additional Interventions

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Sanjay Hicks, Marshall E.; Wallace, Michael J.; Ahrar, Kamran; Madoff, David C.; Murthy, Ravi

    2008-03-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of outpatient management of postbiopsy pneumothoraces with small-caliber chest tubes and to assess the factors that influence the need for prolonged drainage or additional interventions.We evaluated the medical records of patients who were treated with small-caliber chest tubes attached to Heimlich valves for pneumothoraces resulting from image-guided transthoracic needle biopsy to determine the hospital admission rates, the number of days the catheters were left in place, and the need for further interventions. We also evaluated the patient, lesion, and biopsy technique characteristics to determine their influence on the need for prolonged catheter drainage or additional interventions. Of the 191 patients included in our study, 178 (93.2%) were treated as outpatients. Ten patients (5.2%) were admitted for chest tube-related problems, either for underwater suction (n = 8) or for pain control (n = 2). No further interventions were required in 146 patients (76.4%), with successful removal of the chest tubes the day after the biopsy procedure. Prolonged catheter drainage (mean, 4.3 days) was required in 44 patients (23%). Nineteen patients (9.9%) underwent additional interventions for management of pneumothorax. Presence of emphysema was noted more frequently in patients who required additional interventions or prolonged chest tube drainage than in those who did not (51.1% vs. 24.7%; p = 0.001).We conclude that use of the Heimlich valve allows safe and successful outpatient treatment of most patients requiring chest tube placement for postbiopsy pneumothorax. Additional interventions or prolonged chest tube drainage are needed more frequently in patients with emphysema in the needle path.

  6. Switching phase separation mode by varying the hydrophobicity of polymer additives in solution-processed semiconducting small-molecule/polymer blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Zhengran; Li, Dawen; Hensley, Dale K.; Rondinone, Adam J.; Chen, Jihua

    2013-09-01

    Lateral and vertical phase separations play critical roles in the performance of the next-generation organic and hybrid electronic devices. A method is demonstrated here to switch between lateral and vertical phase separations in semiconducting 6,13-bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl) pentacene (TIPSE pentacene)/polymer blend films by simply varying the alkyl length of the polyacrylate polymer component. The phase separation modes depend on intermolecular interactions between small molecule TIPSE pentancene and polymer additives. The blend film with a dominant vertical phase separation exhibits a significant enhancement in average mobility and performance consistency of organic thin-film transistors.

  7. Amount and source of dietary copper affects small intestine morphology, duodenal lipid peroxidation, hepatic oxidative stress,and mRNA expression of hepatic copper regulatory proteins in weanling pigs.

    PubMed

    Fry, R S; Ashwell, M S; Lloyd, K E; O'Nan, A T; Flowers, W L; Stewart, K R; Spears, J W

    2012-09-01

    Thirty weanling, crossbred barrows (SUS SCROFA) were used to determine the effects of amount and source of dietary Cu on small intestinal morphology and lipid peroxidation, Cu metabolism, and mRNA expression of proteins involved in hepatic Cu homeostasis. At 21 d of age, pigs were stratified by BW (6.33 ± 0.23 kg) and allocated to 1 of the following dietary treatments: i) control (no supplemental Cu; 6.7 mg Cu/kg), ii) 225 mg supplemental Cu/kg diet from Cu sulfate (CuSO(4)), or iii) 225 mg supplemental Cu/kg diet from tribasic Cu chloride (TBCC). Pigs were housed 2 pigs per pen and were fed a 3-phase diet regimen until d 35 or 36 of the study. During harvest, bile and liver were obtained for mineral analysis, and liver samples were also obtained for analysis of liver glutathione (GSH) and mRNA expression of Cu regulatory proteins. Segments of duodenum, proximal jejunum, and ileum were obtained for mucosal morphology, and duodenal mucosal scrapings were collected from all pigs for analysis of malondialdehyde (MDA). Duodenal villus height was reduced in CuSO(4) pigs compared with control (P = 0.001) and TBCC (P = 0.03) pigs. Villus height in the proximal jejunum of CuSO(4) pigs was reduced (P = 0.03) compared with control pigs, but ileal villus height was not affected (P = 0.82) by treatment. Duodenal MDA concentrations were greater (P = 0.03) in CuSO(4) pigs and tended to be greater (P = 0.10) in pigs supplemented with TBCC compared with control pigs. Liver Cu was greater (P = 0.01) in CuSO(4) vs. control pigs, and tended (P = 0.07) to be greater in TBCC pigs than control pigs. Bile Cu concentrations were greater (P < 0.001) in CuSO(4) and TBCC pigs vs. controls and were also greater (P = 0.04) in TBCC vs. CuSO(4) pigs. Total liver GSH concentrations were less (P = 0.02) in pigs fed diets supplemented with CuSO(4) vs. pigs fed control diets but total liver GSH did not differ (P = 0.11) between control and TBCC pigs. Hepatic mRNA of cytochrome c oxidase assembly

  8. Physical characteristics of LWRs and SCLWRs loaded by ({sup 233}U-Th-{sup 238}U) oxide fuel with small additions of {sup 231}Pa

    SciTech Connect

    Kulikov, E.G.; Shmelev, A.N.; Apse, V.A.; Kulikov, G.G.

    2007-07-01

    The paper investigates the possibility and attractiveness of using (U-Th) fuel in light-water reactors (LWRs) and in light-water reactors with super-critical coolant parameters (SCLWRs). It is proposed to dilute {sup 233}U with {sup 238}U to enhance the proliferation resistance of this fissionable isotope. If is noteworthy that she idea was put forward for the first time by she well known American physicist and participant of the Manhattan Project Dr. T. Taylor. Various fuel compositions are analyzed and compared on fuel breeding, achievable values of fuel burn-up and cross-sections of parasitic neutron absorption. It is also demonstrated that small {sup 231}Pa additions (several percent) into the fuel allows: to increase fuel burn-up, to achieve more negative temperature reactivity coefficient of coolant and to enhance nonproliferation of the fuel. (authors)

  9. Microstructural changes of globules in calcium-silicate-hydrate gels with and without additives determined by small-angle neutron and X-ray scattering.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Wei-Shan; Fratini, Emiliano; Ridi, Francesca; Lim, Sung-Hwan; Yeh, Yi-Qi; Baglioni, Piero; Choi, Sung-Min; Jeng, U-Ser; Chen, Sow-Hsin

    2013-05-15

    The microstructure of calcium-silicate-hydrate (C-S-H) gel, a major hydrated phase of Ordinary Portland Cement, with and without polycarboxylic ether (PCE) additives is investigated by combined analyses of small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) data. The results show that these comb-shaped polymers tend to increase the size of the disk-like globules but have little influence on the thickness of the water and calcium silicate layers within the globules. As a result, the fractal packing of the globules becomes more open in the range of a few hundred nanometers, in the sense that the mass fractal dimension diminishes, since the PCE adsorption on the globules increases the repulsive force between and polydispersity of the C-S-H units. Moreover, scanning electron microscope (SEM) study of the synthesized C-S-H gels in the micrometer range shows that the PCEs depress the formation of fibrils while enhancing the foil-like morphology.

  10. In dermographic urticaria H2 receptor antagonists have a small but therapeutically irrelevant additional effect compared with H1 antagonists alone.

    PubMed

    Sharpe, G R; Shuster, S

    1993-11-01

    Two studies of the additional effect of an H2 receptor antagonist when given in combination with an H1 antagonist were undertaken in dermographic urticaria. Using a randomized, double-blind, crossover design in 19 patients, a combination of cetirizine (10 mg at night) and ranitidine (150 mg twice daily) was compared with a combination of cetirizine (10 mg at night) and placebo. The addition of ranitidine did not produce any significant difference in linear analogue scores for weal, itch or sleep disturbance. There was a significant depression of the frictional force/wealing response curve with an increase in wealing threshold (P < 0.0001) following the addition of H2 blockade. The wealing threshold was 54.7 +/- 4.4 (mean +/- SEM) g/mm2 for the H1 antagonist alone, and 73.2 +/- 5.7 for the combination of H1 and H2 antagonists. In a second similar study involving nine different patients, comparing terfenadine (120 mg twice daily) with a combination of terfenadine and ranitidine (150 mg twice daily), the weal threshold was 59.8 +/- 6.6 for the H1 antagonist alone, and 73.0 +/- 6.4 for the combination of H1 and H2 antagonists. Thus, in dermographic urticaria, adding an H2 antagonist to treatment with a potent H1 antagonist gives a small, significant reduction in wealing response, but no symptomatic benefit. We conclude that involvement of the H2 receptor in this urticarial disease is minimal, and does not justify the use of H2 receptor antagonists.

  11. Development of a Methodology to Conduct Usability Evaluation for Hand Tools that May Reduce the Amount of Small Parts that are Dropped During Installation while Processing Space Flight Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Darcy

    2000-01-01

    Foreign object debris (FOD) is an important concern while processing space flight hardware. FOD can be defined as "The debris that is left in or around flight hardware, where it could cause damage to that flight hardware," (United Space Alliance, 2000). Just one small screw left unintentionally in the wrong place could delay a launch schedule while it is retrieved, increase the cost of processing, or cause a potentially fatal accident. At this time, there is not a single solution to help reduce the number of dropped parts such as screws, bolts, nuts, and washers during installation. Most of the effort is currently focused on training employees and on capturing the parts once they are dropped. Advances in ergonomics and hand tool design suggest that a solution may be possible, in the form of specialty hand tools, which secure the small parts while they are being handled. To assist in the development of these new advances, a test methodology was developed to conduct a usability evaluation of hand tools, while performing tasks with risk of creating FOD. The methodology also includes hardware in the form of a testing board and the small parts that can be installed onto the board during a test. The usability of new hand tools was determined based on efficiency and the number of dropped parts. To validate the methodology, participants were tested while performing a task that is representative of the type of work that may be done when processing space flight hardware. Test participants installed small parts using their hands and two commercially available tools. The participants were from three groups: (1) students, (2) engineers / managers and (3) technicians. The test was conducted to evaluate the differences in performance when using the three installation methods, as well as the difference in performance of the three participant groups.

  12. 48 CFR 28.102-2 - Amount required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... lesser amount is adequate for the protection of the Government, the penal amount of performance bonds... lesser amount is adequate for the protection of the Government, the penal amount of the payment bond or... secure any needed additional protection by directing the contractor to— (1) Increase the penal sum of...

  13. Feasibility, tolerability, and efficacy of the concurrent addition of erlotinib to thoracic radiotherapy in locally advanced unresectable non-small-cell lung cancer: a Phase II trial

    PubMed Central

    Martínez, Enrique; Martínez, Maite; Rico, Mikel; Hernández, Berta; Casas, Francesc; Viñolas, Nuria; Pérez-Casas, Ana; Dómine, Manuel; Mínguez, Julián

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Although many studies have confirmed the synergic effects of combining chemotherapy (CT) and radiotherapy (RT), clinical data evaluating safety and efficacy of erlotinib in combination with RT in locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are limited. The aim of this study was to determine the feasibility, tolerability, and efficacy of the concurrent addition of erlotinib to the standard three-dimensional conformal thoracic RT in patients with unresectable or locally advanced NSCLC who are not candidates for receiving standard CT. Patients and methods Feasibility and tolerability, assessed by evaluating adverse events (AEs), and effectiveness, by calculating progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), cancer-specific survival (CSS), and objective response rate (ORR), were analyzed in 30 patients receiving RT alone and 60 receiving RT and erlotinib. Results Erlotinib with RT showed an extended CSS and a higher rate of complete responses compared with RT alone. No differences between groups were found regarding OS, PFS, and ORR. AEs were significantly higher in the combined treatment, which mainly included cutaneous toxicity, dyspnea, fatigue, hyporexia, diarrhea, and infection. Erlotinib did not increase the toxicity produced by RT. Conclusion The combination of erlotinib with RT produced, in our study, a scarce clinical benefit in the treatment of unresectable or locally advanced NSCLC, limited to complete responses and longer CSS rate compared with RT alone. Increased toxicity events were associated with combined therapy, which mainly included cutaneous toxicity. In our opinion, further studies in molecularly unselected lung cancer patients treated with EGFR TKIs and RT are not indicated. The use of biomarkers for the identification of patients that are most likely to benefit from this treatment is an essential next step in the research of this condition. PMID:27042098

  14. Paradoxes of the influence of small Ni impurity additions in a NaCl crystal on the kinetics of its magnetoplasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alshits, V. I.; Darinskaya, E. V.; Koldaeva, M. V.; Petrzhik, E. A.

    2016-01-01

    A comparative study of magnetoplasticity in two types of NaCl crystals differing in impurity content only by a small Ni addition (0.06 ppm) in one of them, NaCl(Ni), has been carried out. Two methods of sample magnetic exposure were used: in a constant field B = 0-0.6 T and in crossed fields in the EPR scheme—the Earth's field B Earth (50 μT) and a variable pumping field tilde B( ˜ 1 μ T) at frequencies ν 1 MHz. In the experiments in the EPR scheme, the change of the field orientation from tilde B bot B_{Earth} to . {tilde B} |B_{Earth} led to almost complete suppression of the effect in the NaCl(Ni) crystals and reduced only slightly (approximately by 20%) the height of the resonance peak of dislocation mean paths in the crystals without Ni, with the amplitude of the mean paths in NaCl(Ni) in the orientation tilde B bot B_{Earth} having been appreciably lower than that in NaCl. In contrast, upon exposure to a constant magnetic field, a more intense effect was observed in the crystal with Ni. The threshold pumping field amplitude tilde B, below which the effect is absent under resonance conditions, for the NaCl(Ni) crystals turned out to be a factor of 5 smaller than that for NaCl, while the thresholds of a constant magnetic field coincide for both types of crystals. All these differences are discussed in detail and interpreted.

  15. 76 FR 63933 - Notice of Adjustment of Disaster Grant Amounts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-14

    ... SECURITY Notice of Adjustment of Disaster Grant Amounts AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: FEMA gives notice of an increase of the maximum amount for Small Project Grants.... 5121-5207, prescribes that FEMA must annually adjust the maximum grant amount made under section...

  16. Secondary structural changes in guanidinium hydrochloride denatured mammalian serum albumins and protective effect of small amounts of cationic gemini surfactant pentanediyl-α,ω-bis(cetyldimethylammonium bromide) and methyl-β-cyclodextrin: A spectroscopic study.

    PubMed

    Gull, Nuzhat; Khan, Javed Masood; Ishtikhar, Mohd; Qadeer, Atiyatul; Khan, Rehan Ajmal; Gul, Mudasir; Khan, Rizwan Hasan

    2015-02-01

    In the present study the cationic gemini surfactant assisted refolding of guanidinium hydrochloride (GdCl) denatured mammalian serum albumins viz. sheep serum albumin (SSA), rat serum albumin (RSA) and porcine serum albumin (PSA) using a combination of cationic gemini surfactants, pentanediyl-α,ω-bis(cetyldimethylammonium bromide) (C16H33(CH3)2N(+)-(CH2)5-N(+)(CH3)2C16H33)⋅2Br(-) designated as G5 and methyl-β-cyclodextrin in the artificial chaperone assisted two step method, is attempted. The studies were carried out in an aqueous medium (pH 7.4) using dynamic light scattering (DLS), circular dichroism (CD), and fluorescence spectroscopy. A perusal of DLS data indicates that against the native hydrodynamic radius (Rh) of 4.3nm in SSA, 3.9nm in PSA and 3.5nm in RSA, the Rh of the said proteins, when refolding is attempted by simple dilution, increases to 21.7nm, 36.6nm and 37.2nm, respectively. Hydrodynamic radii very near to the native protein, i.e., 4.0nm, 4.1nm and 4.4nm for RSA, PSA and SSA respectively, is obtained on the sequential addition of G5 and methyl-β-cyclodextrin to the denatured protein. Circular dichroism studies corroborate with the DLS data. The results obtained from the multi-technique approach are ascribed to the presence of two charged head-groups and two hydrocarbon tails in the gemini surfactants resulting in a very strong electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions. Based on the present study it is suggested that the gemini surfactants may be utilized in the protein refolding studies and thus may address one of the most pressing demand of biotechnology industry for the development of efficient and inexpensive folding aides.

  17. Amplification of trace amounts of nucleic acids

    DOEpatents

    Church, George M.; Zhang, Kun

    2008-06-17

    Methods of reducing background during amplification of small amounts of nucleic acids employ careful analysis of sources of low level contamination. Ultraviolet light can be used to reduce nucleic acid contaminants in reagents and equipment. "Primer-dimer" background can be reduced by judicious design of primers. We have shown clean signal-to-noise with as little as starting material as one single human cell (.about.6 picogram), E. coli cell (.about.5 femtogram) or Prochlorococcus cell (.about.3 femtogram).

  18. [Plant sterols, cholesterol precursors and oxysterols: small amounts, big effects].

    PubMed

    Olkkonen, Vesa M; Gylling, Helena; Ikonen, Elina

    2015-01-01

    Noncholesterol sterols are present in the body in very low concentrations compared with cholesterol. Minor structural changes in sterols give them completely individual biological activities. Steroid hormones are the best known example of this. The knowledge of other relatives of cholesterol, particularly plant sterols, cholesterol precursors and oxysterols, their properties, physiological effects, significance in disease processes and diagnostic applications has recently undergone a rapid increase.

  19. Determination of small and large amounts of fluorine in rocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grimaldi, F.S.; Ingram, B.; Cuttitta, F.

    1955-01-01

    Gelatinous silica and aluminum ions retard the distillation of fluorine in the Willard and Winter distillation method. A generally applicable, simple method for the determination of fluorine in rocks containing aluminum or silicon or both as major constituents was desired. In the procedure developed, the sample is fused with a mixture of sodium carbonate and zinc oxide, leached with water, and filtered. The residue is granular and retains nearly all of the silica. The fluorine in the filtrate is distilled directly from a perchloric acid-phosphoric acid mixture. Phosphoric acid permits the quantitative distillation of fluorine in the presence of much aluminum at the usual distillation temperature and without the collection of large volumes of distillate. The fluorine is determined either by microtitration with thorium nitrate or colorimetrically with thoron. The procedure is rapid and has yielded excellent results on silicate rocks and on samples from the aluminum phosphate (leached) zone of the Florida phosphate deposits.

  20. 43 CFR 3835.17 - What additional requirements must I fulfill to obtain a small miner waiver for my mining claims...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... fulfill to obtain a small miner waiver for my mining claims or sites on National Park System lands? 3835... waiver for my mining claims or sites on National Park System lands? (a) Before performing assessment work on National Park System lands, you must submit and obtain the National Park Service (NPS)'s...

  1. 43 CFR 3835.17 - What additional requirements must I fulfill to obtain a small miner waiver for my mining claims...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... fulfill to obtain a small miner waiver for my mining claims or sites on National Park System lands? 3835... waiver for my mining claims or sites on National Park System lands? (a) Before performing assessment work on National Park System lands, you must submit and obtain the National Park Service (NPS)'s...

  2. 43 CFR 3835.17 - What additional requirements must I fulfill to obtain a small miner waiver for my mining claims...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... fulfill to obtain a small miner waiver for my mining claims or sites on National Park System lands? 3835... waiver for my mining claims or sites on National Park System lands? (a) Before performing assessment work on National Park System lands, you must submit and obtain the National Park Service (NPS)'s...

  3. 43 CFR 3835.17 - What additional requirements must I fulfill to obtain a small miner waiver for my mining claims...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... fulfill to obtain a small miner waiver for my mining claims or sites on National Park System lands? 3835... waiver for my mining claims or sites on National Park System lands? (a) Before performing assessment work on National Park System lands, you must submit and obtain the National Park Service (NPS)'s...

  4. 13 CFR 120.348 - Amount of guarantee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Amount of guarantee. 120.348 Section 120.348 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Special Purpose Loans International Trade Loans § 120.348 Amount of guarantee. SBA can guarantee up to...

  5. Crystallization of a complex between human CDK6 and a virus-encoded cyclin is critically dependent on the addition of small charged organic molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Schulze-Gahmne, Ursula; Kim, Sung-Hou

    2001-07-06

    Human CDK6 plays an important role in controlling entry into the eucaryotic cell cycle. An activated complex of human CDK6 with a viral cyclin from herpesvirus saimiri was purified to homogeneity and crystallized using polyethylene glycol 3350 as precipitant. Crystallization was critically dependent on a narrow range of Ca Acetate concentration and the presence of Sulfo-betaine 201 as additive. Crystals belong to the hexagonal space group P6122 or P6522 with unit cell parameters a = b = 70.14 Angstrom, c = 448.77 Angstrom, g = 120 degrees and diffract X-rays to at least 3.1 Angstrom resolution.

  6. Addition of thymidine to culture media for accurate examination of thymidine-dependent small-colony variants of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Horiuchi, Kazuki; Matsumoto, Takehisa; Ota, Yusuke; Kasuga, Eriko; Negishi, Tatsuya; Yaguchi, Tomomi; Sugano, Mitsutoshi; Honda, Takayuki

    2015-03-01

    Small-colony variants (SCVs) are slow-growing subpopulations of various auxotrophic bacterial strains. Thymidine-dependent SCVs (TD-SCVs) are unable to synthesize thymidine; hence, these variants fail to grow in a medium without thymidine. In this study, we used 10 TD-SCVs of Staphylococcus aureus, of which four strains possessed mecA. We compared the efficacy of a newly modified medium containing thymidine for the detection of TD-SCVs of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) to the efficacy of routinely used laboratory media. We observed that none of the 10 TD-SCVs of S. aureus grew in Mueller-Hinton agar, and four TD-SCVs of MRSA failed to grow on all MRSA screening media, except for the ChromID™ MRSA medium. Laboratory tests conducted using medium with thymidine incorporated showed that thymidine did not affect the minimum inhibitory concentrations of oxacillin and cefoxitin for clinical isolates of S. aureus, and was able to detect MRSA, including TD-SCVs. These findings showed that thymidine-incorporated media are able to detect TD-SCVs of MRSA without altering the properties of other clinically isolated MRSA strains.

