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Sample records for addition social validity

  1. Trends in the measurement of social validity

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Craig H.

    1992-01-01

    Since its inception in the mid-1970s, social validity has provided applied behavior analysts with a critical measure of the social impact and importance of their interventions. Recent discussion, however, has questioned the use of this construct in regard to the frequency and types of social validty measures employed in research. Despite the ensuing discussion, virtually no quantitative information has been made available to frame various perspectives and opinions. The purpose of this report is to present a content analysis of social validity measures used over the previous 20 years. Social validity was assessed along three dimensions: (a) type of assessment, (b) focus of assessment, and (c) time of assessment. Articles published in the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis (1968-1990) and Behavior Modification (1977-1990) were surveyed. The results of the content analysis indicate that current applications of social validation procedures are presented in 20% of the articles surveyed. The majority of articles used subjective evaluation of outcomes following intervention to assess social validity. In addition, the data indicated that normative comparison was a rarely used method of social validation and that its use has been decreasing over time. PMID:22478125

  2. Validity and Reliability in Social Science Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drost, Ellen A.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the author aims to provide novice researchers with an understanding of the general problem of validity in social science research and to acquaint them with approaches to developing strong support for the validity of their research. She provides insight into these two important concepts, namely (1) validity; and (2) reliability, and…

  3. Social Cues, Social Control, and Ecological Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parke, Ross D.

    1976-01-01

    Discusses research strategies employed in studies of the importance of adult social cues in controlling children's behavior, illustrating some of the limitations of sole reliance on laboratory paradigms for achieving an understanding of both the contemporaneous operation and the development of social cue effectiveness. (JH)

  4. Social Media and Social Reality - Theory, Evidence and Validation

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, William; Weber, Marta S.; Farber, Robert M.; Corley, Courtney D.; Cowell, Andrew J.; Gregory, Michelle L.

    2010-06-14

    Social Media provide an exciting and novel view into social phenomena. The vast amounts of data that can be gathered from the Internet coupled with massively parallel supercomputers such as the Cray XMT open new vistas for research. Conclusions drawn from such analysis must recognize that social media are distinct from the underlying social reality. Rigorous validation is essential. This paper briefly presents results obtained from computational analysis of social media - utilizing both blog and twitter data. Validation of these results is discussed in the context of a framework of established methodologies from the social sciences. Finally, an outline for a set of supporting studies is proposed.

  5. The Social Validity of Level Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safran, Stephen P.; Johanson, George A.; Kalis, Donna

    1998-01-01

    A survey of 44 students (grades 4-10) with behavior disorders, 14 special educators, and 15 teacher assistants evaluated the social validity of level systems (behavioral management interventions applied to shape students' social, emotional, and academic behaviors to pre-established levels). While students were the most negative group, they…

  6. The Value of Qualitative Methods in Social Validity Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leko, Melinda M.

    2014-01-01

    One quality indicator of intervention research is the extent to which the intervention has a high degree of social validity, or practicality. In this study, I drew on Wolf's framework for social validity and used qualitative methods to ascertain five middle schoolteachers' perceptions of the social validity of System 44®--a phonics-based…

  7. Using social stories and comic strip conversations to promote socially valid outcomes for children with autism.

    PubMed

    Hutchins, Tiffany L; Prelock, Patricia A

    2006-02-01

    Very little is documented regarding the efficacy of social stories and comic strip conversations for promoting an understanding of social situations and the appropriate social behaviors of individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). In addition, few studies on the efficacy of social stories have examined whether outcomes are socially valid. The purpose of this article is to respond to some of the gaps in the literature on the efficacy of a frequently used intervention for children with ASD and to describe a family-centered collaborative approach to developing social stories and comic strip conversations. The results of intervention employing an A-B design are reported for two case vignettes. Clinical implications, limitations of the available data, and potential factors contributing to outcome variability are discussed.

  8. Instruments for the assessment of social anxiety disorder: Validation studies

    PubMed Central

    Osório, Flávia de Lima; Crippa, José Alexandre de Souza; Loureiro, Sonia Regina

    2012-01-01

    Great progress has been observed in the literature over the last decade regarding the validation of instruments for the assessment of Social Anxiety Disorder in the Brazilian context. Particularly outstanding in this respect is the production of a group of Brazilian investigators regarding the psychometric study of the following instruments: Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale, Social Phobia Inventory, Brief Social Phobia Scale, Disability Profile, Liebowitz Self-Rated Disability Scale, Social Phobia Safety Behaviors Scale and Self-Statements During Public Speaking Scale, which have proved to be appropriate and valid for use in the adult Brazilian population, representing resources for the assessment of social anxiety in clinical and experimental situations. PMID:24175172

  9. Eating Disorder Diagnostic Scale: Additional Evidence of Reliability and Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stice, Eric; Fisher, Melissa; Martinez, Erin

    2004-01-01

    The authors conducted 4 studies investigating the reliability and validity of the Eating Disorder Diagnostic Scale (HDDS; E. Stice, C. F. Telch, & S. L. Rizvi, 2000), a brief self-report measure for diagnosing anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating disorder. Study 1 found that the HDDS showed criterion validity with interview-based…

  10. The Structure and Validity of the Multidimensional Social Support Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardesty, Patrick H.; Richardson, George B.

    2012-01-01

    The factor structure and concurrent validity of the Multidimensional Social Support Questionnaire, a brief measure of perceived social support for use with adolescents, was examined. Findings suggest that four dimensions of perceived social support may yield more information than assessments of the unitary construct of support. (Contains 8 tables…

  11. Measuring Social Relationships in Different Social Systems: The Construction and Validation of the Evaluation of Social Systems (EVOS) Scale

    PubMed Central

    Aguilar-Raab, Corina; Grevenstein, Dennis; Schweitzer, Jochen

    2015-01-01

    Social interactions have gained increasing importance, both as an outcome and as a possible mediator in psychotherapy research. Still, there is a lack of adequate measures capturing relational aspects in multi-person settings. We present a new measure to assess relevant dimensions of quality of relationships and collective efficacy regarding interpersonal interactions in diverse personal and professional social systems including couple partnerships, families, and working teams: the EVOS. Theoretical dimensions were derived from theories of systemic family therapy and organizational psychology. The study was divided in three parts: In Study 1 (N = 537), a short 9-item scale with two interrelated factors was constructed on the basis of exploratory factor analysis. Quality of relationship and collective efficacy emerged as the most relevant dimensions for the quality of social systems. Study 2 (N = 558) confirmed the measurement model using confirmatory factor analysis and established validity with measures of family functioning, life satisfaction, and working team efficacy. Measurement invariance was assessed to ensure that EVOS captures the same latent construct in all social contexts. In Study 3 (N = 317), an English language adaptation was developed, which again confirmed the original measurement model. The EVOS is a theory-based, economic, reliable, and valid measure that covers important aspects of social relationships, applicable for different social systems. It is the first instrument of its kind and an important addition to existing measures of social relationships and related outcome measures in therapeutic and other counseling settings involving multiple persons. PMID:26200357

  12. Epistemological Dialogue of Validity: Building Validity in Educational and Social Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cakir, Mustafa

    2012-01-01

    The notion of validity in the social sciences is evolving and is influenced by philosophy of science, critiques of objectivity, and epistemological debates. Methodology for validation of the knowledge claims is diverse across different philosophies of science. In other words, definition and the way to establish of validity have evolved as…

  13. Social Validity Assessment in Social Competence Interventions for Preschool Children: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurley, Jennifer J.

    2012-01-01

    Social competence intervention studies published from 1970 to 2008 for preschoolers were reviewed for reports of social validity assessment. Analysis of 90 studies indicated that nearly 27% (n = 24) of studies reported at least one measure of social validity assessment for the goals (n = 7), procedures (n = 8), or effects (n = 19). The methods…

  14. Construct Validity of the Social Coping Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swiatek, Mary Ann; Cross, Tracy L.

    2007-01-01

    The Social coping Questionnaire (SCQ) measures strategies used by gifted adolescents to minimize the negative effect they believe their high ability has on their social interactions. Previous studies have supported the factor structure, internal consistency, and test-retest reliability of the SCQ. The current study provides construct validity…

  15. Movie for the Assessment of Social Cognition (MASC): Spanish Validation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lahera, G.; Boada, L.; Pousa, E.; Mirapeix, I.; Morón-Nozaleda, G.; Marinas, L.; Gisbert, L.; Pamiàs, M.; Parellada, M.

    2014-01-01

    We present the Spanish validation of the "Movie for the Assessment of Social Cognition" instrument (MASC-SP). We recruited 22 adolescents and young adults with Asperger syndrome and 26 participants with typical development. The MASC-SP and three other social cognition instruments (Ekman Pictures of Facial Affect test, Reading the Mind in…

  16. Social Support Questionnaire for Children: Development and Initial Validation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon-Hollingsworth, Arlene T.; Thompson, Julia E.; Geary, Meghan A.; Schexnaildre, Mark A.; Lai, Betty S.; Kelley, Mary Lou

    2016-01-01

    The Social Support Questionnaire for Children (SSQC) is a 50-item scale that assesses children's social support from parents, relatives, nonrelative adults, siblings, and peers. The SSQC demonstrates good psychometric properties (e.g., internal consistency, factorial validity). Furthermore, the SSQC appears to be an ethnically sensitive measure of…

  17. Antiandrogenic activity of phthalate mixtures: Validity of concentration addition

    SciTech Connect

    Christen, Verena; Crettaz, Pierre; Oberli-Schrämmli, Aurelia; Fent, Karl

    2012-03-01

    Phthalates and bisphenol A have very widespread use leading to significant exposure of humans. They are suspected to interfere with the endocrine system, including the androgen, estrogen and the thyroid hormone system. Here we analyzed the antiandrogenic activity of six binary, and one ternary mixture of phthalates exhibiting complete antiandrogenic dose–response curves, and binary mixtures of phthalates and bisphenol A at equi-effective concentrations of EC{sub 10}, EC{sub 25} and EC{sub 50} in MDA-kb2 cells. Mixture activity followed the concentration addition (CA) model with a tendency to synergism at high and antagonism at low concentrations. Isoboles and the toxic unit approach (TUA) confirmed the additive to synergistic activity of the binary mixtures BBP + DBP, DBP + DEP and DEP + BPA at high concentrations. Both methods indicate a tendency to antagonism for the EC{sub 10} mixtures BBP + DBP, BBP + DEP and DBP + DEP, and the EC{sub 25} mixture of DBP + BPA. A ternary mixture revealed synergism at the EC{sub 50}, and weak antagonistic activity at the EC{sub 25} level by the TUA. A mixture of five phthalates representing a human urine composition and reflecting exposure to corresponding parent compounds showed no antiandrogenic activity. Our study demonstrates that CA is an appropriate concept to account for mixture effects of antiandrogenic phthalates and bisphenol A. The interaction indicates a departure from additivity to antagonism at low concentrations, probably due to interaction with the androgen receptor and/or cofactors. This study emphasizes that a risk assessment of phthalates should account for mixture effects by applying the CA concept. -- Highlights: ► Antiandrogenic activity of mixtures of 2 and 3 phthalates are assessed in MDA-kb2 cells. ► Mixture activities followed the concentration addition model. ► A tendency to synergism at high and antagonism at low levels occurred.

  18. Antiandrogenic activity of phthalate mixtures: validity of concentration addition.

    PubMed

    Christen, Verena; Crettaz, Pierre; Oberli-Schrämmli, Aurelia; Fent, Karl

    2012-03-01

    Phthalates and bisphenol A have very widespread use leading to significant exposure of humans. They are suspected to interfere with the endocrine system, including the androgen, estrogen and the thyroid hormone system. Here we analyzed the antiandrogenic activity of six binary, and one ternary mixture of phthalates exhibiting complete antiandrogenic dose-response curves, and binary mixtures of phthalates and bisphenol A at equi-effective concentrations of EC(10), EC(25) and EC(50) in MDA-kb2 cells. Mixture activity followed the concentration addition (CA) model with a tendency to synergism at high and antagonism at low concentrations. Isoboles and the toxic unit approach (TUA) confirmed the additive to synergistic activity of the binary mixtures BBP+DBP, DBP+DEP and DEP+BPA at high concentrations. Both methods indicate a tendency to antagonism for the EC(10) mixtures BBP+DBP, BBP+DEP and DBP+DEP, and the EC(25) mixture of DBP+BPA. A ternary mixture revealed synergism at the EC(50), and weak antagonistic activity at the EC(25) level by the TUA. A mixture of five phthalates representing a human urine composition and reflecting exposure to corresponding parent compounds showed no antiandrogenic activity. Our study demonstrates that CA is an appropriate concept to account for mixture effects of antiandrogenic phthalates and bisphenol A. The interaction indicates a departure from additivity to antagonism at low concentrations, probably due to interaction with the androgen receptor and/or cofactors. This study emphasizes that a risk assessment of phthalates should account for mixture effects by applying the CA concept.

  19. Additional Support Needs Reforms and Social Justice in Scotland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riddell, Sheila; Stead, Joan; Weedon, Elisabet; Wright, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    New additional support-needs legislation in Scotland sought to recognise the way in which poverty, as well as individual impairment, contribute to the creation of children's difficulties in learning. As well as identifying a wider range of needs, the legislation sought to provide parents, irrespective of social background, with more powerful means…

  20. The military social health index: a partial multicultural validation.

    PubMed

    Van Breda, Adrian D

    2008-05-01

    Routine military deployments place great stress on military families. Before South African soldiers can be deployed, they undergo a comprehensive health assessment, which includes a social work assessment. The assessment focuses on the resilience of the family system to estimate how well the family will cope when exposed to the stress of deployments. This article reports on the development and validation of a new measuring tool, the Military Social Health Index, or MSHI. The MSHI is made up of four scales, each comprising 14 items, viz social support, problem solving, stressor appraisal, and generalized resistance resources. An initial, large-scale, multicultural validation of the MSHI revealed strong levels of reliability (Cronbach a and standard error of measurement) and validity (factorial, construct, convergent, and discriminant). PMID:18543570

  1. Validation of Social Connectedness in Mainstream Society and the Ethnic Community Scales.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Eunju; Jung, Kyoung Rae; Lee, Richard M; Felix-Mora, Monica

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the psychometric properties of the Social Connectedness in Mainstream Society (SCMN) and the Social Connectedness in the Ethnic Community (SCETH) Scales in two groups of ethnic minorities. We especially examined their theoretical/conceptual and empirical viability in relation to other established constructs of general social connectedness, acculturation, and enculturation. Analyses of two sets of survey data from 200 Mexican American students in California and 134 Asian international students in Minnesota supported (a) construct validity of the SCMN and the SCETH as related but distinct structures, (b) convergent and discriminant validity in relation to acculturation and enculturation, and (c) high reliability. The examination of incremental validity in predicting subjective well-being further supported their distinctive utility in addition to other established constructs of general social connectedness, acculturation, enculturation, ethnic identity, and other group orientation. Implications for future research and practice are discussed. PMID:22250899

  2. Construct validity of two tests of social cognition in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Corrigan, P W; Buican, B; Toomey, R

    1996-06-26

    The construct validity was examined of two measures of social cognition in schizophrenia: (1) a measure of differential deficit in concrete versus abstract social cue perception and (2) a measure of differential deficit in concrete versus abstract situational feature recognition. A significant relationship between the two difference scores would be expected if both measured differential cognition of abstract and concrete social information. This correlation would be expected to remain significant even after the influence of a generalized deficit in social cognition was partialed out. Twenty-three subjects with DSM-III-R diagnoses of schizophrenia completed a videotaped measure of social cue perception and a pencil-and-paper measure of situational feature recognition. Results showed that standardized residual scores representing the difference in abstract and concrete cue perception and representing the difference in abstract and concrete situational feature recognition were significantly associated. Implications of these strategies for understanding and remediating the social cognitive deficits of schizophrenia are discussed. PMID:8832776

  3. Rethinking Validity in Qualitative Research from a Social Constructionist Perspective: From "Is This Valid Research?" to "What Is This Research Valid for?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguinaldo, Jeffrey P.

    2004-01-01

    This article theorizes the issue of validity from a social constructionist perspective, particularly as it is applied to the assessment of qualitative research. Validity must be interrogated for its discursive function within the social sciences. I will argue that, as a criterion of assessment, validity polices the social science enterprise and…

  4. Psychometric Validation of the Youth Social Capital Scale in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koutra, Kleio; Orfanos, Philippos; Roumeliotaki, Theano; Kritsotakis, George; Kokkevi, Anna; Philalithis, Anastasios

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: This article describes the psychometric validation of the Youth Social Capital scale (YSCS) in 16- to 17-year-old students living in rural and urban areas in Crete, Greece. Methods: Sampling was performed among 27 secondary education units of Heraklion Prefecture. The self-reported questionnaire was answered by 692 participants…

  5. The Social Interest Index: A Study of Construct Validity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mozdzierz, Gerald J.; Semyck, Roger W.

    1980-01-01

    Investigated construct validity of the Social Interest Index (SII) with 140 male alcoholics. Hypothesized that the SII would relate positively with measures of mental health, intelligence, education, and internal locus of control and would relate negatively with measures of MMPI "pathology" scales. The hypotheses generally were supported. (Author)

  6. Validation of the Social Appearance Anxiety Scale: Factor, Convergent, and Divergent Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levinson, Cheri A.; Rodebaugh, Thomas L.

    2011-01-01

    The Social Appearance Anxiety Scale (SAAS) was created to assess fear of overall appearance evaluation. Initial psychometric work indicated that the measure had a single-factor structure and exhibited excellent internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and convergent validity. In the current study, the authors further examined the factor,…

  7. "More than words": social validation in close relationships.

    PubMed

    Koudenburg, Namkje; Gordijn, Ernestine H; Postmes, Tom

    2014-11-01

    Conversations are susceptible to many disturbances: A speaker's hesitations, distractions, or, when communicating online, technical hiccups that may cause brief delays. Research among previously unacquainted individuals revealed that brief disruptions in conversational flow can have profound social consequences: Silences or delays in mediated communication threaten the need to belong and validate one's ideas. The present research, however, shows that when occurring in close relationships, flow disruptions may be ironically beneficial. We hypothesized that when flow disruptions occur, partners fall back on their relationship beliefs to infer mutual agreement and the existence of a shared reality. When a relationship is perceived as secure, partners may believe that "no words are needed" to understand each other. Flow disruptions can thus paradoxically make shared cognitions accessible and foster feelings of social validation. Data from two experiments, using partners in different types of relationships, supported this hypothesis. PMID:25205773

  8. Additional Evidence of Convergent Validity between SRSS-IE and SSiS-PSG Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Kathleen Lynne; Oakes, Wendy Peia; Ennis, Robin Parks; Royer, David James

    2015-01-01

    We report findings of a validity study comparing two screening tools: the Student Risk Screening Scale-Internalizing and Externalizing (SRSS-IE) and the Social Skills Improvement System-Performance Screening Guide (SSiS-PSG; Elliott & Gresham, 2007). Participants were 1,680 kindergarten through sixth-grade elementary students from three…

  9. Exploring the Incremental Validity of Nonverbal Social Aggression: The Utility of Peer Nominations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blake, Jamilia J.; Kim, Eun Sook; Lease, A. Michele

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the construct validity of nonverbal social aggression and the relation of nonverbal social aggression to dimensions of children's social status. Peer nominations of verbal social, nonverbal social, direct veral, and physical aggression, as well as social dominance, perceived popularity, and social acceptance, were collected…

  10. The negative self-portrayal scale: development, validation, and application to social anxiety.

    PubMed

    Moscovitch, David A; Huyder, Vanessa

    2011-06-01

    The Negative Self-Portrayal Scale (NSPS) is a new questionnaire designed to assess the extent to which individuals are concerned that specific self-attributes they view as being deficient will be exposed to scrutiny and evaluation by critical others in social situations. These concerns have been proposed to drive symptoms of social anxiety and account for individual differences in social fears and avoidance behaviors (Moscovitch, 2009). Here, we introduce the NSPS and examine its factor structure and psychometric properties across two large samples of North American undergraduate students with normally distributed symptoms of social anxiety. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses supported a 3-factor solution representing concerns about (a) social competence; (b) physical appearance; and (c) signs of anxiety. The NSPS was found to have good internal consistency and test-retest reliability, strong convergent validity, and adequate discriminant validity. In addition, NSPS total scores accounted for a significant proportion of unique variance in self-concealment (i.e., safety) behaviors over and above established symptom measures of social interaction anxiety, social performance anxiety, and depression. Results are discussed in relation to theoretical models of social anxiety and the potential utility of the NSPS for both clinical research and practice. PMID:21496505

  11. Adapting Social Neuroscience Measures for Schizophrenia Clinical Trials, Part 3: Fathoming External Validity

    PubMed Central

    Olbert, Charles M.

    2013-01-01

    It is unknown whether measures adapted from social neuroscience linked to specific neural systems will demonstrate relationships to external variables. Four paradigms adapted from social neuroscience were administered to 173 clinically stable outpatients with schizophrenia to determine their relationships to functionally meaningful variables and to investigate their incremental validity beyond standard measures of social and nonsocial cognition. The 4 paradigms included 2 that assess perception of nonverbal social and action cues (basic biological motion and emotion in biological motion) and 2 that involve higher level inferences about self and others’ mental states (self- referential memory and empathic accuracy). Overall, social neuroscience paradigms showed significant relationships to functional capacity but weak relationships to community functioning; the paradigms also showed weak correlations to clinical symptoms. Evidence for incremental validity beyond standard measures of social and nonsocial cognition was mixed with additional predictive power shown for functional capacity but not community functioning. Of the newly adapted paradigms, the empathic accuracy task had the broadest external validity. These results underscore the difficulty of translating developments from neuroscience into clinically useful tasks with functional significance. PMID:24072806

  12. Adapting social neuroscience measures for schizophrenia clinical trials, part 3: fathoming external validity.

    PubMed

    Olbert, Charles M; Penn, David L; Kern, Robert S; Lee, Junghee; Horan, William P; Reise, Steven P; Ochsner, Kevin N; Marder, Stephen R; Green, Michael F

    2013-11-01

    It is unknown whether measures adapted from social neuroscience linked to specific neural systems will demonstrate relationships to external variables. Four paradigms adapted from social neuroscience were administered to 173 clinically stable outpatients with schizophrenia to determine their relationships to functionally meaningful variables and to investigate their incremental validity beyond standard measures of social and nonsocial cognition. The 4 paradigms included 2 that assess perception of nonverbal social and action cues (basic biological motion and emotion in biological motion) and 2 that involve higher level inferences about self and others' mental states (self-referential memory and empathic accuracy). Overall, social neuroscience paradigms showed significant relationships to functional capacity but weak relationships to community functioning; the paradigms also showed weak correlations to clinical symptoms. Evidence for incremental validity beyond standard measures of social and nonsocial cognition was mixed with additional predictive power shown for functional capacity but not community functioning. Of the newly adapted paradigms, the empathic accuracy task had the broadest external validity. These results underscore the difficulty of translating developments from neuroscience into clinically useful tasks with functional significance.

  13. Validity and reliability of Arabic MOS social support survey.

    PubMed

    Dafaalla, Mohamed; Farah, Abdulraheem; Bashir, Sheima; Khalil, Ammar; Abdulhamid, Rabab; Mokhtar, Mousab; Mahadi, Mohamed; Omer, Zulfa; Suliman, Asgad; Elkhalifa, Mohammed; Abdelgadir, Hanin; Kheir, Abdelmoneim E M; Abdalrahman, Ihab

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to generate a valid reliable Arabic version of MOS social support survey (MOS-SSS). We did a cross sectional study in medical students of Faculty of Medicine in Khartoum, Sudan. We did a clustered random sampling in 500 students of which 487 were suitable for analysis. We followed the standard translation process for translating the MOS-SSS. We accomplished factor analysis to assess construct validity, and generated item-scales correlations to evaluate the convergent and discriminant validity. We extracted the Cronbach's α and Spearman Brown coefficient of spit half method to determine internal consistency. We measured stability by correlation between the scores of the MOS survey taken at two different occasions with ten days apart in 252 participants. All items correlated highly (0.788 or greater) with their hypothesized scales. All items in subscales correlated higher by two standard errors with their own scale than with any other scale. Principle component analysis with varimax rotation was conducted on the 19 items and examination of scree plot graphically suggested 4 predominant factors that account for 72 % of variance. It showed high loadings, ranging from 0.720 to 0.84 for items of emotional support, 0.699-0.845 for tangible support, 0.518-0.823 for affectionate support, and 0.740-0.816 for positive social interaction. Cronbach's alpha for overall MOS scale and subscales indicated high internal consistency. The test-retest correlation showed weak correlation between the test and retest (ranges from 0.04 to 0.104). The Arabic MOS-SSS had high validity and internal consistency. PMID:27547680

  14. Causing Students to Choose More Language Arts Work: Enhancing the Validity of the Additive Interspersal Procedure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meadows, Sadonya F.; Skinner, Christopher H.

    2005-01-01

    Research on the additive interspersal procedure was extended by exposing seventh-grade students to curricula-based (e.g., educationally valid) language arts assignments. In Experiment I, each student was given a control language arts assignment containing 20 discrete target items and an experimental assignment containing 24 equivalent target…

  15. Interpreting social network metrics in healthcare organisations: a review and guide to validating small networks.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Adam G; Westbrook, Johanna I

    2011-04-01

    Social network analysis is an increasingly popular sociological method used to describe and understand the social aspects of communication patterns in the health care sector. The networks studied in this area are special because they are small, and for these sizes, the metrics calculated during analysis are sensitive to the number of people in the network and the density of observed communication. Validation is of particular value in controlling for these factors and in assisting in the accurate interpretation of network findings, yet such approaches are rarely applied. Our aim in this paper was to bring together published case studies to demonstrate how a proposed validation technique provides a basis for standardised comparison of networks within and across studies. A validation is performed for three network studies comprising ten networks, where the results are compared within and across the studies in relation to a standard baseline. The results confirm that hierarchy, centralisation and clustering metrics are highly sensitive to changes in size or density. Amongst the three case studies, we found support for some conclusions and contrary evidence for others. This validation approach is a tool for identifying additional features and verifying the conclusions reached in observational studies of small networks. We provide a methodological basis from which to perform intra-study and inter-study comparisons, for the purpose of introducing greater rigour to the use of social network analysis in health care applications.

  16. Additional Validity Evidence and Across-Group Equivalency of the "HOPE Teacher Rating Scale"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Scott J.; Gentry, Marcia

    2013-01-01

    The "HOPE Scale" was developed to identify academic and social components of giftedness and talent in elementary-aged students with particular attention to students from low-income and/or culturally diverse families. Based on previous findings, additional research was conducted on revisions made to the "HOPE Scale". Items were added, and 71…

  17. The Dutch Social Interaction Anxiety Scale and the Social Phobia Scale: Reliability, Validity, and Clinical Utility

    PubMed Central

    Tielen, Deirdre; Wollmann, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    The social interaction anxiety scale (SIAS) and the social phobia scale (SPS) assess anxiety in social interactions and fear of scrutiny by others. This study examines the psychometric properties of the Dutch versions of the SIAS and SPS using data from a large group of patients with social phobia and a community-based sample. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed that the SIAS is unidimensional, whereas the SPS is comprised of three subscales. The internal consistency of the scales and subscales was good. The concurrent and discriminant validity was supported and the scales were well able to discriminate between patients and community-based respondents. Cut-off values with excellent sensitivity and specificity are presented. Of all self-report measures included, the SPS was the most sensitive for treatment effects. Normative data are provided which can be used to assess whether clinically significant change has occurred in individual patients. PMID:24701560

  18. Spiritual Assessment and Native Americans: Establishing the Social Validity of a Complementary Set of Assessment Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodge, David R.; Limb, Gordon E.

    2011-01-01

    Although social work practitioners are increasingly likely to administer spiritual assessments with Native American clients, few qualitative assessment instruments have been validated with this population. This mixed-method study validates a complementary set of spiritual assessment instruments. Drawing on the social validity literature, a sample…

  19. Utilizing the social media data to validate 'climate change' indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molodtsova, T.; Kirilenko, A.; Stepchenkova, S.

    2013-12-01

    Reporting the observed and modeled changes in climate to public requires the measures understandable by the general audience. E.g., the NASA GISS Common Sense Climate Index (Hansen et al., 1998) reports the change in climate based on six practically observable parameters such as the air temperature exceeding the norm by one standard deviation. The utility of the constructed indices for reporting climate change depends, however, on an assumption that the selected parameters are felt and connected with the changing climate by a non-expert, which needs to be validated. Dynamic discussion of climate change issues in social media may provide data for this validation. We connected the intensity of public discussion of climate change in social networks with regional weather variations for the territory of the USA. We collected the entire 2012 population of Twitter microblogging activity on climate change topic, accumulating over 1.8 million separate records (tweets) globally. We identified the geographic location of the tweets and associated the daily and weekly intensity of twitting with the following parameters of weather for these locations: temperature anomalies, 'hot' temperature anomalies, 'cold' temperature anomalies, heavy rain/snow events. To account for non-weather related events we included the articles on climate change from the 'prestige press', a collection of major newspapers. We found that the regional changes in parameters of weather significantly affect the number of tweets published on climate change. This effect, however, is short-lived and varies throughout the country. We found that in different locations different weather parameters had the most significant effect on climate change microblogging activity. Overall 'hot' temperature anomalies had significant influence on climate change twitting intensity.

  20. Research for Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Evidence of Social and Ecological Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ledford, Jennifer R.; Hall, Emilie; Conder, Emily; Lane, Justin D.

    2016-01-01

    The social and ecological validity of a body of research may impact the degree to which interventions will be used outside of research contexts. The purpose of this review was to determine the extent to which social and ecological validity were demonstrated for interventions designed to increase social skills for young children with autism…

  1. Concurrent Validity for an Activity Vector Analysis Index of Social Adjustment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plante, Thomas G.; Goldfarb, Lori A.

    1984-01-01

    Administered the Activity Vector Analysis (AVA) and the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF) (N=144 adults) to examine the concurrent validity of the AVA. Results supported the validity of the AVA's social adjustment measure. (LLL)

  2. Assessing Social Participation of Students with Special Needs in Inclusive Education: Validation of the Social Participation Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koster, Marloes; Minnaert, Alexander E. M. G.; Nakken, Han; Pijl, Sip Jan; van Houten, Els J.

    2011-01-01

    This study addresses the convergent validity of a new teacher questionnaire to assess the social participation of students with special needs in regular primary schools. The Social Participation Questionnaire (SPQ) consists of four subscales representing four key themes of social participation: friendships/relationships, contacts/interactions,…

  3. Development and Validation of a Parent Report Measure for Assessing Social-Emotional Competencies of Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrell, Kenneth W.; Felver-Gant, Josh C.; Tom, Karalyn M.

    2011-01-01

    Based on the premises that strength-based assessment of children and adolescents is an important emerging area, and that additional tools for this purpose are needed, this study details development and validation efforts on a new strength-based assessment: the Social-Emotional Assets and Resilience Scale, parent form (SEARS-P). Following careful…

  4. Convergent and Discriminant Validity of the Iowa Social Competency Scale for Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wirth, Sharon; Pease, Damaris

    1983-01-01

    Convergent and discriminant validity of the Iowa Social Competency Scale-Preschool form was investigated using the Campbell and Fiske validity model. The methods involved were observer, mother, father and teacher ratings whereas the traits were three test factors of social activator, reassurance, and hypersensitivity. Subjects were 92 pre-school…

  5. Issues of Personal Dignity and Social Validity in Schoolwide Systems of Positive Behavior Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Terrance M.

    2007-01-01

    This article provides an analysis of issues related to personal "dignity" and social validity in schools. Specifically, dignity is defined in terms of individual success and independence, while "social validity" is defined in terms of the system as a whole. These definitions are explored in the context of schoolwide systems of positive behavior…

  6. Developing Social Skills of Students with Additional Needs within the Context of the Australian Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Michael; Cooper, Greta; Kettler, Ryan J.; Elliott, Stephen N.

    2015-01-01

    Decades of research on social skills assessment and intervention indicates the importance of social skills in improving academic achievement. Additionally, a strong evidence base promotes the inclusion of social-emotional learning into the whole school curriculum. In recognition of this evidence, the new Australian Curriculum, under Personal and…

  7. Assessing autistic traits: cross-cultural validation of the social responsiveness scale (SRS).

    PubMed

    Bölte, Sven; Poustka, Fritz; Constantino, John N

    2008-12-01

    The Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) is a quantitative measure of autistic traits in 4- to 18-year-olds, which has been used in behavior-genetic, epidemiological and intervention studies. The US standardization demonstrated a single-factor structure and good to excellent psychometric properties. The cross-cultural validity of the German adaptation of the parent-report SRS in a sample of N=1,436 children and adolescents: 838 typically developing and 527 clinical participants (160 with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs)) was examined. Internal consistency (0.91-0.97), test-retest reliability (0.84-0.97), interrater reliability (0.76 and 0.95) and convergent validity with the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule as well as the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised and Social Communication Questionnaire (0.35-0.58) were satisfactory to good. The SRS total score discriminated between ASD and other mental disorders. SRS scores proved to be sufficiently independent of general psychopathology. Principal component analyses yielded single-factor solutions for the normative and clinical subsamples. In addition, construct validity was ensured by consistent correlations with the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, the Child Behavior Checklist and the Junior Temperament and Character Inventory. Normative SRS total scores for girls and boys as well as values for ASD were lower in the German sample, while scores for conduct disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity/conduct disorder combined were higher. Generally, cross-cultural validity of the SRS seems to be sufficiently assured for a large European sample. However, some discrepancies regarding SRS normative and clinical raw score distributions, reliability and validity findings are critically discussed. PMID:19360690

  8. The Validity, Reliability and Factorial Structure of the Turkish Version of the Tromso Social Intelligence Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dogan, Tayfun; Cetin, Bayram

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the reliability and validity of the Turkish version of the Tromso Social Intelligence Scale (TSIS) developed by Silvera, Martinussen, and Dahl (2001). 719 students from Sakarya University participated in the study. Construct validity and criterion related validity and reliability were assessed.…

  9. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  10. Validating a nondestructive optical method for apportioning colored particulate matter into black carbon and additional components

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Beizhan; Kennedy, Daniel; Miller, Rachel L.; Cowin, James P.; Jung, Kyung-hwa; Perzanowski, Matt; Balletta, Marco; Perera, Federica P.; Kinney, Patrick L.; Chillrud, Steven N.

    2011-01-01

    Exposure of black carbon (BC) is associated with a variety of adverse health outcomes. A number of optical methods for estimating BC on Teflon filters have been adopted but most assume all light absorption is due to BC while other sources of colored particulate matter exist. Recently, a four-wavelength-optical reflectance measurement for distinguishing second hand cigarette smoke (SHS) from soot-BC was developed (Brook et al., 2010; Lawless et al., 2004). However, the method has not been validated for soot-BC nor SHS and little work has been done to look at the methodological issues of the optical reflectance measurements for samples that could have SHS, BC, and other colored particles. We refined this method using a lab-modified integrating sphere with absorption measured continuously from 350 nm to 1000 nm. Furthermore, we characterized the absorption spectrum of additional components of particulate matter (PM) on PM2.5 filters including ammonium sulfate, hematite, goethite, and magnetite. Finally, we validate this method for BC by comparison to other standard methods. Use of synthesized data indicates that it is important to optimize the choice of wavelengths to minimize computational errors as additional components (more than 2) are added to the apportionment model of colored components. We found that substantial errors are introduced when using 4 wavelengths suggested by Lawless et al. to quantify four substances, while an optimized choice of wavelengths can reduce model-derived error from over 10% to less than 2%. For environmental samples, the method was sensitive for estimating airborne levels of BC and SHS, but not mass loadings of iron oxides and sulfate. Duplicate samples collected in NYC show high reproducibility (points consistent with a 1:1 line, R2 = 0.95). BC data measured by this method were consistent with those measured by other optical methods, including Aethalometer and Smoke-stain Reflectometer (SSR); although the SSR looses sensitivity at

  11. Validating a nondestructive optical method for apportioning colored particulate matter into black carbon and additional components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Beizhan; Kennedy, Daniel; Miller, Rachel L.; Cowin, James P.; Jung, Kyung-hwa; Perzanowski, Matt; Balletta, Marco; Perera, Federica P.; Kinney, Patrick L.; Chillrud, Steven N.

    2011-12-01

    Exposure of black carbon (BC) is associated with a variety of adverse health outcomes. A number of optical methods for estimating BC on Teflon filters have been adopted but most assume all light absorption is due to BC while other sources of colored particulate matter exist. Recently, a four-wavelength-optical reflectance measurement for distinguishing second hand cigarette smoke (SHS) from soot-BC was developed (Brook et al., 2010; Lawless et al., 2004). However, the method has not been validated for soot-BC nor SHS and little work has been done to look at the methodological issues of the optical reflectance measurements for samples that could have SHS, BC, and other colored particles. We refined this method using a lab-modified integrating sphere with absorption measured continuously from 350 nm to 1000 nm. Furthermore, we characterized the absorption spectrum of additional components of particulate matter (PM) on PM 2.5 filters including ammonium sulfate, hematite, goethite, and magnetite. Finally, we validate this method for BC by comparison to other standard methods. Use of synthesized data indicates that it is important to optimize the choice of wavelengths to minimize computational errors as additional components (more than 2) are added to the apportionment model of colored components. We found that substantial errors are introduced when using 4 wavelengths suggested by Lawless et al. to quantify four substances, while an optimized choice of wavelengths can reduce model-derived error from over 10% to less than 2%. For environmental samples, the method was sensitive for estimating airborne levels of BC and SHS, but not mass loadings of iron oxides and sulfate. Duplicate samples collected in NYC show high reproducibility (points consistent with a 1:1 line, R2 = 0.95). BC data measured by this method were consistent with those measured by other optical methods, including Aethalometer and Smoke-stain Reflectometer (SSR); although the SSR looses sensitivity at

  12. Social attention with real versus reel stimuli: toward an empirical approach to concerns about ecological validity

    PubMed Central

    Risko, Evan F.; Laidlaw, Kaitlin E. W.; Freeth, Megan; Foulsham, Tom; Kingstone, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive neuroscientists often study social cognition by using simple but socially relevant stimuli, such as schematic faces or images of other people. Whilst this research is valuable, important aspects of genuine social encounters are absent from these studies, a fact that has recently drawn criticism. In the present review we argue for an empirical approach to the determination of the equivalence of different social stimuli. This approach involves the systematic comparison of different types of social stimuli ranging in their approximation to a real social interaction. In garnering support for this cognitive ethological approach, we focus on recent research in social attention that has involved stimuli ranging from simple schematic faces to real social interactions. We highlight both meaningful similarities and differences in various social attentional phenomena across these different types of social stimuli thus validating the utility of the research initiative. Furthermore, we argue that exploring these similarities and differences will provide new insights into social cognition and social neuroscience. PMID:22654747

  13. Validating the Measurement of Social Capital in Bangladesh: A Cognitive Approach

    PubMed Central

    Story, William T.; Taleb, Fahmida; Ahasan, S.M. Monirul; Ali, Nabeel A.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the growing evidence linking social capital to improvements in health and health behaviors, reliable measures of social capital are lacking in low-income countries. To accurately measure social capital in new contexts, there is a need to validate social capital survey questions in each new cultural setting. In this article we examine the content validity of the measurement of social capital in Bangladesh using qualitative methods. In December 2012, we conducted four focus group discussions and 32 cognitive interviews in one rural subdistrict (Durgapur) and one urban slum (Mirpur). We used the findings from the focus groups and cognitive interviews to create a new social capital survey instrument that can be used by health and development organizations in Bangladesh. Furthermore, in this article we provide insight into social capital survey research in general, including suggestions for the measurement of group membership, social support, collective action, and social trust. PMID:25857652

  14. Validating the measurement of social capital in Bangladesh: a cognitive approach.

    PubMed

    Story, William T; Taleb, Fahmida; Ahasan, S M Monirul; Ali, Nabeel A

    2015-06-01

    Despite the growing evidence linking social capital to improvements in health and health behaviors, reliable measures of social capital are lacking in low-income countries. To accurately measure social capital in new contexts, there is a need to validate social capital survey questions in each new cultural setting. In this article, we examine the content validity of the measurement of social capital in Bangladesh using qualitative methods. In December 2012, we conducted four focus group discussions and 32 cognitive interviews in one rural subdistrict (Durgapur) and one urban slum (Mirpur). We used the findings from the focus groups and cognitive interviews to create a new social capital survey instrument that can be used by health and development organizations in Bangladesh. Furthermore, in this article, we provide insight into social capital survey research in general, including suggestions for the measurement of group membership, social support, collective action, and social trust.

  15. Validation of a U.S. Adult Social Self-Efficacy Inventory in Chinese Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fan, Jinyan; Meng, Hui; Gao, Xiangping; Lopez, Felix J.; Liu, Cong

    2010-01-01

    The authors report a series of efforts to validate a U.S. adult social self-efficacy inventory, the Perceived Social Self-Efficacy scale (PSSE), in Chinese populations. They argue that the construct underlying the PSSE scale constitutes an important component of Chinese adult social self-efficacy, which was confirmed in focus group discussions.…

  16. Social Network Data Validity: The Example of the Social Network of Caregivers of Older Persons with Alzheimer-Type Dementia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpentier, Normand

    2007-01-01

    This article offers reflection on the validity of relational data such as used in social network analysis. Ongoing research on the transformation of the support network of caregivers of persons with an Alzheimer-type disease provides the data to fuel the debate on the validity of participant report. More specifically, we sought to understand the…

  17. Use of the "Intervention Selection Profile-Social Skills" to Identify Social Skill Acquisition Deficits: A Preliminary Validation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilgus, Stephen P.; von der Embse, Nathaniel P.; Scott, Katherine; Paxton, Sara

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to develop and initially validate the "Intervention Selection Profile-Social Skills" (ISP-SS), a novel brief social skills assessment method intended for use at Tier 2. Participants included 54 elementary school teachers and their 243 randomly selected students. Teachers rated students on two rating…

  18. Validation of the German Version of the Social Functioning Scale (SFS) for Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Iffland, Jona R.; Lockhofen, Denise; Gruppe, Harald; Gallhofer, Bernd; Sammer, Gebhard; Hanewald, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    Deficits in social functioning are a core symptom of schizophrenia and an important criterion for evaluating the success of treatment. However, there is little agreement regarding its measurement. A common, often cited instrument for assessing self-reported social functioning is the Social Functioning Scale (SFS). The study aimed to investigate the reliability and validity of the German translation. 101 patients suffering from schizophrenia (SZ) and 101 matched controls (C) (60 male / 41 female, 35.8 years in both groups) completed the German version. In addition, demographic, clinical, and functional data were collected. Internal consistency was investigated calculating Cronbach’s alpha for SFS full scale (α: .81) and all subscales (α: .59-.88). Significant bivariate correlation coefficients were found between all subscales as well as between all subscales and full scale (p <.01). For the total sample, principal component analysis gave evidence to prefer a single-factor solution (eigenvalue ≥ 1) accounting for 48.5 % of the variance. For the subsamples, a two-component solution (SZ; 57.0 %) and a three-component solution (C; 65.6 %) fitted best, respectively. For SZ and C, significant associations were found between SFS and external criteria. The main factor “group” emerged as being significant. C showed higher values on both subscales and full scale. The sensitivity of the SFS was examined using discriminant analysis. 86.5% of the participants could be categorized correctly to their actual group. The German translation of the SFS turned out to be a reliable and valid questionnaire comparable to the original English version. This is in line with Spanish and Norwegian translations of the SFS. Concluding, the German version of the SFS is well suited to become a useful and practicable instrument for the assessment of social functioning in both clinical practice and research. It accomplishes commonly used external assessment scales. PMID:25837711

  19. Validity of the social responsiveness scale to differentiate between autism spectrum disorders and disruptive behaviour disorders.

    PubMed

    Cholemkery, Hannah; Kitzerow, Janina; Rohrmann, Sonja; Freitag, Christine M

    2014-02-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) as well as oppositional defiant (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD) is characterised by difficulties in social interaction with peers. The Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) measures reciprocal social behaviour in children and adolescents and was originally developed as a quantitative measure of autistic traits. In the present study, we compare parent-rated SRS scores in children with ODD, CD, and ASD and examine the diagnostic validity of the SRS alone and in combination with additional questionnaires to differentiate between groups. We hypothesize that the SRS better differentiates ASD and typically developing controls (TD) than ASD and the disruptive behaviour disorders ODD and CD. The sample consists of three clinical groups: ASD without comorbid intellectual delay (N = 55), ODD/CD (N = 55), and TD (N = 55), between 6 and 18 years. The groups were matched by age, sex, and IQ. SRS scores were compared for the three groups. Sensitivity and specificity of the SRS total and sub-scores were examined by receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analyses. Logistic regression analyses were calculated for estimating the rate of correctly specified individuals. The SRS differentiated excellently between ASD and TD (ROC-AUC = 1.00), but sensitivity and specificity were considerably lower when ASD was compared with ODD/CD (ROC-AUC = 0.82). A combination of three parent-rated questionnaires resulted in an improved validity to differentiate ASD and ODD/CD. For clinical screening purposes in children suspicious of ASD and/or ODD/CD, the SRS should be used in combination with additional disorder-specific questionnaires to improve the rate of correct classification of both disorders. PMID:23719758

  20. Parents' Perceptions of Their Children's Social Behavior: The Social Validity of Social Stories[TM] and Comic Strip Conversations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchins, Tiffany L.; Prelock, Patricia A.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a family-centered collaborative approach to the development and socially valid assessment of Social Stories[TM] and comic strip conversations (CSCs) for supporting the social behaviors in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Seventeen children with ASD (ages 4-12 years) participated in either an immediate or a…

  1. Social Vulnerability Scale for Older Adults: Validation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinsker, Donna M.; Stone, Valerie; Pachana, Nancy; Greenspan, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    The Social Vulnerability Scale (SVS), an informant-report of social vulnerability for older adults, was piloted in a sample of 167 undergraduate students (63 male, 104 female) from the University of Queensland. Participants aged 18 - 53 (M = 25.53 years, SD = 7.83 years) completed the SVS by rating a relative or friend aged [greater than or equal…

  2. Performance of the Tariff Method: validation of a simple additive algorithm for analysis of verbal autopsies

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Verbal autopsies provide valuable information for studying mortality patterns in populations that lack reliable vital registration data. Methods for transforming verbal autopsy results into meaningful information for health workers and policymakers, however, are often costly or complicated to use. We present a simple additive algorithm, the Tariff Method (termed Tariff), which can be used for assigning individual cause of death and for determining cause-specific mortality fractions (CSMFs) from verbal autopsy data. Methods Tariff calculates a score, or "tariff," for each cause, for each sign/symptom, across a pool of validated verbal autopsy data. The tariffs are summed for a given response pattern in a verbal autopsy, and this sum (score) provides the basis for predicting the cause of death in a dataset. We implemented this algorithm and evaluated the method's predictive ability, both in terms of chance-corrected concordance at the individual cause assignment level and in terms of CSMF accuracy at the population level. The analysis was conducted separately for adult, child, and neonatal verbal autopsies across 500 pairs of train-test validation verbal autopsy data. Results Tariff is capable of outperforming physician-certified verbal autopsy in most cases. In terms of chance-corrected concordance, the method achieves 44.5% in adults, 39% in children, and 23.9% in neonates. CSMF accuracy was 0.745 in adults, 0.709 in children, and 0.679 in neonates. Conclusions Verbal autopsies can be an efficient means of obtaining cause of death data, and Tariff provides an intuitive, reliable method for generating individual cause assignment and CSMFs. The method is transparent and flexible and can be readily implemented by users without training in statistics or computer science. PMID:21816107

  3. Designing valid and optimised standard addition calibrations: Application to the determination of anions in seawater.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Joana; da Silva, Ricardo J N Bettencourt; Camões, M Filomena G F C; Oliveira, Cristina M

    2015-09-01

    A strategy for designing valid standard addition calibrations and for optimising their uncertainty is presented. The design of calibrations involves the development of models of the sensitivity and precision of the instrumental signal, in a wide range of analyte concentration (or any other studied quantity), and the definition of sample dilution and standard addition procedures that allow fulfilling the assumptions of the linear unweighted regression model in, typically, a smaller range of standard addition calibrations. Calibrators are prepared by diluting the sample and adding analyte with negligible uncertainty to fit in a concentration range where signals are homoscedastic. The minimisation of the uncertainty is supported on detailed measurement uncertainty models function of the calibrators preparation procedure and of analytical instrumentation performance. The number of collected signals replicates is defined by balancing their impact on the estimated expanded uncertainty, the resources needed and the target (maximum) uncertainty for the intended use of measurements. The calibration design strategy was successfully applied to the determination of the mass concentration (mg L(-1)) of Cl(-), Br(-), NO3(-) and SO4(-2) in seawater by ion chromatography. A target expanded uncertainty of 20% was defined for the determination of Cl(-), NO3(-) and SO4(-2), or 40% for the determination of the smaller mass concentration of Br(-). The developed measurement model produced reliable predictions of the measurement uncertainty from approximate concentration of the analyte in the sample, before its accurate quantification, thus proving optimisation is effective. Predictions are more prone to the variability of the measurement uncertainty estimation if based on low number of calibrators signals. The reported relative expanded uncertainty ranged from 7.1% to 49%.

  4. Landspotting: Social gaming to collect vast amounts of data for satellite validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritz, S.; Purgathofer, P.; Kayali, F.; Fellner, M.; Wimmer, M.; Sturn, T.; Triebnig, G.; Krause, S.; Schindler, F.; Kollegger, M.; Perger, C.; Dürauer, M.; Haberl, W.; See, L.; McCallum, I.

    2012-04-01

    At present there is no single satellite-derived global land cover product that is accurate enough to provide reliable estimates of forest or cropland area to determine, e.g., how much additional land is available to grow biofuels or to tackle problems of food security. The Landspotting Project aims to improve the quality of this land cover information by vastly increasing the amount of in-situ validation data available for calibration and validation of satellite-derived land cover. The Geo-Wiki (Geo-Wiki.org) system currently allows users to compare three satellite derived land cover products and validate them using Google Earth. However, there is presently no incentive for anyone to provide this data so the amount of validation through Geo-Wiki has been limited. However, recent competitions have proven that incentive driven campaigns can rapidly create large amounts of input. The LandSpotting Project is taking a truly innovative approach through the development of the Landspotting game. The game engages users whilst simultaneously collecting a large amount of in-situ land cover information. The development of the game is informed by the current raft of successful social gaming that is available on the internet and as mobile applications, many of which are geo-spatial in nature. Games that are integrated within a social networking site such as Facebook illustrate the power to reach and continually engage a large number of individuals. The number of active Facebook users is estimated to be greater than 400 million, where 100 million are accessing Facebook from mobile devices. The Landspotting Game has similar game mechanics as the famous strategy game "Civilization" (i.e. build, harvest, research, war, diplomacy, etc.). When a player wishes to make a settlement, they must first classify the land cover over the area they wish to settle. As the game is played on the earth surface with Google Maps, we are able to record and store this land cover/land use classification

  5. Additional Support Needs Policy in Scotland: Challenging or Reinforcing Social Inequality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riddell, Sheila; Weedon, Elisabet

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on Scottish policy on additional support needs and its material outcomes. The central question addressed is the extent to which the Scottish additional support needs system undermines or reinforces existing social and economic inequalities. Administrative data highlight the inflation of the additional support needs category,…

  6. Examining the Use of Facebook and Twitter as an Additional Social Space in a MOOC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Min; McKelroy, Emily; Kang, Jina; Harron, Jason; Liu, Sa

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the researchers examined if and to what extent social media tools such as Facebook and Twitter can augment participants' learning experience in an xMOOC and offer an additional social space. Two research questions guided this inquiry: (1) What did MOOC participants consider the usefulness of the Facebook group and Twitter feed…

  7. Evidence for the Discriminant Validity of the Revised Social Anhedonia Scale From Social Anxiety.

    PubMed

    Cicero, David C; Krieg, Alexander; Becker, Theresa M; Kerns, John G

    2016-10-01

    Social anhedonia and social anxiety are two constructs with similar behaviors including avoidance of and withdrawal from social situations. In three studies, the current research aimed to test whether social anhedonia could be discriminated from social anxiety using the most common measure of social anhedonia, the Revised Social Anhedonia Scale (RSAS). In Study 1, an item-level factor analysis of the RSAS found two factors: Social Apathy/Aversion and Social Withdrawal. In Study 2, this two-factor structure was confirmed in a separate sample. In Study 3, a model with social anhedonia and anxiety scale scores loading on separate factors fit better than a model with social anhedonia and anxiety loading on a single factor. Social anhedonia and anxiety displayed differential associations with negative schizotypy and emotion processing. Findings suggest that the RSAS is successful in measuring social anhedonia distinct from social anxiety.

