Science.gov

Sample records for addition special attention

  1. Special attention network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Indekeu, J. O.

    2004-02-01

    In this Note a social network model for opinion formation is proposed in which a person connected to q partners pays an attention 1/ q to each partner. The mutual attention between two connected persons i and j is taken equal to the geometric mean 1/ q iq j. Opinion is represented as usual by an Ising spin s=±1 and mutual attention is given through a two-spin coupling J ij=JQ/ q iq j, Q being the average connectivity in the network. Connectivity diminishes attention and only persons with low connectivity can pay special attention to each other leading to a durable common (or opposing) opinion. The model is solved in “mean-field” approximation and a critical “temperature” Tc proportional to JQ is found, which is independent of the number of persons N, for large N.

  2. Complementary hemispheric specialization for language production and visuospatial attention.

    PubMed

    Cai, Qing; Van der Haegen, Lise; Brysbaert, Marc

    2013-01-22

    Language production and spatial attention are the most salient lateralized cerebral functions, and their complementary specialization has been observed in the majority of the population. To investigate whether the complementary specialization has a causal origin (the lateralization of one function causes the opposite lateralization of the other) or rather is a statistical phenomenon (different functions lateralize independently), we determined the lateralization for spatial attention in a group of individuals with known atypical right hemispheric (RH) lateralization for speech production, based on a previous large-scale screening of left-handers. We show that all 13 participants with RH language dominance have left-hemispheric dominance for spatial attention, and all but one of 16 participants with left-hemispheric language dominance are RH dominant for spatial attention. Activity was observed in the dorsal fronto-parietal pathway of attention, including the inferior parietal sulcus and superior parietal lobule, the frontal eye-movement field, and the inferior frontal sulcus/gyrus, and these regions functionally colateralized in the hemisphere dominant for attention, independently of the side of lateralization. Our results clearly support the Causal hypothesis about the complementary specialization, and we speculate that it derives from a longstanding evolutionary origin. We also suggest that the conclusions about lateralization based on an unselected sample of the population and laterality assessment using coarse functional transcranial Doppler sonography should be interpreted with more caution.

  3. When Do Additional Distractors Reduce the Attentional Blink?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kawahara, Jun-ichiro

    2009-01-01

    When 2 targets are embedded in a rapid serial visual presentation stream of distractors, perception of the second target is impaired when the intertarget lag is relatively short (less than 500 ms). Stimuli concurrently presented with the stream can affect this phenomenon, which is called attentional blink (AB). Previous studies have yielded…

  4. Additive Bilingualism, Schooling, and Special Education: A Minority Group Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landry, R.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of schooling on the acquisition of an additive type of bilingualism is examined, focusing on additive bilingualism's relation to the ethnolinguistic vitality of linguistic groups and contributions of individual networks of linguistic contacts. A special and regular education merger without domination by a single cultural perspective is…

  5. Ethnic Disparities in Special Education Labeling among Children with Attention- Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandell, David S.; Davis, Jasmine K.; Bevans, Katherine; Guevara, James P.

    2008-01-01

    The authors examined disparities in special education labeling among children diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) by merging calendar year 2002 special education records and Medicaid mental health claims for 4,852 children who had been diagnosed with ADHD in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Thirty-eight percent were receiving…

  6. Covert orienting in the split brain: Right hemisphere specialization for object-based attention.

    PubMed

    Kingstone, Alan

    2015-12-18

    The present paper takes as its starting point Phil Bryden's long-standing interest in human attention and the role it can play in laterality effects. Past split-brain research has suggested that object-based attention is lateralized to the left hemisphere [e.g., Egly, R., Rafal, R. D., Driver, J., & Starreveld, Y. (1994). Covert orienting in the split brain reveals hemispheric specialization for object-based attention. Psychological Science, 5(6), 380-382]. The task used to isolate object-based attention in that previous work, however, has been found wanting [Vecera, S. P. (1994). Grouped locations and object-based attention: Comment on Egly, Driver, and Rafal (1994). Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 123(3), 316-320]; and indeed, subsequent research with healthy participants using a different task has suggested that object-based attention is lateralized to the opposite right hemisphere (RH) [Valsangkar-Smyth, M. A., Donovan, C. L., Sinnett, S., Dawson, M. R., & Kingstone, A. (2004). Hemispheric performance in object-based attention. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 11(1), 84-91]. The present study tested the same split-brain as Egly, Rafal, et al. (1994) but used the object-based attention task introduced by Valsangkar-Smyth et al. (2004). The results confirm that object-based attention is lateralized to the RH. They also suggest that subcortical interhemispheric competition may occur and be dominated by the RH.

  7. Play and Joint Attention of Children with Autism in the Preschool Special Education Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Connie; Kasari, Connie

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine play and joint attention in children with autism (n = 27) as compared to children with other developmental delays (n = 28) in public preschool special education classrooms. The participants were observed in their classroom environment for 2 h over 3 separate days. Results show that children with autism…

  8. 8 CFR 241.10 - Special care and attention of removable aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special care and attention of removable aliens. 241.10 Section 241.10 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS APPREHENSION AND DETENTION OF ALIENS ORDERED REMOVED Post-hearing Detention and Removal §...

  9. 8 CFR 241.10 - Special care and attention of removable aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Special care and attention of removable aliens. 241.10 Section 241.10 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS APPREHENSION AND DETENTION OF ALIENS ORDERED REMOVED Post-hearing Detention and Removal §...

  10. 8 CFR 241.10 - Special care and attention of removable aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Special care and attention of removable aliens. 241.10 Section 241.10 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS APPREHENSION AND DETENTION OF ALIENS ORDERED REMOVED Post-hearing Detention and Removal §...

  11. 8 CFR 241.10 - Special care and attention of removable aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Special care and attention of removable aliens. 241.10 Section 241.10 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS APPREHENSION AND DETENTION OF ALIENS ORDERED REMOVED Post-hearing Detention and Removal §...

  12. 8 CFR 241.10 - Special care and attention of removable aliens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Special care and attention of removable aliens. 241.10 Section 241.10 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS APPREHENSION AND DETENTION OF ALIENS ORDERED REMOVED Post-hearing Detention and Removal §...

  13. 25 CFR 39.105 - Are additional funds available for special education?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Are additional funds available for special education? 39... additional funds available for special education? (a) Schools may supplement the 15 percent base academic funding reserved under § 39.104 for special education with funds available under part B of the...

  14. 25 CFR 39.105 - Are additional funds available for special education?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Are additional funds available for special education? 39... additional funds available for special education? (a) Schools may supplement the 15 percent base academic funding reserved under § 39.104 for special education with funds available under part B of the...

  15. 25 CFR 39.105 - Are additional funds available for special education?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Are additional funds available for special education? 39... additional funds available for special education? (a) Schools may supplement the 15 percent base academic funding reserved under § 39.104 for special education with funds available under part B of the...

  16. 25 CFR 39.105 - Are additional funds available for special education?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Are additional funds available for special education? 39... additional funds available for special education? (a) Schools may supplement the 15 percent base academic funding reserved under § 39.104 for special education with funds available under part B of the...

  17. 25 CFR 39.105 - Are additional funds available for special education?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Are additional funds available for special education? 39... additional funds available for special education? (a) Schools may supplement the 15 percent base academic funding reserved under § 39.104 for special education with funds available under part B of the...

  18. Enhancing the Effectiveness of Special Education Programming for Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Using a Daily Report Card

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fabiano, Gregory A.; Vujnovic, Rebecca K.; Pelham, William E.; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Massetti, Greta M.; Pariseau, Meaghan E.; Naylor, Justin; Yu, Jihnhee; Robins, Melissa; Carnefix, Tarah; Greiner, Andrew R.; Volker, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) make up a considerable proportion of students who receive special education services in schools. The present study aimed to enhance the outcomes of students with ADHD in special education settings by using a daily report card (DRC). Thirty-three children with ADHD in special education…

  19. 75 FR 22409 - Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-28

    ... Berkeley National Laboratory in Berkeley, California, as an addition to the Special Exposure Cohort (SEC... Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in Berkeley, California, from August 13, 1942 through December...

  20. Concurrent working memory load can facilitate selective attention: evidence for specialized load.

    PubMed

    Park, Soojin; Kim, Min-Shik; Chun, Marvin M

    2007-10-01

    Load theory predicts that concurrent working memory load impairs selective attention and increases distractor interference (N. Lavie, A. Hirst, J. W. de Fockert, & E. Viding). Here, the authors present new evidence that the type of concurrent working memory load determines whether load impairs selective attention or not. Working memory load was paired with a same/different matching task that required focusing on targets while ignoring distractors. When working memory items shared the same limited-capacity processing mechanisms with targets in the matching task, distractor interference increased. However, when working memory items shared processing with distractors in the matching task, distractor interference decreased, facilitating target selection. A specialized load account is proposed to describe the dissociable effects of working memory load on selective processing depending on whether the load overlaps with targets or with distractors.

  1. 75 FR 22409 - Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-28

    ... the Santa Susana Field Laboratory as an addition to the Special Exposure Cohort (SEC) under the Energy... HUMAN SERVICES Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort AGENCY: National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), Department of Health and Human Services...

  2. Bioenergy costs and potentials with special attention to implications for the land system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popp, A.; Lotze-Campen, H.; Dietrich, J.; Klein, D.; Bauer, N.; Krause, M.; Beringer, T.; Gerten, D.

    2011-12-01

    In the coming decades, an increasing competition for global land and water resources can be expected, due to rising demand for agricultural products, goals of nature conservation, and changing production conditions due to climate change. Especially biomass from cellulosic bioenergy crops, such as Miscanthus or poplar, is being proposed to play a substantial role in future energy systems if climate policy aims at stabilizing greenhouse gas (GHG) concentration at low levels. However, the potential of bioenergy for climate change mitigation remains unclear due to large uncertainties about future agricultural yield improvements, land availability for biomass plantations, and implications for the land system. In order to explore the cost-effective contribution of bioenergy to a low carbon transition with special attention to implications for the land system, we present a modeling framework with detailed biophysical and economic representation of the land and energy sector: We have linked the global dynamic vegetation and water balance model LPJmL (Bondeau et al. 2007, Rost et al. 2008), the global land and water use model MAgPIE (Lotze-Campen et al. 2008, Popp et al. 2010), and the global energy-economy-climate model ReMIND (Leimbach et al. 2009). In this modeling framework LPJmL supplies spatially explicit (0.5° resolution) agricultural yields as well as carbon and water stocks and fluxes. Based on this biophysical input MAgPIE delivers cost-optimized land use patterns (0.5° resolution), associated GHG emissions and rates of future yield increases in agricultural production. Moreover, shadow prices are calculated for irrigation water (as an indicator for water scarcity), food commodities, and bioenergy (as an indicator for changes in production costs) under different land use constraints such as forest conservation for climate change mitigation and as a contribution to biodiversity conservation. The energy-economy-climate model ReMIND generates the demand for

  3. Representation of magnetic fields in space. [special attention to Geomagnetic fields and Magnetospheric models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stern, D. P.

    1976-01-01

    Several mathematical methods which are available for the description of magnetic fields in space are reviewed. Examples of the application of such methods are given, with particular emphasis on work related to the geomagnetic field, and their individual properties and associated problems are described. The methods are grouped in five main classes: (1) methods based on the current density, (2) methods using the scalar magnetic potential, (3) toroidal and poloidal components of the field and spherical vector harmonics, (4) Euler potentials, and (5) local expansions of the field near a given reference point. Special attention is devoted to models of the magnetosphere, to the uniqueness of the scalar potential as derived from observed data, and to the L parameter.

  4. Elasto visco-plastic flow with special attention to boundary conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shimazaki, Y.; Thompson, E. G.

    1981-01-01

    A simple but nontrivial steady-state creeping elasto visco-plastic (Maxwell fluid) radial flow problem is analyzed, with special attention given to the effects of the boundary conditions. Solutions are obtained through integration of a governing equation on stress using the Runge-Kutta method for initial value problems and finite differences for boundary value problems. A more general approach through the finite element method, an approach that solves for the velocity field rather than the stress field and that is applicable to a wide range of problems, is presented and tested using the radial flow example. It is found that steady-state flows of elasto visco-plastic materials are strongly influenced by the state of stress of material as it enters the region of interest. The importance of this boundary or initial condition in analyses involving materials coming into control volumes from unusual stress environments is emphasized.

  5. 76 FR 3907 - Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-21

    ... Chemicals, Inc., Texas City, Texas, as an addition to the Special Exposure Cohort (SEC) under the Energy... who worked at Texas City Chemicals, Inc., from October 5, 1953, through September 30, 1955, for...

  6. 76 FR 26299 - Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-06

    ... Linde Ceramics Plant in Tonawanda, New York, as an addition to the Special Exposure Cohort (SEC) under... Employees who worked at the Linde Ceramics Plant in Tonawanda, New York, from January 1, 1954...

  7. 77 FR 40059 - Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-06

    ... as the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), as an addition to the Special Exposure Cohort... Production Center (FMPC) in Fernald, Ohio, also known as the Fernald Environmental Management Project...

  8. 78 FR 77686 - Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-24

    ... designate a class of employees from the Rocky Flats Plant in Golden, Colorado, as an addition to the Special... subcontractors who worked at the Rocky Flats Plant in Golden, Colorado, from April 1, 1952, through December...

  9. 76 FR 68459 - Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-04

    ... facility in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, as an addition to the Special Exposure Cohort (SEC) under the Energy... facility in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, during the period from January 1, 1948 through December 31, 1957, for...

  10. 76 FR 68459 - Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-04

    ... and Company in Curtis Bay, Maryland, as an addition to the Special Exposure Cohort (SEC) under the... Employees who worked at any building or area at the facility owned by W.R. Grace and Company in Curtis...

  11. 76 FR 28436 - Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-17

    ... Chang facility in Albany, Oregon, as an addition to the Special Exposure Cohort (SEC) under the Energy... who worked in any building at the Wah Chang facility in Albany, Oregon, for the operational...

  12. The economic potential of bioenergy for climate change mitigation with special attention given to implications for the land system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popp, Alexander; Dietrich, Jan Philipp; Lotze-Campen, Hermann; Klein, David; Bauer, Nico; Krause, Michael; Beringer, Tim; Gerten, Dieter; Edenhofer, Ottmar

    2011-07-01

    Biomass from cellulosic bioenergy crops is expected to play a substantial role in future energy systems, especially if climate policy aims at stabilizing greenhouse gas concentration at low levels. However, the potential of bioenergy for climate change mitigation remains unclear due to large uncertainties about future agricultural yield improvements and land availability for biomass plantations. This letter, by applying a modelling framework with detailed economic representation of the land and energy sector, explores the cost-effective contribution of bioenergy to a low-carbon transition, paying special attention to implications for the land system. In this modelling framework, bioenergy competes directly with other energy technology options on the basis of costs, including implicit costs due to biophysical constraints on land and water availability. As a result, we find that bioenergy from specialized grassy and woody bioenergy crops, such as Miscanthus or poplar, can contribute approximately 100 EJ in 2055 and up to 300 EJ of primary energy in 2095. Protecting natural forests decreases biomass availability for energy production in the medium, but not in the long run. Reducing the land available for agricultural use can partially be compensated for by means of higher rates of technological change in agriculture. In addition, our trade-off analysis indicates that forest protection combined with large-scale cultivation of dedicated bioenergy is likely to affect bioenergy potentials, but also to increase global food prices and increase water scarcity. Therefore, integrated policies for energy, land use and water management are needed.

  13. 40 CFR 75.75 - Additional ozone season calculation procedures for special circumstances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Additional ozone season calculation... § 75.75 Additional ozone season calculation procedures for special circumstances. (a) The owner or operator of a unit that is required to calculate ozone season heat input for purposes of providing...

  14. 40 CFR 75.75 - Additional ozone season calculation procedures for special circumstances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Additional ozone season calculation... § 75.75 Additional ozone season calculation procedures for special circumstances. (a) The owner or operator of a unit that is required to calculate ozone season heat input for purposes of providing...

  15. 40 CFR 75.75 - Additional ozone season calculation procedures for special circumstances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Additional ozone season calculation... § 75.75 Additional ozone season calculation procedures for special circumstances. (a) The owner or operator of a unit that is required to calculate ozone season heat input for purposes of providing...

  16. 40 CFR 75.75 - Additional ozone season calculation procedures for special circumstances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Additional ozone season calculation... § 75.75 Additional ozone season calculation procedures for special circumstances. (a) The owner or operator of a unit that is required to calculate ozone season heat input for purposes of providing...

  17. 40 CFR 75.75 - Additional ozone season calculation procedures for special circumstances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Additional ozone season calculation... § 75.75 Additional ozone season calculation procedures for special circumstances. (a) The owner or operator of a unit that is required to calculate ozone season heat input for purposes of providing...

  18. 78 FR 77685 - Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-24

    ... designate a class of employees from the Sandia National Laboratories-Livermore in Livermore, California, as an addition to the Special Exposure Cohort (SEC) under the Energy Employees Occupational Illness... employees as an addition to the SEC: ] All employees of the Department of Energy, its predecessor...

  19. [Novel immunotherapeutic models for neoplastic diseases of the urogenital tract with special attention to bladder carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Leskovar, P

    1989-01-01

    In this review article some novel immunotherapeutic models as well as some new concepts concerning the unspecific and specific T-cell stimulation are discussed briefly. Some of these immunotherapeutic models are restricted to bladder cancer; the others have a generalized meaning. One model, restricted to bladder cancer, is based on the enzymatic++ pretreatment of effector-cells (macrophages, NK-cells), followed by their instillation in the patient's bladder. The other bladder tumor restricted model includes the direct in situ activation of effector cells by proteases and lipases. A third model for the treatment of bladder tumor implies a presensitization of patient's TD/TDTH-cells, followed by the treatment of patient's bladder tumor cells by some, common haptenic group. In addition, some novel ways of immune stimulation, partly by circumventing the (tumor-specific) immune tolerance, based on the cross-linking of crucial membrane structures on T4- and T8-cells or on a managed, controlled APC: T-cell interaction, are discussed. The details inclusively the comprehensive special literature can not be brought in this review article; they should be dealt with in special papers being in preparation.

  20. Knowledge and Misconceptions about Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): A Comparison of Greek General and Special Education Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stampoltzis, Aglaia; Antonopoulou, Katerina

    2013-01-01

    School teachers play an important role in the identification and assessment of pupils' difficulties, and have been considered one of the most valuable sources of information with regard to attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnoses. The study examines and compares general and special education teachers' knowledge and misconceptions…

  1. Large impacts in the Baltic shield with special attention to the Uppland structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henkel, H.; Lilljequist, R.

    1992-01-01

    Within the Baltic Shield several very large structures have been identified and are suspected to be of meteorite impact origin. Some of these deeply eroded circular features are presented with special attention to the Uppland structure, where several indications point toward an impact origin in the mid-Proterozoic. The structures exceed 100 km in diameter and the topographic expression is inferior or absent. An arcuate arrangement of lithologies occurs around the margin of the structures and the central regions show conform magnetic and positive gravity anomalies. The Uppland structure is approximately 320 km in diameter as expressed by morphological, geological, and geophysical concentric patterns. The central part is topographically remarkably flat and is characterized by an unusual irregular fracture pattern. A subcircular central tonalite with density of 2.81 Mg(sup -3) gives a positive gravity anomaly of 35 mgal and the gravimetric profile is very similar to that of Manicouagan and Vredefort. The tonalite constitutes a huge antiform, 80 km in diameter, probably representing a 12-km structural uplift of infracrustal rocks. The flancs of the tonalite are characterized by recrystallized pseudotachylitic breccia dykes and breccia zones. Around the central parts amphibolite-grade metamorphic rocks appear as large fragments within a fine-grained granite interpreted as a thermally annealed melt rock. Several occurrences of breccia dykes and breccia-bearing melts have been identified about 100 km from the gravimetric center of the structure. Impact-related ore deposits are located around the margin of the structure and are interpreted as preexisting downfaulted iron formations, and deposits formed from remobilization of these preimpact occurrences. The so-called ball ores are interpreted to have formed by fluid injection similar to the formation of breccia dykes. The extensive hydrothermal alteration along the outer margin of the structure have created extreme soda

  2. Additivity of abrupt onset effects supports nonspatial distraction, not the capture of spatial attention.

    PubMed

    Folk, Charles L; Remington, Roger W; Wu, Shu-Chieh

    2009-02-01

    In a recent article, Schreij, Owens, and Theeuwes (2008) reported that abruptly onsetting distractors produce costs in performance even when spatial-cuing effects confirm the presence of a top-down set for color. The authors argued that these results show that abruptly onsetting new objects capture attention independent of a top-down set and, thus, provide conclusive evidence against the theory that attentional capture is contingent on top-down attentional control settings (Folk, Remington, & Johnston, 1992). In the following article, we argue that, contrary to the conclusion drawn by Schreij et al., their own data (1) disconfirm the claim that their abrupt onsets captured spatial attention and (2) are consistent with nonspatial interference accounts of singleton-distractor effects. In support of the nonspatial account, we show that in a paradigm similar to Schreij et al.'s, distractors that do not capture attention can nonetheless influence responses to a target. We conclude that the results of Schreij et al. do not represent a challenge to contingent capture theory.

  3. The Beneficial Effects of Additional Task Load, Positive Affect, and Instruction on the Attentional Blink

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olivers, Christian N. L.; Nieuwenhuis, Sander

    2006-01-01

    The attentional blink reflects the impaired ability to identify the 2nd of 2 targets presented in close succession--a phenomenon that is generally thought to reflect a fundamental cognitive limitation. However, the fundamental nature of this impairment has recently been called into question by the counterintuitive finding that task-irrelevant…

  4. 75 FR 44968 - Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-30

    ... Airport Storage Site in St. Louis, Missouri, as an addition to the Special Exposure Cohort (SEC) under the Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation Program Act of 2000. On July 14, 2010, the Secretary... Department of Energy, its predecessor agencies, and its contractors and subcontractors who worked in any...

  5. 77 FR 76490 - Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-28

    ...). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: HHS gives notice of a decision to designate a class of employees from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (X-10) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, as an addition to the Special Exposure Cohort... who worked in any area at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (X-10) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, from...

  6. 75 FR 22410 - Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-28

    ... Livermore National Laboratory in Livermore, California, as an addition to the Special Exposure Cohort (SEC) under the Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation Program Act of 2000. On April 5, 2010, the... Department of Energy, its predecessor agencies, and their contractors and subcontractors who worked at...

  7. 75 FR 44966 - Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-30

    ... Soto Avenue Facility in Los Angeles County, California, as an addition to the Special Exposure Cohort (SEC) under the Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation Program Act of 2000. On July 14... employees of the Department of Energy, its predecessor agencies, and their contractors and...

  8. Concurrent Working Memory Load Can Facilitate Selective Attention: Evidence for Specialized Load

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Soojin; Kim, Min-Shik; Chun, Marvin M.

    2007-01-01

    Load theory predicts that concurrent working memory load impairs selective attention and increases distractor interference (N. Lavie, A. Hirst, J. W. de Fockert, & E. Viding, see record 2004-17825-003). Here, the authors present new evidence that the type of concurrent working memory load determines whether load impairs selective attention or not.…

  9. Teaching Facts of Addition to Brazilian Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costa, Adriana Corrêa; Rohde, Luis Augusto; Dorneles, Beatriz Vargas

    2015-01-01

    Storage and/or automatic retrieval of the basic facts of addition from the long-term memory seems to be impaired in children with ADHD presenting arithmetical difficulties. The present study was carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of an educational intervention model designed to teach basic facts of addition as a means of advancing from…

  10. Additional Evidence against Shared Environmental Contributions to Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Problems

    PubMed Central

    Burt, S. Alexandra; Larsson, Henrik; Lichtenstein, Paul; Klump, Kelly L.

    2012-01-01

    A recent meta-analysis (Burt, 2009) indicated that shared environmental influences (C) do not contribute to Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Unfortunately, the meta-analysis relied almost exclusively on classical twin studies. Although useful in many ways, some of the assumptions of the classical twin model (e.g., dominant genetic and shared environmental influences do not simultaneously influence the phenotype) can artifactually decrease estimates of C. There is thus a need to confirm that dominant genetic influences are not suppressing estimates of C on ADHD. The current study sought to do just this via the use of a nuclear twin family model, which allows researchers to simultaneously model and estimate dominant genetic and shared environmental influences. We examined two independent samples of child twins: 312 pairs from the Michigan State University Twin Registry (MSUTR) and 854 pairs from the PrEschool Twin Study in Sweden (PETSS). Shared environmental influences were found to be statistically indistinguishable from zero and accounted for less than 5% of the variance. We conclude that the presence of dominant genetic influences does not account for the absence of C on ADHD. PMID:22566176

  11. Faces Do Not Capture Special Attention in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Change Blindness Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kikuchi, Yukiko; Senju, Atsushi; Tojo, Yoshikuni; Osanai, Hiroo; Hasegawa, Toshikazu

    2009-01-01

    Two experiments investigated attention of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) to faces and objects. In both experiments, children (7- to 15-year-olds) detected the difference between 2 visual scenes. Results in Experiment 1 revealed that typically developing children (n = 16) detected the change in faces faster than in objects, whereas…

  12. Additive effects of affective arousal and top-down attention on the event-related brain responses to human bodies.

    PubMed

    Hietanen, Jari K; Kirjavainen, Ilkka; Nummenmaa, Lauri

    2014-12-01

    The early visual event-related 'N170 response' is sensitive to human body configuration and it is enhanced to nude versus clothed bodies. We tested whether the N170 response as well as later EPN and P3/LPP responses to nude bodies reflect the effect of increased arousal elicited by these stimuli, or top-down allocation of object-based attention to the nude bodies. Participants saw pictures of clothed and nude bodies and faces. In each block, participants were asked to direct their attention towards stimuli from a specified target category while ignoring others. Object-based attention did not modulate the N170 amplitudes towards attended stimuli; instead N170 response was larger to nude bodies compared to stimuli from other categories. Top-down attention and affective arousal had additive effects on the EPN and P3/LPP responses reflecting later processing stages. We conclude that nude human bodies have a privileged status in the visual processing system due to the affective arousal they trigger.

  13. Meta-Analysis of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder or Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms, Restriction Diet, and Synthetic Food Color Additives

    PubMed Central

    Nigg, Joel T.; Lewis, Kara; Edinger, Tracy; Falk, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Objective The role of diet and of food colors in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or its symptoms warrants updated quantitative meta-analysis, in light of recent divergent policy in Europe and the United States. Method Studies were identified through a literature search using the PubMed, Cochrane Library, and PsycNET databases through February 2011. Twenty-four publications met inclusion criteria for synthetic food colors; 10 additional studies informed analysis of dietary restriction. A random-effects meta-analytic model generated summary effect sizes. Results Restriction diets reduced ADHD symptoms at an effect of g = 0.29 (95% CI, 0.07–0.53). For food colors, parent reports yielded an effect size of g = 0.18 (95% CI, 0.08–0.24; p = .0007), which decreased to 0.12 (95% CI, 0.01–0.23; p < .05) after adjustment for possible publication bias. The effect was reliable in studies restricted to food color additives (g = 0.21, 95% CI = 0.06–0.36) but did not survive correction for possible publication bias and was not reliable in studies confined to Food and Drug Administration–approved food colors. Teacher/observer reports yielded a nonsignificant effect of 0.07 (95% CI = −0.03 to 0.18; p = .14). However, high-quality studies confined to color additives yielded a reliable effect (g = 0.22, 95% CI = 0.10–0.41, p = .030) that survived correction. In psychometric tests of attention, the summary effect size was 0.27 (95% CI = 0.07–0.47; p = .007) and survived correction. An estimated 8% of children with ADHD may have symptoms related to synthetic food colors. Conclusions A restriction diet benefits some children with ADHD. Effects of food colors were notable were but susceptible to publication bias or were derived from small, nongeneralizable samples. Renewed investigation of diet and ADHD is warranted. PMID:22176942

  14. Probiont niche specialization contributes to additive protection against Vibrio owensii in spiny lobster larvae.

    PubMed

    Goulden, Evan F; Hall, Michael R; Pereg, Lily L; Baillie, Brett K; Høj, Lone

    2013-02-01

    The development of efficient probiotic application protocols for use in marine larviculture relies on comprehensive understanding of pathogen-probiont-host interactions. The probiont combination of Pseudoalteromonas sp. PP107 and Vibrio sp. PP05 provides additive protection against vectored Vibrio owensii DY05 infection in larvae (phyllosomas) of ornate spiny lobster, Panulirus ornatus. Here, fluorescently tagged strains were used to demonstrate niche specialization of these probionts in both the live feed vector organism Artemia and in phyllosomas. The pathogen was vulnerable to direct interaction with PP05 in the bacterioplankton as well as in the Artemia gut and the phyllosoma foregut and midgut gland. In contrast, PP107 was localized on external surfaces of Artemia and phyllosomas, and direct interaction with the pathogen was limited to the bacterioplankton. While PP107 was the overall dominant ectobiont on the phyllosoma cephalothorax and inner leg segments, PP05 was the primary colonizer of outer leg segments, nutrient-rich locales that may promote ingestion during feeding. This study shows that niche specialization can contribute to the additive probiotic effect of a probiotic mixture and highlights that probiotic enrichment of Artemia cultures can intercept the infection cycle of V. owensii DY05 in early-stage P. ornatus phyllosomas.

  15. A Bayesian additive model for understanding public transport usage in special events.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Filipe; Borysov, Stanislav; Ribeiro, Bernardete; Pereira, Francisco

    2016-12-02

    Public special events, like sports games, concerts and festivals are well known to create disruptions in transportation systems, often catching the operators by surprise. Although these are usually planned well in advance, their impact is difficult to predict, even when organisers and transportation operators coordinate. The problem highly increases when several events happen concurrently. To solve these problems, costly processes, heavily reliant on manual search and personal experience, are usual practice in large cities like Singapore, London or Tokyo. This paper presents a Bayesian additive model with Gaussian process components that combines smart card records from public transport with context information about events that is continuously mined from the Web. We develop an efficient approximate inference algorithm using expectation propagation, which allows us to predict the total number of public transportation trips to the special event areas, thereby contributing to a more adaptive transportation system. Furthermore, for multiple concurrent event scenarios, the proposed algorithm is able to disaggregate gross trip counts into their most likely components related to specific events and routine behavior. Using real data from Singapore, we show that the presented model outperforms the best baseline model by up to 26% in R2 and also has explanatory power for its individual components.

  16. Stories that Promote Understanding of Children with Special Needs: A Look at Autism Spectrum Disorders, Tourette Syndrome, Down Syndrome, and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maples, Lucy; Applin, Janet L.

    2009-01-01

    This article takes on the issue of understanding children with special needs by providing an annotated bibliography of stories about children with special needs. Four areas are addressed: autism spectrum disorders, Down syndrome, Tourette syndrome, and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Each area is described with its typical…

  17. 77 FR 15759 - Final Effect of Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-16

    ... Ceramics Plant in Tonawanda, New York, as an addition to the Special Exposure Cohort (SEC) under the Energy... to the SEC: All Atomic Weapons Employees who worked in any area at the Linde Ceramics Plant...

  18. 77 FR 60437 - Final Effect of Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-03

    ... Clarksville Modification Center Site, Ft. Campbell, in Clarksville, Tennessee, as an addition to the Special.... Campbell, in Clarksville, Tennessee, from August 1, 1949, through December 31, 1967, for a number of...

  19. 77 FR 15759 - Final Effect of Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-16

    ... Savannah River Site in Aiken, South Carolina, as an addition to the Special Exposure Cohort (SEC) under the... contractors and subcontractors who worked at the Savannah River Site from January 1, 1953, through...

  20. 77 FR 38834 - Final Effect of Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-29

    ... Engineer Works in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, as an addition to the Special Exposure Cohort (SEC) under the... Carbon Chemicals Corporation (1947-1949) who were employed at the Clinton Engineer Works in Oak...

  1. 42 CFR 412.107 - Special treatment: Hospitals that receive an additional update for FYs 1998 and 1999.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... additional update for FYs 1998 and 1999. 412.107 Section 412.107 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... Inpatient Operating Costs § 412.107 Special treatment: Hospitals that receive an additional update for FYs 1998 and 1999. (a) Additional payment update. A hospital that meets the criteria set forth in...