  7. RECOVERY OF THE CANDIDATE PROTOPLANET HD 100546 b WITH GEMINI/NICI AND DETECTION OF ADDITIONAL (PLANET-INDUCED?) DISK STRUCTURE AT SMALL SEPARATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Currie, Thayne; Kudo, Tomoyuki; Muto, Takayuki; Honda, Mitsuhiko; Brandt, Timothy D.; Grady, Carol; Fukagawa, Misato; Burrows, Adam; Janson, Markus; Kuzuhara, Masayuki; McElwain, Michael W.; Follette, Katherine; Hashimoto, Jun; Henning, Thomas; Kandori, Ryo; Kusakabe, Nobuhiko; Morino, Jun-ichi; Nishikawa, Jun; Kwon, Jungmi; Mede, Kyle; and others

    2014-12-01

    We report the first independent, second epoch (re-)detection of a directly imaged protoplanet candidate. Using L' high-contrast imaging of HD 100546 taken with the Near-Infrared Coronagraph and Imager on Gemini South, we recover ''HD 100546 b'' with a position and brightness consistent with the original Very Large Telescope/NAos-COnica detection from Quanz et al., although data obtained after 2013 will be required to decisively demonstrate common proper motion. HD 100546 b may be spatially resolved, up to ≈12-13 AU in diameter, and is embedded in a finger of thermal IR-bright, polarized emission extending inward to at least 0.''3. Standard hot-start models imply a mass of ≈15 M{sub J} . However, if HD 100546 b is newly formed or made visible by a circumplanetary disk, both of which are plausible, its mass is significantly lower (e.g., 1-7 M{sub J} ). Additionally, we discover a thermal IR-bright disk feature, possibly a spiral density wave, at roughly the same angular separation as HD 100546 b but 90° away. Our interpretation of this feature as a spiral arm is not decisive, but modeling analyses using spiral density wave theory implies a wave launching point exterior to ≈0.''45 embedded within the visible disk structure: plausibly evidence for a second, hitherto unseen, wide-separation planet. With one confirmed protoplanet candidate and evidence for one to two others, HD 100546 is an important evolutionary precursor to intermediate-mass stars with multiple super-Jovian planets at moderate/wide separations like HR 8799.

  8. Nuclear DNA Amounts in Macaronesian Angiosperms

    PubMed Central

    SUDA, JAN; KYNCL, TOMÁŠ; FREIOVÁ, RADKA

    2003-01-01

    Nuclear DNA contents for 104 Macaronesian angiosperms, with particular attention on Canary Islands endemics, were analysed using propidium iodide flow cytometry. Prime estimates for more than one‐sixth of the whole Canarian endemic flora (including representatives of 11 endemic genera) were obtained. The resulting 1C DNA values ranged from 0·19 to 7·21 pg for Descurainia bourgeauana and Argyranthemum frutescens, respectively (about 38‐fold difference). The majority of species, however, possessed (very) small genomes, with C‐values <1·6 pg. The tendency towards small nuclear DNA contents and genome sizes was confirmed by comparing average values for Macaronesian and non‐Macaronesian representatives of individual families, genera and major phylogenetic lineages. Our data support the hypothesis that the insular selection pressures in Macaronesia favour small C‐values and genome sizes. Both positive and negative correlations between infrageneric nuclear DNA amount variation and environmental conditions on Tenerife were also found in several genera. PMID:12824074

  9. Ultrasonic Atomization Amount for Different Frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasuda, Keiji; Honma, Hiroyuki; Xu, Zheng; Asakura, Yoshiyuki; Koda, Shinobu

    2011-07-01

    The mass flow rate of ultrasonic atomization was estimated by measuring the vaporization amount from a bulk liquid with a fountain. The effects of ultrasonic frequency and intensity on the atomization characteristics were investigated when the directivities of the acoustic field from a transducer were almost the same. The sample was distillated water and the ultrasonic frequencies were 0.5, 1.0, and 2.4 MHz. The mass flow rate of ultrasonic atomization increased with increasing ultrasonic intensity and decreasing ultrasonic frequency. The fountain was formed at the liquid surface where the effective value of acoustic pressure was above atmospheric pressure. The fountain height was strongly governed by the acoustic pressure at the liquid surface of the transducer center. At the same ultrasonic intensity, the dependence of ultrasonic frequency on the number of atomized droplets was small. At the same apparent surface area of the fountain, the number of atomized droplets became larger as the ultrasonic frequency increased.

  10. Food additives

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857

  11. 31 CFR 50.71 - Determination of recoupment amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... 50.71 Section 50.71 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TERRORISM... recoupment amounts for that Program Year. (b)(1) Within 90 days after certification of an act of terrorism... Terrorism Policy Surcharge previously established to determine whether any additional amount will...

  12. 31 CFR 50.71 - Determination of recoupment amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... 50.71 Section 50.71 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TERRORISM... recoupment amounts for that Program Year. (b)(1) Within 90 days after certification of an act of terrorism... Terrorism Policy Surcharge previously established to determine whether any additional amount will...

  13. Gasoline additive

    SciTech Connect

    Weil, O.A.; Smith, G.G.

    1990-03-06

    This patent describes a method for improving the quality and performance of an internal combustion engine. It comprises: introducing gasoline into the fuel tank of the internal combustion engine; and adding to the gasoline, in an amount effective to improve the performance of an internal combustion engine, a stable dispersion of 3 to 20 volume percent of a compound consisting essentially of polyoxyethylene sorbitol polyoleate in a gasoline-miscible oxygenated organic solvent; and operating the engine.

  14. 46 CFR Sec. 2 - Amount of bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Amount of bond. Sec. 2 Section 2 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION A-NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY BONDING OF SHIP'S PERSONNEL Sec. 2 Amount of bond. The amount of the bond must be governed by the amount of monies advanced or value of...

  15. 46 CFR Sec. 2 - Amount of bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Amount of bond. Sec. 2 Section 2 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION A-NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY BONDING OF SHIP'S PERSONNEL Sec. 2 Amount of bond. The amount of the bond must be governed by the amount of monies advanced or value of...

  16. Food additives

    MedlinePlus

    ... or natural. Natural food additives include: Herbs or spices to add flavor to foods Vinegar for pickling ... Certain colors improve the appearance of foods. Many spices, as well as natural and man-made flavors, ...

  17. Amplitudes of Pain-Related Evoked Potentials Are Useful to Detect Small Fiber Involvement in Painful Mixed Fiber Neuropathies in Addition to Quantitative Sensory Testing – An Electrophysiological Study

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Niels; Kahn, Ann-Kathrin; Zeller, Daniel; Katsarava, Zaza; Sommer, Claudia; Üçeyler, Nurcan

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the usefulness of pain-related evoked potentials (PREP) elicited by electrical stimulation for the identification of small fiber involvement in patients with mixed fiber neuropathy (MFN). Eleven MFN patients with clinical signs of large fiber impairment and neuropathic pain and ten healthy controls underwent clinical and electrophysiological evaluation. Small fiber function, electrical conductivity and morphology were examined by quantitative sensory testing (QST), PREP, and skin punch biopsy. MFN was diagnosed following clinical and electrophysiological examination (chronic inflammatory demyelinating neuropathy: n = 6; vasculitic neuropathy: n = 3; chronic axonal ­neuropathy: n = 2). The majority of patients with MFN characterized their pain by descriptors that mainly represent C-fiber-mediated pain. In QST, patients displayed elevated cold, warm, mechanical, and vibration detection thresholds and cold pain thresholds indicative of MFN. PREP amplitudes in patients correlated with cold (p < 0.05) and warm detection thresholds (p < 0.05). Burning pain and the presence of par-/dysesthesias correlated negatively with PREP amplitudes (p < 0.05). PREP amplitudes correlating with cold and warm detection thresholds, burning pain, and par-/dysesthesias support employing PREP amplitudes as an additional tool in conjunction with QST for detecting small fiber impairment in patients with MFN. PMID:26696950

  18. Sensory characterisation and consumer acceptability of potassium chloride and sunflower oil addition in small-caliber non-acid fermented sausages with a reduced content of sodium chloride and fat.

    PubMed

    Mora-Gallego, Héctor; Guàrdia, Maria Dolors; Serra, Xavier; Gou, Pere; Arnau, Jacint

    2016-02-01

    The effect of the simultaneous reduction of fat proportion (from 20% to 10% and 7%) and added salt (from 2.5% to 1.5%) and the subsequent addition of 0.64% KCl and sunflower oil (1.5% and 3.0%) on the physicochemical, instrumental colour and texture, sensory properties and consumer acceptability of small caliber non-acid fermented sausages (fuet type) was studied. This simultaneous reduction of fat and salt increased weight loss, moisture, water activity (aw), redness, instrumental texture parameters (hardness, chewiness and cohesiveness), sensory attributes (darkness, hardness, elasticity) and the consumer acceptability. The subsequent addition of 0.64% KCl to the leanest batch decreased the aw and barely affected instrumental texture parameters and consumer acceptability. Subsequent sunflower oil addition decreased hardness, chewiness and cohesiveness and increased crumbliness and oil flavour which may decrease the consumer acceptability. The simultaneous reduction of fat and NaCl with the addition of 0.64% KCl was the preferred option by the consumers.

  19. 29 CFR 4219.13 - Amount of liability for de minimis amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amount of liability for de minimis amounts. 4219.13 Section... Redetermination of Withdrawal Liability Upon Mass Withdrawal § 4219.13 Amount of liability for de minimis amounts. An employer that is liable for de minimis amounts shall be liable to the plan for the amount by...

  20. 29 CFR 4219.13 - Amount of liability for de minimis amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Amount of liability for de minimis amounts. 4219.13 Section... Redetermination of Withdrawal Liability Upon Mass Withdrawal § 4219.13 Amount of liability for de minimis amounts. An employer that is liable for de minimis amounts shall be liable to the plan for the amount by...

  1. 29 CFR 4219.13 - Amount of liability for de minimis amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Amount of liability for de minimis amounts. 4219.13 Section... Redetermination of Withdrawal Liability Upon Mass Withdrawal § 4219.13 Amount of liability for de minimis amounts. An employer that is liable for de minimis amounts shall be liable to the plan for the amount by...

  2. 29 CFR 4219.13 - Amount of liability for de minimis amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Amount of liability for de minimis amounts. 4219.13 Section... Redetermination of Withdrawal Liability Upon Mass Withdrawal § 4219.13 Amount of liability for de minimis amounts. An employer that is liable for de minimis amounts shall be liable to the plan for the amount by...

  3. 29 CFR 4219.13 - Amount of liability for de minimis amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Amount of liability for de minimis amounts. 4219.13 Section... Redetermination of Withdrawal Liability Upon Mass Withdrawal § 4219.13 Amount of liability for de minimis amounts. An employer that is liable for de minimis amounts shall be liable to the plan for the amount by...

  4. 26 CFR 1.809-4 - Gross amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... are in addition to the life insurance company's share of the investment yield (as determined under... gain or loss from operations only for taxable years beginning after December 31, 1961). The additional... defined in paragraph (a)(7)(ii) of § 1.809-5). The term also includes amounts a life insurance...

  5. 26 CFR 1.809-4 - Gross amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... are in addition to the life insurance company's share of the investment yield (as determined under... gain or loss from operations only for taxable years beginning after December 31, 1961). The additional... defined in paragraph (a)(7)(ii) of § 1.809-5). The term also includes amounts a life insurance...

  6. 17 CFR 230.603 - Amount of securities exempted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Amount of securities exempted. 230.603 Section 230.603 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, SECURITIES ACT OF 1933 Regulation E-Exemption for Securities of Small...

  7. 17 CFR 230.603 - Amount of securities exempted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Amount of securities exempted. 230.603 Section 230.603 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, SECURITIES ACT OF 1933 Regulation E-Exemption for Securities of Small...

  8. Photoelectrochemical and Electrochemical Characterization of Sub-Micro-Gram Amounts of Organic Semiconductors Using Scanning Droplet Cell Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    A model organic semiconductor (MDMO-PPV) was used for testing a modified version of a photoelectrochemical scanning droplet cell microscope (PE-SDCM) adapted for use with nonaqueous electrolytes and containing an optical fiber for localized illumination. The most attractive features of the PE-SDCM are represented by the possibility of addressing small areas on the investigated substrate and the need of small amounts of electrolyte. A very small amount (ng) of the material under study is sufficient for a complete electrochemical and photoelectrochemical characterization due to the scanning capability of the cell. The electrochemical behavior of the polymer was studied in detail using potentiostatic and potentiodynamic investigations as well as electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Additionally, the photoelectrochemical properties were investigated under illumination conditions, and the photocurrents found were at least 3 orders of magnitude higher than the dark (background) current, revealing the usefulness of this compact microcell for photovoltaic characterizations. PMID:25101149

  9. Potlining Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolf Keller

    2004-08-10

    In this project, a concept to improve the performance of aluminum production cells by introducing potlining additives was examined and tested. Boron oxide was added to cathode blocks, and titanium was dissolved in the metal pool; this resulted in the formation of titanium diboride and caused the molten aluminum to wet the carbonaceous cathode surface. Such wetting reportedly leads to operational improvements and extended cell life. In addition, boron oxide suppresses cyanide formation. This final report presents and discusses the results of this project. Substantial economic benefits for the practical implementation of the technology are projected, especially for modern cells with graphitized blocks. For example, with an energy savings of about 5% and an increase in pot life from 1500 to 2500 days, a cost savings of $ 0.023 per pound of aluminum produced is projected for a 200 kA pot.

  10. Phosphazene additives

    DOEpatents

    Harrup, Mason K; Rollins, Harry W

    2013-11-26

    An additive comprising a phosphazene compound that has at least two reactive functional groups and at least one capping functional group bonded to phosphorus atoms of the phosphazene compound. One of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with cellulose and the other of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with a resin, such as an amine resin of a polycarboxylic acid resin. The at least one capping functional group is selected from the group consisting of a short chain ether group, an alkoxy group, or an aryloxy group. Also disclosed are an additive-resin admixture, a method of treating a wood product, and a wood product.

  11. The amount effect and marginal value.

    PubMed

    Rachlin, Howard; Arfer, Kodi B; Safin, Vasiliy; Yen, Ming

    2015-07-01

    The amount effect of delay discounting (by which the value of larger reward amounts is discounted by delay at a lower rate than that of smaller amounts) strictly implies that value functions (value as a function of amount) are steeper at greater delays than they are at lesser delays. That is, the amount effect and the difference in value functions at different delays are actually a single empirical finding. Amount effects of delay discounting are typically found with choice experiments. Value functions for immediate rewards have been empirically obtained by direct judgment. (Value functions for delayed rewards have not been previously obtained.) The present experiment obtained value functions for both immediate and delayed rewards by direct judgment and found them to be steeper when the rewards were delayed--hence, finding an amount effect with delay discounting.

  12. 45 CFR 32.8 - Amounts withheld.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... paragraph (b) of this section. The employer may use the SF-329C “Wage Garnishment Worksheet” to calculate... garnishment order up to 15% of the debtor's disposable pay; or (2) The amount set forth in 15 U.S.C. 1673(a)(2) (Maximum allowable garnishment). The amount set forth at 15 U.S.C. 1673(a)(2) is the amount by which...

  13. 45 CFR 32.8 - Amounts withheld.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... paragraph (b) of this section. The employer may use the SF-329C “Wage Garnishment Worksheet” to calculate... garnishment order up to 15% of the debtor's disposable pay; or (2) The amount set forth in 15 U.S.C. 1673(a)(2) (Maximum allowable garnishment). The amount set forth at 15 U.S.C. 1673(a)(2) is the amount by which...

  14. Smog control fuel additives

    SciTech Connect

    Lundby, W.

    1993-06-29

    A method is described of controlling, reducing or eliminating, ozone and related smog resulting from photochemical reactions between ozone and automotive or industrial gases comprising the addition of iodine or compounds of iodine to hydrocarbon-base fuels prior to or during combustion in an amount of about 1 part iodine per 240 to 10,000,000 parts fuel, by weight, to be accomplished by: (a) the addition of these inhibitors during or after the refining or manufacturing process of liquid fuels; (b) the production of these inhibitors for addition into fuel tanks, such as automotive or industrial tanks; or (c) the addition of these inhibitors into combustion chambers of equipment utilizing solid fuels for the purpose of reducing ozone.

  15. 13 CFR 107.1150 - Maximum amount of Leverage for a Section 301(c) Licensee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for Licensees (Leverage) Maximum Amount of Leverage for Which A Licensee Is Eligible § 107.1150 Maximum amount of Leverage for a Section... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Maximum amount of Leverage for...

  16. 13 CFR 107.1160 - Maximum amount of Leverage for a Section 301(d) Licensee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for Licensees (Leverage) Maximum Amount of Leverage for Which A Licensee Is Eligible § 107.1160 Maximum amount of Leverage for a Section... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Maximum amount of Leverage for...

  17. 13 CFR 107.1160 - Maximum amount of Leverage for a Section 301(d) Licensee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for Licensees (Leverage) Maximum Amount of Leverage for Which A Licensee Is Eligible § 107.1160 Maximum amount of Leverage for a Section... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Maximum amount of Leverage for...

  18. 13 CFR 107.1150 - Maximum amount of Leverage for a Section 301(c) Licensee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for Licensees (Leverage) Maximum Amount of Leverage for Which A Licensee Is Eligible § 107.1150 Maximum amount of Leverage for a Section... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Maximum amount of Leverage for...

  19. 13 CFR 107.1150 - Maximum amount of Leverage for a Section 301(c) Licensee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for Licensees (Leverage) Maximum Amount of Leverage for Which A Licensee Is Eligible § 107.1150 Maximum amount of Leverage for a Section... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Maximum amount of Leverage for...

  20. 13 CFR 107.1150 - Maximum amount of Leverage for a Section 301(c) Licensee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for Licensees (Leverage) Maximum Amount of Leverage for Which A Licensee Is Eligible § 107.1150 Maximum amount of Leverage for a Section... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maximum amount of Leverage for...

  1. 13 CFR 107.1160 - Maximum amount of Leverage for a Section 301(d) Licensee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for Licensees (Leverage) Maximum Amount of Leverage for Which A Licensee Is Eligible § 107.1160 Maximum amount of Leverage for a Section... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Maximum amount of Leverage for...

  2. 13 CFR 107.1150 - Maximum amount of Leverage for a Section 301(c) Licensee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for Licensees (Leverage) Maximum Amount of Leverage for Which A Licensee Is Eligible § 107.1150 Maximum amount of Leverage for a Section... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Maximum amount of Leverage for...

  3. 20 CFR 617.34 - Amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... the Federal travel regulations (see 41 CFR part 101-7) for the locality where the job search is... WORKERS UNDER THE TRADE ACT OF 1974 Job Search Allowances § 617.34 Amount. (a) Computation. The amount of a job search allowance shall be 90 percent of the total costs of each of the following...

  4. 20 CFR 617.34 - Amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... the Federal travel regulations (see 41 CFR part 101-7) for the locality where the job search is... WORKERS UNDER THE TRADE ACT OF 1974 Job Search Allowances § 617.34 Amount. (a) Computation. The amount of a job search allowance shall be 90 percent of the total costs of each of the following...

  5. 20 CFR 617.34 - Amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... the Federal travel regulations (see 41 CFR part 101-7) for the locality where the job search is... WORKERS UNDER THE TRADE ACT OF 1974 Job Search Allowances § 617.34 Amount. (a) Computation. The amount of a job search allowance shall be 90 percent of the total costs of each of the following...

  6. 46 CFR 308.403 - Insured amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... total amount of war risk insurance obtainable from companies authorized to do an insurance business in a... authorized to do an insurance business in a State of the United States. (c) Maximum liability. The amount of... MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War...

  7. 46 CFR 308.403 - Insured amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... total amount of war risk insurance obtainable from companies authorized to do an insurance business in a... authorized to do an insurance business in a State of the United States. (c) Maximum liability. The amount of... MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War...

  8. 20 CFR 617.34 - Amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... WORKERS UNDER THE TRADE ACT OF 1974 Job Search Allowances § 617.34 Amount. (a) Computation. The amount of a job search allowance shall be 90 percent of the total costs of each of the following allowable... job search; or (ii) The cost per mile at the prevailing mileage rate authorized under the...

  9. 46 CFR 308.100 - Insured amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Hull and Disbursements Insurance § 308.100 Insured amount. An applicant for war risk hull insurance shall state the amount of insurance desired but any payment of claim for damage to or actual or...

  10. 23 CFR 1335.8 - Grant amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Grant amounts. 1335.8 Section 1335.8 Highways NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STATE HIGHWAY SAFETY DATA IMPROVEMENTS § 1335.8 Grant amounts. (a) Start-up grant. A State that qualifies for a start-up grant under §...

  11. 23 CFR 1335.8 - Grant amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Grant amounts. 1335.8 Section 1335.8 Highways NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STATE HIGHWAY SAFETY DATA IMPROVEMENTS § 1335.8 Grant amounts. (a) Start-up grant. A State that qualifies for a start-up grant under §...

  12. 13 CFR 400.202 - Loan amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ....202 Business Credit and Assistance EMERGENCY STEEL GUARANTEE LOAN BOARD EMERGENCY STEEL GUARANTEE LOAN PROGRAM Steel Guarantee Loans § 400.202 Loan amount. (a) The aggregate amount of loan principal guaranteed under this Program to a single Qualified Steel Company may not exceed $ 250 million. (b) Of...

  13. 13 CFR 400.202 - Loan amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ....202 Business Credit and Assistance EMERGENCY STEEL GUARANTEE LOAN BOARD EMERGENCY STEEL GUARANTEE LOAN PROGRAM Steel Guarantee Loans § 400.202 Loan amount. (a) The aggregate amount of loan principal guaranteed under this Program to a single Qualified Steel Company may not exceed $ 250 million. (b) Of...

  14. 13 CFR 400.202 - Loan amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ....202 Business Credit and Assistance EMERGENCY STEEL GUARANTEE LOAN BOARD EMERGENCY STEEL GUARANTEE LOAN PROGRAM Steel Guarantee Loans § 400.202 Loan amount. (a) The aggregate amount of loan principal guaranteed under this Program to a single Qualified Steel Company may not exceed $ 250 million. (b) Of...

  15. 13 CFR 400.202 - Loan amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ....202 Business Credit and Assistance EMERGENCY STEEL GUARANTEE LOAN BOARD EMERGENCY STEEL GUARANTEE LOAN PROGRAM Steel Guarantee Loans § 400.202 Loan amount. (a) The aggregate amount of loan principal guaranteed under this Program to a single Qualified Steel Company may not exceed $ 250 million. (b) Of...

  16. 13 CFR 400.202 - Loan amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ....202 Business Credit and Assistance EMERGENCY STEEL GUARANTEE LOAN BOARD EMERGENCY STEEL GUARANTEE LOAN PROGRAM Steel Guarantee Loans § 400.202 Loan amount. (a) The aggregate amount of loan principal guaranteed under this Program to a single Qualified Steel Company may not exceed $ 250 million. (b) Of...

  17. Risk sensitivity for amounts of and delay to rewards: adaptation for uncertainty or by-product of reward rate maximising?

