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Sample records for addition social validity

  1. The Social Validity Assessment of Social Competence Intervention Behavior Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurley, Jennifer J.; Wehby, Joseph H.; Feurer, Irene D.

    2010-01-01

    Social validation is the value judgment from society on the importance of a study. The social validity of behavior goals used in the social competence intervention literature was assessed using the Q-sort technique. The stimulus items were 80 different social competence behavior goals taken from 78 classroom-based social competence intervention…

  2. Validity and Reliability in Social Science Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drost, Ellen A.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the author aims to provide novice researchers with an understanding of the general problem of validity in social science research and to acquaint them with approaches to developing strong support for the validity of their research. She provides insight into these two important concepts, namely (1) validity; and (2) reliability, and…

  3. Social Media and Social Reality - Theory, Evidence and Validation

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, William; Weber, Marta S.; Farber, Robert M.; Corley, Courtney D.; Cowell, Andrew J.; Gregory, Michelle L.

    2010-06-14

    Social Media provide an exciting and novel view into social phenomena. The vast amounts of data that can be gathered from the Internet coupled with massively parallel supercomputers such as the Cray XMT open new vistas for research. Conclusions drawn from such analysis must recognize that social media are distinct from the underlying social reality. Rigorous validation is essential. This paper briefly presents results obtained from computational analysis of social media - utilizing both blog and twitter data. Validation of these results is discussed in the context of a framework of established methodologies from the social sciences. Finally, an outline for a set of supporting studies is proposed.

  4. The Social Validity of Level Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safran, Stephen P.; Johanson, George A.; Kalis, Donna

    1998-01-01

    A survey of 44 students (grades 4-10) with behavior disorders, 14 special educators, and 15 teacher assistants evaluated the social validity of level systems (behavioral management interventions applied to shape students' social, emotional, and academic behaviors to pre-established levels). While students were the most negative group, they…

  5. Social Reward Questionnaire (SRQ): development and validation

    PubMed Central

    Foulkes, Lucy; Viding, Essi; McCrory, Eamon; Neumann, Craig S.

    2014-01-01

    Human beings seek out social interactions as a source of reward. To date, there have been limited attempts to identify different forms of social reward, and little is known about how the value of social rewards might vary between individuals. This study aimed to address both these issues by developing the Social Reward Questionnaire (SRQ), a measure of individual differences in the value of different social rewards. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was run on an initial set of 75 items (N = 305). Based on this analysis, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was then conducted on a second sample (N = 505) with a refined 23-item scale. This analysis was used to test a six-factor structure, which resulted in good model fit (CFI = 0.96, RSMEA = 0.07). The factors represent six subscales of social reward defined as follows: Admiration; Negative Social Potency; Passivity; Prosocial Interactions; Sexual Reward; and Sociability. All subscales demonstrated good test-retest reliability and internal consistency. Each subscale also showed a distinct pattern of associations with external correlates measuring personality traits, attitudes, and goals, thus demonstrating construct validity. Taken together, the findings suggest that the SRQ is a reliable, valid measure that can be used to assess individual differences in the value experienced from different social rewards. PMID:24653711

  6. Social Reward Questionnaire (SRQ): development and validation.

    PubMed

    Foulkes, Lucy; Viding, Essi; McCrory, Eamon; Neumann, Craig S

    2014-01-01

    Human beings seek out social interactions as a source of reward. To date, there have been limited attempts to identify different forms of social reward, and little is known about how the value of social rewards might vary between individuals. This study aimed to address both these issues by developing the Social Reward Questionnaire (SRQ), a measure of individual differences in the value of different social rewards. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was run on an initial set of 75 items (N = 305). Based on this analysis, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was then conducted on a second sample (N = 505) with a refined 23-item scale. This analysis was used to test a six-factor structure, which resulted in good model fit (CFI = 0.96, RSMEA = 0.07). The factors represent six subscales of social reward defined as follows: Admiration; Negative Social Potency; Passivity; Prosocial Interactions; Sexual Reward; and Sociability. All subscales demonstrated good test-retest reliability and internal consistency. Each subscale also showed a distinct pattern of associations with external correlates measuring personality traits, attitudes, and goals, thus demonstrating construct validity. Taken together, the findings suggest that the SRQ is a reliable, valid measure that can be used to assess individual differences in the value experienced from different social rewards. PMID:24653711

  7. A Procedure for Socially Valid Goal Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogletree, Billy T.; Howell, Amber; Carpenter, Dale

    2005-01-01

    Goal setting poses a significant challenge for service providers in both clinical and educational settings. With today's call for services that contribute to meaningful changes in children, there is an increased need for goal-setting procedures that are socially valid. This article presents such a procedure and illustrates its use through a case…

  8. Eating disorder diagnostic scale: additional evidence of reliability and validity.

    PubMed

    Stice, Eric; Fisher, Melissa; Martinez, Erin

    2004-03-01

    The authors conducted 4 studies investigating the reliability and validity of the Eating Disorder Diagnostic Scale (HDDS; E. Stice, C. F. Telch, & S. L. Rizvi, 2000), a brief self-report measure for diagnosing anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating disorder. Study 1 found that the HDDS showed criterion validity with interview-based diagnoses, convergent validity with risk factors for eating pathology, and internal consistency. Studies 2 and 3 found that the EDDS was sufficiently sensitive to detect the effects of eating disorder prevention programs. Regarding predictive validity, Studies 3 and 4 found that the EDDS predicted response to a prevention program and future onset of eating pathology and depression. Results provide additional evidence of the reliability and validity of this scale and suggest it may be useful in clinical and research applications. PMID:15023093

  9. The Value of Qualitative Methods in Social Validity Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leko, Melinda M.

    2014-01-01

    One quality indicator of intervention research is the extent to which the intervention has a high degree of social validity, or practicality. In this study, I drew on Wolf's framework for social validity and used qualitative methods to ascertain five middle schoolteachers' perceptions of the social validity of System 44®--a phonics-based…

  10. Guidelines for Special Educators: Achieving Socially Valid Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, C. Dale; Bloom, Lisa A.; Boat, Mary B.

    1999-01-01

    Suggests quality indicators for special-education practices that result in socially valid outcomes such as high self-esteem, self-determination, individual empowerment, and joy. Discusses social validity, criteria for determining socially valid outcomes, and practices that promote these outcomes. (Author/DB)

  11. Lessons Learned about the Utility of Social Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strain, Phillip S.; Barton, Erin E.; Dunlap, Glen

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we examine the link between evidence-based practice and social validity by describing five examples from our own research where social validity measures resulted in data that were essential to both a clinical and research agenda on evidence-based practice. Social validity data are reviewed in the context of behavioral skill training…

  12. Validation of the Social Appearance Anxiety Scale: factor, convergent, and divergent validity.

    PubMed

    Levinson, Cheri A; Rodebaugh, Thomas L

    2011-09-01

    The Social Appearance Anxiety Scale (SAAS) was created to assess fear of overall appearance evaluation. Initial psychometric work indicated that the measure had a single-factor structure and exhibited excellent internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and convergent validity. In the current study, the authors further examined the factor, convergent, and divergent validity of the SAAS in two samples of undergraduates. In Study 1 (N = 323), the authors tested the factor structure, convergent, and divergent validity of the SAAS with measures of the Big Five personality traits, negative affect, fear of negative evaluation, and social interaction anxiety. In Study 2 (N = 118), participants completed a body evaluation that included measurements of height, weight, and body fat content. The SAAS exhibited excellent convergent and divergent validity with self-report measures (i.e., self-esteem, trait anxiety, ethnic identity, and sympathy), predicted state anxiety experienced during the body evaluation, and predicted body fat content. In both studies, results confirmed a single-factor structure as the best fit to the data. These results lend additional support for the use of the SAAS as a valid measure of social appearance anxiety. PMID:21467096

  13. Social validity assessments: is current practice state of the art?

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, I S; Baer, D M

    1991-01-01

    The use of evaluative feedback from consumers to guide program planning and evaluation is often referred to as the assessment of social validity. Differing views of its role and value in applied behavior analysis have emerged, and increasingly stereotyped assessments of social validity are becoming commonplace. This paper argues that current applications of social validity assessments are straying from the point originally proposed for them. Thus, several suggestions for improving current social validity assessment are proposed, including (a) expanding the definition of consumers to acknowledge the variety of community members able and likely to affect a program's survival, (b) increasing the psychometric rigor of social validity assessments, (c) extending assessment to heretofore underrepresented populations, (d) implementing widespread application of well-designed social validity assessments, (e) increasing meaningful consumer involvement in the planning and evaluation of behavioral programs, and (f) educating consumers to make better informed programming decisions. PMID:1890040

  14. Reliability and validity of the workplace social distance scale.

    PubMed

    Yoshii, Hatsumi; Mandai, Nozomu; Saito, Hidemitsu; Akazawa, Kouhei

    2015-01-01

    Self-stigma, defined by a negative attitude toward oneself combined with the consciousness of being a target of prejudice, is a critical problem for psychiatric patients. Self-stigma studies among psychiatric patients have indicated that high stigma is predictive of detrimental effects such as the delay of treatment and decreases in social participation in patients, and levels of self-stigma should be statistically evaluated. In this study, we developed the Workplace Social Distance Scale (WSDS), rephrasing the eight items of the Japanese version of the Social Distance Scale (SDSJ) to apply to the work setting in Japan. We examined the reliability and validity of the WSDS among 83 psychiatric patients. Factor analysis extracted three factors from the scale items: "work relations," "shallow relationships," and "employment." These factors are similar to the assessment factors of the SDSJ. Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the WSDS was 0.753. The split-half reliability for the WSDS was 0.801, indicating significant correlations. In addition, the WSDS was significantly correlated with the SDSJ. These findings suggest that the WSDS represents an approximation of self-stigma in the workplace among psychiatric patients. Our study assessed the reliability and validity of the WSDS for measuring self-stigma in Japan. Future studies should investigate the reliability and validity of the scale in other countries. PMID:25948436

  15. Reliability and Validity of the Workplace Social Distance Scale

    PubMed Central

    Yoshii, Hatsumi; Mandai, Nozomu; Saito, Hidemitsu; Akazawa, Kouhei

    2015-01-01

    Self-stigma, defined by a negative attitude toward oneself combined with the consciousness of being a target of prejudice, is a critical problem for psychiatric patients. Self-stigma studies among psychiatric patients have indicated that high stigma is predictive of detrimental effects such as the delay of treatment and decreases in social participation in patients, and levels of self-stigma should be statistically evaluated. In this study, we developed the Workplace Social Distance Scale (WSDS), rephrasing the eight items of the Japanese version of the Social Distance Scale (SDSJ) to apply to the work setting in Japan. We examined the reliability and validity of the WSDS among 83 psychiatric patients. Factor analysis extracted three factors from the scale items: “work relations,” “shallow relationships,” and “employment.” These factors are similar to the assessment factors of the SDSJ. Cronbach’s alpha coefficient for the WSDS was 0.753. The split-half reliability for the WSDS was 0.801, indicating significant correlations. In addition, the WSDS was significantly correlated with the SDSJ. These findings suggest that the WSDS represents an approximation of self-stigma in the workplace among psychiatric patients. Our study assessed the reliability and validity of the WSDS for measuring self-stigma in Japan. Future studies should investigate the reliability and validity of the scale in other countries. PMID:25948436

  16. Validation as Communication and Action: On the Social Construction of Validity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kvale, Steinar

    Arguments are presented for conceptualizing validity within a postmodern approach. Validity, reliability, and generalizability have been a holy trinity of social science research, and standard definitions of validity have been taken from criteria developed for psychometric tests. From a postmodern point of view, validity is sometimes discarded as…

  17. Instruments for the assessment of social anxiety disorder: Validation studies

    PubMed Central

    Osório, Flávia de Lima; Crippa, José Alexandre de Souza; Loureiro, Sonia Regina

    2012-01-01

    Great progress has been observed in the literature over the last decade regarding the validation of instruments for the assessment of Social Anxiety Disorder in the Brazilian context. Particularly outstanding in this respect is the production of a group of Brazilian investigators regarding the psychometric study of the following instruments: Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale, Social Phobia Inventory, Brief Social Phobia Scale, Disability Profile, Liebowitz Self-Rated Disability Scale, Social Phobia Safety Behaviors Scale and Self-Statements During Public Speaking Scale, which have proved to be appropriate and valid for use in the adult Brazilian population, representing resources for the assessment of social anxiety in clinical and experimental situations. PMID:24175172

  18. Measuring Social Relationships in Different Social Systems: The Construction and Validation of the Evaluation of Social Systems (EVOS) Scale.

    PubMed

    Aguilar-Raab, Corina; Grevenstein, Dennis; Schweitzer, Jochen

    2015-01-01

    Social interactions have gained increasing importance, both as an outcome and as a possible mediator in psychotherapy research. Still, there is a lack of adequate measures capturing relational aspects in multi-person settings. We present a new measure to assess relevant dimensions of quality of relationships and collective efficacy regarding interpersonal interactions in diverse personal and professional social systems including couple partnerships, families, and working teams: the EVOS. Theoretical dimensions were derived from theories of systemic family therapy and organizational psychology. The study was divided in three parts: In Study 1 (N = 537), a short 9-item scale with two interrelated factors was constructed on the basis of exploratory factor analysis. Quality of relationship and collective efficacy emerged as the most relevant dimensions for the quality of social systems. Study 2 (N = 558) confirmed the measurement model using confirmatory factor analysis and established validity with measures of family functioning, life satisfaction, and working team efficacy. Measurement invariance was assessed to ensure that EVOS captures the same latent construct in all social contexts. In Study 3 (N = 317), an English language adaptation was developed, which again confirmed the original measurement model. The EVOS is a theory-based, economic, reliable, and valid measure that covers important aspects of social relationships, applicable for different social systems. It is the first instrument of its kind and an important addition to existing measures of social relationships and related outcome measures in therapeutic and other counseling settings involving multiple persons. PMID:26200357

  19. Measuring Social Relationships in Different Social Systems: The Construction and Validation of the Evaluation of Social Systems (EVOS) Scale

    PubMed Central

    Aguilar-Raab, Corina; Grevenstein, Dennis; Schweitzer, Jochen

    2015-01-01

    Social interactions have gained increasing importance, both as an outcome and as a possible mediator in psychotherapy research. Still, there is a lack of adequate measures capturing relational aspects in multi-person settings. We present a new measure to assess relevant dimensions of quality of relationships and collective efficacy regarding interpersonal interactions in diverse personal and professional social systems including couple partnerships, families, and working teams: the EVOS. Theoretical dimensions were derived from theories of systemic family therapy and organizational psychology. The study was divided in three parts: In Study 1 (N = 537), a short 9-item scale with two interrelated factors was constructed on the basis of exploratory factor analysis. Quality of relationship and collective efficacy emerged as the most relevant dimensions for the quality of social systems. Study 2 (N = 558) confirmed the measurement model using confirmatory factor analysis and established validity with measures of family functioning, life satisfaction, and working team efficacy. Measurement invariance was assessed to ensure that EVOS captures the same latent construct in all social contexts. In Study 3 (N = 317), an English language adaptation was developed, which again confirmed the original measurement model. The EVOS is a theory-based, economic, reliable, and valid measure that covers important aspects of social relationships, applicable for different social systems. It is the first instrument of its kind and an important addition to existing measures of social relationships and related outcome measures in therapeutic and other counseling settings involving multiple persons. PMID:26200357

  20. Eating Disorder Diagnostic Scale: Additional Evidence of Reliability and Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stice, Eric; Fisher, Melissa; Martinez, Erin

    2004-01-01

    The authors conducted 4 studies investigating the reliability and validity of the Eating Disorder Diagnostic Scale (HDDS; E. Stice, C. F. Telch, & S. L. Rizvi, 2000), a brief self-report measure for diagnosing anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating disorder. Study 1 found that the HDDS showed criterion validity with interview-based…

  1. The Structure and Validity of the Multidimensional Social Support Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardesty, Patrick H.; Richardson, George B.

    2012-01-01

    The factor structure and concurrent validity of the Multidimensional Social Support Questionnaire, a brief measure of perceived social support for use with adolescents, was examined. Findings suggest that four dimensions of perceived social support may yield more information than assessments of the unitary construct of support. (Contains 8 tables…

  2. Epistemological Dialogue of Validity: Building Validity in Educational and Social Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cakir, Mustafa

    2012-01-01

    The notion of validity in the social sciences is evolving and is influenced by philosophy of science, critiques of objectivity, and epistemological debates. Methodology for validation of the knowledge claims is diverse across different philosophies of science. In other words, definition and the way to establish of validity have evolved as…

  3. Movie for the Assessment of Social Cognition (MASC): Spanish Validation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lahera, G.; Boada, L.; Pousa, E.; Mirapeix, I.; Morón-Nozaleda, G.; Marinas, L.; Gisbert, L.; Pamiàs, M.; Parellada, M.

    2014-01-01

    We present the Spanish validation of the "Movie for the Assessment of Social Cognition" instrument (MASC-SP). We recruited 22 adolescents and young adults with Asperger syndrome and 26 participants with typical development. The MASC-SP and three other social cognition instruments (Ekman Pictures of Facial Affect test, Reading the Mind in…

  4. The Relationship between Method and Validity in Social Science Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKinnon, David; And Others

    An endless debate in social science research focuses on whether or not there is a philosophical basis for justifying the application of scientific methods to social inquiry. A review of the philosophies of various scholars in the field indicates that there is no single procedure for arriving at a valid statement in a scientific inquiry. Natural…

  5. Social Support Questionnaire for Children: Development and Initial Validation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon-Hollingsworth, Arlene T.; Thompson, Julia E.; Geary, Meghan A.; Schexnaildre, Mark A.; Lai, Betty S.; Kelley, Mary Lou

    2016-01-01

    The Social Support Questionnaire for Children (SSQC) is a 50-item scale that assesses children's social support from parents, relatives, nonrelative adults, siblings, and peers. The SSQC demonstrates good psychometric properties (e.g., internal consistency, factorial validity). Furthermore, the SSQC appears to be an ethnically sensitive measure of…

  6. Social Validity of a Positive Behavior Interventions and Support Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miramontes, Nancy Y.; Marchant, Michelle; Heath, Melissa Allen; Fischer, Lane

    2011-01-01

    As more schools turn to positive behavior interventions and support (PBIS) to address students' academic and behavioral problems, there is an increased need to adequately evaluate these programs for social relevance. The present study used social validation measures to evaluate a statewide PBIS initiative. Active consumers of the program were…

  7. Additional Support Needs Reforms and Social Justice in Scotland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riddell, Sheila; Stead, Joan; Weedon, Elisabet; Wright, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    New additional support-needs legislation in Scotland sought to recognise the way in which poverty, as well as individual impairment, contribute to the creation of children's difficulties in learning. As well as identifying a wider range of needs, the legislation sought to provide parents, irrespective of social background, with more powerful means…

  8. Antiandrogenic activity of phthalate mixtures: Validity of concentration addition

    SciTech Connect

    Christen, Verena; Crettaz, Pierre; Oberli-Schrämmli, Aurelia; Fent, Karl

    2012-03-01

    Phthalates and bisphenol A have very widespread use leading to significant exposure of humans. They are suspected to interfere with the endocrine system, including the androgen, estrogen and the thyroid hormone system. Here we analyzed the antiandrogenic activity of six binary, and one ternary mixture of phthalates exhibiting complete antiandrogenic dose–response curves, and binary mixtures of phthalates and bisphenol A at equi-effective concentrations of EC{sub 10}, EC{sub 25} and EC{sub 50} in MDA-kb2 cells. Mixture activity followed the concentration addition (CA) model with a tendency to synergism at high and antagonism at low concentrations. Isoboles and the toxic unit approach (TUA) confirmed the additive to synergistic activity of the binary mixtures BBP + DBP, DBP + DEP and DEP + BPA at high concentrations. Both methods indicate a tendency to antagonism for the EC{sub 10} mixtures BBP + DBP, BBP + DEP and DBP + DEP, and the EC{sub 25} mixture of DBP + BPA. A ternary mixture revealed synergism at the EC{sub 50}, and weak antagonistic activity at the EC{sub 25} level by the TUA. A mixture of five phthalates representing a human urine composition and reflecting exposure to corresponding parent compounds showed no antiandrogenic activity. Our study demonstrates that CA is an appropriate concept to account for mixture effects of antiandrogenic phthalates and bisphenol A. The interaction indicates a departure from additivity to antagonism at low concentrations, probably due to interaction with the androgen receptor and/or cofactors. This study emphasizes that a risk assessment of phthalates should account for mixture effects by applying the CA concept. -- Highlights: ► Antiandrogenic activity of mixtures of 2 and 3 phthalates are assessed in MDA-kb2 cells. ► Mixture activities followed the concentration addition model. ► A tendency to synergism at high and antagonism at low levels occurred.

  9. The military social health index: a partial multicultural validation.

    PubMed

    Van Breda, Adrian D

    2008-05-01

    Routine military deployments place great stress on military families. Before South African soldiers can be deployed, they undergo a comprehensive health assessment, which includes a social work assessment. The assessment focuses on the resilience of the family system to estimate how well the family will cope when exposed to the stress of deployments. This article reports on the development and validation of a new measuring tool, the Military Social Health Index, or MSHI. The MSHI is made up of four scales, each comprising 14 items, viz social support, problem solving, stressor appraisal, and generalized resistance resources. An initial, large-scale, multicultural validation of the MSHI revealed strong levels of reliability (Cronbach a and standard error of measurement) and validity (factorial, construct, convergent, and discriminant). PMID:18543570

  10. Movie for the Assessment of Social Cognition (MASC): Spanish validation.

    PubMed

    Lahera, G; Boada, L; Pousa, E; Mirapeix, I; Morón-Nozaleda, G; Marinas, L; Gisbert, L; Pamiàs, M; Parellada, M

    2014-08-01

    We present the Spanish validation of the "Movie for the Assessment of Social Cognition" instrument (MASC-SP). We recruited 22 adolescents and young adults with Asperger syndrome and 26 participants with typical development. The MASC-SP and three other social cognition instruments (Ekman Pictures of Facial Affect test, Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test, and Happé's Strange Stories) were administered to both groups. Individuals with Asperger syndrome had significantly lower scores in all measures of social cognition. The MASC-SP showed strong correlations with all three measures and relative independence of general cognitive functions. Internal consistency was optimal (0.86) and the test-retest was good. The MASC-SP is an ecologically valid and useful tool for assessing social cognition in the Spanish population. PMID:24522969

  11. Rethinking Validity in Qualitative Research from a Social Constructionist Perspective: From "Is This Valid Research?" to "What Is This Research Valid for?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguinaldo, Jeffrey P.

    2004-01-01

    This article theorizes the issue of validity from a social constructionist perspective, particularly as it is applied to the assessment of qualitative research. Validity must be interrogated for its discursive function within the social sciences. I will argue that, as a criterion of assessment, validity polices the social science enterprise and…

  12. Psychometric Validation of the Youth Social Capital Scale in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koutra, Kleio; Orfanos, Philippos; Roumeliotaki, Theano; Kritsotakis, George; Kokkevi, Anna; Philalithis, Anastasios

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: This article describes the psychometric validation of the Youth Social Capital scale (YSCS) in 16- to 17-year-old students living in rural and urban areas in Crete, Greece. Methods: Sampling was performed among 27 secondary education units of Heraklion Prefecture. The self-reported questionnaire was answered by 692 participants…

  13. Validation of the Social Appearance Anxiety Scale: Factor, Convergent, and Divergent Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levinson, Cheri A.; Rodebaugh, Thomas L.

    2011-01-01

    The Social Appearance Anxiety Scale (SAAS) was created to assess fear of overall appearance evaluation. Initial psychometric work indicated that the measure had a single-factor structure and exhibited excellent internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and convergent validity. In the current study, the authors further examined the factor,…

  14. Exploring the Incremental Validity of Nonverbal Social Aggression: The Utility of Peer Nominations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blake, Jamilia J.; Kim, Eun Sook; Lease, A. Michele

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the construct validity of nonverbal social aggression and the relation of nonverbal social aggression to dimensions of children's social status. Peer nominations of verbal social, nonverbal social, direct veral, and physical aggression, as well as social dominance, perceived popularity, and social acceptance, were collected…

  15. Additional Evidence of Convergent Validity between SRSS-IE and SSiS-PSG Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Kathleen Lynne; Oakes, Wendy Peia; Ennis, Robin Parks; Royer, David James

    2015-01-01

    We report findings of a validity study comparing two screening tools: the Student Risk Screening Scale-Internalizing and Externalizing (SRSS-IE) and the Social Skills Improvement System-Performance Screening Guide (SSiS-PSG; Elliott & Gresham, 2007). Participants were 1,680 kindergarten through sixth-grade elementary students from three…

  16. Validation analysis of probabilistic models of dietary exposure to food additives.

    PubMed

    Gilsenan, M B; Thompson, R L; Lambe, J; Gibney, M J

    2003-10-01

    The validity of a range of simple conceptual models designed specifically for the estimation of food additive intakes using probabilistic analysis was assessed. Modelled intake estimates that fell below traditional conservative point estimates of intake and above 'true' additive intakes (calculated from a reference database at brand level) were considered to be in a valid region. Models were developed for 10 food additives by combining food intake data, the probability of an additive being present in a food group and additive concentration data. Food intake and additive concentration data were entered as raw data or as a lognormal distribution, and the probability of an additive being present was entered based on the per cent brands or the per cent eating occasions within a food group that contained an additive. Since the three model components assumed two possible modes of input, the validity of eight (2(3)) model combinations was assessed. All model inputs were derived from the reference database. An iterative approach was employed in which the validity of individual model components was assessed first, followed by validation of full conceptual models. While the distribution of intake estimates from models fell below conservative intakes, which assume that the additive is present at maximum permitted levels (MPLs) in all foods in which it is permitted, intake estimates were not consistently above 'true' intakes. These analyses indicate the need for more complex models for the estimation of food additive intakes using probabilistic analysis. Such models should incorporate information on market share and/or brand loyalty. PMID:14555358

  17. Validity and reliability of Arabic MOS social support survey.

    PubMed

    Dafaalla, Mohamed; Farah, Abdulraheem; Bashir, Sheima; Khalil, Ammar; Abdulhamid, Rabab; Mokhtar, Mousab; Mahadi, Mohamed; Omer, Zulfa; Suliman, Asgad; Elkhalifa, Mohammed; Abdelgadir, Hanin; Kheir, Abdelmoneim E M; Abdalrahman, Ihab

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to generate a valid reliable Arabic version of MOS social support survey (MOS-SSS). We did a cross sectional study in medical students of Faculty of Medicine in Khartoum, Sudan. We did a clustered random sampling in 500 students of which 487 were suitable for analysis. We followed the standard translation process for translating the MOS-SSS. We accomplished factor analysis to assess construct validity, and generated item-scales correlations to evaluate the convergent and discriminant validity. We extracted the Cronbach's α and Spearman Brown coefficient of spit half method to determine internal consistency. We measured stability by correlation between the scores of the MOS survey taken at two different occasions with ten days apart in 252 participants. All items correlated highly (0.788 or greater) with their hypothesized scales. All items in subscales correlated higher by two standard errors with their own scale than with any other scale. Principle component analysis with varimax rotation was conducted on the 19 items and examination of scree plot graphically suggested 4 predominant factors that account for 72 % of variance. It showed high loadings, ranging from 0.720 to 0.84 for items of emotional support, 0.699-0.845 for tangible support, 0.518-0.823 for affectionate support, and 0.740-0.816 for positive social interaction. Cronbach's alpha for overall MOS scale and subscales indicated high internal consistency. The test-retest correlation showed weak correlation between the test and retest (ranges from 0.04 to 0.104). The Arabic MOS-SSS had high validity and internal consistency. PMID:27547680

  18. Spiritual Assessment and Native Americans: Establishing the Social Validity of a Complementary Set of Assessment Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodge, David R.; Limb, Gordon E.

    2011-01-01

    Although social work practitioners are increasingly likely to administer spiritual assessments with Native American clients, few qualitative assessment instruments have been validated with this population. This mixed-method study validates a complementary set of spiritual assessment instruments. Drawing on the social validity literature, a sample…

  19. Additional Validity Evidence and Across-Group Equivalency of the "HOPE Teacher Rating Scale"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Scott J.; Gentry, Marcia

    2013-01-01

    The "HOPE Scale" was developed to identify academic and social components of giftedness and talent in elementary-aged students with particular attention to students from low-income and/or culturally diverse families. Based on previous findings, additional research was conducted on revisions made to the "HOPE Scale". Items were added, and 71…

  20. Research for Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Evidence of Social and Ecological Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ledford, Jennifer R.; Hall, Emilie; Conder, Emily; Lane, Justin D.

    2016-01-01

    The social and ecological validity of a body of research may impact the degree to which interventions will be used outside of research contexts. The purpose of this review was to determine the extent to which social and ecological validity were demonstrated for interventions designed to increase social skills for young children with autism…

  1. Utilizing the social media data to validate 'climate change' indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molodtsova, T.; Kirilenko, A.; Stepchenkova, S.

    2013-12-01

    Reporting the observed and modeled changes in climate to public requires the measures understandable by the general audience. E.g., the NASA GISS Common Sense Climate Index (Hansen et al., 1998) reports the change in climate based on six practically observable parameters such as the air temperature exceeding the norm by one standard deviation. The utility of the constructed indices for reporting climate change depends, however, on an assumption that the selected parameters are felt and connected with the changing climate by a non-expert, which needs to be validated. Dynamic discussion of climate change issues in social media may provide data for this validation. We connected the intensity of public discussion of climate change in social networks with regional weather variations for the territory of the USA. We collected the entire 2012 population of Twitter microblogging activity on climate change topic, accumulating over 1.8 million separate records (tweets) globally. We identified the geographic location of the tweets and associated the daily and weekly intensity of twitting with the following parameters of weather for these locations: temperature anomalies, 'hot' temperature anomalies, 'cold' temperature anomalies, heavy rain/snow events. To account for non-weather related events we included the articles on climate change from the 'prestige press', a collection of major newspapers. We found that the regional changes in parameters of weather significantly affect the number of tweets published on climate change. This effect, however, is short-lived and varies throughout the country. We found that in different locations different weather parameters had the most significant effect on climate change microblogging activity. Overall 'hot' temperature anomalies had significant influence on climate change twitting intensity.

  2. Assessing Social Participation of Students with Special Needs in Inclusive Education: Validation of the Social Participation Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koster, Marloes; Minnaert, Alexander E. M. G.; Nakken, Han; Pijl, Sip Jan; van Houten, Els J.

    2011-01-01

    This study addresses the convergent validity of a new teacher questionnaire to assess the social participation of students with special needs in regular primary schools. The Social Participation Questionnaire (SPQ) consists of four subscales representing four key themes of social participation: friendships/relationships, contacts/interactions,…

  3. Development and Validation of a Parent Report Measure for Assessing Social-Emotional Competencies of Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrell, Kenneth W.; Felver-Gant, Josh C.; Tom, Karalyn M.

    2011-01-01

    Based on the premises that strength-based assessment of children and adolescents is an important emerging area, and that additional tools for this purpose are needed, this study details development and validation efforts on a new strength-based assessment: the Social-Emotional Assets and Resilience Scale, parent form (SEARS-P). Following careful…

  4. Developing Social Skills of Students with Additional Needs within the Context of the Australian Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Michael; Cooper, Greta; Kettler, Ryan J.; Elliott, Stephen N.

    2015-01-01

    Decades of research on social skills assessment and intervention indicates the importance of social skills in improving academic achievement. Additionally, a strong evidence base promotes the inclusion of social-emotional learning into the whole school curriculum. In recognition of this evidence, the new Australian Curriculum, under Personal and…

  5. Convergent and Discriminant Validity of the Iowa Social Competency Scale for Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wirth, Sharon; Pease, Damaris

    1983-01-01

    Convergent and discriminant validity of the Iowa Social Competency Scale-Preschool form was investigated using the Campbell and Fiske validity model. The methods involved were observer, mother, father and teacher ratings whereas the traits were three test factors of social activator, reassurance, and hypersensitivity. Subjects were 92 pre-school…

  6. Assessing autistic traits: cross-cultural validation of the social responsiveness scale (SRS).

    PubMed

    Bölte, Sven; Poustka, Fritz; Constantino, John N

    2008-12-01

    The Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) is a quantitative measure of autistic traits in 4- to 18-year-olds, which has been used in behavior-genetic, epidemiological and intervention studies. The US standardization demonstrated a single-factor structure and good to excellent psychometric properties. The cross-cultural validity of the German adaptation of the parent-report SRS in a sample of N=1,436 children and adolescents: 838 typically developing and 527 clinical participants (160 with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs)) was examined. Internal consistency (0.91-0.97), test-retest reliability (0.84-0.97), interrater reliability (0.76 and 0.95) and convergent validity with the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule as well as the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised and Social Communication Questionnaire (0.35-0.58) were satisfactory to good. The SRS total score discriminated between ASD and other mental disorders. SRS scores proved to be sufficiently independent of general psychopathology. Principal component analyses yielded single-factor solutions for the normative and clinical subsamples. In addition, construct validity was ensured by consistent correlations with the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, the Child Behavior Checklist and the Junior Temperament and Character Inventory. Normative SRS total scores for girls and boys as well as values for ASD were lower in the German sample, while scores for conduct disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity/conduct disorder combined were higher. Generally, cross-cultural validity of the SRS seems to be sufficiently assured for a large European sample. However, some discrepancies regarding SRS normative and clinical raw score distributions, reliability and validity findings are critically discussed. PMID:19360690

  7. The Validity, Reliability and Factorial Structure of the Turkish Version of the Tromso Social Intelligence Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dogan, Tayfun; Cetin, Bayram

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the reliability and validity of the Turkish version of the Tromso Social Intelligence Scale (TSIS) developed by Silvera, Martinussen, and Dahl (2001). 719 students from Sakarya University participated in the study. Construct validity and criterion related validity and reliability were assessed.…

  8. Validating the Measurement of Social Capital in Bangladesh: A Cognitive Approach

    PubMed Central

    Story, William T.; Taleb, Fahmida; Ahasan, S.M. Monirul; Ali, Nabeel A.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the growing evidence linking social capital to improvements in health and health behaviors, reliable measures of social capital are lacking in low-income countries. To accurately measure social capital in new contexts, there is a need to validate social capital survey questions in each new cultural setting. In this article we examine the content validity of the measurement of social capital in Bangladesh using qualitative methods. In December 2012, we conducted four focus group discussions and 32 cognitive interviews in one rural subdistrict (Durgapur) and one urban slum (Mirpur). We used the findings from the focus groups and cognitive interviews to create a new social capital survey instrument that can be used by health and development organizations in Bangladesh. Furthermore, in this article we provide insight into social capital survey research in general, including suggestions for the measurement of group membership, social support, collective action, and social trust. PMID:25857652

  9. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  10. The Social Phobia Inventory: Validity and Reliability in an Adolescent Community Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Helena S.; Inderbitzen-Nolan, Heidi M.; Anderson, Emily R.

    2006-01-01

    Social anxiety disorder and social anxiety are highly prevalent psychological conditions in youth. Because of the known risks associated with the spectrum of social anxiety in youth, early detection with valid and reliable assessment measures is imperative. Self-report measures have become the most widely used method of assessment for child and…

  11. The Development and Initial Validation of the Empathy Scale for Social Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Steve, Jr.; Holosko, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Empathy is a core principle essential to social work. Despite this emphasis, minimal empirical research of empathy has been undertaken by social work researchers. The purpose of this study was to develop and initially validate the Empathy Scale for Social Workers (ESSW). The ESSW is a 41-item self-report inventory designed to assess empathy in…

  12. Social Network Data Validity: The Example of the Social Network of Caregivers of Older Persons with Alzheimer-Type Dementia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpentier, Normand

    2007-01-01

    This article offers reflection on the validity of relational data such as used in social network analysis. Ongoing research on the transformation of the support network of caregivers of persons with an Alzheimer-type disease provides the data to fuel the debate on the validity of participant report. More specifically, we sought to understand the…

  13. Use of the "Intervention Selection Profile-Social Skills" to Identify Social Skill Acquisition Deficits: A Preliminary Validation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilgus, Stephen P.; von der Embse, Nathaniel P.; Scott, Katherine; Paxton, Sara

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to develop and initially validate the "Intervention Selection Profile-Social Skills" (ISP-SS), a novel brief social skills assessment method intended for use at Tier 2. Participants included 54 elementary school teachers and their 243 randomly selected students. Teachers rated students on two rating…

  14. Validating a nondestructive optical method for apportioning colored particulate matter into black carbon and additional components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Beizhan; Kennedy, Daniel; Miller, Rachel L.; Cowin, James P.; Jung, Kyung-hwa; Perzanowski, Matt; Balletta, Marco; Perera, Federica P.; Kinney, Patrick L.; Chillrud, Steven N.

    2011-12-01

    Exposure of black carbon (BC) is associated with a variety of adverse health outcomes. A number of optical methods for estimating BC on Teflon filters have been adopted but most assume all light absorption is due to BC while other sources of colored particulate matter exist. Recently, a four-wavelength-optical reflectance measurement for distinguishing second hand cigarette smoke (SHS) from soot-BC was developed (Brook et al., 2010; Lawless et al., 2004). However, the method has not been validated for soot-BC nor SHS and little work has been done to look at the methodological issues of the optical reflectance measurements for samples that could have SHS, BC, and other colored particles. We refined this method using a lab-modified integrating sphere with absorption measured continuously from 350 nm to 1000 nm. Furthermore, we characterized the absorption spectrum of additional components of particulate matter (PM) on PM 2.5 filters including ammonium sulfate, hematite, goethite, and magnetite. Finally, we validate this method for BC by comparison to other standard methods. Use of synthesized data indicates that it is important to optimize the choice of wavelengths to minimize computational errors as additional components (more than 2) are added to the apportionment model of colored components. We found that substantial errors are introduced when using 4 wavelengths suggested by Lawless et al. to quantify four substances, while an optimized choice of wavelengths can reduce model-derived error from over 10% to less than 2%. For environmental samples, the method was sensitive for estimating airborne levels of BC and SHS, but not mass loadings of iron oxides and sulfate. Duplicate samples collected in NYC show high reproducibility (points consistent with a 1:1 line, R2 = 0.95). BC data measured by this method were consistent with those measured by other optical methods, including Aethalometer and Smoke-stain Reflectometer (SSR); although the SSR looses sensitivity at

  15. Validating a nondestructive optical method for apportioning colored particulate matter into black carbon and additional components

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Beizhan; Kennedy, Daniel; Miller, Rachel L.; Cowin, James P.; Jung, Kyung-hwa; Perzanowski, Matt; Balletta, Marco; Perera, Federica P.; Kinney, Patrick L.; Chillrud, Steven N.

    2011-01-01

    Exposure of black carbon (BC) is associated with a variety of adverse health outcomes. A number of optical methods for estimating BC on Teflon filters have been adopted but most assume all light absorption is due to BC while other sources of colored particulate matter exist. Recently, a four-wavelength-optical reflectance measurement for distinguishing second hand cigarette smoke (SHS) from soot-BC was developed (Brook et al., 2010; Lawless et al., 2004). However, the method has not been validated for soot-BC nor SHS and little work has been done to look at the methodological issues of the optical reflectance measurements for samples that could have SHS, BC, and other colored particles. We refined this method using a lab-modified integrating sphere with absorption measured continuously from 350 nm to 1000 nm. Furthermore, we characterized the absorption spectrum of additional components of particulate matter (PM) on PM2.5 filters including ammonium sulfate, hematite, goethite, and magnetite. Finally, we validate this method for BC by comparison to other standard methods. Use of synthesized data indicates that it is important to optimize the choice of wavelengths to minimize computational errors as additional components (more than 2) are added to the apportionment model of colored components. We found that substantial errors are introduced when using 4 wavelengths suggested by Lawless et al. to quantify four substances, while an optimized choice of wavelengths can reduce model-derived error from over 10% to less than 2%. For environmental samples, the method was sensitive for estimating airborne levels of BC and SHS, but not mass loadings of iron oxides and sulfate. Duplicate samples collected in NYC show high reproducibility (points consistent with a 1:1 line, R2 = 0.95). BC data measured by this method were consistent with those measured by other optical methods, including Aethalometer and Smoke-stain Reflectometer (SSR); although the SSR looses sensitivity at

  16. Parents' Perceptions of Their Children's Social Behavior: The Social Validity of Social Stories[TM] and Comic Strip Conversations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchins, Tiffany L.; Prelock, Patricia A.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a family-centered collaborative approach to the development and socially valid assessment of Social Stories[TM] and comic strip conversations (CSCs) for supporting the social behaviors in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Seventeen children with ASD (ages 4-12 years) participated in either an immediate or a…

  17. Validation of the German Version of the Social Functioning Scale (SFS) for schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Iffland, Jona R; Lockhofen, Denise; Gruppe, Harald; Gallhofer, Bernd; Sammer, Gebhard; Hanewald, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    Deficits in social functioning are a core symptom of schizophrenia and an important criterion for evaluating the success of treatment. However, there is little agreement regarding its measurement. A common, often cited instrument for assessing self-reported social functioning is the Social Functioning Scale (SFS). The study aimed to investigate the reliability and validity of the German translation. 101 patients suffering from schizophrenia (SZ) and 101 matched controls (C) (60 male / 41 female, 35.8 years in both groups) completed the German version. In addition, demographic, clinical, and functional data were collected. Internal consistency was investigated calculating Cronbach's alpha for SFS full scale (α: .81) and all subscales (α: .59-.88). Significant bivariate correlation coefficients were found between all subscales as well as between all subscales and full scale (p <.01). For the total sample, principal component analysis gave evidence to prefer a single-factor solution (eigenvalue ≥ 1) accounting for 48.5 % of the variance. For the subsamples, a two-component solution (SZ; 57.0 %) and a three-component solution (C; 65.6 %) fitted best, respectively. For SZ and C, significant associations were found between SFS and external criteria. The main factor "group" emerged as being significant. C showed higher values on both subscales and full scale. The sensitivity of the SFS was examined using discriminant analysis. 86.5% of the participants could be categorized correctly to their actual group. The German translation of the SFS turned out to be a reliable and valid questionnaire comparable to the original English version. This is in line with Spanish and Norwegian translations of the SFS. Concluding, the German version of the SFS is well suited to become a useful and practicable instrument for the assessment of social functioning in both clinical practice and research. It accomplishes commonly used external assessment scales. PMID:25837711

  18. Validation of the German Version of the Social Functioning Scale (SFS) for Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Iffland, Jona R.; Lockhofen, Denise; Gruppe, Harald; Gallhofer, Bernd; Sammer, Gebhard; Hanewald, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    Deficits in social functioning are a core symptom of schizophrenia and an important criterion for evaluating the success of treatment. However, there is little agreement regarding its measurement. A common, often cited instrument for assessing self-reported social functioning is the Social Functioning Scale (SFS). The study aimed to investigate the reliability and validity of the German translation. 101 patients suffering from schizophrenia (SZ) and 101 matched controls (C) (60 male / 41 female, 35.8 years in both groups) completed the German version. In addition, demographic, clinical, and functional data were collected. Internal consistency was investigated calculating Cronbach’s alpha for SFS full scale (α: .81) and all subscales (α: .59-.88). Significant bivariate correlation coefficients were found between all subscales as well as between all subscales and full scale (p <.01). For the total sample, principal component analysis gave evidence to prefer a single-factor solution (eigenvalue ≥ 1) accounting for 48.5 % of the variance. For the subsamples, a two-component solution (SZ; 57.0 %) and a three-component solution (C; 65.6 %) fitted best, respectively. For SZ and C, significant associations were found between SFS and external criteria. The main factor “group” emerged as being significant. C showed higher values on both subscales and full scale. The sensitivity of the SFS was examined using discriminant analysis. 86.5% of the participants could be categorized correctly to their actual group. The German translation of the SFS turned out to be a reliable and valid questionnaire comparable to the original English version. This is in line with Spanish and Norwegian translations of the SFS. Concluding, the German version of the SFS is well suited to become a useful and practicable instrument for the assessment of social functioning in both clinical practice and research. It accomplishes commonly used external assessment scales. PMID:25837711

  19. External Standards or Standard Addition? Selecting and Validating a Method of Standardization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, David T.

    2002-05-01

    A common feature of many problem-based laboratories in analytical chemistry is a lengthy independent project involving the analysis of "real-world" samples. Students research the literature, adapting and developing a method suitable for their analyte, sample matrix, and problem scenario. Because these projects encompass the complete analytical process, students must consider issues such as obtaining a representative sample, selecting a method of analysis, developing a suitable standardization, validating results, and implementing appropriate quality assessment/quality control practices. Most textbooks and monographs suitable for an undergraduate course in analytical chemistry, however, provide only limited coverage of these important topics. The need for short laboratory experiments emphasizing important facets of method development, such as selecting a method of standardization, is evident. The experiment reported here, which is suitable for an introductory course in analytical chemistry, illustrates the importance of matrix effects when selecting a method of standardization. Students also learn how a spike recovery is used to validate an analytical method, and obtain a practical experience in the difference between performing an external standardization and a standard addition.

  20. Additional Support Needs Policy in Scotland: Challenging or Reinforcing Social Inequality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riddell, Sheila; Weedon, Elisabet

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on Scottish policy on additional support needs and its material outcomes. The central question addressed is the extent to which the Scottish additional support needs system undermines or reinforces existing social and economic inequalities. Administrative data highlight the inflation of the additional support needs category,…

  1. Validity of the social responsiveness scale to differentiate between autism spectrum disorders and disruptive behaviour disorders.

    PubMed

    Cholemkery, Hannah; Kitzerow, Janina; Rohrmann, Sonja; Freitag, Christine M

    2014-02-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) as well as oppositional defiant (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD) is characterised by difficulties in social interaction with peers. The Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) measures reciprocal social behaviour in children and adolescents and was originally developed as a quantitative measure of autistic traits. In the present study, we compare parent-rated SRS scores in children with ODD, CD, and ASD and examine the diagnostic validity of the SRS alone and in combination with additional questionnaires to differentiate between groups. We hypothesize that the SRS better differentiates ASD and typically developing controls (TD) than ASD and the disruptive behaviour disorders ODD and CD. The sample consists of three clinical groups: ASD without comorbid intellectual delay (N = 55), ODD/CD (N = 55), and TD (N = 55), between 6 and 18 years. The groups were matched by age, sex, and IQ. SRS scores were compared for the three groups. Sensitivity and specificity of the SRS total and sub-scores were examined by receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analyses. Logistic regression analyses were calculated for estimating the rate of correctly specified individuals. The SRS differentiated excellently between ASD and TD (ROC-AUC = 1.00), but sensitivity and specificity were considerably lower when ASD was compared with ODD/CD (ROC-AUC = 0.82). A combination of three parent-rated questionnaires resulted in an improved validity to differentiate ASD and ODD/CD. For clinical screening purposes in children suspicious of ASD and/or ODD/CD, the SRS should be used in combination with additional disorder-specific questionnaires to improve the rate of correct classification of both disorders. PMID:23719758

  2. Examining the Use of Facebook and Twitter as an Additional Social Space in a MOOC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Min; McKelroy, Emily; Kang, Jina; Harron, Jason; Liu, Sa

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the researchers examined if and to what extent social media tools such as Facebook and Twitter can augment participants' learning experience in an xMOOC and offer an additional social space. Two research questions guided this inquiry: (1) What did MOOC participants consider the usefulness of the Facebook group and Twitter feed…

  3. Cross-cultural adaptation of an adolescent HIV prevention program: social validation of social contexts and behavior among Botswana adolescents.

    PubMed

    St Lawrence, Janet S; Seloilwe, Esther; Magowe, Mabel; Dithole, Kefalotse; Kgosikwena, Billy; Kokoro, Elija; Lesaane, Dipuo

    2013-08-01

    An evidence-based HIV prevention intervention was adapted for Botswana youth with qualitative interviews, input from an adolescent panel, and social validation. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 40 boys and girls ages 13-19. An adolescent panel then drafted scenarios reflecting social situations described in the interviews that posed risk for HIV. A social validation sample (N = 65) then indicated the prevalence and difficulty of each situation. Youth described informational needs, pressures to use alcohol and drugs, peer pressure for unprotected sex, and intergenerational sex initiations as risk-priming situations. From 17% to 57% of the social validation sample had personally experienced the situations drafted by the adolescent panel. There were no differences in the ratings of boys versus girls, but youth over age 16 more often reported that they had experienced these risky situations. The results were embedded into the intervention. Major changes to the intervention resulted from this three-phase process. PMID:23837806

  4. Animal models of social anxiety disorder and their validity criteria.

    PubMed

    Réus, Gislaine Z; Dos Santos, Maria Augusta B; Abelaira, Helena M; Quevedo, João

    2014-09-26

    Anxiety disorders pose one of the largest threats to global mental health, and they predominantly emerge early in life. Social anxiety disorder, also known as social phobia, is the most common of all anxiety disorders. Moreover, it has severe consequences and is a disabling disorder that can cause an individual to be unable to perform the tasks of daily life. Social anxiety disorder is associated with the subsequent development of major depression and other mental diseases, as well as increased substance abuse. Although some neurobiological alterations have been found to be associated with social anxiety disorder, little is known about this disorder. Animal models are useful tools for the investigation of this disorder, as well as for finding new pharmacological targets for treatment. Thus, this review will highlight the main animal models of anxiety associated with social phobia. PMID:25132362

  5. Extending the concept of social validity: behavior analysis for disease prevention and health promotion.

    PubMed Central

    Winett, R A; Moore, J F; Anderson, E S

    1991-01-01

    A broader definition of social validity is proposed wherein a socially valid behavior-change intervention is directed to a problem of verifiable importance, the intervention is valued and used appropriately by designated target groups, and the intervention as used has sufficient behavioral impact to substantially reduce the probability of the problem's occurrence in target populations. The verifiable importance of a problem is based on epidemiological data, and the value and appropriate use of an intervention are enhanced through the use of conceptual frameworks for social marketing and behavior change and considerable formative and pilot research. Behavioral impact is assessed through efficacy and effectiveness studies. Thus, the social validity of a behavior-change intervention is established through a number of interactive, a priori steps. This approach to defining social validity is related to critical analysis and intervention issues including individual and population perspectives and "top-down" and "bottom-up" approaches to intervention design. This broader definition of social validity is illustrated by a project to reduce the risk of HIV infection among adolescents. Although the various steps involved in creating socially valid interventions can be complicated, time-consuming, and expensive, following all the steps can result in interventions capable of improving a nation's health. PMID:1890042

  6. Landspotting: Social gaming to collect vast amounts of data for satellite validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritz, S.; Purgathofer, P.; Kayali, F.; Fellner, M.; Wimmer, M.; Sturn, T.; Triebnig, G.; Krause, S.; Schindler, F.; Kollegger, M.; Perger, C.; Dürauer, M.; Haberl, W.; See, L.; McCallum, I.