  2. Hydrogen oxidation and nitrogen fixation in rhizobia, with special attention focused on strain ORS 571.

    PubMed

    de Vries, W; Stam, H; Stouthamer, A H

    1984-01-01

    In this survey we describe the influence of hydrogen oxidation on the physiology of Rhizobium ORS 571. The presence of hydrogen is required for the synthesis of hydrogenase. Carbon substrates do not repress the synthesis of hydrogenase. The respiratory system contains cytrochromes of the b- and c-type. Cytochrome alpha 600 is present after growth at high oxygen tensions. The nature of the terminal oxidases functioning at low oxygen tensions has not been established yet----H+/O values with endogenous substrates are between 6 and 7. The results show the presence of two phosphorylation sites: site 1 (ATP/2e = 1.0) and site 2(ATP/2e = 1.33). By measuring molar growth yields it has been demonstrated that carbon-limited, nitrogen-fixing cultures obtain additional ATP from hydrogen oxidation, and that site 2 of oxidative phosphorylation is passed during hydrogen oxidation. A method is described to calculate ATP/N2 values (the total amount of ATP used by nitrogenase during the fixation of 1 mol N2) and H2/N2 ratios (mol hydrogen formed per mol N2 fixed) in aerobic organisms. For Rhizobium ORS 571 the ATP/N2 value is about 40 and the H2/N2 ratio is between 5 and 7.5. Cells obtained from oxygen-limited nitrogen-fixing cultures contain 30-40% poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate, which explains the high molar growth yields found. Hydrogen has not been detected in the effluent gas of these cultures, which may point to reoxidation of the hydrogen formed at nitrogen fixation. Calculations show that the effect of hydrogen reoxidation on the efficiency of nitrogen fixation (g N fixed X mol-1 substrate converted) is not very large and that the actual H2/N2 ratio is of much more importance. After addition of hydrogen to succinate-limited, ammonia-assimilating cultures, an initial increase of the Ysuccinate value (g dry wt X mol-1 succinate) is followed by a gradual decrease. This is accompanied by a large decrease of the YO2 value, and an increased permeability of the cytoplasmic membrane to

  3. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  4. Meta-Analysis of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder or Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms, Restriction Diet, and Synthetic Food Color Additives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nigg, Joel T.; Lewis, Kara; Edinger, Tracy; Falk, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The role of diet and of food colors in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or its symptoms warrants updated quantitative meta-analysis, in light of recent divergent policy in Europe and the United States. Method: Studies were identified through a literature search using the PubMed, Cochrane Library, and PsycNET databases…

  5. 78 FR 54791 - Proposed Additional Airworthiness Design Standards: Advanced Avionics Under the Special Class...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-06

    ... current regulations only address traditional federated gauges. The European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA... through EASA special conditions or new regulations. These Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) design... overburdensome and to encourage EASA to follow suit. DATES: Comments must be received on or before October...

  6. An Investigation of the Technical Adequacy of a Daily Behavior Report Card (DBRC) for Monitoring Progress of Students with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Special Education Placements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fabiano, Gregory A.; Vujnovic, Rebecca; Naylor, Justin; Pariseau, Meaghan; Robins, Melissa

    2009-01-01

    Many children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are eligible for special education services because of problems with academic and/or social functioning. Thus, a considerable proportion of children with ADHD have individualized education plans (IEPs) that list operationalized goals and objectives for each student. Conceptually,…

  7. An Analysis of the Discourses on Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in US Special Education Textbooks, with Implications for Inclusive Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freedman, Justin E.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the discourses on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) found in textbooks used in pre-service special education programmes in the USA. Five textbooks are examined with the intent of discovering how ADHD is portrayed to future teachers. A discourse analysis framework is utilised, revealing five…

  8. A SIMPLIFIED MODELING OF FLUSHING AND RESIDENCE TIME IN 42 EMBAYMENTS IN NEW ENGLAND, USA, WITH SPECIAL ATTENTION TO GRENWICH BAY, RHODE ISLAND

    EPA Science Inventory

    A simplified protocol has been developed to meet the need for modeling hydrodynamics and transport in large numbers of embayments quickly and reliably. The procedure is illustrated with 42 embayments in southern New England, USA, giving special attention to Greenwich Bay, RI. The...

  9. Sleepiness, On-Task Behavior and Attention in Children with Epilepsy Who Visited a School for Special Education: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Didden, Robert; de Moor, Jan M. H.; Korzilius, Hubert

    2009-01-01

    Children with epilepsy are at risk for problems in daytime functioning. We assessed daytime sleepiness, on-task behavior and attention in 17 children (aged between 7 and 11 years) with epilepsy who visited a school for special education and compared these to 17 children from a control group who visited a regular school. Within the group of…

  10. 78 FR 70949 - Final Effect of Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-27

    ...HHS gives notice concerning the final effect of the HHS decision to designate a class of employees from the Feed Materials Production Center (FMPC) in Fernald, Ohio, as an addition to the Special Exposure Cohort (SEC) under the Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation Program Act of...

  11. 78 FR 70949 - Final Effect of Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-27

    ...HHS gives notice concerning the final effect of the HHS decision to designate a class of employees from the Pantex Plant in Amarillo, Texas, as an addition to the Special Exposure Cohort (SEC) under the Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation Program Act of...

  12. 75 FR 51817 - Final Effect of Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-23

    ... Safety and Health Final Effect of Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special... and Human Services (HHS). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: HHS gives notice concerning the final effect of the HHS decision to designate a class of employees from BWX Technologies, Inc., in Lynchburg, Virginia,...

  13. 76 FR 7852 - Final Effect of Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Final Effect of Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure... Human Services (HHS). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: HHS gives notice concerning the final effect of the HHS decision to designate a class of employees from BWX Technologies, Inc., Lynchburg, Virginia, as an...

  14. 75 FR 51817 - Final Effect of Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-23

    ... decision to designate a class of employees from the St. Louis Airport Storage Site in St. Louis, Missouri, as an addition to the Special Exposure Cohort (SEC) under the Energy Employees Occupational Illness... Department of Energy, its predecessor agencies, and its contractors and subcontractors who worked in any...

  15. 75 FR 27784 - Final Effect of Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-18

    ... concerning the final effect of the decision to designate a class of employees at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in Berkeley, California, as an addition to the Special Exposure Cohort (SEC) under the..., and their contractors and subcontractors who worked at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory...

  16. 78 FR 3898 - Final Effect of Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-17

    ... notice concerning the final effect of the HHS decision to designate a class of employees from Oak Ridge National Laboratory (X-10), in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, as an addition to the Special Exposure Cohort (SEC..., and their contractors and subcontractors who worked in any area at the Oak Ridge National...

  17. 75 FR 3469 - Final Effect of Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-21

    ... notice concerning the final effect of the HHS decision to designate a class of employees at the Oak Ridge Hospital in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, as an addition to the Special Exposure Cohort (SEC) under the Energy... and subcontractors who worked in any location at the Oak Ridge Hospital in Oak Ridge, Tennessee,...

  18. 77 FR 69845 - Final Effect of Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Final Effect of Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure... notice concerning the final effect of the HHS decision to designate a class of employees from the...

  19. 75 FR 67364 - Final Effect of Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Final Effect of Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure... Human Services (HHS). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: HHS gives notice concerning the final effect of the...

  20. 75 FR 37812 - Final Effect of Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Final Effect of Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure... notice concerning the final effect of the HHS decision to designate a class of employees at the...

  1. 78 FR 70949 - Final Effect of Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Final Effect of Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure... notice concerning the final effect of the HHS decision to designate a class of employees from the...

  2. 78 FR 3897 - Final Effect of Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Final Effect of Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure... notice concerning the final effect of the HHS decision to designate a class of employees from the...

  3. 77 FR 9251 - Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-16

    ... designate a class of employees from the Linde Ceramics Plant in Tonawanda, New York, as an addition to the... addition to the SEC: All Atomic Weapons Employees who worked in any area at the Linde Ceramics Plant...

  4. Recycling of red muds with the extraction of metals and special additions to cement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zinoveev, D. V.; Diubanov, V. G.; Shutova, A. V.; Ziniaeva, M. V.

    2015-01-01

    The liquid-phase reduction of iron oxides from red mud is experimentally studied. It is shown that, in addition to a metal, a slag suitable for utilization in the construction industry can be produced as a result of pyrometallurgical processing of red mud. Portland cement is shown to be produced from this slag with mineral additions and a high-aluminate expansion addition to cement.

  5. 41 CFR 301-13.1 - What is the policy for paying additional travel expenses incurred by an employee with a special...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... paying additional travel expenses incurred by an employee with a special need? 301-13.1 Section 301-13.1... ALLOWANCES ALLOWABLE TRAVEL EXPENSES 13-TRAVEL OF AN EMPLOYEE WITH SPECIAL NEEDS § 301-13.1 What is the policy for paying additional travel expenses incurred by an employee with a special need? To...

  6. 41 CFR 301-13.1 - What is the policy for paying additional travel expenses incurred by an employee with a special...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... paying additional travel expenses incurred by an employee with a special need? 301-13.1 Section 301-13.1... ALLOWANCES ALLOWABLE TRAVEL EXPENSES 13-TRAVEL OF AN EMPLOYEE WITH SPECIAL NEEDS § 301-13.1 What is the policy for paying additional travel expenses incurred by an employee with a special need? To...

  7. Long-term stability of various drugs and metabolites in urine, and preventive measures against their decomposition with special attention to filtration sterilization.

    PubMed

    Zaitsu, Kei; Miki, Akihiro; Katagi, Munehiro; Tsuchihashi, Hitoshi

    2008-01-30

    The long-term stability of drugs and metabolites of forensic interest in urine, and preventive measures against their decomposition have been investigated, with special attention to filtration sterilization. An aseptic urine collection kit, which was recently developed based on filtration sterilization, was utilized for the aseptic collection and storage of urine samples. For evaluating preservation measures, methamphetamine (MA), amphetamine (AP), nitrazepam (NZ), estazolam (EZ), 7-aminoflunitrazepam (7AF), cocaine (COC), and 6-acetylmorphine (6AM) were spiked into urine at 500 ng/mL each, and were monitored for 6 months at 25, 4, and -20 degrees C, after the addition of NaN(3) and/or filtration sterilization using the aseptic collection kit. In severely contaminated urine with bacteria, there were significant losses of 7AF and NZ, and slight decomposition of MA and AP at 25 degrees C. However, such degradation was successfully suppressed by the use of the kit, though the use of the kit and NaN(3) were preferred for 7AF. The kit was also effective in preventing the hydrolyses of COC and 6AM, while it was suggested that the common preservative NaN(3) can accelerate the hydrolysis of such ester-type drugs and metabolites.

  8. 77 FR 9250 - Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-16

    ... designate a class of employees from the Savannah River Site in Aiken, South Carolina, as an addition to the... contractors and subcontractors who worked at the Savannah River Site from January 1, 1953, through...

  9. 77 FR 32640 - Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-01

    ... designate a class of employees from Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico, as an addition... their contractors and subcontractors who worked in any area at Sandia National Laboratories...

  10. 77 FR 32640 - Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-01

    ... designate a class of employees from the Clinton Engineer Works in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, as an addition to... Carbon Chemicals Corporation (1947-1949) who were employed at the Clinton Engineer Works in Oak...

  11. 76 FR 7852 - Final Effect of Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-11

    ...HHS gives notice concerning the final effect of the HHS decision to designate a class of employees from Simonds Saw and Steel Co., Lockport, New York, as an addition to the Special Exposure Cohort (SEC) under the Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation Program Act of 2000. On January 6, 2011, as provided for under 42 U.S.C. 7384q(b), the Secretary of HHS designated the following......

  12. 77 FR 38835 - Final Effect of Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-29

    ...HHS gives notice concerning the final effect of the HHS decision to designate a class of employees from the Brookhaven National Laboratory in Upton, New York, as an addition to the Special Exposure Cohort (SEC) under the Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation Program Act of 2000. On May 11, 2012, as provided for under 42 U.S.C. Sec. 7384q(b), the Secretary of HHS designated the......

  13. 75 FR 3470 - Final Effect of Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-21

    ...The Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) gives notice concerning the final effect of the HHS decision to designate a class of employees at the Brookhaven National Laboratory in Upton, New York, as an addition to the Special Exposure Cohort (SEC) under the Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation Program Act of 2000. On December 10, 2009, as provided for under 42 U.S.C.......

  14. 76 FR 7852 - Final Effect of Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-11

    ...HHS gives notice concerning the final effect of the HHS decision to designate a class of employees from Texas City Chemicals, Inc., Texas City, Texas, as an addition to the Special Exposure Cohort (SEC) under the Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation Program Act of 2000. On January 6, 2011, as provided for under 42 U.S.C. 7384q(b), the Secretary of HHS designated the following......

  15. 76 FR 72928 - Final Effect of Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-28

    ...HHS gives notice concerning the final effect of the HHS decision to designate a class of employees from Vitro Manufacturing in Canonsburg, Pennsylvania, as an addition to the Special Exposure Cohort (SEC) under the Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation Program Act of 2000. On October 18, 2011, as provided for under 42 U.S.C. 7384q(b), the Secretary of HHS designated the following......

  16. 77 FR 38835 - Final Effect of Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-29

    ...HHS gives notice concerning the final effect of the HHS decision to designate a class of employees from the Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico, as an addition to the Special Exposure Cohort (SEC) under the Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation Program Act of 2000. On May 11, 2012, as provided for under 42 U.S.C. 7384q(b), the Secretary of HHS designated the......

  17. 76 FR 59701 - Final Effect of Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-27

    ...HHS gives notice concerning the final effect of the HHS decision to designate a class of employees from the Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico, as an addition to the Special Exposure Cohort (SEC) under the Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation Program Act of 2000. On July 29, 2011, as provided for under 42 U.S.C. 7384q(b), the Secretary of HHS designated the......

  18. 75 FR 3470 - Final Effect of Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-21

    ...The Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) gives notice concerning the final effect of the HHS decision to designate a class of employees at the Metals and Controls Corp. in Attleboro, Massachusetts, as an addition to the Special Exposure Cohort (SEC) under the Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation Program Act of 2000. On December 10, 2009, as provided for under 42 U.S.C.......

  19. 77 FR 38835 - Final Effect of Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-29

    ...HHS gives notice concerning the final effect of the HHS decision to designate a class of employees from the Electro Metallurgical site in Niagara Falls, New York, as an addition to the Special Exposure Cohort (SEC) under the Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation Program Act of 2000. On May 11, 2012, as provided for under 42 U.S.C. 7384q(b), the Secretary of HHS designated the......

  20. 77 FR 5254 - Final Effect of Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-02

    ...HHS gives notice concerning the final effect of the HHS decision to designate a class of employees from the Pantex Plant in Amarillo, Texas, as an addition to the Special Exposure Cohort (SEC) under the Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation Program Act of 2000. On December 21, 2011, as provided for under 42 U.S.C. 7384q(b), the Secretary of HHS designated the following class of......

  1. 75 FR 3469 - Final Effect of Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-21

    ...The Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) gives notice concerning the final effect of the HHS decision to designate a class of employees at the Hanford site in Richland, Washington, as an addition to the Special Exposure Cohort (SEC) under the Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation Program Act of 2000. On December 10, 2009, as provided for under 42 U.S.C. 7384q(b), the......

  2. 75 FR 3469 - Final Effect of Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-21

    ...The Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) gives notice concerning the final effect of the HHS decision to designate a class of employees at the Piqua Organic Moderated Reactor site in Piqua, Ohio, as an addition to the Special Exposure Cohort (SEC) under the Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation Program Act of 2000. On December 10, 2009, as provided for under 42 U.S.C.......

  3. Independent Contributions of the Central Executive, Intelligence, and In-Class Attentive Behavior to Developmental Change in the Strategies Used to Solve Addition Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geary, David C.; Hoard, Mary K.; Nugent, Lara

    2012-01-01

    Children's (N = 275) use of retrieval, decomposition (e.g., 7 = 4+3 and thus 6+7 = 6+4+3), and counting to solve additional problems was longitudinally assessed from first grade to fourth grade, and intelligence, working memory, and in-class attentive behavior was assessed in one or several grades. The goal was to assess the relation between…

  4. Effect of the Corrective Reading Program for Special Needs Students with Learning Disabilities and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallory-Knight, Gwendolyn

    2013-01-01

    Implementing effective reading instruction is critical for schools. This study examined the effects of the Corrective Reading (CR) program on junior high students with learning disabilities (LD) and students with learning disabilities and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (LD/ADHD). The research questions were: What differences exist…

  5. Bias for the left visual field in rapid serial visual presentation: effects of additional salient cues suggest a critical role of attention.

    PubMed

    Śmigasiewicz, Kamila; Asanowicz, Dariusz; Westphal, Nicole; Verleger, Rolf

    2015-02-01

    Everyday experience suggests that people are equally aware of stimuli in both hemifields. However, when two streams of stimuli are rapidly presented left and right, the second target (T2) is better identified in the left hemifield than in the right hemifield. This left visual field (LVF) advantage may result from differences between hemifields in attracting attention. Therefore, we introduced a visual cue shortly before T2 onset to draw attention to one stream. Thus, to identify T2, attention was correctly positioned with valid cues but had to be redirected to the other stream with invalid ones. If the LVF advantage is caused by differences between hemifields in attracting attention, invalid cues should increase, and valid cues should reduce the LVF advantage as compared with neutral cues. This prediction was confirmed. ERP analysis revealed that cues evoked an early posterior negativity, confirming that attention was attracted by the cue. This negativity was earlier with cues in the LVF, which suggests that responses to salient events are faster in the right hemisphere than in the left hemisphere. Valid cues speeded up, and invalid cues delayed T2-evoked N2pc; in addition, valid cues enlarged T2-evoked P3. After N2pc, right-side T2 evoked more sustained contralateral negativity than left T2, least long-lasting after valid cues. Difficulties in identifying invalidly cued right T2 were reflected in prematurely ending P3 waveforms. Overall, these data provide evidence that the LVF advantage is because of different abilities of the hemispheres in shifting attention to relevant events in their contralateral hemifield.

  6. Facilitating Transition from High School and Special Education to Adult Life: Focus on Youth with Learning Disorders, Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, and Speech/Language Impairments.

    PubMed

    Ascherman, Lee I; Shaftel, Julia

    2017-04-01

    Youth with learning disorders, speech/language disorders, and/or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder may experience significant struggles during the transition from high school to postsecondary education and employment. These disorders often occur in combination or concurrently with behavioral and emotional difficulties. Incomplete evaluation may not fully identify the factors underlying academic and personal challenges. This article reviews these disorders, the role of special education law for transitional age youth in public schools, and the Americans with Disabilities Act in postsecondary educational and employment settings. The role of the child and adolescent psychiatrist and the importance of advocacy for these youth are presented.

  7. Is the emotional Stroop task a special case of mood induction? Evidence from sustained effects of attention under emotion.

    PubMed

    Ben-Haim, Moshe Shay; Mama, Yaniv; Icht, Michal; Algom, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Sustained effects of emotion are well known in everyday experience. Surprisingly, such effects are seldom recorded in laboratory studies of the emotional Stroop task, in which participants name the color of emotion and neutral words. Color performance is more sluggish with emotion words than with neutral words, the emotional Stroop effect (ESE). The ESE is not sensitive to the order in which the two groups of words are presented, so the effect of exposure to emotion words does not extend to disrupting performance in a subsequent block with neutral words. We attribute this absence of a sustained effect to habituation engendered by excessive repetition of the experimental stimuli. In a series of four experiments, we showed that sustained effects do occur when habituation is removed, and we also showed that the massive exposure to negative stimuli within the ESE paradigm induces a commensurately negative mood. A novel perspective is offered, in which the ESE is considered a special case of mood induction.

  8. 76 FR 68066 - Addition of the Cook Islands to the List of Nations Entitled to Special Tonnage Tax Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-03

    ... special tonnage taxes and light money in ports of the United States. This document amends the CBP... money. DATES: This amendment is effective November 3, 2011. The exemption from special tonnage taxes and light money [[Page 68067

  9. Drained peatlands used for extraction and agriculture: biogeochemical status with special attention to greenhouse gas fluxes and rewetting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirin, Andrey; Chistotin, Maxim; Suvorov, Gennady; Glagolev, Mikhail; Kravchenko, Irina; Minaeva, Tatiana

    2010-05-01

    Many peatlands previously drained for peat extraction or utilized for agriculture (directly or after partial cutoff) are left abandoned during last decades in Europe, and especially in its eastern part. In the European part of Russia alone, several million hectares of peatlands have been modified for peat extraction and agriculture by direct water level draw-down and nowadays are not under use by economic reasons. This makes up one of the most serious and urgent problems of wise use and management of peatlands in these regions with serious feedback to people, environment and economy (Quick Scan of Peatlands in Central and Eastern Europe, 2009). Drainage for agriculture leads to peat oxidation resulting in substantial emissions of greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide and sometimes nitrous oxide) to the atmosphere. Together with peat fires this is the most significant negative input of peatland degradation to climate change (Assessment on Peatlands Biodiversity and Climate Change, 2008; Peatlands and Climate Change, 2008). Besides that, dehydrated peatlands often release methane. Starting from 2003, the effect of drainage and subsequent utilization of peatlands on the emissions of carbon dioxide and methane was studied in Tomsk region (West Siberia) during the summer-fall periods (Glagolev et al. 2008). The measurements were conducted by chamber method at peatlands drained for use as croplands (now partly being fallows) and peat cutting (currently abandoned or reclaimed for forest planting, haying, or pasturing), as well as at a wide range of undrained oligotrophic, mesotrophic, and eutrophic mires and burnt mire areas of different regeneration stages. The statistical analysis of data from a large number of study sites indicated a higher release of carbon dioxide from disturbed peatlands compared to undrained ones. At the same time some drained peatlands had considerable methane emission rates, additionally enhanced by the intensive efflux from the surface of drainage

  10. An infant formula toxicity and toxicokinetic feeding study on carrageenan in preweaning piglets with special attention to the immune system and gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Weiner, M L; Ferguson, H E; Thorsrud, B A; Nelson, K G; Blakemore, W R; Zeigler, B; Cameron, M J; Brant, A; Cochrane, L; Pellerin, M; Mahadevan, B

    2015-03-01

    A toxicity/toxicokinetic swine-adapted infant formula feeding study was conducted in Domestic Yorkshire Crossbred Swine from lactation day 3 for 28 consecutive days during the preweaning period at carrageenan concentrations of 0, 300, 1000 and 2250 ppm under GLP guidelines. This study extends the observations in newborn baboons (McGill et al., 1977) to piglets and evaluates additional parameters: organ weights, clinical chemistry, special gastrointestinal tract stains (toluidine blue, Periodic Acid-Schiff), plasma levels of carrageenan; and evaluation of potential immune system effects. Using validated methods, immunophenotyping of blood cell types (lymphocytes, monocytes, B cells, helper T cells, cytotoxic T cells, mature T cells), sandwich immunoassays for blood cytokine evaluations (IL-6, IL-8, IL1β, TNF-α), and immunohistochemical staining of the gut for IL-8 and TNF-α were conducted. No treatment-related adverse effects at any carrageenan concentration were found on any parameter. Glucosuria in a few animals was not considered treatment-related. The high dose in this study, equivalent to ~430 mg/kg/day, provides an adequate margin of exposure for human infants, as affirmed by JECFA and supports the safe use of carrageenan for infants ages 0-12 weeks and older and infants with special medical needs.

  11. 77 FR 60438 - Final Effect of Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-03

    ... Winchester Engineering and Analytical Center Site, in Winchester, Massachusetts, as an addition to the... Analytical Center in Winchester, Massachusetts, from January 1, 1952, through December 31, 1961, for a...

  12. 76 FR 72928 - Final Effect of Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-28

    ... decision to designate a class of employees from the Y-12 facility in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, as an addition... facility in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, during the period from January 1, 1948 through December 31, 1957, for...

  13. 76 FR 33762 - Final Effect of Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-09

    ... decision to designate a class of employees from the Wah Chang facility, Albany, Oregon, as an addition to... who worked in any building at the Wah Chang facility in Albany, Oregon, for the operational...

  14. Development and Qualification of a Specialized Gas Turbine Test Stand to Research the Potential Benefits of Nanocatalyst Fuel Additives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-01

    71 ix LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1. Activation Energy Affect on Residence Time (from Davis...altered on a molecular level in order to achieve higher catalytic energies or increase operating ranges. The use of nanocatalysts as a means of...stored fuel. Anti- oxidants can also act to inhibit the formation of peroxide compounds. 3. Static dissipater additives reduce the effects of static

  15. 77 FR 60437 - Final Effect of Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-03

    ... Analysis and Support, NIOSH, 4676 Columbia Parkway, MS C-46, Cincinnati, OH 45226, Telephone 877-222-7570... 42 U.S.C. 7384q(b), the Secretary of HHS designated the following class of employees as an addition... effective on September 22, 2012, as provided for under 42 U.S.C. 7384l(14)(C). Hence, beginning on...

  16. 78 FR 21955 - Final Effect of Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-12

    ..., Division of Compensation Analysis and Support, NIOSH, 4676 Columbia Parkway, MS C-46, Cincinnati, OH 45226... U.S.C. 7384q(b), the Secretary of HHS designated the following class of employees as an addition to... Exposure Cohort. This designation became effective on April 5, 2013, as provided for under 42 U.S.C....

  17. Larval development of Lynceus brachyurus (Crustacea, Branchiopoda, Laevicaudata): redescription of unusual crustacean nauplii, with special attention to the molt between last nauplius and first juvenile.

    PubMed

    Olesen, Jørgen

    2005-05-01

    The larval development of "conchostracans" has received only scattered attention. Here I present the results of a study on the larval (naupliar) development and the metamorphosis of Lynceus brachyurus, a member of the bivalved branchiopod order the Laevicaudata. Lynceus brachyurus is the only species of the "Conchostraca" in Denmark. The phylogenetic position of the Laevicaudata has traditionally been a source of controversy, and this study does not solve the question completely. This work focuses on features potentially important for phylogeny. The general appearance of the larvae of L. brachyurus has been known for more than a century and a half, and some of its unique features include a large, larval dorsal shield; a huge, plate-like labrum; and a pair of immovable, horn-like antennules. However, many details relating to limb morphology, potentially important for phylogeny, have not been studied previously. Based on size categories, five or six larval stages can be recognized. The larvae approximately double their length and width during development (length: 230-520 microm). Most morphological features stay largely unchanged during development, but the antennal coxal masticatory spines are significant exceptions: they become bifid after one of the first molts. In all larval stages only the antennae and the mandibles actively move. In late naupliar stages the trunk limbs become visible as rows of laterally placed, undeveloped, and still immovable lobes. Swimming is performed by the antennae, whereas the mandibles appear to be involved mainly in feeding, as in other branchiopod larvae. The last naupliar stage undergoes a small metamorphosis to the first juvenile stage, the details of which in part were studied by following the premolt juvenile condition through the cuticle of the last stage nauplius. Among other changes there is a characteristic change in the shape and morphology of the univalved dorsal naupliar shield to a bivalved juvenile carapace. The general

  18. Special report. Upgrading security: hospitals opt for new equipment; new approaches; heavy investments in additional patient, employee protection.

    PubMed

    1994-07-01

    An increasing number of hospitals are taking steps to prevent the violence that plagues both urban and rural areas from spilling over into their emergency rooms and nursing units. Four facilities--Duke Medical University Center, Durham, NC; Children's Hospital, Columbus, OH; Ingalls Hospital, Harvey, IL; and University Medical Center, Las Vegas, NV--have recently installed new equipment or implemented innovative security procedures in an effort to better protect patients and employees. Although the price tag for additional protection is often high, officials at the hospitals agree that providing a safe environment is worth the investment.

  19. Mechanisms of attention

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Zhong-Lin

    2009-01-01

    Sensory physiologists and psychologists have recognized the importance of attention on human performance for more than 100 years. Since the 1970s, controlled and extensive experiments have examined effects of selective attention to a location in space or to an object. In addition to behavioral studies, cognitive neuroscientists have investigated the neural bases of attention. In this paper, I briefly review some classical attention paradigms, recent advances on the theory of attention, and some new insights from psychophysics and cognitive neuroscience. The focus is on the mechanisms of attention, that is, how attention improves human performance. Situations in which the perception of objects is unchanged, but performance may differ due to different decision structures, are distinguished from those in which attention changes the perceptual processes. The perceptual template model is introduced as a theoretical framework for analyzing mechanisms of attention. I also present empirical evidence for two attention mechanisms, stimulus enhancement and external noise exclusion, from psychophysics, neurophysiology and brain imaging. PMID:20523762

  20. RCRA special study on waste definitions: Sites that require additional consideration prior to NPL proposal under the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act. Directive

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-03-10

    The purposes of this memo are to discuss Sections 105(g) and 125 of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA) and, to the extent now possible, to outline the scope of these provisions by providing appropriate definitions. Both of these sections require that, until the Hazard Ranking System (HRS) is revised, the Agency evaluate additional data for sites at which 'special wastes,' as defined under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), are present in significant quantities before these sites are proposed for the NPL.

  1. WWC Review of the Report "Enhancing the Effectiveness of Special Education Programming for Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Using a Daily Report Card"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The study described in this report examined whether the use of "daily report cards" ("DRCs") in elementary school classrooms improved behavior and academic achievement among students diagnosed with combined inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and comorbid oppositional defiant…

  2. Timing divided attention.

    PubMed

    Hogendoorn, Hinze; Carlson, Thomas A; VanRullen, Rufin; Verstraten, Frans A J

    2010-11-01

    Visual attention can be divided over multiple objects or locations. However, there is no single theoretical framework within which the effects of dividing attention can be interpreted. In order to develop such a model, here we manipulated the stage of visual processing at which attention was divided, while simultaneously probing the costs of dividing attention on two dimensions. We show that dividing attention incurs dissociable time and precision costs, which depend on whether attention is divided during monitoring or during access. Dividing attention during monitoring resulted in progressively delayed access to attended locations as additional locations were monitored, as well as a one-off precision cost. When dividing attention during access, time costs were systematically lower at one of the accessed locations than at the other, indicating that divided attention during access, in fact, involves rapid sequential allocation of undivided attention. We propose a model in which divided attention is understood as the simultaneous parallel preparation and subsequent sequential execution of multiple shifts of undivided attention. This interpretation has the potential to bring together diverse findings from both the divided-attention and saccade preparation literature and provides a framework within which to integrate the broad spectrum of divided-attention methodologies.

  3. Hemispheric specialization in selective attention and short-term memory: a fine-coarse model of left- and right-ear disadvantages

    PubMed Central

    Marsh, John E.; Pilgrim, Lea K.; Sörqvist, Patrik

    2013-01-01

    Serial short-term memory is impaired by irrelevant sound, particularly when the sound changes acoustically. This acoustic effect is larger when the sound is presented to the left compared to the right ear (a left-ear disadvantage). Serial memory appears relatively insensitive to distraction from the semantic properties of a background sound. In contrast, short-term free recall of semantic-category exemplars is impaired by the semantic properties of background speech and is relatively insensitive to the sound's acoustic properties. This semantic effect is larger when the sound is presented to the right compared to the left ear (a right-ear disadvantage). In this paper, we outline a speculative neurocognitive fine-coarse model of these hemispheric differences in relation to short-term memory and selective attention, and explicate empirical directions in which this model can be critically evaluated. PMID:24399988

  4. Adjuvant radiotherapy for primary breast cancer in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers and risk of contralateral breast cancer with special attention to patients irradiated at younger age.