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Martin S; Schuck-Paim, Cynthia; Kacelnik, Alex

    2012-02-01

    Observations that humans and other species are sensitive to variability in the outcome of their choices has led to the widespread assumption that this sensitivity reflects adaptations to cope with risk (stochasticity of action consequences). We question this assumption in experiments with starlings. We show that choices between outcomes that are risky in both amount and delay to food are predictable from preferences in the absence of risk. We find that the overarching best predictor of an option's value is the average of the ratios of amount to delay across its (frequency weighted) outcomes, an expression known as "Expectation of the Ratios", or EoR. Most tests of risk sensitivity focus on the predicted impact of energetic state on preference for risk. We show instead that under controlled state conditions subjects are variance- and risk-neutral with respect to EoR, and this implies variance neutrality for amounts and variance-proneness for delays. The weak risk aversion for amounts often reported requires a small modification of EoR. EoR is consistent with associative learning: acquisition of value for initially neutral stimuli is roughly proportional to the magnitude of their consequences and inversely proportional to the interval between the stimulus and its consequence's onset. If, as is likely, the effect of amount on acquisition is sublinear, the result is a deviation from EoR towards risk aversion for amount. In 3 experiments, we first establish individual birds' preferences between pairs of fixed options that differ in both amount and delay (small-sooner vs. large-later), and then examine choices between stochastic mixtures that include these options. Experiment 1 uses a titration to establish certainty equivalents, while experiments 2 and 3 measure degree of preference between options with static parameters. The mixtures differ in the coefficient of variation of amount, delay, or both, but EoR is sufficient to predict all results, with no additional

  18. 78 FR 59702 - Medicare Program; Medicare Appeals: Adjustment to the Amount in Controversy Threshold Amounts for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-27

    ...This notice announces the annual adjustment in the amount in controversy (AIC) threshold amounts for Administrative Law Judge (ALJ) hearings and judicial review under the Medicare appeals process. The adjustment to the AIC threshold amounts will be effective for requests for ALJ hearings and judicial review filed on or after January 1, 2014. The calendar year 2014 AIC threshold amounts are......

  19. Deoxynivalenol impairs hepatic and intestinal gene expression of selected oxidative stress, tight junction and inflammation proteins in broiler chickens, but addition of an adsorbing agent shifts the effects to the distal parts of the small intestine.

    PubMed

    Osselaere, Ann; Santos, Regiane; Hautekiet, Veerle; De Backer, Patrick; Chiers, Koen; Ducatelle, Richard; Croubels, Siska

    2013-01-01

    Broiler chickens are rather resistant to deoxynivalenol and thus, clinical signs are rarely seen. However, effects of subclinical concentrations of deoxynivalenol on both the intestine and the liver are less frequently studied at the molecular level. During our study, we investigated the effects of three weeks of feeding deoxynivalenol on the gut wall morphology, intestinal barrier function and inflammation in broiler chickens. In addition, oxidative stress was evaluated in both the liver and intestine. Besides, the effect of a clay-based mycotoxin adsorbing agent on these different aspects was also studied. Our results show that feeding deoxynivalenol affects the gut wall morphology both in duodenum and jejenum of broiler chickens. A qRT-PCR analysis revealed that deoxynivalenol acts in a very specific way on the intestinal barrier, since only an up-regulation in mRNA expression of claudin 5 in jejunum was observed, while no effects were seen on claudin 1, zona occludens 1 and 2. Addition of an adsorbing agent resulted in an up-regulation of all the investigated genes coding for the intestinal barrier in the ileum. Up-regulation of Toll-like receptor 4 and two markers of oxidative stress (heme-oxigenase or HMOX and xanthine oxidoreductase or XOR) were mainly seen in the jejunum and to a lesser extent in the ileum in response to deoxynivalenol, while in combination with an adsorbing agent main effect was seen in the ileum. These results suggest that an adsorbing agent may lead to higher concentrations of deoxynivalenol in the more distal parts of the small intestine. In the liver, XOR was up-regulated due to DON exposure. HMOX and HIF-1α (hypoxia-inducible factor 1α) were down-regulated due to feeding DON but also due to feeding the adsorbing agent alone or in combination with DON.

  20. 42 CFR 402.107 - Amount of assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., in addition, to an assessment. An assessment is a monetary payment in lieu of damages sustained by... 42 Public Health 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Amount of assessment. 402.107 Section 402.107... PROVISIONS CIVIL MONEY PENALTIES, ASSESSMENTS, AND EXCLUSIONS Civil Money Penalties and Assessments §...

  1. 42 CFR 402.107 - Amount of assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., in addition, to an assessment. An assessment is a monetary payment in lieu of damages sustained by... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Amount of assessment. 402.107 Section 402.107... PROVISIONS CIVIL MONEY PENALTIES, ASSESSMENTS, AND EXCLUSIONS Civil Money Penalties and Assessments §...

  2. 19 CFR 113.13 - Amount of bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... The amount of any Customs bond shall not be less than $100, except when the law or regulation... laws and regulations; (3) The value and nature of the merchandise involved in the transaction(s) to be... damages; and (6) Any additional information contained in any application for a bond. (c) Periodic...

  3. 45 CFR 158.606 - Amount of penalty-general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Amount of penalty-general. 158.606 Section 158.606 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS ISSUER.... Penalties imposed under this Part are in addition to any other penalties prescribed or allowed by law....

  4. Phenylethynyl Containing Reactive Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Phenylethynyl containing reactive additives were prepared from aromatic diamine, containing phenylethvnvl groups and various ratios of phthalic anhydride and 4-phenylethynviphthalic anhydride in glacial acetic acid to form the imide in one step or in N-methyl-2-pvrrolidinone to form the amide acid intermediate. The reactive additives were mixed in various amounts (10% to 90%) with oligomers containing either terminal or pendent phenylethynyl groups (or both) to reduce the melt viscosity and thereby enhance processability. Upon thermal cure, the additives react and become chemically incorporated into the matrix and effect an increase in crosslink density relative to that of the host resin. This resultant increase in crosslink density has advantageous consequences on the cured resin properties such as higher glass transition temperature and higher modulus as compared to that of the host resin.

  5. Phenylethynyl Containing Reactive Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Phenylethynyl containing reactive additives were prepared from aromatic diamines containing phenylethynyl groups and various ratios of phthalic anhydride and 4-phenylethynylphthalic anhydride in glacial acetic acid to form the imide in one step or in N-methyl-2-pyrrolidi none to form the amide acid intermediate. The reactive additives were mixed in various amounts (10% to 90%) with oligomers containing either terminal or pendent phenylethynyl groups (or both) to reduce the melt viscosity and thereby enhance processability. Upon thermal cure, the additives react and become chemically incorporated into the matrix and effect an increase in crosslink density relative to that of the host resin. This resultant increase in crosslink density has advantageous consequences on the cured resin properties such as higher glass transition temperature and higher modulus as compared to that of the host resin.

  6. 12 CFR 313.95 - Amounts withheld.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... CORPORATE DEBT COLLECTION Administrative Wage Garnishment § 313.95 Amounts withheld. (a) Upon receipt of the... orders with priority, the following shall apply: (1) Unless otherwise provided by federal...

  7. 23 CFR 1335.8 - Grant amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Grant amounts. 1335.8 Section 1335.8 Highways NATIONAL... § 1335.8 Grant amounts. (a) Start-up grant. A State that qualifies for a start-up grant under § 1335.7(a) of this part shall be eligible to receive $25,000. (b) Initiation grant. A State that qualifies...

  8. Increases in the amounts of Vibrio spp. in oysters upon addition of exogenous bacteria.

    PubMed

    Froelich, Brett; Oliver, James

    2013-09-01

    The bacterial pathogen Vibrio vulnificus is found naturally in brackish coastal waters but can be greatly concentrated by filter-feeding organisms such as shellfish. Numerous experiments in which exogenous V. vulnificus cells are added to oysters in an attempt to measure uptake and depuration have been performed. In nearly all cases, results have shown that laboratory-grown bacteria are rapidly taken up by the oysters but ultimately eliminated, while naturally present Vibrio populations in oysters are resistant to depuration. In this study, oysters harvested during winter months, with low culturable Vibrio concentrations, were incubated in aquaria supplemented with strains of V. vulnificus that were either genotypically or phenotypically distinct from the background bacteria. These exogenous cells were eliminated from the oysters, as previously seen, but other vibrios already inhabiting the oysters responded to the V. vulnificus inoculum by rapidly increasing in number and maintaining a large stable population. The presence of such an oyster-adapted Vibrio population would be expected to prevent colonization by exogenous V. vulnificus cells, thus explaining the rapid depuration of these added bacteria.

  9. 75 FR 58407 - Medicare Program; Medicare Appeals; Adjustment to the Amount in Controversy Threshold Amounts for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-24

    ... to the Amount in Controversy Threshold Amounts for Calendar Year 2011 AGENCY: Centers for Medicare... July of the preceding year involved and rounded to the nearest multiple of $10. B. Calendar Year 2011... judicial review will rise to $1,300 for the 2011 calendar year. These updated amounts are based on the...

  10. 77 FR 59618 - Medicare Program; Medicare Appeals; Adjustment to the Amount in Controversy Threshold Amounts for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-28

    ... to the Amount in Controversy Threshold Amounts for Calendar Year 2013 AGENCY: Centers for Medicare... for requests for ALJ hearings and judicial review filed on or after January 1, 2013. The calendar year... nearest multiple of $10. B. Calendar Year 2013 The AIC threshold amount for ALJ hearing requests...

  11. Increasing the amount of payment to research subjects.

    PubMed

    Resnik, David B; Resnick, D B

    2008-09-01

    This article discusses some ethical issues that can arise when researchers decide to increase the amount of payment offered to research subjects to boost enrollment. Would increasing the amount of payment be unfair to subjects who have already consented to participate in the study? This article considers how five different models of payment--the free market model, the wage payment model, the reimbursement model, the appreciation model, and the fair benefits model--would approach this issue. The article also considers several practical problems related to changing the amount of payment, including determining whether there is enough money in the budget to offer additional payments to subjects who have already enrolled, ascertaining how difficult it will be to re-contact subjects, and developing a plan of action for responding to subjects who find out they are receiving less money and demand an explanation.

  12. Long range ordered alloys modified by addition of niobium and cerium

    DOEpatents

    Liu, C.T.

    1984-08-22

    Long range ordered alloys are described having the nominal composition (Fe,Ni,Co)/sub 3/ (V,M) where M is a ductility enhancing metal selected from the group Ti, Zr, Hf with additions of small amounts of cerium and niobium to dramatically enhance the creep properties of the resulting alloys.

  13. Long range ordered alloys modified by addition of niobium and cerium

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Chain T.

    1987-01-01

    Long range ordered alloys are described having the nominal composition (Fe,Ni,Co).sub.3 (V,M) where M is a ductility enhancing metal selected from the group Ti, Zr, Hf with additions of small amounts of cerium and niobium to drammatically enhance the creep properties of the resulting alloys.

  14. Addition of HCl to the double-pulse copper chloride laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vetter, A. A.; Nerheim, N. M.

    1977-01-01

    Addition of small amounts of hydrogen chloride to the buffer gas of a double-pulse CuCl laser causes an increase in the production of copper atoms in the ground state. A maximum laser energy increase of 15% was observed and the span of delay times for which laser action occurred increased.

  15. Fused Lasso Additive Model

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Ashley; Witten, Daniela; Simon, Noah

    2016-01-01

    We consider the problem of predicting an outcome variable using p covariates that are measured on n independent observations, in a setting in which additive, flexible, and interpretable fits are desired. We propose the fused lasso additive model (FLAM), in which each additive function is estimated to be piecewise constant with a small number of adaptively-chosen knots. FLAM is the solution to a convex optimization problem, for which a simple algorithm with guaranteed convergence to a global optimum is provided. FLAM is shown to be consistent in high dimensions, and an unbiased estimator of its degrees of freedom is proposed. We evaluate the performance of FLAM in a simulation study and on two data sets. Supplemental materials are available online, and the R package flam is available on CRAN. PMID:28239246

  16. 10 CFR 600.381 - Special provisions for Small Business Innovation Research Grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Special provisions for Small Business Innovation Research... Organizations Additional Provisions § 600.381 Special provisions for Small Business Innovation Research Grants... unexpended at the end of the project if those amounts exceed $500; (6) Recipients will certify in writing...

  17. 33 CFR 133.7 - Requests: Amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; STATE ACCESS § 133.7... amount anticipated for immediate removal action for a single oil pollution incident, but, in any event... quantity and composition of the oil, weather conditions and customary costs of similar services in...

  18. 40 CFR 35.9050 - Assistance amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Assistance amount. 35.9050 Section 35.9050 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Financial Assistance for the National Estuary Program § 35.9050...

  19. 40 CFR 35.9050 - Assistance amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Assistance amount. 35.9050 Section 35.9050 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Financial Assistance for the National Estuary Program § 35.9050...

  20. 40 CFR 35.9050 - Assistance amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Assistance amount. 35.9050 Section 35.9050 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Financial Assistance for the National Estuary Program § 35.9050...

  1. 40 CFR 35.9050 - Assistance amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Assistance amount. 35.9050 Section 35.9050 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Financial Assistance for the National Estuary Program § 35.9050...

  2. 7 CFR 1421.304 - Payment amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2012 Crop of Wheat, Barley, Oats, and Triticale § 1421.304 Payment amount. (a) The grazing payment rate... payment rate in effect for the predominant class of wheat in the county where the farm is located as of... three (3) similar farms. For triticale, the payment yield shall be the yield for wheat from three...

  3. 7 CFR 1421.304 - Payment amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2012 Crop of Wheat, Barley, Oats, and Triticale § 1421.304 Payment amount. (a) The grazing payment rate... payment rate in effect for the predominant class of wheat in the county where the farm is located as of... three (3) similar farms. For triticale, the payment yield shall be the yield for wheat from three...

  4. 7 CFR 1421.304 - Payment amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2012 Crop of Wheat, Barley, Oats, and Triticale § 1421.304 Payment amount. (a) The grazing payment rate... payment rate in effect for the predominant class of wheat in the county where the farm is located as of... three (3) similar farms. For triticale, the payment yield shall be the yield for wheat from three...

  5. 7 CFR 1421.304 - Payment amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2012 Crop of Wheat, Barley, Oats, and Triticale § 1421.304 Payment amount. (a) The grazing payment rate... payment rate in effect for the predominant class of wheat in the county where the farm is located as of... three (3) similar farms. For triticale, the payment yield shall be the yield for wheat from three...

  6. 14 CFR 1300.13 - Guarantee amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Guarantee amount. 1300.13 Section 1300.13 Aeronautics and Space AIR TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM STABILIZATION OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET AVIATION DISASTER RELIEF-AIR CARRIER GUARANTEE LOAN PROGRAM Minimum Requirements and Application Procedures §...

  7. 33 CFR 135.203 - Amount required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OFFSHORE OIL POLLUTION COMPENSATION FUND Financial Responsibility for Offshore Facilities § 135.203 Amount required. (a) Each facility that is used for drilling for, producing, or processing oil, or which has the capacity to transport,...

  8. 33 CFR 135.203 - Amount required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OFFSHORE OIL POLLUTION COMPENSATION FUND Financial Responsibility for Offshore Facilities § 135.203 Amount required. (a) Each facility that is used for drilling for, producing, or processing oil, or which has the capacity to transport,...

  9. 33 CFR 135.203 - Amount required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OFFSHORE OIL POLLUTION COMPENSATION FUND Financial Responsibility for Offshore Facilities § 135.203 Amount required. (a) Each facility that is used for drilling for, producing, or processing oil, or which has the capacity to transport,...

  10. 21 CFR 1309.11 - Fee amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., IMPORTERS AND EXPORTERS OF LIST I CHEMICALS Fees for Registration and Reregistration § 1309.11 Fee amounts..., or export a List I chemical, the applicant shall pay an annual fee of $1,147. Effective Date Note: At 77 FR 15250, Mar. 15, 2012, § 1309.11 was revised, effective April 16, 2012. For the convenience...

  11. Coulometric Karl Fischer determination of trace amounts of water

    SciTech Connect

    Nichugovskii, G.F.

    1986-06-01

    The authors maintain that it is convenient to determine small amounts of water by coulometric titration in spent Fischer reagent because this method is highly sensitive and provides an absolute measurement. The water content of the sample is calculated from the amount of electricity consumed in the electrochemical production of enough molecular iodine to bond completely with the water. This paper attempts to correct for the effect of various factors on the indicator current in the coulometric titration of trace quantities of water by the Karl Fischer reagent. The paper discusses the sources of error by biamperometric indication of the titration endpoint. When the water content is lower than 0.001%, it is absolutely necessary according to the authors, to correct for the effect of the analytical sample. Analytical and graphical methods of calculating the correction are suggested.

  12. Estimating the Amount of Information Carried by a Neuronal Population

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yunguo; Crumiller, Marshall; Knight, Bruce; Kaplan, Ehud

    2009-01-01

    Although all brain functions require coordinated activity of many neurons, it has been difficult to estimate the amount of information carried by a population of spiking neurons. We present here a Fourier-based method for estimating the information delivery rate from a population of neurons, which allows us to measure the redundancy of information within and between functional neuronal classes. We illustrate the use of the method on some artificial spike trains and on simultaneous recordings from a small population of neurons from the lateral geniculate nucleus of an anesthetized macaque monkey. PMID:20461228

  13. 13 CFR 107.1170 - Maximum amount of Participating Securities for any Licensee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for Licensees (Leverage) Maximum Amount of Leverage for Which A Licensee Is Eligible § 107.1170 Maximum amount of Participating Securities... is 200 percent of your Leverageable Capital. Special Rules for Leverage Issued by an Early Stage SBIC...

  14. 13 CFR 107.1170 - Maximum amount of Participating Securities for any Licensee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for Licensees (Leverage) Maximum Amount of Leverage for Which A Licensee Is Eligible § 107.1170 Maximum amount of Participating Securities... is 200 percent of your Leverageable Capital. Conditional Commitments by SBA To Reserve Leverage for...

  15. 13 CFR 107.1170 - Maximum amount of Participating Securities for any Licensee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for Licensees (Leverage) Maximum Amount of Leverage for Which A Licensee Is Eligible § 107.1170 Maximum amount of Participating Securities... is 200 percent of your Leverageable Capital. Conditional Commitments by SBA To Reserve Leverage for...

  16. 13 CFR 107.1170 - Maximum amount of Participating Securities for any Licensee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for Licensees (Leverage) Maximum Amount of Leverage for Which A Licensee Is Eligible § 107.1170 Maximum amount of Participating Securities... is 200 percent of your Leverageable Capital. Conditional Commitments by SBA To Reserve Leverage for...

  17. 13 CFR 107.1170 - Maximum amount of Participating Securities for any Licensee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for Licensees (Leverage) Maximum Amount of Leverage for Which A Licensee Is Eligible § 107.1170 Maximum amount of Participating Securities... is 200 percent of your Leverageable Capital. Special Rules for Leverage Issued by an Early Stage SBIC...

  18. Additives in fibers and fabrics.

    PubMed Central

    Barker, R H

    1975-01-01

    The additives and contaminants which occur in textile fibers vary widely, depending on the type of fiber and the pretreatment which it has received. Synthetic fibers such as nylon and polyester contain trace amounts of contaminants such as catalysts and catalyst deactivators which remain after the synthesis of the basic polymers. In addition, there are frequently a number of materials which are added to perform specific functions in almost all man-made fibers. Examples of these would include traces of metals or metal salts used as tracers for identification of specific lots of fiber, TiO2 or similar materials added as delustrants, and a host of organic species added for such special purposes as antistatic agents or flame retardants. There may also be considerable quantities of residual monomer or small oligomers dissolved in the polymer matrix. The situation becomes even more complex after the fibers are converted into fabric form. Numerous materials are applied at various stages of fabric preparation to act as lubricants, sizing agents, antistats, bleaches, and wetting agents to facilitate the processing, but these are normally removed before the fabric reaches the cutters of the ultimate consumers and therefore usually do not constitute potential hazards. However, there are many other chemical agents which are frequently added during the later stages of fabric preparation and which are not designed to be removed. Aside from dyes and printing pigments, the most common additive for apparel fabrics is a durable press treatment. This generally involves the use of materials capable of crosslinking cellulosics by reacting through such functions as N-methylolated amides or related compounds such as ureas and carbamates. These materials pose some potential hazards due to both the nitrogenous bases and the formaldehyde which they usually release. There is usually also some residual catalyst in fabrics which have received such treatments. Other types of chemical treatments

  19. 29 CFR 4219.14 - Amount of liability for 20-year-limitation amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... amount equal to the present value of all initial withdrawal liability payments for which the employer was not liable pursuant to section 4219(c)(1)(B) of ERISA. The present value of such payments shall...

  20. Risks associated with endotoxins in feed additives produced by fermentation.

    PubMed

    Wallace, R John; Gropp, Jürgen; Dierick, Noël; Costa, Lucio G; Martelli, Giovanna; Brantom, Paul G; Bampidis, Vasileios; Renshaw, Derek W; Leng, Lubomir

    2016-01-15

    Increasingly, feed additives for livestock, such as amino acids and vitamins, are being produced by Gram-negative bacteria, particularly Escherichia coli. The potential therefore exists for animals, consumers and workers to be exposed to possibly harmful amounts of endotoxin from these products. The aim of this review was to assess the extent of the risk from endotoxins in feed additives and to calculate how such risk can be assessed from the properties of the additive. Livestock are frequently exposed to a relatively high content of endotoxin in the diet: no additional hazard to livestock would be anticipated if the endotoxin concentration of the feed additive falls in the same range as feedstuffs. Consumer exposure will be unaffected by the consumption of food derived from animals receiving endotoxin-containing feed, because the small concentrations of endotoxin absorbed do not accumulate in edible tissues. In contrast, workers processing a dusty additive may be exposed to hazardous amounts of endotoxin even if the endotoxin concentration of the product is low. A calculation method is proposed to compare the potential risk to the worker, based on the dusting potential, the endotoxin concentration and technical guidance of the European Food Safety Authority, with national exposure limits.

  1. Effects of magnesium chloride and organic additives on the synthesis of aragonite precipitated calcium carbonate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Woon Kyoung; Ko, Sang-Jin; Lee, Seung Woo; Cho, Kye-Hong; Ahn, Ji-Whan; Han, Choon

    2008-05-01

    The synthesis of aragonite precipitated calcium carbonate by treating a suspension of Ca(OH) 2 with CO 2 gas was investigated with regard to the effects of Mg 2+ ions and organic additives on polymorphism and alternative orientations. In the presence of a small amount of Mg 2+, Mg-calcite formed, but as the Mg 2+ ion concentration increased, the amount of Mg-calcite decreased and the amount of aragonite increased. Thus, the formation of Mg-calcite is suppressed and only aragonite is formed in the presence of 60 mol% MgCl 2. As the Mg 2+ ion concentration increased, the aragonite that formed was found to have decreased in terms of its longitude and aspect ratio. Furthermore, the effect of Mg 2+ ions in conjunction with organic additives was also investigated with regard to polymorphs and morphology and the structure-forming properties of the organic additives.