    2012-04-01

    At present there is no single satellite-derived global land cover product that is accurate enough to provide reliable estimates of forest or cropland area to determine, e.g., how much additional land is available to grow biofuels or to tackle problems of food security. The Landspotting Project aims to improve the quality of this land cover information by vastly increasing the amount of in-situ validation data available for calibration and validation of satellite-derived land cover. The Geo-Wiki (Geo-Wiki.org) system currently allows users to compare three satellite derived land cover products and validate them using Google Earth. However, there is presently no incentive for anyone to provide this data so the amount of validation through Geo-Wiki has been limited. However, recent competitions have proven that incentive driven campaigns can rapidly create large amounts of input. The LandSpotting Project is taking a truly innovative approach through the development of the Landspotting game. The game engages users whilst simultaneously collecting a large amount of in-situ land cover information. The development of the game is informed by the current raft of successful social gaming that is available on the internet and as mobile applications, many of which are geo-spatial in nature. Games that are integrated within a social networking site such as Facebook illustrate the power to reach and continually engage a large number of individuals. The number of active Facebook users is estimated to be greater than 400 million, where 100 million are accessing Facebook from mobile devices. The Landspotting Game has similar game mechanics as the famous strategy game "Civilization" (i.e. build, harvest, research, war, diplomacy, etc.). When a player wishes to make a settlement, they must first classify the land cover over the area they wish to settle. As the game is played on the earth surface with Google Maps, we are able to record and store this land cover/land use classification

  7. Validating Farmers' Indigenous Social Networks for Local Seed Supply in Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seboka, B.; Deressa, A.

    2000-01-01

    Indigenous social networks of Ethiopian farmers participate in seed exchange based on mutual interdependence and trust. A government-imposed extension program must validate the role of local seed systems in developing a national seed industry. (SK)

  8. Reliability and Validity of the Social Anxiety Scale for Children--Revised for Hispanic Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storch, Eric A.; Eisenberg, Philip S.; Roberti, Jonathan W.; Barlas, Mitchell E.

    2003-01-01

    A study examined the psychometric properties of the Social Anxiety Scale for Children--Revised (SASC-R) in a sample of 159 predominantly Dominican and Puerto Rican fifth- and sixth-grade students from New York City. Findings provided initial support for SASC-R reliability and validity in Hispanic children. Convergent validity was supported by…

  9. Cross-Cultural Validation of the Five-Factor Structure of Social Goals: A Filipino Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Ronnel B.; Watkins, David A.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to test the cross-cultural validity of the five-factor structure of social goals that Dowson and McInerney proposed. Using both between-network and within-network approaches to construct validation, 1,147 Filipino high school students participated in the study. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the…

  10. Exploring the Reliability and Validity of the Social-Moral Awareness Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livesey, Alexandra; Dodd, Karen; Pote, Helen; Marlow, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Background: The aim of the study was to explore the validity of the social-moral awareness test (SMAT) a measure designed for assessing socio-moral rule knowledge and reasoning in people with learning disabilities. Comparisons between Theory of Mind and socio-moral reasoning allowed the exploration of construct validity of the tool. Factor…

  11. Validation Study of a Gatekeeping Attitude Index for Social Work Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tam, Dora M. Y.; Coleman, Heather

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on a study designed to validate the Gatekeeping Attitude Index, a 14-item Likert scaling index. The authors collected data from a convenience sample of social work field instructors (N = 188) with a response rate of 74.0%. Construct validation by exploratory factor analysis identified a 2-factor solution on the index after…

  12. [Social pediatric screening of developmental status for school entry (SOPESS): validity in the cognitive domain].

    PubMed

    Waldmann, H-C; Oldenhage, M; Petermann, F; Daseking, M

    2009-10-01

    The newly developed social paediatric screening of developmental status for school entry (SOPESS) comprises assessments in visuomotor coordination, selective attention, precursors of number and set comprehension as well as visual cognition and reasoning. In various validation studies, these domains are correlated to coextensive scales of well-established psychometric instruments. In addition, a preliminary evaluation of screener performance in terms of sensitivity, specificity and predictive capability is given. The SOPESS features high specificity and results in reliable true negative findings. In the intended field of application, a mild proneness to false positive findings is tolerable, and may also be attributed to a limited reliability of the criteria instuments in the lower ranges of performance. PMID:19885766

  13. Construct Validation and Application of a Common Measure of Social Cohesion in 33 European Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickes, Paul; Valentova, Marie; Borsenberger, Monique

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to assess the construct validation of a multidimensional measure of social cohesion which is well theoretically grounded and has an equivalent/comparable interpretation across all European countries. Up-to-now published research on social cohesion is deficient in either one or both of these important aspects. This paper…

  14. Further Validation of a U.S. Adult Social Self-Efficacy Inventory in Chinese Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fan, Jinyan; Meng, Hui; Zhao, Bihua; Patel, Trishna

    2012-01-01

    The authors report further validity evidence for the Chinese version of a U.S. adult social self-efficacy inventory, the "Perceived Social Self-Efficacy" (PSSE) scale in Chinese populations. Study 1 participants were 323 new graduate students enrolled at a large university in an east coast city of the People's Republic of China. Differential item…

  15. Validation of the Chinese Version of the Social Achievement Goal Orientation Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Yanhua; Zhu, Xiangru; Zhao, Guoxiang

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the validity of a Chinese version of the Social Achievement Goal Orientation Scale (C-SAGOS), a measure testing the trichotomous framework of achievement goal orientations in a social domain. A total of 208 college students (51% female) aged 18 to 23 participated in the study. Factor analyses showed that the three-factor model…

  16. The Construct Validation of a Questionnaire of Social and Cultural Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pishghadam, Reza; Noghani, Mohsen; Zabihi, Reza

    2011-01-01

    The present study was conducted to construct and validate a questionnaire of social and cultural capital in the foreign language context of Iran. To this end, a questionnaire was designed by picking up the most frequently-used indicators of social and cultural capital. The Factorability of the intercorrelation matrix was measured by two tests:…

  17. Development and Validation of the Adolescent Racial and Ethnic Socialization Scale (ARESS) in African American Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Tiffany L.; Krishnakumar, Ambika

    2007-01-01

    Racial and ethnic socialization are an integral part of African American parenting strategies. Varied conceptualizations and operationalizations of racial and ethnic socialization exist within the literature with limited evidence of the validity of existing measures. The purpose of this study is to develop a comprehensive definition of racial and…

  18. Social Validity Evaluation of the FRIENDS for Life Program with Mexican Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallegos-Guajardo, Julia; Ruvalcaba-Romero, Norma Alicia; Garza-Tamez, Martha; Villegas-Guinea, Diana

    2013-01-01

    This study is the first social validity evaluation of the Spanish version of the "FRIENDS for Life" program with Mexican children. "FRIENDS for Life" is a cognitive-behavioral intervention aimed at increasing social and emotional competence and decreasing anxiety and depressive symptoms in children. The program is designed to…

  19. Predicting Social Competence: The Validity of the PIPS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Ralph R.; Boulter, Linda K.

    The validity of the interpersonal cognitive problem solving (ICPS) skills model of children's adjustment was investigated (1) by determining whether ICPS skills demonstrated during preschool predicted teacher ratings of adjustment in school during the next two years and (2) by assessing the objectivity of teacher ratings of adjustment through the…

  20. An Empirical Study of the Construct Validity of Social Creativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mouchiroud, Christophe; Bernoussi, Aurore

    2008-01-01

    Creativity can be broadly defined as a combination of interacting individual and environmental resources leading to the production of valuable solutions. This paper concentrates on the type of creativity that can be expressed in solving social problems. After reviewing the potentially relevant psychological and contextual variables intervening in…

  1. Social Validation of Symbolic Play Training for Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stahmer, Aubyn C.; Schreibman, Laura; Powell, Nicole Palardy

    2006-01-01

    The present study examined the social significance of changes resulting from teaching symbolic play skills to children with autism using Pivotal Response Training (PRT). Qualitatively obtained results from a previous study indicated that, following symbolic play training, children with autism increased their symbolic play behaviors and play…

  2. Social Achievement Goals: Validation among Rural African American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Martin H.; Mueller, Christian E.; Royal, Kenneth D.; Shim, Sungok Serena; Hart, Caroline O.

    2013-01-01

    Little extant research attempts to understand why rural African Americans engage in social relationships with peers in school. This is somewhat surprising as rural students' peer interactions often affect their scholastic desires, and peers can alter African Americans' academic performance. Hence, the current study examined both the…

  3. Validation of the Peer Social Maturity Scale for Assessing Children's Social Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fink, Elian; de Rosnay, Marc; Peterson, Candida; Slaughter, Virginia

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated the utility of a brief, seven-item, teacher-rated Peer Social Maturity Scale (PSMAT). In Study 1, teachers of 138 Australian children (ranging from 5 to 8?years and 5?months old) in kindergarten and Grades 1 and 2 rated their pupils' social maturity using the PSMAT and their classroom social skills via the Social Skills Rating…

  4. Reliability and Validity Evidence for the Social Goal Scale-Physical Education (SGS-PE) in High School Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guan, Jianmin; McBride, Ron E.; Xiang, Ping

    2006-01-01

    Two types of social goals associated with students' academic performance have received attention from researchers. One is the social responsibility goal and the other is the social relationship goal. While several scales have been validated for measuring social relationship and social responsibility goals in academic settings, few studies have…

  5. Scale indicators of social exchange relationships: a comparison of relative content validity.

    PubMed

    Colquitt, Jason A; Baer, Michael D; Long, David M; Halvorsen-Ganepola, Marie D K

    2014-07-01

    Although social exchange theory has become one of the most oft-evoked theories in industrial and organizational psychology, there remains no consensus about how to measure its key mechanism: social exchange relationships (Blau, 1964). Drawing on Cropanzano and Byrne's (2000) review of contemporary social exchange theorizing, we examined the content validity of perceived support, exchange quality, affective commitment, trust, and psychological contract fulfillment as indicators of social exchange relationships. We used Hinkin and Tracey's (1999) quantitative approach to content validation, which asks participants to rate the correspondence between scale items and definitions of intended (and unintended) constructs. Our results revealed that some of the most frequently utilized indicators of social exchange relationships--perceived support and exchange quality--were significantly less content valid than rarely used options like affect-based trust. Our results also revealed that 2 direct measures--Bernerth, Armenakis, Feild, Giles, and Walker's (2007) scale and a scale created for this study--were content valid. We discuss the implications of these results for future applications of social exchange theory. PMID:24708267

  6. Generating an item pool for translational social cognition research: methodology and initial validation.

    PubMed

    Keutmann, Michael K; Moore, Samantha L; Savitt, Adam; Gur, Ruben C

    2015-03-01

    Existing sets of social and emotional stimuli suitable for social cognition research are limited in many ways, including size, unimodal stimulus delivery, and restriction to major universal emotions. Existing measures of social cognition could be improved by taking advantage of item response theory and adaptive testing technology to develop instruments that obtain more efficient measures of multimodal social cognition. However, for this to be possible, large pools of emotional stimuli must be obtained and validated. We present the development of a large, high-quality multimedia stimulus set produced by professional adult and child actors (ages 5 to 74) containing both visual and vocal emotional expressions. We obtained over 74,000 audiovisual recordings of a wide array of emotional and social behaviors, including the main universal emotions (happiness, sadness, anger, fear, disgust, and surprise), as well as more complex social expressions (pride, affection, sarcasm, jealousy, and shame). The actors generated a high quantity of technically superior, ecologically valid stimuli that were digitized, archived, and rated for accuracy and intensity of expressions. A subset of these facial and vocal expressions of emotion and social behavior were submitted for quantitative ratings to generate parameters for validity and discriminability. These stimuli are suitable for affective neuroscience-based psychometric tests, functional neuroimaging, and social cognitive rehabilitation programs. The purposes of this report are to describe the method of obtaining and validating this database and to make it accessible to the scientific community. We invite all those interested in participating in the use and validation of these stimuli to access them at www.med.upenn.edu/bbl/actors/index.shtml . PMID:24719265

  7. Defense style changes with the addition of psychodynamic group therapy to clonazepam in social anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Knijnik, Daniela Z; Salum, Giovanni Abrahão; Blanco, Carlos; Moraes, Carolina; Hauck, Simone; Mombach, Clarissa K; Strapasson, Atahualpa C P; Manfro, Gisele G; Eizirik, Cláudio L

    2009-07-01

    Psychodynamic Group Therapy (PGT) and clonazepam are strategies to reduce symptoms of generalized social anxiety disorder (GSAD). The addition of PGT might lead to changes in defense styles. The objective of this study is to examine changes in defense styles when comparing clonazepam to psychodynamic group therapy plus clonazepam in GSAD during 12 weeks. Fifty-seven patients that met DSM-IV criteria for GSAD participated. social anxiety disorder symptoms were evaluated with the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale, and defense styles with the Defense Style Questionnaire. All defense styles changed overtime for both groups, especially mature defense style, which increased independently of the treatment allocation group. Regression analyses found that overtime there was a reduction in neurotic defenses in the combined group, whereas there was an increase in the clonazepam group. Neurotic defense style can change toward greater adaptiveness with the addition of PGT to clonazepam in GSAD, even in 12 weeks. PMID:19597364

  8. Psychometric Properties and Validation of the Arabic Social Media Addiction Scale.

    PubMed

    Al-Menayes, Jamal

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the psychometric properties of the Arabic version of the SMAS. SMAS is a variant of IAT customized to measure addiction to social media instead of the Internet as a whole. Using a self-report instrument on a cross-sectional sample of undergraduate students, the results revealed the following. First, the exploratory factor analysis showed that a three-factor model fits the data well. Second, concurrent validity analysis showed the SMAS to be a valid measure of social media addiction. However, further studies and data should verify the hypothesized model. Finally, this study showed that the Arabic version of the SMAS is a valid and reliable instrument for use in measuring social media addiction in the Arab world. PMID:26347848

  9. Psychometric Properties and Validation of the Arabic Social Media Addiction Scale

    PubMed Central

    Al-Menayes, Jamal

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the psychometric properties of the Arabic version of the SMAS. SMAS is a variant of IAT customized to measure addiction to social media instead of the Internet as a whole. Using a self-report instrument on a cross-sectional sample of undergraduate students, the results revealed the following. First, the exploratory factor analysis showed that a three-factor model fits the data well. Second, concurrent validity analysis showed the SMAS to be a valid measure of social media addiction. However, further studies and data should verify the hypothesized model. Finally, this study showed that the Arabic version of the SMAS is a valid and reliable instrument for use in measuring social media addiction in the Arab world. PMID:26347848

  10. The Social Phobia Inventory: screening and cross-cultural validation in Spanish adolescents.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Lopez, Luis Joaquín; Bermejo, Rosa Ma; Hidalgo, Ma Dolores

    2010-11-01

    Availability of brief, self-report measures to be used as screening instruments is crucial to detect correctly youth with social anxiety disorder and therefore, reach those otherwise under-detected and under-treated. A previous study revealed that the Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN) was potentially an appropriate measure for screening social anxiety among US adolescents. However, there is a lack of information concerning its properties as a screening test in other cultures and languages. This is the main objective of this study, although further validity of the scale is provided as well. The sample consisted of 192 adolescents (a sample composed of 114 subjects with a principal diagnosis of social anxiety disorder; and a group consisting of 78 subjects with no diagnosis of social phobia). Results suggest that the Social Phobia Inventory has demonstrated good psychometric properties and indeed may be used as a screening tool in Spanish-speaking adolescents. PMID:20977044

  11. Validation and Estimation of Additive Genetic Variation Associated with DNA Tests for Quantitative Beef Cattle Traits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The U.S. National Beef Cattle Evaluation Consortium (NBCEC) has been involved in the validation of commercial DNA tests for quantitative beef quality traits since their first appearance on the U.S. market in the early 2000s. The NBCEC Advisory Council initially requested that the NBCEC set up a syst...

  12. External Standards or Standard Additions? Selecting and Validating a Method of Standardization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, David

    2002-01-01

    Reports an experiment which is suitable for an introductory course in analytical chemistry and which illustrates the importance of matrix effects when selecting a method of standardization. Asserts that students learn how a spike recovery is used to validate an analytical method, and obtain practical experience in the difference between performing…

  13. The social validity of Social Stories™ for supporting the behavioural and communicative functioning of children with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Hutchins, Tiffany L; Prelock, Patricia A

    2013-08-01

    This study examines the social validity of a family-centred collaborative approach to developing Social Stories™ to support the behavioural and communicative functioning of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Twenty children with Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD)/Autism, PDD-Not Otherwise Specified, or Asperger's Disorder (aged 4-12 years) participated in a multiple baseline design across behaviours with a 6-week follow-up. The effects of behaviour stories (to reduce problem behaviours) and communication stories (to facilitate communication) as assessed by parental subjective perceptions of child functioning were evaluated and compared. Using daily parental ratings, behaviour stories were deemed effective for 11 of 17 stories (64.7%), whereas communication stories were deemed effective for 10 of 19 stories (52.6%), with great variability in effect size for both. Results also indicated variability in performance across specific story targets, although parents' perceived effects of Social Stories™ were not linked to any known child characteristics. This study argues that intervention using Social Stories™ to address behavioural and communicative functioning can yield socially valid outcomes across a range of child characteristics and intervention targets. Implications for clinical practice and how present methodological limitations can be addressed in future research are considered. PMID:23216418

  14. Validity and Reliability of the Hausa Version of Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support Index

    PubMed Central

    Mohammad, Ashiru Hamza; Al Sadat, Nabilla; Loh, Siew Yim; Chinna, Karuthan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Social support has been identified as one of the key factors for enhancing the quality of life after stroke. However, a scientific tool that is valid for evaluating social support among stroke survivors in Nigeria has not been developed so far. Objectives: The objective of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Hausa translated versions of the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) and to validate it for future use in clinical research in Nigeria. Patients and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 140 adult stroke survivors attending rehabilitation services at stroke referral centers in Kano, Nigeria. The psychometric analysis of the Hausa-MSPSS involved face, content, criterion and construct validity tests, as well as internal and test-retest reliability. Confirmatory factor analysis was performed to assess validity of the three-factor (Family, Friends and Significant others) model for the Hausa-MSPSS. Results: Based on expert panel, clinicians’ review and patients’ feedback, the 12 item Hausa-MSPSS had sufficient face, content and criterion validity. In reliability analysis, the Cronbach’s alpha was 0.781. In test-retest reliability analysis, the minimum kappa value was 0.673. In Confirmatory factor analysis, the three-factor model was not acceptable. An alternative two-factor model with Family and Friends, as the two domain was found to be acceptable (Chi-square/df < 3, TLI, CFI > 0.9, RMSEA < 0.08). The average variances extracted for the two constructs were 0.5 and 0.7, respectively. The R-squared value between the two constructs was 0.397. Cross validity tested using 1000 bootstrap resamples gave satisfactory results (P = 0.079). Conclusions: The 11 item Hausa-MSPSS index is valid for the assessment of perceived social support among stroke survivors in Nigeria. PMID:25838933

  15. The biobehavioral family model: testing social support as an additional exogenous variable.

    PubMed

    Woods, Sarah B; Priest, Jacob B; Roush, Tara

    2014-12-01

    This study tests the inclusion of social support as a distinct exogenous variable in the Biobehavioral Family Model (BBFM). The BBFM is a biopsychosocial approach to health that proposes that biobehavioral reactivity (anxiety and depression) mediates the relationship between family emotional climate and disease activity. Data for this study included married, English-speaking adult participants (n = 1,321; 55% female; M age = 45.2 years) from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication, a nationally representative epidemiological study of the frequency of mental disorders in the United States. Participants reported their demographics, marital functioning, social support from friends and relatives, anxiety and depression (biobehavioral reactivity), number of chronic health conditions, and number of prescription medications. Confirmatory factor analyses supported the items used in the measures of negative marital interactions, social support, and biobehavioral reactivity, as well as the use of negative marital interactions, friends' social support, and relatives' social support as distinct factors in the model. Structural equation modeling indicated a good fit of the data to the hypothesized model (χ(2)  = 846.04, p = .000, SRMR = .039, CFI = .924, TLI = .914, RMSEA = .043). Negative marital interactions predicted biobehavioral reactivity (β = .38, p < .001), as did relatives' social support, inversely (β = -.16, p < .001). Biobehavioral reactivity predicted disease activity (β = .40, p < .001) and was demonstrated to be a significant mediator through tests of indirect effects. Findings are consistent with previous tests of the BBFM with adult samples, and suggest the important addition of family social support as a predicting factor in the model. PMID:24981970

  16. Can Stereotype Threat Be Measured? A Validation of the Social Identities and Attitudes Scale (SIAS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Picho, Katherine; Brown, Scott W.

    2011-01-01

    This study reported the development and validation of the Social Identities and Attitudes Scale (SIAS), a stereotype threat susceptibility measure. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses conducted with college students indicate that the scale possesses strong psychometric properties. The SIAS explained 65% of the variance in the items…

  17. The Validity of the Social Communication Questionnaire in Adults with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Whitney T.; Benson, Betsey A.

    2013-01-01

    This study assessed the validity of the Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ) in a sample of 69 adults, aged 18-40 years old. Participants included 21 adults diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and intellectual disability (ID), and 48 individuals diagnosed with ID and no diagnosis of an ASD. The SCQ yielded a sensitivity of 0.71…

  18. Validation of a Self-Report Instrument to Assess Social and Emotional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seal, Craig R.; Beauchamp, Kenneth L.; Miguel, Krystal; Scott, Amy N.; Naumann, Stefanie E.; Dong, Qingwen; Galal, Suzanne

    2011-01-01

    The current study, using a factor level analysis approach, provides evidence of the validity of the Social Emotional Development Instrument (SED-I) for students in higher education. Although there are a multitude of models and measures that borrow from the premise of emotional intelligence (EI), very few current instruments focus exclusively on a…

  19. Effects of Risperidone on Aberrant Behavior in Persons with Developmental Disabilities: II. Social Validity Measures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAdam, David B.; Zarcone, Jennifer R.; Hellings, Jessica; Napolitano, Deborah A.; Schroeder, Stephen R.

    2002-01-01

    Consumer satisfaction and social validity were measured during a double-blind, placebo-controlled evaluation of risperidone in treating aberrant behaviors of persons with developmental disabilities. A survey showed all 17 caregivers felt participation was positive. Community members (n=52) also indicated that when on medication, the 5 participants…

  20. Development and Initial Validation of the Social and Academic Behavior Risk Screener for Elementary Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilgus, Stephen P.; Chafouleas, Sandra M.; Riley-Tillman, T. Chris

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the current investigation was to develop and provide initial validation of the "Social and Academic Behavior Risk Screener" (SABRS). Research was conducted in southeast elementary schools with 54 teacher and 243 student participants. An initial item pool was created through review of developmental research on the…

  1. Social Skills Questionnaire for Argentinean College Students (SSQ-U) Development and Validation.

    PubMed

    Morán, Valeria E; Olaz, Fabián O; Del Prette, Zilda A P

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present a new instrument called Social Skills Questionnaire for Argentinean College Students (SSQ-U). Based on the adapted version of the Social Skills Inventory - Del Prette (SSI-Del Prette) (Olaz, Medrano, Greco, & Del Prette, 2009), we wrote new items for the scale, and carried out psychometric analysis to assess the validity and reliability of the instrument. In the first study, we collected evidence based on test content through expert judges who evaluated the quality and the relevance of the items. In the second and third studies, we provided validity evidence based on the internal structure of the instrument using exploratory (n = 1067) and confirmatory (n = 661) factor analysis. Results suggested a five-factor structure consistent with the dimensions of social skills, as proposed by Kelly (2002). The fit indexes corresponding to the obtained model were adequate, and composite reliability coefficients of each factor were excellent (above .75). Finally, in the fourth study, we provided evidence of convergent and discriminant validity. The obtained results allow us to conclude that the SSQ-U is the first valid and reliable instrument for measuring social skills in Argentinean college students. PMID:26610605

  2. Parent-reported social support for child’s fruit and vegetable intake: validity of measures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of our study was to develop and validate measures of parental social support to increase their child’s fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption. We used a cross-sectional study design by studying participants at school and home. We studied two hundred three parents with at least 1 elemen...

  3. Exploring the Social Validity of Teacher Praise Notes in Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, Angela; Caldarella, Paul; Korth, Bryan; Young, K. Richard

    2014-01-01

    The use of teacher-written praise notes has the potential to positively influence student classroom behavior and relationships. However, few studies have examined the social validity of praise in schools. The purpose of this study was to evaluate student, teacher, and parent perceptions of a school-wide praise note intervention implemented by…

  4. Social Validation of Evidence-Based Practices in Autism by Parents, Teachers, and Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callahan, Kevin; Henson, Robin K.; Cowan, Angela K.

    2008-01-01

    Relatively little attention has been devoted to the social validation of potentially effective autism interventions. Thus, it is often difficult to identify and implement evidence-based practices, and programming is often inadequate. The authors identified autism intervention components with reported effectiveness for school settings. The results…

  5. The Reliability and Validity of the Social Responsiveness Scale in a UK General Child Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wigham, Sarah; McConachie, Helen; Tandos, Jonathan; Le Couteur, Ann S.

    2012-01-01

    This is the first UK study to report the reliability, validity, and factor structure of the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) in a general population sample. Parents of 500 children (aged 5-8 years) in North East England completed the SRS. Profiles of scores were similar to USA norms, and a single factor structure was identified. Good construct…

  6. Validity of Social, Moral and Emotional Facets of Self-Description Questionnaire II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Kim Chau; Marsh, Herbert W.; Yeung, Alexander Seeshing; Abduljabbar, Adel S.

    2015-01-01

    Studies adopting a construct validity approach can be categorized into within- and between-network studies. Few studies have applied between-network approach and tested the correlations of the social (same-sex relations, opposite-sex relations, parent relations), moral (honesty-trustworthiness), and emotional (emotional stability) facets of the…

  7. A Social Communication Intervention to Increase Validating Comments by Children with Language Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fujiki, Martin; Brinton, Bonnie; McCleave, Chelsea P.; Anderson, Valyne W.; Chamberlain, Janet P.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Four children identified with language impairment (LI) participated in a social communication intervention to increase the production of validating comments, including making positive statements, sharing information, and asking peers questions about themselves. Method: A case study design was used. Baseline measures were collected from 3…

  8. Social Validity of the Critical Incident Stress Management Model for School-Based Crisis Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Julie Q.

    2007-01-01

    The Critical Incident Stress Management (CISM) model for crisis intervention was developed for use with emergency service personnel. Research regarding the use of the CISM model has been conducted among civilians and high-risk occupation groups with mixed results. The purpose of this study is to examine the social validity of the CISM model for…

  9. Assessing Academic Advising Outcomes Using Social Cognitive Theory: A Validity and Reliability Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erlich, Richard J.; Russ-Eft, Darlene F.

    2012-01-01

    The validity and reliability of three instruments, the "Counselor Rubric for Gauging Student Understanding of Academic Planning," micro-analytic questions, and the "Student Survey for Understanding Academic Planning," all based on social cognitive theory, were tested as means to assess self-efficacy and self-regulated learning in college academic…

  10. Validation of social skills of adolescent males in an interview conversation with a previously unknown adult.

    PubMed

    Spence, S H

    1981-01-01

    Seventy convicted young male offenders were videotaped during a 5-min standardized interview with a previously unknown adult. In order to determine the social validity of the behavioral components of social interaction for this population, measures of 13 behaviors were obtained from the tapes. These measures were then correlated with ratings of friendliness, social anxiety, social skills performance, and employability made by four independent adult judges from the same tapes. It was found that measures of eye contact and verbal initiations were correlated significantly with all four criterion rating scales. The frequencies of smiling and speech dysfluencies were both significantly correlated with ratings of friendliness and employability. The amount spoken was found to be a significant predictor of social skills performance whereas the frequency of head movements influenced judgments of social anxiety. The latency of response was negatively correlated with social skills and employability ratings and the frequency of question-asking and interruptions correlated significantly with friendliness, social skills, and employability ratings. Finally, the levels of gestures, gross body movements, and attention feedback responses were not found to influence judgments on any of the criterion scales. The implications of the study for selection of targets for social skills training for adolescent male offenders are discussed. PMID:7287599

  11. Validation of the Self-Beliefs Related to Social Anxiety Scale

    PubMed Central

    Moulds, Michelle L.; Rapee, Ronald M.

    2014-01-01

    The importance of self-beliefs in prominent models of social phobia has led to the development of measures that tap this cognitive construct. The Self-Beliefs Related to Social Anxiety (SBSA) Scale is one such measure and taps the three maladaptive belief types proposed in Clark and Wells’s model of social phobia. This study aimed to replicate and extend previous research on the psychometric properties of the SBSA. Replicating previous research, in an (undiagnosed) undergraduate sample (n = 235), the SBSA was found to have a correlated three-factor structure using confirmatory factor analyses, and the SBSA and its subscales demonstrated good internal consistency and test–retest reliability. The SBSA and its subscales also had unique relationships with social anxiety and depression, the majority of which replicated previous research. Extending previous research, the SBSA and its subscales showed good incremental validity in the undergraduate sample and good discriminative validity using the undergraduate sample and a sample of individuals with social phobia (n = 33). The SBSA’s strong theoretical basis and the findings of this study suggest that the SBSA is an ideal research and clinical tool to assess the cognitions characteristic of social phobia. PMID:23575344

  12. SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere ADditional OZonesondes): An Ozonesonde Network for Satellite Validation, Climatology and Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Anne M.; Witte, Jacquelyn C.; Schmidlin, Francis J.; Oltmans, Samuel J.; McPeters, Richard D.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Town, during a cruise in January and February 1999. In 2000, as part of the SAFARI-2000 experiment and a validation project called Southern African Validation for EOS (SAVE), enhancement of ozonesonde launches at Irene (South Africa) will extend the data set from this site beyond the 1998-1999 period.

  13. [Validation of the portuguese version of the Mini-Social Phobia Inventory (Mini-SPIN)].

    PubMed

    D'El Rey, Gustavo José Fonseca; Matos, Cláudia Wilmor

    2009-01-01

    Social phobia (also known as social anxiety disorder) is a severe mental disorder that brings distress and disability. The aim of this study was validate to the Portuguese language the Mini-Social Phobia Inventory (Mini-SPIN) in a populational sample. We performed a discriminative validity study of the Mini-SPIN in a sample of 644 subjects (Mini-SPIN positive group: n = 218 and control/negative group: n = 426) of a study of anxiety disorders' prevalence in the city of Santo André-SP. The Portuguese version of the Mini-SPIN (with score of 6 points, suggested in the original English version) demonstrated a sensitivity of 95.0%, specificity of 80.3%, positive predictive value of 52.8%, negative predictive value of 98.6% and incorrect classification rate of 16.9%. With score of 7 points, was observed an increase in the specificity and positive predictive value (88.6% and 62.7%), while the sensitivity and negative predictive value (84.8% and 96.2%) remained high. The Portuguese version of the Mini-SPIN showed satisfactory psychometric qualities in terms of discriminative validity. In this study, the cut-off of 7, was considered to be the most suitable to screening of the generalized social phobia. PMID:19851580

  14. Information flow between interacting human brains: Identification, validation, and relationship to social expertise.

    PubMed

    Bilek, Edda; Ruf, Matthias; Schäfer, Axel; Akdeniz, Ceren; Calhoun, Vince D; Schmahl, Christian; Demanuele, Charmaine; Tost, Heike; Kirsch, Peter; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas

    2015-04-21

    Social interactions are fundamental for human behavior, but the quantification of their neural underpinnings remains challenging. Here, we used hyperscanning functional MRI (fMRI) to study information flow between brains of human dyads during real-time social interaction in a joint attention paradigm. In a hardware setup enabling immersive audiovisual interaction of subjects in linked fMRI scanners, we characterize cross-brain connectivity components that are unique to interacting individuals, identifying information flow between the sender's and receiver's temporoparietal junction. We replicate these findings in an independent sample and validate our methods by demonstrating that cross-brain connectivity relates to a key real-world measure of social behavior. Together, our findings support a central role of human-specific cortical areas in the brain dynamics of dyadic interactions and provide an approach for the noninvasive examination of the neural basis of healthy and disturbed human social behavior with minimal a priori assumptions. PMID:25848050

  15. Using confirmatory factor analysis to manage discriminant validity issues in social pharmacy research.

    PubMed

    Carter, Stephen R

    2016-06-01

    Background Confirmatory factory analysis (CFA) and structural equation modelling (SEM) are increasingly used in social pharmacy research. One of the key benefits of CFA is that it allows researchers to provide evidence for the validity of internal factor structure of measurement scales. In particular, CFA can be used to provide evidence for the validity of the assertion that a hypothesized multi-dimensional scale discriminates between sub-scales. Aim This manuscript aims to provide guidance for researchers who wish to use CFA to provide evidence for the internal factor structure of measurement scales. Methods The manuscript places discriminant validity in the context of providing overall validity evidence for measurement scales. Four examples from the recent social pharmacy literature are used to critically examine the various methods which are used to establish discriminant validity. Using a hypothetical scenario, the manuscript demonstrates how commonly used output from CFA computer programs can be used to provide evidence for separateness of sub-scales within a multi-dimensional scale. Conclusion The manuscript concludes with recommendations for the conduct and reporting of studies which use CFA to provide evidence of internal factor structure of measurement scales. PMID:27147255

  16. The reliability and validity of the Social Responsiveness Scale in a UK general child population.

    PubMed

    Wigham, Sarah; McConachie, Helen; Tandos, Jonathan; Le Couteur, Ann S

    2012-01-01

    This is the first UK study to report the reliability, validity, and factor structure of the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) in a general population sample. Parents of 500 children (aged 5-8 years) in North East England completed the SRS. Profiles of scores were similar to USA norms, and a single factor structure was identified. Good construct validity and internal consistency were found. Children with identified special needs were found to have significantly higher SRS scores than those without. The findings suggest the SRS performs in similar ways in UK and USA general population samples of children and can be used without modification in the UK. PMID:22277583

  17. Some additional data to the occurrence, morphology and validity of Myxobolus turpisrotundus Zhang, 2009 (Myxozoa: Myxosporea).

    PubMed

    Liu, Y; Gu, Z M; Luo, Y L

    2010-06-01

    Myxobolus turpisrotundus Zhang, 2009, infects allogynogenetic gibel carp Carassius auratus gibelio (Bloch) and is always regarded as synonymous with Myxobolus rotundus Nemeczek, 1911, since its first report in goldfish Carassius auratus auratus (L.) in China in 1955. In this study, it was comprehensively examined by morphological and molecular biological methods. The round spores of M. turpisrotundus are similar to those of M. rotundus from common bream Abramis brama (L.) in morphology; however, we detected slight differences in morphometry. The ratios of the length and width of the spore to the length and width of the polar capsule of M. turpisrotundus are usually below 2.0 and 1.9, respectively, however these ratios are always above 2.0 and 1.9 in M. rotundus. The plasmodium size of M. turpisrotundus is 600-6,200 microm in diameter and that of M. rotundus is 60-180 microm in diameter. Scanning observation showed the spore surface of M. turpisrotundus was generally pitted. Yet the surface of M. rotundus is smooth. Sequence comparison revealed the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene sequence of M. turpisrotundus did not match any published sequences of M. rotundus (EU710583, 85% over 742 bp; FJ851447, 85% over 742 bp, FJ851448, 85% over 742 bp; FJ851449, 85% over 742 bp). Moreover, phylogenetic analysis showed M. turpisrotundus clustered with the species from allogynogenetic gibel carp with high bootstrap values (100% neighbor-joining, NJ; 100% maximum parsimony, MP) and M. rotundus from common bream composed a new cluster with high bootstrap values (100% NJ, 100% MP). From the morphological and molecular biological data, we gain enough evidences to support the validity of M. turpisrotundus. PMID:20352450

  18. Adaptation of the ESPA29 Parental Socialization Styles Scale to the Basque language: evidence of validity.

    PubMed

    López-Jáuregui, Alicia; Oliden, Paula Elosua

    2009-11-01

    The aim of this study is to adapt the ESPA29 scale of parental socialization styles in adolescence to the Basque language. The study of its psychometric properties is based on the search for evidence of internal and external validity. The first focuses on the assessment of the dimensionality of the scale by means of exploratory factor analysis. The relationship between the dimensions of parental socialization styles and gender and age guarantee the external validity of the scale. The study of the equivalence of the adapted and original versions is based on the comparisons of the reliability coefficients and on factor congruence. The results allow us to conclude the equivalence of the two scales. PMID:19899674

  19. Multiple Linkage Disequilibrium Mapping Methods to Validate Additive Quantitative Trait Loci in Korean Native Cattle (Hanwoo)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yi; Kim, Jong-Joo

    2015-01-01

    The efficiency of genome-wide association analysis (GWAS) depends on power of detection for quantitative trait loci (QTL) and precision for QTL mapping. In this study, three different strategies for GWAS were applied to detect QTL for carcass quality traits in the Korean cattle, Hanwoo; a linkage disequilibrium single locus regression method (LDRM), a combined linkage and linkage disequilibrium analysis (LDLA) and a BayesCπ approach. The phenotypes of 486 steers were collected for weaning weight (WWT), yearling weight (YWT), carcass weight (CWT), backfat thickness (BFT), longissimus dorsi muscle area, and marbling score (Marb). Also the genotype data for the steers and their sires were scored with the Illumina bovine 50K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) chips. For the two former GWAS methods, threshold values were set at false discovery rate <0.01 on a chromosome-wide level, while a cut-off threshold value was set in the latter model, such that the top five windows, each of which comprised 10 adjacent SNPs, were chosen with significant variation for the phenotype. Four major additive QTL from these three methods had high concordance found in 64.1 to 64.9Mb for Bos taurus autosome (BTA) 7 for WWT, 24.3 to 25.4Mb for BTA14 for CWT, 0.5 to 1.5Mb for BTA6 for BFT and 26.3 to 33.4Mb for BTA29 for BFT. Several candidate genes (i.e. glutamate receptor, ionotropic, ampa 1 [GRIA1], family with sequence similarity 110, member B [FAM110B], and thymocyte selection-associated high mobility group box [TOX]) may be identified close to these QTL. Our result suggests that the use of different linkage disequilibrium mapping approaches can provide more reliable chromosome regions to further pinpoint DNA makers or causative genes in these regions. PMID:26104396

  20. Multiple Linkage Disequilibrium Mapping Methods to Validate Additive Quantitative Trait Loci in Korean Native Cattle (Hanwoo).

    PubMed

    Li, Yi; Kim, Jong-Joo

    2015-07-01

    The efficiency of genome-wide association analysis (GWAS) depends on power of detection for quantitative trait loci (QTL) and precision for QTL mapping. In this study, three different strategies for GWAS were applied to detect QTL for carcass quality traits in the Korean cattle, Hanwoo; a linkage disequilibrium single locus regression method (LDRM), a combined linkage and linkage disequilibrium analysis (LDLA) and a BayesCπ approach. The phenotypes of 486 steers were collected for weaning weight (WWT), yearling weight (YWT), carcass weight (CWT), backfat thickness (BFT), longissimus dorsi muscle area, and marbling score (Marb). Also the genotype data for the steers and their sires were scored with the Illumina bovine 50K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) chips. For the two former GWAS methods, threshold values were set at false discovery rate <0.01 on a chromosome-wide level, while a cut-off threshold value was set in the latter model, such that the top five windows, each of which comprised 10 adjacent SNPs, were chosen with significant variation for the phenotype. Four major additive QTL from these three methods had high concordance found in 64.1 to 64.9Mb for Bos taurus autosome (BTA) 7 for WWT, 24.3 to 25.4Mb for BTA14 for CWT, 0.5 to 1.5Mb for BTA6 for BFT and 26.3 to 33.4Mb for BTA29 for BFT. Several candidate genes (i.e. glutamate receptor, ionotropic, ampa 1 [GRIA1], family with sequence similarity 110, member B [FAM110B], and thymocyte selection-associated high mobility group box [TOX]) may be identified close to these QTL. Our result suggests that the use of different linkage disequilibrium mapping approaches can provide more reliable chromosome regions to further pinpoint DNA makers or causative genes in these regions. PMID:26104396

  1. Validation of a social vulnerability index in context to river-floods in Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fekete, A.

    2009-03-01

    Social vulnerability indices are a means for generating information about people potentially affected by disasters that are e.g. triggered by river-floods. The purpose behind such an index is in this study the development and the validation of a social vulnerability map of population characteristics towards river-floods covering all counties in Germany. This map is based on a composite index of three main indicators for social vulnerability in Germany - fragility, socio-economic conditions and region. These indicators have been identified by a factor analysis of selected demographic variables obtained from federal statistical offices. Therefore, these indicators can be updated annually based on a reliable data source. The vulnerability patterns detected by the factor analysis are verified by using an independent second data set. The interpretation of the second data set shows that vulnerability is revealed by a real extreme flood event and demonstrates that the patterns of the presumed vulnerability match the observations of a real event. It comprises a survey of flood-affected households in three federal states. By using logistic regression, it is demonstrated that the theoretically presumed indications of vulnerability are correct and that the indicators are valid. It is shown that indeed certain social groups like the elderly, the financially weak or the urban residents are higher risk groups.

  2. Additive Effects of Social and Non-Social Attention during Infancy Relate to Later Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bedford, Rachael; Pickles, Andrew; Gliga, Teodora; Elsabbagh, Mayada; Charman, Tony; Johnson, Mark H.

    2014-01-01

    Emerging findings from studies with infants at familial high risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD), owing to an older sibling with a diagnosis, suggest that those who go on to develop ASD show early impairments in the processing of stimuli with both social and non-social content. Although ASD is defined by social-communication impairments and…

  3. Content validity in the PROMIS social health domain: a qualitative analysis of focus group data

    PubMed Central

    Castel, Liana D.; Williams, Kelly A.; Bosworth, Hayden B.; Eisen, Susan V.; Hahn, Elizabeth A.; Irwin, Debra E.; Kelly, Morgen A. R.; Morse, Jennifer; Stover, Angela; DeWalt, Darren A.; DeVellis, Robert F.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Our aim was to assess the content validity of the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) social health item banks by comparing a prespecified conceptual model with concepts that focus-group participants identified as important social-health-related outcomes. These data will inform the process of improving health-related quality-of-life measures. Methods Twenty-five patients with a range of social limitations due to chronic health conditions were recruited at two sites; four focus groups were conducted. Raters independently classified participants' statements using a hierarchical, nested schema that included health-related outcomes, role performance, role satisfaction, family/friends, work, and leisure. Results Key themes that emerged were fulfilling both family and work responsibilities and the distinction between activities done out of responsibility versus enjoyment. Although focus-group participants identified volunteerism and pet ownership as important social-health-related concepts, these were not in our original conceptual model. The concept of satisfaction was often found to overlap with the concept of performance. Conclusion Our conceptual model appeared mostly comprehensive but is being further refined to more appropriately (a) distinguish between responsibilities versus discretionary activities, and (b) situate the outcome of satisfaction as it relates to impairment in social and other domains of health. PMID:18478368

  4. Clinical validation of a non-heteronormative version of the Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Despite welcomed changes in societal attitudes and practices towards sexual minorities, instances of heteronormativity can still be found within healthcare and research. The Social Interaction Anxiety Scale (SIAS) is a valid and reliable self-rating scale of social anxiety, which includes one item (number 14) with an explicit heteronormative assumption about the respondent´s sexual orientation. This heteronormative phrasing may confuse, insult or alienate sexual minority respondents. A clinically validated version of the SIAS featuring a non-heteronormative phrasing of item 14 is thus needed. Methods 129 participants with diagnosed social anxiety disorder, enrolled in an Internet-based intervention trial, were randomly assigned to responding to the SIAS featuring either the original or a novel non-heteronormative phrasing of item 14, and then answered the other item version. Within-subject, correlation between item versions was calculated and the two scores were statistically compared. The two items’ correlations with the other SIAS items and other psychiatric rating scales were also statistically compared. Results Item versions were highly correlated and scores did not differ statistically. The two items’ correlations with other measures did not differ statistically either. Conclusions The SIAS can be revised with a non-heteronormative formulation of item 14 with psychometric equivalence on item and scale level. Implications for other psychiatric instruments with heteronormative phrasings are discussed. PMID:24354964

  5. The training and validation of youth-preferred social behaviors of child-care personnel1

    PubMed Central

    Willner, Alan G.; Braukmann, Curtis J.; Kirigin, Kathryn A.; Fixsen, Dean L.; Phillips, Elery L.; Wolf, Montrose M.

    1977-01-01

    This research sought to identify, train, and validate social behaviors preferred by youths to be used by youth-care personnel (called teaching-parents). With training, consistent increases in seven preferred behaviors were observed for the six teaching-parent trainees. These behaviors included offering to help, “getting to the point”, giving reasons why a behavior is important to a youth, providing descriptions of alternative behaviors, positive feedback, smiling, and positive motivational incentives (i.e., points for task mastery exchanged for tangible reinforcers). Increases in these behaviors correlated with increases in the youths' ratings of the quality of the trainees' interactions. Posttraining levels of preferred social behavior and youth ratings for trainees also compared favorably with levels for successful professional teaching-parents. These results suggest that teaching-parents can be successfully trained to interact with youths in ways that are preferred by the youths. PMID:16795551

  6. Validating an index of adolescent sexual behavior using psychosocial theory and social trait correlates.

    PubMed

    Hennessy, Michael; Bleakley, Amy; Fishbein, Martin; Jordan, Amy

    2008-03-01

    Using a web-based survey of adolescents 14-16 years of age, a hierarchical index of heterosexual behavior was developed with excellent psychometric properties. The easiest sexual behavior to perform was "deep kissing" and the most difficult was "receiving anal sex" for females and "giving anal sex" for males. The index was validated with data that show increased sexual activity with being older and of minority status, with social traits such as physical development, having a romantic partner, and sensation seeking, and with psychosocial variables known to be associated with sexual behavior such as attitudes, norms, self-efficacy and intentions. PMID:17636374

  7. Information flow between interacting human brains: Identification, validation, and relationship to social expertise

    PubMed Central

    Bilek, Edda; Ruf, Matthias; Schäfer, Axel; Akdeniz, Ceren; Calhoun, Vince D.; Schmahl, Christian; Demanuele, Charmaine; Tost, Heike; Kirsch, Peter; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Social interactions are fundamental for human behavior, but the quantification of their neural underpinnings remains challenging. Here, we used hyperscanning functional MRI (fMRI) to study information flow between brains of human dyads during real-time social interaction in a joint attention paradigm. In a hardware setup enabling immersive audiovisual interaction of subjects in linked fMRI scanners, we characterize cross-brain connectivity components that are unique to interacting individuals, identifying information flow between the sender’s and receiver’s temporoparietal junction. We replicate these findings in an independent sample and validate our methods by demonstrating that cross-brain connectivity relates to a key real-world measure of social behavior. Together, our findings support a central role of human-specific cortical areas in the brain dynamics of dyadic interactions and provide an approach for the noninvasive examination of the neural basis of healthy and disturbed human social behavior with minimal a priori assumptions. PMID:25848050

  8. Development and Validation of the Social Information Processing Application: A Web-Based Measure of Social Information Processing Patterns in Elementary School-Age Boys

    PubMed Central

    Kupersmidt, Janis B.; Stelter, Rebecca; Dodge, Kenneth A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of an audio computer-assisted self-interviewing Web-based software application called the Social Information Processing Application (SIP-AP) that was designed to assess social information processing skills in boys in 3rd through 5th grades. This study included a racially and ethnically diverse sample of 244 boys ages 8 through 12 (M = 9.4) from public elementary schools in 3 states. The SIP-AP includes 8 videotaped vignettes, filmed from the first-person perspective, that depict common misunderstandings among boys. Each vignette shows a negative outcome for the victim and ambiguous intent on the part of the perpetrator. Boys responded to 16 Web-based questions representing the 5 social information processing mechanisms, after viewing each vignette. Parents and teachers completed measures assessing boys’ antisocial behavior. Confirmatory factor analyses revealed that a model positing the original 5 cognitive mechanisms fit the data well when the items representing prosocial cognitions were included on their own factor, creating a 6th factor. The internal consistencies for each of the 16 individual cognitions as well as for the 6 cognitive mechanism scales were excellent. Boys with elevated scores on 5 of the 6 cognitive mechanisms exhibited more antisocial behavior than boys whose scores were not elevated. These findings highlight the need for further research on the measurement of prosocial cognitions or cognitive strengths in boys in addition to assessing cognitive deficits. Findings suggest that the SIP-AP is a reliable and valid tool for use in future research of social information processing skills in boys. PMID:21534693

  9. Strengthen forensic entomology in court--the need for data exploration and the validation of a generalised additive mixed model.

    PubMed

    Baqué, Michèle; Amendt, Jens

    2013-01-01

    Developmental data of juvenile blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) are typically used to calculate the age of immature stages found on or around a corpse and thus to estimate a minimum post-mortem interval (PMI(min)). However, many of those data sets don't take into account that immature blow flies grow in a non-linear fashion. Linear models do not supply a sufficient reliability on age estimates and may even lead to an erroneous determination of the PMI(min). According to the Daubert standard and the need for improvements in forensic science, new statistic tools like smoothing methods and mixed models allow the modelling of non-linear relationships and expand the field of statistical analyses. The present study introduces into the background and application of these statistical techniques by analysing a model which describes the development of the forensically important blow fly Calliphora vicina at different temperatures. The comparison of three statistical methods (linear regression, generalised additive modelling and generalised additive mixed modelling) clearly demonstrates that only the latter provided regression parameters that reflect the data adequately. We focus explicitly on both the exploration of the data--to assure their quality and to show the importance of checking it carefully prior to conducting the statistical tests--and the validation of the resulting models. Hence, we present a common method for evaluating and testing forensic entomological data sets by using for the first time generalised additive mixed models. PMID:22370995

  10. The theory of planned behaviour and healthy eating: Examining additive and moderating effects of social influence variables.

    PubMed

    Povey, R; Conner, M; Sparks, P; James, R; Shepherd, R

    2000-11-01

    Abstract This paper examines the additive and moderating effects of social influence variables (injunctive norms, descriptive norms, perceived social support) within the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB). The target behaviour is the decision to eat healthily. Questionnaire responses on components of the TPB, descriptive norms, perceived social support, and subsequent healthy eating were obtained from a prospective sample of 235 members of the general public. Good predictions of intentions (42% of variance explained) and behaviour (15% of variance explained) were found using the Theory of Planned Behaviour. Neither descriptive norms nor perceived social support added to these predictions of intentions over and above the TPB variables. However, perceived social support was found to act as a moderator variable on the relationship between perceived behavioral control and intention, and the relationship between attitude and intention. Implications for exploring the role of social influence variables on decisions concerning health behavioun an discussed. PMID:22175258

  11. Self-Report on the Social Skills Rating System: Analysis of Reliability and Validity for an Elementary Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diperna, James Clyde; Volpe, Robert J.

    2005-01-01

    The Social Skills Rating System (SSRS; F.M. Gresham & S.N. Elliott, 1990) is a norm-referenced measure of students' social and problem behaviors. Since its release, much of the published reliability and validity evidence for the SSRS has focused primarily on the Teacher Report Form. The purpose of this study was to explore reliability and validity…

  12. Contemporary Daughter/Son Adult Social Role Performance Rating Scale and Interview Protocol: Development, Content Validation, and Exploratory Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cozad, Dana Everett

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and content validate a Performance Rating Scale and Interview Protocol, enabling study of the social role performance of adult daughters and sons as they fulfill the societal norms and expectations of adult children. This exploratory investigation was one of 13 contemporary adult social roles completed by…

  13. A child-centered scale of informal social control for Latino parents of preschool-age children: Development and validation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Perceived neighborhood informal social control may determine whether parents allow their young children to be physically active in the neighborhood. We developed and validated a scale of neighborhood child-centered informal social control appropriate for Latino parents of preschool-age children. The...

