Science.gov

Sample records for addition smaller quantities

  1. Effects of Nitrogen Addition on Litter Decomposition and CO2 Release: Considering Changes in Litter Quantity

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hui-Chao; Hu, Ya-Lin; Mao, Rong; Zhao, Qiong; Zeng, De-Hui

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the impacts of changes in litter quantity under simulated N deposition on litter decomposition, CO2 release, and soil C loss potential in a larch plantation in Northeast China. We conducted a laboratory incubation experiment using soil and litter collected from control and N addition (100 kg ha−1 year−1 for 10 years) plots. Different quantities of litter (0, 1, 2 and 4 g) were placed on 150 g soils collected from the same plots and incubated in microcosms for 270 days. We found that increased litter input strongly stimulated litter decomposition rate and CO2 release in both control and N fertilization microcosms, though reduced soil microbial biomass C (MBC) and dissolved inorganic N (DIN) concentration. Carbon input (C loss from litter decomposition) and carbon output (the cumulative C loss due to respiration) elevated with increasing litter input in both control and N fertilization microcosms. However, soil C loss potentials (C output–C input) reduced by 62% in control microcosms and 111% in N fertilization microcosms when litter addition increased from 1 g to 4 g, respectively. Our results indicated that increased litter input had a potential to suppress soil organic C loss especially for N addition plots. PMID:26657180

  2. ENHANCED FORMATION OF DIOXINS AND FURANS FROM COMBUSTION DEVICES BY ADDITION OF TRACE QUANTITIES OF BROMINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Past pilot-scale experimental studies have shown a dramatic increase in the formation of certain chlorinated products of incomplete combustion (PICs) caused by the addition of trace amounts of bromine (Br). Emissions of trichloroethylene and tetrachloorethylene, generated as PICs...

  3. 10 CFR 37.71 - Additional requirements for transfer of category 1 and category 2 quantities of radioactive...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... category 2 quantities of radioactive material. 37.71 Section 37.71 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF CATEGORY 1 AND CATEGORY 2 QUANTITIES OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL Physical Protection in... radioactive material. A licensee transferring a category 1 or category 2 quantity of radioactive material to...

  4. Determination of the Composition and Quantity of Phthalate Ester Additives in PVC Children's Toys. Greenpeace Research Laboratories Technical Note 06/97.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stringer, Ruth; Labounskaia, Irina; Santillo, David; Johnston, Paul; Siddorn, John; Stephenson, Angela

    Polyvinyl chloride (vinyl or PVC) is widely used in toys and other children's products. This study, conducted by Greenpeace, examined the composition and quantity of phthalate ester additives in children's PVC toys, used to give the toys added flexibility. Drawn from 17 countries, a total of 71 toys designed to be chewed by babies and young…

  5. Economic characteristics of a smaller, simpler reactor

    SciTech Connect

    LaBar, M.; Bowers, H.

    1988-01-01

    Reduced load growth and heightened concern with economic risk has led to an expressed utility preference for smaller capacity additions. The Modular High Temperature Reactor (MHTGR) plant has been developed as a small, simple plant that has limited financial risk and is economically competitive with comparatively sized coal plants. Competitive economics is achieved by the simplifications made possible in a small MHTGR, reduction in the quantity of nuclear grade construction and design standardization and certification. Assessments show the MHTGR plant to have an economic advantage over coal plants for plant sizes from 270 MWe to 1080 MWe. Financial risk is limited by small unit sizes and short lead times that allow incremental deployment. Evaluations show the MHTGR incremental deployment capability to reduce negative cash flows by almost a factor of 2 relative to that required by a single large nuclear plant.

  6. Worlds Smaller than Saturn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Computerized animations show the following: (1) an artist's conception of a Saturn-like extrasolar planet; (2) star and planet motion; and (3) young stellar disk and planet formation. Footage shows the outside of the Mauna Kea Observatories in Hawaii and Geoff Marcy and Paul Butler inside while they are processing information. Then a press conference,'Worlds Smaller than Saturn', is seen. Anne Kinney, Origins Science Director, NASA Headquarters, introduces Geoff Marcy, Paul Butler, Alan Boss, and Heidi Hammel. They discuss the discovery of the two new Saturn-sized extrasolar planets that are orbiting the stars HD46375 and 79 Seti, giving details on the search technique and size distribution. They then answer questions from the press.

  7. Worlds Smaller than Saturn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-03-01

    Computerized animations show the following: (1) an artist's conception of a Saturn-like extrasolar planet; (2) star and planet motion; and (3) young stellar disk and planet formation. Footage shows the outside of the Mauna Kea Observatories in Hawaii and Geoff Marcy and Paul Butler inside while they are processing information. Then a press conference,'Worlds Smaller than Saturn', is seen. Anne Kinney, Origins Science Director, NASA Headquarters, introduces Geoff Marcy, Paul Butler, Alan Boss, and Heidi Hammel. They discuss the discovery of the two new Saturn-sized extrasolar planets that are orbiting the stars HD46375 and 79 Seti, giving details on the search technique and size distribution. They then answer questions from the press.

  8. Extensive quantities in thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mannaerts, Sebastiaan H.

    2014-05-01

    A literature survey shows little consistency in the definitions of the term ‘extensive quantity’ (a.k.a. extensive property) as used in thermodynamics. A majority assumes that extensive quantities are those that are proportional to mass. Taking the mathematical meaning of proportional and taking the ‘mass’ to be that of the system or subsystem, it is shown that the proportionality assumption is only correct for a few extensive quantities under condition of constant composition. A large subset of extensive quantities are completely independent of mass; for most systems extensive quantities are not proportional to mass, but mass is the (extensive) constant of proportionality. The definition by IUPAC, based on the additivity of extensive quantities, is the preferred baseline for discussing this subject. It is noted however, that two types of additivity need to be distinguished and that a few intensive quantities are also additive. This paper leaves several interesting questions open to further scrutiny.

  9. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  10. Chernobyl Birds Have Smaller Brains

    PubMed Central

    Møller, Anders Pape; Bonisoli-Alquati, Andea; Rudolfsen, Geir; Mousseau, Timothy A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Animals living in areas contaminated by radioactive material from Chernobyl suffer from increased oxidative stress and low levels of antioxidants. Therefore, normal development of the nervous system is jeopardized as reflected by high frequencies of developmental errors, reduced brain size and impaired cognitive abilities in humans. Alternatively, associations between psychological effects and radiation have been attributed to post-traumatic stress in humans. Methodology/Principal Finding Here we used an extensive sample of 550 birds belonging to 48 species to test the prediction that even in the absence of post-traumatic stress, there is a negative association between relative brain size and level of background radiation. We found a negative association between brain size as reflected by external head volume and level of background radiation, independent of structural body size and body mass. The observed reduction in brain size in relation to background radiation amounted to 5% across the range of almost a factor 5,000 in radiation level. Species differed significantly in reduction in brain size with increasing background radiation, and brain size was the only morphological character that showed a negative relationship with radiation. Brain size was significantly smaller in yearlings than in older individuals. Conclusions/Significance Low dose radiation can have significant effects on normal brain development as reflected by brain size and therefore potentially cognitive ability. The fact that brain size was smaller in yearlings than in older individuals implies that there was significant directional selection on brain size with individuals with larger brains experiencing a viability advantage. PMID:21390202

  11. Enhancing the quantity and quality of short-chain fatty acids production from waste activated sludge using CaO2 as an additive.

    PubMed

    Li, Yongmei; Wang, Jie; Zhang, Ai; Wang, Lin

    2015-10-15

    The effect of calcium peroxide (CaO2) addition on anaerobic fermentation of waste activated sludge (WAS) was investigated. The lab-scale experiments were conducted at 35 °C with CaO2 doses ranging from 0.05 to 0.3 g/g VSS. The performances of hydrolysis and acidification of WAS were significantly enhanced by CaO2 addition, whereas the production of methane was inhibited. Maximum total short-chain fatty acids (TSCFA) production (284 mg COD/g VSS) occurred at a CaO2 dose of 0.2 g/g VSS and fermentation time of 7 d, which was 3.9 times higher than the control tests. Further, CaO2 addition led to the conversion of other SCFAs to acetic acid. Acetic acid comprised 60.2% of TSCFA with the addition of 0.2 g CaO2/g VSS compared with 45.1% in the control tests. The mechanism of improved SCFAs generation was analyzed from the view of both chemical and biological effects. Chemical effect facilitated the disintegration of WAS, and improved the activities of both hydrolytic enzymes and acid-forming enzymes. Illumina MiSeq sequencing analysis revealed that bacteria within phylum Firmicutes increased significantly due to CaO2 addition, which played an important role in the hydrolysis and acidification of WAS. In addition, CaO2 oxidized most refractory organic contaminants, which were difficult to biodegrade under the ordinary anaerobic condition. Hydroxyl radicals were the most abundant reactive oxygen species released by CaO2, which played a key role in the removal of refractory organic compounds. We developed a promising technology to produce a valuable carbon source from WAS. PMID:26141424

  12. Quantity Discrimination in Domestic Rats, Rattus norvegicus

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Laura; Montrose, V. Tamara

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary Quantity discrimination involves distinguishing which of two quantities is greater. This discrimination between larger and smaller quantities has only been demonstrated in rats post extensive training. We tested whether domestic rats could perform quantity discrimination without explicit training. We found that rats could distinguish the greater amount in comparisons of 1 vs. 2, 2 vs. 3, 3 vs. 5, 3 vs. 8, 4 vs. 6, and 4 vs. 8. Rats could not distinguish between 3 vs. 4, 4 vs. 5 and 5 vs. 6. We also found that as the ratio between quantities became finer the choice of the larger quantity decreased. We conclude that rats can perform quantity discrimination without extensive training and that their quantity discrimination ability is influenced by the ratio between quantities. Abstract Quantity discrimination is a basic form of numerical competence where an animal distinguishes which of two amounts is greater in size. Whilst quantity discrimination in rats has been investigated via training paradigms, rats’ natural quantity discrimination abilities without explicit training for a desired response have not been explored. This study investigated domestic rats’ ability to perform quantity discrimination. Domestic rats (n = 12) were examined for their ability to distinguish the larger amount under nine quantity comparisons. One-sample t-tests identified a significant preference for the larger quantity in comparisons of 1 vs. 2, 2 vs. 3, 3 vs. 5, 3 vs. 8, 4 vs. 6, and 4 vs. 8. No preference between quantities was found for comparisons of 3 vs. 4, 4 vs. 5 and 5 vs. 6. Overall, this study drew two key conclusions. Firstly, that domestic rats are capable of performing quantity discrimination without extensive training. Secondly, as subjects adhered to Weber’s law, it was concluded that the approximate number system underpins domestic rats’ ability to perform spontaneous quantity discrimination. PMID:27527223

  13. Name Those Quantities

    SciTech Connect

    Strom, Daniel J.

    2004-03-22

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has created a number of radiation protection quantities since its Publication 26 appeared in 1977. The ensuing years have brought chaos in the form of multiple definitions and symbols for the same and similar quantities, conflicting definitions, mathematical absurdities, and a proliferation of terms. Despite this, the most commonly used radiation protection quantities in the USA and in the International Atomic Energy Agency's Basic Safety Standards have not been named or clearly defined by the ICRP. This paper proposes the names "total effective dose" for the prospective quantity, and "total personal effective dose" for the quantity pertaining to an exposed individual.

  14. Learning in Smaller Companies. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seagraves, Liz; Osborne, Mike; Neal, Peter; Dockrell, Richard; Hartshorn, Christina; Boyd, Alison

    The Learning in Smaller Companies (LISC) project was undertaken to develop links between academic institutions and work-based learning in Scotland. The University of Stirling worked with Falkirk College and Clackmannan College to create a number of work-based learning schemes for employers in small and medium-sized enterprises. The programs were…

  15. We Underdialyze Women and Smaller Patients.

    PubMed

    Daugirdas, John T

    2016-07-01

    In women, children, and smaller adults, dialysis adequacy targets based solely on Kt/V might result not only in shorter treatments with inadequate fluid removal and undesirably rapid ultrafiltration rates, but also in less than optimal removal of small and middle molecular weight solutes if fractional removal is considered in relation to body surface area. The outcomes evidence for this is not definitive, but is suggested by a prespecified secondary analysis of the randomized HEMO trial results, and is supported by observational data. Also, there is evidence from normal renal physiology that in healthy humans of different body size, glomerular filtration rate (GFR) scales more closely to body surface area than to total body water. With these factors in mind, time on HD may need to be greater than that predicted by standard KT/V measurements to maximize survival in women and in smaller patients. PMID:27153931

  16. Improving the efficiency of smaller transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R. T.

    1984-01-01

    Considered apart from its propulsive system the high altitude airplane itself adapted to higher flight altitudes than those in current use. Scaling on the assumption of constant aircraft density indicates that this conclusion applies most importantly to smaller transport aircraft. Climb to 60,000 ft could save time and energy for trips as short as 500 miles. A discussion of the effect of winglets on aircraft efficiency is presented. A 10% reduction of induced drag below that of a comparable elliptic wing can be achieved either by horizontal or vertical wing tip extensions.

  17. 401. Westinghouse plans a smaller 501

    SciTech Connect

    Barker, T.

    1996-11-01

    In concept, the recently announced 84-MW Westinghouse 401 is a smaller-scale 501G heavy-frame gas turbine. (The scaling factor is 0.64:1.) It will share design features with the larger 501F and G, including a two-bearing rotor, horizontally-split casing, cold-end drive, and axial exhaust, but there will be no common components apart from some nuts and bolts. From a marketing standpoint, the new 84-MW engine is intended to occupy the market niche between the 110-MW 501 D, and the 49-MW 251B11/12. The engineers` design goals, as always, were high combined cycle efficiency, low life cycle cost and low cost of electricity, all good reasons for working from the proven and successful 501s. The first 401 is scheduled to be shipped from Westinghouse`s Hamilton, Ontario, Canada plant in March 1998. 2 figs.

  18. Partitioning a Gridded Rectangle into Smaller Rectangles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klimesh, Matthew; Kiely, Aaron

    2004-01-01

    A relatively simple algorithm, devised for use in an image-data-compression application, partitions a rectangular pixelated image (or any other rectangle on which a regular rectangular grid has already been superimposed) into a specified number of smaller rectangles, hereafter denoted segments. The algorithm has the following properties: No floating-point operations are needed. The segments tend to be nearly square (in the sense that their widths and heights in pixel units tend to be nearly equal). The segments tend to have nearly equal areas. The algorithm yields valid results (no zero-width or zero-height segments) as long as the specified number of segments, s, does not exceed the number of pixels (equivalently, the number of grid cells). The inputs to the algorithm are the positive integer s plus the positive integers h and w, denoting the height and width, respectively, of the rectangle in pixel units. The limit on s for a valid result is given by s less than or equal to wh.

  19. Quantities, Units, and Symbols.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Royal Society, London (England).

    This booklet provides a reference to the quantities, units, and their symbols which are used in physical science. It is a revision of a 1969 report and takes account of the progress which has been made in obtaining international agreement on the definitions, names, and symbols for units and on the rules for the expression of relations involving…

  20. Smaller Cigarette Pack as a Commitment to Smoke Less? Insights from Behavioral Economics

    PubMed Central

    Marti, Joachim; Sindelar, Jody

    2015-01-01

    Cigarettes are commonly sold in packs of 20 units and therefore little is known about the potential impact of pack size on consumption. Using insights from behavioral economics, we suggest that cigarette packs smaller than the standard size may help some smokers cut back and/or quit, consistent with their long-term goals. Results from an online hypothetical purchase experiment conducted in a sample of US smokers reveal that over a third of smokers are willing to pay a price premium to purchase in smaller quantities. Further, a desire to quit smoking and high self-control is associated with preference for a smaller pack. While we provide some preliminary evidence that smaller packs may be beneficial to certain types of smokers, further research should be conducted to assess whether the smaller pack size should be considered in the arsenal of tobacco control policies to help current smokers quit (JEL: I18; I12; D12) PMID:26356844

  1. Smaller Cigarette Pack as a Commitment to Smoke Less? Insights from Behavioral Economics.

    PubMed

    Marti, Joachim; Sindelar, Jody

    2015-01-01

    Cigarettes are commonly sold in packs of 20 units and therefore little is known about the potential impact of pack size on consumption. Using insights from behavioral economics, we suggest that cigarette packs smaller than the standard size may help some smokers cut back and/or quit, consistent with their long-term goals. Results from an online hypothetical purchase experiment conducted in a sample of US smokers reveal that over a third of smokers are willing to pay a price premium to purchase in smaller quantities. Further, a desire to quit smoking and high self-control is associated with preference for a smaller pack. While we provide some preliminary evidence that smaller packs may be beneficial to certain types of smokers, further research should be conducted to assess whether the smaller pack size should be considered in the arsenal of tobacco control policies to help current smokers quit (JEL: I18; I12; D12). PMID:26356844

  2. Supermassive Black Hole Mimics Smaller Cousins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-06-01

    Scientists have caught a supermassive black hole in a distant galaxy in the act of spurting energy into a jet of electrons and magnetic fields four distinct times in the past three years, a celestial take on a Yellowstone geyser. This quasar-like "active" galaxy is essentially a scaled-up model of the so-called microquasars within our Milky Way Galaxy, which are smaller black holes with as much as ten times the mass of the sun. This means that scientists can now use their close-up view of microquasars to develop working models of the most massive and powerful black holes in the universe. Artist's Conception of 3C 120. Scene from an animation of 3C 120. CREDIT: Cosmovision These results -- published in the June 6 issue of Nature -- are the fruit of a three-year monitoring campaign with the National Science Foundation's Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA), a continent-wide radio-telescope system, and NASA's Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer. "This is the first direct, observational evidence of what we had suspected: The jets in active galaxies are powered by disks of hot gas orbiting around supermassive black holes," said Alan Marscher of the Institute for Astrophysical Research at Boston University, who led this international team of astronomers. Active galaxies are distant celestial objects with exceedingly bright cores, often radiating with the brilliance of thousands of ordinary galaxies, fueled by the gravity of a central million- to billion-solar-mass black hole pulling in copious amounts of interstellar gas. Marscher and his colleagues have established the first direct observational link between a supermassive black hole and its jet. The source is an active galaxy named 3C120 about 450 million light-years from Earth. This link has been observed in microquasars, several of which are scattered across the Milky Way Galaxy, but never before in active galaxies, because the scale (distance and time) is so much greater. The jets in galaxy 3C120 are streams of particles

  3. RF modal quantity gaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanleuven, K.

    1989-05-01

    The primary objective is to provide a concept of a radio frequency (RF) modal resonance technique which is being investigated as a method for gaging the quantities of subcritical cryogenic propellants in metallic tanks. Of special interest are the potential applications of the technique to microgravity propellant gaging situations. The results of concept testing using cryogenic oxygen, hydrogen, and nitrogen, as well as paraffin simulations of microgravity fluid orientations, are reported. These test results were positive and showed that the gaging concept was viable.

  4. Smaller Absolute Quantities but Greater Relative Densities of Microvessels Are Associated with Cerebellar Degeneration in Lurcher Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kolinko, Yaroslav; Cendelin, Jan; Kralickova, Milena; Tonar, Zbynek

    2016-01-01

    Degenerative affections of nerve tissues are often accompanied by changes of vascularization. In this regard, not much is known about hereditary cerebellar degeneration. In this study, we compared the vascularity of the individual cerebellar components and the mesencephalon of 3-month-old wild type mice (n = 5) and Lurcher mutant mice, which represent a model of hereditary olivocerebellar degeneration (n = 5). Paraformaldehyde-fixed brains were processed into 18-μm thick serial sections with random orientation. Microvessels were visualized using polyclonal rabbit anti-laminin antibodies. Then, the stacks comprised of three 5-μm thick optical sections were recorded using systematic uniform random sampling. Stereological assessment was conducted based on photo-documentation. We found that each of the cerebellar components has its own features of vascularity. The greatest number and length of vessels were found in the granular layer; the number of vessels was lower in the molecular layer, and the lowest number of vessels was observed in the cerebellar nuclei corresponding with their low volume. Nevertheless, the nuclei had the greatest density of blood vessels. The reduction of cerebellum volume in the Lurcher mice was accompanied by a reduction in vascularization in the individual cerebellar components, mainly in the cortex. Moreover, despite the lower density of microvessels in the Lurcher mice compared with the wild type mice, the relative density of microvessels in the cerebellar cortex and nuclei was greater in Lurcher mice. The complete primary morphometric data, in the form of continuous variables, is included as a supplement. Mapping of the cerebellar and midbrain microvessels has explanatory potential for studies using mouse models of neurodegeneration. PMID:27147979

  5. More or less: spontaneous quantity discrimination in the domestic cat.

    PubMed

    Bánszegi, Oxána; Urrutia, Andrea; Szenczi, Péter; Hudson, Robyn

    2016-09-01

    We examined spontaneous quantity discrimination in untrained domestic cats in three food choice experiments. In Experiment 1, we presented the cats with two different quantities of food in eight numerical combinations. Overall, the subjects chose the larger quantity more often than the smaller one, and significantly so when the ratio between the quantities was less than 0.5. In Experiment 2, we presented the cats with two pieces of food in four different size combinations. Again, subjects chose the larger piece above chance, although not in the combination where the largest item was presented. In Experiment 3, a subset of the cats was presented multiple times with two different quantities of food, which were hidden from view. In this case, the cats did not choose the larger quantity more often than the smaller one, suggesting that in the present experiments they mainly used visual cues when comparing quantities. We conclude that domestic cats are capable of spontaneously discriminating quantities when faced with different numbers or sizes of food items, and we suggest why they may not always be motivated to choose the larger quantity. In doing so, we highlight the advantages of testing spontaneous choice behavior, which is more likely to reflect animals' everyday manner of responding than is the case when training them in order to test their absolute limits of performance which may not always coincide with their daily needs. PMID:27106666

  6. Measurements, Physical Quantities, and Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Laurence E.

    1988-01-01

    Explains the significance of the mole as a unit of measure by showing the relationship between physical quantities and their mathematical representations. Offers a summary of the principles of metrology that make creation of physical quantities and units seem reasonable. A table of base physical quantities and units is included. (RT)

  7. 13 CFR 107.710 - Requirement to finance smaller enterprises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... enterprises. 107.710 Section 107.710 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL... Small Business for Sbic Financing § 107.710 Requirement to finance smaller enterprises. Your Portfolio must include Financings to Smaller Enterprises. (a) Definition of Smaller Enterprise. A...

  8. 13 CFR 107.710 - Requirement to finance smaller enterprises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... enterprises. 107.710 Section 107.710 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL... Small Business for Sbic Financing § 107.710 Requirement to finance smaller enterprises. Your Portfolio must include Financings to Smaller Enterprises. (a) Definition of Smaller Enterprise. A...

  9. 13 CFR 107.710 - Requirement to finance smaller enterprises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... enterprises. 107.710 Section 107.710 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL... Small Business for Sbic Financing § 107.710 Requirement to finance smaller enterprises. Your Portfolio must include Financings to Smaller Enterprises. (a) Definition of Smaller Enterprise. A...

  10. The influence of spin on thermodynamical quantities

    SciTech Connect

    Li, G.-Q.

    2007-03-15

    We use the brick-wall method to investigate thermodynamical quantities around a static Gibbons-Maeda dilaton black hole and show that each of these quantities contains an additional spin-dependent term and that the usual result that the entropy density, energy density, and pressure take the same forms as in flat spacetime holds only for the leading term. Our results are compatible with the early conclusions that the black hole entropy is not exactly proportional to the horizon area and that Hawking radiation is not purely thermal.

  11. 13 CFR 107.710 - Requirement to finance smaller enterprises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Requirement to finance smaller enterprises. 107.710 Section 107.710 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL... Small Business for Sbic Financing § 107.710 Requirement to finance smaller enterprises. Your...

  12. 13 CFR 107.710 - Requirement to finance smaller enterprises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requirement to finance smaller enterprises. 107.710 Section 107.710 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL... Small Business for Sbic Financing § 107.710 Requirement to finance smaller enterprises. Your...

  13. Strategies for Estimating Discrete Quantities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crites, Terry W.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the benchmark and decomposition-recomposition estimation strategies and presents five techniques to develop students' estimation ability. Suggests situations involving quantities of candy and popcorn in which the teacher can model those strategies for the students. (MDH)

  14. Defining Space Mission Architects for the Smaller Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, C.

    1999-01-01

    The definition of the Space Mission Architect (SMA) must be clear in both technical and human terms if we expect to train and/or to find people needed to architect the numbers of smaller missions expected in the future.

  15. Pheromone Chemistry of the Smaller European Elm Bark Beetle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Keith

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the aggregation pheromone of the smaller European elm bark beetle, Scolytus multistriatus (Marsham), with emphasis on information that could be used in the classroom as a practical application of organic chemistry. (Author/GA)

  16. 21. GENERAL VIEW OF MOTOR GENERATOR WITH SMALLER GENERATOR IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. GENERAL VIEW OF MOTOR GENERATOR WITH SMALLER GENERATOR IN FOREGROUND TO PROVIDE EXCITATION FOR LARGER DC UNIT - Georgetown Steam Plant, South Warsaw Street, King County Airport, Seattle, King County, WA

  17. Free-ranging dogs assess the quantity of opponents in intergroup conflicts.

    PubMed

    Bonanni, Roberto; Natoli, Eugenia; Cafazzo, Simona; Valsecchi, Paola

    2011-01-01

    In conflicts between social groups, the decision of competitors whether to attack/retreat should be based on the assessment of the quantity of individuals in their own and the opposing group. Experimental studies on numerical cognition in animals suggest that they may represent both large and small numbers as noisy mental magnitudes subject to scalar variability, and small numbers (≤4) also as discrete object-files. Consequently, discriminating between large quantities, but not between smaller ones, should become easier as the asymmetry between quantities increases. Here, we tested these hypotheses by recording naturally occurring conflicts in a population of free-ranging dogs, Canis lupus familiaris, living in a suburban environment. The overall probability of at least one pack member approaching opponents aggressively increased with a decreasing ratio of the number of rivals to that of companions. Moreover, the probability that more than half of the pack members withdrew from a conflict increased when this ratio increased. The skill of dogs in correctly assessing relative group size appeared to improve with increasing the asymmetry in size when at least one pack comprised more than four individuals, and appeared affected to a lesser extent by group size asymmetries when dogs had to compare only small numbers. These results provide the first indications that a representation of quantity based on noisy mental magnitudes may be involved in the assessment of opponents in intergroup conflicts and leave open the possibility that an additional, more precise mechanism may operate with small numbers. PMID:20845053

  18. Hypergraph topological quantities for tagged social networks.

    PubMed

    Zlatić, Vinko; Ghoshal, Gourab; Caldarelli, Guido

    2009-09-01

    Recent years have witnessed the emergence of a new class of social networks, which require us to move beyond previously employed representations of complex graph structures. A notable example is that of the folksonomy, an online process where users collaboratively employ tags to resources to impart structure to an otherwise undifferentiated database. In a recent paper, we proposed a mathematical model that represents these structures as tripartite hypergraphs and defined basic topological quantities of interest. In this paper, we extend our model by defining additional quantities such as edge distributions, vertex similarity and correlations as well as clustering. We then empirically measure these quantities on two real life folksonomies, the popular online photo sharing site Flickr and the bookmarking site CiteULike. We find that these systems share similar qualitative features with the majority of complex networks that have been previously studied. We propose that the quantities and methodology described here can be used as a standard tool in measuring the structure of tagged networks. PMID:19905191

  19. Hypergraph topological quantities for tagged social networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zlatić, Vinko; Ghoshal, Gourab; Caldarelli, Guido

    2009-09-01

    Recent years have witnessed the emergence of a new class of social networks, which require us to move beyond previously employed representations of complex graph structures. A notable example is that of the folksonomy, an online process where users collaboratively employ tags to resources to impart structure to an otherwise undifferentiated database. In a recent paper, we proposed a mathematical model that represents these structures as tripartite hypergraphs and defined basic topological quantities of interest. In this paper, we extend our model by defining additional quantities such as edge distributions, vertex similarity and correlations as well as clustering. We then empirically measure these quantities on two real life folksonomies, the popular online photo sharing site Flickr and the bookmarking site CiteULike. We find that these systems share similar qualitative features with the majority of complex networks that have been previously studied. We propose that the quantities and methodology described here can be used as a standard tool in measuring the structure of tagged networks.

  20. PEDOT polymer coatings facilitate smaller neural recording electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Ludwig, Kip A.; Langhals, Nicholas B.; Joseph, Mike D.; Richardson-Burns, Sarah M.; Hendricks, Jeffrey L.; Kipke, Daryl R.

    2012-01-01

    We investigated using poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) to lower the impedance of small, gold recording electrodes with initial impedances outside of the effective recording range. Smaller electrode sites enable more densely packed arrays, increasing the number of input and output channels to and from the brain. Moreover, smaller electrode sizes promote smaller probe designs; decreasing the dimensions of the implanted probe has been demonstrated to decrease the inherent immune response, a known contributor to the failure of long-term implants. As expected, chronically implanted control electrodes were unable to record well-isolated unit activity, primarily as a result of a dramatically increased noise floor. Conversely, electrodes coated with PEDOT consistently recorded high-quality neural activity, and exhibited a much lower noise floor than controls. These results demonstrate that PEDOT coatings enable electrode designs 15 microns in diameter. PMID:21245527

  1. Trigonometric functions of nonlinear quantities

    SciTech Connect

    Wester, D.W.

    1994-08-01

    Trigonometric functions of nonlinear quantities are introduced. Functions of the form {line_integral}(x{sup a}), {line_integral}(x{sup y}), and {line_integral}{sup n}(x{sup a}) are reported, where {line_integral} is a trigonometric function such as cos, sin, tan, cot, sec, or csc; x is a variable; a is a constant; y is a variable; and n is a constant. Sums, products and quotients of these functions are defined. Trigonometric functions of nonlinear quantities involving constants to variable powers also are mentioned. Possible applications to quantum mechanics, gravity, and a final theory of matter are discussed.

  2. Characteristic quantities and dimensional analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimvall, Göran

    Phenomena in the physical sciences are described with quantities that have a numerical value and a dimension, i.e., a physical unit. Dimensional analysis is a powerful aspect of modeling and simulation. Characteristic quantities formed by a combination of model parameters can give new insights without detailed analytic or numerical calculations. Dimensional requirements lead to Buckingham's Π theorem - a general mathematical structure of all models in physics. These aspects are illustrated with many examples of modeling, e.g., an elastic beam on supports, wave propagation on a liquid surface, the Lennard-Jones potential for the interaction between atoms, the Lindemann melting rule, and saturation phenomena in electrical and thermal conduction.

  3. The Study of Tone in Languages with a Quantity Contrast

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Remijsen, Bert

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the study of tone in languages that additionally have a phonological contrastive of quantity, such as vowel length or stress. In such complex word-prosodic systems, tone and the quantity contrast(s) can be fully independent of one another, or they may interact. Both of these configurations are illustrated in this paper, and…

  4. Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) accurately compare poured liquid quantities.

    PubMed

    Beran, Michael J

    2010-07-01

    Although many studies have shown that nonhuman animals can choose the larger of two discrete quantities of items, less emphasis has been given to discrimination of continuous quantity. These studies are necessary to discern the similarities and differences in discrimination performance as a function of the type of quantities that are compared. Chimpanzees made judgments between continuous quantities (liquids) in a series of three experiments. In the first experiment, chimpanzees first chose between two clear containers holding differing amounts of juice. Next, they watched as two liquid quantities were dispensed from opaque syringes held above opaque containers. In the second experiment, one liquid amount was presented by pouring it into an opaque container from an opaque syringe, whereas the other quantity was visible the entire time in a clear container. In the third experiment, the heights at which the opaque syringes were held above opaque containers differed for each set, so that sometimes sets with smaller amounts of juice were dropped from a greater height, providing a possible visual illusion as to the total amount. Chimpanzees succeeded in all tasks and showed many similarities in their continuous quantity estimation to how they performed previously in similar tasks with discrete quantities (for example, performance was constrained by the ratio between sets). Chimpanzees could compare visible sets to nonvisible sets, and they were not distracted by perceptual illusions created through various presentation styles that were not relevant to the actual amount of juice dispensed. This performance demonstrated a similarity in the quantitative discrimination skills of chimpanzees for continuous quantities that matches that previously shown for discrete quantities. PMID:20146077

  5. Evidence that Smaller Schools Do Not Improve Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wainer, Howard; Zwerling, Harris L.

    2006-01-01

    If more small schools than "expected" are among the high achievers, then creating more small schools would raise achievement across the board, many proponents of small schools have argued. In this article, the authors challenge the faulty logic of such inferences. Many claims have been made about the advantages of smaller schools. One is that,…

  6. 21. VIEW NORTH; TYPICAL SMALLER ROOM, SECOND FLOOR, NORTH SIDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. VIEW NORTH; TYPICAL SMALLER ROOM, SECOND FLOOR, NORTH SIDE OF BUILDING. - Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Bowditch Hall, 600 feet east of Smith Street & 350 feet south of Columbia Cove, West bank of Thames River, New London, New London County, CT

  7. Implementation Study of Smaller Learning Communities. Final Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernstein, Lawrence; Millsap, Mary Ann; Schimmenti, Jennifer; Page, Lindsay

    2008-01-01

    The Smaller Learning Communities (SLC) program was established in response to growing national concerns about students too often lost and alienated in large, impersonal high schools, as well as concerns about school safety and low levels of achievement and graduation for many students. Authorized under the "Elementary and Secondary Education Act,"…

  8. Cutting Back on Wine? Try a Smaller Glass

    MedlinePlus

    ... FAQs Contact Us Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Latest Health News → Article URL of this page: https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_159250.html Cutting Back on Wine? Try a Smaller Glass Even ...

  9. Entrepreneurship in Smaller Jurisdictions: Appraising a Glocal Elite

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldacchino, Godfrey

    2008-01-01

    Entrepreneurship on smaller (often island) jurisdictions tends to suffer from the same import-orientation or "cargo cult" that affects many other issues: entrepreneurs are rarely locally bred but are most often "imported", recruited after long stints in other, larger countries, or else must be suffered to spend regular time away in the metropole.…

  10. Comparing Approaches to Converting Large High Schools into Smaller Units

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Thomas H

    2011-01-01

    Scholars and reformers in the United States have called for converting large high schools into smaller units to provide a more effective, personal, and culturally responsive education for all students. Current literature argues that such "conversion high schools" should break into fully autonomous small schools rather than more interdependent…

  11. School Size: Why "Smaller" May Not Be the Answer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Kenneth R.

    2009-01-01

    School districts, and even states, striving to identify optimal school size are confounded more often than not by the conflicting research findings and theoretical arguments presented throughout the literature. Some writers adamantly declare that smaller schools are a "must" if educational opportunity is to be optimized. Others argue that school…

  12. The Underreported Use of Integrated Marketing Communication by Smaller Businesses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Ed

    This research suggests integrated marketing communication (IMC) is widely used by small business. In a survey of Midwest businesses, it was found that smaller business tend to integrate their marketing communication to the same extent as do larger businesses. Their advertising, P.R., and sales promotion are as likely to present a unified message,…

  13. Problems of Social Science Research at Smaller Canadian Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Overgaard, Herman, Ed.

    The workshop was convened by the Social Science Research Council of Canada as part of its annual meeting. Its purpose was to explore the possible usefulness of a large-scale conference on the same topic. The three papers presented are included in the final report: (1) social science research needs of smaller Canadian universities (John T. Sears);…

  14. 1. GENERAL VIEW OF CHAPEL (smaller than church; to right ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GENERAL VIEW OF CHAPEL (smaller than church; to right of church). NOTE SERRATED PARAPET AND THE FAMOUS 'ROSE WINDOW' IN CENTER. ALSO NOTE BUTTRESSES. SOUTH SIDE. - Mission San Jose y San Miguel de Aguayo, Chapel, 6539 San Jose Road, San Antonio, Bexar County, TX

  15. GENERAL VIEW OF CHAPEL (smaller than church; to right of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL VIEW OF CHAPEL (smaller than church; to right of church). NOTE SERRATED PARAPET AND THE FAMOUS "ROSE WINDOW" IN CENTER. ALSO NOTE BUTTRESSES. SOUTH SIDE. Duplicate color view of HABS TX-333-B-1 - Mission San Jose y San Miguel de Aguayo, Chapel, 6539 San Jose Road, San Antonio, Bexar County, TX

  16. Recognizing Prefixes in Scientific Quantities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sokolowski, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Although recognizing prefixes in physical quantities is inherent for practitioners, it might not be inherent for students, who do not use prefixes in their everyday life experiences. This deficiency surfaces in AP Physics exams. For example, readers of an AP Physics exam reported "a common mistake of incorrectly converting nanometers to…

  17. Quantity Estimation Of The Interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Gorana, Agim; Malkaj, Partizan; Muda, Valbona

    2007-04-23

    In this paper we present some considerations about quantity estimations, regarding the range of interaction and the conservations laws in various types of interactions. Our estimations are done under classical and quantum point of view and have to do with the interaction's carriers, the radius, the influence range and the intensity of interactions.

  18. 7 CFR 985.12 - Salable quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 985.12 Salable quantity. Salable quantity means the total quantity of each class of oil which handlers may purchase...

  19. 7 CFR 985.12 - Salable quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 985.12 Salable quantity. Salable quantity means the total quantity of each class of oil which handlers may purchase...

  20. 7 CFR 985.12 - Salable quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 985.12 Salable quantity. Salable quantity means the total quantity of each class of oil which handlers may purchase...

  1. 7 CFR 985.12 - Salable quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 985.12 Salable quantity. Salable quantity means the total quantity of each class of oil which handlers may purchase...

  2. 7 CFR 985.12 - Salable quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 985.12 Salable quantity. Salable quantity means the total quantity of each class of oil which handlers may purchase...

  3. Recognizing Prefixes in Scientific Quantities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolowski, Andrzej

    2015-09-01

    Although recognizing prefixes in physical quantities is inherent for practitioners, it might not be inherent for students, who do not use prefixes in their everyday life experiences. This deficiency surfaces in AP Physics exams. For example, readers of an AP Physics exam reported "a common mistake of incorrectly converting nanometers to meters." Similar students' mistakes were reported also by AP Chemistry readers "as in previous years, students still had difficulty converting kJ to J." While traditional teaching focuses on memorizing the symbols of prefixes, little attention is given to helping learners recognize a prefix in a given quantity. I noticed in my teaching practice that by making the processes of identifying prefixes more explicit, students make fewer mistakes on unit conversion. Thus, this paper presents an outline of a lesson that focuses on prefix recognition. It is designed for a first-year college physics class; however, its key points can be addressed to any group of physics students.

  4. Characteristic quantities and dimensional analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimvall, Göran

    2008-04-01

    Phenomena in the physical sciences are described with quantities that have a numerical value and a dimension, i.e., a physical unit. Dimensional analysis is a powerful aspect of modeling and simulation. Characteristic quantities formed by a combination of model parameters can give new insights without detailed analytic or numerical calculations. Dimensional requirements lead to Buckingham’s Π theorem—a general mathematical structure of all models in physics. These aspects are illustrated with many examples of modeling, e.g., an elastic beam on supports, wave propagation on a liquid surface, the Lennard-Jones potential for the interaction between atoms, the Lindemann melting rule, and saturation phenomena in electrical and thermal conduction.

  5. Characteristic quantities and dimensional analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimvall, Göran

    Phenomena in the physical sciences are described with quantities that have a numerical value and a dimension, i.e., a physical unit. Dimensional analysis is a powerful aspect of modeling and simulation. Characteristic quantities formed by a combination of model parameters can give new insights without detailed analytic or numerical calculations. Dimensional requirements lead to Buckingham's Π theorem—a general mathematical structure of all models in physics. These aspects are illustrated with many examples of modeling, e.g., an elastic beam on supports, wave propagation on a liquid surface, the Lennard-Jones potential for the interaction between atoms, the Lindemann melting rule, and saturation phenomena in electrical and thermal conduction.

  6. Quantity Discrimination in Wolves (Canis lupus)

    PubMed Central

    Utrata, Ewelina; Virányi, Zsófia; Range, Friederike

    2012-01-01

    Quantity discrimination has been studied extensively in different non-human animal species. In the current study, we tested 11 hand-raised wolves (Canis lupus) in a two-way choice task. We placed a number of food items (one to four) sequentially into two opaque cans and asked the wolves to choose the larger amount. Moreover, we conducted two additional control conditions to rule out non-numerical properties of the presentation that the animals might have used to make the correct choice. Our results showed that wolves are able to make quantitative judgments at the group, but also at the individual level even when alternative strategies such as paying attention to the surface area or time and total amount are ruled out. In contrast to previous canine studies on dogs (Canis familiaris) and coyotes (Canis latrans), our wolves’ performance did not improve with decreasing ratio, referred to as Weber’s law. However, further studies using larger quantities than we used in the current set-up are still needed to determine whether and when wolves’ quantity discrimination conforms to Weber’s law. PMID:23181044

  7. A big alligator snacks on a smaller alligator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    A large alligator attacks and eats a smaller one in a natural display of cannibalism. Although this event has been observed infrequently by Kennedy Space Center's staff photographers, it is common feeding behavior among the wild alligator population on the space center. Alligators are carnivorous and will eat any living thing that crosses their paths and is small enough for them to kill. For this reason, it is dangerous to feed wild alligators, and in Florida, it is also illegal. Kennedy Space Center is located on the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge which is operated by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  8. Chimpanzees sometimes see fuller as better: judgments of food quantities based on container size and fullness.

