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Sample records for addition small amounts

  1. Controlling the drying and film formation processes of polymer solution droplets with addition of small amount of surfactants.

    PubMed

    Kajiya, Tadashi; Kobayashi, Wataru; Okuzono, Tohru; Doi, Masao

    2009-11-26

    We studied how the addition of surfactants alters the drying and film formation processes of polymer solution droplets with contact lines strongly fixed by bank structures. We found that even if the amount of surfactant is quite small, it drastically changes the final profile of the polymer film from a ringlike profile to a flat profile. This property is observed commonly, irrespective of the polymer concentration, droplet volume, and type of solvent. We conjecture that the inhomogeneous distribution of the surfactant caused by the outward capillary flow induces the Marangoni flow directed toward the center of the droplet, which suppresses the outward flow. The present phenomenon implies an effective method for controlling the profile of the polymer film in inkjet printing technologies.

  2. Grain refinement in heavy rare earth element-free sintered Nd–Fe–B magnets by addition of a small amount of molybdenum

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jin Woo; Lee, Won Suk; Byun, Jong Min; Kim, Young Do; Kim, Se Hoon

    2015-05-07

    We employed a modified refractory-metal-addition method to achieve higher coercivity and remanence in heavy rare earth element (HREE)-free Nd–Fe–B sintered magnets. This process involved inducing the formation of a homogeneous secondary phase at the grain boundaries during sintering, making it possible to control the intergrain diffusion by adding small amounts of Mo, a refractory metal. To control the microstructure of the secondary phase effectively, a metal organic compound of the refractory metal was coated on the surfaces of the particles of an HREE-free Nd–Fe–B powder. The average grain size after this process was 5.60 μm, which was approximately 1.8 μm smaller than that of the HREE-free sintered Nd–Fe–B magnets (7.4 μm). The coercivity of the magnets prepared through this process could be increased from 11.88 kOe to 13.91 kOe without decreasing their remanence.

  3. Creep Resistance of ZrO2 Ceramic Improved by the Addition of a Small Amount of Er2O3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martinez-Fernandez, Julian; Sayir, Ali; Farmer, Serene C.

    2003-01-01

    Zirconia (ZrO2) has great technological importance in structural, electrical, and chemical applications. It is the crucial component for state-of-the art thermal barrier coatings and an enabling component as a solid electrolyte for solid-oxide fuel cell systems. Pure ZrO2 is of limited use for industrial applications because of the phase transformations that occur. Upon the addition of stabilizers, cubic (c-ZrO2) and tetragonal (t-ZrO2) forms can be preserved. It is the stabilized and partially stabilized forms of zirconia that function as thermal barrier coatings, solid electrolytes, and oxygen sensors and that have numerous applications in the electrochemical industry. The cubic form of ZrO2 is typically stabilized through Y2O3 additions. However, Y2O3-stabilized zirconia is susceptible to deformation at high temperatures (greater than 900 C) because of the large number of slip systems and the high oxygen diffusion rates, which result in high creep rates at high temperatures. Successful use of ZrO2 at high temperatures requires that new dopant additives be found that will retain or enhance the desirable properties of cubic ZrO2 and yet produce a material with lower creep rates. At the NASA Glenn Research Center, erbium oxide (Er2O3) was identified as a promising dopant for improving the creep resistance of. ZrO2. The selection of Er2O3 was based on the strong interactions of point defects and dislocations. Single crystals of 5 mol% Er2O3- doped ZrO2 rods (4 mm in diameter) and monofilaments (200 to 300 mm in diameter and 30 cm long) were grown using the laser-heated float zone technique, and their creep behavior was measured as a function of temperature. The addition of 5 mol% Er2O3 to single-crystal ZrO2 improved its creep resistance at high temperatures by 2 to 3 orders of magnitude over state-of-the-art Y2O3-doped crystals. Detailed microstructural characterization of ZrO2-Er2O3 single crystals has identified new mechanisms for improving the creep resistance

  4. Interior. Distillation apparatus used for extracting small test amounts of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior. Distillation apparatus used for extracting small test amounts of latex from plant fiber. - Thomas A. Edison Laboratories, Building No. 2, Main Street & Lakeside Avenue, West Orange, Essex County, NJ

  5. Ottawa moves to decriminalize small amounts of marijuana.

    PubMed

    Thaczuk, Derek

    2003-08-01

    Making good on a promise made in December 2002, the federal government has tabled a bill that would decriminalize possession of small amounts of marijuana. However, the bill would also toughen penalties for growing large amounts. The bill is part of a renewed Canada Drug Strategy that emphasizes the need to discourage cannabis use. PMID:14746294

  6. More on wormholes supported by small amounts of exotic matter

    SciTech Connect

    Kuhfittig, Peter K.F.

    2006-04-15

    Recent papers by Fewster and Roman have emphasized that wormholes supported by arbitrarily small amounts of exotic matter will have to be incredibly fine-tuned if they are to be traversable. This paper discusses a wormhole model that strikes a balance between two conflicting requirements, reducing the amount of exotic matter and fine-tuning the metric coefficients, ultimately resulting in an engineering challenge: one requirement can only be met at the expense of the other. The wormhole model is macroscopic and satisfies various traversability criteria.

  7. Abnormal behavior of silica doped with small amounts of aluminum

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jinling; Wang, Yiguang; An, Linan

    2016-01-01

    Silica is the most abundant mineral in the crust of the Earth. It has been demonstrated that the aluminum concentration in silica plays a key role in determining many properties of silica-based components. Although the alumina-silica system has been intensely studied, the effect of very small amounts of aluminum on the structure and properties of silica remains unclear. We report results of first principles calculations showing that small amounts of aluminum could be metastable when located in the center of Si-O rings without breaking the silica network. In contrast, higher aluminum contents will result in the destruction of the Si-O bonds, leading to the formation of triclusters and a 4-, 5-, and 6-fold Al-O coordination, as observed in previous studies. Based on the silica structure obtained through geometric optimization, the properties of silica doped with small amounts of aluminum were calculated. The results can account for many ‘abnormal’ phenomena experimentally observed. The results benefit most areas such as geosciences, microelectronics, glass industry, and ceramic materials. PMID:27752133

  8. 75 FR 58285 - Short-Term, Small Amount Loans

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-24

    ... ceiling for STS loans, provided FCUs made the loans within the requirements of the rule. 75 FR 2447 (May 5... in which a borrower is charged additional fees for extending or ``re-borrowing'' funds to avoid... access to credit to preclude the need for a borrower to also borrow from a payday lender. The Board...

  9. Dendrite-Free Li Deposition Using Trace-Amounts of Water as an Electrolyte Additive

    SciTech Connect

    Qian, Jiangfeng; Xu, Wu; Bhattacharya, Priyanka; Engelhard, Mark H.; Henderson, Wesley A.; Zhang, Yaohui; Zhang, Jiguang

    2015-07-01

    Residual water presents in nonaqueous electrolytes has been widely regarded as a detrimental factor for lithium (Li) batteries. This is because water is highly reactive with the commonly used LiPF6 salt and leads to the formation of HF that corrodes battery materials. In this work, we demonstrate that a controlled trace-amount of water (25-100 ppm) can be an effective electrolyte additive for achieving dendrite-free Li metal deposition in LiPF6-based electrolytes and avoid its detrimental effect at the same time. Detailed analyses reveal that the trace amount of HF formed by the decomposition reaction of LiPF6 with water will be electrochemically reduced during initial Li deposition process to form a uniform and dense LiF-rich SEI layer on the surface of the substrate. This LiF-rich SEI layer leads to a uniform distribution of the electric field on the substrate surface and enables uniform and dendrite-free Li deposition. Meanwhile the detrimental effect of HF is diminished due to the consumption of HF in the LiF formation process. Microscopic analysis reveals that the as-deposited dendrite-free Li films exhibit a self-aligned and highly-compacted Li nanorods structure which is consistent with their charming blue color or known as structure color. These findings clearly demonstrate a novel approach to control the nucleation and grow process of Li metal films using well-controlled trace-amount of water. They also shine the light on the effect of water on other electrodeposition processes.

  10. Determination of small amounts of molybdenum in tungsten and molybdenum ores

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grimaldi, F.S.; Wells, R.C.

    1943-01-01

    A rapid method has been developed for the determination of small amounts of molybdenum in tungsten and molybdenum ores. After removing iron and other major constituents the molybdenum thiocyanate color is developed in water-acetone solutions, using ammonium citrate to eliminate the interference of tungsten. Comparison is made by titrating a blank with a standard molybdenum solution. Aliquots are adjusted to deal with amounts of molybdenum ranging from 0.01 to 1.30 mg.

  11. Interactions between cocoa flavanols and inorganic nitrate: additive effects on endothelial function at achievable dietary amounts.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Mateos, Ana; Hezel, Michael; Aydin, Hilal; Kelm, Malte; Lundberg, Jon O; Weitzberg, Eddie; Spencer, Jeremy P E; Heiss, Christian

    2015-03-01

    Dietary intervention studies have shown that flavanols and inorganic nitrate can improve vascular function, suggesting that these two bioactives may be responsible for beneficial health effects of diets rich in fruits and vegetables. We aimed to study interactions between cocoa flavanols (CF) and nitrate, focusing on absorption, bioavailability, excretion, and efficacy to increase endothelial function. In a double-blind randomized, dose-response crossover study, flow-mediated dilation (FMD) was measured in 15 healthy subjects before and at 1, 2, 3, and 4 h after consumption of CF (1.4-10.9 mg/kg bw) or nitrate (0.1-10 mg/kg bw). To study flavanol-nitrate interactions, an additional intervention trial was performed with nitrate and CF taken in sequence at low and high amounts. FMD was measured before (0 h) and at 1h after ingestion of nitrate (3 or 8.5 mg/kg bw) or water. Then subjects received a CF drink (2.7 or 10.9 mg/kg bw) or a micro- and macronutrient-matched CF-free drink. FMD was measured at 1, 2, and 4 h thereafter. Blood and urine samples were collected and assessed for CF and nitric oxide (NO) metabolites with HPLC and gas-phase reductive chemiluminescence. Finally, intragastric formation of NO after CF and nitrate consumption was investigated. Both CF and nitrate induced similar intake-dependent increases in FMD. Maximal values were achieved at 1 h postingestion and gradually decreased to reach baseline values at 4 h. These effects were additive at low intake levels, whereas CF did not further increase FMD after high nitrate intake. Nitrate did not affect flavanol absorption, bioavailability, or excretion, but CF enhanced nitrate-related gastric NO formation and attenuated the increase in plasma nitrite after nitrate intake. Both flavanols and inorganic nitrate can improve endothelial function in healthy subjects at intake amounts that are achievable with a normal diet. Even low dietary intake of these bioactives may exert relevant effects on endothelial

  12. 25 CFR 39.141 - What is the amount of the Small School Adjustment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... EQUALIZATION PROGRAM Indian School Equalization Formula Small School Adjustment § 39.141 What is the amount of... will use the following formula to determine the number of WSU for its adjustment. With X being the ADM, the formula is as follows: WSU adjustment = ((100−X)/200)*X...

  13. Establishment of powder dustiness evaluation method by dustmeter with small amount of pharmaceutical ingredients.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Tomoaki; Maeda, Hiroyuki; Kubota, Ryuji; Koga, Akiko; Terada, Katsuhide

    2014-09-10

    The ratio of high potent materials in the new chemical entities has recently increased in the pharmaceutical industry. Generally, most of them are highly hazardous, but there is little toxicity information about the active pharmaceutical ingredients in the early development period. Even if their handling amount is quite small, the dustiness of high potent powder generated in the manufacturing process has an important impact on worker health; thus, it is important to understand the powder dustiness. The purpose of this study was to establish a method to evaluate the powder dustiness by the consumption of small amount of samples. The optimized measurement conditions for a commercially available dustmeter were confirmed using lactose monohydrate and naproxen sodium. The optimized test conditions were determined: the dustmeter mode, the flow rate, the drum rotation speed, the total measurement time, and sample loaded weight were type I mode, 4 L/min, 10 rpm, 1 min and 1-10 g , respectively. The setup conditions of the dustmeter are considerably valuable to pharmaceutical industries, especially, at the early development stage and especially for expensive materials, because the amount of air-borne dust can be evaluated with accuracy by the consumption of small amount of samples.

  14. View looking west down northeast side of building. Small additions ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View looking west down northeast side of building. Small additions and control tower visible. - Naval Air Station North Island, Seaplane Hangars, Roe Street, North Island, San Diego, San Diego County, CA

  15. Harnessing a Nanostructured Fluorescence Energy Transfer Sensor for Quick Detection of Extremely Small Amounts of Glucose

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jin; Wang, Xianbin; Chen, Longyan; Li, Jiaxin; Luzak, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Fluorescence technique is one of the major solutions for achieving the continuous and noninvasive glucose sensor for diabetes. In this article, a highly sensitive nanostructured sensor is developed to detect extremely small amounts of aqueous glucose by applying fluorescence energy transfer (FRET). A one-pot method is applied to produce the dextran-fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-conjugating mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs), which afterward interact with the tetramethylrhodamine isothiocyanate (TRITC)-labeled concanavalin A (Con A) to form the FRET nanoparticles (FITC-dextran-Con A-TRITC@MSNs). The nanostructured glucose sensor is then formed via the self-assembly of the FRET nanoparticles on a transparent, flexible, and biocompatible substrate, e.g., poly(dimethylsiloxane). Our results indicate the diameter of the MSNs is 60 ± 5 nm. The difference in the images before and after adding 20 μl of glucose (0.10 mmol/liter) on the FRET sensor can be detected in less than 2 min by the laser confocal laser scanning microscope. The correlation between the ratio of fluorescence intensity, I(donor)/I(acceptor), of the FRET sensor and the concentration of aqueous glucose in the range of 0.04–4 mmol/liter has been investigated; a linear relationship is found. Furthermore, the durability of the nanostructured FRET sensor is evaluated for 5 days. In addition, the recorded images can be converted to digital images by obtaining the pixels from the resulting matrix using Matlab image processing functions. We have also studied the in vitro cytotoxicity of the device. The nanostructured FRET sensor may provide an alternative method to help patients manage the disease continuously. PMID:23439159

  16. A simple biosynthetic pathway for large product generation from small substrate amounts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djordjevic, Marko; Djordjevic, Magdalena

    2012-10-01

    A recently emerging discipline of synthetic biology has the aim of constructing new biosynthetic pathways with useful biological functions. A major application of these pathways is generating a large amount of the desired product. However, toxicity due to the possible presence of toxic precursors is one of the main problems for such production. We consider here the problem of generating a large amount of product from a potentially toxic substrate. To address this, we propose a simple biosynthetic pathway, which can be induced in order to produce a large number of the product molecules, by keeping the substrate amount at low levels. Surprisingly, we show that the large product generation crucially depends on fast non-specific degradation of the substrate molecules. We derive an optimal induction strategy, which allows as much as three orders of magnitude increase in the product amount through biologically realistic parameter values. We point to a recently discovered bacterial immune system (CRISPR/Cas in E. coli) as a putative example of the pathway analysed here. We also argue that the scheme proposed here can be used not only as a stand-alone pathway, but also as a strategy to produce a large amount of the desired molecules with small perturbations of endogenous biosynthetic pathways.

  17. Preferences of dairy cows for three stall surface materials with small amounts of bedding.

    PubMed

    Norring, M; Manninen, E; de Passillé, A M; Rushen, J; Saloniemi, H

    2010-01-01

    Farmers' concerns about the economy, cost of labor, and hygiene have resulted in reduced use of organic bedding in stalls for dairy cows; however, the reduced use of organic bedding possibly impairs cow comfort. The effects of different stall surface materials were evaluated in an unheated building in which only a small amount of bedding was used. The lying time and preferences of 18 cows using 3 stall surface materials (concrete, soft rubber mat, and sand) were compared. All materials were lightly bedded with a small amount of straw, and the amount of straw added to each stall was measured. The cows only had access to stalls of one surface type while their lying time was observed. Lying times were longest on the rubber mats compared with other surfaces (rubber mat 768; concrete 727; sand 707+/-16 min/d). In a preference test, cows had access to 2 of the 3 types of stalls for 10 d and their stall preference was measured. Cows preferred stalls with rubber mats to stalls with a concrete floor (median 73 vs. 18 from a total of 160 observations per day; interquartile range was 27 and 12, respectively), but showed no preference for sand stalls compared with stalls with a concrete floor or with rubber mats. More straw was needed on sand stalls compared with concrete or mat (638+/-13 g/d on sand, 468+/-10 g/d on concrete, and 464+/-8 g/d on rubber mats). Lying times on bedded mats indicated that mats were comfortable for the cows. If availability or cost of bedding material requires limiting the amount of bedding used, rubber mats may help maintain cow comfort.

  18. The influence of a small amount of maleic acid on crystal deposition phenomena of methacrylic acid in melt crystallization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hino, Tomomichi; Kato, Shinpei; Takiyama, Hiroshi

    2013-06-01

    Crystal deposition phenomena were investigated in the suspension melt crystallization of an organic acid. Methacrylic acid was used as the target substance, a certain amount of methanol was used as the solvent, and the effect of a small amount of maleic acid by-produced in methacrylic acid synthesis was focused on. Batch crystallizations were carried out on a laboratory scale using various concentrations of maleic acid. In the presence of maleic acid, a certain deviation from equilibrium of the pure binary system was observed in the final composition of mother liquor. Moreover, nevertheless the final temperature in the crystallizer was same, the amount of crystal deposition in the presence of maleic acid was smaller than in the absence of maleic acid. It was suggested that the final amount of crystal deposition decreased in the presence of maleic acid. Additionally, it was observed that the obtained crystal size was smaller in the presence of maleic acid. Hence, a simplified kinetic analysis of crystal deposition rates was carried out to make the effect of maleic acid clear. Consequently, it was suggested that the cause of the above-mentioned phenomena was the existence of the maleic acid concentration dependent pseudo-liquidus line.

  19. Equilibrium and Steady State of Dense Z-Pinches Superposing a Small Amount of Axial Flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, Mitsuhiro; Miyamoto, Tetsu

    2016-07-01

    The pressure equilibrium and steady state of z-pinches trapping a small amount of axial magnetic flux are studied. The Bennett relation and the Pease-Braginskii-current are modified, taking into account the superposed axial field. The line energy density decreases in the modified Bennett relation, but the decrease is only of the order ɛ2, where ɛ = (the axial field strength at the axis)/(the azimuthal field strength at the plasma periphery) ≪ 1. On the other hand, the current in the steady state can increase without being limited by the Pease-Braginskii-current. Hence, the radiation collapse is prevented. The decrease of line energy density in the modified Bennett relation is almost canceled in the steady state.

  20. Boiling point measurement of a small amount of brake fluid by thermocouple and its application.

    PubMed

    Mogami, Kazunari

    2002-09-01

    This study describes a new method for measuring the boiling point of a small amount of brake fluid using a thermocouple and a pear shaped flask. The boiling point of brake fluid was directly measured with an accuracy that was within approximately 3 C of that determined by the Japanese Industrial Standards method, even though the sample volume was only a few milliliters. The method was applied to measure the boiling points of brake fluid samples from automobiles. It was clear that the boiling points of brake fluid from some automobiles dropped to approximately 140 C from about 230 C, and that one of the samples from the wheel cylinder was approximately 45 C lower than brake fluid from the reserve tank. It is essential to take samples from the wheel cylinder, as this is most easily subjected to heating.

  1. Arbitrarily small amount of measurement independence is sufficient to manifest quantum nonlocality.

    PubMed

    Pütz, Gilles; Rosset, Denis; Barnea, Tomer Jack; Liang, Yeong-Cherng; Gisin, Nicolas

    2014-11-01

    The use of Bell's theorem in any application or experiment relies on the assumption of free choice or, more precisely, measurement independence, meaning that the measurements can be chosen freely. Here, we prove that even in the simplest Bell test-one involving 2 parties each performing 2 binary-outcome measurements-an arbitrarily small amount of measurement independence is sufficient to manifest quantum nonlocality. To this end, we introduce the notion of measurement dependent locality and show that the corresponding correlations form a convex polytope. These correlations can thus be characterized efficiently, e.g., using a finite set of Bell-like inequalities-an observation that enables the systematic study of quantum nonlocality and related applications under limited measurement independence. PMID:25415887

  2. Magnetic properties of the ammonolysis product of α-Fe powder containing a small amount of aluminum

    SciTech Connect

    Tsugawa, Yuta; Maubuchi, Yuji; Motohashi, Teruki; Kikkawa, Shinichi

    2015-02-15

    Magnetite was prepared containing a small amount of aluminum and its nitride was generated through low temperature ammonolysis following reduction under hydrogen. The nitrided product was determined by XRD to be a mixture of “α″-Fe{sub 16}N{sub 2}” having a slightly deformed crystal structure from α″-Fe{sub 16}N{sub 2} and the residual α-Fe. Magnetic coercivity of the mixture was decreased from the value of 150 mT obtained for the nitride product made without aluminum, due to the precipitation of nonmagnetic amorphous alumina in the low temperature nitrided bcc (Fe{sub 1−x}Al{sub x}) with x≤0.03. The aluminum-doped nitride product in which the “α″-Fe{sub 16}N{sub 2}” fraction was 30 at% exhibited magnetization at 1.5 T of approximately 200 Am{sup 2}kg{sup −1} at room temperature and its magnetic coercivity was 20 mT. - Graphical abstract: Magnetic iron nitride particles were separated by nonmagnetic amorphous γ-alumina. Magnetic coercivity was decreased by reducing the magnetic interaction between the particles. - Highlights: • Magnetic coercivity decreased in α”-Fe{sub 16}N{sub 2} like compound as a soft magnet. • Small amount of Al addition was effective in its preparation. • Magnetic interaction decreased between the “α”-Fe{sub 16}N{sub 2}” particles.

  3. The effect of yttrium addition on oxidation of a sputtered nanocrystalline coating with moderate amount of tantalum in composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jinlong; Chen, Minghui; Yang, Lanlan; Liu, Li; Zhu, Shenglong; Wang, Fuhui; Meng, Guozhe

    2016-03-01

    The effect of yttrium addition on isothermal oxidation at 1050 °C of a sputtered nanocrystalline coating with moderate amount of tantalum in composition was investigated. Results indicate that yttrium addition delays transformation of metastable θ-Al2O3 to equilibrium α-Al2O3 grown on the nanocrystalline coatings. It prevents scale rumpling and promotes the formation of oxide pegs at interface between the oxide scale and the underlying coating. Besides, yttrium prefers to segregate at grain boundaries of the nanocrystalline coating and retards the outward transportation of tantalum from coating to oxide scale, thus reducing the excessive oxidation of tantalum.

  4. Spatial concentration distribution model for short-range continuous gas leakage of small amount

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Meirong; Wang, Lingxue; Li, Jiakun; Long, Yunting; Gao, Yue

    2012-06-01

    Passive infrared gas imaging systems have been utilized in the equipment leak detection and repair in chemical manufacturers and petroleum refineries. The detection performance mainly relates to the sensitivity of infrared detector, optical depth of gas, atmospheric transmission, wind speed, and so on. Based on our knowledge, the spatial concentration distribution of continuously leaking gas plays an important part in leak detection. Several computational model of gas diffusion were proposed by researchers, such as Gaussian model, BM model, Sutton model and FEM3 model. But these models focus on calculating a large scale gas concentration distribution for a great amount of gas leaks above over 100- meter height, and not applicable to assess detection limit of a gas imaging system in short range. In this paper, a wind tunnel experiment is designed. Under different leaking rate and wind speed, concentration in different spatial positions is measured by portable gas detectors. Through analyzing the experimental data, the two parameters σy(x) and σz (x) that determine the plume dispersion in Gaussian model are adjusted to produce the best curve fit to the gas concentration data. Then a concentration distribution model for small mount gas leakage in short range is established. Various gases, ethylene and methane are used to testify this model.

  5. Spectrophotometric catalytic determination of small amounts of rhenium in mineralized rocks and molybdenite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simon, F.O.; Grimaldi, F.S.

    1962-01-01

    Rhenium is determined by spectrophotometry of the tellurium sol formed by the reduction of tellurate by stannous chloride under the catalytic influence of rhenium. A detailed investigation of the conditions for high sensitivity and stability at lowest concentration levels of rhenium is presented as well as the behavior of 26 ions. The method is applied to the determination of some tenths of 1 p.p.m. or more of rhenium in a 1-mg. aliquot of mineralized rocks, mixtures of molybdenite and rocks, and molybdenite concentrates. The practical quantity limit of detection is 2 ?? 10-10 gram of rhenium. Samples are decomposed with a mixture of CaO, CaCl2, and MgO. On leaching, most constituents of the sample are precipitated either as calcium salts or hydroxides, except for rhenium and a small amount of molybdenum which pass into the filtrate. Residual molybdenum is removed by extraction with 8-quinolinol in chloroform. Better than 95% recoveries are obtained with two fusions with flux.

  6. Shrinkage Behavior and Diffusion in Ni-based Internal Electrodes with Additional Amount and Particle Size of BaTiO3 Additive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Ji-Hun; Joo, Dongwon; Jung, Yeon-Gil; Paik, Ungyu

    2008-02-01

    The effect of additional amount and particle size of BaTiO3 additive on shrinkage behavior and inter-diffusion in Ni-based internal electrodes has been investigated, in order to reduce the large shrinkage mismatch between the internal electrode and the dielectric layer and to control the thermal and/or residual stresses in multilayer ceramic capacitors (MLCCs). Ni powder of 100-500 nm and two kinds of BaTiO3 powders of 100 and 200 nm were used as matrix and additive, respectively. The Ni and BaTiO3 powders were mixed with volume ratios of 95:5, 90:10, 85:15, respectively, and then cold-isostatic pressed. The shrinkage of starting materials and each composite was measured in a range of 700-1300 °C with 150 °C interval in H2/Ar atmosphere, using ASTM standard method. Diffusion phenomena at interface of Ni/BaTiO3 composites with 85:15 and 90:10 volume ratios were investigated using SEM, EDX, and TEM. The particle size affects the shrinkage behavior in relatively low temperatures below 1000 °C, showing a turning point at that temperature. The final shrinkage of composites is matched with that of bulk BaTiO3 of smaller particle size, independent of additional amount of BaTiO3 additive. A reaction layer of about 1000 nm wide is observed at the interface between the Ni and BaTiO3 powders in the composite of 85:15 volume ratio. The quantitative amount of elemental Ni diffused into the BaTiO3 is about 9.7 mass% in the composite of 90:10 volume ratio, without another phase seen in the Ni.

  7. Fabrication of high quality cDNA microarray using a small amount of cDNA.

    PubMed

    Park, Chan Hee; Jeong, Ha Jin; Jung, Jae Jun; Lee, Gui Yeon; Kim, Sang-Chul; Kim, Tae Soo; Yang, Sang Hwa; Chung, Hyun Cheol; Rha, Sun Young

    2004-05-01

    DNA microarray technology has become an essential part of biological research. It enables the genome-scale analysis of gene expression in various types of model systems. Manufacturing high quality cDNA microarrays of microdeposition type depends on some key factors including a printing device, spotting pins, glass slides, spotting solution, and humidity during spotting. UsingEthe Microgrid II TAS model printing device, this study defined the optimal conditions for producing high density, high quality cDNA microarrays with the least amount of cDNA product. It was observed that aminosilane-modified slides were superior to other types of surface modified-slides. A humidity of 30+/-3% in a closed environment and the overnight drying of the spotted slides gave the best conditions for arraying. In addition, the cDNA dissolved in 30% DMSO gave the optimal conditions for spotting compared to the 1X ArrayIt, 3X SSC and 50% DMSO. Lastly, cDNA in the concentration range of 100-300 ng/ micro l was determined to be best for arraying and post-processing. Currently, the printing system in this study yields reproducible 9000 spots with a spot size 150 mm diameter, and a 200 nm spot spacing. PMID:15067369

  8. Contribution to the photometric determination of small amounts of boron trioxide in glasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markova, D.

    1985-01-01

    The photometric determination for boron trioxide is described in amounts of 0-75 micrograms B2O3 with an azomethin H reagent. The yellow colored complex which occurs in a medium held at a pH of 4.5 was measured in light of a wavelength of 415 nm.

  9. Small Amounts of Archaic Admixture Provide Big Insights into Human History.

    PubMed

    Vattathil, Selina; Akey, Joshua M

    2015-10-01

    Modern humans overlapped in time and space with other hominins, such as Neanderthals and Denisovans, and limited amounts of hybridization occurred. Here, we review recent work that has identified archaic hominin sequence that survives in modern human genomes and what these genomic excavations reveal about human evolutionary history. PMID:26451479

  10. A Discounted Cash Flow variant to detect the optimal amount of additional burdens in Public-Private Partnership transactions

    PubMed Central

    Copiello, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    The Discounted Cash Flow method is a long since well-known tool to assess the feasibility of investment projects, as the background which shapes a broad range of techniques, from the Cost-Benefit Analysis up to the Life-Cycle Cost Analysis. Its rationale lies in the comparison of deferred values, only once they have been discounted back to the present. The DCF variant proposed here fits into a specific application field. It is well-suited to the evaluations required in order to structure equitable transactions under the umbrella of Public-Private Partnership. • The discount rate relies upon the concept of expected return on equity, instead than on those of weighted average cost of capital, although the latter is the most common reference within the scope of real estate investment valuation. • Given a feasible project, whose Net Present Value is more than satisfactory, we aim to identify the amount of the additional burdens that could be charged to the project, under the condition of keeping the same economically viable. • The DCF variant essentially deals with an optimization problem, which can be solved by means of simple one-shot equations, derived from financial mathematics, or through iterative calculations if additional constraints must be considered. PMID:27054095

  11. A Discounted Cash Flow variant to detect the optimal amount of additional burdens in Public-Private Partnership transactions.

    PubMed

    Copiello, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    The Discounted Cash Flow method is a long since well-known tool to assess the feasibility of investment projects, as the background which shapes a broad range of techniques, from the Cost-Benefit Analysis up to the Life-Cycle Cost Analysis. Its rationale lies in the comparison of deferred values, only once they have been discounted back to the present. The DCF variant proposed here fits into a specific application field. It is well-suited to the evaluations required in order to structure equitable transactions under the umbrella of Public-Private Partnership. •The discount rate relies upon the concept of expected return on equity, instead than on those of weighted average cost of capital, although the latter is the most common reference within the scope of real estate investment valuation.•Given a feasible project, whose Net Present Value is more than satisfactory, we aim to identify the amount of the additional burdens that could be charged to the project, under the condition of keeping the same economically viable.•The DCF variant essentially deals with an optimization problem, which can be solved by means of simple one-shot equations, derived from financial mathematics, or through iterative calculations if additional constraints must be considered. PMID:27054095

  12. A Discounted Cash Flow variant to detect the optimal amount of additional burdens in Public-Private Partnership transactions.

    PubMed

    Copiello, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    The Discounted Cash Flow method is a long since well-known tool to assess the feasibility of investment projects, as the background which shapes a broad range of techniques, from the Cost-Benefit Analysis up to the Life-Cycle Cost Analysis. Its rationale lies in the comparison of deferred values, only once they have been discounted back to the present. The DCF variant proposed here fits into a specific application field. It is well-suited to the evaluations required in order to structure equitable transactions under the umbrella of Public-Private Partnership. •The discount rate relies upon the concept of expected return on equity, instead than on those of weighted average cost of capital, although the latter is the most common reference within the scope of real estate investment valuation.•Given a feasible project, whose Net Present Value is more than satisfactory, we aim to identify the amount of the additional burdens that could be charged to the project, under the condition of keeping the same economically viable.•The DCF variant essentially deals with an optimization problem, which can be solved by means of simple one-shot equations, derived from financial mathematics, or through iterative calculations if additional constraints must be considered.

  13. Influence of Lithium Additives in Small Molecule Light-Emitting Electrochemical Cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Kuo-Yao; Bastatas, Lyndon D; Suhr, Kristin J; Moore, Matthew D; Holliday, Bradley J; Minary-Jolandan, Majid; Slinker, Jason D

    2016-07-01

    Light-emitting electrochemical cells (LEECs) utilizing small molecule emitters such as iridium complexes have great potential as low-cost emissive devices. In these devices, ions rearrange during operation to facilitate carrier injection, bringing about efficient operation from simple, single layer devices. Recent work has shown that the luminance, efficiency, and responsiveness of iridium-based LEECs are greatly enhanced by the inclusion of small amounts of lithium salts (≤0.5%/wt) into the active layer. However, the origin of this enhancement has yet to be demonstrated experimentally. Furthermore, although iridium-based devices have been the longstanding leader among small molecule LEECs, fundamental understanding of the ionic distribution in these devices under operation is lacking. Herein, we use scanning Kelvin probe microscopy to measure the in situ potential profiles and electric field distributions of planar iridium-based LEECs and clarify the role of ionic lithium additives. In pristine devices, it is found that ions do not pack densely at the cathode, and ionic redistribution is slow. Inclusion of small amounts of Li[PF6] greatly increases ionic space charge near the cathode that doubles the peak electric fields and enhances electronic injection relative to pristine devices. This study confirms and clarifies a number of longstanding hypotheses regarding iridium LEECs and recent postulates concerning optimization of their operation. PMID:27299981

  14. Influence of Lithium Additives in Small Molecule Light-Emitting Electrochemical Cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Kuo-Yao; Bastatas, Lyndon D; Suhr, Kristin J; Moore, Matthew D; Holliday, Bradley J; Minary-Jolandan, Majid; Slinker, Jason D

    2016-07-01

    Light-emitting electrochemical cells (LEECs) utilizing small molecule emitters such as iridium complexes have great potential as low-cost emissive devices. In these devices, ions rearrange during operation to facilitate carrier injection, bringing about efficient operation from simple, single layer devices. Recent work has shown that the luminance, efficiency, and responsiveness of iridium-based LEECs are greatly enhanced by the inclusion of small amounts of lithium salts (≤0.5%/wt) into the active layer. However, the origin of this enhancement has yet to be demonstrated experimentally. Furthermore, although iridium-based devices have been the longstanding leader among small molecule LEECs, fundamental understanding of the ionic distribution in these devices under operation is lacking. Herein, we use scanning Kelvin probe microscopy to measure the in situ potential profiles and electric field distributions of planar iridium-based LEECs and clarify the role of ionic lithium additives. In pristine devices, it is found that ions do not pack densely at the cathode, and ionic redistribution is slow. Inclusion of small amounts of Li[PF6] greatly increases ionic space charge near the cathode that doubles the peak electric fields and enhances electronic injection relative to pristine devices. This study confirms and clarifies a number of longstanding hypotheses regarding iridium LEECs and recent postulates concerning optimization of their operation.

  15. Wine metabolomics reveals new sulfonated products in bottled white wines, promoted by small amounts of oxygen.

    PubMed

    Arapitsas, Panagiotis; Ugliano, Maurizio; Perenzoni, Daniele; Angeli, Andrea; Pangrazzi, Paolo; Mattivi, Fulvio

    2016-01-15

    The impact of minute amounts of oxygen in the headspace on the post-bottling development of wine is generally considered to be very important, since oxygen can either damage or improve the quality of wine. This project aimed to gain new experimental evidence about the chemistry of the interaction between wine and oxygen. The experimental design included 216 bottles of 12 different white wines produced from 6 different cultivars (Inzolia, Muller Thurgau, Chardonnay, Grillo, Traminer and Pinot gris). Half of them were bottled using the standard industrial process with inert headspace and the other half without inert gas and with extra headspace. After 60 days of storage at room temperature, the wines were analysed using an untargeted LC-MS method. The use of a detailed holistic analysis workflow, with several levels of quality control and marker selection, gave 35 metabolites putatively induced by the different amounts of oxygen. These metabolite markers included ascorbic acid, tartaric acid and various sulfonated compounds observed in wine for the first time (e.g. S-sulfonated cysteine, glutathione and pantetheine; and sulfonated indole-3-lactic acid hexoside and tryptophol). The consumption of SO2 mediated by these sulfonation reactions was promoted by the presence of higher levels of oxygen on bottling. PMID:26709023

  16. Wine metabolomics reveals new sulfonated products in bottled white wines, promoted by small amounts of oxygen.

    PubMed

    Arapitsas, Panagiotis; Ugliano, Maurizio; Perenzoni, Daniele; Angeli, Andrea; Pangrazzi, Paolo; Mattivi, Fulvio

    2016-01-15

    The impact of minute amounts of oxygen in the headspace on the post-bottling development of wine is generally considered to be very important, since oxygen can either damage or improve the quality of wine. This project aimed to gain new experimental evidence about the chemistry of the interaction between wine and oxygen. The experimental design included 216 bottles of 12 different white wines produced from 6 different cultivars (Inzolia, Muller Thurgau, Chardonnay, Grillo, Traminer and Pinot gris). Half of them were bottled using the standard industrial process with inert headspace and the other half without inert gas and with extra headspace. After 60 days of storage at room temperature, the wines were analysed using an untargeted LC-MS method. The use of a detailed holistic analysis workflow, with several levels of quality control and marker selection, gave 35 metabolites putatively induced by the different amounts of oxygen. These metabolite markers included ascorbic acid, tartaric acid and various sulfonated compounds observed in wine for the first time (e.g. S-sulfonated cysteine, glutathione and pantetheine; and sulfonated indole-3-lactic acid hexoside and tryptophol). The consumption of SO2 mediated by these sulfonation reactions was promoted by the presence of higher levels of oxygen on bottling.

  17. Activity Recognition Using Community Data to Complement Small Amounts of Labeled Instances †

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Ceja, Enrique; Brena, Ramon F.

    2016-01-01

    Human Activity Recognition (HAR) is an important part of ambient intelligence systems since it can provide user-context information, thus allowing a greater personalization of services. One of the problems with HAR systems is that the labeling process for the training data is costly, which has hindered its practical application. A common approach is to train a general model with the aggregated data from all users. The problem is that for a new target user, this model can perform poorly because it is biased towards the majority type of users and does not take into account the particular characteristics of the target user. To overcome this limitation, a user-dependent model can be trained with data only from the target user that will be optimal for this particular user; however, this requires a considerable amount of labeled data, which is cumbersome to obtain. In this work, we propose a method to build a personalized model for a given target user that does not require large amounts of labeled data. Our method uses data already labeled by a community of users to complement the scarce labeled data of the target user. Our results showed that the personalized model outperformed the general and the user-dependent models when labeled data is scarce. PMID:27314355

  18. Facile, High Quality Sequencing of Bacterial Genomes from Small Amounts of DNA

    PubMed Central

    Vuyisich, Momchilo; Arefin, Ayesha; Davenport, Karen; Feng, Shihai; Gleasner, Cheryl; McMurry, Kim; Parson-Quintana, Beverly; Price, Jennifer; Scholz, Matthew; Chain, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Sequencing bacterial genomes has traditionally required large amounts of genomic DNA (~1 μg). There have been few studies to determine the effects of the input DNA amount or library preparation method on the quality of sequencing data. Several new commercially available library preparation methods enable shotgun sequencing from as little as 1 ng of input DNA. In this study, we evaluated the NEBNext Ultra library preparation reagents for sequencing bacterial genomes. We have evaluated the utility of NEBNext Ultra for resequencing and de novo assembly of four bacterial genomes and compared its performance with the TruSeq library preparation kit. The NEBNext Ultra reagents enable high quality resequencing and de novo assembly of a variety of bacterial genomes when using 100 ng of input genomic DNA. For the two most challenging genomes (Burkholderia spp.), which have the highest GC content and are the longest, we also show that the quality of both resequencing and de novo assembly is not decreased when only 10 ng of input genomic DNA is used. PMID:25478564

  19. Improvement of bulk heterojunction organic solar cells based on PTB7:PC61BM with small amounts of P3HT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohori, Yurina; Fujii, Shunjiro; Kataura, Hiromichi; Nishioka, Yasushiro

    2015-04-01

    The effect of a small amount of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) additive on the performance of bulk heterojunction (BHJ) organic solar cells based on poly[[4,8-bis[(2-ethylhexyl)oxy]benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b‧]dithiophene-2,6-diyl][3-fluoro-2-[(2-ethylhexyl)carbonyl]thieno[3,4-b]thiophenediyl

  20. Method for determination of small amounts of rare earths and thorium in phosphate rocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waring, C.L.; Mela, H.