  14. Autistic Traits and Autism Spectrum Disorders: The Clinical Validity of Two Measures Presuming a Continuum of Social Communication Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolte, Sven; Westerwald, Eva; Holtmann, Martin; Freitag, Christine; Poustka, Fritz

    2011-01-01

    Research indicates that autism is the extreme end of a continuously distributed trait. The Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) and the Social and Communication Disorders Checklist (SCDC) aim to assess autistic traits. The objective of this study was to compare their clinical validity. The SRS showed sensitivities of 0.74 to 0.80 and specificities of…

  15. The clinical validity and reliability of the Brief Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment (BITSEA).

    PubMed

    Karabekiroglu, Koray; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J; Carter, Alice S; Rodopman-Arman, Ayse; Akbas, Seher

    2010-12-01

    This study investigates the construct validity and reliability of the Brief Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment (BITSEA) in a psychiatric clinical sample of toddlers. The sample consisted of a psychiatric clinical sample (N=112) (male, n=79; female, n=33) of toddlers (12- to 42-months old). Both mothers and fathers completed the BITSEA and mothers completed the Child Behavior Checklist 2/3 (CBCL). Children and their parents were administered a comprehensive psychiatric evaluation. Parents were also given the Autistic Behavior Checklist (AuBC) and the Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Community (ABC). The internal consistency of BITSEA scores was good to excellent for both parents. The BITSEA/Problem (P) scores were significantly correlated with Internalizing, Externalizing and Total Problem scores of the CBCL, all subscores of ABC and total score of AuBC. The BITSEA/Competence (C) scores were significantly inversely correlated with ABC total and AuBC lethargy scores. With respect to a community sample, BITSEA/P scores were significantly higher in the disruptive behavior disorder (DBD) and anxiety/depression (Anx/Dep) groups and BITSEA/C scores were significantly lower in the autism group. These results support the reliability and validity of the BITSEA as a screening tool that may be employed in primary health care services and in psychiatric clinical settings for assessing social-emotional/behavioral problems and delays in competence in infants and toddlers. PMID:20800285

  16. Virtual Reality for Enhanced Ecological Validity and Experimental Control in the Clinical, Affective and Social Neurosciences

    PubMed Central

    Parsons, Thomas D.

    2015-01-01

    An essential tension can be found between researchers interested in ecological validity and those concerned with maintaining experimental control. Research in the human neurosciences often involves the use of simple and static stimuli lacking many of the potentially important aspects of real world activities and interactions. While this research is valuable, there is a growing interest in the human neurosciences to use cues about target states in the real world via multimodal scenarios that involve visual, semantic, and prosodic information. These scenarios should include dynamic stimuli presented concurrently or serially in a manner that allows researchers to assess the integrative processes carried out by perceivers over time. Furthermore, there is growing interest in contextually embedded stimuli that can constrain participant interpretations of cues about a target’s internal states. Virtual reality environments proffer assessment paradigms that combine the experimental control of laboratory measures with emotionally engaging background narratives to enhance affective experience and social interactions. The present review highlights the potential of virtual reality environments for enhanced ecological validity in the clinical, affective, and social neurosciences. PMID:26696869

  17. Validation of data-driven computational models of social perception of faces.

    PubMed

    Todorov, Alexander; Dotsch, Ron; Porter, Jenny M; Oosterhof, Nikolaas N; Falvello, Virginia B

    2013-08-01

    People rapidly form impressions from facial appearance, and these impressions affect social decisions. We argue that data-driven, computational models are the best available tools for identifying the source of such impressions. Here we validate seven computational models of social judgments of faces: attractiveness, competence, dominance, extroversion, likability, threat, and trustworthiness. The models manipulate both face shape and reflectance (i.e., cues such as pigmentation and skin smoothness). We show that human judgments track the models' predictions (Experiment 1) and that the models differentiate between different judgments, though this differentiation is constrained by the similarity of the models (Experiment 2). We also make the validated stimuli available for academic research: seven databases containing 25 identities manipulated in the respective model to take on seven different dimension values, ranging from -3 SD to +3 SD (175 stimuli in each database). Finally, we show how the computational models can be used to control for shared variance of the models. For example, even for highly correlated dimensions (e.g., dominance and threat), we can identify cues specific to each dimension and, consequently, generate faces that vary only on these cues. PMID:23627724

  18. Psychometric Validation Study of the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale - Self-Reported Version for Brazilian Portuguese

    PubMed Central

    Forni dos Santos, Larissa; Loureiro, Sonia Regina; Crippa, José Alexandre de Souza; Osório, Flávia de Lima

    2013-01-01

    Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) is prevalent and rarely diagnosed due to the difficulty in recognizing its symptoms as belonging to a disorder. Therefore, the evaluation/screening scales are of great importance for its detection, with the most used being the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS). Thus, this study proposed to evaluate the psychometric properties of internal consistency and convergent validity, as well as the confirmatory factorial analysis and reliability of the self-reported version of the LSAS (LSAS-SR), translated into Brazilian Portuguese, in a sample of the general population (N = 413) and in a SAD clinical sample (N = 252). The convergent validity with specific scales for the evaluation of SAD and a general anxiety scale presented correlations ranging from 0.21 to 0.84. The confirmatory factorial analysis did not replicate the previously indicated findings of the literature, with the difficulty being in obtaining a consensus factorial structure common to the diverse cultures in which the instrument was studied. The LSAS-SR presented excellent internal consistency (α = 0.90–0.96) and test-retest reliability (Intraclass Correlation Coefficient = 0.81; Pearson’s = 0.82). The present findings support those of international studies that attest to the excellent psychometric properties of the LSAS-SR, endorsing its status as the gold standard. PMID:23922961

  19. Social Role Participation Questionnaire for patients with ankylosing spondylitis: translation into Dutch, reliability and construct validity

    PubMed Central

    van Genderen, Simon; Plasqui, Guy; Lacaille, Diane; Arends, Suzanne; van Gaalen, Floris; van der Heijde, Désirée; Heuft, Liesbeth; Keszei, András; Luime, Jolanda; Spoorenberg, Anneke; Landewé, Robert; Gignac, Monique; Boonen, Annelies

    2016-01-01

    Objective The Social Role Participation Questionnaire (SRPQ) assesses the influence of health on participation in 11 specific and one general participation role across 4 participation dimensions: ‘importance’, ‘satisfaction with time’, ‘satisfaction with performance’ and ‘physical difficulty’. This study aimed to translate the SRPQ into Dutch, and assess the clinimetric properties and aspects of its validity among patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Methods Translation was performed using the dual panel approach. For each participation dimension, internal consistency, test-retest reliability (n=31), and construct validity were assessed in 246 patients with AS. Results The translation required only minor adaptations. Cronbach αs were α≥0.7. A strong correlation was present between satisfaction with ‘time’ and ‘performance’(r=0.85). Test-retest reliability was satisfactory (κ=0.79–0.95). Correlations with participation domains of the Short-Form Health Survey 36 (SF-36), the WHO Disease Assessment Score II, and generic as well as disease-specific health outcomes (Physical and Mental component scale of the SF-36, Satisfaction With Life Scale, Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Index (BASDAI), Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functioning Index (BASFI)) were at least moderate (r=−0.41 to 0.75) for all dimensions except for ‘role importance’ where correlations were weak (r≤40). Discriminative ability across 5 self-reported health states was good for all dimensions (p<0.01). The ‘general participation’ role showed similar reliability and validity for each dimension, as the average of the all 11 roles. Conclusions The Dutch version of the SRPQ is available to help understand social role participation of patients with AS. The dimension ‘role importance’ measures a distinct aspect of participation. The general participation item was a good global measure of participation. PMID:26870393

  20. Socially Indiscriminate Attachment Behavior in the Strange Situation: Convergent and Discriminant Validity in Relation to Caregiving Risk, Later Behavior Problems, and Attachment Insecurity

    PubMed Central

    Lyons-Ruth, Karlen; Bureau, Jean-François; Riley, Caitlin D.; Atlas-Corbett, Alisha F.

    2008-01-01

    Socially indiscriminate attachment behavior has been repeatedly observed among institutionally-reared children. Socially indiscriminate behavior has also been associated with aggression and hyperactivity. However, available data rely heavily on caregiver report of indiscriminate behavior. In addition, few studies have been conducted with samples of home-reared infants exposed to inadequate care. The current study aimed to develop a reliable laboratory measure of socially indiscriminate forms of attachment behavior based on direct observation and to validate the measure against assessments of early care and later behavior problems among home-reared infants. Strange Situation episodes of 75 socially at-risk mother-infant dyads were coded for infant indiscriminate attachment behavior on the newly developed Rating for Infant-Stranger Engagement (RISE). After controlling for infant insecure-organized and disorganized behavior in all analyses, extent of infant-stranger engagement at 18 months was significantly related to serious caregiving risk (maltreatment or maternal psychiatric hospitalization), observed quality of disrupted maternal affective communication (AMBIANCE), and aggressive and hyperactive behavior problems at age 5. Results are discussed in relation to the convergent and discriminant validity of the new measure and to the potential utility of a standardized observational measure of indiscriminate attachment behavior. Further validation is needed in relation to caregiver report measures of indiscriminate behavior. PMID:19338688

  1. Academic and Social Achievement Goals: Their Additive, Interactive, and Specialized Effects on School Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liem, Gregory Arief D.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Students' pursuit of academic and social goals has implications for school functioning. However, studies on academic and social achievement goals have been relatively independent and mainly conducted with students in culturally Western settings. Aims: Guided by multiple-goal perspectives, this study examined the role of academic and…

  2. [Translation and validation of the Revised Social Anhedonia Scale (SAS Social Anhedonia Scale, M.L. Eckblad, L.J. Chapman et al., 1982). Study of the internal and concurrent validity in 126 normal subjects].

    PubMed

    Kosmadakis, C S; Bungener, C; Pierson, A; Jouvent, R; Widlöcher, D

    1995-01-01

    The Revised Social Anhedonia Scale (SAS) with 40 items (Eckblad et al., 1982) which studies the social dimension of anhedonia has been validated in the United-States (Mishlove & Chapman, 1985). However, no french translation and validation of this scale has been made to date. This work presents the french translation of the Social Anhedonia Scale and its validation. After a back-translation and final adjustment, it has been submitted to a sample of 126 control subjects from the general population. Furthermore, they were asked to fill two other scales: the Chapman Physical Anhedonia (PAS) with 61 items and the Fawcett Pleasure Scale (36 items), both of them exploring the subjects answer in terms of anhedonia/hedonia towards social, sensorial and/or physical experiences. The internal validity has been determined on the one hand by the Cronbach alpha coefficient which showed a strong unidimensional characteristic (0.80) and the other hand by the correlation of each item with the total score using the point biserial coefficient which ranged from .204 to .559. The concurrent validation has been determined by the Pearson correlation coefficient between the french version of social anhedonia scale and the french version of physical anhedonia scale. The values were .42, p = .001. Furthermore, this two scales are significant inversely correled to the french version of the pleasure scale: r = -.22, p = .0125 for the first, and r = -.26, p = .0027 for the second. The internal and concurrent validity of the french version of the revised social anhedonia scale should allow to improve our understanding of anhedonia in psychiatry and psychopathology. PMID:8674468

  3. Development and Validation of HPLC Method for the Simultaneous Determination of Five Food Additives and Caffeine in Soft Drinks

    PubMed Central

    Aşçı, Bürge; Dinç Zor, Şule; Aksu Dönmez, Özlem

    2016-01-01

    Box-Behnken design was applied to optimize high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) conditions for the simultaneous determination of potassium sorbate, sodium benzoate, carmoisine, allura red, ponceau 4R, and caffeine in commercial soft drinks. The experimental variables chosen were pH (6.0–7.0), flow rate (1.0–1.4 mL/min), and mobile phase ratio (85–95% acetate buffer). Resolution values of all peak pairs were used as a response. Stationary phase was Inertsil OctaDecylSilane- (ODS-) 3V reverse phase column (250 × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) dimensions. The detection was performed at 230 nm. Optimal values were found 6.0 pH, 1.0 mL/min flow rate, and 95% mobile phase ratio for the method which was validated by calculating the linearity (r2 > 0.9962), accuracy (recoveries ≥ 95.75%), precision (intraday variation ≤ 1.923%, interday variation ≤ 1.950%), limits of detection (LODs), and limits of quantification (LOQs) parameters. LODs and LOQs for analytes were in the range of 0.10–0.19 μg/mL and 0.33–0.63 μg/mL, respectively. The proposed method was applied successfully for the simultaneous determination of the mixtures of five food additives and caffeine in soft drinks. PMID:26989415

  4. Development and Validation of HPLC Method for the Simultaneous Determination of Five Food Additives and Caffeine in Soft Drinks.

    PubMed

    Aşçı, Bürge; Dinç Zor, Şule; Aksu Dönmez, Özlem

    2016-01-01

    Box-Behnken design was applied to optimize high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) conditions for the simultaneous determination of potassium sorbate, sodium benzoate, carmoisine, allura red, ponceau 4R, and caffeine in commercial soft drinks. The experimental variables chosen were pH (6.0-7.0), flow rate (1.0-1.4 mL/min), and mobile phase ratio (85-95% acetate buffer). Resolution values of all peak pairs were used as a response. Stationary phase was Inertsil OctaDecylSilane- (ODS-) 3V reverse phase column (250 × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) dimensions. The detection was performed at 230 nm. Optimal values were found 6.0 pH, 1.0 mL/min flow rate, and 95% mobile phase ratio for the method which was validated by calculating the linearity (r (2) > 0.9962), accuracy (recoveries ≥ 95.75%), precision (intraday variation ≤ 1.923%, interday variation ≤ 1.950%), limits of detection (LODs), and limits of quantification (LOQs) parameters. LODs and LOQs for analytes were in the range of 0.10-0.19 μg/mL and 0.33-0.63 μg/mL, respectively. The proposed method was applied successfully for the simultaneous determination of the mixtures of five food additives and caffeine in soft drinks. PMID:26989415

  5. Compassion fatigue and psychological distress among social workers: a validation study.

    PubMed

    Adams, Richard E; Boscarino, Joseph A; Figley, Charles R

    2006-01-01

    Few studies have focused on caring professionals and their emotional exhaustion from working with traumatized clients, referred to as compassion fatigue (CF). The present study had 2 goals: (a) to assess the psychometric properties of a CF scale, and (b) to examine the scale's predictive validity in a multivariate model. The data came from a survey of social workers living in New York City following the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center. Factor analyses indicated that the CF scale measured multiple dimensions. After overlapping items were eliminated, the scale measured 2 key underlying dimensions--secondary trauma and job burnout. In a multivariate model, these dimensions were related to psychological distress, even after other risk factors were controlled. The authors discuss the results in light of increasing the ability of professional caregivers to meet the emotional needs of their clients within a stressful environment without experiencing CF. PMID:16569133

  6. Compassion Fatigue and Psychological Distress Among Social Workers: A Validation Study

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Richard E.; Boscarino, Joseph A.; Figley, Charles R.

    2009-01-01

    Few studies have focused on caring professionals and their emotional exhaustion from working with traumatized clients, referred to as compassion fatigue (CF). The present study had 2 goals: (a) to assess the psychometric properties of a CF scale, and (b) to examine the scale's predictive validity in a multivariate model. The data came from a survey of social workers living in New York City following the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center. Factor analyses indicated that the CF scale measured multiple dimensions. After overlapping items were eliminated, the scale measured 2 key underlying dimensions—secondary trauma and job burnout. In a multivariate model, these dimensions were related to psychological distress, even after other risk factors were controlled. The authors discuss the results in light of increasing the ability of professional caregivers to meet the emotional needs of their clients within a stressful environment without experiencing CF. PMID:16569133

  7. A new theory-based social classification in Japan and its validation using historically collected information.

    PubMed

    Hiyoshi, Ayako; Fukuda, Yoshiharu; Shipley, Martin J; Bartley, Mel; Brunner, Eric J

    2013-06-01

    Studies of health inequalities in Japan have increased since the millennium. However, there remains a lack of an accepted theory-based classification to measure occupation-related social position for Japan. This study attempts to derive such a classification based on the National Statistics Socio-economic Classification in the UK. Using routinely collected data from the nationally representative Comprehensive Survey of the Living Conditions of People on Health and Welfare, the Japanese Socioeconomic Classification was derived using two variables - occupational group and employment status. Validation analyses were conducted using household income, home ownership, self-rated good or poor health, and Kessler 6 psychological distress (n ≈ 36,000). After adjustment for age, marital status, and area (prefecture), one step lower social class was associated with mean 16% (p < 0.001) lower income, and a risk ratio of 0.93 (p < 0.001) for home ownership. The probability of good health showed a trend in men and women (risk ratio 0.94 and 0.93, respectively, for one step lower social class, p < 0.001). The trend for poor health was significant in women (odds ratio 1.12, p < 0.001) but not in men. Kessler 6 psychological distress showed significant trends in men (risk ratio 1.03, p = 0.044) and in women (1.05, p = 0.004). We propose the Japanese Socioeconomic Classification, derived from basic occupational and employment status information, as a meaningful, theory-based and standard classification system suitable for monitoring occupation-related health inequalities in Japan. PMID:23631782

  8. A Brief Measure of Peer Affiliation and Social Acceptance (PASA): Validity in an Ethnically Diverse Sample of Early Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Dishion, Thomas J.; Kim, Hanjoe; Stormshak, Elizabeth A.; O'Neill, Maya

    2014-01-01

    Objective Conduct a multiagent–multimethod analysis of the validity of a brief measure of deviant peer affiliations and social acceptance (PASA) in young adolescents. Peer relationships are critical to child and adolescent social and emotional development, but currently available measures are tedious and time consuming. The PASA consists of a youth, parent, and teacher report that can be collected longitudinally to study development and intervention effectiveness. Method This longitudinal study included 998 middle school students and their families. We collected the PASA and peer sociometrics data in Grade 7 and a multiagent–multimethod construct of deviant peer clustering in Grade 8. Results Confirmatory factor analyses of the multiagent–multimethod data revealed that the constructs of deviant peer affiliations and social acceptance and rejection were distinguishable as unique but correlated constructs within the PASA. Convergent, discriminant, concurrent, and predictive validity of the PASA was satisfactory, although the acceptance and rejection constructs were highly correlated and showed similar patterns of concurrent validity. Factor invariance was established for mother and for father reports. Conclusions Results suggest that the PASA is a valid and reliable measure of peer affiliation and of social acceptance among peers during the middle school years and provides a comprehensive yet brief assessment of peer affiliations and social acceptance. PMID:24611623

  9. Professional Competence Development of the Social Work Specialists in the Period of Study in the System of Additional Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davletkaliev, Denis Kuanyshevich; Zueva, Natalia Konstantinovna; Lebedeva, Natalya Vasilevna; Mkrtumova, Irina Vladimirovna; Timofeeva, Olga

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this work is the study of psychological-pedagogical approaches to the understanding of the idea of professional competence of social work specialists as well as the role of study in the system of additional educations in professional-personal development of the listeners. In the process of study of this problem we define main…

  10. Can we use social media to support content validity of patient-reported outcome instruments in medical product development?

    PubMed

    Rothman, Margaret; Gnanaskathy, Ari; Wicks, Paul; Papadopoulos, Elektra J

    2015-01-01

    We report a panel designed to open a dialog between pharmaceutical sponsors, regulatory reviewers, and other stakeholders regarding the use of social media to collect data to support the content validity of patient-reported outcome instruments in the context of medical product labeling. Multiple stakeholder perspectives were brought together to better understand the issues encountered in pursuing social media as a form of data collection to support content validity. Presenters represented a pharmaceutical sponsor of clinical trials, a regulatory reviewer from the Food and Drug Administration, and an online data platform provider. Each presenter shared its perspective on the advantages and disadvantages of using social media to collect this type of information. There was consensus that there is great potential for using social media for this purpose. There remain, however, unanswered questions that need to be addressed such as identifying which type of social media is most appropriate for data collection and ensuring that participants are representative of the target population while maintaining the advantages of anonymity provided by online platforms. The use of social media to collect evidence of content validity holds much promise. Clarification of issues that need to be addressed and accumulation of empirical evidence to address these questions are essential to moving forward. PMID:25595228

  11. Cross-cultural, age and gender validation of a computerised questionnaire measuring personal, social and environmental associations with children's physical activity: the European Youth Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Ommundsen, Yngvar; Page, Angie; Ku, Po-Wen; Cooper, Ashley R

    2008-01-01

    Objective This study investigated the construct validity of a computerised self-assessment tool to measure psychological, social and environmental influences of young peoples' physical activity. First, analyses of the measure's factorial validity, invariance across, age, gender culture were conducted. Second, the ability of the derived subscales to discriminate between children representing different levels of self-reported and objectively measured physical activity behaviour was examined. Methods Participants were 1875 boys and 2078 girls (total = 3958) aged 9–10 years (n = 1955, mean age = 9.65 ± 0.42) and 15–16 years (n = 2003, mean age = 15.49 ± 0.50) from four European countries in Northern, Southern and Eastern Europe who took part in the European Youth Heart Study (EYHS). Children completed the computerised self-assessment tool with support from the researcher if requested. Self-reported exercise and an objective measure of physical activity (Actigraph model 7164) were used for additional construct validation purposes. Results Overall evidence of good fit indicating satisfactory factorial validity and cross-cultural, age and gender invariance for 3 of the 4 measurement models were obtained. The majority of measures were also significantly different for those with high versus low levels of physical activity. Conclusion Overall, the computerised questionnaire holds promise for use cross-culturally with male and female children and adolescents to measure perceived personal, social and environmental influences on physical activity. Further development of the measures pertaining to perceived environmental influences seems warranted. PMID:18489736

  12. The Assessment of Positivity and Negativity in Social Networks: The Reliability and Validity of the Social Relationships Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campo, Rebecca A.; Uchino, Bert N.; Holt-Lunstad, Julianne; Vaughn, Allison; Reblin, Maija; Smith, Timothy W.

    2009-01-01

    The Social Relationships Index (SRI) was designed to examine positivity and negativity in social relationships. Unique features of this scale include its brevity and the ability to examine relationship positivity and negativity at the level of the specific individual and social network. The SRI's psychometric properties were examined in three…

  13. The Cultural Validation of Two Scales to Assess Social Stigma in Leprosy

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Ruth M. H.; Dadun; Van Brakel, Wim H.; Zweekhorst, Marjolein B. M.; Damayanti, Rita; Bunders, Joske F. G.; Irwanto

    2014-01-01

    Background Stigma plays in an important role in the lives of persons affected by neglected tropical diseases, and assessment of stigma is important to document this. The aim of this study is to test the cross-cultural validity of the Community Stigma Scale (EMIC-CSS) and the Social Distance Scale (SDS) in the field of leprosy in Cirebon District, Indonesia. Methodology/principle findings Cultural equivalence was tested by assessing the conceptual, item, semantic, operational and measurement equivalence of these instruments. A qualitative exploratory study was conducted to increase our understanding of the concept of stigma in Cirebon District. A process of translation, discussions, trainings and a pilot study followed. A sample of 259 community members was selected through convenience sampling and 67 repeated measures were obtained to assess the psychometric measurement properties. The aspects and items in the SDS and EMIC-CSS seem equally relevant and important in the target culture. The response scales were adapted to ensure that meaning is transferred accurately and no changes to the scale format (e.g. lay out, statements or questions) of both scales were made. A positive correlation was found between the EMIC-CSS and the SDS total scores (r = 0.41). Cronbach's alphas of 0.83 and 0.87 were found for the EMIC-CSS and SDS. The exploratory factor analysis indicated for both scales an adequate fit as unidimensional scale. A standard error of measurement of 2.38 was found in the EMIC-CSS and of 1.78 in the SDS. The test-retest reliability coefficient was respectively, 0.84 and 0.75. No floor or ceiling effects were found. Conclusions/significance According to current international standards, our findings indicate that the EMIC-CSS and the SDS have adequate cultural validity to assess social stigma in leprosy in the Bahasa Indonesia-speaking population of Cirebon District. We believe the scales can be further improved, for instance, by adding, changing and

  14. Validity of Evidence-Derived Criteria for Reactive Attachment Disorder: Indiscriminately Social/Disinhibited and Emotionally Withdrawn/Inhibited Types

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gleason, Mary Margaret; Fox, Nathan A.; Drury, Stacy; Smyke, Anna; Egger, Helen L.; Nelson, Charles A., III; Gregas, Matthew C.; Zeanah, Charles H.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the validity of criteria for indiscriminately social/disinhibited and emotionally withdrawn/inhibited reactive attachment disorder (RAD). Method: As part of a longitudinal intervention trial of previously institutionalized children, caregiver interviews and direct observational measurements provided continuous and…

  15. Construct and Predictive Validity of Social Acceptability: Scores From High School Teacher Ratings on the School Intervention Rating Form

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Judith R.; State, Talida M.; Evans, Steven W.; Schamberg, Terah

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the construct and predictive validity of scores on a measure of social acceptability of class-wide and individual student intervention, the School Intervention Rating Form (SIRF), with high school teachers. Utilizing scores from 158 teachers, exploratory factor analysis revealed a three-factor (i.e.,…

  16. Reliability and Validity of a Survey of Cat Caregivers on Their Cats' Socialization Level in the Cat's Normal Environment.

    PubMed

    Slater, Margaret; Garrison, Laurie; Miller, Katherine; Weiss, Emily; Makolinski, Kathleen; Drain, Natasha

    2013-01-01

    Stray cats routinely enter animal welfare organizations each year and shelters are challenged with determining the level of human socialization these cats may possess as quickly as possible. However, there is currently no standard process to guide this determination. This study describes the development and validation of a caregiver survey designed to be filled out by a cat's caregiver so it accurately describes a cat's personality, background, and full range of behavior with people when in its normal environment. The results from this survey provided the basis for a socialization score that ranged from unsocialized to well socialized with people. The quality of the survey was evaluated based on inter-rater and test-retest reliability and internal consistency and estimates of construct and criterion validity. In general, our results showed moderate to high levels of inter-rater (median of 0.803, range 0.211-0.957) and test-retest agreement (median 0.92, range 0.211-0.999). Cronbach's alpha showed high internal consistency (0.962). Estimates of validity did not highlight any major shortcomings. This survey will be used to develop and validate an effective assessment process that accurately differentiates cats by their socialization levels towards humans based on direct observation of cats' behavior in an animal shelter. PMID:26479758

  17. The Social Validity of Bug-in-Ear Coaching: Findings from Two Studies Implemented in Inclusive Early Childhood Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ottley, Jennifer R.; Coogle, Christan Grygas; Rahn, Naomi L.

    2015-01-01

    Coaching is a promising method for providing professional development, which takes many forms. One such form is real-time coaching through bug-in-ear technology. This study explored the social validity of bug-in-ear coaching when provided as a form of professional development with preservice and in-service early childhood educators. Data from two…

  18. The Social Validity of Bug-in-Ear Coaching: Findings from Two Studies Implemented in Inclusive Early Childhood Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ottley, Jennifer Riggie; Coogle, Christan Grygas; Rahn, Naomi L.

    2015-01-01

    Coaching is a promising method for providing professional development, which takes many forms. One such form is real-time coaching through bug-in-ear technology. This study explored the social validity of bug-in-ear coaching when provided as a form of professional development with pre-service and in-service early childhood educators. Data from two…

  19. Merging Empiricism and Humanism: Role of Social Validity in the School-Wide Positive Behavior Support Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marchant, Michelle; Heath, Melissa Allen; Miramontes, Nancy Y.

    2013-01-01

    Criteria for evaluating behavior support programs are changing. Consumer-based educational and behavioral programs, such as School-Wide Positive Behavior Support (SWPBS), are particularly influenced by consumer opinion. Unfortunately, the need for and use of social validity measures have not received adequate attention in the empirical literature…

  20. An Examination of Social Validity within Single-Case Research with Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spear, Caitlin F.; Strickland-Cohen, M. Kathleen; Romer, Natalie; Albin, Richard W.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we reviewed social validity in single-case research studies that focused on interventions for students who have either been identified as having, or as at-risk for emotional and behavioral disorders. This review focused on studies from four peer-reviewed journals known to publish single-case research with this population: the…

  1. Online Universal Screening and Behavioral Progress Monitoring: Assessing Social Validity, Usability and Intent to Use by K-3 Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sprague, Jeffrey; Pennefather, Jordan; Marquez, Jessie; Yeaton, Pamela; Marquez, Brion

    2011-01-01

    This session will describe the social validity, usability and intent to use of an interactive, state-of-the-art, professional development program based on the Response to Intervention (RtI) approach and its core components (e.g., problem-solving strategy; three tiers of intervention service delivery with universal, selected and intensive…

  2. Development and Validation of a Teacher Report Measure for Assessing Social-Emotional Strengths of Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrell, Kenneth W.; Cohn, Bradley P.; Tom, Karalyn M.

    2011-01-01

    This study details development and validation efforts for a new strength-based assessment instrument: the Social-Emotional Assets and Resilience Scales, Teacher rating form (SEARS-T). A large and diverse nationwide sample of more than 1,500 teacher ratings of students in kindergarten through Grade 12 was obtained. Factor-analytic procedures…

  3. Assessing Autistic Traits in a Taiwan Preschool Population: Cross-Cultural Validation of the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jessica; Lee, Li-Ching; Chen, Ying-Sheue; Hsu, Ju-Wei

    2012-01-01

    The cross-cultural validity of the Mandarin-adaptation of the social responsiveness scale (SRS) was examined in a sample of N = 307 participants in Taiwan, 140 typically developing and 167 with clinically-diagnosed developmental disorders. This scale is an autism assessment tool that provides a quantitative rather than categorical measure of…

  4. Enhancing Validity When Researching the "Other": Insights from Pierre Bourdieu's Theory of Social Science Research Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naidoo, Devika

    2014-01-01

    This article explores aspects of Pierre Bourdieu's theory of social science research practice and discusses their relevance for enhancing validity when researching the "other." Aspects such as: a relational way of thinking about concepts, epistemology and methodology; the rigorous construction of the object of research; and…

  5. Social Validity of Behavioral Practices in the Treatment of Autism--A Review of the "Super Nanny"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Melissa J.; Valdovinos, Maria G.

    2009-01-01

    This study assessed the social validity of behavioral techniques (i.e., pivotal response treatment) used with a child diagnosed with autism as viewed on an episode of the "Super Nanny" [Frost, J. (Host). (2005). Facente family [television series episode]. In N. Powell (Producer), "Super Nanny". New York: American Broadcasting Companies, Inc.].…

  6. Validity and reliability of questionnaires measuring physical activity self-efficacy, enjoyment, social support among Hong Kong Chinese children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Physical activity (PA) correlates have not been extensively studied in Hong Kong children. The aim of this study is to assess the validity and reliability of translated scales to measure PA related self-efficacy, enjoyment and social support in Hong Kong Chinese children. Sample 1 (n=273, aged 8–12 ...

  7. Preschool Children's Learning Behaviors, Concept Attainment, Social Skills, and Problem Behaviors: Validity Evidence for Preschool Learning Behaviors Scale Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaefer, Barbara A.; Shur, Kimberely Fitch; Macri-Summers, Maria; MacDonald, Scott L.

    2004-01-01

    This study provides concurrent and predictive validity and test-retest reliability evidence for scores from the preschool teacher-completed Preschool Learning Behaviors Scale (PLBS; McDermott, Green, Francis, & Stott, 2002) using two regional samples of preschool children aged 3 to 5.5 years (Ns of 61 and 70). Teacher ratings of social skills and…

  8. Validating a method for transferring social values of ecosystem services between public lands in the Rocky Mountain region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sherrouse, Benson C.; Semmens, Darius J.

    2014-01-01

    With growing pressures on ecosystem services, social values attributed to them are increasingly important to land management decisions. Social values, defined here as perceived values the public ascribes to ecosystem services, particularly cultural services, are generally not accounted for through economic markets or considered alongside economic and ecological values in ecosystem service assessments. Social-values data can be elicited through public value and preference surveys; however, limitations prevent them from being regularly collected. These limitations led to our three study objectives: (1) demonstrate an approach for applying benefit transfer, a nonmarket-valuation method, to spatially explicit social values; (2) validate the approach; and (3) identify potential improvements. We applied Social Values for Ecosystem Services (SolVES) to survey data for three national forests in Colorado and Wyoming. Social-value maps and models were generated, describing relationships between the maps and various combinations of environmental variables. Models from each forest were used to estimate social-value maps for the other forests via benefit transfer. Model performance was evaluated relative to the locally derived models. Performance varied with the number and type of environmental variables used, as well as differences in the forests' physical and social contexts. Enhanced metadata and better social-context matching could improve model transferability.

  9. Spiritual assessment and Native Americans: establishing the social validity of a complementary set of assessment tools.

    PubMed

    Hodge, David R; Limb, Gordon E

    2011-07-01

    Although social work practitioners are increasingly likely to administer spiritual assessments with Native American clients, few qualitative assessment instruments have been validated with this population. This mixed-method study validates a complementary set of spiritual assessment instruments. Drawing on the social validity literature, a sample of experts in Native culture (N = 50) evaluated the instruments' cultural consistency, strengths, limitations, and areas needing improvement. Regarding the degree of congruence with Native American culture, verbally based spiritual histories ranked highest and diagrammatically oriented spiritual genograms ranked lowest, although all instruments demonstrated at least moderate levels of consistency with Native culture.The results also suggest that practitioners' level of spiritual competence plays a crucial role in ensuring the instruments are operationalized in a culturally appropriate manner. PMID:21848086

  10. Outcome Measures of Functionality, Social Interaction, and Pain in Patients with Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy: A Validation Study for the Iranian Version of the Copenhagen Neck Functional Disability Scale

    PubMed Central

    Nayeb Aghaei, Hossein; Shahzadi, Sohrab; Azhari, Shirzad; Mohammadi, Hassan Reza; Alizadeh, Pooyan; Montazeri, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Cross-sectional. Purpose To translate and validate the Iranian version of the Copenhagen Neck Functional Disability Scale (CNFDS). Overview of Literature Instruments measuring patient-reported outcomes should satisfy certain psychometric properties. Methods Ninety-three cases of cervical spondylotic myelopathy were entered into the study and completed the CNFDS pre and postoperatively at the 6 month follow-up. The modified Japanese Orthopedic Association Score was also completed. The internal consistency, test-retest, convergent validity, construct validity (item scale correlation), and responsiveness to change were assessed. Results Mean age of the patients was 54.3 years (standard deviation, 8.9). The Cronbach α coefficient was satisfactory (α=0.84). Test-retest reliability as assessed by the intraclass correlation coefficient analysis was 0.95 (95% confidence interval, 0.92-0.98). The modified Japanese Orthopedic Association score correlated strongly with the CNFDS score, lending support to its good convergent validity (r=-0.80; p<0.001). Additionally, the correlation of each item with its hypothesized domain on the CNFDS was acceptable, suggesting that the items had a substantial relationship with their own domains. These results also indicate that the instrument was responsive to change (p<0.0001). Conclusions The findings suggest that the Iranian version of the CNFDS is a valid measure to assess functionality, social interaction, and pain among patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy. PMID:26713123

  11. The psychometric validation of the Social Problem-Solving Inventory--Revised with UK incarcerated sexual offenders.

    PubMed

    Wakeling, Helen C

    2007-09-01

    This study examined the reliability and validity of the Social Problem-Solving Inventory--Revised (SPSI-R; D'Zurilla, Nezu, & Maydeu-Olivares, 2002) with a population of incarcerated sexual offenders. An availability sample of 499 adult male sexual offenders was used. The SPSI-R had good reliability measured by internal consistency and test-retest reliability, and adequate validity. Construct validity was determined via factor analysis. An exploratory factor analysis extracted a two-factor model. This model was then tested against the theory-driven five-factor model using confirmatory factor analysis. The five-factor model was selected as the better fitting of the two, and confirmed the model according to social problem-solving theory (D'Zurilla & Nezu, 1982). The SPSI-R had good convergent validity; significant correlations were found between SPSI-R subscales and measures of self-esteem, impulsivity, and locus of control. SPSI-R subscales were however found to significantly correlate with a measure of socially desirable responding. This finding is discussed in relation to recent research suggesting that impression management may not invalidate self-report measures (e.g. Mills & Kroner, 2005). The SPSI-R was sensitive to sexual offender intervention, with problem-solving improving pre to post-treatment in both rapists and child molesters. The study concludes that the SPSI-R is a reasonably internally valid and appropriate tool to assess problem-solving in sexual offenders. However future research should cross-validate the SPSI-R with other behavioural outcomes to examine the external validity of the measure. Furthermore, future research should utilise a control group to determine treatment impact. PMID:17333399

  12. Development and validation of the Self-Stigma Questionnaire (SSQ) for people with schizophrenia and its relation to social functioning.

    PubMed

    Ochoa, Susana; Martínez-Zambrano, Francisco; Garcia-Franco, Mar; Vilamala, Sonia; Ribas, Maria; Arenas, Oti; Garcia-Morales, Esther; Álvarez, Irene; Escartin, Gemma; Villellas, Raul; Escandell, Maria Jose; Martínez-Raves, Mónica; López-Arias, Elisabeth; Cunyat, Christian; Haro, Josep Maria

    2015-10-01

    Self-stigma specifically in people with schizophrenia has been little studied. The aims of the present study were to validate a new instrument for the assessment of self-stigma (SSQ) and to assess the relationship between self-stigma and social functioning in people with schizophrenia. A sample of 76 people with schizophrenia was assessed at two moments in time with the SSQ, the PDD (stigma), two scales of social functioning (LSP, SFS), and a scale of general functioning (GAF). The results indicated that SSQ presented good psychometric properties, with Cronbach's alpha ranging between 0.75 and 0.901. The stability of the instrument was between 0.836 and 0.402. Three factors were found in the factor analysis (social discrimination, perceived capabilities, concealment of the disease), explaining 62.66% of the total variance. A relationship was found between self-stigma and social functioning in people with schizophrenia, especially in relation to social contact. In conclusion, the SSQ seems to be a valid and reliable questionnaire for the assessment of self-stigma in people with schizophrenia, and interventions should be designed to cope with self-stigma in order to improve the social functioning of people who suffer schizophrenia. PMID:26343472

  13. Initial Validation of a Knowledge-Based Measure of Social Information Processing and Anger Management

    PubMed Central

    Cassano, Michael; MacEvoy, Julie Paquette; Costigan, Tracy

    2010-01-01

    Over the past fifteen years many schools have utilized aggression prevention programs. Despite these apparent advances, many programs are not examined systematically to determine the areas in which they are most effective. One reason for this is that many programs, especially those in urban under-resourced areas, do not utilize outcome measures that are sensitive to the needs of ethnic minority students. The current study illustrates how a new knowledge-based measure of social information processing and anger management techniques was designed through a partnership-based process to ensure that it would be sensitive to the needs of urban, predominately African American youngsters, while also having broad potential applicability for use as an outcome assessment tool for aggression prevention programs focusing upon social information processing. The new measure was found to have strong psychometric properties within a sample of urban predominately African American youth, as item analyses suggested that almost all items discriminate well between more and less knowledgeable individuals, that the test-retest reliability of the measure is strong, and that the measure appears to be sensitive to treatment changes over time. In addition, the overall score of this new measure is moderately associated with attributions of hostility on two measures (negative correlations) and demonstrates a low to moderate negative association with peer and teacher report measures of overt and relational aggression. More research is needed to determine the measure's utility outside of the urban school context. PMID:20449645

  14. Initial validation of a knowledge-based measure of social information processing and anger management.

    PubMed

    Leff, Stephen S; Cassano, Michael; MacEvoy, Julie Paquette; Costigan, Tracy

    2010-10-01

    Over the past fifteen years many schools have utilized aggression prevention programs. Despite these apparent advances, many programs are not examined systematically to determine the areas in which they are most effective. One reason for this is that many programs, especially those in urban under-resourced areas, do not utilize outcome measures that are sensitive to the needs of ethnic minority students. The current study illustrates how a new knowledge-based measure of social information processing and anger management techniques was designed through a partnership-based process to ensure that it would be sensitive to the needs of urban, predominately African American youngsters, while also having broad potential applicability for use as an outcome assessment tool for aggression prevention programs focusing upon social information processing. The new measure was found to have strong psychometric properties within a sample of urban predominately African American youth, as item analyses suggested that almost all items discriminate well between more and less knowledgeable individuals, that the test-retest reliability of the measure is strong, and that the measure appears to be sensitive to treatment changes over time. In addition, the overall score of this new measure is moderately associated with attributions of hostility on two measures (negative correlations) and demonstrates a low to moderate negative association with peer and teacher report measures of overt and relational aggression. More research is needed to determine the measure's utility outside of the urban school context. PMID:20449645

  15. Empirically Valid Strategies to Improve Social and Emotional Competence of Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCabe, Paul C.; Altamura, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    Research over the past few decades has highlighted the importance of social and emotional competence in preschool children on later academic, social, and psychological outcomes. Children who are socially and emotionally competent have increased socialization opportunities with peers, develop more friends, have better relationships with their…

  16. 75 FR 25763 - Addition to the List of Validated End-Users: Advanced Micro Devices China, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-10

    ... August 13, 2009 (74 FR 41325 (August 14, 2009), has continued the EAR in effect under the International... FR 33646) by creating a new authorization for ``validated end-users'' located in eligible.... 13026, 61 FR 58767, 3 CFR, 1996 Comp., p. 228; E.O. 13222, 66 FR 44025, 3 CFR, 2001 Comp., p....

  17. 75 FR 62462 - Additions to the List of Validated End-Users in the People's Republic of China: Hynix...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-12

    ... 19, 2007 (72 FR 33646) by creating a new authorization for ``validated end-users'' located in... the Notice of August 12, 2010 (75 FR 50681 (August 16, 2010), has continued the EAR in effect under... (71 FR 38313, July 2, 2006 and 72 FR 33646, June 19, 2007). Given the similarities between...

  18. Research, Development, and Validation of a School Leader's Resource Guide for the Facilitation of Social Media Use by School Staff

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gooch, Deanna L.

    2012-01-01

    Many school leaders do not understand their rights and responsibilities to facilitate social media use by their staff in P-12 education. This dissertation was designed to research, develop, and validate a resource guide school leaders can use to facilitate social media use by school staff. "Research, Development, and Validation of a School…

  19. The Appraisal of Social Concerns Scale: Psychometric Validation with a Clinical Sample of Patients with Social Anxiety Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, Luke T.; Heimberg, Richard G.; Rodebaugh, Thomas L.; Schneier, Franklin R.; Liebowitz, Michael R.; Telch, Michael J.

    2006-01-01

    The Appraisal of Social Concerns (ASC) Scale was created by Telch et al. (2004) to improve upon existing self-report measures of social anxiety-related cognition. In a largely nonclinical sample, the ASC was found to possess three factors and was psychometrically sound. In a smaller clinical sample, the ASC demonstrated sensitivity to the effects…

  20. Self-Reported Acceptance of Social Anxiety Symptoms: Development and Validation of the Social Anxiety-Acceptance and Action Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKenzie, Meagan B.; Kocovski, Nancy L.

    2010-01-01

    Mindfulness and acceptance-based interventions have been used in social anxiety treatments with initial success. Further research requires the psychometrically sound measurement of mechanisms of change associated with these treatments. This research was conducted to develop and evaluate such a measure, the Social Anxiety-Acceptance and Action…

  1. Validation of alternative indicators of social support in perinatal outcomes research using quality of the partner relationship

    PubMed Central

    Kruse, Julie A.; Seng, Julia S.; Low, Lisa Kane

    2015-01-01

    Aim This paper suggests and tests alternatives to the current research and clinical practice of assuming that married or partnered status is a proxy for positive social support. Background Having a partner is assumed to relate to better health status via the intermediary process of social support. However, women’s health research indicates that having a partner is not always associated with positive social support. Design An exploratory post hoc analysis focused on posttraumatic stress and childbearing was conducted using a large perinatal database from 2005–2009. Methods To operationalize partner relationship, four variables were analyzed: partner (‘yes’ or ‘no’), intimate partner violence (‘yes’ or ‘no’), the combination of those two factors, and the woman’s appraisal of the quality of her partner relationship via a single item. Construct validity of these four alternative variables was assessed in relation to appraisal of the partner’s social support in labor and the postpartum using linear regression standardized betas and adjusted R-squares. Predictive validity was assessed using unadjusted and adjusted linear regression modeling. Results Four groups were compared. Married abused women differed most from married, not abused women in relation to the social support and depression outcomes used for validity checks. The variable representing the women’s appraisal of their partner relationship explains the most variance in predicting depression scores. Conclusions Our results support the validity of operationalizing the impact of the partner relationship on outcomes by using a combination of partnered status and abuse status or using a subjective rating of quality of the partner relationship. PMID:23009056

  2. 78 FR 41291 - Additions to the List of Validated End-Users in the People's Republic of China: Samsung China...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-10

    ...In this rule, the Bureau of Industry and Security (BIS) amends the Export Administration Regulations to add two end-users in the People's Republic of China to the list of Validated End-Users (VEU). Specifically, BIS amends Supplement No. 7 to part 748 of the EAR to add Samsung China Semiconductor Co. Ltd. (Samsung China) and Advanced Micro-Fabrication Equipment, Inc., China (AMEC) as VEUs.......

  3. Additional evidence for a dual-strategy model of reasoning: Probabilistic reasoning is more invariant than reasoning about logical validity.

    PubMed

    Markovits, Henry; Brisson, Janie; de Chantal, Pier-Luc

    2015-11-01

    One of the major debates concerning the nature of inferential reasoning is between counterexample-based strategies such as mental model theory and the statistical strategies underlying probabilistic models. The dual-strategy model proposed by Verschueren, Schaeken, and d'Ydewalle (2005a, 2005b) suggests that people might have access to both kinds of strategies. One of the postulates of this approach is that statistical strategies correspond to low-cost, intuitive modes of evaluation, whereas counterexample strategies are higher-cost and more variable in use. We examined this hypothesis by using a deductive-updating paradigm. The results of Study 1 showed that individual differences in strategy use predict different levels of deductive updating on inferences about logical validity. Study 2 demonstrated no such variation when explicitly probabilistic inferences were examined. Study 3 showed that presenting updating problems with probabilistic inferences modified performance on subsequent problems using logical validity, whereas the opposite was not true. These results provide clear evidence that the processes used to make probabilistic inferences are less subject to variation than those used to make inferences of logical validity. PMID:26148720

  4. Social Organization in Parasitic Flatworms--Four Additional Echinostomoid Trematodes Have a Soldier Caste and One Does Not.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Vedrenne, Ana E; Quintana, Anastasia C E; DeRogatis, Andrea M; Martyn, Kayla; Kuris, Armand M; Hechinger, Ryan F

    2016-02-01

    Complex societies where individuals exhibit division of labor with physical polymorphism, behavioral specialization, and caste formation have evolved several times throughout the animal kingdom. Recently, such complex sociality has been recognized in digenean trematodes; evidence is limited to 6 marine species. Hence, the extent to which a soldier caste is present throughout the Trematoda is sparsely documented, and there are no studies detailing the structure of a species lacking such a social structure. Here we examine colony structure for an additional 5 echinostomoid species, 4 of which infect the marine snail Cerithidea californica and 1 (Echinostoma liei) that infects the freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata . For all species, we present redia morphology (pharynx and body size) and the distribution of individuals of different castes throughout the snail body. When morphological evidence indicated the presence of a soldier caste, we assessed behavior by measuring attack rates of the different morphs toward heterospecific trematodes. Our findings indicate that each of the 4 species from C. californica have a permanent soldier caste while E. liei does not. The observed intra- and inter-specific variation of caste structure for those species with soldiers, and the documentation of colony structure for a species explicitly lacking permanent soldiers, emphasizes the diverse nature of trematode sociality and the promise of the group to permit comparative investigations of the evolution and ecology of sociality. PMID:26560890

  5. Can Findings from Randomized Controlled Trials of Social Skills Training in Autism Spectrum Disorder Be Generalized? The Neglected Dimension of External Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonsson, Ulf; Olsson, Nora Choque; Bölte, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Systematic reviews have traditionally focused on internal validity, while external validity often has been overlooked. In this study, we systematically reviewed determinants of external validity in the accumulated randomized controlled trials of social skills group interventions for children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder. We…

  6. Measuring Teacher Knowledge of Classroom Social Networks: Convergent and Predictive Validity in Elementary School Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madill, Rebecca A.; Gest, Scott D.; Rodkin, Philip C.

    2012-01-01

    This study contributes to a growing body of literature focused on the role of the teacher's "invisible hand" in managing students social relationships. The authors focus on one specific aspect of attunement, teachers' social network knowledge, which they conceptualize as the completeness and accuracy of the teacher's social network knowledge,…

  7. The Behavioral Assessment of Social Interactions in Young Children: An Examination of Convergent and Incremental Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callahan, Emily H.; Gillis, Jennifer M.; Romanczyk, Raymond G.; Mattson, Richard E.

    2011-01-01

    Many treatment programs for individuals with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) target social skills, and there is growing attention directed toward the development of specific interventions to improve social skills and social interactions in this population (Hestenes & Carroll, 2000; Strain & Hoyson, 2000). However, there are limited tools…

  8. Development and Validation of the Social Worker's Attitudes toward Disability Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheatham, Leah P.; Abell, Neil; Kim, Hyejin

    2015-01-01

    Disability scholars have recently highlighted social work professional organizations' lagging pace in adopting disability advocacy within diversity agendas and have questioned the adequacy of disability content within accredited social work curricula. Amid growing concerns, measures to assess attitudes of social workers toward disability and…

  9. A Comparative Analysis of the Validity of US State- and County-Level Social Capital Measures and Their Associations with Population Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Chul-Joo; Kim, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The goals of this study were to validate a number of available collective social capital measures at the US state and county levels, and to examine the relative extent to which these social capital measures are associated with population health outcomes. Measures of social capital at the US state level included aggregate indices based on the…

  10. Assessing autistic traits in a Taiwan preschool population: cross-cultural validation of the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS).

    PubMed

    Wang, Jessica; Lee, Li-Ching; Chen, Ying-Sheue; Hsu, Ju-Wei

    2012-11-01

    The cross-cultural validity of the Mandarin-adaptation of the social responsiveness scale (SRS) was examined in a sample of N = 307 participants in Taiwan, 140 typically developing and 167 with clinically-diagnosed developmental disorders. This scale is an autism assessment tool that provides a quantitative rather than categorical measure of social impairment in the general population. SRS total and subscale scores distinguished significantly between autism spectrum disorder and other developmental disorders (p < 0.01). Total SRS scores and sensitivity and specificity of the scale for diagnosing developmental disorders in the Taiwan study were similar to those observed in Western studies. These findings support the cross-cultural validity of the SRS scale for detecting autistic traits and for distinguishing between autism and other neuropsychiatric conditions. PMID:22407579

  11. Autistic traits and autism spectrum disorders: the clinical validity of two measures presuming a continuum of social communication skills.

    PubMed

    Bölte, Sven; Westerwald, Eva; Holtmann, Martin; Freitag, Christine; Poustka, Fritz

    2011-01-01

    Research indicates that autism is the extreme end of a continuously distributed trait. The Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) and the Social and Communication Disorders Checklist (SCDC) aim to assess autistic traits. The objective of this study was to compare their clinical validity. The SRS showed sensitivities of .74 to .80 and specificities of .69 to 1.00 for autism. Sensitivities were .85 to .90 and specificities .28 to.82 for the SCDC. Correlations with the ADI-R, ADOS and SCQ were higher for the SRS than for the SCDC. The SCDC seems superior to the SRS to screen for unspecific social and communicative deficits including autism. The SRS appears more suitable than the SCDC in clinical settings and for specific autism screening. PMID:20422277

  12. The Development and Validation of the Social Networking Experiences Questionnaire: A Measure of Adolescent Cyberbullying and Its Impact.