    PubMed

    Parrish, Audrey E; Beran, Michael J

    2014-03-01

    The context in which food is presented can alter quantity judgments leading to sub-optimal choice behavior. Humans often over-estimate food quantity on the basis of how food is presented. Food appears larger if plated on smaller dishes than larger dishes and liquid volumes appear larger in taller cups than shorter cups. Moreover, smaller but fuller containers are preferred in comparison to larger, but less full containers with a truly larger quantity. Here, we assessed whether similar phenomena occur in chimpanzees. Four chimpanzees chose between two amounts of food presented in different sized containers, a large (2 oz.) and small (1 oz.) cup. When different quantities were presented in the same-sized cups or when the small cup contained the larger quantity, chimpanzees were highly accurate in choosing the larger food amount. However, when different-sized cups contained the same amount of food or the smaller cup contained the smaller amount of food (but looked relatively fuller), the chimpanzees often showed a bias to select the smaller but fuller cup. These findings contribute to our understanding of how quantity estimation and portion judgment is impacted by the surrounding context in which it is presented. PMID:24374384

  9. VLSI technology for smaller, cheaper, faster return link systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nanzetta, Kathy; Ghuman, Parminder; Bennett, Toby; Solomon, Jeff; Dowling, Jason; Welling, John

    1994-01-01

    Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) Application-specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) technology has enabled substantially smaller, cheaper, and more capable telemetry data systems. However, the rapid growth in available ASIC fabrication densities has far outpaced the application of this technology to telemetry systems. Available densities have grown by well over an order magnitude since NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) first began developing ASIC's for ground telemetry systems in 1985. To take advantage of these higher integration levels, a new generation of ASIC's for return link telemetry processing is under development. These new submicron devices are designed to further reduce the cost and size of NASA return link processing systems while improving performance. This paper describes these highly integrated processing components.

  10. The smaller human VH gene families display remarkably little polymorphism.

    PubMed Central

    Sanz, I; Kelly, P; Williams, C; Scholl, S; Tucker, P; Capra, J D

    1989-01-01

    We report the nucleotide sequence of 30 distinct human VH gene segments from the VHIV, VHV and VHVI gene families. When these sequences were compared to previously published sequences from these smaller human VH families a surprisingly low level of polymorphism was noted. Two VHIV gene segments from unrelated individuals were identical to two previously published VHIV sequences. Five VHV sequences were identical and seven VHVI gene segments were identical. Where differences were found between the sequences, allele specific oligonucleotide probes were used to verify the germline nature of the change and to test for segregation in several large kindreds. These data provide evidence that at least some human VH gene segments are remarkably stable. Images PMID:2511001

  11. Defibrillation thresholds are lower with smaller storage capacitors.

    PubMed

    Leonelli, F M; Kroll, M W; Brewer, J E

    1995-09-01

    Present implantable cardioverter defibrillators use a wide range of capacitance values for the storage capacitor. However, the optimal capacitance value is unknown. We hypothesized that a smaller capacitor, by delivering its charge in a time closer to the heart chronaxie, should lower the defibrillation threshold (DFT). We compared the energy required to defibrillate 10 open-chest dogs, after 15 seconds of ventricular fibrillation, with a monophasic, time-truncated waveform delivered from either a 85-microF or a 140-microF capacitor. Shocks were delivered through a pair of 14-cm2 epicardial patch electrodes: The two capacitors were randomly tested twice with each dog using a modified 3-reversal method for each DFT determination. The average stored and delivered DFT energies for the 85-microF capacitor were 6.0 +/- 1.7 joules and 5.2 +/- 1.5 joules, respectively, compared to 6.7 +/- 1.7 joules and 6.0 +/- 1.5 joules for the 140-microF capacitor (P = 0.01 and P = 0.004, respectively). The mean leading edge voltages were higher, the pulse duration shorter, and the mean impedance lower for the 85-microF capacitor. The impedance was inversely related to the pulse duration and the voltage decay suggesting that, at least in part, the mechanism of improved defibrillation could be accounted for by the waveform electrical characteristics. There was an equal number of episodes of postshock bradyarrhythmias and tachyarrhythmias following discharges from each capacitor. Moreover, there was no relationship between the likelihood of these arrhythmias and either the initial voltage or the delivered current nor there was a higher number of episodes of postshock hypotension following the smaller capacitor discharges.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7491309

  12. Balancing Teacher Quality and Quantity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bond, Helen

    The world is facing a shortage of trained teachers. According to the 2010 Global Monitoring Report approximately 10.3 million teachers will be needed globally to staff classrooms from Bangkok to Canada. The situation is worse in Sub-Saharan Africa. Estimates suggest that approximately 1.2 million new teachers will be needed in Sub-Saharan Africa alone to achieve universal primary education goals by 2015. Increases in primary school enrollments, drought, and HIV-AIDS have exacerbated the need for well trained teachers. Despite the need, the focus is on balancing quality with quantity. An effective teacher is deemed a critical element, although not the only one, in a student's success in the classroom. This paper focuses on the dilemma of meeting universal primary education goals in Sub-Saharan Africa, while maintaining teacher quality in fragile contexts.

  13. Density Estimation for Projected Exoplanet Quantities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Robert A.

    2011-05-01

    Exoplanet searches using radial velocity (RV) and microlensing (ML) produce samples of "projected" mass and orbital radius, respectively. We present a new method for estimating the probability density distribution (density) of the unprojected quantity from such samples. For a sample of n data values, the method involves solving n simultaneous linear equations to determine the weights of delta functions for the raw, unsmoothed density of the unprojected quantity that cause the associated cumulative distribution function (CDF) of the projected quantity to exactly reproduce the empirical CDF of the sample at the locations of the n data values. We smooth the raw density using nonparametric kernel density estimation with a normal kernel of bandwidth σ. We calibrate the dependence of σ on n by Monte Carlo experiments performed on samples drawn from a theoretical density, in which the integrated square error is minimized. We scale this calibration to the ranges of real RV samples using the Normal Reference Rule. The resolution and amplitude accuracy of the estimated density improve with n. For typical RV and ML samples, we expect the fractional noise at the PDF peak to be approximately 80 n -log 2. For illustrations, we apply the new method to 67 RV values given a similar treatment by Jorissen et al. in 2001, and to the 308 RV values listed at exoplanets.org on 2010 October 20. In addition to analyzing observational results, our methods can be used to develop measurement requirements—particularly on the minimum sample size n—for future programs, such as the microlensing survey of Earth-like exoplanets recommended by the Astro 2010 committee.

  14. Smaller sulfur molecules promise better lithium-sulfur batteries.

    PubMed

    Xin, Sen; Gu, Lin; Zhao, Na-Hong; Yin, Ya-Xia; Zhou, Long-Jie; Guo, Yu-Guo; Wan, Li-Jun

    2012-11-14

    The lithium-sulfur battery holds a high theoretical energy density, 4-5 times that of today's lithium-ion batteries, yet its applications have been hindered by poor electronic conductivity of the sulfur cathode and, most importantly, the rapid fading of its capacity due to the formation of soluble polysulfide intermediates (Li(2)S(n), n = 4-8). Despite numerous efforts concerning this issue, combatting sulfur loss remains one of the greatest challenges. Here we show that this problem can be effectively diminished by controlling the sulfur as smaller allotropes. Metastable small sulfur molecules of S(2-4) were synthesized in the confined space of a conductive microporous carbon matrix. The confined S(2-4) as a new cathode material can totally avoid the unfavorable transition between the commonly used large S(8) and S(4)(2-). Li-S batteries based on this concept exhibit unprecedented electrochemical behavior with high specific capacity, good cycling stability, and superior rate capability, which promise a practicable battery with high energy density for applications in portable electronics, electric vehicles, and large-scale energy storage systems. PMID:23101502

  15. More, smaller bacteria in response to ocean's warming?

    PubMed

    Morán, Xosé Anxelu G; Alonso-Sáez, Laura; Nogueira, Enrique; Ducklow, Hugh W; González, Natalia; López-Urrutia, Ángel; Díaz-Pérez, Laura; Calvo-Díaz, Alejandra; Arandia-Gorostidi, Nestor; Huete-Stauffer, Tamara M

    2015-07-01

    Heterotrophic bacteria play a major role in organic matter cycling in the ocean. Although the high abundances and relatively fast growth rates of coastal surface bacterioplankton make them suitable sentinels of global change, past analyses have largely overlooked this functional group. Here, time series analysis of a decade of monthly observations in temperate Atlantic coastal waters revealed strong seasonal patterns in the abundance, size and biomass of the ubiquitous flow-cytometric groups of low (LNA) and high nucleic acid (HNA) content bacteria. Over this relatively short period, we also found that bacterioplankton cells were significantly smaller, a trend that is consistent with the hypothesized temperature-driven decrease in body size. Although decadal cell shrinking was observed for both groups, it was only LNA cells that were strongly coherent, with ecological theories linking temperature, abundance and individual size on both the seasonal and interannual scale. We explain this finding because, relative to their HNA counterparts, marine LNA bacteria are less diverse, dominated by members of the SAR11 clade. Temperature manipulation experiments in 2012 confirmed a direct effect of warming on bacterial size. Concurrent with rising temperatures in spring, significant decadal trends of increasing standing stocks (3% per year) accompanied by decreasing mean cell size (-1% per year) suggest a major shift in community structure, with a larger contribution of LNA bacteria to total biomass. The increasing prevalence of these typically oligotrophic taxa may severely impact marine food webs and carbon fluxes by an overall decrease in the efficiency of the biological pump. PMID:26063843

  16. 16 CFR 500.19 - Conversion of SI metric quantities to inch/pound quantities and inch/pound quantities to SI...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .../pound quantities and inch/pound quantities to SI metric quantities. 500.19 Section 500.19 Commercial... LABELING ACT § 500.19 Conversion of SI metric quantities to inch/pound quantities and inch/pound quantities to SI metric quantities. (a) For calculating the conversion of SI metric quantities to...

  17. 21 CFR 1140.14 - Additional responsibilities of retailers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... (such as a vending machine); (d) No retailer may break or otherwise open any cigarette or smokeless... smaller than the quantity in the minimum cigarette package size defined in § 1140.16(b), or any quantity of cigarette tobacco or smokeless tobacco that is smaller than the smallest package distributed...

  18. 21 CFR 1140.14 - Additional responsibilities of retailers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... (such as a vending machine); (d) No retailer may break or otherwise open any cigarette or smokeless... smaller than the quantity in the minimum cigarette package size defined in § 1140.16(b), or any quantity of cigarette tobacco or smokeless tobacco that is smaller than the smallest package distributed...

  19. 21 CFR 1140.14 - Additional responsibilities of retailers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... (such as a vending machine); (d) No retailer may break or otherwise open any cigarette or smokeless... smaller than the quantity in the minimum cigarette package size defined in § 1140.16(b), or any quantity of cigarette tobacco or smokeless tobacco that is smaller than the smallest package distributed...

  20. 21 CFR 1140.14 - Additional responsibilities of retailers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... (such as a vending machine); (d) No retailer may break or otherwise open any cigarette or smokeless... smaller than the quantity in the minimum cigarette package size defined in § 1140.16(b), or any quantity of cigarette tobacco or smokeless tobacco that is smaller than the smallest package distributed...

  1. 21 CFR 1140.14 - Additional responsibilities of retailers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... otherwise open any cigarette or smokeless tobacco package to sell or distribute individual cigarettes or a number of unpackaged cigarettes that is smaller than the quantity in the minimum cigarette package size defined in § 1140.16(b), or any quantity of cigarette tobacco or smokeless tobacco that is smaller...

  2. Quantity Cognition: Numbers, Numerosity, Zero and Mathematics.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Ben M

    2016-05-23

    Physical quantities differ from abstract numbers and mathematics, but recent results are revealing the neural representation of both: a new study demonstrates how an absence of quantity is transformed into a representation of zero as a number. PMID:27218850

  3. Properties of acoustic energy quantities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uosukainen, Seppo

    1989-09-01

    The sound power of a source is shown to depend on other sources and environment through the coherent and incoherent interaction and on the mounting conditions of the source. The conditions for a source to be a constant power source (being a rare exception amoung sound sources) are defined. A new quantity semianalytic intensity is defined. By its help the mean value, time-dependent, active and reactive intensity are defined in general time-dependent fields. In time harmonic fields the active part of the mean value intensity is rotational. The rotationality is proportional to the polarization vector of particle velocity, the polarization being elliptical in general. The changes of sound field are shown to generate rotationality in all intensity components. The negative pI-indicator is shown to be a possible indication of the rotationality of intensity. Fundamental intensity vortices are defined. The size of the lowest order vortices is of the order of 0.5 to 0.7 (Lambda). A modified J.M.C. method is developed for the basis of the vector and dyadic weighting, the former of which weights the sound pressure and particle velocity differently, and the latter also changes the polarization (or direction) of the particle velocity. Theoretical possibilities of general field modifications and acoustic sink optimization based on these new field reshapers are presented. A new field indicator for intensity measurements is defined. It can be used as a measure of the diffuseness and reactivity as a function of time and observation direction.

  4. Smaller, Lower-Power Fast-Neutron Scintillation Detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patel, Jagdish; Blaes, Brent

    2008-01-01

    Scintillation-based fast-neutron detectors that are smaller and less power-hungry than mainstream scintillation-based fast-neutron detectors are undergoing development. There are numerous applications for such detectors in monitoring fast-neutron fluxes from nuclear reactors, nuclear materials, and natural sources, both on Earth and in outer space. A particularly important terrestrial application for small, low-power, portable fast-neutron detectors lies in the requirement to scan for nuclear materials in cargo and baggage arriving at international transportation facilities. The present development of miniature, low-power scintillation-based fast-neutron detectors exploits recent advances in the fabrication of avalanche photodiodes (APDs). Basically, such a detector includes a plastic scintillator, typically between 300 and 400 m thick with very thin silver mirror coating on all its faces except the one bonded to an APD. All photons generated from scintillation are thus internally reflected and eventually directed to the APD. This design affords not only compactness but also tight optical coupling for utilization of a relatively large proportion of the scintillation light. The combination of this tight coupling and the avalanche-multiplication gain (typically between 750 and 1,000) of the APD is expected to have enough sensitivity to enable monitoring of a fast-neutron flux as small as 1,000 cm(exp -2)s(exp -1). Moreover, pulse-height analysis can be expected to provide information on the kinetic energies of incident neutrons. It has been estimated that a complete, fully developed fast-neutron detector of this type, would be characterized by linear dimensions of the order of 10 cm or less, a mass of no more than about 0.5 kg, and a power demand of no more than a few watts.

  5. More, smaller bacteria in response to ocean's warming?

    PubMed Central

    Morán, Xosé Anxelu G.; Alonso-Sáez, Laura; Nogueira, Enrique; Ducklow, Hugh W.; González, Natalia; López-Urrutia, Ángel; Díaz-Pérez, Laura; Calvo-Díaz, Alejandra; Arandia-Gorostidi, Nestor; Huete-Stauffer, Tamara M.

    2015-01-01

    Heterotrophic bacteria play a major role in organic matter cycling in the ocean. Although the high abundances and relatively fast growth rates of coastal surface bacterioplankton make them suitable sentinels of global change, past analyses have largely overlooked this functional group. Here, time series analysis of a decade of monthly observations in temperate Atlantic coastal waters revealed strong seasonal patterns in the abundance, size and biomass of the ubiquitous flow-cytometric groups of low (LNA) and high nucleic acid (HNA) content bacteria. Over this relatively short period, we also found that bacterioplankton cells were significantly smaller, a trend that is consistent with the hypothesized temperature-driven decrease in body size. Although decadal cell shrinking was observed for both groups, it was only LNA cells that were strongly coherent, with ecological theories linking temperature, abundance and individual size on both the seasonal and interannual scale. We explain this finding because, relative to their HNA counterparts, marine LNA bacteria are less diverse, dominated by members of the SAR11 clade. Temperature manipulation experiments in 2012 confirmed a direct effect of warming on bacterial size. Concurrent with rising temperatures in spring, significant decadal trends of increasing standing stocks (3% per year) accompanied by decreasing mean cell size (−1% per year) suggest a major shift in community structure, with a larger contribution of LNA bacteria to total biomass. The increasing prevalence of these typically oligotrophic taxa may severely impact marine food webs and carbon fluxes by an overall decrease in the efficiency of the biological pump. PMID:26063843

  6. 48 CFR 36.516 - Quantity surveys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Quantity surveys. 36.516... CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Contract Clauses 36.516 Quantity surveys. The contracting officer may insert the clause at 52.236-16, Quantity Surveys, in solicitations and contracts...

  7. 48 CFR 36.516 - Quantity surveys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Quantity surveys. 36.516... CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Contract Clauses 36.516 Quantity surveys. The contracting officer may insert the clause at 52.236-16, Quantity Surveys, in solicitations and contracts...

  8. 48 CFR 36.516 - Quantity surveys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Quantity surveys. 36.516... CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Contract Clauses 36.516 Quantity surveys. The contracting officer may insert the clause at 52.236-16, Quantity Surveys, in solicitations and contracts...

  9. 48 CFR 36.516 - Quantity surveys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Quantity surveys. 36.516... CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Contract Clauses 36.516 Quantity surveys. The contracting officer may insert the clause at 52.236-16, Quantity Surveys, in solicitations and contracts...

  10. 48 CFR 36.516 - Quantity surveys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Quantity surveys. 36.516... CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Contract Clauses 36.516 Quantity surveys. The contracting officer may insert the clause at 52.236-16, Quantity Surveys, in solicitations and contracts...

  11. 40 CFR 201.21 - Quantities measured.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Quantities measured. 201.21 Section 201.21 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS... § 201.21 Quantities measured. The quantities to be measured under the test conditions described...

  12. 40 CFR 201.21 - Quantities measured.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Quantities measured. 201.21 Section 201.21 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS... § 201.21 Quantities measured. The quantities to be measured under the test conditions described...

  13. 40 CFR 201.21 - Quantities measured.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Quantities measured. 201.21 Section 201.21 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS... § 201.21 Quantities measured. The quantities to be measured under the test conditions described...

  14. 40 CFR 201.21 - Quantities measured.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Quantities measured. 201.21 Section 201.21 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS... § 201.21 Quantities measured. The quantities to be measured under the test conditions described...

  15. 40 CFR 201.21 - Quantities measured.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Quantities measured. 201.21 Section 201.21 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS... § 201.21 Quantities measured. The quantities to be measured under the test conditions described...

  16. 30 CFR 75.325 - Air quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Air quantity. 75.325 Section 75.325 Mineral... SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.325 Air quantity. (a)(1) In bituminous and lignite mines the quantity of air shall be at least 3,000 cubic feet per minute reaching each working...

  17. 30 CFR 75.325 - Air quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Air quantity. 75.325 Section 75.325 Mineral... SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.325 Air quantity. (a)(1) In bituminous and lignite mines the quantity of air shall be at least 3,000 cubic feet per minute reaching each working...

  18. 30 CFR 75.325 - Air quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Air quantity. 75.325 Section 75.325 Mineral... SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.325 Air quantity. (a)(1) In bituminous and lignite mines the quantity of air shall be at least 3,000 cubic feet per minute reaching each working...

  19. 30 CFR 75.325 - Air quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Air quantity. 75.325 Section 75.325 Mineral... SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.325 Air quantity. (a)(1) In bituminous and lignite mines the quantity of air shall be at least 3,000 cubic feet per minute reaching each working...

  20. 30 CFR 75.325 - Air quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air quantity. 75.325 Section 75.325 Mineral... SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.325 Air quantity. (a)(1) In bituminous and lignite mines the quantity of air shall be at least 3,000 cubic feet per minute reaching each working...

  1. Operational quantities and new approach by ICRU.

    PubMed

    2016-06-01

    The protection quantities, equivalent dose in a tissue or organ and effective dose, were developed by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) to allow quantification of the extent of exposure of the human body to ionising radiation. These quantities are used for the implementation of limitation and optimisation principles. Body-related protection quantities are not measurable in practice. Therefore, the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) developed a set of operational dose quantities for use in radiation measurements for external exposure that can assess the protection quantities. The current ICRU operational quantities were defined more than 30 years ago. ICRU Report Committee 26 examined the rationale for the operational quantities, taking account of changes in the definitions of the protection quantities in ICRP's 2007 Recommendations. The considerations included the range of types and energies of particles contributing to exposure of workers and members of the public. ICRU Report Committee 26 investigated a set of alternative definitions for the operational quantities. The major change to the currently favoured set of quantities is redefinition of the operational quantities, from being based on doses at specific points in the ICRU sphere and soft tissue, to being based on particle fluence and conversion coefficients for effective dose and absorbed dose to the lens of the eye and local skin. PMID:26980797

  2. Quantities and units in radiation protection dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jennings, W. A.

    1994-08-01

    A new report, entitled Quantities and Units in Radiation Protection Dosimetry, has recently been published by the international Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements. That report (No. 51) aims to provide a coherent system of quantities and units for purposes of measurement and calculation in the assessment of compliance with dose limitations. The present paper provides an extended summary of that report, including references to the operational quantities needed for area and individual monitoring of external radiations.

  3. The Additive Property of Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsaoussis, Dimitris S.

    1995-01-01

    Presents exercises that analyze the additive property of energy. Concludes that if a body has more than one component of energy depending on the same physical quantity, the body's total energy will be the algebraic sum of the components if a linear relationship exists between the energy components and that physical quantity. (JRH)

  4. The use of law to encourage smaller families in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Smith, T W

    1980-01-01

    To pursue its goal of rapid economic development, Singapore provides family planning services and has vigorously encouraged its citizens to limit family size. The government has legislated disincentives for families to have more than 2 children. This discussion reviews the history of these legal measures and their usefulness as a tool to promote social change and development. Singapore has used the law as a means to encourage family planning in order to supplement the overall thrust for economic development in the late 1960s. Freed from obligations to the Malaysian Federation and lacking the support of the British military as of 1969, Lee Kuan Yew led his people's economic development along a Western model. Reduction of population growth is an essential component of that model. Lee stressed family planning by providing clinics, by advertising, by promoting housing and lifestyles conducive to nuclear families, and by gradually adopting a set of laws favoring small families. These laws were introduced in different sectors of the economy at different times and were revised as social conditions changed. Typically, they set a minor monetary or priority penalty for parents of 3 or more children. The laws discourage additional births rather than prohibit them, guiding rather than forcing family planning decisions. To what extent the laws were the cause of decreasing family size in Singapore is uncertain, but they contributed to some extent to the country's phenomenal progress in income and lifestyle. The Abortion Act of 1969 legalized abortion on nonmedical grounds with the Singapore Family Planning and Population Board (SFPPB) approval. The Act was amended twice in 1974 to make abortions available "on demand." The charging of progressive delivery (accouchement) fees in government hospitals for mothers with 2 or more children might be considered as the focal point of the total disincentives system. The fees placed financial pressure directly on those who violated the

  5. Children's Multiplicative Transformations of Discrete and Continuous Quantities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barth, Hilary; Baron, Andrew; Spelke, Elizabeth; Carey, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Recent studies have documented an evolutionarily primitive, early emerging cognitive system for the mental representation of numerical quantity (the analog magnitude system). Studies with nonhuman primates, human infants, and preschoolers have shown this system to support computations of numerical ordering, addition, and subtraction involving…

  6. Separating Effects of Frequency, Quantity, Disruptive, and Problematic Substance Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Judith A.; And Others

    There is widespread concern about the use and abuse of alcohol and other drugs by adolescents and young adults. It has yet to be determined whether drug use in itself is invariably associated with disruptive or problem use of drugs. Additionally, drug use may vary by frequency and quantity of ingestion which may be differentially related to…

  7. 49 CFR 172.315 - Limited quantities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SECURITY PLANS Marking § 172.315 Limited quantities. (a) Except for transportation by aircraft or as... transportation by aircraft, a limited quantity package conforming to Table 3 of § 173.27(f) of this subchapter... section. (d) Transitional exception. Except for transportation by aircraft, until December 31, 2013,...

  8. Rethinking Intensive Quantities via Guided Mediated Abduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrahamson, Dor

    2012-01-01

    Some intensive quantities, such as slope, velocity, or likelihood, are perceptually privileged in the sense that they are experienced as holistic, irreducible sensations. However, the formal expression of these quantities uses "a/b" analytic metrics; for example, the slope of a line is the quotient of its rise and run. Thus, whereas students'…

  9. 36 CFR 223.220 - Quantity determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Quantity determination. 223.220 Section 223.220 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER Special Forest Products § 223.220 Quantity...

  10. Synchrotron radiation shielding design and ICRP radiological protection quantities.

    PubMed

    Bassey, Bassey; Moreno, Beatriz; Chapman, Dean

    2015-06-01

    Protection and operational quantities as defined by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) are the two sets of quantities recommended for use in radiological protection for external radiation. Since the '80s, the protection quantities have evolved from the concept of dose equivalent to effective dose equivalent to effective dose, and the associated conversion coefficients have undergone changes. In this work, the influence of three different versions of ICRP photon dose conversion coefficients in the synchrotron radiation shielding calculations of an experimental enclosure has been examined. The versions are effective dose equivalent (ICRP Publication 51), effective dose (ICRP Publication 74), and effective dose (ICRP Publication 116) conversion coefficients. The sources of the synchrotron radiation white beam into the enclosure were a bending magnet, an undulator and a wiggler. The ranges of photons energy from these sources were 10-200 keV for the bending magnet and undulator, and 10-500 keV for the wiggler. The design criterion aimed a radiation leakage less than 0.5 µSv h(-1) from the enclosure. As expected, larger conversion coefficients in ICRP Publication 51 lead to higher calculated dose rates. However, the percentage differences among the calculated dose rates get smaller once shielding is added, and the choice of conversion coefficients set did not affect the final shielding decision. PMID:25906251

  11. Multimodal Semantic Quantity Representations: Further Evidence from Korean Sign Language

    PubMed Central

    Domahs, Frank; Klein, Elise; Moeller, Korbinian; Nuerk, Hans-Christoph; Yoon, Byung-Chen; Willmes, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Korean deaf signers performed a number comparison task on pairs of Arabic digits. In their response times profiles, the expected magnitude effect was systematically modified by properties of number signs in Korean sign language in a culture-specific way (not observed in hearing and deaf Germans or hearing Chinese). We conclude that finger-based quantity representations are automatically activated even in simple tasks with symbolic input although this may be irrelevant and even detrimental for task performance. These finger-based numerical representations are accessed in addition to another, more basic quantity system which is evidenced by the magnitude effect. In sum, these results are inconsistent with models assuming only one single amodal representation of numerical quantity. PMID:22291669

  12. A Viewpoint on the Quantity "Plane Angle"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eder, W. E.

    1982-01-01

    Properties of the quantity "plane angle" are explored under the hypothesis that it is a dimensional quantity. The exploration proceeds especially with respect to the physical concept, its mathematical treatment, vector concepts, measurement theory, units of related quantities, engineering pragmatism, and SI. An attempt is made to bring these different relations into a rational, logical and consistent framework, and thus to justify the hypothesis. Various types of vectorial quantities are recognized, and their properties described with an outline of the necessary algebraic manipulations. The concept of plane angle is amplified, and its interdependence with the circular arc is explored. The resulting units of plane angle form a class of similar scales of measurement. Consequences of the confirmed hypothesis are developed for mathematical expressions involving trigonometric functions, rotational volumes and areas, mathematical limits, differentiation and series expansion. Consequences for mechanical rotational quantities are developed, with proposals for revisions to a number of expressions for derived units within SI. A revised definition for the quantity "plane angle" is stated to take account of the developed insights. There is a clear need to reconsider the status of plane angle and some other quantities within the international framework of SI.

  13. Zero-gravity quantity gaging system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The Zero-Gravity Quantity Gaging System program is a technology development effort funded by NASA-LeRC and contracted by NASA-JSC to develop and evaluate zero-gravity quantity gaging system concepts suitable for application to large, on-orbit cryogenic oxygen and hydrogen tankage. The contract effective date was 28 May 1985. During performance of the program, 18 potential quantity gaging approaches were investigated for their merit and suitability for gaging two-phase cryogenic oxygen and hydrogen in zero-gravity conditions. These approaches were subjected to a comprehensive trade study and selection process, which found that the RF modal quantity gaging approach was the most suitable for both liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen applications. This selection was made with NASA-JSC concurrence.

  14. Method and Apparatus for Measuring Radiation Quantities

    DOEpatents

    Roberts, N O

    1955-01-25

    This patent application describes a compact dosimeter for measuring X-ray and gamma radiation by the use of solutions which undergo a visible color change upon exposure to a predetermined quantity of radiation.

  15. Arsenic Treatment Residuals: Quantities, Characteristics and Disposal

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation provides information on the quantities, the characteristics and the disposal options for the common arsenic removal technologies. The technologies consist of adsorption media, iron removal, coagulation/filtration and ion exchange. The information for the prese...

  16. Lighting Quantity and Quality in Educational Facilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elwazanim, Salim A.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses educational facility lighting management, and examines how light quantity, distribution, and quality-enhancement strategies can improve the indoor environment while reducing lighting costs. Informational tables provide lighting pattern, color, and illuminance data. (GR)

  17. 7 CFR 929.14 - Marketable quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES GROWN IN STATES OF.... Marketable quantity means for a crop year the number of pounds of cranberries necessary to meet the...

  18. 7 CFR 929.14 - Marketable quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES GROWN IN STATES OF.... Marketable quantity means for a crop year the number of pounds of cranberries necessary to meet the...

  19. 7 CFR 929.14 - Marketable quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES GROWN IN STATES OF.... Marketable quantity means for a crop year the number of pounds of cranberries necessary to meet the...

  20. 7 CFR 929.14 - Marketable quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES GROWN IN STATES OF.... Marketable quantity means for a crop year the number of pounds of cranberries necessary to meet the...

  1. 7 CFR 929.14 - Marketable quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES GROWN IN STATES OF.... Marketable quantity means for a crop year the number of pounds of cranberries necessary to meet the...

  2. Uncooled infrared detectors toward smaller pixel pitch with newly proposed pixel structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tohyama, Shigeru; Sasaki, Tokuhito; Endoh, Tsutomu; Sano, Masahiko; Katoh, Kouji; Kurashina, Seiji; Miyoshi, Masaru; Yamazaki, Takao; Ueno, Munetaka; Katayama, Haruyoshi; Imai, Tadashi

    2011-06-01

    Since authors have successfully demonstrated uncooled infrared (IR) focal plane array (FPA) with 23.5 um pixel pitch, it has been widely utilized for commercial applications such as thermography, security camera and so on. One of the key issues for uncooled IR detector technology is to shrink the pixel size. The smaller the pixel pitch, the more the IR camera products become compact and the less cost. This paper proposes a new pixel structure with a diaphragm and beams which are placed in different level, to realize an uncooled IRFPA with smaller pixel pitch )<=17 μm). The upper level consists of diaphragm with VOx bolometer and IR absorber layers, while the lower level consists of the two beams, which are designed to place on the adjacent pixels. The test devices of this pixel design with 12 um, 15 um and 17 um pitch have been fabricated on the Si ROIC of QVGA (320 × 240) with 23.5 um pitch. Their performances reveal nearly equal to the IRFPA with 23.5 um pitch. For example, noise equivalent temperature difference (NETD) of 12 μm pixel is 63.1 mK with thermal time constant of 14.5 msec. In addition, this new structure is expected to be more effective for the existing IRFPA with 23.5 um pitch in order to improve the IR responsivity.

  3. Addressing the multiplication makes bigger and division makes smaller misconceptions via prediction and clickers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Kien H.

    2011-12-01

    This article presents a lesson that uses prediction items, clickers and visuals via PowerPoint slides to help prospective middle-school teachers address two common misconceptions: multiplication makes bigger and division makes smaller (MMB-DMS). Classroom research was conducted to explore the viability of such a lesson. Results show that the lesson was effective in creating awareness that multiplication does not always make bigger and division does not always makes smaller, uncovering students' misconceptions, and providing opportunities for students to learn from mistakes. Students liked the activity for various reasons, such as getting to learn certain mathematical ideas, to think about the problems, to work in groups and to have fun. The lesson was implemented slightly differently in two classes. The class with an additional phase involving prediction and voting via clickers in the PowerPoint lesson showed a gain of 36 points (an effect size of 1.3 standard deviations, SDs) from the pre-test to the exit-test whereas, the comparison class showed a gain of 25 points (an effect size of 0.87 SDs). In terms of students' written responses with regards to addressing the MMB-DMS misconceptions, there was however not much difference between the two classes.

  4. Evidence for smaller right amygdala volumes in posttraumatic stress disorder following childhood trauma.

    PubMed

    Veer, Ilya M; Oei, Nicole Y L; van Buchem, Mark A; Spinhoven, Philip; Elzinga, Bernet M; Rombouts, Serge A R B

    2015-09-30

    Hippocampus and amygdala volumes in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) related to childhood trauma are relatively understudied, albeit the potential importance to the disorder. Whereas some studies reported smaller hippocampal volumes, little evidence was found for abnormal amygdala volumes. Here we investigated hippocampus and amygdala volumes and shapes in an adult sample of PTSD patients related to childhood trauma. T1-weighted MR images were acquired from 12 female PTSD patients with trauma related to physical, sexual, and/or emotional abuse before age 18, and from 12 matched controls. Hippocampus and amygdala were segmented, and volumes were calculated and corrected for the total intracranial volume. Additionally, a shape analysis was done on the surface of the structures to explore abnormalities in specific subnuclei. Smaller right amygdala volumes were found in PTSD patients as compared with the controls. This difference appeared to be located specifically in the basolateral and superficial nuclei groups. Severity of sexual abuse during childhood was negatively correlated with the size of the amygdala. No difference in hippocampal volumes was found. Although our results are not conclusive, traumatic events in childhood might impede normal development of the amygdala, which could render a person more vulnerable to develop PTSD later in life. PMID:26211620

  5. Conserved quantities from piecewise Killing vectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dray, Tevian; Padmanabhan, T.

    1989-07-01

    In the presence of symmetries, conserved quantities can be obtained by contracting the stress-energy tensor with a Killing vector. We generalize this result to piecewise Killing vectors by giving sufficient conditions for the construction of an associated conserved quantity. A typical example, namely, two stationary space-times joined together in such a way that the resulting space-time is not stationary, is treated in detail.

  6. A conserved quantity in thin body dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanna, J. A.; Pendar, H.

    2016-02-01

    Thin, solid bodies with metric symmetries admit a restricted form of reparameterization invariance. Their dynamical equilibria include motions with both rigid and flowing aspects. On such configurations, a quantity is conserved along the intrinsic coordinate corresponding to the symmetry. As an example of its utility, this conserved quantity is combined with linear and angular momentum currents to construct solutions for the equilibria of a rotating, flowing string, for which it is akin to Bernoulli's constant.

  7. Smaller Primary Visual Cortex Is Associated with Stronger, but Less Precise Mental Imagery.

    PubMed

    Bergmann, Johanna; Genç, Erhan; Kohler, Axel; Singer, Wolf; Pearson, Joel

    2016-09-01

    Despite mental imagery's ubiquitous role in human perception, cognition and behavior, one standout question remains unanswered: Why does imagery vary so much from one individual to the next? Here, we used a behavioral paradigm that measures the functional impact of a mental image on subsequent conscious perception and related these measures to the anatomy of the early visual cortex estimated by fMRI retinotopic mapping. We observed a negative relationship between primary visual cortex (V1) surface area and sensory imagery strength, but found positive relationships between V1 and imagery precision (spatial location and orientation). Hence, individuals with a smaller V1 tended to have stronger, but less precise imagery. In addition, subjective vividness of imagery was positively related to prefrontal cortex volume, but unrelated to V1 anatomy. Our findings present the first evidence for the importance of the V1 layout in shaping the strength of human imagination. PMID:26286919

  8. Maximal Holevo Quantity Based on Weak Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yao-Kun; Fei, Shao-Ming; Wang, Zhi-Xi; Cao, Jun-Peng; Fan, Heng

    2015-01-01

    The Holevo bound is a keystone in many applications of quantum information theory. We propose “ maximal Holevo quantity for weak measurements” as the generalization of the maximal Holevo quantity which is defined by the optimal projective measurements. The scenarios that weak measurements is necessary are that only the weak measurements can be performed because for example the system is macroscopic or that one intentionally tries to do so such that the disturbance on the measured system can be controlled for example in quantum key distribution protocols. We evaluate systematically the maximal Holevo quantity for weak measurements for Bell-diagonal states and find a series of results. Furthermore, we find that weak measurements can be realized by noise and project measurements. PMID:26090962

  9. Physical quantities involved in a Mueller matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil, José J.

    2016-05-01

    The polarimetric properties of a material medium are summarized in the sixteen elements of its associated Mueller matrix. The quantities carrying specific information on the significant polarimetric features have to be defined on the basis of the analysis of the mathematical structure of Mueller matrices. It is found that any Mueller matrix can be parameterized through two retardance vectors and ten quantities that are invariant under dual retarder transformations. This parameterization leads to proper definitions of the retardance and depolarization properties, which together with the diattenuation and polarizance properties provide complete polarimetric characterization of the sample under consideration.

  10. Counting on your friends: The role of social environment on quantity discrimination.

    PubMed

    Kelly, E McKenna

    2016-07-01

    Quantity discrimination has been established in a range of species. However, most demonstrations of quantity discrimination control for social factors by testing animals individually. I tested whether sociality affects quantity discrimination in the wild by comparing the performances of the highly social Mexican jay (MJ; Aphelocoma wollweberi) and the territorial Western scrub jay (WJ; Aphelocoma californica). The birds were given a choice between two lines of peanuts that differed in initial quantity ranging from 2 vs 8 to 14 vs 16. Their choices were recorded until all peanuts were eaten or cached. Whereas non-social WJ selected the larger quantity across all the trials significantly more than chance, social MJ selected the larger line only when the difference in the number of peanuts between lines was small. In MJ, individual choice when selecting the large or small quantity was influenced by what line the previous bird had chosen when the difference in lines was large, with followers significantly more likely to select the smaller quantity. WJ were not significantly affected by the choices of other individuals. The only factors that influenced WJ choice were ratio and total differences between the two quantities. These results suggests that in certain scenarios, both species can discriminate between different quantities. However, MJ were greatly influenced by social factors, a previously untested factor, while WJ were only influenced by ratio and total difference between the quantities, consistent with findings in other species. Overall, this study demonstrates the important role of sociality in numerical cognitive performance, a previously overlooked factor. PMID:27036232

  11. 7 CFR 966.53 - Minimum quantities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum quantities. 966.53 Section 966.53 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA...

  12. Measurement of gas quantities by liquid displacement.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christian, J. D.

    1973-01-01

    Derivation of equations relating the different variables involved in gas quantity measurements by liquid displacement from a Mariotte flask. The results are used to elucidate design criteria and operational procedures required for the realization of various degrees of desired accuracy down to 0.01%.

  13. Infants Make Quantity Discriminations for Substances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hespos, Susan J.; Dora, Begum; Rips, Lance J.; Christie, Stella

    2012-01-01

    Infants can track small groups of solid objects, and infants can respond when these quantities change. But earlier work is equivocal about whether infants can track continuous substances, such as piles of sand. Experiment 1 ("N" = 88) used a habituation paradigm to show infants can register changes in the size of piles of sand that they see poured…

  14. Practice Makes Perfect: Contracting Quantity and Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reichert, Nancy

    2003-01-01

    Discusses how contract grading promotes quality writing as well as a larger quantity of writing. Considers how teachers can use contract grading to support and promote the behaviors, thinking skills, and writing skills they believe will help students create quality writing. Notes that contract grading leads students to write more, to have fewer…

  15. 49 CFR 172.315 - Limited quantities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... and outer package quantity limits in § 173.27(f) of this subchapter. (1) Marking description. The top... the square-on-point must be at least 2 mm and the minimum dimension of each side must be 100 mm unless...) Marking Description. The top and bottom portions of the square-on-point and the border forming the...

  16. 36 CFR 223.220 - Quantity determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Quantity determination. 223.220 Section 223.220 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST BOTANICAL...

  17. 36 CFR 223.220 - Quantity determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Quantity determination. 223.220 Section 223.220 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST BOTANICAL...

  18. 36 CFR 223.220 - Quantity determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Quantity determination. 223.220 Section 223.220 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST BOTANICAL...

  19. 36 CFR 223.220 - Quantity determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Quantity determination. 223.220 Section 223.220 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST BOTANICAL...