    1953-01-01

    In laboratory investigations, interest developed in the possible rare-earth content of phosphate samples from Florida and the northwestern United States. Because of the difficulty of making chemical determinations of traces of individual rare earths, a combined chemical-spectrographic method was investigated. After removal of iron by the extraction of the chloride with ether, the rare earths and thorium are concentrated by double oxalate precipitation, using calcium as a carrier. The rare earths are freed from calcium by an ammonium hydroxide precipitation with a fixed amount of aluminum as a carrier. The aluminum also serves as an internal standard in the final spectrographic analysis. The method will determine from 0.02 to 2 mg. of each rare earth with an error no greater than 10%. The investigation has resulted in a fairly rapid and precise procedure, involving no special spectrographic setup. The method could be applied to other types of geologic materials with the same expected accuracy.

  1. Plastic-Syringe Induced Silicone Contamination in Organic Photvoltaic Fabrication: Implications for Small-Volume Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, John A.; Nalwa, Kanwar S.; Mahadevapuram, Rakesh; Chen, Yuqing; Anderegg, James; Chaudhary, Sumit

    2012-05-15

    Herein, the implications of silicone contamination found in solution-processed conjugated polymer solar cells are explored. Similar to a previous work based on molecular cells, we find this contamination as a result of the use of plastic syringes during fabrication. However, in contrast to the molecular case, we find that glass-syringe fabricated devices give superior performance than plastic-syringe fabricated devices in poly(3-hexylthiophene)-based cells. We find that the unintentional silicone addition alters the solution’s wettability, which translates to a thinner, less absorbent film on spinning. With many groups studying the effects of small-volume additives, this work should be closely considered as many of these additives may also directly alter the solutions’ wettability, or the amount of silicone dissolved off the plastic syringes, or both. Thereby, film thickness, which generally is not reported in detail, can vary significantly from device to device.

  2. Interplay of solvent additive concentration and active layer thickness on the performance of small molecule solar cells.

    PubMed

    Love, John A; Collins, Samuel D; Nagao, Ikuhiro; Mukherjee, Subhrangsu; Ade, Harald; Bazan, Guillermo C; Nguyen, Thuc-Quyen

    2014-11-19

    A relationship between solvent additive concentration and active layer thickness in small-molecule solar cells is investigated. Specifically, the additive concentration must scale with the amount of semiconductor material and not as absolute concentration in solution. Devices with a wide range of active layers with thickness up to 200 nm can readily achieve efficiencies close to 6% when the right concentration of additive is used.

  3. Using magnetization measurements to detect small amounts of plutonium hydride formation in plutonium metal

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jae Wook; Mielke, Charles H.; Zapf, Vivien; Baiardo, Joseph P.; Mitchell, Jeremy N.; Richmond, Scott; Schwartz, Daniel S.; Mun, Eun D.; Smith, Alice Iulia

    2014-10-20

    We report the formation of plutonium hydride in 2 at % Ga-stabilized δ-Pu, with 1 atomic % H charging. We show that magnetization measurements are a sensitive, quantitative measure of ferromagnetic plutonium hydride against the nonmagnetic background of plutonium. It was previously shown that at low hydrogen concentrations, hydrogen forms super-abundant vacancy complexes with plutonium, resulting in a bulk lattice contraction. Here we use magnetization, X-ray and neutron diffraction measurements to show that in addition to forming vacancy complexes, at least 30% of the H atoms bond with Pu to precipitate PuHx, largely on the surface of the sample with x ~ 1.9. We observe magnetic hysteresis loops below 40 K with magnetic remanence, consistent with precipitates of ferromagnetic PuH1.9.

  4. Small amounts of isotope-reinforced polyunsaturated fatty acids suppress lipid autoxidation.

    PubMed

    Hill, Shauna; Lamberson, Connor R; Xu, Libin; To, Randy; Tsui, Hui S; Shmanai, Vadim V; Bekish, Andrei V; Awad, Agape M; Marbois, Beth N; Cantor, Charles R; Porter, Ned A; Clarke, Catherine F; Shchepinov, Mikhail S

    2012-08-15

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) undergo autoxidation and generate reactive carbonyl compounds that are toxic to cells and associated with apoptotic cell death, age-related neurodegenerative diseases, and atherosclerosis. PUFA autoxidation is initiated by the abstraction of bis-allylic hydrogen atoms. Replacement of the bis-allylic hydrogen atoms with deuterium atoms (termed site-specific isotope-reinforcement) arrests PUFA autoxidation due to the isotope effect. Kinetic competition experiments show that the kinetic isotope effect for the propagation rate constant of Lin autoxidation compared to that of 11,11-D(2)-Lin is 12.8 ± 0.6. We investigate the effects of different isotope-reinforced PUFAs and natural PUFAs on the viability of coenzyme Q-deficient Saccharomyces cerevisiae coq mutants and wild-type yeast subjected to copper stress. Cells treated with a C11-BODIPY fluorescent probe to monitor lipid oxidation products show that lipid peroxidation precedes the loss of viability due to H-PUFA toxicity. We show that replacement of just one bis-allylic hydrogen atom with deuterium is sufficient to arrest lipid autoxidation. In contrast, PUFAs reinforced with two deuterium atoms at mono-allylic sites remain susceptible to autoxidation. Surprisingly, yeast treated with a mixture of approximately 20%:80% isotope-reinforced D-PUFA:natural H-PUFA are protected from lipid autoxidation-mediated cell killing. The findings reported here show that inclusion of only a small fraction of PUFAs deuterated at the bis-allylic sites is sufficient to profoundly inhibit the chain reaction of nondeuterated PUFAs in yeast.

  5. Small-Scale Spray Releases: Additional Aerosol Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Schonewill, Philip P.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Kimura, Marcia L.; Brown, G. N.; Mahoney, Lenna A.; Tran, Diana N.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Kurath, Dean E.

    2013-08-01

    One of the events postulated in the hazard analysis at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities is a breach in process piping that produces aerosols with droplet sizes in the respirable range. The current approach for predicting the size and concentration of aerosols produced in a spray leak involves extrapolating from correlations reported in the literature. These correlations are based on results obtained from small engineered spray nozzles using pure liquids with Newtonian fluid behavior. The narrow ranges of physical properties on which the correlations are based do not cover the wide range of slurries and viscous materials that will be processed in the WTP and across processing facilities in the DOE complex. To expand the data set upon which the WTP accident and safety analyses were based, an aerosol spray leak testing program was conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL’s test program addressed two key technical areas to improve the WTP methodology (Larson and Allen 2010). The first technical area was to quantify the role of slurry particles in small breaches where slurry particles may plug the hole and prevent high-pressure sprays. The results from an effort to address this first technical area can be found in Mahoney et al. (2012a). The second technical area was to determine aerosol droplet size distribution and total droplet volume from prototypic breaches and fluids, including sprays from larger breaches and sprays of slurries for which literature data are largely absent. To address the second technical area, the testing program collected aerosol generation data at two scales, commonly referred to as small-scale and large-scale. The small-scale testing and resultant data are described in Mahoney et al. (2012b) and the large-scale testing and resultant data are presented in Schonewill et al. (2012). In tests at both scales, simulants were used to mimic the

  6. Effect of small amounts of nitrogen on properties of a Ni-based superalloy

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, X.; Zhang, Y.; Hu, Z.

    1999-07-01

    The microstructural, tensile, and stress-rupture lives of conventionally and directionally solidified (DS) cast specimens of a nickel-based superalloy have been investigated using materials of normal commercial composition and two melts with additions of 22 and 30 ppm nitrogen. It was found that the ductility, tensile life, and stress-rupture life of the conventional castings dramatically decreased with the increase of nitrogen content, but, in the longitudinal direction of DS samples, these properties were independent of nitrogen within the contents studied. The transverse tensile rupture life of DS castings had no significant change with nitrogen, except for some decrease in elongation of the sample containing 30 ppm N. The stress-rupture life and elongation in the transverse direction of the DS samples were improved at the 22 ppm nitrogen level, which might be attributed to the dendrite refining. Increasing the nitrogen content resulted in a change in carbide morphology from that of a Chinese script to a blocky form and a change in microporosity formation, especially in the conventional castings. The increased nitrogen content resulted in a significant reduction in the volume fraction of eutectic microconstituents and the in dendrite refinement in DS samples, but nitrogen content did not affect the morphology of {gamma}{prime} precipitates in the heat-treated alloys.

  7. Microwave digestion using dual PTFE containers for analysis of trace elements in small amounts of biological samples.

    PubMed

    Mizushima, R; Yonezawa, M; Ejima, A; Koyama, H; Satoh, H

    1996-01-01

    The analysis of trace elements in biological samples is essential to extend our knowledge on human health and disease. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) makes it possible to simultaneously determine these elements in trace amounts. Before analysis, however, biological samples such as organs and tissues must be liquefied and extra organic materials must be decomposed by acid digestion. We established a method of microwave digestion using dual PTFE containers to minimize the amount of samples. Samples (35-45 mg) of standard reference materials, bovine liver (1577a, NIST) and fish flesh (MA-A-2, IAEA), were weighed in PTFE-PFA vials and a small amount of nitric acid (0.5 ml) was added. The vials were sealed and two PTFE-PFA vials were placed in a PTFE-TFM vessel containing 6 ml of pure water. Then the vessels were placed in a rotor and the samples were digested for 38 min in a microwave oven according to a pre-set program. After the program was completed, the samples were analyzed by ICP-MS. The determined values of elements of the microwave-digested samples matched the certified values of the standard reference materials. Therefore, the digestion using dual containers was successfully applied to small samples.

  8. Rapid synthesis of small silver nanocubes by mediating polyol reduction with a trace amount of sodium sulfide or sodium hydrosulfide.

    PubMed

    Siekkinen, Andrew R; McLellan, Joseph M; Chen, Jingyi; Xia, Younan

    2006-12-11

    This paper describes the fastest route to monodispersed silver nanocubes. By adding a trace amount of sodium sulfide (Na(2)S) or sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) to the conventional polyol synthesis, the reaction time was significantly shortened from 16-26 hours to 3-8 minutes. By merely adjusting the reaction time, monodispersed silver nanocubes of 25-45 nm in edge length were rapidly and routinely produced on relatively large scales. These small nanocubes are of great interest for biomedical applications by way of generating gold nanocages with plasmon resonance peaks tunable to the near-infrared region through a galvanic replacement reaction.

  9. Effect of minimizing amount of template by addition of macromolecular crowding agent on preparation of molecularly imprinted monolith.

    PubMed

    Sun, Guang-Ying; Zhong, Dan-Dan; Li, Xiang-Jie; Luo, Yu-Qing; Ba, Hang; Liu, Zhao-Sheng; Aisa, Haji Akber

    2015-09-01

    One of the main challenges in the preparation of molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) is the substantial initial amount of template needed because of the requirement of high load capacities for most applications. A new strategy of macromolecular crowding was suggested to solve this problem by reducing the amount of template in the polymerization recipe. In a ternary porogenic system of polystyrene (PS) (crowding agent), tetrahydrofuran, and toluene, an imprinted monolithic column with high porosity and good permeability was synthesized using a mixture of ellagic acid (template), acrylamide, and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate. The effect of polymerization factors, including monomer-template molar ratio and the molecular weight and concentration of PS, on the imprinting effect of the resulting MIP monoliths was systematically investigated. At a high ratio of monomer-template (120:1), the greatest imprinting factor of 32.4 was obtained on the MIP monolith with the aid of macromolecular crowding agent. The PS-based imprinted monolith had imprinting even at the extremely high ratio of functional monomer to template of 1510:1. Furthermore, an off-line solid-phase extraction based on the ground MIP was conducted, and the purification recovery of ellagic acid from pomegranate-rind extract was up to 80 %. In conclusion, this approach based on macromolecular crowding is simple, and is especially valuable for those applications of MIP preparation for which a rare template is used.

  10. 40 CFR 80.1465 - What are the additional requirements under this subpart for foreign small refiners, foreign small...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Renewable Fuel Standard § 80.1465 What are the additional... transportation fuel produced at a foreign refinery that has received a small refinery exemption under § 80.1441... transportation fuel produced at a foreign refinery that has not received a small refinery exemption under §...

  11. Novel extraction method of genomic DNA suitable for long-fragment amplification from small amounts of milk.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y F; Gao, J L; Yang, Y F; Ku, T; Zan, L S

    2014-11-01

    Isolation of genomic DNA is a prerequisite for assessment of milk quality. As a source of genomic DNA, milk somatic cells from milking ruminants are practical, animal friendly, and cost-effective sources. Extracting DNA from milk can avoid the stress response caused by blood and tissue sampling of cows. In this study, we optimized a novel DNA extraction method for amplifying long (>1,000 bp) DNA fragments and used it to evaluate the isolation of DNA from small amounts of milk. The techniques used for the separation of milk somatic cell were explored and combined with a sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-phenol method for optimizing DNA extraction from milk. Spectrophotometry was used to determine the concentration and purity of the extracted DNA. Gel electrophoresis and DNA amplification technologies were used for to determine DNA size and quality. The DNA of 112 cows was obtained from milk (samples of 13 ± 1 mL) and the corresponding optical density ratios at 260:280 nm were between 1.65 and 1.75. Concentrations were between 12 and 45 μg/μL and DNA size and quality were acceptable. The specific PCR amplification of 1,019- and 729-bp bovine DNA fragments was successfully carried out. This novel method can be used as a practical, fast, and economical mean for long genomic DNA extraction from a small amount of milk.

  12. Novel extraction method of genomic DNA suitable for long-fragment amplification from small amounts of milk.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y F; Gao, J L; Yang, Y F; Ku, T; Zan, L S

    2014-11-01

    Isolation of genomic DNA is a prerequisite for assessment of milk quality. As a source of genomic DNA, milk somatic cells from milking ruminants are practical, animal friendly, and cost-effective sources. Extracting DNA from milk can avoid the stress response caused by blood and tissue sampling of cows. In this study, we optimized a novel DNA extraction method for amplifying long (>1,000 bp) DNA fragments and used it to evaluate the isolation of DNA from small amounts of milk. The techniques used for the separation of milk somatic cell were explored and combined with a sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-phenol method for optimizing DNA extraction from milk. Spectrophotometry was used to determine the concentration and purity of the extracted DNA. Gel electrophoresis and DNA amplification technologies were used for to determine DNA size and quality. The DNA of 112 cows was obtained from milk (samples of 13 ± 1 mL) and the corresponding optical density ratios at 260:280 nm were between 1.65 and 1.75. Concentrations were between 12 and 45 μg/μL and DNA size and quality were acceptable. The specific PCR amplification of 1,019- and 729-bp bovine DNA fragments was successfully carried out. This novel method can be used as a practical, fast, and economical mean for long genomic DNA extraction from a small amount of milk. PMID:25218756

  13. Are There Additional Benefits from Being in Small Classes for More than One Year?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konstantopoulos, Spyros; Li, Wei

    2012-01-01

    Evidence from Project STAR has suggested a considerable advantage of being in small classes in early grades. However, the extra benefits of additional years in small classes have not been discussed in detail. The present study examined the additional effects of being in small classes for more than 1 year. We find that once previous grade…

  14. /sup 14/C-lactose breath tests during pelvic radiotherapy: the effect of the amount of small bowel irradiated

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, R.G.; Stryker, J.A.

    1982-02-01

    Thirty patients who were undergoing pelvic radiotherapy had /sup 14/C-lactose breath tests performed in the first and fifth weeks of treatment. In Group I (21 patients), a significant portion of the small intestine was irradiated, and in Group II (9 patients), only a small portion of the small intestine was irradiated. In Group I, the average reductions in the excretion of ingested /sup 14/C between the first- and fifth-week tests were 41.5% at 1/2 hour postingestion (p less than 0.05), and 21.8% at 1 hour postingestion (p less than 0.05). In Group II, the percentage reductions were 11.8% and 3.7% at 1/2 and 1 hour, respectively (p greater than 0.05). The data suggest that lactose malabsorption is a factor in the etiology of the nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea experienced by patients who are undergoing pelvic radiotherapy, and that the amount of bowel included in the treatment volume significantly influences the degree of malabsorption.

  15. /sup 14/C-lactose breath tests during pelvic radiotherapy: the effect of the amount of small bowel irradiated

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, R.G.; Stryker, J.A.

    1982-02-01

    Thirty patients who were undergoing pelvic radiotherapy had /sup 14/C-lactose breath tests performed in the first and fifth weeks of treatment. In Group I (21 patients), a significant portion of the small intestine was irradiated, and in Group II (9 patients), only a small portion of the small intestine was irradiated. In Group I, the average reductions in the excretion of ingested /sup 14/C between the first- and fifth-week tests were 41.5% at 1/2 hour postingestion (p<0.05), and 21.8% at 1 hour postingestion (p<0.05). In Group II, the prercentage reduction were 11.8% and 3.7% at 1/2 and 1 hour, respectively (p>0.05). The data suggest that lactose malabsorption is a factor in the etiology of the nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea experienced by patients who are undergoing pelvic radiotherapy, and that the amount of bowel included in the treatment volume significantly influences the degree of malabsorption.

  16. Influence of small amorphous amounts in hydrophilic and hydrophobic APIs on storage stability of dry powder inhalation products.

    PubMed

    Müller, Thorsten; Krehl, Regina; Schiewe, Jörg; Weiler, Claudius; Steckel, Hartwig

    2015-05-01

    The effects of different manufacturing methods to induce formation of amorphous content, changes of physico-chemical characteristics of powder blends and changes of aerodynamic properties over storage time (6months) analyzed with the Next Generation Impactor (NGI) are investigated. Earlier studies have shown that standard pharmaceutical operations lead to structural disorders which may influence drug delivery and product stability. In this investigation, fully amorphous drug samples produced by spray-drying (SD) and ball-milling (BM) as well as semi-crystalline samples (produced by blending and micronization) are studied and compared to fully crystalline starting material. The amorphous content of these hydrophilic and hydrophobic active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) was determined using a validated one-step DVS-method. For the conducted blending and micronization tests, amorphous amounts up to a maximum of 5.1% for salbutamol sulfate (SBS) and 17.0% for ciclesonide (CS) were measured. In order to investigate the impact of small amorphous amounts, inhalable homogenous powder mixtures with very high and low amorphous content and a defined particle size were prepared with a Turbula blender for each API. These blends were stored (6months, 45% RH, room temperature) to evaluate the influence of amorphous amounts on storage stability. The fine particle fraction (FPF: % of emitted dose<5μm) was determined with the NGI at defined time points. The amorphous amounts showed a major effect on dispersion behavior, the mixtures of the two APIs showed differences at the beginning of the study and significant differences in storage stability. The FPF values for SBS decreased during storage (FPF: from 35% to <27%) for the blend with high amorphous amounts, in contrast the initially re-crystallized sample achieved a comparable constant level of about 25%. For the hydrophobic CS a constantly increasing FPF (from 6% to >15%) over storage time for both types of blends was

  17. Establishment of a rapid, inexpensive protocol for extraction of high quality RNA from small amounts of strawberry plant tissues and other recalcitrant fruit crops.

    PubMed

    Christou, Anastasis; Georgiadou, Egli C; Filippou, Panagiota; Manganaris, George A; Fotopoulos, Vasileios

    2014-03-01

    Strawberry plant tissues and particularly fruit material are rich in polysaccharides and polyphenolic compounds, thus rendering the isolation of nucleic acids a difficult task. This work describes the successful modification of a total RNA extraction protocol, which enables the isolation of high quantity and quality of total RNA from small amounts of strawberry leaf, root and fruit tissues. Reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) amplification of GAPDH housekeeping gene from isolated RNA further supports the proposed protocol efficiency and its use for downstream molecular applications. This novel procedure was also successfully followed using other fruit tissues, such as olive and kiwifruit. In addition, optional treatment with RNase A following initial nucleic acid extraction can provide sufficient quality and quality of genomic DNA for subsequent PCR analyses, as evidenced from PCR amplification of housekeeping genes using extracted genomic DNA as template. Overall, this optimized protocol allows easy, rapid and economic isolation of high quality RNA from small amounts of an important fruit crop, such as strawberry, with extended applicability to other recalcitrant fruit crops. PMID:24321691

  18. Establishment of a rapid, inexpensive protocol for extraction of high quality RNA from small amounts of strawberry plant tissues and other recalcitrant fruit crops.

    PubMed

    Christou, Anastasis; Georgiadou, Egli C; Filippou, Panagiota; Manganaris, George A; Fotopoulos, Vasileios

    2014-03-01

    Strawberry plant tissues and particularly fruit material are rich in polysaccharides and polyphenolic compounds, thus rendering the isolation of nucleic acids a difficult task. This work describes the successful modification of a total RNA extraction protocol, which enables the isolation of high quantity and quality of total RNA from small amounts of strawberry leaf, root and fruit tissues. Reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) amplification of GAPDH housekeeping gene from isolated RNA further supports the proposed protocol efficiency and its use for downstream molecular applications. This novel procedure was also successfully followed using other fruit tissues, such as olive and kiwifruit. In addition, optional treatment with RNase A following initial nucleic acid extraction can provide sufficient quality and quality of genomic DNA for subsequent PCR analyses, as evidenced from PCR amplification of housekeeping genes using extracted genomic DNA as template. Overall, this optimized protocol allows easy, rapid and economic isolation of high quality RNA from small amounts of an important fruit crop, such as strawberry, with extended applicability to other recalcitrant fruit crops.

  19. Measurement of glycidol hemoglobin adducts in humans who ingest edible oil containing small amounts of glycidol fatty acid esters.

    PubMed

    Honda, Hiroshi; Onishi, Masayuki; Fujii, Kenkichi; Ikeda, Naohiro; Yamaguchi, Tohru; Fujimori, Taketoshi; Nishiyama, Naohiro; Kasamatsu, Toshio

    2011-10-01

    Hemoglobin (Hb) adducts are frequently used to address and/or monitor exposure to reactive chemicals. Glycidol (G), a known animal carcinogen, has been reported to form Hb adducts. Here, we measure G adduct levels in humans who daily ingest DAG oil, an edible oil consisting mainly of diacylglycerol. Since DAG oil contains a small amount of glycidol fatty acid esters (GEs), possible exposure to G released from GEs has been raised as a possible concern. For measurement of Hb adducts, we employed the N-alkyl Edman method reported by Landin et al. (1996) using gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with minor modifications to detect G-Hb adducts as N-(2,3-dihydroxy-propyl)valine (diHOPrVal). Blood samples were collected from 7 DAG oil users and 6 non-users, and then G-Hb adduct levels were measured. G-Hb adducts were detected in all samples. The average level of diHOPrVal was 3.5±1.9pmol/g globin in the DAG oil users and 7.1±3.1pmol/g globin in the non-users. We conclude that there is no increased exposure to G in individuals who daily ingest DAG oil.

  20. Modeling of recovery mechanism of ozone zero phenomenaby adding small amount of nitrogen in atmospheric pressure oxygen dielectric barrier discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akashi, Haruaki; Yoshinaga, Tomokazu

    2013-09-01

    Ozone zero phenomena in an atmospheric pressure oxygen dielectric barrier discharges have been one of the major problems during a long time operation of ozone generators. But it is also known that the adding a small amount of nitrogen makes the recover from the ozone zero phenomena. To make clear the mechanism of recovery, authors have been simulated the discharges with using the results of Ref. 3. As a result, the recovery process can be seen and ozone density increased. It is found that the most important species would be nitrogen atoms. The reaction of nitrogen atoms and oxygen molecules makes oxygen atoms which is main precursor species of ozone. This generation of oxygen atoms is effective to increase ozone. The dependence of oxygen atom density (nO) and nitrogen atom density (nN) ratio was examined in this paper. In the condition of low nN/nO ratio case, generation of nitrogen oxide is low, and the quenching of ozone by the nitrogen oxide would be low. But in the high ratio condition, the quenching of ozone by nitrogen oxide would significant. This work was supported by KAKENHI(23560352).

  1. Dissolution kinetics of small amounts of oxygen in tantalum alloy T-111 and internal oxide displacement reactions during annealing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecura, S.

    1976-01-01

    Oxygen was added to T-111 (Ta-8W-2Hf, wt. %) at 820 and 990 C at an oxygen pressure of about 0.0003 torr. The technique employed permitted predetermined and reproducible doping of T-111 up to 3.0 at. % oxygen. Based on the temperature dependence of the doping reaction, it is concluded that the initial rates of oxygen pickup are probably controlled by solution of oxygen into the T-111 lattice. Although hafnium oxides are more stable than those of tantalum or tungsten, analyses of extracted residues indicate that the latter oxides predominate in the as-doped specimens, presumably because of the higher concentrations of tantalum and tungsten in the alloy. However, high-temperature annealing promotes gettering of dissolved oxygen and of other oxides to form hafnium oxides. Small amounts of tantalum and tungsten oxides were still present after high-temperature annealing. Tungsten oxide (WO3) volatilizes slightly from the surface of T-111 at 990 C. The vaporization of WO3 has no apparent affect on the doping reaction.

  2. [Application of photodynamic therapy to reduce the amount of resection for non-small cell lung cancer].

    PubMed

    Akopov, A L; Rusanov, A A; Chistiakov, I V; Urtenova, M A; Kazakov, N V; Gerasin, A V; Papaian, G V

    2013-01-01

    A prospective analysis of results of combined treatment of 22 patients with central stage II-III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) was performed (the defeat of the main bronchi or lower parts of the trachea), which initially had been regarded as unresectable or inoperable (12 patients for functional reasons could not pass pneumonectomy, and in 10 patients a contraindication to primary surgery was the involvement of the distal trachea in tumor), but underwent surgery after preoperative treatment.Combination therapy included preoperative endobronchial photodynamic therapy (PDT) and chemotherapy followed by surgery and intraoperative PDT resection margins. PDT was carried out with the use of chlorine E6 (Radachlorin) and light wavelength of 662 nm. Overall response rate after neoadjuvant treatment was 82 %, endoscopic remission was observed in 21 of 22 patients (95%). 10 patients underwent pneumonectomy, 12--lobectomy. 19 surgical interventions were regarded as radical (R0--86%), 3--as microscopically non-radical (R1--14%). Degree of lymphatic metastasis spreading pN0 was detected in 6 patients (27 %), pN1--in 14 (64%) and pN2--in 2 patients (9%). Surgical lethality was 5%. In the late time of the whole observation period none of the patients developed local recurrence. One-year survival was 95%, 3-year--91%. PDT can play an important role in combination with surgical treatment for NSCLC and reduces the amount of resection in part of initially unresectable or inoperable patients. PMID:24624784

  3. Novel method for detection of small amounts of RNA based on the semi-nested polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Sanders, S; Thomas, G A

    1997-04-01

    A technique for the amplification of very small quantities of cDNA based on a semi-nested polymerase chain reaction system has been developed. The technique uses an additional blocking oligonucleotide "primer" in the second round nest which is complementary to one of the first round primers. This prevents amplification of first round product or of any other unwanted products dependent on that primer, but allows amplification of second round product, using first round product as the template. The second round primers are added through the oil layer, eliminating the possibility of introducing first round product aerosol into the atmosphere, as would be the case in a fully nested system. Contamination is therefore minimised, while amplification of the desired product is maximised. PMID:9231160

  4. 77 FR 56874 - Extension of Comment Period: Remedies for Small Copyright Claims: Additional Comments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-14

    ...The Copyright Office is extending the period of public comment in response to its August 23, 2012 Notice of Inquiry requesting additional comments regarding issues relating to remedies for small copyright...

  5. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  6. Regioselective 1,4-conjugate addition of Grignard reagents to nitrodienes in the presence of catalytic amounts of Zn(II) salts.

    PubMed

    Dhakal, Ramesh C; Dieter, R Karl

    2014-03-01

    Grignard reagents undergo facile regioselective 1,4-conjugate addition to nitrodienes in the presence of catalytic amounts of Zn(II) salts with excellent yields. A wide range of ligands such as alkyl, aryl, heteroaryl, allyl, vinyl, 1-alkynyl, and alkoxy ligands were transferred, while a thiolate ligand afforded 1,6-regioselectivity. The reactions were successfully carried out on δ-alkyl- or aryl-substituted α,β,γ,δ-diunsaturated nitrodiene substrates. Regioselectivity is minimally influenced by temperature or choice of solvent. PMID:24552443

  7. The mechanism of deceleration of nucleation and crystal growth by the small addition of transition metals to lithium disilicate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thieme, Katrin; Avramov, Isak; Rüssel, Christian

    2016-05-01

    The addition of small amounts of niobium or tantalum oxide to lithium disilicate glass provokes a drastic decrease of the steady-state nucleation rates and the crystal growth velocities. The viscosity of the residual glassy matrix is considered as a function of the crystallization degree in the course of a non-isothermal crystallization. For simplification, a homogeneous distribution of the added oxides in the glass matrix is assumed. While the viscosity initially decreases, it significantly increases again for higher crystallization degrees hindering crystal growth. However, it was shown that the additives are enriched at the crystal interface. Several possible reasons for the inhibition of nucleation and growth kinetics such as viscosity, interfacial energy crystal/glassy phase, thermodynamic driving force or impingement rate are discussed. Since the crystallization front is blocked by the additives the impingement rate is decreased with increasing additive concentration. Since small concentrations of Nb2O5 and Ta2O5 have a drastic effect on the nucleation, these components should be enriched at the interface crystal/glass. This will only take place, if it leads to a decrease in the interfacial energy. Since this effect alone should result in an increase of the nucleation rate, it must be overcompensated by kinetic effects.

  8. The mechanism of deceleration of nucleation and crystal growth by the small addition of transition metals to lithium disilicate glasses

    PubMed Central

    Thieme, Katrin; Avramov, Isak; Rüssel, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The addition of small amounts of niobium or tantalum oxide to lithium disilicate glass provokes a drastic decrease of the steady-state nucleation rates and the crystal growth velocities. The viscosity of the residual glassy matrix is considered as a function of the crystallization degree in the course of a non-isothermal crystallization. For simplification, a homogeneous distribution of the added oxides in the glass matrix is assumed. While the viscosity initially decreases, it significantly increases again for higher crystallization degrees hindering crystal growth. However, it was shown that the additives are enriched at the crystal interface. Several possible reasons for the inhibition of nucleation and growth kinetics such as viscosity, interfacial energy crystal/glassy phase, thermodynamic driving force or impingement rate are discussed. Since the crystallization front is blocked by the additives the impingement rate is decreased with increasing additive concentration. Since small concentrations of Nb2O5 and Ta2O5 have a drastic effect on the nucleation, these components should be enriched at the interface crystal/glass. This will only take place, if it leads to a decrease in the interfacial energy. Since this effect alone should result in an increase of the nucleation rate, it must be overcompensated by kinetic effects. PMID:27150844

  9. The mechanism of deceleration of nucleation and crystal growth by the small addition of transition metals to lithium disilicate glasses.

    PubMed

    Thieme, Katrin; Avramov, Isak; Rüssel, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The addition of small amounts of niobium or tantalum oxide to lithium disilicate glass provokes a drastic decrease of the steady-state nucleation rates and the crystal growth velocities. The viscosity of the residual glassy matrix is considered as a function of the crystallization degree in the course of a non-isothermal crystallization. For simplification, a homogeneous distribution of the added oxides in the glass matrix is assumed. While the viscosity initially decreases, it significantly increases again for higher crystallization degrees hindering crystal growth. However, it was shown that the additives are enriched at the crystal interface. Several possible reasons for the inhibition of nucleation and growth kinetics such as viscosity, interfacial energy crystal/glassy phase, thermodynamic driving force or impingement rate are discussed. Since the crystallization front is blocked by the additives the impingement rate is decreased with increasing additive concentration. Since small concentrations of Nb2O5 and Ta2O5 have a drastic effect on the nucleation, these components should be enriched at the interface crystal/glass. This will only take place, if it leads to a decrease in the interfacial energy. Since this effect alone should result in an increase of the nucleation rate, it must be overcompensated by kinetic effects. PMID:27150844

  10. Just a drop of cement: a case of cervical spine bone aneurysmal cyst successfully treated by percutaneous injection of a small amount of polymethyl-methacrylate cement.

    PubMed

    Fahed, Robert; Clarençon, Frédéric; Riouallon, Guillaume; Cormier, Evelyne; Bonaccorsi, Raphael; Pascal-Mousselard, Hugues; Chiras, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    Aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) is a benign hemorrhagic tumor, commonly revealed by local pain. The best treatment for this lesion is still controversial. We report the case of a patient with chronic neck pain revealing an ABC of the third cervical vertebra. After percutaneous injection of a small amount of polymethyl-methacrylate bone cement, the patient experienced significant clinical and radiological improvement.

  11. The Use of Additive Manufacturing for Fabrication of Multi-Function Small Satellite Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Horais, Brian J; Love, Lonnie J; Dehoff, Ryan R

    2013-01-01

    The use of small satellites in constellations is limited only by the growing functionality of smallsats themselves. Additive manufacturing provides exciting new design opportunities for development of multifunction CubeSat structures that integrate such functions as propulsion and thermal control into the satellite structures themselves. Manufacturing of these complex multifunction structures is now possible in lightweight, high strength, materials such as titanium by using existing electron beam melting additive manufacturing processes. However, the use of today's additive manufacturing capabilities is often cost-prohibitive for small companies due to the large capital investments required. To alleviate this impediment the U.S. Department of Energy has established a Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (MDF) at their Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Tennessee that provides industry access to a broad range of energy-efficient additive manufacturing equipment for collaborative use by both small and large organizations. This paper presents a notional CubeSat multifunction design that integrates the propulsion system into a three-unit (3U) CubeSat structure. The full-scale structure has been designed and fabricated at the ORNL MDF. The use of additive manufacturing for spacecraft fabrication is opening up many new possibilities in design and fabrication capabilities for what had previously been impossible structures to fabricate.

  12. Source Distribution Method for Unsteady One-Dimensional Flows With Small Mass, Momentum, and Heat Addition and Small Area Variation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mirels, Harold

    1959-01-01

    A source distribution method is presented for obtaining flow perturbations due to small unsteady area variations, mass, momentum, and heat additions in a basic uniform (or piecewise uniform) one-dimensional flow. First, the perturbations due to an elemental area variation, mass, momentum, and heat addition are found. The general solution is then represented by a spatial and temporal distribution of these elemental (source) solutions. Emphasis is placed on discussing the physical nature of the flow phenomena. The method is illustrated by several examples. These include the determination of perturbations in basic flows consisting of (1) a shock propagating through a nonuniform tube, (2) a constant-velocity piston driving a shock, (3) ideal shock-tube flows, and (4) deflagrations initiated at a closed end. The method is particularly applicable for finding the perturbations due to relatively thin wall boundary layers.

  13. What amount of metallic impurities in carbon nanotubes is small enough not to dominate their redox properties?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pumera, Martin; Miyahara, Yuji

    2009-11-01

    As carbon nanotubes become a part of everyday life, the paramount questions about their toxicity persist. While it has been proven that a significant part of the toxicity of carbon nanotubes is due to the redox activity of the residual metallic impurities present within them, there is still no response to the fundamental question of where the borderline is that would render the impurities `redox invisible'. Herein we investigate the electrochemical response of carbon nanotubes containing different amounts of impurities towards the reduction of an important biomarker, hydrogen peroxide, and the oxidation of an important impurity marker, hydrazine. We found that the borderline between being redox active/inactive for iron-based impurities lies in the middle-ppm range.

  14. Sensitivity of effective rainfall amount to land use description using GIS tool. Case of a small mediterranean catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Payraudeau, S.; Tournoud, M. G.; Cernesson, F.

    Distributed modelling in hydrology assess catchment subdivision to take into account physic characteristics. In this paper, we test the effect of land use aggregation scheme on catchment hydrological response. Evolution of intra-subcatchment land use is studied using statistic and entropy methods. The SCS-CN method is used to calculate effective rainfall which is here assimilated to hydrological response. Our purpose is to determine the existence of a critical threshold-area appropriate for the application of hydrological modelling. Land use aggregation effects on effective rainfall is assessed on small mediterranean catchment. The results show that land use aggregation and land use classification type have significant effects on hydrological modelling and in particular on effective rainfall modelling.

  15. Acidic retinoids in small amounts promote retinyl ester formation in neonatal lung, with transient increases in retinoid homeostatic gene expression

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Mixing a small proportion, 10%, of retinoic acid (RA) into an oral dose of vitamin A (VA) has been shown to markedly increase retinol uptake and retinyl ester (RE) formation in the neonatal lung, as compared to VA given alone. Concomitantly, several retinoid homeostatic genes, lecithin:retinol acyltransferase (LRAT), RA-4-hydroxylase (CYP26B1), and stimulated by retinoic acid gene-6 (STRA6) were upregulated. However, whether multiple doses may act accumulatively and whether less than 10% RA can be used has not been determined. Methods Neonatal rats were treated once on postnatal day (PD) 4 or PD14 with VA alone or VA combined with 10% RA (VARA10%) or a stable analog, Am580 (VAAm10%), or they were treated with multiple doses on PD4, 7, 11, and 14. Results RE increased cumulatively with multiple dosing. However, LRAT, CYP26B1 and STRA6 mRNA levels were similar for single and multiple treatments, indicating a transient noncumulative impact on gene expression. Lung RE was elevated with as little as 0.5% RA (P < 0.05) in a single dosing study. Whereas all concentrations of VARA elevated lung RE in single dosing studies, only 10% RA increased lung RE after multiple dosing, suggesting an attenuation of RA action with repeated dosing. In contrast, VAAm10%, 2%, and 1% all significantly increased lung RE after multiple doses (P < 0.05), while also increasing the expression of LRAT and CYP26B1. Conclusions These results indicate that the neonatal lung is very sensitive to acidic retinoid exposure and suggest that a VA combined with a very small fraction of acidic retinoid could be effective in increasing the lung’s storage pool of VA. PMID:24351038

  16. Oral contrast agents for small bowel MRI: comparison of different additives to optimize bowel distension.

    PubMed

    Ajaj, Waleed; Goehde, Susanne C; Schneemann, Hubert; Ruehm, Stefan G; Debatin, Jörg F; Lauenstein, Thomas C

    2004-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare two osmotic carbohydrate sugar alcohols (mannitol 2.5% and sorbitol 2.5%, 2.0%, and 1.5% watery solutions) in combination with 0.2% locust bean gum (LBG) for small bowel distension for MR imaging. Small bowel distension was quantified on coronal 2D TrueFISP images by measuring the diameters of 16 small bowel loops in each of 12 healthy subjects (age range 31-55 years). Additionally, the grade of small bowel distension was rated qualitatively. Patient acceptance concerning nausea, vomiting, flatulence, and diarrhea was noted for each solution, and all results were compared by a Wilcoxon test or t test, respectively. The ingestion of water combined with LBG and either 2.5% mannitol or 2.0% sorbitol showed the best distension of the small bowel. The lowest side effect rate was observed following ingestion of sorbitol in a concentration of 2.0 and 1.5%. Based on these data, we recommend a combination of LBG and 2% sorbitol use for optimal bowel distension and minimal side effects resulting in enhanced patient acceptance. PMID:14634782

  17. Investigation of mechanical properties of masterbatches and composites with small additions of CNTs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burmistrov, I. N.; Yudintseva, T. I.; Ilinykh, I. A.; Khaydarov, B. B.; Mazov, I. N.; Anshin, S. M.; Kuznetsov, D. V.