  2. Optimum Tolerance Design Using Component-Amount and Mixture-Amount Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Piepel, Gregory F.; Ozler, Cenk; Sehirlioglu, Ali Kemal

    2013-08-01

    One type of tolerance design problem involves optimizing component and assembly tolerances to minimize the total cost (sum of manufacturing cost and quality loss). Previous literature recommended using traditional response surface (RS) designs and models to solve this type of tolerance design problem. In this article, component-amount (CA) and mixture-amount (MA) approaches are proposed as more appropriate for solving this type of tolerance design problem. The advantages of the CA and MA approaches over the RS approach are discussed. Reasons for choosing between the CA and MA approaches are also discussed. The CA and MA approaches (experimental design, response modeling, and optimization) are illustrated using real examples.

  3. Ultrasonic trapping in capillaries for trace-amount biomedical analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Wiklund, M.; Nilsson, S.; Hertz, H. M.

    2001-07-01

    A longitudinal hemispherical standing-wave ultrasonic trap for size-selective separation of microspheres in small-diameter capillaries is described. The trap utilizes the competition between acoustic radiation forces and viscous drag forces on spheres suspended in a liquid inside 20{endash}75-{mu}m-diam fused silica capillaries. Experiments performed on 3.0- and 4.7-{mu}m-diam latex spheres demonstrate the principles of trapping and verify the theoretically calculated size-dependent forces on the spheres. The spheres are detected by the use of laser-induced fluorescence. The goal is to use the trap for separation and ultrahigh-sensitivity detection of trace amounts of proteins and other macromolecules containing two antigenic sites, by binding the target molecule with high specificity to antibody-coated latex spheres. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.

  4. 49 CFR 377.209 - Additional charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... CHARGES Extension of Credit to Shippers by Motor Common Carriers, Water Common Carriers, and Household Goods Freight Forwarders § 377.209 Additional charges. When a carrier— (a) Has collected the amount of tariff charges represented in a freight bill presented by it as the total amount of such charges, and...

  5. Molybdenum sulfur antiwear and antioxidant lube additives

    SciTech Connect

    Coyle, C.L.; Greaney, M.A.; Stiefel, E.I.; Francis, J.N.; Beltzer, M.

    1991-02-26

    This paper discusses a lubricating composition. It comprises a major amount of an oil of lubricating viscosity; and a minor amount of an additive having the formula Mo{sub 2}L{sub 4} wherein L is a ligand selected from a xanthate and mixtures of xanthates.

  6. 24 CFR 576.45 - Reallocation of grant amounts; returned or unused amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES EMERGENCY SHELTER GRANTS PROGRAM... or unused amounts. (a) General. From time to time, HUD will reallocate emergency shelter grant... and Shelter Program administered by the Federal Emergency Management Agency, as a resource to...

  7. 24 CFR 576.45 - Reallocation of grant amounts; returned or unused amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES EMERGENCY SHELTER GRANTS PROGRAM... or unused amounts. (a) General. From time to time, HUD will reallocate emergency shelter grant... and Shelter Program administered by the Federal Emergency Management Agency, as a resource to...

  8. 76 FR 59138 - Medicare Program; Medicare Appeals; Adjustment to the Amount in Controversy Threshold Amounts for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-23

    ..., respectively, for Medicare Part A and Part B appeals. Section 940 of the Medicare Prescription Drug... the consumer price index for all urban consumers (U.S. city average) for July 2003 to July of the year... (Prescription Drug Plan) Appeals The annually adjusted AIC threshold amounts for ALJ hearings and...

  9. Morphology and small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene sequence of the new brackish water ciliate Neobakuella flava n. g., n. sp. (Ciliophora, Spirotricha, Bakuellidae) and SSU rRNA gene sequences of six additional hypotrichs from Korea.

    PubMed

    Li, Liqiong; Khan, Sadia Nawroz; Ji, Daode; Shin, Mann Kyoon; Berger, Helmut

    2011-01-01

    The morphology and the small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene sequence of the hypotrich Neobakuella flava n. g., n. sp. from the estuary of the Taehwagang River (Ulsan, South Korea) were investigated. The three frontal cirri, the composition of the midventral complex of cirral pairs and rows, and the simple dorsal kinety pattern of three bipolar kineties assign it to the urostyloid taxon Bakuellidae. The increased number of buccal and parabuccal cirri, the presence of transverse cirri, and more than one left marginal row, as well as the lack of caudal cirri separate Neobakuella n. g. from the other bakuellids. Neobakuella flava n. sp. has many 0.3 μm sized green and/or yellow usually dark-green cortical granules and some sparsely distributed, 2 × 1 μm sized grass green with yellowish shimmer granules. The gene sequence data indicate a close relationship with Diaxonella and a distinct separation from the bakuellid Metaurostylopsis and parabirojimid Parabirojimia. The SSU rRNA gene sequences of four further urostyloids (i.e. Diaxonella pseudorubra, Anteholosticha monilata, Metaurostylopsis struederkypkeae, Pseudourostyla cristata) and two stylonychines (i.e. Sterkiella cavicola, Sterkiella histriomuscorum) from Korea were analyzed. Anteholosticha monilata, type of the genus, is clearly separated from the Holosticha clade, supporting the morphological separation from Holosticha. Sterkiella cavicola, type of Sterkiella, clusters within the stylonychines and is obviously closely related with S. histriomuscorum.

  10. 46 CFR 308.303 - Amounts insured under interim binder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... INSURANCE Second Seamen's War Risk Insurance § 308.303 Amounts insured under interim binder. The amounts insured are the amounts specified in the Second Seamen's War Risk Policy (1955) or as modified by...

  11. 46 CFR 308.303 - Amounts insured under interim binder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... INSURANCE Second Seamen's War Risk Insurance § 308.303 Amounts insured under interim binder. The amounts insured are the amounts specified in the Second Seamen's War Risk Policy (1955) or as modified by...

  12. 46 CFR 308.303 - Amounts insured under interim binder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... INSURANCE Second Seamen's War Risk Insurance § 308.303 Amounts insured under interim binder. The amounts insured are the amounts specified in the Second Seamen's War Risk Policy (1955) or as modified by...

  13. 46 CFR 308.303 - Amounts insured under interim binder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... INSURANCE Second Seamen's War Risk Insurance § 308.303 Amounts insured under interim binder. The amounts insured are the amounts specified in the Second Seamen's War Risk Policy (1955) or as modified by...

  14. [Effects of different application amount of N, P, K fertilizers on physiological characteristics, yield and kernel quality of peanut].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Lu-ying; Li, Xiang-dong; Tang, Xiao; Lin, Ying-jie; Li, Zong-feng

    2007-11-01

    The field experiment was executed with peanut cv. Fenghua No. 1 from 2004 to 2005 in the experimental station of Shandong Agricultural University to study the effects of N, P, K fertilizers application amount on physiological characteristics, yield and kernel quality of peanut. The results showed that, compared with no fertilization, application N, P, K fertilizers increased the content of chlorophyll and soluble protein, enhanced photosynthetic rate and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and catlase (CAT), and reduced malondialdeyde (MDA) accumulation amount in peanut leaves. The effects of applying N 300-450 kg x hm(-2), P5O2, 150-225 kg x hm(-2) and K2O 300-450 kg x hm(-2) treatments were the most significant. The improvement effect of N fertilizer on photosynthesis properties was mainly at early stage, and that of P was at middle-later stage, K was at whole stage. Applying N, P, K fertilizers increased the pod yield of peanut remarkably, and with the increasing of N application amount the pod yield enhanced, the pod yields were highest when P and K application were at middle amount rates (P5O2, 150 kg x hm(-2) K2O 300 kg x hm(-2)). The increasing effect on pod yield of K fertilizer was greater than that of N and P fertilizers. Applying a small amount of P and K fertilizers (P2O5 75 kg x hm(-2), K2O 150 kg x hm(-2)) could significantly increase the contents of fat and protein in peanut kernel, applying a small amount of N fertilizer (N 150 kg x hm(-2)) could significantly increase the content of protein in peanut kernel, but applying a large amount of N fertilizer (N 450 kg x hm(-2)) could significantly increase the content of fat in peanut kernel. Applying P fertilizer obviously increased fat and protein content, applying N fertilizer mainly enhanced protein content, and applying K fertilizer mainly raised the content of soluble sugar. In addition, the application of N, P and K fertilizers also increased the contents of lysine and

  15. 76 FR 23997 - Procurement List; Addition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-29

    ... impact of the addition on the current or most recent contractors, the Committee has determined that the... a significant impact on a substantial number of small entities. The major factors considered for... other compliance requirements for small entities other than the small organization that will provide...

  16. Rulings in Argentinean and Colombian courts decriminalize possession of small amounts of narcotics.

    PubMed

    Cozac, David

    2009-12-01

    Two recent court decisions in South America have reflected a growing backlash in the region against the so-called, U.S.-led "war on drugs". In Argentina, the Supreme Court of Justice ruled unanimously on 25 August 2009 that the second paragraph of Article 14 of the country's drug control legislation, which punishes the possession of drugs for personal consumption, was unconstitutional. In Colombia, the Supreme Court of Justice ruled on 8 July 2009 that the possession of illegal drugs for personal use was not a criminal offence.

  17. A small amount of tetrachloroethylene ingestion from drinking water accelerates antigen-stimulated allergic responses.

    PubMed

    Seo, Makoto; Yamagiwa, Takeo; Kobayashi, Ryo; Ikeda, Koji; Satoh, Masahiko; Inagaki, Naoki; Nagai, Hiroichi; Nagase, Hisamitsu

    2008-01-01

    Previously, we observed that tetrachloroethylene (perchloroethylene, PCE) increased histamine release and inflammatory mediator production from antigen-stimulated mast cells. In this study, we examined the enhancing effect of low concentrations of PCE in drinking water on antigen-stimulated allergic responses. After exposure of Wistar rats to PCE in drinking water for 2 or 4 weeks, we performed a passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) reaction. PCE exposure for 4 weeks enhanced PCA reaction in a dose-dependent manner. In pathological studies, PCE exposure for 2 weeks exacerbated inflammation characterized by infiltration of lymphocytes and accumulation of mast cells around the vessel. Non-purified mast cells (NPMCs) from rats treated with 1mg/L PCE in drinking water for 2 weeks increased antigen-stimulated histamine release. Furthermore, the leukocytes of rats treated with PCE in drinking water for 4 weeks showed increased interleukin (IL)-4 expression. The mechanism of enhancing the PCA reaction is assumed to be that PCE increases IL-4 production and PCE causes T helper (Th) 1/Th2-type helper T-cell imbalance and increases histamine release from excessively accumulated mast cells. The results suggest that the intake of PCE in drinking water, even at a low concentration, leads to the initiation and acceleration of allergic diseases.

  18. Comparative evaluation of different spectrophometric methods for the determination of small amounts of carboxyhaemoglobin.

    PubMed

    Heinemann, G; Löschenkohl, K; Schievelbein, H

    1979-10-01

    Four spectrophotometric methods measuring HbCO were investigated in comparison with an analyzer (CO-Oximeter) in order to find a method determining HbCO fractions) below 0.10 with sufficient reliability. The CO-Oximeter was chosen as "reference" method because results of other authors with this instrument yielded good agreement with other methods, e.g. IR-spectrometry, GLC, van Slyke. Only the five wavelength method of Commins & Lawther (1965) Brit. J. Industr. Med. 22, 139--143) can be recommended, for it yielded CV's and sensitivities comparable to the CO-Oximeter. The within-run precision had CVs of 2.3% to 4.7%, the sensitivity was 0.0021 to 0.0028. The method is suited even for HbCO measurements of shorter series.

  19. 5 CFR 870.202 - Basic insurance amount (BIA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Basic insurance amount (BIA). 870.202... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES' GROUP LIFE INSURANCE PROGRAM Types and Amount of Insurance § 870.202 Basic insurance amount (BIA). (a)(1) An employee's Basic insurance amount (BIA) is either: (i)...

  20. 5 CFR 870.202 - Basic insurance amount (BIA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Basic insurance amount (BIA). 870.202... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES' GROUP LIFE INSURANCE PROGRAM Types and Amount of Insurance § 870.202 Basic insurance amount (BIA). (a)(1) An employee's Basic insurance amount (BIA) is either: (i)...

  1. Phase III randomized trial comparing moderate-dose cisplatin to combined cisplatin and carboplatin in addition to mitomycin and ifosfamide in patients with stage IV non-small-cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sculier, J-P; Lafitte, J-J; Paesmans, M; Thiriaux, J; Alexopoulos, C G; Baumöhl, J; Schmerber, J; Koumakis, G; Florin, M C; Zacharias, C; Berghmans, T; Mommen, P; Ninane, V; Klastersky, J

    2000-01-01

    A phase III randomized trial was conducted in patients with metastatic NSCLC, to determine if, in association with mitomycin (6 mg m–2) and ifosfamide (3 g m–2), the combination of moderate dosages of cisplatin (60 mg m–2) and carboplatin (200 mg m–2) – CarboMIP regimen – improved survival in comparison with cisplatin (50 mg m–2) alone – MIP regimen. A total of 305 patients with no prior chemotherapy were randomized, including 297 patients assessable for survival (147 in the MIP arm and 150 in the CarboMIP arm) and 268 patients assessable for response to chemotherapy. All but eight (with malignant pleural effusion) had stage IV disease. There was a 27% (95% CI, 19–34) objective response (OR) rate to MIP (25% of the eligible patients) and a 33% (95% CI, 24–41) OR rate to CarboMIP (29% of the eligible patients). This difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.34). Duration of response was not significantly different between both arms. There was also no difference (P = 0.67) in survival: median survival times were 28 weeks (95% Cl, 24–32) for MIP and 32 weeks (95% Cl, 26–35) for CarboMIP, with respectively 1-year survival rates of 24% and 23% and 2-year survival rates of 5% and 2%. The main toxicities consisted in emesis, alopecia, leucopenia and thrombocytopenia, that were, except alopecia, significantly more severe in the CarboMIP arm. Our trial failed to demonstrate a significant improvement in response or survival when patients with metastatic NSCLC were treated, in addition to ifosfamide and mitomycin, by combination of moderate dosages of cisplatin and carboplatin instead of moderate dosage of cisplatin alone. The results support the use of a moderate dose (50 mg m–2) of cisplatin in combination with ifosfamide and mitomycin for the chemotherapy of this disease. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:11027424

  2. B Removal by Zr Addition in Electromagnetic Solidification Refinement of Si with Si-Al Melt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Yun; Ma, Wenhui; Sun, Luen; Dai, Yongnian; Morita, Kazuki

    2016-02-01

    This study investigated a new process of enhancing B removal by adding small amounts of Zr in the electromagnetic solidification refinement of Si with Si-Al melt. B in Si was removed by as much as 97.2 pct by adding less than 1057 ppma Zr, and the added Zr was removed by as much as 99.7 pct. In addition, Zr is more effective in enhancing B removal than Ti in the same electromagnetic solidification refining process.

  3. Limits to preference and the sensitivity of choice to rate and amount of food.

    PubMed

    Aparicio, Carlos F; Baum, William M; Hughes, Christine E; Pitts, Raymond C

    2016-03-01

    Studies of choice holding food-amount ratio constant while varying food-rate ratio within sessions showed that local changes in preference depend on relative amount of food. The present study investigated whether sensitivity of choice to food-rate ratio and sensitivity to food-amount ratio are independent of one another when food-rate ratios are varied across sessions and food-amount ratios are varied within sessions. Food deliveries for rats' presses on the left and right levers were scheduled according to three different food-rate ratios of 1:1, 9:1, and 1:9; each food-rate ratio lasted for 106 sessions and was arranged independently of seven food-amount ratios (7:1, 6:2, 5:3, 4:4, 3:5, 2:6, and 1:7 food pellets) occurring within sessions in random sequence. Each amount ratio lasted for 10 food deliveries and was separated from another by a 60-s blackout. Sensitivity to rate ratio was high (1.0) across food deliveries. Sensitivity to amount ratio was low when food rates were equal across alternatives, but was high when rate ratio and amount ratio opposed one another. When rate ratio and amount ratio went in the same direction, choice ratio reached an elevenfold limit which reduced sensitivity to approximately zero. We conclude that three factors affect sensitivity to amount: (1) the limit to preference, (2) the equal effect on preference of amounts greater than four pellets, and (3) the absence of differential effects of switches in amount in the equal-rates (1:1) condition. Taken together, these findings indicate that rate and amount only sometimes combine independently as additive variables to determine preference when amount ratios vary frequently within sessions.

  4. Amounts of artificial food dyes and added sugars in foods and sweets commonly consumed by children.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Laura J; Burgess, John R; Stochelski, Mateusz A; Kuczek, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Artificial food colors (AFCs) are used to color many beverages, foods, and sweets in the United States and throughout the world. In the United States, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) limits the AFCs allowed in the diet to 9 different colors. The FDA certifies each batch of manufactured AFCs to guarantee purity and safety. The amount certified has risen from 12 mg/capita/d in 1950 to 62 mg/capita/d in 2010. Previously, we reported the amounts of AFCs in commonly consumed beverages. In this article, the amounts of AFCs in commonly consumed foods and sweets are reported. In addition, the amount of sugars in each product is included. Amounts of AFCs reported here along with the beverage data show that many children could be consuming far more dyes than previously thought. Clinical guidance is given to help caregivers avoid AFCs and reduce the amount of sugars in children's diets.

  5. Discovering Related Clinical Concepts Using Large Amounts of Clinical Notes

    PubMed Central

    Ganesan, Kavita; Lloyd, Shane; Sarkar, Vikren

    2016-01-01

    The ability to find highly related clinical concepts is essential for many applications such as for hypothesis generation, query expansion for medical literature search, search results filtering, ICD-10 code filtering and many other applications. While manually constructed medical terminologies such as SNOMED CT can surface certain related concepts, these terminologies are inadequate as they depend on expertise of several subject matter experts making the terminology curation process open to geographic and language bias. In addition, these terminologies also provide no quantifiable evidence on how related the concepts are. In this work, we explore an unsupervised graphical approach to mine related concepts by leveraging the volume within large amounts of clinical notes. Our evaluation shows that we are able to use a data driven approach to discovering highly related concepts for various search terms including medications, symptoms and diseases. PMID:27656096

  6. Estimation of Fluorescent Dye Amount in Tracer Dye Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pekkan, Emrah; Balkan, Erman; Balkan, Emir

    2015-04-01

    Karstic groundwater is more influenced by human than the groundwater that disperse in pores. On the other hand karstic groundwater resources, in addition to providing agricultural needs, livestock breeding, drinking and domestic water in most of the months of the year, they also supply drinking water to the wild life at high altitudes. Therefore sustainability and hydrogeological investigation of karstic resources is critical. Tracing techniques are widely used in hydrologic and hydrogeologic studies to determine water storage, flow rate, direction and protection area of groundwater resources. Karanfil Mountain (2800 m), located in Adana, Turkey, is one of the karstic recharge areas of the natural springs spread around its periphery. During explorations of the caves of Karanfil mountain, a 600 m deep cave was found by the Turkish and Polish cavers. At the bottom of the cave there is an underground river with a flow rate of approximately 0.5 m3/s during August 2014. The main spring is located 8 km far from the cave's entrance and its mean flow rate changes between 3.4 m3/s and 0.21 m3/s in March and September respectively according to a flowrate observation station of Directorate of Water Works of Turkey. As such frequent storms, snowmelt and normal seasonal variations in rainfall have a significant and rapid effect on the volume of this main spring resource. The objective of our research is to determine and estimate dye amount before its application on the field inspired from the previously literature on the subject. This estimation is intended to provide a preliminary application of a tracer test of a karstic system. In this study dye injection, inlet point will be an underground river located inside the cave and the observation station will be the spring that is approximately 8 km far from the cave entrance. On the other hand there is 600 meter elevation difference between cave entrance and outlet spring. In this test Rodamin-WT will be used as tracer and the

  7. The Cellular Processing Capacity Limits the Amounts of Chimeric U7 snRNA Available for Antisense Delivery.

    PubMed

    Eckenfelder, Agathe; Tordo, Julie; Babbs, Arran; Davies, Kay E; Goyenvalle, Aurélie; Danos, Olivier

    2012-06-26

    Many genetic diseases are induced by mutations disturbing the maturation of pre-mRNAs, often affecting splicing. Antisense oligoribonucleotides (AONs) have been used to modulate splicing thereby circumventing the deleterious effects of mutations. Stable delivery of antisense sequences is achieved by linking them to small nuclear RNA (snRNAs) delivered by viral vectors, as illustrated by studies where therapeutic exon skipping was obtained in animal models of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Yet, clinical translation of these approaches is limited by the amounts of vector to be administered. In this respect, maximizing the amount of snRNA antisense shuttle delivered by the vector is essential. Here, we have used a muscle- and heart-specific enhancer (MHCK) to drive the expression of U7 snRNA shuttles carrying antisense sequences against the human or murine DMD pre-mRNAs. Although antisense delivery and subsequent exon skipping were improved both in tissue culture and in vivo, we observed the formation of additional U7 snRNA by-products following gene transfer. These included aberrantly 3' processed as well as unprocessed species that may arise because of the saturation of the cellular processing capacity. Future efforts to increase the amounts of functional U7 shuttles delivered into a cell will have to take this limitation into account.

  8. The Cellular Processing Capacity Limits the Amounts of Chimeric U7 snRNA Available for Antisense Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Eckenfelder, Agathe; Tordo, Julie; Babbs, Arran; Davies, Kay E; Goyenvalle, Aurélie; Danos, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    Many genetic diseases are induced by mutations disturbing the maturation of pre-mRNAs, often affecting splicing. Antisense oligoribonucleotides (AONs) have been used to modulate splicing thereby circumventing the deleterious effects of mutations. Stable delivery of antisense sequences is achieved by linking them to small nuclear RNA (snRNAs) delivered by viral vectors, as illustrated by studies where therapeutic exon skipping was obtained in animal models of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Yet, clinical translation of these approaches is limited by the amounts of vector to be administered. In this respect, maximizing the amount of snRNA antisense shuttle delivered by the vector is essential. Here, we have used a muscle- and heart-specific enhancer (MHCK) to drive the expression of U7 snRNA shuttles carrying antisense sequences against the human or murine DMD pre-mRNAs. Although antisense delivery and subsequent exon skipping were improved both in tissue culture and in vivo, we observed the formation of additional U7 snRNA by-products following gene transfer. These included aberrantly 3′ processed as well as unprocessed species that may arise because of the saturation of the cellular processing capacity. Future efforts to increase the amounts of functional U7 shuttles delivered into a cell will have to take this limitation into account. PMID:23344083

  9. Optics of progressive addition lenses.

    PubMed

    Sheedy, J E; Buri, M; Bailey, I L; Azus, J; Borish, I M

    1987-02-01

    The optical characteristics of the major progressive addition lenses were measured using an automated lensometer with a specially designed lens holder to simulate eye rotation. Measurements were made every 3 degrees (about 1.5 mm) and graphs of isospherical equivalent lines and isocylinder lines were developed. Generally the near zone of these lenses is narrower and lower than in bifocal or trifocal lenses. Distinct differences exist between the various progressive lenses. The width of the near zone, rate of power progression, amount of unwanted cylinder (level with the distance center), and clarity of the distance zone are compared for the various lenses. The optical measurements demonstrate an apparent trade-off between the size of the cylinder-free area of the lens and the amount of the cylinder.