  20. Variation and Change in Northern Bavarian Quantity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drake, Derek

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation presents new research on the "Bavarian Quantity Law" (the BQL) in the northern Bavarian dialect of Hahnbach. Building upon earlier investigation of the BQL (cf. Bannert 1976a,b for Central Bavarian) this study examines the historical, phonological, and phonetic motivations for this feature as well the variability in its…

  1. Quantity language speakers show enhanced subcortical processing.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Caitlin; Aalto, Daniel; Šimko, Juraj; Putkinen, Vesa; Tervaniemi, Mari; Vainio, Martti

    2016-07-01

    The complex auditory brainstem response (cABR) can reflect language-based plasticity in subcortical stages of auditory processing. It is sensitive to differences between language groups as well as stimulus properties, e.g. intensity or frequency. It is also sensitive to the synchronicity of the neural population stimulated by sound, which results in increased amplitude of wave V. Finnish is a full-fledged quantity language, in which word meaning is dependent upon duration of the vowels and consonants. Previous studies have shown that Finnish speakers have enhanced behavioural sound duration discrimination ability and larger cortical mismatch negativity (MMN) to duration change compared to German and French speakers. The next step is to find out whether these enhanced duration discrimination abilities of quantity language speakers originate at the brainstem level. Since German has a complementary quantity contrast which restricts the possible patterns of short and long vowels and consonants, the current experiment compared cABR between nonmusician Finnish and German native speakers using seven short complex stimuli. Finnish speakers had a larger cABR peak amplitude than German speakers, while the peak onset latency was only affected by stimulus intensity and spectral band. The results suggest that early cABR responses are better synchronised for Finns, which could underpin the enhanced duration sensitivity of quantity language speakers. PMID:27297179

  2. Representation of relativistic quantities by trigonometric functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majerník, V.

    1986-06-01

    A ``space-time angle'' φ is defined by setting v=c(sin φ). This leads to a form of Lorentz transformations which uses simple real trigonometric functions and yields a graphic correlation of important relativistic quantities for particles and for corresponding de Broglie waves. A number of relativistic relationships is obtained by the use of common trigonometric identities and formulas.

  3. CALL, Prewriting Strategies, and EFL Writing Quantity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shafiee, Sajad; Koosha, Mansour; Afghar, Akbar

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to explore the effect of teaching prewriting strategies through different methods of input delivery (i.e. conventional, web-based, and hybrid) on EFL learners' writing quantity. In its quasi-experimental study, the researchers recruited 98 available sophomores, and assigned them to three experimental groups (conventional,…

  4. Units for quantities of dimension one

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dybkaer, René

    2004-02-01

    All quantities of dimension one are said to have the SI coherent derived unit "one" with the symbol '1'. (Single quotation marks are used here sometimes to indicate a quote, name, term or symbol; double quotation marks flag a concept when necessary.) Conventionally, the term and symbol may not be combined with the SI prefixes (except for the special terms and symbols for one and 1: radian, rad, and steradian, sr). This restriction is understandable, but leads to correct yet impractical alternatives and ISO deprecated symbols such as ppm or in some cases redundant combinations of units, such as mg/kg. "Number of entities" is dimensionally independent of the current base quantities and should take its rightful place among them. The corresponding base unit is "one". A working definition is given. Other quantities of dimension one are derived as fraction, ratio, efficiency, relative quantity, relative increment or characteristic number and may also use the unit "one", whether considered to be base or derived. The special term 'uno' and symbol 'u' in either case are proposed, allowing combination with SI prefixes.

  5. Quantity, Quality, Children's Characteristics, and Vocabulary Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Bridget A.

    2008-01-01

    This review of literature shows that how often a child is read to is related to subsequent gains in vocabulary. Not only do adults differ in the frequency with which they read to children (quantity), they also vary in reading style (quality). Several studies have proposed that the cognitive demand level of questions children are asked may be…

  6. Inventory management - More than reorder points and quantities

    SciTech Connect

    Bromenschenkel, K.E. ); Hicks, R.D. ); Wheeler, L.J. )

    1992-01-01

    In today's competitive environment, many companies, including utilities, are looking for ways to keep costs down so as to maintain or improve their market position. One of the significant costs for a nuclear utility is its material and supplies inventory, which, for many, has continually escalated. Many of us recognize that one element of any good materials management system is the ability to calculate the reorder point (ROP) and reorder quantity (ROQ) for the material so as to establish proper inventory levels and quantities. Nevertheless, when beginning to consider the elements contained in these algorithms, it is obvious that many additional factors constitute good inventory management. This paper conveys some of the necessary elements of an effective inventory system and the actions which should be taken to effectuate such a system. Furthermore, the interrelationship of these elements are demonstrated by considering the key facets of a good materials system.

  7. 48 CFR 52.236-16 - Quantity Surveys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Quantity Surveys. 52.236... Quantity Surveys. As prescribed in 36.516, the contracting officer may insert the following clause in... payment based on quantity surveys is contemplated: Quantity Surveys (APR 1984) (a) Quantity surveys...

  8. 48 CFR 52.236-16 - Quantity Surveys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Quantity Surveys. 52.236... Quantity Surveys. As prescribed in 36.516, the contracting officer may insert the following clause in... payment based on quantity surveys is contemplated: Quantity Surveys (APR 1984) (a) Quantity surveys...

  9. 48 CFR 52.236-16 - Quantity Surveys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Quantity Surveys. 52.236... Quantity Surveys. As prescribed in 36.516, the contracting officer may insert the following clause in... payment based on quantity surveys is contemplated: Quantity Surveys (APR 1984) (a) Quantity surveys...

  10. 48 CFR 52.236-16 - Quantity Surveys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Quantity Surveys. 52.236... Quantity Surveys. As prescribed in 36.516, the contracting officer may insert the following clause in... payment based on quantity surveys is contemplated: Quantity Surveys (APR 1984) (a) Quantity surveys...

  11. 48 CFR 52.236-16 - Quantity Surveys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Quantity Surveys. 52.236... Quantity Surveys. As prescribed in 36.516, the contracting officer may insert the following clause in... payment based on quantity surveys is contemplated: Quantity Surveys (APR 1984) (a) Quantity surveys...

  12. Implications of smaller concentrations of stratospheric OH - A two-dimensional model study of ozone perturbations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitten, R. C.; Borucki, W. J.; Woodward, H. T.; Capone, L. A.; Riegel, C. A.; Turco, R. P.; Poppoff, I. G.; Santhanam, K.

    1981-01-01

    There is growing observational evidence that stratospheric OH concentrations are smaller than models have been predicting. Using very recent HOx reaction rate coefficient measurements in a two-dimensional photochemical model, results which support these observations are obtained. As a consequence of smaller OH concentrations, we show that perturbations of stratospheric ozone by NOx (SST emissions and nitrogen fertilizers) may be larger than expected, while perturbations due to added water vapor and chlorine (SSTs and chlorofluoromethanes, respectively) may be smaller.

  13. Food additives

    MedlinePlus

    Food additives are substances that become part of a food product when they are added during the processing or making of that food. "Direct" food additives are often added during processing to: Add nutrients ...

  14. Food additives

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857

  15. Where Is the Learning in Smaller Learning Communities? Academic Press, Social Support for Learning, and Academic Engagement in Smaller Learning Community Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Christopher; Bol, Linda; Pribesh, Shana; Nunnery, John

    2013-01-01

    The extent to which smaller learning communities' (SLCs) focus on academic press and strong social relationships affects academic engagement among 9th graders in urban high schools was investigated. Data were collected through classroom observations, student questionnaires, and focus groups with teachers. Data were analyzed using descriptive…

  16. Soil organic matter quantity and quality shape microbial community compositions of subtropical broadleaved forests.

    PubMed

    Ding, Junjun; Zhang, Yuguang; Wang, Mengmeng; Sun, Xin; Cong, Jing; Deng, Ye; Lu, Hui; Yuan, Tong; Van Nostrand, Joy D; Li, Diqiang; Zhou, Jizhong; Yang, Yunfeng

    2015-10-01

    As two major forest types in the subtropics, broadleaved evergreen and broadleaved deciduous forests have long interested ecologists. However, little is known about their belowground ecosystems despite their ecological importance in driving biogeochemical cycling. Here, we used Illumina MiSeq sequencing targeting 16S rRNA gene and a microarray named GeoChip targeting functional genes to analyse microbial communities in broadleaved evergreen and deciduous forest soils of Shennongjia Mountain of Central China, a region known as 'The Oriental Botanic Garden' for its extraordinarily rich biodiversity. We observed higher plant diversity and relatively richer nutrients in the broadleaved evergreen forest than the deciduous forest. In odds to our expectation that plant communities shaped soil microbial communities, we found that soil organic matter quantity and quality, but not plant community parameters, were the best predictors of microbial communities. Actinobacteria, a copiotrophic phylum, was more abundant in the broadleaved evergreen forest, while Verrucomicrobia, an oligotrophic phylum, was more abundant in the broadleaved deciduous forest. The density of the correlation network of microbial OTUs was higher in the broadleaved deciduous forest but its modularity was smaller, reflecting lower resistance to environment changes. In addition, keystone OTUs of the broadleaved deciduous forest were mainly oligotrophic. Microbial functional genes associated with recalcitrant carbon degradation were also more abundant in the broadleaved deciduous forests, resulting in low accumulation of organic matters. Collectively, these findings revealed the important role of soil organic matter in shaping microbial taxonomic and functional traits. PMID:26363284

  17. Observable quantities for electrodiffusion processes in membranes.

    PubMed

    Garrido, Javier

    2008-03-13

    Electrically driven ion transport processes in a membrane system are analyzed in terms of observable quantities, such as the apparent volume flow, the time dependence of the electrolyte concentration in one cell compartment, and the electrical potential difference between the electrodes. The relations between the fluxes and these observable quantities are rigorously deduced from balances for constituent mass and solution volume. These relations improve the results for the transport coefficients up to 25% with respect to those obtained using simplified expressions common in the literature. Given the practical importance of ionic transport numbers and the solvent transference number in the phenomenological description of electrically driven processes, the transport equations are presented using the electrolyte concentration difference and the electric current as the drivers of the different constituents. Because various electric potential differences can be used in this traditional irreversible thermodynamics approach, the advantages of the formulation of the transport equations in terms of concentration difference and electric current are emphasized. PMID:18284224

  18. A conserved quantity in thin body dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanna, James; Pendar, Hodjat

    We use an example from textile processing to illustrate the utility of a conserved quantity associated with metric symmetry in a thin body. This quantity, when combined with the usual linear and angular momentum currents, allows us to construct a four-parameter family of curves representing the equilibria of a rotating, flowing string. To achieve this, we introduce a non-material action of mixed Lagrangian-Eulerian type, applicable to fixed windows of axially-moving systems. We will point out intriguing similarities with Bernoulli's equation, discuss the effects of axial flow on rotating conservative systems, and make connections with 19th- and 20th-century results on the dynamics of cables.

  19. Radiation Protection Quantities for Near Earth Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clowdsley, Martha S.; Wilson, John W.; Kim, Myung-Hee; Anderson, Brooke M.; Nealy, John E.

    2004-01-01

    As humans travel beyond the protection of the Earth's magnetic field and mission durations grow, risk due to radiation exposure will increase and may become the limiting factor for such missions. Here, the dosimetric quantities recommended by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) for the evaluation of health risk due to radiation exposure, effective dose and gray-equivalent to eyes, skin, and blood forming organs (BFO), are calculated for several near Earth environments. These radiation protection quantities are evaluated behind two different shielding materials, aluminum and polyethylene. Since exposure limits for missions beyond low Earth orbit (LEO) have not yet been defined, results are compared to limits recommended by the NCRP for LEO operations.

  20. Enzyme catalysis with small ionic liquid quantities.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Fabian; Mutschler, Julien; Zufferey, Daniel

    2011-04-01

    Enzyme catalysis with minimal ionic liquid quantities improves reaction rates, stereoselectivity and enables solvent-free processing. In particular the widely used lipases combine well with many ionic liquids. Demonstrated applications are racemate separation, esterification and glycerolysis. Minimal solvent processing is also an alternative to sluggish solvent-free catalysis. The method allows simplified down-stream processing, as only traces of ionic liquids have to be removed. PMID:21107639

  1. Mass quantity gauging by RF mode analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collier, R. S.; Ellerbruch, D.; Cruz, J. E.; Stokes, R. W.; Luft, P. E.; Peterson, R. G.; Hiester, A. E.

    1973-01-01

    Work done to date is reported concerning Radio Frequency Mass Quantity Gauging. Experimental apparatus has been designed and tested which measures the resonant frequencies of a tank in the time domain. These frequencies correspond to the total mass of fluid within the tank. Experimental results are discussed for nitrogen and hydrogen in normal gravity both in the supercritical state and also in the two phase (liquid-gas) region. Theoretical discussions for more general cases are given.

  2. Shielded radiation protection quantities beyond LEO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clowdsley, M. S.; Wilson, J. W.; Kim, M. Y.; Anderson, B. M.; Nealy, J. E.

    The National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) has recommended that the quantities used to evaluate health risk to astronauts due to radiation exposure be effective dose and gray-equivalent. The NCRP recommends that effective dose be the limiting quantity for prevention of stochastic effects. Effective dose is a measure of whole body exposure, a weighted average of dose equivalent to a number body tissues for which the NCRP has adopted tissue weighting factors recommended by the International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP). For deterministic effects, the NCRP has recommended that gray-equivalent be used. Gray-equivalent is evaluated for specific critical organs and is the weighted sum of absorbed dose from field components to that organ using the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) number for that field component. RBE numbers recommended by the NCRP are used. The NCRP has provided effective dose limits as well as limits for gray-equivalent to eyes, skin, and blood forming organs (BFO) for astronauts in low earth orbit (LEO). As yet, no such limits have been defined for astronaut operations beyond LEO. In this study, the radiation protection quantities, effective dose and gray-equivalent to the eyes, skin, and BFO, are calculated for several environments beyond LEO. The lunar surface and Martian environments are included. For each environment, these radiation protection quantities are calculated behind varying amounts of various types of shielding materials. The results are compared to the exposure limits for LEO, since limits have not yet been defined for interplanetary missions. The benefits of using shielding material containing hydrogen and choosing optimal mission times are discussed.

  3. 29 CFR 403.4 - Simplified annual reports for smaller labor organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Simplified annual reports for smaller labor organizations. 403.4 Section 403.4 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor OFFICE OF LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS LABOR ORGANIZATION ANNUAL FINANCIAL REPORTS § 403.4 Simplified annual reports for smaller labor...

  4. Snake Cathelicidin NA-CATH and Smaller Helical Antimicrobial Peptides Are Effective against Burkholderia thailandensis

    PubMed Central

    Blower, Ryan J.; Barksdale, Stephanie M.; van Hoek, Monique L.

    2015-01-01

    Burkholderia thailandensis is a Gram-negative soil bacterium used as a model organism for B. pseudomallei, the causative agent of melioidosis and an organism classified category B priority pathogen and a Tier 1 select agent for its potential use as a biological weapon. Burkholderia species are reportedly “highly resistant” to antimicrobial agents, including cyclic peptide antibiotics, due to multiple resistance systems, a hypothesis we decided to test using antimicrobial (host defense) peptides. In this study, a number of cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAMPs) were tested in vitro against B. thailandensis for both antimicrobial activity and inhibition of biofilm formation. Here, we report that the Chinese cobra (Naja atra) cathelicidin NA-CATH was significantly antimicrobial against B. thailandensis. Additional cathelicidins, including the human cathelicidin LL-37, a sheep cathelicidin SMAP-29, and some smaller ATRA peptide derivatives of NA-CATH were also effective. The D-enantiomer of one small peptide (ATRA-1A) was found to be antimicrobial as well, with EC50 in the range of the L-enantiomer. Our results also demonstrate that human alpha-defensins (HNP-1 & -2) and a short beta-defensin-derived peptide (Peptide 4 of hBD-3) were not bactericidal against B. thailandensis. We also found that the cathelicidin peptides, including LL-37, NA-CATH, and SMAP-29, possessed significant ability to prevent biofilm formation of B. thailandensis. Additionally, we show that LL-37 and its D-enantiomer D-LL-37 can disperse pre-formed biofilms. These results demonstrate that although B. thailandensis is highly resistant to many antibiotics, cyclic peptide antibiotics such as polymyxin B, and defensing peptides, some antimicrobial peptides including the elapid snake cathelicidin NA-CATH exert significant antimicrobial and antibiofilm activity towards B. thailandensis. PMID:26196513

  5. Snake Cathelicidin NA-CATH and Smaller Helical Antimicrobial Peptides Are Effective against Burkholderia thailandensis.

    PubMed

    Blower, Ryan J; Barksdale, Stephanie M; van Hoek, Monique L

    2015-01-01

    Burkholderia thailandensis is a Gram-negative soil bacterium used as a model organism for B. pseudomallei, the causative agent of melioidosis and an organism classified category B priority pathogen and a Tier 1 select agent for its potential use as a biological weapon. Burkholderia species are reportedly "highly resistant" to antimicrobial agents, including cyclic peptide antibiotics, due to multiple resistance systems, a hypothesis we decided to test using antimicrobial (host defense) peptides. In this study, a number of cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAMPs) were tested in vitro against B. thailandensis for both antimicrobial activity and inhibition of biofilm formation. Here, we report that the Chinese cobra (Naja atra) cathelicidin NA-CATH was significantly antimicrobial against B. thailandensis. Additional cathelicidins, including the human cathelicidin LL-37, a sheep cathelicidin SMAP-29, and some smaller ATRA peptide derivatives of NA-CATH were also effective. The D-enantiomer of one small peptide (ATRA-1A) was found to be antimicrobial as well, with EC50 in the range of the L-enantiomer. Our results also demonstrate that human alpha-defensins (HNP-1 & -2) and a short beta-defensin-derived peptide (Peptide 4 of hBD-3) were not bactericidal against B. thailandensis. We also found that the cathelicidin peptides, including LL-37, NA-CATH, and SMAP-29, possessed significant ability to prevent biofilm formation of B. thailandensis. Additionally, we show that LL-37 and its D-enantiomer D-LL-37 can disperse pre-formed biofilms. These results demonstrate that although B. thailandensis is highly resistant to many antibiotics, cyclic peptide antibiotics such as polymyxin B, and defensing peptides, some antimicrobial peptides including the elapid snake cathelicidin NA-CATH exert significant antimicrobial and antibiofilm activity towards B. thailandensis. PMID:26196513

  6. Photometric quantities for solar irradiance modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preminger, D. G.; Walton, S. R.; Chapman, G. A.

    2002-11-01

    We analyze photometric quantities for the modeling of the total solar irradiance, S. These quantities are derived from full-disk solar images taken at the San Fernando Observatory. We introduce a new quantity, the photometric sum, Σ, which is the sum over an entire image of each pixel's contribution to the irradiance in that image. Σ combines both bright and dark features; and because the sum is over the entire image, it will include low contrast features that cannot be identified directly. Specifically, we examine Σr, Σb, and ΣK, the photometric sums over broadband red, broadband blue, and 1-nm bandpass Ca II K images, respectively. Σr and Σb measure the effects of solar features on the variability in S at two different continuum wavelengths. ΣK measures the variability in spectral lines due to solar features. We find that Σr and Σb have no long-term trend. ΣK, however, varies in phase with the solar cycle. We carry out several multiple linear regressions on the value of S from cycle 22; the best fit uses Σr and ΣK and reproduces the observed composite S with a multiple regression coefficient R = 0.96. We conclude that the long-term change in S over the solar cycle can be accounted for by the variability in the spectral lines as measured by ΣK, assuming no change in the quiet Sun; the contribution of the continuum to the variations in S is only on active region timescales.

  7. Invariant quantities of a nondepolarizing Mueller matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil, José J.; José, Ignacio San

    2016-07-01

    Orthogonal Mueller matrices can be considered either as corresponding to retarders or to generalized transformations of the polarization basis for the representation of Stokes vectors, so that they constitute the only type of Mueller matrices that preserve the degree of polarization and the intensity of any partially-polarized input Stokes vector. The physical quantities which remain invariant when a nondepolarizing Mueller matrix is transformed through its product by different types of orthogonal Mueller matrices are identified and interpreted, providing a better knowledge of the information contained in a nondepolarizing Mueller matrix.

  8. Food additives.

    PubMed

    Berglund, F

    1978-01-01

    The use of additives to food fulfils many purposes, as shown by the index issued by the Codex Committee on Food Additives: Acids, bases and salts; Preservatives, Antioxidants and antioxidant synergists; Anticaking agents; Colours; Emulfifiers; Thickening agents; Flour-treatment agents; Extraction solvents; Carrier solvents; Flavours (synthetic); Flavour enhancers; Non-nutritive sweeteners; Processing aids; Enzyme preparations. Many additives occur naturally in foods, but this does not exclude toxicity at higher levels. Some food additives are nutrients, or even essential nutritents, e.g. NaCl. Examples are known of food additives causing toxicity in man even when used according to regulations, e.g. cobalt in beer. In other instances, poisoning has been due to carry-over, e.g. by nitrate in cheese whey - when used for artificial feed for infants. Poisonings also occur as the result of the permitted substance being added at too high levels, by accident or carelessness, e.g. nitrite in fish. Finally, there are examples of hypersensitivity to food additives, e.g. to tartrazine and other food colours. The toxicological evaluation, based on animal feeding studies, may be complicated by impurities, e.g. orthotoluene-sulfonamide in saccharin; by transformation or disappearance of the additive in food processing in storage, e.g. bisulfite in raisins; by reaction products with food constituents, e.g. formation of ethylurethane from diethyl pyrocarbonate; by metabolic transformation products, e.g. formation in the gut of cyclohexylamine from cyclamate. Metabolic end products may differ in experimental animals and in man: guanylic acid and inosinic acid are metabolized to allantoin in the rat but to uric acid in man. The magnitude of the safety margin in man of the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) is not identical to the "safety factor" used when calculating the ADI. The symptoms of Chinese Restaurant Syndrome, although not hazardous, furthermore illustrate that the whole ADI

  9. 14 CFR 23.1551 - Oil quantity indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Oil quantity indicator. 23.1551 Section 23... Information Markings and Placards § 23.1551 Oil quantity indicator. Each oil quantity indicator must be marked in sufficient increments to indicate readily and accurately the quantity of oil....

  10. 14 CFR 23.1551 - Oil quantity indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oil quantity indicator. 23.1551 Section 23... Information Markings and Placards § 23.1551 Oil quantity indicator. Each oil quantity indicator must be marked in sufficient increments to indicate readily and accurately the quantity of oil....

  11. 14 CFR 23.1551 - Oil quantity indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Oil quantity indicator. 23.1551 Section 23... Information Markings and Placards § 23.1551 Oil quantity indicator. Each oil quantity indicator must be marked in sufficient increments to indicate readily and accurately the quantity of oil....

  12. 14 CFR 25.1551 - Oil quantity indication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Oil quantity indication. 25.1551 Section 25... Placards § 25.1551 Oil quantity indication. Each oil quantity indicating means must be marked to indicate the quantity of oil readily and accurately....

  13. 14 CFR 29.1551 - Oil quantity indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oil quantity indicator. 29.1551 Section 29... Placards § 29.1551 Oil quantity indicator. Each oil quantity indicator must be marked with enough increments to indicate readily and accurately the quantity of oil....

  14. 14 CFR 29.1551 - Oil quantity indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Oil quantity indicator. 29.1551 Section 29... Placards § 29.1551 Oil quantity indicator. Each oil quantity indicator must be marked with enough increments to indicate readily and accurately the quantity of oil....

  15. 14 CFR 27.1551 - Oil quantity indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Oil quantity indicator. 27.1551 Section 27... § 27.1551 Oil quantity indicator. Each oil quantity indicator must be marked with enough increments to indicate readily and accurately the quantity of oil....

  16. 14 CFR 25.1551 - Oil quantity indication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oil quantity indication. 25.1551 Section 25... Placards § 25.1551 Oil quantity indication. Each oil quantity indicating means must be marked to indicate the quantity of oil readily and accurately....

  17. 14 CFR 27.1551 - Oil quantity indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Oil quantity indicator. 27.1551 Section 27... § 27.1551 Oil quantity indicator. Each oil quantity indicator must be marked with enough increments to indicate readily and accurately the quantity of oil....

  18. 14 CFR 27.1551 - Oil quantity indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oil quantity indicator. 27.1551 Section 27... § 27.1551 Oil quantity indicator. Each oil quantity indicator must be marked with enough increments to indicate readily and accurately the quantity of oil....

  19. 14 CFR 29.1551 - Oil quantity indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Oil quantity indicator. 29.1551 Section 29... Placards § 29.1551 Oil quantity indicator. Each oil quantity indicator must be marked with enough increments to indicate readily and accurately the quantity of oil....

  20. 14 CFR 25.1551 - Oil quantity indication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Oil quantity indication. 25.1551 Section 25... Placards § 25.1551 Oil quantity indication. Each oil quantity indicating means must be marked to indicate the quantity of oil readily and accurately....

  1. 14 CFR 25.1551 - Oil quantity indication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Oil quantity indication. 25.1551 Section 25... Placards § 25.1551 Oil quantity indication. Each oil quantity indicating means must be marked to indicate the quantity of oil readily and accurately....

  2. 14 CFR 23.1551 - Oil quantity indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Oil quantity indicator. 23.1551 Section 23... Information Markings and Placards § 23.1551 Oil quantity indicator. Each oil quantity indicator must be marked in sufficient increments to indicate readily and accurately the quantity of oil....

  3. 7 CFR 61.102 - Determination of quantity index.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Determination of quantity index. 61.102 Section 61.102... quantity index. The quantity index of cottonseed shall be determined as follows: (a) For upland cottonseed the quantity index shall equal four times percentage of oil plus six times percentage of ammonia,...

  4. 7 CFR 61.102 - Determination of quantity index.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Determination of quantity index. 61.102 Section 61.102... quantity index. The quantity index of cottonseed shall be determined as follows: (a) For upland cottonseed the quantity index shall equal four times percentage of oil plus six times percentage of ammonia,...

  5. 7 CFR 61.102 - Determination of quantity index.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Determination of quantity index. 61.102 Section 61.102... quantity index. The quantity index of cottonseed shall be determined as follows: (a) For upland cottonseed the quantity index shall equal four times percentage of oil plus six times percentage of ammonia,...

  6. 7 CFR 61.102 - Determination of quantity index.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Determination of quantity index. 61.102 Section 61.102... quantity index. The quantity index of cottonseed shall be determined as follows: (a) For upland cottonseed the quantity index shall equal four times percentage of oil plus six times percentage of ammonia,...

  7. 7 CFR 61.102 - Determination of quantity index.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Determination of quantity index. 61.102 Section 61.102... quantity index. The quantity index of cottonseed shall be determined as follows: (a) For upland cottonseed the quantity index shall equal four times percentage of oil plus six times percentage of ammonia,...

  8. DDO 68: A Flea with Smaller Fleas that on Him Prey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Annibali, Francesca; Nipoti, Carlo; Ciotti, Luca; Tosi, Monica; Aloisi, Alessandra; Bellazzini, Michele; Cignoni, Michele; Cusano, Felice; Paris, Diego; Sacchi, Elena

    2016-08-01

    We present new photometry of the dwarf irregular galaxy DDO 68, one of the most metal-poor and least massive dwarfs, located in the Lynx-Cancer Void. The images were acquired with the Large Binocular Telescope in the g and r passbands and show unequivocally that DDO 68 has previously unknown stellar streams related to the accretion of at least two smaller companions: a flea with smaller fleas biting it, to put it in Jonathan Swift’s words (from Jonathan Swift’s On Poetry: a Rhapsody: So, naturalists observe, a flea/has smaller fleas that on him prey/and these have smaller still to bite em/and so proceed ad infinitum). Our data provide direct observational evidence of multiple galaxy merging occurring at very low galactic mass scales. We present the results of an N-body simulation of the interaction of three dwarf galaxies that reproduce well the main morphological features of DDO 68.

  9. DDO 68: A Flea with Smaller Fleas that Prey on Him

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Annibali, Francesca; Nipoti, Carlo; Ciotti, Luca; Tosi, Monica; Aloisi, Alessandra; Bellazzini, Michele; Cignoni, Michele; Cusano, Felice; Paris, Diego; Sacchi, Elena

    2016-08-01

    We present new photometry of the dwarf irregular galaxy DDO 68, one of the most metal-poor and least massive dwarfs, located in the Lynx-Cancer Void. The images were acquired with the Large Binocular Telescope in the g and r passbands and show unequivocally that DDO 68 has previously unknown stellar streams related to the accretion of at least two smaller companions: a flea with smaller fleas biting it, to put it in Jonathan Swift’s words (from Jonathan Swift’s On Poetry: a Rhapsody: So, naturalists observe, a flea/has smaller fleas that on him prey/and these have smaller still to bite em/and so proceed ad infinitum). Our data provide direct observational evidence of multiple galaxy merging occurring at very low galactic mass scales. We present the results of an N-body simulation of the interaction of three dwarf galaxies that reproduce well the main morphological features of DDO 68.

  10. Pores Formed by Baxα5 Relax to a Smaller Size and Keep at Equilibrium

    PubMed Central

    Fuertes, Gustavo; García-Sáez, Ana J.; Esteban-Martín, Santi; Giménez, Diana; Sánchez-Muñoz, Orlando L.; Schwille, Petra; Salgado, Jesús

    2010-01-01

    Pores made by amphipathic cationic peptides (e.g., antimicrobials and fragments of pore-forming proteins) are typically studied by examining the kinetics of vesicle leakage after peptide addition or obtaining structural measurements in reconstituted peptide-lipid systems. In the first case, the pores have been considered transient phenomena that allow the relaxation of the peptide-membrane system. In the second, they correspond to equilibrium structures at minimum free energy. Here we reconcile both approaches by investigating the pore activity of the α5 fragment from the proapoptotic protein Bax (Baxα5) before and after equilibrium of peptide/vesicle complexes. Quenching assays on suspensions of large unilamellar vesicles suggest that in the presence of Baxα5, the vesicles maintain a leaky state for hours under equilibrium conditions. We proved and analyzed stable pores on single giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) in detail by monitoring the entrance of dyes added at different times after incubation with the peptide. When the GUVs came in contact with Baxα5, leakage started stochastically, was delayed for various periods of time, and in the majority of cases proceeded rapidly to completion. After hours in the presence of the peptide, the same individual GUVs that refilled completely at first instance maintained a porated state, which could be observed in subsequent leak-in events for serially added dyes. However, these long-term pores were smaller in size than the initial equilibration pores. Stable pores were also detected in GUVs made in the presence of Baxα5. The latter pores can be considered equilibrium states and may correspond to structures measured previously in bilayer stacks. Although pore formation may occur as a kinetic process, equilibrium pores may also be functionally relevant structures, especially in highly regulated systems such as the apoptotic mitochondrial pores induced by Bax. PMID:21044589

  11. Spill response: Reportable quantities are not the whole story

    SciTech Connect

    Christie, W.N. )

    1994-07-01

    Numerous articles about regulatory requirements for reporting hazardous substance spills or releases have appeared in professional trade journals. In most cases, the authors of such articles concentrate solely on a quantitative threshold commonly known as the reportable quantity, or RQ. The Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) lists RQs primarily in three places. RQs for hazardous substances regulated under the comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) are listed in CFR, Vol. 40, Part 302. RQs for extremely hazardous substances identified under the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act are listed in CFR, Vol. 40, Part 355, Appendix A. RQs for Clean Water Act toxic pollutants are listed in CFR, Vol. 40, Part 117. Whenever a hazardous substance is spilled or released in an amount equal to or greater than its RQ, the responsible party immediately must notify the National Response Center (and often several other government agencies). However, reporting requirements for hazardous substance releases are not limited to such situations. Few people presumably ever are confronted with a hazardous substance release for which RQ thresholds are relevant. However, many people routinely face hazardous substance spills and releases involving amounts smaller than the federal RQs. Such incidents in many cases must be reported to one or more regulatory agencies. It is essential for responsible parties to recognize that such less than RQ'' situations also may be reportable to federal authorities, as well as to state, regional and local agencies.

  12. Quantity without numbers and numbers without quantity in the parietal cortex.

    PubMed

    Cappelletti, Marinella; Muggleton, Neil; Walsh, Vincent

    2009-06-01

    A dominant view in numerical cognition is that processing the quantity indicated by numbers (e.g. deciding the larger between two numbers such as '12.07' or '15.02') relies on the intraparietal regions (IPS) of the cerebral cortex. However, it remains unclear whether the IPS could play a more general role in numerical cognition, for example in (1) quantity processing even with non-numerical stimuli (e.g. choosing the larger of 'bikini' and 'coat'); and/or (2) conceptual tasks involving numbers beyond those requiring quantity processing (e.g. attributing a summer date to either '12.07' or '15.02'). In this study we applied fMRI-guided TMS to the left and right IPS, while independently manipulating stimulus and task. Our results showed that IPS involvement in numerical cognition is neither stimulus-specific nor specific for conceptual tasks. Thus, quantity judgments with numerical and non-numerical stimuli were equally affected by IPS-TMS, as well as a number conceptual task not requiring quantity comparisons. However, IPS-TMS showed no impairment for perceptual decisions on numbers without any conceptual processing (i.e. colour judgment), nor for conceptual decisions that did not involve quantity or number stimuli (e.g. summer object: 'bikini' or 'coat'?). These results are consistent with proposals that the parietal areas are engaged in the conceptual representation of numbers but they challenge the most common view that number processing is so automatic that the simple presentation of numbers activates the IPS and a sense of magnitude. Rather, our results show that the IPS is only necessary when conceptual operations need to be explicitly oriented to numerical concepts. PMID:19236924

  13. Quantity without numbers and numbers without quantity in the parietal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Cappelletti, Marinella; Muggleton, Neil; Walsh, Vincent

    2009-01-01

    A dominant view in numerical cognition is that processing the quantity indicated by numbers (e.g. deciding the larger between two numbers such as ‘12.07’ or ‘15.02’) relies on the intraparietal regions (IPS) of the cerebral cortex. However, it remains unclear whether the IPS could play a more general role in numerical cognition, for example in (1) quantity processing even with non-numerical stimuli (e.g. choosing the larger of ‘bikini’ and ‘coat’); and/or (2) conceptual tasks involving numbers beyond those requiring quantity processing (e.g. attributing a summer date to either ‘12.07’ or ‘15.02’). In this study we applied fMRI-guided TMS to the left and right IPS, while independently manipulating stimulus and task. Our results showed that IPS involvement in numerical cognition is neither stimulus-specific nor specific for conceptual tasks. Thus, quantity judgments with numerical and non-numerical stimuli were equally affected by IPS-TMS, as well as a number conceptual task not requiring quantity comparisons. However, IPS-TMS showed no impairment for perceptual decisions on numbers without any conceptual processing (i.e. colour judgment), nor for conceptual decisions that did not involve quantity or number stimuli (e.g. summer object: ‘bikini’ or ‘coat’?). These results are consistent with proposals that the parietal areas are engaged in the conceptual representation of numbers but they challenge the most common view that number processing is so automatic that the simple presentation of numbers activates the IPS and a sense of magnitude. Rather, our results show that the IPS is only necessary when conceptual operations need to be explicitly oriented to numerical concepts. PMID:19236924

  14. Potlining Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolf Keller

    2004-08-10

    In this project, a concept to improve the performance of aluminum production cells by introducing potlining additives was examined and tested. Boron oxide was added to cathode blocks, and titanium was dissolved in the metal pool; this resulted in the formation of titanium diboride and caused the molten aluminum to wet the carbonaceous cathode surface. Such wetting reportedly leads to operational improvements and extended cell life. In addition, boron oxide suppresses cyanide formation. This final report presents and discusses the results of this project. Substantial economic benefits for the practical implementation of the technology are projected, especially for modern cells with graphitized blocks. For example, with an energy savings of about 5% and an increase in pot life from 1500 to 2500 days, a cost savings of $ 0.023 per pound of aluminum produced is projected for a 200 kA pot.

  15. Phosphazene additives

    SciTech Connect

    Harrup, Mason K; Rollins, Harry W

    2013-11-26

    An additive comprising a phosphazene compound that has at least two reactive functional groups and at least one capping functional group bonded to phosphorus atoms of the phosphazene compound. One of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with cellulose and the other of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with a resin, such as an amine resin of a polycarboxylic acid resin. The at least one capping functional group is selected from the group consisting of a short chain ether group, an alkoxy group, or an aryloxy group. Also disclosed are an additive-resin admixture, a method of treating a wood product, and a wood product.

  16. Quantity quotient reporting. Comparison of various models.

    PubMed

    Haeckel, Rainer; Wosniok, Werner; Postma, Theo

    2015-11-01

    Quantity quotient (QQ) reporting has been proposed by several authors to improve or support the present situation of presenting quantitative laboratory results. This proposal is based on a concept (symmetrical model) known from the intelligence quotient, which was developed to make intelligence tests comparable. In laboratory medicine, however, most measurands follow a non-symmetrical (skewed) distribution, leading to a compression of the QQ values at the lower end of the reference interval. This effect can be avoided by several alternatives. Three models considering non-symmetrical distributions are compared with the symmetrical model in the present study. The corresponding algorithms can be easily handled on the Excel platform. Graphical presentation of the QQ allows a quick overview of test results if they occur in a large number. PMID:26536582

  17. 40 CFR 262.43 - Additional reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... require generators to furnish additional reports concerning the quantities and disposition of wastes identified or listed in 40 CFR part 261. ...) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Recordkeeping and Reporting § 262.43...

  18. 40 CFR 262.43 - Additional reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... require generators to furnish additional reports concerning the quantities and disposition of wastes identified or listed in 40 CFR part 261. ...) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Recordkeeping and Reporting § 262.43...

  19. 40 CFR 262.43 - Additional reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... require generators to furnish additional reports concerning the quantities and disposition of wastes identified or listed in 40 CFR part 261. ...) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Recordkeeping and Reporting § 262.43...

  20. 40 CFR 262.43 - Additional reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... require generators to furnish additional reports concerning the quantities and disposition of wastes identified or listed in 40 CFR part 261. ...) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Recordkeeping and Reporting § 262.43...

  1. 40 CFR 262.43 - Additional reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... require generators to furnish additional reports concerning the quantities and disposition of wastes identified or listed in 40 CFR part 261. ...) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Recordkeeping and Reporting § 262.43...

  2. Simulating the magnetized liner inertial fusion plasma confinement with smaller-scale experiments [Simulating the MagLIF plasma confinement with smaller-scale experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Ryutov, D. D.; Cuneo, M. E.; Herrmann, M. C.; Sinars, D. B.; Slutz, S. A.

    2012-06-20

    The recently proposed magnetized liner inertial fusion approach to a Z-pinch driven fusion [Slutz et al., Phys. Plasmas17, 056303 (2010)] is based on the use of an axial magnetic field to provide plasma thermal insulation from the walls of the imploding liner. The characteristic plasma transport regimes in the proposed approach cover parameter domains that have not been studied yet in either magnetic confinement or inertial confinement experiments. In this article, an analysis is presented of the scalability of the key physical processes that determine the plasma confinement. The dimensionless scaling parameters are identified and conclusion is drawn that the plasma behavior in scaled-down experiments can correctly represent the full-scale plasma, provided these parameters are approximately the same in two systems. Furthermore, this observation is important in that smaller-scale experiments typically have better diagnostic access and more experiments per year are possible.

  3. ISO terminological analysis of the VIM3 concepts 'quantity' and 'kind-of-quantity'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dybkaer, René

    2010-06-01

    The recent third edition of the International Vocabulary of Metrology—Basic and General Concepts and Associated Terms (VIM3) (JCGM 200:2008 (Sèvres: BIPM); also ISO/IEC Guide 99:2007 3rd edn (Geneva: ISO)) has undergone important changes, not least by adhering to ISO International Standards on terminology work (ISO 704:2000 Terminology Work—Principles and Methods; ISO 1087-1:2000 Terminology Work—Vocabulary—Part 1: Theory and Application; ISO 10241:1992 International Terminology Standards—Preparation and Layout). A recent critique (Mari 2009 Metrologia 46 L11-L15)—based on Object-Oriented Analysis—centres on the meaning and relation of the two first and fundamental concepts 'quantity'Single quotation marks ('...') or bold type indicate a concept when necessary, double quotation marks ("...") a term or quotation. and the new entry 'kind-of-quantity'. This makes it timely to analyse the two concepts, their relation and their respective role in forming the generic hierarchical concept system of VIM3 from 'property' to individual quantities. It is suggested that 'kind-of-quantity' acts as a division criterionSynonyms are "criterion of subdivision", "type of characteristic(s)", see the annexe..

  4. 16 CFR 500.25 - Net quantity, average quantity, permitted variations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... variations. 500.25 Section 500.25 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES, REGULATIONS, STATEMENT OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION AND EXEMPTIONS UNDER THE FAIR PACKAGING AND LABELING ACT REGULATIONS UNDER SECTION 4 OF THE FAIR PACKAGING AND LABELING ACT § 500.25 Net quantity, average...

  5. Numerical study of an oscillating smaller cylinder in the wake of an upstream larger cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yangyang; Yu, Dingyong; Wang, Xikun; Tan, Soon Keat

    2012-06-01

    A numerical study of flow around two tandem cylinders with unequal diameters was carried out. The upstream larger cylinder was fixed and the downstream smaller cylinder was allowed to oscillate in the transverse direction only. Comparisons of the experimental and numerical results were made to investigate the effects of the gap ratio on the maximum vibration amplitude and vortex shedding frequency. The results showed that the vibration response of the smaller cylinder was significantly affected by the presence of the upstream larger cylinder, and resulted in greatly reduced vibration amplitudes. With an increasing gap ratio, the vibration amplitude increased. However, the magnitude was lower than that corresponding to a single cylinder (with the same diameter as that of the downstream smaller cylinder) under the same flow conditions.

  6. Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) polymer coatings facilitate smaller neural recording electrodes.