  8. Cross-Cultural Validation of the Five-Factor Structure of Social Goals: A Filipino Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Ronnel B.; Watkins, David A.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to test the cross-cultural validity of the five-factor structure of social goals that Dowson and McInerney proposed. Using both between-network and within-network approaches to construct validation, 1,147 Filipino high school students participated in the study. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the…

  9. Construction and Validation of a Professional Suitability Scale for Social Work Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tam, Dora M. Y.; Coleman, Heather

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on the construction and validation of a professional suitability scale, designed for assessing students' suitability for social work practice. Data were collected from 188 field supervisors who provided usable questionnaires, representing a response rate of 74%. Construct validation by exploratory factor analysis identified a…

  10. Validation Study of a Gatekeeping Attitude Index for Social Work Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tam, Dora M. Y.; Coleman, Heather

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on a study designed to validate the Gatekeeping Attitude Index, a 14-item Likert scaling index. The authors collected data from a convenience sample of social work field instructors (N = 188) with a response rate of 74.0%. Construct validation by exploratory factor analysis identified a 2-factor solution on the index after…

  11. The Construct Validation of a Questionnaire of Social and Cultural Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pishghadam, Reza; Noghani, Mohsen; Zabihi, Reza

    2011-01-01

    The present study was conducted to construct and validate a questionnaire of social and cultural capital in the foreign language context of Iran. To this end, a questionnaire was designed by picking up the most frequently-used indicators of social and cultural capital. The Factorability of the intercorrelation matrix was measured by two tests:…

  12. Social Validity Evaluation of the FRIENDS for Life Program with Mexican Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallegos-Guajardo, Julia; Ruvalcaba-Romero, Norma Alicia; Garza-Tamez, Martha; Villegas-Guinea, Diana

    2013-01-01

    This study is the first social validity evaluation of the Spanish version of the "FRIENDS for Life" program with Mexican children. "FRIENDS for Life" is a cognitive-behavioral intervention aimed at increasing social and emotional competence and decreasing anxiety and depressive symptoms in children. The program is designed to…

  13. Validation of the Chinese Version of the Social Achievement Goal Orientation Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Yanhua; Zhu, Xiangru; Zhao, Guoxiang

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the validity of a Chinese version of the Social Achievement Goal Orientation Scale (C-SAGOS), a measure testing the trichotomous framework of achievement goal orientations in a social domain. A total of 208 college students (51% female) aged 18 to 23 participated in the study. Factor analyses showed that the three-factor model…

  14. Construct Validation and Application of a Common Measure of Social Cohesion in 33 European Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickes, Paul; Valentova, Marie; Borsenberger, Monique

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to assess the construct validation of a multidimensional measure of social cohesion which is well theoretically grounded and has an equivalent/comparable interpretation across all European countries. Up-to-now published research on social cohesion is deficient in either one or both of these important aspects. This paper…

  15. Development and Validation of the Adolescent Racial and Ethnic Socialization Scale (ARESS) in African American Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Tiffany L.; Krishnakumar, Ambika

    2007-01-01

    Racial and ethnic socialization are an integral part of African American parenting strategies. Varied conceptualizations and operationalizations of racial and ethnic socialization exist within the literature with limited evidence of the validity of existing measures. The purpose of this study is to develop a comprehensive definition of racial and…

  16. Social Achievement Goals: Validation among Rural African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Martin H.; Mueller, Christian E.; Royal, Kenneth D.; Shim, Sungok Serena; Hart, Caroline O.

    2013-01-01

    Little extant research attempts to understand why rural African Americans engage in social relationships with peers in school. This is somewhat surprising as rural students' peer interactions often affect their scholastic desires, and peers can alter African Americans' academic performance. Hence, the current study examined both the…

  17. Improving Communicative Competence: Validation of a Social Skills Training Workshop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Pamela J.; Spitzberg, Brian H.

    The effectiveness of a social skills training workshop was assessed by comparing the rated competence of participants in an Interpersonal Skills Training Program to the rated competence of nonparticipants. Subjects' self-ratings were included. This comparison was operationalized through a pretest-posttest design with 12 experimental and 22 control…

  18. Social Network Data Validity: The Example of the Social Network of Caregivers of Older Persons with Alzheimer-Type Dementia*

    PubMed Central

    Carpentier, Normand; Ducharme, Francine

    2010-01-01

    This article offers reflection on the validity of relational data such as used in social network analysis. Ongoing research on the transformation of the support network of caregivers of persons with an Alzheimer-type disease provides the data to fuel the debate on the validity of participant report. More specifically, we sought to understand the factors that might influence the description of the support network by persons involved in caregiving. The issue warrants special attention, given that social relations – in their form and their content – constitute the raw material of network analysis. We propose that how persons describe their social network corresponds to a subjective process that rests, in part, on their representation of their cultural and social universe. PMID:20737030

  19. The MBTI and social information processing: an incremental validity study.

    PubMed

    Edwards, John A; Lanning, Kevin; Hooker, Karen

    2002-06-01

    The ability of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI; Myers & McCaulley, 1985) to predict performance on social cognitive tasks tapping information processing effort was assessed. Judgment and intuition interacted to predict amount of attributional adjustment on a dispositional attribution task. The MBTI scales predicted processing above and beyond measures of the five factors, rational-experiential preferences, and causal uncertainty. The relevance of these results for interpretation of the MBTI indexes is discussed. PMID:12146813

  20. Validation of the Peer Social Maturity Scale for Assessing Children's Social Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fink, Elian; de Rosnay, Marc; Peterson, Candida; Slaughter, Virginia

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated the utility of a brief, seven-item, teacher-rated Peer Social Maturity Scale (PSMAT). In Study 1, teachers of 138 Australian children (ranging from 5 to 8?years and 5?months old) in kindergarten and Grades 1 and 2 rated their pupils' social maturity using the PSMAT and their classroom social skills via the Social Skills Rating…

  1. Adolescents' Ratings of Perceived Social Support and Its Importance: Validation of the Student Social Support Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malecki, Christine K.; Elliott, Stephen N.

    1999-01-01

    Analysis of Student Social Support Scale (SSSS), a four-factor scale (Parent, Teacher, Classmate, and Close Friend), revealed that (1) SSSS is highly reliable, (2) social support differed by developmental/age groups and by sex, and (3) relationships exist among social support, self-concept, and social behavior. Concludes that SSSS is a promising…

  2. Additive effects of social and non-social attention during infancy relate to later autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Bedford, Rachael; Pickles, Andrew; Gliga, Teodora; Elsabbagh, Mayada; Charman, Tony; Johnson, Mark H

    2014-07-01

    Emerging findings from studies with infants at familial high risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD), owing to an older sibling with a diagnosis, suggest that those who go on to develop ASD show early impairments in the processing of stimuli with both social and non-social content. Although ASD is defined by social-communication impairments and restricted and repetitive behaviours, the majority of cognitive theories of ASD posit a single underlying factor, which over development has secondary effects across domains. This is the first high-risk study to statistically differentiate theoretical models of the development of ASD in high-risk siblings using multiple risk factors. We examined the prediction of ASD outcome by attention to social and non-social stimuli: gaze following and attentional disengagement assessed at 13 months in low-risk controls and high-risk ASD infants (who were subsequently diagnosed with ASD at 3 years). When included in the same regression model, these 13-month measures independently predicted ASD outcome at 3 years of age. The data were best described by an additive model, suggesting that non-social attention, disengagement, and social attention as evidenced by gaze following, have a cumulative impact on ASD risk. These data argue against cognitive theories of ASD which propose that a single underlying factor has cascading effects across early development leading to an ASD outcome, and support multiple impairment models of ASD that are more consistent with recent genetic and neurobiological evidence.

  3. Academic performance and perceived validity of grades: an additional case for self-enhancement.

    PubMed

    Woo, T O; Frank, N

    2000-04-01

    The authors investigated the role of academic self-esteem and academic performance in U.S. college students' perceptions of the validity of their grades (overall grade point average [GPA]). A sample of 208 (80 male, 128 female) college students completed a survey that included an academic self-esteem scale and a measure of the perceived validity of grades. The authors assessed academic performance level by the participants' actual overall GPAs. The results of a hierarchical multiple regression analysis supported the weak form of self-enhancement theory (J. S. Shrauger, 1975). Thus, regardless of their self-esteem levels, the students with higher GPAs, compared with those with lower GPAs, tended to see the overall GPA as a more valid indicator of academic ability.

  4. Reliability and Validity Evidence for the Social Goal Scale-Physical Education (SGS-PE) in High School Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guan, Jianmin; McBride, Ron E.; Xiang, Ping

    2006-01-01

    Two types of social goals associated with students' academic performance have received attention from researchers. One is the social responsibility goal and the other is the social relationship goal. While several scales have been validated for measuring social relationship and social responsibility goals in academic settings, few studies have…

  5. Scale indicators of social exchange relationships: a comparison of relative content validity.

    PubMed

    Colquitt, Jason A; Baer, Michael D; Long, David M; Halvorsen-Ganepola, Marie D K

    2014-07-01

    Although social exchange theory has become one of the most oft-evoked theories in industrial and organizational psychology, there remains no consensus about how to measure its key mechanism: social exchange relationships (Blau, 1964). Drawing on Cropanzano and Byrne's (2000) review of contemporary social exchange theorizing, we examined the content validity of perceived support, exchange quality, affective commitment, trust, and psychological contract fulfillment as indicators of social exchange relationships. We used Hinkin and Tracey's (1999) quantitative approach to content validation, which asks participants to rate the correspondence between scale items and definitions of intended (and unintended) constructs. Our results revealed that some of the most frequently utilized indicators of social exchange relationships--perceived support and exchange quality--were significantly less content valid than rarely used options like affect-based trust. Our results also revealed that 2 direct measures--Bernerth, Armenakis, Feild, Giles, and Walker's (2007) scale and a scale created for this study--were content valid. We discuss the implications of these results for future applications of social exchange theory.

  6. Generating an item pool for translational social cognition research: methodology and initial validation.

    PubMed

    Keutmann, Michael K; Moore, Samantha L; Savitt, Adam; Gur, Ruben C

    2015-03-01

    Existing sets of social and emotional stimuli suitable for social cognition research are limited in many ways, including size, unimodal stimulus delivery, and restriction to major universal emotions. Existing measures of social cognition could be improved by taking advantage of item response theory and adaptive testing technology to develop instruments that obtain more efficient measures of multimodal social cognition. However, for this to be possible, large pools of emotional stimuli must be obtained and validated. We present the development of a large, high-quality multimedia stimulus set produced by professional adult and child actors (ages 5 to 74) containing both visual and vocal emotional expressions. We obtained over 74,000 audiovisual recordings of a wide array of emotional and social behaviors, including the main universal emotions (happiness, sadness, anger, fear, disgust, and surprise), as well as more complex social expressions (pride, affection, sarcasm, jealousy, and shame). The actors generated a high quantity of technically superior, ecologically valid stimuli that were digitized, archived, and rated for accuracy and intensity of expressions. A subset of these facial and vocal expressions of emotion and social behavior were submitted for quantitative ratings to generate parameters for validity and discriminability. These stimuli are suitable for affective neuroscience-based psychometric tests, functional neuroimaging, and social cognitive rehabilitation programs. The purposes of this report are to describe the method of obtaining and validating this database and to make it accessible to the scientific community. We invite all those interested in participating in the use and validation of these stimuli to access them at www.med.upenn.edu/bbl/actors/index.shtml .

  7. Is social validity what we are interested in? Argument for a functional approach.

    PubMed Central

    Hawkins, R P

    1991-01-01

    It is argued that neither the term social nor the term validity is best to identify the processes used or the results obtained in questioning consumers about the goals set, procedures employed, or outcomes achieved in habilitative programming. The term consumer satisfaction acknowledges the fact that it is essentially a collection of consumer opinions. The underlying intent of the process might be called habilitative validation, a name that seems to better guide our validation efforts. More important, in carefully considering consumer satisfaction assessment, it becomes clear that not only does consumer satisfaction itself need to be validated, but also that more objective methods can be used for assessing habilitative validity. However, legitimate uses still remain for consumer satisfaction measurement, as long as we do not mistake it for strong evidence of the habilitative validity of our goals, procedures, or outcomes. PMID:1890041

  8. Validation and Estimation of Additive Genetic Variation Associated with DNA Tests for Quantitative Beef Cattle Traits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The U.S. National Beef Cattle Evaluation Consortium (NBCEC) has been involved in the validation of commercial DNA tests for quantitative beef quality traits since their first appearance on the U.S. market in the early 2000s. The NBCEC Advisory Council initially requested that the NBCEC set up a syst...

  9. Modeling MTMM Data from Additive and Multiplicative Covariance Structures: An Audit of Construct Validity Concordance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrne, Barbara M.; Goffin, Richard D.

    1993-01-01

    Extent to which findings derived from 4 approaches to multimethod multitrait analyses (MTMM) were consistent in providing estimates of construct validity related to measurement of 4 dimensions of perceived competence across 4 maximally dissimilar rating methods was determined using sample of 158 eleventh graders in Canada. Four MTMM approaches…

  10. [Social capital in rural areas: adaptation to Spanish and factor validation of a scale].

    PubMed

    Fernández Niño, Julián Alfredo; Pinzón Flórez, Carlos Eduardo; Moreno Montoya, José; Cepeda Gil, Magda Cristiana; Idrovo Velandia, Alvaro Javier

    2014-07-01

    Social capital is considered a structural determinant of social development and wellbeing. Its cognitive component assesses the degree of confidence of the population in their systems for social organization, as well as community interactions to coordinate social responses to social problems. There are few available scales for measuring this construct. This work presents the adaptation to Spanish and psychometric validation of a scale for measuring social capital in a rural setting. The Wang Social Cognitive Scale was also adapted to Spanish. 1200 questionnaires were applied to adults in 12 villages of the municipality of Tierra Alta, (Colombia) recruited by random sampling. Factor analysis of the scale was performed based on a polychoric correlation matrix. Exploratory factor analysis suggests the existence of two principal factors distributed as follows: 7 items for factor 1, trust (eigenvalue 3.23) and 2 items, for factor 2, distrust (eigenvalue 1.40). As observed by Wang, Q9 and Q10 could be ambiguous questions which do not contribute enough to either of the factors. The first factor validation to Spanish language of the Wang Social Capital Scale is presented in the social context of rural Colombia.

  11. [Social capital in rural areas: adaptation to Spanish and factor validation of a scale].

    PubMed

    Fernández Niño, Julián Alfredo; Pinzón Flórez, Carlos Eduardo; Moreno Montoya, José; Cepeda Gil, Magda Cristiana; Idrovo Velandia, Alvaro Javier

    2014-07-01

    Social capital is considered a structural determinant of social development and wellbeing. Its cognitive component assesses the degree of confidence of the population in their systems for social organization, as well as community interactions to coordinate social responses to social problems. There are few available scales for measuring this construct. This work presents the adaptation to Spanish and psychometric validation of a scale for measuring social capital in a rural setting. The Wang Social Cognitive Scale was also adapted to Spanish. 1200 questionnaires were applied to adults in 12 villages of the municipality of Tierra Alta, (Colombia) recruited by random sampling. Factor analysis of the scale was performed based on a polychoric correlation matrix. Exploratory factor analysis suggests the existence of two principal factors distributed as follows: 7 items for factor 1, trust (eigenvalue 3.23) and 2 items, for factor 2, distrust (eigenvalue 1.40). As observed by Wang, Q9 and Q10 could be ambiguous questions which do not contribute enough to either of the factors. The first factor validation to Spanish language of the Wang Social Capital Scale is presented in the social context of rural Colombia. PMID:25014299

  12. Psychometric Properties and Validation of the Arabic Social Media Addiction Scale

    PubMed Central

    Al-Menayes, Jamal

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the psychometric properties of the Arabic version of the SMAS. SMAS is a variant of IAT customized to measure addiction to social media instead of the Internet as a whole. Using a self-report instrument on a cross-sectional sample of undergraduate students, the results revealed the following. First, the exploratory factor analysis showed that a three-factor model fits the data well. Second, concurrent validity analysis showed the SMAS to be a valid measure of social media addiction. However, further studies and data should verify the hypothesized model. Finally, this study showed that the Arabic version of the SMAS is a valid and reliable instrument for use in measuring social media addiction in the Arab world. PMID:26347848

  13. The Social Phobia Inventory: screening and cross-cultural validation in Spanish adolescents.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Lopez, Luis Joaquín; Bermejo, Rosa Ma; Hidalgo, Ma Dolores

    2010-11-01

    Availability of brief, self-report measures to be used as screening instruments is crucial to detect correctly youth with social anxiety disorder and therefore, reach those otherwise under-detected and under-treated. A previous study revealed that the Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN) was potentially an appropriate measure for screening social anxiety among US adolescents. However, there is a lack of information concerning its properties as a screening test in other cultures and languages. This is the main objective of this study, although further validity of the scale is provided as well. The sample consisted of 192 adolescents (a sample composed of 114 subjects with a principal diagnosis of social anxiety disorder; and a group consisting of 78 subjects with no diagnosis of social phobia). Results suggest that the Social Phobia Inventory has demonstrated good psychometric properties and indeed may be used as a screening tool in Spanish-speaking adolescents.

  14. Development and Validation of a Social Capital Questionnaire for Adolescent Students (SCQ-AS)

    PubMed Central

    Paiva, Paula Cristina Pelli; de Paiva, Haroldo Neves; de Oliveira Filho, Paulo Messias; Lamounier, Joel Alves; Ferreira, Efigênia Ferreira e; Ferreira, Raquel Conceição; Kawachi, Ichiro; Zarzar, Patrícia Maria

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Social capital has been studied due to its contextual influence on health. However, no specific assessment tool has been developed and validated for the measurement of social capital among 12-year-old adolescent students. The aim of the present study was to develop and validate a quick, simple assessment tool to measure social capital among adolescent students. Methods A questionnaire was developed based on a review of relevant literature. For such, searches were made of the Scientific Electronic Library Online, Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences, The Cochrane Library, ISI Web of Knowledge, International Database for Medical Literature and PubMed Central bibliographical databases from September 2011 to January 2014 for papers addressing assessment tools for the evaluation of social capital. Focus groups were also formed by adolescent students as well as health, educational and social professionals. The final assessment tool was administered to a convenience sample from two public schools (79 students) and one private school (22 students), comprising a final sample of 101 students. Reliability and internal consistency were evaluated using the Kappa coefficient and Cronbach's alpha coefficient, respectively. Content validity was determined by expert consensus as well as exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. Results The final version of the questionnaire was made up of 12 items. The total scale demonstrated very good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha: 0.71). Reproducibility was also very good, as the Kappa coefficient was higher than 0.72 for the majority of items (range: 0.63 to 0.97). Factor analysis grouped the 12 items into four subscales: School Social Cohesion, School Friendships, Neighborhood Social Cohesion and Trust (school and neighborhood). Conclusions The present findings indicate the validity and reliability of the Social Capital Questionnaire for Adolescent Students. PMID:25093409

  15. Validity and Reliability of the Hausa Version of Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support Index

    PubMed Central

    Mohammad, Ashiru Hamza; Al Sadat, Nabilla; Loh, Siew Yim; Chinna, Karuthan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Social support has been identified as one of the key factors for enhancing the quality of life after stroke. However, a scientific tool that is valid for evaluating social support among stroke survivors in Nigeria has not been developed so far. Objectives: The objective of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Hausa translated versions of the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) and to validate it for future use in clinical research in Nigeria. Patients and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 140 adult stroke survivors attending rehabilitation services at stroke referral centers in Kano, Nigeria. The psychometric analysis of the Hausa-MSPSS involved face, content, criterion and construct validity tests, as well as internal and test-retest reliability. Confirmatory factor analysis was performed to assess validity of the three-factor (Family, Friends and Significant others) model for the Hausa-MSPSS. Results: Based on expert panel, clinicians’ review and patients’ feedback, the 12 item Hausa-MSPSS had sufficient face, content and criterion validity. In reliability analysis, the Cronbach’s alpha was 0.781. In test-retest reliability analysis, the minimum kappa value was 0.673. In Confirmatory factor analysis, the three-factor model was not acceptable. An alternative two-factor model with Family and Friends, as the two domain was found to be acceptable (Chi-square/df < 3, TLI, CFI > 0.9, RMSEA < 0.08). The average variances extracted for the two constructs were 0.5 and 0.7, respectively. The R-squared value between the two constructs was 0.397. Cross validity tested using 1000 bootstrap resamples gave satisfactory results (P = 0.079). Conclusions: The 11 item Hausa-MSPSS index is valid for the assessment of perceived social support among stroke survivors in Nigeria. PMID:25838933

  16. The social validity of Social Stories™ for supporting the behavioural and communicative functioning of children with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Hutchins, Tiffany L; Prelock, Patricia A

    2013-08-01

    This study examines the social validity of a family-centred collaborative approach to developing Social Stories™ to support the behavioural and communicative functioning of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Twenty children with Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD)/Autism, PDD-Not Otherwise Specified, or Asperger's Disorder (aged 4-12 years) participated in a multiple baseline design across behaviours with a 6-week follow-up. The effects of behaviour stories (to reduce problem behaviours) and communication stories (to facilitate communication) as assessed by parental subjective perceptions of child functioning were evaluated and compared. Using daily parental ratings, behaviour stories were deemed effective for 11 of 17 stories (64.7%), whereas communication stories were deemed effective for 10 of 19 stories (52.6%), with great variability in effect size for both. Results also indicated variability in performance across specific story targets, although parents' perceived effects of Social Stories™ were not linked to any known child characteristics. This study argues that intervention using Social Stories™ to address behavioural and communicative functioning can yield socially valid outcomes across a range of child characteristics and intervention targets. Implications for clinical practice and how present methodological limitations can be addressed in future research are considered.

  17. Studying the neurobiology of human social interaction: Making the case for ecological validity.

    PubMed

    Hogenelst, Koen; Schoevers, Robert A; aan het Rot, Marije

    2015-01-01

    With this commentary we make the case for an increased focus on the ecological validity of the measures used to assess aspects of human social functioning. Impairments in social functioning are seen in many types of psychopathology, negatively affecting the lives of psychiatric patients and those around them. Yet the neurobiology underlying abnormal social interaction remains unclear. As an example of human social neuroscience research with relevance to biological psychiatry and clinical psychopharmacology, this commentary discusses published experimental studies involving manipulation of the human brain serotonin system that included assessments of social behavior. To date, these studies have mostly been laboratory-based and included computer tasks, observations by others, or single-administration self-report measures. Most laboratory measures used so far inform about the role of serotonin in aspects of social interaction, but the relevance for real-life interaction is often unclear. Few studies have used naturalistic assessments in real life. We suggest several laboratory methods with high ecological validity as well as ecological momentary assessment, which involves intensive repeated measures in naturalistic settings. In sum, this commentary intends to stimulate experimental research on the neurobiology of human social interaction as it occurs in real life.

  18. The Validity of the Social Communication Questionnaire in Adults with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Whitney T.; Benson, Betsey A.

    2013-01-01

    This study assessed the validity of the Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ) in a sample of 69 adults, aged 18-40 years old. Participants included 21 adults diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and intellectual disability (ID), and 48 individuals diagnosed with ID and no diagnosis of an ASD. The SCQ yielded a sensitivity of 0.71…

  19. The Reliability and Validity of the Social Responsiveness Scale in a UK General Child Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wigham, Sarah; McConachie, Helen; Tandos, Jonathan; Le Couteur, Ann S.

    2012-01-01

    This is the first UK study to report the reliability, validity, and factor structure of the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) in a general population sample. Parents of 500 children (aged 5-8 years) in North East England completed the SRS. Profiles of scores were similar to USA norms, and a single factor structure was identified. Good construct…

  20. Effects of Risperidone on Aberrant Behavior in Persons with Developmental Disabilities: II. Social Validity Measures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAdam, David B.; Zarcone, Jennifer R.; Hellings, Jessica; Napolitano, Deborah A.; Schroeder, Stephen R.

    2002-01-01

    Consumer satisfaction and social validity were measured during a double-blind, placebo-controlled evaluation of risperidone in treating aberrant behaviors of persons with developmental disabilities. A survey showed all 17 caregivers felt participation was positive. Community members (n=52) also indicated that when on medication, the 5 participants…

  1. Validity of Social, Moral and Emotional Facets of Self-Description Questionnaire II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Kim Chau; Marsh, Herbert W.; Yeung, Alexander Seeshing; Abduljabbar, Adel S.

    2015-01-01

    Studies adopting a construct validity approach can be categorized into within- and between-network studies. Few studies have applied between-network approach and tested the correlations of the social (same-sex relations, opposite-sex relations, parent relations), moral (honesty-trustworthiness), and emotional (emotional stability) facets of the…

  2. Perceived Counselor Social Influence and Counseling Outcomes: Validity of the Counselor Rating Form.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaCrosse, Michael B.

    1980-01-01

    Results provide initial support for the validity of the Counselor Rating Form both as a research tool and as an instrument with clinical utility. The data lend continued support to the usefulness of the social influence model for conceptualizing client change in counseling. (Author)

  3. Parent-reported social support for child’s fruit and vegetable intake: validity of measures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of our study was to develop and validate measures of parental social support to increase their child’s fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption. We used a cross-sectional study design by studying participants at school and home. We studied two hundred three parents with at least 1 elemen...

  4. Social Validation of the New England Center for Children-Core Skills Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickson, Chata A.; MacDonald, Rebecca P. F.; Mansfield, Renee; Guilhardi, Paulo; Johnson, Cammarie; Ahearn, William H.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the social validity of the NECC Core Skills Assessment (NECC-CSA) with parents and professionals as participants. The NECC-CSA is a measurement tool consisting of direct and indirect measures of skills important to all individuals with autism, across the lifespan. Participants (N = 245) were provided with a list of 66 skills, 47 of…

  5. Exploring the Social Validity of Teacher Praise Notes in Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, Angela; Caldarella, Paul; Korth, Bryan; Young, K. Richard

    2014-01-01

    The use of teacher-written praise notes has the potential to positively influence student classroom behavior and relationships. However, few studies have examined the social validity of praise in schools. The purpose of this study was to evaluate student, teacher, and parent perceptions of a school-wide praise note intervention implemented by…

  6. A Social Communication Intervention to Increase Validating Comments by Children with Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fujiki, Martin; Brinton, Bonnie; McCleave, Chelsea P.; Anderson, Valyne W.; Chamberlain, Janet P.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Four children identified with language impairment (LI) participated in a social communication intervention to increase the production of validating comments, including making positive statements, sharing information, and asking peers questions about themselves. Method: A case study design was used. Baseline measures were collected from 3…

  7. Parent-Reported Social Support for Child's Fruit and Vegetable Intake: Validity of Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dave, Jayna M.; Evans, Alexandra E.; Condrasky, Marge D.; Williams, Joel E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To develop and validate measures of parental social support to increase their child's fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption. Design: Cross-sectional study design. Setting: School and home. Participants: Two hundred three parents with at least 1 elementary school-aged child. Main Outcome Measure: Parents completed a questionnaire that…

  8. Social Skills Questionnaire for Argentinean College Students (SSQ-U) Development and Validation.

    PubMed

    Morán, Valeria E; Olaz, Fabián O; Del Prette, Zilda A P

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present a new instrument called Social Skills Questionnaire for Argentinean College Students (SSQ-U). Based on the adapted version of the Social Skills Inventory - Del Prette (SSI-Del Prette) (Olaz, Medrano, Greco, & Del Prette, 2009), we wrote new items for the scale, and carried out psychometric analysis to assess the validity and reliability of the instrument. In the first study, we collected evidence based on test content through expert judges who evaluated the quality and the relevance of the items. In the second and third studies, we provided validity evidence based on the internal structure of the instrument using exploratory (n = 1067) and confirmatory (n = 661) factor analysis. Results suggested a five-factor structure consistent with the dimensions of social skills, as proposed by Kelly (2002). The fit indexes corresponding to the obtained model were adequate, and composite reliability coefficients of each factor were excellent (above .75). Finally, in the fourth study, we provided evidence of convergent and discriminant validity. The obtained results allow us to conclude that the SSQ-U is the first valid and reliable instrument for measuring social skills in Argentinean college students. PMID:26610605

  9. Assessing Academic Advising Outcomes Using Social Cognitive Theory: A Validity and Reliability Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erlich, Richard J.; Russ-Eft, Darlene F.

    2012-01-01

    The validity and reliability of three instruments, the "Counselor Rubric for Gauging Student Understanding of Academic Planning," micro-analytic questions, and the "Student Survey for Understanding Academic Planning," all based on social cognitive theory, were tested as means to assess self-efficacy and self-regulated learning in college academic…

  10. Social Validation of Evidence-Based Practices in Autism by Parents, Teachers, and Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callahan, Kevin; Henson, Robin K.; Cowan, Angela K.

    2008-01-01

    Relatively little attention has been devoted to the social validation of potentially effective autism interventions. Thus, it is often difficult to identify and implement evidence-based practices, and programming is often inadequate. The authors identified autism intervention components with reported effectiveness for school settings. The results…

  11. Social Validity of the Critical Incident Stress Management Model for School-Based Crisis Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Julie Q.

    2007-01-01

    The Critical Incident Stress Management (CISM) model for crisis intervention was developed for use with emergency service personnel. Research regarding the use of the CISM model has been conducted among civilians and high-risk occupation groups with mixed results. The purpose of this study is to examine the social validity of the CISM model for…

  12. Can Stereotype Threat Be Measured? A Validation of the Social Identities and Attitudes Scale (SIAS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Picho, Katherine; Brown, Scott W.

    2011-01-01

    This study reported the development and validation of the Social Identities and Attitudes Scale (SIAS), a stereotype threat susceptibility measure. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses conducted with college students indicate that the scale possesses strong psychometric properties. The SIAS explained 65% of the variance in the items…

  13. Validation of social skills of adolescent males in an interview conversation with a previously unknown adult.

    PubMed

    Spence, S H

    1981-01-01

    Seventy convicted young male offenders were videotaped during a 5-min standardized interview with a previously unknown adult. In order to determine the social validity of the behavioral components of social interaction for this population, measures of 13 behaviors were obtained from the tapes. These measures were then correlated with ratings of friendliness, social anxiety, social skills performance, and employability made by four independent adult judges from the same tapes. It was found that measures of eye contact and verbal initiations were correlated significantly with all four criterion rating scales. The frequencies of smiling and speech dysfluencies were both significantly correlated with ratings of friendliness and employability. The amount spoken was found to be a significant predictor of social skills performance whereas the frequency of head movements influenced judgments of social anxiety. The latency of response was negatively correlated with social skills and employability ratings and the frequency of question-asking and interruptions correlated significantly with friendliness, social skills, and employability ratings. Finally, the levels of gestures, gross body movements, and attention feedback responses were not found to influence judgments on any of the criterion scales. The implications of the study for selection of targets for social skills training for adolescent male offenders are discussed.

  14. The biobehavioral family model: testing social support as an additional exogenous variable.

    PubMed

    Woods, Sarah B; Priest, Jacob B; Roush, Tara

    2014-12-01

    This study tests the inclusion of social support as a distinct exogenous variable in the Biobehavioral Family Model (BBFM). The BBFM is a biopsychosocial approach to health that proposes that biobehavioral reactivity (anxiety and depression) mediates the relationship between family emotional climate and disease activity. Data for this study included married, English-speaking adult participants (n = 1,321; 55% female; M age = 45.2 years) from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication, a nationally representative epidemiological study of the frequency of mental disorders in the United States. Participants reported their demographics, marital functioning, social support from friends and relatives, anxiety and depression (biobehavioral reactivity), number of chronic health conditions, and number of prescription medications. Confirmatory factor analyses supported the items used in the measures of negative marital interactions, social support, and biobehavioral reactivity, as well as the use of negative marital interactions, friends' social support, and relatives' social support as distinct factors in the model. Structural equation modeling indicated a good fit of the data to the hypothesized model (χ(2)  = 846.04, p = .000, SRMR = .039, CFI = .924, TLI = .914, RMSEA = .043). Negative marital interactions predicted biobehavioral reactivity (β = .38, p < .001), as did relatives' social support, inversely (β = -.16, p < .001). Biobehavioral reactivity predicted disease activity (β = .40, p < .001) and was demonstrated to be a significant mediator through tests of indirect effects. Findings are consistent with previous tests of the BBFM with adult samples, and suggest the important addition of family social support as a predicting factor in the model. PMID:24981970

  15. The biobehavioral family model: testing social support as an additional exogenous variable.

    PubMed

    Woods, Sarah B; Priest, Jacob B; Roush, Tara

    2014-12-01

    This study tests the inclusion of social support as a distinct exogenous variable in the Biobehavioral Family Model (BBFM). The BBFM is a biopsychosocial approach to health that proposes that biobehavioral reactivity (anxiety and depression) mediates the relationship between family emotional climate and disease activity. Data for this study included married, English-speaking adult participants (n = 1,321; 55% female; M age = 45.2 years) from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication, a nationally representative epidemiological study of the frequency of mental disorders in the United States. Participants reported their demographics, marital functioning, social support from friends and relatives, anxiety and depression (biobehavioral reactivity), number of chronic health conditions, and number of prescription medications. Confirmatory factor analyses supported the items used in the measures of negative marital interactions, social support, and biobehavioral reactivity, as well as the use of negative marital interactions, friends' social support, and relatives' social support as distinct factors in the model. Structural equation modeling indicated a good fit of the data to the hypothesized model (χ(2)  = 846.04, p = .000, SRMR = .039, CFI = .924, TLI = .914, RMSEA = .043). Negative marital interactions predicted biobehavioral reactivity (β = .38, p < .001), as did relatives' social support, inversely (β = -.16, p < .001). Biobehavioral reactivity predicted disease activity (β = .40, p < .001) and was demonstrated to be a significant mediator through tests of indirect effects. Findings are consistent with previous tests of the BBFM with adult samples, and suggest the important addition of family social support as a predicting factor in the model.

  16. Validation of the Self-Beliefs Related to Social Anxiety Scale

    PubMed Central

    Moulds, Michelle L.; Rapee, Ronald M.

    2014-01-01

    The importance of self-beliefs in prominent models of social phobia has led to the development of measures that tap this cognitive construct. The Self-Beliefs Related to Social Anxiety (SBSA) Scale is one such measure and taps the three maladaptive belief types proposed in Clark and Wells’s model of social phobia. This study aimed to replicate and extend previous research on the psychometric properties of the SBSA. Replicating previous research, in an (undiagnosed) undergraduate sample (n = 235), the SBSA was found to have a correlated three-factor structure using confirmatory factor analyses, and the SBSA and its subscales demonstrated good internal consistency and test–retest reliability. The SBSA and its subscales also had unique relationships with social anxiety and depression, the majority of which replicated previous research. Extending previous research, the SBSA and its subscales showed good incremental validity in the undergraduate sample and good discriminative validity using the undergraduate sample and a sample of individuals with social phobia (n = 33). The SBSA’s strong theoretical basis and the findings of this study suggest that the SBSA is an ideal research and clinical tool to assess the cognitions characteristic of social phobia. PMID:23575344

  17. Participatory action research designs in applied disability and rehabilitation science: protecting against threats to social validity.

    PubMed

    Seekins, Tom; White, Glen W

    2013-01-01

    Researchers and disability advocates have been debating consumer involvement in disability and rehabilitation science since at least 1972. Despite the length of this debate, much confusion remains. Consumer involvement may represent a spirit of democracy or even empowerment, but as a tool of science, it is necessary to understand how to judge its application. To realize consumer involvement as a design element in science, researchers need a framework for understanding how it can contribute to the scientific process. The thesis of this article is that a primary scientific function of consumer involvement is to reduce threats to the social validity of research, the extent to which those expected to use or benefit from research products judge them as useful and actually use them. Social validity has traditionally not been treated with the same rigor as concerns for internal and external validity. This article presents a framework that describes 7 threats to social validity and explains how 15 forms of consumer involvement protect against those threats. We also suggest procedures for reporting and reviewing consumer involvement in proposals and manuscripts. This framework offers tools familiar to all scientists for identifying threats to the quality of research, and for judging the effectiveness of strategies for protecting against those threats. It may also enhance the standing of consumer involvement strategies as tools for protecting research quality by organizing them in a way that allows for systematic criticism of their effectiveness and subsequent improvement.

  18. [Validation of the portuguese version of the Mini-Social Phobia Inventory (Mini-SPIN)].

    PubMed

    D'El Rey, Gustavo José Fonseca; Matos, Cláudia Wilmor

    2009-01-01

    Social phobia (also known as social anxiety disorder) is a severe mental disorder that brings distress and disability. The aim of this study was validate to the Portuguese language the Mini-Social Phobia Inventory (Mini-SPIN) in a populational sample. We performed a discriminative validity study of the Mini-SPIN in a sample of 644 subjects (Mini-SPIN positive group: n = 218 and control/negative group: n = 426) of a study of anxiety disorders' prevalence in the city of Santo André-SP. The Portuguese version of the Mini-SPIN (with score of 6 points, suggested in the original English version) demonstrated a sensitivity of 95.0%, specificity of 80.3%, positive predictive value of 52.8%, negative predictive value of 98.6% and incorrect classification rate of 16.9%. With score of 7 points, was observed an increase in the specificity and positive predictive value (88.6% and 62.7%), while the sensitivity and negative predictive value (84.8% and 96.2%) remained high. The Portuguese version of the Mini-SPIN showed satisfactory psychometric qualities in terms of discriminative validity. In this study, the cut-off of 7, was considered to be the most suitable to screening of the generalized social phobia.

  19. [Validation of the portuguese version of the Mini-Social Phobia Inventory (Mini-SPIN)].

    PubMed

    D'El Rey, Gustavo José Fonseca; Matos, Cláudia Wilmor

    2009-01-01

    Social phobia (also known as social anxiety disorder) is a severe mental disorder that brings distress and disability. The aim of this study was validate to the Portuguese language the Mini-Social Phobia Inventory (Mini-SPIN) in a populational sample. We performed a discriminative validity study of the Mini-SPIN in a sample of 644 subjects (Mini-SPIN positive group: n = 218 and control/negative group: n = 426) of a study of anxiety disorders' prevalence in the city of Santo André-SP. The Portuguese version of the Mini-SPIN (with score of 6 points, suggested in the original English version) demonstrated a sensitivity of 95.0%, specificity of 80.3%, positive predictive value of 52.8%, negative predictive value of 98.6% and incorrect classification rate of 16.9%. With score of 7 points, was observed an increase in the specificity and positive predictive value (88.6% and 62.7%), while the sensitivity and negative predictive value (84.8% and 96.2%) remained high. The Portuguese version of the Mini-SPIN showed satisfactory psychometric qualities in terms of discriminative validity. In this study, the cut-off of 7, was considered to be the most suitable to screening of the generalized social phobia. PMID:19851580

  20. Using confirmatory factor analysis to manage discriminant validity issues in social pharmacy research.

    PubMed

    Carter, Stephen R

    2016-06-01

    Background Confirmatory factory analysis (CFA) and structural equation modelling (SEM) are increasingly used in social pharmacy research. One of the key benefits of CFA is that it allows researchers to provide evidence for the validity of internal factor structure of measurement scales. In particular, CFA can be used to provide evidence for the validity of the assertion that a hypothesized multi-dimensional scale discriminates between sub-scales. Aim This manuscript aims to provide guidance for researchers who wish to use CFA to provide evidence for the internal factor structure of measurement scales. Methods The manuscript places discriminant validity in the context of providing overall validity evidence for measurement scales. Four examples from the recent social pharmacy literature are used to critically examine the various methods which are used to establish discriminant validity. Using a hypothetical scenario, the manuscript demonstrates how commonly used output from CFA computer programs can be used to provide evidence for separateness of sub-scales within a multi-dimensional scale. Conclusion The manuscript concludes with recommendations for the conduct and reporting of studies which use CFA to provide evidence of internal factor structure of measurement scales.

  1. The reliability and validity of the Social Responsiveness Scale in a UK general child population.

    PubMed

    Wigham, Sarah; McConachie, Helen; Tandos, Jonathan; Le Couteur, Ann S

    2012-01-01

    This is the first UK study to report the reliability, validity, and factor structure of the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) in a general population sample. Parents of 500 children (aged 5-8 years) in North East England completed the SRS. Profiles of scores were similar to USA norms, and a single factor structure was identified. Good construct validity and internal consistency were found. Children with identified special needs were found to have significantly higher SRS scores than those without. The findings suggest the SRS performs in similar ways in UK and USA general population samples of children and can be used without modification in the UK. PMID:22277583

  2. Multiple Linkage Disequilibrium Mapping Methods to Validate Additive Quantitative Trait Loci in Korean Native Cattle (Hanwoo).

    PubMed

    Li, Yi; Kim, Jong-Joo

    2015-07-01

    The efficiency of genome-wide association analysis (GWAS) depends on power of detection for quantitative trait loci (QTL) and precision for QTL mapping. In this study, three different strategies for GWAS were applied to detect QTL for carcass quality traits in the Korean cattle, Hanwoo; a linkage disequilibrium single locus regression method (LDRM), a combined linkage and linkage disequilibrium analysis (LDLA) and a BayesCπ approach. The phenotypes of 486 steers were collected for weaning weight (WWT), yearling weight (YWT), carcass weight (CWT), backfat thickness (BFT), longissimus dorsi muscle area, and marbling score (Marb). Also the genotype data for the steers and their sires were scored with the Illumina bovine 50K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) chips. For the two former GWAS methods, threshold values were set at false discovery rate <0.01 on a chromosome-wide level, while a cut-off threshold value was set in the latter model, such that the top five windows, each of which comprised 10 adjacent SNPs, were chosen with significant variation for the phenotype. Four major additive QTL from these three methods had high concordance found in 64.1 to 64.9Mb for Bos taurus autosome (BTA) 7 for WWT, 24.3 to 25.4Mb for BTA14 for CWT, 0.5 to 1.5Mb for BTA6 for BFT and 26.3 to 33.4Mb for BTA29 for BFT. Several candidate genes (i.e. glutamate receptor, ionotropic, ampa 1 [GRIA1], family with sequence similarity 110, member B [FAM110B], and thymocyte selection-associated high mobility group box [TOX]) may be identified close to these QTL. Our result suggests that the use of different linkage disequilibrium mapping approaches can provide more reliable chromosome regions to further pinpoint DNA makers or causative genes in these regions.

  3. Multiple Linkage Disequilibrium Mapping Methods to Validate Additive Quantitative Trait Loci in Korean Native Cattle (Hanwoo).

    PubMed

    Li, Yi; Kim, Jong-Joo

    2015-07-01

    The efficiency of genome-wide association analysis (GWAS) depends on power of detection for quantitative trait loci (QTL) and precision for QTL mapping. In this study, three different strategies for GWAS were applied to detect QTL for carcass quality traits in the Korean cattle, Hanwoo; a linkage disequilibrium single locus regression method (LDRM), a combined linkage and linkage disequilibrium analysis (LDLA) and a BayesCπ approach. The phenotypes of 486 steers were collected for weaning weight (WWT), yearling weight (YWT), carcass weight (CWT), backfat thickness (BFT), longissimus dorsi muscle area, and marbling score (Marb). Also the genotype data for the steers and their sires were scored with the Illumina bovine 50K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) chips. For the two former GWAS methods, threshold values were set at false discovery rate <0.01 on a chromosome-wide level, while a cut-off threshold value was set in the latter model, such that the top five windows, each of which comprised 10 adjacent SNPs, were chosen with significant variation for the phenotype. Four major additive QTL from these three methods had high concordance found in 64.1 to 64.9Mb for Bos taurus autosome (BTA) 7 for WWT, 24.3 to 25.4Mb for BTA14 for CWT, 0.5 to 1.5Mb for BTA6 for BFT and 26.3 to 33.4Mb for BTA29 for BFT. Several candidate genes (i.e. glutamate receptor, ionotropic, ampa 1 [GRIA1], family with sequence similarity 110, member B [FAM110B], and thymocyte selection-associated high mobility group box [TOX]) may be identified close to these QTL. Our result suggests that the use of different linkage disequilibrium mapping approaches can provide more reliable chromosome regions to further pinpoint DNA makers or causative genes in these regions. PMID:26104396

  4. Validation of the SSRS-T, Preschool Level as a Measure of Positive Social Behavior and Conduct Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rich, Erika Carpenter; Shepherd, Elizabeth J.; Nangle, Douglas W.

    2008-01-01

    Evidence for the validity of the Social Skills Rating System for Teachers, Preschool Level (SSRS-T) as a measure of positive social skills and conduct problems was examined in a sample of Head Start preschoolers. One feature of the study was the comparative analysis of the original published factor structure of the Social Skills Scale (i.e.,…

  5. Preliminary validation of an instrument to assess social support and tuberculosis stigma in patients' families

    PubMed Central

    de Almeida Crispim, J.; Touso, M. M.; Popolin, M. P.; Rodrigues, L. B. B.; de Freitas, I. M.; Yamamura, M.; Neto, M. Santos

    2014-01-01

    Setting: Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil. Objective: To develop and validate a preliminary instrument for assessing social support and tuberculosis (TB) stigma in families of TB patients. Design: A literature review on social support and TB stigma was used to generate the theoretical domains for the instrument. A focus group was then conducted with TB patients and their families to revise the domains. Reviewers were invited to judge the appropriateness of the items in the instrument. A cross-sectional survey was carried out among 110 family members to assess the factorial structure using principal component analysis and confirmatory factor analysis to assess construct validity. Reliability was assessed in terms of internal consistency using Cronbach's alpha. Results: After semantic validation and a pilot study, 23 items were selected for the scale. Examination of the factorial structure of the 16 items that were factorable using principal component analysis led to the extraction of two factors. The 16-item instrument was assessed for construct validity with confirmatory factor analysis, which confirmed a model with four items for each dimension. Conclusion: The study analysed the psychometric properties of an instrument that is still in its preliminary stages. Other studies on a similar scale in the Brazilian setting are required. PMID:26400810

  6. An assessment of the construct validity of the ASCOT measure of social care-related quality of life with older people

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The adult social care outcomes toolkit (ASCOT) includes a preference-weighted measure of social care-related quality of life for use in economic evaluations. ASCOT has eight attributes: personal cleanliness and comfort, food and drink, control over daily life, personal safety, accommodation cleanliness and comfort, social participation and involvement, occupation and dignity. This paper aims to demonstrate the construct validity of the ASCOT attributes. Methods A survey of older people receiving publicly-funded home care services was conducted by face-to-face interview in several sites across England. Additional data on variables hypothesised to be related and unrelated to each of the attributes were also collected. Relationships between these variables and the attributes were analysed through chi-squared tests and analysis of variance, as appropriate, to test the construct validity of each attribute. Results 301 people were interviewed and approximately 10% of responses were given by a proxy respondent. Results suggest that each attribute captured the extent to which respondents exercised choice in how their outcomes were met. There was also evidence for the validity of the control over daily life, occupation, personal cleanliness and comfort, personal safety, accommodation cleanliness and comfort, and social participation and involvement attributes. There was less evidence regarding the validity of the food and drink and dignity attributes, but this may be a consequence of problems finding good data against which to validate these attributes, as well as problems with the distribution of the food and drink item. Conclusions This study provides some evidence for the construct validity of the ASCOT attributes and therefore support for ASCOT's use in economic evaluation. It also demonstrated the feasibility of its use among older people, although the need for proxy respondents in some situations suggests that developing a version that is suitable for

  7. The Preschool Pediatric Symptom Checklist (PPSC): Development and initial validation of a new social/emotional screening instrument

    PubMed Central

    Sheldrick, R. Christopher; Henson, Brandi S.; Merchant, Shela; Neger, Emily N.; Murphy, J. Michael; Perrin, Ellen C.

    2012-01-01

    Objective This paper describes the development and initial validation of the Preschool Pediatric Symptom Checklist (PPSC), a social/emotional screening instrument for children 18–60 months of age. The PPSC was created as one part of a comprehensive screening instrument designed for pediatric primary care and is modeled after the Pediatric Symptom Checklist. Method Items for the PPSC were developed by a team of experts who reviewed existing assessment instruments and relevant research literature. Scale construction and initial validation (including factor analysis and tests of construct validity) were conducted with 292 families from pediatric primary care sites and 354 families from referral clinics. 171 additional families were recruited from primary care sites to obtain an independent replication sample. Results Exploratory factor analysis revealed 4 dimensions of the PPSC: Externalizing, Internalizing, Attention Problems, and Parenting Challenges. These dimensions were incorporated into a bifactor model that displayed a strong general factor, thus supporting the use of a total score. The PPSC total score shows strong internal and retest reliability, and it identifies children who score in the clinical range of a longer, well-validated and more comprehensive parent-report instrument (the CBCL), as well as children who are reported to have a range of behavioral diagnoses. Moreover, sensitivity and specificity with respect to these criteria were comparable to those of another well-accepted but longer screener, the ASQ:SE. Finally, results for the PPSC’s total scale remained consistent when replicated in an independent sample. Conclusion The PPSC shows promise as a social/emotional screening instrument for use in pediatric primary care. PMID:22921494

  8. Phencyclidine in the social interaction test: an animal model of schizophrenia with face and predictive validity.

    PubMed

    Sams-Dodd, F

    1999-01-01

    Phencyclidine (PCP) is a hallucinogenic drug that can mimic several aspects of the schizophrenic symptomatology in healthy volunteers. In a series of studies PCP was administered to rats to determine whether it was possible to develop an animal model of the positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia. The rats were tested in the social interaction test and it was found that PCP dose-dependently induces stereotyped behaviour and social withdrawal, which may correspond to certain aspects of the positive and negative symptoms, respectively. The effects of PCP could be reduced selectively by antipsychotic drug treatment, whereas drugs lacking antipsychotic effects did not alleviate the PCP-induced behaviours. Together these findings indicate that PCP effects in the rat social interaction test may be a model of the positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia with face and predictive validity and that it may be useful for the evaluation of novel antipsychotic compounds.

  9. The DSM-5 social anxiety disorder severity scale: Evidence of validity and reliability in a clinical sample.

    PubMed

    LeBeau, Richard T; Mesri, Bita; Craske, Michelle G

    2016-10-30

    With DSM-5, the APA began providing guidelines for anxiety disorder severity assessment that incorporates newly developed self-report scales. The scales share a common template, are brief, and are free of copyright restrictions. Initial validation studies have been promising, but the English-language versions of the scales have not been formally validated in clinical samples. Forty-seven individuals with a principal diagnosis of Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) completed a diagnostic assessment, as well as the DSM-5 SAD severity scale and several previously validated measures. The scale demonstrated internal consistency, convergent validity, and discriminant validity. The next steps in the validation process are outlined.