    2016-01-01

    The present paper investigated physical and mechanical properties of the nanotube masterbatches and the polymer composites with low contents of carbon nanotubes (CNTs), which were obtained by diluting masterbatches. Ethylene-octene copolymer was used as the binder for the masterbatches, which provides the elasticity of the material at a content 20 wt% of CNT. Masterbatches were obtained with a 2-roller mixer, and their additive to polypropylene was carried out on a single screw injection molding machine. Strength properties of ethylene-octene copolymer increased when additing CNTs in an amount of 5-20 wt%. When the concentration of CNT in masterbatches is reduced to 0.01-0.1 wt% its strength characteristics increased up to 4-18%. The most effective strengthening of polypropylene was observed with the content of CNTs 0.1 wt%.

  18. Radiation of nitrogen molecules in a dielectric barrier discharge with small additives of chlorine and bromine

    SciTech Connect

    Avtaeva, S. V.; Avdeev, S. M.; Sosnin, E. A.

    2010-08-15

    Spectral and energy characteristics of nitrogen molecule radiation in dielectric barrier discharges in Ar-N{sub 2}, Ar-N{sub 2}-Cl{sub 2}, and Ar-N{sub 2}-Br{sub 2} mixtures were investigated experimentally. Small additives of molecular chlorine or bromine to an Ar-N{sub 2} mixture are found to increase the radiation intensity of the second positive system of nitrogen. The conditions at which the radiation spectrum predominantly consists of vibronic bands of this system are determined. Using a numerical model of plasmachemical processes, it is shown that, at electron temperatures typical of gas discharges (2-4 eV), a minor additive of molecular chlorine to an Ar-N{sub 2} mixture leads to an increase in the concentrations of electrons, positive ions, and metastable argon atoms. In turn, collisional energy transfer from metastable argon atoms to nitrogen molecules results in the excitation of the N{sub 2}(C{sup 3{Pi}}{sub u}) state.

  19. 40 CFR 80.1465 - What are the additional requirements under this subpart for foreign small refiners, foreign small...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Renewable Fuel Standard § 80.1465 What are the additional... operation of the administrative and judicial enforcement powers and provisions of the United States without..., under the requirements of 40 CFR part 80, subpart M, and that the information is material...

  20. Microstructure and properties of the low-power-laser clad coatings on magnesium alloy with different amount of rare earth addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Rundong; Li, Zhiyong; Li, Xiaoxi; Sun, Qi

    2015-10-01

    Due to the low-melting-point and high evaporation rate of magnesium at elevated temperature, high power laser clad coating on magnesium always causes subsidence and deterioration in the surface. Low power laser can reduce the evaporation effect while brings problems such as decreased thickness, incomplete fusion and unsatisfied performance. Therefore, low power laser with selected parameters was used in our research work to obtain Al-Cu coatings with Y2O3 addition on AZ91D magnesium alloy. The addition of Y2O3 obviously increases thickness of the coating and improves the melting efficiency. Furthermore, the effect of Y2O3 addition on the microstructure of laser clad Al-Cu coatings was investigated by scanning electron microscopy. The energy-dispersive spectrometer (EDS) and X-ray diffractometer (XRD) were used to examine the elemental and phase compositions of the coatings. The properties were investigated by micro-hardness test, dry wear test and electrochemical corrosion. It was found that the addition of Y2O3 refined the microstructure. The micro-hardness, abrasion resistance and corrosion resistance of the coatings was greatly improved compared with the magnesium matrix, especially for the Al-Cu coating with Y2O3 addition.

  1. Irreversible Wash Aid Additive for Cesium Mitigation. Small-Scale Demonstration and Lessons Learned

    SciTech Connect

    Kaminski, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The Irreversible Wash Aid Additive process has been under development by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne). This process for radioactive cesium mitigation consists of a solution to wash down contaminated structures, roadways, and vehicles and a sequestering agent to bind the radionuclides from the wash water and render them environmentally immobile. The purpose of this process is to restore functionality to basic services and immediately reduce the consequences of a radiologically-contaminated urban environment. Research and development have resulted in a down-selection of technologies for integration and demonstration at the pilot-scale level as part of the Wide Area Recovery and Resiliency Program (WARRP) under the Department of Homeland Security and the Denver Urban Area Security Initiative. As part of developing the methods for performing a pilot-scale demonstration at the WARRP conference in Denver in 2012, Argonne conducted small-scale field experiments at Separmatic Systems. The main purpose of these experiments was to refine the wash water collection and separations systems and demonstrate key unit operations to help in planning for the large scale demonstration in Denver. Since the purpose of these tests was to demonstrate the operations of the system, we used no radioactive materials. After a brief set of experiments with the LAKOS unit to familiarize ourselves with its operation, two experiments were completed on two separate dates with the Separmatic systems.

  2. Influencing the structure of block copolymer micelles with small molecule additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, Megan; Singh, Avantika; Cooksey, Tyler; Kidd, Bryce; Piemonte, Rachele; Wang, Shu; Mai Le, Kim; Madsen, Louis

    Amphiphilic block copolymer micelles in water are under broad exploration for drug delivery applications due to their high loading capacity and targeted drug delivery. We aim to understand the kinetic and thermodynamic processes that underlie the self-assembly of diblock copolymer micelle systems. The present work focuses on diblock copolymers containing poly(ethylene oxide) (a hydrophilic polymer) and polycaprolactone (a hydrophobic polymer), which spontaneously self-assemble into spherical micelles in water. Addition of a common good solvent (a co-solvent) for both of the constituting blocks, such as tetrahydrofuran (THF), reduces the interfacial tension at the core-corona interface. We are currently investigating the effect of this phenomenon on the micelle structural properties, using small-angle scattering and nuclear magnetic resonance. We have characterized the hydrodynamic radius, core radius, corona thickness, aggregation number, degree of swelling of the micelle core with the co-solvent, and unimer (free chain) concentration, as a function of the co-solvent concentration. Fundamental knowledge from these studies will inform design of drug delivery systems by allowing us to tailor micelle properties for optimal cargo loading.

  3. Fabrication of transparent, tough, and conductive shape-memory polyurethane films by incorporating a small amount of high-quality graphene.

    PubMed

    Jung, Yong Chae; Kim, Jin Hee; Hayashi, Takuya; Kim, Yoong Ahm; Endo, Morinobu; Terrones, Mauricio; Dresselhaus, Mildred S

    2012-04-23

    We report a mechanically strong, electrically and thermally conductive, and optically transparent shape-memory polyurethane composite which was fabricated by introducing a small amount (0.1 wt%) of high-quality graphene as a filler. Geometrically large (≈4.6 μm(2)), but highly crystallized few-layer graphenes, verified by Raman spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy, were prepared by the sonication of expandable graphite in an organic solvent. Oxygen- containing functional groups at the edge plane of graphene were crucial for an effective stress transfer from the graphene to polyurethane. Homogeneously dispersed few-layered graphene enabled polyurethane to have a high shape recovery force of 1.8 MPa cm(-3). Graphene, which is intrinsically stretchable up to 10%, will enable high-performance composites to be fabricated at relatively low cost and we thus envisage that such composites may replace carbon nanotubes for various applications in the near future. PMID:22328293

  4. A general strategy for cloning viroids and other small circular RNAs that uses minimal amounts of template and does not require prior knowledge of its sequence.

    PubMed

    Navarro, B; Daròs, J A; Flores, R

    1996-01-01

    Two PCR-based methods are described for obtaining clones of small circular RNAs of unknown sequence and for which only minute amounts are available. To avoid introducing any assumption about the RNA sequence, synthesis of the cDNAs is initiated with random primers. The cDNA population is then PCR-amplified using a primer whose sequence is present at both sides of the cDNAs, since they have been obtained with random hexamers and then a linker with the sequence of the PCR primer has been ligated to their termini, or because the cDNAs have been synthesized with an oligonucleotide that contains the sequence of the PCR primer at its 5' end and six randomized positions at its 3' end. The procedures need only approximately 50 ng of purified RNA template. The reasons for the emergence of cloning artifacts and precautions to avoid them are discussed.

  5. Enhanced visible-light photocatalytic performances of Ag3PO4 surface-modified with small amounts of TiO2 and Ag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Desong; Li, Lei; Luo, Qingzhi; An, Jing; Li, Xueyan; Yin, Rong; Zhao, Mangmang

    2014-12-01

    A novel approach has been developed to prepare an efficient visible-light photocatalyst using Ag3PO4 and TiO2 sol as precursors. First, Ag3PO4 particles were dipped into TiO2 sol for 5 min and were filtered quickly. Second, Ag3PO4 particles adsorbing a small amount of TiO2 sol were aged for 24 h to form TiO2 gel on their surface. Finally, Ag3PO4 particles covered by TiO2 gel were calcined at 450 °C for 2 h to obtain the surface-modified Ag3PO4 sample. The surface-modified Ag3PO4 was characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, UV-vis diffuse reflection spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The visible-light photocatalytic performances of the surface-modified Ag3PO4 were evaluated by the photodegradation of methyl orange or phenol solution. The results showed that the surface-modified Ag3PO4 exhibited much higher visible-light photocatalytic activity and stability than pure Ag3PO4. As the amount of TiO2 gel on the Ag3PO4 surface increased, the visible-light photocatalytic activity increased first and then decreased. The surface-modification of Ag3PO4 obviously decreased its solubility in water environment due to the protection of TiO2 and Ag nanocrystals on the surface. The visible-light photocatalytic mechanism of the surface-modified Ag3PO4 has been discussed.

  6. [Risk hidden in the small print? : Some food additives may trigger pseudoallergic reactions].

    PubMed

    Zuberbier, Torsten; Hengstenberg, Claudine

    2016-06-01

    Some food additives may trigger pseudoallergenic reactions. However, the prevalence of such an overreaction is - despite the increasing number of food additives - rather low in the general population. The most common triggers of pseudoallergic reactions to food are naturally occurring ingredients. However, symptoms in patients with chronic urticaria should improve significantly on a pseudoallergen-free diet. In addition, some studies indicate that certain food additives may also have an impact on the symptoms of patients with neurodermatitis and asthma. PMID:27173908

  7. [Risk hidden in the small print? : Some food additives may trigger pseudoallergic reactions].

    PubMed

    Zuberbier, Torsten; Hengstenberg, Claudine

    2016-06-01

    Some food additives may trigger pseudoallergenic reactions. However, the prevalence of such an overreaction is - despite the increasing number of food additives - rather low in the general population. The most common triggers of pseudoallergic reactions to food are naturally occurring ingredients. However, symptoms in patients with chronic urticaria should improve significantly on a pseudoallergen-free diet. In addition, some studies indicate that certain food additives may also have an impact on the symptoms of patients with neurodermatitis and asthma.

  8. A sensitive and rapid HPLC-MS/MS method for the quantitative determination of trace amount of bromocriptine in small clinical prolactinoma tissue.

    PubMed

    Zang, Qingce; Liu, Yang; He, Jiuming; Yue, Xiaofei; Zhang, Ruiping; Wang, Renzhi; Abliz, Zeper

    2015-05-01

    Usually, insufficient intratumoral concentration of therapeutic drugs is one of the reasons for tumor treatment failure. However, little is known about intratumoral distribution of bromocriptine in non-responding prolactinomas because of extremely low drug concentration and small prolactinoma tissue samples. In this study, a sensitive, rapid and high-throughput quantitative bioanalytical method has been established by using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) for the determination of bromocriptine at trace level in human prolactinoma tissue. As little as 20 mg (wet weight) tissue sample was required and total analysis time was 6 min in this method. The assay quantifies over a linear range of 50 fg/mg to 5 pg/mg, and has a 25 fg/mg limit of detection at a signal/noise ratio of 3. This validated method was successfully used to quantitatively determine bromocriptine in clinical post-operative bromocriptine-sensitive and -resistant prolactinomas. The results revealed bromocriptine concentration in resistant prolactinomas (0.49-1.25 pg/mg) was significantly higher than that in sensitive prolactinomas (0.057-0.47 pg/mg). These results provided direct evidence to demonstrate the reseaon for failure of bromocriptine treatment in some patients with prolactinoma was "intrinsic" tumor (cell) resistence, rather than insufficient drug concentration in tumor tissue. Additionaly, this HPLC-MS/MS method has been shown to be suitable for bromocriptine analysis in small amount tissue sample and could be adapted for therapeutic drug monitoring of other clinical medicine.

  9. Toward Additive-Free Small-Molecule Organic Solar Cells: Roles of the Donor Crystallization Pathway and Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Abdelsamie, Maged; Treat, Neil D; Zhao, Kui; McDowell, Caitlin; Burgers, Mark A; Li, Ruipeng; Smilgies, Detlef-M; Stingelin, Natalie; Bazan, Guillermo C; Amassian, Aram

    2015-12-01

    The ease with which small-molecule donors crystallize during solution processing is directly linked to the need for solvent additives. Donor molecules that get trapped in disordered (H1) or liquid crystalline (T1) mesophases require additive processing to promote crystallization, phase separation, and efficient light harvesting. A donor material (X2) that crystallizes directly from solution yields additive-free solar cells with an efficiency of 7.6%.

  10. Microstructure and properties of rapidly solidified beryllium-transition metal alloys. [With small amounts of Ti, Zr and Y (1-3 wt %)

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, L.A.; Richardson, S.

    1988-01-01

    Alloys of beryllium with small amounts of Ti, Zr and Y (1-3 wt %) were rapidly solidified using an arc hammer splat technique. Each of these elements forms a dilute eutectic with beryllium, and has very low solid solubility in the alpha phase. In the case of Ti, the Be-rich compound is TiBe/sub 12/, and for Zr and Y, the compound is MBe. The objective of the work was to achieve a fine, uniform dispersion of particles of the intermetallic compound. Since these compounds have very high melting points, it was expected that rapidly solidified microstructures would be relatively stable at elevated temperatures. This microstructural stability should result in improved high temperature properties for the alloys. Microstructures have been characterized using optical, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Microhardness measurements have been made in order to determine the effects of rapid solidification and to evaluate the effects of high temperature exposure on microstructural stability and property retention. The results will be presented in light of the potential of these alloys for intermediate temperature application. 12 refs., 8 figs.

  11. Small and similar amounts of micromotion in an anatomical stem and a customized cementless femoral stem in regular-shaped femurs

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose High primary stability is important for long-term survival of uncemented femoral stems. Different stem designs are currently in use. The ABG-I is a well-documented anatomical stem with a press-fit design. The Unique stem is designed for a tight customized fit to the cortical bone of the upper femur. This implant was initially developed for patients with abnormal anatomy, but the concept can also be used in patients with normal femoral anatomy. We present 5-year radiostereometric analysis (RSA) results from a randomized study comparing the ABG-I anatomical stem with the Unique femoral stem. Patients and methods 100 hips with regular upper femur anatomy were randomized to either the ABG-I stem or the Unique femoral stem. RSA measurements were performed postoperatively and after 3, 6, 12, 24, and 60 months. Results RSA measurements from 80 hips were available for analysis at the 5-year follow-up. Small amounts of movement were observed for both stems, with no statistically significant differences between the 2 types. Interpretation No improvement in long-term stability was found from using a customized stem design. However, no patients with abnormal geometry of the upper femur were included in this study. PMID:24650024

  12. Enhanced high-temperature piezoelectric properties of traditional Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 ceramics by a small amount substitution of KNbO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Zhao; Chen, Jun; Fan, Longlong; Rong, Yangchun; Zheng, Shaoying; Liu, Laijun; Fang, Liang; Xing, Xianran

    2014-12-01

    Crystal structure, piezoelectric, and dielectric properties were investigated on the (1-x)Pb(Zr0.54Ti0.46)O3-xKNbO3 system. The piezoelectric properties have been significantly improved by substituting a small amount of KNbO3. In the morphotropic phase boundary (x = 0.015), the compound not only shows enhanced piezoelectric coefficient d33 = 450 pC/N, which is two times larger than that of unmodified Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (d33 = 223 pC/N), but also the Curie temperature (TC = ˜380 °C) is still well maintained at a high level. This phenomenon challenges our general knowledge that in piezoelectric materials the Curie temperature and piezoelectric properties are mutually contradictory. It should be noted that a giant total strain as high as 0.73% is also observed. The high thermal depoling temperature more than 300 °C combined with the excellent piezoelectric properties suggest it as a potential candidate for high temperature actuators and sensors applications.

  13. How perceiving additional targets modifies teams' tactical behavior during football small-sided games.

    PubMed

    Travassos, Bruno; Gonçalves, Bruno; Marcelino, Rui; Monteiro, Ricardo; Sampaio, Jaime

    2014-12-01

    This study aimed to measure how the change on targets information modifies teams' tactical behavior during football small-sided games. 20 male senior professional players divided in 4 teams of 5 players participated in the study. Each team played two small-sided games, one with 2 official targets with goalkeeper and one with 6 small targets. Positional data of each player were recorded using a 15Hz portable GPS. The distance between the centers of gravity (CG) of both team, the stretch index and the relative stretch index were measured and differences accessed via standardized differences, coefficient intervals and meta-analysis procedures. A moderate increase on the distance between the CG of each team and a small decrease on the stretch index and on the relative stretch index from 2 targets to the 6 targets games was observed. It was also identified that pitch location affected the interaction between teams. When the game was played in lateral corridors or defensive sectors, the differences between game conditions increased. Emphasizing the information for attacking team to shoot at goal, by manipulating the number of targets constrained tactical behavior of teams. The amplification of specific information on small-sided games can help coaches to promote players and teams' emergent adapted behaviors. PMID:25457422

  14. How perceiving additional targets modifies teams' tactical behavior during football small-sided games.

    PubMed

    Travassos, Bruno; Gonçalves, Bruno; Marcelino, Rui; Monteiro, Ricardo; Sampaio, Jaime

    2014-12-01

    This study aimed to measure how the change on targets information modifies teams' tactical behavior during football small-sided games. 20 male senior professional players divided in 4 teams of 5 players participated in the study. Each team played two small-sided games, one with 2 official targets with goalkeeper and one with 6 small targets. Positional data of each player were recorded using a 15Hz portable GPS. The distance between the centers of gravity (CG) of both team, the stretch index and the relative stretch index were measured and differences accessed via standardized differences, coefficient intervals and meta-analysis procedures. A moderate increase on the distance between the CG of each team and a small decrease on the stretch index and on the relative stretch index from 2 targets to the 6 targets games was observed. It was also identified that pitch location affected the interaction between teams. When the game was played in lateral corridors or defensive sectors, the differences between game conditions increased. Emphasizing the information for attacking team to shoot at goal, by manipulating the number of targets constrained tactical behavior of teams. The amplification of specific information on small-sided games can help coaches to promote players and teams' emergent adapted behaviors.

  15. Transformation from Multilamellar to Unilamellar Vesicles by Addition of a Cationic Lipid to PEGylated Liposomes Explored with Synchrotron Small Angle X-ray Scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakuragi, Mina; Koiwai, Kazunori; Nakamura, Kouji; Masunaga, Hiroyasu; Ogawa, Hiroki; Sakurai, Kazuo

    2011-01-01

    PEGylated liposomes composed of a benzamidine derivative (TRX), hydrogenated soybean phosphatidylcholine (HSPC), and N-(monomethoxy-polyethyleneglycolcarbamyl) distearoyl phosphatidylethanolamine (PEG-PE) were examined in terms of how the addition of TRX affects their structures with small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) as well as transmission electron microscopy (TEM). TEM images showed the presence of unilamella vesicles for both with and without TRX, though a small amount of multilamella vesicles were observed in absence of TRX. We analyzed SAXS profiles at contained TRX composition combined with contrast variation technique by adding PEG solution and unilamella vesicle model could be reproduced. Subsequently, we analyzed SAXS profiles at no TRX composition. The mixture model of unilamella and multilamella vesicle was reconstructed and we estimated about 10 % multilamella vesicles from a fitting parameter.

  16. A new high-precision technique for measurement of N2O concentration in polar ice cores with small amount of samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, Yeongjun; Yang, Ji-Woong; Ahn, Jinho

    2016-04-01

    Nitrous oxide, one of the major greenhouse gases, has about 300 times higher GWP for 100 years, although its mixing ratio is a thousand time less than that of CO2. Since N2O has important roles in biogeochemical nitrogen cycles, atmospheric ozone destruction, and long term scale climate feedback, it is crucial to comprehend the underlying mechanisms that lead changes in global inventories of greenhouse gases in the past. Because previous data from ice core studies have large uncertainty of 5 ppbv with relatively low temporal resolutions, they are not sufficient for interpreting centennial to multi-centennial variations. Here we present a new high-precision technique for measuring N2O concentration of ancient air occluded in ice cores. We use a wet extraction method (melting-refreezing method) to extract gas from the ice core, and GC-ECD to determine N2O concentration. The optimized setting for GC-ECD permits high sensitivity for N2O, and minimizes volume of ice core sample that is requisite to get reliable results. Here we present preliminary results that we obtained from 15 ~ 20 g of ice core samples. The values for solubility correction is measured by an additional melting-refreezing process. The amount of correction is about 3 ppbv for 329.88 ppbv N2O standard gas air (calibrated from NOAA) with an uncertainty of < 1 ppbv. We also compare the results with those from a dry extraction method for validation, and present preliminary results from Styx ice core, Antarctica. The updated results will be presented at the meeting.

  17. Electroless Ni-P/SiC Nanocomposite Coatings With Small Amounts of SiC Nanoparticles for Superior Corrosion Resistance and Hardness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, Mohammad; Azhar, Muhammad Rizwan; Khalid, Yasir; Khan, Rawaiz; Abdo, Hany S.; Dar, Mushtaq A.; Oloyede, Olamilekan R.; David Burleigh, T.

    2015-12-01

    The addition of silicon carbide (SiC) nanoparticles into electroless nickel (Ni)-based coatings improves both corrosion resistance and mechanical properties of the resulting Ni-P/SiC nanocomposite coatings, making them potential candidate as protective coatings in aggressive environments. Ni-P/SiC nanocomposite coatings were produced from precursor bath with small SiC loading levels (0.25 or 1.0 g/L) and characterized for morphology, corrosion resistance, and hardness. Microstructural examination using FE-SEM and AFM revealed that incorporation of uniformly dispersed SiC nanoparticles leads to smaller nodule size with fine-grain structure and low surface roughness. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy studies in 4 wt.% NaCl solution showed that the nanocomposite coatings exhibit excellent corrosion resistance, as indicated by high charge-transfer resistance and low double-layer capacitance values of ~137 kΩ cm2 and 19 µF cm-2, respectively. The coatings maintained their structural integrity even after 5 days of saline bath immersion, as there was no cracking in the deposit microstructure besides formation of shallow pits and submicron-sized pores. A two-fold increase in the average hardness value was noticed from 4.5 (pure Ni-P) to 8.5 GPa (Ni-P/SiC coating) which can be ascribed to modified deposit morphology and uniformly dispersed SiC nanoparticles that act as obstacles to plastic deformation.

  18. Deterministic fractals: extracting additional information from small-angle scattering data.

    PubMed

    Cherny, A Yu; Anitas, E M; Osipov, V A; Kuklin, A I

    2011-09-01

    The small-angle scattering curves of deterministic mass fractals are studied and analyzed in momentum space. In the fractal region, the curve I(q)q(D) is found to be log-periodic with good accuracy, and the period is equal to the scaling factor of the fractal. Here, D and I(q) are the fractal dimension and the scattering intensity, respectively. The number of periods of this curve coincides with the number of fractal iterations. We show that the log-periodicity of I(q)q(D) in the momentum space is related to the log-periodicity of the quantity g(r)r(3-D) in the real space, where g(r) is the pair distribution function. The minima and maxima positions of the scattering intensity are estimated explicitly by relating them to the pair distance distribution in real space. It is shown that the minima and maxima are damped with increasing polydispersity of the fractal sets; however, they remain quite pronounced even at sufficiently large values of polydispersity. A generalized self-similar Vicsek fractal with controllable fractal dimension is introduced, and its scattering properties are studied to illustrate the above findings. In contrast with the usual methods, the present analysis allows us to obtain not only the fractal dimension and the edges of the fractal region, but also the fractal iteration number, the scaling factor, and the number of structural units from which the fractal is composed.

  19. Providing for energy efficiency in homes and small buildings. Part II. Determining amount of energy lost or gained in a building

    SciTech Connect

    1980-06-01

    The training program is designed to educate students and individuals in the importance of conserving energy and to provide for developing skills needed in the application of energy-saving techniques that result in energy-efficient buildings. There are 3 parts to the training program. They are entitled: Understanding and Practicing Energy Conservation in Buildings; Determining Amount of Energy Lost or Gained in a Building; and Determining Which Practices Are Most Efficient and Installing Materials. For Part Two, it is recommended that cooling and heating load calculation manual (GRP 158) ASHRAE, 1979, be used. Specific subjects covered in Part II are: Terms Used to Measure Energy in Buildings; Understanding Heat Losses and Gains in Buildings; Estimating Heating Loads in Buildings; Special Applications for Estimating Cooling Loads in Buildings; Estimating Cooling Loads in Buildings; and Determining Cost Benefits of Using Energy-Saving Practices.

  20. The U.S.G.S. phosphate-fluoride-iodate method for the determination of very small amounts of thorium in naturally occurring materials

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crimaldi, F.S.; Fairchild, J.G.

    1949-01-01

    Detailed procedures are presented for the determination of very small percentages of thorium. The methods are designed to determine 0.001% of thorium oxide as the lower limit and are applicable to nearly all types of rocks. For quantities below a milligram of ThO2, the thorium is determined nephelometrically as the iodate or photemetrically with p-dimethylamineasephenylarsonic acid. For quantities of thorium above one milligram of ThO2, the thorium is determined gravimetrically. A discussion of the important feature of the methods and a summary of the more important experimental work that lead to the adoption of the procedures.

  1. Novel chemical vapor deposition process of ZnO films using nonequilibrium N2 plasma generated near atmospheric pressure with small amount of O2 below 1%

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nose, Yukinori; Yoshimura, Takeshi; Ashida, Atsushi; Uehara, Tsuyoshi; Fujimura, Norifumi

    2016-05-01

    We propose a novel chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process of ZnO films involving a nonequilibrium N2 plasma generated near atmospheric pressure with small O2 concentration (O2%) below 1%. In the optical emission (OE) spectra of the plasma, OE lines corresponding to the NO-γ system ( A 2 Σ + → X 2 Πγ + ) were observed, despite the only introduced gases being N2 and O2; these vanish at an O2% of more than 1%. ZnO films were grown on a glass substrate placed in the plasma at a growth temperature of as low as 200 °C and at an O2% of below 1% in the presence of the NO-γ system. This plasma yielded almost the same growth rate for ZnO films as O2 plasma including atomic O radicals that are often observed in low-pressure O2 plasma, suggesting that some highly reactive oxidant was sufficiently generated in such a small O2%. ZnO films synthesized using this plasma exhibited excellent ( 0001 ) preferred orientation without other diffractions such as 10 1 ¯ 1 diffraction, and with an optical bandgap of 3.30 eV. Based on the analyses of the plasma and the exhaust gases, the coexistence state of NO-γ and O3 should be essential and useful for the decomposition and oxidation of Zn source material in the proposed CVD process.

  2. Deactivation of photosynthetic activities is triggered by loss of a small amount of water in a desiccation-tolerant cyanobacterium, Nostoc commune.

    PubMed

    Hirai, Manabu; Yamakawa, Ruriko; Nishio, Junko; Yamaji, Takaharu; Kashino, Yasuhiro; Koike, Hiroyuki; Satoh, Kazuhiko

    2004-07-01

    Changes in photosynthetic activities under hypertonic conditions were studied in a terrestrial, highly desiccation-tolerant cyanobacterium, Nostoc commune, and in some desiccation-sensitive cyanobacteria. The amounts of water sustained in the colony matrix outside the N. commune cells and the cellular solute concentration were estimated by measuring the water potential, and the solute concentration was supposed to correspond to around 0.22 M sorbitol. Incubation of the colonies in 0.8 M sorbitol solution inhibited the energy transfer from the phycobilisome (PBS) anchor to PSII core complexes. At higher sorbitol concentrations, light energy absorbed by PSI, PSII, and PBS was dissipated to heat. PSI and cyclic electron flow around PSI was also deactivated by hypertonic treatment. Fv/Fm and (Fm'-F)/Fm' values started to decrease at 0.6 and 0.3 M sorbitol and reached zero at 1.0 and 0.8 M, respectively. Decreases in these two fluorescence parameters corresponded to the decreases in PSII fluorescence (F695) and photosynthetic CO2 fixation, respectively. The intensity of delayed light emission started to decrease at 1.0 M sorbitol and became negligible at 4.0 M. Comparing these changes in N. commune with those in desiccation-sensitive species, we found that N. commune cells actively deactivates photosynthetic systems on sensing water loss. PMID:15295070

  3. Triose phosphate isomerase from the coelacanth. An approach to the rapid determination of an amino acid sequence with small amounts of material.

    PubMed

    Kolb, E; Harris, J I; Bridgen, J

    1974-02-01

    The preparation and purification of cyanogen bromide fragments from [(14)C]carboxymethylated coelacanth triose phosphate isomerase is presented. The automated sequencing of these fragments, the lysine-blocked tryptic peptides derived from them, and also of the intact protein, is described. Combination with results from manual sequence analysis has given the 247-residue amino acid sequence of coelacanth triose phosphate isomerase in 4 months, by using 100mg of enzyme. (Two small adjacent peptides were placed by homology with the rabbit enzyme.) Comparison of this sequence with that of the rabbit muscle enzyme shows that 207 (84%) of the residues are identical. This slow rate of evolutionary change (corresponding to two amino acid substitutions per 100 residues per 100 million years) is similar to that found for glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase. The reliability of sequence information obtained by automated methods is discussed.

  4. On-Chip Cryopreservation: A Novel Method for Ultra-Rapid Cryoprotectant-Free Cryopreservation of Small Amounts of Human Spermatozoa

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jing; Huang, Weihua

    2013-01-01

    Cryopreservation of human spermatozoa free from cryoprotectant can avoid toxicity caused by highly concentrated cryoprotectant and a series of specific carriers have been previously explored, except for PDMS chip. Our study is aimed at exploring a novel device for ultra-rapid cryopreservation of small numbers of spermatozoa without cryoprotectant based on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) chips. Spermatozoa from 25 healthy men were involved in this study, comparing on-chip cryopreservation with different micro-channel height (group A: 10 µm height, group B: 50 µm height, group C: 100 µm height) and conventional freezing (group D) in liquid nitrogen for 72 h. The viability, motility, DNA integrity by comet assay and acrosome integrity by fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated peanut agglutinin (FITC-PNA) staining of frozen-thawed spermatozoa of each group were compared. The motility and viability of post-thawed spermatozoa was significantly decreased than that of pre-freezing spermatozoa. There was no difference of viability and motility of frozen-thawed spermatozoa between group A and D, while viability and motility of group B and C decreased compared to group A. Comet assay showed that no matter for group A or D, there was no difference of CR, TL, TD and OTM between pre-frozen and post-thawed spermatozoa. There was no difference of CR, TL, TD and OTM of post-thawed spermatozoa between group A and group D neither, while spermatozoa DNA damage was more serious in group B and group C with increasing height of micro-channel compared with group A. The proportion of intact acrosome of post-thawed spermatozoa in group A was the highest when compared with group B and group C, though similar to that of group D. In conclusion, PDMS chip with 10 µm height micro-channel is ideal for ultra-rapid cryopreservation of small quantity of spermatozoa without cryoprotectant. PMID:23646110

  5. The sequential addition of ribosomal proteins during the formation of the small ribosomal subunit in Friend erythroleukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Todorov, I T; Noll, F; Hadjiolov, A A

    1983-03-15

    Nucleolar '80-S' and '40-S' preribosomes (containing 45-S and 21-S pre-rRNA, respectively), as well as cytoplasmic ribosomes, were isolated from Friend erythroleukemia cells. The presence of structural ribosomal proteins in the isolated particles was studied by using antisera against individual rat liver small ribosomal subunit proteins. The analysis is based on the established crossreactivity between rat and mouse ribosomes [F. Noll and H. Bielka (1970) Mol. Gen. Genet. 106, 106-113]. The identification of the proteins was achieved by two independent immunological techniques: the passive haemagglutination test and the enzyme immunoassay of electrophoretically fractionated proteins, blotted on nitrocellulose. All 17 proteins tested are present in cytoplasmic ribosomes. A large number of proteins (S3a, S6, S7, S8, S11, S14, S18, S20, S23/24 and S25) are present in the '80-S' preribosome. Only two proteins (S3 and S21) are added during the formation of the '40-S' preribosome in the nucleolus. Four proteins (S2, S19, S26 and S29) are added at later, possibly extranucleolar, stages of ribosome formation. The results obtained provide evidence for the sequential addition of proteins during the formation of the small ribosomal subunit in Friend erythroleukemia cells.

  6. How to interpret a small increase in AUC with an additional risk prediction marker: decision analysis comes through.

    PubMed

    Baker, Stuart G; Schuit, Ewoud; Steyerberg, Ewout W; Pencina, Michael J; Vickers, Andrew; Vickers, Andew; Moons, Karel G M; Mol, Ben W J; Lindeman, Karen S

    2014-09-28

    An important question in the evaluation of an additional risk prediction marker is how to interpret a small increase in the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). Many researchers believe that a change in AUC is a poor metric because it increases only slightly with the addition of a marker with a large odds ratio. Because it is not possible on purely statistical grounds to choose between the odds ratio and AUC, we invoke decision analysis, which incorporates costs and benefits. For example, a timely estimate of the risk of later non-elective operative delivery can help a woman in labor decide if she wants an early elective cesarean section to avoid greater complications from possible later non-elective operative delivery. A basic risk prediction model for later non-elective operative delivery involves only antepartum markers. Because adding intrapartum markers to this risk prediction model increases AUC by 0.02, we questioned whether this small improvement is worthwhile. A key decision-analytic quantity is the risk threshold, here the risk of later non-elective operative delivery at which a patient would be indifferent between an early elective cesarean section and usual care. For a range of risk thresholds, we found that an increase in the net benefit of risk prediction requires collecting intrapartum marker data on 68 to 124 women for every correct prediction of later non-elective operative delivery. Because data collection is non-invasive, this test tradeoff of 68 to 124 is clinically acceptable, indicating the value of adding intrapartum markers to the risk prediction model.

  7. How to interpret a small increase in AUC with an additional risk prediction marker: Decision analysis comes through

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Stuart G.; Schuit, Ewoud; Steyerberg, Ewout W.; Pencina, Michael J.; Vickers, Andew; Moons, Karel G. M.; Mol, Ben W.J.; Lindeman, Karen S.

    2014-01-01

    An important question in the evaluation of an additional risk prediction marker is how to interpret a small increase in the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). Many researchers believe that a change in AUC is a poor metric because it increases only slightly with the addition of a marker with a large odds ratio. Because it is not possible on purely statistical grounds to choose between the odds ratio and AUC, we invoke decision analysis, which incorporates costs and benefits. For example a timely estimate of the risk of later non-elective operative delivery can help a woman in labor decide if she wants an early elective cesarean section to avoid greater complications from possible later non-elective operative delivery. A basic risk prediction model for later non-elective operative delivery involves only antepartum markers. Because adding intrapartum markers to this risk prediction model increases AUC by 0.02, we questioned whether this small improvement is worthwhile. A key decision-analytic quantity is the risk threshold, here the risk of later non-elective operative delivery at which a patient would be indifferent between an early elective cesarean section and usual care. For a range of risk thresholds, we found that an increase in the net benefit of risk prediction requires collecting intrapartum marker data on 68 to 124 women for every correct prediction of later non-elective operative delivery. Because data collection is non-invasive, this test tradeoff of 68 to 124 is clinically acceptable, indicating the value of adding intrapartum markers to the risk prediction model. PMID:24825728

  8. Estimating the CCSD basis-set limit energy from small basis sets: basis-set extrapolations vs additivity schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spackman, Peter R.; Karton, Amir

    2015-05-01

    Coupled cluster calculations with all single and double excitations (CCSD) converge exceedingly slowly with the size of the one-particle basis set. We assess the performance of a number of approaches for obtaining CCSD correlation energies close to the complete basis-set limit in conjunction with relatively small DZ and TZ basis sets. These include global and system-dependent extrapolations based on the A + B/Lα two-point extrapolation formula, and the well-known additivity approach that uses an MP2-based basis-set-correction term. We show that the basis set convergence rate can change dramatically between different systems(e.g.it is slower for molecules with polar bonds and/or second-row elements). The system-dependent basis-set extrapolation scheme, in which unique basis-set extrapolation exponents for each system are obtained from lower-cost MP2 calculations, significantly accelerates the basis-set convergence relative to the global extrapolations. Nevertheless, we find that the simple MP2-based basis-set additivity scheme outperforms the extrapolation approaches. For example, the following root-mean-squared deviations are obtained for the 140 basis-set limit CCSD atomization energies in the W4-11 database: 9.1 (global extrapolation), 3.7 (system-dependent extrapolation), and 2.4 (additivity scheme) kJ mol-1. The CCSD energy in these approximations is obtained from basis sets of up to TZ quality and the latter two approaches require additional MP2 calculations with basis sets of up to QZ quality. We also assess the performance of the basis-set extrapolations and additivity schemes for a set of 20 basis-set limit CCSD atomization energies of larger molecules including amino acids, DNA/RNA bases, aromatic compounds, and platonic hydrocarbon cages. We obtain the following RMSDs for the above methods: 10.2 (global extrapolation), 5.7 (system-dependent extrapolation), and 2.9 (additivity scheme) kJ mol-1.