    PubMed

    Ludwig, Kip A; Langhals, Nicholas B; Joseph, Mike D; Richardson-Burns, Sarah M; Hendricks, Jeffrey L; Kipke, Daryl R

    2011-02-01

    We investigated using poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) to lower the impedance of small, gold recording electrodes with initial impedances outside of the effective recording range. Smaller electrode sites enable more densely packed arrays, increasing the number of input and output channels to and from the brain. Moreover, smaller electrode sizes promote smaller probe designs; decreasing the dimensions of the implanted probe has been demonstrated to decrease the inherent immune response, a known contributor to the failure of long-term implants. As expected, chronically implanted control electrodes were unable to record well-isolated unit activity, primarily as a result of a dramatically increased noise floor. Conversely, electrodes coated with PEDOT consistently recorded high-quality neural activity, and exhibited a much lower noise floor than controls. These results demonstrate that PEDOT coatings enable electrode designs 15 µm in diameter. PMID:21245527

  7. Age does not count: resilience of quantity processing in healthy ageing

    PubMed Central

    Lambrechts, Anna; Karolis, Vyacheslav; Garcia, Sara; Obende, Jennifer; Cappelletti, Marinella

    2013-01-01

    Quantity skills have been extensively studied in terms of their development and pathological decline. Recently, numerosity discrimination (i.e., how many items are in a set) has been shown to be resilient to healthy ageing despite relying on inhibitory skills, but whether processing continuous quantities such as time and space is equally well-maintained in ageing participants is not known. Life-long exposure to quantity-related problems may progressively refine proficiency in quantity tasks, or alternatively quantity skills may decline with age. In addition, is not known whether the tight relationship between quantity dimensions typically shown in their interactions is preserved in ageing. To address these questions, two experimental paradigms were used in 38 younger and 32 older healthy adults who showed typical age-related decline in attention, executive function and memory tasks. In both groups we first assessed time and space discrimination independently using a two-choice task (i.e., “Which of two horizontal lines is longer in duration or extension?”), and found that time and space processing were equally accurate in younger and older participants. In a second paradigm, we assessed the relation between different quantity dimensions which were presented as a dynamic pattern of dots independently changing in duration, spatial extension and numerosity. Younger and older participants again showed a similar profile of interaction between number, cumulative area and duration, although older adults showed a greater sensitivity to task-irrelevant information than younger adults in the cumulative area task but lower sensitivity in the duration task. Continuous quantity processing seems therefore resilient to ageing similar to numerosity and to other non-quantity skills like vocabulary or implicit memory; however, ageing might differentially affect different quantity dimensions. PMID:24339818

  8. Stormwater management impacts on urban stream water quality and quantity during and after development in Clarksburg, MD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loperfido, J. V.; Noe, G. B.; Jarnagin, S.; Mohamoud, Y. M.; Van Ness, K.; Hogan, D. M.

    2012-12-01

    Urbanization and urban land use leads to degradation of local stream habitat and 'urban stream syndrome.' Best Management Practices (BMPs) are often used in an attempt to mitigate the impact of urban land use on stream water quality and quantity. Traditional development has employed stormwater BMPs that were placed in a centralized manner located either in the stream channel or near the riparian zone to treat stormwater runoff from large drainage areas; however, urban streams have largely remained impaired. Recently, distributed placement of BMPs throughout the landscape has been implemented in an attempt to detain, treat, and infiltrate stormwater runoff from smaller drainage areas near its source. Despite increasing implementation of distributed BMPs, little has been reported on the catchment-scale (1-10 km^2) performance of distributed BMPs and how they compare to centralized BMPs. The Clarksburg Special Protection Area (CSPA), located in the Washington, DC exurbs within the larger Chesapeake Bay watershed, is undergoing rapid urbanization and employs distributed BMPs on the landscape that treat small drainage areas with the goal of preserving high-quality stream resources in the area. In addition, the presence of a nearby traditionally developed (centralized BMPs) catchment and an undeveloped forested catchment makes the CSPA an ideal setting to understand how the best available stormwater management technology implemented during and after development affects stream water quality and quantity through a comparative watershed analysis. The Clarksburg Integrated Monitoring Partnership is a consortium of local and federal agencies and universities that conducts research in the CSPA including: monitoring of stream water quality, geomorphology, and biology; analysis of stream hydrological and water quality data; and GIS mapping and analysis of land cover, elevation change and BMP implementation data. Here, the impacts of urbanization on stream water quantity

  9. Bulky waste quantities and treatment methods in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Anna W; Petersen, Claus; Christensen, Thomas H

    2012-02-01

    Bulky waste is a significant and increasing waste stream in Denmark. However, only little research has been done on its composition and treatment. In the present study, data about collection methods, waste quantities and treatment methods for bulky waste were obtained from two municipalities. In addition a sorting analysis was conducted on combustible waste, which is a major fraction of bulky waste in Denmark. The generation of bulky waste was found to be 150-250 kg capita(-1) year(-1), and 90% of the waste was collected at recycling centres; the rest through kerbside collection. Twelve main fractions were identified of which ten were recyclable and constituted 50-60% of the total quantity. The others were combustible waste for incineration (30-40%) and non-combustible waste for landfilling (10%). The largest fractions by mass were combustible waste, bricks and tile, concrete, non-combustible waste, wood, and metal scrap, which together made up more than 90% of the total waste amounts. The amount of combustible waste could be significantly reduced through better sorting. Many of the waste fractions consisted of composite products that underwent thorough separation before being recycled. The recyclable materials were in many cases exported to other countries which made it difficult to track their destination and further treatment. PMID:21890876

  10. Evaluating the uncertainty of input quantities in measurement models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Possolo, Antonio; Elster, Clemens

    2014-06-01

    The Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM) gives guidance about how values and uncertainties should be assigned to the input quantities that appear in measurement models. This contribution offers a concrete proposal for how that guidance may be updated in light of the advances in the evaluation and expression of measurement uncertainty that were made in the course of the twenty years that have elapsed since the publication of the GUM, and also considering situations that the GUM does not yet contemplate. Our motivation is the ongoing conversation about a new edition of the GUM. While generally we favour a Bayesian approach to uncertainty evaluation, we also recognize the value that other approaches may bring to the problems considered here, and focus on methods for uncertainty evaluation and propagation that are widely applicable, including to cases that the GUM has not yet addressed. In addition to Bayesian methods, we discuss maximum-likelihood estimation, robust statistical methods, and measurement models where values of nominal properties play the same role that input quantities play in traditional models. We illustrate these general-purpose techniques in concrete examples, employing data sets that are realistic but that also are of conveniently small sizes. The supplementary material available online lists the R computer code that we have used to produce these examples (stacks.iop.org/Met/51/3/339/mmedia). Although we strive to stay close to clause 4 of the GUM, which addresses the evaluation of uncertainty for input quantities, we depart from it as we review the classes of measurement models that we believe are generally useful in contemporary measurement science. We also considerably expand and update the treatment that the GUM gives to Type B evaluations of uncertainty: reviewing the state-of-the-art, disciplined approach to the elicitation of expert knowledge, and its encapsulation in probability distributions that are usable in

  11. A horizontal mobile measuring system for atmospheric quantities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hübner, J.; Olesch, J.; Falke, H.; Meixner, F. X.; Foken, T.

    2014-05-01

    A fully automatic Horizontal Mobile Measuring System (HMMS) for atmospheric quantities has been developed. The HMMS is based on the drive mechanism of a garden railway system and can be installed at any location and with any measuring track. In addition to meteorological quantities (temperature, humidity and short/long-wave down/upwelling radiation), HMMS also measures trace gas concentrations (carbon dioxide and ozone). While sufficient spatial resolution is a problem even for measurements on distributed towers, this could be easily achieved with the HMMS, which has been specifically developed to obtain higher information density about horizontal gradients in a heterogeneous forest ecosystem. There, horizontal gradients of meteorological quantities and trace gases could be immense, particularly at the transition from a dense forest to an open clearing, with large impact on meteorological parameters and exchange processes. Consequently, HMMS was firstly applied during EGER IOP3 project (ExchanGE processes in mountainous Regions - Intense Observation Period 3) in the Fichtelgebirge Mountains (SE Germany) during summer 2011. At a constant 1 m above ground, the measuring track of the HMMS consisted of a straight line perpendicular to the forest edge, starting in the dense spruce forest and leading 75 m into an open clearing. Tags with bar codes, mounted every meter on the wooden substructure, allowed (a) keeping the speed of the HMMS constant (approx. 0.5 m s-1) and (b) operation of the HMMS in a continuous back and forth running mode. During EGER IOP3, HMMS was operational for almost 250 h. Results show that - due to considerably long response times (between 4 s and 20 s) of commercial temperature, humidity and the radiation sensors - true spatial variations of the meteorological quantities could not be adequately captured (mainly at the forest edge). Corresponding dynamical (spatial) errors of the measurement values were corrected on the basis of well defined

  12. A horizontal mobile measuring system for atmospheric quantities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hübner, J.; Olesch, J.; Falke, H.; Meixner, F. X.; Foken, T.

    2014-09-01

    A fully automatic horizontal mobile measuring system (HMMS) for atmospheric quantities has been developed. The HMMS is based on the drive mechanism of a garden railway system and can be installed at any location and along any measuring track. In addition to meteorological quantities (temperature, humidity and short-/long-wave down/upwelling radiation), HMMS also measures trace gas concentrations (carbon dioxide and ozone). While sufficient spatial resolution is a problem even for measurements on distributed towers, this could be easily achieved with the HMMS, which has been specifically developed to obtain higher information density about horizontal gradients in a heterogeneous forest ecosystem. There, horizontal gradients of meteorological quantities and trace gases could be immense, particularly at the transition from a dense forest to an open clearing, with large impact on meteorological parameters and exchange processes. Consequently, HMMS was firstly applied during the EGER IOP3 project (ExchanGE processes in mountainous Regions - Intense Observation Period 3) in the Fichtelgebirge Mountains (SE Germany) during summer 2011. At a constant 1 m above ground, the measuring track of the HMMS consisted of a straight line perpendicular to the forest edge, starting in the dense spruce forest and leading 75 m into an open clearing. Tags with bar codes, mounted every metre on the wooden substructure, allowed (a) keeping the speed of the HMMS constant (approx. 0.5 m s-1) and (b) operation of the HMMS in a continuous back and forth running mode. During EGER IOP3, HMMS was operational for almost 250 h. Results show that - due to considerably long response times (between 4 and 20 s) of commercial temperature, humidity and the radiation sensors - true spatial variations of the meteorological quantities could not be adequately captured (mainly at the forest edge). Corresponding dynamical (spatial) errors of the measurement values were corrected on the basis of well

  13. 7 CFR 1207.511 - Determination of assessable quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Rules and Regulations Assessments § 1207.511 Determination of assessable quantity. The assessable quantity of potatoes in any lot shall be determined on the basis...

  14. 7 CFR 1207.511 - Determination of assessable quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Rules and Regulations Assessments § 1207.511 Determination of assessable quantity. The assessable quantity of potatoes in any lot shall be determined on the basis...

  15. 7 CFR 1207.511 - Determination of assessable quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Rules and Regulations Assessments § 1207.511 Determination of assessable quantity. The assessable quantity of potatoes in any lot shall be determined on the basis...

  16. 7 CFR 1207.511 - Determination of assessable quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Rules and Regulations Assessments § 1207.511 Determination of assessable quantity. The assessable quantity of potatoes in any lot shall be determined on the basis...

  17. Category 3 threshold quantities for hazard categorization of nonreactor facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Mandigo, R.L.

    1996-02-13

    This document provides the information necessary to determine Hazard Category 3 threshold quantities for those isotopes of interest not listed in WHC-CM-4-46, Section 4, Table 1.''Threshold Quantities.''

  18. On the Hojman conservation quantities in Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paliathanasis, A.; Leach, P. G. L.; Capozziello, S.

    2016-04-01

    We discuss the application of the Hojman's Symmetry Approach for the determination of conservation laws in Cosmology, which has been recently applied by various authors in different cosmological models. We show that Hojman's method for regular Hamiltonian systems, where the Hamiltonian function is one of the involved equations of the system, is equivalent to the application of Noether's Theorem for generalized transformations. That means that for minimally-coupled scalar field cosmology or other modified theories which are conformally related with scalar-field cosmology, like f (R) gravity, the application of Hojman's method provide us with the same results with that of Noether's Theorem. Moreover we study the special Ansatz. ϕ (t) = ϕ (a (t)) , which has been introduced for a minimally-coupled scalar field, and we study the Lie and Noether point symmetries for the reduced equation. We show that under this Ansatz, the unknown function of the model cannot be constrained by the requirement of the existence of a conservation law and that the Hojman conservation quantity which arises for the reduced equation is nothing more than the functional form of Noetherian conservation laws for the free particle. On the other hand, for f (T) teleparallel gravity, it is not the existence of Hojman's conservation laws which provide us with the special function form of f (T) functions, but the requirement that the reduced second-order differential equation admits a Jacobi Last multiplier, while the new conservation law is nothing else that the Hamiltonian function of the reduced equation.

  19. 13 CFR 120.215 - What interest rates apply to smaller loans?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What interest rates apply to... BUSINESS LOANS Policies Specific to 7(a) Loans Maturities; Interest Rates; Loan and Guarantee Amounts § 120.215 What interest rates apply to smaller loans? For a loan over $25,000 but not exceeding $50,000,...

  20. Honors Programs at Smaller Colleges. 3rd Edition. National Collegiate Honors Council Monograph Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuman, Samuel

    2011-01-01

    This monograph focuses upon areas of special concern to those working with honors at smaller colleges and universities: mission, recruitment, facilities, administration, budget, and curriculum. In each area, the author makes some general suggestions about overall operating principles, note specific issues that can lead to difficulties, and suggest…

  1. Focus on California's Class-Size Reduction: Smaller Classes Aim To Launch Early Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McRobbie, Joan

    Smaller class sizes in California were viewed as a way to improve K-3 education, especially in the area of literacy. The urgency to act prompted state leaders to adopt class-size reduction (CSR) without knowing for sure that it would work and without establishing a formal procedure for evaluating the program. This report looks at past research on…

  2. Neonatal morbidity in growth-discordant monochorionic twins: comparison between the larger and the smaller twin.

    PubMed

    Lopriore, Enrico; Sluimers, Carolien; Pasman, Suzanne A; Middeldorp, Johanna M; Oepkes, Dick; Walther, Frans J

    2012-08-01

    Fetal growth restriction in singletons has been shown to enhance fetal lung maturation and reduce the risk of respiratory distress syndrome due to increased endogenous steroid production. However, data on lung maturation in growth-discordant monochorionic (thus, identical) twins are lacking. Our objective was to compare the risk of severe neonatal morbidity between the larger and the smaller twin in monochorionic twins with birth weight discordance (BWD). We included in the study all consecutive monochorionic diamniotic pregnancies with severe BWD (≥25%) and two live-born twins delivered at our center (n=47 twin pairs). We compared the incidence of neonatal morbidity, particularly respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), and cerebral lesions between the larger and the smaller co-twin. The incidence of severe neonatal morbidity in the larger and smaller twin was 38% (18/47) and 19% (9/47), respectively (odds ratio (OR) 2.66, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.94-7.44) and was due primarily to the higher incidence of RDS, 32% (15/47) and 6% (3/47), respectively (OR 6.88, 95% CI 1.66-32.83). In conclusion, this study shows that the larger twin in monochorionic twin pairs with BWD is at increased risk of severe neonatal morbidity, particularly RDS, compared to the smaller twin. PMID:22854118

  3. Disadvantaged Students in the Early Grades: Will Smaller Classes Help Them?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaag Iversen, Jon Marius; Bonesrønning, Hans

    2013-01-01

    This paper uses data from the Norwegian elementary school to test whether students from disadvantaged backgrounds benefit from smaller classes. The data cover one cohort of fourth graders who have been treated in small versus large classes for a period of three years. The Norwegian class size rule of maximum 28 students is used to generate…

  4. Exploring Superintendent Leadership in Smaller Urban Districts: Does District Size Influence Superintendent Behavior?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hentschke, Guilbert C.; Nayfack, Michelle B.; Wohlstetter, Priscilla

    2009-01-01

    Much of the existing literature on urban school reform focuses on how the relatively small number of our nation's largest urban districts are approaching school reform with these objectives in mind. However, does smaller district size have any bearing, direct or indirect, on the nature of superintendent leadership? The authors' exploratory…

  5. Addressing the Multiplication Makes Bigger and Division Makes Smaller Misconceptions via Prediction and Clickers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Kien H.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a lesson that uses prediction items, clickers and visuals via PowerPoint slides to help prospective middle-school teachers address two common misconceptions: multiplication makes bigger and division makes smaller (MMB-DMS). Classroom research was conducted to explore the viability of such a lesson. Results show that the…

  6. Wage and Salary Administration for Smaller Institutions of Higher Education. A Basic Guide to Management Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of College and University Business Officers, Washington, DC.

    This manual provides a basic guide to wage and salary administration at smaller institutions of higher education--institutions with 400 or fewer full-time nonacademic employees and a relatively uncomplicated administrative organization. Emphasis is placed on definitions and benefits of the process, assigning responsibility and authority, deciding…

  7. Effects of haloperidol and d-amphetamine on perceived quantity of food and tones.

    PubMed

    Martin-Iverson, M T; Wilkie, D; Fibiger, H C

    1987-01-01

    The hypothesis that dopamine (DA) receptor agonists and antagonists affect "hedonia" associated with natural rewards was tested, using a psychophysical procedure previously shown to be sensitive to both the sweetness of food and the motivational state of rats. Rats were first trained to discriminate between two different quantities of a rewarding stimulus by pressing one of two levers. Perceived quantity was subsequently derived from generalization trials of intermediate quantities. Haloperidol (0.03-0.083 mg/kg), a DA receptor antagonist, did not influence perceived food quantity, an indirect marker of hedonic value. On the other hand, d-amphetamine (0.25-1.0 mg/kg) affected perceived food quantity in a dose-dependent fashion, and in the same direction as occurs after increasing hunger or food sweetness. Both haloperidol and amphetamine influenced the perceived quantity of a stimulus without natural reinforcing properties (a tone), but the effect of amphetamine on the perceived quantity of this initially neutral stimulus was opposite in direction to that observed with food. These results suggest that whereas amphetamine affects hedonic processes, haloperidol does not. In addition, it seems that haloperidol probably produces its actions through effects on motor mechanisms or by interfering with the response-facilitating properties of rewards. PMID:3124167

  8. Geomorphic effects of wood quantity and characteristics in three Italian gravel-bed rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravazzolo, D.; Mao, L.; Picco, L.; Sitzia, T.; Lenzi, M. A.

    2015-10-01

    In-channel wood is a fundamental component of the riverine system. Its nature, abundance, and distribution as well as the role of wood in trapping sediment have been reported by many authors. However, a lack of knowledge still exists on how the geomorphic effects, quantity, and characteristics of in-channel wood may be altered by different human pressures. For this reason, in-channel wood was surveyed in the Brenta, Piave, and Tagliamento gravel-bed rivers (northeastern Italy), which are altered by different degrees of human pressures. Both single pieces of wood (> 0.1 m diameter, and/or > 1 m long) and accumulations of large wood were measured on cross sectional transects within the active channels. Overall, 3430 (8.4, 13.9 and 10.7 elements/ha in the Brenta, Piave, and Tagliamento rivers, respectively) of isolated pieces and 591 (9.8, 15.0, and 11.0 wood accumulations/ha in the Brenta, Piave, and Tagliamento rivers, respectively) accumulations were surveyed in the study sites. In the Brenta and Piave rivers, which feature the greater human pressures, logs appear in a worse state of conservation. In the less disturbed Tagliamento River, the logs appear to be smaller and in a better state of conservation with higher capacity for resprouting. In addition, higher geomorphic interactions were found between wood and sediments in the Tagliamento River. Because of its ability to create geomorphic effects, in-channel wood represents an important source of complexity that can increase habitat diversity in river systems. A better knowledge of the role of human disturbances on the characteristics and abundance of large wood in river systems could help in developing better river management and the practical application of river ecology.

  9. 7 CFR 760.1307 - Dairy operation payment quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Dairy operation payment quantity. 760.1307 Section 760..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS INDEMNITY PAYMENT PROGRAMS Dairy Economic Loss Assistance Payment Program § 760.1307 Dairy operation payment quantity. (a) A dairy operation's payment quantity...

  10. 7 CFR 1430.207 - Dairy operation payment quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Dairy operation payment quantity. 1430.207 Section... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS DAIRY PRODUCTS Milk Income Loss Contract Program § 1430.207 Dairy operation payment quantity. (a) The applicant's payment quantity of...

  11. 7 CFR 1430.207 - Dairy operation payment quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Dairy operation payment quantity. 1430.207 Section... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS DAIRY PRODUCTS Milk Income Loss Contract Program § 1430.207 Dairy operation payment quantity. (a) The applicant's payment quantity of...

  12. 7 CFR 1430.207 - Dairy operation payment quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Dairy operation payment quantity. 1430.207 Section... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS DAIRY PRODUCTS Milk Income Loss Contract Program § 1430.207 Dairy operation payment quantity. (a) The applicant's payment quantity of...

  13. 7 CFR 760.1307 - Dairy operation payment quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Dairy operation payment quantity. 760.1307 Section 760..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS INDEMNITY PAYMENT PROGRAMS Dairy Economic Loss Assistance Payment Program § 760.1307 Dairy operation payment quantity. (a) A dairy operation's payment quantity...

  14. 7 CFR 1430.207 - Dairy operation payment quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Dairy operation payment quantity. 1430.207 Section... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS DAIRY PRODUCTS Milk Income Loss Contract Program § 1430.207 Dairy operation payment quantity. (a) The applicant's payment quantity of...

  15. 7 CFR 760.1307 - Dairy operation payment quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dairy operation payment quantity. 760.1307 Section 760..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS INDEMNITY PAYMENT PROGRAMS Dairy Economic Loss Assistance Payment Program § 760.1307 Dairy operation payment quantity. (a) A dairy operation's payment quantity...

  16. 7 CFR 1430.207 - Dairy operation payment quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dairy operation payment quantity. 1430.207 Section... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS DAIRY PRODUCTS Milk Income Loss Contract Program § 1430.207 Dairy operation payment quantity. (a) The applicant's payment quantity of...

  17. 7 CFR 760.1307 - Dairy operation payment quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Dairy operation payment quantity. 760.1307 Section 760..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS INDEMNITY PAYMENT PROGRAMS Dairy Economic Loss Assistance Payment Program § 760.1307 Dairy operation payment quantity. (a) A dairy operation's payment quantity...

  18. 7 CFR 760.1307 - Dairy operation payment quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Dairy operation payment quantity. 760.1307 Section 760..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS INDEMNITY PAYMENT PROGRAMS Dairy Economic Loss Assistance Payment Program § 760.1307 Dairy operation payment quantity. (a) A dairy operation's payment quantity...

  19. 27 CFR 25.183 - Determination of quantity transferred.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Brewery of Same Ownership § 25.183 Determination of quantity transferred. The shipping brewer shall determine the quantity of beer shipped at the time of removal from the consignor brewery, and the receiving brewer shall determine the quantity of beer received at the time of receipt at the consignee brewery....

  20. 27 CFR 25.183 - Determination of quantity transferred.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Brewery of Same Ownership § 25.183 Determination of quantity transferred. The shipping brewer shall determine the quantity of beer shipped at the time of removal from the consignor brewery, and the receiving brewer shall determine the quantity of beer received at the time of receipt at the consignee brewery....

  1. 27 CFR 25.183 - Determination of quantity transferred.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Brewery of Same Ownership § 25.183 Determination of quantity transferred. The shipping brewer shall determine the quantity of beer shipped at the time of removal from the consignor brewery, and the receiving brewer shall determine the quantity of beer received at the time of receipt at the consignee brewery....

  2. 27 CFR 25.183 - Determination of quantity transferred.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Brewery of Same Ownership § 25.183 Determination of quantity transferred. The shipping brewer shall determine the quantity of beer shipped at the time of removal from the consignor brewery, and the receiving brewer shall determine the quantity of beer received at the time of receipt at the consignee brewery....

  3. 27 CFR 25.183 - Determination of quantity transferred.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Brewery of Same Ownership § 25.183 Determination of quantity transferred. The shipping brewer shall determine the quantity of beer shipped at the time of removal from the consignor brewery, and the receiving brewer shall determine the quantity of beer received at the time of receipt at the consignee brewery....

  4. 43 CFR 3430.1-2 - Commercial quantities defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Commercial quantities defined. 3430.1-2... Leases § 3430.1-2 Commercial quantities defined. For the purpose of § 3430.1-1 of this title, commercial quantities is defined as follows: (a) The coal deposit discovered under the prospecting permit shall be...

  5. 41 CFR 101-27.102 - Economic order quantity principle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Economic order quantity... MANAGEMENT 27.1-Stock Replenishment § 101-27.102 Economic order quantity principle. The economic order quantity (EOQ) principle is a means for achieving economical inventory management. Application of the...

  6. 41 CFR 101-27.102 - Economic order quantity principle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2011-07-01 2007-07-01 true Economic order quantity... MANAGEMENT 27.1-Stock Replenishment § 101-27.102 Economic order quantity principle. The economic order quantity (EOQ) principle is a means for achieving economical inventory management. Application of the...

  7. 41 CFR 101-27.102 - Economic order quantity principle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Economic order quantity... MANAGEMENT 27.1-Stock Replenishment § 101-27.102 Economic order quantity principle. The economic order quantity (EOQ) principle is a means for achieving economical inventory management. Application of the...

  8. 41 CFR 101-27.102 - Economic order quantity principle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Economic order quantity... MANAGEMENT 27.1-Stock Replenishment § 101-27.102 Economic order quantity principle. The economic order quantity (EOQ) principle is a means for achieving economical inventory management. Application of the...

  9. 41 CFR 101-27.102 - Economic order quantity principle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Economic order quantity... MANAGEMENT 27.1-Stock Replenishment § 101-27.102 Economic order quantity principle. The economic order quantity (EOQ) principle is a means for achieving economical inventory management. Application of the...

  10. 48 CFR 52.211-18 - Variation in Estimated Quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Variation in Estimated....211-18 Variation in Estimated Quantity. As prescribed in 11.703(c), insert the following clause in... in the estimated quantity of unit-priced items: Variation in Estimated Quantity (APR 1984) If...

  11. 48 CFR 852.216-70 - Estimated quantities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Estimated quantities. 852... Estimated quantities. As prescribed in 816.504(a), insert the following clause: Estimated Quantities (APR... percent of the estimated requirement or which provide that the Government shall guarantee any...

  12. Quantity and structure of word knowledge across adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Salthouse, Timothy A.

    2014-01-01

    Cross-sectional and longitudinal data from moderately large samples of healthy adults confirmed prior findings of age-related declines in measures of the quantity of word knowledge beginning around age 65. Additional analyses were carried out to investigate the interrelations of different types of vocabulary knowledge at various periods in adulthood. Although the organizational structures were similar in adults of different ages, scores on tests with different formats had weaker relations to a higher-order vocabulary construct beginning when adults were in their 60's. The within-person dispersion among different vocabulary test scores was also greater after about 65 years of age. The discovery of quantitative decreases in amount of knowledge occurring at about the same age as qualitative shifts in the structure of knowledge raises the possibility that the two types of changes may be causally linked. PMID:24932055

  13. Thermodynamics of quantum systems with multiple conserved quantities

    PubMed Central

    Guryanova, Yelena; Popescu, Sandu; Short, Anthony J.; Silva, Ralph; Skrzypczyk, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Recently, there has been much progress in understanding the thermodynamics of quantum systems, even for small individual systems. Most of this work has focused on the standard case where energy is the only conserved quantity. Here we consider a generalization of this work to deal with multiple conserved quantities. Each conserved quantity, which, importantly, need not commute with the rest, can be extracted and stored in its own battery. Unlike the standard case, in which the amount of extractable energy is constrained, here there is no limit on how much of any individual conserved quantity can be extracted. However, other conserved quantities must be supplied, and the second law constrains the combination of extractable quantities and the trade-offs between them. We present explicit protocols that allow us to perform arbitrarily good trade-offs and extract arbitrarily good combinations of conserved quantities from individual quantum systems. PMID:27384384

  14. Law of genome evolution direction: Coding information quantity grows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Liao-Fu

    2009-06-01

    The problem of the directionality of genome evolution is studied. Based on the analysis of C-value paradox and the evolution of genome size, we propose that the function-coding information quantity of a genome always grows in the course of evolution through sequence duplication, expansion of code, and gene transfer from outside. The function-coding information quantity of a genome consists of two parts, p-coding information quantity that encodes functional protein and n-coding information quantity that encodes other functional elements. The evidences on the law of the evolutionary directionality are indicated. The needs of function are the motive force for the expansion of coding information quantity, and the information quantity expansion is the way to make functional innovation and extension for a species. Therefore, the increase of coding information quantity of a genome is a measure of the acquired new function, and it determines the directionality of genome evolution.

  15. Thermodynamics of quantum systems with multiple conserved quantities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guryanova, Yelena; Popescu, Sandu; Short, Anthony J.; Silva, Ralph; Skrzypczyk, Paul

    2016-07-01

    Recently, there has been much progress in understanding the thermodynamics of quantum systems, even for small individual systems. Most of this work has focused on the standard case where energy is the only conserved quantity. Here we consider a generalization of this work to deal with multiple conserved quantities. Each conserved quantity, which, importantly, need not commute with the rest, can be extracted and stored in its own battery. Unlike the standard case, in which the amount of extractable energy is constrained, here there is no limit on how much of any individual conserved quantity can be extracted. However, other conserved quantities must be supplied, and the second law constrains the combination of extractable quantities and the trade-offs between them. We present explicit protocols that allow us to perform arbitrarily good trade-offs and extract arbitrarily good combinations of conserved quantities from individual quantum systems.

  16. Thermodynamics of quantum systems with multiple conserved quantities.

    PubMed

    Guryanova, Yelena; Popescu, Sandu; Short, Anthony J; Silva, Ralph; Skrzypczyk, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Recently, there has been much progress in understanding the thermodynamics of quantum systems, even for small individual systems. Most of this work has focused on the standard case where energy is the only conserved quantity. Here we consider a generalization of this work to deal with multiple conserved quantities. Each conserved quantity, which, importantly, need not commute with the rest, can be extracted and stored in its own battery. Unlike the standard case, in which the amount of extractable energy is constrained, here there is no limit on how much of any individual conserved quantity can be extracted. However, other conserved quantities must be supplied, and the second law constrains the combination of extractable quantities and the trade-offs between them. We present explicit protocols that allow us to perform arbitrarily good trade-offs and extract arbitrarily good combinations of conserved quantities from individual quantum systems. PMID:27384384

  17. Anomalous cyclic voltammetric response from pores smaller than ion size by voltage-induced force.

    PubMed

    Yang, Cheol-Min; Jung, Hwan Jung; Kim, Yong Jung

    2015-05-15

    Nanoporous carbons, with different micropore size distributions, were prepared based on waste coffee grounds by a chemical activation process in order to elucidate the correlation between desolvated ions and pores smaller than the sizes of ions using an organic electrolyte. The pore structure of the coffee-based nanoporous carbon was strongly dependent on the heat-treatment temperature prior to the activation process. Cyclic voltammograms of the nanoporous carbons mainly dominated by the smaller pore relative to that of the bare ion size clearly showed deviation from an ideal feature of the current response. It was clearly envisaged that even a bare ion of a size larger than the pore size can penetrate into the pore by voltage-induced force. PMID:25668782

  18. Origin of the smaller conductances of Rh, Pb, and Co atomic junctions in hydrogen environment

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xue; Chen, Mingyan; Ye, Xiang; Xie, Yi-qun; Ke, San-huang

    2015-02-14

    We study theoretically the structural and electronic origins of the smaller conductances (one conductance quantum, G{sub 0}, and smaller) of Rh, Pb, and Co metal atomic junctions (MAJs) in a hydrogen environment, as were measured in recent experiments. For the Rh MAJs, the 1G{sub 0} conductance is attributed to a stable contact bridged by a single hydrogen molecule whose antibonding state provides a single transport channel. For the Pb and Co MAJs the 1G{sub 0} conductance is, however, ascribed to a linear atomic chain adsorbing two dissociated H atoms, which largely reduces the density of states at the Fermi energy with respect to the pure ones. On the other hand, the small conductances of 0.3G{sub 0} (Rh) and 0.2G{sub 0} (Co) are due to H-decorated atomic chains connected to electrodes by a H atom.

  19. How food marketers can sell smaller portions: Consumer insights and product innovation.

    PubMed

    Riis, J; Fisher, J O; Rowe, S

    2016-08-01

    Food portion size has been shown to be an important driver of energy intake. Despite the well acknowledged role of portion control in weight management, large portion sizes remain ubiquitous in the marketplace. Moving consumers towards consumption of smaller portion sizes will require changes in consumer behavior as well as changes in products available to consumers in a variety of settings. This special supplement presents cutting edge research aimed at understanding consumer behavior around portion size and innovations in product design that may promote the selection and consumption of smaller portion sizes. We identify further research that will be needed to translate basic behavioral findings into real world settings and to viable product development. PMID:26980116

  20. Longitudinal Evidence for Smaller Hippocampus Volume as a Vulnerability Factor for Perceived Stress

    PubMed Central

    Lindgren, Lenita; Bergdahl, Jan; Nyberg, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Hippocampal volume has been found to be smaller in individuals with stress-related disorders, but it remains unclear whether smaller volume is a consequence of stress or rather a vulnerability factor. Here, we examined this issue by relating stress levels to hippocampal volumes in healthy participants examined every 5 years in a longitudinal population-based study. Based on scores of 25- to 60-year–old participants on the perceived stress questionnaire, we defined moderately to high (n = 35) and low (n = 76) stress groups. The groups were re-examined after 5 years (at the 6th study wave). Historical data on subjective stress were available up to 10 years prior to Wave 5. At the first MRI session, the moderately to high stress group had a significantly smaller hippocampal volume, as measured by FreeSurfer (version 5.3), compared with the low-stress group. At follow-up, group differences in stress levels and hippocampal volume remained unchanged. In retrospective analyses of subjective stress, the observed group difference in stress was found to be stable. The long-term stability of group differences in perceived stress and hippocampal volume suggests that a small hippocampal volume may be a vulnerability factor for stress-related disorders. PMID:27230217

  1. Longitudinal Evidence for Smaller Hippocampus Volume as a Vulnerability Factor for Perceived Stress.

    PubMed

    Lindgren, Lenita; Bergdahl, Jan; Nyberg, Lars

    2016-08-01

    Hippocampal volume has been found to be smaller in individuals with stress-related disorders, but it remains unclear whether smaller volume is a consequence of stress or rather a vulnerability factor. Here, we examined this issue by relating stress levels to hippocampal volumes in healthy participants examined every 5 years in a longitudinal population-based study. Based on scores of 25- to 60-year-old participants on the perceived stress questionnaire, we defined moderately to high (n = 35) and low (n = 76) stress groups. The groups were re-examined after 5 years (at the 6th study wave). Historical data on subjective stress were available up to 10 years prior to Wave 5. At the first MRI session, the moderately to high stress group had a significantly smaller hippocampal volume, as measured by FreeSurfer (version 5.3), compared with the low-stress group. At follow-up, group differences in stress levels and hippocampal volume remained unchanged. In retrospective analyses of subjective stress, the observed group difference in stress was found to be stable. The long-term stability of group differences in perceived stress and hippocampal volume suggests that a small hippocampal volume may be a vulnerability factor for stress-related disorders. PMID:27230217

  2. A geochemical module for "AMDTreat" to compute caustic quantity, effluent quantity, and sludge volume

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cravotta, Charles A., III; Parkhurst, David L.; Means, Brent P; McKenzie, Bob; Morris, Harry; Arthur, Bill

    2010-01-01

    Treatment with caustic chemicals typically is used to increase pH and decrease concentrations of dissolved aluminum, iron, and/or manganese in largevolume, metal-laden discharges from active coal mines. Generally, aluminum and iron can be removed effectively at near-neutral pH (6 to 8), whereas active manganese removal requires treatment to alkaline pH (~10). The treatment cost depends on the specific chemical used (NaOH, CaO, Ca(OH)2, Na2CO3, or NH3) and increases with the quantities of chemical added and sludge produced. The pH and metals concentrations do not change linearly with the amount of chemical added. Consequently, the amount of caustic chemical needed to achieve a target pH and the corresponding effluent composition and sludge volume can not be accurately determined without empirical titration data or the application of geochemical models to simulate the titration of the discharge water with caustic chemical(s). The AMDTreat computer program (http://amd.osmre.gov/ ) is widely used to compute costs for treatment of coal-mine drainage. Although AMDTreat can use results of empirical titration with industrial grade caustic chemicals to compute chemical costs for treatment of net-acidic or net-alkaline mine drainage, such data are rarely available. To improve the capability of AMDTreat to estimate (1) the quantity and cost of caustic chemicals to attain a target pH, (2) the concentrations of dissolved metals in treated effluent, and (3) the volume of sludge produced by the treatment, a titration simulation is being developed using the geochemical program PHREEQC (wwwbrr.cr.usgs.gov/projects/GWC_coupled/phreeqc/) that will be coupled as a module to AMDTreat. The simulated titration results can be compared with or used in place of empirical titration data to estimate chemical quantities and costs. This paper describes the development, evaluation, and potential utilization of the PHREEQC titration module for AMDTreat.

  3. Components of chicken egg white extract smaller than 3 kDa in size promote 293T cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Guang-Ping; Yao, Xiang; Wang, Jin-Xiang; Liu, Ju-Fen; Shu, Fan; Li, Zi-An; Pang, Rong-Qing; Pan, Xing-Hua

    2016-08-01

    We previously found that chicken egg white extract could promote cell survival and proliferation. In the present study, we further separated this extract into its components to identify those primarily responsible for promoting cell proliferation. Components of differing molecular weight were separated from chicken egg white extract by ultrafiltration and 293T cell cultures were supplemented with various concentrations. The effects on cell proliferation were subsequently determined by a CellTiter 96 Aqueous One Solution Cell Proliferation Assay kit (Promega). We demonstrate that components from chicken egg white smaller than 3 kDa in size are able to function as active ingredients promoting cellular proliferation. This discovery may identify a new and convenient additive for cell culture media to promote cell growth and proliferation. PMID:26541834

  4. Small amplitude solitons in a warm plasma with smaller and higher order relativistic effects

    SciTech Connect

    Kalita, B. C.; Das, R.

    2007-07-15

    Solitons have been investigated in a warm plasma through the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation, considering a smaller relativistic effect for {gamma}{approx_equal}O(v{sup 2}/c{sup 2}) and {gamma}{sub e}{approx_equal}O(u{sup 2}/c{sup 2}) and higher relativistic effects for {gamma}{approx_equal}O(v{sup 4}/c{sup 4}) and {gamma}{sub e}{approx_equal}O(u{sup 4/}c{sup 4}). Compressive fast ion-acoustic solitons are observed to exist in the entire range (u{sub 0}-v{sub 0}) subject to a suitable mathematical condition satisfied by the initial streaming velocities u{sub 0},v{sub 0} of the electrons and the ions, respectively, electron to ion mass ratio Q(=m{sub e}/m{sub i}) and ion to electron temperature ratio {sigma}(=T{sub i}/T{sub e}). Further, rarefactive solitons of pretty small amplitudes are observed in the small upper range of |u{sub 0}-v{sub 0}| for higher order relativistic effect which are found to change parabolically. It is essentially important to report in our model of plasma, that the higher order relativistic effect slows down the soliton speed to V{<=}0.10 for all temperature ratios {sigma} for small amplitude waves. On the other hand, the smaller order relativistic effect permits the soliton to exist even at a relatively much higher speed V<0.30. Solitons of high (negligible) amplitudes are found to generate at the smaller (greater) difference of initial streamings (u{sub 0}-v{sub 0}) corresponding to both the relativistic effects.