  10. Size of food bowl and scoop affects amount of food owners feed their dogs.

    PubMed

    Murphy, M; Lusby, A L; Bartges, J W; Kirk, C A

    2012-04-01

    The incidence of canine obesity appears to be increasing dramatically and understanding factors impacting the amount of food pet owners provide their dogs may improve weight management. Human research has shown the size of food bowls, plates and utensils can significantly impact the amount of food portioned and consumed. This effect can be attributed to both the Delboeuf optical illusion and the Ebbinghaus-Titchener size-contrast illusion. To investigate the existence of a similar effect with dog owners, 54 dogs and their owners were recruited for a four treatment randomized prospective trial. Owners scooped out a normal kibble-based meal using a small bowl and small scoop, small bowl and large scoop, large bowl and small scoop or a large bowl and large scoop. Each treatment was used once per owner over four visits. Repeated measures anova revealed the mean amount of food portioned using the small bowl and small scoop was significantly less than all other bowl and scoop combinations (150.7 g vs. 171.5 g vs. 172.7 g vs. 184.5 g, p < 0.05). The small bowl and large scoop combination did not differ from large bowl and small scoop (171.5 g vs. 172.7 g, p > 0.05). Owners were more likely to portion a larger amount of food with a large bowl and large scoop. Results are consistent with human data and emphasize the need for owners to use standard measuring cups. Results also suggest owner compliance during weight loss programs may be improved with smaller bowls and serving scoops.

  11. 43 CFR 3154.2 - Additional bonding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Additional bonding. 3154.2 Section 3154.2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Requirements § 3154.2 Additional bonding. The authorized officer may increase the amount of any bond that...

  12. Fuel compositions containing deposit control additives

    SciTech Connect

    Lilburn, J.E.

    1980-11-18

    Fuel compositions are provided which contain a deposit control additive. The deposit control additive is produced by reacting a hydrocarbylpoly(oxyalkylene) alcohol with excess phosgene and an excess amount of certain polyamines. The product comprises hydrocarbylpoly(oxyalkylene) ureylene carbamates.

  13. Comparison between the Amount of Environmental Change and the Amount of Transcriptome Change

    PubMed Central

    Ogata, Norichika; Kozaki, Toshinori; Yokoyama, Takeshi; Hata, Tamako; Iwabuchi, Kikuo

    2015-01-01

    Cells must coordinate adjustments in genome expression to accommodate changes in their environment. We hypothesized that the amount of transcriptome change is proportional to the amount of environmental change. To capture the effects of environmental changes on the transcriptome, we compared transcriptome diversities (defined as the Shannon entropy of frequency distribution) of silkworm fat-body tissues cultured with several concentrations of phenobarbital. Although there was no proportional relationship, we did identify a drug concentration “tipping point” between 0.25 and 1.0 mM. Cells cultured in media containing lower drug concentrations than the tipping point showed uniformly high transcriptome diversities, while those cultured at higher drug concentrations than the tipping point showed uniformly low transcriptome diversities. The plasticity of transcriptome diversity was corroborated by cultivations of fat bodies in MGM-450 insect medium without phenobarbital and in 0.25 mM phenobarbital-supplemented MGM-450 insect medium after previous cultivation (cultivation for 80 hours in MGM-450 insect medium without phenobarbital, followed by cultivation for 10 hours in 1.0 mM phenobarbital-supplemented MGM-450 insect medium). Interestingly, the transcriptome diversities of cells cultured in media containing 0.25 mM phenobarbital after previous cultivation (cultivation for 80 hours in MGM-450 insect medium without phenobarbital, followed by cultivation for 10 hours in 1.0 mM phenobarbital-supplemented MGM-450 insect medium) were different from cells cultured in media containing 0.25 mM phenobarbital after previous cultivation (cultivation for 80 hours in MGM-450 insect medium without phenobarbital). This hysteretic phenomenon of transcriptome diversities indicates multi-stability of the genome expression system. Cellular memories were recorded in genome expression networks as in DNA/histone modifications. PMID:26657512

  14. Nanoengineered Additives for Active Coatings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-01

    commercial ad bial activ component from the coating, leading to eventual depletion of the film. Small TPU samples were evaluated using a Kirby - Bauer ...7 Table 5. Summary of 24-hr ASTM E 2180 tests with 1 weight-percent additive in PUr (solvent dispersible) based on 6-log loading of...Noveon X-1150). The ASTM E 2180 test is run in triplicate (Note that alternative ro 1° amines) was suspended in dry tetrahydrofuran (THF) (150 mL) in

  15. Technology for small spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This report gives the results of a study by the National Research Council's Panel on Small Spacecraft Technology that reviewed NASA's technology development program for small spacecraft and assessed technology within the U.S. government and industry that is applicable to small spacecraft. The panel found that there is a considerable body of advanced technology currently available for application by NASA and the small spacecraft industry that could provide substantial improvement in capability and cost over those technologies used for current NASA small spacecraft. These technologies are the result of developments by commercial companies, Department of Defense agencies, and to a lesser degree NASA. The panel also found that additional technologies are being developed by these same entities that could provide additional substantial improvement if development is successfully completed. Recommendations for future technology development efforts by NASA across a broad technological spectrum are made.

  16. Very Large Amounts of Radiation are Required to Produce Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, Antone L.; Hui, T. Edmond; Couch, Lezlie A.

    2007-01-01

    The public fear of radiation is in part driven by the Linear No Threshold Hypothesis (LNTH), or the concept that each and every ionization increases the risk for cancer. Even if this were true, it is important to recognize that the increased risk is very small at low doses and cannot be detected. This paper demonstrates the large number of assumptions and extrapolations needed when using the LNTH to estimate low-dose cancer risk. The manuscript provides information at every level of biological organization suggesting that many of these linear assumptions do not hold. While the initial damage may be produced linearly with dose, the processing of that damage is very non-linear. Finally, the paper provides the unique prospective on radiation-induced cancer, demonstrating that it takes large amounts (total energy) of radiation delivered to large populations to detect an increase in cancer frequency. These observations are supported by both theoretical calculations and examples based on past human radiation exposure. PMID:18648559

  17. 77 FR 51068 - Remedies for Small Copyright Claims: Additional Comments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-23

    ... Rowland, Counsel, Office of Policy and International Affairs, by email at crowland@loc.gov or by telephone... Royalty Judges, and/or some other type of tribunal? If an alternative process, should it include a right... they be selected? 8. Eligible works. Are some types of copyrighted works more amenable to, or in...

  18. Physicochemical investigation of NiAl with small molybdenum additions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Troshkina, V. A.; Kucherenko, L. A.; Fadeeva, V. I.; Aristova, N. M.

    1982-01-01

    Specimens of four cast NiAl alloys, three of them containing 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 at. % Mo., were homogenized for 10, 10, and 140 hr at 1373, 1523 and 1273 K, respectively, then kept at 1073, 1173 and 1323 K for 60, 120 and 3 hr, respectively, and quenched in icy water. The precipitation of a metastable Ni3Mo phase was observed at temperatures between 1073 and 1523 K. Molybdenum substituted for nickel was found to inhibit the lattice disordering in NiAl at 1073 and 1523 K.

  19. Evidence for the existence of additional small satellites of Saturn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Synnott, S. P.

    1986-01-01

    Voyager-1 and 2 long exposure images were studied in a search for previously undiscovered satellites in the Saturn system. The technique used was to overlap the images with common view areas, thereby including increasingly higher-resolution images of nearby exposures with those taken at greater distances during approach. No definite identifications were made of new satellites. However, five objects were apparently detected by the survey and the orbits associated with each of the recorded photographic 'streaks' were calculated. Techniques are discussed for applying the Space Telescope to confirm or disprove the satellite status of the observed objects.

  20. Recent new additives for electric vehicle lead-acid batteries for extending the cycle life and capacity

    SciTech Connect

    Kozawa, A.; Sato, A.; Fujita, K.; Brodd, D.

    1997-12-01

    An electrochemically prepared colloidal graphite was found to be an excellent additive for lead-acid batteries. The new additive extends the capacity and cycle life of new and old batteries and can regenerate old, almost dead, batteries. The colloidal graphite is stable in aqueous solution and the extremely fine particles are adsorbed mainly on the positive electrode. This additive has been given the name, {alpha}-Pholon. The amount required is very small: only 6% to 10% of volume of the {alpha}-Pholon solution (about 2% colloidal graphite in water solution). The beneficial effect of the new additive was demonstrated with motorcycle batteries and forklift batteries.

  1. 46 CFR 282.20 - Amount of subsidy payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... COMMERCE OF THE UNITED STATES Calculation of Subsidy Rates § 282.20 Amount of subsidy payable. (a) Daily... rates in determining the daily ODS amount payable. (e) Operator Comments. The operator shall have...

  2. 41 CFR 105-57.008 - Amounts withheld.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    .... The employer may use the SF 329C (Wage Garnishment Worksheet) to calculate the amount to be deducted... order up to 15 percent of the debtor's disposable pay; or (2) The amount set forth in 15 U.S.C....

  3. 41 CFR 105-57.008 - Amounts withheld.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... The employer may use the SF 329C (Wage Garnishment Worksheet) to calculate the amount to be deducted... order up to 15 percent of the debtor's disposable pay; or (2) The amount set forth in 15 U.S.C....

  4. 41 CFR 105-57.008 - Amounts withheld.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    .... The employer may use the SF 329C (Wage Garnishment Worksheet) to calculate the amount to be deducted... order up to 15 percent of the debtor's disposable pay; or (2) The amount set forth in 15 U.S.C....

  5. 13 CFR 108.1150 - Maximum amount of Leverage for a NMVC Company.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maximum amount of Leverage for a NMVC Company. 108.1150 Section 108.1150 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM SBA Financial Assistance for NMVC Companies...

  6. 13 CFR 108.1150 - Maximum amount of Leverage for a NMVC Company.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Maximum amount of Leverage for a NMVC Company. 108.1150 Section 108.1150 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM SBA Financial Assistance for NMVC Companies...

  7. 42 CFR 124.705 - Amount of recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Amount of recovery. 124.705 Section 124.705 Public... MEDICAL FACILITY CONSTRUCTION AND MODERNIZATION Recovery of Grant Funds § 124.705 Amount of recovery. (a... liabilities associated with the transaction. To determine the amount of Federal recovery, the adjusted...

  8. 20 CFR 625.6 - Weekly amount; jurisdictions; reductions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DISASTER UNEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE § 625.6 Weekly amount; jurisdictions; reductions. (a) In all States... worker or unemployed self-employed individual for a week of total unemployment shall be the weekly amount... provisions of the applicable State law for a week of total unemployment. In no event shall such amount be...

  9. 20 CFR 625.6 - Weekly amount; jurisdictions; reductions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... DISASTER UNEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE § 625.6 Weekly amount; jurisdictions; reductions. (a) In all States... worker or unemployed self-employed individual for a week of total unemployment shall be the weekly amount... provisions of the applicable State law for a week of total unemployment. In no event shall such amount be...

  10. 20 CFR 625.6 - Weekly amount; jurisdictions; reductions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... DISASTER UNEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE § 625.6 Weekly amount; jurisdictions; reductions. (a) In all States... worker or unemployed self-employed individual for a week of total unemployment shall be the weekly amount... provisions of the applicable State law for a week of total unemployment. In no event shall such amount be...

  11. 20 CFR 625.6 - Weekly amount; jurisdictions; reductions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... DISASTER UNEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE § 625.6 Weekly amount; jurisdictions; reductions. (a) In all States... worker or unemployed self-employed individual for a week of total unemployment shall be the weekly amount... provisions of the applicable State law for a week of total unemployment. In no event shall such amount be...

  12. 20 CFR 625.6 - Weekly amount; jurisdictions; reductions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DISASTER UNEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE § 625.6 Weekly amount; jurisdictions; reductions. (a) In all States... worker or unemployed self-employed individual for a week of total unemployment shall be the weekly amount... provisions of the applicable State law for a week of total unemployment. In no event shall such amount be...

  13. 12 CFR 347.120 - Computation of investment amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Computation of investment amounts. 347.120... GENERAL POLICY INTERNATIONAL BANKING § 347.120 Computation of investment amounts. In computing the amount that may be invested in any foreign organization under §§ 347.117 through 347.119, any investments...

  14. 41 CFR 105-56.029 - Offset amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Offset amount. 105-56... Administration 56-SALARY OFFSET FOR INDEBTEDNESS OF FEDERAL EMPLOYEES TO THE UNITED STATES Centralized Salary Offset (CSO) Procedures-GSA as Paying Agency § 105-56.029 Offset amount. (a) The minimum dollar amount...

  15. 14 CFR 198.7 - Amount of insurance coverage available.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) WAR RISK INSURANCE AVIATION INSURANCE § 198.7 Amount of insurance coverage available. (a) For... arising from any risk. In the case of hull insurance, the amount insured may not exceed the reasonable... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Amount of insurance coverage available....

  16. 43 CFR 7.16 - Civil penalty amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Civil penalty amounts. 7.16 Section 7.16... Uniform Regulations § 7.16 Civil penalty amounts. (a) Maximum amount of penalty. (1) Where the person being assessed a civil penalty has not committed any previous violation of any prohibition in § 7.4...

  17. 5 CFR 870.702 - Amount of Basic insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Amount of Basic insurance. 870.702... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES' GROUP LIFE INSURANCE PROGRAM Annuitants and Compensationers § 870.702 Amount of Basic insurance. (a) The amount of Basic insurance an annuitant or compensationer...

  18. 42 CFR 57.2207 - Amount of scholarship grant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Amount of scholarship grant. 57.2207 Section 57... CONSTRUCTION OF TEACHING FACILITIES, EDUCATIONAL IMPROVEMENTS, SCHOLARSHIPS AND STUDENT LOANS Physician Shortage Area Scholarship Grants § 57.2207 Amount of scholarship grant. (a) The amount of the...

  19. 42 CFR 57.2207 - Amount of scholarship grant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Amount of scholarship grant. 57.2207 Section 57... CONSTRUCTION OF TEACHING FACILITIES, EDUCATIONAL IMPROVEMENTS, SCHOLARSHIPS AND STUDENT LOANS Physician Shortage Area Scholarship Grants § 57.2207 Amount of scholarship grant. (a) The amount of the...

  20. 42 CFR 57.2207 - Amount of scholarship grant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Amount of scholarship grant. 57.2207 Section 57... CONSTRUCTION OF TEACHING FACILITIES, EDUCATIONAL IMPROVEMENTS, SCHOLARSHIPS AND STUDENT LOANS Physician Shortage Area Scholarship Grants § 57.2207 Amount of scholarship grant. (a) The amount of the...

  1. 42 CFR 57.2207 - Amount of scholarship grant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Amount of scholarship grant. 57.2207 Section 57... CONSTRUCTION OF TEACHING FACILITIES, EDUCATIONAL IMPROVEMENTS, SCHOLARSHIPS AND STUDENT LOANS Physician Shortage Area Scholarship Grants § 57.2207 Amount of scholarship grant. (a) The amount of the...

  2. 42 CFR 57.2207 - Amount of scholarship grant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Amount of scholarship grant. 57.2207 Section 57... CONSTRUCTION OF TEACHING FACILITIES, EDUCATIONAL IMPROVEMENTS, SCHOLARSHIPS AND STUDENT LOANS Physician Shortage Area Scholarship Grants § 57.2207 Amount of scholarship grant. (a) The amount of the...

  3. Modeling the Effect of Reward Amount on Probability Discounting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myerson, Joel; Green, Leonard; Morris, Joshua

    2011-01-01

    The present study with college students examined the effect of amount on the discounting of probabilistic monetary rewards. A hyperboloid function accurately described the discounting of hypothetical rewards ranging in amount from $20 to $10,000,000. The degree of discounting increased continuously with amount of probabilistic reward. This effect…

  4. 9 CFR 89.1 - Amount of feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... TWENTY-EIGHT HOUR LAW § 89.1 Amount of feed. (a) Under normal conditions, the amount of feed designated... at the intervals required by the Twenty-Eight Hour Law: Species and quantity of livestock At first... car, the amount of shelled corn 2 indicated): Lots of not more than 18,000 lbs 2 bushels 2...

  5. 9 CFR 89.1 - Amount of feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... TWENTY-EIGHT HOUR LAW § 89.1 Amount of feed. (a) Under normal conditions, the amount of feed designated... at the intervals required by the Twenty-Eight Hour Law: Species and quantity of livestock At first... car, the amount of shelled corn 2 indicated): Lots of not more than 18,000 lbs 2 bushels 2...

  6. 9 CFR 89.1 - Amount of feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... TWENTY-EIGHT HOUR LAW § 89.1 Amount of feed. (a) Under normal conditions, the amount of feed designated... at the intervals required by the Twenty-Eight Hour Law: Species and quantity of livestock At first... car, the amount of shelled corn 2 indicated): Lots of not more than 18,000 lbs 2 bushels 2...

  7. 9 CFR 89.1 - Amount of feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... TWENTY-EIGHT HOUR LAW § 89.1 Amount of feed. (a) Under normal conditions, the amount of feed designated... at the intervals required by the Twenty-Eight Hour Law: Species and quantity of livestock At first... car, the amount of shelled corn 2 indicated): Lots of not more than 18,000 lbs 2 bushels 2...

  8. 9 CFR 89.1 - Amount of feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... TWENTY-EIGHT HOUR LAW § 89.1 Amount of feed. (a) Under normal conditions, the amount of feed designated... at the intervals required by the Twenty-Eight Hour Law: Species and quantity of livestock At first... car, the amount of shelled corn 2 indicated): Lots of not more than 18,000 lbs 2 bushels 2...

  9. 42 CFR 423.886 - Retiree drug subsidy amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Retiree drug subsidy amounts. 423.886 Section 423... (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Payments to Sponsors of Retiree Prescription Drug Plans § 423.886 Retiree drug subsidy amounts. (a) Amount of subsidy payment....

  10. 42 CFR 423.886 - Retiree drug subsidy amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Retiree drug subsidy amounts. 423.886 Section 423... (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Payments to Sponsors of Retiree Prescription Drug Plans § 423.886 Retiree drug subsidy amounts. (a) Amount of subsidy payment....

  11. 42 CFR 423.886 - Retiree drug subsidy amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Retiree drug subsidy amounts. 423.886 Section 423... (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Payments to Sponsors of Retiree Prescription Drug Plans § 423.886 Retiree drug subsidy amounts. (a) Amount of subsidy payment. (1) For...

  12. 42 CFR 423.886 - Retiree drug subsidy amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Retiree drug subsidy amounts. 423.886 Section 423... (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Payments to Sponsors of Retiree Prescription Drug Plans § 423.886 Retiree drug subsidy amounts. (a) Amount of subsidy payment....

  13. 31 CFR 353.10 - Amounts which may be purchased.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... UNITED STATES SAVINGS BONDS, SERIES EE AND HH Limitations on Annual Purchases § 353.10 Amounts which may be purchased. The amount of savings bonds of Series EE and HH which may be purchased and held, in the... and is limited as follows: (a) Series EE—(1) General annual limitation. $5,000 (principal amount)....

  14. 12 CFR 209.4 - Amounts and payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Amounts and payments. 209.4 Section 209.4 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM ISSUE AND CANCELLATION OF FEDERAL RESERVE BANK CAPITAL STOCK (REGULATION I) § 209.4 Amounts and payments. (a) Amount...

  15. 12 CFR 209.4 - Amounts and payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Amounts and payments. 209.4 Section 209.4 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM ISSUE AND CANCELLATION OF FEDERAL RESERVE BANK CAPITAL STOCK (REGULATION I) § 209.4 Amounts and payments. (a) Amount...

  16. 12 CFR 209.4 - Amounts and payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Amounts and payments. 209.4 Section 209.4 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM ISSUE AND CANCELLATION OF FEDERAL RESERVE BANK CAPITAL STOCK (REGULATION I) § 209.4 Amounts and payments. (a) Amount...

  17. 12 CFR 209.4 - Amounts and payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Amounts and payments. 209.4 Section 209.4 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM ISSUE AND CANCELLATION OF FEDERAL RESERVE BANK CAPITAL STOCK (REGULATION I) § 209.4 Amounts and payments. (a) Amount...

  18. 12 CFR 209.4 - Amounts and payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Amounts and payments. 209.4 Section 209.4 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM ISSUE AND CANCELLATION OF FEDERAL RESERVE BANK CAPITAL STOCK (REGULATION I) § 209.4 Amounts and payments. (a) Amount...

  19. 22 CFR 1104.15 - Civil penalty amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Civil penalty amounts. 1104.15 Section 1104.15... SECTION PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES § 1104.15 Civil penalty amounts. (a) Maximum amount of penalty. (1) Where the person being assessed a civil penalty has not committed any previous violation...

  20. 42 CFR 56.106 - Amount of grant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Amount of grant. 56.106 Section 56.106 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR MIGRANT HEALTH SERVICES General Provisions § 56.106 Amount of grant. (a) The amount of any award under this part will...

  1. 30 CFR 723.14 - Determination of amount of penalty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Determination of amount of penalty. 723.14 Section 723.14 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INITIAL PROGRAM REGULATIONS CIVIL PENALTIES § 723.14 Determination of amount of penalty. The Office shall determine the amount of any...

  2. 42 CFR 423.886 - Retiree drug subsidy amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Retiree drug subsidy amounts. 423.886 Section 423... (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Payments to Sponsors of Retiree Prescription Drug Plans § 423.886 Retiree drug subsidy amounts. (a) Amount of subsidy payment. (1) For...

  3. Additive Similarity Trees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sattath, Shmuel; Tversky, Amos

    1977-01-01

    Tree representations of similarity data are investigated. Hierarchical clustering is critically examined, and a more general procedure, called the additive tree, is presented. The additive tree representation is then compared to multidimensional scaling. (Author/JKS)

  4. The absence of numbers to express the amount may affect delay discounting with humans.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Huerta, Hugo E; Dos Santos, Cristiano V

    2016-09-01

    Human delay discounting is usually studied with experimental protocols that use symbols to express delay and amount. In order to further understand discounting, we evaluated whether the absence of numbers to represent reward amounts affects discount rate in general, and whether the magnitude effect is generalized to nonsymbolic situations in particular. In Experiment 1, human participants were exposed to a delay-discounting task in which rewards were presented using dots to represent monetary rewards (nonsymbolic); under this condition the magnitude effect did not occur. Nevertheless, the magnitude effect was observed when equivalent reward amounts were presented using numbers (symbolic). Moreover, in estimation tasks, magnitude increments produced underestimation of large amounts. In Experiment 2, participants were exposed only to the nonsymbolic discounting task and were required to estimate reward amounts in each trial. Consistent with Experiment 1, the absence of numbers representing reward amounts produced similar discount rates of small and large rewards. These results suggest that value of nonsymbolic rewards is a nonlinear function of amount and that value attribution depends on perceived difference between the immediate and the delayed nonsymbolic rewards.