  9. Estimating the CCSD basis-set limit energy from small basis sets: basis-set extrapolations vs additivity schemes

    SciTech Connect

    Spackman, Peter R.; Karton, Amir

    2015-05-15

    Coupled cluster calculations with all single and double excitations (CCSD) converge exceedingly slowly with the size of the one-particle basis set. We assess the performance of a number of approaches for obtaining CCSD correlation energies close to the complete basis-set limit in conjunction with relatively small DZ and TZ basis sets. These include global and system-dependent extrapolations based on the A + B/L{sup α} two-point extrapolation formula, and the well-known additivity approach that uses an MP2-based basis-set-correction term. We show that the basis set convergence rate can change dramatically between different systems(e.g.it is slower for molecules with polar bonds and/or second-row elements). The system-dependent basis-set extrapolation scheme, in which unique basis-set extrapolation exponents for each system are obtained from lower-cost MP2 calculations, significantly accelerates the basis-set convergence relative to the global extrapolations. Nevertheless, we find that the simple MP2-based basis-set additivity scheme outperforms the extrapolation approaches. For example, the following root-mean-squared deviations are obtained for the 140 basis-set limit CCSD atomization energies in the W4-11 database: 9.1 (global extrapolation), 3.7 (system-dependent extrapolation), and 2.4 (additivity scheme) kJ mol{sup –1}. The CCSD energy in these approximations is obtained from basis sets of up to TZ quality and the latter two approaches require additional MP2 calculations with basis sets of up to QZ quality. We also assess the performance of the basis-set extrapolations and additivity schemes for a set of 20 basis-set limit CCSD atomization energies of larger molecules including amino acids, DNA/RNA bases, aromatic compounds, and platonic hydrocarbon cages. We obtain the following RMSDs for the above methods: 10.2 (global extrapolation), 5.7 (system-dependent extrapolation), and 2.9 (additivity scheme) kJ mol{sup –1}.

  10. Influence of small additions of zinc on the nature of the grain boundary precipitates in an AA 8090 alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, V.; Mukhopadhyay, A.K.; Prasad, K.S.

    1997-11-15

    In this paper results using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), electron diffraction and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy on the influence of small additions of Zn({approximately}0.25 at%) on the nature of the grain boundary precipitates in an AA 8090 alloy are presented to show that Zn is indeed detected in enhanced concentrations in association with both {delta} (AlLi) and T{sub 2}(Al{sub 6}CuLi{sub 3}) precipitates formed at the grain boundary. An addition of 0.6 wt% of Zn to an al-2.2Li-1.2Cu-0.8Mg-0.10Zr alloy does not either change the type of the coarse grain boundary precipitates, i.e., {delta} (AlLi) and T{sub 2} (Al{sub 6}CuLi{sub 3}) or reduce the width of the precipitate free zones (PFZs) adjacent to the grain boundary, while, it does change the chemistry of both {delta} and T{sub 2} via incorporation of Zn into these phases.

  11. Additional Radiative Cooling of the Mesopause Region due to Small-Scale Temperature Fluctuations Associated with Gravity Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutepov, A.; Feofilov, A.; Medvedev, A.; Pauldrach, A.; Hartogh, P.

    2008-05-01

    We address a previously unknown effect of the radiative cooling of the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT) produced by small-scale irregular temperature fluctuations (ITFs) associated with gravity waves. These disturbances are not resolved by present GCMs, but they alter the radiative transfer and the heating/cooling rates significantly. We apply a statistical model of gravity waves superimposed on large-scale temperature profiles, and perform direct calculations of the radiative cooling/heating in the MLT in the IR bands of CO2, O3 and H2O molecules taking into account the breakdown of the local thermodynamic equilibrium (non-LTE). We found that in the periods of strong wave activity the subgrid ITFs can cause an additional cooling up to 3 K/day near the mesopause. The effect is produced mainly by the fundamental 15 μm band of the main CO2 isotope. We derived a simple expression for the correction to mean (resolved by GCMs) temperature profiles using the variance of the temperature perturbations to account for the additional cooling effect. The suggested parameterization can be applied in GCMs in conjunction with existing gravity wave drag parameterizations.

  12. Modulation of chicken intestinal immune gene expression by small cationic peptides as feed additives during the first week posthatch.

    PubMed

    Kogut, Michael H; Genovese, Kenneth J; He, Haiqi; Swaggerty, Christina L; Jiang, Yiwei

    2013-09-01

    We have been investigating modulation strategies tailored around the selective stimulation of the host's immune system as an alternative to direct targeting of microbial pathogens by antibiotics. One such approach is the use of a group of small cationic peptides (BT) produced by a Gram-positive soil bacterium, Brevibacillus texasporus. These peptides have immune modulatory properties that enhance both leukocyte functional efficiency and leukocyte proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine mRNA transcription activities in vitro. In addition, when provided as a feed additive for just 4 days posthatch, BT peptides significantly induce a concentration-dependent protection against cecal and extraintestinal colonization by Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis. In the present studies, we assessed the effects of feeding BT peptides on transcriptional changes on proinflammatory cytokines, inflammatory chemokines, and Toll-like receptors (TLR) in the ceca of broiler chickens with and without S. Enteritidis infection. After feeding a BT peptide-supplemented diet for the first 4 days posthatch, chickens were then challenged with S. Enteritidis, and intestinal gene expression was measured at 1 or 7 days postinfection (p.i.) (5 or 11 days of age). Intestinal expression of innate immune mRNA transcripts was analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Analysis of relative mRNA expression showed that a BT peptide-supplemented diet did not directly induce the transcription of proinflammatory cytokine, inflammatory chemokine, type I/II interferon (IFN), or TLR mRNA in chicken cecum. However, feeding the BT peptide-supplemented diet primed cecal tissue for increased (P ≤ 0.05) transcription of TLR4, TLR15, and TLR21 upon infection with S. Enteritidis on days 1 and 7 p.i. Likewise, feeding the BT peptides primed the cecal tissue for increased transcription of proinflammatory cytokines (interleukin 1β [IL-1β], IL-6, IL-18, type I and II IFNs) and inflammatory chemokine (CxCLi2

  13. On the role of block copolymer additives for calcium carbonate crystallization: small angle neutron scattering investigation by applying contrast variation.

    PubMed

    Endo, Hitoshi; Schwahn, Dietmar; Cölfen, Helmut

    2004-05-15

    The role of the double-hydrophilic block copolymer poly(ethylen glycol)-block-poly(methacrylic acid) (PEG-b-PMAA) on the morphogenesis of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) was studied by applying the contrast variation small angle neutron scattering technique. The morphology and size of CaCO3 crystals is strongly affected by the addition of PEG-b-PMAA. In order to determine the partial scattering functions of the polymer and CaCO3 mineral, we developed both an experimental and theoretical approach with a sophisticated method of their determination from the scattering intensity. Partial scattering functions give detailed information for each component. In particular, the partial scattering function of the polymer, Spp, shows a monotonic slope with Q(-2 to -3) where the scattering vector Q is low (Q < 0.01 Angstrom(-1)), which is a clear evidence that the polymer within the CaCO3 mineral has a mass fractal dimension. The other partial scattering functions reflected the geometry of the CaCO3 particles or the "interaction" of polymer and CaCO3 on a microscopic scale, which leads to a coherent view with Spp.

  14. Small angle neutron scattering study of sodium dodecyl sulfate micellar growth driven by addition of a hydrotropic salt.

    PubMed

    Hassan, P A; Fritz, Gerhard; Kaler, Eric W

    2003-01-01

    The structures of aggregates formed in aqueous solutions of an anionic surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), with the addition of a cationic hydrotropic salt, p-toluidine hydrochloride (PTHC), have been investigated by small angle neutron scattering (SANS). The SANS spectra exhibit a pronounced peak at low salt concentration, indicating the presence of repulsive intermicellar interactions. Model-independent real space information about the structure is obtained from a generalized indirect Fourier transformation (GIFT) technique in combination with a suitable model for the interparticle structure factor. The interparticle interaction is captured using the rescaled mean spherical approximation (RMSA) closure relation and a Yukawa form of the interaction potential. Further quantification of the geometrical parameters of the micelles was achieved by a complete fit of the SANS data using a prolate ellipsoidal form factor and the RMSA structure factor. The present study shows that PTHC induces a decrease in the fractional charge of the micelles due to adsorption at the micellar surface and consequent growth of the SDS micelles from nearly globular to rodlike as the concentration of PTHC increases.

  15. Small angle neutron scattering study of sodium dodecyl sulfate micellar growth driven by addition of a hydrotropic salt.

    PubMed

    Hassan, P A; Fritz, Gerhard; Kaler, Eric W

    2003-01-01

    The structures of aggregates formed in aqueous solutions of an anionic surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), with the addition of a cationic hydrotropic salt, p-toluidine hydrochloride (PTHC), have been investigated by small angle neutron scattering (SANS). The SANS spectra exhibit a pronounced peak at low salt concentration, indicating the presence of repulsive intermicellar interactions. Model-independent real space information about the structure is obtained from a generalized indirect Fourier transformation (GIFT) technique in combination with a suitable model for the interparticle structure factor. The interparticle interaction is captured using the rescaled mean spherical approximation (RMSA) closure relation and a Yukawa form of the interaction potential. Further quantification of the geometrical parameters of the micelles was achieved by a complete fit of the SANS data using a prolate ellipsoidal form factor and the RMSA structure factor. The present study shows that PTHC induces a decrease in the fractional charge of the micelles due to adsorption at the micellar surface and consequent growth of the SDS micelles from nearly globular to rodlike as the concentration of PTHC increases. PMID:16256467

  16. From Human Monocytes to Genome-Wide Binding Sites - A Protocol for Small Amounts of Blood: Monocyte Isolation/ChIP-Protocol/Library Amplification/Genome Wide Computational Data Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Weiterer, Sebastian; Uhle, Florian; Bhuju, Sabin; Jarek, Michael; Weigand, Markus A.; Bartkuhn, Marek

    2014-01-01

    Chromatin immunoprecipitation in combination with a genome-wide analysis via high-throughput sequencing is the state of the art method to gain genome-wide representation of histone modification or transcription factor binding profiles. However, chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis in the context of human experimental samples is limited, especially in the case of blood cells. The typically extremely low yields of precipitated DNA are usually not compatible with library amplification for next generation sequencing. We developed a highly reproducible protocol to present a guideline from the first step of isolating monocytes from a blood sample to analyse the distribution of histone modifications in a genome-wide manner. Conclusion: The protocol describes the whole work flow from isolating monocytes from human blood samples followed by a high-sensitivity and small-scale chromatin immunoprecipitation assay with guidance for generating libraries compatible with next generation sequencing from small amounts of immunoprecipitated DNA. PMID:24732314

  17. 78 FR 59624 - Guidance for Industry #223: Small Entity Compliance Guide-Declaring Color Additives in Animal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-27

    ... 17, 2011 (76 FR 71248). FDA has prepared this SECG in accordance with section 212 of the Small... amendments. The 1990 amendments, among other things, provided for the declaration of certified color... . V. Electronic Access Persons with access to the Internet may obtain the SECG at either...

  18. Modulation of chicken intestinal immune gene expression by small cationic peptides as feed additives during the first week posthatch

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have been investigating modulation strategies tailored around the selective stimulation of the host’s immune system as an alternative to direct targeting of microbial pathogens by antibiotics. One such approach is the use of a group of small cationic peptides (BT) produced by a Gram-positive soi...

  19. 40 CFR 80.1165 - What are the additional requirements under this subpart for a foreign small refiner?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Renewable Fuel Standard § 80.1165 What are the additional requirements under this subpart for a foreign... subject to the full operation of the administrative and judicial enforcement powers and provisions of the... to the United States Environmental Protection Agency, under the requirements of 40 CFR part...

  20. On the Problem-Size Effect in Small Additions: Can We Really Discard Any Counting-Based Account?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrouillet, Pierre; Thevenot, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    The problem-size effect in simple additions, that is the increase in response times (RTs) and error rates with the size of the operands, is one of the most robust effects in cognitive arithmetic. Current accounts focus on factors that could affect speed of retrieval of the answers from long-term memory such as the occurrence of interference in a…

  1. The influence of small impurity additions and direct electric current on the kinetics of contact melting in metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahkubekov, A. A.; Ahkubekova, S. N.; Enaldieva, O. L.; Orkvasov, T. A.; Sozaev, V. A.

    2008-02-01

    Using the experimental data on contact melting of polycrystalline indium, tin and lead - based solid solutions with low-melting alloys we show that besides the diffusive, adhesive and low - dimensional mechanisms of contact melting it is necessary to take into account the segregational mechanism as well. The surfaces of a contact between the polycrystalline solid solutions and low - melting metals enrich in lower melting components due to the grain-boundary and surface segregation. One can influence on the kinetics of contact melting using alkali metals as impurity additives and applying the direct electric current. For example, the sodium addition to indium results in 3 times expansion of contact layer in the (In + 0.1 at. % Na) - Bi system, but in 2 times shrinking of that layer in the (In + 0.1 at. % Na) - Cd system in comparison to experiments without impurities.

  2. Fasting decreases apolipoprotein B mRNA editing and the secretion of small molecular weight apoB by rat hepatocytes: Evidence that the total amount of apoB secreted is regulated post-transcriptionally

    SciTech Connect

    Leighton, J.K.; Joyner, J.; Zamarripa, J.; Deines, M.; Davis, R.A. )

    1990-09-01

    Two different molecular weight forms of apoB are produced from a common initial transcript via editing of a Gln codon (CAA) to a stop codon (UAA), leading to a truncated translation product (apo BS) that consists of the amino terminal half of the larger form (apoBL). Previous studies have shown that fasting coordinately decreases lipogenesis and the secretion of very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) lipids and apoBS. Secretion of the apoBL is unaffected by fasting. We studied whether editing of apoB RNA is repressed by fasting, thus accounting for the selective decreased secretion of apoBS. Column chromatography of (35S)methionine-labeled lipoproteins secreted by hepatocytes from fed rats showed that essentially all of apoBL is secreted in the VLDL fraction, whereas a significant amount (15%) of apoBS is secreted associated as lipoproteins eluting in the HDL fractions. Fasting decreased the relative amount of apoBS that eluted in the VLDL fractions and increased the amount secreted in the HDL fractions. Consistent with previous results, hepatocytes from fasted rats show a selective twofold decrease in apoBS secretion. Fasting did not affect the relative abundance of apoB RNA, determined by slot blot hybridization assays using two different 32P-labeled cDNA probes coding either for both molecular weight forms or for only the large molecular weight form. However, quantitative of the editing of apoB RNA showed that fasting caused a 60% decrease in the amount of apoB RNA possessing the stop codon. These data show that the editing of apoB RNA is sensitive to metabolic state (i.e., fasting) resulting in a selective decrease in the secretion of apoBS. However, since the total secretion of apoB was decreased by fasting, while apoB mRNA levels remained constant, additional (post-transcriptional) mechanisms play a role in regulating apoB secretion.

  3. Highly sensitive detection of neodymium ion in small amount of spent nuclear fuel samples using novel fluorescent macrocyclic hexadentate polyaminocarboxylate probe in capillary electrophoresis-laser-induced fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Saito, Shingo; Sato, Yoshiyuki; Haraga, Tomoko; Nakano, Yuta; Asai, Shiho; Kameo, Yutaka; Takahashi, Kuniaki; Shibukawa, Masami

    2012-04-01

    A rapid and high-sensitive detection method for the total concentration of Nd ion (total Nd) in a small amount of a spent nuclear fuel sample is urgently required since the precise quantification of total Nd ion makes it possible for burnup (degree of fuel consumption) to be determined. In this work, a capillary electrophoresis-laser-induced fluorescent detection method (CE-LIF) is proposed for the analysis of total Nd in a spent fuel sample solution, with the use of a newly synthesized metal fluorescent probe which has a fluorescein and a macrocylic hexadentate chelating group, FTC-ABNOTA, for lanthanide (Ln) ions. Ln ions were derivatized to form a strongly fluorescent complex with the probe to suppress the quenching of the ligand-centered emission. The detection of Ln complexes in the CE-LIF indicated that the interaction between Ln ions and the FTC-ABNOTA was strong enough not to dissociate during migration. The mutual separation among the Ln-FTC-ABNOTA complexes in CE-LIF was achieved by pH control providing a dynamic ternary complexation (DTC) with hydroxide ions. Using the DTC separation mode, a high resolution of Nd from other Ln ions with high resolution of 1.3-1.9 and a theoretical plate number of 68,000, and a very low detection limit of 22 pM (3.2 ppt, 0.11 attomole amount basis) were successfully obtained. A simulated spent fuel sample containing various metal ions was examined in this method with a good quantification result of 102.1% recovery obtained even with a large excess of U.

  4. Small

    SciTech Connect

    Montoya, Joseph

    2013-07-18

    Representing the Center on Nanostructuring for Efficient Energy Conversion (CNEEC), this document is one of the entries in the Ten Hundred and One Word Challenge. As part of the challenge, the 46 Energy Frontier Research Centers were invited to represent their science in images, cartoons, photos, words and original paintings, but any descriptions or words could only use the 1000 most commonly used words in the English language, with the addition of one word important to each of the EFRCs and the mission of DOE energy. The mission of CNEEC is to understand how nanostructuring can enhance efficiency for energy conversion and solve fundamental cross-cutting problems in advanced energy conversion and storage systems.

  5. In vivo-detection, localization and measurement of radionuclides in man: a detection system for the localization amd measurement of small amounts of photon emitters. Progress report, March 1, 1981-October 31, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Laurer, G. R.

    1981-11-01

    The design, construction, and testing of a photon detection system which will yield, simultaneously, information proportional to both the magnitude and location of sources of radioactivity are under investigation. The operating principle of the detector system, active collimation, allows spatial resolution by utilizing the crystal elements themselves as the collimating device; hence a greater counting efficiency is attainable. Two approaches have been tested thus far: in the first, the differences in characteristics of various crystals are utilized as the means of separating events occurring in each of five crystals viewed by a single phototube; in the second, smaller, single crystal/phototube elements are used in the array. Mathematical processing of the counts from the individual crystal elements is then employed in conjunction with their geometric relationship to develop both positional data and to quantify the amount of radioactivity. By utilizing crystal elements in an active collimation configuration and incorporating them in an array which permits these crystals to be alternately advanced and retracted in a programmed, ordered manner, a high degree of spatial resolution is achievable without compromising system sensitivity. The experiments include development of the optimal crystal configuration and the evolving of data processing techniques to translate detector response into precise source position information for localization or imaging purposes. Such a system could add another dimension in studies involving uptake, distribution, and retention of radionuclide labeled compounds because of its ability to actively track, in vivo, the distribution of these compounds. In addition, it should be possible to study, dynamically, the motion of organs, such as the heart or lungs, through which these compounds move. (ERB)

  6. Outpatient Management of Postbiopsy Pneumothorax with Small-Caliber Chest Tubes: Factors Affecting the Need for Prolonged Drainage and Additional Interventions

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Sanjay Hicks, Marshall E.; Wallace, Michael J.; Ahrar, Kamran; Madoff, David C.; Murthy, Ravi

    2008-03-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of outpatient management of postbiopsy pneumothoraces with small-caliber chest tubes and to assess the factors that influence the need for prolonged drainage or additional interventions.We evaluated the medical records of patients who were treated with small-caliber chest tubes attached to Heimlich valves for pneumothoraces resulting from image-guided transthoracic needle biopsy to determine the hospital admission rates, the number of days the catheters were left in place, and the need for further interventions. We also evaluated the patient, lesion, and biopsy technique characteristics to determine their influence on the need for prolonged catheter drainage or additional interventions. Of the 191 patients included in our study, 178 (93.2%) were treated as outpatients. Ten patients (5.2%) were admitted for chest tube-related problems, either for underwater suction (n = 8) or for pain control (n = 2). No further interventions were required in 146 patients (76.4%), with successful removal of the chest tubes the day after the biopsy procedure. Prolonged catheter drainage (mean, 4.3 days) was required in 44 patients (23%). Nineteen patients (9.9%) underwent additional interventions for management of pneumothorax. Presence of emphysema was noted more frequently in patients who required additional interventions or prolonged chest tube drainage than in those who did not (51.1% vs. 24.7%; p = 0.001).We conclude that use of the Heimlich valve allows safe and successful outpatient treatment of most patients requiring chest tube placement for postbiopsy pneumothorax. Additional interventions or prolonged chest tube drainage are needed more frequently in patients with emphysema in the needle path.

  7. Physical characteristics of LWRs and SCLWRs loaded by ({sup 233}U-Th-{sup 238}U) oxide fuel with small additions of {sup 231}Pa

    SciTech Connect

    Kulikov, E.G.; Shmelev, A.N.; Apse, V.A.; Kulikov, G.G.

    2007-07-01

    The paper investigates the possibility and attractiveness of using (U-Th) fuel in light-water reactors (LWRs) and in light-water reactors with super-critical coolant parameters (SCLWRs). It is proposed to dilute {sup 233}U with {sup 238}U to enhance the proliferation resistance of this fissionable isotope. If is noteworthy that she idea was put forward for the first time by she well known American physicist and participant of the Manhattan Project Dr. T. Taylor. Various fuel compositions are analyzed and compared on fuel breeding, achievable values of fuel burn-up and cross-sections of parasitic neutron absorption. It is also demonstrated that small {sup 231}Pa additions (several percent) into the fuel allows: to increase fuel burn-up, to achieve more negative temperature reactivity coefficient of coolant and to enhance nonproliferation of the fuel. (authors)

  8. Synthetic tolerance: three noncoding small RNAs, DsrA, ArcZ and RprA, acting supra-additively against acid stress

    PubMed Central

    Gaida, Stefan M.; Al-Hinai, Mohab A.; Indurthi, Dinesh C.; Nicolaou, Sergios A.; Papoutsakis, Eleftherios T.

    2013-01-01

    Synthetic acid tolerance, especially during active cell growth, is a desirable phenotype for many biotechnological applications. Natively, acid resistance in Escherichia coli is largely a stationary-phase phenotype attributable to mechanisms mostly under the control of the stationary-phase sigma factor RpoS. We show that simultaneous overexpression of noncoding small RNAs (sRNAs), DsrA, RprA and ArcZ, which are translational RpoS activators, increased acid tolerance (based on a low-pH survival assay) supra-additively up to 8500-fold during active cell growth, and provided protection against carboxylic acid and oxidative stress. Overexpression of rpoS without its regulatory 5′-UTR resulted in inferior acid tolerance. The supra-additive effect of overexpressing the three sRNAs results from the impact their expression has on RpoS-protein levels, and the beneficial perturbation of the interconnected RpoS and H-NS networks, thus leading to superior tolerance during active growth. Unlike the overexpression of proteins, overexpression of sRNAs imposes hardly any metabolic burden on cells, and constitutes a more effective strain engineering strategy. PMID:23892399

  9. Development of a Methodology to Conduct Usability Evaluation for Hand Tools that May Reduce the Amount of Small Parts that are Dropped During Installation while Processing Space Flight Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Darcy

    2000-01-01

    Foreign object debris (FOD) is an important concern while processing space flight hardware. FOD can be defined as "The debris that is left in or around flight hardware, where it could cause damage to that flight hardware," (United Space Alliance, 2000). Just one small screw left unintentionally in the wrong place could delay a launch schedule while it is retrieved, increase the cost of processing, or cause a potentially fatal accident. At this time, there is not a single solution to help reduce the number of dropped parts such as screws, bolts, nuts, and washers during installation. Most of the effort is currently focused on training employees and on capturing the parts once they are dropped. Advances in ergonomics and hand tool design suggest that a solution may be possible, in the form of specialty hand tools, which secure the small parts while they are being handled. To assist in the development of these new advances, a test methodology was developed to conduct a usability evaluation of hand tools, while performing tasks with risk of creating FOD. The methodology also includes hardware in the form of a testing board and the small parts that can be installed onto the board during a test. The usability of new hand tools was determined based on efficiency and the number of dropped parts. To validate the methodology, participants were tested while performing a task that is representative of the type of work that may be done when processing space flight hardware. Test participants installed small parts using their hands and two commercially available tools. The participants were from three groups: (1) students, (2) engineers / managers and (3) technicians. The test was conducted to evaluate the differences in performance when using the three installation methods, as well as the difference in performance of the three participant groups.

  10. SIPSEY WILDERNESS AND ADDITIONS, ALABAMA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schweinfurth, Stanley P.; Mory, Peter C.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of geologic, geochemical, and mineral surveys the Sipsey Wilderness and additions are deemed to have little promise for the occurrence of metallic mineral resources. Although limestone, shale, and sandstone resources that occur in the area are physically suitable for a variety of uses, similar materials are available outside the area closer to transportation routes and potential markets. A small amount of coal has been identified in the area, occurring as nonpersistent beds less than 28 in. thick. Oil and (or) natural gas resources may be present if suitable structural traps exist in the subsurface. Therefore, the area has a probable oil and gas potential. Small amounts of asphaltic sandstone and limestone, commonly referred to as tar sands, may also occur in the subsurface. 5 refs.

  11. The results with the addition of metronomic cyclophosphamide to palliative radiotherapy for the treatment of non-small cell lung carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Subhash Chandra; Pandey, Kailash Chandra; Rastogi, Madhup; Sharma, Mukesh; Gupta, Manoj

    2015-01-01

    Background A considerable proportion of non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) patients are ineligible for radical therapies. Many are frail not to tolerate intravenous palliative chemotherapy either. These patients often receive palliative radiotherapy (RT), or supportive care alone. We intend to compare outcomes with palliative RT alone, versus palliative RT plus oral low dose metronomic cyclophosphamide. Methods Data was mined from 139 eligible NSCLC patient records. Comparisons were made between 65 patients treated from January 2011 to March 2013 with palliative RT (20-30 Gray in 5-10 fractions) alone, versus 74 patients treated from April 2013 to December 2014 with palliative RT plus oral metronomic cyclophosphamide (50 mg once daily from day of initiation of RT until at least the day of disease progression). Response was assessed after 1-month post-RT by computed tomography. Patients with complete or partial response were recorded as responders. For the determination of progression free survival (PFS), progression would be declared in case of increase in size of lesions, development of new lesions, or development of effusions. The proportions of responders were compared with the Fisher exact test, and the PFS curves were compared with the log-rank test. Results Differences in response rates were statistically insignificant. The PFS was significantly higher when metronomic chemotherapy was added to RT in comparison to treatment with RT alone (mean PFS 3.1 vs. 2.55 months; P=0.0501). Further histological sub-group analysis revealed that the enhanced outcomes with addition of metronomic cyclophosphamide to RT were limited to patients with adenocarcinoma histology (3.5 vs. 2.4 months; P=0.0053), while there was no benefit for those with squamous cell histology (2.6 vs. 2.6 months; P=1). At the dose of oral cyclophosphamide used, there was no recorded instance of any measurable hematological toxicity. Conclusions For pulmonary adenocarcinoma patients, the treatment

  12. Feasibility, tolerability, and efficacy of the concurrent addition of erlotinib to thoracic radiotherapy in locally advanced unresectable non-small-cell lung cancer: a Phase II trial

    PubMed Central

    Martínez, Enrique; Martínez, Maite; Rico, Mikel; Hernández, Berta; Casas, Francesc; Viñolas, Nuria; Pérez-Casas, Ana; Dómine, Manuel; Mínguez, Julián

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Although many studies have confirmed the synergic effects of combining chemotherapy (CT) and radiotherapy (RT), clinical data evaluating safety and efficacy of erlotinib in combination with RT in locally advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are limited. The aim of this study was to determine the feasibility, tolerability, and efficacy of the concurrent addition of erlotinib to the standard three-dimensional conformal thoracic RT in patients with unresectable or locally advanced NSCLC who are not candidates for receiving standard CT. Patients and methods Feasibility and tolerability, assessed by evaluating adverse events (AEs), and effectiveness, by calculating progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), cancer-specific survival (CSS), and objective response rate (ORR), were analyzed in 30 patients receiving RT alone and 60 receiving RT and erlotinib. Results Erlotinib with RT showed an extended CSS and a higher rate of complete responses compared with RT alone. No differences between groups were found regarding OS, PFS, and ORR. AEs were significantly higher in the combined treatment, which mainly included cutaneous toxicity, dyspnea, fatigue, hyporexia, diarrhea, and infection. Erlotinib did not increase the toxicity produced by RT. Conclusion The combination of erlotinib with RT produced, in our study, a scarce clinical benefit in the treatment of unresectable or locally advanced NSCLC, limited to complete responses and longer CSS rate compared with RT alone. Increased toxicity events were associated with combined therapy, which mainly included cutaneous toxicity. In our opinion, further studies in molecularly unselected lung cancer patients treated with EGFR TKIs and RT are not indicated. The use of biomarkers for the identification of patients that are most likely to benefit from this treatment is an essential next step in the research of this condition. PMID:27042098

  13. 48 CFR 28.102-2 - Amount required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... lesser amount is adequate for the protection of the Government, the penal amount of performance bonds... lesser amount is adequate for the protection of the Government, the penal amount of the payment bond or... secure any needed additional protection by directing the contractor to— (1) Increase the penal sum of...

  14. 42 CFR 56.106 - Amount of grant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Amount of grant. 56.106 Section 56.106 Public... SERVICES General Provisions § 56.106 Amount of grant. (a) The amount of any award under this part will be... direct project costs plus an additional amount for indirect costs, if any, which will be calculated...

  15. 42 CFR 51c.106 - Amount of grant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Amount of grant. 51c.106 Section 51c.106 Public... SERVICES General Provisions § 51c.106 Amount of grant. (a) The amount of any award under this part will be... direct project costs plus an additional amount for indirect costs, if any, which will be calculated...

  16. 77 FR 61423 - Notice of Adjustment of Disaster Grant Amounts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-09

    ... amount for Small Project Grants to State and local governments and private nonprofit facilities for... increase in the maximum amount of any Small Project Grant made to the State, local government, or to the... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF...

  17. 75 FR 62135 - Notice of Adjustment of Disaster Grant Amounts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-07

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Notice of Adjustment of Disaster Grant Amounts AGENCY: Federal... amount for Small Project Grants to State and local governments and private nonprofit facilities for...), 42 U.S.C. 5121-5207, prescribes that FEMA must annually adjust the maximum grant amount made...

  18. 76 FR 63933 - Notice of Adjustment of Disaster Grant Amounts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-14

    ... SECURITY Notice of Adjustment of Disaster Grant Amounts AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: FEMA gives notice of an increase of the maximum amount for Small Project Grants.... 5121-5207, prescribes that FEMA must annually adjust the maximum grant amount made under section...

  19. Technical advances with newer aortic endografts provide additional support to withhold the early endovascular repair of small abdominal aortic aneurysms until it is really needed.

    PubMed

    Georgakarakos, Efstratios; Georgiadis, George S; Nikolopoulos, Evagelos; Trellopoulos, George; Kapoulas, Konstantinos; Lazarides, Miltos

    2012-07-01

    The idea of early endovascular aortic repair (EVAR) of "small" abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) has gained attention over "watchful waiting," mostly due to the concern for losing the anatomic suitability for endovascular repair over time. Generally, small AAAs have longer, smaller, less angulated necks, and less tortuous iliac arteries than larger ones. Though the borderline anatomic characteristics were assumed to be contraindications for older generation endografts, the modifications of modern devices seem promising to overcome those limitations, in order to treat the small AAAs when reaching the 5.5 cm threshold. Moreover, early endovascular intervention has been proven neither cost effective nor beneficial for the patients' quality of life. This article evaluates the technical progress that could overcome the difficulties of those small AAAs that present technically demanding anatomies, thus advocating endovascular intervention when they reach the diameter threshold. PMID:22589239

  20. Small bowel resection - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Eat small amounts of food several times a day. DO NOT eat 3 big meals. You should: Space out your small meals. Wait the same amount of time between each one. Add new foods back into your diet slowly, one ...

  1. Amplification of trace amounts of nucleic acids

    DOEpatents

    Church, George M.; Zhang, Kun

    2008-06-17

    Methods of reducing background during amplification of small amounts of nucleic acids employ careful analysis of sources of low level contamination. Ultraviolet light can be used to reduce nucleic acid contaminants in reagents and equipment. "Primer-dimer" background can be reduced by judicious design of primers. We have shown clean signal-to-noise with as little as starting material as one single human cell (.about.6 picogram), E. coli cell (.about.5 femtogram) or Prochlorococcus cell (.about.3 femtogram).

  2. 43 CFR 3835.17 - What additional requirements must I fulfill to obtain a small miner waiver for my mining claims...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... fulfill to obtain a small miner waiver for my mining claims or sites on National Park System lands? 3835... waiver for my mining claims or sites on National Park System lands? (a) Before performing assessment work on National Park System lands, you must submit and obtain the National Park Service (NPS)'s...

  3. 43 CFR 3835.17 - What additional requirements must I fulfill to obtain a small miner waiver for my mining claims...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... fulfill to obtain a small miner waiver for my mining claims or sites on National Park System lands? 3835... waiver for my mining claims or sites on National Park System lands? (a) Before performing assessment work on National Park System lands, you must submit and obtain the National Park Service (NPS)'s...

  4. 43 CFR 3835.17 - What additional requirements must I fulfill to obtain a small miner waiver for my mining claims...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... fulfill to obtain a small miner waiver for my mining claims or sites on National Park System lands? 3835... waiver for my mining claims or sites on National Park System lands? (a) Before performing assessment work on National Park System lands, you must submit and obtain the National Park Service (NPS)'s...

  5. 43 CFR 3835.17 - What additional requirements must I fulfill to obtain a small miner waiver for my mining claims...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... fulfill to obtain a small miner waiver for my mining claims or sites on National Park System lands? 3835... waiver for my mining claims or sites on National Park System lands? (a) Before performing assessment work on National Park System lands, you must submit and obtain the National Park Service (NPS)'s...

  6. Determination of small and large amounts of fluorine in rocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grimaldi, F.S.; Ingram, B.; Cuttitta, F.

    1955-01-01

    Gelatinous silica and aluminum ions retard the distillation of fluorine in the Willard and Winter distillation method. A generally applicable, simple method for the determination of fluorine in rocks containing aluminum or silicon or both as major constituents was desired. In the procedure developed, the sample is fused with a mixture of sodium carbonate and zinc oxide, leached with water, and filtered. The residue is granular and retains nearly all of the silica. The fluorine in the filtrate is distilled directly from a perchloric acid-phosphoric acid mixture. Phosphoric acid permits the quantitative distillation of fluorine in the presence of much aluminum at the usual distillation temperature and without the collection of large volumes of distillate. The fluorine is determined either by microtitration with thorium nitrate or colorimetrically with thoron. The procedure is rapid and has yielded excellent results on silicate rocks and on samples from the aluminum phosphate (leached) zone of the Florida phosphate deposits.

  7. 75 FR 24497 - Short-Term, Small Amount Loans

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-05

    ... currently offer various types of payday loan alternatives, and approximately 605 FCUs currently offer micro... in numerous legal opinions. 45 FR 22888, 22890 (April 4, 1980); OGC Op. 91-0412 (April 30, 1991); OGC... public comment on whether to expand this provision to encompass all closed-end transactions. Truth...

  8. Multifunctional fuel additives

    SciTech Connect

    Baillargeon, D.J.; Cardis, A.B.; Heck, D.B.

    1991-03-26

    This paper discusses a composition comprising a major amount of a liquid hydrocarbyl fuel and a minor low-temperature flow properties improving amount of an additive product of the reaction of a suitable diol and product of a benzophenone tetracarboxylic dianhydride and a long-chain hydrocarbyl aminoalcohol.

  9. Effects of Small Additions of Tin on High-Temperature Oxidation of Fe-Cu-Sn Alloys for Surface Hot Shortness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Lan; Sridhar, Seetharaman

    2010-10-01

    Steel produced in an electric arc furnace contains a high amount of copper (Cu) that causes a surface-cracking phenomenon called surface hot shortness. It is known that tin (Sn) can exacerbate the hot shortness problem. A series of iron (Fe)-0.3 wt pct Cu- x wt pct Sn alloys with an Sn content ranging from 0.03 to 0.15 wt pct was oxidized in air at 1423 K (1150 °C) for 60 seconds, 300 seconds, and 600 seconds using thermogravimetry. A numerical model developed in a previous article was applied to predict the liquid- γFe interface concentrations and interface morphology in the Fe-Cu-Sn ternary system. Scanning electron microscopy investigations show that (1) The interface between the oxide and the metal is planar as predicted by the numerical model, (2) Sn leads to severe Cu-rich liquid penetration and cracking along the grain boundaries, and (3) open cracks with Fe oxides were found beneath the oxide-metal interface. The focused ion beam serial-sectioning technique was used to reveal a three-dimensional structure of cracks in the grain boundary containing Cu-rich liquid and Fe oxides.

  10. Addition of thymidine to culture media for accurate examination of thymidine-dependent small-colony variants of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Horiuchi, Kazuki; Matsumoto, Takehisa; Ota, Yusuke; Kasuga, Eriko; Negishi, Tatsuya; Yaguchi, Tomomi; Sugano, Mitsutoshi; Honda, Takayuki

    2015-03-01

    Small-colony variants (SCVs) are slow-growing subpopulations of various auxotrophic bacterial strains. Thymidine-dependent SCVs (TD-SCVs) are unable to synthesize thymidine; hence, these variants fail to grow in a medium without thymidine. In this study, we used 10 TD-SCVs of Staphylococcus aureus, of which four strains possessed mecA. We compared the efficacy of a newly modified medium containing thymidine for the detection of TD-SCVs of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) to the efficacy of routinely used laboratory media. We observed that none of the 10 TD-SCVs of S. aureus grew in Mueller-Hinton agar, and four TD-SCVs of MRSA failed to grow on all MRSA screening media, except for the ChromID™ MRSA medium. Laboratory tests conducted using medium with thymidine incorporated showed that thymidine did not affect the minimum inhibitory concentrations of oxacillin and cefoxitin for clinical isolates of S. aureus, and was able to detect MRSA, including TD-SCVs. These findings showed that thymidine-incorporated media are able to detect TD-SCVs of MRSA without altering the properties of other clinically isolated MRSA strains.

  11. 13 CFR 120.348 - Amount of guarantee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Amount of guarantee. 120.348 Section 120.348 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Special Purpose Loans International Trade Loans § 120.348 Amount of guarantee. SBA can guarantee up to...

  12. RECOVERY OF THE CANDIDATE PROTOPLANET HD 100546 b WITH GEMINI/NICI AND DETECTION OF ADDITIONAL (PLANET-INDUCED?) DISK STRUCTURE AT SMALL SEPARATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Currie, Thayne; Kudo, Tomoyuki; Muto, Takayuki; Honda, Mitsuhiko; Brandt, Timothy D.; Grady, Carol; Fukagawa, Misato; Burrows, Adam; Janson, Markus; Kuzuhara, Masayuki; McElwain, Michael W.; Follette, Katherine; Hashimoto, Jun; Henning, Thomas; Kandori, Ryo; Kusakabe, Nobuhiko; Morino, Jun-ichi; Nishikawa, Jun; Kwon, Jungmi; Mede, Kyle; and others

    2014-12-01

    We report the first independent, second epoch (re-)detection of a directly imaged protoplanet candidate. Using L' high-contrast imaging of HD 100546 taken with the Near-Infrared Coronagraph and Imager on Gemini South, we recover ''HD 100546 b'' with a position and brightness consistent with the original Very Large Telescope/NAos-COnica detection from Quanz et al., although data obtained after 2013 will be required to decisively demonstrate common proper motion. HD 100546 b may be spatially resolved, up to ≈12-13 AU in diameter, and is embedded in a finger of thermal IR-bright, polarized emission extending inward to at least 0.''3. Standard hot-start models imply a mass of ≈15 M{sub J} . However, if HD 100546 b is newly formed or made visible by a circumplanetary disk, both of which are plausible, its mass is significantly lower (e.g., 1-7 M{sub J} ). Additionally, we discover a thermal IR-bright disk feature, possibly a spiral density wave, at roughly the same angular separation as HD 100546 b but 90° away. Our interpretation of this feature as a spiral arm is not decisive, but modeling analyses using spiral density wave theory implies a wave launching point exterior to ≈0.''45 embedded within the visible disk structure: plausibly evidence for a second, hitherto unseen, wide-separation planet. With one confirmed protoplanet candidate and evidence for one to two others, HD 100546 is an important evolutionary precursor to intermediate-mass stars with multiple super-Jovian planets at moderate/wide separations like HR 8799.