  10. Content validity in the PROMIS social health domain: a qualitative analysis of focus group data

    PubMed Central

    Castel, Liana D.; Williams, Kelly A.; Bosworth, Hayden B.; Eisen, Susan V.; Hahn, Elizabeth A.; Irwin, Debra E.; Kelly, Morgen A. R.; Morse, Jennifer; Stover, Angela; DeWalt, Darren A.; DeVellis, Robert F.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Our aim was to assess the content validity of the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) social health item banks by comparing a prespecified conceptual model with concepts that focus-group participants identified as important social-health-related outcomes. These data will inform the process of improving health-related quality-of-life measures. Methods Twenty-five patients with a range of social limitations due to chronic health conditions were recruited at two sites; four focus groups were conducted. Raters independently classified participants' statements using a hierarchical, nested schema that included health-related outcomes, role performance, role satisfaction, family/friends, work, and leisure. Results Key themes that emerged were fulfilling both family and work responsibilities and the distinction between activities done out of responsibility versus enjoyment. Although focus-group participants identified volunteerism and pet ownership as important social-health-related concepts, these were not in our original conceptual model. The concept of satisfaction was often found to overlap with the concept of performance. Conclusion Our conceptual model appeared mostly comprehensive but is being further refined to more appropriately (a) distinguish between responsibilities versus discretionary activities, and (b) situate the outcome of satisfaction as it relates to impairment in social and other domains of health. PMID:18478368

  11. Clinical validation of a non-heteronormative version of the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Despite welcomed changes in societal attitudes and practices towards sexual minorities, instances of heteronormativity can still be found within healthcare and research. The Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS) is a valid and reliable self-rating scale of social anxiety, which includes one item (number 14) with an explicit heteronormative assumption about the respondent´s sexual orientation. This heteronormative phrasing may confuse, insult or alienate sexual minority respondents. A clinically validated version of the SIAS featuring a non-heteronormative phrasing of item 14 is thus needed. Methods 129 participants with diagnosed social anxiety disorder, enrolled in an Internet-based intervention trial, were randomly assigned to responding to the SIAS featuring either the original or a novel non-heteronormative phrasing of item 14, and then answered the other item version. Within-subject, correlation between item versions was calculated and the two scores were statistically compared. The two items’ correlations with the other SIAS items and other psychiatric rating scales were also statistically compared. Results Item versions were highly correlated and scores did not differ statistically. The two items’ correlations with other measures did not differ statistically either. Conclusions The SIAS can be revised with a non-heteronormative formulation of item 14 with psychometric equivalence on item and scale level. Implications for other psychiatric instruments with heteronormative phrasings are discussed. PMID:24354964

  12. Additive Effects of Social and Non-Social Attention during Infancy Relate to Later Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bedford, Rachael; Pickles, Andrew; Gliga, Teodora; Elsabbagh, Mayada; Charman, Tony; Johnson, Mark H.

    2014-01-01

    Emerging findings from studies with infants at familial high risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD), owing to an older sibling with a diagnosis, suggest that those who go on to develop ASD show early impairments in the processing of stimuli with both social and non-social content. Although ASD is defined by social-communication impairments and…

  13. Strengthen forensic entomology in court--the need for data exploration and the validation of a generalised additive mixed model.

    PubMed

    Baqué, Michèle; Amendt, Jens

    2013-01-01

    Developmental data of juvenile blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) are typically used to calculate the age of immature stages found on or around a corpse and thus to estimate a minimum post-mortem interval (PMI(min)). However, many of those data sets don't take into account that immature blow flies grow in a non-linear fashion. Linear models do not supply a sufficient reliability on age estimates and may even lead to an erroneous determination of the PMI(min). According to the Daubert standard and the need for improvements in forensic science, new statistic tools like smoothing methods and mixed models allow the modelling of non-linear relationships and expand the field of statistical analyses. The present study introduces into the background and application of these statistical techniques by analysing a model which describes the development of the forensically important blow fly Calliphora vicina at different temperatures. The comparison of three statistical methods (linear regression, generalised additive modelling and generalised additive mixed modelling) clearly demonstrates that only the latter provided regression parameters that reflect the data adequately. We focus explicitly on both the exploration of the data--to assure their quality and to show the importance of checking it carefully prior to conducting the statistical tests--and the validation of the resulting models. Hence, we present a common method for evaluating and testing forensic entomological data sets by using for the first time generalised additive mixed models.

  14. Persons with Multiple Disabilities Accessing Stimulation and Requesting Social Contact via Microswitch and VOCA Devices: New Research Evaluation and Social Validation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancioni, Giulio E.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Singh, Nirbhay N.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Didden, Robert; Oliva, Doretta; Campodonico, Francesca; de Pace, Claudia; Chiapparino, Claudia; Groeneweg, Jop

    2009-01-01

    The first of these two studies assessed whether 11 participants with multiple disabilities of 5.3-18.2 (M = 10.7) years of age would succeed in combining a microswitch for accessing preferred environmental stimuli and a Voice Output Communication Aid (VOCA) for requesting social contact. The second study conducted a social validation assessment of…

  15. Validating an Index of Adolescent Sexual Behavior Using Psychosocial Theory and Social Trait Correlates

    PubMed Central

    Hennessy, Michael; Bleakley, Amy; Fishbein, Martin; Jordan, Amy

    2010-01-01

    Using a web-based survey of adolescents 14–16 years of age, a hierarchical index of heterosexual behavior was developed with excellent psychometric properties. The easiest sexual behavior to perform was “deep kissing” and the most difficult was “receiving anal sex” for females and “giving anal sex” for males. The index was validated with data that show increased sexual activity with being older and of minority status, with social traits such as physical development, having a romantic partner, and sensation seeking, and with psychosocial variables known to be associated with sexual behavior such as attitudes, norms, self-efficacy and intentions. PMID:17636374

  16. The training and validation of youth-preferred social behaviors of child-care personnel1

    PubMed Central

    Willner, Alan G.; Braukmann, Curtis J.; Kirigin, Kathryn A.; Fixsen, Dean L.; Phillips, Elery L.; Wolf, Montrose M.

    1977-01-01

    This research sought to identify, train, and validate social behaviors preferred by youths to be used by youth-care personnel (called teaching-parents). With training, consistent increases in seven preferred behaviors were observed for the six teaching-parent trainees. These behaviors included offering to help, “getting to the point”, giving reasons why a behavior is important to a youth, providing descriptions of alternative behaviors, positive feedback, smiling, and positive motivational incentives (i.e., points for task mastery exchanged for tangible reinforcers). Increases in these behaviors correlated with increases in the youths' ratings of the quality of the trainees' interactions. Posttraining levels of preferred social behavior and youth ratings for trainees also compared favorably with levels for successful professional teaching-parents. These results suggest that teaching-parents can be successfully trained to interact with youths in ways that are preferred by the youths. PMID:16795551

  17. A child-centered scale of informal social control for Latino parents of preschool-age children: Development and validation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Perceived neighborhood informal social control may determine whether parents allow their young children to be physically active in the neighborhood. We developed and validated a scale of neighborhood child-centered informal social control appropriate for Latino parents of preschool-age children. The...

  18. Self-Report on the Social Skills Rating System: Analysis of Reliability and Validity for an Elementary Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diperna, James Clyde; Volpe, Robert J.

    2005-01-01

    The Social Skills Rating System (SSRS; F.M. Gresham & S.N. Elliott, 1990) is a norm-referenced measure of students' social and problem behaviors. Since its release, much of the published reliability and validity evidence for the SSRS has focused primarily on the Teacher Report Form. The purpose of this study was to explore reliability and validity…

  19. Autistic Traits and Autism Spectrum Disorders: The Clinical Validity of Two Measures Presuming a Continuum of Social Communication Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolte, Sven; Westerwald, Eva; Holtmann, Martin; Freitag, Christine; Poustka, Fritz

    2011-01-01

    Research indicates that autism is the extreme end of a continuously distributed trait. The Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) and the Social and Communication Disorders Checklist (SCDC) aim to assess autistic traits. The objective of this study was to compare their clinical validity. The SRS showed sensitivities of 0.74 to 0.80 and specificities of…

  20. Contemporary Daughter/Son Adult Social Role Performance Rating Scale and Interview Protocol: Development, Content Validation, and Exploratory Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cozad, Dana Everett

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and content validate a Performance Rating Scale and Interview Protocol, enabling study of the social role performance of adult daughters and sons as they fulfill the societal norms and expectations of adult children. This exploratory investigation was one of 13 contemporary adult social roles completed by…

  1. Virtual Reality for Enhanced Ecological Validity and Experimental Control in the Clinical, Affective and Social Neurosciences.

    PubMed

    Parsons, Thomas D

    2015-01-01

    An essential tension can be found between researchers interested in ecological validity and those concerned with maintaining experimental control. Research in the human neurosciences often involves the use of simple and static stimuli lacking many of the potentially important aspects of real world activities and interactions. While this research is valuable, there is a growing interest in the human neurosciences to use cues about target states in the real world via multimodal scenarios that involve visual, semantic, and prosodic information. These scenarios should include dynamic stimuli presented concurrently or serially in a manner that allows researchers to assess the integrative processes carried out by perceivers over time. Furthermore, there is growing interest in contextually embedded stimuli that can constrain participant interpretations of cues about a target's internal states. Virtual reality environments proffer assessment paradigms that combine the experimental control of laboratory measures with emotionally engaging background narratives to enhance affective experience and social interactions. The present review highlights the potential of virtual reality environments for enhanced ecological validity in the clinical, affective, and social neurosciences.

  2. Validation of data-driven computational models of social perception of faces.

    PubMed

    Todorov, Alexander; Dotsch, Ron; Porter, Jenny M; Oosterhof, Nikolaas N; Falvello, Virginia B

    2013-08-01

    People rapidly form impressions from facial appearance, and these impressions affect social decisions. We argue that data-driven, computational models are the best available tools for identifying the source of such impressions. Here we validate seven computational models of social judgments of faces: attractiveness, competence, dominance, extroversion, likability, threat, and trustworthiness. The models manipulate both face shape and reflectance (i.e., cues such as pigmentation and skin smoothness). We show that human judgments track the models' predictions (Experiment 1) and that the models differentiate between different judgments, though this differentiation is constrained by the similarity of the models (Experiment 2). We also make the validated stimuli available for academic research: seven databases containing 25 identities manipulated in the respective model to take on seven different dimension values, ranging from -3 SD to +3 SD (175 stimuli in each database). Finally, we show how the computational models can be used to control for shared variance of the models. For example, even for highly correlated dimensions (e.g., dominance and threat), we can identify cues specific to each dimension and, consequently, generate faces that vary only on these cues.

  3. Virtual Reality for Enhanced Ecological Validity and Experimental Control in the Clinical, Affective and Social Neurosciences

    PubMed Central

    Parsons, Thomas D.

    2015-01-01

    An essential tension can be found between researchers interested in ecological validity and those concerned with maintaining experimental control. Research in the human neurosciences often involves the use of simple and static stimuli lacking many of the potentially important aspects of real world activities and interactions. While this research is valuable, there is a growing interest in the human neurosciences to use cues about target states in the real world via multimodal scenarios that involve visual, semantic, and prosodic information. These scenarios should include dynamic stimuli presented concurrently or serially in a manner that allows researchers to assess the integrative processes carried out by perceivers over time. Furthermore, there is growing interest in contextually embedded stimuli that can constrain participant interpretations of cues about a target’s internal states. Virtual reality environments proffer assessment paradigms that combine the experimental control of laboratory measures with emotionally engaging background narratives to enhance affective experience and social interactions. The present review highlights the potential of virtual reality environments for enhanced ecological validity in the clinical, affective, and social neurosciences. PMID:26696869

  4. Psychometric Validation Study of the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale - Self-Reported Version for Brazilian Portuguese

    PubMed Central

    Forni dos Santos, Larissa; Loureiro, Sonia Regina; Crippa, José Alexandre de Souza; Osório, Flávia de Lima

    2013-01-01

    Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) is prevalent and rarely diagnosed due to the difficulty in recognizing its symptoms as belonging to a disorder. Therefore, the evaluation/screening scales are of great importance for its detection, with the most used being the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS). Thus, this study proposed to evaluate the psychometric properties of internal consistency and convergent validity, as well as the confirmatory factorial analysis and reliability of the self-reported version of the LSAS (LSAS-SR), translated into Brazilian Portuguese, in a sample of the general population (N = 413) and in a SAD clinical sample (N = 252). The convergent validity with specific scales for the evaluation of SAD and a general anxiety scale presented correlations ranging from 0.21 to 0.84. The confirmatory factorial analysis did not replicate the previously indicated findings of the literature, with the difficulty being in obtaining a consensus factorial structure common to the diverse cultures in which the instrument was studied. The LSAS-SR presented excellent internal consistency (α = 0.90–0.96) and test-retest reliability (Intraclass Correlation Coefficient = 0.81; Pearson’s = 0.82). The present findings support those of international studies that attest to the excellent psychometric properties of the LSAS-SR, endorsing its status as the gold standard. PMID:23922961

  5. Validation of data-driven computational models of social perception of faces.

    PubMed

    Todorov, Alexander; Dotsch, Ron; Porter, Jenny M; Oosterhof, Nikolaas N; Falvello, Virginia B

    2013-08-01

    People rapidly form impressions from facial appearance, and these impressions affect social decisions. We argue that data-driven, computational models are the best available tools for identifying the source of such impressions. Here we validate seven computational models of social judgments of faces: attractiveness, competence, dominance, extroversion, likability, threat, and trustworthiness. The models manipulate both face shape and reflectance (i.e., cues such as pigmentation and skin smoothness). We show that human judgments track the models' predictions (Experiment 1) and that the models differentiate between different judgments, though this differentiation is constrained by the similarity of the models (Experiment 2). We also make the validated stimuli available for academic research: seven databases containing 25 identities manipulated in the respective model to take on seven different dimension values, ranging from -3 SD to +3 SD (175 stimuli in each database). Finally, we show how the computational models can be used to control for shared variance of the models. For example, even for highly correlated dimensions (e.g., dominance and threat), we can identify cues specific to each dimension and, consequently, generate faces that vary only on these cues. PMID:23627724

  6. The theory of planned behaviour and healthy eating: Examining additive and moderating effects of social influence variables.

    PubMed

    Povey, R; Conner, M; Sparks, P; James, R; Shepherd, R

    2000-11-01

    Abstract This paper examines the additive and moderating effects of social influence variables (injunctive norms, descriptive norms, perceived social support) within the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB). The target behaviour is the decision to eat healthily. Questionnaire responses on components of the TPB, descriptive norms, perceived social support, and subsequent healthy eating were obtained from a prospective sample of 235 members of the general public. Good predictions of intentions (42% of variance explained) and behaviour (15% of variance explained) were found using the Theory of Planned Behaviour. Neither descriptive norms nor perceived social support added to these predictions of intentions over and above the TPB variables. However, perceived social support was found to act as a moderator variable on the relationship between perceived behavioral control and intention, and the relationship between attitude and intention. Implications for exploring the role of social influence variables on decisions concerning health behavioun an discussed.

  7. The theory of planned behaviour and healthy eating: Examining additive and moderating effects of social influence variables.

    PubMed

    Povey, R; Conner, M; Sparks, P; James, R; Shepherd, R

    2000-11-01

    Abstract This paper examines the additive and moderating effects of social influence variables (injunctive norms, descriptive norms, perceived social support) within the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB). The target behaviour is the decision to eat healthily. Questionnaire responses on components of the TPB, descriptive norms, perceived social support, and subsequent healthy eating were obtained from a prospective sample of 235 members of the general public. Good predictions of intentions (42% of variance explained) and behaviour (15% of variance explained) were found using the Theory of Planned Behaviour. Neither descriptive norms nor perceived social support added to these predictions of intentions over and above the TPB variables. However, perceived social support was found to act as a moderator variable on the relationship between perceived behavioral control and intention, and the relationship between attitude and intention. Implications for exploring the role of social influence variables on decisions concerning health behavioun an discussed. PMID:22175258

  8. Development and Validation of HPLC Method for the Simultaneous Determination of Five Food Additives and Caffeine in Soft Drinks.

    PubMed

    Aşçı, Bürge; Dinç Zor, Şule; Aksu Dönmez, Özlem

    2016-01-01

    Box-Behnken design was applied to optimize high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) conditions for the simultaneous determination of potassium sorbate, sodium benzoate, carmoisine, allura red, ponceau 4R, and caffeine in commercial soft drinks. The experimental variables chosen were pH (6.0-7.0), flow rate (1.0-1.4 mL/min), and mobile phase ratio (85-95% acetate buffer). Resolution values of all peak pairs were used as a response. Stationary phase was Inertsil OctaDecylSilane- (ODS-) 3V reverse phase column (250 × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) dimensions. The detection was performed at 230 nm. Optimal values were found 6.0 pH, 1.0 mL/min flow rate, and 95% mobile phase ratio for the method which was validated by calculating the linearity (r (2) > 0.9962), accuracy (recoveries ≥ 95.75%), precision (intraday variation ≤ 1.923%, interday variation ≤ 1.950%), limits of detection (LODs), and limits of quantification (LOQs) parameters. LODs and LOQs for analytes were in the range of 0.10-0.19 μg/mL and 0.33-0.63 μg/mL, respectively. The proposed method was applied successfully for the simultaneous determination of the mixtures of five food additives and caffeine in soft drinks. PMID:26989415

  9. Development and Validation of HPLC Method for the Simultaneous Determination of Five Food Additives and Caffeine in Soft Drinks.

    PubMed

    Aşçı, Bürge; Dinç Zor, Şule; Aksu Dönmez, Özlem

    2016-01-01

    Box-Behnken design was applied to optimize high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) conditions for the simultaneous determination of potassium sorbate, sodium benzoate, carmoisine, allura red, ponceau 4R, and caffeine in commercial soft drinks. The experimental variables chosen were pH (6.0-7.0), flow rate (1.0-1.4 mL/min), and mobile phase ratio (85-95% acetate buffer). Resolution values of all peak pairs were used as a response. Stationary phase was Inertsil OctaDecylSilane- (ODS-) 3V reverse phase column (250 × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) dimensions. The detection was performed at 230 nm. Optimal values were found 6.0 pH, 1.0 mL/min flow rate, and 95% mobile phase ratio for the method which was validated by calculating the linearity (r (2) > 0.9962), accuracy (recoveries ≥ 95.75%), precision (intraday variation ≤ 1.923%, interday variation ≤ 1.950%), limits of detection (LODs), and limits of quantification (LOQs) parameters. LODs and LOQs for analytes were in the range of 0.10-0.19 μg/mL and 0.33-0.63 μg/mL, respectively. The proposed method was applied successfully for the simultaneous determination of the mixtures of five food additives and caffeine in soft drinks.

  10. Development and Validation of HPLC Method for the Simultaneous Determination of Five Food Additives and Caffeine in Soft Drinks

    PubMed Central

    Aşçı, Bürge; Dinç Zor, Şule; Aksu Dönmez, Özlem

    2016-01-01

    Box-Behnken design was applied to optimize high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) conditions for the simultaneous determination of potassium sorbate, sodium benzoate, carmoisine, allura red, ponceau 4R, and caffeine in commercial soft drinks. The experimental variables chosen were pH (6.0–7.0), flow rate (1.0–1.4 mL/min), and mobile phase ratio (85–95% acetate buffer). Resolution values of all peak pairs were used as a response. Stationary phase was Inertsil OctaDecylSilane- (ODS-) 3V reverse phase column (250 × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) dimensions. The detection was performed at 230 nm. Optimal values were found 6.0 pH, 1.0 mL/min flow rate, and 95% mobile phase ratio for the method which was validated by calculating the linearity (r2 > 0.9962), accuracy (recoveries ≥ 95.75%), precision (intraday variation ≤ 1.923%, interday variation ≤ 1.950%), limits of detection (LODs), and limits of quantification (LOQs) parameters. LODs and LOQs for analytes were in the range of 0.10–0.19 μg/mL and 0.33–0.63 μg/mL, respectively. The proposed method was applied successfully for the simultaneous determination of the mixtures of five food additives and caffeine in soft drinks. PMID:26989415

  11. [Translation and validation of the Revised Social Anhedonia Scale (SAS Social Anhedonia Scale, M.L. Eckblad, L.J. Chapman et al., 1982). Study of the internal and concurrent validity in 126 normal subjects].

    PubMed

    Kosmadakis, C S; Bungener, C; Pierson, A; Jouvent, R; Widlöcher, D

    1995-01-01

    The Revised Social Anhedonia Scale (SAS) with 40 items (Eckblad et al., 1982) which studies the social dimension of anhedonia has been validated in the United-States (Mishlove & Chapman, 1985). However, no french translation and validation of this scale has been made to date. This work presents the french translation of the Social Anhedonia Scale and its validation. After a back-translation and final adjustment, it has been submitted to a sample of 126 control subjects from the general population. Furthermore, they were asked to fill two other scales: the Chapman Physical Anhedonia (PAS) with 61 items and the Fawcett Pleasure Scale (36 items), both of them exploring the subjects answer in terms of anhedonia/hedonia towards social, sensorial and/or physical experiences. The internal validity has been determined on the one hand by the Cronbach alpha coefficient which showed a strong unidimensional characteristic (0.80) and the other hand by the correlation of each item with the total score using the point biserial coefficient which ranged from .204 to .559. The concurrent validation has been determined by the Pearson correlation coefficient between the french version of social anhedonia scale and the french version of physical anhedonia scale. The values were .42, p = .001. Furthermore, this two scales are significant inversely correled to the french version of the pleasure scale: r = -.22, p = .0125 for the first, and r = -.26, p = .0027 for the second. The internal and concurrent validity of the french version of the revised social anhedonia scale should allow to improve our understanding of anhedonia in psychiatry and psychopathology.

  12. Validity of the social communication questionnaire in adults with intellectual disabilities and suspected autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Sappok, Tanja; Diefenbacher, Albert; Gaul, Isabell; Bölte, Sven

    2015-05-01

    This study examined the validity of the Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ) to identify autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in 151 adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) in Germany. Sensitivities and specificities for ASD were 98/47% for the SCQ-current version and 92/22% for the SCQ-lifetime version. Sensitivities and specificities were increased to 89/66% and 78/48% by adjusting the recommended cut-points. The SCQ-current score correlated with the Scale for Pervasive Developmental Disorders in Mentally Retarded Persons and the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, whereas the SCQ-lifetime score correlated with the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised. Our findings support the use of the SCQ-current version for ASD screening in adults with ID, although the SCQ-lifetime version should be used with caution in this population.

  13. Academic and Social Achievement Goals: Their Additive, Interactive, and Specialized Effects on School Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liem, Gregory Arief D.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Students' pursuit of academic and social goals has implications for school functioning. However, studies on academic and social achievement goals have been relatively independent and mainly conducted with students in culturally Western settings. Aims: Guided by multiple-goal perspectives, this study examined the role of academic and…

  14. The inherence heuristic: a key theoretical addition to understanding social stereotyping and prejudice.

    PubMed

    Bigler, Rebecca S; Clark, Caitlin

    2014-10-01

    Prior work has detailed the constructivist processes that lead individuals to categorize others along particular dimensions (e.g., gender) and generate the content (e.g., stereotypes) and affect (e.g., prejudices) associated with social groups. The inherence heuristic is a novel mechanism that appears to shape the content and rigidity of children's social stereotypes and prejudices. PMID:25388029

  15. The inherence heuristic: a key theoretical addition to understanding social stereotyping and prejudice.

    PubMed

    Bigler, Rebecca S; Clark, Caitlin

    2014-10-01

    Prior work has detailed the constructivist processes that lead individuals to categorize others along particular dimensions (e.g., gender) and generate the content (e.g., stereotypes) and affect (e.g., prejudices) associated with social groups. The inherence heuristic is a novel mechanism that appears to shape the content and rigidity of children's social stereotypes and prejudices.

  16. 75 FR 25763 - Addition to the List of Validated End-Users: Advanced Micro Devices China, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-10

    ...: Advanced Micro Devices China, Inc. AGENCY: Bureau of Industry and Security, Commerce. ACTION: Final rule... FR 33646) by creating a new authorization for ``validated end-users'' located in eligible... three eligible facilities are as follows: Validated End-User Advanced Micro Devices China, Inc....

  17. Can we use social media to support content validity of patient-reported outcome instruments in medical product development?

    PubMed

    Rothman, Margaret; Gnanaskathy, Ari; Wicks, Paul; Papadopoulos, Elektra J

    2015-01-01

    We report a panel designed to open a dialog between pharmaceutical sponsors, regulatory reviewers, and other stakeholders regarding the use of social media to collect data to support the content validity of patient-reported outcome instruments in the context of medical product labeling. Multiple stakeholder perspectives were brought together to better understand the issues encountered in pursuing social media as a form of data collection to support content validity. Presenters represented a pharmaceutical sponsor of clinical trials, a regulatory reviewer from the Food and Drug Administration, and an online data platform provider. Each presenter shared its perspective on the advantages and disadvantages of using social media to collect this type of information. There was consensus that there is great potential for using social media for this purpose. There remain, however, unanswered questions that need to be addressed such as identifying which type of social media is most appropriate for data collection and ensuring that participants are representative of the target population while maintaining the advantages of anonymity provided by online platforms. The use of social media to collect evidence of content validity holds much promise. Clarification of issues that need to be addressed and accumulation of empirical evidence to address these questions are essential to moving forward. PMID:25595228

  18. Can we use social media to support content validity of patient-reported outcome instruments in medical product development?

    PubMed

    Rothman, Margaret; Gnanaskathy, Ari; Wicks, Paul; Papadopoulos, Elektra J

    2015-01-01

    We report a panel designed to open a dialog between pharmaceutical sponsors, regulatory reviewers, and other stakeholders regarding the use of social media to collect data to support the content validity of patient-reported outcome instruments in the context of medical product labeling. Multiple stakeholder perspectives were brought together to better understand the issues encountered in pursuing social media as a form of data collection to support content validity. Presenters represented a pharmaceutical sponsor of clinical trials, a regulatory reviewer from the Food and Drug Administration, and an online data platform provider. Each presenter shared its perspective on the advantages and disadvantages of using social media to collect this type of information. There was consensus that there is great potential for using social media for this purpose. There remain, however, unanswered questions that need to be addressed such as identifying which type of social media is most appropriate for data collection and ensuring that participants are representative of the target population while maintaining the advantages of anonymity provided by online platforms. The use of social media to collect evidence of content validity holds much promise. Clarification of issues that need to be addressed and accumulation of empirical evidence to address these questions are essential to moving forward.

  19. Cross-cultural, age and gender validation of a computerised questionnaire measuring personal, social and environmental associations with children's physical activity: the European Youth Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Ommundsen, Yngvar; Page, Angie; Ku, Po-Wen; Cooper, Ashley R

    2008-01-01

    Objective This study investigated the construct validity of a computerised self-assessment tool to measure psychological, social and environmental influences of young peoples' physical activity. First, analyses of the measure's factorial validity, invariance across, age, gender culture were conducted. Second, the ability of the derived subscales to discriminate between children representing different levels of self-reported and objectively measured physical activity behaviour was examined. Methods Participants were 1875 boys and 2078 girls (total = 3958) aged 9–10 years (n = 1955, mean age = 9.65 ± 0.42) and 15–16 years (n = 2003, mean age = 15.49 ± 0.50) from four European countries in Northern, Southern and Eastern Europe who took part in the European Youth Heart Study (EYHS). Children completed the computerised self-assessment tool with support from the researcher if requested. Self-reported exercise and an objective measure of physical activity (Actigraph model 7164) were used for additional construct validation purposes. Results Overall evidence of good fit indicating satisfactory factorial validity and cross-cultural, age and gender invariance for 3 of the 4 measurement models were obtained. The majority of measures were also significantly different for those with high versus low levels of physical activity. Conclusion Overall, the computerised questionnaire holds promise for use cross-culturally with male and female children and adolescents to measure perceived personal, social and environmental influences on physical activity. Further development of the measures pertaining to perceived environmental influences seems warranted. PMID:18489736

  20. Professional Competence Development of the Social Work Specialists in the Period of Study in the System of Additional Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davletkaliev, Denis Kuanyshevich; Zueva, Natalia Konstantinovna; Lebedeva, Natalya Vasilevna; Mkrtumova, Irina Vladimirovna; Timofeeva, Olga

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this work is the study of psychological-pedagogical approaches to the understanding of the idea of professional competence of social work specialists as well as the role of study in the system of additional educations in professional-personal development of the listeners. In the process of study of this problem we define main…

  1. Preliminary validation of an instrument to assess social support and tuberculosis stigma in patients' families.

    PubMed

    Arcêncio, R A; de Almeida Crispim, J; Touso, M M; Popolin, M P; Rodrigues, L B B; de Freitas, I M; Yamamura, M; Neto, M Santos

    2014-09-21

    Contexte : Ribeirão Preto, Brésil.Objectif : Elaborer et valider un instrument préliminaire afin d'évaluer le soutien social et la stigmatisation liée à la tuberculose (TB) dans les familles des patients.Schéma : Une revue de littérature relative au soutien social et à la stigmatisation liée à la TB a permis de générer les domaines théoriques de l'instrument. Un groupe focal a ensuite été réalisé avec des patients tuberculeux et leurs familles afin de revoir ces domaines. Les réviseurs ont été invités à juger le caractère approprié des éléments de l'instrument. Une enquête traversable auprès de 110 membres des familles a été effectuée afin d'évaluer la structures factorielles grâce à l'analyse du composant principal, avec une analyse du facteur de confirmation qui a permis de vérifier la validité de la construction. La fiabilité a été évaluée par la cohérence interne grâce au coefficient α de Cronbach.Résultats : Vingt-trois éléments composaient l'échelle après la validation sémantique et l'étude pilote. L'exploration de la structure factorielle des 16 items qui étaient favorables grâce à l'analyse du composant principal a extrait deux facteurs. L'instrument à 16 items a été évalué en termes de validité de la construction avec une analyse du facteur de confirmation qui a confirmé un modèle à quatre items pour chaque dimension.Conclusion : L'étude a démontré les propriétés psychométriques d'un instrument encore au stade préliminaire. Cette échelle doit être testée à travers d'autres études dans le contexte brésilien.

  2. The Cultural Validation of Two Scales to Assess Social Stigma in Leprosy

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Ruth M. H.; Dadun; Van Brakel, Wim H.; Zweekhorst, Marjolein B. M.; Damayanti, Rita; Bunders, Joske F. G.; Irwanto

    2014-01-01

    Background Stigma plays in an important role in the lives of persons affected by neglected tropical diseases, and assessment of stigma is important to document this. The aim of this study is to test the cross-cultural validity of the Community Stigma Scale (EMIC-CSS) and the Social Distance Scale (SDS) in the field of leprosy in Cirebon District, Indonesia. Methodology/principle findings Cultural equivalence was tested by assessing the conceptual, item, semantic, operational and measurement equivalence of these instruments. A qualitative exploratory study was conducted to increase our understanding of the concept of stigma in Cirebon District. A process of translation, discussions, trainings and a pilot study followed. A sample of 259 community members was selected through convenience sampling and 67 repeated measures were obtained to assess the psychometric measurement properties. The aspects and items in the SDS and EMIC-CSS seem equally relevant and important in the target culture. The response scales were adapted to ensure that meaning is transferred accurately and no changes to the scale format (e.g. lay out, statements or questions) of both scales were made. A positive correlation was found between the EMIC-CSS and the SDS total scores (r = 0.41). Cronbach's alphas of 0.83 and 0.87 were found for the EMIC-CSS and SDS. The exploratory factor analysis indicated for both scales an adequate fit as unidimensional scale. A standard error of measurement of 2.38 was found in the EMIC-CSS and of 1.78 in the SDS. The test-retest reliability coefficient was respectively, 0.84 and 0.75. No floor or ceiling effects were found. Conclusions/significance According to current international standards, our findings indicate that the EMIC-CSS and the SDS have adequate cultural validity to assess social stigma in leprosy in the Bahasa Indonesia-speaking population of Cirebon District. We believe the scales can be further improved, for instance, by adding, changing and

  3. The Assessment of Positivity and Negativity in Social Networks: The Reliability and Validity of the Social Relationships Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campo, Rebecca A.; Uchino, Bert N.; Holt-Lunstad, Julianne; Vaughn, Allison; Reblin, Maija; Smith, Timothy W.

    2009-01-01

    The Social Relationships Index (SRI) was designed to examine positivity and negativity in social relationships. Unique features of this scale include its brevity and the ability to examine relationship positivity and negativity at the level of the specific individual and social network. The SRI's psychometric properties were examined in three…

  4. The Impact of the Social Order to Increase Enrollment in Programs of Additional Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zolotareva, Angelina V.; Bayborodova, Liudmila V.; Lehomzeva, Elena N.; Sukhanova, Yulia V.; Razumova, Anzhelika B.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to examine the social demand impact on increasing the children's enrollment of supplementary education programs. The survey has involved children of younger and middle school age (n = 2,206), high school students (n = 2,162), and parents of children of preschool (n = 313), younger and middle school age (n = 262). The…

  5. Reliability and Validity of a Survey of Cat Caregivers on Their Cats' Socialization Level in the Cat's Normal Environment.

    PubMed

    Slater, Margaret; Garrison, Laurie; Miller, Katherine; Weiss, Emily; Makolinski, Kathleen; Drain, Natasha

    2013-12-18

    Stray cats routinely enter animal welfare organizations each year and shelters are challenged with determining the level of human socialization these cats may possess as quickly as possible. However, there is currently no standard process to guide this determination. This study describes the development and validation of a caregiver survey designed to be filled out by a cat's caregiver so it accurately describes a cat's personality, background, and full range of behavior with people when in its normal environment. The results from this survey provided the basis for a socialization score that ranged from unsocialized to well socialized with people. The quality of the survey was evaluated based on inter-rater and test-retest reliability and internal consistency and estimates of construct and criterion validity. In general, our results showed moderate to high levels of inter-rater (median of 0.803, range 0.211-0.957) and test-retest agreement (median 0.92, range 0.211-0.999). Cronbach's alpha showed high internal consistency (0.962). Estimates of validity did not highlight any major shortcomings. This survey will be used to develop and validate an effective assessment process that accurately differentiates cats by their socialization levels towards humans based on direct observation of cats' behavior in an animal shelter.

  6. Assessing Autistic Traits in a Taiwan Preschool Population: Cross-Cultural Validation of the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jessica; Lee, Li-Ching; Chen, Ying-Sheue; Hsu, Ju-Wei

    2012-01-01

    The cross-cultural validity of the Mandarin-adaptation of the social responsiveness scale (SRS) was examined in a sample of N = 307 participants in Taiwan, 140 typically developing and 167 with clinically-diagnosed developmental disorders. This scale is an autism assessment tool that provides a quantitative rather than categorical measure of…

  7. Teacher Ratings of the Social Validity of Schoolwide Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports: A Comparison of School Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vancel, Samantha M.; Missall, Kristen N.; Bruhn, Allison L.

    2016-01-01

    With over 14,000 schools implementing Schoolwide Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports (SWPBIS), it is important to consider factors that contribute to effective implementation--which may affect student outcomes. Social validity is one factor that may influence implementation. The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which…

  8. Validity and reliability of questionnaires measuring physical activity self-efficacy, enjoyment, social support among Hong Kong Chinese children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Physical activity (PA) correlates have not been extensively studied in Hong Kong children. The aim of this study is to assess the validity and reliability of translated scales to measure PA related self-efficacy, enjoyment and social support in Hong Kong Chinese children. Sample 1 (n=273, aged 8–12 ...

  9. Development and Validation of a Teacher Report Measure for Assessing Social-Emotional Strengths of Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrell, Kenneth W.; Cohn, Bradley P.; Tom, Karalyn M.

    2011-01-01

    This study details development and validation efforts for a new strength-based assessment instrument: the Social-Emotional Assets and Resilience Scales, Teacher rating form (SEARS-T). A large and diverse nationwide sample of more than 1,500 teacher ratings of students in kindergarten through Grade 12 was obtained. Factor-analytic procedures…

  10. The Social Validity of Bug-in-Ear Coaching: Findings from Two Studies Implemented in Inclusive Early Childhood Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ottley, Jennifer Riggie; Coogle, Christan Grygas; Rahn, Naomi L.

    2015-01-01

    Coaching is a promising method for providing professional development, which takes many forms. One such form is real-time coaching through bug-in-ear technology. This study explored the social validity of bug-in-ear coaching when provided as a form of professional development with pre-service and in-service early childhood educators. Data from two…

  11. The Social Validity of Bug-in-Ear Coaching: Findings from Two Studies Implemented in Inclusive Early Childhood Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ottley, Jennifer R.; Coogle, Christan Grygas; Rahn, Naomi L.

    2015-01-01

    Coaching is a promising method for providing professional development, which takes many forms. One such form is real-time coaching through bug-in-ear technology. This study explored the social validity of bug-in-ear coaching when provided as a form of professional development with preservice and in-service early childhood educators. Data from two…

  12. Preschool Children's Learning Behaviors, Concept Attainment, Social Skills, and Problem Behaviors: Validity Evidence for Preschool Learning Behaviors Scale Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaefer, Barbara A.; Shur, Kimberely Fitch; Macri-Summers, Maria; MacDonald, Scott L.

    2004-01-01

    This study provides concurrent and predictive validity and test-retest reliability evidence for scores from the preschool teacher-completed Preschool Learning Behaviors Scale (PLBS; McDermott, Green, Francis, & Stott, 2002) using two regional samples of preschool children aged 3 to 5.5 years (Ns of 61 and 70). Teacher ratings of social skills and…

  13. Enhancing Validity When Researching the "Other": Insights from Pierre Bourdieu's Theory of Social Science Research Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naidoo, Devika

    2014-01-01

    This article explores aspects of Pierre Bourdieu's theory of social science research practice and discusses their relevance for enhancing validity when researching the "other." Aspects such as: a relational way of thinking about concepts, epistemology and methodology; the rigorous construction of the object of research; and…

  14. Merging Empiricism and Humanism: Role of Social Validity in the School-Wide Positive Behavior Support Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marchant, Michelle; Heath, Melissa Allen; Miramontes, Nancy Y.

    2013-01-01

    Criteria for evaluating behavior support programs are changing. Consumer-based educational and behavioral programs, such as School-Wide Positive Behavior Support (SWPBS), are particularly influenced by consumer opinion. Unfortunately, the need for and use of social validity measures have not received adequate attention in the empirical literature…

  15. Construct and Predictive Validity of Social Acceptability: Scores From High School Teacher Ratings on the School Intervention Rating Form

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Judith R.; State, Talida M.; Evans, Steven W.; Schamberg, Terah

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the construct and predictive validity of scores on a measure of social acceptability of class-wide and individual student intervention, the School Intervention Rating Form (SIRF), with high school teachers. Utilizing scores from 158 teachers, exploratory factor analysis revealed a three-factor (i.e.,…

  16. Social Validity of Behavioral Practices in the Treatment of Autism--A Review of the "Super Nanny"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Melissa J.; Valdovinos, Maria G.

    2009-01-01

    This study assessed the social validity of behavioral techniques (i.e., pivotal response treatment) used with a child diagnosed with autism as viewed on an episode of the "Super Nanny" [Frost, J. (Host). (2005). Facente family [television series episode]. In N. Powell (Producer), "Super Nanny". New York: American Broadcasting Companies, Inc.].…

  17. An Examination of Social Validity within Single-Case Research with Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spear, Caitlin F.; Strickland-Cohen, M. Kathleen; Romer, Natalie; Albin, Richard W.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we reviewed social validity in single-case research studies that focused on interventions for students who have either been identified as having, or as at-risk for emotional and behavioral disorders. This review focused on studies from four peer-reviewed journals known to publish single-case research with this population: the…

  18. Online Universal Screening and Behavioral Progress Monitoring: Assessing Social Validity, Usability and Intent to Use by K-3 Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sprague, Jeffrey; Pennefather, Jordan; Marquez, Jessie; Yeaton, Pamela; Marquez, Brion

    2011-01-01

    This session will describe the social validity, usability and intent to use of an interactive, state-of-the-art, professional development program based on the Response to Intervention (RtI) approach and its core components (e.g., problem-solving strategy; three tiers of intervention service delivery with universal, selected and intensive…

  19. Validity of Evidence-Derived Criteria for Reactive Attachment Disorder: Indiscriminately Social/Disinhibited and Emotionally Withdrawn/Inhibited Types

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gleason, Mary Margaret; Fox, Nathan A.; Drury, Stacy; Smyke, Anna; Egger, Helen L.; Nelson, Charles A., III; Gregas, Matthew C.; Zeanah, Charles H.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the validity of criteria for indiscriminately social/disinhibited and emotionally withdrawn/inhibited reactive attachment disorder (RAD). Method: As part of a longitudinal intervention trial of previously institutionalized children, caregiver interviews and direct observational measurements provided continuous and…

  20. 76 FR 2802 - Additions and Revisions to the List of Validated End-Users in the People's Republic of China...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-18

    ... Validated End-Users in the People's Republic of China: CSMC Technologies Corporation and Advanced Micro... Advanced Micro Devices China, Inc. (AMD) in the PRC by amending the list of buildings associated with one... the PRC, BIS amended the EAR in a final rule on June 19, 2007 (72 FR 33646) by creating a...

  1. 75 FR 62462 - Additions to the List of Validated End-Users in the People's Republic of China: Hynix...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-12

    ... the Notice of August 12, 2010 (75 FR 50681 (August 16, 2010), has continued the EAR in effect under... 19, 2007 (72 FR 33646) by creating a new authorization for ``validated end-users'' located in... (71 FR 38313, July 2, 2006 and 72 FR 33646, June 19, 2007). Given the similarities between...

  2. Spiritual assessment and Native Americans: establishing the social validity of a complementary set of assessment tools.

    PubMed

    Hodge, David R; Limb, Gordon E

    2011-07-01

    Although social work practitioners are increasingly likely to administer spiritual assessments with Native American clients, few qualitative assessment instruments have been validated with this population. This mixed-method study validates a complementary set of spiritual assessment instruments. Drawing on the social validity literature, a sample of experts in Native culture (N = 50) evaluated the instruments' cultural consistency, strengths, limitations, and areas needing improvement. Regarding the degree of congruence with Native American culture, verbally based spiritual histories ranked highest and diagrammatically oriented spiritual genograms ranked lowest, although all instruments demonstrated at least moderate levels of consistency with Native culture.The results also suggest that practitioners' level of spiritual competence plays a crucial role in ensuring the instruments are operationalized in a culturally appropriate manner. PMID:21848086

  3. [Development and validation of a social vulnerability index applied to public policies of the Unified Health System (SUS)].

    PubMed

    Drachler, Maria de Lourdes; Lobato, Marcos Antônio de Oliveira; Lermen, José Inácio; Fagundes, Sandra; Ferla, Alcindo Antonio; Drachler, Carlos Wietzke; Teixeira, Luciana Barcellos; Leite, José Carlos de Carvalho

    2014-09-01

    The article outlines the development and initial validation of a Social Vulnerability Index (SVI) including five social determinants of risk to health and demonstrates its application in the financing of primary care by the Unified Health System (SUS) in the State of Rio Grande do Sul. Municipal indicators of vulnerability relating to poverty and population dispersion were obtained from the 2010 population census of the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics. Both exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis suggests that the five items can constitute a reliable and acceptable measurement scale. The SVI-5 was then generated based on the first main component, measuring municipal inequalities in social vulnerability relating to poverty and population in the territory in Z-scores. The external validity of SVI-5 was examined in relation to health outcomes using DATASUS 2007-2011 data, revealing that infant mortality and hospitalizations for conditions treatable by primary care are greater in more vulnerable municipalities The results suggest that the SVI-5 is a valid measure of inequalities in social vulnerability between municipalities, applicable to socially equitable policies in health.

  4. Validating a method for transferring social values of ecosystem services between public lands in the Rocky Mountain region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sherrouse, Benson C.; Semmens, Darius J.

    2014-01-01

    With growing pressures on ecosystem services, social values attributed to them are increasingly important to land management decisions. Social values, defined here as perceived values the public ascribes to ecosystem services, particularly cultural services, are generally not accounted for through economic markets or considered alongside economic and ecological values in ecosystem service assessments. Social-values data can be elicited through public value and preference surveys; however, limitations prevent them from being regularly collected. These limitations led to our three study objectives: (1) demonstrate an approach for applying benefit transfer, a nonmarket-valuation method, to spatially explicit social values; (2) validate the approach; and (3) identify potential improvements. We applied Social Values for Ecosystem Services (SolVES) to survey data for three national forests in Colorado and Wyoming. Social-value maps and models were generated, describing relationships between the maps and various combinations of environmental variables. Models from each forest were used to estimate social-value maps for the other forests via benefit transfer. Model performance was evaluated relative to the locally derived models. Performance varied with the number and type of environmental variables used, as well as differences in the forests' physical and social contexts. Enhanced metadata and better social-context matching could improve model transferability.

  5. Outcome Measures of Functionality, Social Interaction, and Pain in Patients with Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy: A Validation Study for the Iranian Version of the Copenhagen Neck Functional Disability Scale

    PubMed Central

    Nayeb Aghaei, Hossein; Shahzadi, Sohrab; Azhari, Shirzad; Mohammadi, Hassan Reza; Alizadeh, Pooyan; Montazeri, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Cross-sectional. Purpose To translate and validate the Iranian version of the Copenhagen Neck Functional Disability Scale (CNFDS). Overview of Literature Instruments measuring patient-reported outcomes should satisfy certain psychometric properties. Methods Ninety-three cases of cervical spondylotic myelopathy were entered into the study and completed the CNFDS pre and postoperatively at the 6 month follow-up. The modified Japanese Orthopedic Association Score was also completed. The internal consistency, test-retest, convergent validity, construct validity (item scale correlation), and responsiveness to change were assessed. Results Mean age of the patients was 54.3 years (standard deviation, 8.9). The Cronbach α coefficient was satisfactory (α=0.84). Test-retest reliability as assessed by the intraclass correlation coefficient analysis was 0.95 (95% confidence interval, 0.92-0.98). The modified Japanese Orthopedic Association score correlated strongly with the CNFDS score, lending support to its good convergent validity (r=-0.80; p<0.001). Additionally, the correlation of each item with its hypothesized domain on the CNFDS was acceptable, suggesting that the items had a substantial relationship with their own domains. These results also indicate that the instrument was responsive to change (p<0.0001). Conclusions The findings suggest that the Iranian version of the CNFDS is a valid measure to assess functionality, social interaction, and pain among patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy. PMID:26713123

  6. The psychometric validation of the Social Problem-Solving Inventory--Revised with UK incarcerated sexual offenders.

    PubMed

    Wakeling, Helen C

    2007-09-01

    This study examined the reliability and validity of the Social Problem-Solving Inventory--Revised (SPSI-R; D'Zurilla, Nezu, & Maydeu-Olivares, 2002) with a population of incarcerated sexual offenders. An availability sample of 499 adult male sexual offenders was used. The SPSI-R had good reliability measured by internal consistency and test-retest reliability, and adequate validity. Construct validity was determined via factor analysis. An exploratory factor analysis extracted a two-factor model. This model was then tested against the theory-driven five-factor model using confirmatory factor analysis. The five-factor model was selected as the better fitting of the two, and confirmed the model according to social problem-solving theory (D'Zurilla & Nezu, 1982). The SPSI-R had good convergent validity; significant correlations were found between SPSI-R subscales and measures of self-esteem, impulsivity, and locus of control. SPSI-R subscales were however found to significantly correlate with a measure of socially desirable responding. This finding is discussed in relation to recent research suggesting that impression management may not invalidate self-report measures (e.g. Mills & Kroner, 2005). The SPSI-R was sensitive to sexual offender intervention, with problem-solving improving pre to post-treatment in both rapists and child molesters. The study concludes that the SPSI-R is a reasonably internally valid and appropriate tool to assess problem-solving in sexual offenders. However future research should cross-validate the SPSI-R with other behavioural outcomes to examine the external validity of the measure. Furthermore, future research should utilise a control group to determine treatment impact. PMID:17333399

  7. Additional evidence for a dual-strategy model of reasoning: Probabilistic reasoning is more invariant than reasoning about logical validity.

    PubMed

    Markovits, Henry; Brisson, Janie; de Chantal, Pier-Luc

    2015-11-01

    One of the major debates concerning the nature of inferential reasoning is between counterexample-based strategies such as mental model theory and the statistical strategies underlying probabilistic models. The dual-strategy model proposed by Verschueren, Schaeken, and d'Ydewalle (2005a, 2005b) suggests that people might have access to both kinds of strategies. One of the postulates of this approach is that statistical strategies correspond to low-cost, intuitive modes of evaluation, whereas counterexample strategies are higher-cost and more variable in use. We examined this hypothesis by using a deductive-updating paradigm. The results of Study 1 showed that individual differences in strategy use predict different levels of deductive updating on inferences about logical validity. Study 2 demonstrated no such variation when explicitly probabilistic inferences were examined. Study 3 showed that presenting updating problems with probabilistic inferences modified performance on subsequent problems using logical validity, whereas the opposite was not true. These results provide clear evidence that the processes used to make probabilistic inferences are less subject to variation than those used to make inferences of logical validity.

  8. Development and validation of the Self-Stigma Questionnaire (SSQ) for people with schizophrenia and its relation to social functioning.

    PubMed

    Ochoa, Susana; Martínez-Zambrano, Francisco; Garcia-Franco, Mar; Vilamala, Sonia; Ribas, Maria; Arenas, Oti; Garcia-Morales, Esther; Álvarez, Irene; Escartin, Gemma; Villellas, Raul; Escandell, Maria Jose; Martínez-Raves, Mónica; López-Arias, Elisabeth; Cunyat, Christian; Haro, Josep Maria

    2015-10-01

    Self-stigma specifically in people with schizophrenia has been little studied. The aims of the present study were to validate a new instrument for the assessment of self-stigma (SSQ) and to assess the relationship between self-stigma and social functioning in people with schizophrenia. A sample of 76 people with schizophrenia was assessed at two moments in time with the SSQ, the PDD (stigma), two scales of social functioning (LSP, SFS), and a scale of general functioning (GAF). The results indicated that SSQ presented good psychometric properties, with Cronbach's alpha ranging between 0.75 and 0.901. The stability of the instrument was between 0.836 and 0.402. Three factors were found in the factor analysis (social discrimination, perceived capabilities, concealment of the disease), explaining 62.66% of the total variance. A relationship was found between self-stigma and social functioning in people with schizophrenia, especially in relation to social contact. In conclusion, the SSQ seems to be a valid and reliable questionnaire for the assessment of self-stigma in people with schizophrenia, and interventions should be designed to cope with self-stigma in order to improve the social functioning of people who suffer schizophrenia. PMID:26343472

  9. Empirically Valid Strategies to Improve Social and Emotional Competence of Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCabe, Paul C.; Altamura, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    Research over the past few decades has highlighted the importance of social and emotional competence in preschool children on later academic, social, and psychological outcomes. Children who are socially and emotionally competent have increased socialization opportunities with peers, develop more friends, have better relationships with their…

  10. Using Mixed Methods to Establish the Social Validity of a Self-Report Assessment: An Illustration Using the Child Occupational Self-Assessment (COSA)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, Jessica M.

    2011-01-01

    Social validity is the extent to which procedures, goals, and outcomes are acceptable and important to end users and is not commonly addressed during assessment development. This article pilots a process of triangulating multiple methods to evaluate the social validity of a self-report assessment. These procedures were piloted using the Child…

  11. Research, Development, and Validation of a School Leader's Resource Guide for the Facilitation of Social Media Use by School Staff

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gooch, Deanna L.

    2012-01-01

    Many school leaders do not understand their rights and responsibilities to facilitate social media use by their staff in P-12 education. This dissertation was designed to research, develop, and validate a resource guide school leaders can use to facilitate social media use by school staff. "Research, Development, and Validation of a School…

  12. Self-Reported Acceptance of Social Anxiety Symptoms: Development and Validation of the Social Anxiety-Acceptance and Action Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKenzie, Meagan B.; Kocovski, Nancy L.