    PubMed

    Drooger, Jan; Akdeniz, Delal; Pignol, Jean-Philippe; Koppert, Linetta B; McCool, Danielle; Seynaeve, Caroline M; Hooning, Maartje J; Jager, Agnes

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the influence of adjuvant radiotherapy for primary breast cancer (BC) on the risk of contralateral BC (CBC) in BRCA1 or BRCA2 (BRCA1/2) mutation carriers, with special attention to patients irradiated at age younger than 40 years. Additionally, tendencies in locoregional treatments and rates of contralateral risk-reducing mastectomy over time were explored. In this retrospective cohort study, 691 BRCA1/2-associated BC patients treated between 1980 and 2013 were followed from diagnosis until CBC or censoring event including ipsilateral BC recurrence, distant metastasis, contralateral risk-reducing mastectomy, other invasive cancer diagnosis, death, or loss to follow up. Hazard ratios (HR) for CBC associated with radiotherapy were estimated using Cox regression. Median follow-up time was 8.6 years [range 0.3–34.3 years]. No association between radiotherapy for primary BC and risk of CBC was found, neither in the total population (HR 0.82, 95 % CI 0.45–1.49) nor in the subgroup of patients younger than 40 years at primary diagnosis (HR 1.36, 95 % CI 0.60–3.09). During follow-up, the number of patients at risk decreased substantially since a large proportion of patients were censored after contralateral risk-reducing mastectomy or BC recurrence. Over the years, increasing preference for mastectomy without radiotherapy compared to breast-conserving surgery with radiotherapy was found ranging from less than 30 % in 1995 to almost 50 % after 2010. The rate of contralateral risk-reducing mastectomy increased over the years from less than 40 % in 1995 to more than 60 % after 2010. In this cohort of BRCA1/2-associated BC patients, no association between radiotherapy for primary BC and risk of CBC was observed in the total group, nor in the patients irradiated before the age of 40 years. The number of patients at risk after 10 and 15 years of follow-up, however, was too small to definitively exclude harmful effects of adjuvant

  5. Effect of vitamin E supplementation on fatty acid composition of muscle and adipose tissues of indoor lambs with special attention on rumen-derived trans monounsaturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Berthelot, V; Broudiscou, L; Schmidely, P

    2014-03-01

    Thirty male lambs were assigned to one of 3 concentrate diets supplemented with 45 (E0), 286 (E1) or 551 (E2) mg/kg DM of dl-α-tocopheryl acetate to test the effect of vitamin E supplementation on muscle, caudal and perirenal fatty acid (FA) compositions. Specific attention was paid to C18:1 10t, usually observed in high proportions with high-starch or high-unsaturated FA diets. Vitamin E supplementation increased the α-tocopherol plasma concentrations of lambs. It did not modify lamb growth and slaughter parameters. Vitamin E supplementation did not modify FA composition in most tissues but it increased the C18:2 n-6/C18:3 n-3 ratio in muscle and adipose tissues of the E1 group compared to E0 and E2 groups. Vitamin E supplementation enhanced the C18:1 10t proportion in muscle and adipose tissues and it decreased the C18:2 9c,11t proportion in adipose tissues, especially in the E2 group. These changes may not be favourable for the nutritional value of lamb meat.

  6. Shifting Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingram, Jenni

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the shifts in attention and focus as one teacher introduces and explains an image that represents the processes involved in a numeric problem that his students have been working on. This paper takes a micro-analytic approach to examine how the focus of attention shifts through what the teacher and students do and say in the…

  7. Weekly working hours for Norwegian hospital doctors since 1994 with special attention to postgraduate training, work–home balance and the European Working Time Directive: a panel study

    PubMed Central

    Rosta, Judith; Aasland, Olaf G

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To examine the weekly working hours of Norwegian hospital doctors from 1994 to 2012 with special emphasis on the quality of postgraduate training and work–home balance, and in relation to the requirements of the European Working Time Directive (EWTD). Design Panel study based on postal questionnaires. Setting Norway. Participants Unbalanced cohort of 1300–1600 doctors in 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997, 2000, 2002, 2004, 2006, 2008, 2010 and 2012. Outcome measures Self-reported total weekly working hours and whether 45 weekly working hours are too short, sufficient, or too long to meet the quality requirements of obligatory postgraduate training for junior doctors. Results From 1994 to 2012, the number of weekly working hours was stable for senior (46–47 h) and junior (45–46 h) hospital doctors. In 2012, significantly more senior (27–35%) than junior (11–20%) doctors reported suboptimal work–home balance, defined as working more than 48 h a week. The majority perceived the present situation with an average of 45 h per week for juniors as sufficient for obligatory postgraduate specialist training, but doctors of higher age (OR 1.04, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.08), senior doctors (1.07, 1.04 to 1.11) and doctors working in surgical specialties (OR 1 vs laboratory medicine 0.03, 0.01 to 0.25, internal medicine 0.31, 0.17 to 0.58, psychiatry 0.12, 0.04 to 0.36, paediatrics 0.36, 0.12 to 1.07, anaesthesiology 0.08, 0.02 to 0.39, gynaecology 0.07, 0.01 to 0.56 and others 0.39, 0.04 to 3.56) were more likely to want the work-week to be longer. Conclusions The weekly working hours of Norwegian hospital doctors were always below the EWTD requirements. A significant growth of hospital doctor density over the past two decades, national regulations and cultural values might be important factors. Specialty differences in perception of sufficient training time may call for more flexibility in working time regulations. PMID:25311038

  8. Shared Attention.

    PubMed

    Shteynberg, Garriy

    2015-09-01

    Shared attention is extremely common. In stadiums, public squares, and private living rooms, people attend to the world with others. Humans do so across all sensory modalities-sharing the sights, sounds, tastes, smells, and textures of everyday life with one another. The potential for attending with others has grown considerably with the emergence of mass media technologies, which allow for the sharing of attention in the absence of physical co-presence. In the last several years, studies have begun to outline the conditions under which attending together is consequential for human memory, motivation, judgment, emotion, and behavior. Here, I advance a psychological theory of shared attention, defining its properties as a mental state and outlining its cognitive, affective, and behavioral consequences. I review empirical findings that are uniquely predicted by shared-attention theory and discuss the possibility of integrating shared-attention, social-facilitation, and social-loafing perspectives. Finally, I reflect on what shared-attention theory implies for living in the digital world.

  9. Comparison of moxidectin oral gel and ivermectin oral paste against a spectrum of internal parasites of ponies with special attention to encysted cyathostome larvae.

    PubMed

    Monahan, C M; Chapman, M R; Taylor, H W; French, D D; Klei, T R

    1996-06-01

    Two dosages of moxidectin oral gel were evaluated and compared to a therapeutic dose of ivermectin oral paste in the control of a spectrum of gastrointestinal parasites of ponies naturally infected in southern Louisiana or Mississippi. Thirty-two mixed-breed ponies ranging in age from one to 21 years were used in this controlled test. Eight weeks prior to the experiment, ponies grazing on contaminated pasture were moved to a paddock and fed a pelleted ration, thus reducing or eliminating the potential for additional infection and ensuring the existence of a population of encysted larvae. Ponies were then allocated to replicates of four animals based on values of fecal strongyle egg counts and percent strongyle larvae composition determined from Baermann sedimentations of fecal cultures. Members of replicates were allocated to one of four treatment groups: moxidectin oral gel administered at 300 micrograms kg-1 body weight, moxidectin oral gel at 400 micrograms kg-1, the oral gel vehicle as negative control, and ivermectin oral paste at 200 micrograms kg-1. Prior to treatment, ponies were confined in pairs to covered concrete runs by treatment group. Two weeks following treatment, necropsy examinations of all animals were performed. Parasites were recovered from the lumen of the stomach, the intestinal tract, the cranial mesenteric artery and its major branches, the peritoneal body wall and from pepsin digests of mucosal scrapings taken from the cecum and large colon. Encysted cyathostome larval burdens were also compared using mural transillumination of segments of the large colon for visualization of the encysted forms. Control ponies were not uniformly infected with the spectrum of parasites; however, moxidectin, at either dosage, compared favorably with ivermectin in the control of the adults of Strongylus vulgaris, Strongylus edentatus, Triodontophorus spp., Oesophagodontus robustus, Trichostrongylus axei, Oxyuris equi, Parascaris equorum, Habronema muscae, as

  10. Developing Effective Partnerships for Special Populations: The Challenge of Partnerships and Alliances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelps, L. Allen; Maddy-Bernstein, Carolyn

    1992-01-01

    Effective business-education partnerships can have the following benefits for special populations: additional resources in resource-poor areas, employment opportunities, increased personal attention, improved facilities, and better teacher morale. Partnerships should complement, not replace, existing educational programs. (SK)

  11. Attention Genes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Posner, Michael I.; Rothbart, Mary K.; Sheese, Brad E.

    2007-01-01

    A major problem for developmental science is understanding how the cognitive and emotional networks important in carrying out mental processes can be related to individual differences. The last five years have seen major advances in establishing links between alleles of specific genes and the neural networks underlying aspects of attention. These…

  12. Attention, Students, Today's Blue Light Special Is...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAchren, Jon

    2012-01-01

    Like many urban campuses, Virginia Commonwealth University (VCU) in Richmond, Virginia, has students living in private residences scattered throughout the local community. These students come and go from campus at all hours of the day and night. The safety of these students, and all other students, staff and visitors becomes a major priority for…

  13. Attentional orienting and executive control are affected by different types of meditation practice.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Min-Hui; Chou, Wei-Lun

    2016-11-01

    Several studies have demonstrated the beneficial effects of meditation on attention. The present study investigated the relationship between focused attention (FA) and open monitoring (OM) meditation skills and the various functions of attention. In Experiment 1, we executed the attention network test and compared the performance of experts on dandao meditation with that of ordinary people on this test. The results indicated that the experts specializing in OM meditation demonstrated greater attentional orienting ability compared with those specializing in FA meditation and the control group. In addition, both expert groups registered improvements in their executive control abilities compared with the control group. In Experiment 2, we trained beginners in FA meditation for 3months. The results showed that the experimental group exhibited significantly enhanced executive control ability. We infer that FA meditation skills promote executive control function and OM meditation skills promote both executive control and attentional orienting functions.

  14. How Administrators Can Help Novice Special Education Teachers Thrive: Induction Practices That Make a Difference. Induction Insights. Supporting Special Education Teachers-Administrators [AII-11

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center to Inform Policy and Practice in Special Education Professional Development, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Increasingly, principals play an important role in new special education teacher induction. Although novice special education teachers benefit from the same types of support and induction that their general education colleagues receive, certain aspects of their experience require additional attention. This Brief summarizes what principals can…

  15. Neurophysiological correlates of attention behavior in early infancy: Implications for emotion regulation during early childhood.

    PubMed

    Perry, Nicole B; Swingler, Margaret M; Calkins, Susan D; Bell, Martha Ann

    2016-02-01

    Current theoretical conceptualizations of regulatory development suggest that attention processes and emotion regulation processes share common neurophysiological underpinnings and behavioral antecedents such that emotion regulation abilities may build on early attentional skills. To further elucidate this proposed relationship, we tested whether early neurophysiological processes measured during an attention task in infancy predicted in-task attention behavior and whether infants' attention behavior was subsequently associated with their ability to regulate emotion during early childhood (N=388). Results indicated that greater electroencephalogram (EEG) power change (from baseline to task) at medial frontal locations (F3 and F4) during an attention task at 10months of age was associated with concurrent observed behavioral attention. Specifically, greater change in EEG power at the right frontal location (F4) was associated with more attention and greater EEG power at the left frontal location (F3) was associated with less attention, indicating a potential right hemisphere specialization for attention processes already present during the first year of life. In addition, after controlling for 5-month attention behavior, increased behavioral attention at 10months was negatively associated with children's observed frustration to emotional challenge at 3years of age. Finally, the indirect effects from 10-month EEG power change at F3 and F4 to 3-year emotion regulation via infants' 10-month behavioral attention were significant, suggesting that infants' attention behavior is one mechanism through which early neurophysiological activity is related to emotion regulation abilities during childhood.

  16. Polygenic inheritance of Tourette syndrome, stuttering, attention deficit hyperactivity, conduct, and oppositional defiant disorder: The additive and subtractive effect of the three dopaminergic genes - DRD2, D{beta}H, and DAT1

    SciTech Connect

    Comings, D.E.; Wu, S.; Chiu, C.; Ring, R.H.; Gade, R.; Ahn, C.; Dietz, G.; Muhleman, D.

    1996-05-31

    Polymorphisms of three different dopaminergic genes, dopamine D{sub 2} receptor (DRD2), dopamine {beta}-hydroxylase (D{beta}H), and dopamine transporter (DAT1), were examined in Tourette syndrome (TS) probands, their relatives, and controls. Each gene individually showed a significant correlation with various behavioral variables in these subjects. The additive and subtractive effects of the three genes were examined by genotyping all three genes in the same set of subjects. For 9 of 20 TS associated comorbid behaviors there was a significant linear association between the degree of loading for markers of three genes and the mean behavior scores. The behavior variables showing the significant associations were, in order, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), stuttering, oppositional defiant, tics, conduct, obsessive-compulsive, mania, alcohol abuse, and general anxiety - behaviors that constitute the most overt clinical aspects of TS. For 16 of the 20 behavior scores there was a linear progressive decrease in the mean score with progressively lesser loading for the three gene markers. These results suggest that TS, ADHD, stuttering, oppositional defiant and conduct disorder, and other behaviors associated with TS, are polygenic, due in part to these three dopaminergic genes, and that the genetics of other polygenic psychiatric disorders may be deciphered using this technique. 144 refs., 2 figs., 13 tabs.

  17. Cognitive Penetration and Attention

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Steven

    2017-01-01

    Zenon Pylyshyn argues that cognitively driven attentional effects do not amount to cognitive penetration of early vision because such effects occur either before or after early vision. Critics object that in fact such effects occur at all levels of perceptual processing. We argue that Pylyshyn’s claim is correct—but not for the reason he emphasizes. Even if his critics are correct that attentional effects are not external to early vision, these effects do not satisfy Pylyshyn’s requirements that the effects be direct and exhibit semantic coherence. In addition, we distinguish our defense from those found in recent work by Raftopoulos and by Firestone and Scholl, argue that attention should not be assimilated to expectation, and discuss alternative characterizations of cognitive penetrability, advocating a kind of pluralism. PMID:28275358

  18. Attentional networks in developmental dyscalculia

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Very little is known about attention deficits in developmental dyscalculia, hence, this study was designed to provide the missing information. We examined attention abilities of participants suffering from developmental dyscalculia using the attention networks test - interactions. This test was designed to examine three different attention networks--executive function, orienting and alerting--and the interactions between them. Methods Fourteen university students that were diagnosed as suffering from developmental dyscalculia--intelligence and reading abilities in the normal range and no indication of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder--and 14 matched controls were tested using the attention networks test - interactions. All participants were given preliminary tests to measure mathematical abilities, reading, attention and intelligence. Results The results revealed deficits in the alerting network--a larger alerting effect--and in the executive function networks--a larger congruity effect in developmental dyscalculia participants. The interaction between the alerting and executive function networks was also modulated by group. In addition, developmental dyscalculia participants were slower to respond in the non-cued conditions. Conclusions These results imply specific attentional deficits in pure developmental dyscalculia. Namely, those with developmental dyscalculia seem to be deficient in the executive function and alertness networks. They suffer from difficulty in recruiting attention, in addition to the deficits in numerical processing. PMID:20157427

  19. Replication Research and Special Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Travers, Jason C.; Cook, Bryan G.; Therrien, William J.; Coyne, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    Replicating previously reported empirical research is a necessary aspect of an evidence-based field of special education, but little formal investigation into the prevalence of replication research in the special education research literature has been conducted. Various factors may explain the lack of attention to replication of special education…

  20. Attention and other constructs: evolution or revolution?

    PubMed

    Koziol, Leonard F; Barker, Lauren A; Jansons, Laura

    2015-01-01

    This article provides a review of the construct of attention from a non-traditional standpoint. Attention is conceptualized by focusing on the categorical concept of the diagnosis of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, large-scale brain network models of functional neuroanatomy, and implications for understanding lateralized hemispheric brain organization. Cortical systems are multifunctional, with certain degrees of specialization, but no cortical region or network supports only one, specific, isolated cognitive process, such as attention. Future implications for clinical practice must focus on connectivity patterns rather than the idea of "domains" or "constructs" when considering attention and other cognitive processes. This has significant implications for the future of neuropsychological assessment and intervention.

  1. Brain activity associated with selective attention, divided attention and distraction.

    PubMed

    Salo, Emma; Salmela, Viljami; Salmi, Juha; Numminen, Jussi; Alho, Kimmo

    2017-03-28

    Top-down controlled selective or divided attention to sounds and visual objects, as well as bottom-up triggered attention to auditory and visual distractors, has been widely investigated. However, no study has systematically compared brain activations related to all these types of attention. To this end, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure brain activity in participants performing a tone pitch or a foveal grating orientation discrimination task, or both, distracted by novel sounds not sharing frequencies with the tones or by extrafoveal visual textures. To force focusing of attention to tones or gratings, or both, task difficulty was kept constantly high with an adaptive staircase method. A whole brain analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed fronto-parietal attention networks for both selective auditory and visual attention. A subsequent conjunction analysis indicated partial overlaps of these networks. However, like some previous studies, the present results also suggest segregation of prefrontal areas involved in the control of auditory and visual attention. The ANOVA also suggested, and another conjunction analysis confirmed, an additional activity enhancement in the left middle frontal gyrus related to divided attention supporting the role of this area in top-down integration of dual task performance. Distractors expectedly disrupted task performance. However, contrary to our expectations, activations specifically related to the distractors were found only in the auditory and visual cortices. This suggests gating of the distractors from further processing perhaps due to strictly focused attention in the current demanding discrimination tasks.

  2. 34 CFR 300.606 - Public attention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Public attention. 300.606 Section 300.606 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND..., and Enforcement § 300.606 Public attention. Whenever a State receives notice that the Secretary...

  3. Taking Control of Reflexive Social Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ristic, Jelena; Kingstone, Alan

    2005-01-01

    Attention is shifted reflexively to where other people are looking. It has been argued by a number of investigators that this social attention effect reflects the obligatory bottom-up activation of domain-specific modules within the inferior temporal (IT) cortex that are specialized for processing face and gaze information. However, it is also the…

  4. The Conundrum of Attention Deficit Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erk, Robert R.

    1995-01-01

    Broadly examines diagnostic category of attention deficit disorder (ADD), which affects individuals from childhood to or through adult life, with special attention to cases in which predominant characteristic seems to be inattentiveness. To work with individuals with ADD, counselors need to understand nomenclature, etiology, unique symptoms, and…

  5. The Attention Cascade Model and Attentional Blink

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, Shui-I

    2008-01-01

    An attention cascade model is proposed to account for attentional blinks in rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) of stimuli. Data were collected using single characters in a single RSVP stream at 10 Hz [Shih, S., & Reeves, A. (2007). "Attentional capture in rapid serial visual presentation." "Spatial Vision", 20(4), 301-315], and single words,…

  6. Attention to natural auditory signals.

    PubMed

    Caporello Bluvas, Emily; Gentner, Timothy Q

    2013-11-01

    The challenge of understanding how the brain processes natural signals is compounded by the fact that such signals are often tied closely to specific natural behaviors and natural environments. This added complexity is especially true for auditory communication signals that can carry information at multiple hierarchical levels, and often occur in the context of other competing communication signals. Selective attention provides a mechanism to focus processing resources on specific components of auditory signals, and simultaneously suppress responses to unwanted signals or noise. Although selective auditory attention has been well-studied behaviorally, very little is known about how selective auditory attention shapes the processing on natural auditory signals, and how the mechanisms of auditory attention are implemented in single neurons or neural circuits. Here we review the role of selective attention in modulating auditory responses to complex natural stimuli in humans. We then suggest how the current understanding can be applied to the study of selective auditory attention in the context natural signal processing at the level of single neurons and populations in animal models amenable to invasive neuroscience techniques. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Communication Sounds and the Brain: New Directions and Perspectives".

  7. Special Days, Special Ways.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Jacqueline

    2001-01-01

    Presents unique ways to create special rituals that recognize individual students' achievements and milestones. Ideas include throwing a send-off party for a student who is moving; holding monthly birthday luncheons; choosing an ambassador to accompany new students around school; and making a lost tooth container that students can use to safely…

  8. Dissociations between developmental dyslexias and attention deficits

    PubMed Central

    Lukov, Limor; Friedmann, Naama; Shalev, Lilach; Khentov-Kraus, Lilach; Shalev, Nir; Lorber, Rakefet; Guggenheim, Revital

    2014-01-01

    We examine whether attention deficits underlie developmental dyslexia, or certain types of dyslexia, by presenting double dissociations between the two. We took into account the existence of distinct types of dyslexia and of attention deficits, and focused on dyslexias that may be thought to have an attentional basis: letter position dyslexia (LPD), in which letters migrate within words, attentional dyslexia (AD), in which letters migrate between words, neglect dyslexia, in which letters on one side of the word are omitted or substituted, and surface dyslexia, in which words are read via the sublexical route. We tested 110 children and adults with developmental dyslexia and/or attention deficits, using extensive batteries of reading and attention. For each participant, the existence of dyslexia and the dyslexia type were tested using reading tests that included stimuli sensitive to the various dyslexia types. Attention deficit and its type was established through attention tasks assessing sustained, selective, orienting, and executive attention functioning. Using this procedure, we identified 55 participants who showed a double dissociation between reading and attention: 28 had dyslexia with normal attention and 27 had attention deficits with normal reading. Importantly, each dyslexia with suspected attentional basis dissociated from attention: we found 21 individuals with LPD, 13 AD, 2 neglect dyslexia, and 12 surface dyslexia without attention deficits. Other dyslexia types (vowel dyslexia, phonological dyslexia, visual dyslexia) also dissociated from attention deficits. Examination of 55 additional individuals with both a specific dyslexia and a certain attention deficit found no attention function that was consistently linked with any dyslexia type. Specifically, LPD and AD dissociated from selective attention, neglect dyslexia dissociated from orienting, and surface dyslexia dissociated from sustained and executive attention. These results indicate that

  9. Dissociations between developmental dyslexias and attention deficits.

    PubMed

    Lukov, Limor; Friedmann, Naama; Shalev, Lilach; Khentov-Kraus, Lilach; Shalev, Nir; Lorber, Rakefet; Guggenheim, Revital

    2014-01-01

    We examine whether attention deficits underlie developmental dyslexia, or certain types of dyslexia, by presenting double dissociations between the two. We took into account the existence of distinct types of dyslexia and of attention deficits, and focused on dyslexias that may be thought to have an attentional basis: letter position dyslexia (LPD), in which letters migrate within words, attentional dyslexia (AD), in which letters migrate between words, neglect dyslexia, in which letters on one side of the word are omitted or substituted, and surface dyslexia, in which words are read via the sublexical route. We tested 110 children and adults with developmental dyslexia and/or attention deficits, using extensive batteries of reading and attention. For each participant, the existence of dyslexia and the dyslexia type were tested using reading tests that included stimuli sensitive to the various dyslexia types. Attention deficit and its type was established through attention tasks assessing sustained, selective, orienting, and executive attention functioning. Using this procedure, we identified 55 participants who showed a double dissociation between reading and attention: 28 had dyslexia with normal attention and 27 had attention deficits with normal reading. Importantly, each dyslexia with suspected attentional basis dissociated from attention: we found 21 individuals with LPD, 13 AD, 2 neglect dyslexia, and 12 surface dyslexia without attention deficits. Other dyslexia types (vowel dyslexia, phonological dyslexia, visual dyslexia) also dissociated from attention deficits. Examination of 55 additional individuals with both a specific dyslexia and a certain attention deficit found no attention function that was consistently linked with any dyslexia type. Specifically, LPD and AD dissociated from selective attention, neglect dyslexia dissociated from orienting, and surface dyslexia dissociated from sustained and executive attention. These results indicate that

  10. Attentional Spreading in Object-Based Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richard, Ashleigh M.; Lee, Hyunkyu; Vecera, Shaun P.

    2008-01-01

    The authors investigated 2 effects of object-based attention: the spread of attention within an attended object and the prioritization of search across possible target locations within an attended object. Participants performed a flanker task in which the location of the task-relevant target was fixed and known to participants. A spreading…

  11. Adaptive allocation of attentional gain.

    PubMed

    Scolari, Miranda; Serences, John T

    2009-09-23

    Humans are adept at distinguishing between stimuli that are very similar, an ability that is particularly crucial when the outcome is of serious consequence (e.g., for a surgeon or air-traffic controller). Traditionally, selective attention was thought to facilitate perception by increasing the gain of sensory neurons tuned to the defining features of a behaviorally relevant object (e.g., color, orientation, etc.). In contrast, recent mathematical models counterintuitively suggest that, in many cases, attentional gain should be applied to neurons that are tuned away from relevant features, especially when discriminating highly similar stimuli. Here we used psychophysical methods to critically evaluate these "ideal observer" models. The data demonstrate that attention enhances the gain of the most informative sensory neurons, even when these neurons are tuned away from the behaviorally relevant target feature. Moreover, the degree to which an individual adopted optimal attentional gain settings by the end of testing predicted success rates on a difficult visual discrimination task, as well as the amount of task improvement that occurred across repeated testing sessions (learning). Contrary to most traditional accounts, these observations suggest that the primary function of attentional gain is not to enhance the representation of target features per se, but instead to optimize performance on the current perceptual task. Additionally, individual differences in gain suggest that the operating characteristics of low-level attentional phenomena are not stable trait-like attributes and that variability in how attention is deployed may play an important role in determining perceptual abilities.

  12. [Investigation of the Campaign of"Eliminating the Four Pests and Paying Attention to Hygiene"in Shanxi province in the 1950s, with special reference to technological innovation].

    PubMed

    Wu, X Y

    2016-07-28

    In order to improve the level of people's living and health standard, increase the output of cereal crops, achieve the country's economic recovery and development, and consolidate the new state power, a Campaign of"Eliminating the Four Pests and Paying Attention to Hygiene"in the field of health was launched by the Central Government in the 1950s. In response to the call of government, Shanxi province actively organized the people to participate in this Campaign. For improving the efficiency of Eliminating the Four Pests, people widely carried out technological innovation, with constant creation and invented advanced tools, and gained fruitful technological achievements. Through technological innovation, the working efficiency and quality were enhanced. More importantly, the interaction between the national and local authorities was promoted. In other words, there was a formation of national political domination and power over the local authority, as well as the"owner"awareness and the formation of the state conception.

  13. [Current status of prevention and therapy of urinary calculi and peroral chemo-litholysis with special attention to the relationship of increased excretion of uric acid in oxalate lithiasis].

    PubMed

    Leskovar, P

    1980-03-01

    A survey shall be given of the present state of prevention and therapy of urolithiasis as well as of the up to now much restricted possibilities of the chemolitholysis. Particular attention is paid to calcium on account of its participation in the development of oxalate and phosphate calculi which together might be 70--80% of all calculi as well as to the rather limited possibilities of the reduction of the oxalate secretion in the urine. The encouragement of the oxalate lithiasis by increased uric acid in the urine as well as the reduction of the frequency of relapses not only of the concrements of the uric acid but also of the oxalate concrements by the uricostatic Allopurinol (e.g. zyloric) is dealt with.

  14. Perception of ensemble statistics requires attention.

    PubMed

    Jackson-Nielsen, Molly; Cohen, Michael A; Pitts, Michael A

    2017-02-01

    To overcome inherent limitations in perceptual bandwidth, many aspects of the visual world are represented as summary statistics (e.g., average size, orientation, or density of objects). Here, we investigated the relationship between summary (ensemble) statistics and visual attention. Recently, it was claimed that one ensemble statistic in particular, color diversity, can be perceived without focal attention. However, a broader debate exists over the attentional requirements of conscious perception, and it is possible that some form of attention is necessary for ensemble perception. To test this idea, we employed a modified inattentional blindness paradigm and found that multiple types of summary statistics (color and size) often go unnoticed without attention. In addition, we found attentional costs in dual-task situations, further implicating a role for attention in statistical perception. Overall, we conclude that while visual ensembles may be processed efficiently, some amount of attention is necessary for conscious perception of ensemble statistics.

  15. Training Visual Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulholland, Thomas B.

    1974-01-01

    The effects of brain waves and alpha rhythms on attentiveness to visual stimuli are discussed, and preliminary research findings and research needs are considered in connection with measuring and training for attention. (LH)

  16. Attentional Processes in Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Gerald; Johnson, Cynthia R.; Minshew, Nancy J.

    2001-01-01

    Attention processes in 103 children and adults with high functioning autism were compared with a matched control group using a battery of attention measures. Differences were found only on tasks which placed demands on cognitive flexibility or psychomotor speed, suggesting that purported attention deficits in autism may actually be primary…

  17. Children's Attention to Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Daniel R.

    This paper summarizes a series of studies investigating the nature of children's attention to television. In a study of distraction, children's visual attention was found to be affected by distractions in the environment, by the nature of the program and by the viewer's own patterns of attending. A study of the general patterns of attention to…

  18. Diagnostic and therapeutic ionizing radiation and the risk of a first and second primary breast cancer, with special attention for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers: a critical review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Drooger, Jan C; Hooning, Maartje J; Seynaeve, Caroline M; Baaijens, Margreet H A; Obdeijn, Inge Marie; Sleijfer, Stefan; Jager, Agnes

    2015-02-01

    Occurrence of breast cancer is a well-known long-term side effect of ionizing radiation (both diagnostic and therapeutic). The radiation-induced breast cancer risk increases with longer follow-up, higher radiation dose and younger age of exposure. The risk for breast cancer following irradiation for lymphomas is well known. Although data regarding the carcinogenic risk of adjuvant radiotherapy for a primary breast cancer are sparse, an increased risk is suggested with longer follow-up mainly when exposed at younger age. Particularly, patients with a BRCA1/2 mutation might be more sensitive for the deleterious effects of ionizing radiation due to an impaired capacity of repairing double strand DNA breaks. This might have consequences for the use of mammography in breast cancer screening, as well as the choice between breast conserving therapy including radiotherapy and mastectomy at primary breast cancer diagnosis in young BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. Good data regarding this topic, however, are scarce, mainly due to constraints in the design of performed studies. In this review, we will discuss the current literature on the association between ionizing radiation and developing breast cancer, with particular attention to patients with a BRCA1/2 mutation.

  19. [Dimensional changes in die stones with an additive and sodium chloride].

    PubMed

    di Girolamo Netto, J A; Oda, M; Matson, E

    1989-01-01

    The obtention of a working model and the preparation of the die must be developed with great care and attention to detail. Based on these principles, a study was conducted referring to the different kinds of special plasters or die plasters available on the market, with respect to dimensional alterations, as well as an investigation of the dimensional behavior of special plasters in the presence of two additives. The results shows that Vel-mix had the greatest difference. All the special plasters brands showed alterations when the Gypsum Hardener were used. These alterations did not occur with sodium chloride.

  20. Plant intelligence and attention

    PubMed Central

    Marder, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This article applies the phenomenological model of attention to plant monitoring of environmental stimuli and signal perception. Three complementary definitions of attention as selectivity, modulation and perdurance are explained with reference to plant signaling and behaviors, including foraging, ramet placement and abiotic stress communication. Elements of animal and human attentive attitudes are compared with plant attention at the levels of cognitive focus, context and margin. It is argued that the concept of attention holds the potential of becoming a cornerstone of plant intelligence studies. PMID:23425923

  1. Plant intelligence and attention.

    PubMed

    Marder, Michael

    2013-05-01

    This article applies the phenomenological model of attention to plant monitoring of environmental stimuli and signal perception. Three complementary definitions of attention as selectivity, modulation and perdurance are explained with reference to plant signaling and behaviors, including foraging, ramet placement and abiotic stress communication. Elements of animal and human attentive attitudes are compared with plant attention at the levels of cognitive focus, context and margin. It is argued that the concept of attention holds the potential of becoming a cornerstone of plant intelligence studies.

  2. Attention competition with advertisement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cetin, Uzay; Bingol, Haluk O.

    2014-09-01

    In the new digital age, information is available in large quantities. Since information consumes primarily the attention of its recipients, the scarcity of attention is becoming the main limiting factor. In this study, we investigate the impact of advertisement pressure on a cultural market where consumers have a limited attention capacity. A model of competition for attention is developed and investigated analytically and by simulation. Advertisement is found to be much more effective when the attention capacity of agents is extremely scarce. We have observed that the market share of the advertised item improves if dummy items are introduced to the market while the strength of the advertisement is kept constant.

  3. Attention competition with advertisement.

    PubMed

    Cetin, Uzay; Bingol, Haluk O

    2014-09-01

    In the new digital age, information is available in large quantities. Since information consumes primarily the attention of its recipients, the scarcity of attention is becoming the main limiting factor. In this study, we investigate the impact of advertisement pressure on a cultural market where consumers have a limited attention capacity. A model of competition for attention is developed and investigated analytically and by simulation. Advertisement is found to be much more effective when the attention capacity of agents is extremely scarce. We have observed that the market share of the advertised item improves if dummy items are introduced to the market while the strength of the advertisement is kept constant.