    PubMed

    Dredge, Rebecca; Gleeson, John; Garcia, Xochitl de la Piedad

    2015-01-01

    The measurement of cyberbullying has been marked by several inconsistencies that lead to difficulties in cross-study comparisons of the frequency of occurrence and the impact of cyberbullying. Consequently, the first aim of this study was to develop a measure of experience with and impact of cyberbullying victimization in social networking sites in adolescents. The second aim was to investigate the psychometric properties of a purpose-built measure (Social Networking Experiences Questionnaire [SNEQ]). Exploratory factor analysis on 253 adolescent social networking sites users produced a six-factor model of impact. However, one factor was removed because of low internal consistency. Cronbach's alpha was higher than .76 for the victimization and remaining five impact subscales. Furthermore, correlation coefficients for the Victimization scale and related dimensions showed good construct validity. The utility of the SNEQ for victim support personnel, research, and cyberbullying education/prevention programs is discussed. PMID:26299596

  13. 78 FR 54752 - Addition and Revision to the List of Validated End-Users in the People's Republic of China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-06

    ... items *Intel 78 FR [INSERT PAGE Semiconductor authorized for the Semiconductor NUMBER], 9-6-13. (Dalian... final rule published on June 19, 2007 (72 FR 33646) to create Authorization VEU. Addition to the List of..., 2001 Comp., p. 783 (2002)), as amended by Executive Order 13637 of March 8, 2013, 78 FR 16129 (March...

  14. Validity of the Leadership Attitudes and Beliefs Scale: Relationships with Personality, Communal Orientation, and Social Desirability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wielkiewicz, Richard M.

    2002-01-01

    The Leadership Attitudes and Beliefs Scale was studied in 65 males and 111 females between 19 and 22 years old. Results supported the convergent and discriminantive validity of the Systemic Thinking scale and the divergent and discriminantive validity of the Hierarchical Thinking scale. (Contains 61 references and 2 tables.) (GCP)

  15. An Empirically Derived Approach to the Latent Structure of the Adult Attachment Interview: Additional Convergent and Discriminant Validity Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Haydon, Katherine C.; Roisman, Glenn I.; Marks, Michael J.; Fraley, R. Chris

    2011-01-01

    Building on studies examining the latent structure of attachment-related individual differences as assessed by the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) via Principal Components Analysis, the current report further explores the validity of four AAI dimensions reported by Haydon, Roisman, and Burt (in press): dismissing states of mind, preoccupied states of mind, and inferred negative experience with maternal and paternal caregivers. Study 1 reports evidence of distinctive cognitive correlates of dismissing v. preoccupied states of mind with reaction time in an attachment Stroop task and the valence of endorsed self-descriptors, respectively. Study 2 replicates prior meta-analytic findings of generally trivial convergence between state of mind dimensions and self-reported avoidance and anxiety (i.e., Roisman, Holland, et al., 2007). Study 3 contrastively demonstrates moderate empirical overlap between inferred experience—but not state of mind—AAI scales and self-reported avoidance and anxiety when the latter were assessed at the level of specific caregivers. Taken together, these findings add to accumulating evidence that an empirically-driven approach to scaling adults on AAI dimensions (Haydon et al., in press; Roisman et al., 2007) aids in identifying theoretically anticipated and distinctive affective, behavioral, and cognitive correlates of dismissing versus preoccupied states of mind. PMID:21838649

  16. The Validity and Reliability of The Social Communication Questionnaire-Turkish Form in Autistics Aged 4-18 Years

    PubMed Central

    Avcil, Sibelnur; Baykara, Burak; Baydur, Hakan; Münir, Kerim M.; Inal Emiroğlu, Neslihan

    2016-01-01

    Objective The Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ) is a valid and reliable 40-item scale used to assess pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs). The aim of this study was to determine the validity and reliability of the SCQ-Turkish Form (SCQ-TF). Materials and Methods The study included 100 children and adolescents aged 4-18 years; 50 were diagnosed as PDD and 50 were diagnosed with intellectual disability (ID) based on DSM-IV-TR criteria. The consistency, test-retest reliability, content validity, and discriminant validity of SCQ-TF for the groups in the study sample were evaluated. SCQ-TF was compared to the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS), Autism Behavioural Checklist (ABC), and Clinical Global Impression-Severity of Illness (CGI-SI). The most appropriate SCQ-TF cut-off point was determined via ROC analysis. Results The 4-factor structure of SCQ-TF accounted for 43.0% of the observed total variance. Correlations between SCQ-TF and the other measures were significant. The Cronbach's alpha value for the SCQ-TF total score was 0.80. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) varied between 0.87 and 0.96, and the cut-off point was 15. Conclusion The findings show that SCQ-TF is valid and reliable for use in Turkey in those aged 4-18 years. PMID:25742038

  17. Assessing Individual Social Capital Capacity: The Development and Validation of a Network Accessibility Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatala, John-Paul

    2009-01-01

    Any organization that is able to promote the importance of increased levels of social capital and individuals who can leverage and use the resources that exist within the network may experience higher levels of performance. This study sought to add to our knowledge about individuals' accessing social resources for the purpose of accomplishing…

  18. Validation of the Emotion Regulation and Social Skills Questionnaire for Young People with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butterworth, Thomas W.; Hodge, M. Antoinette; Sofronoff, Kate; Beaumont, Renae; Gray, Kylie M.; Roberts, Jacqueline; Horstead, Siân K.; Clarke, Kristina S.; Howlin, Patricia; Taffe, John R.; Einfeld, Stewart L.

    2014-01-01

    The current study aims to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Emotion Regulation and Social Skills Questionnaire (ERSSQ), a rating scale designed specifically to assess the social skills of young people with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). The participants were 84 children and young adolescents with ASD, aged between 7.97 and 14.16 years…

  19. The Association of Social Work Boards' Licensure Examinations: A Review of Reliability and Validity Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marson, Stephen M.; DeAngelis, Donna; Mittal, Nisha

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this article is to create transparency for the psychometric methods employed for the development of the Association of Social Work Boards' (ASWB) exams. Results: The article includes an assessment of the macro (political) and micro (statistical) environments of testing social work competence. The seven-step process used…

  20. A Cross Cultural Validation of Perceptions and Use of Social Network Service: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guo, Chengqi

    2009-01-01

    The rapid developments Social Network Service (SNS) have offered opportunities to re-visit many seminal theoretical assumptions of technology usage within socio-technical environment. Online social network is a rapidly growing field that imposes new questions to the existing IS research paradigm. It is argued that information systems research must…

  1. The Development and Initial Validation of a Scale to Measure Social Fear.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raulin, Michael L.; Wee, Jennifer L.

    1984-01-01

    Developed a true-false scale to measure social fear, using procedures to maximize reliability and minimize response set bias (N=910). Interviews with selected subjects (N=44) confirmed that the scale measures social fear, and the scale was found to correlate with previously developed schizotypy scales (N=252). (Author/JAC)

  2. Development and Validation of a Gender-Balanced Measure of Aggression-Relevant Social Cognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Jan N.; Webster-Stratton, Barbara T.; Cavell, Timothy A.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the psychometric properties of the Social?Cognitive Assessment Profile (SCAP), a gender-balanced measure of social information processing (SIP) in a sample of 371 (139 girls, 232 boys) 2nd- to 4th-grade children. The SCAP assesses 4 dimensions of SIP (Inferring Hostile Intent, Constructing Hostile Goals, Generating Aggressive…

  3. Validation of the Elementary Social Behavior Assessment: A Measure of Student Prosocial School Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennefather, Jordan T.; Smolkowski, Keith

    2015-01-01

    We describe the psychometric evaluation of the "Elementary Social Behavior Assessment" (ESBA™), a 12-item scale measuring teacher-preferred, positive social skills. The ESBA was developed for use in elementary school classrooms to measure teacher perceptions of students using time-efficient, web-based data collection methods that allow…

  4. Adaptation of Social Interaction Practices for the Preschool Years into Turkish: Validity and Reliability Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samur, Ayse Ozturk; Soydan, Sema

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to adapt SIPPY (social interaction practices for the preschool years) scale into Turkish. The SIPPY is a tool designed to assess teachers' judgments of the acceptability and feasibility, as well as their current use of literature-supported strategies for promoting the development of young children's social competence in…

  5. Cooperativeness and competitiveness as two distinct constructs: validating the Cooperative and Competitive Personality Scale in a social dilemma context.

    PubMed

    Lu, Su; Au, Wing-Tung; Jiang, Feng; Xie, Xiaofei; Yam, Paton

    2013-01-01

    The present research validated the construct and criterion validities of the Cooperative and Competitive Personality Scale (CCPS) in a social dilemma context. The results from three studies supported the notion that cooperativeness and competitiveness are two independent dimensions, challenging the traditional view that they are two ends of a single continuum. First, confirmatory factor analyses revealed that a two-factor structure fit the data significantly better than a one-factor structure. Moreover, cooperativeness and competitiveness were either not significantly correlated (Studies 1 and 3) or only moderately positively correlated (Study 2). Second, cooperativeness and competitiveness were differentially associated with Schwartz's Personal Values. These results further supported the idea that cooperativeness and competitiveness are two distinct constructs. Specifically, the individuals who were highly cooperative emphasized self-transcendent values (i.e., universalism and benevolence) more, whereas the individuals who were highly competitive emphasized self-enhancement values (i.e., power and achievement) more. Finally, the CCPS, which adheres to the trait perspective of personality, was found to be a useful supplement to more prevalent social motive measures (i.e., social value orientation) in predicting cooperative behaviors. Specifically, in Study 2, when social value orientation was controlled for, the CCPS significantly predicted cooperative behaviors in a public goods dilemma (individuals who score higher on cooperativeness scale contributed more to the public goods). In Study 3, when social value orientation was controlled for, the CCPS significantly predicted cooperative behaviors in commons dilemmas (individuals who score higher on cooperativeness scale requested fewer resources from the common resource pool). The practical implications of the CCPS in conflict resolution, as well as in recruitment and selection settings, are discussed. PMID:23145818

  6. Farsi Version of Social Skills Rating System-Secondary Student Form: Cultural Adaptation, Reliability and Construct Validity

    PubMed Central

    Eslami, Ahmad Ali; Amidi Mazaheri, Maryam; Mostafavi, Firoozeh; Abbasi, Mohamad Hadi; Noroozi, Ensieh

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Assessment of social skills is a necessary requirement to develop and evaluate the effectiveness of cognitive and behavioral interventions. This paper reports the cultural adaptation and psychometric properties of the Farsi version of the social skills rating system-secondary students form (SSRS-SS) questionnaire (Gresham and Elliot, 1990), in a normative sample of secondary school students. Methods: A two-phase design was used that phase 1 consisted of the linguistic adaptation and in phase 2, using cross-sectional sample survey data, the construct validity and reliability of the Farsi version of the SSRS-SS were examined in a sample of 724 adolescents aged from 13 to 19 years. Results: Content validity index was excellent, and the floor/ceiling effects were low. After deleting five of the original SSRS-SS items, the findings gave support for the item convergent and divergent validity. Factor analysis revealed four subscales. Results showed good internal consistency (0.89) and temporal stability (0.91) for the total scale score. Conclusion: Findings demonstrated support for the use of the 27-item Farsi version in the school setting. Directions for future research regarding the applicability of the scale in other settings and populations of adolescents are discussed. PMID:25053964

  7. Development and validation of an instrument to assess perceived social influence on health behaviors

    PubMed Central

    HOLT, CHERYL L.; CLARK, EDDIE M.; ROTH, DAVID L.; CROWTHER, MARTHA; KOHLER, CONNIE; FOUAD, MONA; FOUSHEE, RUSTY; LEE, PATRICIA A.; SOUTHWARD, PENNY L.

    2012-01-01

    Assessment of social influence on health behavior is often approached through a situational context. The current study adapted an existing, theory-based instrument from another content domain to assess Perceived Social Influence on Health Behavior (PSI-HB) among African Americans, using an individual difference approach. The adapted instrument was found to have high internal reliability (α = .81–.84) and acceptable testretest reliability (r = .68–.85). A measurement model revealed a three-factor structure and supported the theoretical underpinnings. Scores were predictive of health behaviors, particularly among women. Future research using the new instrument may have applied value assessing social influence in the context of health interventions. PMID:20522506

  8. Social and Emotional Competencies Evaluation Questionnaire-Teacher's Version: Validation of a Short Form.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Vitor A; Sousa, Vanda; Marchante, Marta

    2016-08-01

    The Social and Emotional Competencies Evaluation Questionnaire-Teacher's version, Short Form (QACSE-P-SF) allows teachers to assess their students' social and emotional competencies, having been designed for program evaluation. Thirty-nine teachers completed the QACSE-P-SF, regarding 657 students (fourth to ninth grades). Factor analyses supported a six-factor structure with acceptable internal consistency. Sex differences were found with teachers reporting girls as having higher scores on Self-Control, Social Awareness, Relationship Skills, and Responsible Decision Making. Developmental differences were also found with fourth-grade students presenting higher levels of Social Awareness and Relationship Skills than older students. The final version of the QACSE-P-SF is composed by 30 items, organized into six scales and less time consuming than the previous version for teachers who need to assess full classes. PMID:27356548

  9. Brief report: the autism spectrum quotient has convergent validity with the social responsiveness scale in a high-functioning sample.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Kimberly; Iarocci, Grace

    2013-09-01

    The Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ) is widely used to measure autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptoms and screen for ASD. It is readily available free of charge online and is easily accessible to practitioners, researchers and individuals who suspect that they may have an ASD. Thus, the AQ is a potentially useful, widely accessible tool for ASD screening. The objective of this study was to examine the convergent validity of the AQ using a well-established, published screening measure of autism: the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS). Twenty-three high-functioning participants (aged 8-19) with ASD were administered both measures. Results indicated a significant correlation between the SRS and AQ ratings, providing evidence for convergent validity of the AQ with the SRS. PMID:23371508

  10. Validity and reliability of questionnaires measuring physical activity self-efficacy, enjoyment, social support among Hong Kong Chinese children

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Yan; Lau, Patrick W.C.; Huang, Wendy Y.J.; Maddison, Ralph; Baranowski, Tom

    2014-01-01

    Background Physical activity (PA) correlates have not been extensively studied in Hong Kong children. Objective The aim of this study is to assess the validity and reliability of translated scales to measure PA related self-efficacy, enjoyment and social support in Hong Kong Chinese children. Methods Sample 1 (n = 273, aged 8–12 years) was recruited (May–June, 2013) from two primary schools. Confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) were conducted to assess factorial validity. Criterion validity was assessed by correlating measured constructs with self-reported PA. Cronbach's alpha was computed to assess scale internal consistency. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was performed to assess scale test–retest reliability. Criterion validity was further examined in Sample 2 (n = 84, aged 8–12 years) from a third school by correlating measured constructs with objectively measured PA collected in September 2013 and February 2014. Results The CFA results supported the one-factor structure of the scales. All PA correlates were significantly (p < 0.01) associated with self-reported PA in Sample 1. Self-efficacy and enjoyment were significantly (p < 0.05) correlated with objectively measured PA in Sample 2. All the scales demonstrated acceptable internal consistency. All ICC values of the scales suggested acceptable test–retest reliability. Conclusion The results provide psychometric support for using the scales to measure PA correlates among Hong Kong Chinese children. PMID:26844039

  11. Attributional and emotional responses to socially ambiguous cues: validation of a new assessment of social/emotional information processing in healthy adults and impulsive aggressive patients.

    PubMed

    Coccaro, Emil F; Noblett, Kurtis L; McCloskey, Michael S

    2009-07-01

    A self-report questionnaire was developed to assess attributional and emotional responses to aversive, but socially ambiguous, actions by one or more provocateurs. Multiple vignettes were developed and were followed by questions related to attribution of the provocateur's intent and the subject's emotional response to the provocateur's actions. The resulting social information processing-attribution and emotional response questionnaire (SIP-AEQ) was administered to 923 community-based adults (ages 18-45). Factor analysis revealed a three-factor structure reflecting hostile attribution, instrumental attribution, and benign attribution to provocation. A cross-validational study substantiated the factor structure. The modified 8-vignette SIP-AEQ demonstrated good internal reliability, and convergent and discriminant validity. The hostile attribution items showed a significant relationship with measures of emotion processing and responsiveness. Further analysis in a sample of impulsive aggressive patients and healthy control subjects noted similar psychometric properties and good separation between groups. Implications regarding the cognitive and emotional correlates of aggression are discussed. PMID:19345371

  12. Experiential avoidance in idiographic, autobiographical memories: Construct validity and links to social anxiety, depressive, and anger symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Kashdan, Todd B.; Breen, William E.; Afram, Alex; Terhar, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Experiential avoidance, or attempts to alter or avoid undesirable thoughts and feelings, has been theorized to be relevant to the development of emotional disturbances, particularly anxiety problems. Prior work has relied on two methodologies: global self-report measures or laboratory manipulations. To better understand links between experiential avoidance and emotional disturbances, we measured experiential avoidance in the context of prominent anxious autobiographical events. Trained raters coded events for emotionality and reliance on experiential avoidance. Our interest was whether experiential avoidance could be measured as a memory characteristic and how it relates to social anxiety, depressive, and anger symptoms. As evidence of construct validity, experiential avoidance ratings were related to more intense negative emotions and coping difficulties during anxious events, memory vividness, and emotion suppression tendencies. Experiential avoidance was positively related to social anxiety and depressive symptoms and predicted an increase in social anxiety over a 3-month period; findings could not be attributed to the emotionality of memories. In contrast, no relations were found with inward or outward expressions of anger, or longitudinal change in depressive or anger symptoms. Results suggest that experiential avoidance is an important dimension of people’s life narratives and particularly relevant to social anxiety problems. PMID:20399602

  13. Assessing Social Validity of School-Wide Positive Behavior Support Plans: Evidence for the Reliability and Structure of the Primary Intervention Rating Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Kathleen Lynne; Kalberg, Jemma Robertson; Bruhn, Allison Leigh; Driscoll, Steven A.; Wehby, Joseph H.; Elliott, Stephen N.

    2009-01-01

    This study provides initial evidence for the reliability and structural validity of scores from the Primary Intervention Rating Scale (Lane, Robertson, & Wehby, 2002), an adapted version of the Intervention Rating Profile-15 (Witt & Elliott, 1985) designed to assess faculty's perceptions of social validity of primary prevention plans prior to…

  14. Validation of the multi-dimensional scale of perceived social support (MSPSS) and the relationship between social support, intimate partner violence and antenatal depression in Malawi

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Lack of social support is an important risk factor for antenatal depression and anxiety in low- and middle-income countries. We translated, adapted and validated the Multi-dimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) in order to study the relationship between perceived social support, intimate partner violence and antenatal depression in Malawi. Methods The MSPSS was translated and adapted into Chichewa and Chiyao. Five hundred and eighty-three women attending an antenatal clinic were administered the MSPSS, depression screening measures, and a risk factor questionnaire including questions about intimate partner violence. A sub-sample of participants (n = 196) were interviewed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV to diagnose major depressive episode. Validity of the MSPSS was evaluated by assessment of internal consistency, factor structure, and correlation with Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ) score and major depressive episode. We investigated associations between perception of support from different sources (significant other, family, and friends) and major depressive episode, and whether intimate partner violence was a moderator of these associations. Results In both Chichewa and Chiyao, the MSPSS had high internal consistency for the full scale and significant other, family, and friends subscales. MSPSS full scale and subscale scores were inversely associated with SRQ score and major depression diagnosis. Using principal components analysis, the MSPSS had the expected 3-factor structure in analysis of the whole sample. On confirmatory factor analysis, goodness–of-fit indices were better for a 3-factor model than for a 2-factor model, and met standard criteria when correlation between items was allowed. Lack of support from a significant other was the only MSPSS subscale that showed a significant association with depression on multivariate analysis, and this association was moderated by experience of intimate partner

  15. A Comparative Analysis of the Validity of US State- and County-Level Social Capital Measures and Their Associations with Population Health

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chul-joo; Kim, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The goals of this study were to validate a number of available collective social capital measures at the U.S. state and county levels, and to examine the relative extent to which these social capital measures are associated with population health outcomes. Measures of social capital at the U.S. state level included aggregate indices based on the Annenberg National Health Communication Survey (ANHCS) and the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), Petris Social Capital Index (PSCI), Putnam’s index, and Kim et al.’s scales. County-level measures consisted of Rupasingha et al.’s social capital index (RGFI) and a BRFSS-derived measure. These measures, except for the PSCI, showed evidence of acceptable validity. Moreover, we observed differences across the social capital measures in their associations with population health outcomes. The implications of the findings for future research in this area are discussed. PMID:25574069

  16. Intervention Validity of Social Behavior Rating Scales: Features of Assessments that Link Results to Treatment Plans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Stephen N.; Gresham, Frank M.; Frank, Jennifer L.; Beddow, Peter A., III

    2008-01-01

    The term "intervention validity" refers to the extent to which assessment results can be used to guide the selection of interventions and evaluation of outcomes. In this article, the authors review the defining attributes of rating scales that distinguish them from other assessment tools, assumptions regarding the use of rating scales to measure…

  17. Measures of Emotional Intelligence and Social Acceptability in Children: A Concurrent Validity Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Windingstad, Sunny; McCallum, R. Steve; Bell, Sherry Mee; Dunn, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    The concurrent validity of two measures of Emotional Intelligence (EI), one considered a trait measure, the other an ability measure, was examined by administering the Emotional Quotient Inventory: Youth Version (EQi:YV; Bar-On & Parker, 2000), the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test: Youth Version (MSCEIT:YV; Mayer, Salovey, &…

  18. In Memory of All the Broken Ones: Catalytic Validity through Critical Arts Research for Social Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robson, Claire; Sumara, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    The authors of this article use data produced in a collaborative community arts group in BC Canada as a way to think about validation in arts-based educational research (ABER). As Lather attempted to find middle ground between "rampant subjectivity" and "pointless precision" in research, she (1986) suggested that studies with…

  19. Evaluating the Validity and Social Acceptability of Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Skill Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopp, Brandon; Miltenberger, Raymond G.

    2008-01-01

    In research evaluating sexual abuse prevention programs, knowledge measures are typically used to assess the program's success. In other areas of research on child safety skills, however, skills are typically assessed through behavioral measures such as role-plays. The purpose of this study was to assess the validity and acceptability of a set of…

  20. A Validation and Reliability Study of Community Service Activities Scale in Turkey: A Social Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demir, Özden; Kaya, Halil Ibrahim; Tasdan, Murat

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to test the reliability and validity of Community Service Activities Scale (CSAS) developed by Demir, Kaya and Tasdan (2012) with a view to identify perceptions of Faculty of Education students regarding community service activities. The participants of the study are 313 randomly chosen students who attend six…

  1. Development and Validation of Social Provision Scale on First Year Undergraduate Psychological Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oluwatomiwo, Oladunmoye Enoch

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the development and validation of socio provision scale on first year undergraduates adjustment among institution in Ibadan metropolis. The study adopted a descriptive survey design. A sample of 300 participants was randomly selected across institutions in Ibadan. Data were collected using socio provision scale (a =0.76),…

  2. Validating the Relationship Qualities of Influence and Persuasion with the Family Social Relations Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsiung, Rachel Oakley; Bagozzi, Richard P.

    2003-01-01

    Uses the family social relations model (SRM) to test for the personal relationship qualities of influence and persuasion in the family decision-making context of buying a new car. Uncovers patterns in the relationship qualities of influence and persuasion across three decisions families make when buying a new car (i.e., how much to spend, car…

  3. Leadership Succession as Social Validation: The View from Inside the Principalship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Ann Weaver

    This paper examines the social phenomenon of leadership succession in a school from the perspective of the successor, based on the author's own experience in succeeding to the principalship of a junior high school. Using a combination of participant observation, informal interview, and existing and collected documents, the study was designed to…

  4. Validation and Utility of the Social Emotional Health Survey-Secondary for Japanese Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ito, Ayako; Smith, Douglas C.; You, Sukkyung; Shimoda, Yoshiyuki; Furlong, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    The article explores the use of the Social and Emotional Health Survey-Secondary version (SEHS-S) with a sample of 975 Japanese students in Grades 7-9 attending schools located northwest of Tokyo. A confirmatory factor analysis using half the sample confirmed the four-factor structure of the SEHS-S, and further analyses verified its second-order…

  5. Development and Preliminary Validation of the Social-Emotional Assets and Resiliency Scale for Preschool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ravitch, Nancy Kathryn

    2013-01-01

    Assessment of social and emotional learning (SEL) in young children is critical to understanding developmental progress and informing care and instruction. The current study investigated the development of a behavior rating scale designed to measure SEL skills in preschool-age children. The primary objective of this study was to investigate the…

  6. Validating an Assessment of Individual Actions, Postsecondary Supports, and Social Supports of College Students with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lombardi, Allison; Gerdes, Hilary; Murray, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the authors developed, administered, and evaluated a measure of individual actions of college students with disabilities and their perceptions of postsecondary and social supports. An exploratory factor analysis resulted in nine reliable factors in these three areas. Follow-up regression analyses revealed that self-advocacy…

  7. Fruit and vegetable shopping practices and social support scales: a validation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the psychometric characteristics of new scales of shopping practices and social support for purchasing fruits and vegetables. DESIGN: Participants were recruited in front of diverse grocery stores. Telephone data collection was done on 2 occasions, separated by 6 weeks. PARTICIP...

  8. Workplace Social Self-Efficacy: Concept, Measure, and Initial Validity Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fan, Jinyan; Litchfield, Robert C.; Islam, Sayeed; Weiner, Brianne; Alexander, Monique; Liu, Cong; Kulviwat, Songpol

    2013-01-01

    The authors proposed the construct of workplace social self-efficacy (WSSE) and developed an inventory to measure it. Two empirical studies were conducted to examine the psychometric properties of this new measure. In Study 1, we described the development of the WSSE inventory and explored its factor structure in a sample of 304 full-time…

  9. Confirmatory Factor Analysis and Concurrent Validity of the Perceived Social Support-Family Measure among Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Windle, Michael; Miller-Tutzauer, Carol

    1992-01-01

    Confirmatory, simultaneous group factor analysis supported three-factor structure of Perceived Social Support-Family measure for adolescents (n=975). Factors of Support Received, Support Provided, and Family Intimacy were significantly correlated with adolescent ratings of maternal and paternal support and inversely correlated with primary…

  10. Perceived Personal and Social Competence: Development of Valid and Reliable Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fetro, Joyce V.; Rhodes, Darson L.; Hey, David W.

    2010-01-01

    During the last 20 years, youth programming has shifted from risk reduction to youth development. While numerous instruments exist to measure selected individual characteristics/competencies among youth, a comprehensive instrument to measure four constructs of personal and social skills could not be identified. The purpose of this study was to…

  11. Validation of the Social Communication Questionnaire in a Population Cohort of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandler, Susie; Charman, Tony; Baird, Gillian; Simonoff, Emily; Loucas, Tom; Meldrum, David; Scott, Mimi; Pickles, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To examine the properties of the Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ) in a population cohort of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and in the general population. Method: SCQ data were collected from three samples: the Special Needs and Autism Project (SNAP) cohort of 9- to 10-year-old children with special educational…

  12. Social Context of Smoking Hookah among College Students: Scale Development and Validation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Eva; Beck, Kenneth H.; Clark, Pamela I.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To develop an instrument that measures the social context of hookah use among college students. Participants: A pool of 50 potential items, based on 44 in-depth interviews with regular college hookah smokers, was administered to a sample of 274 hookah users between October and December 2011. Methods: Participants were approached in…

  13. A Risk Score with Additional Four Independent Factors to Predict the Incidence and Recovery from Metabolic Syndrome: Development and Validation in Large Japanese Cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Obokata, Masaru; Negishi, Kazuaki; Ohyama, Yoshiaki; Okada, Haruka; Imai, Kunihiko; Kurabayashi, Masahiko

    2015-01-01

    Background Although many risk factors for Metabolic syndrome (MetS) have been reported, there is no clinical score that predicts its incidence. The purposes of this study were to create and validate a risk score for predicting both incidence and recovery from MetS in a large cohort. Methods Subjects without MetS at enrollment (n = 13,634) were randomly divided into 2 groups and followed to record incidence of MetS. We also examined recovery from it in rest 2,743 individuals with prevalent MetS. Results During median follow-up of 3.0 years, 878 subjects in the derivation and 757 in validation cohorts developed MetS. Multiple logistic regression analysis identified 12 independent variables from the derivation cohort and initial score for subsequent MetS was created, which showed good discrimination both in the derivation (c-statistics 0.82) and validation cohorts (0.83). The predictability of the initial score for recovery from MetS was tested in the 2,743 MetS population (906 subjects recovered from MetS), where nine variables (including age, sex, γ-glutamyl transpeptidase, uric acid and five MetS diagnostic criteria constituents.) remained significant. Then, the final score was created using the nine variables. This score significantly predicted both the recovery from MetS (c-statistics 0.70, p<0.001, 78% sensitivity and 54% specificity) and incident MetS (c-statistics 0.80) with an incremental discriminative ability over the model derived from five factors used in the diagnosis of MetS (continuous net reclassification improvement: 0.35, p < 0.001 and integrated discrimination improvement: 0.01, p<0.001). Conclusions We identified four additional independent risk factors associated with subsequent MetS, developed and validated a risk score to predict both incident and recovery from MetS. PMID:26230621

  14. Development of a Community Commitment Scale with Cross-sectional Survey Validation for Preventing Social Isolation in Older Japanese People

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Elderly social isolation could be prevented by facilitating communication or mutual helping at the neighborhood level. The helping of elderly neighbors by local volunteers may relate to their community commitment (CC), but ways to measure CC have not been identified. The aim of the present study was to develop a Community Commitment Scale (CCS) to measure psychological sense of belonging and socializing in the community among local volunteers, for research in prevention of elderly social isolation. We also tested the CCS in a general population of the elderly. Methods A pilot test of 266 Japanese urban residents was conducted to examine face validity for 24 identified items, of which 12 items were selected for the CCS, based on a 4-point Likert-type scale. The CCS was developed via self-report questionnaires to 859 local volunteers in two suburban cities and to 3484 randomly sampled general residents aged 55 years or older living in one of the cities. To assess concurrent validity, data were collected using the Brief Sense of Community Scale (Peterson; 2008) and two types of single questions on self-efficacy for helping elderly neighbors. Results Item analysis and factor analysis identified 8 items, which were classified between two datasets under the domains of “belonging” and “socializing” in the local volunteers and the general residents. Cronbach’s alpha (which conveyed the internal consistency of the CCS) was 0.75 in local volunteers and 0.78 in general residents. The correlation coefficients between the scores of the CCS and BSCS were 0.54 for local volunteers and 0.62 for general residents. ANOVA comparing the CCS between the confidence levels of the two types of single question of self-efficacy on helping elderly neighbors showed a strong relationship in the volunteers and residents. Conclusions These results demonstrate acceptable internal consistency and concurrent validity for the CCS, with the two dimensions “belonging” and

  15. Evaluating the Validity of Simplified Chinese Version of LIWC in Detecting Psychological Expressions in Short Texts on Social Network Services

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Nan; Jiao, Dongdong; Bai, Shuotian; Zhu, Tingshao

    2016-01-01

    The increasing need of automated analyzing web texts especially the short texts on Social Network Services (SNS) brings new demands of computerized text analysis instruments. The psychometric properties are the basis of the extensive use of these instruments such as the Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC). For this study, Sina Weibo statuses were analyzed via rater coding and Simplified Chinese version of LIWC (SCLIWC), in order to evaluate the validity of SCLIWC in detecting psychological expressions in Weibo statuses (n = 60) and in identifying the psychological meaning of a single Weibo status (n = 11). Significant correlations between human ratings and SCLIWC scores and the high sensitivities of capturing single statuses with certain expressions identified by raters, proved the validity of SCLIWC in detecting psychological expressions. The results also suggested that, the efficiency of SCLIWC in detecting psychological expressions of SNS short texts could be higher if using status count scoring method, rather than the word count method as the common usage of LIWC. However, SCLIWC may not perform well in identifying the psychological meaning of a single piece of SNS short text because of its over-identification of target expressions. This study provided primary evidence of validity of SCLIWC, as well as the proper way of using it efficiently on SNS short texts. PMID:27322382

  16. R&D for computational cognitive and social models : foundations for model evaluation through verification and validation (final LDRD report).

    SciTech Connect

    Slepoy, Alexander; Mitchell, Scott A.; Backus, George A.; McNamara, Laura A.; Trucano, Timothy Guy

    2008-09-01

    Sandia National Laboratories is investing in projects that aim to develop computational modeling and simulation applications that explore human cognitive and social phenomena. While some of these modeling and simulation projects are explicitly research oriented, others are intended to support or provide insight for people involved in high consequence decision-making. This raises the issue of how to evaluate computational modeling and simulation applications in both research and applied settings where human behavior is the focus of the model: when is a simulation 'good enough' for the goals its designers want to achieve? In this report, we discuss two years' worth of review and assessment of the ASC program's approach to computational model verification and validation, uncertainty quantification, and decision making. We present a framework that extends the principles of the ASC approach into the area of computational social and cognitive modeling and simulation. In doing so, we argue that the potential for evaluation is a function of how the modeling and simulation software will be used in a particular setting. In making this argument, we move from strict, engineering and physics oriented approaches to V&V to a broader project of model evaluation, which asserts that the systematic, rigorous, and transparent accumulation of evidence about a model's performance under conditions of uncertainty is a reasonable and necessary goal for model evaluation, regardless of discipline. How to achieve the accumulation of evidence in areas outside physics and engineering is a significant research challenge, but one that requires addressing as modeling and simulation tools move out of research laboratories and into the hands of decision makers. This report provides an assessment of our thinking on ASC Verification and Validation, and argues for further extending V&V research in the physical and engineering sciences toward a broader program of model evaluation in situations of high

  17. Validation of operant social motivation paradigms using BTBR T+tf/J and C57BL/6J inbred mouse strains

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Loren; Sample, Hannah; Gregg, Michael; Wood, Caleb

    2014-01-01

    Background As purported causal factors are identified for autism spectrum disorder (ASD), new assays are needed to better phenotype animal models designed to explore these factors. With recent evidence suggesting that deficits in social motivation are at the core of ASD behavior, the development of quantitative measures of social motivation is particularly important. The goal of our study was to develop and validate novel assays to quantitatively measure social motivation in mice. Methods In order to test the validity of our paradigms, we compared the BTBR strain, with documented social deficits, to the prosocial C57BL/6J strain. Two novel conditioning paradigms were developed that allowed the test mouse to control access to a social partner. In the social motivation task, the test mice lever pressed for a social reward. The reward contingency was set on a progressive ratio of reinforcement and the number of lever presses achieved in the final trial of a testing session (breakpoint) was used as an index of social motivation. In the valence comparison task, motivation for a food reward was compared to a social reward. We also explored activity, social affiliation, and preference for social novelty through a series of tasks using an ANY-Maze video-tracking system in an open-field arena. Results BTBR mice had significantly lower breakpoints in the social motivation paradigm than C57BL/6J mice. However, the valence comparison task revealed that BTBR mice also made significantly fewer lever presses for a food reward. Conclusions The results of the conditioning paradigms suggest that the BTBR strain has an overall deficit in motivated behavior. Furthermore, the results of the open-field observations may suggest that social differences in the BTBR strain are anxiety induced. PMID:25328850

  18. Standardized classroom management program: Social validation and replication studies in Utah and Oregon

    PubMed Central

    Greenwood, Charles R.; Hops, Hyman; Walker, Hill M.; Guild, Jacqueline J.; Stokes, Judith; Young, K. Richard; Keleman, Kenneth S.; Willardson, Marlyn

    1979-01-01

    A comprehensive validation study was conducted of the Program for Academic Survival Skills (PASS), a consultant-based, teacher-mediated program for student classroom behavior. The study addressed questions related to: (a) brief consultant training, (b) subsequent teacher training by consultants using PASS manuals, (c) contrasts between PASS experimental teachers and students and equivalent controls on measures of teacher management skills, student classroom behavior, teacher ratings of student problem behaviors, and academic achievement, (d) reported satisfaction of participants, and (e) replication of effects across two separate school sites. Results indicated that in both sites significant effects were noted in favor of the PASS experimental group for (a) teacher approval, (b) student appropriate classroom behavior, and (c) four categories of student inappropriate behavior. Program satisfaction ratings of students, teachers, and consultants were uniformly positive, and continued use of the program was reported a year later. Discussion focused upon issues of cost-effectiveness, differential site effects, and the relationship between appropriate classroom behavior and academic achievement. PMID:16795604

  19. Validation of the Movie for the Assessment of Social Cognition in Adolescents with ASD: Fixation Duration and Pupil Dilation as Predictors of Performance.

    PubMed

    Müller, Nico; Baumeister, Sarah; Dziobek, Isabel; Banaschewski, Tobias; Poustka, Luise

    2016-09-01

    Impaired social cognition is one of the core characteristics of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Appropriate measures of social cognition for high-functioning adolescents with ASD are, however, lacking. The Movie for the Assessment of Social Cognition (MASC) uses dynamic social stimuli, ensuring ecological validity, and has proven to be a sensitive measure in adulthood. In the current study, 33 adolescents with ASD and 23 controls were administered the MASC, while concurrent eye tracking was used to relate gaze behavior to performance levels. The ASD group exhibited reduced MASC scores, with social cognition performance being explained by shorter fixation duration on eyes and decreased pupil dilation. These potential diagnostic markers are discussed as indicators of different processing of social information in ASD. PMID:27271932

  20. Validation of French and German versions of a Perceived Neighborhood Social Cohesion Questionnaire among young Swiss males, and its relationship with substance use.

    PubMed

    Dupuis, Marc; Studer, Joseph; Henchoz, Yves; Deline, Stéphane; Baggio, Stéphanie; N'Goran, Alexandra; Mohler-Kuo, Meichun; Gmel, Gerhard

    2016-02-01

    This study main purpose was the validation of both French and German versions of a Perceived Neighborhood Social Cohesion Questionnaire. The sample group comprised 5065 Swiss men from the "Cohort Study on Substance Use Risk Factors." Multigroup Confirmatory factor analysis showed that a three-factor model fits the data well, which substantiates the generalizability of Perceived Neighborhood Social Cohesion Questionnaire factor structure, regardless of the language. The Perceived Neighborhood Social Cohesion Questionnaire demonstrated excellent homogeneity (α = 95) and split-half reliability (r = .96). The Perceived Neighborhood Social Cohesion Questionnaire was sensitive to community size and participants' financial situation, confirming that it also measures real social conditions. Finally, weak but frequent correlations between Perceived Neighborhood Social Cohesion Questionnaire and alcohol, cigarette, and cannabis dependence were measured. PMID:24607925

  1. A novel ion-pairing chromatographic method for the simultaneous determination of both nicarbazin components in feed additives: chemometric tools for improving the optimization and validation.

    PubMed

    De Zan, María M; Teglia, Carla M; Robles, Juan C; Goicoechea, Héctor C

    2011-07-15

    The development, optimization and validation of an ion-pairing high performance liquid chromatography method for the simultaneous determination of both nicarbazin (NIC) components: 4,4'-dinitrocarbanilide (DNC) and 2-hydroxy-4,6-dimethylpyrimidine (HDP) in bulk materials and feed additives are described. An experimental design was used for the optimization of the chromatographic system. Four variables, including mobile phase composition and oven temperature, were analyzed through a central composite design exploring their contribution to analyte separation. Five responses: peak resolutions, HDP capacity factor, HDP tailing and analysis time, were modelled by using the response surface methodology and were optimized simultaneously by implementing the desirability function. The optimum conditions resulted in a mobile phase consisting of 10.0 mmol L(-1) of 1-heptanesulfonate, 20.0 mmol L(-1) of sodium acetate, pH=3.30 buffer and acetonitrile in a gradient system at a flow rate of 1.00 mL min(-1). Column was an INERSTIL ODS-3 (4.6 mm×150 mm, 5 μm particle size) at 40.0°C. Detection was performed at 300 nm by a diode array detector. The validation results of the method indicated a high selectivity and good precision characteristics, with RSD less than 1.0% for both components, both in intra and inter-assay precision studies. Linearity was proved for a range of 32.0-50.0 μg mL(-1) of NIC in sample solution. The recovery, studied at three different fortification levels, varied from 98.0 to 101.4 for HDP and from 99.1 to 100.2 for DNC. The applicability of the method was demonstrated by determining DNC and HDP content in raw materials and commercial formulations used for coccidiosis prevention. Assays results on real samples showed that considerable differences in molecular ratio DNC:HDP exist among them. PMID:21645683

  2. A validated LC-MS/MS determination method for the illegal food additive rhodamine B: Applications of a pharmacokinetic study in rats.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yung-Yi; Tsai, Tung-Hu

    2016-06-01

    Rhodamine B is an illegal and potentially carcinogenic food dye. The aim of this study was to develop a convenient, rapid, and sensitive UHPLC-MS/MS method for pharmacokinetic studies in rats. Rat plasma samples were deproteinized with acetonitrile and separated by UHPLC on a reverse-phase C18e column (100mm×2.1mm, 2μm) using a mobile phase consisting of methanol-5mM ammonium acetate (90:10, v/v). Detection was performed using a triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer in the selected reaction monitoring mode at [M](+) ion m/z 443.39→399.28 for rhodamine B and [M+H](+) ion m/z 253.17→238.02 for 5-methoxyflavone as the internal standard. This method was specific and produced linear results over a concentration range of 0.5-100ng/mL, with a lower limit of quantitation of 0.5ng/mL. All validation parameters, including the inter-day, intra-day, matrix effect, recovery, and stability in rat plasma, were acceptable according to the biological method validation guidelines developed by the FDA (2001). This method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study in rats; oral administration of 1mg/kg of rhodamine B yielded a time to maximum concentration (Tmax) of 1.3±0.4h and an elimination half-life of 8.8±1.4h, with a clearance of 229.7±19.4mL/h/kg. These pharmacokinetic results provide a constructive contribution to our understanding of the absorption mechanism of rhodamine B and support additional food safety evaluations. PMID:27131149

  3. The Development and Validation of an Instrument to Monitor the Implementation of Social Constructivist Learning Environments in Grade 9 Science Classrooms in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luckay, Melanie B.; Laugksch, Rudiger C.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the development and validation of an instrument that can be used to assess students' perceptions of their learning environment as a means of monitoring and guiding changes toward social constructivist learning environments. The study used a mixed-method approach with priority given to the quantitative data collection.…

  4. Evaluation of the Criterion and Convergent Validity of the Diagnostic Interview for Social and Communication Disorders in Young and Low-Functioning Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maljaars, Jarymke; Noens, Ilse; Scholte, Evert; van Berckelaer-Onnes, Ina

    2012-01-01

    The Diagnostic Interview for Social and Communication Disorders (DISCO; Wing, 2006) is a standardized, semi-structured and interviewer-based schedule for diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The objective of this study was to evaluate the criterion and convergent validity of the DISCO-11 ICD-10 algorithm in young and low-functioning…

  5. Can findings from randomized controlled trials of social skills training in autism spectrum disorder be generalized? The neglected dimension of external validity.

    PubMed

    Jonsson, Ulf; Choque Olsson, Nora; Bölte, Sven

    2016-04-01

    Systematic reviews have traditionally focused on internal validity, while external validity often has been overlooked. In this study, we systematically reviewed determinants of external validity in the accumulated randomized controlled trials of social skills group interventions for children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder. We extracted data clustered into six overarching themes: source population, included population, context, treatment provider, treatment intervention, and outcome. A total of 15 eligible randomized controlled trials were identified. The eligible population was typically limited to high-functioning school-aged children with autism spectrum disorder, and the included population was predominantly male and Caucasian. Scant information about the recruitment of participants was provided, and details about treatment providers and settings were sparse. It was not evident from the trials to what extent acquired social skills were enacted in everyday life and maintained over time. We conclude that the generalizability of the accumulated evidence is unclear and that the determinants of external validity are often inadequately reported. At this point, more effectiveness-oriented randomized controlled trials of equally high internal and external validity are needed. More attention to the determinants of external validity is warranted when this new generation of randomized controlled trials are planned and reported. We provide a tentative checklist for this purpose. PMID:25964654

  6. Additional Evidence for the Reliability and Validity of the Student Risk Screening Scale at the High School Level: A Replication and Extension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Kathleen Lynne; Oakes, Wendy P.; Ennis, Robin Parks; Cox, Meredith Lucille; Schatschneider, Christopher; Lambert, Warren

    2013-01-01

    This study reports findings from a validation study of the Student Risk Screening Scale for use with 9th- through 12th-grade students (N = 1854) attending a rural fringe school. Results indicated high internal consistency, test-retest stability, and inter-rater reliability. Predictive validity was established across two academic years, with Spring…

  7. Additive effects of parent adherence on social and behavioral outcomes of a collaborative school-home behavioral intervention for ADHD.

    PubMed

    Villodas, Miguel T; McBurnett, Keith; Kaiser, Nina; Rooney, Mary; Pfiffner, Linda J

    2014-06-01

    The present study evaluated the impact of the Collaborative Life Skills Program (CLS), a novel school-home psychosocial intervention, on social and behavioral impairments among children with attention and behavior problems. Fifty-seven ethnically/racially diverse children (70 % boys) with attention and/or behavior problems in the second through fifth grades participated in a pilot study. Ten school-based mental health professionals were trained and then implemented the intervention at their respective schools. Children significantly improved from pre- to post-treatment on parent, teacher, and report card ratings of children's social and behavioral functioning. Treatment improvements were consistent for children with and without co-occurring disruptive behavior problems. The impact of the intervention was enhanced when parents used the intervention strategies more regularly, according to both clinicians' and parents' reports. Findings support the emphasis of CLS on coordinating intervention strategies across contexts to facilitate the generalization of treatment-related improvements in social and behavioral functioning. PMID:24043560

  8. Reliability and Validity of a Survey of Cat Caregivers on Their Cats’ Socialization Level in the Cat’s Normal Environment

    PubMed Central

    Slater, Margaret; Garrison, Laurie; Miller, Katherine; Weiss, Emily; Makolinski, Kathleen; Drain, Natasha

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary Many animal welfare organizations accept cats with no known behavioral history. It can be difficult to differentiate between a frightened but well-socialized cat and an unsocialized cat in an animal shelter environment. Making this distinction can save lives, yet currently there is no valid tool. Here we measured the quality of a survey designed to determine socialization level using information from the cat’s caregiver about a cat’s usual behavior around people in the cat’s normal environment. This survey will be used to help develop an effective process that accurately differentiates cats by their socialization levels in animal shelters. Abstract Stray cats routinely enter animal welfare organizations each year and shelters are challenged with determining the level of human socialization these cats may possess as quickly as possible. However, there is currently no standard process to guide this determination. This study describes the development and validation of a caregiver survey designed to be filled out by a cat’s caregiver so it accurately describes a cat’s personality, background, and full range of behavior with people when in its normal environment. The results from this survey provided the basis for a socialization score that ranged from unsocialized to well socialized with people. The quality of the survey was evaluated based on inter-rater and test-retest reliability and internal consistency and estimates of construct and criterion validity. In general, our results showed moderate to high levels of inter-rater (median of 0.803, range 0.211–0.957) and test-retest agreement (median 0.92, range 0.211–0.999). Cronbach’s alpha showed high internal consistency (0.962). Estimates of validity did not highlight any major shortcomings. This survey will be used to develop and validate an effective assessment process that accurately differentiates cats by their socialization levels towards humans based on direct observation of cats

  9. Validation of the Social and Emotional Health Survey for Five Sociocultural Groups: Multigroup Invariance and Latent Mean Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    You, Sukkyung; Furlong, Michael; Felix, Erika; O'Malley, Meagan

    2015-01-01

    Social-emotional health influences youth developmental trajectories and there is growing interest among educators to measure the social-emotional health of the students they serve. This study replicated the psychometric characteristics of the Social Emotional Health Survey (SEHS) with a diverse sample of high school students (Grades 9-12; N =…

  10. Development and validation of a tool to assess the physical and social environment associated with physical activity among adults in Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Environmental characteristics are known to be associated with patterns of physical activity (PA). Although several validated tools exist, to measure the environment characteristics, these instruments are not necessarily suitable for application in all settings especially in a developing country. This study was carried out to develop and validate an instrument named the “Physical And Social Environment Scale – PASES” to assess the physical and social environmental factors associated with PA. This will enable identification of various physical and social environmental factors affecting PA in Sri Lanka, which will help in the development of more tailored intervention strategies for promoting higher PA levels in Sri Lanka. Methods The PASES was developed using a scientific approach of defining the construct, item generation, analysis of content of items and item reduction. Both qualitative and quantitative methods of key informant interviews, in-depth interviews and rating of the items generated by experts were conducted. A cross sectional survey among 180 adults was carried out to assess the factor structure through principal component analysis. Another cross sectional survey among a different group of 180 adults was carried out to assess the construct validity through confirmatory factor analysis. Reliability was assessed with test re-test reliability and internal consistency using Spearman r and Cronbach's alpha respectively. Results Thirty six items were selected after the expert ratings and were developed into interviewer administered questions. Exploration of factor structure of the 34 items which were factorable through principal component analysis with Quartimax rotation extracted 8 factors. The 34 item instrument was assessed for construct validity with confirmatory factor analysis which confirmed an 8 factor model (x2 = 339.9, GFI = 0.90). The identified factors were infrastructure for walking, aesthetics and facilities for cycling

  11. Development and validation of the Peer Interaction Macro-coding System scales (PIMS): A new tool for observational measurement of social competence in youth with spina bifida

    PubMed Central

    Holbein, Christina E.; Zebracki, Kathy; Holmbeck, Grayson N.

    2014-01-01

    Many children with chronic health conditions encounter enduring difficulties in their peer interactions and friendships. This study aimed to create and validate scales derived from an observational coding system (i.e., Peer Interaction Macro-coding System; PIMS) in a sample of children with spina bifida and their peers. 106 target child-peer dyads completed a battery of questionnaires and interviews and were videotaped performing four interaction tasks, which were then coded across multiple domains of social functioning. Five scales (i.e., Control, Prosocial Skills, Positive Affect, Conflict, and Dyadic Cohesion) were rationally derived based on a review of the literature and a panel of experts. Internal consistency and inter-rater reliability at the scale level were good-to-excellent for all five scales. Interscale correlations were in the low-to-moderate range for four of the scales, although the Dyadic Cohesion scale was highly correlated with two other scales and was subsequently dropped. Convergent and discriminant validity were established by examining the four remaining scales in association with comparable questionnaire and interview data. The four PIMS scales appear to be reliable and valid measures of social competence and may enhance future multimethod research efforts aimed at learning more about peer interactions and overall social competence. PMID:24932641

  12. Development and Validation of the Social Information Processing Application: A Web-Based Measure of Social Information Processing Patterns in Elementary School-Age Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kupersmidt, Janis B.; Stelter, Rebecca; Dodge, Kenneth A.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of an audio computer-assisted self-interviewing Web-based software application called the Social Information Processing Application (SIP-AP) that was designed to assess social information processing skills in boys in RD through 5th grades. This study included a racially and…

  13. Measuring the Impact of Students' Social Relations and Values: Validation of the Social-Relational Support for Education Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vickers, Margaret; Finger, Linda; Barker, Katrina; Bodkin-Andrews, Gawaian

    2014-01-01

    A significant body of literature attests to the influence of social contexts on students' engagement with school. A review of this literature led to the construction of a self-report instrument designed to measure Social-Relational Support for Education (SRSE). The conceptual framework underlying the SRSE instrument focuses on the factors…

  14. The Development and Validation of an Instrument to Monitor the Implementation of Social Constructivist Learning Environments in Grade 9 Science Classrooms in South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luckay, Melanie B.; Laugksch, Rudiger C.