    2010-01-01

    Mindfulness and acceptance-based interventions have been used in social anxiety treatments with initial success. Further research requires the psychometrically sound measurement of mechanisms of change associated with these treatments. This research was conducted to develop and evaluate such a measure, the Social Anxiety-Acceptance and Action…

  13. Validation of alternative indicators of social support in perinatal outcomes research using quality of the partner relationship

    PubMed Central

    Kruse, Julie A.; Seng, Julia S.; Low, Lisa Kane

    2015-01-01

    Aim This paper suggests and tests alternatives to the current research and clinical practice of assuming that married or partnered status is a proxy for positive social support. Background Having a partner is assumed to relate to better health status via the intermediary process of social support. However, women’s health research indicates that having a partner is not always associated with positive social support. Design An exploratory post hoc analysis focused on posttraumatic stress and childbearing was conducted using a large perinatal database from 2005–2009. Methods To operationalize partner relationship, four variables were analyzed: partner (‘yes’ or ‘no’), intimate partner violence (‘yes’ or ‘no’), the combination of those two factors, and the woman’s appraisal of the quality of her partner relationship via a single item. Construct validity of these four alternative variables was assessed in relation to appraisal of the partner’s social support in labor and the postpartum using linear regression standardized betas and adjusted R-squares. Predictive validity was assessed using unadjusted and adjusted linear regression modeling. Results Four groups were compared. Married abused women differed most from married, not abused women in relation to the social support and depression outcomes used for validity checks. The variable representing the women’s appraisal of their partner relationship explains the most variance in predicting depression scores. Conclusions Our results support the validity of operationalizing the impact of the partner relationship on outcomes by using a combination of partnered status and abuse status or using a subjective rating of quality of the partner relationship. PMID:23009056

  14. Are Dietary Restraint Scales Valid Measures of Dietary Restriction? Additional Objective Behavioral and Biological Data Suggest Not

    PubMed Central

    Stice, Eric; Sysko, Robyn; Roberto, Christina A.; Allison, Shelley

    2009-01-01

    Prospective studies find that individuals with elevated dietary restraint scores are at increased risk for bulimic symptom onset, yet experiments find that assignment to energy-deficit diet interventions reduce bulimic symptoms. One explanation for the conflicting findings is that the dietary restraint scales used in the former studies do not actually identify individuals who are restraining their caloric intake. Thus, we tested whether dietary restraint scales showed inverse relations to objectively measured caloric intake in three studies. Four dietary restraint scales did not correlate with doubly labeled water estimates of caloric intake over a 2-week period (M r = .01). One scale showed a significant inverse correlation with objectively measured caloric intake during a regular meal ordered from an ecologically valid menu (M r = −.30), but a significant positive relation that was qualified by a significant quadratic effect, to objectively measured caloric intake during multiple eating episodes in the lab (M r = .32). In balance, results suggest that dietary restraint scales are not valid measures of dietary restriction, replicating findings from prior studies that examined objective measures of caloric intake. PMID:20006662

  15. Can Findings from Randomized Controlled Trials of Social Skills Training in Autism Spectrum Disorder Be Generalized? The Neglected Dimension of External Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonsson, Ulf; Olsson, Nora Choque; Bölte, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Systematic reviews have traditionally focused on internal validity, while external validity often has been overlooked. In this study, we systematically reviewed determinants of external validity in the accumulated randomized controlled trials of social skills group interventions for children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder. We…

  16. The Behavioral Assessment of Social Interactions in Young Children: An Examination of Convergent and Incremental Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callahan, Emily H.; Gillis, Jennifer M.; Romanczyk, Raymond G.; Mattson, Richard E.

    2011-01-01

    Many treatment programs for individuals with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) target social skills, and there is growing attention directed toward the development of specific interventions to improve social skills and social interactions in this population (Hestenes & Carroll, 2000; Strain & Hoyson, 2000). However, there are limited tools…

  17. Measuring Teacher Knowledge of Classroom Social Networks: Convergent and Predictive Validity in Elementary School Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madill, Rebecca A.; Gest, Scott D.; Rodkin, Philip C.

    2012-01-01

    This study contributes to a growing body of literature focused on the role of the teacher's "invisible hand" in managing students social relationships. The authors focus on one specific aspect of attunement, teachers' social network knowledge, which they conceptualize as the completeness and accuracy of the teacher's social network knowledge,…

  18. Development and Validation of the Social Worker's Attitudes toward Disability Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheatham, Leah P.; Abell, Neil; Kim, Hyejin

    2015-01-01

    Disability scholars have recently highlighted social work professional organizations' lagging pace in adopting disability advocacy within diversity agendas and have questioned the adequacy of disability content within accredited social work curricula. Amid growing concerns, measures to assess attitudes of social workers toward disability and…

  19. Assessing autistic traits in a Taiwan preschool population: cross-cultural validation of the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS).

    PubMed

    Wang, Jessica; Lee, Li-Ching; Chen, Ying-Sheue; Hsu, Ju-Wei

    2012-11-01

    The cross-cultural validity of the Mandarin-adaptation of the social responsiveness scale (SRS) was examined in a sample of N = 307 participants in Taiwan, 140 typically developing and 167 with clinically-diagnosed developmental disorders. This scale is an autism assessment tool that provides a quantitative rather than categorical measure of social impairment in the general population. SRS total and subscale scores distinguished significantly between autism spectrum disorder and other developmental disorders (p < 0.01). Total SRS scores and sensitivity and specificity of the scale for diagnosing developmental disorders in the Taiwan study were similar to those observed in Western studies. These findings support the cross-cultural validity of the SRS scale for detecting autistic traits and for distinguishing between autism and other neuropsychiatric conditions. PMID:22407579

  20. 78 FR 54752 - Addition and Revision to the List of Validated End-Users in the People's Republic of China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-06

    ... final rule published on June 19, 2007 (72 FR 33646) to create Authorization VEU. Addition to the List of..., 2001 Comp., p. 783 (2002)), as amended by Executive Order 13637 of March 8, 2013, 78 FR 16129 (March 13, 2013), and as extended most recently by the Notice of August 8, 2013, 78 FR 49107 (August 12,...

  1. 78 FR 32981 - Addition, Removals, and Revisions to the List of Validated End-Users in the People's Republic of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-03

    ... the EAR in a final rule published on June 19, 2007 (72 FR 33646) to create Authorization VEU. Addition... a rule published on September 7, 2010 (75 FR 54271). That rule revised the control parameters for... (2002)), as amended by Executive Order 13637 of March 8, 2013, 78 FR 16129 (March 13, 2013), and...

  2. Social Organization in Parasitic Flatworms--Four Additional Echinostomoid Trematodes Have a Soldier Caste and One Does Not.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Vedrenne, Ana E; Quintana, Anastasia C E; DeRogatis, Andrea M; Martyn, Kayla; Kuris, Armand M; Hechinger, Ryan F

    2016-02-01

    Complex societies where individuals exhibit division of labor with physical polymorphism, behavioral specialization, and caste formation have evolved several times throughout the animal kingdom. Recently, such complex sociality has been recognized in digenean trematodes; evidence is limited to 6 marine species. Hence, the extent to which a soldier caste is present throughout the Trematoda is sparsely documented, and there are no studies detailing the structure of a species lacking such a social structure. Here we examine colony structure for an additional 5 echinostomoid species, 4 of which infect the marine snail Cerithidea californica and 1 (Echinostoma liei) that infects the freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata . For all species, we present redia morphology (pharynx and body size) and the distribution of individuals of different castes throughout the snail body. When morphological evidence indicated the presence of a soldier caste, we assessed behavior by measuring attack rates of the different morphs toward heterospecific trematodes. Our findings indicate that each of the 4 species from C. californica have a permanent soldier caste while E. liei does not. The observed intra- and inter-specific variation of caste structure for those species with soldiers, and the documentation of colony structure for a species explicitly lacking permanent soldiers, emphasizes the diverse nature of trematode sociality and the promise of the group to permit comparative investigations of the evolution and ecology of sociality. PMID:26560890

  3. A Comparative Analysis of the Validity of US State- and County-Level Social Capital Measures and Their Associations with Population Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Chul-Joo; Kim, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The goals of this study were to validate a number of available collective social capital measures at the US state and county levels, and to examine the relative extent to which these social capital measures are associated with population health outcomes. Measures of social capital at the US state level included aggregate indices based on the…

  4. An Empirically Derived Approach to the Latent Structure of the Adult Attachment Interview: Additional Convergent and Discriminant Validity Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Haydon, Katherine C.; Roisman, Glenn I.; Marks, Michael J.; Fraley, R. Chris

    2011-01-01

    Building on studies examining the latent structure of attachment-related individual differences as assessed by the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) via Principal Components Analysis, the current report further explores the validity of four AAI dimensions reported by Haydon, Roisman, and Burt (in press): dismissing states of mind, preoccupied states of mind, and inferred negative experience with maternal and paternal caregivers. Study 1 reports evidence of distinctive cognitive correlates of dismissing v. preoccupied states of mind with reaction time in an attachment Stroop task and the valence of endorsed self-descriptors, respectively. Study 2 replicates prior meta-analytic findings of generally trivial convergence between state of mind dimensions and self-reported avoidance and anxiety (i.e., Roisman, Holland, et al., 2007). Study 3 contrastively demonstrates moderate empirical overlap between inferred experience—but not state of mind—AAI scales and self-reported avoidance and anxiety when the latter were assessed at the level of specific caregivers. Taken together, these findings add to accumulating evidence that an empirically-driven approach to scaling adults on AAI dimensions (Haydon et al., in press; Roisman et al., 2007) aids in identifying theoretically anticipated and distinctive affective, behavioral, and cognitive correlates of dismissing versus preoccupied states of mind. PMID:21838649

  5. Comparison of ENDF/B-VII.1 and ENDF/B-VII.0 Results for the Expanded Criticality Validation Suite for MCNP and for Selected Additional Criticality Benchmarks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosteller, R.

    2014-04-01

    Results obtained with the MCNP5 Monte Carlo code and the ENDF/B-VII.1 and ENDF/B-VII.0 nuclear data libraries have been compared for the 119 benchmarks in the expanded criticality validation suite for MCNP and for 23 additional benchmarks. ENDF/B-VII.1 was found to produce improvements relative to ENDF/B-VII.0 for benchmarks that contain significant amounts of tungsten, zirconium, cadmium, or beryllium, although the results for the benchmarks with beryllium suggest that further improvement still may be needed. In addition, a number of deficiencies previously identified for ENDF/B-VII.0 still remain in ENDF/B-VII.1.

  6. Kinetic Validation of the Models for P-Glycoprotein ATP Hydrolysis and Vanadate-Induced Trapping. Proposal for Additional Steps

    PubMed Central

    Lugo, Miguel Ramón; Sharom, Frances Jane

    2014-01-01

    P-Glycoprotein, a member of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) superfamily, is a multidrug transporter responsible for cellular efflux of hundreds of structurally unrelated compounds, including natural products, many clinically used drugs and anti-cancer agents. Expression of P-glycoprotein has been linked to multidrug resistance in human cancers. ABC transporters are driven by ATP hydrolysis at their two cytoplasmic nucleotide-binding domains, which interact to form a closed ATP-bound sandwich dimer. Intimate knowledge of the catalytic cycle of these proteins is clearly essential for understanding their mechanism of action. P-Glycoprotein has been proposed to hydrolyse ATP by an alternating mechanism, for which there is substantial experimental evidence, including inhibition of catalytic activity by trapping of ortho-vanadate at one nucleotide-binding domain, and the observation of an asymmetric occluded state. Despite many studies of P-glycoprotein ATPase activity over the past 20 years, no comprehensive kinetic analysis has yet been carried out, and some puzzling features of its behaviour remain unexplained. In this work, we have built several progressively more complex kinetic models, and then carried out simulations and detailed analysis, to test the validity of the proposed reaction pathway employed by P-glycoprotein for ATP hydrolysis. To establish kinetic parameters for the catalytic cycle, we made use of the large amount of published data on ATP hydrolysis by hamster P-glycoprotein, both purified and in membrane vesicles. The proposed kinetic scheme(s) include a high affinity priming reaction for binding of the first ATP molecule, and an independent pathway for ADP binding outside the main catalytic cycle. They can reproduce to varying degrees the observed behavior of the protein's ATPase activity and its inhibition by ortho-vanadate. The results provide new insights into the mode of action of P-glycoprotein, and some hypotheses about the nature of the

  7. The Development and Validation of the Social Networking Experiences Questionnaire: A Measure of Adolescent Cyberbullying and Its Impact.

    PubMed

    Dredge, Rebecca; Gleeson, John; Garcia, Xochitl de la Piedad

    2015-01-01

    The measurement of cyberbullying has been marked by several inconsistencies that lead to difficulties in cross-study comparisons of the frequency of occurrence and the impact of cyberbullying. Consequently, the first aim of this study was to develop a measure of experience with and impact of cyberbullying victimization in social networking sites in adolescents. The second aim was to investigate the psychometric properties of a purpose-built measure (Social Networking Experiences Questionnaire [SNEQ]). Exploratory factor analysis on 253 adolescent social networking sites users produced a six-factor model of impact. However, one factor was removed because of low internal consistency. Cronbach's alpha was higher than .76 for the victimization and remaining five impact subscales. Furthermore, correlation coefficients for the Victimization scale and related dimensions showed good construct validity. The utility of the SNEQ for victim support personnel, research, and cyberbullying education/prevention programs is discussed. PMID:26299596

  8. The Development and Validation of the Social Networking Experiences Questionnaire: A Measure of Adolescent Cyberbullying and Its Impact.

    PubMed

    Dredge, Rebecca; Gleeson, John; Garcia, Xochitl de la Piedad

    2015-01-01

    The measurement of cyberbullying has been marked by several inconsistencies that lead to difficulties in cross-study comparisons of the frequency of occurrence and the impact of cyberbullying. Consequently, the first aim of this study was to develop a measure of experience with and impact of cyberbullying victimization in social networking sites in adolescents. The second aim was to investigate the psychometric properties of a purpose-built measure (Social Networking Experiences Questionnaire [SNEQ]). Exploratory factor analysis on 253 adolescent social networking sites users produced a six-factor model of impact. However, one factor was removed because of low internal consistency. Cronbach's alpha was higher than .76 for the victimization and remaining five impact subscales. Furthermore, correlation coefficients for the Victimization scale and related dimensions showed good construct validity. The utility of the SNEQ for victim support personnel, research, and cyberbullying education/prevention programs is discussed.

  9. A non-additive repulsive contribution in an equation of state: The development for homonuclear square well chains equation of state validated against Monte Carlo simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trinh, Thi-Kim-Hoang; Passarello, Jean-Philippe; de Hemptinne, Jean-Charles; Lugo, Rafael; Lachet, Veronique

    2016-03-01

    This work consists of the adaptation of a non-additive hard sphere theory inspired by Malakhov and Volkov [Polym. Sci., Ser. A 49(6), 745-756 (2007)] to a square-well chain. Using the thermodynamic perturbation theory, an additional term is proposed that describes the effect of perturbing the chain of square well spheres by a non-additive parameter. In order to validate this development, NPT Monte Carlo simulations of thermodynamic and structural properties of the non-additive square well for a pure chain and a binary mixture of chains are performed. Good agreements are observed between the compressibility factors originating from the theory and those from molecular simulations.

  10. The Validity and Reliability of The Social Communication Questionnaire-Turkish Form in Autistics Aged 4-18 Years

    PubMed Central

    Avcil, Sibelnur; Baykara, Burak; Baydur, Hakan; Münir, Kerim M.; Inal Emiroğlu, Neslihan

    2016-01-01

    Objective The Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ) is a valid and reliable 40-item scale used to assess pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs). The aim of this study was to determine the validity and reliability of the SCQ-Turkish Form (SCQ-TF). Materials and Methods The study included 100 children and adolescents aged 4-18 years; 50 were diagnosed as PDD and 50 were diagnosed with intellectual disability (ID) based on DSM-IV-TR criteria. The consistency, test-retest reliability, content validity, and discriminant validity of SCQ-TF for the groups in the study sample were evaluated. SCQ-TF was compared to the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS), Autism Behavioural Checklist (ABC), and Clinical Global Impression-Severity of Illness (CGI-SI). The most appropriate SCQ-TF cut-off point was determined via ROC analysis. Results The 4-factor structure of SCQ-TF accounted for 43.0% of the observed total variance. Correlations between SCQ-TF and the other measures were significant. The Cronbach's alpha value for the SCQ-TF total score was 0.80. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) varied between 0.87 and 0.96, and the cut-off point was 15. Conclusion The findings show that SCQ-TF is valid and reliable for use in Turkey in those aged 4-18 years. PMID:25742038

  11. Validation of the Emotion Regulation and Social Skills Questionnaire for Young People with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butterworth, Thomas W.; Hodge, M. Antoinette; Sofronoff, Kate; Beaumont, Renae; Gray, Kylie M.; Roberts, Jacqueline; Horstead, Siân K.; Clarke, Kristina S.; Howlin, Patricia; Taffe, John R.; Einfeld, Stewart L.

    2014-01-01

    The current study aims to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Emotion Regulation and Social Skills Questionnaire (ERSSQ), a rating scale designed specifically to assess the social skills of young people with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). The participants were 84 children and young adolescents with ASD, aged between 7.97 and 14.16 years…

  12. Development and Validation of a Gender-Balanced Measure of Aggression-Relevant Social Cognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Jan N.; Webster-Stratton, Barbara T.; Cavell, Timothy A.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the psychometric properties of the Social?Cognitive Assessment Profile (SCAP), a gender-balanced measure of social information processing (SIP) in a sample of 371 (139 girls, 232 boys) 2nd- to 4th-grade children. The SCAP assesses 4 dimensions of SIP (Inferring Hostile Intent, Constructing Hostile Goals, Generating Aggressive…

  13. The Teenage Inventory of Social Skills: Reliability and Validity of the Spanish Translation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingles, Candido J.; Hidalgo, Maria D.; Mendez, F. Xavier; Inderbitzen, Heidi, M.

    2003-01-01

    Peer relationships play a critical role in the development of social skills and personal feelings essential for personal growth. The Teenage Inventory of Social Skills is a self-report designed exclusively to reflect behaviors functionally related to peer acceptance in adolescence. The aim of the present work was to determine the reliability and…

  14. Validation of the Elementary Social Behavior Assessment: A Measure of Student Prosocial School Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennefather, Jordan T.; Smolkowski, Keith

    2015-01-01

    We describe the psychometric evaluation of the "Elementary Social Behavior Assessment" (ESBA™), a 12-item scale measuring teacher-preferred, positive social skills. The ESBA was developed for use in elementary school classrooms to measure teacher perceptions of students using time-efficient, web-based data collection methods that allow…

  15. Assessing Individual Social Capital Capacity: The Development and Validation of a Network Accessibility Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatala, John-Paul

    2009-01-01

    Any organization that is able to promote the importance of increased levels of social capital and individuals who can leverage and use the resources that exist within the network may experience higher levels of performance. This study sought to add to our knowledge about individuals' accessing social resources for the purpose of accomplishing…

  16. A Cross Cultural Validation of Perceptions and Use of Social Network Service: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guo, Chengqi

    2009-01-01

    The rapid developments Social Network Service (SNS) have offered opportunities to re-visit many seminal theoretical assumptions of technology usage within socio-technical environment. Online social network is a rapidly growing field that imposes new questions to the existing IS research paradigm. It is argued that information systems research must…

  17. Adaptation of Social Interaction Practices for the Preschool Years into Turkish: Validity and Reliability Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samur, Ayse Ozturk; Soydan, Sema

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to adapt SIPPY (social interaction practices for the preschool years) scale into Turkish. The SIPPY is a tool designed to assess teachers' judgments of the acceptability and feasibility, as well as their current use of literature-supported strategies for promoting the development of young children's social competence in…

  18. The Association of Social Work Boards' Licensure Examinations: A Review of Reliability and Validity Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marson, Stephen M.; DeAngelis, Donna; Mittal, Nisha

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this article is to create transparency for the psychometric methods employed for the development of the Association of Social Work Boards' (ASWB) exams. Results: The article includes an assessment of the macro (political) and micro (statistical) environments of testing social work competence. The seven-step process used…

  19. Reliability and Validity of a Spanish Version of the Social Skills Rating System--Teacher Form

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jurado, Michelle; Cumba-Aviles, Eduardo; Collazo, Luis C.; Matos, Maribel

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of a Spanish version of the Social Skills Scale of the Social Skills Rating System-Teacher Form (SSRS-T) with a sample of children attending elementary schools in Puerto Rico (N = 357). The SSRS-T was developed for use with English-speaking children. Although translated, adapted, and…

  20. Influence of social cognition on daily functioning in schizophrenia: study of incremental validity and mediational effects.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Domínguez, Sara; Penadés, Rafael; Segura, Bàrbara; González-Rodríguez, Alexandre; Catalán, Rosa

    2015-02-28

    While the role of impaired neurocognition in accounting for functional outcome in schizophrenia is generally established, the influence of social cognition on this relationship is far from clear. This study aims to explore in depth the nature of the relationship between neurocognition, social cognition and daily functioning in people with schizophrenia. Twenty-one individuals diagnosed with schizophrenia and 15 controls completed the assessment of symptom severity, neuropsychological status, social cognition (Theory of Mind and affect processing) and other functional measures. A statistical mediation model based on hierarchical regression analyses was used to establish the mediation path with significant variables. Social cognition played a mediating role between neurocognition and functioning, accounting for significant trends in incremental variance in specific functional indexes (interpersonal behavior and employment/occupation). Consequently, this study adds to the evidence underlining the importance of targeting not only social cognitive or neurocognitive functions but to combine both interventions to reveal the best daily functioning results in schizophrenia patients.

  1. Cooperativeness and competitiveness as two distinct constructs: validating the Cooperative and Competitive Personality Scale in a social dilemma context.

    PubMed

    Lu, Su; Au, Wing-Tung; Jiang, Feng; Xie, Xiaofei; Yam, Paton

    2013-01-01

    The present research validated the construct and criterion validities of the Cooperative and Competitive Personality Scale (CCPS) in a social dilemma context. The results from three studies supported the notion that cooperativeness and competitiveness are two independent dimensions, challenging the traditional view that they are two ends of a single continuum. First, confirmatory factor analyses revealed that a two-factor structure fit the data significantly better than a one-factor structure. Moreover, cooperativeness and competitiveness were either not significantly correlated (Studies 1 and 3) or only moderately positively correlated (Study 2). Second, cooperativeness and competitiveness were differentially associated with Schwartz's Personal Values. These results further supported the idea that cooperativeness and competitiveness are two distinct constructs. Specifically, the individuals who were highly cooperative emphasized self-transcendent values (i.e., universalism and benevolence) more, whereas the individuals who were highly competitive emphasized self-enhancement values (i.e., power and achievement) more. Finally, the CCPS, which adheres to the trait perspective of personality, was found to be a useful supplement to more prevalent social motive measures (i.e., social value orientation) in predicting cooperative behaviors. Specifically, in Study 2, when social value orientation was controlled for, the CCPS significantly predicted cooperative behaviors in a public goods dilemma (individuals who score higher on cooperativeness scale contributed more to the public goods). In Study 3, when social value orientation was controlled for, the CCPS significantly predicted cooperative behaviors in commons dilemmas (individuals who score higher on cooperativeness scale requested fewer resources from the common resource pool). The practical implications of the CCPS in conflict resolution, as well as in recruitment and selection settings, are discussed.

  2. Toward Effective and Preferred Programming: A Case for the Objective Measurement of Social Validity with Recipients of Behavior-Change Programs

    PubMed Central

    Hanley, Gregory P

    2010-01-01

    The adoption of effective behavioral interventions and teaching strategies for young children is largely influenced by the extent to which stakeholders find the procedures appropriate and the effects important. Stakeholder values have been described by measures of social validity in applied behavior analysis, and these measures have been a part of behavior-analytic research and practice since their important characteristics were described in the late 1970s. The typically subjective nature of the social validation process appears, however, to have marginalized children and other usual recipients of behavior-change procedures (i.e., individuals with autism or intellectual disabilities) from social validation processes. Therefore, the importance of including recipients of behavior-change procedures in the social validation process and methods for doing so are described in this paper. PMID:22479668

  3. Social and Emotional Competencies Evaluation Questionnaire-Teacher's Version: Validation of a Short Form.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Vitor A; Sousa, Vanda; Marchante, Marta

    2016-08-01

    The Social and Emotional Competencies Evaluation Questionnaire-Teacher's version, Short Form (QACSE-P-SF) allows teachers to assess their students' social and emotional competencies, having been designed for program evaluation. Thirty-nine teachers completed the QACSE-P-SF, regarding 657 students (fourth to ninth grades). Factor analyses supported a six-factor structure with acceptable internal consistency. Sex differences were found with teachers reporting girls as having higher scores on Self-Control, Social Awareness, Relationship Skills, and Responsible Decision Making. Developmental differences were also found with fourth-grade students presenting higher levels of Social Awareness and Relationship Skills than older students. The final version of the QACSE-P-SF is composed by 30 items, organized into six scales and less time consuming than the previous version for teachers who need to assess full classes. PMID:27356548

  4. Validity and reliability of questionnaires measuring physical activity self-efficacy, enjoyment, social support among Hong Kong Chinese children

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Yan; Lau, Patrick W.C.; Huang, Wendy Y.J.; Maddison, Ralph; Baranowski, Tom

    2014-01-01

    Background Physical activity (PA) correlates have not been extensively studied in Hong Kong children. Objective The aim of this study is to assess the validity and reliability of translated scales to measure PA related self-efficacy, enjoyment and social support in Hong Kong Chinese children. Methods Sample 1 (n = 273, aged 8–12 years) was recruited (May–June, 2013) from two primary schools. Confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) were conducted to assess factorial validity. Criterion validity was assessed by correlating measured constructs with self-reported PA. Cronbach's alpha was computed to assess scale internal consistency. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was performed to assess scale test–retest reliability. Criterion validity was further examined in Sample 2 (n = 84, aged 8–12 years) from a third school by correlating measured constructs with objectively measured PA collected in September 2013 and February 2014. Results The CFA results supported the one-factor structure of the scales. All PA correlates were significantly (p < 0.01) associated with self-reported PA in Sample 1. Self-efficacy and enjoyment were significantly (p < 0.05) correlated with objectively measured PA in Sample 2. All the scales demonstrated acceptable internal consistency. All ICC values of the scales suggested acceptable test–retest reliability. Conclusion The results provide psychometric support for using the scales to measure PA correlates among Hong Kong Chinese children. PMID:26844039

  5. Brief report: the autism spectrum quotient has convergent validity with the social responsiveness scale in a high-functioning sample.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Kimberly; Iarocci, Grace

    2013-09-01

    The Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ) is widely used to measure autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptoms and screen for ASD. It is readily available free of charge online and is easily accessible to practitioners, researchers and individuals who suspect that they may have an ASD. Thus, the AQ is a potentially useful, widely accessible tool for ASD screening. The objective of this study was to examine the convergent validity of the AQ using a well-established, published screening measure of autism: the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS). Twenty-three high-functioning participants (aged 8-19) with ASD were administered both measures. Results indicated a significant correlation between the SRS and AQ ratings, providing evidence for convergent validity of the AQ with the SRS. PMID:23371508

  6. Development and Validation of Social Provision Scale on First Year Undergraduate Psychological Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oluwatomiwo, Oladunmoye Enoch

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the development and validation of socio provision scale on first year undergraduates adjustment among institution in Ibadan metropolis. The study adopted a descriptive survey design. A sample of 300 participants was randomly selected across institutions in Ibadan. Data were collected using socio provision scale (a =0.76),…

  7. Intervention Validity of Social Behavior Rating Scales: Features of Assessments that Link Results to Treatment Plans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Stephen N.; Gresham, Frank M.; Frank, Jennifer L.; Beddow, Peter A., III

    2008-01-01

    The term "intervention validity" refers to the extent to which assessment results can be used to guide the selection of interventions and evaluation of outcomes. In this article, the authors review the defining attributes of rating scales that distinguish them from other assessment tools, assumptions regarding the use of rating scales to measure…

  8. A Validation and Reliability Study of Community Service Activities Scale in Turkey: A Social Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demir, Özden; Kaya, Halil Ibrahim; Tasdan, Murat

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to test the reliability and validity of Community Service Activities Scale (CSAS) developed by Demir, Kaya and Tasdan (2012) with a view to identify perceptions of Faculty of Education students regarding community service activities. The participants of the study are 313 randomly chosen students who attend six…

  9. Evaluating the Validity and Social Acceptability of Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Skill Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopp, Brandon; Miltenberger, Raymond G.

    2008-01-01

    In research evaluating sexual abuse prevention programs, knowledge measures are typically used to assess the program's success. In other areas of research on child safety skills, however, skills are typically assessed through behavioral measures such as role-plays. The purpose of this study was to assess the validity and acceptability of a set of…

  10. In Memory of All the Broken Ones: Catalytic Validity through Critical Arts Research for Social Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robson, Claire; Sumara, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    The authors of this article use data produced in a collaborative community arts group in BC Canada as a way to think about validation in arts-based educational research (ABER). As Lather attempted to find middle ground between "rampant subjectivity" and "pointless precision" in research, she (1986) suggested that studies with…

  11. Measures of Emotional Intelligence and Social Acceptability in Children: A Concurrent Validity Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Windingstad, Sunny; McCallum, R. Steve; Bell, Sherry Mee; Dunn, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    The concurrent validity of two measures of Emotional Intelligence (EI), one considered a trait measure, the other an ability measure, was examined by administering the Emotional Quotient Inventory: Youth Version (EQi:YV; Bar-On & Parker, 2000), the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test: Youth Version (MSCEIT:YV; Mayer, Salovey, &…

  12. A Risk Score with Additional Four Independent Factors to Predict the Incidence and Recovery from Metabolic Syndrome: Development and Validation in Large Japanese Cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Obokata, Masaru; Negishi, Kazuaki; Ohyama, Yoshiaki; Okada, Haruka; Imai, Kunihiko; Kurabayashi, Masahiko

    2015-01-01

    Background Although many risk factors for Metabolic syndrome (MetS) have been reported, there is no clinical score that predicts its incidence. The purposes of this study were to create and validate a risk score for predicting both incidence and recovery from MetS in a large cohort. Methods Subjects without MetS at enrollment (n = 13,634) were randomly divided into 2 groups and followed to record incidence of MetS. We also examined recovery from it in rest 2,743 individuals with prevalent MetS. Results During median follow-up of 3.0 years, 878 subjects in the derivation and 757 in validation cohorts developed MetS. Multiple logistic regression analysis identified 12 independent variables from the derivation cohort and initial score for subsequent MetS was created, which showed good discrimination both in the derivation (c-statistics 0.82) and validation cohorts (0.83). The predictability of the initial score for recovery from MetS was tested in the 2,743 MetS population (906 subjects recovered from MetS), where nine variables (including age, sex, γ-glutamyl transpeptidase, uric acid and five MetS diagnostic criteria constituents.) remained significant. Then, the final score was created using the nine variables. This score significantly predicted both the recovery from MetS (c-statistics 0.70, p<0.001, 78% sensitivity and 54% specificity) and incident MetS (c-statistics 0.80) with an incremental discriminative ability over the model derived from five factors used in the diagnosis of MetS (continuous net reclassification improvement: 0.35, p < 0.001 and integrated discrimination improvement: 0.01, p<0.001). Conclusions We identified four additional independent risk factors associated with subsequent MetS, developed and validated a risk score to predict both incident and recovery from MetS. PMID:26230621

  13. A Comparative Analysis of the Validity of US State- and County-Level Social Capital Measures and Their Associations with Population Health

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chul-joo; Kim, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The goals of this study were to validate a number of available collective social capital measures at the U.S. state and county levels, and to examine the relative extent to which these social capital measures are associated with population health outcomes. Measures of social capital at the U.S. state level included aggregate indices based on the Annenberg National Health Communication Survey (ANHCS) and the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), Petris Social Capital Index (PSCI), Putnam’s index, and Kim et al.’s scales. County-level measures consisted of Rupasingha et al.’s social capital index (RGFI) and a BRFSS-derived measure. These measures, except for the PSCI, showed evidence of acceptable validity. Moreover, we observed differences across the social capital measures in their associations with population health outcomes. The implications of the findings for future research in this area are discussed. PMID:25574069

  14. Efficacy and Social Validity of Peer Support Arrangements for Adolescents with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Erik W.; Moss, Colleen K.; Hoffman, Alicia; Chung, Yun-Ching; Sisco, Lynn

    2011-01-01

    Current research and policy emphasize providing students with severe disabilities with the supports needed to participate socially and academically within inclusive classrooms. The authors examined the efficacy and acceptability of peer support arrangements as an avenue for promoting the participation of 3 students with severe disabilities in high…

  15. Workplace Social Self-Efficacy: Concept, Measure, and Initial Validity Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fan, Jinyan; Litchfield, Robert C.; Islam, Sayeed; Weiner, Brianne; Alexander, Monique; Liu, Cong; Kulviwat, Songpol

    2013-01-01

    The authors proposed the construct of workplace social self-efficacy (WSSE) and developed an inventory to measure it. Two empirical studies were conducted to examine the psychometric properties of this new measure. In Study 1, we described the development of the WSSE inventory and explored its factor structure in a sample of 304 full-time…

  16. Social Context of Smoking Hookah among College Students: Scale Development and Validation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Eva; Beck, Kenneth H.; Clark, Pamela I.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To develop an instrument that measures the social context of hookah use among college students. Participants: A pool of 50 potential items, based on 44 in-depth interviews with regular college hookah smokers, was administered to a sample of 274 hookah users between October and December 2011. Methods: Participants were approached in…

  17. Fruit and vegetable shopping practices and social support scales: a validation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the psychometric characteristics of new scales of shopping practices and social support for purchasing fruits and vegetables. DESIGN: Participants were recruited in front of diverse grocery stores. Telephone data collection was done on 2 occasions, separated by 6 weeks. PARTICIP...

  18. Development and Preliminary Validation of the Social-Emotional Assets and Resiliency Scale for Preschool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ravitch, Nancy Kathryn

    2013-01-01

    Assessment of social and emotional learning (SEL) in young children is critical to understanding developmental progress and informing care and instruction. The current study investigated the development of a behavior rating scale designed to measure SEL skills in preschool-age children. The primary objective of this study was to investigate the…

  19. Social validation of component behaviors of following instructions, accepting criticism, and negotiating.

    PubMed Central

    Quinn, J M; Sherman, J A; Sheldon, J B; Quinn, L M; Harchik, A E

    1992-01-01

    This study evaluated whether behaviors often taught as part of social skills training are judged favorably by others. Community judges evaluated the performances of people in various situations requiring one of three social skills: following instructions, accepting criticism, and negotiating to resolve conflicts. These skills were displayed in videotaped scenes by actors with and without mental retardation who acted out roles that had different types of authority relationships, and when different components or clusters of behavior (nonverbal, specific verbal, or general verbal behaviors) were performed well or poorly. The highest ratings by judges were of videotaped scenes that depicted correct use of all behaviors, regardless of which skill was being examined, whether or not the actor had mental retardation, or what the relationship was between the two actors. The lowest ratings were of videotaped scenes that depicted poor performance of all behaviors, and intermediate ratings were obtained when only some of the behaviors were performed poorly. These results, as well as the verbal responses of judges to questions, indicated that the different behaviors commonly used in teaching the skills of following instructions, accepting criticism, and negotiating are relevant to judgment of social performance, and are likely to be reinforced and maintained by social contingencies. PMID:1634429

  20. Validating the Relationship Qualities of Influence and Persuasion with the Family Social Relations Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsiung, Rachel Oakley; Bagozzi, Richard P.

    2003-01-01

    Uses the family social relations model (SRM) to test for the personal relationship qualities of influence and persuasion in the family decision-making context of buying a new car. Uncovers patterns in the relationship qualities of influence and persuasion across three decisions families make when buying a new car (i.e., how much to spend, car…

  1. Perceived Personal and Social Competence: Development of Valid and Reliable Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fetro, Joyce V.; Rhodes, Darson L.; Hey, David W.

    2010-01-01

    During the last 20 years, youth programming has shifted from risk reduction to youth development. While numerous instruments exist to measure selected individual characteristics/competencies among youth, a comprehensive instrument to measure four constructs of personal and social skills could not be identified. The purpose of this study was to…

  2. Validation of the Social Communication Questionnaire in a Population Cohort of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandler, Susie; Charman, Tony; Baird, Gillian; Simonoff, Emily; Loucas, Tom; Meldrum, David; Scott, Mimi; Pickles, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To examine the properties of the Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ) in a population cohort of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and in the general population. Method: SCQ data were collected from three samples: the Special Needs and Autism Project (SNAP) cohort of 9- to 10-year-old children with special educational…

  3. The SPAI-18, a brief version of the social phobia and anxiety inventory: reliability and validity in clinically referred and non-referred samples.

    PubMed

    de Vente, Wieke; Majdandžić, Mirjana; Voncken, Marisol J; Beidel, Deborah C; Bögels, Susan M

    2014-03-01

    We developed a new version of the Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory (SPAI) in order to have a brief instrument for measuring social anxiety and social anxiety disorder (SAD) with a strong conceptual foundation. In the construction phase, a set of items representing 5 core aspects of social anxiety was selected by a panel of social anxiety experts. The selected item pool was validated using factor analysis, reliability analysis, and diagnostic analysis in a sample of healthy participants (N = 188) and a sample of clinically referred participants diagnosed with SAD (N = 98). This procedure resulted in an abbreviated version of the Social Phobia Subscale of the SPAI consisting of 18 items (i.e. the SPAI-18), which correlated strongly with the Social Phobia Subscale of the original SPAI (both groups r = .98). Internal consistency and diagnostic characteristics using a clinical cut-off score > 48 were good to excellent (Cronbach's alpha healthy group = .93; patient group = .91; sensitivity: .94; specificity: .88). The SPAI-18 was further validated in a community sample of parents-to-be without SAD (N = 237) and with SAD (N = 65). Internal consistency was again excellent (both groups Cronbach's alpha = .93) and a screening cut-off of > 36 proved to result in good sensitivity and specificity. The SPAI-18 also correlated strongly with other social anxiety instruments, supporting convergent validity. In sum, the SPAI-18 is a psychometrically sound instrument with good screening capacity for social anxiety disorder in clinical as well as community samples.

  4. Evaluating the Validity of Simplified Chinese Version of LIWC in Detecting Psychological Expressions in Short Texts on Social Network Services.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Nan; Jiao, Dongdong; Bai, Shuotian; Zhu, Tingshao

    2016-01-01

    The increasing need of automated analyzing web texts especially the short texts on Social Network Services (SNS) brings new demands of computerized text analysis instruments. The psychometric properties are the basis of the extensive use of these instruments such as the Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC). For this study, Sina Weibo statuses were analyzed via rater coding and Simplified Chinese version of LIWC (SCLIWC), in order to evaluate the validity of SCLIWC in detecting psychological expressions in Weibo statuses (n = 60) and in identifying the psychological meaning of a single Weibo status (n = 11). Significant correlations between human ratings and SCLIWC scores and the high sensitivities of capturing single statuses with certain expressions identified by raters, proved the validity of SCLIWC in detecting psychological expressions. The results also suggested that, the efficiency of SCLIWC in detecting psychological expressions of SNS short texts could be higher if using status count scoring method, rather than the word count method as the common usage of LIWC. However, SCLIWC may not perform well in identifying the psychological meaning of a single piece of SNS short text because of its over-identification of target expressions. This study provided primary evidence of validity of SCLIWC, as well as the proper way of using it efficiently on SNS short texts. PMID:27322382

  5. Evaluating the Validity of Simplified Chinese Version of LIWC in Detecting Psychological Expressions in Short Texts on Social Network Services

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Nan; Jiao, Dongdong; Bai, Shuotian; Zhu, Tingshao

    2016-01-01

    The increasing need of automated analyzing web texts especially the short texts on Social Network Services (SNS) brings new demands of computerized text analysis instruments. The psychometric properties are the basis of the extensive use of these instruments such as the Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC). For this study, Sina Weibo statuses were analyzed via rater coding and Simplified Chinese version of LIWC (SCLIWC), in order to evaluate the validity of SCLIWC in detecting psychological expressions in Weibo statuses (n = 60) and in identifying the psychological meaning of a single Weibo status (n = 11). Significant correlations between human ratings and SCLIWC scores and the high sensitivities of capturing single statuses with certain expressions identified by raters, proved the validity of SCLIWC in detecting psychological expressions. The results also suggested that, the efficiency of SCLIWC in detecting psychological expressions of SNS short texts could be higher if using status count scoring method, rather than the word count method as the common usage of LIWC. However, SCLIWC may not perform well in identifying the psychological meaning of a single piece of SNS short text because of its over-identification of target expressions. This study provided primary evidence of validity of SCLIWC, as well as the proper way of using it efficiently on SNS short texts. PMID:27322382

  6. Reliability and Validity of the Chinese Version of the Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Xinyue; Xu, Qian; Ingles, Candido J.; Hidalgo, Maria D.; La Greca, Annette M.

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated the psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents (SAS-A) in a sample of 296 adolescents (49% boys) in Grades 7, 8, 9, 10, and 12 with a mean age of 15.52 years. Confirmatory factor analysis replicated the three-factor structure of the SAS-A in the Chinese sample: Fear of Negative…

  7. R&D for computational cognitive and social models : foundations for model evaluation through verification and validation (final LDRD report).

    SciTech Connect

    Slepoy, Alexander; Mitchell, Scott A.; Backus, George A.; McNamara, Laura A.; Trucano, Timothy Guy

    2008-09-01

    Sandia National Laboratories is investing in projects that aim to develop computational modeling and simulation applications that explore human cognitive and social phenomena. While some of these modeling and simulation projects are explicitly research oriented, others are intended to support or provide insight for people involved in high consequence decision-making. This raises the issue of how to evaluate computational modeling and simulation applications in both research and applied settings where human behavior is the focus of the model: when is a simulation 'good enough' for the goals its designers want to achieve? In this report, we discuss two years' worth of review and assessment of the ASC program's approach to computational model verification and validation, uncertainty quantification, and decision making. We present a framework that extends the principles of the ASC approach into the area of computational social and cognitive modeling and simulation. In doing so, we argue that the potential for evaluation is a function of how the modeling and simulation software will be used in a particular setting. In making this argument, we move from strict, engineering and physics oriented approaches to V&V to a broader project of model evaluation, which asserts that the systematic, rigorous, and transparent accumulation of evidence about a model's performance under conditions of uncertainty is a reasonable and necessary goal for model evaluation, regardless of discipline. How to achieve the accumulation of evidence in areas outside physics and engineering is a significant research challenge, but one that requires addressing as modeling and simulation tools move out of research laboratories and into the hands of decision makers. This report provides an assessment of our thinking on ASC Verification and Validation, and argues for further extending V&V research in the physical and engineering sciences toward a broader program of model evaluation in situations of high

  8. The Social Interaction Phobia Scale: Continued support for the psychometric validity of the SIPS using clinical and non-clinical samples.

    PubMed

    Menatti, Alison R; Weeks, Justin W; Carleton, R Nicholas; Morrison, Amanda S; Heimberg, Richard G; Hope, Debra A; Blanco, Carlos; Schneier, Franklin R; Liebowitz, Michael R

    2015-05-01

    The present study sought to extend findings supporting the psychometric validity of a promising measure of social anxiety (SA) symptoms, the Social Interaction Phobia Scale (SIPS; Carleton et al., 2009). Analyses were conducted using three samples: social anxiety disorder (SAD) patients, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) patients, and healthy controls. SIPS scores of SAD patients demonstrated internal consistency and construct validity, and the previously demonstrated three-factor structure of the SIPS was replicated. Further, the SIPS total score uniquely predicted SA symptoms, and SIPS scores were significantly higher for SAD patients than GAD patients or controls. Two cut-off scores that discriminated SAD patients from GAD patients and from healthy controls were identified. The current study is the first to replicate the SIPS three-factor model in a large, treatment-seeking sample of SAD patients and establish a cut-off score discriminating SAD from GAD patients. Findings support the SIPS as a valid, SAD-specific assessment instrument.

  9. Standardized classroom management program: Social validation and replication studies in Utah and Oregon.

    PubMed

    Greenwood, C R; Hops, H; Walker, H M; Guild, J J; Stokes, J; Young, K R; Keleman, K S; Willardson, M

    1979-01-01

    A comprehensive validation study was conducted of the Program for Academic Survival Skills (PASS), a consultant-based, teacher-mediated program for student classroom behavior. The study addressed questions related to: (a) brief consultant training, (b) subsequent teacher training by consultants using PASS manuals, (c) contrasts between PASS experimental teachers and students and equivalent controls on measures of teacher management skills, student classroom behavior, teacher ratings of student problem behaviors, and academic achievement, (d) reported satisfaction of participants, and (e) replication of effects across two separate school sites. Results indicated that in both sites significant effects were noted in favor of the PASS experimental group for (a) teacher approval, (b) student appropriate classroom behavior, and (c) four categories of student inappropriate behavior. Program satisfaction ratings of students, teachers, and consultants were uniformly positive, and continued use of the program was reported a year later. Discussion focused upon issues of cost-effectiveness, differential site effects, and the relationship between appropriate classroom behavior and academic achievement. PMID:16795604

  10. Validation of operant social motivation paradigms using BTBR T+tf/J and C57BL/6J inbred mouse strains

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Loren; Sample, Hannah; Gregg, Michael; Wood, Caleb

    2014-01-01

    Background As purported causal factors are identified for autism spectrum disorder (ASD), new assays are needed to better phenotype animal models designed to explore these factors. With recent evidence suggesting that deficits in social motivation are at the core of ASD behavior, the development of quantitative measures of social motivation is particularly important. The goal of our study was to develop and validate novel assays to quantitatively measure social motivation in mice. Methods In order to test the validity of our paradigms, we compared the BTBR strain, with documented social deficits, to the prosocial C57BL/6J strain. Two novel conditioning paradigms were developed that allowed the test mouse to control access to a social partner. In the social motivation task, the test mice lever pressed for a social reward. The reward contingency was set on a progressive ratio of reinforcement and the number of lever presses achieved in the final trial of a testing session (breakpoint) was used as an index of social motivation. In the valence comparison task, motivation for a food reward was compared to a social reward. We also explored activity, social affiliation, and preference for social novelty through a series of tasks using an ANY-Maze video-tracking system in an open-field arena. Results BTBR mice had significantly lower breakpoints in the social motivation paradigm than C57BL/6J mice. However, the valence comparison task revealed that BTBR mice also made significantly fewer lever presses for a food reward. Conclusions The results of the conditioning paradigms suggest that the BTBR strain has an overall deficit in motivated behavior. Furthermore, the results of the open-field observations may suggest that social differences in the BTBR strain are anxiety induced. PMID:25328850

  11. Validation of a modified version of the Gijon's social-familial evaluation scale (SFES): the "Barcelona SFES Version", for patients with cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Caselles, P; Miralles, R; Arellano, M; Torres, R M; Aguilera, A; Pi-Figueras, M; Cervera, A M

    2004-01-01

    The aim was to validate an abbreviated version of the Gijon's social-familial evaluation scale (SFES) (Barcelona-SFES version), on patients with cognitive impairment. A group of 34 patients with cognitive impairment, admitted to an intermediate-long-term-care facility, were analyzed. Mean age was 80.2 +/- 7.4 years. Gijón's SFES was abbreviated and only the first three item groups corresponding to family conditions, social contacts and assistance from the social network were selected. Barcelona-SFES version had a range score between 3 to 15 points, in which low scores identify older patients who live with their family, have good contacts, and participate in community activities. In contrast, high scores identify older persons who live alone and have poor social support and little participation with community activities. Three social risk categories were established according to the Barcelona-SFES score: low social risk (>/= 7 points), intermediate social risk (8-9 points) and high social points). Validation criteria used in the present study were: predictive value of Barcelona-SFES score of post-discharge destination (home or institution), and patient's (or family's) request for a definitive institutionalization in a nursing home. There were 9 patients with low social risk (26.4 %), 8 with intermediate social risk (23.5 %) and 17 with high social risk (50 %). A significant relationship between Barcelona-SFES scores and post-discharge destination was found. Eighty percent of patients discharged to an institution(nursing and residential homes), they had high social risk SFES scores (>/= 10) Also, a significant correlation was found between the number of patients for which a definitive institutionalization request was performed and the Barcelona-SFES scores. Fifteen (88.2 %) of the 18 patients for whom the request was done, were in the high social risk group. The lowest scores from SFES were predictive of home discharge, while the highest scores were predictive of a

  12. A novel ion-pairing chromatographic method for the simultaneous determination of both nicarbazin components in feed additives: chemometric tools for improving the optimization and validation.

    PubMed

    De Zan, María M; Teglia, Carla M; Robles, Juan C; Goicoechea, Héctor C

    2011-07-15

    The development, optimization and validation of an ion-pairing high performance liquid chromatography method for the simultaneous determination of both nicarbazin (NIC) components: 4,4'-dinitrocarbanilide (DNC) and 2-hydroxy-4,6-dimethylpyrimidine (HDP) in bulk materials and feed additives are described. An experimental design was used for the optimization of the chromatographic system. Four variables, including mobile phase composition and oven temperature, were analyzed through a central composite design exploring their contribution to analyte separation. Five responses: peak resolutions, HDP capacity factor, HDP tailing and analysis time, were modelled by using the response surface methodology and were optimized simultaneously by implementing the desirability function. The optimum conditions resulted in a mobile phase consisting of 10.0 mmol L(-1) of 1-heptanesulfonate, 20.0 mmol L(-1) of sodium acetate, pH=3.30 buffer and acetonitrile in a gradient system at a flow rate of 1.00 mL min(-1). Column was an INERSTIL ODS-3 (4.6 mm×150 mm, 5 μm particle size) at 40.0°C. Detection was performed at 300 nm by a diode array detector. The validation results of the method indicated a high selectivity and good precision characteristics, with RSD less than 1.0% for both components, both in intra and inter-assay precision studies. Linearity was proved for a range of 32.0-50.0 μg mL(-1) of NIC in sample solution. The recovery, studied at three different fortification levels, varied from 98.0 to 101.4 for HDP and from 99.1 to 100.2 for DNC. The applicability of the method was demonstrated by determining DNC and HDP content in raw materials and commercial formulations used for coccidiosis prevention. Assays results on real samples showed that considerable differences in molecular ratio DNC:HDP exist among them.

  13. A validated LC-MS/MS determination method for the illegal food additive rhodamine B: Applications of a pharmacokinetic study in rats.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yung-Yi; Tsai, Tung-Hu

    2016-06-01

    Rhodamine B is an illegal and potentially carcinogenic food dye. The aim of this study was to develop a convenient, rapid, and sensitive UHPLC-MS/MS method for pharmacokinetic studies in rats. Rat plasma samples were deproteinized with acetonitrile and separated by UHPLC on a reverse-phase C18e column (100mm×2.1mm, 2μm) using a mobile phase consisting of methanol-5mM ammonium acetate (90:10, v/v). Detection was performed using a triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer in the selected reaction monitoring mode at [M](+) ion m/z 443.39→399.28 for rhodamine B and [M+H](+) ion m/z 253.17→238.02 for 5-methoxyflavone as the internal standard. This method was specific and produced linear results over a concentration range of 0.5-100ng/mL, with a lower limit of quantitation of 0.5ng/mL. All validation parameters, including the inter-day, intra-day, matrix effect, recovery, and stability in rat plasma, were acceptable according to the biological method validation guidelines developed by the FDA (2001). This method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study in rats; oral administration of 1mg/kg of rhodamine B yielded a time to maximum concentration (Tmax) of 1.3±0.4h and an elimination half-life of 8.8±1.4h, with a clearance of 229.7±19.4mL/h/kg. These pharmacokinetic results provide a constructive contribution to our understanding of the absorption mechanism of rhodamine B and support additional food safety evaluations. PMID:27131149

  14. Prediction and validation of gene-disease associations using methods inspired by social network analyses.

    PubMed

    Singh-Blom, U Martin; Natarajan, Nagarajan; Tewari, Ambuj; Woods, John O; Dhillon, Inderjit S; Marcotte, Edward M

    2013-01-01

    Correctly identifying associations of genes with diseases has long been a goal in biology. With the emergence of large-scale gene-phenotype association datasets in biology, we can leverage statistical and machine learning methods to help us achieve this goal. In this paper, we present two methods for predicting gene-disease associations based on functional gene associations and gene-phenotype associations in model organisms. The first method, the Katz measure, is motivated from its success in social network link prediction, and is very closely related to some of the recent methods proposed for gene-disease association inference. The second method, called Catapult (Combining dATa Across species using Positive-Unlabeled Learning Techniques), is a supervised machine learning method that uses a biased support vector machine where the features are derived from walks in a heterogeneous gene-trait network. We study the performance of the proposed methods and related state-of-the-art methods using two different evaluation strategies, on two distinct data sets, namely OMIM phenotypes and drug-target interactions. Finally, by measuring the performance of the methods using two different evaluation strategies, we show that even though both methods perform very well, the Katz measure is better at identifying associations between traits and poorly studied genes, whereas Catapult is better suited to correctly identifying gene-trait associations overall [corrected].

  15. Validation of the Movie for the Assessment of Social Cognition in Adolescents with ASD: Fixation Duration and Pupil Dilation as Predictors of Performance.

    PubMed

    Müller, Nico; Baumeister, Sarah; Dziobek, Isabel; Banaschewski, Tobias; Poustka, Luise

    2016-09-01

    Impaired social cognition is one of the core characteristics of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Appropriate measures of social cognition for high-functioning adolescents with ASD are, however, lacking. The Movie for the Assessment of Social Cognition (MASC) uses dynamic social stimuli, ensuring ecological validity, and has proven to be a sensitive measure in adulthood. In the current study, 33 adolescents with ASD and 23 controls were administered the MASC, while concurrent eye tracking was used to relate gaze behavior to performance levels. The ASD group exhibited reduced MASC scores, with social cognition performance being explained by shorter fixation duration on eyes and decreased pupil dilation. These potential diagnostic markers are discussed as indicators of different processing of social information in ASD.