  4. Attention Alters Perceived Attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Störmer, Viola S; Alvarez, George A

    2016-04-01

    Can attention alter the impression of a face? Previous studies showed that attention modulates the appearance of lower-level visual features. For instance, attention can make a simple stimulus appear to have higher contrast than it actually does. We tested whether attention can also alter the perception of a higher-order property-namely, facial attractiveness. We asked participants to judge the relative attractiveness of two faces after summoning their attention to one of the faces using a briefly presented visual cue. Across trials, participants judged the attended face to be more attractive than the same face when it was unattended. This effect was not due to decision or response biases, but rather was due to changes in perceptual processing of the faces. These results show that attention alters perceived facial attractiveness, and broadly demonstrate that attention can influence higher-level perception and may affect people's initial impressions of one another.

  5. Inclusive and Exclusive Aspects of Diagnosed Children's Self-Concepts in Special Needs Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skovlund, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Eight children between 7 and 11 years of age were interviewed about their understanding of their own diagnoses. The diagnoses in question were attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, autism and nonverbal learning disorder. They were from different special schools that are segregated from state schools. In addition to the interviews, a role play…

  6. Top-down controlled and bottom-up triggered orienting of auditory attention to pitch activate overlapping brain networks.

    PubMed

    Alho, Kimmo; Salmi, Juha; Koistinen, Sonja; Salonen, Oili; Rinne, Teemu

    2015-11-11

    A number of previous studies have suggested segregated networks of brain areas for top-down controlled and bottom-up triggered orienting of visual attention. However, the corresponding networks involved in auditory attention remain less studied. Our participants attended selectively to a tone stream with either a lower pitch or higher pitch in order to respond to infrequent changes in duration of attended tones. The participants were also required to shift their attention from one stream to the other when guided by a visual arrow cue. In addition to these top-down controlled cued attention shifts, infrequent task-irrelevant louder tones occurred in both streams to trigger attention in a bottom-up manner. Both cued shifts and louder tones were associated with enhanced activity in the superior temporal gyrus and sulcus, temporo-parietal junction, superior parietal lobule, inferior and middle frontal gyri, frontal eye field, supplementary motor area, and anterior cingulate gyrus. Thus, the present findings suggest that in the auditory modality, unlike in vision, top-down controlled and bottom-up triggered attention activate largely the same cortical networks. Comparison of the present results with our previous results from a similar experiment on spatial auditory attention suggests that fronto-parietal networks of attention to location or pitch overlap substantially. However, the auditory areas in the anterior superior temporal cortex might have a more important role in attention to the pitch than location of sounds. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Prediction and Attention.

  7. Food additives

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857

  8. Attention Deficit Disorder: Identification and Assessment Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zarski, John J.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Examined validity of Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Canter Background Interference Procedure for the Bender Visual-Motor Gestalt Test, Conners Parent Questionnaire, and three measures of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised for identifying attention deficit disorders. Compared test results among clinical, special education, and…

  9. Attention Deficit Disorder and the Principal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Essex, Nathan L.; Schifani, John

    1992-01-01

    Until recently, children with Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) were often placed in special education classrooms. The critical challenge for administrators is ensuring that ADD children are correctly identified and appropriately educated. To avoid lawsuits, principals must lead the development of appropriate policies, procedures, and strategies to…

  10. Attention Deficit Disorder: What Parents Should Know.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chesapeake Inst., Washington, DC.

    This paper outlines practical information on children with attention deficit disorder (ADD). Guidelines for identifying ADD are presented, followed by a summary of what parents and students can expect from special education and related services in public schools. Pros and cons of medication are noted, and recommendations for managing the child's…

  11. Attention Deficit Disorder: Issues and Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lerner, Janet W.; Lerner, Sue R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper examines the family of disorders referred to as attention deficit disorders (ADD). It addresses the topics of special education legislation; the history of ADD; associated conditions (learning disabilities, behavior/emotional disorders, and other health impairments); assessment; treatment (medical and educational, family counseling, and…

  12. Motivation sharpens exogenous spatial attention.

    PubMed

    Engelmann, Jan B; Pessoa, Luiz

    2007-08-01

    Although both attention and motivation affect behavior, how these 2 systems interact is currently unknown. To address this question, 2 experiments were conducted in which participants performed a spatially cued forced-choice localization task under varying levels of motivation. Participants were asked to indicate the location of a peripherally cued target while ignoring a distracter. Motivation was manipulated by varying magnitude and valence (reward and punishment) of an incentive linked to task performance. Attention was manipulated via a peripheral cue, which correctly predicted the presence of a target stimulus on 70% of the trials. Taken together, our findings revealed that the signal detection measure, reflecting perceptual sensitivity, increased as a function of incentive value during both valid and invalid trials. In addition, trend analyses revealed a linear increase in detection sensitivity as a function of incentive magnitude for both reward and punishment conditions. Our results suggest that elevated motivation leads to improved efficiency in orienting and reorienting of exogenous spatial attention and that one mechanism by which attention and motivation interact involves the sharpening of attention during motivationally salient conditions.

  13. Neural Mechanisms of Attention

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-05-21

    315-335). : Elsevier Science Publishers BV. Andrew, R.J. (1991). Testosterone, attention and memory. In P. Bateson (Ed.),The development and...reflects global stimulus properties. Nature, M,334-337. Gregory , S. D., Heath, J. A., & Rosenberg, M. E. (1989). Does selective attention influence...properties. Nature, 338,334-337. Gregory , S. D., Heath, J. A., & Rosenberg, M. E. (1989). Does selective attention influence the brain-stem auditory evoked

  14. Personality and Selective Attention.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-03-28

    hyperactivity in children (Rosenthal & Allen, 1978) to impotence (Geer & Fuhr, 1976). Deficits in attention have been shown to be important in the...PERSONALITY AND SELECTIVE ATTENTION .(U) MAR 80 S L NIELSEN. 1 G SARASON N000lN-75-C-0905 UNCLASSIFIED SCS-LS-010 NL Llhhhhhhhhhlm 11111 . , L28...selective attentio . However, the theorizing of some cognitive psychologists as well as r ent research in selective attention , though particularly

  15. Desperately Seeking Special Ed Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Kevin

    2008-01-01

    It's no secret that the dearth of special education teachers has created huge headaches for district human resources departments, especially in suburban and rural areas. In addition to insufficient numbers of candidates applying for special education jobs, retention of special education teachers is an ever-greater problem, as research indicates…

  16. Attentional Engagement Deficits in Dyslexic Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruffino, Milena; Trussardi, Anna Noemi; Gori, Simone; Finzi, Alessandra; Giovagnoli, Sara; Menghini, Deny; Benassi, Mariagrazia; Molteni, Massimo; Bolzani, Roberto; Vicari, Stefano; Facoetti, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    Reading acquisition requires, in addition to appropriate phonological abilities, accurate and rapid selection of sublexical orthographic units by attentional letter string parsing. Spatio-temporal distribution of attentional engagement onto 3-pseudoletter strings was studied in 28 dyslexic and 55 normally reading children by measuring attentional…

  17. The 5S rDNA gene family in mollusks: characterization of transcriptional regulatory regions, prediction of secondary structures, and long-term evolution, with special attention to Mytilidae mussels.

    PubMed

    Vizoso, Miguel; Vierna, Joaquín; González-Tizón, Ana M; Martínez-Lage, Andrés

    2011-01-01

    Several reports on the characterization of 5S ribosomal DNA (5S rDNA) in various animal groups have been published to date, but there is a lack of studies analyzing this gene family in a much broader context. Here, we have studied 5S rDNA variation in several molluskan species, including bivalves, gastropods, and cephalopods. The degree of conservation of transcriptional regulatory regions was analyzed in these lineages, revealing a conserved TATA-like box in the upstream region. The evolution of the 120 bp coding region (5S) was also studied, suggesting the occurrence of paralogue groups in razor clams, clams, and cockles. In addition, 5S rDNA sequences from 11 species and 7 genus of Mytilidae Rafinesque, 1815 mussels were sampled and studied in detail. Four different 5S rDNA types, based on the nontranscribed spacer region were identified. The phylogenetic analyses performed within each type showed a between-species gene clustering pattern, suggesting ancestral polymorphism. Moreover, some putative pseudogenized 5S copies were also identified. Our report, together with previous studies that found high degree of intragenomic divergence in bivalve species, suggests that birth-and-death evolution may be the main force driving the evolution of 5S rDNA in these animals, even at the genus level.

  18. Attention and Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Michael; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    1981-01-01

    The authors discuss methodological and theoretical issues in psychological investigations of infant attention, fixation times, habituation, and intelligence. A consensus on how to measure individual differences in habituation has not been reached. The relation between IQ and attention is discussed. (RD)

  19. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durbin, Karen

    1993-01-01

    This brief paper summarizes information on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). First it identifies eight common characteristics of this disorder: (1) inattentiveness and distractibility, (2) impulsiveness, (3) hyperactivity, (4) attention-demanding behavior, (5) learning difficulties, (6) coordination difficulties, (7) unacceptable…

  20. Embodied Infant Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Steven S.; Johnson, Sarah L.

    2009-01-01

    Does real time coupling between mental and physical activity early in development have functional significance? To address this question, we examined the habituation of visual attention and the subsequent response to change in two groups of 3-month-olds with different patterns of movement-attention coupling. In suppressors, the typical decrease in…

  1. Contingent Attentional Capture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remington, Roger; Folk, Charles L.

    1994-01-01

    Four experiments address the degree of top-down selectivity in attention capture by feature singletons through manipulations of the spatial relationship and featural similarity of target and distractor singletons in a modified spatial cuing paradigm. Contrary to previous studies, all four experiments show that when searching for a singleton target, an irrelevant featural singleton captures attention only when defined by the same feature value as the target. Experiments 2, 3, and 4 provide a potential explanation for this empirical discrepancy by showing that irrelevant singletons can produce distraction effects that are independent of shifts of spatial attention. The results further support the notion that attentional capture is contingent on top-down attention control settings but indicates that such settings can be instantiated at the level of feature values.

  2. Fixing our focus: Training attention to regulate emotion

    PubMed Central

    Wadlinger, Heather A.; Isaacowitz, Derek M.

    2010-01-01

    Empirical studies have frequently linked negative attentional biases with attentional dysfunction and negative moods; however, far less research has focused on how attentional deployment can be an adaptive strategy that regulates emotional experience. We argue that attention may be an invaluable tool for promoting emotion regulation. Accordingly, we present evidence that selective attention to positive information reflects emotion regulation, and that regulating attention is a critical component of the emotion regulatory process. Furthermore, attentional regulation can be successfully trained through repeated practice. We ultimately propose a model of attention training methodologies integrating attention-dependent emotion regulation strategies with attention networks. While additional interdisciplinary research is needed to bolster these nascent findings, meditative practices appear to be among the most effective training methodologies in enhancing emotional well-being. Further exploration of the positive and therapeutic qualities of attention warrants the empirical attention of social and personality psychologists. PMID:20435804

  3. Attentional bias modification facilitates attentional control mechanisms: evidence from eye tracking.

    PubMed

    Chen, Nigel T M; Clarke, Patrick J F; Watson, Tamara L; MacLeod, Colin; Guastella, Adam J

    2015-01-01

    Social anxiety is thought to be maintained by biased attentional processing towards threatening information. Research has further shown that the experimental attenuation of this bias, through the implementation of attentional bias modification (ABM), may serve to reduce social anxiety vulnerability. However, the mechanisms underlying ABM remain unclear. The present study examined whether inhibitory attentional control was associated with ABM. A non-clinical sample of participants was randomly assigned to receive either ABM or a placebo task. To assess pre-post changes in attentional control, participants were additionally administered an emotional antisaccade task. ABM participants exhibited a subsequent shift in attentional bias away from threat as expected. ABM participants further showed a subsequent decrease in antisaccade cost, indicating a general facilitation of inhibitory attentional control. Mediational analysis revealed that the shift in attentional bias following ABM was independent to the change in attentional control. The findings suggest that the mechanisms of ABM are multifaceted.

  4. Specialized Science

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Ferric C.

    2014-01-01

    As the body of scientific knowledge in a discipline increases, there is pressure for specialization. Fields spawn subfields that then become entities in themselves that promote further specialization. The process by which scientists join specialized groups has remarkable similarities to the guild system of the middle ages. The advantages of specialization of science include efficiency, the establishment of normative standards, and the potential for greater rigor in experimental research. However, specialization also carries risks of monopoly, monotony, and isolation. The current tendency to judge scientific work by the impact factor of the journal in which it is published may have roots in overspecialization, as scientists are less able to critically evaluate work outside their field than before. Scientists in particular define themselves through group identity and adopt practices that conform to the expectations and dynamics of such groups. As part of our continuing analysis of issues confronting contemporary science, we analyze the emergence and consequences of specialization in science, with a particular emphasis on microbiology, a field highly vulnerable to balkanization along microbial phylogenetic boundaries, and suggest that specialization carries significant costs. We propose measures to mitigate the detrimental effects of scientific specialism. PMID:24421049

  5. Special Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braswell, Ray, Ed.

    This document contains the following papers on special needs instruction and technology: (1) "Hawaii Special Education Teacher Induction" (Kalena Oliva and Quinn Avery); (2) "The Impact of Group v Individual Use of Hypermedia-Based Instruction" (Lewis R. Johnson, Louis P. Semrau, and Gail E. Fitzgerald); (3) "Assistive…

  6. Food additives

    MedlinePlus

    ... or natural. Natural food additives include: Herbs or spices to add flavor to foods Vinegar for pickling ... Certain colors improve the appearance of foods. Many spices, as well as natural and man-made flavors, ...

  7. [Thalamus and Attention].

    PubMed

    Tokoro, Kazuhiko; Sato, Hironobu; Yamamoto, Mayumi; Nagai, Yoshiko

    2015-12-01

    Attention is the process by which information and selection occurs, the thalamus plays an important role in the selective attention of visual and auditory information. Selective attention is a conscious effort; however, it occurs subconsciously, as well. The lateral geniculate body (LGB) filters visual information before it reaches the cortex (bottom-up attention). The thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN) provides a strong inhibitory input to both the LGB and pulvinar. This regulation involves focusing a spotlight on important information, as well as inhibiting unnecessary background information. Behavioral contexts more strongly modulate activity of the TRN and pulvinar influencing feedforward and feedback information transmission between the frontal, temporal, parietal and occipital cortical areas (top-down attention). The medial geniculate body (MGB) filters auditory information the TRN inhibits the MGB. Attentional modulation occurring in the auditory pathway among the cochlea, cochlear nucleus, superior olivary complex, and inferior colliculus is more important than that of the MGB and TRN. We also discuss the attentional consequence of thalamic hemorrhage.

  8. Anxiety and cognitive performance: attentional control theory.

    PubMed

    Eysenck, Michael W; Derakshan, Nazanin; Santos, Rita; Calvo, Manuel G

    2007-05-01

    Attentional control theory is an approach to anxiety and cognition representing a major development of Eysenck and Calvo's (1992) processing efficiency theory. It is assumed that anxiety impairs efficient functioning of the goal-directed attentional system and increases the extent to which processing is influenced by the stimulus-driven attentional system. In addition to decreasing attentional control, anxiety increases attention to threat-related stimuli. Adverse effects of anxiety on processing efficiency depend on two central executive functions involving attentional control: inhibition and shifting. However, anxiety may not impair performance effectiveness (quality of performance) when it leads to the use of compensatory strategies (e.g., enhanced effort; increased use of processing resources). Directions for future research are discussed.

  9. [Visual attention and its control mechanisms].

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Hirokazu

    2014-04-01

    Given the vast amount of visual information in visual scenes, the capacity of our brain to processes such scenes is severely limited. The core mechanism of selection is referred to as visual attention, and it has been the topic of intense investigation for over 25 years in experimental psychology and cognitive neuroscience. Visual attention is not a single, unitary mechanism, but consists of multiple subcomponents. Attention can be directed to various aspects of visual information, such as spatial location, features, or objects. Additionally, attention is guided by external factors such as the salience of stimuli, or whether we are able to move our attention volitionally. The purpose of this article is to review the status of these components of attentional guidance and how they interact with each other, with an emphasis on psychophysical studies.

  10. [Attention deficit disorder in childhood].

    PubMed

    Van Bogaert, P

    2009-09-01

    Attention deficit disorder, eventually associated with hyperactivity (ADD +/- H), is nowadays viewed as a syndrome often of unknown etiology but probably not unique, with important genetic influence and associated environmental factors. The cognitive model proposing ADHD as a result of impaired inhibitory control which makes the child less flexible to changing circumstances suffers from poor sensibility and specificity. As studies aimed to make genotype-phenotype correlations were disappointing, recent genetic researches tend to correlate the genotype to an endophenotype defined from neuro-imaging data with encouraging preliminary results. Treatment with methylphenidate has long been considered as a first choice for disabling forms of ADHD, but recent data do not show evidence for superiority of methylphenidate compared to non pharmacological approach at long-term. Evaluation and treatment of each suspected case of ADHD need to be tailored with special concern for associated conditions as psycho-affective troubles or learning difficulties.

  11. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... If so, your child may have attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Nearly everyone shows some of these ... children. The main features of ADHD are Inattention Hyperactivity Impulsivity No one knows exactly what causes ADHD. ...

  12. Unmasking the Attentional Blink

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nieuwenstein, Mark R.; Potter, Mary C.; Theeuwes, Jan

    2009-01-01

    When asked to identify 2 visual targets (T1 and T2 for the 1st and 2nd targets, respectively) embedded in a sequence of distractors, observers will often fail to identify T2 when it appears within 200-500 ms of T1--an effect called the "attentional blink". Recent work shows that attention does not blink when the task is to encode a…

  13. Special Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavendel, Giuliana

    1977-01-01

    Discusses problems involved in maintaining special scientific or engineering libraries, including budget problems, remote storage locations, rental computer retrieval systems, protecting trade secrets, and establishing a magnetic tape library. (MLH)

  14. Attentional Status of Faces for People with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Remington, Anna; Campbell, Ruth; Swettenham, John

    2012-01-01

    In recent years there has been a growing interest in the role of attention in the processing of social stimuli in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Research has demonstrated that, for typical adults, faces have a special status in attention and are processed in an automatic and mandatory fashion even when participants attempt to…

  15. Digitonide precipitable sterols: a reevaluation with special attention to lanosterol

    SciTech Connect

    Cenedella, R.J.

    1982-06-01

    The ability of digitonin to precipitate lanosterol from prepared mixtures and biological sources was evaluated. Commercially available lanosterol was determined to be composed of about 60% lanosterol and 40% dihydrolanosterol. Both sterols were only partially precipitated by digitonin under all conditions examined. The presence of cholesterol increased the precipitation of lanosterol, but never to completion. About 40% of the lanosterols from saponified sheep's-wool fat was not precipitated by digitonin. Also /sup 14/C-labeled lanosterol recovered from rat brain following intracerebral injection of 2-(/sup 14/C)mevalonate was only 70% precipitated by digitonin. Steric hinderance by the methyl groups at carbon -4 is suggesed to explain the poor precipitability of this sterol. In conclusion, lanosterol can not be considered to be a digitonide-precipitable sterol equivalent to cholesterol. Caution should be exercised in situations where digitonin-precipitable sterols are being prepared from sources containing significant concentrations of lanosterol (i.e., mass and/or radiolabel).

  16. The organization of attention in typical development: a new preschool attention test battery.

    PubMed

    Breckenridge, Kate; Braddick, Oliver; Atkinson, Janette

    2013-09-01

    This article introduces a new battery of attention tests for typically developing and atypically developing children with a mental age of 3-6 years. In the light of adult and child studies supporting a model of distinct networks for specific attentional operations, tests in the current battery were selected with the aim of measuring functions of selective attention, sustained attention and attentional control (executive function). Normative data were collected from 154 typically developing children aged 3-6 years and examined using exploratory factor analysis to determine latent constructs underlying test performance. This analysis suggested increasing differentiation of attention functions over the age range, with support for the hypothesized three-factor model only after 4½ years of age. Additional analyses supported the validity of the new attention battery with respect to (1) parent/teacher report measures of everyday attention behaviour and (2) later performance on the Test of Everyday Attention for Children (TEA-Ch), a battery designed for children aged 6-16 years. The results show the developing differentiation of attention functions and support the ecological and predictive validity of the battery as providing early performance-based measures of attention and an attention 'profile' for each individual child, which may aid characterization and remediation of neurodevelopmental disorders.

  17. Potlining Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolf Keller

    2004-08-10

    In this project, a concept to improve the performance of aluminum production cells by introducing potlining additives was examined and tested. Boron oxide was added to cathode blocks, and titanium was dissolved in the metal pool; this resulted in the formation of titanium diboride and caused the molten aluminum to wet the carbonaceous cathode surface. Such wetting reportedly leads to operational improvements and extended cell life. In addition, boron oxide suppresses cyanide formation. This final report presents and discusses the results of this project. Substantial economic benefits for the practical implementation of the technology are projected, especially for modern cells with graphitized blocks. For example, with an energy savings of about 5% and an increase in pot life from 1500 to 2500 days, a cost savings of $ 0.023 per pound of aluminum produced is projected for a 200 kA pot.

  18. Phosphazene additives

    DOEpatents

    Harrup, Mason K; Rollins, Harry W

    2013-11-26

    An additive comprising a phosphazene compound that has at least two reactive functional groups and at least one capping functional group bonded to phosphorus atoms of the phosphazene compound. One of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with cellulose and the other of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with a resin, such as an amine resin of a polycarboxylic acid resin. The at least one capping functional group is selected from the group consisting of a short chain ether group, an alkoxy group, or an aryloxy group. Also disclosed are an additive-resin admixture, a method of treating a wood product, and a wood product.

  19. Legal Rights of Students with Attention Deficit Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hakola, Stewart R.

    1992-01-01

    Notes that federal agencies that enforce special education laws found that children with Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) are eligible for special education services and are protected by procedural safeguards established by law. Contends that many school districts do not have procedures to identify children with ADD and to ensure appropriate…

  20. The Effects of Spatial Configuration on Preschoolers' Attention Strategies, Selective Attention, and Incidental Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumberg, Fran C.; Torenberg, Meira

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of spatial arrangement on preschool children's selective attention and incidental learning. Three- and four-year old children were shown a multi-coloured box designated as a "special place" containing miniature chairs and models of animals. One category of objects were designated as relevant and one as…

  1. Selective Attention and Attention Switching: Towards a Unified Developmental Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanania, Rima; Smith, Linda B.

    2010-01-01

    We review and relate two literatures on the development of attention in children: one concerning flexible attention switching and the other concerning selective attention. The first is a growing literature on preschool children's performances in an attention-switching task indicating that children become more flexible in their attentional control…

  2. Modelling auditory attention.

    PubMed

    Kaya, Emine Merve; Elhilali, Mounya

    2017-02-19

    Sounds in everyday life seldom appear in isolation. Both humans and machines are constantly flooded with a cacophony of sounds that need to be sorted through and scoured for relevant information-a phenomenon referred to as the 'cocktail party problem'. A key component in parsing acoustic scenes is the role of attention, which mediates perception and behaviour by focusing both sensory and cognitive resources on pertinent information in the stimulus space. The current article provides a review of modelling studies of auditory attention. The review highlights how the term attention refers to a multitude of behavioural and cognitive processes that can shape sensory processing. Attention can be modulated by 'bottom-up' sensory-driven factors, as well as 'top-down' task-specific goals, expectations and learned schemas. Essentially, it acts as a selection process or processes that focus both sensory and cognitive resources on the most relevant events in the soundscape; with relevance being dictated by the stimulus itself (e.g. a loud explosion) or by a task at hand (e.g. listen to announcements in a busy airport). Recent computational models of auditory attention provide key insights into its role in facilitating perception in cluttered auditory scenes.This article is part of the themed issue 'Auditory and visual scene analysis'.

  3. Modelling auditory attention

    PubMed Central

    Kaya, Emine Merve

    2017-01-01

    Sounds in everyday life seldom appear in isolation. Both humans and machines are constantly flooded with a cacophony of sounds that need to be sorted through and scoured for relevant information—a phenomenon referred to as the ‘cocktail party problem’. A key component in parsing acoustic scenes is the role of attention, which mediates perception and behaviour by focusing both sensory and cognitive resources on pertinent information in the stimulus space. The current article provides a review of modelling studies of auditory attention. The review highlights how the term attention refers to a multitude of behavioural and cognitive processes that can shape sensory processing. Attention can be modulated by ‘bottom-up’ sensory-driven factors, as well as ‘top-down’ task-specific goals, expectations and learned schemas. Essentially, it acts as a selection process or processes that focus both sensory and cognitive resources on the most relevant events in the soundscape; with relevance being dictated by the stimulus itself (e.g. a loud explosion) or by a task at hand (e.g. listen to announcements in a busy airport). Recent computational models of auditory attention provide key insights into its role in facilitating perception in cluttered auditory scenes. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Auditory and visual scene analysis’. PMID:28044012

  4. IMAGING ATTENTION NETWORKS1

    PubMed Central

    Posner, Michael I.

    2012-01-01

    The study of attention has largely been about how to select among the various sensory events but also involves the selection among conflicting actions. Prior to the late 1980s, locating bottlenecks between sensory input and response dominated these studies, a different view was that attentional limits involved the importance of maintaining behavioral coherence rather than resulting from a bottleneck. In both cases ideas of resource limits taken over from economics were important. Early evidence relating to the anatomy of attention came from neurological investigations of lesioned patients, but the major impetus for the anatomical approach came from neuroimaging studies that provided evidence of brain networks related to orienting to sensory events and control of response tendencies. The presence of a functional anatomy has supported studies of the development of attention networks and the role of neuromodulators and genetic poymorphisms in their construction. Together these developments have enhanced our understanding of attention and paved the way for significant applications to education, pathology and prevention of mental illness. PMID:22227132

  5. Special Problems of the Elderly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hull, Kathleen V.

    Within the next 40 years, people age 65 and over will comprise 20% of the population, yet problems facing this older generation and their families are just coming to the attention of researchers and the public. Accordingly, this literature review focuses on the special needs of older adults and their families. After an introductory overview, the…

  6. Attention: an evolving construct.

    PubMed

    Joyce, Arthur; Hrin, Skip

    2015-01-01

    We review the implications of large-scale brain systems on the construct of attention by first focusing on significant theories and discoveries during the previous 150 years and then considering how the comparatively recent discovery of large-scale brain systems may render previous conceptualizations of attention outdated. Seven functional brain networks are briefly reviewed and the implications of emerging principles of brain functioning for test construction and neuropsychological evaluation are considered. To remain a relevant discipline moving into the 21st century, the field of neuropsychology needs to apply the principles that have been discovered about brain networks to better inform our understanding of attention as well as our ever-refining evaluation of this construct.

  7. A lateralized brain network for visuospatial attention.

    PubMed

    Thiebaut de Schotten, Michel; Dell'Acqua, Flavio; Forkel, Stephanie J; Simmons, Andrew; Vergani, Francesco; Murphy, Declan G M; Catani, Marco

    2011-09-18

    Right hemisphere dominance for visuospatial attention is characteristic of most humans, but its anatomical basis remains unknown. We report the first evidence in humans for a larger parieto-frontal network in the right than left hemisphere, and a significant correlation between the degree of anatomical lateralization and asymmetry of performance on visuospatial tasks. Our results suggest that hemispheric specialization is associated with an unbalanced speed of visuospatial processing.

  8. Insights into the Control of Attentional Set in ADHD Using the Attentional Blink Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Deanna J.; Humphreys, Glyn W.; Kent, Lindsey

    2005-01-01

    Background: Previous work on visual selective attention in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) has utilised spatial search paradigms. This study compared ADHD to control children on a temporal search task using Rapid Serial Visual Presentation (RSVP). In addition, the effects of irrelevant singleton distractors on search performance…

  9. Additional results on space environmental effects on polymer matrix composites: Experiment A0180

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tennyson, R. C.

    1992-01-01

    Additional experimental results on the atomic oxygen erosion of boron, Kevlar, and graphite fiber reinforced epoxy matrix composites are presented. Damage of composite laminates due to micrometeoroid/debris impacts is also examined with particular emphasis on the relationship between damage area and actual hole size due to particle penetration. Special attention is given to one micrometeoroid impact on an aluminum base plate which resulted in ejecta visible on an adjoining vertical flange structure.

  10. Attention Capture by Faces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langton, Stephen R. H.; Law, Anna S.; Burton, A. Mike; Schweinberger, Stefan R.

    2008-01-01

    We report three experiments that investigate whether faces are capable of capturing attention when in competition with other non-face objects. In Experiment 1a participants took longer to decide that an array of objects contained a butterfly target when a face appeared as one of the distracting items than when the face did not appear in the array.…

  11. Expectancy, Attention, and Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Ralph; Jones, Mari Riess

    2000-01-01

    Examined the influence of contextual timing manipulations on prospective time judgments through 7 experiments involving a total of 199 college students. Discusses results in terms of various stimulus-based models of prospective time judgments, including those that appeal to attentional periodicities and entrainment. (SLD)

  12. Fixing Special Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Jay P.

    2007-01-01

    The current system of educating disabled students provides financial incentives to schools to overidentify students as disabled and underserve those that are identified. The incentive to overidentify is caused by providing schools with additional funds as more students are placed in special education categories that are ambiguous to diagnose and…

  13. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Education Visitor Information RePORT NIH Fact Sheets Home > Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Small Text Medium Text Large Text Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one ...

  14. Attention: Moral-Cognitive Geography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuan, Yi-Fu

    1987-01-01

    This article is an essay on the importance of attention as a personal trait. Offers a definition of attention, reviews symptoms of inattention, and identifies the categories of objects which typically hold a person's attention. (JDH)

  15. Racial Inequity in Special Education Undefined

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Losen, Daniel J., Ed.; Orfield, Gary, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    An illuminating account of a widespread problem that has received little attention, "Racial Inequity in Education" sets the stage for a more fruitful discussion about special education and racial justice. An illuminating account of a widespread problem that has received little attention, "Racial Inequity in Education" sets the…

  16. Special Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Peter R.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Includes six special reports: "Libraries and the National Information Infrastructure" (Peter R. Young and Jane Williams); "Library Cooperation and Networking" (JoAn Segal); "Mexican Information Resources in Electronic Format" (Shirley Ainsworth); "The International Role of U.S. Librarians" (Hannelore B.…

  17. Special Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiant, Sarah K.; Lynch, Clifford; Nevins, Kate; Juergens, Bonnie

    1998-01-01

    Contains three special reports: developments in copyright law, 1997 (World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) legislation, Ashcroft Bill, No Electronic Theft Act, database protection, Conference on Fair Use (CONFU), judicial decisions, principles for licensing electronic resources, and Uniform Commercial Code Article 2B); Internet2 and the…

  18. Special Advocate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vander Weele, Maribeth

    1992-01-01

    Thomas Hehir, special education chief of Chicago Public Schools, is evangelist of integrating children with disabilities into regular classrooms. By completely reorganizing department viewed as political patronage dumping ground, Hehir has made remarkable progress in handling large number of children awaiting evaluation and placement in special…

  19. Special Feature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Gary B., Ed.

    1994-01-01

    The nine articles of this special section focus on the role of evaluation in the reform of the mental health system in Washington. The reform process is described from its inception through its design to the dissemination and utilization of evaluation results. The final article considers implications for statewide evaluations. (SLD)

  20. Special Education for a New Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katzman, Lauren I., Ed.; Gandhi, Allison Gruner, Ed.; Harbour, Wendy S., Ed.; LaRock, J. D., Ed.