  5. Smaller = Denser, and the Brain Knows It: Natural Statistics of Object Density Shape Weight Expectations

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Megan A. K.; Balzer, Jonathan; Shams, Ladan

    2015-01-01

    If one nondescript object’s volume is twice that of another, is it necessarily twice as heavy? As larger objects are typically heavier than smaller ones, one might assume humans use such heuristics in preparing to lift novel objects if other informative cues (e.g., material, previous lifts) are unavailable. However, it is also known that humans are sensitive to statistical properties of our environments, and that such sensitivity can bias perception. Here we asked whether statistical regularities in properties of liftable, everyday objects would bias human observers’ predictions about objects’ weight relationships. We developed state-of-the-art computer vision techniques to precisely measure the volume of everyday objects, and also measured their weight. We discovered that for liftable man-made objects, “twice as large” doesn’t mean “twice as heavy”: Smaller objects are typically denser, following a power function of volume. Interestingly, this “smaller is denser” relationship does not hold for natural or unliftable objects, suggesting some ideal density range for objects designed to be lifted. We then asked human observers to predict weight relationships between novel objects without lifting them; crucially, these weight predictions quantitatively match typical weight relationships shown by similarly-sized objects in everyday environments. These results indicate that the human brain represents the statistics of everyday objects and that this representation can be quantitatively abstracted and applied to novel objects. Finally, that the brain possesses and can use precise knowledge of the nonlinear association between size and weight carries important implications for implementation of forward models of motor control in artificial systems. PMID:25768977

  6. Less Daily Computer Use is Related to Smaller Hippocampal Volumes in Cognitively Intact Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Silbert, Lisa C.; Dodge, Hiroko H.; Lahna, David; Promjunyakul, Nutta-on; Austin, Daniel; Mattek, Nora; Erten-Lyons, Deniz; Kaye, Jeffrey A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Computer use is becoming a common activity in the daily life of older individuals and declines over time in those with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The relationship between daily computer use (DCU) and imaging markers of neurodegeneration is unknown. Objective:The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between average DCU and volumetric markers of neurodegeneration on brain MRI. Methods: Cognitively intact volunteers enrolled in the Intelligent Systems for Assessing Aging Change study underwent MRI. Total in-home computer use per day was calculated using mouse movement detection and averaged over a one-month period surrounding the MRI. Spearman’s rank order correlation (univariate analysis) and linear regression models (multivariate analysis) examined hippocampal, gray matter (GM), white matter hyperintensity (WMH), and ventricular cerebral spinal fluid (vCSF) volumes in relation to DCU. A voxel-based morphometry analysis identified relationships between regional GM density and DCU. Results: Twenty-seven cognitively intact participants used their computer for 51.3 minutes per day on average. Less DCU was associated with smaller hippocampal volumes (r = 0.48, p = 0.01), but not total GM, WMH, or vCSF volumes. After adjusting for age, education, and gender, less DCU remained associated with smaller hippocampal volume (p = 0.01). Voxel-wise analysis demonstrated that less daily computer use was associated with decreased GM density in the bilateral hippocampi and temporal lobes. Conclusions: Less daily computer use is associated with smaller brain volume in regions that are integral to memory function and known to be involved early with Alzheimer’s pathology and conversion to dementia. Continuous monitoring of daily computer use may detect signs of preclinical neurodegeneration in older individuals at risk for dementia. PMID:26967228

  7. Why have not the hairs on the feet of gecko been smaller?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Yewang; He, Shijie; Hwang, Keh-Chih; Ji, Baohua

    2012-10-01

    The nanometer size of the tiny hair is the key to the secret of strong stickiness of gecko's feet, by which the hair can achieve the maximum adhesion strength that is insensitive to the interfacial flaws with substrate surface. But the question why the hairs have not been smaller is not answered yet. In this study, we derived a geometric parameter of the surface structures considering lateral interaction among hairs, which gives a critical size below which these hairs will bunch together and cause failure of the adhesion, suggesting a lower limit of the dimension of hairs on gecko's feet.

  8. Do open access biomedical journals benefit smaller countries? The Slovenian experience.

    PubMed

    Turk, Nana

    2011-06-01

    Scientists from smaller countries have problems gaining visibility for their research. Does open access publishing provide a solution? Slovenia is a small country with around 5000 medical doctors, 1300 dentists and 1000 pharmacists. A search of Slovenia's Bibliographic database was carried out to identity all biomedical journals and those which are open access. Slovenia has 18 medical open access journals, but none has an impact factor and only 10 are indexed by Slovenian and international bibliographic databases. The visibility and quality of medical papers is poor. The solution might be to reduce the number of journals and encourage Slovenian scientists to publish their best articles in them. PMID:21564498

  9. Possible origin of the smaller-than-universal percolation-conductivity exponent in the continuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balberg, I.; Azulay, D.; Goldstein, Y.; Jedrzejewski, J.

    2016-06-01

    For quite a few systems in the continuum, such as carbon nanotube polymer composites and segregated composites, percolation electrical conductivity exponents that are much smaller than the universal value have been reported. This is unexpected in view of the classical lattice percolation theory. Here we provide a simple general phenomenological model that accounts for such observations within the framework of universality. We suggest that these small value exponents are due to the interplay between the connectivity and the structural variations that follow the increase of the fractional volume content of the conducting phase.

  10. Tracking of food quantity by coyotes (Canis latrans).

    PubMed

    Baker, Joseph M; Shivik, John; Jordan, Kerry E

    2011-10-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that Weber's Law mediates quantitative discrimination abilities across various species. Here, we tested coyotes' (Canis latrans) ability to discriminate between various quantities of food and investigated whether this ability conforms to predictions of Weber's Law. We demonstrate herein that coyotes are capable of reliably discriminating large versus small quantities of discrete food items. As predicted by Weber's Law, coyotes' quantitative discrimination abilities are mediated by the ratio between the large and small quantities of food and exhibit scalar variability. Furthermore, in this task coyotes were not discriminating large versus small quantities based on olfactory cues alone. PMID:21856389

  11. Phonetic correlates of phonological vowel quantity in Yakut read and spontaneous speech.

    PubMed

    Vasilyeva, Lena; Arnhold, Anja; Järvikivi, Juhani

    2016-05-01

    The quantity language Yakut (Sakha) has a binary distinction between short and long vowels. Disyllabic words with short and long vowels in one or both syllables were extracted from spontaneous speech of native Yakut speakers. In addition, a controlled production by a native speaker of disyllabic words with different short and long vowel combinations along with contrastive minimal pairs was recorded in a phonetics laboratory. Acoustic measurements of the vowels' fundamental frequency, duration, and intensity showed a significant consistent lengthening of phonologically long vowels compared to their short counterparts. However, in addition to evident durational differences between long and short quantities, fundamental frequency and intensity also showed effects of quantity. These results allow the interpretation that similarly to other non-tonal quantity languages like Finnish or Estonian, the Yakut vowel quantity opposition is not based exclusively on durational differences. The data furthermore revealed differences in F0 contours between spontaneous and read speech, providing some first indications of utterance-level prosody in Yakut. PMID:27250149

  12. Radiocarbon evidence for a smaller oceanic carbon dioxide sink than previously believed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hesshaimer, Vago; Heimann, Martin; Levin, Ingeborg

    1994-07-01

    RADIOCARBON produced naturally in the upper atmosphere or arti-ficially during nuclear weapons testing is the main tracer used to validate models of oceanic carbon cycling, in particular the exchange of carbon dioxide with the atmosphere1-3 and the mixing parameters within the ocean itself4-7. Here we test the overall consistency of exchange fluxes between all relevant compartments in a simple model of the global carbon cycle, using measurements of the long-term tropospheric CO2 concentration8 and radiocarbon composition9-12, the bomb 14C inventory in the stratosphere13,14 and a compilation of bomb detonation dates and strengths15. We find that to balance the budget, we must invoke an extra source to account for 25% of the generally accepted uptake of bomb 14C by the oceans3. The strength of this source decreases from 1970 onwards, with a characteristic timescale similar to that of the ocean uptake. Significant radiocarbon transport from the remote high stratosphere and significantly reduced uptake of bomb 14C by the biosphere can both be ruled out by observational constraints. We therefore conclude that the global oceanic bomb 14C inventory should be revised downwards. A smaller oceanic bomb 14C inventory also implies a smaller oceanic radiocarbon penetration depth16, which in turn implies that the oceans take up 25% less anthropogenic CO2 than had previously been believed.

  13. Winged queens replaced by reproductives smaller than workers in Mystrium ants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molet, Mathieu; Peeters, Christian; Fisher, Brian L.

    2007-04-01

    In ants, winged queens that are specialized for independent colony foundation can be replaced by wingless reproductives better adapted for colony fission. We studied this shift in reproductive strategy by comparing two Mystrium species from Madagascar using morphometry, allometry and dissections. Mystrium rogeri has a single dealate queen in each colony with a larger thorax than workers and similar mandibles that allow these queens to hunt during non-claustral foundation. In contrast, Mystrium ‘red’ lacks winged queens and half of the female adults belong to a wingless ‘intermorph’ caste smaller and allometrically distinct from the workers. Intermorphs have functional ovaries and spermatheca while those of workers are degenerate. Intermorphs care for brood and a few mate and reproduce making them an all-purpose caste that takes charge of both work and reproduction. However, their mandibles are reduced and inappropriate for hunting centipedes, unlike the workers’ mandibles. This together with their small thorax disallow them to perform independent colony foundation, and colonies reproduce by fission. M. rogeri workers have mandibles polymorphic in size and shape, which allow for all tasks from brood care to hunting. In M. ‘red’, colonial investment in reproduction has shifted from producing expensive winged queens to more numerous helpers. M. ‘red’ intermorphs are the first case of reproductives smaller than workers in ants and illustrate their potential to diversify their caste system for better colonial economy.

  14. Distinct foods with smaller unit would be an effective approach to achieve sustainable weight loss.

    PubMed

    Chang, Un Jae; Suh, Hyung Joo; Yang, Sun Ok; Hong, Yang Hee; Kim, Young Suk; Kim, Jin Man; Jung, Eun Young

    2012-01-01

    We studied the effects of food type and food unit size on food intake and satiety using fried rice mixed with Kimchi in healthy Korean young women (n=31). Amorphous fried rice (1st week), distinct large fried rice balls (100 g/unit, 2nd week) and distinct small fried rice balls (20 g/unit, 3rd week) were served in the same content and volume (500 g). Subjects ate significantly (p<.001) less distinct large fried rice balls (243.5 g) compared to amorphous fried rice (317.2 g). Despite consuming more amorphous fried rice, subjects did not feel significantly fuller after eating amorphous fried rice compared to distinct large fried rice balls. When distinct fried rice balls were served as smaller unit, subjects ate significantly less them (small unit; 190.6 g vs. large unit; 243.5 g, p<.01). Although subjects ate more distinct fried rice balls provided as large unit, they rated similar satiety and hunger levels for distinct small and distinct large fried rice balls. In conclusion, we propose that distinct foods with smaller unit would be an effective approach to achieve sustainable weight loss. PMID:22177403

  15. HIV-Associated Distal Neuropathic Pain is Associated with Smaller Total Cerebral Cortical Gray Matter

    PubMed Central

    Keltner, John R.; Fennema-Notestine, Christine; Vaida, Florin; Wang, Dongzhe; Franklin, Donald R.; Dworkin, Robert H.; Sanders, Chelsea; McCutchan, J. Allen; Archibald, Sarah L.; Miller, David J.; Kesidis, George; Cushman, Clint; Kim, Sung Min; Abramson, Ian; Taylor, Michael J.; Theilmann, Rebecca J.; Julaton, Michelle D.; Notestine, Randy J.; Corkran, Stephanie; Cherner, Mariana; Duarte, Nichole A.; Alexander, Terry; Robinson-Papp, Jessica; Gelman, Benjamin B.; Simpson, David M.; Collier, Ann C.; Marra, Christina M.; Morgello, Susan; Brown, Greg; Grant, Igor; Atkinson, J. Hampton; Jernigan, Terry L.; Ellis, Ronald J.

    2014-01-01

    Despite modern antiretroviral therapy, HIV-associated sensory neuropathy affects over 50% of HIV patients. The clinical expression of HIV neuropathy is highly variable: many individuals report few symptoms, but about half report distal neuropathic pain (DNP), making it one of the most prevalent, disabling and treatment-resistant complications of HIV disease. The presence and intensity of pain is not fully explained by the degree of peripheral nerve damage, making it unclear why some patients do, and others do not, report pain. To better understand central nervous system contributions to HIV DNP, we performed a cross-sectional analysis of structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) volumes in 241 HIV-infected participants from an observational multi-site cohort study at five US sites (CNS HIV Antiretroviral Treatment Effects Research Study, CHARTER). The association between DNP and the structural imaging outcomes was investigated using both linear and nonlinear (Gaussian Kernel support vector) multivariable regression, controlling for key demographic and clinical variables. Severity of DNP symptoms was correlated with smaller total cerebral cortical gray matter volume (R = −0.24; p = 0.004). Understanding the mechanisms for this association between smaller total cortical volumes and DNP may provide insight into HIV DNP chronicity and treatment-resistance. PMID:24549970

  16. The influence of additives on rheological properties of limestone slurry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaworska, B.; Bartosik, A.

    2014-08-01

    Limestone slurry appears in the lime production process as the result of rinsing the processed material. It consists of particles with diameter smaller than 2 mm and the water that is a carrier of solid fraction. Slurry is directed to the settling tank, where the solid phase sediments and the excess water through the transfer system is recovered for re-circulation. Collected at the bottom of the tank sludge is deposited in a landfill located on the premises. Rheological properties of limestone slurry hinder its further free transport in the pipeline due to generated flow resistance. To improve this state of affairs, chemical treatment of drilling fluid, could be applied, of which the main task is to give the slurry properties suitable for the conditions encountered in hydrotransport. This treatment consists of applying chemical additives to slurry in sufficient quantity. Such additives are called as deflocculants or thinners or dispersants, and are chemical compounds which added to aqueous solution are intended to push away suspended particles from each other. The paper presents the results of research allowing reduction of shear stress in limestone slurry. Results demonstrate rheological properties of limestone slurry with and without the addition of modified substances which causes decrease of slurry viscosity, and as a consequence slurry shear stress for adopted shear rate. Achieving the desired effects increases the degree of dispersion of the solid phase suspended in the carrier liquid and improving its ability to smooth flow with decreased friction.

  17. Size matters: impact of item size and quantity on array choice by chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Boysen, S T; Berntson, G G; Mukobi, K L

    2001-03-01

    The authors previously reported that chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) showed a striking bias to select the larger of 2 candy arrays, despite a reversed reward contingency in which the animals received the smaller, nonselected array as a reward, except when Arabic numerals were used as stimuli. A perceptual or incentive-based interference occurred that was overcome by symbolic stimuli. The authors of the present study examined the impact of element size in choice arrays, using 1 to 5 large and small candies. Five test-sophisticated chimpanzees selected an array from the 2 presented during each trial. Their responses were not optimal, as animals generally selected arrays with larger total mass; thus, they received the smaller remaining array as a reward. When choice stimuli differed in size and quantity, element size was more heavily weighted, although choices reflected total candy mass. These results replicate previous findings showing chimpanzees' difficulties with quantity judgments under reverse reward contingencies and also show that individual item size exerts a more powerful interference effect. PMID:11334213

  18. Morphology and origin of smaller-scale mass movements on the continental slope off northern Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baeten, Nicole J.; Laberg, Jan Sverre; Forwick, Matthias; Vorren, Tore O.; Vanneste, Maarten; Forsberg, Carl Fredrik; Kvalstad, Tore J.; Ivanov, Michael

    2013-04-01

    Little attention has been paid to smaller-scale mass movements on continental slopes, even though they occur much more frequently than their large-scale counterparts. Swath bathymetry, side-scan sonar, sub-bottom profiler and seismic data from the continental slope offshore the Lofoten Islands, northern Norway, reveal evidence of repetitive smaller-scale translational sliding, involving spreading and multi-phase retrogression, in water depths between 1100 and 2500 m. Three styles of failure have been identified, occurring in close proximity. Style 1 is characterized by a 4.7 km wide and up to 100 m deep amphitheater shaped headwall, a relatively deep glide plane (± 130 mbsf), detached sediment ridges and a run-out area with rafted sediment blocks. Style 2 consists of a staircase pattern of secondary escarpments, caused by the activation of several glide planes between ± 30 and 110 mbsf. Headwalls and secondary escarpments have a height of up to 30 and 70 m, respectively. The run-out area shows an almost complete sediment evacuation. Style 3 is more subtle, as it is only identified on the side-scan sonar data due to its higher spatial resolution. This style shows different phases of on-going evolution, illustrating the gradual disintegration of a slab of sediments moving over a shallow glide plane at ± 13 mbsf. Zones with sediment slabs are up to several hundreds of meters wide and are sharply delineated by shear margins or escarpments. The spatial variation in the failure style is inferred to have been caused by the activation of different glide planes, which is probably a result of the thinning of contouritic sediments towards the south-west. In the north-east, the mounded contouritic sediments contain more potential glide planes and higher slope angles. The smaller-scale mass movements are suggested to have been triggered by undercutting and removal of support at the foot of the slope due to large-scale mass movements that have occurred immediately south of

  19. 16 CFR 300.28 - Undetermined quantities of reclaimed fibers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Undetermined quantities of reclaimed fibers... quantities of reclaimed fibers. (a) Where a wool product is composed in part of various man-made fibers recovered from textile products containing underdetermined qualities of such fibers, the percentage...

  20. 30 CFR 75.322 - Harmful quantities of noxious gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Harmful quantities of noxious gases. 75.322 Section 75.322 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.322 Harmful quantities of noxious gases. Concentrations of...

  1. 30 CFR 75.322 - Harmful quantities of noxious gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Harmful quantities of noxious gases. 75.322 Section 75.322 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.322 Harmful quantities of noxious gases. Concentrations of...

  2. 19 CFR 159.21 - Quantity upon which duties based.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Quantity upon which duties based. 159.21 Section 159.21 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) LIQUIDATION OF DUTIES Weight, Gage, and Measure § 159.21 Quantity upon which duties based. Insofar as duties are...

  3. 14 CFR 25.1553 - Fuel quantity indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fuel quantity indicator. 25.1553 Section 25.1553 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Placards § 25.1553 Fuel quantity indicator. If the unusable fuel supply for any tank exceeds one gallon,...

  4. 14 CFR 23.1553 - Fuel quantity indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fuel quantity indicator. 23.1553 Section 23.1553 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Information Markings and Placards § 23.1553 Fuel quantity indicator. A red radial line must be marked on...

  5. Radiation quantities and units--understanding the sievert.

    PubMed

    Allisy-Roberts, P J

    2005-03-01

    International recommendations for changes to the SI brochure regarding the definition and use of the quantity dose equivalent are presented. The second part of this note is a simple explanation of the difference between a radiation quantity and its unit. PMID:15798283

  6. 10 CFR 40.22 - Small quantities of source material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Small quantities of source material. 40.22 Section 40.22 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF SOURCE MATERIAL General Licenses § 40.22 Small quantities of source material. (a) A general license is hereby issued authorizing commercial and...

  7. 10 CFR 40.22 - Small quantities of source material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Small quantities of source material. 40.22 Section 40.22 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF SOURCE MATERIAL General Licenses § 40.22 Small quantities of source material. (a) A general license is hereby issued authorizing commercial and...

  8. Numerical Order and Quantity Processing in Number Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turconi, Eva; Campbell, Jamie I. D.; Seron, Xavier

    2006-01-01

    We investigated processing of numerical order information and its relation to mechanisms of numerical quantity processing. In two experiments, performance on a quantity-comparison task (e.g. 2 5; which is larger?) was compared with performance on a relative-order judgment task (e.g. 2 5; ascending or descending order?). The comparison task…

  9. 16 CFR 300.28 - Undetermined quantities of reclaimed fibers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... quantities of reclaimed fibers. (a) Where a wool product is composed in part of various man-made fibers recovered from textile products containing underdetermined qualities of such fibers, the percentage content... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Undetermined quantities of reclaimed...

  10. Household Water Quantity and Health: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Stelmach, Rachel D.; Clasen, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    While the quantity of water used in the home is thought to be an important determinant of health, much of the evidence relies on using water access as a proxy for quantity. This review examines the health effects of household water quantity using studies that directly measured water quantity. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and article reference lists. Eligible studies included experimental and observational studies that measured a difference in water quantity and quantified an association between water quantity and health outcomes. 21 studies, divided into six of the many possible water-quantity associated outcomes, met the eligibility criteria. Due to heterogeneity in designs, settings, methods, and outcomes, a meta-analysis was inappropriate. Overall results showed a positive association between water quantity and health outcomes, but the effect depended on how the water was used. Increased water usage for personal hygiene was generally associated with improved trachoma outcomes, while increased water consumption was generally associated with reduced gastrointestinal infection and diarrheal disease and improved growth outcomes. In high-income countries, increased water consumption was associated with higher rates of renal cell carcinoma and bladder cancer but not associated with type II diabetes, cardiac-related mortality, or all-cause mortality. PMID:26030467

  11. 7 CFR 1434.9 - Determination of quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS FOR HONEY § 1434.9 Determination of quantity. The amount of a marketing assistance loan and loan... the producer and verified by the county office representative for honey on Form CCC-633 (Honey) that is eligible to be pledged as security for the loan or LDP Estimates of the quantity of honey shall...

  12. 7 CFR 1434.9 - Determination of quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS FOR HONEY § 1434.9 Determination of quantity. The amount of a marketing assistance loan and loan... the producer and verified by the county office representative for honey on Form CCC-633 (Honey) that is eligible to be pledged as security for the loan or LDP Estimates of the quantity of honey shall...

  13. 7 CFR 1434.9 - Determination of quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS FOR HONEY § 1434.9 Determination of quantity. The amount of a marketing assistance loan and loan... the producer and verified by the county office representative for honey on Form CCC-633 (Honey) that is eligible to be pledged as security for the loan or LDP Estimates of the quantity of honey shall...

  14. 7 CFR 1434.9 - Determination of quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS FOR HONEY § 1434.9 Determination of quantity. The amount of a marketing assistance loan and loan... the producer and verified by the county office representative for honey on Form CCC-633 (Honey) that is eligible to be pledged as security for the loan or LDP Estimates of the quantity of honey shall...

  15. 7 CFR 1434.9 - Determination of quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS FOR HONEY § 1434.9 Determination of quantity. The amount of a marketing assistance loan and loan... the producer and verified by the county office representative for honey on Form CCC-633 (Honey) that is eligible to be pledged as security for the loan or LDP Estimates of the quantity of honey shall...

  16. Finite difference approximation of hedging quantities in the Heston model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    in't Hout, Karel

    2012-09-01

    This note concerns the hedging quantities Delta and Gamma in the Heston model for European-style financial options. A modification of the discretization technique from In 't Hout & Foulon (2010) is proposed, which enables a fast and accurate approximation of these important quantities. Numerical experiments are given that illustrate the performance.

  17. 14 CFR 23.1553 - Fuel quantity indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fuel quantity indicator. 23.1553 Section 23.1553 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Information Markings and Placards § 23.1553 Fuel quantity indicator. A red radial line must be marked on...

  18. Quantity Concept Development in Individuals with Cerebral Palsy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lister, Caroline; Juniper, Kirsten

    1995-01-01

    Investigated order of quantity concept development on a range of quantity conservation tasks. Subjects were 15 adults and children having spastic cerebral palsy from birth and attending the same special school or day unit. Found a sequence of development similar to that in children without the handicap, and scalogram analysis supported similarity…

  19. 21 CFR 316.36 - Insufficient quantities of orphan drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Insufficient quantities of orphan drugs. 316.36... (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE ORPHAN DRUGS Orphan-drug Exclusive Approval § 316.36 Insufficient quantities of orphan drugs. (a) Under section 527 of the act, whenever the Director has reason to believe...

  20. 10 CFR 26.109 - Urine specimen quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Urine specimen quantity. 26.109 Section 26.109 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.109 Urine specimen quantity. (a) Licensees and other entities who are subject to this subpart shall establish...

  1. 10 CFR 26.109 - Urine specimen quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Urine specimen quantity. 26.109 Section 26.109 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.109 Urine specimen quantity. (a) Licensees and other entities who are subject to this subpart shall establish...

  2. 10 CFR 26.109 - Urine specimen quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Urine specimen quantity. 26.109 Section 26.109 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.109 Urine specimen quantity. (a) Licensees and other entities who are subject to this subpart shall establish...

  3. 10 CFR 26.109 - Urine specimen quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Urine specimen quantity. 26.109 Section 26.109 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.109 Urine specimen quantity. (a) Licensees and other entities who are subject to this subpart shall establish...

  4. 10 CFR 26.109 - Urine specimen quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Urine specimen quantity. 26.109 Section 26.109 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.109 Urine specimen quantity. (a) Licensees and other entities who are subject to this subpart shall establish...

  5. 48 CFR 52.211-17 - Delivery of Excess Quantities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Delivery of Excess....211-17 Delivery of Excess Quantities. As prescribed in 11.703(b), insert the following clause: Delivery of Excess Quantities (SEP 1989) The Contractor is responsible for the delivery of each...

  6. 46 CFR 108.433 - Quantity of CO2: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Quantity of CO2: General. 108.433 Section 108.433 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Fixed Carbon Dioxide Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.433 Quantity of CO2: General. Each CO2 system must...

  7. Judgments of Discrete and Continuous Quantity: An Illusory Stroop Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barth, Hilary C.

    2008-01-01

    Evidence from human cognitive neuroscience, animal neurophysiology, and behavioral research demonstrates that human adults, infants, and children share a common nonverbal quantity processing system with nonhuman animals. This system appears to represent both discrete and continuous quantity, but the proper characterization of the relationship…

  8. 41 CFR 109-27.102 - Economic order quantity principle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Economic order quantity principle. 109-27.102 Section 109-27.102 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property... PROCUREMENT 27-INVENTORY MANAGEMENT 27.1-Stock Replenishment § 109-27.102 Economic order quantity principle....

  9. 41 CFR 109-27.102 - Economic order quantity principle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Economic order quantity principle. 109-27.102 Section 109-27.102 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property... PROCUREMENT 27-INVENTORY MANAGEMENT 27.1-Stock Replenishment § 109-27.102 Economic order quantity principle....

  10. 41 CFR 109-27.102 - Economic order quantity principle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Economic order quantity principle. 109-27.102 Section 109-27.102 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property... PROCUREMENT 27-INVENTORY MANAGEMENT 27.1-Stock Replenishment § 109-27.102 Economic order quantity principle....

  11. 41 CFR 109-27.102 - Economic order quantity principle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Economic order quantity principle. 109-27.102 Section 109-27.102 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property... PROCUREMENT 27-INVENTORY MANAGEMENT 27.1-Stock Replenishment § 109-27.102 Economic order quantity principle....

  12. 41 CFR 109-27.102 - Economic order quantity principle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Economic order quantity principle. 109-27.102 Section 109-27.102 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property... PROCUREMENT 27-INVENTORY MANAGEMENT 27.1-Stock Replenishment § 109-27.102 Economic order quantity principle....

  13. 46 CFR 108.469 - Quantity of foam producing materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Quantity of foam producing materials. 108.469 Section... UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Foam Extinguishing Systems § 108.469 Quantity of foam producing materials. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, each...

  14. 46 CFR 95.17-5 - Quantity of foam required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Quantity of foam required. 95.17-5 Section 95.17-5... PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Foam Extinguishing Systems, Details § 95.17-5 Quantity of foam required. (a) Area... blanket of foam over the entire tank top or bilge of the space protected. The arrangement of piping...

  15. 46 CFR 76.17-5 - Quantity of foam required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Quantity of foam required. 76.17-5 Section 76.17-5... EQUIPMENT Foam Extinguishing Systems, Details § 76.17-5 Quantity of foam required. (a) Area protected. (1... of foam over the entire tank top or bilge of the space protected. The arrangement of piping shall...

  16. 46 CFR 76.17-5 - Quantity of foam required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Quantity of foam required. 76.17-5 Section 76.17-5... EQUIPMENT Foam Extinguishing Systems, Details § 76.17-5 Quantity of foam required. (a) Area protected. (1... of foam over the entire tank top or bilge of the space protected. The arrangement of piping shall...

  17. 46 CFR 95.17-5 - Quantity of foam required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Quantity of foam required. 95.17-5 Section 95.17-5... PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Foam Extinguishing Systems, Details § 95.17-5 Quantity of foam required. (a) Area... blanket of foam over the entire tank top or bilge of the space protected. The arrangement of piping...

  18. 46 CFR 76.17-5 - Quantity of foam required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Quantity of foam required. 76.17-5 Section 76.17-5... EQUIPMENT Foam Extinguishing Systems, Details § 76.17-5 Quantity of foam required. (a) Area protected. (1... of foam over the entire tank top or bilge of the space protected. The arrangement of piping shall...

  19. 46 CFR 95.17-5 - Quantity of foam required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Quantity of foam required. 95.17-5 Section 95.17-5... PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Foam Extinguishing Systems, Details § 95.17-5 Quantity of foam required. (a) Area... blanket of foam over the entire tank top or bilge of the space protected. The arrangement of piping...

  20. 46 CFR 108.469 - Quantity of foam producing materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Quantity of foam producing materials. 108.469 Section... UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Foam Extinguishing Systems § 108.469 Quantity of foam producing materials. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, each...

  1. 46 CFR 76.17-5 - Quantity of foam required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Quantity of foam required. 76.17-5 Section 76.17-5... EQUIPMENT Foam Extinguishing Systems, Details § 76.17-5 Quantity of foam required. (a) Area protected. (1... of foam over the entire tank top or bilge of the space protected. The arrangement of piping shall...

  2. 46 CFR 95.17-5 - Quantity of foam required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Quantity of foam required. 95.17-5 Section 95.17-5... PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Foam Extinguishing Systems, Details § 95.17-5 Quantity of foam required. (a) Area... blanket of foam over the entire tank top or bilge of the space protected. The arrangement of piping...

  3. 46 CFR 108.469 - Quantity of foam producing materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Quantity of foam producing materials. 108.469 Section... UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Foam Extinguishing Systems § 108.469 Quantity of foam producing materials. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, each...

  4. 46 CFR 108.469 - Quantity of foam producing materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Quantity of foam producing materials. 108.469 Section... UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Foam Extinguishing Systems § 108.469 Quantity of foam producing materials. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, each...

  5. 46 CFR 108.469 - Quantity of foam producing materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Quantity of foam producing materials. 108.469 Section... UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Foam Extinguishing Systems § 108.469 Quantity of foam producing materials. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, each...

  6. 46 CFR 95.17-5 - Quantity of foam required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Quantity of foam required. 95.17-5 Section 95.17-5... PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Foam Extinguishing Systems, Details § 95.17-5 Quantity of foam required. (a) Area... blanket of foam over the entire tank top or bilge of the space protected. The arrangement of piping...

  7. 46 CFR 76.17-5 - Quantity of foam required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Quantity of foam required. 76.17-5 Section 76.17-5... EQUIPMENT Foam Extinguishing Systems, Details § 76.17-5 Quantity of foam required. (a) Area protected. (1... of foam over the entire tank top or bilge of the space protected. The arrangement of piping shall...

  8. 19 CFR 144.33 - Minimum quantities to be withdrawn.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) WAREHOUSE AND REWAREHOUSE ENTRIES AND WITHDRAWALS Withdrawals from Warehouse § 144.33 Minimum quantities to be withdrawn. Unless by special authority of the Commissioner of Customs, merchandise shall not be withdrawn from bonded warehouse in quantities less than an entire...

  9. Micrometeoroid Impacts on the Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2: Smaller Particle Impacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, D. K.; Anz-Meador, P.; Liou, J.C.; Opiela, J.; Kearsley, A. T.; Grime, G.; Webb, R.; Jeynes, C.; Palitsin, V.; Colaux, J.; Griffin, T.; Gerlach, L.; Wozniakiewicz, P. J.; Price, M. C.; Burchell, M. J.; Cole, M. J.

    2014-01-01

    The radiator shield on the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) was subject to optical inspection following return from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) in 2009. The survey revealed over 600 impact features of > 300 micrometers diameter, from exposure in space for 16 years. Subsequently, an international collaborative programme of analysis was organized to determine the origin of hypervelocity particles responsible for the damage. Here we describe examples of the numerous smaller micrometeoroid (MM) impact features (< 700 micrometers diameter) which excavated zinc orthotitanate (ZOT) paint from the radiator surface, but did not incorporate material from underlying Al alloy; larger impacts are described by [3]. We discuss recognition and interpretation of impactor remains, and MM compositions found on WFPC2.

  10. Scattering and Absorption Properties of Polydisperse Wavelength-sized Particles Covered with Much Smaller Grains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dlugach, Jana M.; Mishchenko, Michael I.; Mackowski, Daniel W.

    2012-01-01

    Using the results of direct, numerically exact computer solutions of the Maxwell equations, we analyze scattering and absorption characteristics of polydisperse compound particles in the form of wavelength-sized spheres covered with a large number of much smaller spherical grains.The results pertain to the complex refractive indices1.55 + i0.0003,1.55 + i0.3, and 3 + i0.1. We show that the optical effects of dusting wavelength-sized hosts by microscopic grains can vary depending on the number and size of the grains as well as on the complex refractive index. Our computations also demonstrate the high efficiency of the new superposition T-matrix code developed for use on distributed memory computer clusters.

  11. An improved smaller biotin ligase for BioID proximity labeling

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dae In; Jensen, Samuel C.; Noble, Kyle A.; KC, Birendra; Roux, Kenneth H.; Motamedchaboki, Khatereh; Roux, Kyle J.

    2016-01-01

    The BioID method uses a promiscuous biotin ligase to detect protein–protein associations as well as proximate proteins in living cells. Here we report improvements to the BioID method centered on BioID2, a substantially smaller promiscuous biotin ligase. BioID2 enables more-selective targeting of fusion proteins, requires less biotin supplementation, and exhibits enhanced labeling of proximate proteins. Thus BioID2 improves the efficiency of screening for protein–protein associations. We also demonstrate that the biotinylation range of BioID2 can be considerably modulated using flexible linkers, thus enabling application-specific adjustment of the biotin-labeling radius. PMID:26912792

  12. Smaller-loss planar SPP transmission line than conventional microstrip in microwave frequencies

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hao Chi; Zhang, Qian; Liu, Jun Feng; Tang, Wenxuan; Fan, Yifeng; Cui, Tie Jun

    2016-01-01

    Transmission line is a basic component in all passive devices, integrated circuits, and systems. Microstrip is the most popular transmission line in the microwave and millimeter-wave frequencies, and has been widely used in current electronic devices, circuits, and systems. One of the important issues to be solved in such applications is the relatively large transmission loss of microstrip. Here, we propose a method to reduce the loss of microwave transmission line based on the designable wavenumber of spoof surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs). Using this characteristic, we analyze and experimentally demonstrate the low-loss feature of the SPP transmission line through the perturbation method and S-parameter measurements, respectively. Both simulation and experimental results show that the SPP transmission line has much smaller transmission loss than traditional microstrip with the same size in the microwave frequencies. Hence, the spoof SPP transmission line may make a big step forward in the low-loss circuits and systems. PMID:26983911

  13. Simulating the magnetized liner inertial fusion plasma confinement with smaller-scale experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Ryutov, D. D.; Cuneo, M. E.; Herrmann, M. C.; Sinars, D. B.; Slutz, S. A.

    2012-06-15

    The recently proposed magnetized liner inertial fusion approach to a Z-pinch driven fusion [Slutz et al., Phys. Plasmas 17, 056303 (2010)] is based on the use of an axial magnetic field to provide plasma thermal insulation from the walls of the imploding liner. The characteristic plasma transport regimes in the proposed approach cover parameter domains that have not been studied yet in either magnetic confinement or inertial confinement experiments. In this article, an analysis is presented of the scalability of the key physical processes that determine the plasma confinement. The dimensionless scaling parameters are identified and conclusion is drawn that the plasma behavior in scaled-down experiments can correctly represent the full-scale plasma, provided these parameters are approximately the same in two systems. This observation is important in that smaller-scale experiments typically have better diagnostic access and more experiments per year are possible.

  14. Smaller colonies and more solitary living mark higher elevation populations of a social spider.

    PubMed

    Purcell, Jessica; Avilés, Leticia

    2007-05-01

    1. There appears to be a pattern of decreasing sociality with increasing elevation across social spider species in the genus Anelosimus at tropical latitudes. Our data suggest that this pattern holds within a single species, Anelosimus eximius, on a smaller altitudinal gradient. 2. In comparing colony size at six different altitudes in north-eastern Ecuador, we find that the lowland A. eximius populations tend to have larger colonies and few solitary females. At higher elevations, many of the colonies are small and the proportion of solitary females is greater. 3. Contrary to expectation, we also found no difference in spider density between the upper elevation and lowland populations. This result may be partly due to the fact that upper elevation populations occur only at the forest edge (as opposed to both edge and interior) where populations at all elevations appear more robust. PMID:17439475

  15. Opportunities and barriers for smaller portions in food service: lessons from marketing and behavioral economics.

    PubMed

    Riis, J

    2014-07-01

    This paper uses the frameworks and evidence from marketing and behavioral economics to highlight the opportunities and barriers for portion control in food service environments. Applying Kahneman's 'thinking fast and slow' concepts, it describes 10 strategies that can be effective in 'tricking' the consumer's fast cognitive system to make better decisions and in triggering the slow cognitive system to help prevent the fast system from making bad decisions. These strategies include shrinking defaults, elongating packages, increasing the visibility of small portions, offering more mixed virtue options, adding more small sizes, offering 'right-sized' standard portions, using meaningful size labels, adopting linear pricing, using temporal landmarks to push smaller portions and facilitating pre-commitment. For each of these strategies, I discuss the specific cost and revenue barriers that a food service operator would face if the strategy were adopted. PMID:25033960

  16. A robust and fast line segment detector based on top-down smaller eigenvalue analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Dong; Wang, Yongtao; Tang, Zhi; Lu, Xiaoqing

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a robust and fast line segment detector, which achieves accurate results with a controlled number of false detections and requires no parameter tuning. It consists of three steps: first, we propose a novel edge point chaining method to extract Canny edge segments (i.e., contiguous chains of Canny edge points) from the input image; second, we propose a top-down scheme based on smaller eigenvalue analysis to extract line segments within each obtained edge segment; third, we employ Desolneux et al.'s method to reject false detections. Experiments demonstrate that it is very efficient and more robust than two state of the art methods—LSD and EDLines.

  17. Smaller-loss planar SPP transmission line than conventional microstrip in microwave frequencies.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hao Chi; Zhang, Qian; Liu, Jun Feng; Tang, Wenxuan; Fan, Yifeng; Cui, Tie Jun

    2016-01-01

    Transmission line is a basic component in all passive devices, integrated circuits, and systems. Microstrip is the most popular transmission line in the microwave and millimeter-wave frequencies, and has been widely used in current electronic devices, circuits, and systems. One of the important issues to be solved in such applications is the relatively large transmission loss of microstrip. Here, we propose a method to reduce the loss of microwave transmission line based on the designable wavenumber of spoof surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs). Using this characteristic, we analyze and experimentally demonstrate the low-loss feature of the SPP transmission line through the perturbation method and S-parameter measurements, respectively. Both simulation and experimental results show that the SPP transmission line has much smaller transmission loss than traditional microstrip with the same size in the microwave frequencies. Hence, the spoof SPP transmission line may make a big step forward in the low-loss circuits and systems. PMID:26983911

  18. Opportunities and barriers for smaller portions in food service: lessons from marketing and behavioral economics

    PubMed Central

    Riis, J

    2014-01-01

    This paper uses the frameworks and evidence from marketing and behavioral economics to highlight the opportunities and barriers for portion control in food service environments. Applying Kahneman's ‘thinking fast and slow' concepts, it describes 10 strategies that can be effective in ‘tricking' the consumer's fast cognitive system to make better decisions and in triggering the slow cognitive system to help prevent the fast system from making bad decisions. These strategies include shrinking defaults, elongating packages, increasing the visibility of small portions, offering more mixed virtue options, adding more small sizes, offering ‘right-sized' standard portions, using meaningful size labels, adopting linear pricing, using temporal landmarks to push smaller portions and facilitating pre-commitment. For each of these strategies, I discuss the specific cost and revenue barriers that a food service operator would face if the strategy were adopted. PMID:25033960

  19. Incipient flow properties of two-component fine powder mixtures: Changing the flowability of smaller particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kojima, Takehiro; Elliott, James A.

    2013-06-01

    Understanding the flow properties of two-component fine powder systems with micrometre-sized constituents is important for the quality control of electrophotographic printing applications such as photocopiers. In previous work, we studied the incipient flow properties of model powder mixtures of large (d50 ˜ 70 μm) and small (d50 ˜ 6-8 μm) particles under a consolidation stress of 2 kPa, and reported that they were strongly related to the properties of the small particles where the volume ratio of small powder (xs) exceeds ˜0.1 [1]. In this follow-up study, we examine the effect of changing the flowability of the smaller components on the structure and flow properties of the binary mixtures. For the smaller particles, we used poly(styrene-co-divinylbenzene) (PS-DVB) microspheres (d50 = 7.84 μm). The particle surfaces were modified by adding silica nanoparticles in order to prepare PS-DVB powders with a range of flowabilities. These were then mixed with glass ballotini (d50 = 71.9 μm), and the flow properties of these mixtures were evaluated using the shear testing technique. The cohesion of the mixtures showed essentially the same trend as reported in [1] in terms of their dependence on xs and was related to the number of contacts between the PS-DVB particles. Also, it was strongly dependent on the cohesion of the PS-DVB powders despite a very small xs (xs < 0.01). As for the internal angle of friction, although its value for each PS-DVB powder was similar, it also showed a correlation with the number of contacts between PS-DVB particles.

  20. New algorithm for detecting smaller retinal blood vessels in fundus images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LeAnder, Robert; Bidari, Praveen I.; Mohammed, Tauseef A.; Das, Moumita; Umbaugh, Scott E.

    2010-03-01

    About 4.1 million Americans suffer from diabetic retinopathy. To help automatically diagnose various stages of the disease, a new blood-vessel-segmentation algorithm based on spatial high-pass filtering was developed to automatically segment blood vessels, including the smaller ones, with low noise. Methods: Image database: Forty, 584 x 565-pixel images were collected from the DRIVE image database. Preprocessing: Green-band extraction was used to obtain better contrast, which facilitated better visualization of retinal blood vessels. A spatial highpass filter of mask-size 11 was applied. A histogram stretch was performed to enhance contrast. A median filter was applied to mitigate noise. At this point, the gray-scale image was converted to a binary image using a binary thresholding operation. Then, a NOT operation was performed by gray-level value inversion between 0 and 255. Postprocessing: The resulting image was AND-ed with its corresponding ring mask to remove the outer-ring (lens-edge) artifact. At this point, the above algorithm steps had extracted most of the major and minor vessels, with some intersections and bifurcations missing. Vessel segments were reintegrated using the Hough transform. Results: After applying the Hough transform, both the average peak SNR and the RMS error improved by 10%. Pratt's Figure of Merit (PFM) was decreased by 6%. Those averages were better than [1] by 10-30%. Conclusions: The new algorithm successfully preserved the details of smaller blood vessels and should prove successful as a segmentation step for automatically identifying diseases that affect retinal blood vessels.