  16. Validation of the Movie for the Assessment of Social Cognition in Adolescents with ASD: Fixation Duration and Pupil Dilation as Predictors of Performance.

    PubMed

    Müller, Nico; Baumeister, Sarah; Dziobek, Isabel; Banaschewski, Tobias; Poustka, Luise

    2016-09-01

    Impaired social cognition is one of the core characteristics of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Appropriate measures of social cognition for high-functioning adolescents with ASD are, however, lacking. The Movie for the Assessment of Social Cognition (MASC) uses dynamic social stimuli, ensuring ecological validity, and has proven to be a sensitive measure in adulthood. In the current study, 33 adolescents with ASD and 23 controls were administered the MASC, while concurrent eye tracking was used to relate gaze behavior to performance levels. The ASD group exhibited reduced MASC scores, with social cognition performance being explained by shorter fixation duration on eyes and decreased pupil dilation. These potential diagnostic markers are discussed as indicators of different processing of social information in ASD. PMID:27271932

  17. The Development and Validation of an Instrument to Monitor the Implementation of Social Constructivist Learning Environments in Grade 9 Science Classrooms in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luckay, Melanie B.; Laugksch, Rudiger C.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the development and validation of an instrument that can be used to assess students' perceptions of their learning environment as a means of monitoring and guiding changes toward social constructivist learning environments. The study used a mixed-method approach with priority given to the quantitative data collection.…

  18. Evaluation of the Criterion and Convergent Validity of the Diagnostic Interview for Social and Communication Disorders in Young and Low-Functioning Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maljaars, Jarymke; Noens, Ilse; Scholte, Evert; van Berckelaer-Onnes, Ina

    2012-01-01

    The Diagnostic Interview for Social and Communication Disorders (DISCO; Wing, 2006) is a standardized, semi-structured and interviewer-based schedule for diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The objective of this study was to evaluate the criterion and convergent validity of the DISCO-11 ICD-10 algorithm in young and low-functioning…

  19. Validation of the Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory for Children (SPAI-C) in a sample of Brazilian children.

    PubMed

    Gauer, G J C; Picon, P; Vasconcellos, S J L; Turner, S M; Beidel, D C

    2005-05-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the factor structure and psychometric properties of the Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory for Children (SPAI-C), an instrument developed in the United States and applied to a sample of Brazilian schoolchildren. The process included the translation of the original material from English into Portuguese by two bilingual psychiatrists and a back translation by a bilingual physician. Both the front and back translations were revised by a bilingual child psychiatrist. The study was performed using a cross-sectional design and the Portuguese version of the SPAI-C was applied to a sample of 1954 children enrolled in 3rd to 8th grade attending 2 private and 11 public schools. Eighty-one subjects were excluded due to an incomplete questionnaire and 2 children refused to participate. The final sample consisted of 1871 children, 938 girls (50.1%) and 933 boys (49.8%), ranging in age from 9 to 14 years. The majority of the students were Caucasian (89.0%) and the remainder were African-Brazilian (11.0%). The Pearson product-moment correlation showed that the two-week test-retest reliability coefficient was r = 0.780 and Cronbach's alpha was 0.946. The factor structure was almost similar to that reported in previous studies. The results regarding the internal consistency, the test-retest reliability and the factor structure were similar to the findings obtained in studies performed on English speaking children. The present study showed that the Portuguese language version of SPAI-C is a reliable and valid measure of social anxiety for Brazilian children.

  20. Reference Gene Selection for qPCR Analysis in Tomato-Bipartite Begomovirus Interaction and Validation in Additional Tomato-Virus Pathosystems

    PubMed Central

    Lacerda, Ana L. M.; Fonseca, Leonardo N.; Blawid, Rosana; Boiteux, Leonardo S.; Ribeiro, Simone G.; Brasileiro, Ana C. M.

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR) is currently the most sensitive technique used for absolute and relative quantification of a target gene transcript, requiring the use of appropriated reference genes for data normalization. To accurately estimate the relative expression of target tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) genes responsive to several virus species in reverse transcription qPCR analysis, the identification of reliable reference genes is mandatory. In the present study, ten reference genes were analyzed across a set of eight samples: two tomato contrasting genotypes (‘Santa Clara’, susceptible, and its near-isogenic line ‘LAM 157’, resistant); subjected to two treatments (inoculation with Tomato chlorotic mottle virus (ToCMoV) and its mock-inoculated control) and in two distinct times after inoculation (early and late). Reference genes stability was estimated by three statistical programs (geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper). To validate the results over broader experimental conditions, a set of ten samples, corresponding to additional three tomato-virus pathosystems that included tospovirus, crinivirus and tymovirus + tobamovirus, was analyzed together with the tomato-ToCMoV pathosystem dataset, using the same algorithms. Taking into account the combined analyses of the ranking order outputs from the three algorithms, TIP41 and EF1 were identified as the most stable genes for tomato-ToCMoV pathosystem, and TIP41 and EXP for the four pathosystems together, and selected to be used as reference in the forthcoming expression qPCR analysis of target genes in experimental conditions involving the aforementioned tomato-virus pathosystems. PMID:26317870

  1. Cross-cultural validity and measurement invariance of the social physique anxiety scale in five European nations.

    PubMed

    Hagger, M S; Aşçi, F H; Lindwall, M; Hein, V; Mülazimoğlu-Balli, O; Tarrant, M; Ruiz, Y Pastor; Sell, V

    2007-12-01

    The cross-cultural generalizability of the social physique anxiety scale (SPAS) was evaluated using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) in five European nations: Britain, Estonia, Spain, Sweden, and Turkey. Motl and Conroy's (2000) methods were used to develop modified versions of the scale within each sample based on the original 12-item version. Pending the satisfactory fit of the CFAs of the modified models within each sample, it was expected that the measurement parameters and mean values of these models would be equivalent across samples in multisample CFAs. An eight-item version of the SPAS exhibited a good fit with data from the British, Estonian, and Swedish samples, and a seven-item version fitted the data well in the Spanish and Turkish samples. The eliminated items were also influenced by a method effect associated with the item wording. Multisample analyses revealed that factor loadings were equivalent across samples. Tests of latent means revealed that British and Spanish participants reported the highest levels of SPA, with Estonian participants reporting the lowest. Results indicate that the SPAS is generalizable across these cultures, although subtle variations existed in the Spanish and Turkish samples. Researchers are advised to follow these procedures to develop a valid version of the SPAS appropriate for their sample. PMID:17346291

  2. Validation of the Social and Emotional Health Survey for Five Sociocultural Groups: Multigroup Invariance and Latent Mean Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    You, Sukkyung; Furlong, Michael; Felix, Erika; O'Malley, Meagan

    2015-01-01

    Social-emotional health influences youth developmental trajectories and there is growing interest among educators to measure the social-emotional health of the students they serve. This study replicated the psychometric characteristics of the Social Emotional Health Survey (SEHS) with a diverse sample of high school students (Grades 9-12; N =…

  3. Factorial validity and reliability of the Malaysian simplified Chinese version of Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS-SCV) among a group of university students.

    PubMed

    Guan, Ng Chong; Seng, Loh Huai; Hway Ann, Anne Yee; Hui, Koh Ong

    2015-03-01

    This study was aimed at validating the simplified Chinese version of the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Support (MSPSS-SCV) among a group of medical and dental students in University Malaya. Two hundred and two students who took part in this study were given the MSPSS-SCV, the Medical Outcome Study social support survey, the Malay version of the Beck Depression Inventory, the Malay version of the General Health Questionnaire, and the English version of the MSPSS. After 1 week, these students were again required to complete the MSPSS-SCV but with the item sequences shuffled. This scale displayed excellent internal consistency (Cronbach's α = .924), high test-retest reliability (.71), parallel form reliability (.92; Spearman's ρ, P < .01), and validity. In conclusion, the MSPSS-SCV demonstrated sound psychometric properties in measuring social support among a group of medical and dental students. It could therefore be used as a simple screening tool among young educated Malaysian adolescents.

  4. Validation of Eustiromastix guianae (Caporiacco, 1954) (Araneae, Salticidae) with a first description of the female, and additions to the salticid fauna of French Guiana.

    PubMed

    Courtial, Cyril; Picard, Lionel; Ysnel, Frédéric; Pétillon, Julien

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we validate the doubtful species status of E. guianae, with redescriptions of (supposedly lost) type and holotype males, and a first description of the female. Both sexes are measured and illustrated by pictures of habitus and copulatory organs. Seventeen new salticid species for French Guiana are also reported and a detailed catalogue of all salticid species from the Trinité National Nature Reserve is provided.

  5. Validation of Eustiromastix guianae (Caporiacco, 1954) (Araneae, Salticidae) with a first description of the female, and additions to the salticid fauna of French Guiana

    PubMed Central

    Courtial, Cyril; Picard, Lionel; Ysnel, Frédéric; Pétillon, Julien

    2014-01-01

    Abstract In this paper, we validate the doubtful species status of E. guianae, with redescriptions of (supposedly lost) type and holotype males, and a first description of the female. Both sexes are measured and illustrated by pictures of habitus and copulatory organs. Seventeen new salticid species for French Guiana are also reported and a detailed catalogue of all salticid species from the Trinité National Nature Reserve is provided. PMID:25061368

  6. The Development and Validation of an Instrument to Monitor the Implementation of Social Constructivist Learning Environments in Grade 9 Science Classrooms in South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luckay, Melanie B.; Laugksch, Rudiger C.

    2015-02-01

    This article describes the development and validation of an instrument that can be used to assess students' perceptions of their learning environment as a means of monitoring and guiding changes toward social constructivist learning environments. The study used a mixed-method approach with priority given to the quantitative data collection. During the quantitative data collection phase, a new instrument—the Social Constructivist Learning Environment Survey (SCLES)—was developed and used to collect data from 1,955 grade 9 science students from 52 classes in 50 schools in the Western Cape province, South Africa. The data were analysed to evaluate the reliability and validity of the new instrument, which assessed six dimensions of the classroom learning environment, namely, Working with Ideas, Personal Relevance, Collaboration, Critical Voice, Uncertainty in Science and Respect for Difference. Two dimensions were developed specifically for the present study in order to contextualise the questionnaire to the requirements of the new South African curriculum (namely, Metacognition and Respect for Difference). In the qualitative data collection phase, two case studies were used to investigate whether profiles of class mean scores on the new instrument could provide an accurate and "trustworthy" description of the learning environment of individual science classes. The study makes significant contributions to the field of learning environments in that it is one of the first major studies of its kind in South Africa with a focus on social constructivism and because the instrument developed captures important aspects of the learning environment associated with social constructivism.

  7. Development and Validation of the Social Information Processing Application: A Web-Based Measure of Social Information Processing Patterns in Elementary School-Age Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kupersmidt, Janis B.; Stelter, Rebecca; Dodge, Kenneth A.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of an audio computer-assisted self-interviewing Web-based software application called the Social Information Processing Application (SIP-AP) that was designed to assess social information processing skills in boys in RD through 5th grades. This study included a racially and…

  8. Measuring the Impact of Students' Social Relations and Values: Validation of the Social-Relational Support for Education Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vickers, Margaret; Finger, Linda; Barker, Katrina; Bodkin-Andrews, Gawaian

    2014-01-01

    A significant body of literature attests to the influence of social contexts on students' engagement with school. A review of this literature led to the construction of a self-report instrument designed to measure Social-Relational Support for Education (SRSE). The conceptual framework underlying the SRSE instrument focuses on the factors…

  9. The Development and Initial Validation of Social Cognitive Career Theory Instruments to Measure Choice of Medical Specialty and Practice Location

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Mary E.; Creed, Peter A.; Searle, Judy

    2009-01-01

    Social cognitive career theory served as the basis for the instrument development for scales assessing self-efficacy, outcome expectations, and goals to predict medical career choice. Lent and Brown's conceptualization of social cognitive constructs guided the development of items to measure choice of medical specialty and practice location. Study…

  10. Empirical Validation and Psychometric Evaluation of the Brief Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale in Patients with Social Anxiety Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weeks, Justin W.; Heimberg, Richard G.; Fresco, David M.; Hart, Trevor A.; Turk, Cynthia L.; Schneier, Franklin R.; Liebowitz, Michael R.

    2005-01-01

    The Brief Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale (BFNE; M. R. Leary, 1983a) is often used to assess fear of negative evaluation, the core feature of social anxiety disorder. However, few studies have examined its psychometric properties in large samples of socially anxious patients. Although the BFNE yields a single total score, confirmatory factor…

  11. Validation of Scores on the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale and the Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leite, Walter L.; Beretvas, S. Natasha

    2005-01-01

    The Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale (MCSDS), the most commonly used social desirability bias (SDB) assessment, conceptualizes SDB as an individual's need for approval. The Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding (BIDR) measures SDB as two separate constructs: impression management and self-deception. Scores on SDB scales are commonly…

  12. Intersubjectivity as a Measure of Social Competence among Children Attending Head Start: Assessing the Measure's Validity and Relation to Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garte, Rebecca R.

    2015-01-01

    The present paper reported on a new method and procedure for assessing preschooler's social competence. This method utilized an observational measure of intersubjectivity to assess the social competence that develops in real time during interaction between two or more children. The measure of intersubjectivity reflected a conceptualization of the…

  13. Efficacious Action and Social Approval as Interacting Dimensions of Self-Esteem: A Tentative Formulation Through Construct Validation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franks, David D.; Marolla, Joseph

    1976-01-01

    A theoretical and operational rationale is presented for the development of multidimensional measures of self-esteem. Self-esteem is conceptualized as a function of two processes reflected appraisals of significant others in one's social environment in the form of social approval, and the individual's feelings of efficacy and competence derived…

  14. Concurrent Validity of Social Subtype and IQ after Early Intensive Behavioral Intervention in Children with Autism: A Preliminary Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beglinger, Leigh; Smith, Tristram

    2005-01-01

    Three subtypes of autism based on social style have been proposed by Wing: active-but-odd, passive, or aloof. Previous research has shown evidence of an association between IQ and Wing subtype in untreated children and adults. Because IQ changes can accompany behavioral treatment, but often only for a subset of children, social subtype may be…

  15. The Development and Validation of an Instrument to Measure Conditions for Social Engagement of Students in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van den Wijngaard, Oscar; Beausaert, Simon; Segers, Mien; Gijselaers, Wim

    2015-01-01

    The present article analyzes social engagement as an outcome of higher education. It can be conceived as an attitude that by definition only manifests itself over time, and should therefore not be assessed or measured during the years of study or at graduation. The argument is being made that social engagement should be understood in terms of…

  16. Association Between Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Hormone Metabolism and DNA Repair Genes and Epithelial Ovarian Cancer: Results from Two Australian Studies and an Additional Validation Set

    PubMed Central

    Beesley, Jonathan; Jordan, Susan J.; Spurdle, Amanda B.; Song, Honglin; Ramus, Susan J.; Kjaer, Suzanne Kruger; Hogdall, Estrid; DiCioccio, Richard A.; McGuire, Valerie; Whittemore, Alice S.; Gayther, Simon A.; Pharoah, Paul D.P.; Webb, Penelope M.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia

    2009-01-01

    Although some high-risk ovarian cancer genes have been identified, it is likely that common low penetrance alleles exist that confer some increase in ovarian cancer risk. We have genotyped nine putative functional single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in genes involved in steroid hormone synthesis (SRD5A2, CYP19A1, HSB17B1, and HSD17B4) and DNA repair (XRCC2, XRCC3, BRCA2, and RAD52) using two Australian ovarian cancer case-control studies, comprising a total of 1,466 cases and 1,821 controls of Caucasian origin. Genotype frequencies in cases and controls were compared using logistic regression. The only SNP we found to be associated with ovarian cancer risk in both of these two studies was SRD5A2 V89L (rs523349), which showed a significant trend of increasing risk per rare allele (P = 0.00002). We then genotyped another SNP in this gene (rs632148; r2 = 0.945 with V89L) in an attempt to validate this finding in an independent set of 1,479 cases and 2,452 controls from United Kingdom, United States, and Denmark. There was no association between rs632148 and ovarian cancer risk in the validation samples, and overall, there was no significant heterogeneity between the results of the five studies. Further analyses of SNPs in this gene are therefore warranted to determine whether SRD5A2 plays a role in ovarian cancer predisposition. PMID:18086758

  17. The validation of a new measure quantifying the social quality of life of ethnically diverse older women: two cross-sectional studies

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background To our knowledge, the available psychometric literature does not include an instrument for the quantification of social quality of life among older women from diverse ethnic backgrounds. To address the need for a tool of this kind, we conducted two studies to assess the initial reliability and validity of a new instrument. The latter was created specifically to quantify the contribution of a) social networks and resources (e.g., family, friends, and community) as well as b) one's perceived power and respect within family and community to subjective well-being in non-clinical, ethnically diverse populations of older women. Methods In Study 1, we recruited a cross-sectional sample of primarily non-European-American older women (N = 220) at a variety of community locations. Participants were administered the following: a short screener for dementia; a demographic list; an initial pool of 50 items from which the final items of the new Older Women's Social Quality of Life Inventory (OWSQLI) were to be chosen (based on a statistical criterion to apply to the factor analysis findings); the Single Item Measure of Social Support (SIMSS); and the Medical Outcome Study 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (MOS SF-36). Study 2 was conducted on a second independent sample of ethnically diverse older women. The same recruitment strategies, procedures, and instruments as those of Study 1 were utilized in Study 2, whose sample was comprised of 241 older women with mostly non-European-American ethnic status. Results In Study 1, exploratory factor analysis of the OWSQLI obtained robust findings: the total variance explained by one single factor with the final selection of 22 items was over 44%. The OWSQLI demonstrated strong internal consistency (α = .92, p < .001), adequate criterion validity with the SIMSS (r = .33; p < .01), and (as expected) moderate concurrent validity with the MOS SF-36 for both physical (r = .21; p < .01) and mental (r = .26; p < .01) quality of life

  18. Une validation de la forme abrégée de l’Échelle de provisions sociales : l’ÉPS-10 items

    PubMed Central

    Caron, Jean

    2016-01-01

    L’Échelle de provisions sociales-10 items (ÉPS-10) est une version abrégée de l’Échelle de provisions sociales (Social Provisions Scale) (Cutrona et Russell, 1987) validée en langue française sur une population québécoise (Caron, 1996) et qui permet de mesurer la disponibilité du soutien social. L’ÉPS-10 conserve cinq des six sous-échelles de l’ÉPS (l’attachement ; l’intégration sociale ; la confirmation de sa valeur ; l’aide matérielle et l’orientation), le besoin de se sentir utile et nécessaire ayant été exclu, et ne garde que les items formulés positivement, soit deux items par dimension du soutien. L’article présente la validation de l’EPS-10 sur un échantillon représentatif de 2433 personnes provenant de la population générale du sud-ouest de Montréal. Elle a une forte validité concomitante avec l’Échelle originelle de 24 items (ÉPS). Tous ces items sont fortement corrélés au score total et sa consistance interne est excellente. Des analyses de corrélation entre les sous-échelles et le score global et une analyse factorielle indiquent que l’ÉPS-10 conserve sa validité de construit. L’ÉPS-10 explique 14,1 % de la variance de la détresse psychologique et 25,4 % de la variance de la qualité de vie et conserve un pouvoir prédictif équivalent à l’ÉPS à 24 items. L’ensemble des analyses suggère que l’ÉPS-10 est un instrument fiable et valide pour mesurer la disponibilité du soutien social avec un temps d’administration réduit de moitié. Il s’avère un excellent choix pour les enquêtes épidémiologiques. PMID:24337002

  19. Human and ant social behavior should be compared in a very careful way to draw valid parallels.

    PubMed

    Godzińska, Ewa Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Gowdy & Krall provide an interesting discussion of evolutionary origins and consequences of ultrasociality. However, some of their statements concerning various features of ant and human social behavior do not adequately reflect present knowledge about the discussed issues, which include, among others, polyethism, cultural information transfer, within-group conflicts and resistance in ant societies, and reproductive division of labor in humans. Gowdy & Krall (G&K) provide an interesting discussion of evolutionary origins and consequences of ultrasociality, an advanced form of social behavior that evolved independently in both social insects and humans. Their reflections are thought-provoking, but some statements concerning various features of ant and human social behavior do not reflect adequately the present knowledge about the discussed issues. PMID:27562514

  20. The Children's Social Understanding Scale: construction and validation of a parent-report measure for assessing individual differences in children's theories of mind.

    PubMed

    Tahiroglu, Deniz; Moses, Louis J; Carlson, Stephanie M; Mahy, Caitlin E V; Olofson, Eric L; Sabbagh, Mark A

    2014-11-01

    Children's theory of mind (ToM) is typically measured with laboratory assessments of performance. Although these measures have generated a wealth of informative data concerning developmental progressions in ToM, they may be less useful as the sole source of information about individual differences in ToM and their relation to other facets of development. In the current research, we aimed to expand the repertoire of methods available for measuring ToM by developing and validating a parent-report ToM measure: the Children's Social Understanding Scale (CSUS). We present 3 studies assessing the psychometric properties of the CSUS. Study 1 describes item analysis, internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and relation of the scale to children's performance on laboratory ToM tasks. Study 2 presents cross-validation data for the scale in a different sample of preschool children with a different set of ToM tasks. Study 3 presents further validation data for the scale with a slightly older age group and a more advanced ToM task, while controlling for several other relevant cognitive abilities. The findings indicate that the CSUS is a reliable and valid measure of individual differences in children's ToM that may be of great value as a complement to standard ToM tasks in many different research contexts. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Validation of a theory-driven profile interpretation of the Dutch short form of the MMPI using the TAT Social Cognitions and Object Relations Scale (SCORS).

    PubMed

    Eurelings-Bontekoe, Elisabeth H M; Luyten, Patrick; Snellen, Wim

    2009-03-01

    In this study, we investigated the construct validity of the theory-driven profile interpretation of the Dutch Short Form of the MMPI (DSFM; Luteijn & Kok, 1985), an interpretation method aimed at assessing structural features of personality based on Kernberg and Caligor's (2005) views concerning personality organization. We utilized the four dimensions of the Social Cognition and Object Relations Scale (SCORS; Westen, Lohr, Silk, Gold, & Kerber, 1990) as external criteria. Results showed that, congruent with theoretical expectations, the DSFM profiles predicted structural features of personality functioning, especially identity diffusion as measured by the SCORS, after adjustment for the effect of the single scales used to construct the profiles. These findings provide further support for the construct validity of the DSFM profiles to measure structural features of personality organization. We discuss directions for future research and clinical implications.

  2. [Factor structure validity of the social capital scale used at baseline in the ELSA-Brasil study].

    PubMed

    Souto, Ester Paiva; Vasconcelos, Ana Glória Godoi; Chor, Dora; Reichenheim, Michael E; Griep, Rosane Härter

    2016-07-21

    This study aims to analyze the factor structure of the Brazilian version of the Resource Generator (RG) scale, using baseline data from the Brazilian Longitudinal Health Study in Adults (ELSA-Brasil). Cross-validation was performed in three random subsamples. Exploratory factor analysis using exploratory structural equation models was conducted in the first two subsamples to diagnose the factor structure, and confirmatory factor analysis was used in the third to corroborate the model defined by the exploratory analyses. Based on the 31 initial items, the model with the best fit included 25 items distributed across three dimensions. They all presented satisfactory convergent validity (values greater than 0.50 for the extracted variance) and precision (values greater than 0.70 for compound reliability). All factor correlations were below 0.85, indicating full discriminative factor validity. The RG scale presents acceptable psychometric properties and can be used in populations with similar characteristics.

  3. [Factor structure validity of the social capital scale used at baseline in the ELSA-Brasil study].

    PubMed

    Souto, Ester Paiva; Vasconcelos, Ana Glória Godoi; Chor, Dora; Reichenheim, Michael E; Griep, Rosane Härter

    2016-07-21

    This study aims to analyze the factor structure of the Brazilian version of the Resource Generator (RG) scale, using baseline data from the Brazilian Longitudinal Health Study in Adults (ELSA-Brasil). Cross-validation was performed in three random subsamples. Exploratory factor analysis using exploratory structural equation models was conducted in the first two subsamples to diagnose the factor structure, and confirmatory factor analysis was used in the third to corroborate the model defined by the exploratory analyses. Based on the 31 initial items, the model with the best fit included 25 items distributed across three dimensions. They all presented satisfactory convergent validity (values greater than 0.50 for the extracted variance) and precision (values greater than 0.70 for compound reliability). All factor correlations were below 0.85, indicating full discriminative factor validity. The RG scale presents acceptable psychometric properties and can be used in populations with similar characteristics. PMID:27462850

  4. Validation of a brief quantitative measure of autistic traits: comparison of the social responsiveness scale with the autism diagnostic interview-revised.

    PubMed

    Constantino, John N; Davis, Sandra A; Todd, Richard D; Schindler, Matthew K; Gross, Maggie M; Brophy, Susan L; Metzger, Lisa M; Shoushtari, Christiana S; Splinter, Reagan; Reich, Wendy

    2003-08-01

    Studies of the broader autism phenotype, and of subtle changes in autism symptoms over time, have been compromised by a lack of established quantitative assessment tools. The Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS-formerly known as the Social Reciprocity Scale) is a new instrument that can be completed by parents and/or teachers in 15-20 minutes. We compared the SRS with the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) in 61 child psychiatric patients. Correlations between SRS scores and ADI-R algorithm scores for DSM-IV criterion sets were on the order of 0.7. SRS scores were unrelated to I.Q. and exhibited inter-rater reliability on the order of 0.8. The SRS is a valid quantitative measure of autistic traits, feasible for use in clinical settings and for large-scale research studies of autism spectrum conditions. PMID:12959421

  5. Users' Support as a Social Resource in Educational Services: Construct Validity and Measurement Invariance of the User-Initiated Support Scale (UISS).

    PubMed

    Loera, Barbara; Martini, Mara; Viotti, Sara; Converso, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Social support is an important resource for reducing the risks of stress and burnout at work. It seems to be particularly helpful for educational and social professionals. The constant and intense relationships with users that characterize this kind of service can be very demanding, increasing stress and leading to burnout. While significant attention has been paid to supervisors and colleagues in the literature, users have rarely been considered as possible sources of social support. The only exception is the Zimmermann et al.'s (2011) research, focused on customer support as a resource for workers' well-being. This paper proposes the validation of the customer-initiated support scale developed by Zimmermann et al. (2011), translated into Italian and focused on educational services users (children's parents), to measure the user support perceived by workers: the User-Initiated Support Scale (UISS). In Study 1 (105 teachers), which specifically involved educators and kindergarten teachers, the items and scale properties were preliminarily examined using descriptive analyses and exploratory factor analysis (EFA). In Study 2 (304 teachers), the construct and criterion validity and scale dimensionality were analyzed using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). In Study 3 (304 teachers from Study 2 and 296 educators), measurement invariance (MI) was tested. The EFA results from Study 1 showed a one-factor solution (explained variance, 67.2%). The scale showed good internal coherence (alpha = 0.88). The CFA in Study 2 validated the one-factor solution (comparative fit index = 0.987; standardized root mean square residual = 0.054). Bivariate correlations confirmed construct validity; the UISS was positively associated (convergent) with user gratitude, and not associated (divergent) with disproportionate customer expectations. Regarding the criterion validity test, the UISS was strongly correlated with burnout and job satisfaction. The analysis of MI performed on the Study 3

  6. Users' Support as a Social Resource in Educational Services: Construct Validity and Measurement Invariance of the User-Initiated Support Scale (UISS).

    PubMed

    Loera, Barbara; Martini, Mara; Viotti, Sara; Converso, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Social support is an important resource for reducing the risks of stress and burnout at work. It seems to be particularly helpful for educational and social professionals. The constant and intense relationships with users that characterize this kind of service can be very demanding, increasing stress and leading to burnout. While significant attention has been paid to supervisors and colleagues in the literature, users have rarely been considered as possible sources of social support. The only exception is the Zimmermann et al.'s (2011) research, focused on customer support as a resource for workers' well-being. This paper proposes the validation of the customer-initiated support scale developed by Zimmermann et al. (2011), translated into Italian and focused on educational services users (children's parents), to measure the user support perceived by workers: the User-Initiated Support Scale (UISS). In Study 1 (105 teachers), which specifically involved educators and kindergarten teachers, the items and scale properties were preliminarily examined using descriptive analyses and exploratory factor analysis (EFA). In Study 2 (304 teachers), the construct and criterion validity and scale dimensionality were analyzed using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). In Study 3 (304 teachers from Study 2 and 296 educators), measurement invariance (MI) was tested. The EFA results from Study 1 showed a one-factor solution (explained variance, 67.2%). The scale showed good internal coherence (alpha = 0.88). The CFA in Study 2 validated the one-factor solution (comparative fit index = 0.987; standardized root mean square residual = 0.054). Bivariate correlations confirmed construct validity; the UISS was positively associated (convergent) with user gratitude, and not associated (divergent) with disproportionate customer expectations. Regarding the criterion validity test, the UISS was strongly correlated with burnout and job satisfaction. The analysis of MI performed on the Study 3

  7. Users’ Support as a Social Resource in Educational Services: Construct Validity and Measurement Invariance of the User-Initiated Support Scale (UISS)

    PubMed Central

    Loera, Barbara; Martini, Mara; Viotti, Sara; Converso, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Social support is an important resource for reducing the risks of stress and burnout at work. It seems to be particularly helpful for educational and social professionals. The constant and intense relationships with users that characterize this kind of service can be very demanding, increasing stress and leading to burnout. While significant attention has been paid to supervisors and colleagues in the literature, users have rarely been considered as possible sources of social support. The only exception is the Zimmermann et al.’s (2011) research, focused on customer support as a resource for workers’ well-being. This paper proposes the validation of the customer-initiated support scale developed by Zimmermann et al. (2011), translated into Italian and focused on educational services users (children’s parents), to measure the user support perceived by workers: the User-Initiated Support Scale (UISS). In Study 1 (105 teachers), which specifically involved educators and kindergarten teachers, the items and scale properties were preliminarily examined using descriptive analyses and exploratory factor analysis (EFA). In Study 2 (304 teachers), the construct and criterion validity and scale dimensionality were analyzed using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). In Study 3 (304 teachers from Study 2 and 296 educators), measurement invariance (MI) was tested. The EFA results from Study 1 showed a one-factor solution (explained variance, 67.2%). The scale showed good internal coherence (alpha = 0.88). The CFA in Study 2 validated the one-factor solution (comparative fit index = 0.987; standardized root mean square residual = 0.054). Bivariate correlations confirmed construct validity; the UISS was positively associated (convergent) with user gratitude, and not associated (divergent) with disproportionate customer expectations. Regarding the criterion validity test, the UISS was strongly correlated with burnout and job satisfaction. The analysis of MI performed on the

  8. Users’ Support as a Social Resource in Educational Services: Construct Validity and Measurement Invariance of the User-Initiated Support Scale (UISS)

    PubMed Central

    Loera, Barbara; Martini, Mara; Viotti, Sara; Converso, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Social support is an important resource for reducing the risks of stress and burnout at work. It seems to be particularly helpful for educational and social professionals. The constant and intense relationships with users that characterize this kind of service can be very demanding, increasing stress and leading to burnout. While significant attention has been paid to supervisors and colleagues in the literature, users have rarely been considered as possible sources of social support. The only exception is the Zimmermann et al.’s (2011) research, focused on customer support as a resource for workers’ well-being. This paper proposes the validation of the customer-initiated support scale developed by Zimmermann et al. (2011), translated into Italian and focused on educational services users (children’s parents), to measure the user support perceived by workers: the User-Initiated Support Scale (UISS). In Study 1 (105 teachers), which specifically involved educators and kindergarten teachers, the items and scale properties were preliminarily examined using descriptive analyses and exploratory factor analysis (EFA). In Study 2 (304 teachers), the construct and criterion validity and scale dimensionality were analyzed using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). In Study 3 (304 teachers from Study 2 and 296 educators), measurement invariance (MI) was tested. The EFA results from Study 1 showed a one-factor solution (explained variance, 67.2%). The scale showed good internal coherence (alpha = 0.88). The CFA in Study 2 validated the one-factor solution (comparative fit index = 0.987; standardized root mean square residual = 0.054). Bivariate correlations confirmed construct validity; the UISS was positively associated (convergent) with user gratitude, and not associated (divergent) with disproportionate customer expectations. Regarding the criterion validity test, the UISS was strongly correlated with burnout and job satisfaction. The analysis of MI performed on the

  9. The Social Appearance Anxiety Scale in Italian Adolescent Populations: Construct Validation and Group Discrimination in Community and Clinical Eating Disorders Samples.

    PubMed

    Dakanalis, Antonios; Carrà, Giuseppe; Calogero, Rachel; Zanetti, M Assunta; Volpato, Chiara; Riva, Giuseppe; Clerici, Massimo; Cipresso, Pietro

    2016-02-01

    Anxiety in situations where one's overall appearance (including body shape) may be negatively evaluated is hypothesized to play a central role in Eating Disorders (EDs) and in their co-occurrence with Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD). Three studies were conducted among community (N = 1995) and clinical (N = 703) ED samples of 11- to 18-year-old Italian girls and boys to (a) evaluate the psychometric qualities and measurement equivalence/invariance (ME/I) of the Social Appearance Anxiety (SAA) Scale (SAAS) and (b) determine to what extent SAA or other situational domains of social anxiety related to EDs distinguish adolescents with an ED only from those with SAD. Results upheld the one-factor structure and ME/I of the SAAS across samples, gender, age categories, and diagnostic status (i.e., ED participants with and without comorbid SAD). The SAAS demonstrated high internal consistency and 3-week test-retest reliability. The strength of the inter-relationships between SAAS and measures of body image, teasing about appearance, ED symptoms, depression, social anxiety, avoidance, and distress, as well as the ability of SAAS to discriminate community adolescents with high and low levels of ED symptoms and community participants from ED participants provided construct validity evidence. Only SAA strongly differentiated adolescents with any ED from those with comorbid SAD (23.2 %). Latent mean comparisons across all study groups were performed and discussed. PMID:25976291

  10. The Social Appearance Anxiety Scale in Italian Adolescent Populations: Construct Validation and Group Discrimination in Community and Clinical Eating Disorders Samples.

    PubMed

    Dakanalis, Antonios; Carrà, Giuseppe; Calogero, Rachel; Zanetti, M Assunta; Volpato, Chiara; Riva, Giuseppe; Clerici, Massimo; Cipresso, Pietro

    2016-02-01

    Anxiety in situations where one's overall appearance (including body shape) may be negatively evaluated is hypothesized to play a central role in Eating Disorders (EDs) and in their co-occurrence with Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD). Three studies were conducted among community (N = 1995) and clinical (N = 703) ED samples of 11- to 18-year-old Italian girls and boys to (a) evaluate the psychometric qualities and measurement equivalence/invariance (ME/I) of the Social Appearance Anxiety (SAA) Scale (SAAS) and (b) determine to what extent SAA or other situational domains of social anxiety related to EDs distinguish adolescents with an ED only from those with SAD. Results upheld the one-factor structure and ME/I of the SAAS across samples, gender, age categories, and diagnostic status (i.e., ED participants with and without comorbid SAD). The SAAS demonstrated high internal consistency and 3-week test-retest reliability. The strength of the inter-relationships between SAAS and measures of body image, teasing about appearance, ED symptoms, depression, social anxiety, avoidance, and distress, as well as the ability of SAAS to discriminate community adolescents with high and low levels of ED symptoms and community participants from ED participants provided construct validity evidence. Only SAA strongly differentiated adolescents with any ED from those with comorbid SAD (23.2 %). Latent mean comparisons across all study groups were performed and discussed.

  11. Development and Validation of Two Influenza Assessments: Exploring the Impact of Knowledge and Social Environment on Health Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romine, William

    2011-01-01

    Assessments of knowledge and perceptions about influenza were developed for high school students, and used to determine how knowledge, perceptions, and demographic variables relate to students taking precautions and their odds of getting sick. Assessments were piloted with 205 students and validated using the Rasch model. Data were then collected…

  12. Promoting Leisure Physical Activity Participation among Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: Validation of Self-Efficacy and Social Support Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Jana J.; Peterson, N. Andrew; Lowe, John B.; Nothwehr, Faryle K.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Many individuals with intellectual disabilities are not sufficiently active for availing health benefits. Little is known about correlates of physical activity among this population on which to build health promotion interventions. Materials and Methods: We developed scales for measurement of self-efficacy and social support for…

  13. An Assessment of the Predictive Validity of Impact Factor Scores: Implications for Academic Employment Decisions in Social Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holden, Gary; Rosenberg, Gary; Barker, Kathleen; Onghena, Patrick

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Bibliometrics is a method of examining scholarly communications. Concerns regarding the use of bibliometrics in general, and the impact factor score (IFS) in particular, have been discussed across disciplines including social work. Although there are frequent mentions in the literature of the IFS as an indicator of the impact or quality…

  14. An Initial Validation of a Measure of Personal and Social Perceptions of the Sexual Abuse of Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nalavany, Blace A.; Abell, Neil

    2004-01-01

    Objective/Method: The Sexual Abuse of Males Perceptions Scale (SAMPS) is a measure designed to assess an individual's personal and projected social perceptions of myths about the sexual abuse of boys and men. Myths are rigid, stereotypical beliefs that invalidate the experiences and minimize the profound effects of sexual abuse on boys and men.…

  15. The Social Physique Anxiety Scale: An Example of the Potential Consequence of Negatively Worded Items in Factorial Validity Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motl, Robert W.; Conroy, David E.; Horan, Patrick M.

    2000-01-01

    Used confirmatory factor analysis to examine whether the two-factor solution to the Social Physique Anxiety Scale (E. Hart, M. Leary, and W. Rejeski, 1989) was meaningful. Results for 4 samples of data for college students, high school students, and athletes (n=1,053) from previous studies support the existence of a single substantive factor…

  16. Internal Consistency Reliability and Construct Validity of the Attitude toward Muslim Proximity Index (AMPI): A Measure of Social Distance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brockett, Adrian; Village, Andrew; Francis, Leslie J.

    2009-01-01

    The Attitude toward Muslim Proximity Index (AMPI) is a six-item scale that uses tolerance to different degrees of social distance to assess prejudice towards Muslims. It was tested on 1777 teenage school children from northern England who indicated their religion as either "Christian" or "no religion", and demonstrated good internal reliability…

  17. Validating continuous digital light processing (cDLP) additive manufacturing accuracy and tissue engineering utility of a dye-initiator package.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Jonathan; Wang, Martha O; Thompson, Paul; Busso, Mallory; Belle, Vaijayantee; Mammoser, Nicole; Kim, Kyobum; Fisher, John P; Siblani, Ali; Xu, Yueshuo; Welter, Jean F; Lennon, Donald P; Sun, Jiayang; Caplan, Arnold I; Dean, David

    2014-03-01

    This study tested the accuracy of tissue engineering scaffold rendering via the continuous digital light processing (cDLP) light-based additive manufacturing technology. High accuracy (i.e., <50 µm) allows the designed performance of features relevant to three scale spaces: cell-scaffold, scaffold-tissue, and tissue-organ interactions. The biodegradable polymer poly (propylene fumarate) was used to render highly accurate scaffolds through the use of a dye-initiator package, TiO2 and bis (2,4,6-trimethylbenzoyl)phenylphosphine oxide. This dye-initiator package facilitates high accuracy in the Z dimension. Linear, round, and right-angle features were measured to gauge accuracy. Most features showed accuracies between 5.4-15% of the design. However, one feature, an 800 µm diameter circular pore, exhibited a 35.7% average reduction of patency. Light scattered in the x, y directions by the dye may have reduced this feature's accuracy. Our new fine-grained understanding of accuracy could be used to make further improvements by including corrections in the scaffold design software. Successful cell attachment occurred with both canine and human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Highly accurate cDLP scaffold rendering is critical to the design of scaffolds that both guide bone regeneration and that fully resorb. Scaffold resorption must occur for regenerated bone to be remodeled and, thereby, achieve optimal strength.

  18. Social cognitions about food choice in children aged five to eight years: Feasibility and predictive validity of an age appropriate measurement.

    PubMed

    Fernandes-Machado, Sandra; Gellert, Paul; Goncalves, Sonia; Sniehotta, Falko F; Araujo-Soares, Vera

    2016-10-01

    There are currently no instruments available to measure social cognitions towards food choice in children. This study aimed to test the feasibility and predictive validity of a novel measurement tool to assess food-related social cognitions. Sixty-eight children, five to eight years old, were asked to sort cards with photographs of four fruit and four sweet/savoury snacks as a mean to measure attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioural control (PBC), and intention. Subsequently, food choice (dependent variable) was assessed using a laboratory food choice task in which children could gain access to sweet and savoury or fruit items, or a combination. All participants completed the tasks successfully, demonstrating feasibility of the procedure. The order in which the cards were sorted for each construct differed sufficiently and correlations between constructs were in line with previous studies. Measures of PBC, intention, attitude, and subjective norm from the mother, but not from teachers or friends, correlated significantly with subsequent food choice. It is possible to measure food-related social cognitions in children aged five to eight and these measures were predictive of observed behaviour. The new instrument can contribute to our understanding of psychological determinants of food choice in young children. PMID:27215839

  19. Validity analysis on merged and averaged data using within and between analysis: focus on effect of qualitative social capital on self-rated health

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: With an increasing number of studies highlighting regional social capital (SC) as a determinant of health, many studies are using multi-level analysis with merged and averaged scores of community residents’ survey responses calculated from community SC data. Sufficient examination is required to validate if the merged and averaged data can represent the community. Therefore, this study analyzes the validity of the selected indicators and their applicability in multi-level analysis. METHODS: Within and between analysis (WABA) was performed after creating community variables using merged and averaged data of community residents’ responses from the 2013 Community Health Survey in Korea, using subjective self-rated health assessment as a dependent variable. Further analysis was performed following the model suggested by WABA result. RESULTS: Both E-test results (1) and WABA results (2) revealed that single-level analysis needs to be performed using qualitative SC variable with cluster mean centering. Through single-level multivariate regression analysis, qualitative SC with cluster mean centering showed positive effect on self-rated health (0.054, p<0.001), although there was no substantial difference in comparison to analysis using SC variables without cluster mean centering or multi-level analysis. CONCLUSIONS: As modification in qualitative SC was larger within the community than between communities, we validate that relational analysis of individual self-rated health can be performed within the group, using cluster mean centering. Other tests besides the WABA can be performed in the future to confirm the validity of using community variables and their applicability in multi-level analysis. PMID:27292102

  20. Agreeing on Validity Arguments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sireci, Stephen G.

    2013-01-01

    Kane (this issue) presents a comprehensive review of validity theory and reminds us that the focus of validation is on test score interpretations and use. In reacting to his article, I support the argument-based approach to validity and all of the major points regarding validation made by Dr. Kane. In addition, I call for a simpler, three-step…

  1. Development and validation of two influenza assessments: Exploring the impact of knowledge and social environment on health behaviors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romine, William

    Assessments of knowledge and perceptions about influenza were developed for high school students, and used to determine how knowledge, perceptions, and demographic variables relate to students taking precautions and their odds of getting sick. Assessments were piloted with 205 students and validated using the Rasch model. Data were then collected on 410 students from six high schools. Scores were calculated using the 2-parameter logistic model and clustered using the k-means algorithm. Kendall-tau correlations were evaluated at the alpha = 0.05 level, multinomial logistic regression was used to identify the best predictors and to test for interactions, and neural networks were used to test how well precautions and illness can be predicted using the significant correlates. Precautions and illness had more than one statistically significant correlate with small to moderate effect sizes. Knowledge was positively correlated to compliance with vaccination, hand washing frequency, and respiratory etiquette, and negatively correlated with hand sanitizer use. Perceived risk was positively correlated to compliance with flu vaccination; perceived complications to personal distancing and staying home when sick. Perceived risk and complications increased with reported illness severity. Perceived barriers decreased compliance with vaccination, hand washing, and respiratory etiquette. Factors such as gender, ethnicity, and school, had effects on more than one precaution. Hand washing quality and frequency could be predicted moderately well. Other predictions had small-to-negligible associations with actual values. Implications for future uses of the instruments and development of interventions regarding influenza in high schools are discussed.

  2. Validation of the Verbal and Social Interaction questionnaire: carers' focus in the carer-resident relationship in supported housing facilities for persons with psychiatric disabilities (VSI-SH).

    PubMed

    Brunt, D; Rask, M

    2013-04-01

    A questionnaire to measure the verbal and social interactions between carers and residents in supported housing facilities for persons with psychiatric disabilities has been developed. It is an adaptation of a questionnaire originally used in a forensic psychiatric setting. The aim of the present study was thus to investigate the construct validity and the reliability of this new version of the Verbal and Social Interactions questionnaire for use in supported housing facilities (VSI-SH). Two hundred and twenty-three carers from municipal and privately run housing facilities completed the questionnaire. A factor analysis was performed, which resulted in six factors. The number of items was reduced from the original 47 to 30 in order to minimize factorial complexity and multiple loadings. The reliability was tested with Cronbach's alpha and good internal consistency for the questionnaire and five of the six factors was found. The resulting six factors and the items were compared to the conceptual model and four of the six factors corresponded well with the categories in this original theoretical model. The questionnaire can be a useful contribution to the study of interactions between carers and residents in supported housing facilities for persons with psychiatric disabilities.

  3. Albumin and Uptake of Drugs in Cells: Additional Validation Exercises of a Recently Published Equation that Quantifies the Albumin-Facilitated Uptake Mechanism(s) in Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Modeling Research.

    PubMed

    Poulin, Patrick; Haddad, Sami

    2015-12-01

    The impact of albumin concentration on the uptake of drugs in cells might involve mechanisms going beyond the free drug concentration hypothesis. Proceeding from the assumption that both the unbound and protein-bound drug fractions can be available for uptake, several authors have argued that the uptake of highly bound drugs in cells might be driven mainly by the albumin-facilitated uptake mechanism(s). Hence, a novel approach quantifying the additional contribution of the protein-bound drug complex and pH gradient effect in diverse in vitro-to-in vivo extrapolation (IVIVE) procedures of drug uptake and clearance has been proposed and extensively validated by Poulin et al. (2015. J Pharm Sci. Epub ahead of print); this approach consisted of replacing the unbound fraction in plasma (fup ) with an adjusted fup value (fup-adjusted ). After a second review of literature, the objective of the present study was to perform further validation exercises of the concept of fup-adjusted by using additional case examples of IVIVEs that covered diverse drug properties and experimental settings with varied albumin concentrations (e.g., perfused liver, isolated and suspended hepatocytes, and cultured cells overexpressing transporters). Again, the novel IVIVE method based on fup-adjusted was the best-performing prediction method of the uptake rate (or clearance) as a function of protein binding compared with the conventional method based on the fup theory (absolute average fold error of 1.4 vs. 7.4). Therefore, the present study confirms the utility of fup-adjusted compared with fup in IVIVE procedures for drugs highly bound to albumin, and the improvement was observed particularly in the higher range of albumin concentrations. From these findings, we may conclude that uptake of these drugs in cells is primarily driven by the albumin-bound form. Consequently, it is suggested to estimate the uptake kinetic parameters with cell-based assays incubated in 100% human serum or to make a

  4. Discriminant validity of the adult attachment interview.

    PubMed

    Crowell, J A; Waters, E; Treboux, D; O'Connor, E O; Colon-Downs, C; Feider, O; Golby, B; Posada

    1996-10-01

    The Adult Attachment Interview is a semi-structured interview developed to investigate adults' attachment representations. Subjects are asked to describe their parents as caregivers, explain these descriptions, describe how their parents typically responded to distress, and discuss their current relationships with their parents. They are also asked to describe any significant losses and/or instances of abuse during childhood. Scoring focuses on the accessibility of early experiences to memory and the coherence and plausibility of the subject's narrative. Discriminant validity is always an important issue with such measures because IQ and other cognitively loaded variables offer plausible alternative interpretations or represent important correlates that should be treated as covariates when the measure is used. In addition, complex, multifaceted interviews always pose the risk of assessing general social adjustment rather than a more narrowly defined construct. This study examines the discriminant validity of the AAI vis(-)à-vis intelligence, social desirability, discourse style, and general social adjustment in a sample of 53 native-English-speaking, married women with preschool children. They were assessed with the AAI, a written IQ test, the Social Adjustment Scale, the Employment Experience Interview (discourse style), and a measure of social desirability. There were modest but significant correlations with IQ scores and social adjustment. There was no relation between AAI classifications and discourse style or social desirability. These results substantially strengthen the case for interpreting the AAI as an attachment-related measure.

  5. Measuring Social Capital Investment: Scale Development and Examination of Links to Social Capital and Perceived Stress

    PubMed Central

    Wegner, Rhiana; Gong, Jie; Fang, Xiaoyi; Kaljee, Linda

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with greater social capital have better health outcomes. Investment in social capital likely increases one’s own social capital, bearing great implications for disease prevention and health promotion. In this study, the authors developed and validated the Social Capital Investment Inventory (SCII). Direct effects of social capital investment on perceived stress, and indirect effects through social capital were examined. 397 Participants from Beijing and Wuhan, China completed surveys. Analyses demonstrated that the SCII has a single factor structure and strong internal consistency. Structural equation modeling showed that individuals who invested more in social capital had greater bonding social capital, and subsequently less perceived stress. Results suggest that disease prevention and health promotion programs should consider approaches to encourage social capital investment; individuals may be able to reduce stress by increasing their investment in social capital. Future research is needed to provide additional empirical support for the SCII and observed structural relationships. PMID:25648725

  6. Food additives

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857

  7. How Competent Are Healthcare Professionals in Working According to a Bio-Psycho-Social Model in Healthcare? The Current Status and Validation of a Scale

    PubMed Central

    Eijkelkamp, Ank; Peersman, Wim; De Vriendt, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Background Over the past decades, there has been a paradigm shift from a purely biomedical towards a bio-psycho-social (BPS) conception of disability and illness, which has led to a change in contemporary healthcare. However, there seems to be a gap between the rhetoric and reality of working within a BPS model. It is not clear whether healthcare professionals show the necessary skills and competencies to act according to the BPS model. Objective The aim of this study was (1) to develop a scale to monitor the BPS competencies of healthcare professionals, (2) to define its factor-structure, (3) to check internal consistency, (4) test-retest reliability and (5) feasibility. Design and Setting Item derivation for the BPS scale was based on qualitative research with seven multidisciplinary focus groups (n = 58) of both patients and professionals. In a cross-sectional study design, 368 healthcare professionals completed the BPS scale through a digital platform. An exploratory factor analysis was performed to determine underlying dimensions. Statistical coherence was expressed in item-total correlations and in Cronbach’s α coefficient. An intra-class-correlation coefficient was used to rate the test-retest reliability. Results The qualitative study revealed 45 items. The exploratory factor analysis showed five underlying dimensions labelled as: (1) networking, (2) using the expertise of the client, (3) assessment and reporting, (4) professional knowledge and skills and (5) using the environment. The results show a good to strong homogeneity (item-total ranged from 0.59 to 0.79) and a strong internal consistency (Cronbach’s α ranged from 0.75 to 0.82). ICC ranged between 0.82 and 0.93. Conclusion The BPS scale appeared to be a valid and reliable measure to rate the BPS competencies of the healthcare professionals and offers opportunities for an improvement in the healthcare delivery. Further research is necessary to test the construct validity and to detect whether

  8. Generalization of Skills through the Addition of Individualized Coaching: Development and Evaluation of a Social Skills Training Program in a Rural Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottlieb, Jennifer D.; Pryzgoda, Jayde; Neal, Andrea; Schuldberg, David

    2005-01-01

    There has been recent interest in adding interventions that aid in skill generalization to standard social skills training programs for schizophrenia. Some of these adjunctive interventions are very comprehensive and clearly promising (e.g., IVAST; Liberman, Glynn, Blair, Ross, & Marder, 2002), but their overall cost-effectiveness and feasibility…

  9. Phosphazene additives

    DOEpatents

    Harrup, Mason K; Rollins, Harry W

    2013-11-26

    An additive comprising a phosphazene compound that has at least two reactive functional groups and at least one capping functional group bonded to phosphorus atoms of the phosphazene compound. One of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with cellulose and the other of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with a resin, such as an amine resin of a polycarboxylic acid resin. The at least one capping functional group is selected from the group consisting of a short chain ether group, an alkoxy group, or an aryloxy group. Also disclosed are an additive-resin admixture, a method of treating a wood product, and a wood product.