  13. Recovery of the Candidate Protoplanet HD 100546 b with Gemini/NICI and Detection of Additional (Planet-induced?) Disk Structure at Small Separations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Currie, Thayne; Muto, Takayuki; Kudo, Tomoyuki; Honda, Mitsuhiko; Brandt, Timothy D.; Grady, Carol; Fukagawa, Misato; Burrows, Adam; Janson, Markus; Kuzuhara, Masayuki; McElwain, Michael W.; Follette, Katherine; Hashimoto, Jun; Henning, Thomas; Kandori, Ryo; Kusakabe, Nobuhiko; Kwon, Jungmi; Mede, Kyle; Morino, Jun-ichi; Nishikawa, Jun; Pyo, Tae-Soo; Serabyn, Gene; Suenaga, Takuya; Takahashi, Yasuhiro; Wisniewski, John; Tamura, Motohide

    2014-12-01

    We report the first independent, second epoch (re-)detection of a directly imaged protoplanet candidate. Using L' high-contrast imaging of HD 100546 taken with the Near-Infrared Coronagraph and Imager on Gemini South, we recover "HD 100546 b" with a position and brightness consistent with the original Very Large Telescope/NAos-COnica detection from Quanz et al., although data obtained after 2013 will be required to decisively demonstrate common proper motion. HD 100546 b may be spatially resolved, up to ≈12-13 AU in diameter, and is embedded in a finger of thermal IR-bright, polarized emission extending inward to at least 0.''3. Standard hot-start models imply a mass of ≈15 MJ . However, if HD 100546 b is newly formed or made visible by a circumplanetary disk, both of which are plausible, its mass is significantly lower (e.g., 1-7 MJ ). Additionally, we discover a thermal IR-bright disk feature, possibly a spiral density wave, at roughly the same angular separation as HD 100546 b but 90° away. Our interpretation of this feature as a spiral arm is not decisive, but modeling analyses using spiral density wave theory implies a wave launching point exterior to ≈0.''45 embedded within the visible disk structure: plausibly evidence for a second, hitherto unseen, wide-separation planet. With one confirmed protoplanet candidate and evidence for one to two others, HD 100546 is an important evolutionary precursor to intermediate-mass stars with multiple super-Jovian planets at moderate/wide separations like HR 8799.

  14. Addition of Small Electrophiles to N-Heterocyclic-Carbene-Stabilized Disilicon(0): A Revisit of the Isolobal Concept in Low-Valent Silicon Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Arz, Marius I; Straßmann, Martin; Geiß, Daniel; Schnakenburg, Gregor; Filippou, Alexander C

    2016-04-01

    Protonation and alkylation of (Idipp)Si═Si(Idipp) (1) afforded the mixed-valent disilicon(I)-borates [(Idipp)(R)Si(II)═Si(0)(Idipp)][B(Ar(F))4] (1R[B(Ar(F))4]; R = H, Me, Et; Ar(F) = C6H3-3,5-(CF3)2; Idipp = C[N(C6H3-2,6-iPr2)CH]2) as red to orange colored, highly air-sensitive solids, which were characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, IR spectroscopy and multinuclear NMR spectroscopy. Dynamic NMR studies in solution revealed a degenerate isomerization (topomerization) of the "σ-bonded" tautomers of 1H[B(Ar(F))4], which proceeds according to quantum chemical calculations via a NHC-stabilized (NHC = N-heterocyclic carbene) disilahydronium ion ("π-bonded" isomer) and is reminiscent of the degenerate rearrangement of carbenium ions formed upon protonation of olefins. The topomerization of 1H[B(Ar(F))4] provides the first example of a reversible 1,2-H migration along a Si═Si bond observed in a molecular system. In contrast, 1Me[B(Ar(F))4] adopts a "rigid" structure in solution due to the higher energy required for the interconversion of the "σ-bonded" isomer into a putative NHC-stabilized disilamethonium ion. Addition of alkali metal borates to 1 afforded the alkali metal disilicon(0) borates 1M[BAr4] (M = Li, Ar = C6F5; M = Na, Ar = Ar(F)) as brown, air-sensitive solids. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses and NMR spectroscopic studies of 1M[BAr4] suggest in concert with quantum chemical calculations that encapsulation of the alkali metal cations in the cavity of 1 predominantly occurs via electrostatic cation-π interactions with the Si═Si π-bond and the peripheral NHC aryl rings. Displacement of the [Si(NHC)] fragments by the isolobal fragments [PR] and [SiR](-) interrelates the cations [(NHC)(R)Si═Si(NHC)](+) to a series of familiar, multiply bonded Si and P compounds as verified by analyses of their electronic structures.

  15. Addition of Small Electrophiles to N-Heterocyclic-Carbene-Stabilized Disilicon(0): A Revisit of the Isolobal Concept in Low-Valent Silicon Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Arz, Marius I; Straßmann, Martin; Geiß, Daniel; Schnakenburg, Gregor; Filippou, Alexander C

    2016-04-01

    Protonation and alkylation of (Idipp)Si═Si(Idipp) (1) afforded the mixed-valent disilicon(I)-borates [(Idipp)(R)Si(II)═Si(0)(Idipp)][B(Ar(F))4] (1R[B(Ar(F))4]; R = H, Me, Et; Ar(F) = C6H3-3,5-(CF3)2; Idipp = C[N(C6H3-2,6-iPr2)CH]2) as red to orange colored, highly air-sensitive solids, which were characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, IR spectroscopy and multinuclear NMR spectroscopy. Dynamic NMR studies in solution revealed a degenerate isomerization (topomerization) of the "σ-bonded" tautomers of 1H[B(Ar(F))4], which proceeds according to quantum chemical calculations via a NHC-stabilized (NHC = N-heterocyclic carbene) disilahydronium ion ("π-bonded" isomer) and is reminiscent of the degenerate rearrangement of carbenium ions formed upon protonation of olefins. The topomerization of 1H[B(Ar(F))4] provides the first example of a reversible 1,2-H migration along a Si═Si bond observed in a molecular system. In contrast, 1Me[B(Ar(F))4] adopts a "rigid" structure in solution due to the higher energy required for the interconversion of the "σ-bonded" isomer into a putative NHC-stabilized disilamethonium ion. Addition of alkali metal borates to 1 afforded the alkali metal disilicon(0) borates 1M[BAr4] (M = Li, Ar = C6F5; M = Na, Ar = Ar(F)) as brown, air-sensitive solids. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses and NMR spectroscopic studies of 1M[BAr4] suggest in concert with quantum chemical calculations that encapsulation of the alkali metal cations in the cavity of 1 predominantly occurs via electrostatic cation-π interactions with the Si═Si π-bond and the peripheral NHC aryl rings. Displacement of the [Si(NHC)] fragments by the isolobal fragments [PR] and [SiR](-) interrelates the cations [(NHC)(R)Si═Si(NHC)](+) to a series of familiar, multiply bonded Si and P compounds as verified by analyses of their electronic structures. PMID:26978031

  16. 20 CFR 228.52 - Restored amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Restored amount. 228.52 Section 228.52... SURVIVOR ANNUITIES The Tier II Annuity Component § 228.52 Restored amount. (a) General. A restored amount...(er) had ten years of creditable railroad service prior to January 1, 1975. (b) Amount. The amount...

  17. 20 CFR 228.52 - Restored amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Restored amount. 228.52 Section 228.52... SURVIVOR ANNUITIES The Tier II Annuity Component § 228.52 Restored amount. (a) General. A restored amount...(er) had ten years of creditable railroad service prior to January 1, 1975. (b) Amount. The amount...

  18. Food additives

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857

  19. Nuclear DNA Amounts in Macaronesian Angiosperms

    PubMed Central

    SUDA, JAN; KYNCL, TOMÁŠ; FREIOVÁ, RADKA

    2003-01-01

    Nuclear DNA contents for 104 Macaronesian angiosperms, with particular attention on Canary Islands endemics, were analysed using propidium iodide flow cytometry. Prime estimates for more than one‐sixth of the whole Canarian endemic flora (including representatives of 11 endemic genera) were obtained. The resulting 1C DNA values ranged from 0·19 to 7·21 pg for Descurainia bourgeauana and Argyranthemum frutescens, respectively (about 38‐fold difference). The majority of species, however, possessed (very) small genomes, with C‐values <1·6 pg. The tendency towards small nuclear DNA contents and genome sizes was confirmed by comparing average values for Macaronesian and non‐Macaronesian representatives of individual families, genera and major phylogenetic lineages. Our data support the hypothesis that the insular selection pressures in Macaronesia favour small C‐values and genome sizes. Both positive and negative correlations between infrageneric nuclear DNA amount variation and environmental conditions on Tenerife were also found in several genera. PMID:12824074

  20. [The radiologic description of pleural effusions with special reference to an additional projection].

    PubMed

    Hartung, K

    1989-01-01

    Pleural effusions refer to many different conditions of the pleura itself or to generalized diseases. Small amounts of fluid may not be apparent on conventional radiographs. Regarding the standard views the ventrodorsal projection shows the earliest signs of effusion, followed by the lateral recumbent. But even in these projections it is not possible to see a small amount of fluid. An additional lateral oblique view which you obtain by lifting the extremities seems to show small amounts of fluid more precisely and earlier than any of the standard projections. PMID:2669229

  1. 31 CFR 50.71 - Determination of recoupment amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... 50.71 Section 50.71 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TERRORISM... recoupment amounts for that Program Year. (b)(1) Within 90 days after certification of an act of terrorism... Terrorism Policy Surcharge previously established to determine whether any additional amount will...

  2. 31 CFR 50.71 - Determination of recoupment amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... 50.71 Section 50.71 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TERRORISM... recoupment amounts for that Program Year. (b)(1) Within 90 days after certification of an act of terrorism... Terrorism Policy Surcharge previously established to determine whether any additional amount will...

  3. Sensory characterisation and consumer acceptability of potassium chloride and sunflower oil addition in small-caliber non-acid fermented sausages with a reduced content of sodium chloride and fat.

    PubMed

    Mora-Gallego, Héctor; Guàrdia, Maria Dolors; Serra, Xavier; Gou, Pere; Arnau, Jacint

    2016-02-01

    The effect of the simultaneous reduction of fat proportion (from 20% to 10% and 7%) and added salt (from 2.5% to 1.5%) and the subsequent addition of 0.64% KCl and sunflower oil (1.5% and 3.0%) on the physicochemical, instrumental colour and texture, sensory properties and consumer acceptability of small caliber non-acid fermented sausages (fuet type) was studied. This simultaneous reduction of fat and salt increased weight loss, moisture, water activity (aw), redness, instrumental texture parameters (hardness, chewiness and cohesiveness), sensory attributes (darkness, hardness, elasticity) and the consumer acceptability. The subsequent addition of 0.64% KCl to the leanest batch decreased the aw and barely affected instrumental texture parameters and consumer acceptability. Subsequent sunflower oil addition decreased hardness, chewiness and cohesiveness and increased crumbliness and oil flavour which may decrease the consumer acceptability. The simultaneous reduction of fat and NaCl with the addition of 0.64% KCl was the preferred option by the consumers.

  4. Sensory characterisation and consumer acceptability of potassium chloride and sunflower oil addition in small-caliber non-acid fermented sausages with a reduced content of sodium chloride and fat.

    PubMed

    Mora-Gallego, Héctor; Guàrdia, Maria Dolors; Serra, Xavier; Gou, Pere; Arnau, Jacint

    2016-02-01

    The effect of the simultaneous reduction of fat proportion (from 20% to 10% and 7%) and added salt (from 2.5% to 1.5%) and the subsequent addition of 0.64% KCl and sunflower oil (1.5% and 3.0%) on the physicochemical, instrumental colour and texture, sensory properties and consumer acceptability of small caliber non-acid fermented sausages (fuet type) was studied. This simultaneous reduction of fat and salt increased weight loss, moisture, water activity (aw), redness, instrumental texture parameters (hardness, chewiness and cohesiveness), sensory attributes (darkness, hardness, elasticity) and the consumer acceptability. The subsequent addition of 0.64% KCl to the leanest batch decreased the aw and barely affected instrumental texture parameters and consumer acceptability. Subsequent sunflower oil addition decreased hardness, chewiness and cohesiveness and increased crumbliness and oil flavour which may decrease the consumer acceptability. The simultaneous reduction of fat and NaCl with the addition of 0.64% KCl was the preferred option by the consumers. PMID:26497101

  5. Amplitudes of Pain-Related Evoked Potentials Are Useful to Detect Small Fiber Involvement in Painful Mixed Fiber Neuropathies in Addition to Quantitative Sensory Testing – An Electrophysiological Study

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Niels; Kahn, Ann-Kathrin; Zeller, Daniel; Katsarava, Zaza; Sommer, Claudia; Üçeyler, Nurcan

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the usefulness of pain-related evoked potentials (PREP) elicited by electrical stimulation for the identification of small fiber involvement in patients with mixed fiber neuropathy (MFN). Eleven MFN patients with clinical signs of large fiber impairment and neuropathic pain and ten healthy controls underwent clinical and electrophysiological evaluation. Small fiber function, electrical conductivity and morphology were examined by quantitative sensory testing (QST), PREP, and skin punch biopsy. MFN was diagnosed following clinical and electrophysiological examination (chronic inflammatory demyelinating neuropathy: n = 6; vasculitic neuropathy: n = 3; chronic axonal ­neuropathy: n = 2). The majority of patients with MFN characterized their pain by descriptors that mainly represent C-fiber-mediated pain. In QST, patients displayed elevated cold, warm, mechanical, and vibration detection thresholds and cold pain thresholds indicative of MFN. PREP amplitudes in patients correlated with cold (p < 0.05) and warm detection thresholds (p < 0.05). Burning pain and the presence of par-/dysesthesias correlated negatively with PREP amplitudes (p < 0.05). PREP amplitudes correlating with cold and warm detection thresholds, burning pain, and par-/dysesthesias support employing PREP amplitudes as an additional tool in conjunction with QST for detecting small fiber impairment in patients with MFN. PMID:26696950

  6. 20 CFR 228.51 - Takeback amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Takeback amount. 228.51 Section 228.51... SURVIVOR ANNUITIES The Tier II Annuity Component § 228.51 Takeback amount. (a) The 1983 amendments to the... annuity component be offset from the amount of the tier II annuity. This amount is the takeback...

  7. 20 CFR 340.2 - Amount recoverable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Amount recoverable. 340.2 Section 340.2... RECOVERY OF BENEFITS § 340.2 Amount recoverable. For purposes of this part, an “amount recoverable” is an amount of unemployment, sickness, or maternity benefits paid under the Railroad Unemployment...

  8. 14 CFR 1300.13 - Guarantee amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Guarantee amount. 1300.13 Section 1300.13....13 Guarantee amount. (a) Under Section 101(a)(1) of the Act, the Board is authorized to enter into... loan amount guaranteed to a single air carrier may not exceed that amount that, in the Board's...

  9. 27 CFR 70.243 - Exempt amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Exempt amount. 70.243... Excise and Special (Occupational) Tax Limitations § 70.243 Exempt amount. Amount payable to the taxpayer... exempt from levy as follows: (a) If the payroll period is weekly, an amount equal to: (1) The sum of:...

  10. 13 CFR 120.930 - Amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Amount. 120.930 Section 120.930... Program (504) 504 Loans and Debentures § 120.930 Amount. (a) Generally, a 504 loan may not exceed 40..., the Debenture amount will be reduced by the amount that the unused contingency reserve exceeds...

  11. 13 CFR 120.930 - Amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Amount. 120.930 Section 120.930... Program (504) 504 Loans and Debentures § 120.930 Amount. (a) Generally, a 504 loan may not exceed 40..., the Debenture amount will be reduced by the amount that the unused contingency reserve exceeds...

  12. 27 CFR 70.243 - Exempt amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exempt amount. 70.243... Excise and Special (Occupational) Tax Limitations § 70.243 Exempt amount. Amount payable to the taxpayer... exempt from levy as follows: (a) If the payroll period is weekly, an amount equal to: (1) The sum of:...

  13. 24 CFR 594.15 - Allocation amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Allocation amounts. 594.15 Section... § 594.15 Allocation amounts. (a) Amounts and match requirement. HUD will make grants, in the form of... for less than the maximum amount established by statute, and to limit the number of times a...

  14. 20 CFR 228.51 - Takeback amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Takeback amount. 228.51 Section 228.51... SURVIVOR ANNUITIES The Tier II Annuity Component § 228.51 Takeback amount. (a) The 1983 amendments to the... annuity component be offset from the amount of the tier II annuity. This amount is the takeback...

  15. 46 CFR Sec. 2 - Amount of bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Amount of bond. Sec. 2 Section 2 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION A-NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY BONDING OF SHIP'S PERSONNEL Sec. 2 Amount of bond. The amount of the bond must be governed by the amount of monies advanced or value of...

  16. 46 CFR Sec. 2 - Amount of bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Amount of bond. Sec. 2 Section 2 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION A-NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY BONDING OF SHIP'S PERSONNEL Sec. 2 Amount of bond. The amount of the bond must be governed by the amount of monies advanced or value of...

  17. 46 CFR Sec. 2 - Amount of bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Amount of bond. Sec. 2 Section 2 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION A-NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY BONDING OF SHIP'S PERSONNEL Sec. 2 Amount of bond. The amount of the bond must be governed by the amount of monies advanced or value of...

  18. 46 CFR Sec. 2 - Amount of bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Amount of bond. Sec. 2 Section 2 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION A-NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY BONDING OF SHIP'S PERSONNEL Sec. 2 Amount of bond. The amount of the bond must be governed by the amount of monies advanced or value of...

  19. 46 CFR Sec. 2 - Amount of bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Amount of bond. Sec. 2 Section 2 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION A-NATIONAL SHIPPING AUTHORITY BONDING OF SHIP'S PERSONNEL Sec. 2 Amount of bond. The amount of the bond must be governed by the amount of monies advanced or value of...

  20. Phosphazene additives

    DOEpatents

    Harrup, Mason K; Rollins, Harry W

    2013-11-26

    An additive comprising a phosphazene compound that has at least two reactive functional groups and at least one capping functional group bonded to phosphorus atoms of the phosphazene compound. One of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with cellulose and the other of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with a resin, such as an amine resin of a polycarboxylic acid resin. The at least one capping functional group is selected from the group consisting of a short chain ether group, an alkoxy group, or an aryloxy group. Also disclosed are an additive-resin admixture, a method of treating a wood product, and a wood product.

  1. Potlining Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolf Keller

    2004-08-10

    In this project, a concept to improve the performance of aluminum production cells by introducing potlining additives was examined and tested. Boron oxide was added to cathode blocks, and titanium was dissolved in the metal pool; this resulted in the formation of titanium diboride and caused the molten aluminum to wet the carbonaceous cathode surface. Such wetting reportedly leads to operational improvements and extended cell life. In addition, boron oxide suppresses cyanide formation. This final report presents and discusses the results of this project. Substantial economic benefits for the practical implementation of the technology are projected, especially for modern cells with graphitized blocks. For example, with an energy savings of about 5% and an increase in pot life from 1500 to 2500 days, a cost savings of $ 0.023 per pound of aluminum produced is projected for a 200 kA pot.

  2. 49 CFR 1503.401 - Maximum penalty amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... defined in section 3 of the Small Business Act (15 U.S.C. 632); and (2) $10,000 per violation, up to a... of the Small Business Act (15 U.S.C. 632). (2) $25,000 per violation, up to a total of $400,000 per... provisions, TSA may impose a civil penalty in the following amounts: (1) $10,000 per violation, up to a...

  3. The use of radiative transition rates to study the changes in the excitation of Cu ions in a Ne glow discharge caused by small additions of H2, O2 and N2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, Z.; Steers, E. B. M.; Mushtaq, S.; Hoffmann, V.; Pickering, J. C.

    2016-04-01

    The excitation of Cu+ ions in a Ne glow discharge with small additions of H2, O2 and N2 was studied. Ratios of radiative transition rates between different Cu II levels in a discharge in neon, with and without the molecular gas added, were calculated, and the formalism of transition rate ratio (TRR) diagrams was developed and used to study the changing excitation conditions. Virtually no changes in the excitation of Cu+ ions occur in a neon discharge if nitrogen is added. Additions of hydrogen and oxygen to neon as the discharge gas affect excitation of the 4d, 5s and some other Cu II levels in the vicinity of the ionization energy of neon (21.56 eV). Also some lower Cu II levels, excited by radiative decay of those higher energy levels, are affected. The 4p 3P2 level at 15.96 eV is enhanced by additions of hydrogen. It was suggested that this enhancement is caused by the asymmetric charge transfer reaction between neutral copper atoms and the H2+ molecular ions.

  4. 29 CFR 4219.13 - Amount of liability for de minimis amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Amount of liability for de minimis amounts. 4219.13 Section... Redetermination of Withdrawal Liability Upon Mass Withdrawal § 4219.13 Amount of liability for de minimis amounts. An employer that is liable for de minimis amounts shall be liable to the plan for the amount by...

  5. Photoelectrochemical and Electrochemical Characterization of Sub-Micro-Gram Amounts of Organic Semiconductors Using Scanning Droplet Cell Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    A model organic semiconductor (MDMO-PPV) was used for testing a modified version of a photoelectrochemical scanning droplet cell microscope (PE-SDCM) adapted for use with nonaqueous electrolytes and containing an optical fiber for localized illumination. The most attractive features of the PE-SDCM are represented by the possibility of addressing small areas on the investigated substrate and the need of small amounts of electrolyte. A very small amount (ng) of the material under study is sufficient for a complete electrochemical and photoelectrochemical characterization due to the scanning capability of the cell. The electrochemical behavior of the polymer was studied in detail using potentiostatic and potentiodynamic investigations as well as electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Additionally, the photoelectrochemical properties were investigated under illumination conditions, and the photocurrents found were at least 3 orders of magnitude higher than the dark (background) current, revealing the usefulness of this compact microcell for photovoltaic characterizations. PMID:25101149

  6. 17 CFR 230.603 - Amount of securities exempted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Amount of securities exempted. 230.603 Section 230.603 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, SECURITIES ACT OF 1933 Regulation E-Exemption for Securities of Small...

  7. 78 FR 64232 - Notice of Adjustment of Disaster Grant Amounts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-28

    ... amount for Small Project Grants made to State, Tribal, and local governments and private nonprofit... to State, Tribal, and local governments or to the owner or operator of an eligible private nonprofit... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF...

  8. 24 CFR 201.10 - Loan amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Loan amounts. 201.10 Section 201.10... IMPROVEMENT AND MANUFACTURED HOME LOANS Loan and Note Provisions § 201.10 Loan amounts. (a) Property... following maximum loan amounts: (i) Single family property improvement loans—$25,000, except that a loan...

  9. 29 CFR 4302.3 - Penalty amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Penalty amount. 4302.3 Section 4302.3 Labor Regulations... PENALTIES FOR FAILURE TO PROVIDE CERTAIN MULTIEMPLOYER PLAN NOTICES § 4302.3 Penalty amount. The maximum daily amount of the penalty under section 4302 of ERISA shall be $110....

  10. 33 CFR 25.513 - Amount claimed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amount claimed. 25.513 Section 25.513 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL CLAIMS Foreign Claims § 25.513 Amount claimed. The claimant shall state the amount claimed in the currency of...

  11. 31 CFR 50.95 - Final amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Final amount. 50.95 Section 50.95... on Annual Liability § 50.95 Final amount. (a) Treasury shall determine if, as a final proration... that in the aggregate bring the insurer's total insured loss payments up to an amount equal to...

  12. 14 CFR 1261.102 - Maximum amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Maximum amount. 1261.102 Section 1261.102...) Employees' Personal Property Claims § 1261.102 Maximum amount. From October 1, 1982, to October 30, 1988, the maximum amount that may be paid under the Military Personnel and Civilian Employees' Claim Act...

  13. 29 CFR 4071.3 - Penalty amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Penalty amount. 4071.3 Section 4071.3 Labor Regulations... FAILURE TO PROVIDE CERTAIN NOTICES OR OTHER MATERIAL INFORMATION § 4071.3 Penalty amount. The maximum daily amount of the penalty under section 4071 of ERISA shall be $1,100....

  14. 33 CFR 135.203 - Amount required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amount required. 135.203 Section... Financial Responsibility for Offshore Facilities § 135.203 Amount required. (a) Each facility that is used... the amount of $35,000,000. (b) Evidence of financial responsibility established and maintained by...

  15. 13 CFR 500.202 - Loan amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loan amount. 500.202 Section 500.202 Business Credit and Assistance EMERGENCY OIL AND GAS GUARANTEED LOAN BOARD EMERGENCY OIL AND GAS GUARANTEED LOAN PROGRAM Oil and Gas Guaranteed Loans § 500.202 Loan amount. The aggregate amount of...

  16. 46 CFR 308.100 - Insured amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Insured amount. 308.100 Section 308.100 Shipping... and Disbursements Insurance § 308.100 Insured amount. An applicant for war risk hull insurance shall state the amount of insurance desired but any payment of claim for damage to or actual or...

  17. 33 CFR 135.203 - Amount required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Amount required. 135.203 Section... Financial Responsibility for Offshore Facilities § 135.203 Amount required. (a) Each facility that is used... the amount of $35,000,000. (b) Evidence of financial responsibility established and maintained by...

  18. 5 CFR 838.1006 - Amounts payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Amounts payable. 838.1006 Section 838... Benefits § 838.1006 Amounts payable. (a) Money held by an executive agency or OPM that may be payable at... payments (refunds), the amount of the lump-sum credit. (3) In cases involving former spouse annuities,...

  19. 29 CFR 4302.3 - Penalty amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Penalty amount. 4302.3 Section 4302.3 Labor Regulations... PENALTIES FOR FAILURE TO PROVIDE CERTAIN MULTIEMPLOYER PLAN NOTICES § 4302.3 Penalty amount. The maximum daily amount of the penalty under section 4302 of ERISA shall be $110....

  20. 29 CFR 4071.3 - Penalty amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Penalty amount. 4071.3 Section 4071.3 Labor Regulations... FAILURE TO PROVIDE CERTAIN NOTICES OR OTHER MATERIAL INFORMATION § 4071.3 Penalty amount. The maximum daily amount of the penalty under section 4071 of ERISA shall be $1,100....

  1. 46 CFR 308.100 - Insured amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Insured amount. 308.100 Section 308.100 Shipping... and Disbursements Insurance § 308.100 Insured amount. An applicant for war risk hull insurance shall state the amount of insurance desired but any payment of claim for damage to or actual or...

  2. 14 CFR 1261.102 - Maximum amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maximum amount. 1261.102 Section 1261.102...) Employees' Personal Property Claims § 1261.102 Maximum amount. From October 1, 1982, to October 30, 1988, the maximum amount that may be paid under the Military Personnel and Civilian Employees' Claim Act...

  3. 46 CFR 308.403 - Insured amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Insured amounts. 308.403 Section 308.403 Shipping... Builder's Risk Insurance § 308.403 Insured amounts. (a) Prelaunching period. The amount insured during... 10 percent, all as determined from the builder's records. (b) Postlaunching period. The...

  4. 31 CFR 50.95 - Final amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Final amount. 50.95 Section 50.95... on Annual Liability § 50.95 Final amount. (a) Treasury shall determine if, as a final proration... that in the aggregate bring the insurer's total insured loss payments up to an amount equal to...

  5. 33 CFR 25.513 - Amount claimed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Amount claimed. 25.513 Section 25.513 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL CLAIMS Foreign Claims § 25.513 Amount claimed. The claimant shall state the amount claimed in the currency of...

  6. 31 CFR 235.5 - Reclamation amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reclamation amounts. 235.5 Section 235.5 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE... ON DESIGNATED DEPOSITARIES § 235.5 Reclamation amounts. Amounts received by way of reclamation...

  7. 46 CFR 308.403 - Insured amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Insured amounts. 308.403 Section 308.403 Shipping... Builder's Risk Insurance § 308.403 Insured amounts. (a) Prelaunching period. The amount insured during... 10 percent, all as determined from the builder's records. (b) Postlaunching period. The...

  8. 12 CFR 1208.75 - Amounts withheld.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Amounts withheld. 1208.75 Section 1208.75 Banks... Wage Garnishment § 1208.75 Amounts withheld. (a) Upon receipt of the garnishment order issued under... period the amount of garnishment described in paragraphs (b) through (d) of this section. (b) Subject...

  9. 13 CFR 500.202 - Loan amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Loan amount. 500.202 Section 500.202 Business Credit and Assistance EMERGENCY OIL AND GAS GUARANTEED LOAN BOARD EMERGENCY OIL AND GAS GUARANTEED LOAN PROGRAM Oil and Gas Guaranteed Loans § 500.202 Loan amount. The aggregate amount of...

  10. 7 CFR 1424.8 - Payment amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Payment amounts. 1424.8 Section 1424.8 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS BIOENERGY PROGRAM § 1424.8 Payment amounts. (a) An eligible producer may be paid the amount specified in this section, subject to the availability of funds....

  11. 7 CFR 1424.8 - Payment amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Payment amounts. 1424.8 Section 1424.8 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS BIOENERGY PROGRAM § 1424.8 Payment amounts. (a) An eligible producer may be paid the amount specified in this section, subject to the availability of funds....

  12. 7 CFR 1424.8 - Payment amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Payment amounts. 1424.8 Section 1424.8 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS BIOENERGY PROGRAM § 1424.8 Payment amounts. (a) An eligible producer may be paid the amount specified in this section, subject to the availability of funds....

  13. 24 CFR 594.15 - Allocation amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Allocation amounts. 594.15 Section... DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES JOHN HEINZ NEIGHBORHOOD DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM Funding Allocation and Criteria § 594.15 Allocation amounts. (a) Amounts and match requirement. HUD will make grants, in the form...

  14. 31 CFR 235.5 - Reclamation amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reclamation amounts. 235.5 Section 235.5 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE... ON DESIGNATED DEPOSITARIES § 235.5 Reclamation amounts. Amounts received by way of reclamation...

  15. NUSIMEP-7: uranium isotope amount ratios in uranium particles.

    PubMed

    Truyens, J; Stefaniak, E A; Aregbe, Y

    2013-11-01

    The Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM) has extensive experience in the development of isotopic reference materials and the organization of interlaboratory comparisons (ILC) for nuclear measurements in compliance with the respective international guidelines (ISO Guide 34:2009 and ISO/IEC 17043:2010). The IRMM Nuclear Signatures Interlaboratory Measurement Evaluation Program (NUSIMEP) is an external quality control program with the objective of providing materials for measurements of trace amounts of nuclear materials in environmental matrices. Measurements of the isotopic ratios of the elements uranium and plutonium in small amounts, typical of those found in environmental samples, are required for nuclear safeguards and security, for the control of environmental contamination and for the detection of nuclear proliferation. The measurement results of participants in NUSIMEP are evaluated according to international guidelines in comparison to independent external certified reference values with demonstrated metrological traceability and uncertainty. NUSIMEP-7 focused on measurements of uranium isotope amount ratios in uranium particles aiming to support European Safeguards Directorate General for Energy (DG ENER), the International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) network of analytical laboratories for environmental sampling (NWAL) and laboratories in the field of particle analysis. Each participant was provided two certified test samples: one with single and one with double isotopic enrichment. These NUSIMEP test samples were prepared by controlled hydrolysis of certified uranium hexafluoride in a specially designed aerosol deposition chamber at IRMM. Laboratories participating in NUSIMEP-7 received the test samples of uranium particles on two graphite disks with undisclosed isotopic ratio values n((234)U)/n((238)U), n((235)U)/n((238)U) and n((236)U)/n((238)U). The uranium isotope ratios had to be measured using their routine analytical

  16. NUSIMEP-7: uranium isotope amount ratios in uranium particles.

    PubMed

    Truyens, J; Stefaniak, E A; Aregbe, Y

    2013-11-01

    The Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM) has extensive experience in the development of isotopic reference materials and the organization of interlaboratory comparisons (ILC) for nuclear measurements in compliance with the respective international guidelines (ISO Guide 34:2009 and ISO/IEC 17043:2010). The IRMM Nuclear Signatures Interlaboratory Measurement Evaluation Program (NUSIMEP) is an external quality control program with the objective of providing materials for measurements of trace amounts of nuclear materials in environmental matrices. Measurements of the isotopic ratios of the elements uranium and plutonium in small amounts, typical of those found in environmental samples, are required for nuclear safeguards and security, for the control of environmental contamination and for the detection of nuclear proliferation. The measurement results of participants in NUSIMEP are evaluated according to international guidelines in comparison to independent external certified reference values with demonstrated metrological traceability and uncertainty. NUSIMEP-7 focused on measurements of uranium isotope amount ratios in uranium particles aiming to support European Safeguards Directorate General for Energy (DG ENER), the International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) network of analytical laboratories for environmental sampling (NWAL) and laboratories in the field of particle analysis. Each participant was provided two certified test samples: one with single and one with double isotopic enrichment. These NUSIMEP test samples were prepared by controlled hydrolysis of certified uranium hexafluoride in a specially designed aerosol deposition chamber at IRMM. Laboratories participating in NUSIMEP-7 received the test samples of uranium particles on two graphite disks with undisclosed isotopic ratio values n((234)U)/n((238)U), n((235)U)/n((238)U) and n((236)U)/n((238)U). The uranium isotope ratios had to be measured using their routine analytical

  17. Smog control fuel additives

    SciTech Connect

    Lundby, W.

    1993-06-29

    A method is described of controlling, reducing or eliminating, ozone and related smog resulting from photochemical reactions between ozone and automotive or industrial gases comprising the addition of iodine or compounds of iodine to hydrocarbon-base fuels prior to or during combustion in an amount of about 1 part iodine per 240 to 10,000,000 parts fuel, by weight, to be accomplished by: (a) the addition of these inhibitors during or after the refining or manufacturing process of liquid fuels; (b) the production of these inhibitors for addition into fuel tanks, such as automotive or industrial tanks; or (c) the addition of these inhibitors into combustion chambers of equipment utilizing solid fuels for the purpose of reducing ozone.

  18. Lubricants and Additives Affect Spur-Gear Fatigue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scibbe, H.; Townsend, D.; Aron, P.; Zaretsky, E.

    1986-01-01

    Surface-fatigue tests conducted with AISI 9310 steel spur gears show surface-fatigue life of AISI 9310 steel spur gears increased as much as 400 percent by addition of small amount of phosphorus-type extreme-pressure (EP) additive in lubricant. Antiwear or EP additives either absorbed onto surface or react with surface to form protective coating or surface film. Boundary film provides barrier that prevents contact of metal surfaces and provides low shear strength, which reduces friction coefficient below base metal.

  19. Deoxynivalenol impairs hepatic and intestinal gene expression of selected oxidative stress, tight junction and inflammation proteins in broiler chickens, but addition of an adsorbing agent shifts the effects to the distal parts of the small intestine.

    PubMed

    Osselaere, Ann; Santos, Regiane; Hautekiet, Veerle; De Backer, Patrick; Chiers, Koen; Ducatelle, Richard; Croubels, Siska

    2013-01-01

    Broiler chickens are rather resistant to deoxynivalenol and thus, clinical signs are rarely seen. However, effects of subclinical concentrations of deoxynivalenol on both the intestine and the liver are less frequently studied at the molecular level. During our study, we investigated the effects of three weeks of feeding deoxynivalenol on the gut wall morphology, intestinal barrier function and inflammation in broiler chickens. In addition, oxidative stress was evaluated in both the liver and intestine. Besides, the effect of a clay-based mycotoxin adsorbing agent on these different aspects was also studied. Our results show that feeding deoxynivalenol affects the gut wall morphology both in duodenum and jejenum of broiler chickens. A qRT-PCR analysis revealed that deoxynivalenol acts in a very specific way on the intestinal barrier, since only an up-regulation in mRNA expression of claudin 5 in jejunum was observed, while no effects were seen on claudin 1, zona occludens 1 and 2. Addition of an adsorbing agent resulted in an up-regulation of all the investigated genes coding for the intestinal barrier in the ileum. Up-regulation of Toll-like receptor 4 and two markers of oxidative stress (heme-oxigenase or HMOX and xanthine oxidoreductase or XOR) were mainly seen in the jejunum and to a lesser extent in the ileum in response to deoxynivalenol, while in combination with an adsorbing agent main effect was seen in the ileum. These results suggest that an adsorbing agent may lead to higher concentrations of deoxynivalenol in the more distal parts of the small intestine. In the liver, XOR was up-regulated due to DON exposure. HMOX and HIF-1α (hypoxia-inducible factor 1α) were down-regulated due to feeding DON but also due to feeding the adsorbing agent alone or in combination with DON.

  20. Phenylethynyl Containing Reactive Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Phenylethynyl containing reactive additives were prepared from aromatic diamine, containing phenylethvnvl groups and various ratios of phthalic anhydride and 4-phenylethynviphthalic anhydride in glacial acetic acid to form the imide in one step or in N-methyl-2-pvrrolidinone to form the amide acid intermediate. The reactive additives were mixed in various amounts (10% to 90%) with oligomers containing either terminal or pendent phenylethynyl groups (or both) to reduce the melt viscosity and thereby enhance processability. Upon thermal cure, the additives react and become chemically incorporated into the matrix and effect an increase in crosslink density relative to that of the host resin. This resultant increase in crosslink density has advantageous consequences on the cured resin properties such as higher glass transition temperature and higher modulus as compared to that of the host resin.

  1. 45 CFR 32.8 - Amounts withheld.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... debtor's disposable pay exceeds an amount equivalent to thirty times the minimum wage. See 29 CFR 870.10... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Amounts withheld. 32.8 Section 32.8 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION ADMINISTRATIVE WAGE GARNISHMENT § 32.8...

  2. 20 CFR 617.45 - Amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... weight authorized under the Federal travel regulations (see 41 CFR part 101-7), between such locations... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Amount. 617.45 Section 617.45 Employees... WORKERS UNDER THE TRADE ACT OF 1974 Relocation Allowances § 617.45 Amount. (a) Items allowable. The...

  3. 12 CFR 313.95 - Amounts withheld.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... thirty times the minimum wage. See 29 CFR 870.10. (c) When a debtor's pay is subject to withholding... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Amounts withheld. 313.95 Section 313.95 Banks... CORPORATE DEBT COLLECTION Administrative Wage Garnishment § 313.95 Amounts withheld. (a) Upon receipt of...