    2005-01-01

    "Special Education for a New Century" pays particularly close attention to how inclusive education practices can best be promoted in the era of standards-based accountability. An updated version of the best-selling "Special Education at the Century's End", this new volume combines cutting-edge research and theory about students…

  1. Distractor suppression when attention fails: behavioral evidence for a flexible selective attention mechanism.

    PubMed

    Elliott, James C; Giesbrecht, Barry

    2015-01-01

    Despite consistent evidence showing that attention is a multifaceted mechanism that can operate at multiple levels of processing depending on the structure and demands of the task, investigations of the attentional blink phenomenon have consistently shown that the impairment in reporting the second of two targets typically occurs at a late, or post-perceptual, stage of processing. This suggests that the attentional blink phenomenon may represent the operation of a unique attentional mechanism that is not as flexible as other attentional mechanisms. To test whether the attentional blink is a fixed or flexible phenomenon, we manipulated first target task demands (i.e., difficulty) and measured the influence this had on processing a subsequently presented distractor and the second target. If the attentional blink represents a mechanism that is fixed and consistently fails at a single stage of processing, then manipulations of task difficulty should not affect distractor processing. However, if the attentional blink represents a more multifaceted and flexible mechanism, then task difficulty should modulate distractor processing. The results revealed that distractor processing during the AB was attenuated under high task difficulty. In addition, unlike previous studies, we failed to find a correlation between distractor processing and the severity of the attentional blink. Using a simulation, we demonstrate that the previously reported correlations may have been spurious and due to using variables that were not independent. Overall, the present results support the conclusion that the selectivity of attention during the AB is flexible and depends on the structure and demands of the task.

  2. ADHD Diet: Do Food Additives Cause Hyperactivity?

    MedlinePlus

    ... There's no solid evidence that food additives cause attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, the topic of food additives and their possible effects is controversial. Some studies indicate that certain food ...

  3. Attention-Seeking Displays

    PubMed Central

    Számadó, Szabolcs

    2015-01-01

    Animal communication abounds with extravagant displays. These signals are usually interpreted as costly signals of quality. However, there is another important function for these signals: to call the attention of the receiver to the signaller. While there is abundant empirical evidence to show the importance of this stage, it is not yet incorporated into standard signalling theory. Here I investigate a general model of signalling - based on a basic action-response game - that incorporates this searching stage. I show that giving attention-seeking displays and searching for them can be an ESS. This is a very general result and holds regardless whether only the high quality signallers or both high and low types give them. These signals need not be costly at the equilibrium and they need not be honest signals of any quality, as their function is not to signal quality but simply to call the attention of the potential receivers. These kind of displays are probably more common than their current weight in the literature would suggest. PMID:26287489

  4. Are Special Education Students Happy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uusitalo-Malmivaara, Lotta; Kankaanpaa, Paula; Makinen, Tuula; Raeluoto, Tiina; Rauttu, Karoliina; Tarhala, Veera; Lehto, Juhani E.

    2012-01-01

    This study compared the subjective and school-related happiness of 75 11- to 16-year-old special education students to 77 age- and gender-matched mainstream students using two quantitative measures. Additionally, the respondents chose from a list of 12 putative happy makers what they felt increased their happiness. Ten special education students…

  5. Inhibition of saccades elicits attentional suppression.

    PubMed

    Dhawan, Saurabh; Deubel, Heiner; Jonikaitis, Donatas

    2013-05-17

    Visuospatial attention has been shown to have a central role in planning and generation of saccades but what role, if any, it plays in inhibition of saccades remains unclear. In this study, we used an oculomotor delayed match- or nonmatch-to-sample task in which a cued location has to be encoded and memorized for one of two very different goals-to plan a saccade to it or to avoid making a saccade to it. We measured the spatial allocation of attention during the delay and found that while marking a location as a future saccade target resulted in an attentional benefit at that location, marking it as forbidden to saccades led to an attentional cost. Additionally, saccade trajectories were found to deviate away more from the "don't look" location than from a saccade-irrelevant distractor confirming greater inhibition of an actively forbidden location in oculomotor programming. Our finding that attention is suppressed at locations forbidden to saccades confirms and complements the claim of a selective and obligatory coupling between saccades and attention-saccades at the memorized location could neither be planned nor suppressed independent of a corresponding effect on attentional performance.

  6. Perceptual load influences selective attention across development.

    PubMed

    Couperus, Jane W

    2011-09-01

    Research suggests that visual selective attention develops across childhood. However, there is relatively little understanding of the neurological changes that accompany this development, particularly in the context of adult theories of selective attention, such as N. Lavie's (1995) perceptual load theory of attention. This study examined visual selective attention across development from 7 years of age to adulthood. Specifically, the author examined if changes in processing as a function of selective attention are similarly influenced by perceptual load across development. Participants were asked to complete a task at either low or high perceptual load while processing of an unattended probe stimulus was examined using event related potentials. Similar to adults, children and teens showed reduced processing of the unattended stimulus as perceptual load increased at the P1 visual component. However, although there were no qualitative differences in changes in processing, there were quantitative differences, with shorter P1 latencies in teens and adults compared with children, suggesting increases in the speed of processing across development. In addition, younger children did not need as high a perceptual load to achieve the same difference in performance between low and high perceptual load as adults. Thus, this study demonstrates that although there are developmental changes in visual selective attention, the mechanisms by which visual selective attention is achieved in children may share similarities with adults.

  7. Attention to detail

    SciTech Connect

    Niccolai, G.C.

    1994-11-01

    Insurance is an increasingly important part of international projects. Understanding various coverages can make the difference between success and failure. With more than $50 billion of investment capital per year slated for development of power projects in Asia alone, international development has gained the attention of many developers eager to participate. Coordinating an international insurance program for power projects is much different than a developer may be accustomed to in the United States. With insurance taking on an extremely important role in the success of project development it is imperative the unique international exposures inherent be identified and addressed.

  8. Saccadic movements of the eyes in children with attention deficit and hyperactivity syndrome.

    PubMed

    Damyanovich, E V; Baziyan, B Kh; Sagalov, M V; Kumskova, G A

    2013-11-01

    Saccadic movements of the eyes were analyzed in children with the attention deficit and hyperactivity syndrome. Saccadic movements of the eyes were recorded by a special method for their isolated registration without involvement of the head and in coordination tests (eye-head, eye-hand, and eye-head-hand). Comparative analysis of saccadic movements in children with attention deficit and hyperactivity and in normal subjects was carried out. Saccades recorded in each participant in complex tests with one or two additional motor acts, such as movements of the head and hand, were compared and the changes were analyzed for the group. Children with attention deficit and hyperactivity syndrome had problem with gaze fixation on the peripheral target after the end of the saccade and these changes augmented in more complex tasks with one or two additional acts. This could be due to discrepancy between the difficulty of the task and the potentialities of the frontal cortex, more immature in these patients than in healthy children. The changes could form the objective base for disorders in the formation of reading and writing habits, often observed in children with attention deficit and hyperactivity syndrome.

  9. Effects of nitrate addition to a diet on fermentation and microbial populations in the rumen of goats, with special reference to Selenomonas ruminantium having the ability to reduce nitrate and nitrite.

    PubMed

    Asanuma, Narito; Yokoyama, Shota; Hino, Tsuneo

    2015-04-01

    This study investigated the effects of dietary nitrate addition on ruminal fermentation characteristics and microbial populations in goats. The involvement of Selenomonas ruminantium in nitrate and nitrite reduction in the rumen was also examined. As the result of nitrate feeding, the total concentration of ruminal volatile fatty acids decreased, whereas the acetate : propionate ratio and the concentrations of ammonia and lactate increased. Populations of methanogens, protozoa and fungi, as estimated by real-time PCR, were greatly decreased as a result of nitrate inclusion in the diet. There was modest or little impact of nitrate on the populations of prevailing species or genus of bacteria in the rumen, whereas Streptococcus bovis and S. ruminantium significantly increased. Both the activities of nitrate reductase (NaR) and nitrite reductase (NiR) per total mass of ruminal bacteria were increased by nitrate feeding. Quantification of the genes encoding NaR and NiR by real-time PCR with primers specific for S. ruminantium showed that these genes were increased by feeding nitrate, suggesting that the growth of nitrate- and nitrite-reducing S. ruminantium is stimulated by nitrate addition. Thus, S. ruminantium is likely to play a major role in nitrate and nitrite reduction in the rumen.

  10. Attentional networks and consciousness.

    PubMed

    Posner, Michael I

    2012-01-01

    The term consciousness is an important one in the vernacular of the western literature in many fields. It is no wonder that scientists have assumed that consciousness will be found as a component of the human brain and that we will come to understand its neural basis. However, there is rather little in common between consciousness as the neurologist would use it to diagnose the vegetative state, how the feminist would use it to support raising male consciousness of the economic plight of women and as the philosopher would use it when defining the really hard question of the subjective state of awareness induced by sensory qualities. When faced with this kind of problem it is usual to subdivide the term into more manageable perhaps partly operational definitions. Three meanings that capture aspects of consciousness are: (1) the neurology of the state of mind allowing coherent orientation to time and place (2) the selection of sensory or memorial information for awareness and (3) the voluntary control over overt responses. In each of these cases the mechanisms of consciousness overlap with one or more of the attentional networks that have been studied with the methods of cognitive neuroscience. In this paper we explore the overlap and discuss how to exploit the growing knowledge of attentional networks to constrain ideas of consciousness.

  11. Joint attention and language evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwisthout, Johan; Vogt, Paul; Haselager, Pim; Dijkstra, Ton

    2008-06-01

    This study investigates how more advanced joint attentional mechanisms, rather than only shared attention between two agents and an object, can be implemented and how they influence the results of language games played by these agents. We present computer simulations with language games showing that adding constructs that mimic the three stages of joint attention identified in children's early development (checking attention, following attention, and directing attention) substantially increase the performance of agents in these language games. In particular, the rates of improved performance for the individual attentional mechanisms have the same ordering as that of the emergence of these mechanisms in infants' development. These results suggest that language evolution and joint attentional mechanisms have developed in a co-evolutionary way, and that the evolutionary emergence of the individual attentional mechanisms is ordered just like their developmental emergence.

  12. Role of Frontal Cortex in Attentional Capture by Singleton Distractors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Fockert, Jan W.; Theeuwes, Jan

    2012-01-01

    The role of frontal cortex in selective attention to visual distractors was examined in an attentional capture task in which participants searched for a unique shape in the presence or absence of an additional colour singleton distractor. The presence of the additional singleton was associated with slower behavioural responses to the shape target,…

  13. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Marguerite; Nigg, Joel T; Fair, Damien A

    2014-01-01

    Over the last two decades, there have been numerous technical and methodological advances available to clinicians and researchers to better understand attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and its etiology. Despite the growing body of literature investigating the disorder's pathophysiology, ADHD remains a complex psychiatric disorder to characterize. This chapter will briefly review the literature on ADHD, with a focus on its history, the current genetic insights, neurophysiologic theories, and the use of neuroimaging to further understand the etiology. We address some of the major concerns that remain unclear about ADHD, including subtype instability, heterogeneity, and the underlying neural correlates that define the disorder. We highlight that the field of ADHD is rapidly evolving; the descriptions provided here will hopefully provide a sturdy foundation for which to build and improve our understanding of the disorder.

  14. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Thapar, Anita; Cooper, Miriam

    2016-03-19

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a childhood-onset neurodevelopmental disorder with a prevalence of 1·4-3·0%. It is more common in boys than girls. Comorbidity with childhood-onset neurodevelopmental disorders and psychiatric disorders is substantial. ADHD is highly heritable and multifactorial; multiple genes and non-inherited factors contribute to the disorder. Prenatal and perinatal factors have been implicated as risks, but definite causes remain unknown. Most guidelines recommend a stepwise approach to treatment, beginning with non-drug interventions and then moving to pharmacological treatment in those most severely affected. Randomised controlled trials show short-term benefits of stimulant medication and atomoxetine. Meta-analyses of blinded trials of non-drug treatments have not yet proven the efficacy of such interventions. Longitudinal studies of ADHD show heightened risk of multiple mental health and social difficulties as well as premature mortality in adult life.

  15. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Madhuri

    2015-03-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common behavioral disorder in children. It is characterized by motor hyperactivity, impulsivity and inattention inappropriate for the age. Approximately 5-10 % of school age children are diagnosed to have ADHD. The affected children show significant impairment in social behavior and academic performance. The DSM-5 criteria are useful in diagnosing three subtypes of ADHD based on presence of symptoms described in 3 domains viz ., inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. Co-morbidities like specific learning disability, anxiety disorder, oppositional defiant disorder are commonly associated with ADHD.Education of parents and teachers, behavioral therapy and medication are main components of management. Methylphenidate and Atomoxetine are effective in controlling symptoms of ADHD in most children. Research studies estimated that 30-60 % of children continue to show symptoms of ADHD in adulthood. The general practitioner can play an important role in early diagnosis, appropriate assessment and guiding parents for management of children with ADHD.

  16. Developmental attentional dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Friedmann, Naama; Kerbel, Noa; Shvimer, Lilach

    2010-01-01

    Attentional dyslexia is a reading deficit in which letters migrate between neighboring words, but are correctly identified and keep their correct relative position within the word. Thus, for example, fig tree can be read as fig free or even tie free. This study reports on 10 Hebrew-speaking individuals with developmental attentional dyslexia and explores in detail the characteristics of their between-word errors. Each participant read 2290 words, presented in word pairs: 845 horizontally presented word pairs, 240 vertically presented word pairs, and 60 nonword pairs. The main results are that almost all migrations preserve the relative position of the migrating letter within the word, indicating that the between-word position can be impaired while the within-word position encoding remains intact. This result is also supported by the finding that the participants did not make many letter position errors within words. Further analyses indicated that more errors occur in longer words, that most migrations occur in final letters (which are the leftmost letters in Hebrew), and that letters migrate both horizontally and vertically, and more frequently from the first to the second word in horizontal presentation. More migrations occurred when the result of migration was an existing word. Similarity between words in a pair did not increase error rates, and more migrations occurred when the words shared fewer letters. The between-word errors included the classic errors of migration of a letter between words, but also omission of one instance of a letter that appeared in the same position in the two words, an error that constituted a considerable percentage of the between-word errors, and intrusion of a letter from one word to the corresponding position in the neighboring word without erasing the original letter in the same position.

  17. [Attention deficit and infantile hyperactivity].

    PubMed

    Berdonces, J L

    2001-01-01

    Hyperactivity is a very common disorder in children (specially males) that today is considered as a clinical syndrome by scientific medicine. American Psychiatric Association establishes 10 symptoms to diagnose it, but they can be resumed in three characteristics: Impulsivity, Distraction, and Hyperactivity. There are different ways to treat it, but psychiatric medication has major risks in children. From complementary medicine we can find several aids in changing diet patterns and supplementing with vitamins or minerals. Chocolate, sugar, sweeteners, additives, preservatives, dyes, can enhance the incidence of this syndrome; instead the supplementation with lipids rich in PUFA's can prevent it. B complex vitamins, magnesium, copper, manganese or calcium can be interesting and in herbal medicine, sedative plants like passion flower, valerian or lemon balm are useful aids. Also liquorice, fennel and berries can be used for different physiological actions.

  18. SCAN: A Scalable Model of Attentional Selection.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Patrick T.W.; van den Herik, H Jaap; Postma, Eric O.

    1997-08-01

    This paper describes the SCAN (Signal Channelling Attentional Network) model, a scalable neural network model for attentional scanning. The building block of SCAN is a gating lattice, a sparsely-connected neural network defined as a special case of the Ising lattice from statistical mechanics. The process of spatial selection through covert attention is interpreted as a biological solution to the problem of translation-invariant pattern processing. In SCAN, a sequence of pattern translations combines active selection with translation-invariant processing. Selected patterns are channelled through a gating network, formed by a hierarchical fractal structure of gating lattices, and mapped onto an output window. We show how the incorporation of an expectation-generating classifier network (e.g. Carpenter and Grossberg's ART network) into SCAN allows attentional selection to be driven by expectation. Simulation studies show the SCAN model to be capable of attending and identifying object patterns that are part of a realistically sized natural image. Copyright 1997 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  19. Inclusion of Religion and Spirituality in the Special Education Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ault, Melinda Jones

    2010-01-01

    Although traditionally not an area of service delivered by special educators, the area of religion and spirituality for persons with disabilities is receiving more attention as a quality-of-life outcome. This literature review examined the special education literature to determine the extent to which special educators are exposed to literature…

  20. Virtues and Well-Being of Korean Special Education Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, So-Young; Lim, Young-Jin

    2016-01-01

    Although much emphasis has been paid to stress and burnout among special education teachers, little attention has been paid to their well-being. This study aimed to examine relations between virtues and well-being among Korean special education teachers. Virtues and well-being of 115 Korean special education teachers were assessed using the…

  1. Attention engagement in early infancy.

    PubMed

    Perra, Oliver; Gattis, Merideth

    2012-12-01

    We report a longitudinal study investigating developmental changes in the structure of attention engagement during early infancy. Forty-three infants were observed monthly from 2 to 4 months. Attention engagement was assessed from play interactions with parents, using a coding system developed by Bakeman and Adamson (1984). The results indicated a developmental transition in attention engagement at 3 months: after this age infants engaged for longer periods and in a wider variety of states. Most infants displayed person engagement at 2 months, passive joint engagement at 3 months, and object engagement at 4 months. To address whether emerging abilities of attention engagement allow infants to follow the attention of social partners, we compared attention engagement to performance on an experimental measure of attention control (reported by Perra & Gattis, 2010). Analyses revealed a positive relation between passive joint engagement and checking back, suggesting that changes in passive joint engagement reflect the development in attention control.

  2. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001551.htm Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a problem caused by the presence ...

  3. Visual attention and flexible normalization pools

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Odelia; Coen-Cagli, Ruben

    2013-01-01

    Attention to a spatial location or feature in a visual scene can modulate the responses of cortical neurons and affect perceptual biases in illusions. We add attention to a cortical model of spatial context based on a well-founded account of natural scene statistics. The cortical model amounts to a generalized form of divisive normalization, in which the surround is in the normalization pool of the center target only if they are considered statistically dependent. Here we propose that attention influences this computation by accentuating the neural unit activations at the attended location, and that the amount of attentional influence of the surround on the center thus depends on whether center and surround are deemed in the same normalization pool. The resulting form of model extends a recent divisive normalization model of attention (Reynolds & Heeger, 2009). We simulate cortical surround orientation experiments with attention and show that the flexible model is suitable for capturing additional data and makes nontrivial testable predictions. PMID:23345413

  4. Attentional Set-Shifting Across Species.

    PubMed

    Brown, Verity J; Tait, David S

    Attentional set-shifting, as a measure of executive flexibility, has been a staple of investigations into human cognition for over six decades. Mediated by the frontal cortex in mammals, the cognitive processes involved in forming, maintaining and shifting an attentional set are vulnerable to dysfunction arising from a number of human neurodegenerative diseases (such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and Huntington's diseases) and other neurological disorders (such as schizophrenia, depression, and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder). Our understanding of these diseases and disorders, and the cognitive impairments induced by them, continues to advance, in tandem with an increasing number of tools at our disposal. In this chapter, we review and compare commonly used attentional set-shifting tasks (the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task and Intradimensional/Extradimensional tasks) and their applicability across species. In addition to humans, attentional set-shifting has been observed in a number of other animals, with a substantial body of literature describing performance in monkeys and rodents. We consider the task designs used to investigate attentional set-shifting in these species and the methods used to model human diseases and disorders, and ultimately the comparisons and differences between species-specific tasks, and between performance across species.

  5. Temporal dynamics of divided spatial attention.

    PubMed

    Itthipuripat, Sirawaj; Garcia, Javier O; Serences, John T

    2013-05-01

    In naturalistic settings, observers often have to monitor multiple objects dispersed throughout the visual scene. However, the degree to which spatial attention can be divided across spatially noncontiguous objects has long been debated, particularly when those objects are in close proximity. Moreover, the temporal dynamics of divided attention are unclear: is the process of dividing spatial attention gradual and continuous, or does it onset in a discrete manner? To address these issues, we recorded steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEPs) as subjects covertly monitored two flickering targets while ignoring an intervening distractor that flickered at a different frequency. All three stimuli were clustered within either the lower left or the lower right quadrant, and our dependent measure was SSVEP power at the target and distractor frequencies measured over time. In two experiments, we observed a temporally discrete increase in power for target- vs. distractor-evoked SSVEPs extending from ∼350 to 150 ms prior to correct (but not incorrect) responses. The divergence in SSVEP power immediately prior to a correct response suggests that spatial attention can be divided across noncontiguous locations, even when the targets are closely spaced within a single quadrant. In addition, the division of spatial attention appears to be relatively discrete, as opposed to slow and continuous. Finally, the predictive relationship between SSVEP power and behavior demonstrates that these neurophysiological measures of divided attention are meaningfully related to cognitive function.

  6. Paying attention through eye movements: a computational investigation of the premotor theory of spatial attention.

    PubMed

    Casarotti, Marco; Lisi, Matteo; Umiltà, Carlo; Zorzi, Marco

    2012-07-01

    Growing evidence indicates that planning eye movements and orienting visuospatial attention share overlapping brain mechanisms. A tight link between endogenous attention and eye movements is maintained by the premotor theory, in contrast to other accounts that postulate the existence of specific attention mechanisms that modulate the activity of information processing systems. The strong assumption of equivalence between attention and eye movements, however, is challenged by demonstrations that human observers are able to keep attention on a specific location while moving the eyes elsewhere. Here we investigate whether a recurrent model of saccadic planning can account for attentional effects without requiring additional or specific mechanisms separate from the circuits that perform sensorimotor transformations for eye movements. The model builds on the basis function approach and includes a circuit that performs spatial remapping using an "internal forward model" of how visual inputs are modified as a result of saccadic movements. Simulations show that the latter circuit is crucial to account for dissociations between attention and eye movements that may be invoked to disprove the premotor theory. The model provides new insights into how spatial remapping may be implemented in parietal cortex and offers a computational framework for recent proposals that link visual stability with remapping of attention pointers.

  7. Audition and vision share spatial attentional resources, yet attentional load does not disrupt audiovisual integration

    PubMed Central

    Wahn, Basil; König, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Humans continuously receive and integrate information from several sensory modalities. However, attentional resources limit the amount of information that can be processed. It is not yet clear how attentional resources and multisensory processing are interrelated. Specifically, the following questions arise: (1) Are there distinct spatial attentional resources for each sensory modality? and (2) Does attentional load affect multisensory integration? We investigated these questions using a dual task paradigm: participants performed two spatial tasks (a multiple object tracking task and a localization task), either separately (single task condition) or simultaneously (dual task condition). In the multiple object tracking task, participants visually tracked a small subset of several randomly moving objects. In the localization task, participants received either visual, auditory, or redundant visual and auditory location cues. In the dual task condition, we found a substantial decrease in participants' performance relative to the results of the single task condition. Importantly, participants performed equally well in the dual task condition regardless of the location cues' modality. This result suggests that having spatial information coming from different modalities does not facilitate performance, thereby indicating shared spatial attentional resources for the auditory and visual modality. Furthermore, we found that participants integrated redundant multisensory information similarly even when they experienced additional attentional load in the dual task condition. Overall, findings suggest that (1) visual and auditory spatial attentional resources are shared and that (2) audiovisual integration of spatial information occurs in an pre-attentive processing stage. PMID:26284008

  8. Connectivity supporting attention in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Barber, Anita D; Jacobson, Lisa A; Wexler, Joanna L; Nebel, Mary Beth; Caffo, Brian S; Pekar, James J; Mostofsky, Stewart H

    2015-01-01

    Intra-subject variability (ISV) is the most consistent behavioral deficit in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). ISV may be associated with networks involved in sustaining task control (cingulo-opercular network: CON) and self-reflective lapses of attention (default mode network: DMN). The current study examined whether connectivity supporting attentional control is atypical in children with ADHD. Group differences in full-brain connection strength and brain-behavior associations with attentional control measures were examined for the late-developing CON and DMN in 50 children with ADHD and 50 typically-developing (TD) controls (ages 8-12 years). Children with ADHD had hyper-connectivity both within the CON and within the DMN. Full-brain behavioral associations were found for a number of between-network connections. Across both groups, more anti-correlation between DMN and occipital cortex supported better attentional control. However, in the TD group, this brain-behavior association was stronger and occurred for a more extensive set of DMN-occipital connections. Differential support for attentional control between the two groups occurred with a number of CON-DMN connections. For all CON-DMN connections identified, increased between-network anti-correlation was associated with better attentional control for the ADHD group, but worse attentional control in the TD group. A number of between-network connections with the medial frontal cortex, in particular, showed this relationship. Follow-up analyses revealed that these associations were specific to attentional control and were not due to individual differences in working memory, IQ, motor control, age, or scan motion. While CON-DMN anti-correlation is associated with improved attention in ADHD, other circuitry supports improved attention in TD children. Greater CON-DMN anti-correlation supported better attentional control in children with ADHD, but worse attentional control in TD children. On the other

  9. Peripheral contrast sensitivity and attention in myopia

    PubMed Central

    Kerber, Kristen L.; Thorn, Frank; Bex, Peter J.; Vera-Diaz, Fuensanta A.

    2017-01-01

    Disruption of normal visual experience or changes in the normal interaction between central and peripheral retinal input may lead to the development of myopia. In order to examine the relationship between peripheral contrast sensitivity and myopia, we manipulated attentional load for foveal vision in emmetropes and myopes while observers detected targets with peripheral vision. Peripheral contrast detection thresholds were measured binocularly using vertical Gabor stimuli presented at three eccentricities (±8°, 17°, 30°) in a spatial 2 alternative forced choice task. Contrast thresholds were measured in young adult (mean age 24.5 ± 2.6 years) emmetropes (n = 17; group SE: +0.19 ± 0.32D) and myopes (n = 25; group SE: −3.74 ± 1.99D). Attention at central fixation was manipulated with: (1) a low attention task, requiring simple fixation; or (2) a high attention task, which required subjects to perform a mathematical task. We found that at 30° all subjects exhibited lower contrast sensitivity (higher thresholds). In addition, myopes (Wilcoxon, p < 0.01), but not emmetropes (Wilcoxon, p = 0.1), had a significant decrease in sensitivity at 30° during the high attention task. However, the attention dependent threshold increase for myopes was not significantly greater than for emmetropes (Wilcoxon, p = 0.27). Attentional load did not increase thresholds at 8° or 17° for either refractive group. These data indicate that myopes experience a greater decrease in contrast sensitivity in the far periphery than emmetropes when attention is deployed in central vision. PMID:27264028

  10. 11 CFR 7.3 - Notification to employees and special Commission employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... this part shall be brought to the attention of, and made available to, each employee and special... further be brought to the attention of such employees at least annually thereafter. (b) The provisions of this part shall be brought to the attention of each new employee and new special Commission employee...

  11. Perspectives on Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourell, David L.

    2016-07-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has skyrocketed in visibility commercially and in the public sector. This article describes the development of this field from early layered manufacturing approaches of photosculpture, topography, and material deposition. Certain precursors to modern AM processes are also briefly described. The growth of the field over the last 30 years is presented. Included is the standard delineation of AM technologies into seven broad categories. The economics of AM part generation is considered, and the impacts of the economics on application sectors are described. On the basis of current trends, the future outlook will include a convergence of AM fabricators, mass-produced AM fabricators, enabling of topology optimization designs, and specialization in the AM legal arena. Long-term developments with huge impact are organ printing and volume-based printing.

  12. [Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder].

    PubMed

    Cunill, Ruth; Castells, Xavier

    2015-04-20

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common childhood psychiatric disorders and can persist into the adulthood. ADHD has important social, academic and occupational consequences. ADHD diagnosis is based on the fulfillment of several clinical criteria, which can vary depending on the diagnostic system used. The clinical presentation can show great between-patient variability and it has been related to a dysfunction in the fronto-striatal and meso-limbic circuits. Recent investigations support a model in which multiple genetic and environmental factors interact to create a neurobiological susceptibility to develop the disorder. However, no clear causal association has yet been identified. Although multimodal treatment including both pharmacological and psychosocial interventions is usually recommended, no convincing evidence exists to support this recommendation. Pharmacological treatment has fundamentally shown to improve ADHD symptoms in the short term, while efficacy data for psychosocial interventions are scarce and inconsistent. Yet, drug treatment is increasingly popular and the last 2 decades have witnessed a sharp increase in the prescription of anti-ADHD medications coinciding with the marketing of new drugs to treat ADHD.

  13. Reducing the Special Education Teacher Shortage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, Bill; Peltier, Gary; Medina, Ricky

    2007-01-01

    New demands and high attrition levels of special education teachers have created a crisis for education and extensive additional stress for special education directors and principals. The critical shortage of highly qualified special education teachers has significantly increased the pressure to hire and retain them. This article discusses factors…

  14. 14 CFR 1274.917 - Additional funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional funds. 1274.917 Section 1274.917... FIRMS Other Provisions and Special Conditions § 1274.917 Additional funds. Additional Funds July 2002... under the terms of this cooperative agreement. NASA is under no obligation to provide additional...

  15. Assessment of Attention in Preschoolers

    PubMed Central

    Mahone, E.M.; Schneider, H.E.

    2012-01-01

    In the past two decades, there has been an increased interest in the assessment and treatment of preschool children presenting with concerns about attention problems. This article reviews the research and clinical literature involving assessment of attention and related skills in the preschool years. While inattention among preschoolers is common, symptoms alone do not necessarily indicate a disorder, and most often represent a normal variation in typical preschool child development. Thus, accurate identification of “disordered” attention in preschoolers can be challenging, and development of appropriate, norm-referenced tests of attention for preschoolers is also difficult. The current review suggests that comprehensive assessment of attention and related functions in the preschool child should include thorough review of the child’s history, planned observations, and formal psychometric testing. The three primary methods of psychometric assessment that have been used to characterize attentional functioning in preschool children include performance-based tests, structured caregiver interviews, and rating scales (parent, teacher, and clinician). Among performance-based methods for measurement of attention in the preschool years, tests have been developed to assess sustained attention, selective (focused) attention, span of attention (encoding/manipulation), and (top-down) controlled attention—including freedom from distractibility and set shifting. Many of these tests remain experimental in nature, and review of published methods yields relatively few commercially available, nationally normed tests of attention for preschoolers, and an overall dearth of reliability and validity studies on the available measures. PMID:23090646

  16. Exogenous attention to unseen objects?

    PubMed

    Norman, Liam J; Heywood, Charles A; Kentridge, Robert W

    2015-09-01

    Attention and awareness are closely related phenomena, but recent evidence has shown that not all attended stimuli give rise to awareness. Controversy still remains over whether, and the extent to which, a dissociation between attention and awareness encompasses all forms of attention. For example, it has been suggested that attention without awareness is more readily demonstrated for voluntary, endogenous attention than its reflexive, exogenous counterpart. Here we examine whether exogenous attentional cueing can have selective behavioural effects on stimuli that nevertheless remain unseen. Using a task in which object-based attention has been shown in the absence of awareness, we remove all possible contingencies between cues and target stimuli to ensure that any cueing effects must be under purely exogenous control, and find evidence of exogenous object-based attention without awareness. In a second experiment we address whether this dissociation crucially depends on the method used to establish that the objects indeed remain unseen. Specifically, to confirm that objects are unseen we adopt appropriate signal detection task procedures, including those that retain parity with the primary attentional task (by requiring participants to discriminate the two types of trial that are used to measure an effect of attention). We show a significant object-based attention effect is apparent under conditions where the selected object indeed remains undetectable.

  17. Attention-Modulating Effects of Cognitive Enhancers

    EPA Science Inventory

    Attention can be readily measured in experimental animal models. Animal models of attention have been used to better understand the neural systems involved in attention, how attention is impaired, and how therapeutic treatments can ameliorate attentional deficits. This review fo...

  18. Reading direction shifts visuospatial attention: an Interactive Account of attentional biases.

    PubMed

    Rinaldi, Luca; Di Luca, Samuel; Henik, Avishai; Girelli, Luisa

    2014-09-01

    A growing amount of evidence confirms the influence of reading and writing habits on visuospatial processing, although this phenomenon has been so far testified mainly as a lateralized shift of a single behavioral sign (e.g., line bisection), with lack of proof from pure right-to-left readers. The present study contributed to this issue by analyzing multiple attentional and motor indexes in monolingual Italian (i.e., reading from left-to-right), and monolingual (i.e., reading from right-to-left) and bilingual Israeli (i.e., reading from right-to-left in Hebrew but also from left-to-right in English) participants' visuospatial performance. Subjects were administered a computerized standard star cancellation task and a modified version in which English letters and words were replaced by Hebrew ones. Tasks were presented on a graphics tablet, allowing recording of both chronometric and spatial parameters (i.e., measured in (x, y) vector coordinates). Results showed that reading direction modulated the on-line visuomotor performance (i.e., left-to-right vs. right-to-left shifts) from the beginning (i.e., first mark) to the end of the task (i.e., spatial distribution of omissions and subjective epicenter). Additionally, the spatial bias observed in a computerized line bisection task was also related to the participants' habitual reading direction. Overall, the results favor the proposal of an Interactive Account of visuospatial asymmetries, according to which both cultural factors, such as the directional scanning associated with language processing, and biological factors, such as hemispheric specialization, modulate visuospatial processing. Results are discussed in light of recent behavioral and neuroanatomical findings.