  1. Smaller tumor size is associated with poor survival in T4b colon cancer

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ben; Feng, Yang; Mo, Shao-Bo; Cai, San-Jun; Huang, Li-Yong

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To hypothesize that in patients with colon cancer showing heavy intestinal wall invasion without distant metastasis (T4bN0-2M0), small tumor size would correlate with more aggressive tumor behaviors and therefore poorer cancer-specific survival (CSS). METHODS: We analyzed T4bN0-2M0 colon cancer patients in the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database. A preliminary analysis of T4bN0-2M0 colon cancer patients at the Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center is also presented. RESULTS: A total of 1734 T4bN0-2M0 colon cancer patients from the SEER database were included. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed decreasing CSS with decreasing tumor size (P < 0.001). Subgroup analysis showed a significant association between poorer CSS with smaller tumor size in T4bN0 patients (P = 0.024), and a trend of association in T4bN1 (P = 0.182) and T4bN2 patients (P = 0.191). Multivariate analysis identified tumor size as an independent prognostic factor for CSS in T4bN0-2M0 patients (P = 0.024). Preliminary analysis of Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center samples suggested the 5-year CSS was 50.0%, 72.9% and 77.1% in patients with tumors ≤ 4.0 cm, 4.0-7.0 cm and ≥ 7.0 cm. CONCLUSION: Smaller tumor size is associated with poorer CSS in the T4bN0-2M0 subset of colon cancer, particularly in the T4bN0M0 subgroup. PMID:27547015

  2. Is fracture a bigger problem for smaller animals? Force and fracture scaling for a simple model of cutting, puncture and crushing.

    PubMed

    Schofield, Robert M S; Choi, Seunghee; Coon, Joshua J; Goggans, Matthew Scott; Kreisman, Thomas F; Silver, Daniel M; Nesson, Michael H

    2016-06-01

    Many of the materials that are challenging for large animals to cut or puncture are also cut and punctured by much smaller organisms that are limited to much smaller forces. Small organisms can overcome their force limitations by using sharper tools, but one drawback may be an increased susceptibility to fracture. We use simple contact mechanics models to estimate how much smaller the diameter of the tips or edges of tools such as teeth, claws and cutting blades must be in smaller organisms in order for them to puncture or cut the same materials as larger organisms. In order to produce the same maximum stress when maximum force scales as the square of body length, the diameter of the tool region that is in contact with the target material must scale isometrically for punch-like tools (e.g. scorpion stings) on thick targets, and for crushing tools (e.g. molars). For punch-like tools on thin targets, and for cutting blades on thick targets, the tip or edge diameters must be even smaller than expected from isometry in smaller animals. The diameters of a small sample of unworn punch-like tools from a large range of animal sizes are consistent with the model, scaling isometrically or more steeply (positively allometric). In addition, we find that the force required to puncture a thin target using real biological tools scales linearly with tip diameter, as predicted by the model. We argue that, for smaller tools, the minimum energy to fracture the tool will be a greater fraction of the minimum energy required to puncture the target, making fracture more likely. Finally, energy stored in tool bending, relative to the energy to fracture the tool, increases rapidly with the aspect ratio (length/width), and we expect that smaller organisms often have to employ higher aspect ratio tools in order to puncture or cut to the required depth with available force. The extra stored energy in higher aspect ratio tools is likely to increase the probability of fracture. We discuss some

  3. Supply chain coordination with defective items and quantity discount

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Hsien-Jen; Lin, Yu-Jen

    2014-12-01

    This study develops an integrated inventory system involving defective items and quantity discount for optimal pricing and ordering strategies. The model analysed in this study is one in which the buyer orders a quantity, the vendor produces more than buyer's order quantity in order to reduce set-up cost, and then he/she offers an all-units quantity discount to the buyer. Our objective is to determine the optimal order quantity, retail price, mark-up rate, and the number of shipments per production run from the vendor to the buyer, so that the entire supply chain joint total profit incurred has a maximum value. Furthermore, an algorithm of finding the optimal solution is developed. Numerical examples are provided to illustrate the theoretical results.

  4. An Algebraic Approach to Unital Quantities and their Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domotor, Zoltan; Batitsky, Vadim

    2016-06-01

    The goals of this paper fall into two closely related areas. First, we develop a formal framework for deterministic unital quantities in which measurement unitization is understood to be a built-in feature of quantities rather than a mere annotation of their numerical values with convenient units. We introduce this idea within the setting of certain ordered semigroups of physical-geometric states of classical physical systems. States are assumed to serve as truth makers of metrological statements about quantity values. A unital quantity is presented as an isomorphism from the target system's ordered semigroup of states to that of positive reals. This framework allows us to include various derived and variable quantities, encountered in engineering and the natural sciences. For illustration and ease of presentation, we use the classical notions of length, time, electric current and mean velocity as primordial examples. The most important application of the resulting unital quantity calculus is in dimensional analysis. Second, in evaluating measurement uncertainty due to the analog-to-digital conversion of the measured quantity's value into its measuring instrument's pointer quantity value, we employ an ordered semigroup framework of pointer states. Pointer states encode the measuring instrument's indiscernibility relation, manifested by not being able to distinguish the measured system's topologically proximal states. Once again, we focus mainly on the measurement of length and electric current quantities as our motivating examples. Our approach to quantities and their measurement is strictly state-based and algebraic in flavor, rather than that of a representationalist-style structure-preserving numerical assignment.

  5. Preparation of colloidal graphene in quantity by electrochemical exfoliation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kunfeng; Xue, Dongfeng

    2014-12-15

    We reported the preparation of colloidal graphene in quantity via the anodic exfoliation of graphite in (NH4)2SO4 aqueous solution. In the currently designed electrochemical exfoliation route, mass high-quality graphene was produced within short reaction time, around 1h. The proposed electrochemical exfoliation mechanism showed that SO4(2-) and H2O can be intercalated into those graphite sheets, monolayer and few-layer graphene were obtained by the formation of gaseous SO2 and O2 within graphite sheets. Stability evaluation showed that our exfoliated colloidal graphene can be perfectly stabilized in DMF solvent more than 1 week. The colloidal graphene can be used to construct various simple and complex patterns by writing it on A4 paper, which can be applied to flexible printed electronic devices. Furthermore, colloidal graphene can show promising applications in the fabrication of binder- and additive-free electrodes for supercapacitors and lithium-ion batteries. Our present method shows huge potential for industrial-scale synthesis of high-quality graphene and further commercialization of graphene colloid for numerous advanced applications in flexible printed electronics and energy storage devices. PMID:25265584

  6. Implications of adopting plane angle as a base quantity in the SI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quincey, Paul; Brown, Richard J. C.

    2016-06-01

    The treatment of angles within the SI is anomalous compared with other quantities, and there is a case for removing this anomaly by declaring plane angle to be an additional base quantity within the system. It is shown that this could bring several benefits in terms of treating angle on an equal basis with other metrics, removing potentially harmful ambiguities, and bringing SI units more in line with concepts in basic physics, but at the expense of significant upheaval to familiar equations within mathematics and physics. This paper sets out the most important of these changes so that an alternative unit system containing angle as a base quantity can be seen in the round, irrespective of whether it is ever widely adopted. The alternative formulas and units can be treated as the underlying, more general equations of mathematical physics, independent of the units used for angle, which are conventionally simplified by implicitly assuming that the unit used for angle is the radian.

  7. High-throughput Sequencing of Trace Quantities of Soil Provides Reproducible and Discriminative Fungal DNA Profiles.

    PubMed

    Young, Jennifer M; Weyrich, Laura S; Cooper, Alan

    2016-03-01

    High-throughput sequencing (HTS) offers improved resolution between forensic soil samples by characterizing individual taxa present; however, the heterogeneous distribution of taxa in soils, and limited quantity of material available, may hinder the reliability of HTS in casework. Using HTS of the internal transcribed spacer, we examined the effect of soil mass (50, 150, and 250 mg) on fungal DNA profiles, focusing on reproducibility and discriminatory power between close proximity soils, and samples with similar textural classification. The results show that reduced soil mass had no significant effect on sample differentiation and that 150 mg soil provides the most reproducible DNA profiles across different soil types. In addition, Ascomycota was identified as a robust fungal target for forensic intelligence as this phylum was detected consistently across all samples regardless of sample quantity. Overall, this study highlights the value of trace quantities of soil for use in forensic casework. PMID:27404621

  8. Shape recognition elicited by microsecond flashes is not based on photon quantity

    PubMed Central

    Greene, Ernest

    2014-01-01

    It is generally thought that the perceptual impact of a brief flash of light is determined by the quantity of photons the flash delivers. This means that only the total quantity of photons is important below a critical duration of about 30–100 ms. Recent findings have challenged this concept and the present work provides additional evidence that it is not correct. The first experiment reported here delivered a given quantity of photons in under 200 μs, either as a single threshold-intensity flash or as multiple flashes at the same intensity. The single flash was ineffective at eliciting recognition, but multiple flashes became progressively more effective as the number of flashes was increased. A second experiment varied the number of 10 μs flashes. The effectiveness of multiple flashes was far higher than would be expected on the basis of the total quantity of photons being delivered. The results of both experiments suggest that the brief transitions of intensity provided by the flashes are far more important than the quantity of photons. A final experiment examined the combined impact from two threshold-intensity flashes as the interstimulus interval was increased. The pair members were able to combine their influence for at least 100 ms. These results call for more attention to how very brief light flashes generate signals that convey image content. PMID:25469213

  9. Conceptual Model of Quantities, Units, Dimensions, and Values

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rouquette, Nicolas F.; DeKoenig, Hans-Peter; Burkhart, Roger; Espinoza, Huascar

    2011-01-01

    JPL collaborated with experts from industry and other organizations to develop a conceptual model of quantities, units, dimensions, and values based on the current work of the ISO 80000 committee revising the International System of Units & Quantities based on the International Vocabulary of Metrology (VIM). By providing support for ISO 80000 in SysML via the International Vocabulary of Metrology (VIM), this conceptual model provides, for the first time, a standard-based approach for addressing issues of unit coherence and dimensional analysis into the practice of systems engineering with SysML-based tools. This conceptual model provides support for two kinds of analyses specified in the International Vocabulary of Metrology (VIM): coherence of units as well as of systems of units, and dimension analysis of systems of quantities. To provide a solid and stable foundation, the model for defining quantities, units, dimensions, and values in SysML is explicitly based on the concepts defined in VIM. At the same time, the model library is designed in such a way that extensions to the ISQ (International System of Quantities) and SI Units (Systeme International d Unites) can be represented, as well as any alternative systems of quantities and units. The model library can be used to support SysML user models in various ways. A simple approach is to define and document libraries of reusable systems of units and quantities for reuse across multiple projects, and to link units and quantity kinds from these libraries to Unit and QuantityKind stereotypes defined in SysML user models.

  10. How the great apes (Pan troglodytes, Pongo pygmaeus, Pan paniscus, Gorilla gorilla) perform on the reversed reward contingency task II: transfer to new quantities, long-term retention, and the impact of quantity ratios.

    PubMed

    Uher, Jana; Call, Josep

    2008-05-01

    We tested 6 chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), 3 orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus), 4 bonobos (Pan paniscus), and 2 gorillas (Gorilla gorilla) in the reversed reward contingency task. Individuals were presented with pairs of quantities ranging between 0 and 6 food items. Prior to testing, some experienced apes had solved this task using 2 quantities while others were totally naïve. Experienced apes transferred their ability to multiple-novel pairs after 6 to 19 months had elapsed since their initial testing. Two out of 6 naïve apes (1 chimpanzee, 1 bonobo) solved the task--a proportion comparable to that of a previous study using 2 pairs of quantities. Their acquisition speed was also comparable to the successful subjects from that study. The ratio between quantities explained a large portion of the variance but affected naïve and experienced individuals differently. For smaller ratios, naïve individuals were well below 50% correct and experienced ones were well above 50%, yet both groups tended to converge toward 50% for larger ratios. Thus, some apes require no procedural modifications to overcome their strong bias for selecting the larger of 2 quantities. PMID:18489236

  11. Quantity Intelligent Reckoning for Packaged Granary Grain Based Onimage Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Ying; Liu, Yong; Sun, Yueheng; Sun, Yanhong

    This paper presents a quantity intelligent reckoning approach for packaged granary grain based on image processing. The actual scene video was taken as the analysis object, and the dual-threshold Canny operator and the morphology processing method are used to extract the object grain bags’ characteristic outline-- the boundary of the counter-band of light. Then, a counting algorithm which integrates mode theory and variance analysis technology is presented for the quantity second-judgment. Experimental results show that by accurately extracting the characteristic outline and counting the number of the characteristic outline, the algorithm presents an effective method for grain quantity detection with high recognition precision and efficiency.

  12. Quantity Intelligent Reckoning for Packaged Granary Grain Based Onimage Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Ying; Liu, Yong; Sun, Yueheng; Sun, Yanhong

    This paper presents a quantity intelligent reckoning approach for packaged granary grain based on image processing. The actual scene video was taken as the analysis object, and the dual-threshold Canny operator and the morphology processing method are used to extract the object grain bags' characteristic outline-- the boundary of the counter-band of light. Then, a counting algorithm which integrates mode theory and variance analysis technology is presented for the quantity second-judgment. Experimental results show that by accurately extracting the characteristic outline and counting the number of the characteristic outline, the algorithm presents an effective method for grain quantity detection with high recognition precision and efficiency.

  13. Smaller grafts do not imply early recurrence in recipients transplanted for hepatocellular carcinoma: A Chinese experience.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhenhua; Zhong, Xun; Zhou, Jie; Xiang, Jie; Li, Zhiwei; Zhang, Min; Wu, Jian; Jiang, Wenshi; Zheng, Shusen

    2016-01-01

    Liver graft size has long been a critical issue in adult-to-adult living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). We analyzed China Liver Transplant Registry data (January 2007-December 2009), identifying 295 patients who underwent LDLT for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The recipients were divided into two groups: A, graft-to-recipient body weight ratio (GRWR) ≤ 0.8% (n = 56); B, GRWR > 0.8% (n = 239). We evaluated donor, recipient, and operative factors and analyzed survival outcome and the risk factors affecting overall and recurrence survival. As a result, the overall survival rates of group B were significantly higher than that of group A (p = 0.009); the corresponding tumor-free survival rates did not differ significantly (p = 0.133). The overall survival rates among the 151 recipients who met the Hangzhou criteria did not differ significantly (p = 0.953), nor did the corresponding tumor-free survival rates (p = 0.893). Multivariate analysis determined that GRWR was a significant risk factor for poor survival but not for early recurrence. In conclusion, small grafts may predict poorer survival outcome but do not indicate earlier HCC recurrence in recipients transplanted for HCC, and survival outcome with smaller grafts is merely acceptable in selected recipients. PMID:27225666

  14. Smaller Dendritic Spines, Weaker Synaptic Transmission, but Enhanced Spatial Learning in Mice Lacking Shank1

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Albert Y.; Futai, Kensuke; Sala, Carlo; Valtschanoff, Juli G.; Ryu, Jubin; Woodworth, Mollie A.; Kidd, Fleur L.; Sung, Clifford C.; Miyakawa, Tsuyoshi; Bear, Mark F.; Weinberg, Richard J.; Sheng, Morgan

    2009-01-01

    Experience-dependent changes in the structure of dendritic spines may contribute to learning and memory. Encoded by three genes, the Shank family of postsynaptic scaffold proteins are abundant and enriched in the postsynaptic density (PSD) of central excitatory synapses. When expressed in cultured hippocampal neurons, Shank promotes the maturation and enlargement of dendritic spines. Recently, Shank3 has been genetically implicated in human autism, suggesting an important role for Shank proteins in normal cognitive development. Here, we report the phenotype of Shank1 knock-out mice. Shank1 mutants showed altered PSD protein composition; reduced size of dendritic spines; smaller, thinner PSDs; and weaker basal synaptic transmission. Standard measures of synaptic plasticity were normal. Behaviorally, they had increased anxiety-related behavior and impaired contextual fear memory. Remarkably, Shank1-deficient mice displayed enhanced performance in a spatial learning task; however, their long-term memory retention in this task was impaired. These results affirm the importance of Shank1 for synapse structure and function in vivo, and they highlight a differential role for Shank1 in specific cognitive processes, a feature that may be relevant to human autism spectrum disorders. PMID:18272690

  15. The digestive adaptation of flying vertebrates: High intestinal paracellular absorption compensates for smaller guts

    PubMed Central

    Caviedes-Vidal, Enrique; McWhorter, Todd J.; Lavin, Shana R.; Chediack, Juan G.; Tracy, Christopher R.; Karasov, William H.

    2007-01-01

    Anecdotal evidence suggests that birds have smaller intestines than mammals. In the present analysis, we show that small birds and bats have significantly shorter small intestines and less small intestine nominal (smooth bore tube) surface area than similarly sized nonflying mammals. The corresponding >50% reduction in intestinal volume and hence mass of digesta carried is advantageous because the energetic costs of flight increase with load carried. But, a central dilemma is how birds and bats satisfy relatively high energy needs with less absorptive surface area. Here, we further show that an enhanced paracellular pathway for intestinal absorption of water-soluble nutrients such as glucose and amino acids may compensate for reduced small intestines in volant vertebrates. The evidence is that l-rhamnose and other similarly sized, metabolically inert, nonactively transported monosaccharides are absorbed significantly more in small birds and bats than in nonflying mammals. To broaden our comparison and test the veracity of our finding we surveyed the literature for other similar studies of paracellular absorption. The patterns found in our focal species held up when we included other species surveyed in our analysis. Significantly greater amplification of digestive surface area by villi in small birds, also uncovered by our analysis, may provide one mechanistic explanation for the observation of higher paracellular absorption relative to nonflying mammals. It appears that reduced intestinal size and relatively enhanced intestinal paracellular absorption can be added to the suite of adaptations that have evolved in actively flying vertebrates. PMID:18025481

  16. Independent practice associations and physician-hospital organizations can improve care management for smaller practices.

    PubMed

    Casalino, Lawrence P; Wu, Frances M; Ryan, Andrew M; Copeland, Kennon; Rittenhouse, Diane R; Ramsay, Patricia P; Shortell, Stephen M

    2013-08-01

    Pay-for-performance, public reporting, and accountable care organization programs place pressures on physicians to use health information technology and organized care management processes to improve the care they provide. But physician practices that are not large may lack the resources and size to implement such processes. We used data from a unique national survey of 1,164 practices with fewer than twenty physicians to provide the first information available on the extent to which independent practice associations (IPAs) and physician-hospital organizations (PHOs) might make it possible for these smaller practices to share resources to improve care. Nearly a quarter of the practices participated in an IPA or a PHO that accounted for a significant proportion of their patients. On average, practices participating in these organizations provided nearly three times as many care management processes for patients with chronic conditions as nonparticipating practices did (10.4 versus 3.8). Half of these processes were provided only by IPAs or PHOs. These organizations may provide a way for small and medium-size practices to systematically improve care and participate in accountable care organizations. PMID:23918481

  17. Multiple Smaller Missions as a Direct Pathway to Mars Sample Return

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niles, P. B.; Draper, D. S.; Evans, C. A.; Gibson, E. K.; Graham, L. D.; Jones, J. H.; Lederer, S. M.; Ming, D.; Seaman, C. H.; Archer, P. D.; Andrews-Hanna, J.; Baldridge, A. M.; Bourke, M. C.; Crown, D. A.; Fries, M.; Knudson, A. T.; Michalski, J.; Dobrea, E. Noe; Vaniman, D.; Weitz, C. M.; Williams, R. M. E.; Bell, J. F., III; Knauth, L. P.

    2012-01-01

    Recent discoveries by the Mars Exploration Rovers, Mars Express, Mars Odyssey, and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft include multiple, tantalizing astrobiological targets representing both past and present environments on Mars. The most desirable path to Mars Sample Return (MSR) would be to collect and return samples from that site which provides the clearest examples of the variety of rock types considered a high priority for sample return (pristine igneous, sedimentary, and hydrothermal). Here we propose an MSR architecture in which the next steps (potentially launched in 2018) would entail a series of smaller missions, including caching, to multiple landing sites to verify the presence of high priority sample return targets through in situ analyses. This alternative architecture to one flagship-class sample caching mission to a single site would preserve a direct path to MSR as stipulated by the Planetary Decadal Survey, while permitting investigation of diverse deposit types and providing comparison of the site of returned samples to other aqueous environments on early Mars

  18. Fight tactics in wood ants: individuals in smaller groups fight harder but die faster

    PubMed Central

    Batchelor, Tim P.; Briffa, Mark

    2011-01-01

    When social animals engage in inter-group contests, the outcome is determined by group sizes and individual masses, which together determine group resource-holding potential (‘group RHP’). Individuals that perceive themselves as being in a group with high RHP may receive a motivational increase and increase their aggression levels. Alternatively, individuals in lower RHP groups may increase their aggression levels in an attempt to overcome the RHP deficit. We investigate how ‘group RHP’ influences agonistic tactics in red wood ants Formica rufa. Larger groups had higher total agonistic indices, but per capita agonistic indices were highest in the smallest groups, indicating that individuals in smaller groups fought harder. Agonistic indices were influenced by relative mean mass, focal group size, opponent group size and opponent group agonistic index. Focal group attrition rates decreased as focal group relative agonistic indices increased and there was a strong negative influence of relative mean mass. The highest focal attrition rates were received when opponent groups were numerically large and composed of large individuals. Thus, fight tactics in F. rufa seem to vary with both aspects of group RHP, group size and the individual attributes of group members, indicating that information on these are available to fighting ants. PMID:21389029

  19. Smaller grafts do not imply early recurrence in recipients transplanted for hepatocellular carcinoma: A Chinese experience

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Zhenhua; Zhong, Xun; Zhou, Jie; Xiang, Jie; Li, Zhiwei; Zhang, Min; Wu, Jian; Jiang, Wenshi; Zheng, Shusen

    2016-01-01

    Liver graft size has long been a critical issue in adult-to-adult living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). We analyzed China Liver Transplant Registry data (January 2007–December 2009), identifying 295 patients who underwent LDLT for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The recipients were divided into two groups: A, graft-to-recipient body weight ratio (GRWR) ≤ 0.8% (n = 56); B, GRWR > 0.8% (n = 239). We evaluated donor, recipient, and operative factors and analyzed survival outcome and the risk factors affecting overall and recurrence survival. As a result, the overall survival rates of group B were significantly higher than that of group A (p = 0.009); the corresponding tumor-free survival rates did not differ significantly (p = 0.133). The overall survival rates among the 151 recipients who met the Hangzhou criteria did not differ significantly (p = 0.953), nor did the corresponding tumor-free survival rates (p = 0.893). Multivariate analysis determined that GRWR was a significant risk factor for poor survival but not for early recurrence. In conclusion, small grafts may predict poorer survival outcome but do not indicate earlier HCC recurrence in recipients transplanted for HCC, and survival outcome with smaller grafts is merely acceptable in selected recipients. PMID:27225666

  20. Origin of giant viruses from smaller DNA viruses not from a fourth domain of cellular life

    PubMed Central

    Yutin, Natalya; Wolf, Yuri I.; Koonin, Eugene V.

    2015-01-01

    The numerous and diverse eukaryotic viruses with large double-stranded DNA genomes that at least partially reproduce in the cytoplasm of infected cells apparently evolved from a single virus ancestor. This major group of viruses is known as Nucleocytoplasmic Large DNA Viruses (NCLDV) or the proposed order Megavirales. Among the “Megavirales”, there are three groups of giant viruses with genomes exceeding 500 kb, namely Mimiviruses, Pithoviruses, and Pandoraviruses that hold the current record of viral genome size, about 2.5 Mb. Phylogenetic analysis of conserved, ancestral NLCDV genes clearly shows that these three groups of giant viruses have three distinct origins within the “Megavirales”. The Mimiviruses constitute a distinct family that is distantly related to Phycodnaviridae, Pandoraviruses originate from a common ancestor with Coccolithoviruses within the Phycodnaviridae family, and Pithoviruses are related to Iridoviridae and Marseilleviridae. Maximum likelihood reconstruction of gene gain and loss events during the evolution of the “Megavirales” indicates that each group of giant viruses evolved from viruses with substantially smaller and simpler gene repertoires. Initial phylogenetic analysis of universal genes, such as translation system components, encoded by some giant viruses, in particular Mimiviruses, has led to the hypothesis that giant viruses descend from a fourth, probably extinct domain of cellular life. The results of our comprehensive phylogenomic analysis of giant viruses refute the fourth domain hypothesis and instead indicate that the universal genes have been independently acquired by different giant viruses from their eukaryotic hosts. PMID:25042053

  1. Flight speeds of swifts (Apus apus): seasonal differences smaller than expected.

    PubMed

    Henningsson, P; Karlsson, H; Bäckman, J; Alerstam, T; Hedenström, A

    2009-07-01

    We have studied the nocturnal flight behaviour of the common swift (Apus apus L.), by the use of a tracking radar. Birds were tracked from Lund University in southern Sweden during spring migration, summer roosting flights and autumn migration. Flight speeds were compared with predictions from flight mechanical and optimal migration theories. During spring, flight speeds were predicted to be higher than during both summer and autumn due to time restriction. In such cases, birds fly at a flight speed that maximizes the overall speed of migration. For summer roosting flights, speeds were predicted to be lower than during both spring and autumn since the predicted flight speed is the minimum power speed that involves the lowest energy consumption per unit time. During autumn, we expected flight speeds to be higher than during summer but lower than during spring since the expected flight speed is the maximum range speed, which involves the lowest energy consumption per unit distance. Flight speeds during spring were indeed higher than during both summer and autumn, which indicates time-selected spring migration. Speeds during autumn migration were very similar to those recorded during summer roosting flights. The general result shows that swifts change their flight speed between different flight behaviours to a smaller extent than expected. Furthermore, the difference between flight speeds during migration and roosting among swifts was found to be less pronounced than previously recorded. PMID:19324733

  2. The effect of introducing a smaller and lighter basketball on female basketball players' shot accuracy.

    PubMed

    Podmenik, Nadja; Leskošek, Bojan; Erčulj, Frane

    2012-03-01

    Our study examined whether the introduction of a smaller and lighter basketball (no. 6) affected the accuracy of female basketball players' shots at the basket. The International Basketball Federation (FIBA) introduced a size 6 ball in the 2004/2005 season to improve the efficiency and accuracy of technical elements, primarily shots at the basket. The sample for this study included 573 European female basketball players who were members of national teams that had qualified for the senior women's European championships in 2001, 2003, 2005 and 2007. A size 7 (larger and heavier) basketball was used by 286 players in 1,870 matches, and a size 6 basketball was used by 287 players in 1,966 matches. The players were categorised into three playing positions: guards, forwards and centres. The results revealed that statistically significant changes by year occurred only in terms of the percentage of successful free throws. With the size 6 basketball, this percentage decreased. Statistically significant differences between the playing positions were observed in terms of the percentage of field goals worth three points (between guards and forwards) and two points (between guards and centres). The results show that the introduction of the size 6 basketball did not lead to improvement in shooting accuracy (the opposite was found for free throws), although the number of three-point shots increased. PMID:23486286

  3. Low-methane yield sheep have smaller rumens and shorter rumen retention time.

    PubMed

    Goopy, John P; Donaldson, Alastair; Hegarty, Roger; Vercoe, Philip E; Haynes, Fay; Barnett, Mark; Oddy, V Hutton

    2014-02-01

    In the present study, following the measurement of methane emissions from 160 mature ewes three times, a subset of twenty ewes was selected for further emission and physiological studies. Ewes were selected on the basis of methane yield (MY; g CH4/kg DM intake) being low (Low MY: >1 sd below the mean; n 10) or high (High MY: >1 sd above the mean; n 10) when fed a blended chaff ration at a fixed feeding level (1·2-fold maintenance energy requirements). The difference between the Low- and High-MY groups observed at the time of selection was maintained (P= 0·001) when remeasured 1-7 months later during digesta kinetics studies. Low MY was associated with a shorter mean retention time of particulate (P< 0·01) and liquid (P< 0·001) digesta, less amounts of rumen particulate contents (P< 0·01) and a smaller rumen volume (P< 0·05), but not apparent DM digestibility (P= 0·27) or urinary allantoin excretion (P= 0·89). Computer tomography scanning of the sheep's rumens after an overnight fast revealed a trend towards the Low-MY sheep having more clearly demarcated rumen gas and liquid phases (P= 0·10). These findings indicate that the selection of ruminants for low MY may have important consequences for an animal's nutritional physiology. PMID:24103253

  4. High proportion of smaller ranged hummingbird species coincides with ecological specialization across the Americas.

    PubMed

    Sonne, Jesper; Martín González, Ana M; Maruyama, Pietro K; Sandel, Brody; Vizentin-Bugoni, Jeferson; Schleuning, Matthias; Abrahamczyk, Stefan; Alarcón, Ruben; Araujo, Andréa C; Araújo, Francielle P; Mendes de Azevedo, Severino; Baquero, Andrea C; Cotton, Peter A; Ingversen, Tanja Toftemark; Kohler, Glauco; Lara, Carlos; Guedes Las-Casas, Flor Maria; Machado, Adriana O; Machado, Caio Graco; Maglianesi, María Alejandra; Moura, Alan Cerqueira; Nogués-Bravo, David; Oliveira, Genilda M; Oliveira, Paulo E; Ornelas, Juan Francisco; Rodrigues, Licléia da Cruz; Rosero-Lasprilla, Liliana; Rui, Ana Maria; Sazima, Marlies; Timmermann, Allan; Varassin, Isabela Galarda; Wang, Zhiheng; Watts, Stella; Fjeldså, Jon; Svenning, Jens-Christian; Rahbek, Carsten; Dalsgaard, Bo

    2016-02-10

    Ecological communities that experience stable climate conditions have been speculated to preserve more specialized interspecific associations and have higher proportions of smaller ranged species (SRS). Thus, areas with disproportionally large numbers of SRS are expected to coincide geographically with a high degree of community-level ecological specialization, but this suggestion remains poorly supported with empirical evidence. Here, we analysed data for hummingbird resource specialization, range size, contemporary climate, and Late Quaternary climate stability for 46 hummingbird-plant mutualistic networks distributed across the Americas, representing 130 hummingbird species (ca 40% of all hummingbird species). We demonstrate a positive relationship between the proportion of SRS of hummingbirds and community-level specialization, i.e. the division of the floral niche among coexisting hummingbird species. This relationship remained strong even when accounting for climate, furthermore, the effect of SRS on specialization was far stronger than the effect of specialization on SRS, suggesting that climate largely influences specialization through species' range-size dynamics. Irrespective of the exact mechanism involved, our results indicate that communities consisting of higher proportions of SRS may be vulnerable to disturbance not only because of their small geographical ranges, but also because of their high degree of specialization. PMID:26842573

  5. Smaller Forbush Decreases in Solar Cycle 24: Effect of the Weak CME Field Strength?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thakur, N.

    2015-12-01

    A Forbush decrease (FD) is a sudden depression in the intensity of galactic cosmic ray (GCR) background, followed by a gradual recovery. One of the major causes of FDs is the presence of magnetic structures such as magnetic clouds (MCs) or corotating interaction regions (CIRs) that have enhanced magnetic field, which can scatter particles away reducing the observed GCR intensity. Recent work (Gopalswamy et al. 2014, GRL 41, 2673) suggests that coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are expanding anomalously in solar cycle 24 due to the reduced total pressure in the ambient medium. One of the consequences of the anomalous expansion is the reduced magnetic content of MCs, so we expect subdued FDs in cycle 24. In this paper, we present preliminary results from a survey of FDs during MC events in cycle 24 in comparison with those in cycle 23. We find that only ~17% FDs in cycle 24 had an amplitude >3%, as compared to ~31% in cycle 23. This result is consistent with the difference in the maximum magnetic field intensities (Bmax) of MCs in the two cycles: only ~ 10% of MCs in cycle 24 have Bmax>20nT, compared to 22% in cycle 23, confirming that MCs of cycle 24 have weaker magnetic field content. Therefore, we suggest that weaker magnetic field intensity in the magnetic clouds of cycle 24 has led to FDs with smaller amplitudes.

  6. Using a smaller plate did not reduce energy intake at meals

    PubMed Central

    Rolls, Barbara J.; Roe, Liane S.; Halverson, Kitti H.; Meengs, Jennifer S.

    2007-01-01

    In three cross-over experiments, we examined the effect on energy intake of changing the size of the plate used at a meal. On separate days, adults were served the same lunch menu but were given a different-sized plate. In the first study, 45 participants used each of three plate sizes (17, 22, or 26 cm) and served the main course from a large dish. In the second study, 30 participants received an equal amount of food presented on each of the two larger plates. In the third study, 44 participants used each of the three plates and selected from a buffet of five foods matched for energy density. Results showed that plate size had no significant effect on energy intake. The mean differences in intake using the smallest and largest plates in the three studies were 21±13 g, 11±13 g, and 4±18 g, respectively, equivalent to < 142 kJ (34 kcal) and not significantly different from zero. Participants in the third study made significantly more trips to the buffet when they were given the smallest plate. These findings show that using a smaller plate did not lead to a reduction in food intake at meals eaten in the laboratory. PMID:17540474

  7. Randomized denoising autoencoders for smaller and efficient imaging based AD clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Ithapu, Vamsi K.; Singh, Vikas; Okonkwo, Ozioma; Johnson, Sterling C.

    2015-01-01

    There is growing body of research devoted to designing imaging-based biomarkers that identify Alzheimer’s disease (AD) in its prodromal stage using statistical machine learning methods. Recently several authors investigated how clinical trials for AD can be made more efficient (i.e., smaller sample size) using predictive measures from such classification methods. In this paper, we explain why predictive measures given by such SVM type objectives may be less than ideal for use in the setting described above. We give a solution based on a novel deep learning model, randomized denoising autoencoders (rDA), which regresses on training labels y while also accounting for the variance, a property which is very useful for clinical trial design. Our results give strong improvements in sample size estimates over strategies based on multi-kernel learning. Also, rDA predictions appear to more accurately correlate to stages of disease. Separately, our formulation empirically shows how deep architectures can be applied in the large d, small n regime — the default situation in medical imaging. This result is of independent interest. PMID:25485413

  8. NASA's X2000 Program: An Institutional Approach to Enabling Smaller Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deutsch, Leslie J.; Salvo, Chris; Woerner, David

    2000-01-01

    The number of NASA science missions per year is increasing from less than one to more than six. At the same time, individual mission budgets are smaller and cannot afford their own dedicated technology developments. In response to this, NASA has formed the X2000 Program. This program, which is divided into a set of subsequent "deliveries" will provide the basic avionics, power, communications, and software capability for future science missions. X2000 First Delivery, which will be completed in early 2001, will provide a full-functioned one MRAD tolerant flight computer, power switching electronics, a highly efficient radioisotope power source, and a transponder that provides high-level services at both 8.4 GHz and 32 GHz bands. The X2000 Second Delivery, which will be completed in the 2003 time frame, will enable complete spacecraft in the 10-50 kg class. All capabilities delivered by the X2000 program will be commercialized within the US and therefore will be available for others to use. Although the immediate customers for these technologies are deep space missions, most of the capabilities being delivered are generic in nature and will be equally applicable to Earth Observation missions.

  9. The Effect of Introducing a Smaller and Lighter Basketball on Female Basketball Players’ Shot Accuracy

    PubMed Central

    Podmenik, Nadja; Leskošek, Bojan; Erčulj, Frane

    2012-01-01

    Our study examined whether the introduction of a smaller and lighter basketball (no. 6) affected the accuracy of female basketball players’ shots at the basket. The International Basketball Federation (FIBA) introduced a size 6 ball in the 2004/2005 season to improve the efficiency and accuracy of technical elements, primarily shots at the basket. The sample for this study included 573 European female basketball players who were members of national teams that had qualified for the senior women’s European championships in 2001, 2003, 2005 and 2007. A size 7 (larger and heavier) basketball was used by 286 players in 1,870 matches, and a size 6 basketball was used by 287 players in 1,966 matches. The players were categorised into three playing positions: guards, forwards and centres. The results revealed that statistically significant changes by year occurred only in terms of the percentage of successful free throws. With the size 6 basketball, this percentage decreased. Statistically significant differences between the playing positions were observed in terms of the percentage of field goals worth three points (between guards and forwards) and two points (between guards and centres). The results show that the introduction of the size 6 basketball did not lead to improvement in shooting accuracy (the opposite was found for free throws), although the number of three-point shots increased. PMID:23486286

  10. Using a smaller plate did not reduce energy intake at meals.

    PubMed

    Rolls, Barbara J; Roe, Liane S; Halverson, Kitti H; Meengs, Jennifer S

    2007-11-01

    In three cross-over experiments, we examined the effect on energy intake of changing the size of the plate used at a meal. On separate days, adults were served the same lunch menu but were given a different-sized plate. In the first study, 45 participants used each of three plate sizes (17, 22, or 26 cm) and served the main course from a large dish. In the second study, 30 participants received an equal amount of food presented on each of the two larger plates. In the third study, 44 participants used each of the three plates and selected from a buffet of five foods matched for energy density. Results showed that plate size had no significant effect on energy intake. The mean differences in intake using the smallest and largest plates in the three studies were 21+/-13 g, 11+/-13 g, and 4+/-18 g, respectively, equivalent to <142 kJ (34 kcal) and not significantly different from zero. Participants in the third study made significantly more trips to the buffet when they were given the smallest plate. These findings show that using a smaller plate did not lead to a reduction in food intake at meals eaten in the laboratory. PMID:17540474

  11. The Quantity-Quality Relationship in Environmental Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budowski, Gerardo

    1970-01-01

    Describes, with examples, the change from a quantity" to a quality" criterion for environmental management after ecocatastrophes occurred. Provides some guidelines for attaining quality," including preserving many options, increasing environmental diversity, and recognizing environmental tolerance limits. (AL)

  12. From measurements to inferences of physical quantities in numerical simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Tota

    2016-01-01

    We propose a change of style for numerical estimations of physical quantities from measurements to inferences. We estimate the most probable quantities for all the parameter region simultaneously by using the raw data cooperatively. Estimations with higher precisions are made possible. We can obtain a physical quantity as a continuous function, which is processed to obtain another quantity. We applied the method to the Heisenberg spin-glass model in three dimensions. A dynamic correlation-length scaling analysis suggests that the spin-glass and the chiral-glass transitions occur at the same temperature with a common exponent ν . The value is consistent with the experimental results. We explained a spin-chirality separation problem by a size-crossover effect.

  13. 49 CFR 173.4a - Excepted quantities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... UN2803 (Gallium) and UN2809 (Mercury); and (9) Class 9, except for UN1845 (Carbon dioxide, solid or Dry ice), and lithium batteries and cells. (c) Inner packaging limits. The maximum quantity of...

  14. 19 CFR 351.409 - Differences in quantities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DUTIES Calculation of Export Price, Constructed Export Price, Fair Value, and Normal Value § 351.409... price differential (or lack thereof) is wholly or partly due to that difference in quantities....

  15. Automated cerebellar segmentation: Validation and application to detect smaller volumes in children prenatally exposed to alcohol☆

    PubMed Central

    Cardenas, Valerie A.; Price, Mathew; Infante, M. Alejandra; Moore, Eileen M.; Mattson, Sarah N.; Riley, Edward P.; Fein, George

    2014-01-01

    Objective To validate an automated cerebellar segmentation method based on active shape and appearance modeling and then segment the cerebellum on images acquired from adolescents with histories of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) and non-exposed controls (NC). Methods Automated segmentations of the total cerebellum, right and left cerebellar hemispheres, and three vermal lobes (anterior, lobules I–V; superior posterior, lobules VI–VII; inferior posterior, lobules VIII–X) were compared to expert manual labelings on 20 subjects, studied twice, that were not used for model training. The method was also used to segment the cerebellum on 11 PAE and 9 NC adolescents. Results The test–retest intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) of the automated method were greater than 0.94 for all cerebellar volume and mid-sagittal vermal area measures, comparable or better than the test–retest ICCs for manual measurement (all ICCs > 0.92). The ICCs computed on all four cerebellar measurements (manual and automated measures on the repeat scans) to compare comparability were above 0.97 for non-vermis parcels, and above 0.89 for vermis parcels. When applied to patients, the automated method detected smaller cerebellar volumes and mid-sagittal areas in the PAE group compared to controls (p < 0.05 for all regions except the superior posterior lobe, consistent with prior studies). Discussion These results demonstrate excellent reliability and validity of automated cerebellar volume and mid-sagittal area measurements, compared to manual measurements. These data also illustrate that this new technology for automatically delineating the cerebellum leads to conclusions regarding the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on the cerebellum consistent with prior studies that used labor intensive manual delineation, even with a very small sample. PMID:25061566

  16. USArray recordings of infrasound generated by the Chelyabinsk Meteor and other, smaller bolides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Groot-Hedlin, Catherine; Hedlin, Michael

    2014-05-01

    A small asteroid that entered Earth's atmosphere near the city of Chelyabinsk, Russia, generated infrasound signals that were recorded by USArray barometers at distances from 6000-10000 km from the source. The infrasound recordings made of this event by these arrays are unprecedented, due to rarity of this type of event and the high density and spatial extent of the recording network. Signal characteristics vary across the network; infrasound arrivals recorded in Alaska and along the U.S. northwest coast had higher velocities and higher frequency content than those recorded in the eastern part of the network. The recorded pressure amplitudes at Alaska sites were significantly larger than for the remaining stations. Atmospheric specifications of global wind and sound speeds indicate the presence of a stratospheric duct for propagation to Alaska and stations along the northwest coast; however, most USarray stations lie within a thermospheric duct. Raytrace modeling confirms that, at stations in Alaska and the northwest U.S., the arrival times and durations of stratospherically ducted rays are consistent with observed arrivals at frequencies above the microbarom band. At lower frequencies, arrival times are consistent with thermospheric ducting at stations across the network. Estimates of infrasound attenuation from the Chelyabisk meteor to the recording sites were made using an attenuation formula derived from parabolic equation simulations. The results suggest that, under the assumption that infrasound was radiated isotropically from the Chelyabinsk meteor, thermospheric returns have higher than expected amplitudes as compared to stratospheric returns at the same frequencies. We examine in greater detail our assumption of isotropic infrasound radiation from a bolide explosion using a number of much smaller fireball events observed at seismic and infrasound sensors at the USArray.