  10. Potlining Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolf Keller

    2004-08-10

    In this project, a concept to improve the performance of aluminum production cells by introducing potlining additives was examined and tested. Boron oxide was added to cathode blocks, and titanium was dissolved in the metal pool; this resulted in the formation of titanium diboride and caused the molten aluminum to wet the carbonaceous cathode surface. Such wetting reportedly leads to operational improvements and extended cell life. In addition, boron oxide suppresses cyanide formation. This final report presents and discusses the results of this project. Substantial economic benefits for the practical implementation of the technology are projected, especially for modern cells with graphitized blocks. For example, with an energy savings of about 5% and an increase in pot life from 1500 to 2500 days, a cost savings of $ 0.023 per pound of aluminum produced is projected for a 200 kA pot.

  11. An SAT® Validity Primer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Emily J.

    2015-01-01

    This primer should provide the reader with a deeper understanding of the concept of test validity and will present the recent available validity evidence on the relationship between SAT® scores and important college outcomes. In addition, the content examined on the SAT will be discussed as well as the fundamental attention paid to the fairness of…

  12. Assessment of Social Information Processing in Early Childhood: Development and Initial Validation of the Schultz Test of Emotion Processing--Preliminary Version

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, David; Ambike, Archana; Logie, Sean Kevin; Bohner, Katherine E.; Stapleton, Laura M.; VanderWalde, Holly; Min, Christopher B.; Betkowski, Jennifer A.

    2010-01-01

    Crick and Dodge's (Psychological Bulletin 115:74-101, 1994) social information processing model has proven very useful in guiding research focused on aggressive and peer-rejected children's social-cognitive functioning. Its application to early childhood, however, has been much more limited. The present study responds to this gap by developing and…

  13. Lost in Translation? Psychometric Properties and Construct Validity of the English Essen Climate Evaluation Schema (EssenCES) Social Climate Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tonkin, Matthew; Howells, Kevin; Ferguson, Eamonn; Clark, Amanda; Newberry, Michelle; Schalast, Norbert

    2012-01-01

    The social climate of correctional (forensic) settings is likely to have a significant impact on the outcome of treatment and the overall functioning of these units. The Essen Climate Evaluation Schema (EssenCES) provides an objective way of measuring social climate that overcomes the content, length, and psychometric limitations of other…

  14. Social and Demographic Factors Associated with Morbidities in Young Children in Egypt: A Bayesian Geo-Additive Semi-Parametric Multinomial Model

    PubMed Central

    Khatab, Khaled; Adegboye, Oyelola; Mohammed, Taofeeq Ibn

    2016-01-01

    Background Globally, the burden of mortality in children, especially in poor developing countries, is alarming and has precipitated concern and calls for concerted efforts in combating such health problems. Examples of diseases that contribute to this burden of mortality include diarrhoea, cough, fever, and the overlap between these illnesses, causing childhood morbidity and mortality. Methods To gain insight into these health issues, we employed the 2008 Demographic and Health Survey Data of Egypt, which recorded details from 10,872 children under five. This data focused on the demographic and socio-economic characteristics of household members. We applied a Bayesian multinomial model to assess the area-specific spatial effects and risk factors of co-morbidity of fever, diarrhoea and cough for children under the age of five. Results The results showed that children under 20 months of age were more likely to have the three diseases (OR: 6.8; 95% CI: 4.6–10.2) than children between 20 and 40 months (OR: 2.14; 95% CI: 1.38–3.3). In multivariate Bayesian geo-additive models, the children of mothers who were over 20 years of age were more likely to have only cough (OR: 1.2; 95% CI: 0.9–1.5) and only fever (OR: 1.2; 95% CI: 0.91–1.51) compared with their counterparts. Spatial results showed that the North-eastern region of Egypt has a higher incidence than most of other regions. Conclusions This study showed geographic patterns of Egyptian governorates in the combined prevalence of morbidity among Egyptian children. It is obvious that the Nile Delta, Upper Egypt, and south-eastern Egypt have high rates of diseases and are more affected. Therefore, more attention is needed in these areas. PMID:27442018

  15. Contemporary Test Validity in Theory and Practice: A Primer for Discipline-Based Education Researchers.

    PubMed

    Reeves, Todd D; Marbach-Ad, Gili

    2016-01-01

    Most discipline-based education researchers (DBERs) were formally trained in the methods of scientific disciplines such as biology, chemistry, and physics, rather than social science disciplines such as psychology and education. As a result, DBERs may have never taken specific courses in the social science research methodology--either quantitative or qualitative--on which their scholarship often relies so heavily. One particular aspect of (quantitative) social science research that differs markedly from disciplines such as biology and chemistry is the instrumentation used to quantify phenomena. In response, this Research Methods essay offers a contemporary social science perspective on test validity and the validation process. The instructional piece explores the concepts of test validity, the validation process, validity evidence, and key threats to validity. The essay also includes an in-depth example of a validity argument and validation approach for a test of student argument analysis. In addition to DBERs, this essay should benefit practitioners (e.g., lab directors, faculty members) in the development, evaluation, and/or selection of instruments for their work assessing students or evaluating pedagogical innovations.

  16. Contemporary Test Validity in Theory and Practice: A Primer for Discipline-Based Education Researchers.

    PubMed

    Reeves, Todd D; Marbach-Ad, Gili

    2016-01-01

    Most discipline-based education researchers (DBERs) were formally trained in the methods of scientific disciplines such as biology, chemistry, and physics, rather than social science disciplines such as psychology and education. As a result, DBERs may have never taken specific courses in the social science research methodology--either quantitative or qualitative--on which their scholarship often relies so heavily. One particular aspect of (quantitative) social science research that differs markedly from disciplines such as biology and chemistry is the instrumentation used to quantify phenomena. In response, this Research Methods essay offers a contemporary social science perspective on test validity and the validation process. The instructional piece explores the concepts of test validity, the validation process, validity evidence, and key threats to validity. The essay also includes an in-depth example of a validity argument and validation approach for a test of student argument analysis. In addition to DBERs, this essay should benefit practitioners (e.g., lab directors, faculty members) in the development, evaluation, and/or selection of instruments for their work assessing students or evaluating pedagogical innovations. PMID:26903498

  17. Contemporary Test Validity in Theory and Practice: A Primer for Discipline-Based Education Researchers

    PubMed Central

    Reeves, Todd D.; Marbach-Ad, Gili

    2016-01-01

    Most discipline-based education researchers (DBERs) were formally trained in the methods of scientific disciplines such as biology, chemistry, and physics, rather than social science disciplines such as psychology and education. As a result, DBERs may have never taken specific courses in the social science research methodology—either quantitative or qualitative—on which their scholarship often relies so heavily. One particular aspect of (quantitative) social science research that differs markedly from disciplines such as biology and chemistry is the instrumentation used to quantify phenomena. In response, this Research Methods essay offers a contemporary social science perspective on test validity and the validation process. The instructional piece explores the concepts of test validity, the validation process, validity evidence, and key threats to validity. The essay also includes an in-depth example of a validity argument and validation approach for a test of student argument analysis. In addition to DBERs, this essay should benefit practitioners (e.g., lab directors, faculty members) in the development, evaluation, and/or selection of instruments for their work assessing students or evaluating pedagogical innovations. PMID:26903498

  18. Construct Validity and Achievement Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maguire, Thomas; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Criticizes an article by Messick (1989) that emphasizes consequential validity (the potential and actual social consequences of test score interpretation and use) as a component of construct validity. Shows the profitability of separating the construct-indicator link from the indicator-score link, and the greater importance of the former.…

  19. Parenting Behaviors and Preschool Children's Social and Emotional Skills: A Question of the Consequential Validity of Traditional Parenting Constructs for Low-Income African Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McWayne, C. M.; Owsianik, M.; Green, L. E.; Fantuzzo, J. W.

    2008-01-01

    Few researchers have questioned the validity of traditional parenting dimensions (based largely on Baumrind's [Baumrind, D. (1967). Child care practices anteceding three patterns of preschool behavior. Genetic Psychology Monographs, 75, 43-88; Baumrind, D. (1971). Current patterns of parental authority. Developmental Psychology, 4, 1-103] work)…

  20. The Effects of a Strength-Based Model of Behavioral Consultation on Student Behavior, Teachers' Use of Praise Statements, and Measures of Social Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shipley, Sarah C.

    2013-01-01

    The growing strength-based approach to the assessment and intervention of students' social and emotional learning competencies has significant implications for the practice of behavioral consultation in school settings (Zins & Elias, 2007). The current research study utilized four separate multiple baseline case studies across students in…

  1. The Individual and Collective Effect of US Colonialism in Puerto Rico: A Scale Construction and Validation, with Implications for Social Work Education and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez Aviles, Maria de Lourdes

    2011-01-01

    "Understanding the individual and collective psychology of the people of Puerto Rico requires an understanding of both the history of its colonialism and the U.S. laws that have helped shaped the social world of the Puerto Rican people, in the United States and in the colony itself" (Rivera Ramos, 2001, p. 4). This research presents…

  2. The Reliability and Validity of the Perceived Stigmatization Questionnaire (PSQ) and the Social Comfort Questionnaire (SCQ) among an Adult Burn Survivor Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, John W.; Fauerbach, James A.; Heinberg, Leslie J.; Doctor, Marion; Thombs, Brett D.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, 361 adult burn survivors completed the Perceived Stigmatization Questionnaire (PSQ), the Social Comfort Questionnaire (SCQ), and other measures. Both the PSQ and SCQ had good internal consistency indices. Factor analysis of the PSQ yielded 3 factors (absence of friendly behavior, confused/staring behavior, and hostile behavior). The…

  3. Antibody validation

    PubMed Central

    Bordeaux, Jennifer; Welsh, Allison W.; Agarwal, Seema; Killiam, Elizabeth; Baquero, Maria T.; Hanna, Jason A.; Anagnostou, Valsamo K.; Rimm, David L.

    2013-01-01

    Antibodies are among the most frequently used tools in basic science research and in clinical assays, but there are no universally accepted guidelines or standardized methods for determining the validity of these reagents. Furthermore, for commercially available antibodies, it is clear that what is on the label does not necessarily correspond to what is in the tube. To validate an antibody, it must be shown to be specific, selective, and reproducible in the context for which it is to be used. In this review, we highlight the common pitfalls when working with antibodies, common practices for validating antibodies, and levels of commercial antibody validation for seven vendors. Finally, we share our algorithm for antibody validation for immunohistochemistry and quantitative immunofluorescence. PMID:20359301

  4. Social capital and core network ties: a validation study of individual-level social capital measures and their association with extra- and intra-neighborhood ties, and self-rated health.

    PubMed

    Moore, Spencer; Bockenholt, Ulf; Daniel, Mark; Frohlich, Katherine; Kestens, Yan; Richard, Lucie

    2011-03-01

    Research on social capital and health has assumed that measures of trust, participation, and perceived cohesion capture aspects of people's neighborhood social connections. This study uses data on the personal networks of 2707 Montreal adults in 300 different neighborhoods to examine the association of socio-demographic and social capital variables with the likelihood of having core ties, core neighborhood ties, and high self-rated health (SRH). Persons with higher household income were more likely to have core ties, but less likely to have core neighborhood ties. Persons with greater diversity in extra-neighborhood network capital were more likely to have core ties, and persons with greater diversity in intra-neighborhood network capital were more likely to have core neighborhood ties. Generalized trust, perceived neighborhood cohesion, and extra-neighborhood network diversity were shown associated with high SRH. Conventional measures of social capital may not capture network mechanisms. Findings suggest a critical appraisal of the mechanisms linking social capital and health, and the further delineation of network and psychosocial mechanisms in understanding these links.

  5. Validation of a Brief Quantitative Measure of Autistic Traits: Comparison of the Social Responsiveness Scale with the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Constantino, John N.; Davis, Sandra A.; Todd, Richard D.; Schindler, Matthew K.; Gross, Maggie M.; Brophy, Susan L.; Metzger, Lisa M.; Shoushtari, Christiana S.; Splinter, Reagan; Reich, Wendy

    2003-01-01

    A study compared the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) with the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised in 61 children (ages 4-16) with autism. Correlations between the test scores for DSM-IV criterion sets were on the order of 0.7. SRS scores were unrelated to I.Q. and exhibited inter-rater reliability on the order of 0.8. (Contains references.)…

  6. Counseling psychology trainees' social justice interest and commitment.

    PubMed

    Miller, Matthew J; Sendrowitz, Kerrin

    2011-04-01

    Scholars within the field of counseling psychology have for some time now articulated eloquent and compelling calls for attending to social justice in the social sciences. To date, counseling psychologists have been at the forefront of addressing social justice issues in research, practice, and professional development. The present study advances empirical perspectives on social justice by testing the external validity of M. J. Miller et al.'s (2009) social-cognitive model of social justice interest and commitment in a sample of 229 doctoral trainees in counseling psychology. Present findings support the ability of the model to explain, in part, counseling psychology trainees' social justice interest and commitment. In addition, the present study provides novel findings that demonstrate the direct and indirect ways in which program training environment and personal moral imperative relate to social justice interest and commitment. Study limitations, future directions for research, and implications for training are discussed.

  7. Social Curiosity and Gossip: Related but Different Drives of Social Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Hartung, Freda-Marie; Renner, Britta

    2013-01-01

    The present online-questionnaire study examined two fundamental social behaviors, social curiosity and gossip, and their interrelations in an English (n = 218) and a German sample (n = 152). Analyses showed that both samples believed that they are less gossipy but more curious than their peers. Multidimensional SEM of self and trait conceptions indicated that social curiosity and gossip are related constructs but with different patterns of social functions. Gossip appears to serve predominantly entertainment purposes whereas social curiosity appears to be more driven by a general interest in gathering information about how other people feel, think, and behave and the need to belong. Relationships to other personality traits (N, E, O) provided additional evidence for divergent validity. The needs for gathering and disseminating social information might represent two interlinked but different drives of cultural learning. PMID:23936130

  8. Functional effects of chronic paroxetine versus placebo on the fear, stress and anxiety brain circuit in Social Anxiety Disorder: initial validation of an imaging protocol for drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Giménez, Mónica; Ortiz, Hector; Soriano-Mas, Carles; López-Solà, Marina; Farré, Magí; Deus, Joan; Martín-Santos, Rocio; Fernandes, Sofia; Fina, Paolo; Bani, Massimo; Zancan, Stefano; Pujol, Jesús; Merlo-Pich, Emilio

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that pharmacologic effects of anxiolytic agents can be mapped as functional changes in the fear, stress and anxiety brain circuit. In this work we investigated the effects of a standard treatment, paroxetine (20mg/day), in subjects with Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) versus placebo using different fMRI paradigms. The fMRI sessions, performed before and after the treatment, consisted of a public exposition of recorded performance task (PERPT), an emotional face processing task (EFPT) and a 6-min resting state followed by an off-scanner public speaking test. Paroxetine significantly improved the clinical conditions of SAD patients (n=17) vs. placebo (n=16) as measured with Clinical Global Inventory - Improvement (CGI-I) while no change was seen when using Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale, as expected given the small size of the study population. Paroxetine reduced the activation of insula, thalamus and subgenual/anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) in PERPT. Resting-state fMRI assessment using Independent Component Analysis indicated that paroxetine reduced functional connectivity in insula, thalamus and ACC when compared with placebo. Both paradigms showed significant correlation with CGI-I in rostral prefrontal cortex. Conversely, paroxetine compared to placebo produced activation of right amygdala and bilateral insula and no effects in ACC when tested with EFPT. No treatment effects on distress scores were observed in the off-scanner Public Speaking Test. Overall this study supports the use of fMRI as sensitive approach to explore the neurobiological substrate of the effects of pharmacologic treatments and, in particular, of resting state fMRI given its simplicity and task independence.

  9. [Mobbing, organizational dysfunction and bio-psycho-social effects: an integrated assessment. Preliminary data for the validation of the Questionnaire in the Neapoletan dialect on Distress at Work(Qn-DL)].

    PubMed

    Nolfe, Giovanni; Petrella, Claudio; Triassi, Maria; Zontini, Gemma; Uttieri, Simona; Pagliaro, Alessia; Blasi, Francesco; Cappuccio, Antonella; Nolfe, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to produce preliminary data about the validation of the "Naples-Questionnaire of Distress at Work" (nQ.DW). This inventory is a new assessment tool in order to evaluate the distress perceived in the working environment by means of the differentiation of the conditions linked to the mobbing from which related to organizational disfunction. The nQ-DW also measures the bio-psycho-social global effects of these two phenomena. The questionnaire has been administered to workers suffering of a psychopathological disturbance related to work distress and to a control group matched for the sociodemographic and working variables. The statistical analysis demonstrated a significant validity and reliability. The degree of internal coherence was satisfactory. The ROC curves allow the determination of a threshold value which allows to separate the workers subjected to mobbing and/or organizational stress from control-workers with an optimal reliability degree. The values of the area under the ROC curves show that the inventory has a high discriminating capacity. Future studies, based on a greater sample size, will be oriented to the analysis of the questionnaire by means of multivariate techniques like the factorial analysis. PMID:23914601

  10. [Mobbing, organizational dysfunction and bio-psycho-social effects: an integrated assessment. Preliminary data for the validation of the Questionnaire in the Neapoletan dialect on Distress at Work(Qn-DL)].

    PubMed

    Nolfe, Giovanni; Petrella, Claudio; Triassi, Maria; Zontini, Gemma; Uttieri, Simona; Pagliaro, Alessia; Blasi, Francesco; Cappuccio, Antonella; Nolfe, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to produce preliminary data about the validation of the "Naples-Questionnaire of Distress at Work" (nQ.DW). This inventory is a new assessment tool in order to evaluate the distress perceived in the working environment by means of the differentiation of the conditions linked to the mobbing from which related to organizational disfunction. The nQ-DW also measures the bio-psycho-social global effects of these two phenomena. The questionnaire has been administered to workers suffering of a psychopathological disturbance related to work distress and to a control group matched for the sociodemographic and working variables. The statistical analysis demonstrated a significant validity and reliability. The degree of internal coherence was satisfactory. The ROC curves allow the determination of a threshold value which allows to separate the workers subjected to mobbing and/or organizational stress from control-workers with an optimal reliability degree. The values of the area under the ROC curves show that the inventory has a high discriminating capacity. Future studies, based on a greater sample size, will be oriented to the analysis of the questionnaire by means of multivariate techniques like the factorial analysis.

  11. The social perceptual salience effect.

    PubMed

    Inderbitzin, Martin P; Betella, Alberto; Lanatá, Antonio; Scilingo, Enzo P; Bernardet, Ulysses; Verschure, Paul F M J

    2013-02-01

    Affective processes appraise the salience of external stimuli preparing the agent for action. So far, the relationship between stimuli, affect, and action has been mainly studied in highly controlled laboratory conditions. In order to find the generalization of this relationship to social interaction, we assess the influence of the salience of social stimuli on human interaction. We constructed reality ball game in a mixed reality space where pairs of people collaborated in order to compete with an opposing team. We coupled the players with team members with varying social salience by using both physical and virtual representations of remote players (i.e., avatars). We observe that, irrespective of the team composition, winners and losers display significantly different inter- and intrateam spatial behaviors. We show that subjects regulate their interpersonal distance to both virtual and physical team members in similar ways, but in proportion to the vividness of the stimulus. As an independent validation of this social salience effect, we show that this behavioral effect is also displayed in physiological correlates of arousal. In addition, we found a strong correlation between performance, physiology, and the subjective reports of the subjects. Our results show that proxemics is consistent with affective responses, confirming the existence of a social salience effect. This provides further support for the so-called law of apparent reality, and it generalizes it to the social realm, where it can be used to design more efficient social artifacts.

  12. Translation and validation of the Child and the Adolescent HARDSHIP (Headache-attributed restriction, disability, social handicap and impaired participation) questionnaire into Danish language.

    PubMed

    Jorgensen, Jens Erik; McGirr, Kate A; Korsgaard, Hanne Oertved; Rathleff, Michael S

    2016-01-01

    Background. The prevalence of headaches among children and adolescents varies considerably between countries. This may be due to a lack of appropriate instruments to capture the prevalence. The purpose of this study was to translate the Child and Adolescent HARDSHIP questionnaires from English into Danish language, conduct cross-cultural adaptation, face validation by cognitive interviewing and conduct a pilot study exploring time requirements. Methods. The questionnaire was translated using the guidelines proposed by "The Global Campaign to Reduce the Burden of Headache." A total of 25 children from 6 to 12 years of age completed the questionnaire with 24 h between test and retest to assess reliability. A total of 169 children and adolescents from 6 to 17 years of age completed the translated questionnaire to assess time requirements for completing it. Results. Only minor discrepancies were observed in the translation process. Test-retest reliability of the translated questionnaire showed substantial agreement (kappa: 0.65-0.78). The questionnaires were completed within 30 min (age 6-11 years of age) and within 15 min (age 12-17 years of age) respectively. Discussion. No major problems were observed in the forward translations of the questionnaires. The face validation prompted no major changes in the questionnaire. The face-to-face interviews showed that pupils of different ethnic backgrounds than Danish and pupils in the age group of 6-11 had more difficulty in understanding a minority of the questions. The Danish Child and Adolescent HARDSHIP questionnaire therefore complies with the intentions of the originators, aiming at a maximal completion time of 45 min and in comparison with actual completion time. The test-retest study showed substantial agreement between test and retest in the headache, migraine and MOH domains and questions referring to time.The Child and Adolescent HARDSHIP questionnaire, includes a section specifically recording a four-week period

  13. Model Validation Status Review

    SciTech Connect

    E.L. Hardin

    2001-11-28

    The primary objective for the Model Validation Status Review was to perform a one-time evaluation of model validation associated with the analysis/model reports (AMRs) containing model input to total-system performance assessment (TSPA) for the Yucca Mountain site recommendation (SR). This review was performed in response to Corrective Action Request BSC-01-C-01 (Clark 2001, Krisha 2001) pursuant to Quality Assurance review findings of an adverse trend in model validation deficiency. The review findings in this report provide the following information which defines the extent of model validation deficiency and the corrective action needed: (1) AMRs that contain or support models are identified, and conversely, for each model the supporting documentation is identified. (2) The use for each model is determined based on whether the output is used directly for TSPA-SR, or for screening (exclusion) of features, events, and processes (FEPs), and the nature of the model output. (3) Two approaches are used to evaluate the extent to which the validation for each model is compliant with AP-3.10Q (Analyses and Models). The approaches differ in regard to whether model validation is achieved within individual AMRs as originally intended, or whether model validation could be readily achieved by incorporating information from other sources. (4) Recommendations are presented for changes to the AMRs, and additional model development activities or data collection, that will remedy model validation review findings, in support of licensing activities. The Model Validation Status Review emphasized those AMRs that support TSPA-SR (CRWMS M&O 2000bl and 2000bm). A series of workshops and teleconferences was held to discuss and integrate the review findings. The review encompassed 125 AMRs (Table 1) plus certain other supporting documents and data needed to assess model validity. The AMRs were grouped in 21 model areas representing the modeling of processes affecting the natural and

  14. Alignment validation

    SciTech Connect

    ALICE; ATLAS; CMS; LHCb; Golling, Tobias

    2008-09-06

    The four experiments, ALICE, ATLAS, CMS and LHCb are currently under constructionat CERN. They will study the products of proton-proton collisions at the Large Hadron Collider. All experiments are equipped with sophisticated tracking systems, unprecedented in size and complexity. Full exploitation of both the inner detector andthe muon system requires an accurate alignment of all detector elements. Alignmentinformation is deduced from dedicated hardware alignment systems and the reconstruction of charged particles. However, the system is degenerate which means the data is insufficient to constrain all alignment degrees of freedom, so the techniques are prone to converging on wrong geometries. This deficiency necessitates validation and monitoring of the alignment. An exhaustive discussion of means to validate is subject to this document, including examples and plans from all four LHC experiments, as well as other high energy experiments.

  15. Verification and validation benchmarks.

    SciTech Connect

    Oberkampf, William Louis; Trucano, Timothy Guy

    2007-02-01

    Verification and validation (V&V) are the primary means to assess the accuracy and reliability of computational simulations. V&V methods and procedures have fundamentally improved the credibility of simulations in several high-consequence fields, such as nuclear reactor safety, underground nuclear waste storage, and nuclear weapon safety. Although the terminology is not uniform across engineering disciplines, code verification deals with assessing the reliability of the software coding, and solution verification deals with assessing the numerical accuracy of the solution to a computational model. Validation addresses the physics modeling accuracy of a computational simulation by comparing the computational results with experimental data. Code verification benchmarks and validation benchmarks have been constructed for a number of years in every field of computational simulation. However, no comprehensive guidelines have been proposed for the construction and use of V&V benchmarks. For example, the field of nuclear reactor safety has not focused on code verification benchmarks, but it has placed great emphasis on developing validation benchmarks. Many of these validation benchmarks are closely related to the operations of actual reactors at near-safety-critical conditions, as opposed to being more fundamental-physics benchmarks. This paper presents recommendations for the effective design and use of code verification benchmarks based on manufactured solutions, classical analytical solutions, and highly accurate numerical solutions. In addition, this paper presents recommendations for the design and use of validation benchmarks, highlighting the careful design of building-block experiments, the estimation of experimental measurement uncertainty for both inputs and outputs to the code, validation metrics, and the role of model calibration in validation. It is argued that the understanding of predictive capability of a computational model is built on the level of

  16. Validation of sterilizing grade filtration.

    PubMed

    Jornitz, M W; Meltzer, T H

    2003-01-01

    Validation consideration of sterilizing grade filters, namely 0.2 micron, changed when FDA voiced concerns about the validity of Bacterial Challenge tests performed in the past. Such validation exercises are nowadays considered to be filter qualification. Filter validation requires more thorough analysis, especially Bacterial Challenge testing with the actual drug product under process conditions. To do so, viability testing is a necessity to determine the Bacterial Challenge test methodology. Additionally to these two compulsory tests, other evaluations like extractable, adsorption and chemical compatibility tests should be considered. PDA Technical Report # 26, Sterilizing Filtration of Liquids, describes all parameters and aspects required for the comprehensive validation of filters. The report is a most helpful tool for validation of liquid filters used in the biopharmaceutical industry. It sets the cornerstones of validation requirements and other filtration considerations. PMID:14620854

  17. SANSMIC Validation.

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, Paula D.; Rudeen, David Keith; Lord, David L.

    2014-08-01

    SANSMIC is solution mining software that was developed and utilized by SNL in its role as geotechnical advisor to the US DOE SPR for planning purposes. Three SANSMIC leach modes - withdrawal, direct, and reverse leach - have been revalidated with multiple test cases for each mode. The withdrawal mode was validated using high quality data from recent leach activity while the direct and reverse modes utilized data from historical cavern completion reports. Withdrawal results compared very well with observed data, including the location and size of shelves due to string breaks with relative leached volume differences ranging from 6 - 10% and relative radius differences from 1.5 - 3%. Profile comparisons for the direct mode were very good with relative leached volume differences ranging from 6 - 12% and relative radius differences from 5 - 7%. First, second, and third reverse configurations were simulated in order to validate SANSMIC over a range of relative hanging string and OBI locations. The first-reverse was simulated reasonably well with relative leached volume differences ranging from 1 - 9% and relative radius differences from 5 - 12%. The second-reverse mode showed the largest discrepancies in leach profile. Leached volume differences ranged from 8 - 12% and relative radius differences from 1 - 10%. In the third-reverse, relative leached volume differences ranged from 10 - 13% and relative radius differences were %7E4 %. Comparisons to historical reports were quite good, indicating that SANSMIC is essentially the same as documented and validated in the early 1980's.

  18. Validation of four questions on food habits from the Swedish board of health and social welfare by 3-day food records in medical and nursing students

    PubMed Central

    Fredriksson, Ellinor; Brekke, Hilde K.; Ellegård, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Background The Swedish board for health and social welfare (SoS) has presented four questions on dietary habits as indicators of adherence to dietary recommendations. However, these questions have not been evaluated. Objective To evaluate if four questions on dietary habits correlate with dietary intake assessed by food records. Design A total of 279 medical and nursing students, 170 women and 109 men, completed four questions on usual consumption frequency of vegetables, fruits, fish, and sweets. Depending on scoring from 0 to 12 points, subjects were classified as having low (0–4 points), average (5–8 points), or high (9–12 points) adherence to dietary recommendations as proposed by SoS. Nutrient intake was calculated from 3-day food records. Mean dietary intake, expressed per 10 MJ of fibre, ascorbic acid, folate, vitamin D, sucrose, fish, and fruits and vegetables, was analysed for each group and differences assessed by ANOVA. Results Energy intake was 11.8±3.0 MJ in male and 8.5±2.2 MJ in female students. Most students, 64%, were classified as average adherers to dietary recommendations, whereas only 6% were classified as low and 30% as high. Dietary intake of fibre, ascorbic acid, and folate was significantly higher in the high adherence group compared to both the other groups (p<0.01), but vitamin D significantly so only compared to the average group (p=0.002). Intake of fruits and vegetables was significantly different between all groups (p<0.003), with increasing amounts with increasing adherence. The low adherence group had higher intake of sucrose than the other groups (p<0.005). Median fish intake was nil in the low and average adherence groups, with significant difference between high and average adherence groups (p=0.001). Conclusions Four questions on the consumption frequency of vegetables, fruits, fish, and sweets correlate well with the dietary intake of fibre, ascorbic acid, folate, vitamin D, fish, sucrose, and fruits and vegetables as

  19. Genetic validation of postmixing skin injuries in pigs as an indicator of aggressiveness and the relationship with injuries under more stable social conditions.

    PubMed

    Turner, S P; Roehe, R; D'Eath, R B; Ison, S H; Farish, M; Jack, M C; Lundeheim, N; Rydhmer, L; Lawrence, A B

    2009-10-01

    The objective of the study was to estimate genetic correlations between skin lesions and aggressive behavior postmixing and under more stable social conditions as a potential means of selecting against pig aggressiveness. Postmixing aggression in commercial pig production is common, compromises welfare and profitability, and cannot be significantly reduced by low-cost changes to the environment. A genetic component to individual aggressiveness has been described in pigs and other species. Selective breeding against aggressiveness ought to be possible if an easily measured indicator trait can be shown to be genetically associated with aggressive behavior. Aggressive behavior was recorded continuously for 24 h after mixing, and a count of skin lesions (lesion count, LC) was recorded at 24 h and 3 wk postmixing on 1,663 pigs. Two behavioral traits were found to have a moderate to high heritability similar to that of growth traits; duration of involvement in reciprocal fighting (0.43 +/- 0.04) and delivery of nonreciprocal aggression (NRA; 0.31 +/- 0.04), whereas receipt of NRA had a lower heritability (0.08 +/- 0.03). Genetic correlations (r(g)) suggested that lesions to the anterior region of the body 24 h after mixing were associated with reciprocal fighting (r(g) = 0.67 +/- 0.04), receipt of NRA (r(g) = 0.70 +/- 0.11), and to a lesser extent, delivery of NRA (r(g) = 0.31 +/- 0.06). Lesions to the center and rear were primarily genetically associated with receipt of NRA (r(g) = 0.80 +/- 0.05, 0.79 +/- 0.05). Genetic correlations indicated that pigs that engaged in reciprocal fighting delivered NRA to other animals (r(g) = 0.84 +/- 0.04) but were less likely to receive NRA themselves (r(g) = -0.41 +/- 0.14). A genetic merit index using lesions to the anterior region as one trait and those to the center or rear or both as a second trait should allow selection against animals involved in reciprocal fighting and the delivery of NRA. Positive correlations between LC 24 h

  20. Measuring knowledge of the insanity defense: scale construction and validation.

    PubMed

    Daftary-Kapur, Tarika; Groscup, Jennifer L; O'Connor, Maureen; Coffaro, Frank; Galietta, Michele

    2011-01-01

    Given the influence of social conformity and prejudice, defendants pleading not guilty by reason of insanity face the significant challenges of securing fair and impartial juries. Attitudes and knowledge of the insanity defense are factors that may influence levels of impartiality. In the light of this, we set out to develop a scale to examine knowledge levels of the insanity defense and their influence on decision-making. Two studies were conducted to construct a scale designed to assess laypersons' knowledge of the insanity defense. Items measuring knowledge of the insanity defense were based on Perlin's (1995) insanity defense myths. The first study identified particular items in need of revision and subscales that required the development of additional items in order to improve reliability and construct validity in the second study. The second study used the revised scale, demonstrating improved validity and reliability. The scale also had acceptable predictive validity with reference to insanity defense verdicts.

  1. Evidence for social cooperation in rodents by automated maze

    PubMed Central

    Avital, Avi; Aga-Mizrachi, Shlomit; Zubedat, Salman

    2016-01-01

    Social cooperation is defined as a joint action for mutual benefit that depends on the individual and the counterparts’ behaviors. To gain valid evidence for social cooperation behavior we conducted a series of experiments in our suggested fully automated non-conditioned maze and depicted three major findings: (i) During 18 days of training the rats showed a progressive social learning curve as well as latent social learning; (ii) Examining the perceptual communication between the cooperating partners, we found a correlation between the available perceptual modalities and the social cooperation performance; and (iii) Investigating contextual learning as a competing process to the social cooperation, we found that additional contextual cues impaired the social cooperation performance. In conclusion, our suggested automated cooperation maze is designed to further our understanding of social cooperation under normal conditions, such as decision-making, and to examine the neural basis of social cooperation. A variety of neuropsychiatric disorders are characterized by disruptions in social behavior and social cognition, including depression, autism spectrum disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and schizophrenia. Thus, on the pathological end, our maze for social cooperation evaluation can contribute significantly to the investigation of a wide range of social cooperation impairments in a rodent model. PMID:27378418

  2. Teaching social justice.

    PubMed

    Fahrenwald, Nancy L

    2003-01-01

    Social justice is a core nursing value and the foundation of public health nursing. Social justice ideology requires nursing students to uphold moral, legal, and humanistic principles related to health. As such, teaching social justice requires a basis in moral developmental theory. In addition, teaching social justice demands action beyond classroom pedagogy. The author describes how social justice is taught within a baccalaureate program. A social justice project is described and examples are provided.

  3. Social Action As An Objective of Social Studies Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, Charles K.

    This paper presents a rationale for making social action a major goal of elementary and secondary school social studies education. In addition, it describes social action models, suggests social action approaches appropriate for students at various grade levels, and reviews literature on social action by public school students. Social action is…

  4. 20 CFR 404.2121 - Validation reviews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Validation reviews. 404.2121 Section 404.2121 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Payments for Vocational Rehabilitation Services Administrative Provisions § 404.2121 Validation reviews....

  5. 20 CFR 404.2121 - Validation reviews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Validation reviews. 404.2121 Section 404.2121 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Payments for Vocational Rehabilitation Services Administrative Provisions § 404.2121 Validation reviews....

  6. Internal Validity: A Must in Research Designs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahit, Kaya

    2015-01-01

    In experimental research, internal validity refers to what extent researchers can conclude that changes in dependent variable (i.e. outcome) are caused by manipulations in independent variable. The causal inference permits researchers to meaningfully interpret research results. This article discusses (a) internal validity threats in social and…

  7. Exploring the cultural validity of rheumatology outcomes.

    PubMed

    Sanderson, Tessa; Hewlett, Sarah; Calnan, Michael; Morris, Marianne; Raza, Karim; Kumar, Kanta

    In rheumatoid arthritis (RA), the use of a 'core' set of treatment outcomes was pioneered to ensure that the same outcomes are measured across all clinical trials to enable comparison of trial results. However, studies have not investigated the influence of patients' ethnic and cultural backgrounds on treatment outcomes. This pilot study identified 74 treatment outcomes from female Punjabi RA patients, including 21 new ones that were not identified in previous research with white British RA patients. The social impact of RA created significant additional burden for these Punjabi women, with 'less stigmatisation' and 'improved ability to carry out family duties' generated as important new outcomes. This study illustrates a need to address cultural validity in outcome elicitation and prioritisation, to ensure that interventions are evaluated using criteria that have meaning for people with that condition. PMID:23123747

  8. Validation of the Quality of Dying (QOD)-Hospice Scale

    PubMed Central

    Cagle, John G.; Munn, Jean C.; Hong, Seokho; Clifford, Maggie; Zimmerman, Sheryl

    2014-01-01

    Context Measuring the quality of the dying experience is important for hospice providers. However, few instruments exist that assess the quality of one’s dying; and those that do, have not been well validated in hospice. Objectives This study tested the properties of the Quality of Death-Hospice Scale (QOD-Hospice) to provide preliminary validation data on internal consistency, inter-rater reliability, convergent validity and factorability in a hospice setting. Additionally, results of the factor analysis were used to create a brief version of the measure. Methods Bereaved informal caregivers who had provided care for a hospice patient were recruited from a large non-profit hospice. Participants completed post-death surveys, which included the QOD-Hospice and other study measures. Convergent validity was tested by exploring hypothesized associations with related instruments measuring: negative emotional states (Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21); emotional grief (Texas Revised Inventory of Grief-2); social support (Lubben Social Network Scale-6); and a single item measure of satisfaction with hospice care. Results Seventy caregivers participated in the survey (40 primary caregivers, 30 secondary caregivers), most of whom were female (67%) and white (81%). The QOD-Hospice produced an alpha of 0.86, an intraclass correlation of 0.49 between caregivers of the same decedent, and was correlated with all measures testing convergent validity (P<0.05; in the hypothesized direction) and most, but not all, subscales. An exploratory factor analysis elicited two factors, Preparation (seven items) and Security (six items), which were combined to create a 13-item version of the scale, the QOD-Hospice-SF. Conclusion Although further testing of the QOD-Hospice measures is needed, preliminary evidence suggests the instruments are reliable and valid for use in hospice. PMID:25057986

  9. Validation of the CDC's YRBSS Alcohol Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gast, Julie; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This study examined whether the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System was a valid self-report instrument for gathering alcohol consumption information. College students completed surveys regarding alcohol consumption and social desirability level. No significant relationship was found between social desirability and drinking behavior. The survey…

  10. Additional Key Factors Mediating the Use of a Mobile Technology Tool Designed to Develop Social and Life Skills in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Evaluation of the 2nd HANDS Prototype

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mintz, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Of late there has been growing interest in the potential of technology to support children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) with social and life skills. There has also been a burgeoning interest in the potential use of mobile technology in the classroom and in the use of such technology to support children with ASD. Building on these…

  11. Arguing Challenges to Validity in Field Research: A Realist Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elsworth, Gerald R.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the importance of field methods in education and social research. Highlights include the argument against antinaturalism; scientific realism and social science; challenges to the validity of inferences from field studies; and threats to the validity of field research. (Contains 52 references.) (LRW)

  12. Some Additional Proposals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gans, Herbert J.

    1978-01-01

    Expands Elihu Katz's proposals for social research on broadcasting with suggestions for "decentering" the media, studying the effects of society on the media, and looking at what researchers do to, for, and against television and its viewers. (JMF)

  13. Construct Validity and Case Validity in Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teglasi, Hedwig; Nebbergall, Allison Joan; Newman, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Clinical assessment relies on both "construct validity", which focuses on the accuracy of conclusions about a psychological phenomenon drawn from responses to a measure, and "case validity", which focuses on the synthesis of the full range of psychological phenomena pertaining to the concern or question at hand. Whereas construct validity is…

  14. Distress and Violent Victimization among Young Adolescents: Early Puberty and the Social Interactionist Explanation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schreck, Christopher J.; Burek, Melissa W.; Stewart, Eric A.; Miller, J. Mitchell

    2007-01-01

    This article explores the empirical validity of the Social Interactionist (SI) perspective as an explanation of violent victimization. An additional goal is to explain why early puberty among adolescents is connected to violent victimization. Using SI, we theorize that early puberty creates unusually high levels of distress for adolescents (more…

  15. How Developments in Psychology and Technology Challenge Validity Argumentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mislevy, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    Validity is the sine qua non of properties of educational assessment. While a theory of validity and a practical framework for validation has emerged over the past decades, most of the discussion has addressed familiar forms of assessment and psychological framings. Advances in digital technologies and in cognitive and social psychology have…

  16. Face Validity Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevo, Baruch

    1985-01-01

    A literature review and a proposed means of measuring face validity, a test's appearance of being valid, are presented. Empirical evidence from examinees' perceptions of a college entrance examination support the reliability of measuring face validity. (GDC)

  17. Excavator Design Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pholsiri, Chalongrath; English, James; Seberino, Charles; Lim, Yi-Je

    2010-01-01

    The Excavator Design Validation tool verifies excavator designs by automatically generating control systems and modeling their performance in an accurate simulation of their expected environment. Part of this software design includes interfacing with human operations that can be included in simulation-based studies and validation. This is essential for assessing productivity, versatility, and reliability. This software combines automatic control system generation from CAD (computer-aided design) models, rapid validation of complex mechanism designs, and detailed models of the environment including soil, dust, temperature, remote supervision, and communication latency to create a system of high value. Unique algorithms have been created for controlling and simulating complex robotic mechanisms automatically from just a CAD description. These algorithms are implemented as a commercial cross-platform C++ software toolkit that is configurable using the Extensible Markup Language (XML). The algorithms work with virtually any mobile robotic mechanisms using module descriptions that adhere to the XML standard. In addition, high-fidelity, real-time physics-based simulation algorithms have also been developed that include models of internal forces and the forces produced when a mechanism interacts with the outside world. This capability is combined with an innovative organization for simulation algorithms, new regolith simulation methods, and a unique control and study architecture to make powerful tools with the potential to transform the way NASA verifies and compares excavator designs. Energid's Actin software has been leveraged for this design validation. The architecture includes parametric and Monte Carlo studies tailored for validation of excavator designs and their control by remote human operators. It also includes the ability to interface with third-party software and human-input devices. Two types of simulation models have been adapted: high-fidelity discrete

  18. A Revised Interpersonal Circumplex Inventory of Children's Social Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trucco, Elisa M.; Wright, Aidan G. C.; Colder, Craig R.

    2013-01-01

    Motivational factors such as social goals are important features of developing social adjustment, and thus researchers studying social adjustment need psychometrically sound measures of social goals. A valid measure of social goals for English-speaking youth is lacking. Such a measure would increase understanding of children's social adjustment…

  19. Construct validity and case validity in assessment.

    PubMed

    Teglasi, Hedwig; Nebbergall, Allison Joan; Newman, Daniel

    2012-06-01

    Clinical assessment relies on both construct validity, which focuses on the accuracy of conclusions about a psychological phenomenon drawn from responses to a measure, and case validity, which focuses on the synthesis of the full range of psychological phenomena pertaining to the concern or question at hand. Whereas construct validity is grounded in understanding causal influences of a distinct phenomenon on responses to various measures and life contexts, case validity encompasses the joint influences of multiple phenomena on individuals' responses. Two sets of distinctions essential to understanding psychological phenomena, hence to understanding construct validity, are (a) implicit and explicit versions of personality constructs and (b) ability and personality as versions of constructs measured by performance tests presenting maximal and typical conditions, respectively. Since both implicit and explicit versions of constructs interface with maximal or typical performance conditions, case validity requires systematic inclusion of these distinctions in assessment protocols. PMID:22040515

  20. [Food additives and healthiness].

    PubMed

    Heinonen, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Additives are used for improving food structure or preventing its spoilage, for example. Many substances used as additives are also naturally present in food. The safety of additives is evaluated according to commonly agreed principles. If high concentrations of an additive cause adverse health effects for humans, a limit of acceptable daily intake (ADI) is set for it. An additive is a risk only when ADI is exceeded. The healthiness of food is measured on the basis of nutrient density and scientifically proven effects.

  1. Certification Testing as an Illustration of Argument-Based Validation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Michael

    2004-01-01

    The theories of validity developed over the past 60 years are quite sophisticated, but the methodology of validity is not generally very effective. The validity evidence for major testing programs is typically much weaker than the evidence for more technical characteristics such as reliability. In addition, most validation efforts have a strong…

  2. Validation of Self-Reported Measures in Health Disparities Research.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo, Bertha; Goodman, Melody

    2012-10-12

    Validation of self-reported measures can be achieved effectively and accurately when data collection involves objective measures that can be clinically validated. On the other hand, validation of self-reported social constructs, often used in health disparities research is a much harder task to achieve, particularly when the outcome is hard to quantify (e.g. racism, discrimination and segregation experience). We discuss validation and the challenges faced, when using current approaches in health disparities research.

  3. One-year temporal stability and predictive and incremental validity of the body, eating, and exercise comparison orientation measure (BEECOM) among college women.

    PubMed

    Fitzsimmons-Craft, Ellen E; Bardone-Cone, Anna M

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the one-year temporal stability and the predictive and incremental validity of the Body, Eating, and Exercise Comparison Measure (BEECOM) in a sample of 237 college women who completed study measures at two time points about one year apart. One-year temporal stability was high for the BEECOM total and subscale (i.e., Body, Eating, and Exercise Comparison Orientation) scores. Additionally, the BEECOM exhibited predictive validity in that it accounted for variance in body dissatisfaction and eating disorder symptomatology one year later. These findings held even after controlling for body mass index and existing measures of social comparison orientation. However, results regarding the incremental validity of the BEECOM, or its ability to predict change in these constructs over time, were more mixed. Overall, this study demonstrated additional psychometric properties of the BEECOM among college women, further establishing the usefulness of this measure for more comprehensively assessing eating disorder-related social comparison.

  4. Cost Validation Using PRICE H

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jack, John; Kwan, Eric; Wood, Milana

    2011-01-01

    PRICE H was introduced into the JPL cost estimation tool set circa 2003. It became more available at JPL when IPAO funded the NASA-wide site license for all NASA centers. PRICE H was mainly used as one of the cost tools to validate proposal grassroots cost estimates. Program offices at JPL view PRICE H as an additional crosscheck to Team X (JPL Concurrent Engineering Design Center) estimates. PRICE H became widely accepted ca, 2007 at JPL when the program offices moved away from grassroots cost estimation for Step 1 proposals. PRICE H is now one of the key cost tools used for cost validation, cost trades, and independent cost estimates.

  5. Validating the Watson Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassan, Karma El; Madhum, Ghida

    2007-01-01

    This study validated the Watson Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal (WGCTA) on a sample of 273 private university students in Lebanon. For that purpose, evidence for construct validation was investigated through identifying the test's factor structure and subscale total correlations, in addition to differences in scores by gender, different levels,…

  6. Social medicine and social policy.

    PubMed Central

    Silver, G. A.

    1984-01-01

    Social medicine as a term has achieved acceptance in medical education and medical practice, although there is still some question as to its acceptance in reality. The term had its origin in the vigorous nineteenth-century efforts at both medical and social reform, combining the two in a recognition of the intimate connection between social factors and the causation of disease. Henry Ernest Sigerist, a Swiss physician and noted scholar of medical history, formulated the broadest concept in the 1930s, attracting students and a latent American reform movement toward the idea of restructuring medical education as one part of social reform, and indicating ways of restructuring medical practice as another element in improving medical care at the same time. In addition to promulgating the doctrine, he established the policy of examining and describing systems of medical education and medical care in other parts of the world, not only to assist in improving medical care in countries with well-organized systems, but to assist countries with poor resources and lesser organizational capability in meeting the goals of social medicine. Doubt as to the durability of the concept has been expressed, insofar as the recommended improvements have lagged behind the expression, and because so many changes have taken place in the nature of medical practice, medical discoveries, and advances in technology. A closer examination of Sigerist's writings on the subject and evaluation of the circumstances around present-day problems would seem to indicate that the flaw is not in the doctrine, but in the lack of social application. PMID:6537694

  7. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fletcher, James C. (Inventor); Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor); Burks, Harold D. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

  8. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor); Burks, Harold D. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of the additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

  9. Social Cognition, Social Competence, Negative Symptoms and Social Outcomes: Inter-relationships in People with Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Kalin, Marc; Kaplan, Sara; Gould, Felicia; Pinkham, Amy; Penn, David; Harvey, Philip D.

    2015-01-01

    Social deficits are common in people with schizophrenia and the treatment of deficits in social competence has been a long-time treatment strategy. However, negative symptoms and social cognitive deficits also contribute to social dysfunction. In this study, we examined the correlations between everyday social outcomes, a performance based measure of social competence, and performance on 8 different social cognition tests in 179 patients with schizophrenia. Social cognition, social competence, and motivation-related negative symptoms accounted for 32% of the variance in real-world social outcomes. In addition, two different social cognition tests, along with expression-related negative symptoms accounted for 32% of the variance in performance-based assessments of social competence. These data suggest that negative symptoms exert an important influence on social outcomes and social competence, but not social cognition, and that social cognition and social competence exert separable influences on real-world social outcomes. Improving social outcomes seems to require a multi-faceted approach which considers social cognition, social competence, and negative symptoms. PMID:26228427

  10. Additional Types of Neuropathy

    MedlinePlus

    ... A A Listen En Español Additional Types of Neuropathy Charcot's Joint Charcot's Joint, also called neuropathic arthropathy, ... can stop bone destruction and aid healing. Cranial Neuropathy Cranial neuropathy affects the 12 pairs of nerves ...

  11. Food Additives and Hyperkinesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wender, Ester H.

    1977-01-01

    The hypothesis that food additives are causally associated with hyperkinesis and learning disabilities in children is reviewed, and available data are summarized. Available from: American Medical Association 535 North Dearborn Street Chicago, Illinois 60610. (JG)

  12. Smog control fuel additives

    SciTech Connect

    Lundby, W.

    1993-06-29

    A method is described of controlling, reducing or eliminating, ozone and related smog resulting from photochemical reactions between ozone and automotive or industrial gases comprising the addition of iodine or compounds of iodine to hydrocarbon-base fuels prior to or during combustion in an amount of about 1 part iodine per 240 to 10,000,000 parts fuel, by weight, to be accomplished by: (a) the addition of these inhibitors during or after the refining or manufacturing process of liquid fuels; (b) the production of these inhibitors for addition into fuel tanks, such as automotive or industrial tanks; or (c) the addition of these inhibitors into combustion chambers of equipment utilizing solid fuels for the purpose of reducing ozone.

  13. Continual Response Measurement: Design and Validation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baggaley, Jon

    1987-01-01

    Discusses reliability and validity of continual response measurement (CRM), a computer-based measurement technique, and its use in social science research. Highlights include the importance of criterion-referencing the data, guidelines for designing studies using CRM, examples typifying their deductive and inductive functions, and a discussion of…

  14. 20 CFR 416.2221 - Validation reviews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Validation reviews. 416.2221 Section 416.2221 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Payments for Vocational Rehabilitation Services Administrative Provisions § 416.2221...

  15. 20 CFR 416.2221 - Validation reviews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Validation reviews. 416.2221 Section 416.2221 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Payments for Vocational Rehabilitation Services Administrative Provisions § 416.2221...