    2015-02-01

    This article describes the development and validation of an instrument that can be used to assess students' perceptions of their learning environment as a means of monitoring and guiding changes toward social constructivist learning environments. The study used a mixed-method approach with priority given to the quantitative data collection. During the quantitative data collection phase, a new instrument—the Social Constructivist Learning Environment Survey (SCLES)—was developed and used to collect data from 1,955 grade 9 science students from 52 classes in 50 schools in the Western Cape province, South Africa. The data were analysed to evaluate the reliability and validity of the new instrument, which assessed six dimensions of the classroom learning environment, namely, Working with Ideas, Personal Relevance, Collaboration, Critical Voice, Uncertainty in Science and Respect for Difference. Two dimensions were developed specifically for the present study in order to contextualise the questionnaire to the requirements of the new South African curriculum (namely, Metacognition and Respect for Difference). In the qualitative data collection phase, two case studies were used to investigate whether profiles of class mean scores on the new instrument could provide an accurate and "trustworthy" description of the learning environment of individual science classes. The study makes significant contributions to the field of learning environments in that it is one of the first major studies of its kind in South Africa with a focus on social constructivism and because the instrument developed captures important aspects of the learning environment associated with social constructivism.

  15. Validation of Eustiromastix guianae (Caporiacco, 1954) (Araneae, Salticidae) with a first description of the female, and additions to the salticid fauna of French Guiana

    PubMed Central

    Courtial, Cyril; Picard, Lionel; Ysnel, Frédéric; Pétillon, Julien

    2014-01-01

    Abstract In this paper, we validate the doubtful species status of E. guianae, with redescriptions of (supposedly lost) type and holotype males, and a first description of the female. Both sexes are measured and illustrated by pictures of habitus and copulatory organs. Seventeen new salticid species for French Guiana are also reported and a detailed catalogue of all salticid species from the Trinité National Nature Reserve is provided. PMID:25061368

  16. The Development and Initial Validation of Social Cognitive Career Theory Instruments to Measure Choice of Medical Specialty and Practice Location

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Mary E.; Creed, Peter A.; Searle, Judy

    2009-01-01

    Social cognitive career theory served as the basis for the instrument development for scales assessing self-efficacy, outcome expectations, and goals to predict medical career choice. Lent and Brown's conceptualization of social cognitive constructs guided the development of items to measure choice of medical specialty and practice location. Study…

  17. A Report of a Research Study: A Consensual Validation of Social Studies Objectives, Techniques, and Materials--K-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breiter, Joan

    The study of elementary social studies curriculum objectives was conducted during 1976-77 among 625 Iowa teachers to determine how teachers think social studies should be taught at the elementary level. Presented in three parts, the study is intended to assist elementary teachers in clarifying their teaching obectives. An inventory of social…

  18. Validation of Scores on the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale and the Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leite, Walter L.; Beretvas, S. Natasha

    2005-01-01

    The Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale (MCSDS), the most commonly used social desirability bias (SDB) assessment, conceptualizes SDB as an individual's need for approval. The Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding (BIDR) measures SDB as two separate constructs: impression management and self-deception. Scores on SDB scales are commonly…

  19. The Development and Validation of an Instrument to Measure Conditions for Social Engagement of Students in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van den Wijngaard, Oscar; Beausaert, Simon; Segers, Mien; Gijselaers, Wim

    2015-01-01

    The present article analyzes social engagement as an outcome of higher education. It can be conceived as an attitude that by definition only manifests itself over time, and should therefore not be assessed or measured during the years of study or at graduation. The argument is being made that social engagement should be understood in terms of…

  20. Intersubjectivity as a Measure of Social Competence among Children Attending Head Start: Assessing the Measure's Validity and Relation to Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garte, Rebecca R.

    2015-01-01

    The present paper reported on a new method and procedure for assessing preschooler's social competence. This method utilized an observational measure of intersubjectivity to assess the social competence that develops in real time during interaction between two or more children. The measure of intersubjectivity reflected a conceptualization of the…

  1. Concurrent Validity of Social Subtype and IQ after Early Intensive Behavioral Intervention in Children with Autism: A Preliminary Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beglinger, Leigh; Smith, Tristram

    2005-01-01

    Three subtypes of autism based on social style have been proposed by Wing: active-but-odd, passive, or aloof. Previous research has shown evidence of an association between IQ and Wing subtype in untreated children and adults. Because IQ changes can accompany behavioral treatment, but often only for a subset of children, social subtype may be…

  2. Empirical Validation and Psychometric Evaluation of the Brief Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale in Patients with Social Anxiety Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weeks, Justin W.; Heimberg, Richard G.; Fresco, David M.; Hart, Trevor A.; Turk, Cynthia L.; Schneier, Franklin R.; Liebowitz, Michael R.

    2005-01-01

    The Brief Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale (BFNE; M. R. Leary, 1983a) is often used to assess fear of negative evaluation, the core feature of social anxiety disorder. However, few studies have examined its psychometric properties in large samples of socially anxious patients. Although the BFNE yields a single total score, confirmatory factor…

  3. Human and ant social behavior should be compared in a very careful way to draw valid parallels.

    PubMed

    Godzińska, Ewa Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Gowdy & Krall provide an interesting discussion of evolutionary origins and consequences of ultrasociality. However, some of their statements concerning various features of ant and human social behavior do not adequately reflect present knowledge about the discussed issues, which include, among others, polyethism, cultural information transfer, within-group conflicts and resistance in ant societies, and reproductive division of labor in humans. Gowdy & Krall (G&K) provide an interesting discussion of evolutionary origins and consequences of ultrasociality, an advanced form of social behavior that evolved independently in both social insects and humans. Their reflections are thought-provoking, but some statements concerning various features of ant and human social behavior do not reflect adequately the present knowledge about the discussed issues. PMID:27562514

  4. Evaluating the Predictive Validity of Academic and Social-Emotional Screening Assessments for Measuring Academic and Social-Emotional Success at the End of First Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erhart, Amber C.

    2013-01-01

    By the end of the kindergarten, students are expected to possess early academic skills as well as the social maturity to be successful in first grade. Students leaving kindergarten without these readiness skills are sometimes held back in first grade or referred for a special education evaluation in later grades if they fail to make adequate…

  5. Validation of a brief quantitative measure of autistic traits: comparison of the social responsiveness scale with the autism diagnostic interview-revised.

    PubMed

    Constantino, John N; Davis, Sandra A; Todd, Richard D; Schindler, Matthew K; Gross, Maggie M; Brophy, Susan L; Metzger, Lisa M; Shoushtari, Christiana S; Splinter, Reagan; Reich, Wendy

    2003-08-01

    Studies of the broader autism phenotype, and of subtle changes in autism symptoms over time, have been compromised by a lack of established quantitative assessment tools. The Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS-formerly known as the Social Reciprocity Scale) is a new instrument that can be completed by parents and/or teachers in 15-20 minutes. We compared the SRS with the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R) in 61 child psychiatric patients. Correlations between SRS scores and ADI-R algorithm scores for DSM-IV criterion sets were on the order of 0.7. SRS scores were unrelated to I.Q. and exhibited inter-rater reliability on the order of 0.8. The SRS is a valid quantitative measure of autistic traits, feasible for use in clinical settings and for large-scale research studies of autism spectrum conditions. PMID:12959421

  6. [Factor structure validity of the social capital scale used at baseline in the ELSA-Brasil study].

    PubMed

    Souto, Ester Paiva; Vasconcelos, Ana Glória Godoi; Chor, Dora; Reichenheim, Michael E; Griep, Rosane Härter

    2016-07-21

    This study aims to analyze the factor structure of the Brazilian version of the Resource Generator (RG) scale, using baseline data from the Brazilian Longitudinal Health Study in Adults (ELSA-Brasil). Cross-validation was performed in three random subsamples. Exploratory factor analysis using exploratory structural equation models was conducted in the first two subsamples to diagnose the factor structure, and confirmatory factor analysis was used in the third to corroborate the model defined by the exploratory analyses. Based on the 31 initial items, the model with the best fit included 25 items distributed across three dimensions. They all presented satisfactory convergent validity (values greater than 0.50 for the extracted variance) and precision (values greater than 0.70 for compound reliability). All factor correlations were below 0.85, indicating full discriminative factor validity. The RG scale presents acceptable psychometric properties and can be used in populations with similar characteristics. PMID:27462850

  7. Users’ Support as a Social Resource in Educational Services: Construct Validity and Measurement Invariance of the User-Initiated Support Scale (UISS)

    PubMed Central

    Loera, Barbara; Martini, Mara; Viotti, Sara; Converso, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Social support is an important resource for reducing the risks of stress and burnout at work. It seems to be particularly helpful for educational and social professionals. The constant and intense relationships with users that characterize this kind of service can be very demanding, increasing stress and leading to burnout. While significant attention has been paid to supervisors and colleagues in the literature, users have rarely been considered as possible sources of social support. The only exception is the Zimmermann et al.’s (2011) research, focused on customer support as a resource for workers’ well-being. This paper proposes the validation of the customer-initiated support scale developed by Zimmermann et al. (2011), translated into Italian and focused on educational services users (children’s parents), to measure the user support perceived by workers: the User-Initiated Support Scale (UISS). In Study 1 (105 teachers), which specifically involved educators and kindergarten teachers, the items and scale properties were preliminarily examined using descriptive analyses and exploratory factor analysis (EFA). In Study 2 (304 teachers), the construct and criterion validity and scale dimensionality were analyzed using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). In Study 3 (304 teachers from Study 2 and 296 educators), measurement invariance (MI) was tested. The EFA results from Study 1 showed a one-factor solution (explained variance, 67.2%). The scale showed good internal coherence (alpha = 0.88). The CFA in Study 2 validated the one-factor solution (comparative fit index = 0.987; standardized root mean square residual = 0.054). Bivariate correlations confirmed construct validity; the UISS was positively associated (convergent) with user gratitude, and not associated (divergent) with disproportionate customer expectations. Regarding the criterion validity test, the UISS was strongly correlated with burnout and job satisfaction. The analysis of MI performed on the

  8. Users' Support as a Social Resource in Educational Services: Construct Validity and Measurement Invariance of the User-Initiated Support Scale (UISS).

    PubMed

    Loera, Barbara; Martini, Mara; Viotti, Sara; Converso, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Social support is an important resource for reducing the risks of stress and burnout at work. It seems to be particularly helpful for educational and social professionals. The constant and intense relationships with users that characterize this kind of service can be very demanding, increasing stress and leading to burnout. While significant attention has been paid to supervisors and colleagues in the literature, users have rarely been considered as possible sources of social support. The only exception is the Zimmermann et al.'s (2011) research, focused on customer support as a resource for workers' well-being. This paper proposes the validation of the customer-initiated support scale developed by Zimmermann et al. (2011), translated into Italian and focused on educational services users (children's parents), to measure the user support perceived by workers: the User-Initiated Support Scale (UISS). In Study 1 (105 teachers), which specifically involved educators and kindergarten teachers, the items and scale properties were preliminarily examined using descriptive analyses and exploratory factor analysis (EFA). In Study 2 (304 teachers), the construct and criterion validity and scale dimensionality were analyzed using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). In Study 3 (304 teachers from Study 2 and 296 educators), measurement invariance (MI) was tested. The EFA results from Study 1 showed a one-factor solution (explained variance, 67.2%). The scale showed good internal coherence (alpha = 0.88). The CFA in Study 2 validated the one-factor solution (comparative fit index = 0.987; standardized root mean square residual = 0.054). Bivariate correlations confirmed construct validity; the UISS was positively associated (convergent) with user gratitude, and not associated (divergent) with disproportionate customer expectations. Regarding the criterion validity test, the UISS was strongly correlated with burnout and job satisfaction. The analysis of MI performed on the Study 3

  9. The Social Appearance Anxiety Scale in Italian Adolescent Populations: Construct Validation and Group Discrimination in Community and Clinical Eating Disorders Samples.

    PubMed

    Dakanalis, Antonios; Carrà, Giuseppe; Calogero, Rachel; Zanetti, M Assunta; Volpato, Chiara; Riva, Giuseppe; Clerici, Massimo; Cipresso, Pietro

    2016-02-01

    Anxiety in situations where one's overall appearance (including body shape) may be negatively evaluated is hypothesized to play a central role in Eating Disorders (EDs) and in their co-occurrence with Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD). Three studies were conducted among community (N = 1995) and clinical (N = 703) ED samples of 11- to 18-year-old Italian girls and boys to (a) evaluate the psychometric qualities and measurement equivalence/invariance (ME/I) of the Social Appearance Anxiety (SAA) Scale (SAAS) and (b) determine to what extent SAA or other situational domains of social anxiety related to EDs distinguish adolescents with an ED only from those with SAD. Results upheld the one-factor structure and ME/I of the SAAS across samples, gender, age categories, and diagnostic status (i.e., ED participants with and without comorbid SAD). The SAAS demonstrated high internal consistency and 3-week test-retest reliability. The strength of the inter-relationships between SAAS and measures of body image, teasing about appearance, ED symptoms, depression, social anxiety, avoidance, and distress, as well as the ability of SAAS to discriminate community adolescents with high and low levels of ED symptoms and community participants from ED participants provided construct validity evidence. Only SAA strongly differentiated adolescents with any ED from those with comorbid SAD (23.2 %). Latent mean comparisons across all study groups were performed and discussed. PMID:25976291

  10. Universal Screening for Social-Emotional Competencies: A Study of the Reliability and Validity of the DESSA-Mini

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naglieri, Jack A.; LeBuffe, Paul; Shapiro, Valerie B.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability of the eight-item Devereux Student Strengths Assessment (DESSA)-mini and its validity in relation to the 72-item version DESSA. The sample included teacher ratings for 1,234 children in kindergarten through eighth grade who comprised the standardization sample. The median alpha reliability…

  11. Development and Validation of Two Influenza Assessments: Exploring the Impact of Knowledge and Social Environment on Health Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romine, William

    2011-01-01

    Assessments of knowledge and perceptions about influenza were developed for high school students, and used to determine how knowledge, perceptions, and demographic variables relate to students taking precautions and their odds of getting sick. Assessments were piloted with 205 students and validated using the Rasch model. Data were then collected…

  12. An Assessment of the Predictive Validity of Impact Factor Scores: Implications for Academic Employment Decisions in Social Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holden, Gary; Rosenberg, Gary; Barker, Kathleen; Onghena, Patrick

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Bibliometrics is a method of examining scholarly communications. Concerns regarding the use of bibliometrics in general, and the impact factor score (IFS) in particular, have been discussed across disciplines including social work. Although there are frequent mentions in the literature of the IFS as an indicator of the impact or quality…

  13. Internal Consistency Reliability and Construct Validity of the Attitude toward Muslim Proximity Index (AMPI): A Measure of Social Distance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brockett, Adrian; Village, Andrew; Francis, Leslie J.

    2009-01-01

    The Attitude toward Muslim Proximity Index (AMPI) is a six-item scale that uses tolerance to different degrees of social distance to assess prejudice towards Muslims. It was tested on 1777 teenage school children from northern England who indicated their religion as either "Christian" or "no religion", and demonstrated good internal reliability…

  14. Q-Sort Definitions of Social Competence and Self-Esteem: Discriminant Validity of Related Constructs in Theory and Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, Everett; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Two studies illustrating a methodology for describing similarities and distinctions between related constructs are reported. In Study 1, psychologists described behavioral and personality characteristics of preschool children through definitions of social competence and self-esteem using Q-set items. In Study 2, the relation between conceptual…

  15. The Social Physique Anxiety Scale: An Example of the Potential Consequence of Negatively Worded Items in Factorial Validity Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motl, Robert W.; Conroy, David E.; Horan, Patrick M.

    2000-01-01

    Used confirmatory factor analysis to examine whether the two-factor solution to the Social Physique Anxiety Scale (E. Hart, M. Leary, and W. Rejeski, 1989) was meaningful. Results for 4 samples of data for college students, high school students, and athletes (n=1,053) from previous studies support the existence of a single substantive factor…

  16. Treatment of Automatically Reinforced Object Mouthing with Noncontingent Reinforcement and Response Blocking: Experimental Analysis and Social Validation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, James E.; Dozier, Claudia L.; Patel, Meeta R.; Adams, Amanda Nicolson; Martin, Nichelle

    2002-01-01

    A brief functional analysis indicated that the object mouthing of a young girl diagnosed with autism was maintained independent of social consequences. Separate and combined effects of response blocking and non-contingent reinforcement were then evaluated as treatments. Although both interventions were unsuccessful when implemented separately,…

  17. Measurement and Validity Characteristics of the Short Version of the Social and Emotional Loneliness Scale for Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiTommaso, Enrico; Brannen, Cyndi; Best, Lisa A.

    2004-01-01

    This article presents a psychometric study of the short form of the Social and Emotional Loneliness Scale for Adults (SELSA-S). Data were collected via self-report measures and mail surveys from several samples including university students, spouses of military personnel, and psychiatric patients. A total of 1,526 individuals took part in this…

  18. An Initial Validation of a Measure of Personal and Social Perceptions of the Sexual Abuse of Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nalavany, Blace A.; Abell, Neil

    2004-01-01

    Objective/Method: The Sexual Abuse of Males Perceptions Scale (SAMPS) is a measure designed to assess an individual's personal and projected social perceptions of myths about the sexual abuse of boys and men. Myths are rigid, stereotypical beliefs that invalidate the experiences and minimize the profound effects of sexual abuse on boys and men.…

  19. Considering Construct Validity in Distance Educational Research in Social Work Education: Suggestions for a Multivariate Approach to Researching Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, Andrew; Fitch, Dale; Youn, Eric

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the idea that distance delivery in social work education is seen as an interaction between four constructs: the student, the setting in which the education is delivered, the educational content, and the expected educational outcomes. To fully understand these interactions, clear operational indicators, well established in…

  20. Measuring renewed expertise for integrated care among health- and social-care professionals: Development and preliminary validation of the ICE-Q questionnaire.

    PubMed

    van der Aa, Maartje J; van den Broeke, Jennifer R; Stronks, Karien; Busschers, Wim B; Plochg, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Accumulations of health and social problems challenge current health systems. It is hypothesized that professionals should renew their expertise by adapting generalist, coaching, and population health orientation capacities to address these challenges. This study aimed to develop and validate an instrument for evaluating this renewal of professional expertise. The (Dutch) Integrated Care Expertise Questionnaire (ICE-Q) was developed and piloted. Psychometric analysis evaluated item, criterion, construct, and content validity. Theory and an iterative process of expert consultation constructed the ICE-Q, which was sent to 616 professionals, of whom 294 participated in the pilot (47.7%). Factor analysis (FA) identified six areas of expertise: holistic attitude towards patients (Cronbach's alpha [CA] = 0.61) and considering their social context (CA = 0.77), both related to generalism; coaching to support patient empowerment (CA = 0.66); preventive action (CA = 0.48); valuing local health knowledge (CA = 0.81); and valuing local facility knowledge (CA = 0.67) point at population health orientation. Inter-scale correlations ranged between 0.01 and 0.34. Item-response theory (IRT) indicated some items were less informative. The resulting 26-item questionnaire is a first tool for measuring integrated care expertise. The study process led to a developed understanding of the concept. Further research is warranted to improve the questionnaire. PMID:26789936

  1. Social cognitions about food choice in children aged five to eight years: Feasibility and predictive validity of an age appropriate measurement.

    PubMed

    Fernandes-Machado, Sandra; Gellert, Paul; Goncalves, Sonia; Sniehotta, Falko F; Araujo-Soares, Vera

    2016-10-01

    There are currently no instruments available to measure social cognitions towards food choice in children. This study aimed to test the feasibility and predictive validity of a novel measurement tool to assess food-related social cognitions. Sixty-eight children, five to eight years old, were asked to sort cards with photographs of four fruit and four sweet/savoury snacks as a mean to measure attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioural control (PBC), and intention. Subsequently, food choice (dependent variable) was assessed using a laboratory food choice task in which children could gain access to sweet and savoury or fruit items, or a combination. All participants completed the tasks successfully, demonstrating feasibility of the procedure. The order in which the cards were sorted for each construct differed sufficiently and correlations between constructs were in line with previous studies. Measures of PBC, intention, attitude, and subjective norm from the mother, but not from teachers or friends, correlated significantly with subsequent food choice. It is possible to measure food-related social cognitions in children aged five to eight and these measures were predictive of observed behaviour. The new instrument can contribute to our understanding of psychological determinants of food choice in young children. PMID:27215839

  2. Validating continuous digital light processing (cDLP) additive manufacturing accuracy and tissue engineering utility of a dye-initiator package.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Jonathan; Wang, Martha O; Thompson, Paul; Busso, Mallory; Belle, Vaijayantee; Mammoser, Nicole; Kim, Kyobum; Fisher, John P; Siblani, Ali; Xu, Yueshuo; Welter, Jean F; Lennon, Donald P; Sun, Jiayang; Caplan, Arnold I; Dean, David

    2014-03-01

    This study tested the accuracy of tissue engineering scaffold rendering via the continuous digital light processing (cDLP) light-based additive manufacturing technology. High accuracy (i.e., <50 µm) allows the designed performance of features relevant to three scale spaces: cell-scaffold, scaffold-tissue, and tissue-organ interactions. The biodegradable polymer poly (propylene fumarate) was used to render highly accurate scaffolds through the use of a dye-initiator package, TiO2 and bis (2,4,6-trimethylbenzoyl)phenylphosphine oxide. This dye-initiator package facilitates high accuracy in the Z dimension. Linear, round, and right-angle features were measured to gauge accuracy. Most features showed accuracies between 5.4-15% of the design. However, one feature, an 800 µm diameter circular pore, exhibited a 35.7% average reduction of patency. Light scattered in the x, y directions by the dye may have reduced this feature's accuracy. Our new fine-grained understanding of accuracy could be used to make further improvements by including corrections in the scaffold design software. Successful cell attachment occurred with both canine and human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Highly accurate cDLP scaffold rendering is critical to the design of scaffolds that both guide bone regeneration and that fully resorb. Scaffold resorption must occur for regenerated bone to be remodeled and, thereby, achieve optimal strength. PMID:24429508

  3. Validity analysis on merged and averaged data using within and between analysis: focus on effect of qualitative social capital on self-rated health

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: With an increasing number of studies highlighting regional social capital (SC) as a determinant of health, many studies are using multi-level analysis with merged and averaged scores of community residents’ survey responses calculated from community SC data. Sufficient examination is required to validate if the merged and averaged data can represent the community. Therefore, this study analyzes the validity of the selected indicators and their applicability in multi-level analysis. METHODS: Within and between analysis (WABA) was performed after creating community variables using merged and averaged data of community residents’ responses from the 2013 Community Health Survey in Korea, using subjective self-rated health assessment as a dependent variable. Further analysis was performed following the model suggested by WABA result. RESULTS: Both E-test results (1) and WABA results (2) revealed that single-level analysis needs to be performed using qualitative SC variable with cluster mean centering. Through single-level multivariate regression analysis, qualitative SC with cluster mean centering showed positive effect on self-rated health (0.054, p<0.001), although there was no substantial difference in comparison to analysis using SC variables without cluster mean centering or multi-level analysis. CONCLUSIONS: As modification in qualitative SC was larger within the community than between communities, we validate that relational analysis of individual self-rated health can be performed within the group, using cluster mean centering. Other tests besides the WABA can be performed in the future to confirm the validity of using community variables and their applicability in multi-level analysis. PMID:27292102

  4. Agreeing on Validity Arguments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sireci, Stephen G.

    2013-01-01

    Kane (this issue) presents a comprehensive review of validity theory and reminds us that the focus of validation is on test score interpretations and use. In reacting to his article, I support the argument-based approach to validity and all of the major points regarding validation made by Dr. Kane. In addition, I call for a simpler, three-step…

  5. Development and validation of two influenza assessments: Exploring the impact of knowledge and social environment on health behaviors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romine, William

    Assessments of knowledge and perceptions about influenza were developed for high school students, and used to determine how knowledge, perceptions, and demographic variables relate to students taking precautions and their odds of getting sick. Assessments were piloted with 205 students and validated using the Rasch model. Data were then collected on 410 students from six high schools. Scores were calculated using the 2-parameter logistic model and clustered using the k-means algorithm. Kendall-tau correlations were evaluated at the alpha = 0.05 level, multinomial logistic regression was used to identify the best predictors and to test for interactions, and neural networks were used to test how well precautions and illness can be predicted using the significant correlates. Precautions and illness had more than one statistically significant correlate with small to moderate effect sizes. Knowledge was positively correlated to compliance with vaccination, hand washing frequency, and respiratory etiquette, and negatively correlated with hand sanitizer use. Perceived risk was positively correlated to compliance with flu vaccination; perceived complications to personal distancing and staying home when sick. Perceived risk and complications increased with reported illness severity. Perceived barriers decreased compliance with vaccination, hand washing, and respiratory etiquette. Factors such as gender, ethnicity, and school, had effects on more than one precaution. Hand washing quality and frequency could be predicted moderately well. Other predictions had small-to-negligible associations with actual values. Implications for future uses of the instruments and development of interventions regarding influenza in high schools are discussed.

  6. Measuring Social Capital Investment: Scale Development and Examination of Links to Social Capital and Perceived Stress

    PubMed Central

    Wegner, Rhiana; Gong, Jie; Fang, Xiaoyi; Kaljee, Linda

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with greater social capital have better health outcomes. Investment in social capital likely increases one’s own social capital, bearing great implications for disease prevention and health promotion. In this study, the authors developed and validated the Social Capital Investment Inventory (SCII). Direct effects of social capital investment on perceived stress, and indirect effects through social capital were examined. 397 Participants from Beijing and Wuhan, China completed surveys. Analyses demonstrated that the SCII has a single factor structure and strong internal consistency. Structural equation modeling showed that individuals who invested more in social capital had greater bonding social capital, and subsequently less perceived stress. Results suggest that disease prevention and health promotion programs should consider approaches to encourage social capital investment; individuals may be able to reduce stress by increasing their investment in social capital. Future research is needed to provide additional empirical support for the SCII and observed structural relationships. PMID:25648725

  7. The hospital social work self-efficacy scale: a partial replication and extension.

    PubMed

    Holden, G; Cuzzi, L; Spitzer, W; Rutter, S; Chernack, P; Rosenberg, G

    1997-11-01

    The Hospital Social Work Self-Efficacy Scale (HSWSE) was developed to assess social workers' confidence about their ability to perform hospital social work. The scale was originally tested with master's-level social work students. This partial replication and extension included both students and professional social workers. In addition, we used a new scale to assess construct validity and added another hospital to assess external validity. In general, findings continue to support the use of the HSWSE. In addition, anecdotal evidence suggests that this is an outcome measure that practitioners see as easy to use, specific, and highly relevant. PMID:9408775

  8. Food additives

    MedlinePlus

    Food additives are substances that become part of a food product when they are added during the processing or making of that food. "Direct" food additives are often added during processing to: Add nutrients ...

  9. Food additives

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857

  10. Mechanistic validation.

    PubMed

    Hartung, Thomas; Hoffmann, Sebastian; Stephens, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Validation of new approaches in regulatory toxicology is commonly defined as the independent assessment of the reproducibility and relevance (the scientific basis and predictive capacity) of a test for a particular purpose. In large ring trials, the emphasis to date has been mainly on reproducibility and predictive capacity (comparison to the traditional test) with less attention given to the scientific or mechanistic basis. Assessing predictive capacity is difficult for novel approaches (which are based on mechanism), such as pathways of toxicity or the complex networks within the organism (systems toxicology). This is highly relevant for implementing Toxicology for the 21st Century, either by high-throughput testing in the ToxCast/Tox21 project or omics-based testing in the Human Toxome Project. This article explores the mostly neglected assessment of a test's scientific basis, which moves mechanism and causality to the foreground when validating/qualifying tests. Such mechanistic validation faces the problem of establishing causality in complex systems. However, pragmatic adaptations of the Bradford Hill criteria, as well as bioinformatic tools, are emerging. As critical infrastructures of the organism are perturbed by a toxic mechanism we argue that by focusing on the target of toxicity and its vulnerability, in addition to the way it is perturbed, we can anchor the identification of the mechanism and its verification. PMID:23665802

  11. Food additives.

    PubMed

    Berglund, F

    1978-01-01

    The use of additives to food fulfils many purposes, as shown by the index issued by the Codex Committee on Food Additives: Acids, bases and salts; Preservatives, Antioxidants and antioxidant synergists; Anticaking agents; Colours; Emulfifiers; Thickening agents; Flour-treatment agents; Extraction solvents; Carrier solvents; Flavours (synthetic); Flavour enhancers; Non-nutritive sweeteners; Processing aids; Enzyme preparations. Many additives occur naturally in foods, but this does not exclude toxicity at higher levels. Some food additives are nutrients, or even essential nutritents, e.g. NaCl. Examples are known of food additives causing toxicity in man even when used according to regulations, e.g. cobalt in beer. In other instances, poisoning has been due to carry-over, e.g. by nitrate in cheese whey - when used for artificial feed for infants. Poisonings also occur as the result of the permitted substance being added at too high levels, by accident or carelessness, e.g. nitrite in fish. Finally, there are examples of hypersensitivity to food additives, e.g. to tartrazine and other food colours. The toxicological evaluation, based on animal feeding studies, may be complicated by impurities, e.g. orthotoluene-sulfonamide in saccharin; by transformation or disappearance of the additive in food processing in storage, e.g. bisulfite in raisins; by reaction products with food constituents, e.g. formation of ethylurethane from diethyl pyrocarbonate; by metabolic transformation products, e.g. formation in the gut of cyclohexylamine from cyclamate. Metabolic end products may differ in experimental animals and in man: guanylic acid and inosinic acid are metabolized to allantoin in the rat but to uric acid in man. The magnitude of the safety margin in man of the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) is not identical to the "safety factor" used when calculating the ADI. The symptoms of Chinese Restaurant Syndrome, although not hazardous, furthermore illustrate that the whole ADI

  12. Potlining Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolf Keller

    2004-08-10

    In this project, a concept to improve the performance of aluminum production cells by introducing potlining additives was examined and tested. Boron oxide was added to cathode blocks, and titanium was dissolved in the metal pool; this resulted in the formation of titanium diboride and caused the molten aluminum to wet the carbonaceous cathode surface. Such wetting reportedly leads to operational improvements and extended cell life. In addition, boron oxide suppresses cyanide formation. This final report presents and discusses the results of this project. Substantial economic benefits for the practical implementation of the technology are projected, especially for modern cells with graphitized blocks. For example, with an energy savings of about 5% and an increase in pot life from 1500 to 2500 days, a cost savings of $ 0.023 per pound of aluminum produced is projected for a 200 kA pot.

  13. Phosphazene additives

    SciTech Connect

    Harrup, Mason K; Rollins, Harry W

    2013-11-26

    An additive comprising a phosphazene compound that has at least two reactive functional groups and at least one capping functional group bonded to phosphorus atoms of the phosphazene compound. One of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with cellulose and the other of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with a resin, such as an amine resin of a polycarboxylic acid resin. The at least one capping functional group is selected from the group consisting of a short chain ether group, an alkoxy group, or an aryloxy group. Also disclosed are an additive-resin admixture, a method of treating a wood product, and a wood product.

  14. Assessment of Social Information Processing in Early Childhood: Development and Initial Validation of the Schultz Test of Emotion Processing--Preliminary Version

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, David; Ambike, Archana; Logie, Sean Kevin; Bohner, Katherine E.; Stapleton, Laura M.; VanderWalde, Holly; Min, Christopher B.; Betkowski, Jennifer A.

    2010-01-01

    Crick and Dodge's (Psychological Bulletin 115:74-101, 1994) social information processing model has proven very useful in guiding research focused on aggressive and peer-rejected children's social-cognitive functioning. Its application to early childhood, however, has been much more limited. The present study responds to this gap by developing and…

  15. Lost in Translation? Psychometric Properties and Construct Validity of the English Essen Climate Evaluation Schema (EssenCES) Social Climate Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tonkin, Matthew; Howells, Kevin; Ferguson, Eamonn; Clark, Amanda; Newberry, Michelle; Schalast, Norbert

    2012-01-01

    The social climate of correctional (forensic) settings is likely to have a significant impact on the outcome of treatment and the overall functioning of these units. The Essen Climate Evaluation Schema (EssenCES) provides an objective way of measuring social climate that overcomes the content, length, and psychometric limitations of other…

  16. An SAT® Validity Primer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Emily J.

    2015-01-01

    This primer should provide the reader with a deeper understanding of the concept of test validity and will present the recent available validity evidence on the relationship between SAT® scores and important college outcomes. In addition, the content examined on the SAT will be discussed as well as the fundamental attention paid to the fairness of…

  17. Eating and drinking activity of newly weaned piglets: effects of individual characteristics, social mixing, and addition of extra zinc to the feed.

    PubMed

    Dybkjaer, L; Jacobsen, A P; Tøgersen, F A; Poulsen, H D

    2006-03-01

    In production systems, piglets usually fast for a period after weaning, thereby increasing the risk of diarrhea and a reduction in growth. The low level of eating may relate to insufficient drinking activity, as solid feed intake must be accompanied by water intake. Mixing of newly weaned piglets is a well-known stressor and a common procedure in pig production. The effect of mixing on the temporal development of eating and drinking activity in newly weaned piglets has not been elucidated. High concentrations of zinc (Zn) in the feed improve the health and performance of piglets after weaning, but the underlying mechanisms are still obscure. One possibility is that Zn affects eating and drinking behavior. The effects of mixing 4 littermates from each of 2 litters and adding zinc oxide (ZnO; 2,500 ppm of Zn) to the feed were studied in a 2 x 2 factorial experiment using 123 piglets weaned at 27 d of age. Individual eating and drinking times during the initial 48 h after weaning were analyzed on 2 levels of aggregation, day and hour. The piglets spent less time eating on the first day after weaning compared with the second day (20 +/- 5 vs. 98 +/- 10 min, respectively; P < 0.001), whereas they spent more time drinking on the first day compared with the second day (13 +/- 1 vs. 9 +/- 0.5 min, respectively; P < 0.001). Eating and drinking times were positively associated (P < 0.001). Females ate for longer than males (61 +/- 8 vs. 44 +/- 7 min/24 h, respectively, P = 0.002), whereas sex did not affect drinking time. Drinking time increased (P = 0.003) and eating time decreased (P = 0.001) with increasing preweaning growth rate and weaning weight. Neither mixing nor addition of ZnO affected the daily eating time. However, nonmixed piglets given 2,500 ppm of Zn as ZnO in the feed spent more time drinking per day (12 +/- 1 min) than did nonmixed piglets offered 100 ppm of Zn as ZnO (10 +/- 1 min; P = 0.002). Mixing also affected the hourly distribution of the drinking

  18. Social and Demographic Factors Associated with Morbidities in Young Children in Egypt: A Bayesian Geo-Additive Semi-Parametric Multinomial Model

    PubMed Central

    Khatab, Khaled; Adegboye, Oyelola; Mohammed, Taofeeq Ibn

    2016-01-01

    Background Globally, the burden of mortality in children, especially in poor developing countries, is alarming and has precipitated concern and calls for concerted efforts in combating such health problems. Examples of diseases that contribute to this burden of mortality include diarrhoea, cough, fever, and the overlap between these illnesses, causing childhood morbidity and mortality. Methods To gain insight into these health issues, we employed the 2008 Demographic and Health Survey Data of Egypt, which recorded details from 10,872 children under five. This data focused on the demographic and socio-economic characteristics of household members. We applied a Bayesian multinomial model to assess the area-specific spatial effects and risk factors of co-morbidity of fever, diarrhoea and cough for children under the age of five. Results The results showed that children under 20 months of age were more likely to have the three diseases (OR: 6.8; 95% CI: 4.6–10.2) than children between 20 and 40 months (OR: 2.14; 95% CI: 1.38–3.3). In multivariate Bayesian geo-additive models, the children of mothers who were over 20 years of age were more likely to have only cough (OR: 1.2; 95% CI: 0.9–1.5) and only fever (OR: 1.2; 95% CI: 0.91–1.51) compared with their counterparts. Spatial results showed that the North-eastern region of Egypt has a higher incidence than most of other regions. Conclusions This study showed geographic patterns of Egyptian governorates in the combined prevalence of morbidity among Egyptian children. It is obvious that the Nile Delta, Upper Egypt, and south-eastern Egypt have high rates of diseases and are more affected. Therefore, more attention is needed in these areas. PMID:27442018

  19. Contemporary Test Validity in Theory and Practice: A Primer for Discipline-Based Education Researchers.

    PubMed

    Reeves, Todd D; Marbach-Ad, Gili

    2016-01-01

    Most discipline-based education researchers (DBERs) were formally trained in the methods of scientific disciplines such as biology, chemistry, and physics, rather than social science disciplines such as psychology and education. As a result, DBERs may have never taken specific courses in the social science research methodology--either quantitative or qualitative--on which their scholarship often relies so heavily. One particular aspect of (quantitative) social science research that differs markedly from disciplines such as biology and chemistry is the instrumentation used to quantify phenomena. In response, this Research Methods essay offers a contemporary social science perspective on test validity and the validation process. The instructional piece explores the concepts of test validity, the validation process, validity evidence, and key threats to validity. The essay also includes an in-depth example of a validity argument and validation approach for a test of student argument analysis. In addition to DBERs, this essay should benefit practitioners (e.g., lab directors, faculty members) in the development, evaluation, and/or selection of instruments for their work assessing students or evaluating pedagogical innovations. PMID:26903498

  20. Contemporary Test Validity in Theory and Practice: A Primer for Discipline-Based Education Researchers

    PubMed Central

    Reeves, Todd D.; Marbach-Ad, Gili

    2016-01-01

    Most discipline-based education researchers (DBERs) were formally trained in the methods of scientific disciplines such as biology, chemistry, and physics, rather than social science disciplines such as psychology and education. As a result, DBERs may have never taken specific courses in the social science research methodology—either quantitative or qualitative—on which their scholarship often relies so heavily. One particular aspect of (quantitative) social science research that differs markedly from disciplines such as biology and chemistry is the instrumentation used to quantify phenomena. In response, this Research Methods essay offers a contemporary social science perspective on test validity and the validation process. The instructional piece explores the concepts of test validity, the validation process, validity evidence, and key threats to validity. The essay also includes an in-depth example of a validity argument and validation approach for a test of student argument analysis. In addition to DBERs, this essay should benefit practitioners (e.g., lab directors, faculty members) in the development, evaluation, and/or selection of instruments for their work assessing students or evaluating pedagogical innovations. PMID:26903498

  1. Parenting Behaviors and Preschool Children's Social and Emotional Skills: A Question of the Consequential Validity of Traditional Parenting Constructs for Low-Income African Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McWayne, C. M.; Owsianik, M.; Green, L. E.; Fantuzzo, J. W.

    2008-01-01

    Few researchers have questioned the validity of traditional parenting dimensions (based largely on Baumrind's [Baumrind, D. (1967). Child care practices anteceding three patterns of preschool behavior. Genetic Psychology Monographs, 75, 43-88; Baumrind, D. (1971). Current patterns of parental authority. Developmental Psychology, 4, 1-103] work)…

  2. Validation of survivability validation protocols

    SciTech Connect

    Stringer, T.A. )

    1993-05-01

    Issues associated with the validation of survivability protocols are discussed. Both empirical and analytical approaches to protocol validation are included. The use of hybrid simulations (hardware-in-the-loop, scene generators, software generators, man-in-the-loop, etc.) for the validation of survivability protocols is discussed.

  3. The Individual and Collective Effect of US Colonialism in Puerto Rico: A Scale Construction and Validation, with Implications for Social Work Education and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez Aviles, Maria de Lourdes

    2011-01-01

    "Understanding the individual and collective psychology of the people of Puerto Rico requires an understanding of both the history of its colonialism and the U.S. laws that have helped shaped the social world of the Puerto Rican people, in the United States and in the colony itself" (Rivera Ramos, 2001, p. 4). This research presents…

  4. The Reliability and Validity of the Perceived Stigmatization Questionnaire (PSQ) and the Social Comfort Questionnaire (SCQ) among an Adult Burn Survivor Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, John W.; Fauerbach, James A.; Heinberg, Leslie J.; Doctor, Marion; Thombs, Brett D.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, 361 adult burn survivors completed the Perceived Stigmatization Questionnaire (PSQ), the Social Comfort Questionnaire (SCQ), and other measures. Both the PSQ and SCQ had good internal consistency indices. Factor analysis of the PSQ yielded 3 factors (absence of friendly behavior, confused/staring behavior, and hostile behavior). The…

  5. Validation of a Brief Quantitative Measure of Autistic Traits: Comparison of the Social Responsiveness Scale with the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Constantino, John N.; Davis, Sandra A.; Todd, Richard D.; Schindler, Matthew K.; Gross, Maggie M.; Brophy, Susan L.; Metzger, Lisa M.; Shoushtari, Christiana S.; Splinter, Reagan; Reich, Wendy

    2003-01-01

    A study compared the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) with the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised in 61 children (ages 4-16) with autism. Correlations between the test scores for DSM-IV criterion sets were on the order of 0.7. SRS scores were unrelated to I.Q. and exhibited inter-rater reliability on the order of 0.8. (Contains references.)…

  6. Social Curiosity and Gossip: Related but Different Drives of Social Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Hartung, Freda-Marie; Renner, Britta

    2013-01-01

    The present online-questionnaire study examined two fundamental social behaviors, social curiosity and gossip, and their interrelations in an English (n = 218) and a German sample (n = 152). Analyses showed that both samples believed that they are less gossipy but more curious than their peers. Multidimensional SEM of self and trait conceptions indicated that social curiosity and gossip are related constructs but with different patterns of social functions. Gossip appears to serve predominantly entertainment purposes whereas social curiosity appears to be more driven by a general interest in gathering information about how other people feel, think, and behave and the need to belong. Relationships to other personality traits (N, E, O) provided additional evidence for divergent validity. The needs for gathering and disseminating social information might represent two interlinked but different drives of cultural learning. PMID:23936130

  7. Social curiosity and gossip: related but different drives of social functioning.

    PubMed

    Hartung, Freda-Marie; Renner, Britta

    2013-01-01

    The present online-questionnaire study examined two fundamental social behaviors, social curiosity and gossip, and their interrelations in an English (n = 218) and a German sample (n = 152). Analyses showed that both samples believed that they are less gossipy but more curious than their peers. Multidimensional SEM of self and trait conceptions indicated that social curiosity and gossip are related constructs but with different patterns of social functions. Gossip appears to serve predominantly entertainment purposes whereas social curiosity appears to be more driven by a general interest in gathering information about how other people feel, think, and behave and the need to belong. Relationships to other personality traits (N, E, O) provided additional evidence for divergent validity. The needs for gathering and disseminating social information might represent two interlinked but different drives of cultural learning. PMID:23936130

  8. Adult vertebrate behavioural aquatic toxicology: Reliability and validity.

    PubMed

    Parker, Matthew O

    2016-01-01

    Current advances in the ability to assay adult aquatic vertebrate behaviour are potentially very useful to aquatic toxicologists wishing to characterise the effects of pollutants on behaviour, cognition or neurodevelopment. This review considers two specific challenges faced by researchers wishing to exploit these technologies: maximising reliability and validity. It will suggest two behavioural procedures, with the potential for automation and high-throughput implementation, which can be used to measure social cohesion and anxiety, two areas of interest in behavioural aquatic toxicology. In addition, the review will make recommendations about how these procedures (and others) could be carried out to maximise reliability and validity. PMID:26358137

  9. Reconstructing Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Pamela A.

    2007-01-01

    In response to Lissitz and Samuelsen (2007), the author reconstructs the historical arguments for the more comprehensive unitary concept of validity and the principles of scientific inquiry underlying it. Her response is organized in terms of four questions: (a) How did validity in educational measurement come to be conceptualized as unitary, and…

  10. Development and validation of a dynamic range-extended LC-MS/MS multi-analyte method for 11 different postmortem matrices for redistribution studies applying solvent calibration and additional (13)C isotope monitoring.

    PubMed

    Staeheli, Sandra N; Poetzsch, Michael; Kraemer, Thomas; Steuer, Andrea E

    2015-11-01

    Postmortem redistribution (PMR) is one of numerous problems in postmortem toxicology making correct interpretation of measured drug concentrations difficult or even impossible. Time-dependent PMR in peripheral blood and especially in tissue samples is still under-explored. For further investigation, an easy applicable method for the simultaneous quantitation of over 80 forensically relevant compounds in 11 different postmortem matrices should be developed and validated overcoming the challenges of high inter-matrix and intra-matrix concentration variances. Biopsy samples (20 mg) or body fluids (20 μL) were spiked with an analyte mix and deuterated internal standards, extracted by liquid-liquid extraction, and analyzed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). For highest applicability, an easy solvent calibration was used. Furthermore, time-consuming dilution of high concentration samples showing detector saturation was circumvented by two overlapping calibration curves using (12)C isotope monitoring for low concentrations and (13)C isotopes for high concentration, respectively. The method was validated according to international guidelines with modifications. Matrix effects and extraction efficiency were strongly matrix and analyte dependent. In general, brain and adipose tissue produced the highest matrix effects, whereas cerebrospinal fluid showed the least matrix effects. Accuracy and precision results were rather matrix independent with some exceptions. Despite using an external solvent calibration, the accuracy requirements were fulfilled for 66 to 81 % of the 83 analytes. Depending on the matrix, 75-93 % of the analytes showed intra-day precisions at <20 %. (12)C and (13)C calibrations gave comparable results and proved to be a useful tool in expanding the dynamic range. PMID:26396081

  11. Functional effects of chronic paroxetine versus placebo on the fear, stress and anxiety brain circuit in Social Anxiety Disorder: initial validation of an imaging protocol for drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Giménez, Mónica; Ortiz, Hector; Soriano-Mas, Carles; López-Solà, Marina; Farré, Magí; Deus, Joan; Martín-Santos, Rocio; Fernandes, Sofia; Fina, Paolo; Bani, Massimo; Zancan, Stefano; Pujol, Jesús; Merlo-Pich, Emilio

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that pharmacologic effects of anxiolytic agents can be mapped as functional changes in the fear, stress and anxiety brain circuit. In this work we investigated the effects of a standard treatment, paroxetine (20mg/day), in subjects with Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) versus placebo using different fMRI paradigms. The fMRI sessions, performed before and after the treatment, consisted of a public exposition of recorded performance task (PERPT), an emotional face processing task (EFPT) and a 6-min resting state followed by an off-scanner public speaking test. Paroxetine significantly improved the clinical conditions of SAD patients (n=17) vs. placebo (n=16) as measured with Clinical Global Inventory - Improvement (CGI-I) while no change was seen when using Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale, as expected given the small size of the study population. Paroxetine reduced the activation of insula, thalamus and subgenual/anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) in PERPT. Resting-state fMRI assessment using Independent Component Analysis indicated that paroxetine reduced functional connectivity in insula, thalamus and ACC when compared with placebo. Both paradigms showed significant correlation with CGI-I in rostral prefrontal cortex. Conversely, paroxetine compared to placebo produced activation of right amygdala and bilateral insula and no effects in ACC when tested with EFPT. No treatment effects on distress scores were observed in the off-scanner Public Speaking Test. Overall this study supports the use of fMRI as sensitive approach to explore the neurobiological substrate of the effects of pharmacologic treatments and, in particular, of resting state fMRI given its simplicity and task independence. PMID:24332890

  12. Evaluation and validation of social and psychological markers in randomised trials of complex interventions in mental health: a methodological research programme.

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, Graham; Emsley, Richard; Liu, Hanhua; Landau, Sabine; Green, Jonathan; White, Ian; Pickles, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND The development of the capability and capacity to evaluate the outcomes of trials of complex interventions is a key priority of the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) and the Medical Research Council (MRC). The evaluation of complex treatment programmes for mental illness (e.g. cognitive-behavioural therapy for depression or psychosis) not only is a vital component of this research in its own right but also provides a well-established model for the evaluation of complex interventions in other clinical areas. In the context of efficacy and mechanism evaluation (EME) there is a particular need for robust methods for making valid causal inference in explanatory analyses of the mechanisms of treatment-induced change in clinical outcomes in randomised clinical trials. OBJECTIVES The key objective was to produce statistical methods to enable trial investigators to make valid causal inferences about the mechanisms of treatment-induced change in these clinical outcomes. The primary objective of this report is to disseminate this methodology, aiming specifically at trial practitioners. METHODS The three components of the research were (1) the extension of instrumental variable (IV) methods to latent growth curve models and growth mixture models for repeated-measures data; (2) the development of designs and regression methods for parallel trials; and (3) the evaluation of the sensitivity/robustness of findings to the assumptions necessary for model identifiability. We illustrate our methods with applications from psychological and psychosocial intervention trials, keeping the technical details to a minimum, leaving the reporting of the more theoretical and mathematically demanding results for publication in appropriate specialist journals. RESULTS We show how to estimate treatment effects and introduce methods for EME. We explain the use of IV methods and principal stratification to evaluate the role of putative treatment effect mediators and

  13. [Mobbing, organizational dysfunction and bio-psycho-social effects: an integrated assessment. Preliminary data for the validation of the Questionnaire in the Neapoletan dialect on Distress at Work(Qn-DL)].