  17. THE MASS-RADIUS RELATION FOR 65 EXOPLANETS SMALLER THAN 4 EARTH RADII

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, Lauren M.; Marcy, Geoffrey W.

    2014-03-01

    We study the masses and radii of 65 exoplanets smaller than 4 R {sub ⊕} with orbital periods shorter than 100 days. We calculate the weighted mean densities of planets in bins of 0.5 R {sub ⊕} and identify a density maximum of 7.6  g cm{sup –3} at 1.4 R {sub ⊕}. On average, planets with radii up to R {sub P} = 1.5 R {sub ⊕} increase in density with increasing radius. Above 1.5 R {sub ⊕}, the average planet density rapidly decreases with increasing radius, indicating that these planets have a large fraction of volatiles by volume overlying a rocky core. Including the solar system terrestrial planets with the exoplanets below 1.5 R {sub ⊕}, we find ρ{sub P} = 2.43 + 3.39(R {sub P}/R {sub ⊕}) g cm{sup –3} for R {sub P} < 1.5 R {sub ⊕}, which is consistent with rocky compositions. For 1.5 ≤ R {sub P}/R {sub ⊕} < 4, we find M {sub P}/M {sub ⊕} = 2.69(R {sub P}/R {sub ⊕}){sup 0.93}. The rms of planet masses to the fit between 1.5 and 4 R {sub ⊕} is 4.3 M {sub ⊕} with reduced χ{sup 2} = 6.2. The large scatter indicates a diversity in planet composition at a given radius. The compositional diversity can be due to planets of a given volume (as determined by their large H/He envelopes) containing rocky cores of different masses or compositions.

  18. Uncooled infrared detectors toward smaller pixel pitch with newly proposed pixel structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tohyama, Shigeru; Sasaki, Tokuhito; Endoh, Tsutomu; Sano, Masahiko; Kato, Koji; Kurashina, Seiji; Miyoshi, Masaru; Yamazaki, Takao; Ueno, Munetaka; Katayama, Haruyoshi; Imai, Tadashi

    2013-12-01

    An uncooled infrared (IR) focal plane array (FPA) with 23.5 μm pixel pitch has been successfully demonstrated and has found wide commercial applications in the areas of thermography, security cameras, and other applications. One of the key issues for uncooled IRFPA technology is to shrink the pixel pitch because the size of the pixel pitch determines the overall size of the FPA, which, in turn, determines the cost of the IR camera products. This paper proposes an innovative pixel structure with a diaphragm and beams placed in different levels to realize an uncooled IRFPA with smaller pixel pitch (≦17 μm). The upper level consists of a diaphragm with VOx bolometer and IR absorber layers, while the lower level consists of the two beams, which are designed to be placed on the adjacent pixels. The test devices of this pixel design with 12, 15, and 17 μm pitch have been fabricated on the Si read-out integrated circuit (ROIC) of quarter video graphics array (QVGA) (320×240) with 23.5 μm pitch. Their performances are nearly equal to those of the IRFPA with 23.5 μm pitch. For example, a noise equivalent temperature difference of 12 μm pixel is 63.1 mK for F/1 optics with the thermal time constant of 14.5 ms. Then, the proposed structure is shown to be effective for the existing IRFPA with 23.5 μm pitch because of the improvements in IR sensitivity. Furthermore, the advanced pixel structure that has the beams composed of two levels are demonstrated to be realizable.

  19. Electron storage mediated dark antibacterial action of bound silver nanoparticles: smaller is not always better.

    PubMed

    Cao, Huiliang; Qiao, Yuqin; Liu, Xuanyong; Lu, Tao; Cui, Ting; Meng, Fanhao; Chu, Paul K

    2013-02-01

    Size tunable silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) are synthesized and incorporated into titanium oxide coatings (TOCs) by manipulating the atomic-scale heating effect of silver plasma immersion ion implantation (Ag PIII). The resulting Ag NPs/TOC composite coatings possess electron storage capability that gives rise to both controlled antibacterial activity and excellent compatibility with mammalian cells. The precipitation behavior of these Ag NPs is qualitatively constrained by the classical nucleation theory. Both photoluminescence (PL) spectra and fluorescence microscopy results demonstrate that larger Ag NPs (5-25 nm) are better at reserving electrons than smaller ones (∼4 nm). The antibacterial activities of the as-sprayed and Ag PIII treated TOCs show that Ag NPs with a different size act distinctively to bacteria: large particles induce serious cytosolic content leakage and lysis of both Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli cells while small ones do not. The excellent activity of larger Ag NPs against bacteria is highly related to their stronger electron storage capability, which can induce accumulation of adequate valence-band holes (h⁺) at the titanium oxide side, arousing oxidation reactions to bacterial cells in the dark. Moreover, the in vitro cell culture assay (using both MG63 and MC3T3 cells) reveals no significant cytotoxicity and even good cytocompatibility on the Ag PIII treated samples. Our results show that, by taking advantage of the boundary property between Ag NP and titanium oxide, the antibacterial activity of Ag NPs can be accurately controlled. This study provides a distinct criterion for the design of nanostructured surfaces such that their osteoblast functions and antibacterial activity are perfectly balanced. PMID:23085265

  20. Behavioral inhibition in childhood predicts smaller hippocampal volume in adolescent offspring of parents with panic disorder.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, C E; Kunwar, P S; Hirshfeld-Becker, D R; Henin, A; Vangel, M G; Rauch, S L; Biederman, J; Rosenbaum, J F

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral inhibition (BI) is a genetically influenced behavioral profile seen in 15-20% of 2-year-old children. Children with BI are timid with people, objects and situations that are novel or unfamiliar, and are more reactive physiologically to these challenges as evidenced by higher heart rate, pupillary dilation, vocal cord tension and higher levels of cortisol. BI predisposes to the later development of anxiety, depression and substance abuse. Reduced hippocampal volumes have been observed in anxiety disorders, depression and posttraumatic stress disorder. Animal models have demonstrated that chronic stress can damage the hippocampal formation and implicated cortisol in these effects. We, therefore, hypothesized that the hippocampi of late adolescents who had been behaviorally inhibited as children would be smaller compared with those who had not been inhibited. Hippocampal volume was measured with high-resolution structural magnetic resonance imaging in 43 females and 40 males at 17 years of age who were determined to be BI+ or BI- based on behaviors observed in the laboratory as young children. BI in childhood predicted reduced hippocampal volumes in the adolescents who were offspring of parents with panic disorder, or panic disorder with comorbid major depression. We discuss genetic and environmental factors emanating from both child and parent that may explain these findings. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate a relationship between the most extensively studied form of temperamentally based human trait anxiety, BI, and hippocampal structure. The reduction in hippocampal volume, as reported by us, suggests a role for the hippocampus in human trait anxiety and anxiety disorder that warrants further investigation. PMID:26196438

  1. Quantity, Revisited: An Object-Oriented Reusable Class

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Funston, Monica Gayle; Gerstle, Walter; Panthaki, Malcolm

    1998-01-01

    "Quantity", a prototype implementation of an object-oriented class, was developed for two reasons: to help engineers and scientists manipulate the many types of quantities encountered during routine analysis, and to create a reusable software component to for large domain-specific applications. From being used as a stand-alone application to being incorporated into an existing computational mechanics toolkit, "Quantity" appears to be a useful and powerful object. "Quantity" has been designed to maintain the full engineering meaning of values with respect to units and coordinate systems. A value is a scalar, vector, tensor, or matrix, each of which is composed of Value Components, each of which may be an integer, floating point number, fuzzy number, etc., and its associated physical unit. Operations such as coordinate transformation and arithmetic operations are handled by member functions of "Quantity". The prototype has successfully tested such characteristics as maintaining a numeric value, an associated unit, and an annotation. In this paper we further explore the design of "Quantity", with particular attention to coordinate systems.

  2. Can nonhuman primates use tokens to represent and sum quantities?

    PubMed

    Evans, Theodore A; Beran, Michael J; Addessi, Elsa

    2010-11-01

    It is unclear whether nonhuman animals can use physical tokens to flexibly represent various quantities by combining token values. Previous studies showed that chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and a macaque (Macaca mulatta) were only partly successful in tests involving sets of different-looking food containers representing different food quantities, while some capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) have shown greater success in tests involving sets of various concrete objects representing different food quantities. Some of the discrepancy in results between these studies may be attributed to the different methods used. In an effort to reconcile these discrepancies, we presented two primates species, chimpanzees and capuchin monkeys, with two token tasks. The critical test in each task involved summing the value of multiple tokens of different types to make accurate quantity judgments. We found that, using either method, individuals of both species learned to associate individual tokens with specific quantities, as well as successfully compare individual tokens to one another or to sets of visible food items. However, regardless of method, only a few individuals exhibited the capacity to sum multiple tokens of different types and then use those summed values to make an optimal response. This suggests that flexible combination of symbolic stimuli in quantity judgments tasks is within the abilities of chimpanzees and capuchins but does not characterize the majority of individuals. Furthermore, the results suggest the need to carefully examine specific methodological details that may promote or hinder such possible representation. PMID:20836596

  3. Smaller Footprint Drilling System for Deep and Hard Rock Environments; Feasibility of Ultra-High-Speed Diamond Drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Arnis Judzis; Alan Black; Homer Robertson

    2006-03-01

    The two phase program addresses long-term developments in deep well and hard rock drilling. TerraTek believes that significant improvements in drilling deep hard rock will be obtained by applying ultra-high rotational speeds (greater than 10,000 rpm). The work includes a feasibility of concept research effort aimed at development that will ultimately result in the ability to reliably drill ''faster and deeper'' possibly with smaller, more mobile rigs. The principle focus is on demonstration testing of diamond bits rotating at speeds in excess of 10,000 rpm to achieve high rate of penetration (ROP) rock cutting with substantially lower inputs of energy and loads. The significance of the ultra-high rotary speed drilling system is the ability to drill into rock at very low weights on bit and possibly lower energy levels. The drilling and coring industry today does not practice this technology. The highest rotary speed systems in oil field and mining drilling and coring today run less than 10,000 rpm--usually well below 5,000 rpm. This document details the progress to date on the program entitled ''Smaller Footprint Drilling System for Deep and Hard Rock Environments: Feasibility of Ultra-High-Speed Diamond Drilling'' for the period starting 1 October 2004 through 30 September 2005. Additionally, research activity from 1 October 2005 through 28 February 2006 is included in this report: (1) TerraTek reviewed applicable literature and documentation and convened a project kick-off meeting with Industry Advisors in attendance. (2) TerraTek designed and planned Phase I bench scale experiments. Some difficulties continue in obtaining ultra-high speed motors. Improvements have been made to the loading mechanism and the rotational speed monitoring instrumentation. New drill bit designs have been provided to vendors for production. A more consistent product is required to minimize the differences in bit performance. A test matrix for the final core bit testing program has been

  4. Effect on signal-to-noise ratio of splitting the continuous contacts of cuff electrodes into smaller recording areas

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cuff electrodes have been widely used chronically in different clinical applications. This neural interface has been dominantly used for nerve stimulation while interfering noise is the major issue when employed for recording purposes. Advancements have been made in rejecting extra-neural interference by using continuous ring contacts in tripolar topologies. Ring contacts provide an average of the neural activity, and thus reduce the information retrieved. Splitting these contacts into smaller recording areas could potentially increase the information content. In this study, we investigate the impact of such discretization on the Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR). The effect of contacts positioning and an additional short circuited pair of electrodes were also addressed. Methods Different recording configurations using ring, dot, and a mixed of both contacts were studied in vitro in a frog model. An interfering signal was induced in the medium to simulate myoelectric noise. The experimental setup was design in such a way that the only difference between recordings was the configuration used. The inter-session experimental differences were taken care of by a common configuration that allowed normalization between electrode designs. Results It was found that splitting all contacts into small recording areas had negative effects on noise rejection. However, if this is only applied to the central contact creating a mixed tripole configuration, a considerable and statistically significant improvement was observed. Moreover, the signal to noise ratio was equal or larger than what can be achieved with the best known configuration, namely the short circuited tripole. This suggests that for recording purposes, any tripole topology would benefit from splitting the central contact into one or more discrete contacts. Conclusions Our results showed that a mixed tripole configuration performs better than the configuration including only ring contacts. Therefore, splitting

  5. The thermodynamic stability of clathrate hydrate. II. Simultaneous occupation of larger and smaller cages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Hideki; Kiyohara, Kenji

    1993-05-01

    The thermodynamic stability of a clathrate hydrate encaging methane or xenon has been investigated by examining the free energy of formation. The total free energy is divided into several contributions: the interaction between water and guest molecules, the entropic contribution arising from the combinations of cage occupancy, and also the free energy arising from the guest molecular motions inside cages. Our method is based on the generalized van der Waals and Platteeuw theory used for the study of the hydrate encaging propane and is free from some of the fundamental assumptions in the original theory. This enables us to evaluate separately the factors which contribute significantly to the thermodynamic stability of the hydrate, and to address a question as to what extent the original theory is applicable to the prediction of the phase diagrams. While the potential energy curve of the guest molecule with surrounding water molecules in a smaller cage has a single minimum and the molecular motion can be accurately approximated to a collection of harmonic oscillators strongly coupled with the host molecules, the guest molecular motion in a larger cage does not couple with the host. To show evidence that the fixed lattice approximation is sufficient to describe molecular motions inside the larger cage, two kinds of molecular dynamics simulations have been carried out. In one simulation, both host water and guest molecules move according to the classical equations of motion. In another simulation only guest molecules are allowed to move, interacting with fixed host molecules. We perform two kinds of analyses on those motions. In the first analysis, the velocity autocorrelation functions are calculated from molecular dynamics simulations at several temperatures and the power spectra are obtained by the Fourier transform of the correlation functions. In the second, a so-called normal mode analysis is performed and the densities of state for intermolecular vibrations are

  6. The Shell Seeker: What Is the Quantity of Shell in the Lido di Venezia Sand? A Calibration DRIFTS Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pezzolo, Alessandra De Lorenzi

    2011-01-01

    In this experiment, students are given a fanciful application of the standard addition method to evaluate the approximate quantity of the shell component in a sample of sand collected on the Lido di Venezia seashore. Several diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform (DRIFT) spectra are recorded from a sand sample before and after addition of…

  7. Exercise quantity-dependent muscle hypertrophy in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Hasumura, Takahiro; Meguro, Shinichi

    2016-07-01

    Exercise is very important for maintaining and increasing skeletal muscle mass, and is particularly important to prevent and care for sarcopenia and muscle disuse atrophy. However, the dose-response relationship between exercise quantity, duration/day, and overall duration and muscle mass is poorly understood. Therefore, we investigated the effect of exercise duration on skeletal muscle to reveal the relationship between exercise quantity and muscle hypertrophy in zebrafish forced to exercise. Adult male zebrafish were exercised 6 h/day for 4 weeks, 6 h/day for 2 weeks, or 3 h/day for 2 weeks. Flow velocity was adjusted to maximum velocity during continual swimming (initial 43 cm/s). High-speed consecutive photographs revealed that zebrafish mainly drove the caudal part. Additionally, X-ray micro computed tomography measurements indicated muscle hypertrophy of the mid-caudal half compared with the mid-cranial half part. The cross-sectional analysis of the mid-caudal half muscle revealed that skeletal muscle (red, white, or total) mass increased with increasing exercise quantity, whereas that of white muscle and total muscle increased only under the maximum exercise load condition of 6 h/day for 4 weeks. Additionally, the muscle fiver size distributions of exercised fish were larger than those from non-exercised fish. We revealed that exercise quantity, duration/day, and overall duration were correlated with skeletal muscle hypertrophy. The forced exercise model enabled us to investigate the relationship between exercise quantity and skeletal muscle mass. These results open up the possibility for further investigations on the effects of exercise on skeletal muscle in adult zebrafish. PMID:26951149

  8. Factors affecting quantity of pollen dispersal of spray cut chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Spray cut chrysanthemum is a vital flower with high ornamental value and popularity in the world. However, the excessive quantity of pollen dispersal of most spray cut chrysanthemum is an adverse factor during its flowering stage, and can significantly reduce its ornamental value and quickly shorten its vase life. More seriously, excessive pollen grains in the air are usually harmful to people, especially for those with pollen allergies. Therefore, in order to obtain some valuable information for developing spray cut chrysanthemum with less-dispersed or non-dispersed pollen in the future breeding programs, we here investigated the factors affecting quantity of pollen dispersal of spray cut chrysanthemum with four cultivars, i.e. ‘Qx-097’, ‘Noa’, ‘Qx-115’, and ‘Kingfisher’, that have different quantity of pollen dispersal. Results ‘Qx-097’ with high quantity of pollen dispersal has 819 pollen grains per anther, 196.4 disk florets per inflorescence and over 800,000 pollen grains per inflorescence. The corresponding data for ‘Noa’ with low quantity of pollen dispersal are 406, 175.4 and over 350,000, respectively; and 219, 144.2 and nearly 160,000 for ‘Qx-115’ without pollen dispersal, respectively. ‘Kingfisher’ without pollen dispersal has 202.8 disk florets per inflorescence, but its anther has no pollen grains. In addition, ‘Qx-097’ has a very high degree of anther cracking that nearly causes a complete dispersal of pollen grains from its anthers. ‘Noa’ has a moderate degree of anther cracking, and pollen grains in its anthers are not completely dispersed. However, the anthers of ‘Qx-115’ and ‘Kingfisher’ do not crack at all. Furthermore, microsporogenesis and pollen development are normal in ‘Qx-097’, whereas many microspores or pollen degenerate in ‘Noa’, most of them abort in ‘Qx-115’, and all of them degrade in ‘Kingfisher’. Conclusions These results suggest that quantity of pollen

  9. Trained Quantity Abilities in Horses (Equus caballus): A Preliminary Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Miletto Petrazzini, Maria Elena

    2014-01-01

    Once believed to be a human prerogative, the capacity to discriminate between quantities now has also been reported in several vertebrates. To date, only two studies investigated numerical abilities in horses (Equus caballus) but reported contrasting data. To assess whether horses can be trained to discriminate between quantities, I have set up a new experimental protocol using operant conditioning. One adult female was trained to discriminate between 1 and 4 (Test 1) in three different conditions: non-controlled continuous variables (numerical and continuous quantities that co-vary with number are simultaneously available), 50% controlled continuous variables (intermediate condition), and 100% controlled continuous variables (only numerical information available). The subject learned the discrimination in all conditions, showing the capacity to process numerical information. When presented with a higher numerical ratio (2 vs. 4, Test 2), the subject still discriminated between the quantities but its performance was statistically significant only in the non-controlled condition, suggesting that the subject used multiple cues in presence of a more difficult discrimination. On the whole, the results here reported encourage the use of this experimental protocol as a valid tool to investigate the capacity to process numerical and continuous quantities in horses in future research. PMID:25379278

  10. Quantity analysis of micro-organisms in bottled water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Juan; Li, Xiangyong

    2008-12-01

    Water is necessary to human being and all kinds of animals and plants. In recently years, Bottled Water become the main drinking water whatever for families or for institutions. But most of them have no conception of the water's safety or quality. To have conceptions of the count and distributing of the microorganisms in bucket pure water, we use fluorescent microscope counting stained with SYBR Green I to research the microorganisms (including virus) quantity in Bottled Water for six samples produced in different place. Analyzing shows that the quantity of the microorganisms in these water are different. Some up to 11.912×106 virus/ m L. The quality of Bottled Water needs to be improved. And the quantity of microorganisms in the water is different with different ways to keep the water. At the same time, it shows that fluorescent microscope counting stained with SYBR Green I method is simple and high sensitive to such low microorganisms quantity water sample. It can be used in the microorganisms dynamic quantity research in drinking water.

  11. Health care cost in Switzerland: quantity- or price-driven?

    PubMed

    Schleiniger, Reto

    2014-07-01

    In Switzerland, per capita health care costs vary substantially from canton to canton and rise considerably and steadily from year to year. Since costs are equal to the product of quantities and prices, the question arises whether regional cost variations and cost increase over time are quantity- or price-driven. Depending on the answer, the containment of health care costs must be approached differently. This article examines the cost of mandatory health insurance in Switzerland for the period from 2004 to 2010 and breaks it down into quantity and price effects. The main result of the cross-section analysis reveals that regional cost differences are mainly due to quantity differences. Similarly, the longitudinal analysis shows that the cost increase across all health care services is primarily caused by increasing per capita quantities. Any attempt to contain costs must therefore focus primarily on the extent of medical care utilization, and the key challenge to be met is how to identify medical care services which do not have a positive effect on patients' health status. PMID:24794986

  12. Computing Information-Theoretic Quantities in Large Climate Data Sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knuth, K. H.; Castle, J. P.; Curry, C. T.; Gotera, A.; Huyser, K. A.; Wheeler, K. R.; Rossow, W. B.

    2005-12-01

    Information-theoretic quantities, such as mutual information, allow one to quantify the amount of information shared by two variables. In large data sets, the mutual information can be used to identify sets of co-informative variables and thus are able to identify variables that can act as predictors of a phenomenon of interest. While mutual information alone does not distinguish a causal interaction between two variables, another information-theoretic quantity called the transfer entropy can indicate such possible causal interactions. Together, these quantities can be used to identify causal interactions among sets of variables in large distributed data sets. We are currently developing a suite of computational tools that will allow researchers to calculate, from data, these useful information-theoretic quantities. Our software tools estimate these quantities along with their associated error bars, the latter of which are critical for describing the degree of uncertainty in the estimates. In this presentation we demonstrate how mutual information and transfer entropy can be applied so as to allow researchers not only to identify relations among climate variables, but also to characterize and quantify their possible causal interactions.

  13. Role of Acid Mobilization in Iron Solubility of Smaller Mineral Dust Aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, A.

    2011-12-01

    Iron (Fe) is an essential element for phytoplankton. The majority of iron is transported from arid regions to the open ocean, but is mainly in an insoluble form. Since most aquatic organisms can take up iron only in the dissolved form, the amount of soluble iron is of key importance. Atmospheric processing of mineral aerosols by anthropogenic pollutants may transform insoluble iron into soluble forms. Compared to dust, combustion aerosols often contain iron with higher solubility. This paper discusses the factors that affect the iron solubility in mineral aerosols on a global scale using an aerosol chemistry transport model. Bioavailable iron is derived from atmospheric processing of relatively insoluble iron from desert sources and from direct emissions of soluble iron from combustion sources such as biomass and fossil fuels burning. The iron solubility from onboard cruise measurements over the Atlantic and the Pacific Oceans in 2001 is used to evaluate the model performance in simulating soluble iron. Sensitivity simulations from dust sources with no atmospheric processing by acidic species systematically underestimate the soluble iron concentration in fine particles. Improvement of the agreement between the model results and observations is achieved by the use of a faster iron dissolution rate in fine particles associated with anthropogenic pollutants (e.g., sulphate). Accurate simulation of the abundance of soluble iron in fine aerosols has important implications with regards to ocean fertilization because of the longer residence time of smaller particles, which supply nutrients to more remote ocean biomes. The model reveals a larger deposition of soluble iron for the fine mode than that for the coarse mode in northern oceans due to acid mobilization. The ratio of deposition rate of soluble iron in the fine mode to the total aerosols in the South Atlantic Ocean (40-60%) is less than that in northern oceans (70-100%). These results suggest that Patagonian dust

  14. Quality control by a mobile molecular workshop: Quality versus quantity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Ajeet K.; Chowdhury, Debashish

    2010-09-01

    Ribosome is a molecular machine that moves on a messenger RNA (mRNA) track while, simultaneously, polymerizing a protein using the mRNA also as the corresponding template. We define, and analytically calculate, two different measures of the efficiency of this machine. However, we argue that its performance is evaluated better in terms of the translational fidelity and the speed with which it polymerizes a protein. We define both these quantities and calculate these analytically. Fidelity is a measure of the quality of the products, while the total quantity of products synthesized in a given interval depends on the speed of polymerization. We show that for synthesizing a large quantity of proteins, it is not necessary to sacrifice the quality. We also explore the effects of the quality control mechanism on the strength of mechanochemical coupling. We suggest experiments for testing some of the ideas presented here.

  15. Optical measurement of pulp quantity in a rotating disc refiner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alahautala, Taito; Lassila, Erkki; Hernberg, Rolf; Härkönen, Esko; Vuorio, Petteri

    2004-11-01

    An optical method based on light extinction was used in measuring pulp quantity in the plate gap of a 10 MW thermomechanical pulping refiner for the first time. The relationship between pulp quantity and light extinction was determined by empirical laboratory experiments. The empirical relationship was then applied to interpret the image data obtained from field measurements. The results show the local distribution of pulp in the refiner plate gap for different rotor plate positions and refiner operation points. The maximum relative uncertainty in the measured pulp quantity was 50%. Relative pulp distributions were measured at higher accuracy. The measurements have influenced the development of a laser-based optical diagnostic method that can be applied to the quantitative visualization of technically demanding industrial processes.

  16. Calculation of Radiation Protection Quantities and Analysis of Astronaut Orientation Dependence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clowdsley, Martha S.; Nealy, John E.; Atwell, William; Anderson, Brooke M.; Luetke, Nathan J.; Wilson, John W.

    2006-01-01

    Health risk to astronauts due to exposure to ionizing radiation is a primary concern for exploration missions and may become the limiting factor for long duration missions. Methodologies for evaluating this risk in terms of radiation protection quantities such as dose, dose equivalent, gray equivalent, and effective dose are described. Environment models (galactic cosmic ray and solar particle event), vehicle/habitat geometry models, human geometry models, and transport codes are discussed and sample calculations for possible lunar and Mars missions are used as demonstrations. The dependence of astronaut health risk, in terms of dosimetric quantities, on astronaut orientation within a habitat is also examined. Previous work using a space station type module exposed to a proton spectrum modeling the October 1989 solar particle event showed that reorienting the astronaut within the module could change the calculated dose equivalent by a factor of two or more. Here the dose equivalent to various body tissues and the whole body effective dose due to both galactic cosmic rays and a solar particle event are calculated for a male astronaut in two different orientations, vertical and horizontal, in a representative lunar habitat. These calculations also show that the dose equivalent at some body locations resulting from a solar particle event can vary by a factor of two or more, but that the dose equivalent due to galactic cosmic rays has a much smaller (<15%) dependence on astronaut orientation.

  17. A Shared System of Representation Governing Quantity Discrimination in Canids

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Joseph M.; Morath, Justice; Rodzon, Katrina S.; Jordan, Kerry E.

    2012-01-01

    One way to investigate the evolution of cognition is to compare the abilities of phylogenetically related species. The domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris), for example, still shares cognitive abilities with the coyote (Canis latrans). Both of these canids possess the ability to make psychophysical “less/more” discriminations of food based on quantity. Like many other species including humans, this ability is mediated by Weber’s Law: discrimination of continuous quantities is dependent on the ratio between the two quantities. As two simultaneously presented quantities of food become more similar, choice of the large or small option becomes random in both dogs and coyotes. It remains unknown, however, whether these closely related species within the same family – one domesticated, and one wild – make such quantitative comparisons with comparable accuracy. Has domestication honed or diminished this quantitative ability? Might different selective and ecological pressures facing coyotes drive them to be more or less able to accurately represent and discriminate food quantity than domesticated dogs? This study is an effort to elucidate this question concerning the evolution of non-verbal quantitative cognition. Here, we tested the quantitative discrimination ability of 16 domesticated dogs. Each animal was given nine trials in which two different quantities of food were simultaneously displayed to them. The domesticated dogs’ performance on this task was then compared directly to the data from 16 coyotes’ performance on this same task reported by Baker et al. (2011). The quantitative discrimination abilities between the two species were strikingly similar. Domesticated dogs demonstrated similar quantitative sensitivity as coyotes, suggesting that domestication may not have significantly altered the psychophysical discrimination abilities of canids. Instead, this study provides further evidence for similar non-verbal quantitative abilities across multiple

  18. Difference in quantity discrimination in dogs and wolves

    PubMed Central

    Range, Friederike; Jenikejew, Julia; Schröder, Isabelle; Virányi, Zsófia

    2014-01-01

    Certain aspects of social life, such as engaging in intergroup conflicts, as well as challenges posed by the physical environment, may facilitate the evolution of quantity discrimination. In lack of excessive comparative data, one can only hypothesize about its evolutionary origins, but human-raised wolves performed well when they had to choose the larger of two sets of 1–4 food items that had been sequentially placed into two opaque cans. Since in such paradigms, the animals never see the entire content of either can, their decisions are thought to rely on mental representation of the two quantities rather than on some perceptual factors such as the overall volume or surface area of the two amounts. By equaling the time that it takes to enter each quantity into the cans or the number of items entered, one can further rule out the possibility that animals simply choose based on the amount of time needed to present the two quantities. While the wolves performed well even in such a control condition, dogs failed to choose the larger one of two invisible quantities in another study using a similar paradigm. Because this disparity could be explained by procedural differences, in the current study, we set out to test dogs that were raised and kept identically as the previously tested wolves using the same set-up and procedure. Our results confirm the former finding that dogs, in comparison to wolves, have inferior skills to represent quantities mentally. This seems to be in line with Frank’s (1980) hypothesis suggesting that domestication altered the information processing of dogs. However, as discussed, also alternative explanations may exist. PMID:25477834

  19. Waterborne cues from crabs induce thicker skeletons, smaller gonads and size-specific changes in growth rate in sea urchins.

    PubMed

    Selden, Rebecca; Johnson, Amy S; Ellers, Olaf

    2009-01-01

    Indirect predator-induced effects on growth, morphology and reproduction have been extensively studied in marine invertebrates but usually without consideration of size-specific effects and not at all in post-metamorphic echinoids. Urchins are an unusually good system, in which, to study size effects because individuals of various ages within one species span four orders of magnitude in weight while retaining a nearly isometric morphology. We tracked growth of urchins, Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis (0.013-161.385 g), in the presence or absence of waterborne cues from predatory Jonah crabs, Cancer borealis. We ran experiments at ambient temperatures, once for 4 weeks during summer and again, with a second set of urchins, for 22 weeks over winter. We used a scaled, cube-root transformation of weight for measuring size more precisely and for equalizing variance across sizes. Growth rate of the smallest urchins (summer: <17 mm diameter; winter: <7 mm diameter) decreased by 40-42% in response to crab cues. In contrast, growth rate of larger urchins was unaffected in the summer and increased in response to crab scent by 7% in the winter. At the end of the 22-week experiment, additional gonadal and skeletal variables were measured. Cue-exposed urchins developed heavier, thicker skeletons and smaller gonads, but no differences in spine length or jaw size. The differences depended on urchin size, suggesting that there are size-specific shifts in gonadal and somatic investment in urchins. PMID:24489404

  20. Large-Eddy Simulations with Explicit Equations for Subgrid-Scale Quantities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carati, Daniele; Wray, Alan A.

    2002-01-01

    Various alternative formulations of the LES equations have been explored in which additional evolution equations for variables such as the acceleration, the subgrid-scale stress tensor, or the subgrid-scale force are explicitly carried. Statistics of the velocity field obtained from the equation for the acceleration are shown to depend strongly on the initial conditions. This feature, which is independent of LES modeling issues, seems to prove that the velocity-acceleration formulation of the Navier-Stokes is not useful for numerical simulation. Equations for the subgrid-scale quantities appear to be much more stable. However, models required by this formulation of the LES problem still require additional study.

  1. A solid state approach to the production of kilogram quantities of Si- 20 at.% Ge thermoelectric alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, B.A.; Harringa, J.A.; Beaudry, B.J.

    1992-08-01

    A critical engineering question in the development of improved materials for thermal-to-electrical power generation is whether the research-scale process or methodology is amenable to production of kilogram quantities. Research efforts on the solid state technique of mechanical alloying have shown that both n- and p-type Si-20 at. % Ge alloys can be produced which have improved thermoelectric properties compared to state-of-the-art MOD-RTG materials. Studies on the production of large quantities of mechanically alloyed powder alloys using a planetary mill indicate that properties similar to those observed in alloys prepared in smaller quantities by a vibratory mill can be obtained. The characterization of several p-type alloys doped with 1 at. % B in the form SiB{sub 4} by X-ray diffraction, scanning laser mass spectrometry, Hall effect, and high temperature electrical resistivity and Seebeck coefficient studies is described. The properties of these alloys are shown to be comparable with those measured on similar samples prepared in small quantities by a vibratory mill approach.

  2. A solid state approach to the production of kilogram quantities of Si- 20 at. % Ge thermoelectric alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, B.A.; Harringa, J.A.; Beaudry, B.J.

    1992-01-01

    A critical engineering question in the development of improved materials for thermal-to-electrical power generation is whether the research-scale process or methodology is amenable to production of kilogram quantities. Research efforts on the solid state technique of mechanical alloying have shown that both n- and p-type Si-20 at. % Ge alloys can be produced which have improved thermoelectric properties compared to state-of-the-art MOD-RTG materials. Studies on the production of large quantities of mechanically alloyed powder alloys using a planetary mill indicate that properties similar to those observed in alloys prepared in smaller quantities by a vibratory mill can be obtained. The characterization of several p-type alloys doped with 1 at. % B in the form SiB{sub 4} by X-ray diffraction, scanning laser mass spectrometry, Hall effect, and high temperature electrical resistivity and Seebeck coefficient studies is described. The properties of these alloys are shown to be comparable with those measured on similar samples prepared in small quantities by a vibratory mill approach.

  3. A solid state approach to the production of kilogram quantities of Si80Ge20 thermoelectric alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Bruce A.; Harringa, Joel H.; Beaudry, Bernard J.

    1993-01-01

    An important consideration in the development of improved materials for thermal-to-electrical power generation is whether a research-scale process or methodology is amenable to production of kilogram quantities. Research efforts on the solid state technique of mechanical alloying have shown that both n- and p-type Si-20 at. % Ge alloys can be produced which have improved thermoelectric properties compared to state-of-the-art MOD-RTG materials. Studies on the production of large quantities of mechanically alloyed powder alloys using a planetary mill indicate that properties similar to those observed in alloys prepared in smaller quantities by a vibratory mill can be obtained. The characterization of several p-type alloys doped with 0.8 at. % B in the form SiB4 by X-ray diffraction, scanning laser mass spectroscopy, Hall effect, and high temperature electrical resistivity and Seebeck coefficient measurements are described. The transport properties of these alloys are shown to be comparable to those measured on similar samples prepared in small quantities by a research-grade vibratory mill.

  4. A solid state approach to the production of kilogram quantities of Si80Ge20 thermoelectric alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, B. A.; Harringa, J. L.; Beaudry, B. J.

    1992-10-01

    An important consideration in the development of improved materials for thermal-to-electrical power generation is whether a research-scale process or methodology is amenable to production of kilogram quantities. Research efforts on the solid state technique of mechanical alloying have shown that both n- and p-type Si-20 at. percent Ge alloys can be produced which have improved thermoelectric properties compared to state-of-the-art MOD-RTG materials. Studies on the production of large quantities of mechanically alloyed powder alloys using a planetary mill indicate that properties similar to those observed in alloys prepared in smaller quantities by a vibratory mill can be obtained. The characterization of several p-type alloys doped with 0.8 at. percent B in the form SiB4 by X-ray diffraction, scanning laser mass spectroscopy, Hall effect, and high temperature electrical resistivity and Seebeck coefficient measurements are described. The transport properties of these alloys are shown to be comparable to those measured on similar samples prepared in small quantities by a research-grade vibratory mill.

  5. The more your mind wanders, the smaller your attentional blink: an individual differences study.

    PubMed

    Thomson, David R; Ralph, Brandon C W; Besner, Derek; Smilek, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The present studies investigate the hypothesis that individuals who frequently report experiencing episodes of mind wandering do so because they under-invest attentional/executive resources in the external environment. Here we examined whether self-reported instances of mind wandering predict the magnitude of the "attentional blink" (AB) in a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) task, since a prominent view is that the AB derives from an over-investment of attention in the information stream. Study 1 demonstrates that subjective reports of mind wandering in a sustained attention task have a negative predictive relation with respect to the magnitude of the AB measured in a subsequent RSVP task. In addition, using the Spontaneous and Deliberate Mind Wandering Questionnaire in Study 2, we were again able to show that trait-level mind wandering in everyday life negatively predicts AB magnitude. We suggest that mind wandering may be the behavioural outcome of an adaptive cognitive style intended to maximize the efficient processing of dynamic and temporally unpredictable events. PMID:25203499

  6. 26 CFR 50.6 - Ascertainment of quantity mined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS RELATING TO THE TAX IMPOSED WITH RESPECT TO CERTAIN HYDRAULIC MINING § 50.6 Ascertainment of quantity mined. Each person engaged in hydraulic mining operations within the... hydraulic mining operations are conducted for the purpose of determining the cubic yardage mined from...

  7. 26 CFR 50.6 - Ascertainment of quantity mined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS RELATING TO THE TAX IMPOSED WITH RESPECT TO CERTAIN HYDRAULIC MINING § 50.6 Ascertainment of quantity mined. Each person engaged in hydraulic mining operations within the... hydraulic mining operations are conducted for the purpose of determining the cubic yardage mined from...

  8. 26 CFR 50.6 - Ascertainment of quantity mined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS RELATING TO THE TAX IMPOSED WITH RESPECT TO CERTAIN HYDRAULIC MINING § 50.6 Ascertainment of quantity mined. Each person engaged in hydraulic mining operations within the... hydraulic mining operations are conducted for the purpose of determining the cubic yardage mined from...

  9. 26 CFR 50.6 - Ascertainment of quantity mined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS RELATING TO THE TAX IMPOSED WITH RESPECT TO CERTAIN HYDRAULIC MINING § 50.6 Ascertainment of quantity mined. Each person engaged in hydraulic mining operations within the... hydraulic mining operations are conducted for the purpose of determining the cubic yardage mined from...

  10. 49 CFR 224.105 - Sheeting dimensions and quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Sheeting dimensions and quantity. 224.105 Section 224.105 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD..., Inspection, and Maintenance of Retroreflective Material § 224.105 Sheeting dimensions and...

  11. 49 CFR 224.105 - Sheeting dimensions and quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sheeting dimensions and quantity. 224.105 Section 224.105 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD..., Inspection, and Maintenance of Retroreflective Material § 224.105 Sheeting dimensions and...

  12. Determination of microgram quantities of inorganic sulfate in atmospheric particulates

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfson, J.M.

    1980-01-01

    This method makes it possible for a minimally equipped analytical laboratory to measure the microgram quantities of water soluble inorganic sulfate in respirable-sized ambient air particulates. It is particularly appropriate for indoor and personal dosimeter samples which often contain cigarette smoke.

  13. 30 CFR 36.45 - Quantity of ventilating air.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Quantity of ventilating air. 36.45 Section 36.45 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS APPROVAL REQUIREMENTS FOR PERMISSIBLE MOBILE DIESEL-POWERED TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT Test Requirements §...

  14. 30 CFR 36.45 - Quantity of ventilating air.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Quantity of ventilating air. 36.45 Section 36.45 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION... constituents in the diluted mixture shall not exceed: 0.25 percent, by volume, of carbon dioxide (CO2)....

  15. 30 CFR 75.322 - Harmful quantities of noxious gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are available from the Mine... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Harmful quantities of noxious gases. 75.322 Section 75.322 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL...

  16. 30 CFR 36.45 - Quantity of ventilating air.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Quantity of ventilating air. 36.45 Section 36.45 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS APPROVAL REQUIREMENTS FOR PERMISSIBLE MOBILE DIESEL-POWERED TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT Test Requirements §...

  17. 30 CFR 36.45 - Quantity of ventilating air.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Quantity of ventilating air. 36.45 Section 36.45 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION... constituents in the diluted mixture shall not exceed: 0.25 percent, by volume, of carbon dioxide (CO2)....

  18. 30 CFR 36.45 - Quantity of ventilating air.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Quantity of ventilating air. 36.45 Section 36.45 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION... constituents in the diluted mixture shall not exceed: 0.25 percent, by volume, of carbon dioxide (CO2)....

  19. 30 CFR 75.322 - Harmful quantities of noxious gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are available from the Mine... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Harmful quantities of noxious gases. 75.322 Section 75.322 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL...

  20. 30 CFR 75.322 - Harmful quantities of noxious gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are available from the Mine... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Harmful quantities of noxious gases. 75.322 Section 75.322 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL...