  16. Integrating social capital theory, social cognitive theory, and the technology acceptance model to explore a behavioral model of telehealth systems.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Chung-Hung

    2014-05-01

    Telehealth has become an increasingly applied solution to delivering health care to rural and underserved areas by remote health care professionals. This study integrated social capital theory, social cognitive theory, and the technology acceptance model (TAM) to develop a comprehensive behavioral model for analyzing the relationships among social capital factors (social capital theory), technological factors (TAM), and system self-efficacy (social cognitive theory) in telehealth. The proposed framework was validated with 365 respondents from Nantou County, located in Central Taiwan. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to assess the causal relationships that were hypothesized in the proposed model. The finding indicates that elderly residents generally reported positive perceptions toward the telehealth system. Generally, the findings show that social capital factors (social trust, institutional trust, and social participation) significantly positively affect the technological factors (perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness respectively), which influenced usage intention. This study also confirmed that system self-efficacy was the salient antecedent of perceived ease of use. In addition, regarding the samples, the proposed model fitted considerably well. The proposed integrative psychosocial-technological model may serve as a theoretical basis for future research and can also offer empirical foresight to practitioners and researchers in the health departments of governments, hospitals, and rural communities. PMID:24810577

  17. Integrating Social Capital Theory, Social Cognitive Theory, and the Technology Acceptance Model to Explore a Behavioral Model of Telehealth Systems

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Chung-Hung

    2014-01-01

    Telehealth has become an increasingly applied solution to delivering health care to rural and underserved areas by remote health care professionals. This study integrated social capital theory, social cognitive theory, and the technology acceptance model (TAM) to develop a comprehensive behavioral model for analyzing the relationships among social capital factors (social capital theory), technological factors (TAM), and system self-efficacy (social cognitive theory) in telehealth. The proposed framework was validated with 365 respondents from Nantou County, located in Central Taiwan. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to assess the causal relationships that were hypothesized in the proposed model. The finding indicates that elderly residents generally reported positive perceptions toward the telehealth system. Generally, the findings show that social capital factors (social trust, institutional trust, and social participation) significantly positively affect the technological factors (perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness respectively), which influenced usage intention. This study also confirmed that system self-efficacy was the salient antecedent of perceived ease of use. In addition, regarding the samples, the proposed model fitted considerably well. The proposed integrative psychosocial-technological model may serve as a theoretical basis for future research and can also offer empirical foresight to practitioners and researchers in the health departments of governments, hospitals, and rural communities. PMID:24810577

  18. Integrating social capital theory, social cognitive theory, and the technology acceptance model to explore a behavioral model of telehealth systems.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Chung-Hung

    2014-05-07

    Telehealth has become an increasingly applied solution to delivering health care to rural and underserved areas by remote health care professionals. This study integrated social capital theory, social cognitive theory, and the technology acceptance model (TAM) to develop a comprehensive behavioral model for analyzing the relationships among social capital factors (social capital theory), technological factors (TAM), and system self-efficacy (social cognitive theory) in telehealth. The proposed framework was validated with 365 respondents from Nantou County, located in Central Taiwan. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to assess the causal relationships that were hypothesized in the proposed model. The finding indicates that elderly residents generally reported positive perceptions toward the telehealth system. Generally, the findings show that social capital factors (social trust, institutional trust, and social participation) significantly positively affect the technological factors (perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness respectively), which influenced usage intention. This study also confirmed that system self-efficacy was the salient antecedent of perceived ease of use. In addition, regarding the samples, the proposed model fitted considerably well. The proposed integrative psychosocial-technological model may serve as a theoretical basis for future research and can also offer empirical foresight to practitioners and researchers in the health departments of governments, hospitals, and rural communities.

  19. Social Support, Network Structure, and the Inventory of Socially Supportive Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokes, Joseph P.; Wilson, Diane Grimard

    The Inventory of Socially Supportive Behaviors (ISSB) appears to be a satisfactory measure of social support with good reliability and some evidence of validity. To investigate the dimensionality of the ISSB through factor analytic procedures and to predict social support from social network variables, 179 college students (97 male, 82 female)…

  20. Validity, Responsibility, and Aporia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koro-Ljungberg, Mirka

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author problematizes external, objectified, oversimplified, and mechanical approaches to validity in qualitative research, which endorse simplistic and reductionist views of knowledge and data. Instead of promoting one generalizable definition or operational criteria for validity, the author's "deconstructive validity work"…

  1. Cross-Validation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langmuir, Charles R.

    1954-01-01

    Cross-validation in relation to choosing the best tests and selecting the best items in tests is discussed. Cross-validation demonstrated whether a decision derived from one set of data is truly effective when this decision is applied to another independent, but relevant, sample of people. Cross-validation is particularly important after…

  2. Additive Manufacturing Infrared Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaddy, Darrell

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing is a rapid prototyping technology that allows parts to be built in a series of thin layers from plastic, ceramics, and metallics. Metallic additive manufacturing is an emerging form of rapid prototyping that allows complex structures to be built using various metallic powders. Significant time and cost savings have also been observed using the metallic additive manufacturing compared with traditional techniques. Development of the metallic additive manufacturing technology has advanced significantly over the last decade, although many of the techniques to inspect parts made from these processes have not advanced significantly or have limitations. Several external geometry inspection techniques exist such as Coordinate Measurement Machines (CMM), Laser Scanners, Structured Light Scanning Systems, or even traditional calipers and gages. All of the aforementioned techniques are limited to external geometry and contours or must use a contact probe to inspect limited internal dimensions. This presentation will document the development of a process for real-time dimensional inspection technique and digital quality record of the additive manufacturing process using Infrared camera imaging and processing techniques.

  3. Phenylethynyl Containing Reactive Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Phenylethynyl containing reactive additives were prepared from aromatic diamine, containing phenylethvnvl groups and various ratios of phthalic anhydride and 4-phenylethynviphthalic anhydride in glacial acetic acid to form the imide in one step or in N-methyl-2-pvrrolidinone to form the amide acid intermediate. The reactive additives were mixed in various amounts (10% to 90%) with oligomers containing either terminal or pendent phenylethynyl groups (or both) to reduce the melt viscosity and thereby enhance processability. Upon thermal cure, the additives react and become chemically incorporated into the matrix and effect an increase in crosslink density relative to that of the host resin. This resultant increase in crosslink density has advantageous consequences on the cured resin properties such as higher glass transition temperature and higher modulus as compared to that of the host resin.

  4. A Multitrait (ADHD-IN, ADHD-HI, ODD toward Adults, Academic and Social Competence) by Multisource (Mothers and Fathers) Evaluation of the Invariance and Convergent/Discriminant Validity of the Child and Adolescent Disruptive Behavior Inventory with Thai Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, G. Leonard; Desmul, Chris; Walsh, James A.; Silpakit, Chatchawan; Ussahawanitchakit, Phapruke

    2009-01-01

    Confirmatory factor analysis was used with a multitrait (attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder-inattention, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder-hyperactivity/impulsivity, oppositional defiant disorder toward adults, academic competence, and social competence) by multisource (mothers and fathers) matrix to test the invariance and…

  5. Construct validity of Stable-2000 and Stable-2007 scores.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Kevin L; Babchishin, Kelly M

    2012-02-01

    We addressed the construct validity of Stable-2000 and Stable-2007 scores by examining correlations between selected items and validated independent measures of relevant constructs in samples of convicted sex offenders. In Study 1, the Child Molester Attitudes item of the Stable-2000 shared 23% of the variance with a self-report measure of beliefs supportive of child molestation, r(19) = .48. The Deviant Sexual Interests items of the Stable-2000 and Stable-2007 shared 7% to 66% of the variance, respectively, with an offense-history-based measure of pedophilic interests, r(18) = .27 for the Stable-2000 and r(11) = .81 for the Stable-2007. In Study 2, the Lovers/Intimate Partners, General Social Rejection/Loneliness, Rapist Attitudes, and Child Molester Attitudes items of the Stable-2000 shared 4% to 19% of the variance with self-report measures of, respectively, intimacy, r(90) = -.44; loneliness, r(88) = .34; beliefs supportive of rape, r(72) = .21; and beliefs supportive of child molestation, r(78) = .36. The results generally suggest that the Stable items examined are associated with measures of similar constructs; however, the degree of convergence was lower than expected. More systematic and comprehensive research is needed to examine convergence of the Stable items with other relevant measures and additional aspects of construct validity. Such efforts will provide a clearer understanding of dynamic risk factors, appropriate areas of focus for treatment efforts, and, more generally, why some sex offenders recidivate.

  6. Social Rewards and Social Networks in the Human Brain.

    PubMed

    Fareri, Dominic S; Delgado, Mauricio R

    2014-02-21

    The rapid development of social media and social networking sites in human society within the past decade has brought about an increased focus on the value of social relationships and being connected with others. Research suggests that we pursue socially valued or rewarding outcomes-approval, acceptance, reciprocity-as a means toward learning about others and fulfilling social needs of forming meaningful relationships. Focusing largely on recent advances in the human neuroimaging literature, we review findings highlighting the neural circuitry and processes that underlie pursuit of valued rewarding outcomes across non-social and social domains. We additionally discuss emerging human neuroimaging evidence supporting the idea that social rewards provide a gateway to establishing relationships and forming social networks. Characterizing the link between social network, brain, and behavior can potentially identify contributing factors to maladaptive influences on decision making within social situations.

  7. Social Rewards and Social Networks in the Human Brain.

    PubMed

    Fareri, Dominic S; Delgado, Mauricio R

    2014-02-21

    The rapid development of social media and social networking sites in human society within the past decade has brought about an increased focus on the value of social relationships and being connected with others. Research suggests that we pursue socially valued or rewarding outcomes-approval, acceptance, reciprocity-as a means toward learning about others and fulfilling social needs of forming meaningful relationships. Focusing largely on recent advances in the human neuroimaging literature, we review findings highlighting the neural circuitry and processes that underlie pursuit of valued rewarding outcomes across non-social and social domains. We additionally discuss emerging human neuroimaging evidence supporting the idea that social rewards provide a gateway to establishing relationships and forming social networks. Characterizing the link between social network, brain, and behavior can potentially identify contributing factors to maladaptive influences on decision making within social situations. PMID:24561513

  8. Multifunctional fuel additives

    SciTech Connect

    Baillargeon, D.J.; Cardis, A.B.; Heck, D.B.

    1991-03-26

    This paper discusses a composition comprising a major amount of a liquid hydrocarbyl fuel and a minor low-temperature flow properties improving amount of an additive product of the reaction of a suitable diol and product of a benzophenone tetracarboxylic dianhydride and a long-chain hydrocarbyl aminoalcohol.

  9. Biobased lubricant additives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fully biobased lubricants are those formulated using all biobased ingredients, i.e. biobased base oils and biobased additives. Such formulations provide the maximum environmental, safety, and economic benefits expected from a biobased product. Currently, there are a number of biobased base oils that...

  10. Parental Socialization of Emotion

    PubMed Central

    Cumberland, Amanda; Spinrad, Tracy L.

    2006-01-01

    Recently, there has been a resurgence of research on emotion, including the socialization of emotion. In this article, a heuristic model of factors contributing to the socialization of emotion is presented. Then literature relevant to the socialization of children’s emotion and emotion-related behavior by parents is reviewed, including (a) parental reactions to children’s emotions, (b) socializers’ discussion of emotion, and (c) socializers’ expression of emotion. The relevant literature is not conclusive and most of the research is correlational. However, the existing body of data provides initial support for the view that parental socialization practices have effects on children’s emotional and social competence and that the socialization process is bidirectional. In particular, parental negative emotionality and negative reactions to children’s expression of emotion are associated with children’s negative emotionality and low social competence. In addition, possible moderators of effects such as level of emotional arousal are discussed. PMID:16865170

  11. Vinyl capped addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vannucci, Raymond D. (Inventor); Malarik, Diane C. (Inventor); Delvigs, Peter (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    Polyimide resins (PMR) are generally useful where high strength and temperature capabilities are required (at temperatures up to about 700 F). Polyimide resins are particularly useful in applications such as jet engine compressor components, for example, blades, vanes, air seals, air splitters, and engine casing parts. Aromatic vinyl capped addition polyimides are obtained by reacting a diamine, an ester of tetracarboxylic acid, and an aromatic vinyl compound. Low void materials with improved oxidative stability when exposed to 700 F air may be fabricated as fiber reinforced high molecular weight capped polyimide composites. The aromatic vinyl capped polyimides are provided with a more aromatic nature and are more thermally stable than highly aliphatic, norbornenyl-type end-capped polyimides employed in PMR resins. The substitution of aromatic vinyl end-caps for norbornenyl end-caps in addition polyimides results in polymers with improved oxidative stability.

  12. Tackifier for addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, J. M.; St.clair, T. L.

    1980-01-01

    A modification to the addition polyimide, LaRC-160, was prepared to improve tack and drape and increase prepeg out-time. The essentially solventless, high viscosity laminating resin is synthesized from low cost liquid monomers. The modified version takes advantage of a reactive, liquid plasticizer which is used in place of solvent and helps solve a major problem of maintaining good prepeg tack and drape, or the ability of the prepeg to adhere to adjacent plies and conform to a desired shape during the lay up process. This alternate solventless approach allows both longer life of the polymer prepeg and the processing of low void laminates. This approach appears to be applicable to all addition polyimide systems.

  13. Electrophilic addition of astatine

    SciTech Connect

    Norseev, Yu.V.; Vasaros, L.; Nhan, D.D.; Huan, N.K.

    1988-03-01

    It has been shown for the first time that astatine is capable of undergoing addition reactions to unsaturated hydrocarbons. A new compound of astatine, viz., ethylene astatohydrin, has been obtained, and its retention numbers of squalane, Apiezon, and tricresyl phosphate have been found. The influence of various factors on the formation of ethylene astatohydrin has been studied. It has been concluded on the basis of the results obtained that the univalent cations of astatine in an acidic medium is protonated hypoastatous acid.

  14. Functional Generalized Additive Models.

    PubMed

    McLean, Mathew W; Hooker, Giles; Staicu, Ana-Maria; Scheipl, Fabian; Ruppert, David

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the functional generalized additive model (FGAM), a novel regression model for association studies between a scalar response and a functional predictor. We model the link-transformed mean response as the integral with respect to t of F{X(t), t} where F(·,·) is an unknown regression function and X(t) is a functional covariate. Rather than having an additive model in a finite number of principal components as in Müller and Yao (2008), our model incorporates the functional predictor directly and thus our model can be viewed as the natural functional extension of generalized additive models. We estimate F(·,·) using tensor-product B-splines with roughness penalties. A pointwise quantile transformation of the functional predictor is also considered to ensure each tensor-product B-spline has observed data on its support. The methods are evaluated using simulated data and their predictive performance is compared with other competing scalar-on-function regression alternatives. We illustrate the usefulness of our approach through an application to brain tractography, where X(t) is a signal from diffusion tensor imaging at position, t, along a tract in the brain. In one example, the response is disease-status (case or control) and in a second example, it is the score on a cognitive test. R code for performing the simulations and fitting the FGAM can be found in supplemental materials available online.

  15. Code inspection instructional validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orr, Kay; Stancil, Shirley

    1992-01-01

    The Shuttle Data Systems Branch (SDSB) of the Flight Data Systems Division (FDSD) at Johnson Space Center contracted with Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) to validate the effectiveness of an interactive video course on the code inspection process. The purpose of this project was to determine if this course could be effective for teaching NASA analysts the process of code inspection. In addition, NASA was interested in the effectiveness of this unique type of instruction (Digital Video Interactive), for providing training on software processes. This study found the Carnegie Mellon course, 'A Cure for the Common Code', effective for teaching the process of code inspection. In addition, analysts prefer learning with this method of instruction, or this method in combination with other methods. As is, the course is definitely better than no course at all; however, findings indicate changes are needed. Following are conclusions of this study. (1) The course is instructionally effective. (2) The simulation has a positive effect on student's confidence in his ability to apply new knowledge. (3) Analysts like the course and prefer this method of training, or this method in combination with current methods of training in code inspection, over the way training is currently being conducted. (4) Analysts responded favorably to information presented through scenarios incorporating full motion video. (5) Some course content needs to be changed. (6) Some content needs to be added to the course. SwRI believes this study indicates interactive video instruction combined with simulation is effective for teaching software processes. Based on the conclusions of this study, SwRI has outlined seven options for NASA to consider. SwRI recommends the option which involves creation of new source code and data files, but uses much of the existing content and design from the current course. Although this option involves a significant software development effort, SwRI believes this option

  16. Mobile propeller dynamometer validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Mason Wade

    With growing interest in UAVs and OSU's interest in propeller performance and manufacturing, evaluating UAV propeller and propulsion system performance has become essential. In attempts to evaluate these propellers a mobile propeller dynamometer has been designed, built, and tested. The mobile dyno has been designed to be cost effective through the ability to load it into the back of a test vehicle to create simulated forward flight characteristics. This allows much larger propellers to be dynamically tested without the use of large and expensive wind tunnels. While evaluating the accuracy of the dyno, several improvements had to be made to get accurate results. The decisions made to design and improve the mobile propeller dyno will be discussed along with attempts to validate the dyno by comparing its results against known sources. Another large part of assuring the accuracy of the mobile dyno is determining if the test vehicle will influence the flow going into the propellers being tested. The flow into the propeller needs to be as smooth and uniform as possible. This is determined by characterizing the boundary layer and accelerated flow over the vehicle. This evaluation was accomplished with extensive vehicle aerodynamic measurements with the use of full-scale tests using a pitot-rake and the actual test vehicle. Additional tests were conducted in Oklahoma State University's low speed wind tunnel with a 1/8-scale model using qualitative flow visualization with smoke. Continuing research on the mobile dyno will be discussed, along with other potential uses for the dyno.

  17. Validation of the POSIT: Comparing Drug Using and Abstaining Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, James A.; Richardson, Brad; Spears, Julie; Rembert, Julia K.

    1998-01-01

    The Problem Oriented Screening Instrument for Teenagers (POSIT) is validated by comparing 42 drug-using and -abstaining youth on several social and behavioral characteristics. All 10 POSIT domain scores for drug users are greater than those for abstainers. Construct validity is established by comparing POSIT domain scores with other instruments.…

  18. Loner or socializer? Ravens’ adrenocortical response to individual separation depends on social integration

    PubMed Central

    Stocker, Martina; Munteanu, Alexandru; Stöwe, Mareike; Schwab, Christine; Palme, Rupert; Bugnyar, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Non-breeding common ravens (Corvus corax) live in complex social groups with a high degree of fission–fusion dynamics. They form valuable relationships and alliances with some conspecifics, while taking coordinated action against others. In ravens, affiliates reconcile their conflicts, console each other after conflicts with a third party, and provide each other with social support — all behaviors that presumably reduce corticosterone levels and alleviate stress. However, how well an individual is socially integrated in a (sub)group might vary substantially. This raises the question whether the social integration of a raven affects its stress responses to fission–fusion dynamics. The present study aims to investigate this effect experimentally by separating single ravens (n = 16) individually from their group for four days and subsequently reintroducing them. To determine stress response patterns in the separated individuals we measured the amounts of immunoreactive corticosterone metabolites (CM) in droppings. We compared two enzyme immunoassays, which we validated by conducting an ACTH challenge, and finally decided to apply an 11-oxoetiocholanolone enzyme immunoassay. Additionally, we determined levels of social integration using focal observations. Our findings suggest that a strong social integration is related to low CM levels when the individuals are within the group and high levels during separations, implying that separation leads to stress in these birds. In contrast, poorly socially integrated ravens seem to exhibit the opposite pattern, indicating that to them group living is more stressful than being temporarily separated. We, therefore, conclude that the birds’ adrenocortical activity is modulated by their social integration. PMID:26631484

  19. Loner or socializer? Ravens' adrenocortical response to individual separation depends on social integration.

    PubMed

    Stocker, Martina; Munteanu, Alexandru; Stöwe, Mareike; Schwab, Christine; Palme, Rupert; Bugnyar, Thomas

    2016-02-01

    Non-breeding common ravens (Corvus corax) live in complex social groups with a high degree of fission-fusion dynamics. They form valuable relationships and alliances with some conspecifics, while taking coordinated action against others. In ravens, affiliates reconcile their conflicts, console each other after conflicts with a third party, and provide each other with social support - all behaviors that presumably reduce corticosterone levels and alleviate stress. However, how well an individual is socially integrated in a (sub)group might vary substantially. This raises the question whether the social integration of a raven affects its stress responses to fission-fusion dynamics. The present study aims to investigate this effect experimentally by separating single ravens (n=16) individually from their group for four days and subsequently reintroducing them. To determine stress response patterns in the separated individuals we measured the amounts of immunoreactive corticosterone metabolites (CM) in droppings. We compared two enzyme immunoassays, which we validated by conducting an ACTH challenge, and finally decided to apply an 11-oxoetiocholanolone enzyme immunoassay. Additionally, we determined levels of social integration using focal observations. Our findings suggest that a strong social integration is related to low CM levels when the individuals are within the group and high levels during separations, implying that separation leads to stress in these birds. In contrast, poorly socially integrated ravens seem to exhibit the opposite pattern, indicating that to them group living is more stressful than being temporarily separated. We, therefore, conclude that the birds' adrenocortical activity is modulated by their social integration.

  20. Social Suicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maris, Ronald W.

    1997-01-01

    Argues that social forces and social pathologies figure prominently in the dynamics of suicide. Gives several examples of "social suicide," including mass suicide, organizational self-destruction, social analogues to individual suicide, and military suicide. Claims that suicide prevention requires social, economic, and cultural transformations at…

  1. Assessing physics learning identity: Survey development and validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Sissi L.; Demaree, Dedra

    2012-02-01

    Innovative curricula aim to improve content knowledge and the goal of helping students develop practices and skills of authentic scientist through active engagement learning. To students, these classroom practices often seem very different from their previous learning experiences in terms of behavioral expectations, learning attitude, and what learning means. We propose that productive participation in these learning environments require students to modify their identity as learners in addition to refining their science conceptual understanding. In order to measure changes in learning identity, we developed a 49-item survey to assess students' 1) expectations of student and teacher roles, 2) self efficacy towards skills supported in the Investigative Science Learning Environment (ISLE) and 3) attitudes towards social learning. Using principle components exploratory factor analysis, we have established two reliable factors with subscales that measure these student characteristics. This paper presents the survey development, validation and pilot study results.

  2. Validation of NDE methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phares, Brent M.; Washer, Glenn A.; Moore, Mark; Graybeal, Benjamin A.

    1999-02-01

    The NDE Validation Center is a national resource for the independent and quantitative evaluation of existing and emerging NDE techniques. The resources of the NDE Validation Center are available to federal and state agencies, the academic community, and industry. The NDE Validation Center is designed to perform critical evaluations of NDE technologies and to provide a source of information and guidance to users and developers of NDE systems. This paper describes the resources available at the Center and the initial efforts to validate the visual inspection of highway bridges. Efforts to evaluate various NDE methods for the inspection of bridge hanger pins are also described.

  3. Developmental pathways for social understanding: linking social cognition to social contexts

    PubMed Central

    Brink, Kimberly A.; Lane, Jonathan D.; Wellman, Henry M.

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary research, often with looking-time tasks, reveals that infants possess foundational understandings of their social worlds. However, few studies have examined how these early social cognitions relate to the child’s social interactions and behavior in early development. Does an early understanding of the social world relate to how an infant interacts with his or her parents? Do early social interactions along with social-cognitive understandings in infancy predict later preschool social competencies? In the current paper, we propose a theory in which children’s later social behaviors and their understanding of the social world depend on the integration of early social understanding and experiences in infancy. We review several of our studies, as well as other research, that directly examine the pathways between these competencies to support a hypothesized network of relations between social-cognitive development and social-interactive behaviors in the development from infancy to childhood. In total, these findings reveal differences in infant social competences that both track the developmental trajectory of infants’ understanding of people over the first years of life and provide external validation for the large body of social-cognitive findings emerging from laboratory looking-time paradigms. PMID:26074859

  4. Validity and the Consequences of Test Interpretation and Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubley, Anita M.; Zumbo, Bruno D.

    2011-01-01

    The vast majority of measures have, at their core, a purpose of personal and social change. If test developers and users want measures to have personal and social consequences and impact, then it is critical to consider the consequences and side effects of measurement in the validation process itself. The consequential basis of test interpretation…

  5. Performance Boosting Additive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Mainstream Engineering Corporation was awarded Phase I and Phase II contracts from Goddard Space Flight Center's Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program in early 1990. With support from the SBIR program, Mainstream Engineering Corporation has developed a unique low cost additive, QwikBoost (TM), that increases the performance of air conditioners, heat pumps, refrigerators, and freezers. Because of the energy and environmental benefits of QwikBoost, Mainstream received the Tibbetts Award at a White House Ceremony on October 16, 1997. QwikBoost was introduced at the 1998 International Air Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Exposition. QwikBoost is packaged in a handy 3-ounce can (pressurized with R-134a) and will be available for automotive air conditioning systems in summer 1998.

  6. Sewage sludge additive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalvinskas, J. J.; Mueller, W. A.; Ingham, J. D. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    The additive is for a raw sewage treatment process of the type where settling tanks are used for the purpose of permitting the suspended matter in the raw sewage to be settled as well as to permit adsorption of the dissolved contaminants in the water of the sewage. The sludge, which settles down to the bottom of the settling tank is extracted, pyrolyzed and activated to form activated carbon and ash which is mixed with the sewage prior to its introduction into the settling tank. The sludge does not provide all of the activated carbon and ash required for adequate treatment of the raw sewage. It is necessary to add carbon to the process and instead of expensive commercial carbon, coal is used to provide the carbon supplement.

  7. Perspectives on Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourell, David L.

    2016-07-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has skyrocketed in visibility commercially and in the public sector. This article describes the development of this field from early layered manufacturing approaches of photosculpture, topography, and material deposition. Certain precursors to modern AM processes are also briefly described. The growth of the field over the last 30 years is presented. Included is the standard delineation of AM technologies into seven broad categories. The economics of AM part generation is considered, and the impacts of the economics on application sectors are described. On the basis of current trends, the future outlook will include a convergence of AM fabricators, mass-produced AM fabricators, enabling of topology optimization designs, and specialization in the AM legal arena. Long-term developments with huge impact are organ printing and volume-based printing.

  8. Sarks as additional fermions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrawal, Jyoti; Frampton, Paul H.; Jack Ng, Y.; Nishino, Hitoshi; Yasuda, Osamu

    1991-03-01

    An extension of the standard model is proposed. The gauge group is SU(2) X ⊗ SU(3) C ⊗ SU(2) S ⊗ U(1) Q, where all gauge symmetries are unbroken. The colour and electric charge are combined with SU(2) S which becomes strongly coupled at approximately 500 GeV and binds preons to form fermionic and vector bound states. The usual quarks and leptons are singlets under SU(2) X but additional fermions, called sarks. transform under it and the electroweak group. The present model explains why no more than three light quark-lepton families can exist. Neutral sark baryons, called narks, are candidates for the cosmological dark matter having the characteristics designed for WIMPS. Further phenomenological implications of sarks are analyzed i including electron-positron annihilation. Z 0 decay, flavor-changing neutral currents. baryon-number non-conservation, sarkonium and the neutron electric dipole moment.

  9. Facial disability index (FDI): Adaptation to Spanish, reliability and validity

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Cardero, Eduardo; Cayuela, Aurelio; Acosta-Feria, Manuel; Gutierrez-Perez, Jose-Luis

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To adapt to Spanish the facial disability index (FDI) described by VanSwearingen and Brach in 1995 and to assess its reliability and validity in patients with facial nerve paresis after parotidectomy. Study Design: The present study was conducted in two different stages: a) cross-cultural adaptation of the questionnaire and b) cross-sectional study of a control group of 79 Spanish-speaking patients who suffered facial paresis after superficial parotidectomy with facial nerve preservation. The cross-cultural adaptation process comprised the following stages: (I) initial translation, (II) synthesis of the translated document, (III) retro-translation, (IV) review by a board of experts, (V) pilot study of the pre-final draft and (VI) analysis of the pilot study and final draft. Results: The reliability and internal consistency of every one of the rating scales included in the FDI (Cronbach’s alpha coefficient) was 0.83 for the complete scale and 0.77 and 0.82 for the physical and the social well-being subscales. The analysis of the factorial validity of the main components of the adapted FDI yielded similar results to the original questionnaire. Bivariate correlations between FDI and House-Brackmann scale were positive. The variance percentage was calculated for all FDI components. Conclusions: The FDI questionnaire is a specific instrument for assessing facial neuromuscular dysfunction which becomes a useful tool in order to determine quality of life in patients with facial nerve paralysis. Spanish adapted FDI is equivalent to the original questionnaire and shows similar reliability and validity. The proven reproducibi-lity, reliability and validity of this questionnaire make it a useful additional tool for evaluating the impact of facial nerve paralysis in Spanish-speaking patients. Key words:Parotidectomy, facial nerve paralysis, facial disability. PMID:22926474

  10. CANFOR Portuguese version: validation study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The increase in prisoner population is a troublesome reality in several regions of the world. Along with this growth there is increasing evidence that prisoners have a higher proportion of mental illnesses and suicide than the general population. In order to implement strategies that address criminal recidivism and the health and social status of prisoners, particularly in mental disordered offenders, it is necessary to assess their care needs in a comprehensive, but individual perspective. This assessment must include potential harmful areas like comorbid personality disorder, substance misuse and offending behaviours. The Camberwell Assessment of Need – Forensic Version (CANFOR) has proved to be a reliable tool designed to accomplish such aims. The present study aimed to validate the CANFOR Portuguese version. Methods The translation, adaptation to the Portuguese context, back-translation and revision followed the usual procedures. The sample comprised all detainees receiving psychiatric care in four forensic facilities, over a one year period. A total of 143 subjects, and respective case manager, were selected. The forensic facilities were chosen by convenience: one prison hospital psychiatric ward (n=68; 47.6%), one male (n=24; 16.8%) and one female (n=22; 15.4%) psychiatric clinic and one civil security ward (n=29; 20.3%), all located nearby Lisbon. Basic descriptive statistics and Kappa weighted coefficients were calculated for the inter-rater and the test-retest reliability studies. The convergent validity was evaluated using the Global Assessment of Functioning and the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale scores. Results The majority of the participants were male and single, with short school attendance, and accused of a crime involving violence against persons. The most frequent diagnosis was major depression (56.1%) and almost half presented positive suicide risk. The reliability study showed average Kappa weighted coefficients of 0.884 and 0

  11. Validating Analytical Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ember, Lois R.

    1977-01-01

    The procedures utilized by the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) to develop, evaluate, and validate analytical methods for the analysis of chemical pollutants are detailed. Methods validated by AOAC are used by the EPA and FDA in their enforcement programs and are granted preferential treatment by the courts. (BT)

  12. Five Data Validation Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simkin, Mark G.

    2008-01-01

    Data-validation routines enable computer applications to test data to ensure their accuracy, completeness, and conformance to industry or proprietary standards. This paper presents five programming cases that require students to validate five different types of data: (1) simple user data entries, (2) UPC codes, (3) passwords, (4) ISBN numbers, and…

  13. SOSS ICN Model Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Zhifan

    2016-01-01

    Under the NASA-KAIA-KARI ATM research collaboration agreement, SOSS ICN Model has been developed for Incheon International Airport. This presentation describes the model validation work in the project. The presentation will show the results and analysis of the validation.

  14. Kane, Validity and Soundness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Alan

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author begins by discussing four challenges on the concept of validity. These challenges are: (1) the appeal to logic and syllogistic reasoning; (2) the claim of reliability; (3) the local and the universal; and (4) the unitary and the divisible. In language testing validity cannot be achieved directly but only through a…

  15. Additive lattice kirigami

    PubMed Central

    Castle, Toen; Sussman, Daniel M.; Tanis, Michael; Kamien, Randall D.

    2016-01-01

    Kirigami uses bending, folding, cutting, and pasting to create complex three-dimensional (3D) structures from a flat sheet. In the case of lattice kirigami, this cutting and rejoining introduces defects into an underlying 2D lattice in the form of points of nonzero Gaussian curvature. A set of simple rules was previously used to generate a wide variety of stepped structures; we now pare back these rules to their minimum. This allows us to describe a set of techniques that unify a wide variety of cut-and-paste actions under the rubric of lattice kirigami, including adding new material and rejoining material across arbitrary cuts in the sheet. We also explore the use of more complex lattices and the different structures that consequently arise. Regardless of the choice of lattice, creating complex structures may require multiple overlapping kirigami cuts, where subsequent cuts are not performed on a locally flat lattice. Our additive kirigami method describes such cuts, providing a simple methodology and a set of techniques to build a huge variety of complex 3D shapes. PMID:27679822

  16. Additive lattice kirigami

    PubMed Central

    Castle, Toen; Sussman, Daniel M.; Tanis, Michael; Kamien, Randall D.

    2016-01-01

    Kirigami uses bending, folding, cutting, and pasting to create complex three-dimensional (3D) structures from a flat sheet. In the case of lattice kirigami, this cutting and rejoining introduces defects into an underlying 2D lattice in the form of points of nonzero Gaussian curvature. A set of simple rules was previously used to generate a wide variety of stepped structures; we now pare back these rules to their minimum. This allows us to describe a set of techniques that unify a wide variety of cut-and-paste actions under the rubric of lattice kirigami, including adding new material and rejoining material across arbitrary cuts in the sheet. We also explore the use of more complex lattices and the different structures that consequently arise. Regardless of the choice of lattice, creating complex structures may require multiple overlapping kirigami cuts, where subsequent cuts are not performed on a locally flat lattice. Our additive kirigami method describes such cuts, providing a simple methodology and a set of techniques to build a huge variety of complex 3D shapes.

  17. How attentional systems process conflicting cues. The superiority of social over symbolic orienting revisited.

    PubMed

    Nummenmaa, Lauri; Hietanen, Jari K

    2009-12-01

    We investigated orienting of attention by social and symbolic cues presented inside/outside the locus of attention. Participants responded to laterally presented targets preceded by simultaneously presented gaze and arrow cues. Participants' attention was allocated to either of the cues and the other cue served as a distractor. In Experiments 1-4 nonpredictive cues were employed. The validity of the attended cue and distractor were varied orthogonally. Valid cues and distractors produced additive facilitation to reaction times when compared to invalid cues and distractors. The effects of gaze and arrow distractors were similar. When the cue was 100% valid and the distractor 50% valid (Experiment 5), distractor validity had no effect on reaction times. When realistic gaze and arrow cues were employed (Experiment 6), arrow but not gaze distractors influenced the reaction times. The results suggest that social and symbolic directional information can be integrated for attention orienting. The processing of social and symbolic directional information can be modulated by top-down control, but the efficiency of the control depends on the visual saliency of the cues. PMID:19968432

  18. Sciamachy Validation - Quality Assurance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piters, A. J. M.; Sciavalig

    Sciamachy on Envisat is planned for launch on 1 March 2002. The Sciamachy in- strument and ground segment are designed to deliver total columns and profiles of 11 different species, aerosol and cloud information, pressure and temperature profiles, and UV index. Apart from these operational products many scientific products will be derived. A thorough validation of all these Sciamachy products is a prerequisite for scientific use. The Sciamachy Validation and Interpretation Group, a subgroup of the Sciamachy Science Advisory Group, organises the international Sciamachy vali- dation effort, in close co-operation with the MIPAS and GOMOS validation teams via ESA's Atmospheric Chemistry Validation Team. SCIAVALIG pays special attention to the quality of the output of the validation. The validation output is a regularly up- dated quantitative and complete description of the accuracy of each of the Sciamachy products, formulated in such a way that it is of direct use for algorithm improvement, instrument characterisation, and atmospheric research. The current paper presents the way in which SCIAVALIG plans to achieve this high quality validation output.

  19. Social Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slover-Linett, Cheryl; Stoner, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Earlier this year, CASE formed a social media task force to explore what educational institutions are trying to achieve with social media presence and learn about social media engagements at member institutions. CASE, in partnership with mStoner and Slover Linett Strategies, in June launched a benchmarking survey on social media in advancement by…

  20. Social Inventions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conger, D. Stuart

    Just as programs and organizations have too frequently been established for the presumed benefit of mankind but do not work out as expected because the social methods available are not good enough, so the author proposes that the existence of social problems in general bespeak the need for new social inventions. Social inventions provide laws,…

  1. Land Product Validation (LPV)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaepman, Gabriela; Roman, Miguel O.

    2013-01-01

    This presentation will discuss Land Product Validation (LPV) objectives and goals, LPV structure update, interactions with other initiatives during report period, outreach to the science community, future meetings and next steps.

  2. Validation of multiprocessor systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siewiorek, D. P.; Segall, Z.; Kong, T.

    1982-01-01

    Experiments that can be used to validate fault free performance of multiprocessor systems in aerospace systems integrating flight controls and avionics are discussed. Engineering prototypes for two fault tolerant multiprocessors are tested.

  3. Comparability of the Social Skills Improvement System to the Social Skills Rating System: A Norwegian Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamst-Klaussen, Thor; Rasmussen, Lene-Mari P.; Svartdal, Frode; Strømgren, Børge

    2016-01-01

    The Social Skills Improvement System-Rating Scales (SSIS-RS) is a multi-informant instrument assessing social skills and problem behavior in children and adolescents. It is a revised version of the Social Skills Rating System (SSRS). A Norwegian translation of the SSRS has been validated, but this has not yet been done for the Norwegian…

  4. Food for Thought ... Mechanistic Validation

    PubMed Central

    Hartung, Thomas; Hoffmann, Sebastian; Stephens, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Summary Validation of new approaches in regulatory toxicology is commonly defined as the independent assessment of the reproducibility and relevance (the scientific basis and predictive capacity) of a test for a particular purpose. In large ring trials, the emphasis to date has been mainly on reproducibility and predictive capacity (comparison to the traditional test) with less attention given to the scientific or mechanistic basis. Assessing predictive capacity is difficult for novel approaches (which are based on mechanism), such as pathways of toxicity or the complex networks within the organism (systems toxicology). This is highly relevant for implementing Toxicology for the 21st Century, either by high-throughput testing in the ToxCast/ Tox21 project or omics-based testing in the Human Toxome Project. This article explores the mostly neglected assessment of a test's scientific basis, which moves mechanism and causality to the foreground when validating/qualifying tests. Such mechanistic validation faces the problem of establishing causality in complex systems. However, pragmatic adaptations of the Bradford Hill criteria, as well as bioinformatic tools, are emerging. As critical infrastructures of the organism are perturbed by a toxic mechanism we argue that by focusing on the target of toxicity and its vulnerability, in addition to the way it is perturbed, we can anchor the identification of the mechanism and its verification. PMID:23665802

  5. A Developmental Analysis of Children's Social Support Networks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kriegler, Julie A.; Bogat, G. Anne

    Although much investigation of adult social support networks has been done, little attention has been paid to children's social support networks. Childhood patterns of social support probably influence adult patterns. A study was conducted to describe the social networks of third through sixth grade children. It also tests the validity of a new…

  6. Importance Ratings of Socially Supportive Behaviors by Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demaray, Michelle Kilpatrick; Malecki, Christine Kerres

    2003-01-01

    The frequency of students' social support has been investigated in the literature, but little research has examined the social validity or social importance of supportive behaviors for children and adolescents. In the present study, data were gathered from 1,688 students in Grades 3 through 12 via the Child and Adolescent Social Support Scale…

  7. Social engagement and adaptive functioning during early childhood: Identifying and distinguishing among subgroups differing with regard to social engagement.

    PubMed

    Vaughn, Brian E; Santos, António J; Monteiro, Ligia; Shin, Nana; Daniel, João R; Krzysik, Lisa; Pinto, Alexandra

    2016-09-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that social engagement (SE) with peers is a fundamental aspect of social competence during early childhood. Relations between SE and a set of previously validated social competence indicators, as well as additional variables derived from observation and sociometric interviews were assessed using both variable-centered and person-centered approaches (N = 1453, 696 girls) in 4 samples (3 U.S.A., 1 Portuguese). Directly observed SE was positively associated with broad-band measures of socially competent behavior, peer acceptance, being a target of peers' attention, and also with broad-band personality dimensions. Using individual Q-items significantly associated with SE in 3 of our 4 samples, a hierarchical cluster analysis yielded a 5-cluster solution that grouped cases efficiently. Tests on relations between cluster membership and the set of social competence and other variables revealed significant main effects of cluster membership in the full sample and within each individual sample, separately. With the exception of tests for peer negative preference, children in the lowest SE cluster also had significantly lower overall social competence, personality functioning scores than did children in higher SE clusters. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27505701

  8. Computational Process Modeling for Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bagg, Stacey; Zhang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Computational Process and Material Modeling of Powder Bed additive manufacturing of IN 718. Optimize material build parameters with reduced time and cost through modeling. Increase understanding of build properties. Increase reliability of builds. Decrease time to adoption of process for critical hardware. Potential to decrease post-build heat treatments. Conduct single-track and coupon builds at various build parameters. Record build parameter information and QM Meltpool data. Refine Applied Optimization powder bed AM process model using data. Report thermal modeling results. Conduct metallography of build samples. Calibrate STK models using metallography findings. Run STK models using AO thermal profiles and report STK modeling results. Validate modeling with additional build. Photodiode Intensity measurements highly linear with power input. Melt Pool Intensity highly correlated to Melt Pool Size. Melt Pool size and intensity increase with power. Applied Optimization will use data to develop powder bed additive manufacturing process model.

  9. You don't have to believe everything you read: background knowledge permits fast and efficient validation of information.

    PubMed

    Richter, Tobias; Schroeder, Sascha; Wöhrmann, Britta

    2009-03-01

    In social cognition, knowledge-based validation of information is usually regarded as relying on strategic and resource-demanding processes. Research on language comprehension, in contrast, suggests that validation processes are involved in the construction of a referential representation of the communicated information. This view implies that individuals can use their knowledge to validate incoming information in a routine and efficient manner. Consistent with this idea, Experiments 1 and 2 demonstrated that individuals are able to reject false assertions efficiently when they have validity-relevant beliefs. Validation processes were carried out routinely even when individuals were put under additional cognitive load during comprehension. Experiment 3 demonstrated that the rejection of false information occurs automatically and interferes with affirmative responses in a nonsemantic task (epistemic Stroop effect). Experiment 4 also revealed complementary interference effects of true information with negative responses in a nonsemantic task. These results suggest the existence of fast and efficient validation processes that protect mental representations from being contaminated by false and inaccurate information.

  10. Factorial validity and internal consistency of the motivational climate in physical education scale.

    PubMed

    Soini, Markus; Liukkonen, Jarmo; Watt, Anthony; Yli-Piipari, Sami; Jaakkola, Timo

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the construct validity and internal consistency of the Motivational Climate in Physical Education Scale (MCPES). A key element of the development process of the scale was establishing a theoretical framework that integrated the dimensions of task- and ego involving climates in conjunction with autonomy, and social relatedness supporting climates. These constructs were adopted from the self-determination and achievement goal theories. A sample of Finnish Grade 9 students, comprising 2,594 girls and 1,803 boys, completed the 18-item MCPES during one physical education class. The results of the study demonstrated that participants had highest mean in task-involving climate and the lowest in autonomy climate and ego-involving climate. Additionally, autonomy, social relatedness, and task- involving climates were significantly and strongly correlated with each other, whereas the ego- involving climate had low or negligible correlations with the other climate dimensions.The construct validity of the MCPES was analyzed using confirmatory factor analysis. The statistical fit of the four-factor model consisting of motivational climate factors supporting perceived autonomy, social relatedness, task-involvement, and ego-involvement was satisfactory. The results of the reliability analysis showed acceptable internal consistencies for all four dimensions. The Motivational Climate in Physical Education Scale can be considered as psychometrically valid tool to measure motivational climate in Finnish Grade 9 students. Key PointsThis study developed Motivational Climate in School Physical Education Scale (MCPES). During the development process of the scale, the theoretical framework using dimensions of task- and ego involving as well as autonomy, and social relatedness supporting climates was constructed. These constructs were adopted from the self-determination and achievement goal theories.The statistical fit of the four-factor model of the

  11. Factorial Validity and Internal Consistency of the Motivational Climate in Physical Education Scale

    PubMed Central

    Soini, Markus; Liukkonen, Jarmo; Watt, Anthony; Yli-Piipari, Sami; Jaakkola, Timo

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the construct validity and internal consistency of the Motivational Climate in Physical Education Scale (MCPES). A key element of the development process of the scale was establishing a theoretical framework that integrated the dimensions of task- and ego involving climates in conjunction with autonomy, and social relatedness supporting climates. These constructs were adopted from the self-determination and achievement goal theories. A sample of Finnish Grade 9 students, comprising 2,594 girls and 1,803 boys, completed the 18-item MCPES during one physical education class. The results of the study demonstrated that participants had highest mean in task-involving climate and the lowest in autonomy climate and ego-involving climate. Additionally, autonomy, social relatedness, and task- involving climates were significantly and strongly correlated with each other, whereas the ego- involving climate had low or negligible correlations with the other climate dimensions.The construct validity of the MCPES was analyzed using confirmatory factor analysis. The statistical fit of the four-factor model consisting of motivational climate factors supporting perceived autonomy, social relatedness, task-involvement, and ego-involvement was satisfactory. The results of the reliability analysis showed acceptable internal consistencies for all four dimensions. The Motivational Climate in Physical Education Scale can be considered as psychometrically valid tool to measure motivational climate in Finnish Grade 9 students. Key Points This study developed Motivational Climate in School Physical Education Scale (MCPES). During the development process of the scale, the theoretical framework using dimensions of task- and ego involving as well as autonomy, and social relatedness supporting climates was constructed. These constructs were adopted from the self-determination and achievement goal theories. The statistical fit of the four-factor model of the

  12. An examination of social interaction profiles based on the factors measured by the screen for social interaction.

    PubMed

    Mahoney, Emery B; Breitborde, Nicholas J K; Leone, Sarah L; Ghuman, Jaswinder Kaur

    2014-10-01

    Deficits in the capacity to engage in social interactions are a core deficit associated with Autistic Disorder (AD) and Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS). These deficits emerge at a young age, making screening for social interaction deficits and interventions targeted at improving capacity in this area important for early identification and intervention. Screening and early intervention efforts are particularly important given the poor short and long term outcomes for children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) who experience social interaction deficits. The Screen for Social Interaction (SSI) is a well-validated screening measure that examines a child's capacity for social interaction using a developmental approach. The present study identified four underlying factors measured by the SSI, namely, Connection with Caregiver, Interaction/Imagination, Social Approach/Interest, and Agreeable Nature. The resulting factors were utilized to compare social interaction profiles across groups of children with AD, PDD-NOS, children with non-ASD developmental and/or psychiatric conditions and typically developing children. The results indicate that children with AD and those with PDD-NOS had similar social interaction profiles, but were able to be distinguished from typically developing children on every factor and were able to be distinguished from children with non-ASD psychiatric conditions on every factor except the Connection with Caregiver factor. In addition, children with non-ASD developmental and/or psychiatric conditions could be distinguished from typically developing children on the Connection with Caregiver factor and the Social Approach/Interest factor. These findings have implications for screening and intervention for children with ASDs and non-ASD psychiatric conditions.

  13. Evolution of individual versus social learning on social networks.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Kohei; Kobayashi, Yutaka; Ihara, Yasuo

    2015-03-01

    A number of studies have investigated the roles played by individual and social learning in cultural phenomena and the relative advantages of the two learning strategies in variable environments. Because social learning involves the acquisition of behaviours from others, its utility depends on the availability of 'cultural models' exhibiting adaptive behaviours. This indicates that social networks play an essential role in the evolution of learning. However, possible effects of social structure on the evolution of learning have not been fully explored. Here, we develop a mathematical model to explore the evolutionary dynamics of learning strategies on social networks. We first derive the condition under which social learners (SLs) are selectively favoured over individual learners in a broad range of social network. We then obtain an analytical approximation of the long-term average frequency of SLs in homogeneous networks, from which we specify the condition, in terms of three relatedness measures, for social structure to facilitate the long-term evolution of social learning. Finally, we evaluate our approximation by Monte Carlo simulations in complete graphs, regular random graphs and scale-free networks. We formally show that whether social structure favours the evolution of social learning is determined by the relative magnitudes of two effects of social structure: localization in competition, by which competition between learning strategies is evaded, and localization in cultural transmission, which slows down the spread of adaptive traits. In addition, our estimates of the relatedness measures suggest that social structure disfavours the evolution of social learning when selection is weak.

  14. Automatic personality assessment through social media language.

    PubMed

    Park, Gregory; Schwartz, H Andrew; Eichstaedt, Johannes C; Kern, Margaret L; Kosinski, Michal; Stillwell, David J; Ungar, Lyle H; Seligman, Martin E P

    2015-06-01

    Language use is a psychologically rich, stable individual difference with well-established correlations to personality. We describe a method for assessing personality using an open-vocabulary analysis of language from social media. We compiled the written language from 66,732 Facebook users and their questionnaire-based self-reported Big Five personality traits, and then we built a predictive model of personality based on their language. We used this model to predict the 5 personality factors in a separate sample of 4,824 Facebook users, examining (a) convergence with self-reports of personality at the domain- and facet-level; (b) discriminant validity between predictions of distinct traits; (c) agreement with informant reports of personality; (d) patterns of correlations with external criteria (e.g., number of friends, political attitudes, impulsiveness); and (e) test-retest reliability over 6-month intervals. Results indicated that language-based assessments can constitute valid personality measures: they agreed with self-reports and informant reports of personality, added incremental validity over informant reports, adequately discriminated between traits, exhibited patterns of correlations with external criteria similar to those found with self-reported personality, and were stable over 6-month intervals. Analysis of predictive language can provide rich portraits of the mental life associated with traits. This approach can complement and extend traditional methods, providing researchers with an additional measure that can quickly and cheaply assess large groups of participants with minimal burden.

  15. Automatic personality assessment through social media language.

    PubMed

    Park, Gregory; Schwartz, H Andrew; Eichstaedt, Johannes C; Kern, Margaret L; Kosinski, Michal; Stillwell, David J; Ungar, Lyle H; Seligman, Martin E P

    2015-06-01

    Language use is a psychologically rich, stable individual difference with well-established correlations to personality. We describe a method for assessing personality using an open-vocabulary analysis of language from social media. We compiled the written language from 66,732 Facebook users and their questionnaire-based self-reported Big Five personality traits, and then we built a predictive model of personality based on their language. We used this model to predict the 5 personality factors in a separate sample of 4,824 Facebook users, examining (a) convergence with self-reports of personality at the domain- and facet-level; (b) discriminant validity between predictions of distinct traits; (c) agreement with informant reports of personality; (d) patterns of correlations with external criteria (e.g., number of friends, political attitudes, impulsiveness); and (e) test-retest reliability over 6-month intervals. Results indicated that language-based assessments can constitute valid personality measures: they agreed with self-reports and informant reports of personality, added incremental validity over informant reports, adequately discriminated between traits, exhibited patterns of correlations with external criteria similar to those found with self-reported personality, and were stable over 6-month intervals. Analysis of predictive language can provide rich portraits of the mental life associated with traits. This approach can complement and extend traditional methods, providing researchers with an additional measure that can quickly and cheaply assess large groups of participants with minimal burden. PMID:25365036

  16. Fun and Games: The Validity of Games for the Study of Conflict

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Barry R.; Bonoma, Thomas V.

    1978-01-01

    Examines claimed advantages and criticisms of the use of games in the study of social conflict, differentiating the advantages and criticisms into questions of internal validity, external validity, and ecological validity. Available from: Sage Publications, Inc., 275 South Beverly Drive, Beverly Hills, California 90212. (JG)

  17. Groundwater Model Validation

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmed E. Hassan

    2006-01-24

    Models have an inherent uncertainty. The difficulty in fully characterizing the subsurface environment makes uncertainty an integral component of groundwater flow and transport models, which dictates the need for continuous monitoring and improvement. Building and sustaining confidence in closure decisions and monitoring networks based on models of subsurface conditions require developing confidence in the models through an iterative process. The definition of model validation is postulated as a confidence building and long-term iterative process (Hassan, 2004a). Model validation should be viewed as a process not an end result. Following Hassan (2004b), an approach is proposed for the validation process of stochastic groundwater models. The approach is briefly summarized herein and detailed analyses of acceptance criteria for stochastic realizations and of using validation data to reduce input parameter uncertainty are presented and applied to two case studies. During the validation process for stochastic models, a question arises as to the sufficiency of the number of acceptable model realizations (in terms of conformity with validation data). Using a hierarchical approach to make this determination is proposed. This approach is based on computing five measures or metrics and following a decision tree to determine if a sufficient number of realizations attain satisfactory scores regarding how they represent the field data used for calibration (old) and used for validation (new). The first two of these measures are applied to hypothetical scenarios using the first case study and assuming field data consistent with the model or significantly different from the model results. In both cases it is shown how the two measures would lead to the appropriate decision about the model performance. Standard statistical tests are used to evaluate these measures with the results indicating they are appropriate measures for evaluating model realizations. The use of validation

  18. A Fresh Pair of Eyes: A Blind Observation Method for Evaluating Social Skills of Children with ASD in a Naturalistic Peer Situation in School.

    PubMed

    Dekker, Vera; Nauta, Maaike H; Mulder, Erik J; Sytema, Sjoerd; de Bildt, Annelies

    2016-09-01

    The Social skills Observation Measure (SOM) is a direct observation method for social skills used in naturalistic everyday situations in school. This study describes the development of the SOM and investigates its psychometric properties in 86 children with Autism spectrum disorder, aged 9.8-13.1 years. The interrater reliability was found to be good to excellent. The convergent validity was low in relation to parent and teacher reports of social skills, and also to parent interview on adaptive social functioning. Therefore this direct observation seems to provide additional information on the frequency and quality of social behaviors in daily life situations. As such it contributes to parent and teacher information as a blind measurement to evaluate Social Skills Training.

  19. NASA GSFC CCMC Recent Model Validation Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rastaetter, L.; Pulkkinen, A.; Taktakishvill, A.; Macneice, P.; Shim, J. S.; Zheng, Yihua; Kuznetsova, M. M.; Hesse, M.