  5. Effect of Ag, Ni and Bi Additions on Solderability of Lead-Free Solders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nobari, Amir Hossein; Maalekian, Mehran; Seelig, Karl; Pekguleryuz, Mihriban

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the effects of Ag, Ni and Bi additions on the melting, solidification, fluidity and wetting behavior of Sn-0.7Cu base solder alloy are studied. The addition of a small amount of Ni reduces the undercooling and improves the feeding distance (fluidity length); however, Ni does not improve the wetting and the spreading performance. The effect of Ni on the fluidity length of Ag-containing Sn-0.7Cu (SAC alloy) is marginal. Bi and Ag both improve wetting performance and also lower the melting temperature; however, they do not improve the fluidity; instead, they reduce the maximum length of fluidity.

  6. Effect of addition of water-soluble chitin on amylose film.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Shiho; Shimahashi, Katsumasa; Takahara, Junichi; Sunako, Michihiro; Takaha, Takeshi; Ogawa, Kozo; Kitamura, Shinichi

    2005-01-01

    Amylose films blended with chitosan, which were free from additives such as acid, salt, and plasticizer, were prepared by casting mixtures of an aqueous solution of an enzymatically synthesized amylose and that of water-soluble chitin (44.1% deacetylated). The presence of a small amount of chitin (less than 10%) increased significantly the permeability of gases (N2, O2, CO2, C2H4) and improved the mechanical parameters of amylose film; particularly, the elastic modulus and elongation of the blend films were larger than those of amylose or chitin films. No antibacterial activity was observed with either amylose or water-soluble chitin films. But amylose films having a small amount of chitin showed strong antibacterial action, suggesting a morphological change in water-soluble chitin on the film surface by blending with amylose molecule. These facts suggested the presence of a molecular complex of amylose and chitosan.

  7. Effects of Minute Addition of Ni on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Sn-Zn Eutectic Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, P.; Tiwary, C. S.; Chattopadhyay, K.

    2016-10-01

    The current work explores the effects of a small addition of Ni on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Sn-Zn eutectic solder alloy (Sn-14.9 at.%Zn). In two sets of experiments, Ni is either added to the eutectic alloy or Zn in the eutectic alloy is replaced by an increasing amount of Ni. The study indicates that small additions of Ni in eutectic Sn-Zn solder (˜0.017 at.%) refines the eutectic microstructure together with the appearance of the small amount of primary Zn plates. Increasing the Ni content to 0.142 at.% and beyond, then an intermetallic phase ϒ-Ni5Zn21 with dendritic morphology appears in the microstructure along with dendrites of primary Sn. The scale of eutectic microstructure shows a decreasing trend till 0.902 at.%Ni with eutectic spacing of 1.98 ± 0.32 μm for this alloy. Further addition of Ni coarsens the microstructure. The replacement of Zn with Ni in the eutectic composition follows a similar trend with a lesser refinement of the microstructure. In both the scenarios, the addition of a small amount of Ni increases the eutectic temperatures till a critical concentration is reached beyond which one can observe a decrease in the eutectic point. The trend is similar for the solid solubility of Zn in Sn while the trend is opposite for the measured eutectic composition, which decreases at the initial stages of Ni addition. Through a detailed measurement of mechanical properties, the study establishes significant improvement of the strength of Sn-Zn solder with small additions of Ni in the alloy with a maximum hardness of 26 ± 1 HV and 0.2% proof stress of 72 ± 3 MPa at room temperature for the eutectic alloy with 0.902 at.%Ni.

  8. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, J. R.; St. Clair, T. L.; Burks, H. D.; Stoakley, D. M.

    1987-01-01

    A method has been found for enhancing the melt flow of thermoplastic polyimides during processing. A high molecular weight 422 copoly(amic acid) or copolyimide was fused with approximately 0.05 to 5 pct by weight of a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive, and this melt was studied by capillary rheometry. Excellent flow and improved composite properties on graphite resulted from the addition of a PMDA-aniline additive to LARC-TPI. Solution viscosity studies imply that amic acid additives temporarily lower molecular weight and, hence, enlarge the processing window. Thus, compositions containing the additive have a lower melt viscosity for a longer time than those unmodified.

  9. [Food additives and healthiness].

    PubMed

    Heinonen, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Additives are used for improving food structure or preventing its spoilage, for example. Many substances used as additives are also naturally present in food. The safety of additives is evaluated according to commonly agreed principles. If high concentrations of an additive cause adverse health effects for humans, a limit of acceptable daily intake (ADI) is set for it. An additive is a risk only when ADI is exceeded. The healthiness of food is measured on the basis of nutrient density and scientifically proven effects.

  10. Modeling the effect of reward amount on probability discounting.

    PubMed

    Myerson, Joel; Green, Leonard; Morris, Joshua

    2011-03-01

    The present study with college students examined the effect of amount on the discounting of probabilistic monetary rewards. A hyperboloid function accurately described the discounting of hypothetical rewards ranging in amount from $20 to $10,000,000. The degree of discounting increased continuously with amount of probabilistic reward. This effect of amount was not due to changes in the rate parameter of the discounting function, but rather was due to increases in the exponent. These results stand in contrast to those observed with the discounting of delayed monetary rewards, in which the degree of discounting decreases with reward amount due to amount-dependent decreases in the rate parameter. Taken together, this pattern of results suggests that delay and probability discounting reflect different underlying mechanisms. That is, the fact that the exponent in the delay discounting function is independent of amount is consistent with a psychophysical scaling interpretation, whereas the finding that the exponent of the probability-discounting function is amount-dependent is inconsistent with such an interpretation. Instead, the present results are consistent with the idea that the probability-discounting function is itself the product of a value function and a weighting function. This idea was first suggested by Kahneman and Tversky (1979), although their prospect theory does not predict amount effects like those observed. The effect of amount on probability discounting was parsimoniously incorporated into our hyperboloid discounting function by assuming that the exponent was proportional to the amount raised to a power. The amount-dependent exponent of the probability-discounting function may be viewed as reflecting the effect of amount on the weighting of the probability with which the reward will be received.

  11. Hurricane Isabel, Amount of Atmospheric Water Vapor Observed By AIRS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1

    These false-color images show the amount of atmospheric water vapor observed by AIRS two weeks prior to the passage of Hurricane Isabel, and then when it was a Category 5 storm. The region shown includes parts of South America and the West Indies. Puerto Rico is the large island below the upper left corner.

    Total water vapor represents the depth of a layer if all the water vapor in the atmosphere were to condense and fall to the surface. The color bar on the right sides of the plots give the thickness of this layer in millimeters (mm). The first image, from August 28, shows typical tropical water vapor amounts over the ocean: between roughly 25 and 50 mm, or 1 to 2 inches. The highest values of roughly 80 mm, seen as a red blob over South America, corresponds to intense thunderstorms. Thunderstorms pull in water vapor from surrounding regions and concentrate it, with much of it then falling as rain.

    Figure 1 shows total water during the passage of Hurricane Isabel on September 13. The storm is apparent: the ring of moderate values surrounding a very strong maximum of 100 mm. Total water of more than 80 mm is unusual, and these values correspond to the intense thunderstorms contained within Isabel. The thunderstorms--and the large values of total water--are fed by evaporation from the ocean in the hurricane's high winds. The water vapor near the center of the storm does not remain there long, since hurricane rain rates as high 50 mm (2 inches) per hour imply rapid cycling of the water we observe. Away from the storm the amount of total water vapor is rather low, associated with fair weather where air that ascended near the storm's eye returns to earth, having dropped its moisture as rain. Also seen in the second images are two small regions of about 70 mm of total water over south America. These are yet more thunderstorms, though likely much more benign than those in Isabel.

    The

  12. 78 FR 63967 - Procurement List; Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-25

    ... SE, Marietta, GA NPA: L.C. Industries for the Blind, Inc., Durham, NC Contracting Activity: DEPT OF... in any additional reporting, recordkeeping or other compliance requirements for small entities other... result in authorizing small entities to provide the services to the Government. 3. There are no...

  13. Manipulation of Rubisco: the amount, activity, function and regulation.

    PubMed

    Parry, M A J; Andralojc, P J; Mitchell, R A C; Madgwick, P J; Keys, A J

    2003-05-01

    Genetic modification to increase the specificity of Rubisco for CO(2) relative to O(2) and to increase the catalytic rate of Rubisco in crop plants would have great agronomic importance. The availability of three-dimensional structures of Rubisco at atomic resolution and the characterization of site-directed mutants have greatly enhanced the understanding of the catalytic mechanism of Rubisco. Considerable progress has been made in identifying natural variation in the catalytic properties of Rubisco from different species and in developing the tools for introducing both novel and foreign Rubisco genes into plants. The additional complexities of assembling copies of the two distinct polypeptide subunits of Rubisco into a functional holoenzyme in vivo (requiring sufficient expression, post-translational modification, interaction with chaperonins, and interaction with Rubisco activase) remain a major challenge. The consequences of changing the amount of Rubisco present in leaves have been investigated by the use of antisense constructs. The manipulation of genes encoding Rubisco activase has provided a means to investigate the regulation of Rubisco activity.

  14. Large amounts of antiproton production by heavy ion collision

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Hiroshi; Powell, J.

    1987-01-01

    To produce large amounts of antiprotons, on the order of several grams/year, use of machines to produce nuclear collisions are studied. These can be of either proton-proton, proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus in nature. To achieve high luminosity colliding beams, on the order of 10/sup 41/ m/cm/sup 2/, a self-colliding machine is required, rather than a conventional circular colliding type. The self-colliding machine can produce additional antiprotons through successive collisions of secondary particles, such as spectator nucleons. A key problem is how to collect the produced antiprotons without capture by beam nuclei in the collision zone. Production costs for anti-matter are projected for various energy source options and technology levels. Dedicated facilities using heavy ion collisions could produce antiproton at substantially less than 1 million $/milligram. With co-production of other valuable products, e.g., nuclear fuel for power reactors, antiproton costs could be reduced to even lower values.

  15. Decision-Making, Science and Gasoline Additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weaver, J. W.; Small, M. C.

    2001-12-01

    Methyl-tert butyl ether (MTBE) has been used as a gasoline additive to serve two major purposes. The first use was as an octane-enhancer to replace organic lead, beginning in 1979. The second use, which began about 1992, was as a oxygenated additive to meet requirements of the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990. Generally, the amount of MTBE used for octane enhancement was lower than that required to meet CAAA requirements. An unintended consequence of MTBE use has been widespread groundwater contamination. The decision to use certain amounts of MTBE or other chemcials as gasoline additives is the outcome of economic, regulatory, policy, political, and scientific considerations. Decision makers ask questions such as "How do ground water impacts change with changing MTBE content? How many wells would be impacted? and What are the associated costs?" These are best answered through scientific inquiry, but many different approaches could be developed. Decision criteria include time, money, comprehensiveness, and complexity of the approach. Because results must be communicated to a non-technical audience, there is a trade off between the complexity of the approach and the ability to convince economists, lawyers and policy makers that results make sense. The question on MTBE content posed above was investigated using transport models, a release scenario and gasoline composition. Because of the inability of transport models to predict future concentrations, an approach was chosen to base comparative assessment on a calibrated model. By taking this approach, "generic" modeling with arbitrarily selected parameters was avoided and the validity of the simulation results rests upon relatively small extrapolations from the original calibrated models. A set of simulations was performed that assumed 3% (octane enhancement) and 11% (CAAA) MTBE in gasoline. The results were that ground water concentrations would be reduced in proportion to the reduction of MTBE in the fuel

  16. The determination of nanogram amounts of Chromium in urine by x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beyermann, K.; Rose, H.J.; Christian, R.P.

    1969-01-01

    Nanogram amounts of chromium can be extracted as oxinate into chloform. By treatment of the chloroform layer 3 M hydrochloric acid, oxinates of other elements and excess of reagent are removed, leaving a chloroform solution of the chromium chelate only. This solution is concentrated and transferred to the top of a small brass rod acting as sample holder. The intensity of the X-ray fluorescence of the Cr K?? line is measured with curved crystal optics. Chromium amounts greater than 5 ng can be detected. The application of the procedure to the analysis of the chromium content of urine is demonstrated. ?? 1969.

  17. Polylactides in additive biomanufacturing.

    PubMed

    Poh, Patrina S P; Chhaya, Mohit P; Wunner, Felix M; De-Juan-Pardo, Elena M; Schilling, Arndt F; Schantz, Jan-Thorsten; van Griensven, Martijn; Hutmacher, Dietmar W

    2016-12-15

    New advanced manufacturing technologies under the alias of additive biomanufacturing allow the design and fabrication of a range of products from pre-operative models, cutting guides and medical devices to scaffolds. The process of printing in 3 dimensions of cells, extracellular matrix (ECM) and biomaterials (bioinks, powders, etc.) to generate in vitro and/or in vivo tissue analogue structures has been termed bioprinting. To further advance in additive biomanufacturing, there are many aspects that we can learn from the wider additive manufacturing (AM) industry, which have progressed tremendously since its introduction into the manufacturing sector. First, this review gives an overview of additive manufacturing and both industry and academia efforts in addressing specific challenges in the AM technologies to drive toward AM-enabled industrial revolution. After which, considerations of poly(lactides) as a biomaterial in additive biomanufacturing are discussed. Challenges in wider additive biomanufacturing field are discussed in terms of (a) biomaterials; (b) computer-aided design, engineering and manufacturing; (c) AM and additive biomanufacturing printers hardware; and (d) system integration. Finally, the outlook for additive biomanufacturing was discussed.

  18. Additive Manufactured Product Integrity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waller, Jess; Wells, Doug; James, Steve; Nichols, Charles

    2017-01-01

    NASA is providing key leadership in an international effort linking NASA and non-NASA resources to speed adoption of additive manufacturing (AM) to meet NASA's mission goals. Participants include industry, NASA's space partners, other government agencies, standards organizations and academia. Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) is identified as a universal need for all aspects of additive manufacturing.

  19. RAMSEYS DRAFT WILDERNESS STUDY AREA AND ADDITION, VIRGINIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lesure, Frank G.; Mory, Peter C.

    1984-01-01

    Mineral-resource surveys of the Ramseys Draft Wilderness Study Area and adjoining roadless area addition in George Washington National Forest in the western valley and ridge province, Augusta and Highland Counties, Virginia, were done. The surveys outlined three small areas containing anomalous amounts of copper, lead, and zinc related to stratabound red-bed copper mineralization, but these occurrences are not large and are not considered as having mineral-resource potential. The area contains abundant sandstone suitable for construction materials and shale suitable for making brick, tile, and other low-grade ceramic products, but these commodities occur in abundance outside the wilderness study area. Structural conditions are probably favorable for the accumulation of natural gas, but exploratory drilling has not been done sufficiently near the area to evaluate the gas potential.

  20. 42 CFR 1003.104 - Amount of assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Amount of assessment. 1003.104 Section 1003.104... AUTHORITIES CIVIL MONEY PENALTIES, ASSESSMENTS AND EXCLUSIONS § 1003.104 Amount of assessment. (a) The OIG may impose an assessment, where authorized, in accordance with § 1003.102, of not more than— (1) Two...

  1. 42 CFR 1003.104 - Amount of assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Amount of assessment. 1003.104 Section 1003.104... AUTHORITIES CIVIL MONEY PENALTIES, ASSESSMENTS AND EXCLUSIONS § 1003.104 Amount of assessment. (a) The OIG may impose an assessment, where authorized, in accordance with § 1003.102, of not more than— (1) Two...

  2. 42 CFR 1003.104 - Amount of assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Amount of assessment. 1003.104 Section 1003.104... AUTHORITIES CIVIL MONEY PENALTIES, ASSESSMENTS AND EXCLUSIONS § 1003.104 Amount of assessment. (a) The OIG may impose an assessment, where authorized, in accordance with § 1003.102, of not more than— (1) Two...

  3. 42 CFR 1003.104 - Amount of assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Amount of assessment. 1003.104 Section 1003.104... AUTHORITIES CIVIL MONEY PENALTIES, ASSESSMENTS AND EXCLUSIONS § 1003.104 Amount of assessment. (a) The OIG may impose an assessment, where authorized, in accordance with § 1003.102, of not more than— (1) Two...

  4. 42 CFR 1003.104 - Amount of assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Amount of assessment. 1003.104 Section 1003.104... AUTHORITIES CIVIL MONEY PENALTIES, ASSESSMENTS AND EXCLUSIONS § 1003.104 Amount of assessment. (a) The OIG may impose an assessment, where authorized, in accordance with § 1003.102, of not more than— (1) Two...

  5. 42 CFR 438.704 - Amounts of civil money penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Amounts of civil money penalties. 438.704 Section... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS MANAGED CARE Sanctions § 438.704 Amounts of civil money penalties. (a) General rule. The limit on, or the maximum civil money penalty the State may impose...

  6. 29 CFR 530.302 - Amounts of civil money penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Amounts of civil money penalties. 530.302 Section 530.302... EMPLOYMENT OF HOMEWORKERS IN CERTAIN INDUSTRIES Civil Money Penalties § 530.302 Amounts of civil money penalties. (a) A civil money penalty, not to exceed $500 per affected homeworker for any one violation,...

  7. 42 CFR 438.704 - Amounts of civil money penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Amounts of civil money penalties. 438.704 Section... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS MANAGED CARE Sanctions § 438.704 Amounts of civil money penalties. (a) General rule. The limit on, or the maximum civil money penalty the State may impose...

  8. 29 CFR 530.302 - Amounts of civil money penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amounts of civil money penalties. 530.302 Section 530.302... EMPLOYMENT OF HOMEWORKERS IN CERTAIN INDUSTRIES Civil Money Penalties § 530.302 Amounts of civil money penalties. (a) A civil money penalty, not to exceed $500 per affected homeworker for any one violation,...

  9. 42 CFR 438.704 - Amounts of civil money penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Amounts of civil money penalties. 438.704 Section... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS MANAGED CARE Sanctions § 438.704 Amounts of civil money penalties. (a) General rule. The limit on, or the maximum civil money penalty the State may impose...

  10. 29 CFR 530.302 - Amounts of civil money penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Amounts of civil money penalties. 530.302 Section 530.302... EMPLOYMENT OF HOMEWORKERS IN CERTAIN INDUSTRIES Civil Money Penalties § 530.302 Amounts of civil money penalties. (a) A civil money penalty, not to exceed $500 per affected homeworker for any one violation,...

  11. 29 CFR 530.302 - Amounts of civil money penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Amounts of civil money penalties. 530.302 Section 530.302... EMPLOYMENT OF HOMEWORKERS IN CERTAIN INDUSTRIES Civil Money Penalties § 530.302 Amounts of civil money penalties. (a) A civil money penalty, not to exceed $500 per affected homeworker for any one violation,...

  12. 42 CFR 438.704 - Amounts of civil money penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Amounts of civil money penalties. 438.704 Section... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS MANAGED CARE Sanctions § 438.704 Amounts of civil money penalties. (a) General rule. The limit on, or the maximum civil money penalty the State may impose...

  13. 29 CFR 530.302 - Amounts of civil money penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Amounts of civil money penalties. 530.302 Section 530.302... EMPLOYMENT OF HOMEWORKERS IN CERTAIN INDUSTRIES Civil Money Penalties § 530.302 Amounts of civil money penalties. (a) A civil money penalty, not to exceed $500 per affected homeworker for any one violation,...

  14. 42 CFR 124.705 - Amount of recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Amount of recovery. 124.705 Section 124.705 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT MEDICAL FACILITY CONSTRUCTION AND MODERNIZATION Recovery of Grant Funds § 124.705 Amount of recovery....

  15. 42 CFR 124.705 - Amount of recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Amount of recovery. 124.705 Section 124.705 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT MEDICAL FACILITY CONSTRUCTION AND MODERNIZATION Recovery of Grant Funds § 124.705 Amount of recovery....

  16. 26 CFR 1.50A-1 - Determination of amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Computing Credit for Expenses of Work Incentive Programs § 1.50A-1 Determination of amount. (a) In general. Except as otherwise provided in this section and in § 1.50A-2, the amount of the work incentive program... section); corporations which are members of a controlled group (see paragraph (f) of this...

  17. 20 CFR 404.333 - Wife's and husband's benefit amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wife's and husband's benefit amounts. 404.333... Disability Benefits for Spouses and Divorced Spouses § 404.333 Wife's and husband's benefit amounts. Your wife's or husband's monthly benefit is equal to one-half the insured person's primary insurance...

  18. 42 CFR 489.65 - Amount of the bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... § 489.65 Amount of the bond. (a) Basic rule. The amount of the surety bond must be $50,000 or 15 percent... computation of the 15 percent will be based on the number of months of the fiscal year that the bond...

  19. 45 CFR 1225.11 - Amount of attorney fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Amount of attorney fees. 1225.11 Section 1225.11... § 1225.11 Amount of attorney fees. (a) When a decision of the agency provides for an award of attorney's fees or costs, the complainant's attorney shall submit a verified statement of costs and...

  20. 42 CFR 422.382 - Minimum net worth amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Minimum net worth amount. 422.382 Section 422.382 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM MEDICARE ADVANTAGE PROGRAM Provider-Sponsored Organizations § 422.382 Minimum net worth amount. (a) At the time...

  1. 42 CFR 493.649 - Methodology for determining fee amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Section 493.649 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Methodology for determining fee amount. (a) General rule. The amount of the fee in each schedule for... hourly rates used in fee schedules. Three different entities perform activities related to the...

  2. 42 CFR 493.649 - Methodology for determining fee amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Section 493.649 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Methodology for determining fee amount. (a) General rule. The amount of the fee in each schedule for... hourly rates used in fee schedules. Three different entities perform activities related to the...

  3. 42 CFR 130.3 - Amount of payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Amount of payments. 130.3 Section 130.3 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES COMPASSIONATE PAYMENTS RICKY RAY HEMOPHILIA RELIEF FUND PROGRAM General Provisions § 130.3 Amount of payments. If there are sufficient...

  4. 42 CFR 130.3 - Amount of payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Amount of payments. 130.3 Section 130.3 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES COMPASSIONATE PAYMENTS RICKY RAY HEMOPHILIA RELIEF FUND PROGRAM General Provisions § 130.3 Amount of payments. If there are sufficient...

  5. 42 CFR 130.3 - Amount of payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Amount of payments. 130.3 Section 130.3 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES COMPASSIONATE PAYMENTS RICKY RAY HEMOPHILIA RELIEF FUND PROGRAM General Provisions § 130.3 Amount of payments. If there are sufficient...