    PubMed

    Nolfe, Giovanni; Petrella, Claudio; Triassi, Maria; Zontini, Gemma; Uttieri, Simona; Pagliaro, Alessia; Blasi, Francesco; Cappuccio, Antonella; Nolfe, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to produce preliminary data about the validation of the "Naples-Questionnaire of Distress at Work" (nQ.DW). This inventory is a new assessment tool in order to evaluate the distress perceived in the working environment by means of the differentiation of the conditions linked to the mobbing from which related to organizational disfunction. The nQ-DW also measures the bio-psycho-social global effects of these two phenomena. The questionnaire has been administered to workers suffering of a psychopathological disturbance related to work distress and to a control group matched for the sociodemographic and working variables. The statistical analysis demonstrated a significant validity and reliability. The degree of internal coherence was satisfactory. The ROC curves allow the determination of a threshold value which allows to separate the workers subjected to mobbing and/or organizational stress from control-workers with an optimal reliability degree. The values of the area under the ROC curves show that the inventory has a high discriminating capacity. Future studies, based on a greater sample size, will be oriented to the analysis of the questionnaire by means of multivariate techniques like the factorial analysis. PMID:23914601

  14. Evidence for social cooperation in rodents by automated maze.

    PubMed

    Avital, Avi; Aga-Mizrachi, Shlomit; Zubedat, Salman

    2016-01-01

    Social cooperation is defined as a joint action for mutual benefit that depends on the individual and the counterparts' behaviors. To gain valid evidence for social cooperation behavior we conducted a series of experiments in our suggested fully automated non-conditioned maze and depicted three major findings: (i) During 18 days of training the rats showed a progressive social learning curve as well as latent social learning; (ii) Examining the perceptual communication between the cooperating partners, we found a correlation between the available perceptual modalities and the social cooperation performance; and (iii) Investigating contextual learning as a competing process to the social cooperation, we found that additional contextual cues impaired the social cooperation performance. In conclusion, our suggested automated cooperation maze is designed to further our understanding of social cooperation under normal conditions, such as decision-making, and to examine the neural basis of social cooperation. A variety of neuropsychiatric disorders are characterized by disruptions in social behavior and social cognition, including depression, autism spectrum disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and schizophrenia. Thus, on the pathological end, our maze for social cooperation evaluation can contribute significantly to the investigation of a wide range of social cooperation impairments in a rodent model. PMID:27378418

  15. Evidence for social cooperation in rodents by automated maze

    PubMed Central

    Avital, Avi; Aga-Mizrachi, Shlomit; Zubedat, Salman

    2016-01-01

    Social cooperation is defined as a joint action for mutual benefit that depends on the individual and the counterparts’ behaviors. To gain valid evidence for social cooperation behavior we conducted a series of experiments in our suggested fully automated non-conditioned maze and depicted three major findings: (i) During 18 days of training the rats showed a progressive social learning curve as well as latent social learning; (ii) Examining the perceptual communication between the cooperating partners, we found a correlation between the available perceptual modalities and the social cooperation performance; and (iii) Investigating contextual learning as a competing process to the social cooperation, we found that additional contextual cues impaired the social cooperation performance. In conclusion, our suggested automated cooperation maze is designed to further our understanding of social cooperation under normal conditions, such as decision-making, and to examine the neural basis of social cooperation. A variety of neuropsychiatric disorders are characterized by disruptions in social behavior and social cognition, including depression, autism spectrum disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and schizophrenia. Thus, on the pathological end, our maze for social cooperation evaluation can contribute significantly to the investigation of a wide range of social cooperation impairments in a rodent model. PMID:27378418

  16. EOS Terra Validation Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starr, David

    1999-01-01

    The EOS Terra mission will be launched in July 1999. This mission has great relevance to the atmospheric radiation community and global change issues. Terra instruments include ASTER, CERES, MISR, MODIS and MOPITT. In addition to the fundamental radiance data sets, numerous global science data products will be generated, including various Earth radiation budget, cloud and aerosol parameters, as well as land surface, terrestrial ecology, ocean color, and atmospheric chemistry parameters. Significant investments have been made in on-board calibration to ensure the quality of the radiance observations. A key component of the Terra mission is the validation of the science data products. This is essential for a mission focused on global change issues and the underlying processes. The Terra algorithms have been subject to extensive pre-launch testing with field data whenever possible. Intensive efforts will be made to validate the Terra data products after launch. These include validation of instrument calibration (vicarious calibration) experiments, instrument and cross-platform comparisons, routine collection of high quality correlative data from ground-based networks, such as AERONET, and intensive sites, such as the SGP ARM site, as well as a variety field experiments, cruises, etc. Airborne simulator instruments have been developed for the field experiment and underflight activities including the MODIS Airborne Simulator (MAS), AirMISR, MASTER (MODIS-ASTER), and MOPITT-A. All are integrated on the NASA ER-2, though low altitude platforms are more typically used for MASTER. MATR is an additional sensor used for MOPITT algorithm development and validation. The intensive validation activities planned for the first year of the Terra mission will be described with emphasis on derived geophysical parameters of most relevance to the atmospheric radiation community. Detailed information about the EOS Terra validation Program can be found on the EOS Validation program

  17. Translation and validation of the Child and the Adolescent HARDSHIP (Headache-attributed restriction, disability, social handicap and impaired participation) questionnaire into Danish language

    PubMed Central

    McGirr, Kate A.; Korsgaard, Hanne Oertved; Rathleff, Michael S.

    2016-01-01

    Background. The prevalence of headaches among children and adolescents varies considerably between countries. This may be due to a lack of appropriate instruments to capture the prevalence. The purpose of this study was to translate the Child and Adolescent HARDSHIP questionnaires from English into Danish language, conduct cross-cultural adaptation, face validation by cognitive interviewing and conduct a pilot study exploring time requirements. Methods. The questionnaire was translated using the guidelines proposed by “The Global Campaign to Reduce the Burden of Headache.” A total of 25 children from 6 to 12 years of age completed the questionnaire with 24 h between test and retest to assess reliability. A total of 169 children and adolescents from 6 to 17 years of age completed the translated questionnaire to assess time requirements for completing it. Results. Only minor discrepancies were observed in the translation process. Test-retest reliability of the translated questionnaire showed substantial agreement (kappa: 0.65–0.78). The questionnaires were completed within 30 min (age 6–11 years of age) and within 15 min (age 12–17 years of age) respectively. Discussion. No major problems were observed in the forward translations of the questionnaires. The face validation prompted no major changes in the questionnaire. The face-to-face interviews showed that pupils of different ethnic backgrounds than Danish and pupils in the age group of 6–11 had more difficulty in understanding a minority of the questions. The Danish Child and Adolescent HARDSHIP questionnaire therefore complies with the intentions of the originators, aiming at a maximal completion time of 45 min and in comparison with actual completion time. The test-retest study showed substantial agreement between test and retest in the headache, migraine and MOH domains and questions referring to time.The Child and Adolescent HARDSHIP questionnaire, includes a section specifically recording a four

  18. Translation and validation of the Child and the Adolescent HARDSHIP (Headache-attributed restriction, disability, social handicap and impaired participation) questionnaire into Danish language.

    PubMed

    Jorgensen, Jens Erik; McGirr, Kate A; Korsgaard, Hanne Oertved; Rathleff, Michael S

    2016-01-01

    Background. The prevalence of headaches among children and adolescents varies considerably between countries. This may be due to a lack of appropriate instruments to capture the prevalence. The purpose of this study was to translate the Child and Adolescent HARDSHIP questionnaires from English into Danish language, conduct cross-cultural adaptation, face validation by cognitive interviewing and conduct a pilot study exploring time requirements. Methods. The questionnaire was translated using the guidelines proposed by "The Global Campaign to Reduce the Burden of Headache." A total of 25 children from 6 to 12 years of age completed the questionnaire with 24 h between test and retest to assess reliability. A total of 169 children and adolescents from 6 to 17 years of age completed the translated questionnaire to assess time requirements for completing it. Results. Only minor discrepancies were observed in the translation process. Test-retest reliability of the translated questionnaire showed substantial agreement (kappa: 0.65-0.78). The questionnaires were completed within 30 min (age 6-11 years of age) and within 15 min (age 12-17 years of age) respectively. Discussion. No major problems were observed in the forward translations of the questionnaires. The face validation prompted no major changes in the questionnaire. The face-to-face interviews showed that pupils of different ethnic backgrounds than Danish and pupils in the age group of 6-11 had more difficulty in understanding a minority of the questions. The Danish Child and Adolescent HARDSHIP questionnaire therefore complies with the intentions of the originators, aiming at a maximal completion time of 45 min and in comparison with actual completion time. The test-retest study showed substantial agreement between test and retest in the headache, migraine and MOH domains and questions referring to time.The Child and Adolescent HARDSHIP questionnaire, includes a section specifically recording a four-week period

  19. Social Action As An Objective of Social Studies Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, Charles K.

    This paper presents a rationale for making social action a major goal of elementary and secondary school social studies education. In addition, it describes social action models, suggests social action approaches appropriate for students at various grade levels, and reviews literature on social action by public school students. Social action is…

  20. Genetic validation of postmixing skin injuries in pigs as an indicator of aggressiveness and the relationship with injuries under more stable social conditions.

    PubMed

    Turner, S P; Roehe, R; D'Eath, R B; Ison, S H; Farish, M; Jack, M C; Lundeheim, N; Rydhmer, L; Lawrence, A B

    2009-10-01

    The objective of the study was to estimate genetic correlations between skin lesions and aggressive behavior postmixing and under more stable social conditions as a potential means of selecting against pig aggressiveness. Postmixing aggression in commercial pig production is common, compromises welfare and profitability, and cannot be significantly reduced by low-cost changes to the environment. A genetic component to individual aggressiveness has been described in pigs and other species. Selective breeding against aggressiveness ought to be possible if an easily measured indicator trait can be shown to be genetically associated with aggressive behavior. Aggressive behavior was recorded continuously for 24 h after mixing, and a count of skin lesions (lesion count, LC) was recorded at 24 h and 3 wk postmixing on 1,663 pigs. Two behavioral traits were found to have a moderate to high heritability similar to that of growth traits; duration of involvement in reciprocal fighting (0.43 +/- 0.04) and delivery of nonreciprocal aggression (NRA; 0.31 +/- 0.04), whereas receipt of NRA had a lower heritability (0.08 +/- 0.03). Genetic correlations (r(g)) suggested that lesions to the anterior region of the body 24 h after mixing were associated with reciprocal fighting (r(g) = 0.67 +/- 0.04), receipt of NRA (r(g) = 0.70 +/- 0.11), and to a lesser extent, delivery of NRA (r(g) = 0.31 +/- 0.06). Lesions to the center and rear were primarily genetically associated with receipt of NRA (r(g) = 0.80 +/- 0.05, 0.79 +/- 0.05). Genetic correlations indicated that pigs that engaged in reciprocal fighting delivered NRA to other animals (r(g) = 0.84 +/- 0.04) but were less likely to receive NRA themselves (r(g) = -0.41 +/- 0.14). A genetic merit index using lesions to the anterior region as one trait and those to the center or rear or both as a second trait should allow selection against animals involved in reciprocal fighting and the delivery of NRA. Positive correlations between LC 24 h

  1. Validation of four questions on food habits from the Swedish board of health and social welfare by 3-day food records in medical and nursing students

    PubMed Central

    Fredriksson, Ellinor; Brekke, Hilde K.; Ellegård, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Background The Swedish board for health and social welfare (SoS) has presented four questions on dietary habits as indicators of adherence to dietary recommendations. However, these questions have not been evaluated. Objective To evaluate if four questions on dietary habits correlate with dietary intake assessed by food records. Design A total of 279 medical and nursing students, 170 women and 109 men, completed four questions on usual consumption frequency of vegetables, fruits, fish, and sweets. Depending on scoring from 0 to 12 points, subjects were classified as having low (0–4 points), average (5–8 points), or high (9–12 points) adherence to dietary recommendations as proposed by SoS. Nutrient intake was calculated from 3-day food records. Mean dietary intake, expressed per 10 MJ of fibre, ascorbic acid, folate, vitamin D, sucrose, fish, and fruits and vegetables, was analysed for each group and differences assessed by ANOVA. Results Energy intake was 11.8±3.0 MJ in male and 8.5±2.2 MJ in female students. Most students, 64%, were classified as average adherers to dietary recommendations, whereas only 6% were classified as low and 30% as high. Dietary intake of fibre, ascorbic acid, and folate was significantly higher in the high adherence group compared to both the other groups (p<0.01), but vitamin D significantly so only compared to the average group (p=0.002). Intake of fruits and vegetables was significantly different between all groups (p<0.003), with increasing amounts with increasing adherence. The low adherence group had higher intake of sucrose than the other groups (p<0.005). Median fish intake was nil in the low and average adherence groups, with significant difference between high and average adherence groups (p=0.001). Conclusions Four questions on the consumption frequency of vegetables, fruits, fish, and sweets correlate well with the dietary intake of fibre, ascorbic acid, folate, vitamin D, fish, sucrose, and fruits and vegetables as

  2. Model Validation Status Review

    SciTech Connect

    E.L. Hardin

    2001-11-28

    The primary objective for the Model Validation Status Review was to perform a one-time evaluation of model validation associated with the analysis/model reports (AMRs) containing model input to total-system performance assessment (TSPA) for the Yucca Mountain site recommendation (SR). This review was performed in response to Corrective Action Request BSC-01-C-01 (Clark 2001, Krisha 2001) pursuant to Quality Assurance review findings of an adverse trend in model validation deficiency. The review findings in this report provide the following information which defines the extent of model validation deficiency and the corrective action needed: (1) AMRs that contain or support models are identified, and conversely, for each model the supporting documentation is identified. (2) The use for each model is determined based on whether the output is used directly for TSPA-SR, or for screening (exclusion) of features, events, and processes (FEPs), and the nature of the model output. (3) Two approaches are used to evaluate the extent to which the validation for each model is compliant with AP-3.10Q (Analyses and Models). The approaches differ in regard to whether model validation is achieved within individual AMRs as originally intended, or whether model validation could be readily achieved by incorporating information from other sources. (4) Recommendations are presented for changes to the AMRs, and additional model development activities or data collection, that will remedy model validation review findings, in support of licensing activities. The Model Validation Status Review emphasized those AMRs that support TSPA-SR (CRWMS M&O 2000bl and 2000bm). A series of workshops and teleconferences was held to discuss and integrate the review findings. The review encompassed 125 AMRs (Table 1) plus certain other supporting documents and data needed to assess model validity. The AMRs were grouped in 21 model areas representing the modeling of processes affecting the natural and

  3. Verification and validation benchmarks.

    SciTech Connect

    Oberkampf, William Louis; Trucano, Timothy Guy

    2007-02-01

    Verification and validation (V&V) are the primary means to assess the accuracy and reliability of computational simulations. V&V methods and procedures have fundamentally improved the credibility of simulations in several high-consequence fields, such as nuclear reactor safety, underground nuclear waste storage, and nuclear weapon safety. Although the terminology is not uniform across engineering disciplines, code verification deals with assessing the reliability of the software coding, and solution verification deals with assessing the numerical accuracy of the solution to a computational model. Validation addresses the physics modeling accuracy of a computational simulation by comparing the computational results with experimental data. Code verification benchmarks and validation benchmarks have been constructed for a number of years in every field of computational simulation. However, no comprehensive guidelines have been proposed for the construction and use of V&V benchmarks. For example, the field of nuclear reactor safety has not focused on code verification benchmarks, but it has placed great emphasis on developing validation benchmarks. Many of these validation benchmarks are closely related to the operations of actual reactors at near-safety-critical conditions, as opposed to being more fundamental-physics benchmarks. This paper presents recommendations for the effective design and use of code verification benchmarks based on manufactured solutions, classical analytical solutions, and highly accurate numerical solutions. In addition, this paper presents recommendations for the design and use of validation benchmarks, highlighting the careful design of building-block experiments, the estimation of experimental measurement uncertainty for both inputs and outputs to the code, validation metrics, and the role of model calibration in validation. It is argued that the understanding of predictive capability of a computational model is built on the level of

  4. Alignment validation

    SciTech Connect

    ALICE; ATLAS; CMS; LHCb; Golling, Tobias

    2008-09-06

    The four experiments, ALICE, ATLAS, CMS and LHCb are currently under constructionat CERN. They will study the products of proton-proton collisions at the Large Hadron Collider. All experiments are equipped with sophisticated tracking systems, unprecedented in size and complexity. Full exploitation of both the inner detector andthe muon system requires an accurate alignment of all detector elements. Alignmentinformation is deduced from dedicated hardware alignment systems and the reconstruction of charged particles. However, the system is degenerate which means the data is insufficient to constrain all alignment degrees of freedom, so the techniques are prone to converging on wrong geometries. This deficiency necessitates validation and monitoring of the alignment. An exhaustive discussion of means to validate is subject to this document, including examples and plans from all four LHC experiments, as well as other high energy experiments.

  5. SANSMIC Validation.

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, Paula D.; Rudeen, David Keith; Lord, David L.

    2014-08-01

    SANSMIC is solution mining software that was developed and utilized by SNL in its role as geotechnical advisor to the US DOE SPR for planning purposes. Three SANSMIC leach modes - withdrawal, direct, and reverse leach - have been revalidated with multiple test cases for each mode. The withdrawal mode was validated using high quality data from recent leach activity while the direct and reverse modes utilized data from historical cavern completion reports. Withdrawal results compared very well with observed data, including the location and size of shelves due to string breaks with relative leached volume differences ranging from 6 - 10% and relative radius differences from 1.5 - 3%. Profile comparisons for the direct mode were very good with relative leached volume differences ranging from 6 - 12% and relative radius differences from 5 - 7%. First, second, and third reverse configurations were simulated in order to validate SANSMIC over a range of relative hanging string and OBI locations. The first-reverse was simulated reasonably well with relative leached volume differences ranging from 1 - 9% and relative radius differences from 5 - 12%. The second-reverse mode showed the largest discrepancies in leach profile. Leached volume differences ranged from 8 - 12% and relative radius differences from 1 - 10%. In the third-reverse, relative leached volume differences ranged from 10 - 13% and relative radius differences were %7E4 %. Comparisons to historical reports were quite good, indicating that SANSMIC is essentially the same as documented and validated in the early 1980's.

  6. 49 CFR 1522.103 - Requirements for validation firms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements for validation firms. 1522.103...-APPROVED VALIDATION FIRMS AND VALIDATORS TSA-Approved Validation Firms and Validators for the Certified Cargo Screening Program § 1522.103 Requirements for validation firms. In addition to the...

  7. Validation Testing of the Rational Behavior Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whiteman, Victor L.; Shorkey, Clayton T.

    1978-01-01

    The validity of the Rational Behavior Inventory was investigated by examining its relationship with four other measures of personality in addition to class standing and age. Results supported the validity of the measure. (JKS)

  8. Promoting Social Emotional Competency through Quality Teaching Practices: The Impact of Consultation on a Multidimensional Treatment Integrity Model of the "Strong Kids" Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levitt, Verity Helaine

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation study investigated the impact of brief teacher consultation on teachers' implementation fidelity, quality of implementation, and student responsiveness during the "Strong Kids" social-emotional learning curriculum. Additional outcome measures included teachers' self-efficacy and teachers' perceptions of social validity of the…

  9. Internal Validity: A Must in Research Designs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahit, Kaya

    2015-01-01

    In experimental research, internal validity refers to what extent researchers can conclude that changes in dependent variable (i.e. outcome) are caused by manipulations in independent variable. The causal inference permits researchers to meaningfully interpret research results. This article discusses (a) internal validity threats in social and…

  10. EOS Terra Validation Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starr, David

    2000-01-01

    The EOS Terra mission will be launched in July 1999. This mission has great relevance to the atmospheric radiation community and global change issues. Terra instruments include Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES), Multi-Angle Imaging Spectroradiometer (MISR), Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT). In addition to the fundamental radiance data sets, numerous global science data products will be generated, including various Earth radiation budget, cloud and aerosol parameters, as well as land surface, terrestrial ecology, ocean color, and atmospheric chemistry parameters. Significant investments have been made in on-board calibration to ensure the quality of the radiance observations. A key component of the Terra mission is the validation of the science data products. This is essential for a mission focused on global change issues and the underlying processes. The Terra algorithms have been subject to extensive pre-launch testing with field data whenever possible. Intensive efforts will be made to validate the Terra data products after launch. These include validation of instrument calibration (vicarious calibration) experiments, instrument and cross-platform comparisons, routine collection of high quality correlative data from ground-based networks, such as AERONET, and intensive sites, such as the SGP ARM site, as well as a variety field experiments, cruises, etc. Airborne simulator instruments have been developed for the field experiment and underflight activities including the MODIS Airborne Simulator (MAS) AirMISR, MASTER (MODIS-ASTER), and MOPITT-A. All are integrated on the NASA ER-2 though low altitude platforms are more typically used for MASTER. MATR is an additional sensor used for MOPITT algorithm development and validation. The intensive validation activities planned for the first year of the Terra

  11. Social Dynamics of Science

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiaoling; Kaur, Jasleen; Milojević, Staša; Flammini, Alessandro; Menczer, Filippo

    2013-01-01

    The birth and decline of disciplines are critical to science and society. How do scientific disciplines emerge? No quantitative model to date allows us to validate competing theories on the different roles of endogenous processes, such as social collaborations, and exogenous events, such as scientific discoveries. Here we propose an agent-based model in which the evolution of disciplines is guided mainly by social interactions among agents representing scientists. Disciplines emerge from splitting and merging of social communities in a collaboration network. We find that this social model can account for a number of stylized facts about the relationships between disciplines, scholars, and publications. These results provide strong quantitative support for the key role of social interactions in shaping the dynamics of science. While several “science of science” theories exist, this is the first account for the emergence of disciplines that is validated on the basis of empirical data. PMID:23323212

  12. Social dynamics of science.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaoling; Kaur, Jasleen; Milojević, Staša; Flammini, Alessandro; Menczer, Filippo

    2013-01-01

    The birth and decline of disciplines are critical to science and society. How do scientific disciplines emerge? No quantitative model to date allows us to validate competing theories on the different roles of endogenous processes, such as social collaborations, and exogenous events, such as scientific discoveries. Here we propose an agent-based model in which the evolution of disciplines is guided mainly by social interactions among agents representing scientists. Disciplines emerge from splitting and merging of social communities in a collaboration network. We find that this social model can account for a number of stylized facts about the relationships between disciplines, scholars, and publications. These results provide strong quantitative support for the key role of social interactions in shaping the dynamics of science. While several "science of science" theories exist, this is the first account for the emergence of disciplines that is validated on the basis of empirical data. PMID:23323212

  13. Wayfinding in Social Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liben-Nowell, David

    With the recent explosion of popularity of commercial social-networking sites like Facebook and MySpace, the size of social networks that can be studied scientifically has passed from the scale traditionally studied by sociologists and anthropologists to the scale of networks more typically studied by computer scientists. In this chapter, I will highlight a recent line of computational research into the modeling and analysis of the small-world phenomenon - the observation that typical pairs of people in a social network are connected by very short chains of intermediate friends - and the ability of members of a large social network to collectively find efficient routes to reach individuals in the network. I will survey several recent mathematical models of social networks that account for these phenomena, with an emphasis on both the provable properties of these social-network models and the empirical validation of the models against real large-scale social-network data.

  14. From Construct Validity to Theory Validation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haig, Brian D.

    2012-01-01

    Lee Cronbach once expressed the view that all roads lead to construct validity. In looking to clarify the consensus definition of validity, and its place in assessment, Newton is also led to the troublesome idea of construct validity. To be sure, he addresses other validity issues, but in this commentary, I will restrict my attention to construct…

  15. Arguing Challenges to Validity in Field Research: A Realist Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elsworth, Gerald R.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the importance of field methods in education and social research. Highlights include the argument against antinaturalism; scientific realism and social science; challenges to the validity of inferences from field studies; and threats to the validity of field research. (Contains 52 references.) (LRW)

  16. Development and validation of the Fat Talk Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Royal, Sarah; Macdonald, Danielle E; Dionne, Michelle M

    2013-01-01

    Fat talk refers to negative body-related conversations between girls or young women. This research aimed to use qualitative data from young women to guide development of a quantitative fat talk measure. In Study 1, a preliminary 62-item questionnaire was developed and administered to 200 female participants. Item analysis resulted in the elimination of items, yielding a final questionnaire with 14 items. Principal components analysis of this questionnaire indicated a single factor. In Study 2, 95 female participants completed the newly developed Fat Talk Questionnaire and theoretically related (e.g., body image) and unrelated (e.g., social desirability) constructs. Additionally, 49 male participants completed the questionnaire to examine known groups validity. In Study 3, 54 participants completed the Fat Talk Questionnaire on two occasions to assess temporal stability. The results showed that the Fat Talk Questionnaire is reliable and valid. The Fat Talk Questionnaire may have important utility in future research. PMID:23201392

  17. A Revised Interpersonal Circumplex Inventory of Children's Social Goals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trucco, Elisa M.; Wright, Aidan G. C.; Colder, Craig R.

    2013-01-01

    Motivational factors such as social goals are important features of developing social adjustment, and thus researchers studying social adjustment need psychometrically sound measures of social goals. A valid measure of social goals for English-speaking youth is lacking. Such a measure would increase understanding of children's social adjustment…

  18. Development and Validation of the Hookup Motives Questionnaire (HMQ)

    PubMed Central

    Kenney, Shannon R.; Lac, Andrew; Hummer, Justin F.; LaBrie, Joseph W.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the high prevalence rates and growing research on hooking up among college students, no multidimensional inventory exists in the literature to assess motivations for hooking up. In the current study, we report on the development and validation of the Hookup Motives Questionnaire (HMQ), designed to assess the various reasons for hooking up. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were conducted using 2 samples of college students (Campus 1, N = 401; Campus 2, N = 367). Exploratory factor analysis was undertaken to explore the psychometric properties of an initial set of 25 items, and confirmatory factor analysis was conducted to evaluate additional properties of the factor structure. The final factor structure of the HMQ contained 19 items that tapped 5 subscales representing social-sexual, social-relationship, enhancement, coping, and conformity motives. Results demonstrated good internal consistency and discriminant validity for the subscales. Moreover, criterion-related validity was satisfied by showing that HMQ subscales significantly correlated with hookup approval and behavior. Gender differences on the measures were found. The inventory offers considerable potential as a psychometrically sound instrument that may be administered to understand reasons for engaging in potentially risky hookup behaviors and used to inform the design of sexual health programs and interventions targeting young adults. PMID:24932650

  19. Implicit Models of Social Knowledge Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boggs, James P.

    1992-01-01

    Examines the conceptual framework of bipolar models of social knowledge use that are transactions between knowledge producers and decision makers. Topics discussed include methodological consequences of bipolar models; levels of validity in social research; social contexts of choosing models for social research; and views on the practice of…

  20. Construct Validity and Case Validity in Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teglasi, Hedwig; Nebbergall, Allison Joan; Newman, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Clinical assessment relies on both "construct validity", which focuses on the accuracy of conclusions about a psychological phenomenon drawn from responses to a measure, and "case validity", which focuses on the synthesis of the full range of psychological phenomena pertaining to the concern or question at hand. Whereas construct validity is…

  1. Validation of an adaptation of Levenson's locus of control scale with adult male incarcerated sexual offenders.

    PubMed

    Huntley, Fay L; Palmer, Emma J; Wakeling, Helen C

    2012-02-01

    This article examines the psychometric properties of an adaptation of Levenson's Locus of Control (LoC) measure that is used by the English and Welsh Prison Service as part of the psychometric assessment battery for sexual offenders participating in the Sex Offender Treatment Programme (SOTP). Reliability and validity analyses were conducted on a sample of 2,497 sexual offenders who had completed SOTP. Internal consistency, convergent validity, and relationship to socially desirable responding were investigated. Construct validity was assessed via exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Test-retest reliability data were collected from an additional sample of 26 sexual offenders. The scale was found to have excellent internal consistency, good test-retest reliability, and weak to moderate convergent validity with measures of self-esteem, attachment styles, emotional loneliness, and social problem solving. There was a moderate correlation between the scale and socially desirable responding. EFA and CFA suggested that a four-factor solution provided an acceptable fit to the data, with the factors relating to constructs of chance, problem solving, powerful others, and internal control. The findings of the present study suggest that the adapted LoC Scale is a useful tool for assessing sexual offenders' locus of control. PMID:21788438

  2. [Food additives and healthiness].

    PubMed

    Heinonen, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Additives are used for improving food structure or preventing its spoilage, for example. Many substances used as additives are also naturally present in food. The safety of additives is evaluated according to commonly agreed principles. If high concentrations of an additive cause adverse health effects for humans, a limit of acceptable daily intake (ADI) is set for it. An additive is a risk only when ADI is exceeded. The healthiness of food is measured on the basis of nutrient density and scientifically proven effects. PMID:24772784

  3. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, J. R.; St. Clair, T. L.; Burks, H. D.; Stoakley, D. M.

    1987-01-01

    A method has been found for enhancing the melt flow of thermoplastic polyimides during processing. A high molecular weight 422 copoly(amic acid) or copolyimide was fused with approximately 0.05 to 5 pct by weight of a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive, and this melt was studied by capillary rheometry. Excellent flow and improved composite properties on graphite resulted from the addition of a PMDA-aniline additive to LARC-TPI. Solution viscosity studies imply that amic acid additives temporarily lower molecular weight and, hence, enlarge the processing window. Thus, compositions containing the additive have a lower melt viscosity for a longer time than those unmodified.

  4. Social medicine and social policy.

    PubMed Central

    Silver, G. A.

    1984-01-01

    Social medicine as a term has achieved acceptance in medical education and medical practice, although there is still some question as to its acceptance in reality. The term had its origin in the vigorous nineteenth-century efforts at both medical and social reform, combining the two in a recognition of the intimate connection between social factors and the causation of disease. Henry Ernest Sigerist, a Swiss physician and noted scholar of medical history, formulated the broadest concept in the 1930s, attracting students and a latent American reform movement toward the idea of restructuring medical education as one part of social reform, and indicating ways of restructuring medical practice as another element in improving medical care at the same time. In addition to promulgating the doctrine, he established the policy of examining and describing systems of medical education and medical care in other parts of the world, not only to assist in improving medical care in countries with well-organized systems, but to assist countries with poor resources and lesser organizational capability in meeting the goals of social medicine. Doubt as to the durability of the concept has been expressed, insofar as the recommended improvements have lagged behind the expression, and because so many changes have taken place in the nature of medical practice, medical discoveries, and advances in technology. A closer examination of Sigerist's writings on the subject and evaluation of the circumstances around present-day problems would seem to indicate that the flaw is not in the doctrine, but in the lack of social application. PMID:6537694

  5. Development and validation of a measure of food choice values.

    PubMed

    Lyerly, Jordan E; Reeve, Charlie L

    2015-06-01

    Food choice values (FCVs) are factors that individuals consider when deciding which foods to purchase and/or consume. Given the potentially important implications for health, it is critical for researchers to have access to a validated measure of FCV. Though there is an existing measure of FCV, this measure was developed 20 years ago and recent research suggests additional FCVs exist that are not included in this measure. A series of four studies was conducted to develop a new expanded measure of FCV. An eight-factor model of FCV was supported and confirmed. In aggregate, results from the four studies indicate that the measure is content valid, and has internally consistent scales that also demonstrated acceptable temporal stability and convergent validity. In addition, the eight scales of the measures were independent of social desirability, met criteria for measurement invariance across income groups, and predicted dietary intake. The development of this new measure of FCV may be useful for researchers examining FCVs (FCVs) in the future, as well as for use in intervention and prevention efforts targeting dietary choices. PMID:25637871

  6. Excavator Design Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pholsiri, Chalongrath; English, James; Seberino, Charles; Lim, Yi-Je

    2010-01-01

    The Excavator Design Validation tool verifies excavator designs by automatically generating control systems and modeling their performance in an accurate simulation of their expected environment. Part of this software design includes interfacing with human operations that can be included in simulation-based studies and validation. This is essential for assessing productivity, versatility, and reliability. This software combines automatic control system generation from CAD (computer-aided design) models, rapid validation of complex mechanism designs, and detailed models of the environment including soil, dust, temperature, remote supervision, and communication latency to create a system of high value. Unique algorithms have been created for controlling and simulating complex robotic mechanisms automatically from just a CAD description. These algorithms are implemented as a commercial cross-platform C++ software toolkit that is configurable using the Extensible Markup Language (XML). The algorithms work with virtually any mobile robotic mechanisms using module descriptions that adhere to the XML standard. In addition, high-fidelity, real-time physics-based simulation algorithms have also been developed that include models of internal forces and the forces produced when a mechanism interacts with the outside world. This capability is combined with an innovative organization for simulation algorithms, new regolith simulation methods, and a unique control and study architecture to make powerful tools with the potential to transform the way NASA verifies and compares excavator designs. Energid's Actin software has been leveraged for this design validation. The architecture includes parametric and Monte Carlo studies tailored for validation of excavator designs and their control by remote human operators. It also includes the ability to interface with third-party software and human-input devices. Two types of simulation models have been adapted: high-fidelity discrete

  7. Additive usage levels.

    PubMed

    Langlais, R

    1996-01-01

    With the adoption of the European Parliament and Council Directives on sweeteners, colours and miscellaneous additives the Commission is now embarking on the project of coordinating the activities of the European Union Member States in the collection of the data that are to make up the report on food additive intake requested by the European Parliament. This presentation looks at the inventory of available sources on additive use levels and concludes that for the time being national legislation is still the best source of information considering that the directives have yet to be transposed into national legislation. Furthermore, this presentation covers the correlation of the food categories as found in the additives directives with those used by national consumption surveys and finds that in a number of instances this correlation still leaves a lot to be desired. The intake of additives via food ingestion and the intake of substances which are chemically identical to additives but which occur naturally in fruits and vegetables is found in a number of cases to be higher than the intake of additives added during the manufacture of foodstuffs. While the difficulties are recognized in contributing to the compilation of food additive intake data, industry as a whole, i.e. the food manufacturing and food additive manufacturing industries, are confident that in a concerted effort, use data on food additives by industry can be made available. Lastly, the paper points out that with the transportation of the additives directives into national legislation and the time by which the food industry will be able to make use of the new food legislative environment several years will still go by; food additives use data by the food industry will thus have to be reviewed at the beginning of the next century. PMID:8792135

  8. An additional middle cuneiform?

    PubMed Central

    Brookes-Fazakerley, S.D.; Jackson, G.E.; Platt, S.R.

    2015-01-01

    Additional cuneiform bones of the foot have been described in reference to the medial bipartite cuneiform or as small accessory ossicles. An additional middle cuneiform has not been previously documented. We present the case of a patient with an additional ossicle that has the appearance and location of an additional middle cuneiform. Recognizing such an anatomical anomaly is essential for ruling out second metatarsal base or middle cuneiform fractures and for the preoperative planning of arthrodesis or open reduction and internal fixation procedures in this anatomical location. PMID:26224890

  9. Integrating Social Capital Theory, Social Cognitive Theory, and the Technology Acceptance Model to Explore a Behavioral Model of Telehealth Systems

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Chung-Hung

    2014-01-01

    Telehealth has become an increasingly applied solution to delivering health care to rural and underserved areas by remote health care professionals. This study integrated social capital theory, social cognitive theory, and the technology acceptance model (TAM) to develop a comprehensive behavioral model for analyzing the relationships among social capital factors (social capital theory), technological factors (TAM), and system self-efficacy (social cognitive theory) in telehealth. The proposed framework was validated with 365 respondents from Nantou County, located in Central Taiwan. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to assess the causal relationships that were hypothesized in the proposed model. The finding indicates that elderly residents generally reported positive perceptions toward the telehealth system. Generally, the findings show that social capital factors (social trust, institutional trust, and social participation) significantly positively affect the technological factors (perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness respectively), which influenced usage intention. This study also confirmed that system self-efficacy was the salient antecedent of perceived ease of use. In addition, regarding the samples, the proposed model fitted considerably well. The proposed integrative psychosocial-technological model may serve as a theoretical basis for future research and can also offer empirical foresight to practitioners and researchers in the health departments of governments, hospitals, and rural communities. PMID:24810577

  10. Carbamate deposit control additives

    SciTech Connect

    Honnen, L.R.; Lewis, R.A.

    1980-11-25

    Deposit control additives for internal combustion engines are provided which maintain cleanliness of intake systems without contributing to combustion chamber deposits. The additives are poly(oxyalkylene) carbamates comprising a hydrocarbyloxyterminated poly(Oxyalkylene) chain of 2-5 carbon oxyalkylene units bonded through an oxycarbonyl group to a nitrogen atom of ethylenediamine.

  11. Aura Science and Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilsenrath, E.; Schoeberl, M.; Douglass, A.; Anderson, J.; Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The EOS-Aura Mission is designed to answer three basic questions concerning the Earth's atmosphere: 1) Is ozone recovering as predicted, 2) is air quality getting worse, and 3) how is climate changing? Aura's four instruments work synergistically and are dedicated to answering these questions. These questions relate to NASA Earth Science Enterprise's overall strategic questions, which seek to understand the consequences of climate change for human civilization and determine if these changes can be predicted. NASA supports an ongoing research and analysis program, which is conducted independently and in support of satellite missions. The research program conducts several on-going field campaigns employing aircraft, balloons, and ground based systems. These campaigns have focused on exploring processes in the tropics, high latitudes, and continental outflow to explain the chemistry and transport in the troposphere and stratosphere and how these regions interact. NASA is now studying how the Aura mission and requirements of the research and analysis program might be merged to achieve its strategic goals related to global atmospheric chemistry changes. In addition, NASA field campaign resources will be folded into Aura's validation requirements. Aura validation requires correlative measurements throughout the troposphere and stratosphere under a range of observing and geophysical conditions. Because of the recent launches of Envisat and other smaller international chemistry satellites, the NASA program plans to collaborate with European space agencies in developing a series of campaigns that will provide continuity between those satellites missions and Aura.

  12. Parental Socialization of Emotion

    PubMed Central

    Cumberland, Amanda; Spinrad, Tracy L.

    2006-01-01

    Recently, there has been a resurgence of research on emotion, including the socialization of emotion. In this article, a heuristic model of factors contributing to the socialization of emotion is presented. Then literature relevant to the socialization of children’s emotion and emotion-related behavior by parents is reviewed, including (a) parental reactions to children’s emotions, (b) socializers’ discussion of emotion, and (c) socializers’ expression of emotion. The relevant literature is not conclusive and most of the research is correlational. However, the existing body of data provides initial support for the view that parental socialization practices have effects on children’s emotional and social competence and that the socialization process is bidirectional. In particular, parental negative emotionality and negative reactions to children’s expression of emotion are associated with children’s negative emotionality and low social competence. In addition, possible moderators of effects such as level of emotional arousal are discussed. PMID:16865170

  13. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fletcher, James C. (Inventor); Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor); Burks, Harold D. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

  14. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor); Burks, Harold D. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of the additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

  15. Smog control fuel additives

    SciTech Connect

    Lundby, W.

    1993-06-29

    A method is described of controlling, reducing or eliminating, ozone and related smog resulting from photochemical reactions between ozone and automotive or industrial gases comprising the addition of iodine or compounds of iodine to hydrocarbon-base fuels prior to or during combustion in an amount of about 1 part iodine per 240 to 10,000,000 parts fuel, by weight, to be accomplished by: (a) the addition of these inhibitors during or after the refining or manufacturing process of liquid fuels; (b) the production of these inhibitors for addition into fuel tanks, such as automotive or industrial tanks; or (c) the addition of these inhibitors into combustion chambers of equipment utilizing solid fuels for the purpose of reducing ozone.

  16. Food Additives and Hyperkinesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wender, Ester H.

    1977-01-01

    The hypothesis that food additives are causally associated with hyperkinesis and learning disabilities in children is reviewed, and available data are summarized. Available from: American Medical Association 535 North Dearborn Street Chicago, Illinois 60610. (JG)

  17. Additional Types of Neuropathy

    MedlinePlus

    ... A A Listen En Español Additional Types of Neuropathy Charcot's Joint Charcot's Joint, also called neuropathic arthropathy, ... can stop bone destruction and aid healing. Cranial Neuropathy Cranial neuropathy affects the 12 pairs of nerves ...

  18. Cost Validation Using PRICE H

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jack, John; Kwan, Eric; Wood, Milana

    2011-01-01

    PRICE H was introduced into the JPL cost estimation tool set circa 2003. It became more available at JPL when IPAO funded the NASA-wide site license for all NASA centers. PRICE H was mainly used as one of the cost tools to validate proposal grassroots cost estimates. Program offices at JPL view PRICE H as an additional crosscheck to Team X (JPL Concurrent Engineering Design Center) estimates. PRICE H became widely accepted ca, 2007 at JPL when the program offices moved away from grassroots cost estimation for Step 1 proposals. PRICE H is now one of the key cost tools used for cost validation, cost trades, and independent cost estimates.

  19. Social inequalities and perceived health.

    PubMed

    Hunt, S M; McEwen, J; McKenna, S P

    1985-01-01

    The association between morbidity and mortality indicators and low socio-economic status has been observed for many centuries. In 1980 the publication of the Black Report in Britain drew attention to the failure of the National Health Service to close the gap between rich and poor in relation to health status. The gradients of morbidity and mortality which are linked to social class have been observed throughout Europe, in the U.S.A. and Australia. However, information on how people feel, as opposed to how they become ill, and the cause of their death, is scarce. Measures of perceived need can provide important additions to routinely collected data because they give access to the experiential status of respondents and thus provide vital data on which to base planning, provision and evaluation of health services. A standard reliable and valid measure of perceived health, the Nottingham Health Profile, was used to conduct a postal survey of differential status in subjective health between social classes in England. The results showed statistically significant differences between social classes in the age group 20-44 years only. For both men and women these were in their experience of sleep problems, emotional problems and lack of energy. In all cases the lower the social class the greater the amount and severity of perceived distress. After the age of 45 these differences, although still present, were not so marked, perhaps because of the excess mortality rates in lower socio-economic groups and the lowering of expectations with age. It is suggested that younger people from unskilled and semi-skilled occupations and, of course, the unemployed, are more vulnerable than their better off compatriots because of a kind of psychic susceptibility which is a consequence of social circumstances and the inability to cushion the effects of ill health. A type of Marxian "immiseration' may occur whereby in contemporary society health status is undermined by spiritual and social

  20. Validating the Watson Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassan, Karma El; Madhum, Ghida

    2007-01-01

    This study validated the Watson Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal (WGCTA) on a sample of 273 private university students in Lebanon. For that purpose, evidence for construct validation was investigated through identifying the test's factor structure and subscale total correlations, in addition to differences in scores by gender, different levels,…

  1. Additive Manufacturing Infrared Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaddy, Darrell

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing is a rapid prototyping technology that allows parts to be built in a series of thin layers from plastic, ceramics, and metallics. Metallic additive manufacturing is an emerging form of rapid prototyping that allows complex structures to be built using various metallic powders. Significant time and cost savings have also been observed using the metallic additive manufacturing compared with traditional techniques. Development of the metallic additive manufacturing technology has advanced significantly over the last decade, although many of the techniques to inspect parts made from these processes have not advanced significantly or have limitations. Several external geometry inspection techniques exist such as Coordinate Measurement Machines (CMM), Laser Scanners, Structured Light Scanning Systems, or even traditional calipers and gages. All of the aforementioned techniques are limited to external geometry and contours or must use a contact probe to inspect limited internal dimensions. This presentation will document the development of a process for real-time dimensional inspection technique and digital quality record of the additive manufacturing process using Infrared camera imaging and processing techniques.

  2. A Multitrait (ADHD-IN, ADHD-HI, ODD toward Adults, Academic and Social Competence) by Multisource (Mothers and Fathers) Evaluation of the Invariance and Convergent/Discriminant Validity of the Child and Adolescent Disruptive Behavior Inventory with Thai Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, G. Leonard; Desmul, Chris; Walsh, James A.; Silpakit, Chatchawan; Ussahawanitchakit, Phapruke

    2009-01-01

    Confirmatory factor analysis was used with a multitrait (attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder-inattention, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder-hyperactivity/impulsivity, oppositional defiant disorder toward adults, academic competence, and social competence) by multisource (mothers and fathers) matrix to test the invariance and…

  3. Phenylethynyl Containing Reactive Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Phenylethynyl containing reactive additives were prepared from aromatic diamine, containing phenylethvnvl groups and various ratios of phthalic anhydride and 4-phenylethynviphthalic anhydride in glacial acetic acid to form the imide in one step or in N-methyl-2-pvrrolidinone to form the amide acid intermediate. The reactive additives were mixed in various amounts (10% to 90%) with oligomers containing either terminal or pendent phenylethynyl groups (or both) to reduce the melt viscosity and thereby enhance processability. Upon thermal cure, the additives react and become chemically incorporated into the matrix and effect an increase in crosslink density relative to that of the host resin. This resultant increase in crosslink density has advantageous consequences on the cured resin properties such as higher glass transition temperature and higher modulus as compared to that of the host resin.

  4. Australian health professions student use of social media.

    PubMed

    Usher, Kim; Woods, Cindy; Casellac, Evan; Glass, Nel; Wilson, Rhonda; Mayner, Lidia; Jackson, Debra; Brown, Janie; Duffy, Elaine; Mather, Carey; Cummings, Elizabeth; Irwin, Pauletta

    2014-01-01

    Increased bandwidth, broadband network availability and improved functionality have enhanced the accessibility and attractiveness of social media. The use of the Internet by higher education students has markedly increased. Social media are already used widely across the health sector but little is currently known of the use of social media by health profession students in Australia. A cross-sectional study was undertaken to explore health profession students' use of social media and their media preferences for sourcing information. An electronic survey was made available to health profession students at ten participating universities across most Australian states and territories. Respondents were 637 first year students and 451 final year students. The results for first and final year health profession students indicate that online media is the preferred source of information with only 20% of students nominating traditional peer-reviewed journals as a preferred information source. In addition, the results indicate that Facebook usage was high among all students while use of other types of social media such as Twitter remains comparatively low. As health profession students engage regularly with social media, and this use is likely to grow rather than diminish, educational institutions are challenged to consider the use of social media as a validated platform for learning and teaching. PMID:25109207

  5. Continual Response Measurement: Design and Validation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baggaley, Jon

    1987-01-01

    Discusses reliability and validity of continual response measurement (CRM), a computer-based measurement technique, and its use in social science research. Highlights include the importance of criterion-referencing the data, guidelines for designing studies using CRM, examples typifying their deductive and inductive functions, and a discussion of…

  6. Additives in plastics.

    PubMed Central

    Deanin, R D

    1975-01-01

    The polymers used in plastics are generally harmless. However, they are rarely used in pure form. In almost all commercial plastics, they are "compounded" with monomeric ingredients to improve their processing and end-use performance. In order of total volume used, these monomeric additives may be classified as follows: reinforcing fibers, fillers, and coupling agents; plasticizers; colorants; stabilizers (halogen stabilizers, antioxidants, ultraviolet absorbers, and biological preservatives); processing aids (lubricants, others, and flow controls); flame retardants, peroxides; and antistats. Some information is already available, and much more is needed, on potential toxicity and safe handling of these additives during processing and manufacture of plastics products. PMID:1175566

  7. Loner or socializer? Ravens' adrenocortical response to individual separation depends on social integration.

    PubMed

    Stocker, Martina; Munteanu, Alexandru; Stöwe, Mareike; Schwab, Christine; Palme, Rupert; Bugnyar, Thomas

    2016-02-01

    Non-breeding common ravens (Corvus corax) live in complex social groups with a high degree of fission-fusion dynamics. They form valuable relationships and alliances with some conspecifics, while taking coordinated action against others. In ravens, affiliates reconcile their conflicts, console each other after conflicts with a third party, and provide each other with social support - all behaviors that presumably reduce corticosterone levels and alleviate stress. However, how well an individual is socially integrated in a (sub)group might vary substantially. This raises the question whether the social integration of a raven affects its stress responses to fission-fusion dynamics. The present study aims to investigate this effect experimentally by separating single ravens (n=16) individually from their group for four days and subsequently reintroducing them. To determine stress response patterns in the separated individuals we measured the amounts of immunoreactive corticosterone metabolites (CM) in droppings. We compared two enzyme immunoassays, which we validated by conducting an ACTH challenge, and finally decided to apply an 11-oxoetiocholanolone enzyme immunoassay. Additionally, we determined levels of social integration using focal observations. Our findings suggest that a strong social integration is related to low CM levels when the individuals are within the group and high levels during separations, implying that separation leads to stress in these birds. In contrast, poorly socially integrated ravens seem to exhibit the opposite pattern, indicating that to them group living is more stressful than being temporarily separated. We, therefore, conclude that the birds' adrenocortical activity is modulated by their social integration. PMID:26631484

  8. Loner or socializer? Ravens’ adrenocortical response to individual separation depends on social integration

    PubMed Central

    Stocker, Martina; Munteanu, Alexandru; Stöwe, Mareike; Schwab, Christine; Palme, Rupert; Bugnyar, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Non-breeding common ravens (Corvus corax) live in complex social groups with a high degree of fission–fusion dynamics. They form valuable relationships and alliances with some conspecifics, while taking coordinated action against others. In ravens, affiliates reconcile their conflicts, console each other after conflicts with a third party, and provide each other with social support — all behaviors that presumably reduce corticosterone levels and alleviate stress. However, how well an individual is socially integrated in a (sub)group might vary substantially. This raises the question whether the social integration of a raven affects its stress responses to fission–fusion dynamics. The present study aims to investigate this effect experimentally by separating single ravens (n = 16) individually from their group for four days and subsequently reintroducing them. To determine stress response patterns in the separated individuals we measured the amounts of immunoreactive corticosterone metabolites (CM) in droppings. We compared two enzyme immunoassays, which we validated by conducting an ACTH challenge, and finally decided to apply an 11-oxoetiocholanolone enzyme immunoassay. Additionally, we determined levels of social integration using focal observations. Our findings suggest that a strong social integration is related to low CM levels when the individuals are within the group and high levels during separations, implying that separation leads to stress in these birds. In contrast, poorly socially integrated ravens seem to exhibit the opposite pattern, indicating that to them group living is more stressful than being temporarily separated. We, therefore, conclude that the birds’ adrenocortical activity is modulated by their social integration. PMID:26631484

  9. Developmental pathways for social understanding: linking social cognition to social contexts

    PubMed Central

    Brink, Kimberly A.; Lane, Jonathan D.; Wellman, Henry M.

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary research, often with looking-time tasks, reveals that infants possess foundational understandings of their social worlds. However, few studies have examined how these early social cognitions relate to the child’s social interactions and behavior in early development. Does an early understanding of the social world relate to how an infant interacts with his or her parents? Do early social interactions along with social-cognitive understandings in infancy predict later preschool social competencies? In the current paper, we propose a theory in which children’s later social behaviors and their understanding of the social world depend on the integration of early social understanding and experiences in infancy. We review several of our studies, as well as other research, that directly examine the pathways between these competencies to support a hypothesized network of relations between social-cognitive development and social-interactive behaviors in the development from infancy to childhood. In total, these findings reveal differences in infant social competences that both track the developmental trajectory of infants’ understanding of people over the first years of life and provide external validation for the large body of social-cognitive findings emerging from laboratory looking-time paradigms. PMID:26074859

  10. Biobased lubricant additives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fully biobased lubricants are those formulated using all biobased ingredients, i.e. biobased base oils and biobased additives. Such formulations provide the maximum environmental, safety, and economic benefits expected from a biobased product. Currently, there are a number of biobased base oils that...

  11. Multifunctional fuel additives

    SciTech Connect

    Baillargeon, D.J.; Cardis, A.B.; Heck, D.B.

    1991-03-26

    This paper discusses a composition comprising a major amount of a liquid hydrocarbyl fuel and a minor low-temperature flow properties improving amount of an additive product of the reaction of a suitable diol and product of a benzophenone tetracarboxylic dianhydride and a long-chain hydrocarbyl aminoalcohol.

  12. The validity of the autism spectrum disorders-diagnosis for intellectually disabled adults (ASD-DA).

    PubMed

    Matson, Johnny L; Wilkins, Jonathan; Boisjoli, Jessica A; Smith, Kimberly R

    2008-01-01

    Psychologists interviewed direct-care staff using a battery of assessment measures including the autism spectrum disorders-diagnosis for intellectually disabled adults (ASD-DA), the Diagnostic Assessment for the Severely Handicapped-II (DASH-II), the Matson Evaluation of Social Skills for Individuals with Severe Retardation (MESSIER), the Socialization domain of the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS), and a checklist containing criteria for autism and PDD-NOS from the DSM-IV-TR and ICD-10. Three hundred and seven intellectually disabled (ID) adolescents and adults ranging in age from 16 to 88 were assessed. Participants were diagnosed with either ID and ASD (autism or PDD-NOS; n=156) or ID and no Axis I diagnosis (n=151). A modification of the multitrait-multimethod approach was used to establish the convergent and discriminant validity of the ASD-DA. The scale proved to have robust convergent validity when correlated with the DSM-IV-TR/ICD-10 checklist, MESSIER, and Socialization domain of the VABS. Additionally, discriminant validity was demonstrated by comparing the ASD-DA to items from the DASH-II (measure of general psychopathology). The implications of these data are discussed. PMID:17981435

  13. Social Indicators and Social Forecasting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Denis F.

    The paper identifies major types of social indicators and explains how they can be used in social forecasting. Social indicators are defined as statistical measures relating to major areas of social concern and/or individual well being. Examples of social indicators are projections, forecasts, outlook statements, time-series statistics, and…

  14. [Social anxiety].