  4. 20 CFR 617.34 - Amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... the Federal travel regulations (see 41 CFR part 101-7) for the locality where the job search is... travel regulations (see 41 CFR part 101-7) for such roundtrip travel by the usual route from the... WORKERS UNDER THE TRADE ACT OF 1974 Job Search Allowances § 617.34 Amount. (a) Computation. The amount...

  5. 20 CFR 617.34 - Amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... the Federal travel regulations (see 41 CFR part 101-7) for the locality where the job search is... travel regulations (see 41 CFR part 101-7) for such roundtrip travel by the usual route from the... WORKERS UNDER THE TRADE ACT OF 1974 Job Search Allowances § 617.34 Amount. (a) Computation. The amount...

  6. 20 CFR 617.34 - Amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... the Federal travel regulations (see 41 CFR part 101-7) for the locality where the job search is... travel regulations (see 41 CFR part 101-7) for such roundtrip travel by the usual route from the... WORKERS UNDER THE TRADE ACT OF 1974 Job Search Allowances § 617.34 Amount. (a) Computation. The amount...

  7. 33 CFR 135.203 - Amount required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Amount required. 135.203 Section 135.203 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... Financial Responsibility for Offshore Facilities § 135.203 Amount required. (a) Each facility that is...

  8. 33 CFR 135.203 - Amount required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Amount required. 135.203 Section 135.203 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... Financial Responsibility for Offshore Facilities § 135.203 Amount required. (a) Each facility that is...

  9. 23 CFR 1335.8 - Grant amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Grant amounts. 1335.8 Section 1335.8 Highways NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STATE HIGHWAY SAFETY DATA IMPROVEMENTS § 1335.8 Grant amounts. (a) Start-up grant. A State that qualifies for a start-up grant under §...

  10. 23 CFR 1335.8 - Grant amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Grant amounts. 1335.8 Section 1335.8 Highways NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STATE HIGHWAY SAFETY DATA IMPROVEMENTS § 1335.8 Grant amounts. (a) Start-up grant. A State that qualifies for a start-up grant under §...

  11. 13 CFR 400.202 - Loan amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ....202 Business Credit and Assistance EMERGENCY STEEL GUARANTEE LOAN BOARD EMERGENCY STEEL GUARANTEE LOAN PROGRAM Steel Guarantee Loans § 400.202 Loan amount. (a) The aggregate amount of loan principal guaranteed under this Program to a single Qualified Steel Company may not exceed $ 250 million. (b) Of...

  12. 13 CFR 400.202 - Loan amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ....202 Business Credit and Assistance EMERGENCY STEEL GUARANTEE LOAN BOARD EMERGENCY STEEL GUARANTEE LOAN PROGRAM Steel Guarantee Loans § 400.202 Loan amount. (a) The aggregate amount of loan principal guaranteed under this Program to a single Qualified Steel Company may not exceed $ 250 million. (b) Of...

  13. 13 CFR 400.202 - Loan amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ....202 Business Credit and Assistance EMERGENCY STEEL GUARANTEE LOAN BOARD EMERGENCY STEEL GUARANTEE LOAN PROGRAM Steel Guarantee Loans § 400.202 Loan amount. (a) The aggregate amount of loan principal guaranteed under this Program to a single Qualified Steel Company may not exceed $ 250 million. (b) Of...

  14. 13 CFR 400.202 - Loan amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ....202 Business Credit and Assistance EMERGENCY STEEL GUARANTEE LOAN BOARD EMERGENCY STEEL GUARANTEE LOAN PROGRAM Steel Guarantee Loans § 400.202 Loan amount. (a) The aggregate amount of loan principal guaranteed under this Program to a single Qualified Steel Company may not exceed $ 250 million. (b) Of...

  15. 13 CFR 400.202 - Loan amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ....202 Business Credit and Assistance EMERGENCY STEEL GUARANTEE LOAN BOARD EMERGENCY STEEL GUARANTEE LOAN PROGRAM Steel Guarantee Loans § 400.202 Loan amount. (a) The aggregate amount of loan principal guaranteed under this Program to a single Qualified Steel Company may not exceed $ 250 million. (b) Of...

  16. 31 CFR 50.95 - Final amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Final amount. 50.95 Section 50.95 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TERRORISM RISK INSURANCE PROGRAM Cap on Annual Liability § 50.95 Final amount. (a) Treasury shall determine if, as a final...

  17. 31 CFR 50.95 - Final amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Final amount. 50.95 Section 50.95 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TERRORISM RISK INSURANCE PROGRAM Cap on Annual Liability § 50.95 Final amount. (a) Treasury shall determine if, as a final...

  18. 31 CFR 50.95 - Final amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Final amount. 50.95 Section 50.95 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TERRORISM RISK INSURANCE PROGRAM Cap on Annual Liability § 50.95 Final amount. (a) Treasury shall determine if, as a final...

  19. 19 CFR 113.13 - Amount of bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... The amount of any Customs bond shall not be less than $100, except when the law or regulation... laws and regulations; (3) The value and nature of the merchandise involved in the transaction(s) to be... damages; and (6) Any additional information contained in any application for a bond. (c) Periodic...

  20. 26 CFR 1.809-4 - Gross amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... addition to the life insurance company's share of the investment yield (as determined under section 809(a... (such as a payment or transfer of property in an assumption reinsurance transaction as defined in paragraph (a)(7)(ii) of § 1.809-5). The term also includes amounts a life insurance company charges...

  1. 26 CFR 1.809-4 - Gross amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... defined in paragraph (a)(7)(ii) of § 1.809-5). The term also includes amounts a life insurance company... are in addition to the life insurance company's share of the investment yield (as determined under... employees (including full-time life insurance salesmen within the meaning of section 7701(a)(20)). (ii)...

  2. 26 CFR 1.809-4 - Gross amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... defined in paragraph (a)(7)(ii) of § 1.809-5). The term also includes amounts a life insurance company... are in addition to the life insurance company's share of the investment yield (as determined under... employees (including full-time life insurance salesmen within the meaning of section 7701(a)(20)). (ii)...

  3. 26 CFR 1.809-4 - Gross amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... defined in paragraph (a)(7)(ii) of § 1.809-5). The term also includes amounts a life insurance company... are in addition to the life insurance company's share of the investment yield (as determined under... employees (including full-time life insurance salesmen within the meaning of section 7701(a)(20)). (ii)...

  4. 45 CFR 32.8 - Amounts withheld.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... debtor's disposable pay exceeds an amount equivalent to thirty times the minimum wage. See 29 CFR 870.10... paragraph (b) of this section. The employer may use the SF-329C “Wage Garnishment Worksheet” to...

  5. 45 CFR 32.8 - Amounts withheld.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... debtor's disposable pay exceeds an amount equivalent to thirty times the minimum wage. See 29 CFR 870.10... paragraph (b) of this section. The employer may use the SF-329C “Wage Garnishment Worksheet” to...

  6. 45 CFR 32.8 - Amounts withheld.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... debtor's disposable pay exceeds an amount equivalent to thirty times the minimum wage. See 29 CFR 870.10... paragraph (b) of this section. The employer may use the SF-329C “Wage Garnishment Worksheet” to...

  7. 45 CFR 32.8 - Amounts withheld.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... debtor's disposable pay exceeds an amount equivalent to thirty times the minimum wage. See 29 CFR 870.10... paragraph (b) of this section. The employer may use the SF-329C “Wage Garnishment Worksheet” to...

  8. 20 CFR 340.2 - Amount recoverable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT... amount of unemployment, sickness, or maternity benefits paid under the Railroad Unemployment Insurance..., unemployment, sickness or maternity benefits under any law other than the Railroad Unemployment Insurance...

  9. Addition of HCl to the double-pulse copper chloride laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vetter, A. A.; Nerheim, N. M.

    1977-01-01

    Addition of small amounts of hydrogen chloride to the buffer gas of a double-pulse CuCl laser causes an increase in the production of copper atoms in the ground state. A maximum laser energy increase of 15% was observed and the span of delay times for which laser action occurred increased.

  10. Long range ordered alloys modified by addition of niobium and cerium

    DOEpatents

    Liu, C.T.

    1984-08-22

    Long range ordered alloys are described having the nominal composition (Fe,Ni,Co)/sub 3/ (V,M) where M is a ductility enhancing metal selected from the group Ti, Zr, Hf with additions of small amounts of cerium and niobium to dramatically enhance the creep properties of the resulting alloys.

  11. Long range ordered alloys modified by addition of niobium and cerium

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Chain T.

    1987-01-01

    Long range ordered alloys are described having the nominal composition (Fe,Ni,Co).sub.3 (V,M) where M is a ductility enhancing metal selected from the group Ti, Zr, Hf with additions of small amounts of cerium and niobium to drammatically enhance the creep properties of the resulting alloys.

  12. Fuel and Additive Characterization for HCCI Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Aceves, S M; Flowers, D; Martinez-Frias, J; Espinosa-Loza, F; Pitz, W J; Dibble, R

    2003-02-12

    This paper shows a numerical evaluation of fuels and additives for HCCl combustion. First, a long list of candidate HCCl fuels is selected. For all the fuels in the list, operating conditions (compression ratio, equivalence ratio and intake temperature) are determined that result in optimum performance under typical operation for a heavy-duty engine. Fuels are also characterized by presenting Log(p)-Log(T) maps for multiple fuels under HCCl conditions. Log(p)-Log(T) maps illustrate important processes during HCCl engine operation, including compression, low temperature heat release and ignition. Log(p)-Log(T) diagrams can be used for visualizing these processes and can be used as a tool for detailed analysis of HCCl combustion. The paper also includes a ranking of many potential additives. Experiments and analyses have indicated that small amounts (a few parts per million) of secondary fuels (additives) may considerably affect HCCl combustion and may play a significant role in controlling HCCl combustion. Additives are ranked according to their capability to advance HCCl ignition. The best additives are listed and an explanation of their effect on HCCl combustion is included.

  13. Increasing the amount of payment to research subjects

    PubMed Central

    Resnick, DB

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses some ethical issues that can arise when researchers decide to increase the amount of payment offered to research subjects to boost enrollment. Would increasing the amount of payment be unfair to subjects who have already consented to participate in the study? This article considers how five different models of payment—the free market model, the wage payment model, the reimbursement model, the appreciation model, and the fair benefits model—would approach this issue. The article also considers several practical problems related to changing the amount of payment, including determining whether there is enough money in the budget to offer additional payments to subjects who have already enrolled, ascertaining how difficult it will be to re-contact subjects, and developing a plan of action for responding to subjects who find out they are receiving less money and demand an explanation. PMID:18757614

  14. 7 CFR 1421.304 - Payment amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2012 Crop of Wheat, Barley, Oats, and Triticale § 1421.304 Payment amount. (a) The grazing payment rate... payment rate in effect for the predominant class of wheat in the county where the farm is located as of... three (3) similar farms. For triticale, the payment yield shall be the yield for wheat from three...

  15. 7 CFR 1421.304 - Payment amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2012 Crop of Wheat, Barley, Oats, and Triticale § 1421.304 Payment amount. (a) The grazing payment rate... payment rate in effect for the predominant class of wheat in the county where the farm is located as of... three (3) similar farms. For triticale, the payment yield shall be the yield for wheat from three...

  16. 7 CFR 1421.304 - Payment amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2012 Crop of Wheat, Barley, Oats, and Triticale § 1421.304 Payment amount. (a) The grazing payment rate... payment rate in effect for the predominant class of wheat in the county where the farm is located as of... three (3) similar farms. For triticale, the payment yield shall be the yield for wheat from three...

  17. 7 CFR 1421.304 - Payment amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2012 Crop of Wheat, Barley, Oats, and Triticale § 1421.304 Payment amount. (a) The grazing payment rate... payment rate in effect for the predominant class of wheat in the county where the farm is located as of... three (3) similar farms. For triticale, the payment yield shall be the yield for wheat from three...

  18. 7 CFR 1421.304 - Payment amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2012 Crop of Wheat, Barley, Oats, and Triticale § 1421.304 Payment amount. (a) The grazing payment rate... payment rate in effect for the predominant class of wheat in the county where the farm is located as of... three (3) similar farms. For triticale, the payment yield shall be the yield for wheat from three...

  19. 14 CFR 1300.13 - Guarantee amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Guarantee amount. 1300.13 Section 1300.13 Aeronautics and Space AIR TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM STABILIZATION OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET AVIATION DISASTER RELIEF-AIR CARRIER GUARANTEE LOAN PROGRAM Minimum Requirements and Application Procedures §...

  20. 24 CFR 201.10 - Loan amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND OTHER AUTHORITIES TITLE I PROPERTY... actual cost of the project plus any applicable fees and charges authorized at § 201.25(b), up to the... exceed the sum of the following itemized amounts, up to a maximum of $48,600: (i) 130 percent of the...

  1. 21 CFR 1309.11 - Fee amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fee amounts. 1309.11 Section 1309.11 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE REGISTRATION OF MANUFACTURERS, DISTRIBUTORS, IMPORTERS AND EXPORTERS OF LIST I CHEMICALS Fees for Registration and Reregistration § 1309.11 Fee...

  2. 21 CFR 1309.11 - Fee amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Fee amounts. 1309.11 Section 1309.11 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE REGISTRATION OF MANUFACTURERS, DISTRIBUTORS, IMPORTERS AND EXPORTERS OF LIST I CHEMICALS Fees for Registration and Reregistration § 1309.11 Fee...

  3. 27 CFR 70.243 - Exempt amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Exempt amount. 70.243 Section 70.243 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... as wages, salary, or other income for each payroll period described in § 70.244 of this part...

  4. 27 CFR 70.243 - Exempt amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Exempt amount. 70.243 Section 70.243 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... as wages, salary, or other income for each payroll period described in § 70.244 of this part...

  5. 27 CFR 70.243 - Exempt amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Exempt amount. 70.243 Section 70.243 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... as wages, salary, or other income for each payroll period described in § 70.244 of this part...

  6. 33 CFR 133.7 - Requests: Amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; STATE ACCESS § 133.7... amount anticipated for immediate removal action for a single oil pollution incident, but, in any event... quantity and composition of the oil, weather conditions and customary costs of similar services in...

  7. 33 CFR 133.7 - Requests: Amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; STATE ACCESS § 133.7... amount anticipated for immediate removal action for a single oil pollution incident, but, in any event... quantity and composition of the oil, weather conditions and customary costs of similar services in...

  8. 33 CFR 133.7 - Requests: Amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; STATE ACCESS § 133.7... amount anticipated for immediate removal action for a single oil pollution incident, but, in any event... quantity and composition of the oil, weather conditions and customary costs of similar services in...

  9. 33 CFR 133.7 - Requests: Amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; STATE ACCESS § 133.7... amount anticipated for immediate removal action for a single oil pollution incident, but, in any event... quantity and composition of the oil, weather conditions and customary costs of similar services in...

  10. 33 CFR 133.7 - Requests: Amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY TRUST FUND; STATE ACCESS § 133.7... amount anticipated for immediate removal action for a single oil pollution incident, but, in any event... quantity and composition of the oil, weather conditions and customary costs of similar services in...

  11. 40 CFR 35.9050 - Assistance amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Assistance amount. 35.9050 Section 35.9050 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Financial Assistance for the National Estuary Program § 35.9050...

  12. 40 CFR 35.9050 - Assistance amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Assistance amount. 35.9050 Section 35.9050 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Financial Assistance for the National Estuary Program § 35.9050...

  13. 40 CFR 35.9050 - Assistance amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Assistance amount. 35.9050 Section 35.9050 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Financial Assistance for the National Estuary Program § 35.9050...

  14. 40 CFR 35.9050 - Assistance amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Assistance amount. 35.9050 Section 35.9050 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Financial Assistance for the National Estuary Program § 35.9050...

  15. 40 CFR 35.9050 - Assistance amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Assistance amount. 35.9050 Section 35.9050 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Financial Assistance for the National Estuary Program § 35.9050...

  16. 20 CFR 340.2 - Amount recoverable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... amount of unemployment, sickness, or maternity benefits paid under the Railroad Unemployment Insurance... been determined to be days of unemployment or sickness; (c) Recoverable under section 4(a-1)(ii) of the..., unemployment, sickness or maternity benefits under any law other than the Railroad Unemployment Insurance...

  17. 20 CFR 340.2 - Amount recoverable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... amount of unemployment, sickness, or maternity benefits paid under the Railroad Unemployment Insurance... been determined to be days of unemployment or sickness; (c) Recoverable under section 4(a-1)(ii) of the..., unemployment, sickness or maternity benefits under any law other than the Railroad Unemployment Insurance...

  18. 20 CFR 340.2 - Amount recoverable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... amount of unemployment, sickness, or maternity benefits paid under the Railroad Unemployment Insurance... been determined to be days of unemployment or sickness; (c) Recoverable under section 4(a-1)(ii) of the..., unemployment, sickness or maternity benefits under any law other than the Railroad Unemployment Insurance...

  19. Extension of the standard addition method by blank addition.

    PubMed

    Steliopoulos, Panagiotis

    2015-01-01

    Standard addition involves adding varying amounts of the analyte to sample portions of fixed mass or fixed volume and submitting those portions to the sample preparation procedure. After measuring the final extract solutions, the observed signals are linearly regressed on the spiked amounts. The original unknown amount is estimated by the opposite of the abscissa intercept of the fitted straight line [1]. A limitation of this method is that only data points with abscissa values equal to and greater than zero are available so that there is no information on whether linearity holds below the spiking level zero. An approach to overcome this limitation is introduced.•Standard addition is combined with blank addition.•Blank addition means that defined mixtures of blank matrix and sample material are subjected to sample preparation to give final extract solutions.•Equations are presented to estimate the original unknown amount and to calculate the 1-2α confidence interval about this estimate using the combined data set.

  20. Extension of the standard addition method by blank addition

    PubMed Central

    Steliopoulos, Panagiotis

    2015-01-01

    Standard addition involves adding varying amounts of the analyte to sample portions of fixed mass or fixed volume and submitting those portions to the sample preparation procedure. After measuring the final extract solutions, the observed signals are linearly regressed on the spiked amounts. The original unknown amount is estimated by the opposite of the abscissa intercept of the fitted straight line [1]. A limitation of this method is that only data points with abscissa values equal to and greater than zero are available so that there is no information on whether linearity holds below the spiking level zero. An approach to overcome this limitation is introduced.•Standard addition is combined with blank addition.•Blank addition means that defined mixtures of blank matrix and sample material are subjected to sample preparation to give final extract solutions.•Equations are presented to estimate the original unknown amount and to calculate the 1-2α confidence interval about this estimate using the combined data set. PMID:26844210

  1. Lubricating additive for drilling muds

    SciTech Connect

    Gutierrez, A.; Brois, S. J.; Brownawell, D. W.; Walker, T. O.

    1985-01-01

    Aqueous drilling fluids containing a minor amount of an additive composition featuring oxazolines of C/sub 1/-C/sub 30/ alkylthioglycolic acid. Such fluids are especially useful where reduced torque drilling fluids are needed. Another embodiment of this invention relates to a method of drilling utilizing the above-described fluids.

  2. Additives in fibers and fabrics.

    PubMed

    Barker, R H

    1975-06-01

    The additives and contaminants which occur in textile fibers vary widely, depending on the type of fiber and the pretreatment which it has received. Synthetic fibers such as nylon and polyester contain trace amounts of contaminants such as catalysts and catalyst deactivators which remain after the synthesis of the basic polymers. In addition, there are frequently a number of materials which are added to perform specific functions in almost all man-made fibers. Examples of these would include traces of metals or metal salts used as tracers for identification of specific lots of fiber, TiO2 or similar materials added as delustrants, and a host of organic species added for such special purposes as antistatic agents or flame retardants. There may also be considerable quantities of residual monomer or small oligomers dissolved in the polymer matrix. The situation becomes even more complex after the fibers are converted into fabric form. Numerous materials are applied at various stages of fabric preparation to act as lubricants, sizing agents, antistats, bleaches, and wetting agents to facilitate the processing, but these are normally removed before the fabric reaches the cutters of the ultimate consumers and therefore usually do not constitute potential hazards. However, there are many other chemical agents which are frequently added during the later stages of fabric preparation and which are not designed to be removed. Aside from dyes and printing pigments, the most common additive for apparel fabrics is a durable press treatment. This generally involves the use of materials capable of crosslinking cellulosics by reacting through such functions as N-methylolated amides or related compounds such as ureas and carbamates. These materials pose some potential hazards due to both the nitrogenous bases and the formaldehyde which they usually release. There is usually also some residual catalyst in fabrics which have received such treatments. Other types of chemical treatments

  3. Additives in fibers and fabrics.

    PubMed Central

    Barker, R H

    1975-01-01

    The additives and contaminants which occur in textile fibers vary widely, depending on the type of fiber and the pretreatment which it has received. Synthetic fibers such as nylon and polyester contain trace amounts of contaminants such as catalysts and catalyst deactivators which remain after the synthesis of the basic polymers. In addition, there are frequently a number of materials which are added to perform specific functions in almost all man-made fibers. Examples of these would include traces of metals or metal salts used as tracers for identification of specific lots of fiber, TiO2 or similar materials added as delustrants, and a host of organic species added for such special purposes as antistatic agents or flame retardants. There may also be considerable quantities of residual monomer or small oligomers dissolved in the polymer matrix. The situation becomes even more complex after the fibers are converted into fabric form. Numerous materials are applied at various stages of fabric preparation to act as lubricants, sizing agents, antistats, bleaches, and wetting agents to facilitate the processing, but these are normally removed before the fabric reaches the cutters of the ultimate consumers and therefore usually do not constitute potential hazards. However, there are many other chemical agents which are frequently added during the later stages of fabric preparation and which are not designed to be removed. Aside from dyes and printing pigments, the most common additive for apparel fabrics is a durable press treatment. This generally involves the use of materials capable of crosslinking cellulosics by reacting through such functions as N-methylolated amides or related compounds such as ureas and carbamates. These materials pose some potential hazards due to both the nitrogenous bases and the formaldehyde which they usually release. There is usually also some residual catalyst in fabrics which have received such treatments. Other types of chemical treatments

  4. 13 CFR 107.1170 - Maximum amount of Participating Securities for any Licensee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES SBA Financial Assistance for Licensees (Leverage) Maximum Amount of Leverage for Which A Licensee Is Eligible § 107.1170 Maximum amount of Participating Securities... is 200 percent of your Leverageable Capital. Conditional Commitments by SBA To Reserve Leverage for...

  5. 24 CFR 576.45 - Reallocation of grant amounts; returned or unused amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Reallocation of grant amounts; returned or unused amounts. 576.45 Section 576.45 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR COMMUNITY PLANNING...

  6. 29 CFR 4219.13 - Amount of liability for de minimis amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Amount of liability for de minimis amounts. 4219.13 Section 4219.13 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION WITHDRAWAL LIABILITY FOR MULTIEMPLOYER PLANS NOTICE, COLLECTION, AND REDETERMINATION OF WITHDRAWAL...

  7. 29 CFR 4219.13 - Amount of liability for de minimis amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Amount of liability for de minimis amounts. 4219.13 Section 4219.13 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION WITHDRAWAL LIABILITY FOR MULTIEMPLOYER PLANS NOTICE, COLLECTION, AND REDETERMINATION OF WITHDRAWAL...

  8. 29 CFR 4219.13 - Amount of liability for de minimis amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amount of liability for de minimis amounts. 4219.13 Section 4219.13 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION WITHDRAWAL LIABILITY FOR MULTIEMPLOYER PLANS NOTICE, COLLECTION, AND REDETERMINATION OF WITHDRAWAL...

  9. Room at the Mountain: Estimated Maximum Amounts of Commercial Spent Nuclear Fuel Capable of Disposal in a Yucca Mountain Repository

    SciTech Connect

    Kessler, John H.; Kemeny, John; King, Fraser; Ross, Alan M.; Ross, Benjamen

    2006-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present an initial analysis of the maximum amount of commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) that could be emplaced into a geological repository at Yucca Mountain. This analysis identifies and uses programmatic, material, and geological constraints and factors that affect this estimation of maximum amount of CSNF for disposal. The conclusion of this initial analysis is that the current legislative limit on Yucca Mountain disposal capacity, 63,000 MTHM of CSNF, is a small fraction of the available physical capacity of the Yucca Mountain system assuming the current high-temperature operating mode (HTOM) design. EPRI is confident that at least four times the legislative limit for CSNF ({approx}260,000 MTHM) can be emplaced in the Yucca Mountain system. It is possible that with additional site characterization, upwards of nine times the legislative limit ({approx}570,000 MTHM) could be emplaced. (authors)

  10. Performance Boosting Additive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Mainstream Engineering Corporation was awarded Phase I and Phase II contracts from Goddard Space Flight Center's Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program in early 1990. With support from the SBIR program, Mainstream Engineering Corporation has developed a unique low cost additive, QwikBoost (TM), that increases the performance of air conditioners, heat pumps, refrigerators, and freezers. Because of the energy and environmental benefits of QwikBoost, Mainstream received the Tibbetts Award at a White House Ceremony on October 16, 1997. QwikBoost was introduced at the 1998 International Air Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Exposition. QwikBoost is packaged in a handy 3-ounce can (pressurized with R-134a) and will be available for automotive air conditioning systems in summer 1998.

  11. Optimum Tolerance Design Using Component-Amount and Mixture-Amount Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Piepel, Gregory F.; Ozler, Cenk; Sehirlioglu, Ali Kemal

    2013-08-01

    One type of tolerance design problem involves optimizing component and assembly tolerances to minimize the total cost (sum of manufacturing cost and quality loss). Previous literature recommended using traditional response surface (RS) designs and models to solve this type of tolerance design problem. In this article, component-amount (CA) and mixture-amount (MA) approaches are proposed as more appropriate for solving this type of tolerance design problem. The advantages of the CA and MA approaches over the RS approach are discussed. Reasons for choosing between the CA and MA approaches are also discussed. The CA and MA approaches (experimental design, response modeling, and optimization) are illustrated using real examples.

  12. 40 CFR 35.930-2 - Grant amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Grant amount. 35.930-2 Section 35.930-2... ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.930-2 Grant amount. The grant agreement shall set forth the amount of grant assistance. The grant amount may not exceed the amount...

  13. 76 FR 59138 - Medicare Program; Medicare Appeals; Adjustment to the Amount in Controversy Threshold Amounts for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services Medicare Program; Medicare Appeals; Adjustment... review under the Medicare appeals process. The adjustment to the AIC threshold amounts will be effective..., respectively, for Medicare Part A and Part B appeals. Section 940 of the Medicare Prescription...

  14. 77 FR 59618 - Medicare Program; Medicare Appeals; Adjustment to the Amount in Controversy Threshold Amounts for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services Medicare Program; Medicare Appeals; Adjustment... review under the Medicare appeals process. The adjustment to the AIC threshold amounts will be effective..., respectively, for Medicare Part A and Part B appeals. Section 940 of the Medicare Prescription...

  15. 75 FR 58407 - Medicare Program; Medicare Appeals; Adjustment to the Amount in Controversy Threshold Amounts for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services Medicare Program; Medicare Appeals; Adjustment... review under the Medicare appeals process. The adjustment to the AIC threshold amounts will be effective... and judicial review at $100 and $1,000, respectively, for Medicare Part A and Part B appeals....

  16. 78 FR 59702 - Medicare Program; Medicare Appeals: Adjustment to the Amount in Controversy Threshold Amounts for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services Medicare Program; Medicare Appeals: Adjustment... review under the Medicare appeals process. The adjustment to the AIC threshold amounts will be effective..., respectively, for Medicare Part A and Part B appeals. Section 940 of the Medicare Prescription...

  17. [Effects of different application amount of N, P, K fertilizers on physiological characteristics, yield and kernel quality of peanut].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Lu-ying; Li, Xiang-dong; Tang, Xiao; Lin, Ying-jie; Li, Zong-feng

    2007-11-01

    The field experiment was executed with peanut cv. Fenghua No. 1 from 2004 to 2005 in the experimental station of Shandong Agricultural University to study the effects of N, P, K fertilizers application amount on physiological characteristics, yield and kernel quality of peanut. The results showed that, compared with no fertilization, application N, P, K fertilizers increased the content of chlorophyll and soluble protein, enhanced photosynthetic rate and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and catlase (CAT), and reduced malondialdeyde (MDA) accumulation amount in peanut leaves. The effects of applying N 300-450 kg x hm(-2), P5O2, 150-225 kg x hm(-2) and K2O 300-450 kg x hm(-2) treatments were the most significant. The improvement effect of N fertilizer on photosynthesis properties was mainly at early stage, and that of P was at middle-later stage, K was at whole stage. Applying N, P, K fertilizers increased the pod yield of peanut remarkably, and with the increasing of N application amount the pod yield enhanced, the pod yields were highest when P and K application were at middle amount rates (P5O2, 150 kg x hm(-2) K2O 300 kg x hm(-2)). The increasing effect on pod yield of K fertilizer was greater than that of N and P fertilizers. Applying a small amount of P and K fertilizers (P2O5 75 kg x hm(-2), K2O 150 kg x hm(-2)) could significantly increase the contents of fat and protein in peanut kernel, applying a small amount of N fertilizer (N 150 kg x hm(-2)) could significantly increase the content of protein in peanut kernel, but applying a large amount of N fertilizer (N 450 kg x hm(-2)) could significantly increase the content of fat in peanut kernel. Applying P fertilizer obviously increased fat and protein content, applying N fertilizer mainly enhanced protein content, and applying K fertilizer mainly raised the content of soluble sugar. In addition, the application of N, P and K fertilizers also increased the contents of lysine and

  18. 46 CFR 308.303 - Amounts insured under interim binder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... INSURANCE Second Seamen's War Risk Insurance § 308.303 Amounts insured under interim binder. The amounts insured are the amounts specified in the Second Seamen's War Risk Policy (1955) or as modified by...

  19. 46 CFR 308.303 - Amounts insured under interim binder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... INSURANCE Second Seamen's War Risk Insurance § 308.303 Amounts insured under interim binder. The amounts insured are the amounts specified in the Second Seamen's War Risk Policy (1955) or as modified by...

  20. 46 CFR 308.303 - Amounts insured under interim binder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... INSURANCE Second Seamen's War Risk Insurance § 308.303 Amounts insured under interim binder. The amounts insured are the amounts specified in the Second Seamen's War Risk Policy (1955) or as modified by...

  1. 46 CFR 308.303 - Amounts insured under interim binder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... INSURANCE Second Seamen's War Risk Insurance § 308.303 Amounts insured under interim binder. The amounts insured are the amounts specified in the Second Seamen's War Risk Policy (1955) or as modified by...

  2. 46 CFR 308.303 - Amounts insured under interim binder.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... INSURANCE Second Seamen's War Risk Insurance § 308.303 Amounts insured under interim binder. The amounts insured are the amounts specified in the Second Seamen's War Risk Policy (1955) or as modified by...

  3. Isolation of an additional soybean cDNA encoding Ypt/Rab-related small GTP-binding protein and its functional comparison to Sypt using a yeast ypt1-1 mutant.

    PubMed

    Kim, W Y; Cheong, N E; Lee, D C; Lee, K O; Je, D Y; Bahk, J D; Cho, M J; Lee, S Y

    1996-07-01

    We have previously reported the isolation of a gene from a soybean cDNA library encoding a Ypt/Rab-related small GTP-binding protein, Sypt. Here, we report the isolation of a second Ypt/Rab-related gene, designated Srab2, from the same soybean cDNA library. And we compare the in vivo function of the two soybean genes utilizing a yeast ypt1-1 mutant. The Srab2 gene encodes 211 amino acid residues with a molecular mass of 23 169 Da. The deduced amino acid sequence of the Srab2 is closely related to the rat (76%) and human (75%) Rab2 proteins, but it shares relatively little homology to Sypt (46%) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae ypt proteins (41%). Genomic Southern blot analysis using the cDNA insert of Srab2 revealed that it belongs to a multigene family in the soybean genome. The protein encoded by Srab2 gene, when expressed in Escherichia coli, disclosed a GTP-binding activity. The expression pattern of the Srab2 gene is quite different from that of the Sypt gene. The Srab2 gene is predominantly expressed in the plumule region, while expression was very low in the other areas in soybean seedlings. On the other hand, the Sypt mRNA is not detectable in any tissues of soybean seedlings grown in the dark. However, light significantly suppressed the Srab2 gene expression, but enhanced the transcript levels of the Sypt gene in leaf and, at even higher levels, in root tissues. When the Srab2 and Sypt genes are introduced separately into a S cerevisiae defective in vesicular transport function, the Srab2 gene cannot complement the temperature-sensitive yeast ypt1-1 mutation at all, in contrast to the Sypt gene. In conclusion, the difference of functional complementation of the yeast mutation together with differential expression of the two genes suggest that the in vivo roles of the Srab2 and Sypt genes may be different in soybean cells.

  4. Effect of dilute polymer additives on the acoustic cavitation threshold of water

    SciTech Connect

    Crum, L.A.; Brosey, J.E.

    1984-02-01

    Measurements are presented of the variation of the acoustic cavitation threshold of water with concentration of the polymer additives polyethylene oxide and guar gum. It was found that small amounts of these additives could significantly increase the cavitation threshold. A theoretical model, based upon nucleation of a gas bubble from a Harvey-type crevice in a mote or solid particle, is developed that gives good agreement with the measurements. The applicability of this approach to an explanation of cavitation index reduction in flow-generated or confined jet cavitation, when polymer additives are introduced, is discussed.

  5. B Removal by Zr Addition in Electromagnetic Solidification Refinement of Si with Si-Al Melt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Yun; Ma, Wenhui; Sun, Luen; Dai, Yongnian; Morita, Kazuki

    2016-02-01

    This study investigated a new process of enhancing B removal by adding small amounts of Zr in the electromagnetic solidification refinement of Si with Si-Al melt. B in Si was removed by as much as 97.2 pct by adding less than 1057 ppma Zr, and the added Zr was removed by as much as 99.7 pct. In addition, Zr is more effective in enhancing B removal than Ti in the same electromagnetic solidification refining process.

  6. A method for sampling halothane and enflurane present in trace amounts in ambient air.

    PubMed

    Burm, A G; Spierdijk, J

    1979-03-01

    A method for the sampling of small amounts of halothane and enflurane in ambient air is described. Sampling is performed by drawing air through a sampling tube packed with Porapak Q, which absorbs the anesthetic agent. The amount absorbed is determined by gas chromatography after thermal desorption. This method can be used for "spot" or personal sampling or for determining mean whole-room concentrations over relatively long periods (several hours).

  7. Rulings in Argentinean and Colombian courts decriminalize possession of small amounts of narcotics.

    PubMed

    Cozac, David

    2009-12-01

    Two recent court decisions in South America have reflected a growing backlash in the region against the so-called, U.S.-led "war on drugs". In Argentina, the Supreme Court of Justice ruled unanimously on 25 August 2009 that the second paragraph of Article 14 of the country's drug control legislation, which punishes the possession of drugs for personal consumption, was unconstitutional. In Colombia, the Supreme Court of Justice ruled on 8 July 2009 that the possession of illegal drugs for personal use was not a criminal offence.

  8. A small amount of tetrachloroethylene ingestion from drinking water accelerates antigen-stimulated allergic responses.

    PubMed

    Seo, Makoto; Yamagiwa, Takeo; Kobayashi, Ryo; Ikeda, Koji; Satoh, Masahiko; Inagaki, Naoki; Nagai, Hiroichi; Nagase, Hisamitsu

    2008-01-01

    Previously, we observed that tetrachloroethylene (perchloroethylene, PCE) increased histamine release and inflammatory mediator production from antigen-stimulated mast cells. In this study, we examined the enhancing effect of low concentrations of PCE in drinking water on antigen-stimulated allergic responses. After exposure of Wistar rats to PCE in drinking water for 2 or 4 weeks, we performed a passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) reaction. PCE exposure for 4 weeks enhanced PCA reaction in a dose-dependent manner. In pathological studies, PCE exposure for 2 weeks exacerbated inflammation characterized by infiltration of lymphocytes and accumulation of mast cells around the vessel. Non-purified mast cells (NPMCs) from rats treated with 1mg/L PCE in drinking water for 2 weeks increased antigen-stimulated histamine release. Furthermore, the leukocytes of rats treated with PCE in drinking water for 4 weeks showed increased interleukin (IL)-4 expression. The mechanism of enhancing the PCA reaction is assumed to be that PCE increases IL-4 production and PCE causes T helper (Th) 1/Th2-type helper T-cell imbalance and increases histamine release from excessively accumulated mast cells. The results suggest that the intake of PCE in drinking water, even at a low concentration, leads to the initiation and acceleration of allergic diseases.

  9. A densimetric method for assay of small amounts of antidiuretic hormone.

    PubMed

    THORN, N A

    1957-06-01

    A sensitive and reproducible method for assay of antidiuretic activity, described in this paper, yielded accurate measurements in the range 60 to 540 micropressor units of pitressin, corresponding to about 15 to 130 micropressor units of arginine-vasopressin. The method differs from previous techniques mainly in using urine density, rather than urinary flow rates, as the index of response. PMID:13428926

  10. A DENSIMETRIC METHOD FOR ASSAY OF SMALL AMOUNTS OF ANTIDIURETIC HORMONE

    PubMed Central

    Thorn, Niels A.

    1957-01-01

    A sensitive and reproducible method for assay of antidiuretic activity, described in this paper, yielded accurate measurements in the range 60 to 540 micropressor units of pitressin, corresponding to about 15 to 130 micropressor units of arginine-vasopressin. The method differs from previous techniques mainly in using urine density, rather than urinary flow rates, as the index of response. PMID:13428926

  11. A Small Amount of Fat Does Not Affect Piperaquine Exposure in Patients with Malaria▿†

    PubMed Central

    Annerberg, Anna; Lwin, Khin Maung; Lindegardh, Niklas; Khrutsawadchai, Sakchai; Ashley, Elizabeth; Day, Nicholas P. J.; Singhasivanon, Pratap; Tarning, Joel; White, Nicholas J.; Nosten, François

    2011-01-01

    Dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine is a new, highly effective, and well-tolerated combination treatment for uncomplicated falciparum malaria. The lipophilic characteristic of piperaquine suggests that administration together with fat will increase the oral bioavailability of the drug, and this has been reported for healthy volunteers. This pharmacokinetic study monitored 30 adult patients with uncomplicated falciparum malaria for 4.5 months to evaluate the effects of the concomitant intake of fat on the total piperaquine exposure. The fixed-drug combination of dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine was given with water to fasting patients (n = 15) or was coadministered with 200 ml milk containing 6.4 g fat (n = 15). The drug combination was generally well tolerated, and there were no severe adverse effects reported for either group during the study. Total piperaquine exposure (area under the concentration-time curve from zero to infinity [AUC0-∞]; results are given as medians [ranges]) were not statistically different between fed (29.5 h · μg/ml [20.6 to 58.7 h · μg/ml]) and fasting (23.9 h · μg/ml [11.9 to 72.9 h · μg/ml]) patients, but the interindividual variation was reduced in the fed group. Overall, none of the pharmacokinetic parameters differed statistically between the groups. Total piperaquine exposure correlated well with the day 7 concentrations in the fasted group, but the fed group showed a poor correlation. In conclusion, the coadministration of 6.4 g fat did not have any significant effect on piperaquine pharmacokinetics in the treatment of uncomplicated malaria. PMID:21709087

  12. Identification by PCR of Fusarium culmorum strains producing large and small amounts of deoxynivalenol.

    PubMed

    Bakan, B; Giraud-Delville, C; Pinson, L; Richard-Molard, D; Fournier, E; Brygoo, Y

    2002-11-01

    Thirty deoxynivalenol-producing F. culmorum strains, isolated from wheat grains, were incubated in vitro and analyzed for trichothecene production. Seventeen strains produced more than 1 ppm of deoxynivalenol and acetyldeoxynivalenol and were considered high-deoxynivalenol-producing strains, whereas 13 F. culmorum strains produced less than 0.07 ppm of trichothecenes and were considered low-deoxynivalenol-producing strains. For all strains, a 550-base portion of the trichodiene synthase gene (tri5) was amplified and sequenced. According to the tri5 data, the F. culmorum strains tested clustered into two groups that correlated with in vitro deoxynivalenol production. For three high-producing and three low-producing F. culmorum strains, the tri5-tri6 intergenic region was then sequenced, which confirmed the two separate clusters within the F. culmorum strains. According to the tri5-tri6 sequence data, specific PCR primers were designed to allow differentiation of high-producing from low-producing F. culmorum strains. PMID:12406740

  13. 18 CFR 1312.16 - Civil penalty amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Civil penalty amounts... OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES: UNIFORM REGULATIONS § 1312.16 Civil penalty amounts. (a) Maximum amount... this part, the maximum amount of the penalty shall be the full cost of restoration and repair...