  6. 42 CFR 130.3 - Amount of payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Amount of payments. 130.3 Section 130.3 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES COMPASSIONATE PAYMENTS RICKY RAY HEMOPHILIA RELIEF FUND PROGRAM General Provisions § 130.3 Amount of payments. If there are sufficient...

  7. 41 CFR 105-56.019 - Offset amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Offset amount. 105-56... Administration 56-SALARY OFFSET FOR INDEBTEDNESS OF FEDERAL EMPLOYEES TO THE UNITED STATES Centralized Salary Offset (CSO) Procedures-GSA as Creditor Agency § 105-56.019 Offset amount. (a) The minimum dollar...

  8. 45 CFR 63.17 - Amount of award.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Amount of award. 63.17 Section 63.17 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION GRANT PROGRAMS ADMINISTERED BY THE OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PLANNING AND EVALUATION Financial Provisions § 63.17 Amount...

  9. 42 CFR 422.382 - Minimum net worth amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ....382 Minimum net worth amount. (a) At the time an organization applies to contract with CMS as a PSO... the effective date of a PSO's MA contract, a PSO must maintain a minimum net worth amount equal to the... equivalents. (ii) After the effective date of a PSO's MA contract, a PSO must maintain the greater of...

  10. 42 CFR 422.382 - Minimum net worth amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ....382 Minimum net worth amount. (a) At the time an organization applies to contract with CMS as a PSO... the effective date of a PSO's MA contract, a PSO must maintain a minimum net worth amount equal to the... equivalents. (ii) After the effective date of a PSO's MA contract, a PSO must maintain the greater of...

  11. 42 CFR 422.382 - Minimum net worth amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... net worth amount. (a) At the time an organization applies to contract with CMS as a PSO under this... the effective date of a PSO's MA contract, a PSO must maintain a minimum net worth amount equal to the... equivalents. (ii) After the effective date of a PSO's MA contract, a PSO must maintain the greater of...

  12. 42 CFR 422.382 - Minimum net worth amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ....382 Minimum net worth amount. (a) At the time an organization applies to contract with CMS as a PSO... the effective date of a PSO's MA contract, a PSO must maintain a minimum net worth amount equal to the... equivalents. (ii) After the effective date of a PSO's MA contract, a PSO must maintain the greater of...

  13. 42 CFR 130.3 - Amount of payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Amount of payments. 130.3 Section 130.3 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES COMPASSIONATE PAYMENTS RICKY RAY HEMOPHILIA RELIEF FUND PROGRAM General Provisions § 130.3 Amount of payments. If there are sufficient...

  14. 46 CFR 308.200 - Insured amount-application.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Protection and Indemnity Insurance § 308.200 Insured amount—application. An applicant for war risk protection and indemnity insurance shall state the amount of insurance desired but such amount shall...

  15. 46 CFR 308.203 - Amount insured under interim binder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Amount insured under interim binder. 308.203 Section 308.203 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Protection and Indemnity Insurance § 308.203 Amount insured under interim binder....

  16. 46 CFR 308.303 - Amounts insured under interim binder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Amounts insured under interim binder. 308.303 Section 308.303 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE Second Seamen's War Risk Insurance § 308.303 Amounts insured under interim binder. The...

  17. 46 CFR 308.103 - Insured amounts under interim binder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Insured amounts under interim binder. 308.103 Section 308.103 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Hull and Disbursements Insurance § 308.103 Insured amounts under interim binder....

  18. 29 CFR 531.38 - Amounts deducted for taxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amounts deducted for taxes. 531.38 Section 531.38 Labor... Employees § 531.38 Amounts deducted for taxes. Taxes which are assessed against the employee and which are... unemployment insurance taxes, as well as other Federal, State, or local taxes, levies, and assessments....

  19. 29 CFR 541.600 - Amount of salary required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Amount of salary required. 541.600 Section 541.600 Labor... Salary Requirements § 541.600 Amount of salary required. (a) To qualify as an exempt executive... salary basis at a rate of not less than $455 per week (or $380 per week, if employed in American Samoa...

  20. 29 CFR 541.600 - Amount of salary required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amount of salary required. 541.600 Section 541.600 Labor... Salary Requirements § 541.600 Amount of salary required. (a) To qualify as an exempt executive... salary basis at a rate of not less than $455 per week (or $380 per week, if employed in American Samoa...

  1. 29 CFR 541.600 - Amount of salary required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Amount of salary required. 541.600 Section 541.600 Labor... Salary Requirements § 541.600 Amount of salary required. (a) To qualify as an exempt executive... salary basis at a rate of not less than $455 per week (or $380 per week, if employed in American Samoa...

  2. 29 CFR 541.600 - Amount of salary required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Amount of salary required. 541.600 Section 541.600 Labor... Salary Requirements § 541.600 Amount of salary required. (a) To qualify as an exempt executive... salary basis at a rate of not less than $455 per week (or $380 per week, if employed in American Samoa...

  3. 29 CFR 541.600 - Amount of salary required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Amount of salary required. 541.600 Section 541.600 Labor... Salary Requirements § 541.600 Amount of salary required. (a) To qualify as an exempt executive... salary basis at a rate of not less than $455 per week (or $380 per week, if employed in American Samoa...

  4. 28 CFR 94.23 - Amount of reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Amount of reimbursement. 94.23 Section 94.23 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CRIME VICTIM SERVICES International Terrorism Victim Expense Reimbursement Program Coverage § 94.23 Amount of reimbursement....

  5. 28 CFR 94.23 - Amount of reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Amount of reimbursement. 94.23 Section 94.23 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CRIME VICTIM SERVICES International Terrorism Victim Expense Reimbursement Program Coverage § 94.23 Amount of reimbursement....

  6. 28 CFR 94.23 - Amount of reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amount of reimbursement. 94.23 Section 94.23 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CRIME VICTIM SERVICES International Terrorism Victim Expense Reimbursement Program Coverage § 94.23 Amount of reimbursement....

  7. 28 CFR 94.23 - Amount of reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Amount of reimbursement. 94.23 Section 94.23 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CRIME VICTIM SERVICES International Terrorism Victim Expense Reimbursement Program Coverage § 94.23 Amount of reimbursement....

  8. 28 CFR 94.23 - Amount of reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Amount of reimbursement. 94.23 Section 94.23 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CRIME VICTIM SERVICES International Terrorism Victim Expense Reimbursement Program Coverage § 94.23 Amount of reimbursement....

  9. 38 CFR 39.50 - Amount of grant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... STATES FOR ESTABLISHMENT, EXPANSION, AND IMPROVEMENT, OR OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE, OF VETERANS CEMETERIES Establishment, Expansion, and Improvement Projects Award of Grant § 39.50 Amount of grant. (a) The amount of an Establishment, Expansion, and Improvement Project grant awarded under this subpart may...

  10. 38 CFR 39.50 - Amount of grant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... THE ESTABLISHMENT, EXPANSION, AND IMPROVEMENT, OR OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE, OF VETERANS CEMETERIES Establishment, Expansion, and Improvement Projects Award of Grant § 39.50 Amount of grant. (a) The amount of an Establishment, Expansion, and Improvement Project grant awarded under this subpart may not exceed 100 percent...

  11. 38 CFR 39.50 - Amount of grant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... THE ESTABLISHMENT, EXPANSION, AND IMPROVEMENT, OR OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE, OF VETERANS CEMETERIES Establishment, Expansion, and Improvement Projects Award of Grant § 39.50 Amount of grant. (a) The amount of an Establishment, Expansion, and Improvement Project grant awarded under this subpart may not exceed 100 percent...

  12. 38 CFR 39.50 - Amount of grant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... THE ESTABLISHMENT, EXPANSION, AND IMPROVEMENT, OR OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE, OF VETERANS CEMETERIES Establishment, Expansion, and Improvement Projects Award of Grant § 39.50 Amount of grant. (a) The amount of an Establishment, Expansion, and Improvement Project grant awarded under this subpart may not exceed 100 percent...

  13. 24 CFR 576.35 - Deadlines for using grant amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES EMERGENCY SHELTER GRANTS PROGRAM: STEWART B. McKINNEY...) States. Each State must make available to its State recipients all emergency shelter grant amounts that...) Failure to meet deadlines. (1) Any emergency shelter grant amounts that are not made available...

  14. 24 CFR 576.35 - Deadlines for using grant amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES EMERGENCY SHELTER GRANTS PROGRAM: STEWART B. McKINNEY...) States. Each State must make available to its State recipients all emergency shelter grant amounts that...) Failure to meet deadlines. (1) Any emergency shelter grant amounts that are not made available...

  15. 24 CFR 203.15 - Certification of appraisal amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certification of appraisal amount. 203.15 Section 203.15 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban... Miscellaneous Regulations § 203.15 Certification of appraisal amount. An application with respect to...

  16. Learner Preferences and Achievement Under Differing Amounts of Learner Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schnackenberg, Heidi L.; Sullivan, Howard J.; Leader, Lars F.; Jones, Elizabeth E. K.

    1998-01-01

    Examines the effects of program mode (i.e., a lean program version containing a basic amount of learner practice versus a full mode containing expanded practice) and learner preference (matched or unmatched) for amount of practice on the achievement, time-in-program, and attitudes of university undergraduate students. Students preferred the lean…

  17. 42 CFR 410.152 - Amounts of payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... (c) Amount of payment: Home health services other than durable medical equipment (DME). For home health services other than DME furnished by, or under arrangements made by, a participating HHA, Medicare... services. (d) Amount of payment: DME furnished as a home health service—(1) Basic rule. Except as...

  18. 42 CFR 418.309 - Hospice cap amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) MEDICARE PROGRAM HOSPICE CARE Payment for Hospice Care § 418.309 Hospice cap amount. The hospice cap amount... Medicare beneficiaries who elected to receive hospice care from that hospice during the cap period. For... election to receive hospice care, in accordance with § 418.24, from the hospice during the......

  19. 40 CFR 35.930-2 - Grant amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Grant amount. 35.930-2 Section 35.930-2 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.930-2 Grant amount. The...

  20. 40 CFR 35.930-2 - Grant amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Grant amount. 35.930-2 Section 35.930-2 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.930-2 Grant amount. The...

  1. 40 CFR 35.930-2 - Grant amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grant amount. 35.930-2 Section 35.930-2 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.930-2 Grant amount. The...

  2. 40 CFR 35.930-2 - Grant amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Grant amount. 35.930-2 Section 35.930-2 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.930-2 Grant amount. The...

  3. 40 CFR 35.930-2 - Grant amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Grant amount. 35.930-2 Section 35.930-2 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.930-2 Grant amount. The...

  4. 14 CFR 198.7 - Amount of insurance coverage available.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Amount of insurance coverage available. 198.7 Section 198.7 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) WAR RISK INSURANCE AVIATION INSURANCE § 198.7 Amount of insurance coverage available. (a)...

  5. 14 CFR 198.7 - Amount of insurance coverage available.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Amount of insurance coverage available. 198.7 Section 198.7 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) WAR RISK INSURANCE AVIATION INSURANCE § 198.7 Amount of insurance coverage available. (a)...

  6. 14 CFR 198.7 - Amount of insurance coverage available.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Amount of insurance coverage available. 198.7 Section 198.7 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) WAR RISK INSURANCE AVIATION INSURANCE § 198.7 Amount of insurance coverage available. (a)...

  7. 45 CFR 2400.52 - Amount of stipend.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Amount of stipend. 2400.52 Section 2400.52 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) JAMES MADISON MEMORIAL FELLOWSHIP FOUNDATION FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS Fellowship Stipend § 2400.52 Amount of stipend. Junior and Senior...

  8. 20 CFR 404.373 - Parent's benefit amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Parent's benefit amounts. 404.373 Section 404... Parent's Benefits § 404.373 Parent's benefit amounts. Your parent's monthly benefit before any reduction that may be made as explained in § 404.304, is figured in one of the following ways: (a) One...

  9. 20 CFR 404.373 - Parent's benefit amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Parent's benefit amounts. 404.373 Section 404... Parent's Benefits § 404.373 Parent's benefit amounts. Your parent's monthly benefit before any reduction that may be made as explained in § 404.304, is figured in one of the following ways: (a) One...

  10. 20 CFR 404.373 - Parent's benefit amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Parent's benefit amounts. 404.373 Section 404... Parent's Benefits § 404.373 Parent's benefit amounts. Your parent's monthly benefit before any reduction that may be made as explained in § 404.304, is figured in one of the following ways: (a) One...

  11. 20 CFR 404.373 - Parent's benefit amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Parent's benefit amounts. 404.373 Section 404... Parent's Benefits § 404.373 Parent's benefit amounts. Your parent's monthly benefit before any reduction that may be made as explained in § 404.304, is figured in one of the following ways: (a) One...

  12. 20 CFR 404.373 - Parent's benefit amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Parent's benefit amounts. 404.373 Section 404... Parent's Benefits § 404.373 Parent's benefit amounts. Your parent's monthly benefit before any reduction that may be made as explained in § 404.304, is figured in one of the following ways: (a) One...

  13. 40 CFR 35.673 - Annual amount reserved by EPA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Annual amount reserved by EPA. 35.673... ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants for Tribes Public Water System Supervision (section 1443(a) and Section 1451) § 35.673 Annual amount reserved by EPA. Each year, EPA shall reserve...

  14. 40 CFR 35.673 - Annual amount reserved by EPA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Annual amount reserved by EPA. 35.673... ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants for Tribes Public Water System Supervision (section 1443(a) and Section 1451) § 35.673 Annual amount reserved by EPA. Each year, EPA shall reserve...

  15. 18 CFR 1312.16 - Civil penalty amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Civil penalty amounts. 1312.16 Section 1312.16 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES: UNIFORM REGULATIONS § 1312.16 Civil penalty amounts. (a) Maximum...

  16. 18 CFR 1312.16 - Civil penalty amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Civil penalty amounts. 1312.16 Section 1312.16 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES: UNIFORM REGULATIONS § 1312.16 Civil penalty amounts. (a) Maximum...

  17. 40 CFR 35.673 - Annual amount reserved by EPA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Annual amount reserved by EPA. 35.673 Section 35.673 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL... (section 1443(a) and Section 1451) § 35.673 Annual amount reserved by EPA. Each year, EPA shall reserve...

  18. 40 CFR 35.683 - Annual amount reserved by EPA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Annual amount reserved by EPA. 35.683 Section 35.683 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL... Protection (section 1443(b)) § 35.683 Annual amount reserved by EPA. EPA shall reserve up to five percent...

  19. 40 CFR 47.115 - Award amount and matching requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Award amount and matching requirements. 47.115 Section 47.115 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION ACT GRANTS § 47.115 Award amount and...

  20. 40 CFR 47.115 - Award amount and matching requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Award amount and matching requirements. 47.115 Section 47.115 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION ACT GRANTS § 47.115 Award amount and...

  1. 40 CFR 47.115 - Award amount and matching requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Award amount and matching requirements. 47.115 Section 47.115 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION ACT GRANTS § 47.115 Award amount and...

  2. 40 CFR 47.115 - Award amount and matching requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Award amount and matching requirements. 47.115 Section 47.115 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION ACT GRANTS § 47.115 Award amount and...

  3. 40 CFR 47.115 - Award amount and matching requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Award amount and matching requirements. 47.115 Section 47.115 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION ACT GRANTS § 47.115 Award amount and...

  4. 50 CFR 296.8 - Amount of award.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Amount of award. 296.8 Section 296.8 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CONTINENTAL SHELF FISHERMEN'S CONTINGENCY FUND § 296.8 Amount of award. (a)...

  5. 50 CFR 296.8 - Amount of award.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Amount of award. 296.8 Section 296.8 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CONTINENTAL SHELF FISHERMEN'S CONTINGENCY FUND § 296.8 Amount of award. (a)...

  6. 29 CFR 4.140 - Significance of contract amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Significance of contract amount. 4.140 Section 4.140 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor LABOR STANDARDS FOR FEDERAL SERVICE CONTRACTS Application of the McNamara-O'Hara Service Contract Act Determining Amount of Contract § 4.140 Significance of contract...

  7. 29 CFR 4.142 - Contracts in an indefinite amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Contracts in an indefinite amount. 4.142 Section 4.142 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor LABOR STANDARDS FOR FEDERAL SERVICE CONTRACTS Application of the McNamara-O'Hara Service Contract Act Determining Amount of Contract § 4.142 Contracts in an...

  8. 29 CFR 4.141 - General criteria for measuring amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true General criteria for measuring amount. 4.141 Section 4.141 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor LABOR STANDARDS FOR FEDERAL SERVICE CONTRACTS Application of the McNamara-O'Hara Service Contract Act Determining Amount of Contract § 4.141 General criteria...

  9. 42 CFR 423.279 - National average monthly bid amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... bid amounts for each prescription drug plan (not including fallbacks) and for each MA-PD plan...(h) of the Act. (b) Calculation of weighted average. (1) The national average monthly bid amount is a....258(c)(1) of this chapter) and the denominator equal to the total number of Part D...

  10. 28 CFR 104.41 - Amount of compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 104.41 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) SEPTEMBER 11TH VICTIM COMPENSATION FUND OF 2001 Amount of Compensation for Eligible Claimants. § 104.41 Amount of compensation. As... the terrorist-related aircraft crashes of September 11, 2001. In no event shall an award...

  11. 28 CFR 104.41 - Amount of compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 104.41 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) SEPTEMBER 11TH VICTIM COMPENSATION FUND OF 2001 Amount of Compensation for Eligible Claimants. § 104.41 Amount of compensation. As... the terrorist-related aircraft crashes of September 11, 2001. In no event shall an award...

  12. 45 CFR 63.17 - Amount of award.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Amount of award. 63.17 Section 63.17 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION GRANT PROGRAMS ADMINISTERED BY THE OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PLANNING AND EVALUATION Financial Provisions § 63.17 Amount...

  13. 20 CFR 404.342 - Mother's and father's benefit amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Mother's and father's benefit amounts. 404... Disability Benefits for Spouses and Divorced Spouses § 404.342 Mother's and father's benefit amounts. Your mother's or father's monthly benefit is equal to 75 percent of the insured person's primary...

  14. 20 CFR 404.342 - Mother's and father's benefit amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mother's and father's benefit amounts. 404... Disability Benefits for Spouses and Divorced Spouses § 404.342 Mother's and father's benefit amounts. Your mother's or father's monthly benefit is equal to 75 percent of the insured person's primary...

  15. 20 CFR 404.342 - Mother's and father's benefit amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Mother's and father's benefit amounts. 404... Disability Benefits for Spouses and Divorced Spouses § 404.342 Mother's and father's benefit amounts. Your mother's or father's monthly benefit is equal to 75 percent of the insured person's primary...

  16. 20 CFR 404.342 - Mother's and father's benefit amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Mother's and father's benefit amounts. 404... Disability Benefits for Spouses and Divorced Spouses § 404.342 Mother's and father's benefit amounts. Your mother's or father's monthly benefit is equal to 75 percent of the insured person's primary...

  17. 20 CFR 404.342 - Mother's and father's benefit amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Mother's and father's benefit amounts. 404... Disability Benefits for Spouses and Divorced Spouses § 404.342 Mother's and father's benefit amounts. Your mother's or father's monthly benefit is equal to 75 percent of the insured person's primary...

  18. 20 CFR 404.353 - Child's benefit amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Child's benefit amounts. 404.353 Section 404... Child's Benefits § 404.353 Child's benefit amounts. (a) General. Your child's monthly benefit is equal... as explained in § 404.304. (b) Entitlement to more than one benefit. If you are entitled to a...

  19. 20 CFR 404.353 - Child's benefit amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Child's benefit amounts. 404.353 Section 404... Child's Benefits § 404.353 Child's benefit amounts. (a) General. Your child's monthly benefit is equal... as explained in § 404.304. (b) Entitlement to more than one benefit. If you are entitled to a...

  20. 20 CFR 404.353 - Child's benefit amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Child's benefit amounts. 404.353 Section 404... Child's Benefits § 404.353 Child's benefit amounts. (a) General. Your child's monthly benefit is equal... as explained in § 404.304. (b) Entitlement to more than one benefit. If you are entitled to a...

  1. 20 CFR 404.353 - Child's benefit amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Child's benefit amounts. 404.353 Section 404... Child's Benefits § 404.353 Child's benefit amounts. (a) General. Your child's monthly benefit is equal... as explained in § 404.304. (b) Entitlement to more than one benefit. If you are entitled to a...

  2. 20 CFR 404.353 - Child's benefit amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Child's benefit amounts. 404.353 Section 404... Child's Benefits § 404.353 Child's benefit amounts. (a) General. Your child's monthly benefit is equal... as explained in § 404.304. (b) Entitlement to more than one benefit. If you are entitled to a...

  3. 42 CFR 124.705 - Amount of recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Amount of recovery. 124.705 Section 124.705 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT MEDICAL FACILITY CONSTRUCTION AND MODERNIZATION Recovery of Grant Funds § 124.705 Amount of recovery....

  4. 5 CFR 870.205 - Amount of Optional insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES' GROUP LIFE INSURANCE PROGRAM Types and Amount of Insurance § 870... beginning on or after October 30, 1998, Option A cannot exceed this amount. Exception: This does not apply... insurance (the first pay period beginning on or after October 30, 1998). (b)(1) Option B coverage comes in...

  5. 46 CFR 252.30 - Amount of subsidy payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... calculated for calendar years. (d) Negative rates. When an ODS rate in any category is less than zero... negative rate shall be deducted from positive rates in determining the daily ODS amount payable. (e... Subsidy Rates § 252.30 Amount of subsidy payable. (a) Daily rates. Daily ODS rates shall be used...

  6. An experimental test of the habitat-amount hypothesis for saproxylic beetles in a forested region.

    PubMed

    Seibold, Sebastian; Bässler, Claus; Brandl, Roland; Fahrig, Lenore; Förster, Bernhard; Heurich, Marco; Hothorn, Torsten; Scheipl, Fabian; Thorn, Simon; Müller, Jörg

    2017-03-19

    The habitat-amount hypothesis challenges traditional concepts that explain species richness within habitats, such as the habitat-patch hypothesis, where species number is a function of patch size and patch isolation. It posits that effects of patch size and patch isolation are driven by effects of sample area, and thus that the number of species at a site is basically a function of the total habitat amount surrounding this site. We tested the habitat-amount hypothesis for saproxylic beetles and their habitat of dead wood by using an experiment comprising 190 plots with manipulated patch sizes situated in a forested region with a high variation in habitat amount (i.e., density of dead trees in the surrounding landscape). Although dead wood is a spatio-temporally dynamic habitat, saproxylic insects have life cycles shorter than the time needed for habitat turnover and they closely track their resource. Patch size was manipulated by adding various amounts of downed dead wood to the plots (~800 m³ in total); dead trees in the surrounding landscape (~240 km²) were identified using airborne laser scanning (LiDAR). Over three years, 477 saproxylic species (101,416 individuals) were recorded. Considering 20-1,000 m radii around the patches, local landscapes were identified as having a radius of 40-120 m. Both patch size and habitat amount in the local landscapes independently affected species numbers without a significant interaction effect, hence refuting the island effect. Species accumulation curves relative to cumulative patch size were not consistent with either the habitat-patch hypothesis or the habitat-amount hypothesis: several small dead-wood patches held more species than a single large patch with an amount of dead wood equal to the sum of that of the small patches. Our results indicate that conservation of saproxylic beetles in forested regions should primarily focus on increasing the overall amount of dead wood without considering its spatial arrangement

  7. 46 CFR 117.25 - Additional requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Additional requirements. 117.25 Section 117.25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE THAN 150... General Provisions § 117.25 Additional requirements. (a) Each item of lifesaving equipment carried...