    PubMed

    Mirabel-Sarron, Christine

    2010-06-20

    Social anxiety disorders are various, frequent and invalidant. Social phobia is characterized by marked and persistent fear of social or performance situations in which embarrassment may occur including, for example, fear of public speaking. In clinical setting, the majority of social phobics report fears of more than one type of social situation. Social phobia tends to develop early in life, with a life time prevalence of 2-4%. Pharmacotherapy and behavioural and cognitive therapy are communly used. PMID:20623894

  15. Land Product Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morisette, Jeffrey; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Land Product Validation (LPV) subgroup of the Committee on Earth Observing Satellites Working Group on Calibration and Validation was formed in 2000. Goals of the LPV subgroup are: 1) to increase the quality and economy of global satellite product validation via developing and promoting international standards and protocols for field sampling, scaling, error budgeting, data exchange and product evaluation; 2) to advocate mission-long validation programs for current and future earth observing satellites.

  16. SCARF SOCIAL FUNCTIONING INDEX

    PubMed Central

    Padmavathi, R.; Thara, R.; Srinivasan, Latha; Kumar, Shuba

    1995-01-01

    Several instruments measuring social functioning have been developed in the last four decades, as a result of the increasing interest in community care of the chronic mentally ill. SCARF Social Functioning Index (SSFI) was developed to meet the pressing need for an instrument which was easy to administer and which could be used by all mental health professionals. The SSFI comprises four main sections: self concern, occupational role, role in the family and other social roles. Each section has several subsections covering different areas of social functioning. Validity and reliability have been established for a group of normals, patients suffering from schizophrenia and from Hansen's disease. Internal consistencies of these factors were high Factor analysis derived four main factors, which included nearly all items of the SSFI. This paper reports on the development and standardization of the instrument. PMID:21743742

  17. The Concept of Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borsboom, Denny; Mellenbergh, Gideon J.; van Heerden, Jaap

    2004-01-01

    This article advances a simple conception of test validity: A test is valid for measuring an attribute if (a) the attribute exists and (b) variations in the attribute causally produce variation in the measurement outcomes. This conception is shown to diverge from current validity theory in several respects. In particular, the emphasis in the…

  18. Cross-Validation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langmuir, Charles R.

    1954-01-01

    Cross-validation in relation to choosing the best tests and selecting the best items in tests is discussed. Cross-validation demonstrated whether a decision derived from one set of data is truly effective when this decision is applied to another independent, but relevant, sample of people. Cross-validation is particularly important after…

  19. Validity, Responsibility, and Aporia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koro-Ljungberg, Mirka

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author problematizes external, objectified, oversimplified, and mechanical approaches to validity in qualitative research, which endorse simplistic and reductionist views of knowledge and data. Instead of promoting one generalizable definition or operational criteria for validity, the author's "deconstructive validity work"…

  20. The Iowa Validation Site

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Remote sensing can be used to observe the land surface hydrologic cycle, but the quantitative aspects of these observations are not well known. We present a small (1 km^2) experimental validation site, the Iowa Validation Site. Initially we have focused on validating remotely-sensed observations of ...

  1. Boron addition to alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Coad, B. C.

    1985-08-20

    A process for addition of boron to an alloy which involves forming a melt of the alloy and a reactive metal, selected from the group consisting of aluminum, titanium, zirconium and mixtures thereof to the melt, maintaining the resulting reactive mixture in the molten state and reacting the boric oxide with the reactive metal to convert at least a portion of the boric oxide to boron which dissolves in the resulting melt, and to convert at least portion of the reactive metal to the reactive metal oxide, which oxide remains with the resulting melt, and pouring the resulting melt into a gas stream to form a first atomized powder which is subsequently remelted with further addition of boric oxide, re-atomized, and thus reprocessed to convert essentially all the reactive metal to metal oxide to produce a powdered alloy containing specified amounts of boron.

  2. Tackifier for addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, J. M.; St.clair, T. L.

    1980-01-01

    A modification to the addition polyimide, LaRC-160, was prepared to improve tack and drape and increase prepeg out-time. The essentially solventless, high viscosity laminating resin is synthesized from low cost liquid monomers. The modified version takes advantage of a reactive, liquid plasticizer which is used in place of solvent and helps solve a major problem of maintaining good prepeg tack and drape, or the ability of the prepeg to adhere to adjacent plies and conform to a desired shape during the lay up process. This alternate solventless approach allows both longer life of the polymer prepeg and the processing of low void laminates. This approach appears to be applicable to all addition polyimide systems.

  3. Vinyl capped addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vannucci, Raymond D. (Inventor); Malarik, Diane C. (Inventor); Delvigs, Peter (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    Polyimide resins (PMR) are generally useful where high strength and temperature capabilities are required (at temperatures up to about 700 F). Polyimide resins are particularly useful in applications such as jet engine compressor components, for example, blades, vanes, air seals, air splitters, and engine casing parts. Aromatic vinyl capped addition polyimides are obtained by reacting a diamine, an ester of tetracarboxylic acid, and an aromatic vinyl compound. Low void materials with improved oxidative stability when exposed to 700 F air may be fabricated as fiber reinforced high molecular weight capped polyimide composites. The aromatic vinyl capped polyimides are provided with a more aromatic nature and are more thermally stable than highly aliphatic, norbornenyl-type end-capped polyimides employed in PMR resins. The substitution of aromatic vinyl end-caps for norbornenyl end-caps in addition polyimides results in polymers with improved oxidative stability.

  4. [Biologically active food additives].

    PubMed

    Velichko, M A; Shevchenko, V P

    1998-07-01

    More than half out of 40 projects for the medical science development by the year of 2000 have been connected with the bio-active edible additives that are called "the food of XXI century", non-pharmacological means for many diseases. Most of these additives--nutricevtics and parapharmacevtics--are intended for the enrichment of food rations for the sick or healthy people. The ecologicaly safest and most effective are combined domestic adaptogens with immuno-modulating and antioxidating action that give anabolic and stimulating effect,--"leveton", "phytoton" and "adapton". The MKTs-229 tablets are residue discharge means. For atherosclerosis and general adiposis they recommend "tsar tablets" and "aiconol (ikhtien)"--on the base of cod-liver oil or "splat" made out of seaweed (algae). All these preparations have been clinically tested and received hygiene certificates from the Institute of Dietology of the Russian Academy of Medical Science. PMID:9752776

  5. Reliability and validity of the Ego and Discomfort Anxiety Inventory.

    PubMed

    Whiteman, V L; Shorkey, C T

    1994-08-01

    This article reports significant test-retest reliability scores for the Ego and Discomfort Anxiety Inventory. Positive significant correlations with the Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale supported the construct validity of the Ego Anxiety Scale. Positive significant correlations with the Costello-Comrey Anxiety Scale supported the construct validity of the Discomfort Anxiety Scale. The sample included 28 graduate social work students in a research methods class and 28 undergraduate students in an introductory social work class at Michigan State University. PMID:7809312

  6. Electrophilic addition of astatine

    SciTech Connect

    Norseev, Yu.V.; Vasaros, L.; Nhan, D.D.; Huan, N.K.

    1988-03-01

    It has been shown for the first time that astatine is capable of undergoing addition reactions to unsaturated hydrocarbons. A new compound of astatine, viz., ethylene astatohydrin, has been obtained, and its retention numbers of squalane, Apiezon, and tricresyl phosphate have been found. The influence of various factors on the formation of ethylene astatohydrin has been studied. It has been concluded on the basis of the results obtained that the univalent cations of astatine in an acidic medium is protonated hypoastatous acid.

  7. Hydrocarbon fuel additive

    SciTech Connect

    Ambrogio, S.

    1989-02-28

    This patent describes the method of fuel storage or combustion, wherein the fuel supply contains small amounts of water, the step of adding to the fuel supply an additive comprising a blend of a hydrophilic agent chosen from the group of ethylene glycol, n-butyl alcohol, and cellosolve in the range of 22-37% by weight; ethoxylated nonylphenol in the range of 26-35% by weight; nonylphenol polyethylene glycol ether in the range of 32-43% by weight.

  8. Functional Generalized Additive Models.

    PubMed

    McLean, Mathew W; Hooker, Giles; Staicu, Ana-Maria; Scheipl, Fabian; Ruppert, David

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the functional generalized additive model (FGAM), a novel regression model for association studies between a scalar response and a functional predictor. We model the link-transformed mean response as the integral with respect to t of F{X(t), t} where F(·,·) is an unknown regression function and X(t) is a functional covariate. Rather than having an additive model in a finite number of principal components as in Müller and Yao (2008), our model incorporates the functional predictor directly and thus our model can be viewed as the natural functional extension of generalized additive models. We estimate F(·,·) using tensor-product B-splines with roughness penalties. A pointwise quantile transformation of the functional predictor is also considered to ensure each tensor-product B-spline has observed data on its support. The methods are evaluated using simulated data and their predictive performance is compared with other competing scalar-on-function regression alternatives. We illustrate the usefulness of our approach through an application to brain tractography, where X(t) is a signal from diffusion tensor imaging at position, t, along a tract in the brain. In one example, the response is disease-status (case or control) and in a second example, it is the score on a cognitive test. R code for performing the simulations and fitting the FGAM can be found in supplemental materials available online. PMID:24729671

  9. Korean Anxiety Sensitivity Index-3: Its Factor Structure, Reliability, and Validity in Non-Clinical Samples

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Young-Jin

    2012-01-01

    Objective The aim here is to examine the factorial structure, internal consistency, and concurrent validity of the Korean version of the Anxiety Sensitivity Index-3 (K-ASI-3) in student samples in Korea. Also, we investigated the cross-cultural differences in the Social Concerns factor. Methods K-ASI-3 was administered to non clinical samples in Korea. Internal consistency, exploratory factor analysis (EFA), and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were undertaken to examine the factorial structure and reliability of the K-ASI-3. Results Results from CFA comparing our data to factor solutions commonly reported as representative of European-American samples indicated an adequate fit. The K-ASI-3 showed good performance on the indices of internal consistency and concurrent validity. In addition, using regression analyses, we found the Social Concerns factor is most strongly related to life satisfaction and worry. However, we found no evidence that Korean college students express more Social Concerns than their European Caucasian counterparts. Conclusion The authors demonstrate that the K-ASI-3 has highly internally consistent and psychometrically sound items, and that it reliably measures three lower-order domains assessing Physical, Social, and Cognitive Concerns. PMID:22396684

  10. Social Change, Social Responsibility and Social Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moodie, Gavin

    1986-01-01

    The implications of recent social changes for the social responsibility of higher education institutions are examined, and it is argued that institutions should initiate change rather than have it forced on them, but must find a balance between social responsibility and educational values. (MSE)

  11. Laptops--An Exciting Addition to the Social Science Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riegler, Edward R.

    1992-01-01

    Describes ways laptop computers are used in two high school Advanced Placement History classes. Discusses notetaking on laptops, small group assignments via modem, cooperative-learning groups, and laptops as a research tool. (SR)

  12. Siloxane containing addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maudgal, S.; St. Clair, T. L.

    1984-01-01

    Addition polyimide oligomers have been synthesized from bis(gamma-aminopropyl) tetramethyldisiloxane and 3, 3', 4, 4'-benzophenonetetracarboxylic dianhydride using a variety of latent crosslinking groups as endcappers. The prepolymers were isolated and characterized for solubility (in amide, chlorinated and ether solvents), melt flow and cure properties. The most promising systems, maleimide and acetylene terminated prepolymers, were selected for detailed study. Graphite cloth reinforced composites were prepared and properties compared with those of graphite/Kerimid 601, a commercially available bismaleimide. Mixtures of the maleimide terminated system with Kerimid 601, in varying proportions, were also studied.

  13. Oil additive process

    SciTech Connect

    Bishop, H.

    1988-10-18

    This patent describes a method of making an additive comprising: (a) adding 2 parts by volume of 3% sodium hypochlorite to 45 parts by volume of diesel oil fuel to form a sulphur free fuel, (b) removing all water and foreign matter formed by the sodium hypochlorite, (c) blending 30 parts by volume of 24% lead naphthanate with 15 parts by volume of the sulphur free fuel, 15 parts by volume of light-weight material oil to form a blended mixture, and (d) heating the blended mixture slowly and uniformly to 152F.

  14. Validation of the POSIT: Comparing Drug Using and Abstaining Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, James A.; Richardson, Brad; Spears, Julie; Rembert, Julia K.

    1998-01-01

    The Problem Oriented Screening Instrument for Teenagers (POSIT) is validated by comparing 42 drug-using and -abstaining youth on several social and behavioral characteristics. All 10 POSIT domain scores for drug users are greater than those for abstainers. Construct validity is established by comparing POSIT domain scores with other instruments.…

  15. The Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory: A Construct Validation Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Brian W.

    1983-01-01

    Regression analyses indicated that the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory has convergent validity with regard to the Piers-Harris Children's Self-Concept Scale and the Coopersmith Behavioral Academic Assessment Scale, has discriminant validity with regard to the Children's Social Desirability Scale, is sensitive to differences in achievement level,…

  16. Social Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slover-Linett, Cheryl; Stoner, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Earlier this year, CASE formed a social media task force to explore what educational institutions are trying to achieve with social media presence and learn about social media engagements at member institutions. CASE, in partnership with mStoner and Slover Linett Strategies, in June launched a benchmarking survey on social media in advancement by…

  17. Assessing physics learning identity: Survey development and validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Sissi L.; Demaree, Dedra

    2012-02-01

    Innovative curricula aim to improve content knowledge and the goal of helping students develop practices and skills of authentic scientist through active engagement learning. To students, these classroom practices often seem very different from their previous learning experiences in terms of behavioral expectations, learning attitude, and what learning means. We propose that productive participation in these learning environments require students to modify their identity as learners in addition to refining their science conceptual understanding. In order to measure changes in learning identity, we developed a 49-item survey to assess students' 1) expectations of student and teacher roles, 2) self efficacy towards skills supported in the Investigative Science Learning Environment (ISLE) and 3) attitudes towards social learning. Using principle components exploratory factor analysis, we have established two reliable factors with subscales that measure these student characteristics. This paper presents the survey development, validation and pilot study results.

  18. Validity and the Consequences of Test Interpretation and Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubley, Anita M.; Zumbo, Bruno D.

    2011-01-01

    The vast majority of measures have, at their core, a purpose of personal and social change. If test developers and users want measures to have personal and social consequences and impact, then it is critical to consider the consequences and side effects of measurement in the validation process itself. The consequential basis of test interpretation…

  19. Validation of the Indicators of Abuse (IOA) Screen.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reis, Myrna; Nahmiash, Daphne

    1998-01-01

    Reports on the validity of the Indicators of Abuse (IOA) Screen, used by social-services-agency practitioners as an abuse screening tool. An abuse-indicator model evolving from the IOA suggests three main types of abuse signals: caregivers' personal problems/issues, caregivers interpersonal problems, and care receivers' social-support shortages…

  20. Validation of the Evidence-Based Practice Process Assessment Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Allen; Parrish, Danielle E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This report describes the reliability, validity, and sensitivity of a scale that assesses practitioners' perceived familiarity with, attitudes of, and implementation of the evidence-based practice (EBP) process. Method: Social work practitioners and second-year master of social works (MSW) students (N = 511) were surveyed in four sites…

  1. Performance Boosting Additive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Mainstream Engineering Corporation was awarded Phase I and Phase II contracts from Goddard Space Flight Center's Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program in early 1990. With support from the SBIR program, Mainstream Engineering Corporation has developed a unique low cost additive, QwikBoost (TM), that increases the performance of air conditioners, heat pumps, refrigerators, and freezers. Because of the energy and environmental benefits of QwikBoost, Mainstream received the Tibbetts Award at a White House Ceremony on October 16, 1997. QwikBoost was introduced at the 1998 International Air Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Exposition. QwikBoost is packaged in a handy 3-ounce can (pressurized with R-134a) and will be available for automotive air conditioning systems in summer 1998.

  2. Sewage sludge additive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalvinskas, J. J.; Mueller, W. A.; Ingham, J. D. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    The additive is for a raw sewage treatment process of the type where settling tanks are used for the purpose of permitting the suspended matter in the raw sewage to be settled as well as to permit adsorption of the dissolved contaminants in the water of the sewage. The sludge, which settles down to the bottom of the settling tank is extracted, pyrolyzed and activated to form activated carbon and ash which is mixed with the sewage prior to its introduction into the settling tank. The sludge does not provide all of the activated carbon and ash required for adequate treatment of the raw sewage. It is necessary to add carbon to the process and instead of expensive commercial carbon, coal is used to provide the carbon supplement.

  3. Perspectives on Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourell, David L.

    2016-07-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has skyrocketed in visibility commercially and in the public sector. This article describes the development of this field from early layered manufacturing approaches of photosculpture, topography, and material deposition. Certain precursors to modern AM processes are also briefly described. The growth of the field over the last 30 years is presented. Included is the standard delineation of AM technologies into seven broad categories. The economics of AM part generation is considered, and the impacts of the economics on application sectors are described. On the basis of current trends, the future outlook will include a convergence of AM fabricators, mass-produced AM fabricators, enabling of topology optimization designs, and specialization in the AM legal arena. Long-term developments with huge impact are organ printing and volume-based printing.

  4. New addition curing polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frimer, Aryeh A.; Cavano, Paul

    1991-01-01

    In an attempt to improve the thermal-oxidative stability (TOS) of PMR-type polymers, the use of 1,4-phenylenebis (phenylmaleic anhydride) PPMA, was evaluated. Two series of nadic end-capped addition curing polyimides were prepared by imidizing PPMA with either 4,4'-methylene dianiline or p-phenylenediamine. The first resulted in improved solubility and increased resin flow while the latter yielded a compression molded neat resin sample with a T(sub g) of 408 C, close to 70 C higher than PME-15. The performance of these materials in long term weight loss studies was below that of PMR-15, independent of post-cure conditions. These results can be rationalized in terms of the thermal lability of the pendant phenyl groups and the incomplete imidization of the sterically congested PPMA. The preparation of model compounds as well as future research directions are discussed.

  5. Code inspection instructional validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orr, Kay; Stancil, Shirley

    1992-01-01

    The Shuttle Data Systems Branch (SDSB) of the Flight Data Systems Division (FDSD) at Johnson Space Center contracted with Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) to validate the effectiveness of an interactive video course on the code inspection process. The purpose of this project was to determine if this course could be effective for teaching NASA analysts the process of code inspection. In addition, NASA was interested in the effectiveness of this unique type of instruction (Digital Video Interactive), for providing training on software processes. This study found the Carnegie Mellon course, 'A Cure for the Common Code', effective for teaching the process of code inspection. In addition, analysts prefer learning with this method of instruction, or this method in combination with other methods. As is, the course is definitely better than no course at all; however, findings indicate changes are needed. Following are conclusions of this study. (1) The course is instructionally effective. (2) The simulation has a positive effect on student's confidence in his ability to apply new knowledge. (3) Analysts like the course and prefer this method of training, or this method in combination with current methods of training in code inspection, over the way training is currently being conducted. (4) Analysts responded favorably to information presented through scenarios incorporating full motion video. (5) Some course content needs to be changed. (6) Some content needs to be added to the course. SwRI believes this study indicates interactive video instruction combined with simulation is effective for teaching software processes. Based on the conclusions of this study, SwRI has outlined seven options for NASA to consider. SwRI recommends the option which involves creation of new source code and data files, but uses much of the existing content and design from the current course. Although this option involves a significant software development effort, SwRI believes this option

  6. Mobile propeller dynamometer validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Mason Wade

    With growing interest in UAVs and OSU's interest in propeller performance and manufacturing, evaluating UAV propeller and propulsion system performance has become essential. In attempts to evaluate these propellers a mobile propeller dynamometer has been designed, built, and tested. The mobile dyno has been designed to be cost effective through the ability to load it into the back of a test vehicle to create simulated forward flight characteristics. This allows much larger propellers to be dynamically tested without the use of large and expensive wind tunnels. While evaluating the accuracy of the dyno, several improvements had to be made to get accurate results. The decisions made to design and improve the mobile propeller dyno will be discussed along with attempts to validate the dyno by comparing its results against known sources. Another large part of assuring the accuracy of the mobile dyno is determining if the test vehicle will influence the flow going into the propellers being tested. The flow into the propeller needs to be as smooth and uniform as possible. This is determined by characterizing the boundary layer and accelerated flow over the vehicle. This evaluation was accomplished with extensive vehicle aerodynamic measurements with the use of full-scale tests using a pitot-rake and the actual test vehicle. Additional tests were conducted in Oklahoma State University's low speed wind tunnel with a 1/8-scale model using qualitative flow visualization with smoke. Continuing research on the mobile dyno will be discussed, along with other potential uses for the dyno.

  7. Social theory and social class.

    PubMed

    Susser, I

    1997-01-01

    Concepts of class developed with the emergence of industrial society in the nineteenth century. For an understanding of current divisions, theories must reflect the advances of capitalism and the global economy that characterize the late twentieth century. In industrialized societies, reductions in the industrial workforce and the growth of finance, investment and real-estate industries worldwide have produced a new, largely female, service workforce. Large sectors of industry have departed in search of cheaper labour in poorer countries, which also have a rising number of women workers. In those areas, as a result, a new industrial workforce has emerged. Concomitantly, accumulation of land in less developed agricultural regions for production for the world market has led to an increase in mobile agricultural labour and a shift of landless labourers to the cities of less developed countries. In addition, both upward and downward mobility have occurred for individuals and groups in specific populations, as well as for particular diseases in developed and less developed countries. All these processes have precipitated fundamental changes in class, gender and family relationships and transformed the living conditions of populations in both developed and less developed societies. These changes have major implications for the patterns of health and disease in the world today. Objective measures of social change may be difficult to construct and use in epidemiological cancer research. Since questions of class and shifting social relations are directly implicated in the patterns of disease, they must be assessed in future research as accurately as possible. PMID:9353662

  8. Comparability of the Social Skills Improvement System to the Social Skills Rating System: A Norwegian Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamst-Klaussen, Thor; Rasmussen, Lene-Mari P.; Svartdal, Frode; Strømgren, Børge

    2016-01-01

    The Social Skills Improvement System-Rating Scales (SSIS-RS) is a multi-informant instrument assessing social skills and problem behavior in children and adolescents. It is a revised version of the Social Skills Rating System (SSRS). A Norwegian translation of the SSRS has been validated, but this has not yet been done for the Norwegian…

  9. The Limits of Social Capital: Durkheim, Suicide, and Social Cohesion

    PubMed Central

    Kushner, Howard I.; Sterk, Claire E.

    2005-01-01

    Recent applications of social capital theories to population health often draw on classic sociological theories for validation of the protective features of social cohesion and social integration. Durkheim’s work on suicide has been cited as evidence that modern life disrupts social cohesion and results in a greater risk of morbidity and mortality—including self-destructive behaviors and suicide. We argue that a close reading of Durkheim’s evidence supports the opposite conclusion and that the incidence of self-destructive behaviors such as suicide is often greatest among those with high levels of social integration. A reexamination of Durkheim’s data on female suicide and suicide in the military suggests that we should be skeptical about recent studies connecting improved population health to social capital. PMID:15933234

  10. Job Success for Handicapped Youth: A Social Protocol Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stowitschek, Joseph J.; Salzberg, Charles L.

    The book is intended for use by school- and nonschool-based professionals in teaching social skills and social competence to handicapped persons in order to promote employment success. It provides guidelines, procedures, and instrumentation for: (1) assessing client status on socially validated social skills required in both school- and…

  11. A Developmental Analysis of Children's Social Support Networks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kriegler, Julie A.; Bogat, G. Anne

    Although much investigation of adult social support networks has been done, little attention has been paid to children's social support networks. Childhood patterns of social support probably influence adult patterns. A study was conducted to describe the social networks of third through sixth grade children. It also tests the validity of a new…

  12. Social engagement and adaptive functioning during early childhood: Identifying and distinguishing among subgroups differing with regard to social engagement.

    PubMed

    Vaughn, Brian E; Santos, António J; Monteiro, Ligia; Shin, Nana; Daniel, João R; Krzysik, Lisa; Pinto, Alexandra

    2016-09-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that social engagement (SE) with peers is a fundamental aspect of social competence during early childhood. Relations between SE and a set of previously validated social competence indicators, as well as additional variables derived from observation and sociometric interviews were assessed using both variable-centered and person-centered approaches (N = 1453, 696 girls) in 4 samples (3 U.S.A., 1 Portuguese). Directly observed SE was positively associated with broad-band measures of socially competent behavior, peer acceptance, being a target of peers' attention, and also with broad-band personality dimensions. Using individual Q-items significantly associated with SE in 3 of our 4 samples, a hierarchical cluster analysis yielded a 5-cluster solution that grouped cases efficiently. Tests on relations between cluster membership and the set of social competence and other variables revealed significant main effects of cluster membership in the full sample and within each individual sample, separately. With the exception of tests for peer negative preference, children in the lowest SE cluster also had significantly lower overall social competence, personality functioning scores than did children in higher SE clusters. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27505701

  13. Adaptation and psychometric evaluation of the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support for Arab immigrant women.

    PubMed

    Aroian, Karen; Templin, Thomas N; Ramaswamy, Vidya

    2010-02-01

    We adapted the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) for use with Arab immigrant women (MSPSS-AW) and estimated the psychometric properties of the adapted version with a sample of 539 Arab immigrant women living in the United States. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) supported the proposed three-factor solution. Internal consistency reliability coefficients for the three subscales ranged from good to very good. Additional evidence for construct validity of the MSPSS-AW subscales was demonstrated through relationships with theoretically related measures. We conclude that the MSPSS-AW is reliable and valid for use with Arab immigrant women. PMID:20390643

  14. Facial disability index (FDI): Adaptation to Spanish, reliability and validity

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Cardero, Eduardo; Cayuela, Aurelio; Acosta-Feria, Manuel; Gutierrez-Perez, Jose-Luis

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To adapt to Spanish the facial disability index (FDI) described by VanSwearingen and Brach in 1995 and to assess its reliability and validity in patients with facial nerve paresis after parotidectomy. Study Design: The present study was conducted in two different stages: a) cross-cultural adaptation of the questionnaire and b) cross-sectional study of a control group of 79 Spanish-speaking patients who suffered facial paresis after superficial parotidectomy with facial nerve preservation. The cross-cultural adaptation process comprised the following stages: (I) initial translation, (II) synthesis of the translated document, (III) retro-translation, (IV) review by a board of experts, (V) pilot study of the pre-final draft and (VI) analysis of the pilot study and final draft. Results: The reliability and internal consistency of every one of the rating scales included in the FDI (Cronbach’s alpha coefficient) was 0.83 for the complete scale and 0.77 and 0.82 for the physical and the social well-being subscales. The analysis of the factorial validity of the main components of the adapted FDI yielded similar results to the original questionnaire. Bivariate correlations between FDI and House-Brackmann scale were positive. The variance percentage was calculated for all FDI components. Conclusions: The FDI questionnaire is a specific instrument for assessing facial neuromuscular dysfunction which becomes a useful tool in order to determine quality of life in patients with facial nerve paralysis. Spanish adapted FDI is equivalent to the original questionnaire and shows similar reliability and validity. The proven reproducibi-lity, reliability and validity of this questionnaire make it a useful additional tool for evaluating the impact of facial nerve paralysis in Spanish-speaking patients. Key words:Parotidectomy, facial nerve paralysis, facial disability. PMID:22926474

  15. CANFOR Portuguese version: validation study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The increase in prisoner population is a troublesome reality in several regions of the world. Along with this growth there is increasing evidence that prisoners have a higher proportion of mental illnesses and suicide than the general population. In order to implement strategies that address criminal recidivism and the health and social status of prisoners, particularly in mental disordered offenders, it is necessary to assess their care needs in a comprehensive, but individual perspective. This assessment must include potential harmful areas like comorbid personality disorder, substance misuse and offending behaviours. The Camberwell Assessment of Need – Forensic Version (CANFOR) has proved to be a reliable tool designed to accomplish such aims. The present study aimed to validate the CANFOR Portuguese version. Methods The translation, adaptation to the Portuguese context, back-translation and revision followed the usual procedures. The sample comprised all detainees receiving psychiatric care in four forensic facilities, over a one year period. A total of 143 subjects, and respective case manager, were selected. The forensic facilities were chosen by convenience: one prison hospital psychiatric ward (n=68; 47.6%), one male (n=24; 16.8%) and one female (n=22; 15.4%) psychiatric clinic and one civil security ward (n=29; 20.3%), all located nearby Lisbon. Basic descriptive statistics and Kappa weighted coefficients were calculated for the inter-rater and the test-retest reliability studies. The convergent validity was evaluated using the Global Assessment of Functioning and the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale scores. Results The majority of the participants were male and single, with short school attendance, and accused of a crime involving violence against persons. The most frequent diagnosis was major depression (56.1%) and almost half presented positive suicide risk. The reliability study showed average Kappa weighted coefficients of 0.884 and 0

  16. Values-intuitive rational action: the dynamic relationship of instrumental rationality and values insights as a form of social action.

    PubMed

    Woods, P A

    2001-12-01

    This paper is concerned with the implications for conceptualizing social action which arise from a consideration of whether human beings are capable of knowing ultimate (universal, unconditionally valid) values. This issue is framed within the view that the validity of our understanding of social action is inextricably linked with the validity of our conception of humankind: the scope and variety of social action has potentialities and limitations that are inscribed by the nature of human beings qua human beings. The paper suggests an enlargement, through the addition of a proposed conceptual tool, of the framework that comprises Weber's typology of social action. It argues that the common human properties of the person in whom social action is embedded should not arbitrarily exclude questions of the genesis of values. An analytical argument is put forward through an examination of the extent to which a faculty for values insights is implicated in Weber's concept of charisma and ethical analysis of political leadership. The notion of values-intuitive rational action is then outlined and discussed. The analytical argument is supported by theorizing from developmental psychology and examples of such action are given. Methodological difficulties in investigating the latter and the interrelationship of such action with institutional and social contexts are briefly discussed. PMID:11853064

  17. A Fresh Pair of Eyes: A Blind Observation Method for Evaluating Social Skills of Children with ASD in a Naturalistic Peer Situation in School.

    PubMed

    Dekker, Vera; Nauta, Maaike H; Mulder, Erik J; Sytema, Sjoerd; de Bildt, Annelies

    2016-09-01

    The Social skills Observation Measure (SOM) is a direct observation method for social skills used in naturalistic everyday situations in school. This study describes the development of the SOM and investigates its psychometric properties in 86 children with Autism spectrum disorder, aged 9.8-13.1 years. The interrater reliability was found to be good to excellent. The convergent validity was low in relation to parent and teacher reports of social skills, and also to parent interview on adaptive social functioning. Therefore this direct observation seems to provide additional information on the frequency and quality of social behaviors in daily life situations. As such it contributes to parent and teacher information as a blind measurement to evaluate Social Skills Training. PMID:27289230

  18. TES Validation Reports

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-06-30

    ... Reports: TES Data Versions: TES Validation Report Version 6.0 (PDF) R13 processing version; F07_10 file versions TES Validation Report Version 5.0 (PDF) R12 processing version; F06_08, F06_09 file ...

  19. A Validity Network Schema.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brinberg, David; McGrath, Joseph E.

    Numerous forms and meanings of validity have been developed to provide researchers with the opportunity to assess the many potential sources of ambiguity that exist in any research finding. A Validity Network Schema (VNS) developed by Brinberg & McGrath (1982) is extended and elaborated in order to describe the components of the research process…

  20. Five Data Validation Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simkin, Mark G.

    2008-01-01

    Data-validation routines enable computer applications to test data to ensure their accuracy, completeness, and conformance to industry or proprietary standards. This paper presents five programming cases that require students to validate five different types of data: (1) simple user data entries, (2) UPC codes, (3) passwords, (4) ISBN numbers, and…

  1. SOSS ICN Model Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Zhifan

    2016-01-01

    Under the NASA-KAIA-KARI ATM research collaboration agreement, SOSS ICN Model has been developed for Incheon International Airport. This presentation describes the model validation work in the project. The presentation will show the results and analysis of the validation.

  2. Validating Automated Speaking Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernstein, Jared; Van Moere, Alistair; Cheng, Jian

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents evidence that supports the valid use of scores from fully automatic tests of spoken language ability to indicate a person's effectiveness in spoken communication. The paper reviews the constructs, scoring, and the concurrent validity evidence of "facility-in-L2" tests, a family of automated spoken language tests in Spanish,…

  3. Validating Analytical Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ember, Lois R.

    1977-01-01

    The procedures utilized by the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) to develop, evaluate, and validate analytical methods for the analysis of chemical pollutants are detailed. Methods validated by AOAC are used by the EPA and FDA in their enforcement programs and are granted preferential treatment by the courts. (BT)

  4. Social Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veroff, Joseph

    1978-01-01

    Summarizes different types of social motivation that have interested social psychologists within a developmental paradigm. Currently, cognition is a central aspect of motivational psychology. Individuals' motive patterns are seen to change over the life cycle. (Author/AV)

  5. How social cognition can inform social decision making.

    PubMed

    Lee, Victoria K; Harris, Lasana T

    2013-01-01

    Social decision-making is often complex, requiring the decision-maker to make inferences of others' mental states in addition to engaging traditional decision-making processes like valuation and reward processing. A growing body of research in neuroeconomics has examined decision-making involving social and non-social stimuli to explore activity in brain regions such as the striatum and prefrontal cortex, largely ignoring the power of the social context. Perhaps more complex processes may influence decision-making in social vs. non-social contexts. Years of social psychology and social neuroscience research have documented a multitude of processes (e.g., mental state inferences, impression formation, spontaneous trait inferences) that occur upon viewing another person. These processes rely on a network of brain regions including medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), superior temporal sulcus (STS), temporal parietal junction, and precuneus among others. Undoubtedly, these social cognition processes affect social decision-making since mental state inferences occur spontaneously and automatically. Few studies have looked at how these social inference processes affect decision-making in a social context despite the capability of these inferences to serve as predictions that can guide future decision-making. Here we review and integrate the person perception and decision-making literatures to understand how social cognition can inform the study of social decision-making in a way that is consistent with both literatures. We identify gaps in both literatures-while behavioral economics largely ignores social processes that spontaneously occur upon viewing another person, social psychology has largely failed to talk about the implications of social cognition processes in an economic decision-making context-and examine the benefits of integrating social psychological theory with behavioral economic theory. PMID:24399928

  6. How social cognition can inform social decision making

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Victoria K.; Harris, Lasana T.

    2013-01-01

    Social decision-making is often complex, requiring the decision-maker to make inferences of others' mental states in addition to engaging traditional decision-making processes like valuation and reward processing. A growing body of research in neuroeconomics has examined decision-making involving social and non-social stimuli to explore activity in brain regions such as the striatum and prefrontal cortex, largely ignoring the power of the social context. Perhaps more complex processes may influence decision-making in social vs. non-social contexts. Years of social psychology and social neuroscience research have documented a multitude of processes (e.g., mental state inferences, impression formation, spontaneous trait inferences) that occur upon viewing another person. These processes rely on a network of brain regions including medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), superior temporal sulcus (STS), temporal parietal junction, and precuneus among others. Undoubtedly, these social cognition processes affect social decision-making since mental state inferences occur spontaneously and automatically. Few studies have looked at how these social inference processes affect decision-making in a social context despite the capability of these inferences to serve as predictions that can guide future decision-making. Here we review and integrate the person perception and decision-making literatures to understand how social cognition can inform the study of social decision-making in a way that is consistent with both literatures. We identify gaps in both literatures—while behavioral economics largely ignores social processes that spontaneously occur upon viewing another person, social psychology has largely failed to talk about the implications of social cognition processes in an economic decision-making context—and examine the benefits of integrating social psychological theory with behavioral economic theory. PMID:24399928

  7. Automatic personality assessment through social media language.

    PubMed

    Park, Gregory; Schwartz, H Andrew; Eichstaedt, Johannes C; Kern, Margaret L; Kosinski, Michal; Stillwell, David J; Ungar, Lyle H; Seligman, Martin E P

    2015-06-01

    Language use is a psychologically rich, stable individual difference with well-established correlations to personality. We describe a method for assessing personality using an open-vocabulary analysis of language from social media. We compiled the written language from 66,732 Facebook users and their questionnaire-based self-reported Big Five personality traits, and then we built a predictive model of personality based on their language. We used this model to predict the 5 personality factors in a separate sample of 4,824 Facebook users, examining (a) convergence with self-reports of personality at the domain- and facet-level; (b) discriminant validity between predictions of distinct traits; (c) agreement with informant reports of personality; (d) patterns of correlations with external criteria (e.g., number of friends, political attitudes, impulsiveness); and (e) test-retest reliability over 6-month intervals. Results indicated that language-based assessments can constitute valid personality measures: they agreed with self-reports and informant reports of personality, added incremental validity over informant reports, adequately discriminated between traits, exhibited patterns of correlations with external criteria similar to those found with self-reported personality, and were stable over 6-month intervals. Analysis of predictive language can provide rich portraits of the mental life associated with traits. This approach can complement and extend traditional methods, providing researchers with an additional measure that can quickly and cheaply assess large groups of participants with minimal burden. PMID:25365036

  8. Cultural Aspects in Social Anxiety and Social Anxiety Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Stefan G.; Asnaani, Anu; Hinton, Devon E.

    2010-01-01

    To examine cultural aspects in social anxiety and social anxiety disorder (SAD), we reviewed the literature on the prevalence rates, expressions, and treatments of social anxiety/SAD as they relate to culture, race, and ethnicity. We further reviewed factors that contribute to the differences in social anxiety/SAD between different cultures, including individualism/collectivism, perception of social norms, self-construal, gender roles, and gender role identification. Our review suggests that the prevalence and expression of social anxiety/SAD depends on the particular culture. Asian cultures typically show the lowest rates, whereas Russian and US samples show the highest rates, of SAD. Taijin kyofusho is discussed as a possible culture-specific expression of social anxiety, although the empirical evidence concerning the validity of this syndrome has been mixed. It is concluded that the individual's social concerns need to be examined in the context of the person's cultural, racial, and ethnic background in order to adequately assess the degree and expression of social anxiety and social anxiety disorder. This has direct relevance for the upcoming DSM-V. PMID:21132847

  9. Street Socialization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zinnecker, Jurgen

    1980-01-01

    Recommends that social scientists undertake research on the role of the street as an institution of youth education and socialization. Discusses related literature and presents information on a project undertaken on street socialization in some of the old town quarters of Wiesbaden, Germany from 1975-1978. (DB)

  10. Social Individualism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornille, Thomas A.; Harrigan, John

    Relationships between individuals and society have often been presented from the perspective of the social institution. Social psychology has addressed the variables that affect the individual in relationships with larger groups. Social individualism is a conceptual framework that explores the relationship of the individual and society from the…

  11. Social cognition in borderline personality disorder

    PubMed Central

    Roepke, Stefan; Vater, Aline; Preißler, Sandra; Heekeren, Hauke R.; Dziobek, Isabel

    2013-01-01

    Many typical symptoms of borderline personality disorder (BPD) occur within interpersonal contexts, suggesting that BPD is characterized by aberrant social cognition. While research consistently shows that BPD patients have biases in mental state attribution (e.g., evaluate others as malevolent), the research focusing on accuracy in inferring mental states (i.e., cognitive empathy) is less consistent. For complex and ecologically valid tasks in particular, emerging evidence suggests that individuals with BPD have impairments in the attribution of emotions, thoughts, and intentions of others (e.g., Preißler et al., 2010). A history of childhood trauma and co-morbid PTSD seem to be strong additional predictors for cognitive empathy deficits. Together with reduced emotional empathy and aberrant sending of social signals (e.g., expression of mixed and hard-to-read emotions), the deficits in mental state attribution might contribute to behavioral problems in BPD. Given the importance of social cognition on the part of both the sender and the recipient in maintaining interpersonal relationships and therapeutic alliance, these impairments deserve more attention. PMID:23335877

  12. Computational Process Modeling for Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bagg, Stacey; Zhang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Computational Process and Material Modeling of Powder Bed additive manufacturing of IN 718. Optimize material build parameters with reduced time and cost through modeling. Increase understanding of build properties. Increase reliability of builds. Decrease time to adoption of process for critical hardware. Potential to decrease post-build heat treatments. Conduct single-track and coupon builds at various build parameters. Record build parameter information and QM Meltpool data. Refine Applied Optimization powder bed AM process model using data. Report thermal modeling results. Conduct metallography of build samples. Calibrate STK models using metallography findings. Run STK models using AO thermal profiles and report STK modeling results. Validate modeling with additional build. Photodiode Intensity measurements highly linear with power input. Melt Pool Intensity highly correlated to Melt Pool Size. Melt Pool size and intensity increase with power. Applied Optimization will use data to develop powder bed additive manufacturing process model.

  13. PLCO Ovarian Phase III Validation Study — EDRN Public Portal

    Cancer.gov

    Our preliminary data indicate that the performance of CA 125 as a screening test for ovarian cancer can be improved upon by additional biomarkers. With completion of one additional validation step, we will be ready to test the performance of a consensus marker panel in a phase III validation study. Given the original aims of the PLCO trial, we believe that the PLCO represents an ideal longitudinal cohort offering specimens for phase III validation of ovarian cancer biomarkers.

  14. Social and emotional self-efficacy at work.

    PubMed

    Loeb, Carina; Stempel, Christiane; Isaksson, Kerstin

    2016-04-01

    Research has shown that self-efficacy is often one of the most important personal resources in the work context. However, because this research has focused on cognitive and task-oriented self-efficacy, little is known about social and emotional dimensions of self-efficacy at work. The main aim of the present study was to investigate social and emotional self-efficacy dimensions at work and to compare them to a cognitive and task-oriented dimension. Scales to measure social and emotional self-efficacy at work were developed and validated and found to be well differentiated from the cognitive task-oriented occupational self-efficacy scale. Confirmatory factor analyses of data from 226 Swedish and 591 German employees resulted in four separate but correlated self-efficacy dimensions: (1) occupational; (2) social; (3) self-oriented emotional; and (4) other-oriented emotional. Social self-efficacy explained additional variance in team climate and emotional self-efficacy in emotional irritation and emotional exhaustion, over and above effects of occupational self-efficacy. Men reported higher occupational self-efficacy, whereas social and emotional self-efficacy revealed no clear gender differences. The scales have strong psychometric properties in both Swedish and German language versions. The positive association between social self-efficacy and team climate, and the negative relationships between self-oriented emotional self-efficacy and emotional irritation and emotional exhaustion may provide promising tools for practical applications in work settings such as team-building, staff development, recruitment or other training programs aiming for work place health promotion. The next step will be to study how social and emotional self-efficacy relate to leadership, well-being and health over time. PMID:26882457

  15. Gender differences in social support in persons with epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Burkert, Silke; Kendel, Friederike; Kiep, Henriette; Holtkamp, Martin; Gaus, Verena

    2015-05-01

    The present study focused on social support as a key feature of the enhancement and maintenance of mental health. So far, literature on gender differences in social support and its effects on the experience of stress in individuals with epilepsy is scarce. We hypothesized that in individuals with epilepsy, social support buffers detrimental effects of stressors (e.g., unpredictable occurrence of seizures) on mental health. Additionally, we explored the role of gender in this process. In 299 individuals with epilepsy, data from validated questionnaires on seizures in the last 3months, perceived support, social network size, and depressive symptoms were analyzed. Women reported higher depressive symptoms (t=2.51, p<.01) and higher perceived support (t=2.50, p<.01) than men. Women and men did not differ in social network size (t=-0.46, p=64), nor in experiencing seizures (χ(2)=0.07, p=.82). Regression analyses revealed no buffer effects. Perceived support was negatively associated with depressive symptoms (B=-0.49, p<.001, 95% CI [-0.67; -0.32]). With regard to depressive symptoms, social integration was slightly more beneficial for women (Bcond.=-0.06, p<.001; 95% CI [-0.09; -0.03]) than for men (Bcond.=-0.02, p=.09; 95% CI [-0.04; 0.01]). Findings present perceived support and social integration as general health resources in individuals with epilepsy regardless of previously experienced seizures. They also encourage further research on gender-specific effects in individuals with epilepsy and move towards recommendations for practitioners and gender-specific interventions. Future aims will be to enhance social integration in order to support adjustment to the chronic condition of epilepsy and to improve individuals' confidence in support interactions. PMID:25847429

  16. A Geovisual Analytic Approach to Understanding Geo-Social Relationships in the International Trade Network

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Wei; Yin, Peifeng; Di, Qian; Hardisty, Frank; MacEachren, Alan M.

    2014-01-01

    The world has become a complex set of geo-social systems interconnected by networks, including transportation networks, telecommunications, and the internet. Understanding the interactions between spatial and social relationships within such geo-social systems is a challenge. This research aims to address this challenge through the framework of geovisual analytics. We present the GeoSocialApp which implements traditional network analysis methods in the context of explicitly spatial and social representations. We then apply it to an exploration of international trade networks in terms of the complex interactions between spatial and social relationships. This exploration using the GeoSocialApp helps us develop a two-part hypothesis: international trade network clusters with structural equivalence are strongly ‘balkanized’ (fragmented) according to the geography of trading partners, and the geographical distance weighted by population within each network cluster has a positive relationship with the development level of countries. In addition to demonstrating the potential of visual analytics to provide insight concerning complex geo-social relationships at a global scale, the research also addresses the challenge of validating insights derived through interactive geovisual analytics. We develop two indicators to quantify the observed patterns, and then use a Monte-Carlo approach to support the hypothesis developed above. PMID:24558409

  17. A geovisual analytic approach to understanding geo-social relationships in the international trade network.

    PubMed

    Luo, Wei; Yin, Peifeng; Di, Qian; Hardisty, Frank; MacEachren, Alan M

    2014-01-01

    The world has become a complex set of geo-social systems interconnected by networks, including transportation networks, telecommunications, and the internet. Understanding the interactions between spatial and social relationships within such geo-social systems is a challenge. This research aims to address this challenge through the framework of geovisual analytics. We present the GeoSocialApp which implements traditional network analysis methods in the context of explicitly spatial and social representations. We then apply it to an exploration of international trade networks in terms of the complex interactions between spatial and social relationships. This exploration using the GeoSocialApp helps us develop a two-part hypothesis: international trade network clusters with structural equivalence are strongly 'balkanized' (fragmented) according to the geography of trading partners, and the geographical distance weighted by population within each network cluster has a positive relationship with the development level of countries. In addition to demonstrating the potential of visual analytics to provide insight concerning complex geo-social relationships at a global scale, the research also addresses the challenge of validating insights derived through interactive geovisual analytics. We develop two indicators to quantify the observed patterns, and then use a Monte-Carlo approach to support the hypothesis developed above. PMID:24558409

  18. Development and Preliminary Validation of a Comprehensive Marijuana Motives Questionnaire*

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Christine M.; Neighbors, Clayton; Hendershot, Christian S.; Grossbard, Joel R.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Relatively little research has evaluated motives for using marijuana based on users' self-reported reasons. This article details the construction and psychometric validation of a new marijuana motives questionnaire. Method: Participants included 346 marijuana-using college students who completed online assessments regarding their motives for, frequency of, and problems associated with their marijuana use. Results: Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis supported a 12-factor scale, including the following: (1) Enjoyment, (2) Conformity, (3) Coping, (4) Experimentation, (5) Boredom, (6) Alcohol, (7) Celebration, (8) Altered Perception, (9) Social Anxiety, (10) Relative Low Risk, (11) Sleep/Rest, and (12) Availability. Regression results indicated enjoyment, boredom, altered perception, relative low-risk, and sleep/rest were each uniquely associated with greater frequency of use. Experimentation and availability motives were associated with less use. After accounting for use, coping and sleep/rest were associated with significantly more consequences whereas enjoyment was associated with fewer consequences. Additional results comparing the scale to an existing marijuana motives measure indicated comparatively good convergent validity. Conclusions: Emerging adult college students may have several different reasons for using marijuana, which are uniquely related to use and negative consequences. Results are considered in terms of their implications for brief interventions. PMID:19261240

  19. Further evidence for the validity of the Taylor Aggression Paradigm.

    PubMed

    Giancola, Peter R; Parrott, Dominic J

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the validity of a modified version of the Taylor Aggression Paradigm (TAP) as a measure of direct physical aggression. Hypotheses were generated from recent theory pertinent to the categorization and measurement of aggressive behavior as well as widely supported effects of alcohol intoxication and gender on aggression. Participants were 328 (163 men and 165 women) healthy social drinkers between 21 and 35 years of age who completed self-report personality inventories designed to assess one's propensity toward direct physical aggression, verbal aggression, trait anger, and hostility. Following the consumption of either an alcohol or a placebo beverage, participants were tested on the TAP, in which mild electric shocks were received from, and administered to, a fictitious opponent during a competitive task. Direct physical aggression was operationalized as the shock intensities (i.e., first trial shock intensity, mean shock intensity, proportion of highest shock) administered to the fictitious opponent. Although all self-report measures were significantly associated with the three TAP indices, the associations involving physical aggression were strongest. In addition, self-report measures of physical aggression consistently predicted higher levels of aggression on the TAP indices in men, compared with women, and in intoxicated, relative to sober, participants. Taken as a whole, this pattern of findings provides further evidence for the validity of the TAP as a measure of direct physical aggression for men and women. PMID:17894385

  20. Social Indicators and Social Reporting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parke, Robert; Seidman, David

    1978-01-01

    Describes the several research traditions which combine to form the social indicators movement. All the traditions share concern for measurement, analysis, and reporting of aspects of social conditions to a general audience. Journal available from: American Academy of Political and Social Science, 3937 Chestnut Street, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania…

  1. Food for Thought ... Mechanistic Validation

    PubMed Central

    Hartung, Thomas; Hoffmann, Sebastian; Stephens, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Summary Validation of new approaches in regulatory toxicology is commonly defined as the independent assessment of the reproducibility and relevance (the scientific basis and predictive capacity) of a test for a particular purpose. In large ring trials, the emphasis to date has been mainly on reproducibility and predictive capacity (comparison to the traditional test) with less attention given to the scientific or mechanistic basis. Assessing predictive capacity is difficult for novel approaches (which are based on mechanism), such as pathways of toxicity or the complex networks within the organism (systems toxicology). This is highly relevant for implementing Toxicology for the 21st Century, either by high-throughput testing in the ToxCast/ Tox21 project or omics-based testing in the Human Toxome Project. This article explores the mostly neglected assessment of a test's scientific basis, which moves mechanism and causality to the foreground when validating/qualifying tests. Such mechanistic validation faces the problem of establishing causality in complex systems. However, pragmatic adaptations of the Bradford Hill criteria, as well as bioinformatic tools, are emerging. As critical infrastructures of the organism are perturbed by a toxic mechanism we argue that by focusing on the target of toxicity and its vulnerability, in addition to the way it is perturbed, we can anchor the identification of the mechanism and its verification. PMID:23665802

  2. Instrumentation and radiopharmaceutical validation.

    PubMed

    Zigler, S S

    2009-08-01

    Although the promise of new positron emission tomography (PET) imaging agents is great, the process of bringing these agents to commercialization remains in its infancy. There are no PET products today that have gone through the full clinical and chemistry development process required to gain marketing approval by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The purpose of this paper was to review validation from the perspective of the chemistry, manufacturing and controls (CMC) section of an FDA filing, as well as the validation requirements described in FDA good manufacturing practice (GMP) regulations, guidance documents and general chapters of the US Pharmacopeia (USP). The review includes discussion of validation from development to commercial production of PET radiopharmaceuticals with a special emphasis on equipment and instrumentation used in production and testing. The goal is to stimulate a dialog that leads to the standardization of industry practices and regulatory requirements for validation practices in PET. PMID:19834450

  3. Land Product Validation (LPV)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaepman, Gabriela; Roman, Miguel O.

    2013-01-01

    This presentation will discuss Land Product Validation (LPV) objectives and goals, LPV structure update, interactions with other initiatives during report period, outreach to the science community, future meetings and next steps.