  19. Covert spatial attention is functionally intact in amblyopic human adults

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Mariel; Cymerman, Rachel; Smith, R. Theodore; Kiorpes, Lynne; Carrasco, Marisa

    2016-01-01

    Certain abnormalities in behavioral performance and neural signaling have been attributed to a deficit of visual attention in amblyopia, a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by a diverse array of visual deficits following abnormal binocular childhood experience. Critically, most have inferred attention's role in their task without explicitly manipulating and measuring its effects against a baseline condition. Here, we directly investigate whether human amblyopic adults benefit from covert spatial attention—the selective processing of visual information in the absence of eye movements—to the same degree as neurotypical observers. We manipulated both involuntary (Experiment 1) and voluntary (Experiment 2) attention during an orientation discrimination task for which the effects of covert spatial attention have been well established in neurotypical and special populations. In both experiments, attention significantly improved accuracy and decreased reaction times to a similar extent (a) between the eyes of the amblyopic adults and (b) between the amblyopes and their age- and gender-matched controls. Moreover, deployment of voluntary attention away from the target location significantly impaired task performance (Experiment 2). The magnitudes of the involuntary and voluntary attention benefits did not correlate with amblyopic depth or severity. Both groups of observers showed canonical performance fields (better performance along the horizontal than vertical meridian and at the lower than upper vertical meridian) and similar effects of attention across locations. Despite their characteristic low-level vision impairments, covert spatial attention remains functionally intact in human amblyopic adults. PMID:28033433

  20. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: etiology and pharmacotherapy.

    PubMed

    Noorbala, Ahmad-Ali; Akhondzadeh, Shahin

    2006-10-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder is a common neurobehavioral disorder of childhood and adolescence. The etiology of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder is not well understood. Neurochemical studies suggest, alterations in catecholaminergic, mainly dopaminergic and noradrenergic, transmitter functions markedly contribute to the symptoms of this disorder. The symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder are significantly ameliorated by the agents that specifically influence these neurotransmitters. Animal studies implicate areas of the brain in which these neurotransmitters are most dominant. Psychostimulant medications are generally the first choice in the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Approximately 70% of the children treated show improvement in the primary attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms and in comorbidity such as conduct disorder, although the benefits may not hold beyond two years. Despite the well-established efficacy and safety of stimulants for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, alternative medicines are still needed for several reasons. About 30% of children and adolescents with this disorder may not respond to stimulants or may be unable to tolerate potential adverse events such as decreased appetite, mood lability and sleep disturbances. Although stimulants do not increase the risk for later substance abuse in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, concerns have been raised about special prescription rules and a potential for abuse by persons other than the attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder subjects. This review focuses on etiology, assessment, and treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

  1. Recent theoretical, neural, and clinical advances in sustained attention research.

    PubMed

    Fortenbaugh, Francesca C; DeGutis, Joseph; Esterman, Michael

    2017-03-05

    Models of attention often distinguish among attention subtypes, with classic models separating orienting, switching, and sustaining functions. Compared with other forms of attention, the neurophysiological basis of sustaining attention has received far less notice, yet it is known that momentary failures of sustained attention can have far-ranging negative effects in healthy individuals, and lasting sustained attention deficits are pervasive in clinical populations. In recent years, however, there has been increased interest in characterizing moment-to-moment fluctuations in sustained attention, in addition to the overall vigilance decrement, and understanding how these neurocognitive systems change over the life span and across various clinical populations. The use of novel neuroimaging paradigms and statistical approaches has allowed for better characterization of the neural networks supporting sustained attention and has highlighted dynamic interactions within and across multiple distributed networks that predict behavioral performance. These advances have also provided potential biomarkers to identify individuals with sustained attention deficits. These findings have led to new theoretical models explaining why sustaining focused attention is a challenge for individuals and form the basis for the next generation of sustained attention research, which seeks to accurately diagnose and develop theoretically driven treatments for sustained attention deficits that affect a variety of clinical populations.

  2. Obstructive Sleep Apnea Mimics Attention Deficit Disorder.

    PubMed

    Blesch, Lauri; Breese McCoy, Sarah J

    2016-01-01

    Attention deficit and hyperactivity are known possible symptoms or correlates of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). However, these associations may be missed in children, because children often fail to report excessive daytime sleepiness, and attention deficit disorder (ADD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are common primary diagnoses in themselves. We report on a 17-year-old, slender, non-snoring male who presented to his pediatrician with a prolonged history of four complaints: inattention, fidgeting, frequent sinusitis, and somnolence. He was diagnosed with ADHD, while the somnolence, which often abated somewhat upon use of antibiotics for sinusitis, was attributed to the sinus infections. A later sleep study revealed OSA, and thorough additional testing proved that the original ADHD diagnosis was in error. All four conditions were allayed with proper use of a continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) machine.

  3. Attentional Modulation of Binocular Rivalry

    PubMed Central

    Paffen, Chris L. E.; Alais, David

    2011-01-01

    Ever since Wheatstone initiated the scientific study of binocular rivalry, it has been debated whether the phenomenon is under attentional control. In recent years, the issue of attentional modulation of binocular rivalry has seen a revival. Here we review the classical studies as well as recent advances in the study of attentional modulation of binocular rivalry. We show that (1) voluntary control over binocular rivalry is possible, yet limited, (2) both endogenous and exogenous attention influence perceptual dominance during rivalry, (3) diverting attention from rival displays does not arrest perceptual alternations, and that (4) rival targets by themselves can also attract attention. From a theoretical perspective, we suggest that attention affects binocular rivalry by modulating the effective contrast of the images in competition. This contrast enhancing effect of top-down attention is counteracted by a response attenuating effect of neural adaptation at early levels of visual processing, which weakens the response to the dominant image. Moreover, we conclude that although frontal and parietal brain areas involved in both binocular rivalry and visual attention overlap, an adapting reciprocal inhibition arrangement at early visual cortex is sufficient to trigger switches in perceptual dominance independently of a higher-level “selection” mechanisms. Both of these processes are reciprocal and therefore self-balancing, with the consequence that complete attentional control over binocular rivalry can never be realized. PMID:22046156

  4. Attentional Lapses of Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Tasks of Sustained Attention.

    PubMed

    Gmehlin, Dennis; Fuermaier, Anselm B M; Walther, Stephan; Tucha, Lara; Koerts, Janneke; Lange, Klaus W; Tucha, Oliver; Weisbrod, Matthias; Aschenbrenner, Steffen

    2016-06-01

    Adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) show attentional dysfunction such as distractibility and mind-wandering, especially in lengthy tasks. However, fundamentals of dysfunction are ambiguous and relationships of neuropsychological test parameters with self-report measures of ADHD symptoms are marginal. We hypothesize that basic deficits in sustaining attention explain more complex attentional dysfunction in persons with ADHD and relate to ADHD symptoms. Attentional function was analyzed by computing ex-Gaussian parameters for 3 time Blocks in a 20 min test of sustained alertness. Changes in performance across these blocks were analyzed by comparing adult persons with ADHD (n = 24) with healthy matched controls (n = 24) and correlated with neuropsychological measures of selective and divided attention as well as self-report measures of ADHD symptoms. We found a significantly steeper increase in the number of slow responses (ex-Gaussian parameter τ) in persons with ADHD with time on task in basic sustained alertness. They also performed significantly worse in tasks of sustained selective and divided attention. However, after controlling for an increase in τ during the alertness task, significant differences between groups disappeared for divided and partly selective attention. Increases in τ in the sustained alertness task correlated significantly with self-report measures of ADHD symptoms. Our results provide evidence that very basic deficits in sustaining attention in adults with ADHD are related to infrequent slow responses (=attentional lapses), with changes over time being relevant for more complex attentional function and experienced ADHD symptoms in everyday life.

  5. Platelet additive solution - electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Azuma, Hiroshi; Hirayama, Junichi; Akino, Mitsuaki; Ikeda, Hisami

    2011-06-01

    Recent attention to solutions that replace most or all plasma in platelet concentrates, while maintaining satisfactory platelet function, is motivated by the potential of plasma reduction or depletion to mitigate various transfusion-related adverse events. This report considers the electrolytic composition of previously described platelet additive solutions, in order to draw general conclusions about what is required for platelet function and longevity. The optimal concentrations of Na(+) and Cl(-) are 69-115 mM. The presence of both K(+) and Mg(2+) in platelet suspension at nearly physiological concentrations (3-5mM and 1.5-3mM, respectively) is indispensable for good preservation capacity because both electrolytes are required to prevent platelet activation. In contrast to K(+) and Mg(2+), Ca(2+) may not be important because no free Ca(2+) is available in M-sol, which showed excellent platelet preservation capacity at less than 5% plasma concentration. The importance of bicarbonate (approximately 40 mM) can be recognized when the platelets are suspended in additive solution under less than 5% residual plasma concentration.

  6. 9 CFR 112.7 - Special additional requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... humans, and a warning to the user to avoid infecting his eyes shall be included on the enclosure. (b) In... provided in this paragraph. (1) That vaccine be administered to animals at 3 months of age or older, with a... immunity studies conducted as prescribed in § 113.209, paragraph (b) or (c), or both. (d) In the case of...

  7. 9 CFR 112.7 - Special additional requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... humans, and a warning to the user to avoid infecting his eyes shall be included on the enclosure. (b) In... provided in this paragraph. (1) That vaccine be administered to animals at 3 months of age or older, with a... immunity studies conducted as prescribed in § 113.209, paragraph (b) or (c), or both. (d) In the case of...

  8. 9 CFR 112.7 - Special additional requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... humans, and a warning to the user to avoid infecting his eyes shall be included on the enclosure. (b) In... provided in this paragraph. (1) That vaccine be administered to animals at 3 months of age or older, with a... immunity studies conducted as prescribed in § 113.209, paragraph (b) or (c), or both. (d) In the case of...

  9. 9 CFR 112.7 - Special additional requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... humans, and a warning to the user to avoid infecting his eyes shall be included on the enclosure. (b) In... provided in this paragraph. (1) That vaccine be administered to animals at 3 months of age or older, with a... immunity studies conducted as prescribed in § 113.209, paragraph (b) or (c), or both. (d) In the case of...

  10. 9 CFR 112.7 - Special additional requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... humans, and a warning to the user to avoid infecting his eyes shall be included on the enclosure. (b) In... provided in this paragraph. (1) That vaccine be administered to animals at 3 months of age or older, with a... immunity studies conducted as prescribed in § 113.209, paragraph (b) or (c), or both. (d) In the case of...

  11. Attention to individual identities modulates face processing.

    PubMed

    Ruz, María; Aranda, Clara; Sarmiento, Beatriz R; Sanabria, Daniel

    2015-05-01

    The ability of attention to apply in a flexible manner to several types of information at various stages of processing has been studied extensively. However, the susceptibility of these effects to the nature of the idiosyncratic items being attended is less understood. In the current study, we used symbolic cues to orient the attention of participants to the subsequent appearance of the face of a famous person (the former king of Spain) or an unfamiliar face. These were matched in perceptual characteristics. Behavioral effects showed that face-specific attention optimized response speed in an orthogonal task when the target matched the cue (valid trials) compared to when it did not (invalid trials). According to topographical analyses of the electrophysiological data, the famous and unfamiliar faces engaged dissociable brain circuits in two different temporal windows, from 144 to 300 ms after target processing, and at a later 456-492 ms epoch. In addition, orienting attention to specific faces modulated the perceptual stages reflected in the P1 and N170 potentials but with a different laterality pattern that depended on the familiarity of the faces. Whereas only attention to the famous face enhanced the P1 potential at left posterior electrodes, with no corresponding effect for the unfamiliar face at this stage, the N170 was modulated at left posterior sites for the famous item and at right homologous electrodes for the unfamiliar face. Intermediate processing stages, previously linked to facial identity processing indexed by the P2 and N2 potentials, reflected item familiarity but were not affected by the cueing manipulation. At the P3 level, attention influenced again item processing but did so in an equivalent manner for the famous and unfamiliar face. Our results, showing that identity-specific attention modulates perceptual stages of facial processing at different locations depending on idiosyncratic stimulus familiarity, may inform comparison of studies

  12. Time-of-day variation of visuo-spatial attention.

    PubMed

    Fimm, Bruno; Brand, Tanja; Spijkers, Will

    2016-05-01

    Time-of-day variation of visuo-spatial attention in relation to body temperature and subjective arousal was assessed. At five different times of day, alertness, covert, and overt orienting of attention were assessed in fifteen healthy subjects. Based on previous studies reporting a tight coupling of alerting and orienting the present study investigates potential attentional asymmetries induced by diurnal variations of arousal. Both covert and overt orienting of attention improved in the course of the day. However, no asymmetries between left and right visual hemifields could be detected. Covert orienting additionally covaried with body temperature, indicating a quite close relation between the attentional arousal and orienting system. Conversely, overt orienting only improved due to repeated testing but did not correlate with body temperature suggesting a partial independence of both modes of attentional orienting. It can be assumed that due to limited diurnal variations of arousal in the participants and practice effects caused by repeated testing, no attentional asymmetries could be provoked.

  13. Transition Care for Children With Special Health Care Needs

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Alaina M.; Brown, Rebekah F.; Taylor, Julie Lounds; Epstein, Richard A.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Approximately 750 000 children in the United States with special health care needs will transition from pediatric to adult care annually. Fewer than half receive adequate transition care. METHODS: We had conversations with key informants representing clinicians who provide transition care, pediatric and adult providers of services for individuals with special health care needs, policy experts, and researchers; searched online sources for information about currently available programs and resources; and conducted a literature search to identify research on the effectiveness of transition programs. RESULTS: We identified 25 studies evaluating transition care programs. Most (n = 8) were conducted in populations with diabetes, with a smaller literature (n = 5) on transplant patients. We identified an additional 12 studies on a range of conditions, with no more than 2 studies on the same condition. Common components of care included use of a transition coordinator, a special clinic for young adults in transition, and provision of educational materials. CONCLUSIONS: The issue of how to provide transition care for children with special health care needs warrants further attention. Research needs are wide ranging, including both substantive and methodologic concerns. Although there is widespread agreement on the need for adequate transition programs, there is no accepted way to measure transition success. It will be essential to establish consistent goals to build an adequate body of literature to affect practice. PMID:25287460

  14. A Primer on Attention Deficit Disorder. Fastback 354.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fouse, Beth; Brians, Suzanne

    This pamphlet explains briefly what is known about attention deficit disorders (ADD), to help parents and educators have a more positive influence on the ADD child's life. It begins with definitions of terminology; characteristics of preschool, school-age, and adult individuals with ADD; and causes of ADD. It discusses special problems associated…

  15. Attentional Bias as Trait: Correlations with Novelty Seeking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomer, Rachel

    2008-01-01

    Pseudoneglect is traditionally viewed as reflecting right hemisphere specialization for processing spatial information, which brings about relatively greater activation of the right hemisphere and orienting towards the contralateral space. Such interpretation implies that the leftward attentional bias is a population trait. Animal studies,…

  16. School-Based Treatment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, Brandon K.; Storer, Jennifer; Watabe, Yuko; Sadler, Joanna; Evans, Steven W.

    2011-01-01

    The authors review the research literature regarding school-based treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Students with ADHD often do not receive access to special services, even though the impairments associated with the disorder often compromise learning and cause concerns for classroom teachers, school administrators, and…

  17. How Attention Affects Spatial Resolution

    PubMed Central

    Carrasco, Marisa; Barbot, Antoine

    2015-01-01

    We summarize and discuss a series of psychophysical studies on the effects of spatial covert attention on spatial resolution, our ability to discriminate fine patterns. Heightened resolution is beneficial in most, but not all, visual tasks. We show how endogenous attention (voluntary, goal driven) and exogenous attention (involuntary, stimulus driven) affect performance on a variety of tasks mediated by spatial resolution, such as visual search, crowding, acuity, and texture segmentation. Exogenous attention is an automatic mechanism that increases resolution regardless of whether it helps or hinders performance. In contrast, endogenous attention flexibly adjusts resolution to optimize performance according to task demands. We illustrate how psychophysical studies can reveal the underlying mechanisms of these effects and allow us to draw linking hypotheses with known neurophysiological effects of attention. PMID:25948640

  18. Treatment of the special patient with schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Conley, Robert R.; Kelly, Deanna L.

    2001-01-01

    Special patient populations with schizophrenia have received little attention. These populations include adolescents, the elderly, substance abusers, and patients who are considered treatment-resistant. Interest in these populations is rapidly growing, especially with regard to their treatment with second-generation antipsychotics. This article describes the treatment of special patient populations and summarizes the research that has been done in this field. PMID:22034474

  19. Special Education in Swedish and Finnish Schools: Seeing the Forest or the Trees?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takala, Marjatta; Ahl, Astrid

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to study the content of the work of two special education professions in Sweden, special teachers and special pedagogues. In addition, we compare their work to the work of Finnish special teachers. The Swedish participants were 74 special educators: 27 special teachers and 47 special pedagogues. The Finnish data…

  20. Preparatory attention in visual cortex.

    PubMed

    Battistoni, Elisa; Stein, Timo; Peelen, Marius V

    2017-03-02

    Top-down attention is the mechanism that allows us to selectively process goal-relevant aspects of a scene while ignoring irrelevant aspects. A large body of research has characterized the effects of attention on neural activity evoked by a visual stimulus. However, attention also includes a preparatory phase before stimulus onset in which the attended dimension is internally represented. Here, we review neurophysiological, functional magnetic resonance imaging, magnetoencephalography, electroencephalography, and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) studies investigating the neural basis of preparatory attention, both when attention is directed to a location in space and when it is directed to nonspatial stimulus attributes (content-based attention) ranging from low-level features to object categories. Results show that both spatial and content-based attention lead to increased baseline activity in neural populations that selectively code for the attended attribute. TMS studies provide evidence that this preparatory activity is causally related to subsequent attentional selection and behavioral performance. Attention thus acts by preactivating selective neurons in the visual cortex before stimulus onset. This appears to be a general mechanism that can operate on multiple levels of representation. We discuss the functional relevance of this mechanism, its limitations, and its relation to working memory, imagery, and expectation. We conclude by outlining open questions and future directions.

  1. Attentional cueing: fearful body postures capture attention with saccades.

    PubMed

    Bannerman, Rachel L; Milders, Maarten; Sahraie, Arash

    2010-05-01

    According to theories of attention and emotion, threat-related stimuli (e.g., negative facial expressions) capture and hold attention. Despite these theories, previous examination of attentional cueing by threat showed no enhanced capture at brief durations. One explanation for the absence of attentional capture effects may be related to the sensitivity of the manual response measure employed. Here we extended beyond facial expressions and investigated the time course of orienting attention towards fearful body postures in the exogenous cueing task. Cue duration (20, 40, 60, or 100 ms), orientation (upright or inverted), and response mode (saccadic eye movement or manual keypress) were manipulated across three experiments. In the saccade mode, both enhanced attentional capture and impaired disengagement from fearful bodies were evident and limited to rapid cue durations (20 and 40 ms), suggesting that saccadic cueing effects emerge rapidly and are short lived. In the manual mode, fearful bodies impacted only upon the disengagement component of attention at 100 ms, suggesting that manual cueing effects emerge over longer periods of time. No cueing modulation was found for inverted presentation, suggesting that valence, not low-level image confounds, was responsible for the cueing effects. Importantly, saccades could reveal threat biases at brief cue durations consistent with current theories of emotion and attention.

  2. Provocative Mathematics Questions: Drawing Attention to a Lack of Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klymchuk, Sergiy

    2015-01-01

    The article investigates the role of attention in the reflective thinking of school mathematics teachers. It analyses teachers' ability to pay attention to detail and "use" their mathematical knowledge. The vast majority of teachers can be expected to have an excellent knowledge of mathematical techniques. The question examined here is…

  3. Attentional Capture with Rapidly Changing Attentional Control Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lien, Mei-Ching; Ruthruff, Eric; Johnston, James C.

    2010-01-01

    The classic theory of spatial attention hypothesized 2 modes, voluntary and involuntary. Folk, Remington, and Johnston (1992) reported that even involuntary attention capture by stimuli requires a match between stimulus properties and what the observer is looking for. This surprising conclusion has been confirmed by many subsequent studies. In…

  4. The attention habit: how reward learning shapes attentional selection.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Brian A

    2016-04-01

    There is growing consensus that reward plays an important role in the control of attention. Until recently, reward was thought to influence attention indirectly by modulating task-specific motivation and its effects on voluntary control over selection. Such an account was consistent with the goal-directed (endogenous) versus stimulus-driven (exogenous) framework that had long dominated the field of attention research. Now, a different perspective is emerging. Demonstrations that previously reward-associated stimuli can automatically capture attention even when physically inconspicuous and task-irrelevant challenge previously held assumptions about attentional control. The idea that attentional selection can be value driven, reflecting a distinct and previously unrecognized control mechanism, has gained traction. Since these early demonstrations, the influence of reward learning on attention has rapidly become an area of intense investigation, sparking many new insights. The result is an emerging picture of how the reward system of the brain automatically biases information processing. Here, I review the progress that has been made in this area, synthesizing a wealth of recent evidence to provide an integrated, up-to-date account of value-driven attention and some of its broader implications.

  5. Difficulty of Discrimination Modulates Attentional Capture by Regulating Attentional Focus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawaki, Risa; Katayama, Jun'ichi

    2009-01-01

    Attentional capture for distractors is enhanced by increasing the difficulty of discrimination between the standard and the target in the three-stimulus oddball paradigm. In this study, we investigated the cognitive mechanism of this modulation of attentional capture. Event-related brain potentials were recorded from participants while they…

  6. The effect of threat on attentional interruption by pain.

    PubMed

    Moore, David J; Keogh, Edmund; Eccleston, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Pain is known to interrupt attention. This interruption is highly sensitive to the extent of involvement of both attentional control and the level of threat associated with the sensation. However, few studies have examined these factors together. This study aimed to examine the interruptive effect of pain on higher-order attentional tasks under conditions of low and high threat. Fifty participants completed an n-back task, an attentional switching task, and a divided attention task, once in pain and once without pain. Twenty-five participants were given standard task instructions (control condition), and the remainder were given additional verbal information designed to increase threat (threat condition). Pain interrupted participant performance on both the n-back and attentional switching task, but not on the divided attention task. The addition of the threat manipulation did not seem to significantly alter the effect of pain on these attentional tasks. However, independent of pain, threat did moderate performance on the divided attention task. These findings support the robustness of the effect of pain on performance on higher-order attention tasks. Future research is needed to examine what factors alter the cognitive interruption caused by pain.

  7. Shifting Attentional Priorities: Control of Spatial Attention through Hemispheric Competition

    PubMed Central

    Szczepanski, Sara M.; Kastner, Sabine

    2013-01-01

    Regions of frontal and posterior parietal cortex are known to control the allocation of spatial attention across the visual field. However, the neural mechanisms underlying attentional control in the intact human brain remain unclear, with some studies supporting a hemispatial theory emphasizing a dominant function of the right hemisphere and others supporting an interhemispheric competition theory. We previously found neural evidence to support the latter account, in which topographically organized frontoparietal areas each generate a spatial bias, or “attentional weight,” toward the contralateral hemifield, with the sum of the weights constituting the overall bias that can be exerted across visual space. Here, we used a multimodal approach consisting of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of spatial attention signals, behavioral measures of spatial bias, and fMRI-guided single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to causally test this interhemispheric competition account. Across the group of fMRI subjects, we found substantial individual differences in the strengths of the frontoparietal attentional weights in each hemisphere, which predicted subjects’ respective behavioral preferences when allocating spatial attention, as measured by a landmark task. Using TMS to interfere with attentional processing within specific topographic frontoparietal areas, we then demonstrated that the attentional weights of individual subjects, and thus their spatial attention behavior, could be predictably shifted toward one visual field or the other, depending on the site of interference. The results of our multimodal approach, combined with an emphasis on neural and behavioral individual differences, provide compelling evidence that spatial attention is controlled through competitive interactions between hemispheres rather than a dominant right hemisphere in the intact human brain. PMID:23516306

  8. Attention in a Bayesian Framework

    PubMed Central

    Whiteley, Louise; Sahani, Maneesh

    2012-01-01

    The behavioral phenomena of sensory attention are thought to reflect the allocation of a limited processing resource, but there is little consensus on the nature of the resource or why it should be limited. Here we argue that a fundamental bottleneck emerges naturally within Bayesian models of perception, and use this observation to frame a new computational account of the need for, and action of, attention – unifying diverse attentional phenomena in a way that goes beyond previous inferential, probabilistic and Bayesian models. Attentional effects are most evident in cluttered environments, and include both selective phenomena, where attention is invoked by cues that point to particular stimuli, and integrative phenomena, where attention is invoked dynamically by endogenous processing. However, most previous Bayesian accounts of attention have focused on describing relatively simple experimental settings, where cues shape expectations about a small number of upcoming stimuli and thus convey “prior” information about clearly defined objects. While operationally consistent with the experiments it seeks to describe, this view of attention as prior seems to miss many essential elements of both its selective and integrative roles, and thus cannot be easily extended to complex environments. We suggest that the resource bottleneck stems from the computational intractability of exact perceptual inference in complex settings, and that attention reflects an evolved mechanism for approximate inference which can be shaped to refine the local accuracy of perception. We show that this approach extends the simple picture of attention as prior, so as to provide a unified and computationally driven account of both selective and integrative attentional phenomena. PMID:22712010

  9. Enclothed Cognition and Controlled Attention during Insight Problem-Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Stockum, Charles A., Jr.; DeCaro, Marci S.

    2014-01-01

    Individual differences in working memory capacity (WMC) increase the ability and tendency to devote greater attentional control to a task--improving performance on a wide range of skills. In addition, recent research on enclothed cognition demonstrates that the situational influence of wearing a white lab coat increases controlled attention, due…

  10. Concrete Operations and Attentional Capacity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Michael; Lindenberger, Ulman

    1989-01-01

    To test predictions regarding the attentional capacity requirements of Piaget's stage of concrete operations, a battery of concrete operational tasks and two measures of attentional capacity were administered to 120 first-, second-, and third-graders. Findings concern class inclusion, transitivity of length and weight, and multiplication of…

  11. Caffeine Modulates Attention Network Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunye, Tad T.; Mahoney, Caroline R.; Lieberman, Harris R.; Taylor, Holly A.

    2010-01-01

    The present work investigated the effects of caffeine (0 mg, 100 mg, 200 mg, 400 mg) on a flanker task designed to test Posner's three visual attention network functions: alerting, orienting, and executive control [Posner, M. I. (2004). "Cognitive neuroscience of attention". New York, NY: Guilford Press]. In a placebo-controlled, double-blind…

  12. Brain Mechanisms of Attentional Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilke, Thomas

    Lack of attentional control--inability to concentrate--has often made the difference between successful and unsuccessful performance on the part of athletes. Attention is controlled neurologically by a very complex interaction of a large portion of the cerebrum and is not localized to any one structure. The mechanism involves a memory retrieval…

  13. Visuospatial selective attention in chickens.

    PubMed

    Sridharan, Devarajan; Ramamurthy, Deepa L; Schwarz, Jason S; Knudsen, Eric I

    2014-05-13

    Voluntary control of attention promotes intelligent, adaptive behaviors by enabling the selective processing of information that is most relevant for making decisions. Despite extensive research on attention in primates, the capacity for selective attention in nonprimate species has never been quantified. Here we demonstrate selective attention in chickens by applying protocols that have been used to characterize visual spatial attention in primates. Chickens were trained to localize and report the vertical position of a target in the presence of task-relevant distracters. A spatial cue, the location of which varied across individual trials, indicated the horizontal, but not vertical, position of the upcoming target. Spatial cueing improved localization performance: accuracy (d') increased and reaction times decreased in a space-specific manner. Distracters severely impaired perceptual performance, and this impairment was greatly reduced by spatial cueing. Signal detection analysis with an "indecision" model demonstrated that spatial cueing significantly increased choice certainty in localizing targets. By contrast, error-aversion certainty (certainty of not making an error) remained essentially constant across cueing protocols, target contrasts, and individuals. The results show that chickens shift spatial attention rapidly and dynamically, following principles of stimulus selection that closely parallel those documented in primates. The findings suggest that the mechanisms that control attention have been conserved through evolution, and establish chickens--a highly visual species that is easily trained and amenable to cutting-edge experimental technologies--as an attractive model for linking behavior to neural mechanisms of selective attention.

  14. Caffeine modulates attention network function.

    PubMed

    Brunyé, Tad T; Mahoney, Caroline R; Lieberman, Harris R; Taylor, Holly A

    2010-03-01

    The present work investigated the effects of caffeine (0mg, 100mg, 200mg, 400mg) on a flanker task designed to test Posner's three visual attention network functions: alerting, orienting, and executive control [Posner, M. I. (2004). Cognitive neuroscience of attention. New York, NY: Guilford Press]. In a placebo-controlled, double-blind study using a repeated-measures design, we found that the effects of caffeine on visual attention vary as a function of dose and the attention network under examination. Caffeine improved alerting and executive control function in a dose-response manner, asymptoting at 200mg; this effect is congruent with caffeine's adenosine-mediated effects on dopamine-rich areas of brain, and the involvement of these areas in alerting and the executive control of visual attention. Higher doses of caffeine also led to a marginally less efficient allocation of visual attention towards cued regions during task performance (i.e., orienting). Taken together, results of this study demonstrate that caffeine has differential effects on visual attention networks as a function of dose, and such effects have implications for hypothesized interactions of caffeine, adenosine and dopamine in brain areas mediating visual attention.

  15. Exogenous Attention Enables Perceptual Learning.

    PubMed

    Szpiro, Sarit F A; Carrasco, Marisa

    2015-12-01

    Practice can improve visual perception, and these improvements are considered to be a form of brain plasticity. Training-induced learning is time-consuming and requires hundreds of trials across multiple days. The process of learning acquisition is understudied. Can learning acquisition be potentiated by manipulating visual attentional cues? We developed a protocol in which we used task-irrelevant cues for between-groups manipulation of attention during training. We found that training with exogenous attention can enable the acquisition of learning. Remarkably, this learning was maintained even when observers were subsequently tested under neutral conditions, which indicates that a change in perception was involved. Our study is the first to isolate the effects of exogenous attention and to demonstrate its efficacy to enable learning. We propose that exogenous attention boosts perceptual learning by enhancing stimulus encoding.

  16. Social reward shapes attentional biases.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Brian A

    2016-01-01

    Paying attention to stimuli that predict a reward outcome is important for an organism to survive and thrive. When visual stimuli are associated with tangible, extrinsic rewards such as money or food, these stimuli acquire high attentional priority and come to automatically capture attention. In humans and other primates, however, many behaviors are not motivated directly by such extrinsic rewards, but rather by the social feedback that results from performing those behaviors. In the present study, I examine whether positive social feedback can similarly influence attentional bias. The results show that stimuli previously associated with a high probability of positive social feedback elicit value-driven attentional capture, much like stimuli associated with extrinsic rewards. Unlike with extrinsic rewards, however, such stimuli also influence task-specific motivation. My findings offer a potential mechanism by which social reward shapes the information that we prioritize when perceiving the world around us.

  17. Special Education Teacher Training in the United States Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welle, Kangichy R.