  14. 19 CFR 191.106 - Amount of drawback.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Amount of drawback. 191.106 Section 191.106... Preparations (Including Perfumery) Manufactured From Domestic Tax-Paid Alcohol § 191.106 Amount of drawback. (a... be limited to the difference between the amount of tax paid and the amount of domestic...

  15. 24 CFR 2700.205 - Emergency assistance amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Emergency assistance amount. 2700... DEVELOPMENT EMERGENCY HOMEOWNERS' LOAN PROGRAM Emergency Assistance § 2700.205 Emergency assistance amount. (a) Emergency assistance to an eligible homeowner may be made available in an amount up to the amount of...

  16. 24 CFR 232.565 - Maximum loan amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Maximum loan amount. 232.565... Fire Safety Equipment Eligible Security Instruments § 232.565 Maximum loan amount. The principal amount... equipment, including the cost of installation, or the amount supported by the residual income, which is...

  17. 24 CFR 92.218 - Amount of matching contribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Amount of matching contribution. 92... Requirement § 92.218 Amount of matching contribution. (a) General. Each participating jurisdiction must make... paragraph (c) of this section. (b) Shortfall amount from State or local resources. Amounts made...

  18. 41 CFR 105-56.029 - Offset amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Offset amount. 105-56... Offset (CSO) Procedures-GSA as Paying Agency § 105-56.029 Offset amount. (a) The minimum dollar amount of salary offset under this subpart is $100. (b) The amount offset from a salary payment under this...

  19. 24 CFR 232.586 - Minimum principal loan amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Minimum principal loan amount. 232... of Fire Safety Equipment Eligible Security Instruments § 232.586 Minimum principal loan amount. A... subpart, that the principal amount of the mortgage exceed a minimum amount established by the...

  20. 5 CFR 1655.6 - Amount of loan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Amount of loan. 1655.6 Section 1655.6 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD LOAN PROGRAM § 1655.6 Amount of loan. (a) Minimum amount. The initial principal amount of any loan may not be less than $1,000. (b) Maximum...

  1. 18 CFR 1312.16 - Civil penalty amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Civil penalty amounts... OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES: UNIFORM REGULATIONS § 1312.16 Civil penalty amounts. (a) Maximum amount... this part, the maximum amount of the penalty shall be the full cost of restoration and repair...

  2. 38 CFR 8a.2 - Maximum amount of insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Maximum amount of... MORTGAGE LIFE INSURANCE § 8a.2 Maximum amount of insurance. (a) Each eligible veteran is authorized up to a... amount of insurance in force as provided for in § 8a.4(a) the amount of VMLI thereafter available...

  3. 29 CFR 102.172 - Minimum referral amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Minimum referral amount. 102.172 Section 102.172 Labor... Procedures By Federal Income Tax Refund Offset § 102.172 Minimum referral amount. The minimum amount of a... business debtors. The amount referred may include the principal portion of the debt, as well as any...

  4. 12 CFR 209.4 - Amounts and payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Amounts and payments. 209.4 Section 209.4 Banks... CANCELLATION OF FEDERAL RESERVE BANK CAPITAL STOCK (REGULATION I) § 209.4 Amounts and payments. (a) Amount of... organization means the amount which is to be paid in at the time the bank commences business. 4 Capital...

  5. 26 CFR 1.468A-3 - Ruling amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ruling amount. 1.468A-3 Section 1.468A-3...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Taxable Year for Which Deductions Taken § 1.468A-3 Ruling amount. (a) In general... schedule of ruling amounts for the nuclear decommissioning fund that includes a ruling amount for...

  6. 41 CFR 105-56.029 - Offset amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Offset amount. 105-56... Offset (CSO) Procedures-GSA as Paying Agency § 105-56.029 Offset amount. (a) The minimum dollar amount of salary offset under this subpart is $100. (b) The amount offset from a salary payment under this...

  7. 29 CFR 20.105 - Minimum referral amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Minimum referral amount. 20.105 Section 20.105 Labor Office... referral amount. The IRS annually establishes the minimum amount for debts otherwise eligible for referral. Minimum referral amounts are established separately for individual debts and business debts, as set...

  8. 5 CFR 1655.6 - Amount of loan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Amount of loan. 1655.6 Section 1655.6 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD LOAN PROGRAM § 1655.6 Amount of loan. (a) Minimum amount. The initial principal amount of any loan may not be less than $1,000. (b) Maximum...

  9. 45 CFR 149.100 - Amount of reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Amount of reimbursement. 149.100 Section 149.100... REQUIREMENTS FOR THE EARLY RETIREE REINSURANCE PROGRAM Reinsurance Amounts § 149.100 Amount of reimbursement... reimbursement in the amount of 80 percent of the costs for health benefits (net of negotiated price...

  10. 38 CFR 8a.2 - Maximum amount of insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maximum amount of... MORTGAGE LIFE INSURANCE § 8a.2 Maximum amount of insurance. (a) Each eligible veteran is authorized up to a... amount of insurance in force as provided for in § 8a.4(a) the amount of VMLI thereafter available...

  11. 48 CFR 28.102-2 - Amount required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Amount required. 28.102-2... REQUIREMENTS BONDS AND INSURANCE Bonds and Other Financial Protections 28.102-2 Amount required. (a) Definition... lesser amount is adequate for the protection of the Government, the penal amount of performance...

  12. 30 CFR 735.15 - Amount of grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amount of grants. 735.15 Section 735.15 Mineral... AND ENFORCEMENT § 735.15 Amount of grants. (a) Amount of program development grants. (1) For the first...). (b) Amount of administration and enforcement grants. (1) If no program development grant has...

  13. 29 CFR 4.144 - Contract modifications affecting amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Contract modifications affecting amount. 4.144 Section 4... modifications affecting amount. Where a contract that was originally issued in an amount not in excess of $2,500 is later modified so that its amount may exceed that figure, all the provisions of section 2(a)...

  14. 41 CFR 105-56.019 - Offset amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Offset amount. 105-56... Offset (CSO) Procedures-GSA as Creditor Agency § 105-56.019 Offset amount. (a) The minimum dollar amount referred for offset under this subpart is $100. (b) The amount offset from a salary payment under...

  15. 24 CFR 242.92 - Minimum principal loan amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Minimum principal loan amount. 242... MORTGAGE INSURANCE FOR HOSPITALS Miscellaneous Requirements § 242.92 Minimum principal loan amount. A..., that the principal amount of the mortgage exceed a minimum amount established by the mortgagee....

  16. 48 CFR 32.304-4 - Guarantee amount and maturity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Guarantee amount and... Guarantee amount and maturity. The agency may change the guarantee amount or maturity date, within the... guarantee amount or maturity date to meet any significant increase in financing need. (b) If the...

  17. 41 CFR 105-56.019 - Offset amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Offset amount. 105-56... Offset (CSO) Procedures-GSA as Creditor Agency § 105-56.019 Offset amount. (a) The minimum dollar amount referred for offset under this subpart is $100. (b) The amount offset from a salary payment under...

  18. 21 CFR 17.2 - Maximum penalty amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Maximum penalty amounts. 17.2 Section 17.2 Food... PENALTIES HEARINGS § 17.2 Maximum penalty amounts. The following table shows maximum civil monetary... Penalty Amounts U.S.C. Section Former Maximum Penalty Amount (in dollars) Assessment Method Date of...

  19. 24 CFR 891.525 - Amount and terms of financing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Amount and terms of financing. 891... Handicapped-Section 8 Assistance § 891.525 Amount and terms of financing. (a) The amount of financing approved... financing provided shall not exceed the lesser of: (1) The dollar amounts stated in paragraphs (b)...

  20. 24 CFR 891.525 - Amount and terms of financing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Amount and terms of financing. 891... Handicapped-Section 8 Assistance § 891.525 Amount and terms of financing. (a) The amount of financing approved... financing provided shall not exceed the lesser of: (1) The dollar amounts stated in paragraphs (b)...

  1. 2 CFR 200.45 - Fixed amount awards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fixed amount awards. 200.45 Section 200.45... REQUIREMENTS FOR FEDERAL AWARDS Acronyms and Definitions Acronyms § 200.45 Fixed amount awards. Fixed amount... primarily on performance and results. See §§ 200.201 Use of grant agreements (including fixed amount...

  2. 20 CFR 416.503 - Minimum monthly benefit amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... monthly benefit amount. If you receive an SSI benefit that does not include a State supplement the minimum monthly SSI benefit amount payable is $1. When an SSI benefit amount of less than $1 is payable, the benefit amount will be increased to $1. If you receive an SSI benefit that does include a State...

  3. 20 CFR 404.260 - Special minimum primary insurance amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Special minimum primary insurance amounts... AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Computing Primary Insurance Amounts Special Minimum Primary Insurance Amounts § 404.260 Special minimum primary insurance amounts. Regardless of the method we use...

  4. 20 CFR 404.260 - Special minimum primary insurance amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Special minimum primary insurance amounts... AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Computing Primary Insurance Amounts Special Minimum Primary Insurance Amounts § 404.260 Special minimum primary insurance amounts. Regardless of the method we use...

  5. 5 CFR 870.904 - Amount of insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES' GROUP LIFE INSURANCE PROGRAM Assignments of Life Insurance § 870.904 Amount of insurance. The amount of insurance is the amount of the insured individual's Basic insurance, plus any... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Amount of insurance. 870.904 Section...

  6. 5 CFR 870.202 - Basic insurance amount (BIA).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Basic insurance amount (BIA). 870.202... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES' GROUP LIFE INSURANCE PROGRAM Types and Amount of Insurance § 870.202 Basic insurance amount (BIA). (a)(1) An employee's Basic insurance amount (BIA) is either: (i)...

  7. Amounts of artificial food dyes and added sugars in foods and sweets commonly consumed by children.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Laura J; Burgess, John R; Stochelski, Mateusz A; Kuczek, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Artificial food colors (AFCs) are used to color many beverages, foods, and sweets in the United States and throughout the world. In the United States, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) limits the AFCs allowed in the diet to 9 different colors. The FDA certifies each batch of manufactured AFCs to guarantee purity and safety. The amount certified has risen from 12 mg/capita/d in 1950 to 62 mg/capita/d in 2010. Previously, we reported the amounts of AFCs in commonly consumed beverages. In this article, the amounts of AFCs in commonly consumed foods and sweets are reported. In addition, the amount of sugars in each product is included. Amounts of AFCs reported here along with the beverage data show that many children could be consuming far more dyes than previously thought. Clinical guidance is given to help caregivers avoid AFCs and reduce the amount of sugars in children's diets. PMID:24764054

  8. Amounts of artificial food dyes and added sugars in foods and sweets commonly consumed by children.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Laura J; Burgess, John R; Stochelski, Mateusz A; Kuczek, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Artificial food colors (AFCs) are used to color many beverages, foods, and sweets in the United States and throughout the world. In the United States, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) limits the AFCs allowed in the diet to 9 different colors. The FDA certifies each batch of manufactured AFCs to guarantee purity and safety. The amount certified has risen from 12 mg/capita/d in 1950 to 62 mg/capita/d in 2010. Previously, we reported the amounts of AFCs in commonly consumed beverages. In this article, the amounts of AFCs in commonly consumed foods and sweets are reported. In addition, the amount of sugars in each product is included. Amounts of AFCs reported here along with the beverage data show that many children could be consuming far more dyes than previously thought. Clinical guidance is given to help caregivers avoid AFCs and reduce the amount of sugars in children's diets.

  9. Discovering Related Clinical Concepts Using Large Amounts of Clinical Notes.

    PubMed

    Ganesan, Kavita; Lloyd, Shane; Sarkar, Vikren

    2016-01-01

    The ability to find highly related clinical concepts is essential for many applications such as for hypothesis generation, query expansion for medical literature search, search results filtering, ICD-10 code filtering and many other applications. While manually constructed medical terminologies such as SNOMED CT can surface certain related concepts, these terminologies are inadequate as they depend on expertise of several subject matter experts making the terminology curation process open to geographic and language bias. In addition, these terminologies also provide no quantifiable evidence on how related the concepts are. In this work, we explore an unsupervised graphical approach to mine related concepts by leveraging the volume within large amounts of clinical notes. Our evaluation shows that we are able to use a data driven approach to discovering highly related concepts for various search terms including medications, symptoms and diseases. PMID:27656096

  10. Discovering Related Clinical Concepts Using Large Amounts of Clinical Notes

    PubMed Central

    Ganesan, Kavita; Lloyd, Shane; Sarkar, Vikren

    2016-01-01

    The ability to find highly related clinical concepts is essential for many applications such as for hypothesis generation, query expansion for medical literature search, search results filtering, ICD-10 code filtering and many other applications. While manually constructed medical terminologies such as SNOMED CT can surface certain related concepts, these terminologies are inadequate as they depend on expertise of several subject matter experts making the terminology curation process open to geographic and language bias. In addition, these terminologies also provide no quantifiable evidence on how related the concepts are. In this work, we explore an unsupervised graphical approach to mine related concepts by leveraging the volume within large amounts of clinical notes. Our evaluation shows that we are able to use a data driven approach to discovering highly related concepts for various search terms including medications, symptoms and diseases. PMID:27656096

  11. Discovering Related Clinical Concepts Using Large Amounts of Clinical Notes.

    PubMed

    Ganesan, Kavita; Lloyd, Shane; Sarkar, Vikren

    2016-01-01

    The ability to find highly related clinical concepts is essential for many applications such as for hypothesis generation, query expansion for medical literature search, search results filtering, ICD-10 code filtering and many other applications. While manually constructed medical terminologies such as SNOMED CT can surface certain related concepts, these terminologies are inadequate as they depend on expertise of several subject matter experts making the terminology curation process open to geographic and language bias. In addition, these terminologies also provide no quantifiable evidence on how related the concepts are. In this work, we explore an unsupervised graphical approach to mine related concepts by leveraging the volume within large amounts of clinical notes. Our evaluation shows that we are able to use a data driven approach to discovering highly related concepts for various search terms including medications, symptoms and diseases.

  12. Discovering Related Clinical Concepts Using Large Amounts of Clinical Notes

    PubMed Central

    Ganesan, Kavita; Lloyd, Shane; Sarkar, Vikren

    2016-01-01

    The ability to find highly related clinical concepts is essential for many applications such as for hypothesis generation, query expansion for medical literature search, search results filtering, ICD-10 code filtering and many other applications. While manually constructed medical terminologies such as SNOMED CT can surface certain related concepts, these terminologies are inadequate as they depend on expertise of several subject matter experts making the terminology curation process open to geographic and language bias. In addition, these terminologies also provide no quantifiable evidence on how related the concepts are. In this work, we explore an unsupervised graphical approach to mine related concepts by leveraging the volume within large amounts of clinical notes. Our evaluation shows that we are able to use a data driven approach to discovering highly related concepts for various search terms including medications, symptoms and diseases.

  13. 42 CFR 489.65 - Amount of the bond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Amount of the bond. 489.65 Section 489.65 Public... § 489.65 Amount of the bond. (a) Basic rule. The amount of the surety bond must be $50,000 or 15 percent... current fiscal year differ from such an amount by more than 25 percent, then the amount of the bond is...

  14. Residual amount of vancomycin hydrochloride in vials after use.

    PubMed

    Yamasaki, Hirofumi; Oie, Shigeharu; Miyano, Naoyuki; Furukawa, Hiroyuki

    2013-08-01

    We macroscopically observed vials of vancomycin hydrochloride (VCM) for injection (0.5 g/vial) dissolved in various solvents, and determined the presence or absence of residual VCM crystals. In addition, the residual VCM in vials after use was measured using a bioassay. In vials evaluated after use, the percentage of vials in which VCM crystals were macroscopically confirmed, the mean residual amount of VCM in the vials (residual %), and the percentage of vials with ≥50 mg (10 %) of residual VCM were 28.1 %, 15.0 ± 7.5 mg (3.0 %), and 0 %, respectively, after the dissolution of a single VCM vial in 10 ml of distilled water for injection (n = 57); 63.8 %, 30.2 ± 19.1 mg (6.0 %), and 16.1 %, respectively, after the dissolution of a single VCM vial in 100 ml of physiological saline (n = 224); and 72.2 %, 38.5 ± 28.0 mg (7.7 %), and 33.3 %, respectively, after the dissolution of two VCM vials in 100 ml of physiological saline (n = 18). The mean residual VCM amount was greater when using physiological saline than when using distilled water for injection as a solvent. These results show the need to follow the dissolution method described in the package insert, which calls for the addition of 10 ml of distilled water for injection to each 0.5 g VCM vial.

  15. Estimation of Fluorescent Dye Amount in Tracer Dye Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pekkan, Emrah; Balkan, Erman; Balkan, Emir

    2015-04-01

    Karstic groundwater is more influenced by human than the groundwater that disperse in pores. On the other hand karstic groundwater resources, in addition to providing agricultural needs, livestock breeding, drinking and domestic water in most of the months of the year, they also supply drinking water to the wild life at high altitudes. Therefore sustainability and hydrogeological investigation of karstic resources is critical. Tracing techniques are widely used in hydrologic and hydrogeologic studies to determine water storage, flow rate, direction and protection area of groundwater resources. Karanfil Mountain (2800 m), located in Adana, Turkey, is one of the karstic recharge areas of the natural springs spread around its periphery. During explorations of the caves of Karanfil mountain, a 600 m deep cave was found by the Turkish and Polish cavers. At the bottom of the cave there is an underground river with a flow rate of approximately 0.5 m3/s during August 2014. The main spring is located 8 km far from the cave's entrance and its mean flow rate changes between 3.4 m3/s and 0.21 m3/s in March and September respectively according to a flowrate observation station of Directorate of Water Works of Turkey. As such frequent storms, snowmelt and normal seasonal variations in rainfall have a significant and rapid effect on the volume of this main spring resource. The objective of our research is to determine and estimate dye amount before its application on the field inspired from the previously literature on the subject. This estimation is intended to provide a preliminary application of a tracer test of a karstic system. In this study dye injection, inlet point will be an underground river located inside the cave and the observation station will be the spring that is approximately 8 km far from the cave entrance. On the other hand there is 600 meter elevation difference between cave entrance and outlet spring. In this test Rodamin-WT will be used as tracer and the

  16. 42 CFR 419.41 - Calculation of national beneficiary copayment amounts and national Medicare program payment amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... amounts and national Medicare program payment amounts. 419.41 Section 419.41 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM... Calculation of national beneficiary copayment amounts and national Medicare program payment amounts. (a)...

  17. Flame-retardant additives for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyung, Yoo E.; Vissers, Donald R.; Amine, Khalil

    To enhance the resistance of lithium-ion battery components to ignition and to reduce the flammability of the electrolyte with minimal effect on performance, we added flame-retardant additives to the electrolyte. The flame retardants were selected from a group of organic phosphate compounds, triphenylphosphate (TPP) and tributylphosphate (TBP), to provide superior thermal safety in lithium-ion cells at the fully charged state. The cycling characteristics of the lithium-ion cells containing flame-retardant additives were found to be similar or superior to the cells that contained no additives. Horizontal burning tests of electrolytes were carried out in a flame test chamber referenced by Underwriters Laboratories (UL) test standard 94 (UL 94) and ASTM D4986-98 to evaluate the electrolyes' flammability characteristics. The thermal stability characteristics of the electrodes and electrolytes with and without flame-retardant additives were investigated by accelerating rate calorimetry (ARC). Negative electrode samples with electrolytes containing flame-retardant additives revealed less heat generation and higher-onset decomposition temperatures. The results disclose that the thermal safety of lithium-ion cells can be improved by incorporating small amounts of suitable additives such as triphenylphosphate and tributylphosphate to the electrolyte.

  18. Recent new additives for electric vehicle lead-acid batteries for extending the cycle life and capacity

    SciTech Connect

    Kozawa, A.; Sato, A.; Fujita, K.; Brodd, D.

    1997-12-01

    An electrochemically prepared colloidal graphite was found to be an excellent additive for lead-acid batteries. The new additive extends the capacity and cycle life of new and old batteries and can regenerate old, almost dead, batteries. The colloidal graphite is stable in aqueous solution and the extremely fine particles are adsorbed mainly on the positive electrode. This additive has been given the name, {alpha}-Pholon. The amount required is very small: only 6% to 10% of volume of the {alpha}-Pholon solution (about 2% colloidal graphite in water solution). The beneficial effect of the new additive was demonstrated with motorcycle batteries and forklift batteries.

  19. Physicochemical investigation of NiAl with small molybdenum additions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Troshkina, V. A.; Kucherenko, L. A.; Fadeeva, V. I.; Aristova, N. M.

    1982-01-01

    Specimens of four cast NiAl alloys, three of them containing 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 at. % Mo., were homogenized for 10, 10, and 140 hr at 1373, 1523 and 1273 K, respectively, then kept at 1073, 1173 and 1323 K for 60, 120 and 3 hr, respectively, and quenched in icy water. The precipitation of a metastable Ni3Mo phase was observed at temperatures between 1073 and 1523 K. Molybdenum substituted for nickel was found to inhibit the lattice disordering in NiAl at 1073 and 1523 K.

  20. 77 FR 51068 - Remedies for Small Copyright Claims: Additional Comments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-23

    ... (not an image); Microsoft Word; WordPerfect; Rich Text Format (RTF); or ASCII text file format (not a... to address concerns about the current system. See the original Notice of Inquiry, 76 FR 66758 (Oct... what body or court? What would be the appropriate standard of review (e.g., de novo, clearly...

  1. Technology for small spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This report gives the results of a study by the National Research Council's Panel on Small Spacecraft Technology that reviewed NASA's technology development program for small spacecraft and assessed technology within the U.S. government and industry that is applicable to small spacecraft. The panel found that there is a considerable body of advanced technology currently available for application by NASA and the small spacecraft industry that could provide substantial improvement in capability and cost over those technologies used for current NASA small spacecraft. These technologies are the result of developments by commercial companies, Department of Defense agencies, and to a lesser degree NASA. The panel also found that additional technologies are being developed by these same entities that could provide additional substantial improvement if development is successfully completed. Recommendations for future technology development efforts by NASA across a broad technological spectrum are made.

  2. 26 CFR 1.586-2 - Addition to reserve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... excluded. (b) New financial institutions—(1) Small business investment companies. In the case of a new financial institution which is a small business investment company to which section 586 applies, the amount... small business investment companies at the close of each of such six 12-month periods ending on March...

  3. Comparison between the Amount of Environmental Change and the Amount of Transcriptome Change.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Norichika; Kozaki, Toshinori; Yokoyama, Takeshi; Hata, Tamako; Iwabuchi, Kikuo

    2015-01-01

    Cells must coordinate adjustments in genome expression to accommodate changes in their environment. We hypothesized that the amount of transcriptome change is proportional to the amount of environmental change. To capture the effects of environmental changes on the transcriptome, we compared transcriptome diversities (defined as the Shannon entropy of frequency distribution) of silkworm fat-body tissues cultured with several concentrations of phenobarbital. Although there was no proportional relationship, we did identify a drug concentration "tipping point" between 0.25 and 1.0 mM. Cells cultured in media containing lower drug concentrations than the tipping point showed uniformly high transcriptome diversities, while those cultured at higher drug concentrations than the tipping point showed uniformly low transcriptome diversities. The plasticity of transcriptome diversity was corroborated by cultivations of fat bodies in MGM-450 insect medium without phenobarbital and in 0.25 mM phenobarbital-supplemented MGM-450 insect medium after previous cultivation (cultivation for 80 hours in MGM-450 insect medium without phenobarbital, followed by cultivation for 10 hours in 1.0 mM phenobarbital-supplemented MGM-450 insect medium). Interestingly, the transcriptome diversities of cells cultured in media containing 0.25 mM phenobarbital after previous cultivation (cultivation for 80 hours in MGM-450 insect medium without phenobarbital, followed by cultivation for 10 hours in 1.0 mM phenobarbital-supplemented MGM-450 insect medium) were different from cells cultured in media containing 0.25 mM phenobarbital after previous cultivation (cultivation for 80 hours in MGM-450 insect medium without phenobarbital). This hysteretic phenomenon of transcriptome diversities indicates multi-stability of the genome expression system. Cellular memories were recorded in genome expression networks as in DNA/histone modifications. PMID:26657512

  4. Very Large Amounts of Radiation are Required to Produce Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, Antone L.; Hui, T. Edmond; Couch, Lezlie A.

    2007-01-01

    The public fear of radiation is in part driven by the Linear No Threshold Hypothesis (LNTH), or the concept that each and every ionization increases the risk for cancer. Even if this were true, it is important to recognize that the increased risk is very small at low doses and cannot be detected. This paper demonstrates the large number of assumptions and extrapolations needed when using the LNTH to estimate low-dose cancer risk. The manuscript provides information at every level of biological organization suggesting that many of these linear assumptions do not hold. While the initial damage may be produced linearly with dose, the processing of that damage is very non-linear. Finally, the paper provides the unique prospective on radiation-induced cancer, demonstrating that it takes large amounts (total energy) of radiation delivered to large populations to detect an increase in cancer frequency. These observations are supported by both theoretical calculations and examples based on past human radiation exposure. PMID:18648559

  5. Migration of fluorochemical paper additives from food-contact paper into foods and food simulants.

    PubMed

    Begley, T H; Hsu, W; Noonan, G; Diachenko, G

    2008-03-01

    Fluorochemical-treated paper was tested to determine the amount of migration that occurs into foods and food-simulating liquids and the characteristics of the migration. Migration characteristics of fluorochemicals from paper were examined in Miglyol, butter, water, vinegar, water-ethanol solutions, emulsions and pure oil containing small amounts of emulsifiers. Additionally, microwave popcorn and chocolate spread were used to investigate migration. Results indicate that fluorochemicals paper additives do migrate to food during actual package use. For example, we found that microwave popcorn contained 3.2 fluorochemical mg kg(-1) popcorn after popping and butter contained 0.1 mg kg(-1) after 40 days at 4 degrees C. Tests also indicate that common food-simulating liquids for migration testing and package material evaluation might not provide an accurate indication of the amount of fluorochemical that actually migrates to food. Tests show that oil containing small amounts of an emulsifier can significantly enhance migration of a fluorochemical from paper. PMID:18311629

  6. 13 CFR 120.1833 - May an SISMBD request an increase in the loan amount?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false May an SISMBD request an increase in the loan amount? 120.1833 Section 120.1833 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Establishment of an SBA Direct Loan Program for Systemically Important...

  7. 13 CFR 107.1150 - Maximum amount of Leverage for a Section 301(c) Licensee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... up-to-date business plan that reflects continuation of the Licensee's successful investment strategy... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maximum amount of Leverage for a Section 301(c) Licensee. 107.1150 Section 107.1150 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL...

  8. 41 CFR 105-57.008 - Amounts withheld.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... amount equivalent to thirty times the minimum wage. See 29 CFR 870.10. (c) When a debtor's pay is subject.... The employer may use the SF 329C (Wage Garnishment Worksheet) to calculate the amount to be...

  9. 41 CFR 105-57.008 - Amounts withheld.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... amount equivalent to thirty times the minimum wage. See 29 CFR 870.10. (c) When a debtor's pay is subject.... The employer may use the SF 329C (Wage Garnishment Worksheet) to calculate the amount to be...

  10. 41 CFR 105-57.008 - Amounts withheld.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... amount equivalent to thirty times the minimum wage. See 29 CFR 870.10. (c) When a debtor's pay is subject.... The employer may use the SF 329C (Wage Garnishment Worksheet) to calculate the amount to be...

  11. 13 CFR 108.2020 - Amount of Operational Assistance grant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... (c) Pro rata reductions. In the event that the total amount of funds available to SBA for purposes of... in the amounts described in paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section, SBA will make pro rata...

  12. 42 CFR 402.105 - Amount of penalty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... beneficiaries, for purchased diagnostic tests, any amount other than the payment amount specified in section... credits for Medicare supplemental policies as required by section 1882(r)(1)(B) (§ 402.1(c)(28)). (7)...

  13. 20 CFR 341.5 - Amount of reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... STATUTORY LIEN WHERE SICKNESS BENEFITS PAID § 341.5 Amount of reimbursement. (a) The Board shall receive as reimbursement the lesser of: (1) The amount of sickness benefits paid to the employee for the infirmity...

  14. 20 CFR 341.5 - Amount of reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... STATUTORY LIEN WHERE SICKNESS BENEFITS PAID § 341.5 Amount of reimbursement. (a) The Board shall receive as reimbursement the lesser of: (1) The amount of sickness benefits paid to the employee for the infirmity...

  15. 20 CFR 341.5 - Amount of reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... STATUTORY LIEN WHERE SICKNESS BENEFITS PAID § 341.5 Amount of reimbursement. (a) The Board shall receive as reimbursement the lesser of: (1) The amount of sickness benefits paid to the employee for the infirmity...

  16. 20 CFR 341.5 - Amount of reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... STATUTORY LIEN WHERE SICKNESS BENEFITS PAID § 341.5 Amount of reimbursement. (a) The Board shall receive as reimbursement the lesser of: (1) The amount of sickness benefits paid to the employee for the infirmity...

  17. 38 CFR 17.197 - Amount of aid payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amount of aid payable. 17.197 Section 17.197 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Aid to States for Care of Veterans in State Homes § 17.197 Amount of aid payable. The amount of...

  18. 20 CFR 229.66 - Changes in reduction amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... decreases, the change in the reduction amount is effective with the month of the decrease, no matter when... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Changes in reduction amount. 229.66 Section... Under a Federal, State, or Local Law or Plan § 229.66 Changes in reduction amount. (a) Change in DIB...

  19. 20 CFR 229.66 - Changes in reduction amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... decreases, the change in the reduction amount is effective with the month of the decrease, no matter when... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Changes in reduction amount. 229.66 Section... Under a Federal, State, or Local Law or Plan § 229.66 Changes in reduction amount. (a) Change in DIB...

  20. 20 CFR 229.66 - Changes in reduction amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... decreases, the change in the reduction amount is effective with the month of the decrease, no matter when... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Changes in reduction amount. 229.66 Section... Under a Federal, State, or Local Law or Plan § 229.66 Changes in reduction amount. (a) Change in DIB...

  1. 12 CFR 209.4 - Amounts and payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Amounts and payments. 209.4 Section 209.4 Banks... CANCELLATION OF FEDERAL RESERVE BANK CAPITAL STOCK (REGULATION I) § 209.4 Amounts and payments. (a) Amount of subscription. The total subscription of a member bank (other than a mutual savings bank) shall equal...

  2. 5 CFR 831.2004 - Amount of lump-sums.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Amount of lump-sums. 831.2004 Section 831.2004 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Payment of Lump Sums § 831.2004 Amount of lump-sums. If applicable, the amount of...

  3. 10 CFR 205.286 - Limitations on amount of refunds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Limitations on amount of refunds. 205.286 Section 205.286 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES AND SANCTIONS Special Procedures for Distribution of Refunds § 205.286 Limitations on amount of refunds. (a) The aggregate amount of all...

  4. 45 CFR 602.52 - Collection of amounts due.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... overdue debt in accordance with the Federal Claims Collection Standards (4 CFR Ch. II). The date from... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Collection of amounts due. 602.52 Section 602.52... Requirements § 602.52 Collection of amounts due. (a) Any funds paid to a grantee in excess of the amount...

  5. 2 CFR 215.73 - Collection of amounts due.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Federal awarding agency shall charge interest on an overdue debt in accordance with 4 CFR Chapter II... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Collection of amounts due. 215.73 Section... amounts due. (a) Any funds paid to a recipient in excess of the amount to which the recipient is...

  6. 45 CFR 1174.52 - Collection of amounts due.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Federal Claims Collection Standards (4 CFR Ch. II). The date from which interest is computed is not... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Collection of amounts due. 1174.52 Section 1174.52... amounts due. (a) Any funds paid to a grantee in excess of the amount to which the grantee is...

  7. 26 CFR 1.6044-3 - Amounts subject to reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Amounts subject to reporting. 1.6044-3 Section... TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Information Returns § 1.6044-3 Amounts subject to reporting. (a) In general. Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, the amounts subject to reporting under §...

  8. 36 CFR 1210.73 - Collection of amounts due.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... debt in accordance with 4 CFR Chapter II, “Federal Claims Collection Standards.” ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Collection of amounts due... Collection of amounts due. (a) Any funds paid to a recipient in excess of the amount to which the...

  9. 26 CFR 1.666(a)-1 - Amount allocated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Amount allocated. 1.666(a)-1 Section 1.666(a)-1... Beginning Before January 1, 1969 § 1.666(a)-1 Amount allocated. (a)(1) If a trust other than a foreign trust... had the following amounts of undistributed net income: Year Undistributed net income—portion of...

  10. 45 CFR 30.36 - Minimum amount of referrals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Minimum amount of referrals. 30.36 Section 30.36... to the Department of Justice § 30.36 Minimum amount of referrals. (a) Except as in paragraph (b) of... such other amount as the Attorney General may prescribe, shall not be referred for litigation. (b)...

  11. 24 CFR 203.18d - Minimum principal loan amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Minimum principal loan amount. 203... Mortgages § 203.18d Minimum principal loan amount. A mortgagee may not require, as a condition of providing a loan secured by a mortgage insured under this part, that the principal amount of the...

  12. 45 CFR 148.312 - Amount of grant payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Amount of grant payment. 148.312 Section 148.312... Pools § 148.312 Amount of grant payment. (a) An eligible State may receive a grant to fund up to 100... which it is applying or a lesser amount based on the limits of the allotment under the formula....

  13. 7 CFR 1427.8 - Amount of loan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Amount of loan. 1427.8 Section 1427.8 Agriculture... § 1427.8 Amount of loan. (a) The loan rates for crops of upland cotton and ELS cotton will be determined... of more than 600 pounds, the weight to be used in determining the amount of the loan on the...

  14. 12 CFR 1806.202 - Estimated award amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Estimated award amounts. 1806.202 Section 1806... BANK ENTERPRISE AWARD PROGRAM Awards § 1806.202 Estimated award amounts. (a) General. An Applicant shall calculate and submit to the Fund an estimated award amount as part of the Bank Enterprise...

  15. 7 CFR 3565.457 - Determination of claim amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Determination of claim amount. 3565.457 Section 3565....457 Determination of claim amount. In all liquidation cases, final settlement will be made with the...) The estimated loss payment shall be applied as of the date of such payment. The total amount of...

  16. 24 CFR 241.586 - Minimum principal loan amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Minimum principal loan amount. 241... Security Instruments § 241.586 Minimum principal loan amount. A mortgagee may not require, as a condition of providing a loan insured under this subpart, that the principal amount of the mortgage exceed...

  17. 36 CFR 1210.73 - Collection of amounts due.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... debt in accordance with 4 CFR Chapter II, “Federal Claims Collection Standards.” ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Collection of amounts due... Collection of amounts due. (a) Any funds paid to a recipient in excess of the amount to which the...

  18. 45 CFR 1183.52 - Collection of amounts due.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Federal Claims Collection Standards (4 CFR Ch. II). The date from which interest is computed is not... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Collection of amounts due. 1183.52 Section 1183.52... amounts due. (a) Any funds paid to a grantee in excess of the amount to which the grantee is...

  19. 42 CFR 1003.104 - Amount of assessment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Amount of assessment. 1003.104 Section 1003.104... AUTHORITIES CIVIL MONEY PENALTIES, ASSESSMENTS AND EXCLUSIONS § 1003.104 Amount of assessment. (a) The OIG may... the amount for each item or service wrongfully claimed prior to January 1, 1997; and (2) Three...

  20. 24 CFR 761.13 - Amount of funding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Amount of funding. 761.13 Section... PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING PROGRAMS) DRUG ELIMINATION PROGRAMS Grant Funding § 761.13 Amount of funding. (a) PHDEP formula funding—(1) Funding share formula—(i) Per unit amount. Subject to the...

  1. 45 CFR 92.52 - Collection of amounts due.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... overdue debt in accordance with the Federal Claims Collection Standards (4 CFR Ch. II). The date from... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Collection of amounts due. 92.52 Section 92.52... Requirements § 92.52 Collection of amounts due. (a) Any funds paid to a grantee in excess of the amount...

  2. 34 CFR 74.73 - Collection of amounts due.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... interest on an overdue debt in accordance with 4 CFR Chapter II—Federal Claims Collection Standards... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Collection of amounts due. 74.73 Section 74.73... § 74.73 Collection of amounts due. (a) Any funds paid to a recipient in excess of the amount to...

  3. 76 FR 71554 - Civil Penalties; Notice of Adjusted Maximum Amounts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-18

    ... COMMISSION Civil Penalties; Notice of Adjusted Maximum Amounts AGENCY: Consumer Product Safety Commission. ACTION: Notice of adjusted maximum civil penalty amounts. SUMMARY: In 1990, Congress enacted statutory amendments that provided for periodic adjustments to the maximum civil penalty amounts authorized under...

  4. 42 CFR 422.382 - Minimum net worth amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Minimum net worth amount. 422.382 Section 422.382... net worth amount. (a) At the time an organization applies to contract with CMS as a PSO under this part, the organization must have a minimum net worth amount, as determined under paragraph (c) of...

  5. 26 CFR 1.669(a)-1A - Amount allocated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Amount allocated. 1.669(a)-1A Section 1.669(a... Beginning Before January 1, 1969 § 1.669(a)-1A Amount allocated. (a) In general. After a trust has... preceding taxable year is the amount of undistributed capital gain for that preceding taxable year....