  1. 9 CFR 381.121 - Quantity of contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Quantity of contents. 381.121 Section 381.121 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... separated, from other label information appearing to the left or right of the statement, by a space at...

  2. 9 CFR 381.121 - Quantity of contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Quantity of contents. 381.121 Section 381.121 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... separated, from other label information appearing to the left or right of the statement, by a space at...

  3. 9 CFR 381.121 - Quantity of contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Quantity of contents. 381.121 Section 381.121 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... separated, from other label information appearing to the left or right of the statement, by a space at...

  4. 9 CFR 381.121 - Quantity of contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Quantity of contents. 381.121 Section 381.121 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... separated, from other label information appearing to the left or right of the statement, by a space at...

  5. 9 CFR 381.121 - Quantity of contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Quantity of contents. 381.121 Section 381.121 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... separated, from other label information appearing to the left or right of the statement, by a space at...

  6. Food quantity affects the sensitivity of Daphnia to road salt.

    PubMed

    Brown, Arran H; Yan, Norman D

    2015-04-01

    Road deicing operations have raised chloride (Cl) levels in many temperate lakes in Europe and North America. These lakes vary widely in trophic status, but to date, no one has quantified the interaction between food quantity and road salt toxicity. We examined the effects of food quantity (particulate algal C concentration (C)) on the chronic toxicity of Cl to Daphnia in soft-water bioassays. There was a strong positive linear relationship (r(2) = 0.92 for NaCl and r(2) = 0.96 for CaCl2) between food quantity and Cl LC50. As food quantity increased from 0.2 to 1.0 mg C/L (levels characteristic of oligotrophic to eutrophic lakes, respectively), the chronic Cl LC50 increased from 55.7 to 284.8 mg Cl/L. Salt type (NaCl or CaCl2) did not affect the Cl LC50, Daphnia life history parameters, or the intrinsic rate of population increase (r). The life history parameter most sensitive to Cl was neonate production. Cl did not inhibit egg production, nor was the maternal lipid investment in eggs changed, but egg viability and the subsequent release of live neonates decreased as Cl levels increased and food decreased. Our results suggest the trophic status of lakes should be considered when assessing ecological threat from Cl. PMID:25751457

  7. 49 CFR 173.4a - Excepted quantities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Excepted quantities. 173.4a Section 173.4a Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS General §...

  8. Hazardous Waste Management for the Small Quantity Generator. Teacher Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This instructional package for teaching about the regulations imposed on small quantity generators by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) under the Resource Conservation Recovery Act is organized around ll program objectives: students will be able to (l) determine a hazardous waste from lists or by identifying characteristics; (2) identify…

  9. Can the Lorenz-Gauge Potentials Be Considered Physical Quantities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heras, Jose A.; Fernandez-Anaya, Guillermo

    2010-01-01

    Two results support the idea that the scalar and vector potentials in the Lorenz gauge can be considered to be physical quantities: (i) they separately satisfy the properties of causality and propagation at the speed of light and do not imply spurious terms and (ii) they can naturally be written in a manifestly covariant form. In this paper we…

  10. 48 CFR 16.504 - Indefinite-quantity contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... contract file. The contracting officer may determine that a class of acquisitions is not appropriate for... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Indefinite-quantity contracts. 16.504 Section 16.504 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION...

  11. Quantity, Quality, and Satisfaction with Mentoring: What Matters Most?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Xiaohong; Payne, Stephanie C.

    2014-01-01

    According to Kram's mentor role theory, satisfaction with mentoring and mentorship quality are key indicators of effective and successful mentoring. We contribute to mentoring research by demonstrating the relative importance of mentorship quantity, mentorship quality, and satisfaction with mentoring to the prediction of job satisfaction,…

  12. Quantity Judgments and Individuation: Evidence that Mass Nouns Count

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barner, David; Snedeker, Jesse

    2005-01-01

    Three experiments explored the semantics of the mass-count distinction in young children and adults. In Experiments 1 and 2, the quantity judgments of participants provided evidence that some mass nouns refer to individuals, as such. Participants judged one large portion of stuff to be ''more'' than three tiny portions for substance-mass nouns…

  13. 40 CFR 302.5 - Determination of reportable quantities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... shall apply. (b) Unlisted hazardous substances. Unlisted hazardous substances designated by 40 CFR 302.4... exhibit toxicity identified in 40 CFR 261.24. Unlisted hazardous wastes which exhibit toxicity have the... other characteristics referenced in 40 CFR 302.4(b), the reportable quantity for that waste shall be...

  14. 40 CFR 302.5 - Determination of reportable quantities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... shall apply. (b) Unlisted hazardous substances. Unlisted hazardous substances designated by 40 CFR 302.4... exhibit toxicity identified in 40 CFR 261.24. Unlisted hazardous wastes which exhibit toxicity have the... other characteristics referenced in 40 CFR 302.4(b), the reportable quantity for that waste shall be...

  15. 40 CFR 302.5 - Determination of reportable quantities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... shall apply. (b) Unlisted hazardous substances. Unlisted hazardous substances designated by 40 CFR 302.4... exhibit toxicity identified in 40 CFR 261.24. Unlisted hazardous wastes which exhibit toxicity have the... other characteristics referenced in 40 CFR 302.4(b), the reportable quantity for that waste shall be...

  16. 40 CFR 302.5 - Determination of reportable quantities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... shall apply. (b) Unlisted hazardous substances. Unlisted hazardous substances designated by 40 CFR 302.4... exhibit toxicity identified in 40 CFR 261.24. Unlisted hazardous wastes which exhibit toxicity have the... other characteristics referenced in 40 CFR 302.4(b), the reportable quantity for that waste shall be...

  17. Plotting Rates of Photosynthesis as a Function of Light Quantity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Rob L.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses methods for plotting rates of photosynthesis as a function of light quantity. Presents evidence that suggests that empirically derived conversion factors, which are used to convert foot candles to photon fluence rates, should be used with extreme caution. Suggests how rate data are best plotted when any kind of light meter is not…

  18. Number versus Continuous Quantity in Numerosity Judgments by Fish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agrillo, Christian; Piffer, Laura; Bisazza, Angelo

    2011-01-01

    In quantity discrimination tasks, adults, infants and animals have been sometimes observed to process number only after all continuous variables, such as area or density, have been controlled for. This has been taken as evidence that processing number may be more cognitively demanding than processing continuous variables. We tested this hypothesis…

  19. 40 CFR 117.3 - Determination of reportable quantities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Determination of reportable quantities. Each substance in Table 117.3 that is listed in Table 302.4, 40 CFR part... Esters B 100 (45.4) DDT X 1 (0.454) Diazinon X 1 (0.454) Dicamba C 1,000 (454) Dichlobenil B 100...

  20. 49 CFR 173.4a - Excepted quantities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Excepted quantities. 173.4a Section 173.4a Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS General §...

  1. Linear actuation using milligram quantities of CL-20 and TAGDNAT.

    SciTech Connect

    Snedigar, Shane; Salton, Jonathan Robert; Tappan, Alexander Smith; Ball, James Patrick; Basiliere, Marc; Fischer, Gary John

    2009-07-01

    There are numerous applications for small-scale actuation utilizing pyrotechnics and explosives. In certain applications, especially when multiple actuation strokes are needed, or actuator reuse is required, it is desirable to have all gaseous combustion products with no condensed residue in the actuator cylinder. Toward this goal, we have performed experiments on utilizing milligram quantities of high explosives to drive a millimeter-diameter actuator with a stroke of 30 mm. Calculations were performed to select proper material quantities to provide 0.5 J of actuation energy. This was performed utilizing the thermochemical code Cheetah to calculate the impetus for numerous propellants and to select quantities based on estimated efficiencies of these propellants at small scales. Milligram quantities of propellants were loaded into a small-scale actuator and ignited with an ignition increment and hot wire ignition. Actuator combustion chamber pressure was monitored with a pressure transducer and actuator stroke was monitored using a laser displacement meter. Total actuation energy was determined by calculating the kinetic energy of reaction mass motion against gravity. Of the materials utilized, the best performance was obtained with a mixture of 2,4,6,8,10,12-hexanitro-2,4,6,8,10,12-hexaazaisowurtzitane (CL-20) and bis-triaminoguanidinium(3,3{prime}dinitroazotriazolate) (TAGDNAT).

  2. Predictors of Sleep Quantity and Quality in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Eric S.

    2012-01-01

    Whereas sleep is often thought of as a common health issue among college students, few, if any, researchers have comprehensively evaluated correlates and predictors of sleep quality and quantity within this population. Most often, studies of this type are used by researchers to assess particular categories of correlates and predictors (e.g.,…

  3. Impact of corn residue quantity on yield of following crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have observed that crop growth can be suppressed in fields where high quantities of corn residue are present on the soil surface. To examine this perceived trend, we grew dry pea, spring wheat, and red clover in two levels of corn residues, achieved by growing corn at 21,000 and 30,000 plants/ac...

  4. 7 CFR 1421.202 - Loan deficiency payment quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Loan deficiency payment quantity. 1421.202 Section 1421.202 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT... COMMODITIES-MARKETING ASSISTANCE LOANS AND LOAN DEFICIENCY PAYMENTS FOR 2008 THROUGH 2012 Loan...

  5. Early Numeracy Intervention: Does Quantity Discrimination Really Work?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansmann, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Scope and Method of Study: The current study demonstrates that a taped problem intervention is an effective tool for increasing the early numeracy skill of QD. A taped problems intervention was used with two variations of the quantity discrimination measure (triangle and traditional). A 3x2 doubly multivariate multivariate analysis of variance was…

  6. Requirements and process control for quantity of product in prepackages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sim, C. H.

    2007-02-01

    Verification of the actual quantity of product in prepackages is an important part of compliance testing to facilitate fair trade, maintain a competitive marketplace and protect consumers against under-filled prepackages. Two of the most widely used legal metrological requirements are (i) the average net quantity of product in prepackages of an inspection lot shall be at least equal to the labelled quantity and (ii) the number of prepackages, in a randomly selected sample, that are under-filled by more than a permitted quantity is less than or equal to a permitted number. Industrial and government metrology officials are required to check whether prepackages in an inspection lot comply with these requirements by sampling prepackages at the point-of-pack, wholesale outlets and retail stores. This paper discusses some drawbacks of the acceptance sampling plans and metrological requirements recommended in the international recommendation OIML R87 developed by the International Organization of Legal Metrology. To counter these drawbacks, alternative sampling plans and average prepackage requirements are proposed. Statistical control of filling processes under the OIML R87 requirements is also discussed.

  7. 40 CFR 302.5 - Determination of reportable quantities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... shall apply. (b) Unlisted hazardous substances. Unlisted hazardous substances designated by 40 CFR 302.4... exhibit toxicity identified in 40 CFR 261.24. Unlisted hazardous wastes which exhibit toxicity have the... other characteristics referenced in 40 CFR 302.4(b), the reportable quantity for that waste shall be...

  8. Birthday Cake Activity Structured Arrangement for Helping Children Determining Quantities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mariana, Neni

    2010-01-01

    Few researches have been concerned about relation between children's spatial thinking and number sense. Narrowing for this small research, we focused on one component of spatial thinking, that is structuring objects, and one component of number senses, that is cardinality by determining quantities. This study focused on a design research that was…

  9. 40 CFR 117.3 - Determination of reportable quantities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Determination of reportable quantities. Each substance in Table 117.3 that is listed in Table 302.4, 40 CFR part...) Barium cyanide A 10 (4.54) Benzene A 10 (4.54) Benzoic acid D 5,000 (2,270) Benzonitrile D 5,000...

  10. 40 CFR 117.3 - Determination of reportable quantities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Determination of reportable quantities. Each substance in Table 117.3 that is listed in Table 302.4, 40 CFR part...) Barium cyanide A 10 (4.54) Benzene A 10 (4.54) Benzoic acid D 5,000 (2,270) Benzonitrile D 5,000...

  11. 40 CFR 117.3 - Determination of reportable quantities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Determination of reportable quantities. Each substance in Table 117.3 that is listed in Table 302.4, 40 CFR part...) Barium cyanide A 10 (4.54) Benzene A 10 (4.54) Benzoic acid D 5,000 (2,270) Benzonitrile D 5,000...

  12. 40 CFR 117.3 - Determination of reportable quantities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Determination of reportable quantities. Each substance in Table 117.3 that is listed in Table 302.4, 40 CFR part...) Barium cyanide A 10 (4.54) Benzene A 10 (4.54) Benzoic acid D 5,000 (2,270) Benzonitrile D 5,000...

  13. Feeling Number: Grounding Number Sense in a Sense of Quantity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, David; Davis, Brent

    2010-01-01

    Drawing on results from psychology and from cultural and linguistic studies, we argue for an increased focus on developing quantity sense in school mathematics. We explore the notion of "feeling number", a phrase that we offer in a twofold sense--resisting tendencies to feel numb-er (more numb) by developing a feeling for numbers and the…

  14. Quantity Recognition among Speakers of an Anumeric Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everett, Caleb; Madora, Keren

    2012-01-01

    Recent research has suggested that the Piraha, an Amazonian tribe with a number-less language, are able to match quantities greater than 3 if the matching task does not require recall or spatial transposition. This finding contravenes previous work among the Piraha. In this study, we re-tested the Pirahas' performance in the crucial one-to-one…

  15. 46 CFR 108.433 - Quantity of CO2: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Quantity of CO2: General. 108.433 Section 108.433 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Fixed Carbon Dioxide Fire Extinguishing Systems §...

  16. 46 CFR 108.433 - Quantity of CO2: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Quantity of CO2: General. 108.433 Section 108.433 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Fixed Carbon Dioxide Fire Extinguishing Systems §...

  17. How Do Our Actions Affect Water Quantity and Quality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Jessica

    2008-01-01

    Water is an essential resource for all living things. How we live on our watershed can impact water quantity and quality. It is important to recognize how humans alter watershed dynamics, but students often find it challenging to visualize watershed processes and understand how decisions that they make as individuals and together as a community…

  18. 49 CFR 224.105 - Sheeting dimensions and quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Sheeting dimensions and quantity. 224.105 Section 224.105 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... be applied in strips 4 inches wide and 18 or 36 inches long, as practicable. The amount...

  19. 49 CFR 224.105 - Sheeting dimensions and quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Sheeting dimensions and quantity. 224.105 Section 224.105 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... be applied in strips 4 inches wide and 18 or 36 inches long, as practicable. The amount...

  20. 49 CFR 224.105 - Sheeting dimensions and quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Sheeting dimensions and quantity. 224.105 Section 224.105 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... be applied in strips 4 inches wide and 18 or 36 inches long, as practicable. The amount...

  1. The Effects of Meal Schedule and Quantity on Problematic Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wacker, David P.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Two case examples (a toddler with severe developmental delays and a 7-year old with severe mental retardation) illustrating effects of meal schedule and food quantity on displays of problematic behavior are offered. Brief functional analyses of aberrant behavior provided useful information for interpreting distinct patterns of behavior. (DB)

  2. 48 CFR 14.212 - Economic purchase quantities (supplies).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Economic purchase... REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SEALED BIDDING Solicitation of Bids 14.212 Economic purchase quantities (supplies). Contracting officers shall comply with the economic purchase...

  3. 48 CFR 14.212 - Economic purchase quantities (supplies).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Economic purchase... REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SEALED BIDDING Solicitation of Bids 14.212 Economic purchase quantities (supplies). Contracting officers shall comply with the economic purchase...

  4. 48 CFR 14.212 - Economic purchase quantities (supplies).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Economic purchase... REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SEALED BIDDING Solicitation of Bids 14.212 Economic purchase quantities (supplies). Contracting officers shall comply with the economic purchase...

  5. 48 CFR 14.212 - Economic purchase quantities (supplies).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Economic purchase... REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SEALED BIDDING Solicitation of Bids 14.212 Economic purchase quantities (supplies). Contracting officers shall comply with the economic purchase...

  6. 48 CFR 14.212 - Economic purchase quantities (supplies).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Economic purchase... REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SEALED BIDDING Solicitation of Bids 14.212 Economic purchase quantities (supplies). Contracting officers shall comply with the economic purchase...

  7. 7 CFR 983.53 - Testing of minimal quantities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Regulations § 983.53 Testing of minimal quantities. (a) Aflatoxin. Handlers who... following methods for testing for aflatoxin: (1) The handler may have an inspector sample and test his or her entire inventory of hulled and dried pistachios for the aflatoxin certification before...

  8. 7 CFR 983.53 - Testing of minimal quantities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Regulations § 983.53 Testing of minimal quantities. (a) Aflatoxin. Handlers who... following methods for testing for aflatoxin: (1) The handler may have an inspector sample and test his or her entire inventory of hulled and dried pistachios for the aflatoxin certification before...

  9. Do Speakers and Listeners Observe the Gricean Maxim of Quantity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engelhardt, Paul E.; Bailey, Karl G. D.; Ferreira, Fernanda

    2006-01-01

    The Gricean Maxim of Quantity is believed to govern linguistic performance. Speakers are assumed to provide as much information as required for referent identification and no more, and listeners are believed to expect unambiguous but concise descriptions. In three experiments we examined the extent to which naive participants are sensitive to the…

  10. 26 CFR 50.6 - Ascertainment of quantity mined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS RELATING TO THE TAX IMPOSED WITH RESPECT TO CERTAIN HYDRAULIC MINING § 50.6 Ascertainment of quantity mined. Each person engaged in hydraulic mining operations within the... hydraulic mining operations are conducted for the purpose of determining the cubic yardage mined from...

  11. Unraveling water quality and quantity effects of biofuels production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Developing a sustainable biofuels industry is crucial for several reasons, but what impact will it have on soil water quantity and quality? This popular press article for ISU alumni, teachers, middle/high school students and others is written to help them understand the complexity of this seemingly ...

  12. 7 CFR 1421.202 - Loan deficiency payment quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loan deficiency payment quantity. 1421.202 Section 1421.202 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS GRAINS AND SIMILARLY HANDLED COMMODITIES-MARKETING ASSISTANCE LOANS AND...

  13. 7 CFR 1421.202 - Loan deficiency payment quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... under § 1421.12. (b) Two or more producers may obtain a single joint loan deficiency payment for... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Loan deficiency payment quantity. 1421.202 Section... COMMODITIES-MARKETING ASSISTANCE LOANS AND LOAN DEFICIENCY PAYMENTS FOR 2008 THROUGH 2012 Loan...

  14. SAFETY ANALYSIS REPORT FOR PACKAGING, MODEL 9977, ADDENDUM 3, JUSTIFICATION FOR SMALL GRAM QUANTITY CONTENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Abramczyk, G.

    2011-10-31

    This Addendum establishes a new family of content envelopes consisting of small quantities of radioactive materials. These content envelopes and specific packing configurations are shown to be subcritical. However, the dose rates of some payloads must be measured and shown to comply with applicable radiation limits. Authorization for shipment of the content envelop requires acceptance of this Addendum by the DOE-HQ certifying official as a supplement to the 9977 SARP Revision 2 and DOE-HQ's subsequent revision of the CoC Revision 10 (which is based on SARP Addendum 2 and SARP Addendum 4) to authorize the additional content envelope. The Small Gram Quantity Content Envelopes and packing configurations will be incorporated in the next revision of the 9977 SARP.

  15. Equidistribution of energy and other quantities in oscillating systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolff, Charles L.

    1993-01-01

    Energy of a high harmonic standing wave tends to be distributed equally over the whole wave even in a stratified medium where the wave's peak amplitude can be much larger near the upper boundary than the lower one. This fact is generalized to the many diverse physical problems which solve second-order differential equations of Sturm-Liouville type. For any such solution y(z) whose sign fluctuates along the z-axis, quantities are found which have the same value between any two neighboring zeros of y. One of the equidistributed quantities for an oscillating fluid sphere is similar to kinetic energy but is identical only in limiting cases. The acoustic midpoint of a cavity can be a unique place where some nonlinear perturbations have extra strength. This may apply to the puzzling solar phenomenon called supergranulation.

  16. Bone loss in chronic kidney disease: Quantity or quality?

    PubMed

    Zheng, Cai-Mei; Zheng, Jin-Quan; Wu, Chia-Chao; Lu, Chien-Lin; Shyu, Jia-Fwu; Yung-Ho, Hsu; Wu, Mei-Yi; Chiu, I-Jen; Wang, Yuan-Hung; Lin, Yuh-Feng; Lu, Kuo-Cheng

    2016-06-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients experience bone loss and fracture because of a specific CKD-related systemic disorder known as CKD-mineral bone disorder (CKD-MBD). The bone turnover, mineralization, and volume (TMV) system describes the morphological bone lesions in renal osteodystrophy related to CKD-MBD. Bone turnover and bone volume are defined as high, normal, or low, and bone mineralization is classified as normal or abnormal. All types of bone histology related to TMV are responsible for both bone quantity and bone quality losses in CKD patients. This review focuses on current bone quantity and bone quality losses in CKD patients and finally discusses potential therapeutic measures. PMID:27049042

  17. Radio frequency tank eigenmode sensor for propellant quantity gauging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerli, Gregory A. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A method for measuring the quantity of fluid in a tank may include the steps of selecting a match between a measured set of electromagnetic eigenfrequencies and a simulated plurality of sets of electromagnetic eigenfrequencies using a matching algorithm, wherein the match is one simulated set of electromagnetic eigenfrequencies from the simulated plurality of sets of electromagnetic eigenfrequencies, and determining the fill level of the tank based upon the match.

  18. Scenario aggregation for supply chain quantity-flexibility contract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Gitae; Wu, Chih-Hang

    2013-11-01

    In this research, we apply a scenario aggregation approach to solving the supply chain contract model formulated by two-stage stochastic programming problem. The supply chain contract can achieve the coordination between the buyer and the supplier. We formulate the stochastic programming model for a quantity-flexibility contract. The scenario aggregation method called the progressive hedging method is used to solve this problem. Experimental results show the convergence behaviour of the algorithm and the sensitivity of parameters.

  19. Consumer-Resource Dynamics: Quantity, Quality, and Allocation

    PubMed Central

    Getz, Wayne M.; Owen-Smith, Norman

    2011-01-01

    Background The dominant paradigm for modeling the complexities of interacting populations and food webs is a system of coupled ordinary differential equations in which the state of each species, population, or functional trophic group is represented by an aggregated numbers-density or biomass-density variable. Here, using the metaphysiological approach to model consumer-resource interactions, we formulate a two-state paradigm that represents each population or group in a food web in terms of both its quantity and quality. Methodology and Principal Findings The formulation includes an allocation function controlling the relative proportion of extracted resources to increasing quantity versus elevating quality. Since lower quality individuals senesce more rapidly than higher quality individuals, an optimal allocation proportion exists and we derive an expression for how this proportion depends on population parameters that determine the senescence rate, the per-capita mortality rate, and the effects of these rates on the dynamics of the quality variable. We demonstrate that oscillations do not arise in our model from quantity-quality interactions alone, but require consumer-resource interactions across trophic levels that can be stabilized through judicious resource allocation strategies. Analysis and simulations provide compelling arguments for the necessity of populations to evolve quality-related dynamics in the form of maternal effects, storage or other appropriate structures. They also indicate that resource allocation switching between investments in abundance versus quality provide a powerful mechanism for promoting the stability of consumer-resource interactions in seasonally forcing environments. Conclusions/Significance Our simulations show that physiological inefficiencies associated with this switching can be favored by selection due to the diminished exposure of inefficient consumers to strong oscillations associated with the well-known paradox of

  20. Tidal signatures in thermospheric and ionospheric quantities (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luhr, H.; Rother, M.; Fejer, B. G.; Haeusler, K.; Alken, P.

    2009-12-01

    Recent years provided more and more evidence for tidal signatures in various kinds of upper atmospheric measurements. In this talk special emphasis is put on non-migrating tides. Several of these tidal modes are believed to be generated in the lower atmosphere, and to propagate from here all the way up to the exosphere. Quantities, that reflect the characteristics of the tides very well, are thermospheric temperature and wind. Based on TIMED and CHAMP measurements the complete tidal spectrum has been derived for these two quantities at both MLT and upper thermospheric (400 km) altitudes. Main features of the tides will be presented, as deduced from these observations. The dynamics of the neutrals is partly transferred to charged particles in the ionospheric E-layer. For that reason some tidal signals are also observable in ionospheric parameters. Since the coupling conditions between neutral and charged particle vary over the course of a day (a year, a solar cycle), the recovery of the tidal signal in electrodynamic quantities is, due to its non-linear distortion, much more sophisticated. Even though, tidal signatures are quite evident in the observations during certain local times. We will show the amplitude and temporal variations for some of the prominent tidal components in the equatorial electrojet, in the vertical plasma drift and in electron density.

  1. Two-Higgs-doublet model in terms of observable quantities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ginzburg, I. F.; Kanishev, K. A.

    2015-07-01

    We found a minimal and a comprehensive set of directly measurable quantities defining the most general two-Higgs-doublet model (2HDM); we call these quantities observables. The potential parameters of the model are expressed explicitly via these observables (plus nonphysical parameters which are similar to gauge parameters). The model with arbitrary values of these observables can, in principle, be realized (up to general enough limitations). Our results open the door for the study of Higgs models in terms of measurable quantities only. The experimental limitations can be implemented here directly, without complex, often model-dependent, analysis of the Lagrangian coefficients. The principal opportunity to determine all parameters of the 2HDM from the (future) data meets strong practical limitation. It is the problem for a very long time. Apart from this construction per se, we also obtain some by-products. Among them are the following: a simple criterium for charge parity symmetry (C P ) conservation in the 2HDM, a new sum rules for Higgs couplings, a clear possibility of the coexistence of relatively light Higgses with the strong interaction in the Higgs sector, and a simple expression for the triple Higgs vertex g (hahaha) , useful for the analysis of future h h h coupling measurements.

  2. What Students Need, What Students Say They Want: Student Perspectives on the Promise of Smaller Learning Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstead, Cathleen L.; Bessell, Ann G.; Sembiante, Sabrina; Plaza, Miriam Pacheco

    2010-01-01

    Despite the wealth of studies on smaller learning communities (SLCs), student voices are missing from the debate on high school reform. This article examines how students experience SLCs. A participatory research method, data-in-a-day was used to provide a systematic and inclusive method for gathering data on student perceptions. Data-in-a-day is…

  3. An Investigation Examining the Perceived Implications of Principal Leadership Changing a Large Comprehensive High School into Smaller Learning Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Raymond J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative case study was to examine the perceived implications that principal leadership has on transforming a large comprehensive high school into smaller learning communities (SLCs); and to speculate on possible factors that contribute to the change process after the implementation of SLCs. The study explores the roles,…

  4. Leading the Way. Report of Employers Whose Companies and Employees Took Part in the Learning in Smaller Companies (LISC) Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seagraves, Liz, Ed.

    This document is written by employers whose companies participated in the Learning in Smaller Companies (LISC) project, during which a university and two further education colleges created a number of work-based learning schemes for employers in small and medium-sized enterprises in Scotland. The foreword (Peter Swinson) discusses the importance…

  5. Examining the Rule of Thumb of Not Using Multilevel Modeling: The "Design Effect Smaller than Two" Rule

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Mark H. C.; Kwok, Oi-man

    2015-01-01

    Educational researchers commonly use the rule of thumb of "design effect smaller than 2" as the justification of not accounting for the multilevel or clustered structure in their data. The rule, however, has not yet been systematically studied in previous research. In the present study, we generated data from three different models…

  6. Examining Behavioral, Relational, and Cognitive Engagement in Smaller Learning Communities: A Case Study of Reform in One Suburban District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Heather A.; Chang, Mei-Lin; Andrzejewski, Carey E.; Poirier, Ryan R.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to examine the impact of Smaller Learning Community reform on students' behavioral, relational, and cognitive engagement in a suburban school district experiencing urbanization. We describe a project in which we evaluated the engagement of a cohort of 8th grade students as they transitioned to high school (n = 605).…

  7. Power Grab: At the NCAA's Annual Convention, Smaller Division I Colleges Unite to Overturn a Controversial Rule

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolverton, Brad

    2006-01-01

    One issue that drew a great deal of interest at the annual conference of the National Collegiate Athletic Association in Indianapolis January 2006 was how escalating costs are leading to increasing competitive imbalances between smaller colleges and their larger, wealthier rivals. Concern over these inequities led to a group of mostly smaller…

  8. Examining pretrial publicity in a shadow jury paradigm: issues of slant, quantity, persistence and generalizability.

    PubMed

    Daftary-Kapur, Tarika; Penrod, Steven D; O'Connor, Maureen; Wallace, Brian

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of pretrial publicity (PTP) on mock juror decision making. Specifically, we examined the influence of quantity and slant of the PTP (proprosecution vs. prodefense), the persistence of PTP effects over time, and whether the PTP effects demonstrated in research laboratories would also occur in more naturalistic settings (generalizability). Using a shadow jury paradigm we examined these effects using a real trial as stimulus. Mock jurors included 115 jury-eligible community members who were naturally exposed to PTP in the venue in which the actual case occurred and 156 who were experimentally exposed. We found mock jurors were significantly influenced by both the slant and quantity of the PTP to which they were exposed, such that those exposed to proprosecution or prodefense PTP tended to render decision in support of the party favored in the PTP, and those exposed to greater quantities of PTP tended to be more biased. Additionally, PTP effects persisted throughout the course of the trial and continued to influence judgments in face of trial evidence and arguments. A finding of no significant difference in the effect of exposure slant between the naturally exposed and experimentally exposed samples provides support for the external validity of laboratory studies examining PTP effects. This research helps address some of the concerns raised by courts with regard to the durability of PTP effects and the application of laboratory findings to real world settings. PMID:24933173

  9. Macroscopic Properties of Restacked, Redox-Liquid Exfoliated Graphite and Graphite Mimics Produced in Bulk Quantities

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, Vikram K; Quinlan, Ronald; Agapov, Alexander L; Dunlap, John R; Nelson, Kimberly M; Duranty, Edward R; Sokolov, Alexei P; Bhat, Gajanan; Mays, Jimmy

    2014-01-01

    The excellent properties exhibited by monolayer graphene have spurred the development of exfoliation techniques using bulk graphite to produce large quantities of pristine monolayer sheets. Development of simple chemistry to exfoliate and intercalate graphite and graphite mimics in large quantities is required for numerous applications. To determine the macroscopic behavior of restacked, exfoliated bulk materials, a systematic approach is presented using a simple, redox-liquid sonication process along to obtain large quantities of 2D and 3D hexagonally layered graphite, molybdenum disulfi de, and boron nitride, which are subsequently characterized to observe chemical and structural changes. For MoS 2 sonicated with the antioxidant sodium bisulfi te, results from Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and electron microscopy indicate the presence of distorted phases from different polymorphs, and apparent nanotube structures in the bulk, restacked powder. Furthermore, using thermograviemtric analysis, the antioxidant enhances the resistance to oxidative degradation of MoS 2 , upon thermal treatment up to 900 C. The addition of the ionic antioxidant decreased dispersion stability in non-polar solvent, suggesting decreased compatibility with non-polar systems. Using simple chemical methods, the ability to generate tailored multidimensional layered materials with unique macroscopic properties is critical for numerous applications, including electrical devices, reinforced polymer composites, lithium ion capacitors, and chemical sensing.

  10. a Smaller Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takemae, Seiji; Kirwin, Peter; McIntosh, Gordon

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a lab activity for measuring a spherical balloon's circumference. The procedure we discuss is based on the method used by Eratosthenes to measure the Earth's circumference.

  11. Smaller Can Be Beautiful

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, William H.

    1978-01-01

    Many liberal arts colleges will survive or disappear depending on how well they can analyze their problems and apply solutions. What is needed is a College Futures Planning Center that could provide at minimal cost consulting and support services to private colleges seriously desiring to contend with decline. (Author/LBH)

  12. Staffing Smaller Police Agencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivero, David A.; Colombo, Michael

    2010-01-01

    All aspects of police work are challenging both professionally and personally. Police officers are accustomed to shift work, mandatory overtime, schedule adjustments for training, holidays and disasters, recalls and required off-duty court appearances. Police officers traditionally work eight hours per day, five day weeks (otherwise known as a 5/8…

  13. Making Microbiology Even Smaller!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Linda Mull; Motz, Vicki Abrams

    2013-01-01

    We outline protocols for producing slant-minis (SLINIs) and mini-deeps (MEEPs) and examples of their use in simple microbiology experiments suitable for high school students. The principal benefits of these protocols are decreased cost associated with significantly reduced media use; easier, less expensive disposal of waste; and increased safety…

  14. Stabilizing Additives Added during Cell Lysis Aid in the Solubilization of Recombinant Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Leibly, David J.; Nguyen, Trang Nhu; Kao, Louis T.; Hewitt, Stephen N.; Barrett, Lynn K.; Van Voorhis, Wesley C.

    2012-01-01

    Insoluble recombinant proteins are a major issue for both structural genomics and enzymology research. Greater than 30% of recombinant proteins expressed in Escherichia coli (E. coli) appear to be insoluble. The prevailing view is that insolubly expressed proteins cannot be easily solubilized, and are usually sequestered into inclusion bodies. However, we hypothesize that small molecules added during the cell lysis stage can yield soluble protein from insoluble protein previously screened without additives or ligands. We present a novel screening method that utilized 144 additive conditions to increase the solubility of recombinant proteins expressed in E. coli. These selected additives are natural ligands, detergents, salts, buffers, and chemicals that have been shown to increase the stability of proteins in vivo. We present the methods used for this additive solubility screen and detailed results for 41 potential drug target recombinant proteins from infectious organisms. Increased solubility was observed for 80% of the recombinant proteins during the primary and secondary screening of lysis with the additives; that is 33 of 41 target proteins had increased solubility compared with no additive controls. Eleven additives (trehalose, glycine betaine, mannitol, L-Arginine, potassium citrate, CuCl2, proline, xylitol, NDSB 201, CTAB and K2PO4) solubilized more than one of the 41 proteins; these additives can be easily screened to increase protein solubility. Large-scale purifications were attempted for 15 of the proteins using the additives identified and eight (40%) were prepared for crystallization trials during the first purification attempt. Thus, this protocol allowed us to recover about a third of seemingly insoluble proteins for crystallography and structure determination. If recombinant proteins are required in smaller quantities or less purity, the final success rate may be even higher. PMID:23285060

  15. [Quantity of weapon oils at the target as a function of shooting sequence and firing distance].

    PubMed

    Kijewski, H; Jäkel, M

    1986-01-01

    Five widely used gun oils were tested to see if they could be identified by gas chromatography. All oils in the test produced characteristic gas chromatograms and the test was highly sensitive in tracing the oils. Seven different weapons and various types of ammunition were used to perform firing tests involving an oil sold under the brand name of "Gun pro." The weapons were oiled and wiped dry and subsequently discharged at a cotton cloth target. Series of shots were fired from a maximal distance of 3 m, and the weapon was not cleaned between shots. Grease marks and powder-burn traces were extracted separately and the extracts, after adding an internal standard, were investigated by means of gas chromatography (gas chromatography unit by Perkin and Elmer). The largest quantities of oil were transmitted by indoor ammunition fired from a small-bore rifle. At a firing range of 20 cm, a decrease in the oil quantity could be observed up to the fourth discharge. When the firing range was varied there was a decrease in the oil quantity up to a distance of 80 cm. The first and the second discharge could be distinguished up to a firing range of 60 cm. With increasing force of the projectile and a decrease in the interior length of the gun barrel, the quantity of oil conveyed to the target also decreased. Additionally, the identifiability of the oil was investigated after firing at several layers of cloth and after storage of the samples (no losses occurred after a 1-month storage period).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3811628

  16. Monte Carlo calculations of characteristic quantities of low-energy electron irradiation to spacecraft dielectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Zhenyu; Dong, Lei; Tang, Fule

    2012-08-01

    The calculations of the characteristic quantities of low-energy electron (⩽20 keV) irradiation to the five typical spacecraft dielectrics, i.e. epoxy, kapton, mylar, polyethylene, and teflon, have been performed by means of Monte Carlo method. These characteristic quantities include the electron backscattering coefficient, the depth distributions of both energy deposition and deposited electrons, and the maximum penetration depth of deposited electrons in the dielectrics. A Monte Carlo model has been specifically constructed for simulating the transport of low-energy electrons in spacecraft dielectrics (organic materials). In this model, the description of the inelastic scattering of energetic electron is based on the dielectric approach developed previously and the Born-Ochkur's exchange correction is included. Especially, the optical energy loss functions of organic materials can be obtained using an empirical evaluation. In addition, the mean cross section based on the Mott model is proposed for calculating the elastic scattering of energetic electrons in organic materials for high simulation efficiency. The constructed Monte Carlo model has been examined by a series of calculations and comparisons with the reported experiments and other theoretical results. For the dielectrics under consideration and in the energy range of E0 ⩽ 20 keV, the calculated electron backscattering coefficients and the extrapolated range of deposited electrons are listed at selected energies in numerical form for convenient use, and an empirical expression of estimating the extrapolated range in the energy range of 1-20 keV is given. The distribution characteristics of both energy deposition and deposited electrons are presented, and it is found that kapton and mylar present the close characteristic quantities for each other, which is of significance for the choice of the dielectrics in design of spacecraft. The characteristic quantity calculations presented in this work are a

  17. Characteristics and Quantities of HIV Host Cells in Human Genital Tract Secretions

    PubMed Central

    Politch, Joseph A.; Marathe, Jai; Anderson, Deborah J.

    2014-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected leukocytes have been detected in genital secretions from HIV-infected men and women and may play an important role in the sexual transmission of HIV. However, they have been largely overlooked in studies on mechanisms of HIV transmission and in the design and testing of HIV vaccine and microbicide candidates. This article describes the characteristics and quantities of leukocytes in male and female genital secretions under various conditions and also reviews evidence for the involvement of HIV-infected cells in both horizontal and vertical cell-associated HIV transmission. Additional research is needed in this area to better target HIV prevention strategies. PMID:25414414

  18. Predictive algorithms for determination of reflectance data from quantity of pigments within experimental dental resin composites

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Being able to estimate (predict) the final spectrum of reflectance of a biomaterial, especially when the final color and appearance are fundamental for their clinical success (as is the case of dental resin composites), could be a very useful tool for the industrial development of these type of materials. The main objective of this study was the development of predictive models which enable the determination of the reflectance spectrum of experimental dental resin composites based on type and quantity of pigments used in their chemical formulation. Methods 49 types of experimental dental resin composites were formulated as a mixture of organic matrix, inorganic filler, photo activator and other components in minor quantities (accelerator, inhibitor, fluorescent agent and 4 types of pigments). Spectral reflectance of all samples were measured, before and after artificial chromatic aging, using a spectroradiometer. A Multiple Nonlinear Regression Model (MNLR) was used to predict the values of the Reflectance Factors values in the visible range (380 nm-780 nm), before and after aging, from % Pigment (%P1, %P2, %P3 and %P4) within the formulation. Results The average value of the prediction error of the model was 3.46% (SD: 1.82) across all wavelengths for samples before aging and 3.54% (SD: 1.17) for samples after aging. The differences found between the predicted and measured values of the chromatic coordinates are smaller than the acceptability threshold and, in some cases, are even below the perceptibility threshold. Conclusions Within the framework of this pilot study, the nonlinear predictive models developed allow the prediction, with a high degree of accuracy, of the reflectance spectrum of the experimental dental resin composites. PMID:26329369

  19. Quantity judgments and individuation: evidence that mass nouns count.

    PubMed

    Barner, David; Snedeker, Jesse

    2005-08-01

    Three experiments explored the semantics of the mass-count distinction in young children and adults. In Experiments 1 and 2, the quantity judgments of participants provided evidence that some mass nouns refer to individuals, as such. Participants judged one large portion of stuff to be "more" than three tiny portions for substance-mass nouns (e.g. mustard, ketchup), but chose according to number for count nouns (e.g. shoes, candles) and object-mass nouns (e.g. furniture, jewelry). These results suggest that some mass nouns quantify over individuals, and that therefore reference to individuals does not distinguish count nouns from mass nouns. Thus, Experiments 1 and 2 failed to support the hypothesis that there exist one-to-one mappings between mass-count syntax and semantics for either adults or young children. In Experiment 3, it was found that for mass-count flexible terms (e.g. string, stone) participants based quantity judgments on number when the terms were used with count syntax, but on total amount of stuff when used with mass syntax. Apparently, the presence of discrete physical objects in a scene (e.g. stones) is not sufficient to permit quantity judgments based on number. It is proposed that object-mass nouns (e.g. furniture) can be used to refer to individuals due to lexically specified grammatical features that normally occur in count syntax. Also, we suggest that children learning language parse words that refer to individuals as count nouns unless given morpho-syntactic and referential evidence to the contrary, in which case object-mass nouns are acquired. PMID:16139586

  20. Optical algorithm for calculating the quantity distribution of fiber assembly.

    PubMed

    Wu, Meiqin; Wang, Fumei

    2016-09-01

    A modification of the two-flux model of Kubelka-Munk was proposed for the description of light propagating through a fiber-air mixture medium, which simplified fibers' internal reflection as a part of the scattering on the total fiber path length. A series of systematical experiments demonstrated a higher consistency with the reference quantity distribution than the common Lambert law on the fibrogram used in the textile industry did. Its application in the fibrogram for measuring the cotton fiber's length was demonstrated to be good, extending its applicability to the wool fiber, the length of which is harder to measure than that of the cotton fiber. PMID:27607296