    1979-01-01

    With reference to the cultural and linguistic factors operative in Micronesia, the author outlines the development of special education there. Particular attention is given to the special education teacher training program at the Community College of Micronesia. (SJL)

  18. Combining segmentation and attention: a new foveal attention model

    PubMed Central

    Marfil, Rebeca; Palomino, Antonio J.; Bandera, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Artificial vision systems cannot process all the information that they receive from the world in real time because it is highly expensive and inefficient in terms of computational cost. Inspired by biological perception systems, artificial attention models pursuit to select only the relevant part of the scene. On human vision, it is also well established that these units of attention are not merely spatial but closely related to perceptual objects (proto-objects). This implies a strong bidirectional relationship between segmentation and attention processes. While the segmentation process is the responsible to extract the proto-objects from the scene, attention can guide segmentation, arising the concept of foveal attention. When the focus of attention is deployed from one visual unit to another, the rest of the scene is perceived but at a lower resolution that the focused object. The result is a multi-resolution visual perception in which the fovea, a dimple on the central retina, provides the highest resolution vision. In this paper, a bottom-up foveal attention model is presented. In this model the input image is a foveal image represented using a Cartesian Foveal Geometry (CFG), which encodes the field of view of the sensor as a fovea (placed in the focus of attention) surrounded by a set of concentric rings with decreasing resolution. Then multi-resolution perceptual segmentation is performed by building a foveal polygon using the Bounded Irregular Pyramid (BIP). Bottom-up attention is enclosed in the same structure, allowing to set the fovea over the most salient image proto-object. Saliency is computed as a linear combination of multiple low level features such as color and intensity contrast, symmetry, orientation and roundness. Obtained results from natural images show that the performance of the combination of hierarchical foveal segmentation and saliency estimation is good in terms of accuracy and speed. PMID:25177289

  19. Attentional Biases in Currently Depressed Children: An Eye-Tracking Study of Biases in Sustained Attention to Emotional Stimuli.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Ashley Johnson; Gibb, Brandon E

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive theories state attentional biases contribute to the development and maintenance of depression. Like depressed adults, there is growing evidence for the presence of attentional biases to sad stimuli in depressed youth. Although the direction of this bias among children remains unclear, preliminary evidence indicates attentional avoidance of sad stimuli in children. This is the first known sudy to use eye-tracking to investigate the exact nature of attention biases among depressed children. To assess sustained attention, the current study used eye-tracking and a passive viewing task in which children viewed a series of four facial expressions (angry, happy, sad, neutral) presented simultatiously for 20 s on a computer screen. The current study compared the attentional allocation of currently depressed children (n = 19; M age = 11.21) to a group of never depressed children (n = 22; M age = 10.82). Consistent with earlier research with children, we found that children with current major or minor depression, compared to children with no history of depression, exhibited attentional avoidance of sad facial stimuil as well as some evidence for preferential attention to happy faces. This study provides additional evidence that although depressed children demonstrate mood congruent attentional biases like that observed depressed adults, the nature of these biases may reflect attentional avoidance of sad stimuli, rather than preferential attention.

  20. The relationship between adolescents' pain catastrophizing and attention bias to pain faces is moderated by attention control.

    PubMed

    Heathcote, Lauren C; Vervoort, Tine; Eccleston, Christopher; Fox, Elaine; Jacobs, Konrad; Van Ryckeghem, Dimitri M L; Lau, Jennifer Y F

    2015-07-01

    This study considered the attentional functioning of adolescents with varying levels of pain catastrophizing. Specifically, we investigated the relationship between pain catastrophizing and attention bias to pain facial expressions. Furthermore, drawing on dual process models in the context of pain, we investigated the moderating role of attention control on this relationship. Adolescents (N = 73; age, 16-18 years) performed a dot-probe task in which facial expressions of pain and neutral expressions were presented for 100 milliseconds and 1250 milliseconds. Participants also completed self-report pain catastrophizing and attention control measures. We found that although there was no main effect of pain catastrophizing on attention bias towards pain faces, attention control did significantly moderate this relationship. Further analysis revealed that lower levels of attention control were significantly associated with increasing attentional vigilance towards pain faces only within high catastrophizing adolescents. In addition, we found that poorer attention control was related to increased attention bias for pain faces (regardless of pain catastrophizing level) when these faces were presented for relatively longer durations (ie, 1250 milliseconds) but not for short durations (ie, 100 milliseconds). This study supports a dual process model of attentional processes in pain, thus replicating previous findings within the psychopathology literature but extending them to the study of pain. Theoretical and clinical implications of our findings are discussed.

  1. Modulation of visual attention by object affordance

    PubMed Central

    Garrido-Vásquez, Patricia; Schubö, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Some objects in our environment are strongly tied to motor actions, a phenomenon called object affordance. A cup, for example, affords us to reach out to it and grasp it by its handle. Studies indicate that merely viewing an affording object triggers motor activations in the brain. The present study investigated whether object affordance would also result in an attention bias, that is, whether observers would rather attend to graspable objects within reach compared to non-graspable but reachable objects or to graspable objects out of reach. To this end, we conducted a combined reaction time and motion tracking study with a table in a virtual three-dimensional space. Two objects were positioned on the table, one near, the other one far from the observer. In each trial, two graspable objects, two non-graspable objects, or a combination of both was presented. Participants were instructed to detect a probe appearing on one of the objects as quickly as possible. Detection times served as indirect measure of attention allocation. The motor association with the graspable object was additionally enhanced by having participants grasp a real object in some of the trials. We hypothesized that visual attention would be preferentially allocated to the near graspable object, which should be reflected in reduced reaction times in this condition. Our results confirm this assumption: probe detection was fastest at the graspable object at the near position compared to the far position or to a non-graspable object. A follow-up experiment revealed that in addition to object affordance per se, immediate graspability of an affording object may also influence this near-space advantage. Our results suggest that visuospatial attention is preferentially allocated to affording objects which are immediately graspable, and thus establish a strong link between an object’ s motor affordance and visual attention. PMID:24567725

  2. Specialization and School Organization: Investigating Pedagogic Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoadley, Ursula; Galant, Jaamia

    2016-01-01

    Drawing on Bernstein's notion of pedagogic culture or the "mode of being" of the school, this paper develops and uses a theoretical framework for the analysis of school organization that draws attention to specialization of instructional practice. An understanding of the ordering principles of the school emerges from the analysis,…

  3. Special Population Planner for Emergency Management

    SciTech Connect

    2003-04-17

    The SPP is a tool for use by emergency management agencies in creating plans for possible events requiring their attention. It incorporates extensive data including those on special needs populations so that this segment of the population will be considered in general plans.

  4. Extended attention span training system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pope, Alan T.; Bogart, Edward H.

    1991-01-01

    Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) is a behavioral disorder characterized by the inability to sustain attention long enough to perform activities such as schoolwork or organized play. Treatments for this disorder include medication and brainwave biofeedback training. Brainwave biofeedback training systems feed back information to the trainee showing him how well he is producing the brainwave pattern that indicates attention. The Extended Attention Span Training (EAST) system takes the concept a step further by making a video game more difficult as the player's brainwaves indicate that attention is waning. The trainee can succeed at the game only by maintaining an adequate level of attention. The EAST system is a modification of a biocybernetic system that is currently being used to assess the extent to which automated flight management systems maintain pilot engagement. This biocybernetic system is a product of a program aimed at developing methods to evaluate automated flight deck designs for compatibility with human capabilities. The EAST technology can make a contribution in the fields of medical neuropsychology and neurology, where the emphasis is on cautious, conservative treatment of youngsters with attention disorders.

  5. Brain Connectivity and Visual Attention

    PubMed Central

    Parks, Emily L.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Emerging hypotheses suggest that efficient cognitive functioning requires the integration of separate, but interconnected cortical networks in the brain. Although task-related measures of brain activity suggest that a frontoparietal network is associated with the control of attention, little is known regarding how components within this distributed network act together or with other networks to achieve various attentional functions. This review considers both functional and structural studies of brain connectivity, as complemented by behavioral and task-related neuroimaging data. These studies show converging results: The frontal and parietal cortical regions are active together, over time, and identifiable frontoparietal networks are active in relation to specific task demands. However, the spontaneous, low-frequency fluctuations of brain activity that occur in the resting state, without specific task demands, also exhibit patterns of connectivity that closely resemble the task-related, frontoparietal attention networks. Both task-related and resting-state networks exhibit consistent relations to behavioral measures of attention. Further, anatomical structure, particularly white matter pathways as defined by diffusion tensor imaging, places constraints on intrinsic functional connectivity. Lastly, connectivity analyses applied to investigate cognitive differences across individuals in both healthy and diseased states suggest that disconnection of attentional networks is linked to deficits in cognitive functioning, and in extreme cases, to disorders of attention. Thus, comprehensive theories of visual attention and their clinical translation depend on the continued integration of behavioral, task-related neuroimaging, and brain connectivity measures. PMID:23597177

  6. Brain connectivity and visual attention.

    PubMed

    Parks, Emily L; Madden, David J

    2013-01-01

    Emerging hypotheses suggest that efficient cognitive functioning requires the integration of separate, but interconnected cortical networks in the brain. Although task-related measures of brain activity suggest that a frontoparietal network is associated with the control of attention, little is known regarding how components within this distributed network act together or with other networks to achieve various attentional functions. This review considers both functional and structural studies of brain connectivity, as complemented by behavioral and task-related neuroimaging data. These studies show converging results: The frontal and parietal cortical regions are active together, over time, and identifiable frontoparietal networks are active in relation to specific task demands. However, the spontaneous, low-frequency fluctuations of brain activity that occur in the resting state, without specific task demands, also exhibit patterns of connectivity that closely resemble the task-related, frontoparietal attention networks. Both task-related and resting-state networks exhibit consistent relations to behavioral measures of attention. Further, anatomical structure, particularly white matter pathways as defined by diffusion tensor imaging, places constraints on intrinsic functional connectivity. Lastly, connectivity analyses applied to investigate cognitive differences across individuals in both healthy and diseased states suggest that disconnection of attentional networks is linked to deficits in cognitive functioning, and in extreme cases, to disorders of attention. Thus, comprehensive theories of visual attention and their clinical translation depend on the continued integration of behavioral, task-related neuroimaging, and brain connectivity measures.

  7. Comparison of Alcohol Impairment of Behavioral and Attentional Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Weafer, Jessica; Fillmore, Mark T.

    2012-01-01

    Background Despite the wealth of studies demonstrating the impairing effects of alcohol on behavioral inhibition, less is known regarding effects of the drug on attentional inhibition (i.e., the ability to ignore distracting stimuli in the environment in order to focus attention on relevant information). The current study examined alcohol impairment of both behavioral and attentional inhibition, as well as potential associations between the two mechanisms of inhibitory control. Methods Men (n = 27) and women (n = 21) performed a measure of behavioral inhibition (cued go/no-go task) and a measure of attentional inhibition (delayed ocular return task) following three doses of alcohol: 0.65 g/kg, 0.45 g/kg, and 0.0 g/kg (placebo). Results Alcohol impaired both behavioral and attentional inhibition relative to placebo; however, correlational analyses revealed no associations between measures of behavioral and attentional inhibition following any dose. Additionally, men committed more inhibitory failures on the behavioral inhibition task, whereas women committed more inhibitory failures on the attentional inhibition task. Conclusions These findings suggest that behavioral and attentional inhibition are equally sensitive to the impairing effects of alcohol, yet represent distinct components of inhibitory control. Additionally, the observed gender differences in control of behavior and attention could have important implications regarding negative consequences associated with alcohol-induced disinhibition in men and women. PMID:22673197

  8. Rewards teach visual selective attention.

    PubMed

    Chelazzi, Leonardo; Perlato, Andrea; Santandrea, Elisa; Della Libera, Chiara

    2013-06-07

    Visual selective attention is the brain function that modulates ongoing processing of retinal input in order for selected representations to gain privileged access to perceptual awareness and guide behavior. Enhanced analysis of currently relevant or otherwise salient information is often accompanied by suppressed processing of the less relevant or salient input. Recent findings indicate that rewards exert a powerful influence on the deployment of visual selective attention. Such influence takes different forms depending on the specific protocol adopted in the given study. In some cases, the prospect of earning a larger reward in relation to a specific stimulus or location biases attention accordingly in order to maximize overall gain. This is mediated by an effect of reward acting as a type of incentive motivation for the strategic control of attention. In contrast, reward delivery can directly alter the processing of specific stimuli by increasing their attentional priority, and this can be measured even when rewards are no longer involved, reflecting a form of reward-mediated attentional learning. As a further development, recent work demonstrates that rewards can affect attentional learning in dissociable ways depending on whether rewards are perceived as feedback on performance or instead are registered as random-like events occurring during task performance. Specifically, it appears that visual selective attention is shaped by two distinct reward-related learning mechanisms: one requiring active monitoring of performance and outcome, and a second one detecting the sheer association between objects in the environment (whether attended or ignored) and the more-or-less rewarding events that accompany them. Overall this emerging literature demonstrates unequivocally that rewards "teach" visual selective attention so that processing resources will be allocated to objects, features and locations which are likely to optimize the organism's interaction with the

  9. Contingent attentional capture or delayed allocation of attention?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remington, R. W.; Folk, C. L.; McLean, J. P.

    2001-01-01

    Under certain circumstances, external stimuli will elicit an involuntary shift of spatial attention, referred to as attentional capture. According to the contingent involuntary orienting account (Folk, Remington, & Johnston, 1992), capture is conditioned by top-down factors that set attention to respond involuntarily to stimulus properties relevant to one's behavioral goals. Evidence for this comes from spatial cuing studies showing that a spatial cuing effect is observed only when cues have goal-relevant properties. Here, we examine alternative, decision-level explanations of the spatial cuing effect that attribute evidence of capture to postpresentation delays in the voluntary allocation of attention, rather than to on-line involuntary shifts in direct response to the cue. In three spatial cuing experiments, delayed-allocation accounts were tested by examining whether items at the cued location were preferentially processed. The experiments provide evidence that costs and benefits in spatial cuing experiments do reflect the on-line capture of attention. The implications of these results for models of attentional control are discussed.

  10. Relevance drives attention: Attentional bias for gain- and loss-related stimuli is driven by delayed disengagement.

    PubMed

    Müller, Sascha; Rothermund, Klaus; Wentura, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    Attentional bias to gain- and loss-related stimuli was investigated in a dot-probe task. We used coloured stimuli that had acquired their valence during the experiment by signalling the chance to either win or lose points in a game task. Replicating previous findings with the additional singleton paradigm, we found attentional bias effects for both gain- and loss-related colours. The effects were due to delayed disengagement from valent stimuli, especially if they were positive, and could not be explained by nonattentional processes like behavioural freezing. Our findings suggest that stimuli signalling opportunities and dangers hold attention, supporting a general motivational relevance principle of the orienting of attention.

  11. The Commingled Division of Visual Attention

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yuechuan; Wu, Sijing; Spence, Ian

    2015-01-01

    Many critical activities require visual attention to be distributed simultaneously among distinct tasks where the attended foci are not spatially separated. In our two experiments, participants performed a large number of trials where both a primary task (enumeration of spots) and a secondary task (reporting the presence/absence or identity of a distinctive shape) required the division of visual attention. The spots and the shape were commingled spatially and the shape appeared unpredictably on a relatively small fraction of the trials. The secondary task stimulus (the shape) was reported in inverse proportion to the attentional load imposed by the primary task (enumeration of spots). When the shape did appear, performance on the primary task (enumeration) suffered relative to when the shape was absent; both speed and accuracy were compromised. When the secondary task required identification in addition to detection, reaction times increased by about 200 percent. These results are broadly compatible with biased competition models of perceptual processing. An important area of application, where the commingled division of visual attention is required, is the augmented reality head-up display (AR-HUD). This innovation has the potential to make operating vehicles safer but our data suggest that there are significant concerns regarding driver distraction. PMID:26076144

  12. Selective Attention and Cognitive Control.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-05-01

    considered to be attentional disorders . 13 i~ Acknovledgemnts This research supported by 001 contract 1100014-83-K-0601. DEP is a Klonsanto, Fellov of the...RECIPICOOT S CATALOG NNEMR f*- fI L (.I@ S-610110 S, TYPE 07 REPORT a PIER’oO COVIERCO Selective Attention and Cognitive Control Final Report 6 PERFORMING...34* ft’"b -spatial attention , visual perception, neural systems, parietal lobe, frontal lobe, language ABSTRACT (Coo, "Be am @*Wes* Rme~r- in*Ie~d by W

  13. Additive-free controllable fabrication of bismuth vanadates and their photocatalytic activity toward dye degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Yingna; Yang, Xia; Ma, Fengyan; Li, Kexin; Xu, Lei; Yuan, Xing; Guo, Yihang

    2010-01-01

    Bismuth vanadates (BiVO 4) with various crystal structures (tetragonal scheelite, monoclinic scheelite, and tetragonal zircon) and morphologies (sphere-, nanosheet-, dendrite-, and flower-like) were controllably fabricated by using a mild additive-free hydrothermal treatment process under the different preparation conditions. The crystal structures, morphologies, and photophysical properties of the products were well-characterized. Subsequently, their UV- as well as visible-light photocatalytic performance was evaluated via dyes rhodamine B (RB) and methylene blue (MB) degradation. Special attention was paid to evaluate the correlation of the reactivity with crystal structure, morphology, and electronic structure of as-prepared BiVO 4 samples.

  14. The contribution of working memory to divided attention.

    PubMed

    Santangelo, Valerio; Macaluso, Emiliano

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated that increasing working memory (WM) load can affect the attentional selection of signals originating from one object/location. Here we assessed whether WM load affects also the selection of multiple objects/locations (divided attention). Participants monitored either two object-categories (vs. one category; object-based divided attention) or two locations (vs. one location; space-based divided attention) while maintaining in WM either a variable number of objects (object-based WM load) or locations (space-based WM load). Behavioural results showed that WM load affected attentional performance irrespective of divided or focused attention. However, fMRI results showed that the activity associated with object-based divided attention increased linearly with increasing object-based WM load in the left and right intraparietal sulcus (IPS); while, in the same areas, activity associated with space-based divided attention was not affected by any type of WM load. These findings support the hypothesis that WM contributes to the maintenance of resource-demanding attentional sets in a domain-specific manner. Moreover, the dissociable impact of WM load on performance and brain activity suggests that increased IPS activation reflects a recruitment of additional, domain-specific processing resources that enable dual-task performance under conditions of high WM load and high attentional demand.

  15. Saccade latency indexes exogenous and endogenous object-based attention.

    PubMed

    Şentürk, Gözde; Greenberg, Adam S; Liu, Taosheng

    2016-10-01

    Classic studies of object-based attention have utilized keypress responses as the main dependent measure. However, people typically make saccades to fixate important objects. Recent work has shown that attention may act differently when it is deployed covertly versus in advance of a saccade. We further investigated the link between saccades and attention by examining whether object-based effects can be observed for saccades. We adapted the classical double-rectangle cueing paradigm of Egly, Driver, and Rafal (1994), and measured both the first saccade latency and the keypress reaction time (RT) to a target that appeared at the end of one of the two rectangles. Our results showed that saccade latencies exhibited higher sensitivity than did RTs for detecting effects of attention. We also assessed the generality of the attention effects by testing three types of cues: hybrid (predictive and peripheral), exogenous (nonpredictive and peripheral), and endogenous (predictive and central). We found that both RTs and saccade latencies exhibited effects of both space-based and object-based attentional selection. However, saccade latencies showed a more robust attentional modulation than RTs. For the exogenous cues, we observed a spatial inhibition of return along with an object-based effect, implying that object-based attention is independent of space-based attention. Overall, our results revealed an oculomotor correlate of object-based attention, suggesting that, in addition to spatial priority, object-level priority also affects saccade planning.

  16. Effects of Psychiatric Symptoms on Attention in North Korean Refugees

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yu Jin; Jun, Jin Yong; Park, Juhyun; Kim, Soohyun; Gwak, Ah Reum; Lee, So Hee; Yoo, So Young

    2016-01-01

    Objective We investigated the performance of North Korean refugees on attention tasks, and the relationship between that performance and psychiatric symptoms. Methods Sustained and divided attention was assessed using the computerized Comprehensive Attention Test in North Korean refugees and in South Koreans. All participants also completed the Beck Depression Inventory, the Beck Anxiety Inventory, the Impact of Event Scale-Revised and the Dissociative Experiences Scale-II (DES-II). Results The North Korean refugees showed slower reaction times (RTs) on the visual sustained attention task compared to the South Koreans after controlling for age and sex. North Korean refugees had a greater number of omission errors (OEs) on the divided attention task and a higher standard deviation (SD) of RT. Total DES-II scores of the North Korean refugees were associated with the number of OEs and the SD of RT on the sustained attention task, and with the number of OEs on the divided attention task. Conclusion North Korean refugees showed poorer performance on computerized attention tasks. In addition, attention deficit among North Korean refugees was associated with their dissociative experiences. Our results suggest that refugees may have attention deficits, which may be related to their psychiatric symptoms, particularly dissociation. PMID:27757125

  17. [GEITDAH consensus on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder].

    PubMed

    Montañés-Rada, F; Gastaminza-Pérez, X; Catalá, M A; Ruiz-Sanz, F; Ruiz-Lázaro, P M; Herreros-Rodríguez, O; García-Giral, M; Ortiz-Guerra, J; Alda-Díez, J A; Mojarro-Práxedes, D; Cantó-Díez, T; Mardomingo-Sanz, M J; Sasot-Llevadot, J; Pàmias, M; Rey-Sánchez, F

    2010-11-16

    In this article, the GEITDAH -the Spanish abbreviation of the Special Interest Group on Attention Deficit Hyper-activity Disorder (ADHD)- presents a consensus reached by experts in the management of ADHD from all over Spain. The consensus concerns fundamental aspects that should be the starting point for future local or regional consensus guides. Another aim of this consensus is also to reduce the amount of variability that occurs in the health care offered to patients with ADHD in our country, as well as to act as a stimulus in educational matters. That fact that it is not very long will make it more popular among greater numbers of people and this will allow these goals to be reached more effectively. The conclusions in the consensus guide have been constructed around an introduction dealing with basic aspects and recommendations for diagnosis, treatment (both pharmacological and psychotherapeutic), patient flow and organisational aspects.

  18. Mindfulness training affects attention--or is it attentional effort?

    PubMed

    Jensen, Christian Gaden; Vangkilde, Signe; Frokjaer, Vibe; Hasselbalch, Steen G

    2012-02-01

    Improvements in attentional performance are at the core of proposed mechanisms for stress reduction in mindfulness meditation practices. However, this claim can be questioned because no previous studies have actively manipulated test effort in control groups and controlled for effects of stress reduction per se. In a blinded design, 48 young, healthy meditation novices were randomly assigned to a mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR), nonmindfulness stress reduction (NMSR), or inactive control group. At posttest, inactive controls were randomly split into nonincentive and incentive controls, the latter receiving a financial reward to improve attentional performance. Pre- and postintervention, 5 validated attention paradigms were employed along with self-report scales on mindfulness and perceived stress and saliva cortisol samples to measure physiological stress. Attentional effects of MBSR, NMSR, and the financial incentive were comparable or significantly larger in the incentive group on all reaction-time-based measures. However, selective attention in the MBSR group improved significantly more than in any other group. Similarly, only the MBSR intervention improved the threshold for conscious perception and visual working memory capacity. Furthermore, stress-reducing effects of MBSR were supported because those in the MBSR group showed significantly less perceived and physiological stress while increasing their mindfulness levels significantly. We argue that MBSR may contribute uniquely to attentional improvements but that further research focusing on non-reaction-time-based measures and outcomes less confounded by test effort is needed. Critically, our data demonstrate that previously observed improvements of attention after MBSR may be seriously confounded by test effort and nonmindfulness stress reduction.

  19. Bridging prediction and attention in current research on perception and action.

    PubMed

    Schröger, Erich; Kotz, Sonja A; SanMiguel, Iria

    2015-11-11

    Prediction and attention are fundamental brain functions in the service of perception and action. Theories on prediction relate to neural (mental) models inferring about (present or future) sensory or action-related information, whereas theories of attention are about the control of information flow underlying perception and action. Both concepts are related and not always clearly distinguishable. The special issue includes current research on prediction and attention in various subfields of perception and action. It especially considers interactions between predictive and attentive processes, which constitute a newly emerging and highly interesting field of research. As outlined in this editorial, the contributions in this special issue allow specifying as well as bridging concepts on prediction and attention. The joint consideration of prediction and attention also reveals common functional principles of perception and action.

  20. Self-Regulated Strategy Development for Written Expression with Students with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Robert; Lienemann, Torri Ortiz

    2006-01-01

    Children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at increased risk of academic difficulties and special education placement (Barkley, 1998). One academic area, written expression, has received little research attention. This study assessed the effectiveness of a validated strategy instruction model--Self-Regulated Strategy…

  1. Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montessori, Maria

    2016-01-01

    "The Advanced Montessori Method, Volume 1" was published in 1918 in English and is considered a seminal work along with "The Montessori Method." In the foreword to this book, Mario Montessori writes: "...the refulgent figure of the child, Dr. Montessori pointed out, who had found his own path to mental health, who…

  2. Online Course Designs: Are Special Needs Being Met?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeler, Christy G.; Horney, Mark

    2007-01-01

    This article addresses the intersections between online education and special education in terms of instructional design. The relevant elements of online instructional design, which require particular attention when teaching students with special needs, are examined. The overall finding is that contemporary courses generally include design…

  3. Language Interpretation for Diverse Families: Considerations for Special Education Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    More, Cori M.; Hart, Juliet E.; Cheatham, Gregory A.

    2013-01-01

    The special education field is challenged by a lack of attention to and recruitment of well-trained language interpreters in schools. As such, special education teachers need to take a leadership role in working with interpreters to ensure diverse families are collaborative members of individualized education program (IEP) teams. Using the…

  4. Recent Legal Developments of Interest to Special Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zirkel, Perry A.

    2013-01-01

    An overview is provided of five recent legal developments that merit special attention of special educators: (a) the amended Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (IDEIA) regulations concerning parental consent, including subsequent agency interpretations concerning their practical application; (b) the IDEIA provisions and…

  5. Computer vocabulary training in kindergarten children with special needs.

    PubMed

    Segers, Eliane; Nooijen, Miranda; de Moor, Jan

    2006-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether vocabulary training on a computer can enhance vocabulary learning of young children with special needs and whether the task-on-behaviour of these children differed when story reading was carried out by the teacher or by the computer. An experimental group (n=9) listened to a story read to them by the computer and played additional computer vocabulary games during three 20-min sessions. The control group (n=9) had the same story read to them by a teacher and then followed the normal school curriculum. The results showed that children with special needs were equally able to keep their attention on the story when it was read to them by the computer as when it was read to them by the teacher. For vocabulary growth, the intervention showed positive effects. The children from the experimental group learned more experimental words between the pre-test and retention test than the children in the control group. The study shows that a group of kindergarten children with special needs can enhance their vocabulary by working with a computer program without human intervention.

  6. Does mindfulness meditation improve attention in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder?

    PubMed Central

    Modesto-Lowe, Vania; Farahmand, Pantea; Chaplin, Margaret; Sarro, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) manifests by high levels of inattention, impulsiveness and hyperactivity. ADHD starts in childhood and results in impairments that continue into adulthood. While hyperactivity declines over time, inattention and executive function difficulties persist, leading to functional deficits. Adolescents and adults with ADHD have pervasive impairment in interpersonal and family relationships. They may develop addiction, delinquent behavior and comorbid psychiatric disorders. Despite advances in diagnosis and treatment, persistent residual symptoms are common, highlighting the need for novel treatment strategies. Mindfulness training, derived from Eastern meditation practices, may improve self-regulation of attention. It may also be a useful strategy to augment standard ADHD treatments and may be used as a potential tool to reduce impairments in patients with residual symptoms of ADHD. Clinically, this would manifest by an increased ability to suppress task-unrelated thoughts and distractions resulting in improved attention, completion of tasks and potential improvement in occupational and social function. PMID:26740931

  7. Attention trees and semantic paths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giusti, Christian; Pieroni, Goffredo G.; Pieroni, Laura

    2007-02-01

    In the last few decades several techniques for image content extraction, often based on segmentation, have been proposed. It has been suggested that under the assumption of very general image content, segmentation becomes unstable and classification becomes unreliable. According to recent psychological theories, certain image regions attract the attention of human observers more than others and, generally, the image main meaning appears concentrated in those regions. Initially, regions attracting our attention are perceived as a whole and hypotheses on their content are formulated; successively the components of those regions are carefully analyzed and a more precise interpretation is reached. It is interesting to observe that an image decomposition process performed according to these psychological visual attention theories might present advantages with respect to a traditional segmentation approach. In this paper we propose an automatic procedure generating image decomposition based on the detection of visual attention regions. A new clustering algorithm taking advantage of the Delaunay- Voronoi diagrams for achieving the decomposition target is proposed. By applying that algorithm recursively, starting from the whole image, a transformation of the image into a tree of related meaningful regions is obtained (Attention Tree). Successively, a semantic interpretation of the leaf nodes is carried out by using a structure of Neural Networks (Neural Tree) assisted by a knowledge base (Ontology Net). Starting from leaf nodes, paths toward the root node across the Attention Tree are attempted. The task of the path consists in relating the semantics of each child-parent node pair and, consequently, in merging the corresponding image regions. The relationship detected in this way between two tree nodes generates, as a result, the extension of the interpreted image area through each step of the path. The construction of several Attention Trees has been performed and partial

  8. Emotion regulation, attention to emotion, and the ventral attentional network

    PubMed Central

    Viviani, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Accounts of the effect of emotional information on behavioral response and current models of emotion regulation are based on two opposed but interacting processes: automatic bottom-up processes (triggered by emotionally arousing stimuli) and top-down control processes (mapped to prefrontal cortical areas). Data on the existence of a third attentional network operating without recourse to limited-capacity processes but influencing response raise the issue of how it is integrated in emotion regulation. We summarize here data from attention to emotion, voluntary emotion regulation, and on the origin of biases against negative content suggesting that the ventral network is modulated by exposure to emotional stimuli when the task does not constrain the handling of emotional content. In the parietal lobes, preferential activation of ventral areas associated with “bottom-up” attention by ventral network theorists is strongest in studies of cognitive reappraisal. In conditions when no explicit instruction is given to change one's response to emotional stimuli, control of emotionally arousing stimuli is observed without concomitant activation of the dorsal attentional network, replaced by a shift of activation toward ventral areas. In contrast, in studies where emotional stimuli are placed in the role of distracter, the observed deactivation of these ventral semantic association areas is consistent with the existence of proactive control on the role emotional representations are allowed to take in generating response. It is here argued that attentional orienting mechanisms located in the ventral network constitute an intermediate kind of process, with features only partially in common with effortful and automatic processes, which plays an important role in handling emotion by conveying the influence of semantic networks, with which the ventral network is co-localized. Current neuroimaging work in emotion regulation has neglected this system by focusing on a bottom

  9. Spatial attention is necessary for object-based attention: Evidence from temporal-order judgments.

    PubMed

    Donovan, Ian; Pratt, Jay; Shomstein, Sarah

    2017-04-01

    Attentional selection is a dynamic process that relies on multiple types of representations. That object representations contribute to attentional selection has been known for decades; however, most evidence for this contribution has been gleaned from studies that have relied on various forms of spatial cueing (some endogenous and some exogenous). It has thus remained unclear whether object-based attentional selection is a direct result of spatial cuing, or whether it still emerges without any spatial marker. Here we used a novel method-the temporal-order judgment (TOJ)-to examine whether object-based guidance emerges in the absence of spatial cuing. Participants were presented with two rectangles oriented either horizontally or vertically. Following a 150-ms preview time, two target stimuli were presented on the same or on different objects, and participants were asked to report which of the two stimuli had appeared first. The targets consisted of stimuli that formed a percept of a "hole" or a "hill." First, we demonstrated that the "hill" target was indeed processed faster, as evidenced by a positive perceived simultaneity (PSS) measure. We then demonstrated that if two targets appeared with equal probabilities on the same and on different objects, the PSS values, although positive, were not modulated by the objects. In a subsequent set of experiments, we showed that objects can modulate attentional allocation-however, only when they are biased by a spatial (endogenous) cue. In other words, in the absence of a spatial cue or bias, object representations do not guide attentional selection. In addition to providing new constraints for theories of object-based attentional guidance, these experiments introduce a novel paradigm for measuring object-based attentional effects.