    2012-01-01

    The Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC) holds the largest assembly of state-of-the-art physics-based space weather models developed by the international space physics community. In addition to providing the community easy access to these modern space research models to support science research, its another primary goal is to test and validate models for transition from research to operations. In this presentation, we provide an overview of the space science models available at CCMC. Then we will focus on the community-wide model validation efforts led by CCMC in all domains of the Sun-Earth system and the internal validation efforts at CCMC to support space weather servicesjoperations provided its sibling organization - NASA GSFC Space Weather Center (http://swc.gsfc.nasa.gov). We will also discuss our efforts in operational model validation in collaboration with NOAA/SWPC.

  20. An investigation of the psychometric properties of the Social Thoughts and Beliefs Scale (STABS) and structure of cognitive symptoms in participants with social anxiety disorder and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Gros, Daniel F; Sarver, Nina Wong

    2014-04-01

    Despite the recent increase of measures developed to assess the cognitive symptoms of social anxiety disorder (SOC), their validation is still largely preliminary. Thus, the present studies sought to replicate and extend the psychometric evaluation of the Social Thoughts and Beliefs Scale (STABS). Study 1 involved both participants with SOC (n=206) and healthy controls (n=222) that completed the STABS and other related measures of anxiety. In Study 2, participants with SOC (n=66) completed exposure-based psychotherapy for SOC with the STABS used to track symptom changes. Together, the two studies provided additional support for the validity and reliability of the STABS as a measure of the cognitive symptoms of SOC. However, contrary to previous research with two subscales, a single total scale was suggested as the best interpretation of the STABS, as well as the possible general presentation of the cognitive symptoms of SOC.

  1. DEWFALL validation experiment designs

    SciTech Connect

    Lowry, B.; Walsh, B.

    1989-09-30

    Three experiments are proposed as tests to validate the DEWFALL analysis model for the large vessel project. This document is a very brief record of the techniques and test designs that could be used for validation of the model. Processes of the model which require validation include: (1) vaporization and recondensation of the vessel wall material due to energy transfer from the source, (2) melt and refreeze of vessel wall material, and (3) condensation and solidification of the source material. A methodology was developed to analyze the maximum thickness of material melted and vaporized with given experimental configurations and initial energies. DEWFALL reference calculations are included in an appendix to the document. 2 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Federalism and social justice: implications for social work.

    PubMed

    Linhorst, Donald M

    2002-07-01

    Federalism is a system of government that divides power between two or more levels of government. During the current conservative political climate in the United States, power has shifted increasingly from the federal government to states, a move that has implications for the achievement of social justice. Consequently, it is now necessary for social workers to engage in political activity at the state and local levels, in addition to the federal level, to promote social justice. Implications for social work policy practice, research, and education for advancing social justice within the federal system of government are explored.

  3. French validation of the Barcelona Music Reward Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Saliba, Joe; Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano; Marco-Pallares, Josep; Tillmann, Barbara; Zeitouni, Anthony; Lehmann, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    Background. The Barcelona Music Reward Questionnaire (BMRQ) questionnaire investigates the main facets of music experience that could explain the variance observed in how people experience reward associated with music. Currently, only English and Spanish versions of this questionnaire are available. The objective of this study is to validate a French version of the BMRQ. Methods. The original BMRQ was translated and adapted into an international French version. The questionnaire was then administered through an online survey aimed at adults aged over 18 years who were fluent in French. Statistical analyses were performed and compared to the original English and Spanish version for validation purposes. Results. A total of 1,027 participants completed the questionnaire. Most responses were obtained from France (89.4%). Analyses revealed that congruence values between the rotated loading matrix and the ideal loading matrix ranged between 0.88 and 0.96. Factor reliabilities of subscales (i.e., Musical Seeking, Emotion Evocation, Mood Regulation, Social Reward and Sensory-Motor) also ranged between 0.88 and 0.96. In addition, reliability of the overall factor score (i.e., Music reward) was 0.91. Finally, the internal consistency of the overall scale was 0.85. The factorial structure obtained in the French translation was similar to that of the original Spanish and English samples. Conclusion. The French version of the BMRQ appears valid and reliable. Potential applications of the BMRQ include its use as a valuable tool in music reward and emotion research, whether in healthy individuals or in patients suffering from a wide variety of cognitive, neurologic and auditory disorders. PMID:27019776

  4. French validation of the Barcelona Music Reward Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano; Marco-Pallares, Josep; Tillmann, Barbara; Zeitouni, Anthony; Lehmann, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    Background. The Barcelona Music Reward Questionnaire (BMRQ) questionnaire investigates the main facets of music experience that could explain the variance observed in how people experience reward associated with music. Currently, only English and Spanish versions of this questionnaire are available. The objective of this study is to validate a French version of the BMRQ. Methods. The original BMRQ was translated and adapted into an international French version. The questionnaire was then administered through an online survey aimed at adults aged over 18 years who were fluent in French. Statistical analyses were performed and compared to the original English and Spanish version for validation purposes. Results. A total of 1,027 participants completed the questionnaire. Most responses were obtained from France (89.4%). Analyses revealed that congruence values between the rotated loading matrix and the ideal loading matrix ranged between 0.88 and 0.96. Factor reliabilities of subscales (i.e., Musical Seeking, Emotion Evocation, Mood Regulation, Social Reward and Sensory-Motor) also ranged between 0.88 and 0.96. In addition, reliability of the overall factor score (i.e., Music reward) was 0.91. Finally, the internal consistency of the overall scale was 0.85. The factorial structure obtained in the French translation was similar to that of the original Spanish and English samples. Conclusion. The French version of the BMRQ appears valid and reliable. Potential applications of the BMRQ include its use as a valuable tool in music reward and emotion research, whether in healthy individuals or in patients suffering from a wide variety of cognitive, neurologic and auditory disorders. PMID:27019776

  5. Cultural Aspects in Social Anxiety and Social Anxiety Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Stefan G.; Asnaani, Anu; Hinton, Devon E.

    2010-01-01

    To examine cultural aspects in social anxiety and social anxiety disorder (SAD), we reviewed the literature on the prevalence rates, expressions, and treatments of social anxiety/SAD as they relate to culture, race, and ethnicity. We further reviewed factors that contribute to the differences in social anxiety/SAD between different cultures, including individualism/collectivism, perception of social norms, self-construal, gender roles, and gender role identification. Our review suggests that the prevalence and expression of social anxiety/SAD depends on the particular culture. Asian cultures typically show the lowest rates, whereas Russian and US samples show the highest rates, of SAD. Taijin kyofusho is discussed as a possible culture-specific expression of social anxiety, although the empirical evidence concerning the validity of this syndrome has been mixed. It is concluded that the individual's social concerns need to be examined in the context of the person's cultural, racial, and ethnic background in order to adequately assess the degree and expression of social anxiety and social anxiety disorder. This has direct relevance for the upcoming DSM-V. PMID:21132847

  6. The reliability and validity of the Maryland Assessment of Recovery in Serious Mental Illness Scale.

    PubMed

    Drapalski, Amy L; Medoff, Deborah; Dixon, Lisa; Bellack, Alan

    2016-05-30

    The current study aims to further evaluate the psychometric properties of the Maryland Assessment of Recovery in Serious Mental Illness (MARS), a relatively new instrument designed to assess personal recovery status in individuals with serious mental illness. Two hundred and fifty individuals with serious mental illness receiving outpatient mental health treatment completed a baseline assessment which included the MARS and measures to assess recovery-related constructs, clinical outcomes, and social and community functioning. The MARS demonstrated excellent internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Good construct validity was evidenced by strong positive relationships between the MARS and recovery-related constructs (e.g. hope, empowerment, self-efficacy, and personal agency) and a strong negative relationship with self-stigma. Divergent validity was demonstrated by weaker relationships with cognitive and social functioning. The confirmatory factor analysis did not confirm the unitary factor structure found in previous research. Given the equivocal result of the CFA, additional exploratory work is needed to determine if a more complex factor structure is present. This study provides addition support for the psychometric soundness of the MARS and subsequently, its potential use as a measure of personal recovery status in people with serious mental illness.

  7. How social cognition can inform social decision making.

    PubMed

    Lee, Victoria K; Harris, Lasana T

    2013-01-01

    Social decision-making is often complex, requiring the decision-maker to make inferences of others' mental states in addition to engaging traditional decision-making processes like valuation and reward processing. A growing body of research in neuroeconomics has examined decision-making involving social and non-social stimuli to explore activity in brain regions such as the striatum and prefrontal cortex, largely ignoring the power of the social context. Perhaps more complex processes may influence decision-making in social vs. non-social contexts. Years of social psychology and social neuroscience research have documented a multitude of processes (e.g., mental state inferences, impression formation, spontaneous trait inferences) that occur upon viewing another person. These processes rely on a network of brain regions including medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), superior temporal sulcus (STS), temporal parietal junction, and precuneus among others. Undoubtedly, these social cognition processes affect social decision-making since mental state inferences occur spontaneously and automatically. Few studies have looked at how these social inference processes affect decision-making in a social context despite the capability of these inferences to serve as predictions that can guide future decision-making. Here we review and integrate the person perception and decision-making literatures to understand how social cognition can inform the study of social decision-making in a way that is consistent with both literatures. We identify gaps in both literatures-while behavioral economics largely ignores social processes that spontaneously occur upon viewing another person, social psychology has largely failed to talk about the implications of social cognition processes in an economic decision-making context-and examine the benefits of integrating social psychological theory with behavioral economic theory. PMID:24399928

  8. How social cognition can inform social decision making

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Victoria K.; Harris, Lasana T.

    2013-01-01

    Social decision-making is often complex, requiring the decision-maker to make inferences of others' mental states in addition to engaging traditional decision-making processes like valuation and reward processing. A growing body of research in neuroeconomics has examined decision-making involving social and non-social stimuli to explore activity in brain regions such as the striatum and prefrontal cortex, largely ignoring the power of the social context. Perhaps more complex processes may influence decision-making in social vs. non-social contexts. Years of social psychology and social neuroscience research have documented a multitude of processes (e.g., mental state inferences, impression formation, spontaneous trait inferences) that occur upon viewing another person. These processes rely on a network of brain regions including medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), superior temporal sulcus (STS), temporal parietal junction, and precuneus among others. Undoubtedly, these social cognition processes affect social decision-making since mental state inferences occur spontaneously and automatically. Few studies have looked at how these social inference processes affect decision-making in a social context despite the capability of these inferences to serve as predictions that can guide future decision-making. Here we review and integrate the person perception and decision-making literatures to understand how social cognition can inform the study of social decision-making in a way that is consistent with both literatures. We identify gaps in both literatures—while behavioral economics largely ignores social processes that spontaneously occur upon viewing another person, social psychology has largely failed to talk about the implications of social cognition processes in an economic decision-making context—and examine the benefits of integrating social psychological theory with behavioral economic theory. PMID:24399928

  9. Social cognition in borderline personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Roepke, Stefan; Vater, Aline; Preißler, Sandra; Heekeren, Hauke R; Dziobek, Isabel

    2012-01-01

    Many typical symptoms of borderline personality disorder (BPD) occur within interpersonal contexts, suggesting that BPD is characterized by aberrant social cognition. While research consistently shows that BPD patients have biases in mental state attribution (e.g., evaluate others as malevolent), the research focusing on accuracy in inferring mental states (i.e., cognitive empathy) is less consistent. For complex and ecologically valid tasks in particular, emerging evidence suggests that individuals with BPD have impairments in the attribution of emotions, thoughts, and intentions of others (e.g., Preißler et al., 2010). A history of childhood trauma and co-morbid PTSD seem to be strong additional predictors for cognitive empathy deficits. Together with reduced emotional empathy and aberrant sending of social signals (e.g., expression of mixed and hard-to-read emotions), the deficits in mental state attribution might contribute to behavioral problems in BPD. Given the importance of social cognition on the part of both the sender and the recipient in maintaining interpersonal relationships and therapeutic alliance, these impairments deserve more attention. PMID:23335877

  10. Social Individualism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornille, Thomas A.; Harrigan, John

    Relationships between individuals and society have often been presented from the perspective of the social institution. Social psychology has addressed the variables that affect the individual in relationships with larger groups. Social individualism is a conceptual framework that explores the relationship of the individual and society from the…

  11. The Prosocial and Antisocial Behaviour in Sport Scale: further evidence for construct validity and reliability.

    PubMed

    Kavussanu, Maria; Stanger, Nicholas; Boardley, Ian D

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to provide further evidence for the construct validity (i.e., convergent, concurrent, and discriminant validity) of the Prosocial and Antisocial Behaviour in Sport Scale (PABSS), an instrument that has four subscales measuring prosocial and antisocial behaviour toward teammates and opponents. We also investigated test-retest reliability and stability of the PABSS. We conducted three studies using athletes from a variety of team sports. In Study 1, participants (N = 129) completed the PABSS and measures of physical and verbal aggression, hostility, anger, moral identity, and empathy; a sub-sample (n = 111) also completed the PABSS one week later. In Study 2, in addition to the PABSS, participants (N = 89) completed measures of competitive aggressiveness and anger, moral attitudes, moral disengagement, goal orientation, and anxiety. In Study 3, participants (N = 307) completed the PABSS and a measure of social goals. Across the three studies, the four subscales evidenced the hypothesised relationships with a number of variables. Correlations were large between the two antisocial behaviours and small between the two prosocial behaviours. Overall, the findings supported the convergent, concurrent, and discriminant validity of the scale, provided evidence for its test-retest reliability and stability, and suggest that the instrument is a valid and reliable measure of prosocial and antisocial behaviour in sport.

  12. [Validation and verfication of microbiology methods].

    PubMed

    Camaró-Sala, María Luisa; Martínez-García, Rosana; Olmos-Martínez, Piedad; Catalá-Cuenca, Vicente; Ocete-Mochón, María Dolores; Gimeno-Cardona, Concepción

    2015-01-01

    Clinical microbiologists should ensure, to the maximum level allowed by the scientific and technical development, the reliability of the results. This implies that, in addition to meeting the technical criteria to ensure their validity, they must be performed with a number of conditions that allows comparable results to be obtained, regardless of the laboratory that performs the test. In this sense, the use of recognized and accepted reference methodsis the most effective tool for these guarantees. The activities related to verification and validation of analytical methods has become very important, as there is continuous development, as well as updating techniques and increasingly complex analytical equipment, and an interest of professionals to ensure quality processes and results. The definitions of validation and verification are described, along with the different types of validation/verification, and the types of methods, and the level of validation necessary depending on the degree of standardization. The situations in which validation/verification is mandatory and/or recommended is discussed, including those particularly related to validation in Microbiology. It stresses the importance of promoting the use of reference strains as controls in Microbiology and the use of standard controls, as well as the importance of participation in External Quality Assessment programs to demonstrate technical competence. The emphasis is on how to calculate some of the parameters required for validation/verification, such as the accuracy and precision. The development of these concepts can be found in the microbiological process SEIMC number 48: «Validation and verification of microbiological methods» www.seimc.org/protocols/microbiology.

  13. [Validation and verfication of microbiology methods].

    PubMed

    Camaró-Sala, María Luisa; Martínez-García, Rosana; Olmos-Martínez, Piedad; Catalá-Cuenca, Vicente; Ocete-Mochón, María Dolores; Gimeno-Cardona, Concepción

    2015-01-01

    Clinical microbiologists should ensure, to the maximum level allowed by the scientific and technical development, the reliability of the results. This implies that, in addition to meeting the technical criteria to ensure their validity, they must be performed with a number of conditions that allows comparable results to be obtained, regardless of the laboratory that performs the test. In this sense, the use of recognized and accepted reference methodsis the most effective tool for these guarantees. The activities related to verification and validation of analytical methods has become very important, as there is continuous development, as well as updating techniques and increasingly complex analytical equipment, and an interest of professionals to ensure quality processes and results. The definitions of validation and verification are described, along with the different types of validation/verification, and the types of methods, and the level of validation necessary depending on the degree of standardization. The situations in which validation/verification is mandatory and/or recommended is discussed, including those particularly related to validation in Microbiology. It stresses the importance of promoting the use of reference strains as controls in Microbiology and the use of standard controls, as well as the importance of participation in External Quality Assessment programs to demonstrate technical competence. The emphasis is on how to calculate some of the parameters required for validation/verification, such as the accuracy and precision. The development of these concepts can be found in the microbiological process SEIMC number 48: «Validation and verification of microbiological methods» www.seimc.org/protocols/microbiology. PMID:24958671

  14. Discriminant Validity Investigation by Facet Analytic Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darom, Efraim

    In an analysis of multitrait-multimethod matrices the criteria for discriminant validity are shown to include a "structure" criterion as an invariance of traits structure to methods. The criterion is meant to fit data to an additive model with traits and methods but not interaction terms. The importance of the structure criterion and the relative…

  15. Social Mobility and Social Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sewell, William H.

    1978-01-01

    Examines data related to social mobility and social participation of Americans. Topics include educational and occupational mobility; voting; volunteer work; charitable giving; community participation; views on religion; and anomie. For journal availability, see SO 506 144. (Author/DB)

  16. Social and emotional self-efficacy at work.

    PubMed

    Loeb, Carina; Stempel, Christiane; Isaksson, Kerstin

    2016-04-01

    Research has shown that self-efficacy is often one of the most important personal resources in the work context. However, because this research has focused on cognitive and task-oriented self-efficacy, little is known about social and emotional dimensions of self-efficacy at work. The main aim of the present study was to investigate social and emotional self-efficacy dimensions at work and to compare them to a cognitive and task-oriented dimension. Scales to measure social and emotional self-efficacy at work were developed and validated and found to be well differentiated from the cognitive task-oriented occupational self-efficacy scale. Confirmatory factor analyses of data from 226 Swedish and 591 German employees resulted in four separate but correlated self-efficacy dimensions: (1) occupational; (2) social; (3) self-oriented emotional; and (4) other-oriented emotional. Social self-efficacy explained additional variance in team climate and emotional self-efficacy in emotional irritation and emotional exhaustion, over and above effects of occupational self-efficacy. Men reported higher occupational self-efficacy, whereas social and emotional self-efficacy revealed no clear gender differences. The scales have strong psychometric properties in both Swedish and German language versions. The positive association between social self-efficacy and team climate, and the negative relationships between self-oriented emotional self-efficacy and emotional irritation and emotional exhaustion may provide promising tools for practical applications in work settings such as team-building, staff development, recruitment or other training programs aiming for work place health promotion. The next step will be to study how social and emotional self-efficacy relate to leadership, well-being and health over time.

  17. Gender differences in social support in persons with epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Burkert, Silke; Kendel, Friederike; Kiep, Henriette; Holtkamp, Martin; Gaus, Verena

    2015-05-01

    The present study focused on social support as a key feature of the enhancement and maintenance of mental health. So far, literature on gender differences in social support and its effects on the experience of stress in individuals with epilepsy is scarce. We hypothesized that in individuals with epilepsy, social support buffers detrimental effects of stressors (e.g., unpredictable occurrence of seizures) on mental health. Additionally, we explored the role of gender in this process. In 299 individuals with epilepsy, data from validated questionnaires on seizures in the last 3months, perceived support, social network size, and depressive symptoms were analyzed. Women reported higher depressive symptoms (t=2.51, p<.01) and higher perceived support (t=2.50, p<.01) than men. Women and men did not differ in social network size (t=-0.46, p=64), nor in experiencing seizures (χ(2)=0.07, p=.82). Regression analyses revealed no buffer effects. Perceived support was negatively associated with depressive symptoms (B=-0.49, p<.001, 95% CI [-0.67; -0.32]). With regard to depressive symptoms, social integration was slightly more beneficial for women (Bcond.=-0.06, p<.001; 95% CI [-0.09; -0.03]) than for men (Bcond.=-0.02, p=.09; 95% CI [-0.04; 0.01]). Findings present perceived support and social integration as general health resources in individuals with epilepsy regardless of previously experienced seizures. They also encourage further research on gender-specific effects in individuals with epilepsy and move towards recommendations for practitioners and gender-specific interventions. Future aims will be to enhance social integration in order to support adjustment to the chronic condition of epilepsy and to improve individuals' confidence in support interactions. PMID:25847429

  18. Social and emotional self-efficacy at work.

    PubMed

    Loeb, Carina; Stempel, Christiane; Isaksson, Kerstin

    2016-04-01

    Research has shown that self-efficacy is often one of the most important personal resources in the work context. However, because this research has focused on cognitive and task-oriented self-efficacy, little is known about social and emotional dimensions of self-efficacy at work. The main aim of the present study was to investigate social and emotional self-efficacy dimensions at work and to compare them to a cognitive and task-oriented dimension. Scales to measure social and emotional self-efficacy at work were developed and validated and found to be well differentiated from the cognitive task-oriented occupational self-efficacy scale. Confirmatory factor analyses of data from 226 Swedish and 591 German employees resulted in four separate but correlated self-efficacy dimensions: (1) occupational; (2) social; (3) self-oriented emotional; and (4) other-oriented emotional. Social self-efficacy explained additional variance in team climate and emotional self-efficacy in emotional irritation and emotional exhaustion, over and above effects of occupational self-efficacy. Men reported higher occupational self-efficacy, whereas social and emotional self-efficacy revealed no clear gender differences. The scales have strong psychometric properties in both Swedish and German language versions. The positive association between social self-efficacy and team climate, and the negative relationships between self-oriented emotional self-efficacy and emotional irritation and emotional exhaustion may provide promising tools for practical applications in work settings such as team-building, staff development, recruitment or other training programs aiming for work place health promotion. The next step will be to study how social and emotional self-efficacy relate to leadership, well-being and health over time. PMID:26882457

  19. Gender differences in social support in persons with epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Burkert, Silke; Kendel, Friederike; Kiep, Henriette; Holtkamp, Martin; Gaus, Verena

    2015-05-01

    The present study focused on social support as a key feature of the enhancement and maintenance of mental health. So far, literature on gender differences in social support and its effects on the experience of stress in individuals with epilepsy is scarce. We hypothesized that in individuals with epilepsy, social support buffers detrimental effects of stressors (e.g., unpredictable occurrence of seizures) on mental health. Additionally, we explored the role of gender in this process. In 299 individuals with epilepsy, data from validated questionnaires on seizures in the last 3months, perceived support, social network size, and depressive symptoms were analyzed. Women reported higher depressive symptoms (t=2.51, p<.01) and higher perceived support (t=2.50, p<.01) than men. Women and men did not differ in social network size (t=-0.46, p=64), nor in experiencing seizures (χ(2)=0.07, p=.82). Regression analyses revealed no buffer effects. Perceived support was negatively associated with depressive symptoms (B=-0.49, p<.001, 95% CI [-0.67; -0.32]). With regard to depressive symptoms, social integration was slightly more beneficial for women (Bcond.=-0.06, p<.001; 95% CI [-0.09; -0.03]) than for men (Bcond.=-0.02, p=.09; 95% CI [-0.04; 0.01]). Findings present perceived support and social integration as general health resources in individuals with epilepsy regardless of previously experienced seizures. They also encourage further research on gender-specific effects in individuals with epilepsy and move towards recommendations for practitioners and gender-specific interventions. Future aims will be to enhance social integration in order to support adjustment to the chronic condition of epilepsy and to improve individuals' confidence in support interactions.

  20. Social paediatrics

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, N.; Colomer, C.; Alperstein, G.; Bouvier, P.; Colomer, J.; Duperrex, O.; Gokcay, G.; Julien, G.; Kohler, L.; Lindstrom, B.; Macfarlane, A.; Mercer, R.; Panagiotopoulos, T.; Schulpen, T.; on, b

    2005-01-01

    Social paediatrics is an approach to child health that focuses on the child, in illness and in health, within the context of their society, environment, school, and family. The glossary clarifies the range of terms used to describe aspects of paediatric practice that overlap or are subsumed under social paediatrics and defines key social paediatric concepts. The glossary was compiled by a process of consultation and consensus building among the authors who are all members of the European Society for Social Paediatrics. Social paediatricians from outside Europe were included giving a more international perspective. PMID:15650140

  1. The Chimera of Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Eva L.

    2013-01-01

    Background/Context: Education policy over the past 40 years has focused on the importance of accountability in school improvement. Although much of the scholarly discourse around testing and assessment is technical and statistical, understanding of validity by a non-specialist audience is essential as long as test results drive our educational…

  2. Validity and Measurement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maraun, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    As illuminated forcefully by Professor Newton's provocative analytical and historical excursion, as long as tests are employed to practical ends (prediction, selection, etc.) there is little cause for the metatheoretic angst that occasions rounds of papers on the topic of validity. But then, also, there seems little need, within this context of…

  3. Validity, not Dissemination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra, Samindranath

    2015-03-01

    Science journals have been transformed by the internet. In particular, increasingly their role appears to be to validate research, not to disseminate it. How are journals, and the communities they interact with, adapting? In this context, are alternatives to peer review on the horizon? Are these challenges unique to physics journals, or also seen in other publication scenarios?

  4. A geovisual analytic approach to understanding geo-social relationships in the international trade network.

    PubMed

    Luo, Wei; Yin, Peifeng; Di, Qian; Hardisty, Frank; MacEachren, Alan M

    2014-01-01

    The world has become a complex set of geo-social systems interconnected by networks, including transportation networks, telecommunications, and the internet. Understanding the interactions between spatial and social relationships within such geo-social systems is a challenge. This research aims to address this challenge through the framework of geovisual analytics. We present the GeoSocialApp which implements traditional network analysis methods in the context of explicitly spatial and social representations. We then apply it to an exploration of international trade networks in terms of the complex interactions between spatial and social relationships. This exploration using the GeoSocialApp helps us develop a two-part hypothesis: international trade network clusters with structural equivalence are strongly 'balkanized' (fragmented) according to the geography of trading partners, and the geographical distance weighted by population within each network cluster has a positive relationship with the development level of countries. In addition to demonstrating the potential of visual analytics to provide insight concerning complex geo-social relationships at a global scale, the research also addresses the challenge of validating insights derived through interactive geovisual analytics. We develop two indicators to quantify the observed patterns, and then use a Monte-Carlo approach to support the hypothesis developed above.

  5. Further international adaptation and validation of the Rheumatoid Arthritis Quality of Life (RAQoL) questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Wilburn, Jeanette; McKenna, Stephen P; Twiss, James; Rouse, Matthew; Korkosz, Mariusz; Jancovic, Roman; Nemec, Petr; Pacheco-Tena, César Francisco; Saraux, Alain; Westhovens, Rene; Durez, Patrick; Martin, Mona; Tammaru, Marika

    2015-04-01

    The Rheumatoid Arthritis Quality of Life (RAQoL) questionnaire was developed directly from rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients in the United Kingdom and the Netherlands to measure quality of life (QoL). Since then, it has become widely used in clinical studies and trials and has been adapted for use in 24 languages. The objective was to develop and validate 11 additional language versions of the RAQoL in US English, Mexican Spanish, Argentinean Spanish, Belgian French, Belgian Flemish, French, Romanian, Czech, Slovakian, Polish and Russian. The language adaptation and validation required three stages: translation, cognitive debriefing interviews and validation survey. The translation process involved a dual-panel methodology (bilingual panel followed by a lay panel). The validation survey tested the psychometric properties of the new scales and included either the Nottingham Health Profile (NHP) or the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) as comparators. Internal consistency of the new language versions ranged from 0.90 to 0.97 and test-retest reliability from 0.85 to 0.99. RAQoL scores correlated as expected with the HAQ. Correlations with NHP sections were as expected: highest with energy level, pain and physical mobility and lowest with emotional reactions, sleep disturbance, and social isolation. The adaptations exhibited construct validity in their ability to distinguish subgroups of RA patients varying by perceived disease severity and general health. The new language versions of the RAQoL meet the high psychometric standards of the original UK English version. The new adaptations represent valid and reliable tools for measuring QoL in international clinical trials involving RA patients. PMID:25270915

  6. Social Indicators and Social Reporting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parke, Robert; Seidman, David

    1978-01-01

    Describes the several research traditions which combine to form the social indicators movement. All the traditions share concern for measurement, analysis, and reporting of aspects of social conditions to a general audience. Journal available from: American Academy of Political and Social Science, 3937 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania…

  7. The social and psychological costs of punishing.

    PubMed

    Adams, Gabrielle S; Mullen, Elizabeth

    2012-02-01

    We review evidence of the psychological and social costs associated with punishing. We propose that these psychological and social costs should be considered (in addition to material costs) when searching for evidence of costly punishment "in the wild."

  8. 20 CFR 410.633 - Additional parties to the hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Additional parties to the hearing. 410.633 Section 410.633 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT..., Administrative Review, Finality of Decisions, and Representation of Parties § 410.633 Additional parties to...

  9. 20 CFR 410.633 - Additional parties to the hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Additional parties to the hearing. 410.633 Section 410.633 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT..., Administrative Review, Finality of Decisions, and Representation of Parties § 410.633 Additional parties to...

  10. The grays of medical device color additives.

    PubMed

    Seidman, Brenda

    2014-01-01

    The United States' medical device color additive regulations are unknown to some, and confusing to many. This article reviews statutory language on color additives in the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA), as amended, including the Delaney Clause on carcinogenicity; color additive regulatory language as it relates to medical devices in Title 21 of the Code of Federal Regulations (C.F.R.), Parts 70-82; reports on the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) likely current and historical practices in dealing with color additives in medical devices; and speculates on what may have given rise to decades of seemingly ad hoc color additives practices, which may now be difficult to reconstruct and satisfactorily modify. Also addressed is the Center for Devices and Radiological Health's (CDRH's) recent publicly-vetted approach to color additives in Section 7 of its April 2013 draft guidance, Use of International Standard ISO-10993, "Biological Evaluation of Medical Devices Part 1: Evaluation and Testing," which the author concludes is a change in the right direction, but which, at least in its current draft form, is not a fix to the CDRH's color additives dilemma. Lastly, the article suggests what the CDRH might consider in further developing a new approach to color additives. Such an approach would treat color additives as if they were any other potentially toxic group of chemicals, and could be fashioned in such a way that the CDRH could still satisfy the broad aspects of Congressional color additives mandates, and.yet be consistent with ISO 10993. In doing this, the CDRH would need to recommend a more directed use of its Quality System Regulation, 21 C.F.R. Part 820, for material and vendor qualification and validation in general; approach Congress for needed statutory changes; or make administrative changes. In order for any approach to be successful, whether it is a new twist on past practices, or an entirely new path forward, the FDA must, to the best of its

  11. Social Capital: Its Constructs and Survey Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enfield, Richard P.; Nathaniel, Keith C.

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on experiences and methods of adapting a valid adult social capital assessment to youth audiences in order to measure social capital and sense of place. The authors outline the process of adapting, revising, prepiloting, piloting, and administering a youth survey exploring young people's sense of community, involvement in…

  12. What's social about social learning?

    PubMed

    Heyes, Cecilia

    2012-05-01

    Research on social learning in animals has revealed a rich variety of cases where animals--from caddis fly larvae to chimpanzees--acquire biologically important information by observing the actions of others. A great deal is known about the adaptive functions of social learning, but very little about the cognitive mechanisms that make it possible. Even in the case of imitation, a type of social learning studied in both comparative psychology and cognitive science, there has been minimal contact between the two disciplines. Social learning has been isolated from cognitive science by two longstanding assumptions: that it depends on a set of special-purpose modules--cognitive adaptations for social living; and that these learning mechanisms are largely distinct from the processes mediating human social cognition. Recent research challenges these assumptions by showing that social learning covaries with asocial learning; occurs in solitary animals; and exhibits the same features in diverse species, including humans. Drawing on this evidence, I argue that social and asocial learning depend on the same basic learning mechanisms; these are adapted for the detection of predictive relationships in all natural domains; and they are associative mechanisms--processes that encode information for long-term storage by forging excitatory and inhibitory links between event representations. Thus, human and nonhuman social learning are continuous, and social learning is adaptively specialized--it becomes distinctively "social"--only when input mechanisms (perceptual, attentional, and motivational processes) are phylogenetically or ontogenetically tuned to other agents. PMID:21895355

  13. Bioculture System Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sato, Kevin Y.

    2012-01-01

    The Bioculture System first flight will be to validate the performance of the hardware and its automated and manual operational capabilities in the space flight environment of the International Space Station. Biology, Engineering, and Operations tests will be conducted in the Bioculture System fully characterize its automated and manual functions to support cell culturing for short and long durations. No hypothesis-driven research will be conducted with biological sample, and the science leads have all provided their concurrence that none of the data they collect will be considered as proprietary and can be free distributed to the science community. The outcome of the validation flight will be to commission the hardware for use by the science community. This presentation will provide non-proprietary details about the Bioculture System and information about the activities for the first flight.

  14. Flight code validation simulator

    SciTech Connect

    Sims, B.A.

    1995-08-01

    An End-To-End Simulation capability for software development and validation of missile flight software on the actual embedded computer has been developed utilizing a 486 PC, i860 DSP coprocessor, embedded flight computer and custom dual port memory interface hardware. This system allows real-time interrupt driven embedded flight software development and checkout. The flight software runs in a Sandia Digital Airborne Computer (SANDAC) and reads and writes actual hardware sensor locations in which IMU (Inertial Measurements Unit) data resides. The simulator provides six degree of freedom real-time dynamic simulation, accurate real-time discrete sensor data and acts on commands and discretes from the flight computer. This system was utilized in the development and validation of the successful premier flight of the Digital Miniature Attitude Reference System (DMARS) in January 1995 at the White Sands Missile Range on a two stage attitude controlled sounding rocket.

  15. CIPS Validation Data Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Nam Dinh

    2012-03-01

    This report documents analysis, findings and recommendations resulted from a task 'CIPS Validation Data Plan (VDP)' formulated as an POR4 activity in the CASL VUQ Focus Area (FA), to develop a Validation Data Plan (VDP) for Crud-Induced Power Shift (CIPS) challenge problem, and provide guidance for the CIPS VDP implementation. The main reason and motivation for this task to be carried at this time in the VUQ FA is to bring together (i) knowledge of modern view and capability in VUQ, (ii) knowledge of physical processes that govern the CIPS, and (iii) knowledge of codes, models, and data available, used, potentially accessible, and/or being developed in CASL for CIPS prediction, to devise a practical VDP that effectively supports the CASL's mission in CIPS applications.

  16. Self-Validating Thermocouple

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perotti, Jose M. (Inventor); Mata, Carlos T. (Inventor); Santiago, Josephine B. (Inventor); Vokrot, Peter (Inventor); Zavala, Carlos E. (Inventor); Burns, Bradley M. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    Self-Validating Thermocouple (SVT) Systems capable of detecting sensor probe open circuits, short circuits, and unnoticeable faults such as a probe debonding and probe degradation are useful in the measurement of temperatures. SVT Systems provide such capabilities by incorporating a heating or excitation element into the measuring junction of the thermocouple. By heating the measuring junction and observing the decay time for the detected DC voltage signal, it is possible to indicate whether the thermocouple is bonded or debonded. A change in the thermal transfer function of the thermocouple system causes a change in the rise and decay times of the thermocouple output. Incorporation of the excitation element does not interfere with normal thermocouple operation, thus further allowing traditional validation procedures as well.

  17. Validating MEDIQUAL Constructs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sang-Gun; Min, Jae H.

    In this paper, we validate MEDIQUAL constructs through the different media users in help desk service. In previous research, only two end-users' constructs were used: assurance and responsiveness. In this paper, we extend MEDIQUAL constructs to include reliability, empathy, assurance, tangibles, and responsiveness, which are based on the SERVQUAL theory. The results suggest that: 1) five MEDIQUAL constructs are validated through the factor analysis. That is, importance of the constructs have relatively high correlations between measures of the same construct using different methods and low correlations between measures of the constructs that are expected to differ; and 2) five MEDIQUAL constructs are statistically significant on media users' satisfaction in help desk service by regression analysis.

  18. Development and validation of the Dimensional Anhedonia Rating Scale (DARS) in a community sample and individuals with major depression.

    PubMed

    Rizvi, Sakina J; Quilty, Lena C; Sproule, Beth A; Cyriac, Anna; Michael Bagby, R; Kennedy, Sidney H

    2015-09-30

    Anhedonia, a core symptom of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), is predictive of antidepressant non-response. In contrast to the definition of anhedonia as a "loss of pleasure", neuropsychological studies provide evidence for multiple facets of hedonic function. The aim of the current study was to develop and validate the Dimensional Anhedonia Rating Scale (DARS), a dynamic scale that measures desire, motivation, effort and consummatory pleasure across hedonic domains. Following item selection procedures and reliability testing using data from community participants (N=229) (Study 1), the 17-item scale was validated in an online study with community participants (N=150) (Study 2). The DARS was also validated in unipolar or bipolar depressed patients (n=52) and controls (n=50) (Study 3). Principal components analysis of the 17-item DARS revealed a 4-component structure mapping onto the domains of anhedonia: hobbies, food/drink, social activities, and sensory experience. Reliability of the DARS subscales was high across studies (Cronbach's α=0.75-0.92). The DARS also demonstrated good convergent and divergent validity. Hierarchical regression analysis revealed the DARS showed additional utility over the Snaith-Hamilton Pleasure Scale (SHAPS) in predicting reward function and distinguishing MDD subgroups. These studies provide support for the reliability and validity of the DARS. PMID:26250147

  19. Social isolation

    PubMed Central

    Cacioppo, John T.; Hawkley, Louise C.; Norman, Greg J.; Berntson, Gary G.

    2011-01-01

    Social species, by definition, form organizations that extend beyond the individual. These structures evolved hand in hand with behavioral, neural, hormonal, cellular, and genetic mechanisms to support them because the consequent social behaviors helped these organisms survive, reproduce, and care for offspring sufficiently long that they too reproduced. Social isolation represents a lens through which to investigate these behavioral, neural, hormonal, cellular, and genetic mechanisms. Evidence from human and nonhuman animal studies indicates that isolation heightens sensitivity to social threats (predator evasion) and motivates the renewal of social connections. The effects of perceived isolation in humans share much in common with the effects of experimental manipulations of isolation in nonhuman social species: increased tonic sympathetic tonus and HPA activation, and decreased inflammatory control, immunity, sleep salubrity, and expression of genes regulating glucocorticoid responses. Together, these effects contribute to higher rates of morbidity and mortality in older adults. PMID:21651565

  20. Mars Aerobot Validation Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerzhanovich, V. V.; Cutts, J.; Bachelder, A.; Cameron, J.; Patzold, J.; Quadrelli, M.; Yavrouian, A.; Cantrell, J.; Lachenmeier, T.; Smith, M.

    1999-01-01

    The Mars Balloon Validation Program (MABVAP) was initiated in August 1997 to develop and validate key technologies needed for aerobot missions on Mars. The major elements of the program are the development of balloons for flight on Mars, robust techniques for deployment and inflation and modeling and simulation of balloon flight paths. selection, development and tests of available balloon materials, design and fabrication of balloons (both superpressure and solar- heated), design and fabrication of deployment and inflation systems for aerial deployment, design and fabrication of avionics to control deployment/inflation process and to get telemetry and video data. Modeling of main processes during deployment and actual flight is also a part of MABVAP. In order to validate deployment and inflation, MABVAP applies experience from previous Mars balloon development or study activities the Russian-French Mars Aerostat Project (1988-1995), Mars Aerial Platform Study (1994) and Mars Aerobot/Balloon Study (1996). The program includes laboratory, wind tunnel, vacuum chamber tests of the system components and a number of tropospheric and stratospheric flight tests of deployment and inflation of lightfilm balloons in a simulated Martian environment.

  1. Incorporation of additives into polymers

    DOEpatents

    McCleskey, T. Mark; Yates, Matthew Z.

    2003-07-29

    There has been invented a method for incorporating additives into polymers comprising: (a) forming an aqueous or alcohol-based colloidal system of the polymer; (b) emulsifying the colloidal system with a compressed fluid; and (c) contacting the colloidal polymer with the additive in the presence of the compressed fluid. The colloidal polymer can be contacted with the additive by having the additive in the compressed fluid used for emulsification or by adding the additive to the colloidal system before or after emulsification with the compressed fluid. The invention process can be carried out either as a batch process or as a continuous on-line process.

  2. [Patch-testing methods: additional specialised or additional series].

    PubMed

    Cleenewerck, M-B

    2009-01-01

    The tests in the European standard battery must occasionally be supplemented by specialised or additional batteries, particularly where the contact allergy is thought to be of occupational origin. These additional batteries cover all allergens associated with various professional activities (hairdressing, baking, dentistry, printing, etc.) and with different classes of materials and chemical products (glue, plastic, rubber...). These additional tests may also include personal items used by patients on a daily basis such as cosmetics, shoes, plants, textiles and so on.

  3. Fracture mechanics validity limits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, Dennis M.; Ernst, Hugo A.

    1994-01-01

    Fracture behavior is characteristics of a dramatic loss of strength compared to elastic deformation behavior. Fracture parameters have been developed and exhibit a range within which each is valid for predicting growth. Each is limited by the assumptions made in its development: all are defined within a specific context. For example, the stress intensity parameters, K, and the crack driving force, G, are derived using an assumption of linear elasticity. To use K or G, the zone of plasticity must be small as compared to the physical dimensions of the object being loaded. This insures an elastic response, and in this context, K and G will work well. Rice's J-integral has been used beyond the limits imposed on K and G. J requires an assumption of nonlinear elasticity, which is not characteristic of real material behavior, but is thought to be a reasonable approximation if unloading is kept to a minimum. As well, the constraint cannot change dramatically (typically, the crack extension is limited to ten-percent of the initial remaining ligament length). Rice, et al investigated the properties required of J-type parameters, J(sub x), and showed that the time rate, dJ(sub x)/dt, must not be a function of the crack extension rate, da/dt. Ernst devised the modified-J parameter, J(sub M), that meets this criterion. J(sub M) correlates fracture data to much higher crack growth than does J. Ultimately, a limit of the validity of J(sub M) is anticipated, and this has been estimated to be at a crack extension of about 40-percent of the initial remaining ligament length. None of the various parameters can be expected to describe fracture in an environment of gross plasticity, in which case the process is better described by deformation parameters, e.g., stress and strain. In the current study, various schemes to identify the onset of the plasticity-dominated behavior, i.e., the end of fracture mechanics validity, are presented. Each validity limit parameter is developed in

  4. Additive manufacturing of optical components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinrich, Andreas; Rank, Manuel; Maillard, Philippe; Suckow, Anne; Bauckhage, Yannick; Rößler, Patrick; Lang, Johannes; Shariff, Fatin; Pekrul, Sven

    2016-08-01

    The development of additive manufacturing methods has enlarged rapidly in recent years. Thereby, the work mainly focuses on the realization of mechanical components, but the additive manufacturing technology offers a high potential in the field of optics as well. Owing to new design possibilities, completely new solutions are possible. This article briefly reviews and compares the most important additive manufacturing methods for polymer optics. Additionally, it points out the characteristics of additive manufactured polymer optics. Thereby, surface quality is of crucial importance. In order to improve it, appropriate post-processing steps are necessary (e.g. robot polishing or coating), which will be discussed. An essential part of this paper deals with various additive manufactured optical components and their use, especially in optical systems for shape metrology (e.g. borehole sensor, tilt sensor, freeform surface sensor, fisheye lens). The examples should demonstrate the potentials and limitations of optical components produced by additive manufacturing.

  5. Investigating Attitudes toward Physical Education: Validation across Two Instruments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donovan, Corinne Baron; Mercier, Kevin; Phillips, Sharon R.

    2015-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control have suggested that physical education plays a role in promoting healthy lifestyles. Prior research suggests a link between attitudes toward physical education and physical activity outside school. The current study provides additional evidence of construct validity through a validation across two instruments…

  6. Estimating the additional cost of disability: beyond budget standards.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson-Meyers, Laura; Brown, Paul; McNeill, Robert; Patston, Philip; Dylan, Sacha; Baker, Ronelle

    2010-11-01

    Disabled people have long advocated for sufficient resources to live a life with the same rights and responsibilities as non-disabled people. Identifying the unique resource needs of disabled people relative to the population as a whole and understanding the source of these needs is critical for determining adequate levels of income support and for prioritising service provision. Previous attempts to identify the resources and costs associated with disability have tended to rely on surveys of current resource use. These approaches have been criticised as being inadequate for identifying the resources that would be required to achieve a similar standard of living to non-disabled people and for not using methods that are acceptable to and appropriate for the disabled community. The challenge is therefore to develop a methodology that accurately identifies these unique resource needs, uses an approach that is acceptable to the disabled community, enables all disabled people to participate, and distinguishes 'needs' from 'wants.' This paper describes and presents the rationale for a mixed methodology for identifying and prioritising the resource needs of disabled people. The project is a partnership effort between disabled researchers, a disability support organisation and academic researchers in New Zealand. The method integrates a social model of disability framework and an economic cost model using a budget standards approach to identify additional support, equipment, travel and time required to live an 'ordinary life' in the community. A survey is then used to validate the findings and identify information gaps and resource priorities of the community. Both the theoretical basis of the approach and the practical challenges of designing and implementing a methodology that is acceptable to the disabled community, service providers and funding agencies are discussed. PMID:20933315

  7. The Social Validation of Behavioral Treatments for Bedwetting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fincham, Frank D.

    Both urine alarms and dry bed training (DBT) have been used in the treatment of enuresis. To investigate the acceptability of the most recent version of DBT and urine alarm training, two studies were conducted. In the first study, the evaluation of 42 parents, who had participated in an 8-week program of either DBT or urine alarm training, were…

  8. Social Validity Assessment in Early Childhood Special Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turan, Yasemin; Meadan, Hedda

    2011-01-01

    Family members and educational teams frequently participate in planning, implementing, and evaluating programs for young children with disabilities and those at risk for academic and behavior difficulties. Decision making should incorporate an integration of best available research evidence along with practitioners' and families' beliefs and…

  9. Pioneering RTI Systems that Work: Social Validity, Collaboration, and Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahdavi, Jennifer N.; Beebe-Frankenberger, Margaret E.

    2009-01-01

    Using collaborative teamwork to build unique response-to-intervention (RTI) systems responsive to the needs and strengths within their separate schools and communities, two Montana elementary schools forged a trail for other schools. Each school encountered different obstacles along the way as well as distinctive ways of defining success. How can…

  10. The Social Validity of Program-Wide Positive Behavior Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frey, Andy J.; Lee Park, Kristy; Browne-Ferrigno, Tricia; Korfhage, Tara L.

    2010-01-01

    In preschool settings, the majority of interventions are individualized for children at high risk for challenging behavior. However, a few early childhood sites have begun to conceptualize and implement prevention and intervention initiatives modeled after the principles and key features associated with school-wide positive behavior support. In…

  11. Guidelines for Conducting Socially Valid Systematic Preference Assessments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohrmann-O'Rourke, Sharon; Browder, Diane M.; Brown, Fredda

    2000-01-01

    This paper translates research findings on systematic preference assessment with individuals with nonsymbolic or limited symbolic communication skills into guidelines for planning such assessments to reduce the risk of missing or misinterpreting the person's preferences. It offers four questions for guiding the planning of preference assessments,…

  12. Social Studies 13, Social Studies 23, Social Studies 33: [Senior High] Teacher Resource Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Curriculum Branch.

    Developed to help Alberta, Canada, teachers implement a new sequence of social studies courses, this teacher resource manual offers suggestions for organizing, teaching, and evaluating the new program, and additional information about the program. It is organized into the following sections and subsections: (1) Teaching Social Studies--social…

  13. Enantioselective Michael Addition of Water

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Bi-Shuang; Resch, Verena; Otten, Linda G; Hanefeld, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    The enantioselective Michael addition using water as both nucleophile and solvent has to date proved beyond the ability of synthetic chemists. Herein, the direct, enantioselective Michael addition of water in water to prepare important β-hydroxy carbonyl compounds using whole cells of Rhodococcus strains is described. Good yields and excellent enantioselectivities were achieved with this method. Deuterium labeling studies demonstrate that a Michael hydratase catalyzes the water addition exclusively with anti-stereochemistry. PMID:25529526

  14. Enantioselective Michael addition of water.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bi-Shuang; Resch, Verena; Otten, Linda G; Hanefeld, Ulf

    2015-02-01

    The enantioselective Michael addition using water as both nucleophile and solvent has to date proved beyond the ability of synthetic chemists. Herein, the direct, enantioselective Michael addition of water in water to prepare important β-hydroxy carbonyl compounds using whole cells of Rhodococcus strains is described. Good yields and excellent enantioselectivities were achieved with this method. Deuterium labeling studies demonstrate that a Michael hydratase catalyzes the water addition exclusively with anti-stereochemistry.

  15. Social cognition.

    PubMed

    Sollberger, Marc; Rankin, Katherine P; Miller, Bruce L

    2010-08-01

    Social cognitive neuroscience is a novel field of interdisciplinary research that examines socio-emotional cognition and behavior by emphasizing the neural substrates of these processes. Insights from this biological perspective have established that socio-emotional processing does not happen in a sequential order but in a recursive and interlinked fashion; that individual brain regions are not associated with one, but multiple, distinct social functions; and that brain regions are organized into dynamically interacting networks. These factors explain why it is difficult to pinpoint the neural substrates of particular social deficits in patients with brain diseases. With that said, there are specific brain regions that are highly specialized for the perception, regulation, and modulation of emotion and behavior. This article will review key aspects of social processing beginning with their underlying neural substrates, including (1) perception of social signals, (2) social and emotional evaluation, and (3) behavioral response generation and selection. Case studies will be used to illustrate the real-life social deficits resulting from distinct patterns of neuroanatomic damage, highlighting the brain regions most critical for adequate social behavior. Continuum Lifelong Learning Neurol 2010;16(4):69-85. PMID:22810514

  16. Social Security.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Social and Labour Bulletin, 1983

    1983-01-01

    This group of articles discusses a variety of studies related to social security and retirement benefits. These studies are related to both developing and developed nations and are also concerned with studying work conditions and government role in administering a democratic social security system. (SSH)

  17. Social Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Cam, Ed.

    This document contains the following papers on social studies instruction and technology: (1) "Waking the Sleeping Giant: Social Studies Teacher Educators Collaborate To Integrate Technology into Methods' Courses" (Cheryl Mason, Marsha Alibrandi, Michael Berson, Kara Dawson, Rich Diem, Tony Dralle, David Hicks, Tim Keiper, and John Lee); (2)…

  18. The feedback related negativity encodes both social rejection and explicit social expectancy violation

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Sai; Yu, Rongjun

    2014-01-01

    Humans consistently make predictions about the valence of future events and use feedback to validate initial predictions. While the valence of outcomes provides utilitarian information, the accuracy of predictions is crucial for future performance adjustment. The feedback related negativity (FRN), identified as a marker of reward prediction error, possibly encodes social rejection and social prediction error. To test this possibility, we used event related potential (ERP) techniques combined with social tasks in which participants were required to make explicit predictions (whether others will accept their “friend request” or not, Experiment 1) or implicit predictions (whether they would like this person or not, Experiment 2) respectively, and then received social feedback. We found that the FRN is sensitive to social rejection and explicit social prediction error in Experiment 1 but not implicit social prediction error in Experiment 2. We conclude that the FRN encodes social rejection and explicit social expectancy violation. PMID:25120457

  19. Gasoline additives, emissions, and performance

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    The papers included in this publication deal with the influence of fuel, additive, and hardware changes on a variety of vehicle performance characteristics. Advanced techniques for measuring these performance parameters are also described. Contents include: Fleet test evaluation of gasoline additives for intake valve and combustion chamber deposit clean up; A technique for evaluating octane requirement additives in modern engines on dynamometer test stands; A fleet test of two additive technologies comparing their effects on tailpipe emissions; Investigation into the vehicle exhaust emissions of high percentage ethanol blends; Variability in hydrocarbon speciation measurements at low emission (ULEV) levels; and more.

  20. ALHAT System Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brady, Tye; Bailey, Erik; Crain, Timothy; Paschall, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    NASA has embarked on a multiyear technology development effort to develop a safe and precise lunar landing capability. The Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) Project is investigating a range of landing hazard detection methods while developing a hazard avoidance capability to best field test the proper set of relevant autonomous GNC technologies. Ultimately, the advancement of these technologies through the ALHAT Project will provide an ALHAT System capable of enabling next generation lunar lander vehicles to globally land precisely and safely regardless of lighting condition. This paper provides an overview of the ALHAT System and describes recent validation experiments that have advanced the highly capable GNC architecture.