  8. 46 CFR 117.25 - Additional requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Additional requirements. 117.25 Section 117.25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE THAN 150... General Provisions § 117.25 Additional requirements. (a) Each item of lifesaving equipment carried...

  9. 46 CFR 117.25 - Additional requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Additional requirements. 117.25 Section 117.25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE THAN 150... General Provisions § 117.25 Additional requirements. (a) Each item of lifesaving equipment carried...

  10. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fletcher, James C. (Inventor); Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor); Burks, Harold D. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

  11. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor); Burks, Harold D. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of the additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

  12. Multifunctional lubricant additives and compositions thereof

    SciTech Connect

    Farng, L.O.; Horodysky, A.G.

    1991-03-26

    This paper discusses an antioxidant/ antiwear/extreme pressure/load carrying lubricant composition. It comprises a major proportion of an oil of lubricating viscosity or grease or other solid lubricant prepared therefrom and a minor amount of an ashless multifunctional antioxidant/antiwear/extreme pressure/load carrying additive product comprising a thiophosphate derived from a dihydrocarbyl dithiocarbamate.

  13. 14 CFR 1274.917 - Additional funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Pursuant to this Agreement, NASA is providing a fixed amount of funding for activities to be undertaken under the terms of this cooperative agreement. NASA is under no obligation to provide additional funds... increased commitment on the part of NASA under this cooperative agreement....

  14. 14 CFR 1274.917 - Additional funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Pursuant to this Agreement, NASA is providing a fixed amount of funding for activities to be undertaken under the terms of this cooperative agreement. NASA is under no obligation to provide additional funds... increased commitment on the part of NASA under this cooperative agreement....

  15. 14 CFR 1274.917 - Additional funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Pursuant to this Agreement, NASA is providing a fixed amount of funding for activities to be undertaken under the terms of this cooperative agreement. NASA is under no obligation to provide additional funds... increased commitment on the part of NASA under this cooperative agreement....

  16. Food Additives and Hyperkinesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wender, Ester H.

    1977-01-01

    The hypothesis that food additives are causally associated with hyperkinesis and learning disabilities in children is reviewed, and available data are summarized. Available from: American Medical Association 535 North Dearborn Street Chicago, Illinois 60610. (JG)

  17. Determination of sub microgram amounts of selenium in rocks by atomic-absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Golembeski, T

    1975-06-01

    Atomic-absorption spectroscopy was used to determine trace amounts of selenium accurately in U.S. Geological Survey standard rocks, GSP-1, W-1 and BCR-1. The results obtained were compared with those obtained by neutron-activation analysis and excellent agreement was found; in addition, the selenium:sulphur ratio was calculated and agreed with results obtained by other workers.

  18. Exploring Type and Amount of Parent Talk during Individualized Family Service Plan Meetings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ridgley, Robyn; Snyder, Patricia; McWilliam, R. A.

    2014-01-01

    We discuss the utility of a coding system designed to evaluate the amount and type of parent talk during individualized family service plan (IFSP) meetings. The iterative processes used to develop the "Parent Communication Coding System" (PCCS) and its associated codes are described. In addition, we explored whether PCCS codes could be…

  19. 42 CFR 419.41 - Calculation of national beneficiary copayment amounts and national Medicare program payment amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Calculation of national beneficiary copayment amounts and national Medicare program payment amounts. 419.41 Section 419.41 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE...

  20. 42 CFR 419.41 - Calculation of national beneficiary copayment amounts and national Medicare program payment amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Calculation of national beneficiary copayment amounts and national Medicare program payment amounts. 419.41 Section 419.41 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE...

  1. Small Families

    MedlinePlus

    ... more emphasis on careers for women, more effective methods of contraception, and the rising cost of rearing and educating children. There are some very clear benefits to having a small family; Each child receives more parental attention and educational advantages, which generally raise her self- ...

  2. Effect of Clay Amounts on Morphology and Mechanical Performances in Multiscale PET Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbosa, C. N.; Chabert, F.; Nassiet, V.; Viana, J. C.; Pereira, P.

    2011-05-01

    This work presents an investigation of the properties of poly(ethylene terephthalate)/glass fibres/nanoclay multiscale composites. The aim is to demonstrate the effect of adding various clay amounts on the morphology and mechanical performance of multiscale PET composites. Multiscale composites were prepared by adding 0.5, 1.0, 3.0, and 5.0 wt% of Cloisite15A montmorillonite: Initially, a masterbatch of pure PET blended with 10 wt% of Cloisite15A was obtained in a co-rotating twin screw extruder. The multiscale composites were then blended, via mechanical mixing, and injection moulded by adding the masterbatch to the glass fibre reinforced matrix. The morphological and mechanical characterizations of all compounds are discussed. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that the characteristic (001) peak of the nanocomposite obtained by extrusion (masterbatch) shifted to the lower angle region stating an intercalated structure. However, the subsequent injection moulding process changed the morphological structure of the multiscale nanocomposites reducing the basal distance mostly for small loadings of nanoclay. The addition of nanoclay to PET matrices increases the degree of crystallinity, the clay platelets possibly playing the role of nucleating agent, as revealed by DSC and FTIR. The time relaxation spectra broaden as seen by DMA, as the ratio of clay/polymer interfaces increases. The yield stress of composites with 0.5 and 1 wt% of C15A content are enhanced. For more than 3% of nanoclay, the yield stress decreases. The Young's modulus is increased when adding C15 nanoclay. Indeed, clay exfoliation was not attained, but the intercalated particle dispersion improved the stiffness properties of PET/glass fibres/nanoclay composites.

  3. Small Business Innovations (Helicopters)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The amount of engine power required for a helicopter to hover is an important, but difficult, consideration in helicopter design. The EHPIC program model produces converged, freely distorted wake geometries that generate accurate analysis of wake-induced downwash, allowing good predictions of rotor thrust and power requirements. Continuum Dynamics, Inc., the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) company that developed EHPIC, also produces RotorCRAFT, a program for analysis of aerodynamic loading of helicopter blades in forward flight. Both helicopter codes have been licensed to commercial manufacturers.

  4. Group Sparse Additive Models

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Junming; Chen, Xi; Xing, Eric P.

    2016-01-01

    We consider the problem of sparse variable selection in nonparametric additive models, with the prior knowledge of the structure among the covariates to encourage those variables within a group to be selected jointly. Previous works either study the group sparsity in the parametric setting (e.g., group lasso), or address the problem in the nonparametric setting without exploiting the structural information (e.g., sparse additive models). In this paper, we present a new method, called group sparse additive models (GroupSpAM), which can handle group sparsity in additive models. We generalize the ℓ1/ℓ2 norm to Hilbert spaces as the sparsity-inducing penalty in GroupSpAM. Moreover, we derive a novel thresholding condition for identifying the functional sparsity at the group level, and propose an efficient block coordinate descent algorithm for constructing the estimate. We demonstrate by simulation that GroupSpAM substantially outperforms the competing methods in terms of support recovery and prediction accuracy in additive models, and also conduct a comparative experiment on a real breast cancer dataset.

  5. Additive Manufacturing Infrared Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaddy, Darrell

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing is a rapid prototyping technology that allows parts to be built in a series of thin layers from plastic, ceramics, and metallics. Metallic additive manufacturing is an emerging form of rapid prototyping that allows complex structures to be built using various metallic powders. Significant time and cost savings have also been observed using the metallic additive manufacturing compared with traditional techniques. Development of the metallic additive manufacturing technology has advanced significantly over the last decade, although many of the techniques to inspect parts made from these processes have not advanced significantly or have limitations. Several external geometry inspection techniques exist such as Coordinate Measurement Machines (CMM), Laser Scanners, Structured Light Scanning Systems, or even traditional calipers and gages. All of the aforementioned techniques are limited to external geometry and contours or must use a contact probe to inspect limited internal dimensions. This presentation will document the development of a process for real-time dimensional inspection technique and digital quality record of the additive manufacturing process using Infrared camera imaging and processing techniques.

  6. 24 CFR 241.565 - Maximum loan amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Purchase and Installation of Energy Conserving Improvements, Solar Energy Systems, and Individual Utility... energy conserving improvements including the purchase thereof, cost of installation, architect's fees... of the energy conserving improvements. (b) An amount which, when added to the existing...

  7. 24 CFR 241.565 - Maximum loan amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Purchase and Installation of Energy Conserving Improvements, Solar Energy Systems, and Individual Utility... energy conserving improvements including the purchase thereof, cost of installation, architect's fees... of the energy conserving improvements. (b) An amount which, when added to the existing...

  8. 24 CFR 241.565 - Maximum loan amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Purchase and Installation of Energy Conserving Improvements, Solar Energy Systems, and Individual Utility... energy conserving improvements including the purchase thereof, cost of installation, architect's fees... of the energy conserving improvements. (b) An amount which, when added to the existing...

  9. 24 CFR 241.565 - Maximum loan amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Purchase and Installation of Energy Conserving Improvements, Solar Energy Systems, and Individual Utility... energy conserving improvements including the purchase thereof, cost of installation, architect's fees... of the energy conserving improvements. (b) An amount which, when added to the existing...

  10. 24 CFR 241.565 - Maximum loan amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Purchase and Installation of Energy Conserving Improvements, Solar Energy Systems, and Individual Utility... energy conserving improvements including the purchase thereof, cost of installation, architect's fees... of the energy conserving improvements. (b) An amount which, when added to the existing...

  11. 42 CFR 124.705 - Amount of recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... calculating a reproduction value using construction cost indexes or current costs per square foot for... constituted an approved project (or projects) as the amount of Federal participation bore to the cost of...

  12. 12 CFR 313.128 - Disposition of amounts collected.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... PROCEDURES FOR CORPORATE DEBT COLLECTION Tax Refund Offset § 313.128 Disposition of amounts collected. FMS... tax refund offset program. To the extent allowed by law, the FDIC may add the offset fees to the debt....

  13. 26 CFR 301.6334-3 - Determination of exempt amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... Taxpayer A completes the task in 10 weeks. The total exempt amount is $1,000 and $500 is subject to levy... situation or a change by operation of law (such as by indexing or otherwise) to the standard deduction...

  14. 43 CFR 2523.2 - Amounts to be paid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) DESERT-LAND ENTRIES Payments § 2523.2 Amounts to be paid. No fees or commissions are required of persons making entry under the desert land...

  15. 43 CFR 2523.2 - Amounts to be paid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) DESERT-LAND ENTRIES Payments § 2523.2 Amounts to be paid. No fees or commissions are required of persons making entry under the desert land...

  16. 43 CFR 2523.2 - Amounts to be paid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) DESERT-LAND ENTRIES Payments § 2523.2 Amounts to be paid. No fees or commissions are required of persons making entry under the desert land...

  17. 43 CFR 2523.2 - Amounts to be paid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) DESERT-LAND ENTRIES Payments § 2523.2 Amounts to be paid. No fees or commissions are required of persons making entry under the desert land...

  18. 47 CFR 3.45 - Amount of charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... AUTHORITIES IN MARITIME AND MARITIME MOBILE-SATELLITE RADIO SERVICES Settlement Operations § 3.45 Amount of... International Telecommunication Regulations (ITR) taking into account the applicable ITU-T Recommendations...

  19. 47 CFR 3.45 - Amount of charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... AUTHORITIES IN MARITIME AND MARITIME MOBILE-SATELLITE RADIO SERVICES Settlement Operations § 3.45 Amount of... International Telecommunication Regulations (ITR) taking into account the applicable ITU-T Recommendations...

  20. 47 CFR 3.45 - Amount of charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... AUTHORITIES IN MARITIME AND MARITIME MOBILE-SATELLITE RADIO SERVICES Settlement Operations § 3.45 Amount of... International Telecommunication Regulations (ITR) taking into account the applicable ITU-T Recommendations...

  1. 47 CFR 3.45 - Amount of charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... AUTHORITIES IN MARITIME AND MARITIME MOBILE-SATELLITE RADIO SERVICES Settlement Operations § 3.45 Amount of... International Telecommunication Regulations (ITR) taking into account the applicable ITU-T Recommendations...

  2. 47 CFR 3.45 - Amount of charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... AUTHORITIES IN MARITIME AND MARITIME MOBILE-SATELLITE RADIO SERVICES Settlement Operations § 3.45 Amount of... International Telecommunication Regulations (ITR) taking into account the applicable ITU-T Recommendations...

  3. 24 CFR 203.18 - Maximum mortgage amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... the Federal Register. (i) Energy efficient mortgages. The principal amount of energy efficient... prescribed by the Secretary in accordance with section 106 of the Energy Policy Act of 1992. Editorial...

  4. 24 CFR 203.18 - Maximum mortgage amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... the Federal Register. (i) Energy efficient mortgages. The principal amount of energy efficient... prescribed by the Secretary in accordance with section 106 of the Energy Policy Act of 1992. Editorial...

  5. 24 CFR 203.18 - Maximum mortgage amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... the Federal Register. (i) Energy efficient mortgages. The principal amount of energy efficient... prescribed by the Secretary in accordance with section 106 of the Energy Policy Act of 1992. Editorial...

  6. 44 CFR 11.78 - Computation of amount of award.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL CLAIMS Personnel Claims Regulations § 11.78 Computation of amount of... depreciated value, immediately prior to the loss or damage, of property lost or damaged beyond...

  7. 7 CFR 1735.16 - Minimum loan amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Basic Policies § 1735.16 Minimum loan amount. Recognizing plant costs, the borrower's cost of system design, and RUS's administrative costs, RUS will not consider applications for loans of less than $50,000....

  8. 24 CFR 213.279 - Maximum amount of distributive share.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Management Housing Insurance and Distributive Shares § 213.279 Maximum amount of distributive share. In no event shall a distributive share of the Participating Reserve Account exceed the aggregate...

  9. 45 CFR 148.312 - Amount of grant payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDIVIDUAL HEALTH INSURANCE MARKET Grants to States for Operation of Qualified High Risk... by the Secretary through acceptable industry data sources. (c) The amount awarded to each...

  10. 45 CFR 148.312 - Amount of grant payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDIVIDUAL HEALTH INSURANCE MARKET Grants to States for Operation of Qualified High Risk... by the Secretary through acceptable industry data sources. (c) The amount awarded to each...

  11. 5 CFR 870.1203 - Amount of insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES' GROUP LIFE INSURANCE PROGRAM Portability § 870.1203 Amount of insurance. (a... force reduces by 50 percent at the beginning of the 2nd calendar month after the individual reaches...

  12. Additives in plastics.

    PubMed Central

    Deanin, R D

    1975-01-01

    The polymers used in plastics are generally harmless. However, they are rarely used in pure form. In almost all commercial plastics, they are "compounded" with monomeric ingredients to improve their processing and end-use performance. In order of total volume used, these monomeric additives may be classified as follows: reinforcing fibers, fillers, and coupling agents; plasticizers; colorants; stabilizers (halogen stabilizers, antioxidants, ultraviolet absorbers, and biological preservatives); processing aids (lubricants, others, and flow controls); flame retardants, peroxides; and antistats. Some information is already available, and much more is needed, on potential toxicity and safe handling of these additives during processing and manufacture of plastics products. PMID:1175566

  13. Additives in plastics.

    PubMed

    Deanin, R D

    1975-06-01

    The polymers used in plastics are generally harmless. However, they are rarely used in pure form. In almost all commercial plastics, they are "compounded" with monomeric ingredients to improve their processing and end-use performance. In order of total volume used, these monomeric additives may be classified as follows: reinforcing fibers, fillers, and coupling agents; plasticizers; colorants; stabilizers (halogen stabilizers, antioxidants, ultraviolet absorbers, and biological preservatives); processing aids (lubricants, others, and flow controls); flame retardants, peroxides; and antistats. Some information is already available, and much more is needed, on potential toxicity and safe handling of these additives during processing and manufacture of plastics products.

  14. Nuclear DNA Amounts in Angiosperms: Progress, Problems and Prospects

    PubMed Central

    BENNETT, M. D.; LEITCH, I. J.

    2005-01-01

    CONTENTSINTRODUCTION45PROGRESS46    Improved systematic representation (species and families)46        (i) First estimates for species46        (ii) First estimates for families47PROBLEMS48    Geographical representation and distribution48    Plant life form48    Obsolescence time bomb49    Errors and inexactitudes49    Genome size, ‘complete’ genome sequencing, and, the euchromatic genome50    The completely sequenced genome50    Weeding out erroneous data52    What is the smallest reliable C-value for an angiosperm?52    What is the minimum C-value for a free-living angiosperm and other free-living organisms?53PROSPECTS FOR THE NEXT TEN YEARS54    Holistic genomics55LITERATURE CITED56APPENDIX59    Notes to the Appendix59    Original references for DNA values89 • Background The nuclear DNA amount in an unreplicated haploid chromosome complement (1C-value) is a key diversity character with many uses. Angiosperm C-values have been listed for reference purposes since 1976, and pooled in an electronic database since 1997 (http://www.kew.org/cval/homepage). Such lists are cited frequently and provide data for many comparative studies. The last compilation was published in 2000, so a further supplementary list is timely to monitor progress against targets set at the first plant genome size workshop in 1997 and to facilitate new goal setting. • Scope The present work lists DNA C-values for 804 species including first values for 628 species from 88 original sources, not included in any previous compilation, plus additional values for 176 species included in a previous compilation. • Conclusions 1998–2002 saw striking progress in our knowledge of angiosperm C-values. At least 1700 first values for species were measured (the most in any five-year period) and familial representation rose from 30 % to 50 %. The loss of many

  15. Small-Scale Performance Testing for Studying New Explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Gagliardi, F J; Chambers, R D; Tran, T D

    2005-04-29

    The development of new high-explosive (HE) formulations involves characterizing their safety and performance. Small-scale experiments requiring only a small amount of explosives are of interest because they can facilitate development while minimizing hazards and reducing cost. A detonation-spreading, dent test, called the Floret test, was designed to obtain performance data for new explosives. It utilizes the detonation of about a 1.0 g sample of HE, initiated by an accelerated aluminum flyer. Upon impact, the HE sample detonates and a copper witness plate absorbs the ensuing shock wave. The dent of the plate is then measured and correlated to the energetic output of the HE. Additionally, the dent measurement can be used to compare the performance of different explosives. The Floret test is beneficial because it quickly returns important performance information, while requiring only a small explosive sample. This work will explain the Floret test and discuss some exemplary results.

  16. Root responses to nitrogen pulse frequency under different nitrogen amounts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Qing-Ye; Wang, Pu; Liu, Lu; Dong, Bi-Cheng; Yu, Fei-Hai

    2017-04-01

    Responses of morphology and biomass allocation of roots to frequency of nitrogen (N) pulse potentially influence the fitness of plants, but such responses may be determined by root size. We grew 12 plant species of three functional groups (grasses, forbs, and legumes) under two N pulse frequencies (high vs. low supply frequency) and two N amounts (high vs. low supply amount). Compared to low-amount N supply, high-amount N supply stimulated biomass accumulation and root growth by either increasing the thickness and length of roots or decreasing the root mass fraction. Compared to low-frequency N supply, high-frequency N supply improved biomass accumulation and root growth in forbs or grasses, but not in legumes. Furthermore, the magnitude of the response to N frequency was significantly negatively correlated with root size at the species scale, but this was only true when the N amount was high. We conclude that root responses to N frequency are related to plant functional types, and non-legume species is more sensitive to N frequency than legume species. Our results also suggest that root size is a determinant of root responses to N frequency when N supply amount is high.

  17. Glycerol esters as fuel economy additives

    SciTech Connect

    Brewster, P.W.; Smith, C.R.; Gowland, F.W.

    1987-07-28

    A lubricating oil composition formulated is described for use as a crankcase lubricating oil composition for gasoline or diesel engines consisting essentially of a major amount of a mineral oil of a lubricating viscosity which has incorporated about 0.20 weight percent of a glycerol partial ester. The partial ester is a mixture of glycerol monooleate and glycerol dioleate. The mixture has a weight ratio of 3 parts of glycerol monooleate to 2 parts of glycerol dioleate the ester providing a fuel economy improvement of about 1 to 3 percent when the lubricating oil composition is employed in the crankcase of the engine. An ashless dispersant, a metal detergent additive, a zinc dihdyrocarbyl dithiophosphate anti-wear additive and an antioxidant. The dispersant, detergent, anti-wear additive and antioxidant are present in conventional amounts to provide their normal attendant functions.

  18. Small Business Innovations (Crystal Components)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Scientific Materials Corporation, Bozeman, MT developed the SciMax line of improved Nd:Yag crystals under an Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract with Langley Research Center. They reduced the amount of water trapped in the crystals during growth to improve the optical quality and efficiency. Applications of the crystals include fiber optics, telecommunications, welding, drilling, eye surgery and medical instrumentation.

  19. Additive-driven assembly of block copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Ying; Daga, Vikram; Anderson, Eric; Watkins, James

    2011-03-01

    One challenge to the formation of well ordered hybrid materials is the incorporation of nanoscale additives including metal, semiconductor and dielectric nanoparticles at high loadings while maintaining strong segregation. Here we describe the molecular and functional design of small molecule and nanoparticle additives that enhance phase segregation in their block copolymer host and enable high additive loadings. Our approach includes the use of hydrogen bond interactions between the functional groups on the additive or particle that serve as hydrogen bond donors and one segment of the block copolymer containing hydrogen bond acceptors. Further, the additives show strong selectively towards the targeted domains, leading to enhancements in contrast between properties of the phases. In addition to structural changes, we explore how large changes in the thermal and mechanical properties occur upon incorporation of the additives. Generalization of this additive-induced ordering strategy to various block copolymers will be discussed.

  20. Biobased lubricant additives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fully biobased lubricants are those formulated using all biobased ingredients, i.e. biobased base oils and biobased additives. Such formulations provide the maximum environmental, safety, and economic benefits expected from a biobased product. Currently, there are a number of biobased base oils that...