  4. Using Social Network Methods to Study School Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pitts, Virginia M.; Spillane, James P.

    2009-01-01

    Social network analysis is increasingly used in the study of policy implementation and school leadership. A key question that remains is that of instrument validity--that is, the question of whether these social network survey instruments measure what they purport to measure. In this paper, we describe our work to examine the validity of the…

  5. Fun and Games: The Validity of Games for the Study of Conflict

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Barry R.; Bonoma, Thomas V.

    1978-01-01

    Examines claimed advantages and criticisms of the use of games in the study of social conflict, differentiating the advantages and criticisms into questions of internal validity, external validity, and ecological validity. Available from: Sage Publications, Inc., 275 South Beverly Drive, Beverly Hills, California 90212. (JG)

  6. Cultural aspects in social anxiety and social anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Stefan G; Anu Asnaani, M A; Hinton, Devon E

    2010-12-01

    To examine cultural aspects in social anxiety and social anxiety disorder (SAD), we reviewed the literature on the prevalence rates, expressions, and treatments of social anxiety/SAD as they relate to culture, race, and ethnicity. We further reviewed factors that contribute to the differences in social anxiety/SAD between different cultures, including individualism/collectivism, perception of social norms, self-construal, gender roles, and gender role identification. Our review suggests that the prevalence and expression of social anxiety/SAD depends on the particular culture. Asian cultures typically show the lowest rates, whereas Russian and US samples show the highest rates, of SAD. Taijin kyofusho is discussed as a possible culture-specific expression of social anxiety, although the empirical evidence concerning the validity of this syndrome has been mixed. It is concluded that the individual's social concerns need to be examined in the context of the person's cultural, racial, and ethnic background in order to adequately assess the degree and expression of social anxiety and SAD. This has direct relevance for the upcoming DSM-V. PMID:21132847

  7. Validation suite for MCNP

    SciTech Connect

    Mosteller, R. D.

    2002-01-01

    Two validation suites, one for criticality and another for radiation shielding, have been defined and tested for the MCNP Monte Carlo code. All of the cases in the validation suites are based on experiments so that calculated and measured results can be compared in a meaningful way. The cases in the validation suites are described, and results from those cases are discussed. For several years, the distribution package for the MCNP Monte Carlo code1 has included an installation test suite to verify that MCNP has been installed correctly. However, the cases in that suite have been constructed primarily to test options within the code and to execute quickly. Consequently, they do not produce well-converged answers, and many of them are physically unrealistic. To remedy these deficiencies, sets of validation suites are being defined and tested for specific types of applications. All of the cases in the validation suites are based on benchmark experiments. Consequently, the results from the measurements are reliable and quantifiable, and calculated results can be compared with them in a meaningful way. Currently, validation suites exist for criticality and radiation-shielding applications.

  8. Social Capital: Its Constructs and Survey Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enfield, Richard P.; Nathaniel, Keith C.

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on experiences and methods of adapting a valid adult social capital assessment to youth audiences in order to measure social capital and sense of place. The authors outline the process of adapting, revising, prepiloting, piloting, and administering a youth survey exploring young people's sense of community, involvement in…

  9. Evaluating Federal Social Programs: An Uncertain Act.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levitan, Sar A.; Wurzburg, Gregory K.

    This study of the federal government's evaluation of social programs indicates that it is virtually impossible to establish a bias-free, valid, and reliable system of inquiry to determine the effects of social programs. Divided into five chapters, the document examines the aspirations and limitations of evaluations, methodology, evaluation in the…

  10. The reliability and validity of the Maryland Assessment of Recovery in Serious Mental Illness Scale.

    PubMed

    Drapalski, Amy L; Medoff, Deborah; Dixon, Lisa; Bellack, Alan

    2016-05-30

    The current study aims to further evaluate the psychometric properties of the Maryland Assessment of Recovery in Serious Mental Illness (MARS), a relatively new instrument designed to assess personal recovery status in individuals with serious mental illness. Two hundred and fifty individuals with serious mental illness receiving outpatient mental health treatment completed a baseline assessment which included the MARS and measures to assess recovery-related constructs, clinical outcomes, and social and community functioning. The MARS demonstrated excellent internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Good construct validity was evidenced by strong positive relationships between the MARS and recovery-related constructs (e.g. hope, empowerment, self-efficacy, and personal agency) and a strong negative relationship with self-stigma. Divergent validity was demonstrated by weaker relationships with cognitive and social functioning. The confirmatory factor analysis did not confirm the unitary factor structure found in previous research. Given the equivocal result of the CFA, additional exploratory work is needed to determine if a more complex factor structure is present. This study provides addition support for the psychometric soundness of the MARS and subsequently, its potential use as a measure of personal recovery status in people with serious mental illness. PMID:27039010

  11. French validation of the Barcelona Music Reward Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Saliba, Joe; Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano; Marco-Pallares, Josep; Tillmann, Barbara; Zeitouni, Anthony; Lehmann, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    Background. The Barcelona Music Reward Questionnaire (BMRQ) questionnaire investigates the main facets of music experience that could explain the variance observed in how people experience reward associated with music. Currently, only English and Spanish versions of this questionnaire are available. The objective of this study is to validate a French version of the BMRQ. Methods. The original BMRQ was translated and adapted into an international French version. The questionnaire was then administered through an online survey aimed at adults aged over 18 years who were fluent in French. Statistical analyses were performed and compared to the original English and Spanish version for validation purposes. Results. A total of 1,027 participants completed the questionnaire. Most responses were obtained from France (89.4%). Analyses revealed that congruence values between the rotated loading matrix and the ideal loading matrix ranged between 0.88 and 0.96. Factor reliabilities of subscales (i.e., Musical Seeking, Emotion Evocation, Mood Regulation, Social Reward and Sensory-Motor) also ranged between 0.88 and 0.96. In addition, reliability of the overall factor score (i.e., Music reward) was 0.91. Finally, the internal consistency of the overall scale was 0.85. The factorial structure obtained in the French translation was similar to that of the original Spanish and English samples. Conclusion. The French version of the BMRQ appears valid and reliable. Potential applications of the BMRQ include its use as a valuable tool in music reward and emotion research, whether in healthy individuals or in patients suffering from a wide variety of cognitive, neurologic and auditory disorders. PMID:27019776

  12. French validation of the Barcelona Music Reward Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano; Marco-Pallares, Josep; Tillmann, Barbara; Zeitouni, Anthony; Lehmann, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    Background. The Barcelona Music Reward Questionnaire (BMRQ) questionnaire investigates the main facets of music experience that could explain the variance observed in how people experience reward associated with music. Currently, only English and Spanish versions of this questionnaire are available. The objective of this study is to validate a French version of the BMRQ. Methods. The original BMRQ was translated and adapted into an international French version. The questionnaire was then administered through an online survey aimed at adults aged over 18 years who were fluent in French. Statistical analyses were performed and compared to the original English and Spanish version for validation purposes. Results. A total of 1,027 participants completed the questionnaire. Most responses were obtained from France (89.4%). Analyses revealed that congruence values between the rotated loading matrix and the ideal loading matrix ranged between 0.88 and 0.96. Factor reliabilities of subscales (i.e., Musical Seeking, Emotion Evocation, Mood Regulation, Social Reward and Sensory-Motor) also ranged between 0.88 and 0.96. In addition, reliability of the overall factor score (i.e., Music reward) was 0.91. Finally, the internal consistency of the overall scale was 0.85. The factorial structure obtained in the French translation was similar to that of the original Spanish and English samples. Conclusion. The French version of the BMRQ appears valid and reliable. Potential applications of the BMRQ include its use as a valuable tool in music reward and emotion research, whether in healthy individuals or in patients suffering from a wide variety of cognitive, neurologic and auditory disorders. PMID:27019776

  13. School Social Work Worldwide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huxtable, Marion, Ed.; Blyth, Eric, Ed.

    This book, with sequentially arranged chapters, allow practitioners, educators, and students to follow the expansion of school social work practice around the world. Leaders in the field from 12 countries provide eye-opening perspectives and interventions, selected for their range and application. Additionally, the book looks ahead to policy and…

  14. NASA GSFC CCMC Recent Model Validation Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rastaetter, L.; Pulkkinen, A.; Taktakishvill, A.; Macneice, P.; Shim, J. S.; Zheng, Yihua; Kuznetsova, M. M.; Hesse, M.

    2012-01-01

    The Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC) holds the largest assembly of state-of-the-art physics-based space weather models developed by the international space physics community. In addition to providing the community easy access to these modern space research models to support science research, its another primary goal is to test and validate models for transition from research to operations. In this presentation, we provide an overview of the space science models available at CCMC. Then we will focus on the community-wide model validation efforts led by CCMC in all domains of the Sun-Earth system and the internal validation efforts at CCMC to support space weather servicesjoperations provided its sibling organization - NASA GSFC Space Weather Center (http://swc.gsfc.nasa.gov). We will also discuss our efforts in operational model validation in collaboration with NOAA/SWPC.

  15. The Prosocial and Antisocial Behaviour in Sport Scale: further evidence for construct validity and reliability.

    PubMed

    Kavussanu, Maria; Stanger, Nicholas; Boardley, Ian D

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to provide further evidence for the construct validity (i.e., convergent, concurrent, and discriminant validity) of the Prosocial and Antisocial Behaviour in Sport Scale (PABSS), an instrument that has four subscales measuring prosocial and antisocial behaviour toward teammates and opponents. We also investigated test-retest reliability and stability of the PABSS. We conducted three studies using athletes from a variety of team sports. In Study 1, participants (N = 129) completed the PABSS and measures of physical and verbal aggression, hostility, anger, moral identity, and empathy; a sub-sample (n = 111) also completed the PABSS one week later. In Study 2, in addition to the PABSS, participants (N = 89) completed measures of competitive aggressiveness and anger, moral attitudes, moral disengagement, goal orientation, and anxiety. In Study 3, participants (N = 307) completed the PABSS and a measure of social goals. Across the three studies, the four subscales evidenced the hypothesised relationships with a number of variables. Correlations were large between the two antisocial behaviours and small between the two prosocial behaviours. Overall, the findings supported the convergent, concurrent, and discriminant validity of the scale, provided evidence for its test-retest reliability and stability, and suggest that the instrument is a valid and reliable measure of prosocial and antisocial behaviour in sport. PMID:23472827

  16. Groundwater Model Validation

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmed E. Hassan

    2006-01-24

    Models have an inherent uncertainty. The difficulty in fully characterizing the subsurface environment makes uncertainty an integral component of groundwater flow and transport models, which dictates the need for continuous monitoring and improvement. Building and sustaining confidence in closure decisions and monitoring networks based on models of subsurface conditions require developing confidence in the models through an iterative process. The definition of model validation is postulated as a confidence building and long-term iterative process (Hassan, 2004a). Model validation should be viewed as a process not an end result. Following Hassan (2004b), an approach is proposed for the validation process of stochastic groundwater models. The approach is briefly summarized herein and detailed analyses of acceptance criteria for stochastic realizations and of using validation data to reduce input parameter uncertainty are presented and applied to two case studies. During the validation process for stochastic models, a question arises as to the sufficiency of the number of acceptable model realizations (in terms of conformity with validation data). Using a hierarchical approach to make this determination is proposed. This approach is based on computing five measures or metrics and following a decision tree to determine if a sufficient number of realizations attain satisfactory scores regarding how they represent the field data used for calibration (old) and used for validation (new). The first two of these measures are applied to hypothetical scenarios using the first case study and assuming field data consistent with the model or significantly different from the model results. In both cases it is shown how the two measures would lead to the appropriate decision about the model performance. Standard statistical tests are used to evaluate these measures with the results indicating they are appropriate measures for evaluating model realizations. The use of validation

  17. Psychometric evaluation of a short measure of social capital at work

    PubMed Central

    Kouvonen, Anne; Kivimäki, Mika; Vahtera, Jussi; Oksanen, Tuula; Elovainio, Marko; Cox, Tom; Virtanen, Marianna; Pentti, Jaana; Cox, Sara J; Wilkinson, Richard G

    2006-01-01

    Background Prior studies on social capital and health have assessed social capital in residential neighbourhoods and communities, but the question whether the concept should also be applicable in workplaces has been raised. The present study reports on the psychometric properties of an 8-item measure of social capital at work. Methods Data were derived from the Finnish Public Sector Study (N = 48,592) collected in 2000–2002. Based on face validity, an expert unfamiliar with the data selected 8 questionnaire items from the available items for a scale of social capital. Reliability analysis included tests of internal consistency, item-total correlations, and within-unit (interrater) agreement by rwg index. The associations with theoretically related and unrelated constructs were examined to assess convergent and divergent validity (construct validity). Criterion-related validity was explored with respect to self-rated health using multilevel logistic regression models. The effects of individual level and work unit level social capital were modelled on self-rated health. Results The internal consistency of the scale was good (Cronbach's alpha = 0.88). The rwg index was 0.88, which indicates a significant within-unit agreement. The scale was associated with, but not redundant to, conceptually close constructs such as procedural justice, job control, and effort-reward imbalance. Its associations with conceptually more distant concepts, such as trait anxiety and magnitude of change in work, were weaker. In multilevel models, significantly elevated age adjusted odds ratios (ORs) of poor self-rated health (OR = 2.42, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.24–2.61 for the women and OR = 2.99, 95% CI: 2.56–3.50 for the men) were observed for the employees in the lowest vs. highest quartile of individual level social capital. In addition, low social capital at the work unit level was associated with a higher likelihood of poor self-rated health. Conclusion Psychometric

  18. Base Flow Model Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sinha, Neeraj; Brinckman, Kevin; Jansen, Bernard; Seiner, John

    2011-01-01

    A method was developed of obtaining propulsive base flow data in both hot and cold jet environments, at Mach numbers and altitude of relevance to NASA launcher designs. The base flow data was used to perform computational fluid dynamics (CFD) turbulence model assessments of base flow predictive capabilities in order to provide increased confidence in base thermal and pressure load predictions obtained from computational modeling efforts. Predictive CFD analyses were used in the design of the experiments, available propulsive models were used to reduce program costs and increase success, and a wind tunnel facility was used. The data obtained allowed assessment of CFD/turbulence models in a complex flow environment, working within a building-block procedure to validation, where cold, non-reacting test data was first used for validation, followed by more complex reacting base flow validation.

  19. Teachers' beliefs about the role of socially relevant issues in teaching the nature of science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsueh, Tung-Guang

    Understanding the nature of science is a primary component for science literacy. The study focused on using socially-relevant issues, to investigate whether or not and how high school science teachers implement their understanding of the nature of science into classroom practice. Participants included 6 high school science teachers in a single district where socially relevant issues have been employed in the science classroom. One teacher was chosen for the subject of a case study by criterion sampling. The case study was developed through analyzing and triangulating the teacher's interview data, observational data, and documentary data. The results showed that socially-relevant issues are being used as avenues to teach the tentative nature of scientific knowledge, the role of individual scientists play in the process of validating scientific knowledge and the social aspects of science. However, the role of that scientific communities play in the process of validating of scientific knowledge was often neglected in the classroom. The research results indicated not only teacher's understanding, but also the teacher's goal will affect how individual science teachers implement their understanding in the classroom. In addition, other teaching strategies and the teacher's attitude can also play a role in teaching the nature of science, through the use of socially-relevant issues.

  20. The grays of medical device color additives.

    PubMed

    Seidman, Brenda

    2014-01-01

    The United States' medical device color additive regulations are unknown to some, and confusing to many. This article reviews statutory language on color additives in the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA), as amended, including the Delaney Clause on carcinogenicity; color additive regulatory language as it relates to medical devices in Title 21 of the Code of Federal Regulations (C.F.R.), Parts 70-82; reports on the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) likely current and historical practices in dealing with color additives in medical devices; and speculates on what may have given rise to decades of seemingly ad hoc color additives practices, which may now be difficult to reconstruct and satisfactorily modify. Also addressed is the Center for Devices and Radiological Health's (CDRH's) recent publicly-vetted approach to color additives in Section 7 of its April 2013 draft guidance, Use of International Standard ISO-10993, "Biological Evaluation of Medical Devices Part 1: Evaluation and Testing," which the author concludes is a change in the right direction, but which, at least in its current draft form, is not a fix to the CDRH's color additives dilemma. Lastly, the article suggests what the CDRH might consider in further developing a new approach to color additives. Such an approach would treat color additives as if they were any other potentially toxic group of chemicals, and could be fashioned in such a way that the CDRH could still satisfy the broad aspects of Congressional color additives mandates, and.yet be consistent with ISO 10993. In doing this, the CDRH would need to recommend a more directed use of its Quality System Regulation, 21 C.F.R. Part 820, for material and vendor qualification and validation in general; approach Congress for needed statutory changes; or make administrative changes. In order for any approach to be successful, whether it is a new twist on past practices, or an entirely new path forward, the FDA must, to the best of its

  1. Measuring walking within and outside the neighborhood in Chinese elders: reliability and validity

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Walking is a preferred, prevalent and recommended activity for aging populations and is influenced by the neighborhood built environment. To study this influence it is necessary to differentiate whether walking occurs within or outside of the neighborhood. The Neighborhood Physical Activity Questionnaire (NPAQ) collects information on setting-specific physical activity, including walking, inside and outside one's neighborhood. While the NPAQ has shown to be a reliable measure in adults, its reliability in older adults is unknown. Additionally its validity and the influence of type of neighborhood on reliability and validity have yet to be explored. Methods The NPAQ walking component was adapted for Chinese speaking elders (NWQ-CS). Ninety-six Chinese elders, stratified by social economic status and neighborhood walkability, wore an accelerometer and completed a log of walks for 7 days. Following the collection of valid data the NWQ-CS was interviewer-administered. Fourteen to 20 days (average of 17 days) later the NWQ-CS was re-administered. Test-retest reliability and validity of the NWQ-CS were assessed. Results Reliability and validity estimates did not differ with type of neighborhood. NWQ-CS measures of walking showed moderate to excellent reliability. Reliability was generally higher for estimates of weekly frequency than minutes of walking. Total weekly minutes of walking were moderately related to all accelerometry measures. Moderate-to-strong associations were found between the NWQ-CS and log-of-walks variables. The NWQ-CS yielded statistically significantly lower mean values of total walking, weekly minutes of walking for transportation and weekly frequency of walking for transportation outside the neighborhood than the log-of-walks. Conclusions The NWQ-CS showed measurement invariance across types of neighborhoods. It is a valid measure of walking for recreation and frequency of walking for transport. However, it may systematically

  2. Further international adaptation and validation of the Rheumatoid Arthritis Quality of Life (RAQoL) questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Wilburn, Jeanette; McKenna, Stephen P; Twiss, James; Rouse, Matthew; Korkosz, Mariusz; Jancovic, Roman; Nemec, Petr; Pacheco-Tena, César Francisco; Saraux, Alain; Westhovens, Rene; Durez, Patrick; Martin, Mona; Tammaru, Marika

    2015-04-01

    The Rheumatoid Arthritis Quality of Life (RAQoL) questionnaire was developed directly from rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients in the United Kingdom and the Netherlands to measure quality of life (QoL). Since then, it has become widely used in clinical studies and trials and has been adapted for use in 24 languages. The objective was to develop and validate 11 additional language versions of the RAQoL in US English, Mexican Spanish, Argentinean Spanish, Belgian French, Belgian Flemish, French, Romanian, Czech, Slovakian, Polish and Russian. The language adaptation and validation required three stages: translation, cognitive debriefing interviews and validation survey. The translation process involved a dual-panel methodology (bilingual panel followed by a lay panel). The validation survey tested the psychometric properties of the new scales and included either the Nottingham Health Profile (NHP) or the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) as comparators. Internal consistency of the new language versions ranged from 0.90 to 0.97 and test-retest reliability from 0.85 to 0.99. RAQoL scores correlated as expected with the HAQ. Correlations with NHP sections were as expected: highest with energy level, pain and physical mobility and lowest with emotional reactions, sleep disturbance, and social isolation. The adaptations exhibited construct validity in their ability to distinguish subgroups of RA patients varying by perceived disease severity and general health. The new language versions of the RAQoL meet the high psychometric standards of the original UK English version. The new adaptations represent valid and reliable tools for measuring QoL in international clinical trials involving RA patients. PMID:25270915

  3. Social support and social interaction ties on internet addiction: integrating online and offline contexts.

    PubMed

    Wang, Edward Shih-Tse; Wang, Michael Chih-Hung

    2013-11-01

    This study explores the relationship between social support and social interaction ties on Internet addiction by integrating both online and offline social encounters. A total of 1,642 members of online social communities participated in this research, for which structural equation modeling was used for analysis. The findings show that social support is positively associated with social interaction ties in both online and offline contexts. In addition, online social support and online social interaction ties are positively associated with Internet addiction, whereas offline social support and social interaction ties on Internet addiction are negatively associated. This finding has important implications not only for understanding the cause of Internet addiction but also for understanding the diminishing Internet addiction due to social support and social interaction ties. PMID:23848959

  4. Social Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Cam, Ed.

    This document contains the following papers on social studies instruction and technology: (1) "Waking the Sleeping Giant: Social Studies Teacher Educators Collaborate To Integrate Technology into Methods' Courses" (Cheryl Mason, Marsha Alibrandi, Michael Berson, Kara Dawson, Rich Diem, Tony Dralle, David Hicks, Tim Keiper, and John Lee); (2)…

  5. The feedback related negativity encodes both social rejection and explicit social expectancy violation

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Sai; Yu, Rongjun

    2014-01-01

    Humans consistently make predictions about the valence of future events and use feedback to validate initial predictions. While the valence of outcomes provides utilitarian information, the accuracy of predictions is crucial for future performance adjustment. The feedback related negativity (FRN), identified as a marker of reward prediction error, possibly encodes social rejection and social prediction error. To test this possibility, we used event related potential (ERP) techniques combined with social tasks in which participants were required to make explicit predictions (whether others will accept their “friend request” or not, Experiment 1) or implicit predictions (whether they would like this person or not, Experiment 2) respectively, and then received social feedback. We found that the FRN is sensitive to social rejection and explicit social prediction error in Experiment 1 but not implicit social prediction error in Experiment 2. We conclude that the FRN encodes social rejection and explicit social expectancy violation. PMID:25120457

  6. Discriminant Validity Investigation by Facet Analytic Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darom, Efraim

    In an analysis of multitrait-multimethod matrices the criteria for discriminant validity are shown to include a "structure" criterion as an invariance of traits structure to methods. The criterion is meant to fit data to an additive model with traits and methods but not interaction terms. The importance of the structure criterion and the relative…

  7. [Validation and verfication of microbiology methods].

    PubMed

    Camaró-Sala, María Luisa; Martínez-García, Rosana; Olmos-Martínez, Piedad; Catalá-Cuenca, Vicente; Ocete-Mochón, María Dolores; Gimeno-Cardona, Concepción

    2015-01-01

    Clinical microbiologists should ensure, to the maximum level allowed by the scientific and technical development, the reliability of the results. This implies that, in addition to meeting the technical criteria to ensure their validity, they must be performed with a number of conditions that allows comparable results to be obtained, regardless of the laboratory that performs the test. In this sense, the use of recognized and accepted reference methodsis the most effective tool for these guarantees. The activities related to verification and validation of analytical methods has become very important, as there is continuous development, as well as updating techniques and increasingly complex analytical equipment, and an interest of professionals to ensure quality processes and results. The definitions of validation and verification are described, along with the different types of validation/verification, and the types of methods, and the level of validation necessary depending on the degree of standardization. The situations in which validation/verification is mandatory and/or recommended is discussed, including those particularly related to validation in Microbiology. It stresses the importance of promoting the use of reference strains as controls in Microbiology and the use of standard controls, as well as the importance of participation in External Quality Assessment programs to demonstrate technical competence. The emphasis is on how to calculate some of the parameters required for validation/verification, such as the accuracy and precision. The development of these concepts can be found in the microbiological process SEIMC number 48: «Validation and verification of microbiological methods» www.seimc.org/protocols/microbiology. PMID:24958671

  8. Social cognition.

    PubMed

    Patin, Alexandra; Hurlemann, René

    2015-01-01

    Social cognition is a major problem underlying deficiencies in interpersonal relationships in several psychiatric populations. And yet there is currently no gold standard for pharmacological treatment of psychiatric illness that directly targets these social cognitive areas. This chapter serves to illustrate some of the most innovative attempts at pharmacological modulation of social cognition in psychiatric illnesses including schizophrenia, borderline personality disorder, autism spectrum disorders, antisocial personality disorder and psychopathy, social anxiety disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder. Pharmacological modulation includes studies administering oxytocin, ecstasy (MDMA), modafinil, methylphenidate, and D-cycloserine. Furthermore, some background on social cognition research in healthy individuals, which could be helpful in developing future treatments, is provided as well as the potential for each drug as a long-term treatment option. PMID:25977087

  9. Social planning orientations: exercises in compliance or planned social change?

    PubMed

    Capoccia, V A

    1981-01-01

    The author presents the idea that the established conceptual bases for the practice of social planning no longer apply to the circumstances that define the current planning environment. The idea is based on the observation that the practice of social planning in the public sector is primarily an exercise in complying with prescribed protocols and regulations in order to legitimize the expenditure of funds for social programs. The observation is derived from experience with four major social planning programs: Area Agencies on Aging; Community Action Programs; State Social Service (Title XX) Agencies; and Health Systems Agencies. Common experiences in these agencies suggest the need for an additional orientation to planning. A negotiated-operational orientation that is more closely aligned to the environmental conditions of the social planning experiences is described. The ability of the social planner to use this orientation as an additional frame of reference is seen as a key factor determining whether compliance or social change will be a dominant characteristic of social planning in the 1980s. PMID:10309573

  10. Validating an Alternate Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Evelyn; Arnold, Nancy

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the validity of one state's alternate assessment portfolio system using the American Educational Research Association, American Psychological Association, and National Council on Measurement in Education's Standards for Psychological and Educational Testing. The results indicate serious shortcomings in the evidence for content,…

  11. Land Product Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morisette, Jeffrey; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The "Land Product Validation" (LPV) subgroup of the Committee on Earth Observing Satellites Working on Group on Calibration and Validation was formed in 2000. Goals of the LPV subgroup are: (1)to increase the quality and economy of global satellite product validation via developing and promoting international standards and protocols for field sampling, scaling, error budgeting, data exchange and product evaluation, and (2) to advocate mission-long validation programs for current and future earth observing satellites. First-round LPV activities will compliment the research themes of the Global Observation of Forest Cover (GOFC) program, which are: biophysical products, fire/burn scar detection, and land cover mapping. Meetings in June and July of 2001 focused on the first two themes. The GOFC "Forest Cover Characteristics and Changes" meeting provides a forum to initiate LPV activities related to Land Cover. The presentation will start with a summary of the LPV subgroup and its current activities. This will be followed by an overview of areas for potential coordination between the LPV and the GOFC Land Cover Theme.

  12. Validity, not Dissemination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra, Samindranath

    2015-03-01

    Science journals have been transformed by the internet. In particular, increasingly their role appears to be to validate research, not to disseminate it. How are journals, and the communities they interact with, adapting? In this context, are alternatives to peer review on the horizon? Are these challenges unique to physics journals, or also seen in other publication scenarios?

  13. The Chimera of Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Eva L.

    2013-01-01

    Background/Context: Education policy over the past 40 years has focused on the importance of accountability in school improvement. Although much of the scholarly discourse around testing and assessment is technical and statistical, understanding of validity by a non-specialist audience is essential as long as test results drive our educational…

  14. Validity and Measurement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maraun, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    As illuminated forcefully by Professor Newton's provocative analytical and historical excursion, as long as tests are employed to practical ends (prediction, selection, etc.) there is little cause for the metatheoretic angst that occasions rounds of papers on the topic of validity. But then, also, there seems little need, within this context of…

  15. Needs Assessment Validation Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rainone, Rocco; Kaiser, Robert

    This resource guide is intended for local school district personnel involved in planning activities for establishing educational priorities, phase two of the Local Planning and Assessment Process (LPAP). Information is presented on the development of performance indicators and the validation of perceived needs. The guide is organized in two…

  16. Incorporation of additives into polymers

    DOEpatents

    McCleskey, T. Mark; Yates, Matthew Z.

    2003-07-29

    There has been invented a method for incorporating additives into polymers comprising: (a) forming an aqueous or alcohol-based colloidal system of the polymer; (b) emulsifying the colloidal system with a compressed fluid; and (c) contacting the colloidal polymer with the additive in the presence of the compressed fluid. The colloidal polymer can be contacted with the additive by having the additive in the compressed fluid used for emulsification or by adding the additive to the colloidal system before or after emulsification with the compressed fluid. The invention process can be carried out either as a batch process or as a continuous on-line process.

  17. Deciphering the roles of multiple additives in organocatalyzed Michael additions.

    PubMed

    Günler, Z Inci; Companyó, Xavier; Alfonso, Ignacio; Burés, Jordi; Jimeno, Ciril; Pericàs, Miquel A

    2016-05-21

    The synergistic effects of multiple additives (water and acetic acid) on the asymmetric Michael addition of acetone to nitrostyrene catalyzed by primary amine-thioureas (PAT) were precisely determined. Acetic acid facilitates hydrolysis of the imine intermediates, thus leading to catalytic behavior, and minimizes the formation of the double addition side product. In contrast, water slows down the reaction but minimizes catalyst deactivation, eventually leading to higher final yields. PMID:27128165

  18. Evolution of individual versus social learning on social networks.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Kohei; Kobayashi, Yutaka; Ihara, Yasuo

    2015-03-01

    A number of studies have investigated the roles played by individual and social learning in cultural phenomena and the relative advantages of the two learning strategies in variable environments. Because social learning involves the acquisition of behaviours from others, its utility depends on the availability of 'cultural models' exhibiting adaptive behaviours. This indicates that social networks play an essential role in the evolution of learning. However, possible effects of social structure on the evolution of learning have not been fully explored. Here, we develop a mathematical model to explore the evolutionary dynamics of learning strategies on social networks. We first derive the condition under which social learners (SLs) are selectively favoured over individual learners in a broad range of social network. We then obtain an analytical approximation of the long-term average frequency of SLs in homogeneous networks, from which we specify the condition, in terms of three relatedness measures, for social structure to facilitate the long-term evolution of social learning. Finally, we evaluate our approximation by Monte Carlo simulations in complete graphs, regular random graphs and scale-free networks. We formally show that whether social structure favours the evolution of social learning is determined by the relative magnitudes of two effects of social structure: localization in competition, by which competition between learning strategies is evaded, and localization in cultural transmission, which slows down the spread of adaptive traits. In addition, our estimates of the relatedness measures suggest that social structure disfavours the evolution of social learning when selection is weak. PMID:25631568

  19. Evolution of individual versus social learning on social networks

    PubMed Central

    Tamura, Kohei; Kobayashi, Yutaka; Ihara, Yasuo

    2015-01-01

    A number of studies have investigated the roles played by individual and social learning in cultural phenomena and the relative advantages of the two learning strategies in variable environments. Because social learning involves the acquisition of behaviours from others, its utility depends on the availability of ‘cultural models’ exhibiting adaptive behaviours. This indicates that social networks play an essential role in the evolution of learning. However, possible effects of social structure on the evolution of learning have not been fully explored. Here, we develop a mathematical model to explore the evolutionary dynamics of learning strategies on social networks. We first derive the condition under which social learners (SLs) are selectively favoured over individual learners in a broad range of social network. We then obtain an analytical approximation of the long-term average frequency of SLs in homogeneous networks, from which we specify the condition, in terms of three relatedness measures, for social structure to facilitate the long-term evolution of social learning. Finally, we evaluate our approximation by Monte Carlo simulations in complete graphs, regular random graphs and scale-free networks. We formally show that whether social structure favours the evolution of social learning is determined by the relative magnitudes of two effects of social structure: localization in competition, by which competition between learning strategies is evaded, and localization in cultural transmission, which slows down the spread of adaptive traits. In addition, our estimates of the relatedness measures suggest that social structure disfavours the evolution of social learning when selection is weak. PMID:25631568

  20. Development and validation of the Dimensional Anhedonia Rating Scale (DARS) in a community sample and individuals with major depression.

    PubMed

    Rizvi, Sakina J; Quilty, Lena C; Sproule, Beth A; Cyriac, Anna; Michael Bagby, R; Kennedy, Sidney H

    2015-09-30

    Anhedonia, a core symptom of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), is predictive of antidepressant non-response. In contrast to the definition of anhedonia as a "loss of pleasure", neuropsychological studies provide evidence for multiple facets of hedonic function. The aim of the current study was to develop and validate the Dimensional Anhedonia Rating Scale (DARS), a dynamic scale that measures desire, motivation, effort and consummatory pleasure across hedonic domains. Following item selection procedures and reliability testing using data from community participants (N=229) (Study 1), the 17-item scale was validated in an online study with community participants (N=150) (Study 2). The DARS was also validated in unipolar or bipolar depressed patients (n=52) and controls (n=50) (Study 3). Principal components analysis of the 17-item DARS revealed a 4-component structure mapping onto the domains of anhedonia: hobbies, food/drink, social activities, and sensory experience. Reliability of the DARS subscales was high across studies (Cronbach's α=0.75-0.92). The DARS also demonstrated good convergent and divergent validity. Hierarchical regression analysis revealed the DARS showed additional utility over the Snaith-Hamilton Pleasure Scale (SHAPS) in predicting reward function and distinguishing MDD subgroups. These studies provide support for the reliability and validity of the DARS. PMID:26250147

  1. Estimating the additional cost of disability: beyond budget standards.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson-Meyers, Laura; Brown, Paul; McNeill, Robert; Patston, Philip; Dylan, Sacha; Baker, Ronelle

    2010-11-01

    Disabled people have long advocated for sufficient resources to live a life with the same rights and responsibilities as non-disabled people. Identifying the unique resource needs of disabled people relative to the population as a whole and understanding the source of these needs is critical for determining adequate levels of income support and for prioritising service provision. Previous attempts to identify the resources and costs associated with disability have tended to rely on surveys of current resource use. These approaches have been criticised as being inadequate for identifying the resources that would be required to achieve a similar standard of living to non-disabled people and for not using methods that are acceptable to and appropriate for the disabled community. The challenge is therefore to develop a methodology that accurately identifies these unique resource needs, uses an approach that is acceptable to the disabled community, enables all disabled people to participate, and distinguishes 'needs' from 'wants.' This paper describes and presents the rationale for a mixed methodology for identifying and prioritising the resource needs of disabled people. The project is a partnership effort between disabled researchers, a disability support organisation and academic researchers in New Zealand. The method integrates a social model of disability framework and an economic cost model using a budget standards approach to identify additional support, equipment, travel and time required to live an 'ordinary life' in the community. A survey is then used to validate the findings and identify information gaps and resource priorities of the community. Both the theoretical basis of the approach and the practical challenges of designing and implementing a methodology that is acceptable to the disabled community, service providers and funding agencies are discussed. PMID:20933315

  2. An experimental manipulation of social comparison in social anxiety.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Melissa A; Schmidt, Norman B

    2014-01-01

    Negative self-appraisal is thought to maintain social anxiety particularly when comparing oneself to others. Work on social comparison suggests that gender may moderate the effects of social comparison in social anxiety. Self-appraisals of the desirability of one's personality may be more important to women, whereas self-appraisal of signs of anxiety may be more important to men. Within each gender, those with high social anxiety are expected to report more negative self-appraisal when comparing themselves to someone else described as high achieving. This study is the first we are aware of that examined gender-based interactive effects after a social comparison manipulation. Participants read a bogus profile of a fellow student's adjustment to college. They were randomly assigned to read a profile suggesting that the fellow student was "high achieving" or more normative in his/her achievements. When comparing to a "high achieving" individual, men with high social anxiety reported the most negative self-appraisals of their signs of anxiety. In addition, greater social anxiety was associated with a poorer self-appraisal of personality only among men. The implications of the findings for conceptualizing the role of social comparison in social anxiety are discussed. PMID:24779421

  3. Social desirability and sexual offenders: a review.

    PubMed

    Tan, Lavinia; Grace, Randolph C

    2008-03-01

    Social desirability--the desire to make a favorable impression on others-poses a significant threat to the validity of self-reports. This review examines research on social desirability in both forensic and nonforensic populations with the goal of identifying how best to minimize threats to the validity of research with sexual offenders. Although social desirability has long been a major research topic in personality, consensus has not been reached on key questions such as its dimensional structure and whether social desirability constitutes a trait or a response bias. Research with offenders has shown that social desirability is negatively related to recidivism and that different offender subtypes vary in the degree to which social desirability appears to influence self-reports, with child molesters exhibiting the strongest tendency to "fake good." Several methods of controlling for social desirability have been proposed, but the effectiveness of these methods in increasing validity of offender self reports is questionable. Given the lack of consensus in the personality literature, a fresh start is needed in which basic questions regarding social desirability are revisited with respect to offender populations. PMID:18420557

  4. Increasing Appropriate Social Interactions of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders Using Social Stories[TM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scattone, Dorothy; Tingstrom, Daniel H.; Wilczynski, Susan M.

    2006-01-01

    To date there are more than one dozen studies that validate the use of Social Stories[TM] as an effective behavioral intervention. Many of these studies focused on decreasing inappropriate behaviors (e.g., aggression, screaming, and grabbing toys), and most combined Social Stories with another intervention. The present study used a multiple…

  5. Religious social capital: Its measurement and utility in the study of the social determinants of health

    PubMed Central

    Maselko, Joanna; Hughes, Cayce; Cheney, Rose

    2014-01-01

    As a social determinant of health, religiosity remains not well understood, despite the prevalence of religious activity and prominence of religious institutions in most societies. This paper introduces a working measure of Religious Social Capital and presents preliminary associations with neighborhood social capital and urban stressors. Religious social capital is defined as the social resources available to individuals and groups through their social connections with a religious community. Domains covered include group membership, social integration, values/norms, bonding/bridging trust as well as social support. Cross-sectional data come from a convenience sample of 104 community dwelling adults residing in a single urban neighborhood in a large US city, who also provided information on neighborhood social capital, and experiences of urban stressors. Results suggest that religious social capital is a valid construct that can be reliably measured. All indicators of religious social capital were higher among those who frequently attended religious services, with the exception of bridging trust (trust of people from different religious groups). A weak, inverse, association was also observed between religious and neighborhood social capital levels. Levels of religious social capital were correlated with higher levels of reported urban stressors, while neighborhood social capital was correlated with lower urban stressor levels. A significant percent of the sample was unaffiliated with a religious tradition and these individuals were more likely to be male, young and more highly educated. Social capital is a promising construct to help elucidate the influence of religion on population health. PMID:21802182

  6. [Spanish adaptation of a perceived Social Support Scale in sportspeople].

    PubMed

    Pedrosa, Ignacio; García-Cueto, Eduardo; Suárez-Álvarez, Javier; Pérez Sánchez, Blanca

    2012-01-01

    Social support is a variable that has a great influence in the sport context. In fact, this variable not only affects the athlete's performance but it has also shown to be related to psychological disorders such as Burnout Syndrome. The aim of this paper was to illustrate the Spanish adaptation of a social support scale in the sport context. The normative group who took part in the final version of the research was composed of 397 athletes aged between 13 and 64 years old (mean= 19.23 and standard deviation= 6.67). The scale shows: adequate factorial and construct validity, acceptable fit indexes (Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin= 0.785, Root Mean Square Residual= 0.078; Kelly's criterion= 0.075), a negative correlation with the dimensions of burnout and no relationship with respect to self-esteem. In addition, it also shows high reliability (a= 0.88). Furthermore, statistically significant differences have been found in relation to genders - where women require greater social support. In contrast, males tend to display a lower level of social support with team players and international athletes. Moreover, differential item functioning (DIF) was carried out to explore sex bias, however, none of the items exhibit DIF problems. PMID:22748742

  7. [Social media and health communication: do we need rules?].

    PubMed

    Santoro, Eugenio

    2015-01-01

    Social media, online social networks and apps for smartphones and tablets are changing the way to communicate health and health issues to consumers and health professionals. Google, Facebook, Apple, and other companies have launched tools to make easier the doctor-patient communication, to group patients with similar diseases allowing them to share stories, experiences, and opinions, and to remotely track and monitor users health and wellbeing. However several concerns about patients' and consumers' privacy remain. Doctor-patient communication through e-mail and social media also introduces other ethical and privacy issues that were addressed only by few medical societies with appropriate guidelines and policies. In addition, pharmaceutical companies have started to use social media channels to communicate with doctors, patients and consumers. This type of communication has been only partially regulated by the Food and Drug Administration with the recently published guidelines for industries. Similar concerns exist for health and medical applications for smartphones and tablets for which only few agencies (including Food and Drug Administration) are requiring a formal (even if restricted in typology) validation. It's time for Europe and Italy to adopt appropriate guidelines for the use of the new media in health communication. PMID:25621774

  8. Association between the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) gene and children's social cognition at 18 months.

    PubMed

    Wade, M; Hoffmann, T J; Wigg, K; Jenkins, J M

    2014-09-01

    At 18 months, children engage in a variety of social behaviors that reflect their nascent ability to understand the intentions of other people (e.g. joint attention, empathy, cooperation and self-recognition). Although numerous contextual factors have been shown to predict social cognition in young children, the genetic underpinnings of social-cognitive traits has been understudied in this age group. Owing to the known effects of oxytocin on adult social cognition and psychopathology, this study hypothesized that variability in the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) would be associated with social cognition in children at 18 months. Participants consisted of 350 children (182 males; 168 females) who were part of an ongoing longitudinal study that aimed to assess environmental and genetic contributions to children's cognitive and socio-emotional functioning. At 18 months, social cognition was measured using previously validated and developmentally sensitive tasks assessing children's joint attention, empathy, cooperation and self-recognition. Five potentially functional OXTR variants were genotyped: rs1042778, rs2254298, rs11131149, rs237897 and rs237899. A family-based association design was used to control for population admixture and stratification, and additional non-genomic covariates were controlled. Results showed that variability in rs11131149 was significantly associated with social cognition (P=0.009), with more copies of the major allele related to higher social cognition, and more copies of the minor (risk) allele associated with lower social cognition. A haplotype consisting of rs11131149-rs2254298 was also associated with social cognition (P=0.020). Implications for normative and pathological development are discussed, and key areas for future research are proposed. PMID:24916666

  9. MERIS Land Products Validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramon, D.; Santer, R.; Dilligeard, E.; Jolivet, D.; Vidot, J.

    2004-05-01

    Over land, the aerosol remote sensing is based on the observation of Dense Dark Vegetation (DDV) and this concept is applied on MERIS with a spectral index (ARVI, Atmospherically Resistant Vegetation Index) to detect the DDV and the use of the bands at 412, 443 and 670 nm to characterize the aerosols. The aerosol size distribution is assumed to follow the Junge law while the aerosol refractive index is set to 1.44. The aerosol product consists on the aerosol optical thickness (AOT) at 865 nm and on the spectral dependence of the aerosol path radiance (Epsilon coefficient ɛ which is the ratio of the aerosol reflectance at 765 nm to that at 865 nm). The validation exercise is mostly based on the use of ground based optical measurements from the AERONET network. A classical validation of the aerosol product is conducted using the extinction measurements. A deeper validation is done in order to investigate the different assumptions used in the aerosol remote sensing module by: (i) using the ground based measurements to validate the DDV reflectance model. Atmospheric correction will be done, including the aerosols, to derive DDV reflectances for comparison to standard values. (ii) using the ground based measurements to validate the choice of the Junge size distribution by comparing the simulated radiances with this model to the measurements in the principal plane. The AOT at 865 nm is badly retrieved because of the inaccuracy of the DDV reflectance model in the red whereas the AOT at 443 nm is in good agreement with AERONET data and accuracy is comparable to what is achieved by MODIS over comparable sites. The Junge size distribution is well adapted for the representation of aerosols optical properties. The main algorithm improvement we recommend consists in introducing a dynamical DDV reflectance model that is a reflectance which varies with the ARVI of the target. Under clear sky conditions, the surface pressure is a level-2 MERIS product based on a two band ratio

  10. Social Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esser, Aristide Henri

    1971-01-01

    Social pollution provides the matrix for the pollution of the physical environment. This stems from man's present inability to function synergistically. To find new freedoms in purposeful evolution, we will have to start cleansing our Mind. (Author/SD)

  11. Enantioselective Michael Addition of Water

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Bi-Shuang; Resch, Verena; Otten, Linda G; Hanefeld, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    The enantioselective Michael addition using water as both nucleophile and solvent has to date proved beyond the ability of synthetic chemists. Herein, the direct, enantioselective Michael addition of water in water to prepare important β-hydroxy carbonyl compounds using whole cells of Rhodococcus strains is described. Good yields and excellent enantioselectivities were achieved with this method. Deuterium labeling studies demonstrate that a Michael hydratase catalyzes the water addition exclusively with anti-stereochemistry. PMID:25529526

  12. Pioneering RTI Systems that Work: Social Validity, Collaboration, and Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahdavi, Jennifer N.; Beebe-Frankenberger, Margaret E.

    2009-01-01

    Using collaborative teamwork to build unique response-to-intervention (RTI) systems responsive to the needs and strengths within their separate schools and communities, two Montana elementary schools forged a trail for other schools. Each school encountered different obstacles along the way as well as distinctive ways of defining success. How can…

  13. The Social Validation of Behavioral Treatments for Bedwetting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fincham, Frank D.

    Both urine alarms and dry bed training (DBT) have been used in the treatment of enuresis. To investigate the acceptability of the most recent version of DBT and urine alarm training, two studies were conducted. In the first study, the evaluation of 42 parents, who had participated in an 8-week program of either DBT or urine alarm training, were…

  14. The Social Validity of Program-Wide Positive Behavior Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frey, Andy J.; Lee Park, Kristy; Browne-Ferrigno, Tricia; Korfhage, Tara L.

    2010-01-01

    In preschool settings, the majority of interventions are individualized for children at high risk for challenging behavior. However, a few early childhood sites have begun to conceptualize and implement prevention and intervention initiatives modeled after the principles and key features associated with school-wide positive behavior support. In…

  15. Social Action with Youth: Interventions, Evaluation, and Psychopolitical Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morsillo, Julie; Prilleltensky, Isaac

    2007-01-01

    We describe two interventions designed to encourage community action with youth in a school and a community service setting. The school intervention took place with a Year 10 class, while the community-based intervention took place with a group of same-sex attracted youth. Using a participatory action research framework, youth in both settings…

  16. Concurrent and Construct Validity of Three Counselor Social Influence Instruments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, F. Robert; Yager, Geoffrey G.

    1990-01-01

    Conducted factor analytic investigation of Counselor Rating Form, Counselor Rating Form-Short Form, and Counselor Effectiveness Rating Scale (CERS) using data from 160 undergraduate students. Analysis revealed two oblique factors (expertness and attractiveness-trustworthiness), whereas CERS produced single, global evaluative factor. Oblique…

  17. Social Validity Assessment in Early Childhood Special Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turan, Yasemin; Meadan, Hedda

    2011-01-01

    Family members and educational teams frequently participate in planning, implementing, and evaluating programs for young children with disabilities and those at risk for academic and behavior difficulties. Decision making should incorporate an integration of best available research evidence along with practitioners' and families' beliefs and…

  18. Gasoline additives, emissions, and performance

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    The papers included in this publication deal with the influence of fuel, additive, and hardware changes on a variety of vehicle performance characteristics. Advanced techniques for measuring these performance parameters are also described. Contents include: Fleet test evaluation of gasoline additives for intake valve and combustion chamber deposit clean up; A technique for evaluating octane requirement additives in modern engines on dynamometer test stands; A fleet test of two additive technologies comparing their effects on tailpipe emissions; Investigation into the vehicle exhaust emissions of high percentage ethanol blends; Variability in hydrocarbon speciation measurements at low emission (ULEV) levels; and more.

  19. SMAP RADAR Calibration and Validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, R. D.; Jaruwatanadilok, S.; Chaubel, J.

    2014-12-01

    The Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission is planned to launch on Jan 8, 2015. The mission employs L-band radar and radiometer measurements to estimate soil moisture with 4% volumetric accuracy at a resolution of 10 km, and freeze-thaw state at a resolution of 1-3 km. Immediately following launch, there will be a 3 month instrument checkout period, followed by 6 months of level 1 (L1) calibration and validation. In this presentation, we will discuss the plans and preparations for the calibration and validation of L1 radar data from SMAP. At the start of the L1 cal/val period, we will validate the operation of the instrument and of the ground processing using tools that look at readily identifiable surface features such as coast lines and corner reflectors. Geometric biases will be fit and removed. Radiometric cross-calibration with PALSAR and Aquarius will also be performed using target regions in the Amazon rain forest selected for their stability and uniformity. As the L1 cal/val period progresses, the performance of the automated short and long term calibration modules in ground processing will be tracked and verified using data from stable reference targets such as the wind corrected ocean and selected areas of rain forest that have shown good temporal stability. The performance of the radio frequency interference (RFI) removal algorithm will be validated by processing data with the algorithm turned on and off, and using different parameter settings. Additional information on the extent of RFI will be obtained from a special RFI survey conducted early in the L1 cal/val period. Radar transmissions are turned off during the RFI survey, and receive only data are collected over a variety of operating frequencies. The model based Faraday rotation corrections will also be checked during the L1 cal/val by comparing the model Faraday rotation with the measured Faraday rotation obtained by the SMAP Radiometer. This work is supported by the SMAP project at the Jet

  20. Supplementing Public Health Inspection via Social Media.

    PubMed

    Schomberg, John P; Haimson, Oliver L; Hayes, Gillian R; Anton-Culver, Hoda

    2016-01-01

    Foodborne illness is prevented by inspection and surveillance conducted by health departments across America. Appropriate restaurant behavior is enforced and monitored via public health inspections. However, surveillance coverage provided by state and local health departments is insufficient in preventing the rising number of foodborne illness outbreaks. To address this need for improved surveillance coverage we conducted a supplementary form of public health surveillance using social media data: Yelp.com restaurant reviews in the city of San Francisco. Yelp is a social media site where users post reviews and rate restaurants they have personally visited. Presence of keywords related to health code regulations and foodborne illness symptoms, number of restaurant reviews, number of Yelp stars, and restaurant price range were included in a model predicting a restaurant's likelihood of health code violation measured by the assigned San Francisco public health code rating. For a list of major health code violations see (S1 Table). We built the predictive model using 71,360 Yelp reviews of restaurants in the San Francisco Bay Area. The predictive model was able to predict health code violations in 78% of the restaurants receiving serious citations in our pilot study of 440 restaurants. Training and validation data sets each pulled data from 220 restaurants in San Francisco. Keyword analysis of free text within Yelp not only improved detection of high-risk restaurants, but it also served to identify specific risk factors related to health code violation. To further validate our model we applied the model generated in our pilot study to Yelp data from 1,542 restaurants in San Francisco. The model achieved 91% sensitivity 74% specificity, area under the receiver operator curve of 98%, and positive predictive value of 29% (given a substandard health code rating prevalence of 10%). When our model was applied to restaurant reviews in New York City we achieved 74% sensitivity