  6. 7 CFR 3550.63 - Maximum loan amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Maximum loan amount. 3550.63 Section 3550.63... amount. Total secured indebtedness must not exceed the area loan limit or market value limitations specified in paragraphs (a) or (b) of this section, whichever is lower. Any loan amount for the...

  7. 38 CFR 17.197 - Amount of aid payable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Amount of aid payable. 17.197 Section 17.197 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Aid to States for Care of Veterans in State Homes § 17.197 Amount of aid payable. The amount of...

  8. 24 CFR 203.15 - Certification of appraisal amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certification of appraisal amount... Miscellaneous Regulations § 203.15 Certification of appraisal amount. An application with respect to insurance... written statement, in a form satisfactory to the Commissioner, setting forth the amount of the...

  9. 26 CFR 1.652(b)-1 - Character of amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Character of amounts. 1.652(b)-1 Section 1.652(b... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Trusts Which Distribute Current Income Only § 1.652(b)-1 Character of amounts. In determining the gross income of a beneficiary, the amounts includible under § 1.652(a)-1 have the...

  10. 24 CFR 236.520 - Amount of payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Amount of payments. 236.520 Section... INSURANCE AND INTEREST REDUCTION PAYMENT FOR RENTAL PROJECTS Interest Reduction Payments § 236.520 Amount of payments. (a) The interest reduction payment to the mortgagee shall be in an amount not exceeding...

  11. 32 CFR 229.16 - Civil penalty amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Civil penalty amounts. 229.16 Section 229.16...) MISCELLANEOUS PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES: UNIFORM REGULATIONS § 229.16 Civil penalty amounts. (a) Maximum amount of penalty. (1) Where the person being assessed a civil penalty has not committed...

  12. 7 CFR 3019.73 - Collection of amounts due.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... charge interest on an overdue debt in accordance with 4 CFR Chapter II, “Federal Claims Collection... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Collection of amounts due. 3019.73 Section 3019.73... Collection of amounts due. (a) Any funds paid to a recipient in excess of the amount to which the...

  13. 34 CFR 80.52 - Collection of amounts due.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... accordance with the Federal Claims Collection Standards (4 CFR Ch. II). The date from which interest is... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Collection of amounts due. 80.52 Section 80.52... Collection of amounts due. (a) Any funds paid to a grantee in excess of the amount to which the grantee...

  14. 15 CFR 2301.6 - Amount of Federal funding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Amount of Federal funding. 2301.6... TELECOMMUNICATIONS FACILITIES PROGRAM Application Requirements § 2301.6 Amount of Federal funding. (a) Planning... telecommunications facility may not exceed seventy-five (75) percent of the amount determined by the Agency to be...

  15. 9 CFR 54.6 - Amount of indemnity payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Amount of indemnity payments. 54.6... Indemnification Program § 54.6 Amount of indemnity payments. (a) Indemnity paid for sheep in accordance with § 54... to 24 months in determining the indemnity amount, but the indemnity shall not exceed the...

  16. 12 CFR 313.128 - Disposition of amounts collected.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Disposition of amounts collected. 313.128... PROCEDURES FOR CORPORATE DEBT COLLECTION Tax Refund Offset § 313.128 Disposition of amounts collected. FMS will transmit amounts collected for past-due, legally enforceable debts, less fees charged under...

  17. 42 CFR 422.382 - Minimum net worth amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Minimum net worth amount. 422.382 Section 422.382... net worth amount. (a) At the time an organization applies to contract with CMS as a PSO under this part, the organization must have a minimum net worth amount, as determined under paragraph (c) of...

  18. Modeling the Effect of Reward Amount on Probability Discounting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myerson, Joel; Green, Leonard; Morris, Joshua

    2011-01-01

    The present study with college students examined the effect of amount on the discounting of probabilistic monetary rewards. A hyperboloid function accurately described the discounting of hypothetical rewards ranging in amount from $20 to $10,000,000. The degree of discounting increased continuously with amount of probabilistic reward. This effect…

  19. 2 CFR 200.332 - Fixed amount subawards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fixed amount subawards. 200.332 Section 200....332 Fixed amount subawards. With prior written approval from the Federal awarding agency, a pass-through entity may provide subawards based on fixed amounts up to the Simplified Acquisition...

  20. 20 CFR 625.6 - Weekly amount; jurisdictions; reductions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... DISASTER UNEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE § 625.6 Weekly amount; jurisdictions; reductions. (a) In all States... worker or unemployed self-employed individual for a week of total unemployment shall be the weekly amount... provisions of the applicable State law for a week of total unemployment. In no event shall such amount be...

  1. 20 CFR 625.6 - Weekly amount; jurisdictions; reductions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... DISASTER UNEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE § 625.6 Weekly amount; jurisdictions; reductions. (a) In all States... worker or unemployed self-employed individual for a week of total unemployment shall be the weekly amount... provisions of the applicable State law for a week of total unemployment. In no event shall such amount be...

  2. 20 CFR 625.6 - Weekly amount; jurisdictions; reductions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... DISASTER UNEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE § 625.6 Weekly amount; jurisdictions; reductions. (a) In all States... worker or unemployed self-employed individual for a week of total unemployment shall be the weekly amount... provisions of the applicable State law for a week of total unemployment. In no event shall such amount be...

  3. 20 CFR 625.6 - Weekly amount; jurisdictions; reductions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DISASTER UNEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE § 625.6 Weekly amount; jurisdictions; reductions. (a) In all States... worker or unemployed self-employed individual for a week of total unemployment shall be the weekly amount... provisions of the applicable State law for a week of total unemployment. In no event shall such amount be...

  4. 20 CFR 625.6 - Weekly amount; jurisdictions; reductions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DISASTER UNEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE § 625.6 Weekly amount; jurisdictions; reductions. (a) In all States... worker or unemployed self-employed individual for a week of total unemployment shall be the weekly amount... provisions of the applicable State law for a week of total unemployment. In no event shall such amount be...

  5. 9 CFR 89.1 - Amount of feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... TWENTY-EIGHT HOUR LAW § 89.1 Amount of feed. (a) Under normal conditions, the amount of feed designated... at the intervals required by the Twenty-Eight Hour Law: Species and quantity of livestock At first... car, the amount of shelled corn 2 indicated): Lots of not more than 18,000 lbs 2 bushels 2...

  6. 9 CFR 89.1 - Amount of feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... TWENTY-EIGHT HOUR LAW § 89.1 Amount of feed. (a) Under normal conditions, the amount of feed designated... at the intervals required by the Twenty-Eight Hour Law: Species and quantity of livestock At first... car, the amount of shelled corn 2 indicated): Lots of not more than 18,000 lbs 2 bushels 2...

  7. 9 CFR 89.1 - Amount of feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... TWENTY-EIGHT HOUR LAW § 89.1 Amount of feed. (a) Under normal conditions, the amount of feed designated... at the intervals required by the Twenty-Eight Hour Law: Species and quantity of livestock At first... car, the amount of shelled corn 2 indicated): Lots of not more than 18,000 lbs 2 bushels 2...

  8. 9 CFR 89.1 - Amount of feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... TWENTY-EIGHT HOUR LAW § 89.1 Amount of feed. (a) Under normal conditions, the amount of feed designated... at the intervals required by the Twenty-Eight Hour Law: Species and quantity of livestock At first... car, the amount of shelled corn 2 indicated): Lots of not more than 18,000 lbs 2 bushels 2...

  9. 9 CFR 89.1 - Amount of feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... TWENTY-EIGHT HOUR LAW § 89.1 Amount of feed. (a) Under normal conditions, the amount of feed designated... at the intervals required by the Twenty-Eight Hour Law: Species and quantity of livestock At first... car, the amount of shelled corn 2 indicated): Lots of not more than 18,000 lbs 2 bushels 2...

  10. 20 CFR 617.14 - Maximum amount of TRA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Maximum amount of TRA. 617.14 Section 617.14... FOR WORKERS UNDER THE TRADE ACT OF 1974 Trade Readjustment Allowances (TRA) § 617.14 Maximum amount of TRA. (a) General rule. Except as provided under paragraph (b) of this section, the maximum amount...

  11. 20 CFR 617.13 - Weekly amounts of TRA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Weekly amounts of TRA. 617.13 Section 617.13... FOR WORKERS UNDER THE TRADE ACT OF 1974 Trade Readjustment Allowances (TRA) § 617.13 Weekly amounts of TRA. (a) Regular allowance. The amount of TRA payable for a week of total unemployment (including...

  12. 20 CFR 617.14 - Maximum amount of TRA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Maximum amount of TRA. 617.14 Section 617.14... FOR WORKERS UNDER THE TRADE ACT OF 1974 Trade Readjustment Allowances (TRA) § 617.14 Maximum amount of TRA. (a) General rule. Except as provided under paragraph (b) of this section, the maximum amount...

  13. 20 CFR 617.13 - Weekly amounts of TRA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Weekly amounts of TRA. 617.13 Section 617.13... FOR WORKERS UNDER THE TRADE ACT OF 1974 Trade Readjustment Allowances (TRA) § 617.13 Weekly amounts of TRA. (a) Regular allowance. The amount of TRA payable for a week of total unemployment (including...

  14. 20 CFR 617.13 - Weekly amounts of TRA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Weekly amounts of TRA. 617.13 Section 617.13... FOR WORKERS UNDER THE TRADE ACT OF 1974 Trade Readjustment Allowances (TRA) § 617.13 Weekly amounts of TRA. (a) Regular allowance. The amount of TRA payable for a week of total unemployment (including...

  15. 20 CFR 617.13 - Weekly amounts of TRA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Weekly amounts of TRA. 617.13 Section 617.13... FOR WORKERS UNDER THE TRADE ACT OF 1974 Trade Readjustment Allowances (TRA) § 617.13 Weekly amounts of TRA. (a) Regular allowance. The amount of TRA payable for a week of total unemployment (including...

  16. 20 CFR 617.13 - Weekly amounts of TRA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Weekly amounts of TRA. 617.13 Section 617.13... FOR WORKERS UNDER THE TRADE ACT OF 1974 Trade Readjustment Allowances (TRA) § 617.13 Weekly amounts of TRA. (a) Regular allowance. The amount of TRA payable for a week of total unemployment (including...

  17. 20 CFR 617.14 - Maximum amount of TRA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Maximum amount of TRA. 617.14 Section 617.14... FOR WORKERS UNDER THE TRADE ACT OF 1974 Trade Readjustment Allowances (TRA) § 617.14 Maximum amount of TRA. (a) General rule. Except as provided under paragraph (b) of this section, the maximum amount...

  18. 20 CFR 617.14 - Maximum amount of TRA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Maximum amount of TRA. 617.14 Section 617.14... FOR WORKERS UNDER THE TRADE ACT OF 1974 Trade Readjustment Allowances (TRA) § 617.14 Maximum amount of TRA. (a) General rule. Except as provided under paragraph (b) of this section, the maximum amount...

  19. 20 CFR 617.14 - Maximum amount of TRA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Maximum amount of TRA. 617.14 Section 617.14... FOR WORKERS UNDER THE TRADE ACT OF 1974 Trade Readjustment Allowances (TRA) § 617.14 Maximum amount of TRA. (a) General rule. Except as provided under paragraph (b) of this section, the maximum amount...

  20. 18 CFR 1312.16 - Civil penalty amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Civil penalty amounts. 1312.16 Section 1312.16 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES: UNIFORM REGULATIONS § 1312.16 Civil penalty amounts. (a) Maximum amount of penalty. (1) Where the person...

  1. 42 CFR 423.886 - Retiree drug subsidy amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Retiree drug subsidy amounts. 423.886 Section 423... (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Payments to Sponsors of Retiree Prescription Drug Plans § 423.886 Retiree drug subsidy amounts. (a) Amount of subsidy payment. (1) For...

  2. 42 CFR 423.886 - Retiree drug subsidy amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Retiree drug subsidy amounts. 423.886 Section 423... (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Payments to Sponsors of Retiree Prescription Drug Plans § 423.886 Retiree drug subsidy amounts. (a) Amount of subsidy payment....

  3. 42 CFR 423.886 - Retiree drug subsidy amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Retiree drug subsidy amounts. 423.886 Section 423... (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Payments to Sponsors of Retiree Prescription Drug Plans § 423.886 Retiree drug subsidy amounts. (a) Amount of subsidy payment. (1) For...

  4. 42 CFR 423.886 - Retiree drug subsidy amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Retiree drug subsidy amounts. 423.886 Section 423... (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Payments to Sponsors of Retiree Prescription Drug Plans § 423.886 Retiree drug subsidy amounts. (a) Amount of subsidy payment....

  5. 42 CFR 423.886 - Retiree drug subsidy amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Retiree drug subsidy amounts. 423.886 Section 423... (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Payments to Sponsors of Retiree Prescription Drug Plans § 423.886 Retiree drug subsidy amounts. (a) Amount of subsidy payment....

  6. 5 CFR 870.702 - Amount of Basic insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES' GROUP LIFE INSURANCE PROGRAM Annuitants and Compensationers § 870.702 Amount of Basic insurance. (a) The amount of Basic insurance an annuitant or compensationer can... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Amount of Basic insurance....

  7. 19 CFR 141.103 - Amount to be deposited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Amount to be deposited. 141.103 Section 141.103... TREASURY (CONTINUED) ENTRY OF MERCHANDISE Deposit of Estimated Duties § 141.103 Amount to be deposited. Estimated duties shall be deposited in an amount to sufficiently cover the prospective duties on each...

  8. 19 CFR 141.103 - Amount to be deposited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Amount to be deposited. 141.103 Section 141.103... TREASURY (CONTINUED) ENTRY OF MERCHANDISE Deposit of Estimated Duties § 141.103 Amount to be deposited. Estimated duties shall be deposited in an amount to sufficiently cover the prospective duties on each...

  9. 19 CFR 141.103 - Amount to be deposited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Amount to be deposited. 141.103 Section 141.103... TREASURY (CONTINUED) ENTRY OF MERCHANDISE Deposit of Estimated Duties § 141.103 Amount to be deposited. Estimated duties shall be deposited in an amount to sufficiently cover the prospective duties on each...

  10. 19 CFR 141.103 - Amount to be deposited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Amount to be deposited. 141.103 Section 141.103... TREASURY (CONTINUED) ENTRY OF MERCHANDISE Deposit of Estimated Duties § 141.103 Amount to be deposited. Estimated duties shall be deposited in an amount to sufficiently cover the prospective duties on each...

  11. 19 CFR 141.103 - Amount to be deposited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Amount to be deposited. 141.103 Section 141.103... TREASURY (CONTINUED) ENTRY OF MERCHANDISE Deposit of Estimated Duties § 141.103 Amount to be deposited. Estimated duties shall be deposited in an amount to sufficiently cover the prospective duties on each...

  12. 24 CFR 761.13 - Amount of funding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Amount of funding. 761.13 Section... PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING PROGRAMS) DRUG ELIMINATION PROGRAMS Grant Funding § 761.13 Amount of funding. (a) PHDEP formula funding—(1) Funding share formula—(i) Per unit amount. Subject to the...

  13. 24 CFR 761.13 - Amount of funding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Amount of funding. 761.13 Section... PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING PROGRAMS) DRUG ELIMINATION PROGRAMS Grant Funding § 761.13 Amount of funding. (a) PHDEP formula funding—(1) Funding share formula—(i) Per unit amount. Subject to the...

  14. 22 CFR 1104.15 - Civil penalty amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Civil penalty amounts. 1104.15 Section 1104.15... SECTION PROTECTION OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESOURCES § 1104.15 Civil penalty amounts. (a) Maximum amount of penalty. (1) Where the person being assessed a civil penalty has not committed any previous violation...

  15. 12 CFR 347.120 - Computation of investment amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Computation of investment amounts. 347.120... GENERAL POLICY INTERNATIONAL BANKING § 347.120 Computation of investment amounts. In computing the amount that may be invested in any foreign organization under §§ 347.117 through 347.119, any investments...

  16. 12 CFR 347.120 - Computation of investment amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Computation of investment amounts. 347.120... GENERAL POLICY INTERNATIONAL BANKING § 347.120 Computation of investment amounts. In computing the amount that may be invested in any foreign organization under §§ 347.117 through 347.119, any investments...

  17. 12 CFR 1806.202 - Estimated award amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Estimated award amounts. 1806.202 Section 1806... BANK ENTERPRISE AWARD PROGRAM Awards § 1806.202 Estimated award amounts. (a) General. An Applicant shall calculate and submit to the Fund an estimated award amount as part of the Bank Enterprise...

  18. 42 CFR 56.106 - Amount of grant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Amount of grant. 56.106 Section 56.106 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR MIGRANT HEALTH SERVICES General Provisions § 56.106 Amount of grant. (a) The amount of any award under this part will...

  19. [Food additives and healthiness].

    PubMed

    Heinonen, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Additives are used for improving food structure or preventing its spoilage, for example. Many substances used as additives are also naturally present in food. The safety of additives is evaluated according to commonly agreed principles. If high concentrations of an additive cause adverse health effects for humans, a limit of acceptable daily intake (ADI) is set for it. An additive is a risk only when ADI is exceeded. The healthiness of food is measured on the basis of nutrient density and scientifically proven effects.

  20. 13 CFR 123.18 - Can I request an increase in the amount of a physical disaster loan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... amount of a physical disaster loan? 123.18 Section 123.18 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION DISASTER LOAN PROGRAM Overview § 123.18 Can I request an increase in the amount of a physical disaster loan? SBA will consider your request for an increase in your loan if you can show that...

  1. 13 CFR 123.18 - Can I request an increase in the amount of a physical disaster loan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Can I request an increase in the amount of a physical disaster loan? 123.18 Section 123.18 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION DISASTER LOAN PROGRAM Overview § 123.18 Can I request an increase in the amount of a...

  2. 13 CFR 123.18 - Can I request an increase in the amount of a physical disaster loan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Can I request an increase in the amount of a physical disaster loan? 123.18 Section 123.18 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION DISASTER LOAN PROGRAM Overview § 123.18 Can I request an increase in the amount of a...

  3. 13 CFR 123.18 - Can I request an increase in the amount of a physical disaster loan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Can I request an increase in the amount of a physical disaster loan? 123.18 Section 123.18 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION DISASTER LOAN PROGRAM Overview § 123.18 Can I request an increase in the amount of a...

  4. 13 CFR 123.18 - Can I request an increase in the amount of a physical disaster loan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Can I request an increase in the amount of a physical disaster loan? 123.18 Section 123.18 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION DISASTER LOAN PROGRAM Overview § 123.18 Can I request an increase in the amount of a...

  5. Effects of Minute Addition of Ni on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Sn-Zn Eutectic Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, P.; Tiwary, C. S.; Chattopadhyay, K.

    2016-10-01

    The current work explores the effects of a small addition of Ni on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Sn-Zn eutectic solder alloy (Sn-14.9 at.%Zn). In two sets of experiments, Ni is either added to the eutectic alloy or Zn in the eutectic alloy is replaced by an increasing amount of Ni. The study indicates that small additions of Ni in eutectic Sn-Zn solder (˜0.017 at.%) refines the eutectic microstructure together with the appearance of the small amount of primary Zn plates. Increasing the Ni content to 0.142 at.% and beyond, then an intermetallic phase ϒ-Ni5Zn21 with dendritic morphology appears in the microstructure along with dendrites of primary Sn. The scale of eutectic microstructure shows a decreasing trend till 0.902 at.%Ni with eutectic spacing of 1.98 ± 0.32 μm for this alloy. Further addition of Ni coarsens the microstructure. The replacement of Zn with Ni in the eutectic composition follows a similar trend with a lesser refinement of the microstructure. In both the scenarios, the addition of a small amount of Ni increases the eutectic temperatures till a critical concentration is reached beyond which one can observe a decrease in the eutectic point. The trend is similar for the solid solubility of Zn in Sn while the trend is opposite for the measured eutectic composition, which decreases at the initial stages of Ni addition. Through a detailed measurement of mechanical properties, the study establishes significant improvement of the strength of Sn-Zn solder with small additions of Ni in the alloy with a maximum hardness of 26 ± 1 HV and 0.2% proof stress of 72 ± 3 MPa at room temperature for the eutectic alloy with 0.902 at.%Ni.

  6. Effects of Minute Addition of Ni on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Sn-Zn Eutectic Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, P.; Tiwary, C. S.; Chattopadhyay, K.

    2016-06-01

    The current work explores the effects of a small addition of Ni on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Sn-Zn eutectic solder alloy (Sn-14.9 at.%Zn). In two sets of experiments, Ni is either added to the eutectic alloy or Zn in the eutectic alloy is replaced by an increasing amount of Ni. The study indicates that small additions of Ni in eutectic Sn-Zn solder (˜0.017 at.%) refines the eutectic microstructure together with the appearance of the small amount of primary Zn plates. Increasing the Ni content to 0.142 at.% and beyond, then an intermetallic phase ϒ-Ni5Zn21 with dendritic morphology appears in the microstructure along with dendrites of primary Sn. The scale of eutectic microstructure shows a decreasing trend till 0.902 at.%Ni with eutectic spacing of 1.98 ± 0.32 μm for this alloy. Further addition of Ni coarsens the microstructure. The replacement of Zn with Ni in the eutectic composition follows a similar trend with a lesser refinement of the microstructure. In both the scenarios, the addition of a small amount of Ni increases the eutectic temperatures till a critical concentration is reached beyond which one can observe a decrease in the eutectic point. The trend is similar for the solid solubility of Zn in Sn while the trend is opposite for the measured eutectic composition, which decreases at the initial stages of Ni addition. Through a detailed measurement of mechanical properties, the study establishes significant improvement of the strength of Sn-Zn solder with small additions of Ni in the alloy with a maximum hardness of 26 ± 1 HV and 0.2% proof stress of 72 ± 3 MPa at room temperature for the eutectic alloy with 0.902 at.%Ni.

  7. Effect of addition of water-soluble chitin on amylose film.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Shiho; Shimahashi, Katsumasa; Takahara, Junichi; Sunako, Michihiro; Takaha, Takeshi; Ogawa, Kozo; Kitamura, Shinichi

    2005-01-01

    Amylose films blended with chitosan, which were free from additives such as acid, salt, and plasticizer, were prepared by casting mixtures of an aqueous solution of an enzymatically synthesized amylose and that of water-soluble chitin (44.1% deacetylated). The presence of a small amount of chitin (less than 10%) increased significantly the permeability of gases (N2, O2, CO2, C2H4) and improved the mechanical parameters of amylose film; particularly, the elastic modulus and elongation of the blend films were larger than those of amylose or chitin films. No antibacterial activity was observed with either amylose or water-soluble chitin films. But amylose films having a small amount of chitin showed strong antibacterial action, suggesting a morphological change in water-soluble chitin on the film surface by blending with amylose molecule. These facts suggested the presence of a molecular complex of amylose and chitosan. PMID:16283751

  8. 77 FR 70738 - Procurement List Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-27

    ... INFORMATION: Additions On 9/28/2012 (77 FR 59596-59597), the Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind... Polo, Small thru XXX-Large NSN: CBFF0002--Shirt, Navy Fire Fighters, Unisex, Short Sleeve Polo, Beyond XXX-Large NSN: CBFF0003--Shirt, Polo, Navy Fire Fighters, Unisex, Long Sleeve, Small thru...

  9. Small Wins.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhatigan, James J.; Schuh, John H.

    2003-01-01

    Examines how it easy for people to overlook small successes when they are overwhelmed by and preoccupied with large projects and goals. Explores the concept of "small wins" in organizational theory, which have the potential to become a prominent part of institutional culture and impact organizational behavior and change. (GCP)

  10. Small Cultures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holliday, Adrian

    1999-01-01

    Presents a notion of small culture as an alternative to what has become the default notion of large culture in applied linguistics, social science, and popular usage. A small-culture view of English-language curriculum settings reveals mismatches between professional-academic and organizational cultures at the mezzo level of the institution. (VWL)

  11. The absence of numbers to express the amount may affect delay discounting with humans.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Huerta, Hugo E; Dos Santos, Cristiano V

    2016-09-01

    Human delay discounting is usually studied with experimental protocols that use symbols to express delay and amount. In order to further understand discounting, we evaluated whether the absence of numbers to represent reward amounts affects discount rate in general, and whether the magnitude effect is generalized to nonsymbolic situations in particular. In Experiment 1, human participants were exposed to a delay-discounting task in which rewards were presented using dots to represent monetary rewards (nonsymbolic); under this condition the magnitude effect did not occur. Nevertheless, the magnitude effect was observed when equivalent reward amounts were presented using numbers (symbolic). Moreover, in estimation tasks, magnitude increments produced underestimation of large amounts. In Experiment 2, participants were exposed only to the nonsymbolic discounting task and were required to estimate reward amounts in each trial. Consistent with Experiment 1, the absence of numbers representing reward amounts produced similar discount rates of small and large rewards. These results suggest that value of nonsymbolic rewards is a nonlinear function of amount and that value attribution depends on perceived difference between the immediate and the delayed nonsymbolic rewards.

  12. Decision-Making, Science and Gasoline Additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weaver, J. W.; Small, M. C.

    2001-12-01

    Methyl-tert butyl ether (MTBE) has been used as a gasoline additive to serve two major purposes. The first use was as an octane-enhancer to replace organic lead, beginning in 1979. The second use, which began about 1992, was as a oxygenated additive to meet requirements of the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990. Generally, the amount of MTBE used for octane enhancement was lower than that required to meet CAAA requirements. An unintended consequence of MTBE use has been widespread groundwater contamination. The decision to use certain amounts of MTBE or other chemcials as gasoline additives is the outcome of economic, regulatory, policy, political, and scientific considerations. Decision makers ask questions such as "How do ground water impacts change with changing MTBE content? How many wells would be impacted? and What are the associated costs?" These are best answered through scientific inquiry, but many different approaches could be developed. Decision criteria include time, money, comprehensiveness, and complexity of the approach. Because results must be communicated to a non-technical audience, there is a trade off between the complexity of the approach and the ability to convince economists, lawyers and policy makers that results make sense. The question on MTBE content posed above was investigated using transport models, a release scenario and gasoline composition. Because of the inability of transport models to predict future concentrations, an approach was chosen to base comparative assessment on a calibrated model. By taking this approach, "generic" modeling with arbitrarily selected parameters was avoided and the validity of the simulation results rests upon relatively small extrapolations from the original calibrated models. A set of simulations was performed that assumed 3% (octane enhancement) and 11% (CAAA) MTBE in gasoline. The results were that ground water concentrations would be reduced in proportion to the reduction of MTBE in the fuel

  13. Modeling the effect of reward amount on probability discounting.

    PubMed

    Myerson, Joel; Green, Leonard; Morris, Joshua

    2011-03-01

    The present study with college students examined the effect of amount on the discounting of probabilistic monetary rewards. A hyperboloid function accurately described the discounting of hypothetical rewards ranging in amount from $20 to $10,000,000. The degree of discounting increased continuously with amount of probabilistic reward. This effect of amount was not due to changes in the rate parameter of the discounting function, but rather was due to increases in the exponent. These results stand in contrast to those observed with the discounting of delayed monetary rewards, in which the degree of discounting decreases with reward amount due to amount-dependent decreases in the rate parameter. Taken together, this pattern of results suggests that delay and probability discounting reflect different underlying mechanisms. That is, the fact that the exponent in the delay discounting function is independent of amount is consistent with a psychophysical scaling interpretation, whereas the finding that the exponent of the probability-discounting function is amount-dependent is inconsistent with such an interpretation. Instead, the present results are consistent with the idea that the probability-discounting function is itself the product of a value function and a weighting function. This idea was first suggested by Kahneman and Tversky (1979), although their prospect theory does not predict amount effects like those observed. The effect of amount on probability discounting was parsimoniously incorporated into our hyperboloid discounting function by assuming that the exponent was proportional to the amount raised to a power. The amount-dependent exponent of the probability-discounting function may be viewed as reflecting the effect of amount on the weighting of the probability with which the reward will be received.

  14. Hurricane Isabel, Amount of Atmospheric Water Vapor Observed By AIRS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1

    These false-color images show the amount of atmospheric water vapor observed by AIRS two weeks prior to the passage of Hurricane Isabel, and then when it was a Category 5 storm. The region shown includes parts of South America and the West Indies. Puerto Rico is the large island below the upper left corner.

    Total water vapor represents the depth of a layer if all the water vapor in the atmosphere were to condense and fall to the surface. The color bar on the right sides of the plots give the thickness of this layer in millimeters (mm). The first image, from August 28, shows typical tropical water vapor amounts over the ocean: between roughly 25 and 50 mm, or 1 to 2 inches. The highest values of roughly 80 mm, seen as a red blob over South America, corresponds to intense thunderstorms. Thunderstorms pull in water vapor from surrounding regions and concentrate it, with much of it then falling as rain.

    Figure 1 shows total water during the passage of Hurricane Isabel on September 13. The storm is apparent: the ring of moderate values surrounding a very strong maximum of 100 mm. Total water of more than 80 mm is unusual, and these values correspond to the intense thunderstorms contained within Isabel. The thunderstorms--and the large values of total water--are fed by evaporation from the ocean in the hurricane's high winds. The water vapor near the center of the storm does not remain there long, since hurricane rain rates as high 50 mm (2 inches) per hour imply rapid cycling of the water we observe. Away from the storm the amount of total water vapor is rather low, associated with fair weather where air that ascended near the storm's eye returns to earth, having dropped its moisture as rain. Also seen in the second images are two small regions of about 70 mm of total water over south America. These are yet more thunderstorms, though likely much more benign than those in Isabel.

    The

  15. Sample amount alternatives for data adjustment in comparative cyanobacterial metabolomics.

    PubMed

    Huege, Jan; Krall, Leonard; Steinhauser, Marie-Caroline; Giavalisco, Patrick; Rippka, Rosmarie; Tandeau de Marsac, Nicole; Steinhauser, Dirk

    2011-04-01

    Here we describe an integrative protocol for metabolite extraction and the measurement of three cellular constituents, chlorophyll a, total protein, and glycogen from the same small volume of cyanobacterial cultures that can be used as alternative sample amount parameters for data adjustment in comparative metabolome studies. We conducted recovery experiments to assess the robustness and reproducibility of the measurements obtained for the cellular constituents. Also, we have chosen three profile-intrinsic parameters derived from gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) data in order to test their utility for spectral data adjustment. To demonstrate the relevance of these six parameters, we analyzed three cyanobacteria with greatly different morphologies, comprising a unicellular, a filamentous, and a filamentous biofilm-forming strain. Comparative analysis of GC/MS data from cultures grown under standardized conditions indicated that adjustment of the corresponding metabolite profiles by any of the measured cellular constituents or chosen intrinsic parameters led to similar results with respect to sample cohesion and strain separation. Twenty-one metabolites significantly enriched for the carbohydrate and amine superclasses are mainly responsible for strain separation, with a majority of the remaining metabolites contributing to sample group cohesion. Therefore, we conclude that any of the parameters tested in this study can be used for spectral data adjustment of cyanobacterial strains grown under controlled conditions. However, their use for the differentiation between different stresses or physiological states within a strain remains to be shown. Interestingly, both the adjustment approaches and statistical tests applied effected the detection of metabolic differences and their patterns among the analyzed strains.

  16. RAMSEYS DRAFT WILDERNESS STUDY AREA AND ADDITION, VIRGINIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lesure, Frank G.; Mory, Peter C.

    1984-01-01

    Mineral-resource surveys of the Ramseys Draft Wilderness Study Area and adjoining roadless area addition in George Washington National Forest in the western valley and ridge province, Augusta and Highland Counties, Virginia, were done. The surveys outlined three small areas containing anomalous amounts of copper, lead, and zinc related to stratabound red-bed copper mineralization, but these occurrences are not large and are not considered as having mineral-resource potential. The area contains abundant sandstone suitable for construction materials and shale suitable for making brick, tile, and other low-grade ceramic products, but these commodities occur in abundance outside the wilderness study area. Structural conditions are probably favorable for the accumulation of natural gas, but exploratory drilling has not been done sufficiently near the area to evaluate the gas potential.

  17. BIG FROG WILDERNESS STUDY AREA AND ADDITIONS, TENNESSEE AND GEORGIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slack, John F.; Gazdik, Gertrude C.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral-resource survey was made of the Big Frog Wilderness Study Area and additions, Tennessee-Georgia. Geochemical sampling found traces of gold, zinc, copper, and arsenic in rocks, stream sediments, and panned concentrates, but not in sufficient quantities to indicate the presence of deposits of these metals. The results of the survey indicate that there is little promise for the occurrence of metallic mineral deposits within the study area. The only apparent resources are nonmetallic commodities including rock suitable for construction materials, and small amounts of sand and gravel; however, these commodities are found in abundance outside the study area. A potential may exist for oil and natural gas at great depths, but this cannot be evaluated by the present study.

  18. 26 CFR 1.666(a)-1A - Amount allocated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Amount allocated. 1.666(a)-1A Section 1.666(a... Beginning Before January 1, 1969 § 1.666(a)-1A Amount allocated. (a) In general. In the case of a trust that....665(e)-1A(a)(1)(ii) as those beginning after December 31, 1968) according to the amount...

  19. 29 CFR 95.73 - Collection of amounts due.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... law, DOL shall charge interest on an overdue debt in accordance with 4 CFR Chapter II, “Federal Claims... 29 Labor 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Collection of amounts due. 95.73 Section 95.73 Labor Office... Requirements § 95.73 Collection of amounts due. (a) Any funds paid to a recipient in excess of the amount...

  20. 75 FR 52724 - Procurement List Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-27

    ... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Additions On 10/23/2009 (74 FR 54783-54784); 6/18/2010 (75 FR 34701-34702); 6/25/2010 (75 FR 36363-36371); and 7/9/2010 (75 FR 39497-39499), the Committee for Purchase From People Who Are... additional reporting, recordkeeping or other compliance requirements for small entities other than the...

  1. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fletcher, James C. (Inventor); Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor); Burks, Harold D. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

  2. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor); Burks, Harold D. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of the additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

  3. The determination of nanogram amounts of Chromium in urine by x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beyermann, K.; Rose, H.J.; Christian, R.P.

    1969-01-01

    Nanogram amounts of chromium can be extracted as oxinate into chloform. By treatment of the chloroform layer 3 M hydrochloric acid, oxinates of other elements and excess of reagent are removed, leaving a chloroform solution of the chromium chelate only. This solution is concentrated and transferred to the top of a small brass rod acting as sample holder. The intensity of the X-ray fluorescence of the Cr K?? line is measured with curved crystal optics. Chromium amounts greater than 5 ng can be detected. The application of the procedure to the analysis of the chromium content of urine is demonstrated. ?? 1969.

  4. Additional Types of Neuropathy

    MedlinePlus

    ... A A Listen En Español Additional Types of Neuropathy Charcot's Joint Charcot's Joint, also called neuropathic arthropathy, ... can stop bone destruction and aid healing. Cranial Neuropathy Cranial neuropathy affects the 12 pairs of nerves ...

  5. Food Additives and Hyperkinesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wender, Ester H.

    1977-01-01

    The hypothesis that food additives are causally associated with hyperkinesis and learning disabilities in children is reviewed, and available data are summarized. Available from: American Medical Association 535 North Dearborn Street Chicago, Illinois 60610. (JG)

  6. 14 CFR 1274.917 - Additional funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Pursuant to this Agreement, NASA is providing a fixed amount of funding for activities to be undertaken under the terms of this cooperative agreement. NASA is under no obligation to provide additional funds... increased commitment on the part of NASA under this cooperative agreement....

  7. 14 CFR 1274.917 - Additional funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Pursuant to this Agreement, NASA is providing a fixed amount of funding for activities to be undertaken under the terms of this cooperative agreement. NASA is under no obligation to provide additional funds... increased commitment on the part of NASA under this cooperative agreement....

  8. 14 CFR 1274.917 - Additional funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Pursuant to this Agreement, NASA is providing a fixed amount of funding for activities to be undertaken under the terms of this cooperative agreement. NASA is under no obligation to provide additional funds... increased commitment on the part of NASA under this cooperative agreement....

  9. 14 CFR 1274.917 - Additional funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Pursuant to this Agreement, NASA is providing a fixed amount of funding for activities to be undertaken under the terms of this cooperative agreement. NASA is under no obligation to provide additional funds... increased commitment on the part of NASA under this cooperative agreement....

  10. 24 CFR 92.218 - Amount of matching contribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Amount of matching contribution. 92... Urban Development HOME INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAM Program Requirements Matching Contribution Requirement § 92.218 Amount of matching contribution. (a) General. Each participating jurisdiction must...

  11. 42 CFR 130.3 - Amount of payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Amount of payments. 130.3 Section 130.3 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES COMPASSIONATE PAYMENTS RICKY RAY HEMOPHILIA RELIEF FUND PROGRAM General Provisions § 130.3 Amount of payments. If there are sufficient...

  12. 26 CFR 1.51-1 - Amount of credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) General rule. Except as provided in paragraph (a)(2) of this section, the amount of the targeted jobs... beginning work for the employer after such date, the amount of the targeted jobs credit for the taxable year... the employer receives federally funded payments for on-the-job training for such individual for...

  13. 14 CFR 198.7 - Amount of insurance coverage available.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Amount of insurance coverage available. 198.7 Section 198.7 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) WAR RISK INSURANCE AVIATION INSURANCE § 198.7 Amount of insurance coverage available. (a)...

  14. 28 CFR 94.23 - Amount of reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Amount of reimbursement. 94.23 Section 94.23 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CRIME VICTIM SERVICES International Terrorism Victim Expense Reimbursement Program Coverage § 94.23 Amount of reimbursement....

  15. 26 CFR 1.1441-2 - Amounts subject to withholding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., the tax due on the amount of original issue discount may not exceed the amount of the payment reduced... TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Withholding of Tax on Nonresident Aliens and Foreign Corporations and Tax... the regulations under chapter 3 of the Internal Revenue Code (such as corporate distributions...

  16. 42 CFR 51c.106 - Amount of grant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS GRANTS FOR COMMUNITY HEALTH SERVICES General Provisions § 51c.106 Amount of grant. (a) The amount of any award under this part will be... the grantee to finance its share of project costs from non-Federal sources; (B) The need in the...

  17. 40 CFR 47.115 - Award amount and matching requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Award amount and matching requirements. 47.115 Section 47.115 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION ACT GRANTS § 47.115 Award amount and matching requirements. (a) Individual awards shall not...

  18. 24 CFR 235.204 - Amount of annual MIP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Amount of annual MIP. 235.204... and Obligations-Homes for Lower Income Families § 235.204 Amount of annual MIP. (a) With respect to mortgages approved for insurance under this part prior to January 5, 1976, after payment of the initial...

  19. 24 CFR 235.202 - Amount of initial MIP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Amount of initial MIP. 235.202... and Obligations-Homes for Lower Income Families § 235.202 Amount of initial MIP. (a) With respect to mortgages approved for insurance under this part prior to January 5, 1976, the initial MIP shall be in...

  20. 24 CFR 235.204 - Amount of annual MIP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Amount of annual MIP. 235.204... and Obligations-Homes for Lower Income Families § 235.204 Amount of annual MIP. (a) With respect to mortgages approved for insurance under this part prior to January 5, 1976, after payment of the initial...