  10. Development of attention networks and their interactions in childhood.

    PubMed

    Pozuelos, Joan P; Paz-Alonso, Pedro M; Castillo, Alejandro; Fuentes, Luis J; Rueda, M Rosario

    2014-10-01

    In the present study, we investigated developmental trajectories of alerting, orienting, and executive attention networks and their interactions over childhood. Two cross-sectional experiments were conducted with different samples of 6- to 12-year-old children using modified versions of the attention network task (ANT). In Experiment 1 (N = 106), alerting and orienting cues were independently manipulated, thus allowing examination of interactions between these 2 networks, as well as between them and the executive attention network. In Experiment 2 (N = 159), additional changes were made to the task in order to foster exogenous orienting cues. Results from both studies consistently revealed separate developmental trajectories for each attention network. Children younger than 7 years exhibited stronger benefits from having an alerting auditory signal prior to the target presentation. Developmental changes in orienting were mostly observed on response accuracy between middle and late childhood, whereas executive attention showed increases in efficiency between 7 years and older ages, and further improvements in late childhood. Of importance, across both experiments, significant interactions between alerting and orienting, as well as between each of these and the executive attention network, were observed. Alerting cues led to speeding shifts of attention and enhancing orienting processes. Also, both alerting and orienting cues modulated the magnitude of the flanker interference effect. These findings inform current theoretical models of human attention and its development, characterizing for the first time, the age-related course of attention networks interactions that, present in adults, stem from further refinements over childhood.

  11. Multiple Sensory-Motor Pathways Lead to Coordinated Visual Attention.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chen; Smith, Linda B

    2017-02-01

    Joint attention has been extensively studied in the developmental literature because of overwhelming evidence that the ability to socially coordinate visual attention to an object is essential to healthy developmental outcomes, including language learning. The goal of this study was to understand the complex system of sensory-motor behaviors that may underlie the establishment of joint attention between parents and toddlers. In an experimental task, parents and toddlers played together with multiple toys. We objectively measured joint attention-and the sensory-motor behaviors that underlie it-using a dual head-mounted eye-tracking system and frame-by-frame coding of manual actions. By tracking the momentary visual fixations and hand actions of each participant, we precisely determined just how often they fixated on the same object at the same time, the visual behaviors that preceded joint attention and manual behaviors that preceded and co-occurred with joint attention. We found that multiple sequential sensory-motor patterns lead to joint attention. In addition, there are developmental changes in this multi-pathway system evidenced as variations in strength among multiple routes. We propose that coordinated visual attention between parents and toddlers is primarily a sensory-motor behavior. Skill in achieving coordinated visual attention in social settings-like skills in other sensory-motor domains-emerges from multiple pathways to the same functional end.

  12. Mississippi Special Olympics: Special Events Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinze, Toni; Cooper, Walter E.

    Provided in the manual are organizational guidelines and suggested activities for a Special Evants segment of the Mississippi Special Olympics Program to encourage participation by low motor functioning, multihandicapped, mentally retarded persons. Information is provided concerning objectives, organizational set-up, guidelines, communication…

  13. SPECIAL CLASSES FOR STUDENTS WITH SPECIAL NEEDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DOWELL, G.L.

    A SPECIAL 3-YEAR TRAINING PROGRAM IN FARM POWER AND MACHINERY WAS DEVELOPED TO PROVIDE FOR DIFFERENT LEVELS OF STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT AND TO HELP MEET THE NEED FOR SKILLED WORKERS IN THE MISSISSIPPI DELTA AREA. CHANGES IN THE LEARNING ENVIRONMENT OF STUDENTS TRANSFERRED FROM REGULAR VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE CLASSES TO THE SPECIAL CLASSES PROVIDE A MORE…

  14. Argentina: OGJ special

    SciTech Connect

    Aalund, L.R.

    1995-02-13

    The deregulation and privatization of major Argentine industries has set off a boom in the oil industry, which is now open from exploration and production through basic petrochemicals and beyond, to anyone from anywhere. The quest for greater efficiency and application of advanced technology is now the order of the day. The author reports that Argentina is like a new world compared to the country he visited during assignments there in 1987 and 1991. What hasn't changed, his following articles show, is that YPF, the former state company, is still the dominant player though it has sold off billions in assets. The three articles in this special report are: privatization of state company catalyzes Argentina oil industry; YPF refineries aiming for world class operations; and YPF launches diverse attack in pursuit of production. An additional brief report is given on YPF executives.

  15. Pay Attention! Demonstrating the Role of Attention in Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsen, Janet D.

    1991-01-01

    Describes a demonstration to illustrate the importance of knowing what is supposed to be learned before studying begins. Suggests that the exercise may be used to show the basic elements of a scientific experiment. Explains that attention's effect upon memory is shown by students' tendency to remember best what they are told to remember. (DK)

  16. Attention Deficits, Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, and Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deutsch, Curtis K.; Dube, William V.; McIlvane, William J.

    2008-01-01

    Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and its earlier nosologic classifications have been extensively investigated since the 1960s, with PubMed listings alone exceeding 13,000 entries. Strides have been made in the diagnosis and treatment of ADHD in individuals with intellectual function in the normal range, as described in companion…

  17. SPATIAL NEGLECT AND ATTENTION NETWORKS

    PubMed Central

    Corbetta, Maurizio; Shulman, Gordon L.

    2013-01-01

    Unilateral spatial neglect is a common neurological syndrome following predominantly right hemisphere injuries to ventral fronto-parietal cortex. We propose that neglect reflects deficits in the coding of saliency, control of spatial attention, and representation within an egocentric frame of reference, in conjunction with non-spatial deficits of reorienting, target detection, and arousal/vigilance. In contrast to theories that link spatial neglect to structural damage of specific brain regions, we argue that neglect is better explained by the physiological dysfunction of distributed cortical networks. The ventral lesions in right parietal, temporal, and frontal cortex that cause neglect directly impair non-spatial functions and hypoactivate the right hemisphere, inducing abnormalities in task-evoked activity and functional connectivity of a dorsal frontal-parietal network that controls spatial attention. The anatomy and right hemisphere dominance of neglect follows from the anatomy and laterality of the ventral regions that interact with the dorsal attention network. PMID:21692662

  18. Mindful movement and skilled attention.

    PubMed

    Clark, Dav; Schumann, Frank; Mostofsky, Stewart H

    2015-01-01

    Bodily movement has long been employed as a foundation for cultivating mental skills such as attention, self-control or mindfulness, with recent studies documenting the positive impacts of mindful movement training, such as yoga and tai chi. A parallel "mind-body connection" has also been observed in many developmental disorders. We elaborate a spectrum of mindfulness by considering ADHD, in which deficient motor control correlates with impaired (disinhibited) behavioral control contributing to defining features of excessive distractibility and impulsivity. These data provide evidence for an important axis of variation for wellbeing, in which skillful cognitive control covaries with a capacity for skillful movement. We review empirical and theoretical literature on attention, cognitive control, mind wandering, mindfulness and skill learning, endorsing a model of skilled attention in which motor plans, attention, and executive goals are seen as mutually co-defining aspects of skilled behavior that are linked by reciprocal inhibitory and excitatory connections. Thus, any movement training should engage "higher-order" inhibition and selection and develop a repertoire of rehearsed procedures that coordinate goals, attention and motor plans. However, we propose that mindful movement practice may improve the functional quality of rehearsed procedures, cultivating a transferrable skill of attention. We adopt Langer's spectrum of mindful learning that spans from "mindlessness" to engagement with the details of the present task and contrast this with the mental attitudes cultivated in standard mindfulness meditation. We particularly follow Feldenkrais' suggestion that mindful learning of skills for organizing the body in movement might transfer to other forms of mental activity. The results of mindful movement training should be observed in multiple complementary measures, and may have tremendous potential benefit for individuals with ADHD and other populations.

  19. Mindful movement and skilled attention

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Dav; Schumann, Frank; Mostofsky, Stewart H.

    2015-01-01

    Bodily movement has long been employed as a foundation for cultivating mental skills such as attention, self-control or mindfulness, with recent studies documenting the positive impacts of mindful movement training, such as yoga and tai chi. A parallel “mind-body connection” has also been observed in many developmental disorders. We elaborate a spectrum of mindfulness by considering ADHD, in which deficient motor control correlates with impaired (disinhibited) behavioral control contributing to defining features of excessive distractibility and impulsivity. These data provide evidence for an important axis of variation for wellbeing, in which skillful cognitive control covaries with a capacity for skillful movement. We review empirical and theoretical literature on attention, cognitive control, mind wandering, mindfulness and skill learning, endorsing a model of skilled attention in which motor plans, attention, and executive goals are seen as mutually co-defining aspects of skilled behavior that are linked by reciprocal inhibitory and excitatory connections. Thus, any movement training should engage “higher-order” inhibition and selection and develop a repertoire of rehearsed procedures that coordinate goals, attention and motor plans. However, we propose that mindful movement practice may improve the functional quality of rehearsed procedures, cultivating a transferrable skill of attention. We adopt Langer’s spectrum of mindful learning that spans from “mindlessness” to engagement with the details of the present task and contrast this with the mental attitudes cultivated in standard mindfulness meditation. We particularly follow Feldenkrais’ suggestion that mindful learning of skills for organizing the body in movement might transfer to other forms of mental activity. The results of mindful movement training should be observed in multiple complementary measures, and may have tremendous potential benefit for individuals with ADHD and other

  20. Special Education Finance in California. Technical Appendices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Laura; Warren, Paul; Murphy, Patrick; Ugo, Iwunze; Pathak, Aditi

    2016-01-01

    This document presents the technical appendices that accompany the full report, "Special Education Finance in California." The appendices include: (1) Problems with AB 602 and Other State Funding Programs for Special Education; (2) Additional Figures for Analysis of Distribution of Students with Disabilities; (3) Using Supplemental and…

  1. Special or Inclusive Education: Future Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florian, Lani

    2008-01-01

    In this article, Lani Florian, Professor of Social and Educational Inclusion at the University of Aberdeen, examines the relationships between "special" and "inclusive" education. She looks at the notion of specialist knowledge among teachers and at the roles adopted by staff working with pupils with "additional" or "special" needs in mainstream…

  2. Selective Attention in the Learning Disabled Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wooten, Ann M.

    The paper reviews literature relating to selective attention in the learning disabled child. Three processes related to the concept of selective attention (as proposed by D. Berlyne) are discussed: attention in learning, attention in remembering, and attention in performance. It is pointed out that verbal mediation, the use of verbal labels to…

  3. Pre-Service Special Education Teachers Acceptance and Use of ICT: A Structural Equation Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeni, Sabiha; Gecu-Parmaksiz, Zeynep

    2016-01-01

    Information and communication technology (ICT) supported education helps the individuals with special educational needs to take their attention to the course content and to concentrate their attention on the task they need to perform. The mechanical advantages of ICT tools make them attractive for individuals with special educational needs. If…

  4. Special Education Programs for Students with Intellectual Disability in Saudi Arabia: Issues and Recommendations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alnahdi, Ghaleb Hamad

    2014-01-01

    Special education services in Saudi Arabia have received much attention over the past 15 years. This increased attention has been reflected in the increasing amount of such services offered, including services aimed at students with intellectual disability. However, the enormous expansion of special education services was not followed by…

  5. Nonprofits: check your attention to customers.

    PubMed

    Andreasen, A R

    1982-01-01

    Nonprofit organizations chronically face financial difficulties. Now the situation has worsened because they are being squeezed between the uncertain economic climate and cutbacks in government support. While the managers of these institutions may think that they have already tried everything possible, more than ever they must be innovative in developing additional funding sources. As Mr. Andreasen argues, most nonprofits have failed to exploit marketing techniques which can build support from users or customers that leads to improved cash flow. The author contends that managers of nonprofit organizations focus too closely on their products or services; he admonishes them to give more attention to the needs and wants of their consumers.

  6. The development of attention skills in action video game players

    PubMed Central

    Dye, M.W.G.; Green, C.S.; Bavelier, D.

    2009-01-01

    Previous research suggests that action video game play improves attentional resources, allowing gamers to better allocate their attention across both space and time. In order to further characterize the plastic changes resulting from playing these video games, we administered the Attentional Network Test (ANT) to action game players and non-playing controls aged between 7 and 22 years. By employing a mixture of cues and flankers, the ANT provides measures of how well attention is allocated to targets as a function of alerting and orienting cues, and to what extent observers are able to filter out the influence of task irrelevant information flanking those targets. The data suggest that action video game players of all ages have enhanced attentional skills that allow them to make faster correct responses to targets, and leaves additional processing resources that spill over to process distractors flanking the targets. PMID:19428410

  7. The development of attention skills in action video game players.

    PubMed

    Dye, M W G; Green, C S; Bavelier, D

    2009-07-01

    Previous research suggests that action video game play improves attentional resources, allowing gamers to better allocate their attention across both space and time. In order to further characterize the plastic changes resulting from playing these video games, we administered the Attentional Network Test (ANT) to action game players and non-playing controls aged between 7 and 22 years. By employing a mixture of cues and flankers, the ANT provides measures of how well attention is allocated to targets as a function of alerting and orienting cues, and to what extent observers are able to filter out the influence of task irrelevant information flanking those targets. The data suggest that action video game players of all ages have enhanced attentional skills that allow them to make faster correct responses to targets, and leaves additional processing resources that spill over to process distractors flanking the targets.

  8. Working memory capacity as controlled attention in tactical decision making.

    PubMed

    Furley, Philip A; Memmert, Daniel

    2012-06-01

    The controlled attention theory of working memory capacity (WMC, Engle 2002) suggests that WMC represents a domain free limitation in the ability to control attention and is predictive of an individual's capability of staying focused, avoiding distraction and impulsive errors. In the present paper we test the predictive power of WMC in computer-based sport decision-making tasks. Experiment 1 demonstrated that high-WMC athletes were better able at focusing their attention on tactical decision making while blocking out irrelevant auditory distraction. Experiment 2 showed that high-WMC athletes were more successful at adapting their tactical decision making according to the situation instead of relying on prepotent inappropriate decisions. The present results provide additional but also unique support for the controlled attention theory of WMC by demonstrating that WMC is predictive of controlling attention in complex settings among different modalities and highlight the importance of working memory in tactical decision making.

  9. Attentional modulation of temporal contrast sensitivity in human vision.

    PubMed

    Motoyoshi, Isamu

    2011-04-25

    Recent psychophysical studies have shown that attention can alter contrast sensitivities for temporally broadband stimuli such as flashed gratings. The present study examined the effect of attention on the contrast sensitivity for temporally narrowband stimuli with various temporal frequencies. Observers were asked to detect a drifting grating of 0-40 Hz presented gradually in the peripheral visual field with or without a concurrent letter identification task in the fovea. We found that removal of attention by the concurrent task reduced the contrast sensitivity for gratings with low temporal frequencies much more profoundly than for gratings with high temporal frequencies and for flashed gratings. The analysis revealed that the temporal contrast sensitivity function had a more band-pass shape with poor attention. Additional experiments showed that this was also true when the target was presented in various levels of luminance noise. These results suggest that regardless of the presence of external noise, attention extensively modulates visual sensitivity for sustained retinal inputs.

  10. 77 FR 29453 - Applications for Modification of Special Permit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-17

    ... modification of special permits (e.g. to provide for additional hazardous materials, packaging design changes... Cascade Designs, 49 CFR To modify the special Inc. Seattle, WA. 173.304(d)(3)(ii); permit to authorize...

  11. Bullying and Youth with Disabilities and Special Health Needs

    MedlinePlus

    ... Youth with Special Health Needs Federal Civil Rights Laws and Youth with Disabilities Additional Resources Creating a Safe Environment for Youth with Disabilities Special considerations are needed when addressing bullying in youth with ...

  12. Attentional limitations with Head-Up Displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccann, Robert S.; Foyle, David C.; Johnston, James C.

    1993-01-01

    Recent models of visual information processing suggest that visual attention can be focussed on either Head-Up Displays (HUD) or on the world beyond them, but not on both simultaneously. This hypothesis was tested in a part-task simulation in which subjects viewed a simulated approach to a runway with a HUD superimposed. An alphanumeric cue ('IFR' or 'VFR') appeared on either the HUD or the runway and was followed by two sets of three geometric forms; one set on the HUD and one set on the runway. Each set contained one potential target, either a stop sign or a diamond. If the cue spelled 'IFR', subjects made a speeded response based on the identity of the HUD target; if the cue spelled 'VFR', subjects made a speeded response based on the identity of the runway target. Regardless of cue location (HUD or Runway), responses were faster when the cue and the relevant target were part of the same perceptual group (i.e., both on the HUD or both on the runway) than when they were part of different perceptual groups. These results, as well as others, suggest that attentional constraints place severe limits on the ability of pilots to process HUD-referenced information and world-referenced information simultaneously. In addition, they provide direct evidence that transitioning from processing HUD information to processing world information requires an attention shift. Implications for HUD design are considered.

  13. Self-focused Attention in Anorexia Nervosa

    PubMed Central

    Zucker, Nancy; Wagner, H. Ryan; Merwin, Rhonda; Bulik, Cynthia M.; Moskovich, Ashley; Keeling, Lori; Hoyle, Rick

    2015-01-01

    Objective The clinical presentation of anorexia nervosa (AN) is characterized by preoccupation with body experience, intrusive concerns regarding shape, and pathological fears of weight gain. These symptoms are suggestive of unrelenting self-focused attention. No research to date has characterized self-focused attention (SFA) in AN nor examined neurocognitive features that may facilitate an excessive, rigid, or sustained focus on one’s appearance. Method This study examined SFA, body image disturbance, and executive functioning in women with current anorexia nervosa (AN-C; n = 24), a history of AN who were weight-restored at the time of the study weight-restored (WR; n = 19), and healthy controls (n = 24). Results Private and public SFA were highest among WR and lowest among AN-C. Shape concerns were negatively correlated with SFA, especially among AN-C, after controlling for depression and social anxiety symptoms. Discussion Lower levels of SFA among AN-C were unexpected and suggest the acute state of AN may lessen pathological self-focus, negatively reinforcing symptoms. In addition, body image concerns may distract from general SFA. Deficits in executive attention may explain these findings, as each one unit increase in perseverative errors among AN-C participants was associated with an almost one-half unit decrease in public SFA. PMID:24899215

  14. Attention processes in chronic fatigue syndrome: attentional bias for health-related threat and the role of attentional control.

    PubMed

    Hou, Ruihua; Moss-Morris, Rona; Risdale, Anna; Lynch, Jeannette; Jeevaratnam, Preshan; Bradley, Brendan P; Mogg, Karin

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive behavioural models of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) propose that attention processes, specifically, enhanced selective attention to health-threat related cues, may play an important role in symptom maintenance. The current study investigated attentional bias towards health-threat stimuli in CFS. It also examined whether individuals with CFS have impaired executive attention, and whether this was related to attentional bias. 27 participants with CFS and 35 healthy controls completed a Visual Probe Task measuring attentional bias, and an Attention Network Test measuring executive attention, alerting and orienting. Participants also completed self-report measures of CFS and mood symptoms. Compared to the control group, the CFS group showed greater attentional bias for health-threat words than pictures; and the CFS group was significantly impaired in executive attention. Furthermore, CFS individuals with poor executive attention showed greater attentional bias to health-threat related words, compared not only to controls but also to CFS individuals with good executive attention. Thus, this study revealed a significant relationship between attentional bias and executive attention in CFS: attentional bias to threat was primarily evident in those with impaired executive attention control. Taking account of individual differences in executive attention control in current intervention models may be beneficial for CFS.

  15. Caffeine Modulates Attention Network Function

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    Function 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7...attention. (A. Caramazza Ed.). Cognitive neuropsychology and neurolinguistics (pp. 187- 210). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. Posner, M. I. (2004

  16. Attention maps in the brain

    PubMed Central

    Somers, David C.; Sheremata, Summer L.

    2014-01-01

    Over 20 distinct cerebral cortical areas contain spatial map representations of the visual field. These retinotopic, or visuotopic, cortical areas occur not only in the occipital lobe but also in the parietal, temporal, and frontal lobes. The cognitive influences of visuospatial attention operate via these cortical maps and can support selection of multiple objects at the same time. In early visual cortical areas, spatial attention enhances responses of selected items and diminishes the responses to distracting items. In higher order cortex, the maps support a spatial indexing role, keeping track of the items to be attended. These maps also support visual short-term memory (VSTM) representations. In each hemisphere, all the known maps respond selectively to stimuli presented within the contralateral visual field. However, a hemispheric asymmetry emerges when the attentional or VSTM demands of a task become significant. In the parietal lobe, the right hemisphere visuotopic maps switch from coding only contralateral visual targets to coding memory and attention targets across the entire visual field. This emergent asymmetry has important implications for understanding hemispatial neglect syndrome, and supports a dynamic network form of the representational model of neglect. PMID:25089167

  17. The Deployment of Visual Attention

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    Mishkin , 1982) that proposes a ventral pathway involved in object recognition and a dorsal pathway involved in localization and spatial attention...diagnostic for preattentive processing of seperable features. J. Exp. Psychol. - General, 114, 285-310. Ungerleider, L. G., & Mishkin , M. (1982). Two

  18. Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-01

    and their applications. Clinical Psychology Review , 5, 429-445. Gascon, G., Johnson, R. & Burd, L. (1986). Central auditory processing and attention...Rancurello, M.D. (1985). Childhood hyperactivity: An overview of rating scales and their applications. Clinical Psychology Review , 5, 429-445

  19. Infant Attention to Auditory Discrepancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinney, Dennis K.; Kagan, Jerome

    1976-01-01

    Groups of 7 1/2-month-old infants heard 1 of 8 episodes consisting of no, slight, moderate, or large discrepancy between a habituated standard and a transformed auditory stimulus. Patterns of cardiac deceleration supported the hypothesis that attentiveness is an inverted-U function of the degree of discrepancy between stimulus event and schema.…

  20. The Mechanisms of Involuntary Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prinzmetal, William; Ha, Ruby; Khani, Aniss

    2010-01-01

    We tested 3 mechanisms of involuntary attention: (1) a perceptual enhancement mechanism, (2) a response-decision mechanism, and (3) a serial-search mechanism. Experiment 1 used a response deadline technique to compare the perceptual enhancement and the decision mechanisms and found evidence consistent with the decision mechanism. Experiment 2 used…

  1. Attention and the Testing Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulligan, Neil W.; Picklesimer, Milton

    2016-01-01

    Memory retrieval often enhances still later memory as evidenced by the testing effect. Divided attention (DA) is known to produce different effects on encoding and retrieval, substantially disrupting the former and often producing little effect on the latter. The present experiments examine whether the mnemonic consequences of retrieval are…

  2. Attention to the Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wickens, Christopher D.

    2007-01-01

    Attention to a task, and the language it requires to be performed, can be described in relation to two theoretical models which have prompted research into the effects of task demands on learning and performance outside the field of second language acquisition (SLA). These are the SEEV (selection, effort, expectancy and value) model of selective…

  3. A brain mechanism for attention.

    PubMed

    Sieb, R A

    1990-11-01

    Attention is directed or focussed consciousness. Consciousness is a subjective sensation produced by the simultaneous activation of discrete neurophysiological systems. These are the alerting, awareness, affect, arousal, and attention systems. The process begins with the subcortical scanning of sensory stimuli for affect and significance via pleasure, pain and tension systems. The perceptions then pass to the Thalamus for further scanning and concentration into one sensory modality by Thalamic-Prefrontal-Thalamic reflex inhibition. The unimodal, significant perceptions then activate engrams in the Posterior Inferior Temporal Cortex, the Posterior Inferior Parietal Cortex, and the Posterior and Anterior Association Cortex. These areas project to the Prefrontal Association Cortex (PAC). The PAC inactivates sensory scanning systems causing fixation. The PAC also sends signals to the Hippocampus, which are gated by Septal and Hippocampal generated theta activity in the Hippocampus. This transiently interrupts the blanket inhibition of orientation, alertness, awareness, and arousal produced by the theta activity via the Hypothalamus. As a result of the above mechanisms, only one sensory stimulus activates the orientation, alerting, awareness, arousal, and cognitive systems and hence focussed attention occurs. Focussed attention can also be used to explain the initiation of voluntary movements.

  4. Perception and Attention for Visualization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haroz, Steve

    2013-01-01

    This work examines how a better understanding of visual perception and attention can impact visualization design. In a collection of studies, I explore how different levels of the visual system can measurably affect a variety of visualization metrics. The results show that expert preference, user performance, and even computational performance are…

  5. Thinking of God Moves Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chasteen, Alison L.; Burdzy, Donna C.; Pratt, Jay

    2010-01-01

    The concepts of God and Devil are well known across many cultures and religions, and often involve spatial metaphors, but it is not well known if our mental representations of these concepts affect visual cognition. To examine if exposure to divine concepts produces shifts of attention, participants completed a target detection task in which they…

  6. Deployment of Attention on Handshakes

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Mowei; Yin, Jun; Ding, Xiaowei; Shui, Rende; Zhou, Jifan

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the social structures between objects, organizing, and selecting them accordingly, is fundamental to social cognition. We report an example that demonstrates the object association learned from social interactions could impact visual attention. Particularly, when two hands approach each other to perform a handshake, they tend to be attended to as a unit because of the cooperative relationship exhibited in the action: even a cue presented on a non-target hand may facilitate a response to the targets that appear on the non-cued hand (Experiment 1), indicating that attentional shift between two hands was facilitated; furthermore, the response to a target on one hand is significantly impaired by a distractor on the other hand (Experiment 2), implying that it is difficult to selectively confine attention to a single hand. These effects were dependent on the existence of the hands when cue and target appeared (Experiment 3); neither perceptual familiarity, or physical fit can explain all the attention effects (Experiment 4). These results have bearings on the perceptual root of social cognition. PMID:27242595

  7. Toddlers' Spontaneous Attention to Number

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baroody, Arthur J.; Li, Xia; Lai, Meng-lung

    2008-01-01

    Hannula and Lehtinen (2001, 2005) defined spontaneous focusing on numerosity (SFON) as the tendency to notice the relatively abstract attribute of number despite the presence of other attributes. According to nativists, an innate concept of one to three directs young children's attention to these "intuitive numbers" in everyday situations--even…

  8. Attentional Episodes in Visual Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyble, Brad; Potter, Mary C.; Bowman, Howard; Nieuwenstein, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Is one's temporal perception of the world truly as seamless as it appears? This article presents a computationally motivated theory suggesting that visual attention samples information from temporal episodes (episodic simultaneous type/serial token model; Wyble, Bowman, & Nieuwenstein, 2009). Breaks between these episodes are punctuated by periods…

  9. Special Education in Yugoslavia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hrnjica, Sulejman

    1990-01-01

    This article describes Yugoslavia's education system, health and welfare services for children with disabilities, the nature and organization of special education services, the integration of disabled children in ordinary schools, models for training special educators, and problems. (DB)

  10. The attentional blink in amblyopia.

    PubMed

    Popple, Ariella V; Levi, Dennis M

    2008-10-31

    Amblyopia is a disorder of visual acuity in one eye, thought to arise from suppression by the other eye during development of the visual cortex. In the attentional blink, the second of two targets (T2) in a Rapid Serial Visual Presentation (RSVP) stream is difficult to detect and identify when it appears shortly but not immediately after the first target (T1). We investigated the attentional blink seen through amblyopic eyes and found that it was less finely tuned in time than when the 12 amblyopic observers viewed the stimuli with their preferred eyes. T2 performance was slightly better through amblyopic eyes two frames after T1 but worse one frame after T1. Previously (A. V. Popple & D. M. Levi, 2007), we showed that when the targets were red letters in a stream of gray letters (or vice versa), normal observers frequently confused T2 with the letters before and after it (neighbor errors). Observers viewing through their amblyopic eyes made significantly fewer neighbor errors and more T2 responses consisting of letters that were never presented. In normal observers, T1 (on the rare occasions when it was reported incorrectly) was often confused with the letter immediately after it. Viewing through their amblyopic eyes, observers with amblyopia made more responses to the letter immediately before T1. These results suggest that childhood suppression of the input from amblyopic eyes disrupts attentive processing. We hypothesize reduced connectivity between monocularly tuned lower visual areas, subcortical structures that drive foveal attention, and more frontal regions of the brain responsible for letter recognition and working memory. Perhaps when viewing through their amblyopic eyes, the observers were still processing the letter identity of a prior distractor when the color flash associated with the target was detected. After T1, unfocused temporal attention may have bound together erroneously the features of succeeding letters, resulting in the appearance of

  11. EEG predictors of covert vigilant attention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martel, Adrien; Dähne, Sven; Blankertz, Benjamin

    2014-06-01

    Objective. The present study addressed the question whether neurophysiological signals exhibit characteristic modulations preceding a miss in a covert vigilant attention task which mimics a natural environment in which critical stimuli may appear in the periphery of the visual field. Approach. Subjective, behavioural and encephalographic (EEG) data of 12 participants performing a modified Mackworth Clock task were obtained and analysed offline. The stimulus consisted of a pointer performing regular ticks in a clockwise sequence across 42 dots arranged in a circle. Participants were requested to covertly attend to the pointer and press a response button as quickly as possible in the event of a jump, a rare and random event. Main results. Significant increases in response latencies and decreases in the detection rates were found as a function of time-on-task, a characteristic effect of sustained attention tasks known as the vigilance decrement. Subjective sleepiness showed a significant increase over the duration of the experiment. Increased activity in the α-frequency range (8-14 Hz) was observed emerging and gradually accumulating 10 s before a missed target. Additionally, a significant gradual attenuation of the P3 event-related component was found to antecede misses by 5 s. Significance. The results corroborate recent findings that behavioural errors are presaged by specific neurophysiological activity and demonstrate that lapses of attention can be predicted in a covert setting up to 10 s in advance reinforcing the prospective use of brain-computer interface (BCI) technology for the detection of waning vigilance in real-world scenarios. Combining these findings with real-time single-trial analysis from BCI may pave the way for cognitive states monitoring systems able to determine the current, and predict the near-future development of the brain's attentional processes.

  12. Faststats: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    MedlinePlus

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button NCHS Home Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)* Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Data ... attention deficit disorder (ADD)" is used rather than "attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)" in some data sources. More data Association ...

  13. 40 CFR 79.58 - Special provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... fuels and additives may be required to undergo Tier 3 testing, pursuant to § 79.54. (c) Alternative Tier...) REGISTRATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Testing Requirements for Registration § 79.58 Special provisions. (a....59(b). (b) Low Vapor Pressure Fuels and Additives. Fuels which are not designated as...

  14. 40 CFR 79.58 - Special provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... fuels and additives may be required to undergo Tier 3 testing, pursuant to § 79.54. (c) Alternative Tier...) REGISTRATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Testing Requirements for Registration § 79.58 Special provisions. (a....59(b). (b) Low Vapor Pressure Fuels and Additives. Fuels which are not designated as...

  15. 40 CFR 79.58 - Special provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... fuels and additives may be required to undergo Tier 3 testing, pursuant to § 79.54. (c) Alternative Tier...) REGISTRATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Testing Requirements for Registration § 79.58 Special provisions. (a....59(b). (b) Low Vapor Pressure Fuels and Additives. Fuels which are not designated as...

  16. Personality and attention: Levels of neuroticism and extraversion can predict attentional performance during a change detection task.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Sowon; Buttaccio, Daniel R; Hahn, Jungwon; Lee, Taehun

    2015-01-01

    The present study demonstrates that levels of extraversion and neuroticism can predict attentional performance during a change detection task. After completing a change detection task built on the flicker paradigm, participants were assessed for personality traits using the Revised Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ-R). Multiple regression analyses revealed that higher levels of extraversion predict increased change detection accuracies, while higher levels of neuroticism predict decreased change detection accuracies. In addition, neurotic individuals exhibited decreased sensitivity A' and increased fixation dwell times. Hierarchical regression analyses further revealed that eye movement measures mediate the relationship between neuroticism and change detection accuracies. Based on the current results, we propose that neuroticism is associated with decreased attentional control over the visual field, presumably due to decreased attentional disengagement. Extraversion can predict increased attentional performance, but the effect is smaller than the relationship between neuroticism and attention.

  17. The self regulatory effect of attentional control in modulating the relationship between attentional biases toward threat and anxiety symptoms in children.

    PubMed

    Susa, Georgiana; Pitică, Irina; Benga, Oana; Miclea, Mircea

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the associations between attentional biases to threat, attentional control and anxiety in a sample of children aged 9 to 14. It was hypothesised that the association between attentional biases toward threat and anxiety might be stronger when the ability to control attention is reduced. The study employed pictures of neutral, happy and angry facial expressions as they have greater ecological value compared to words. Children completed a dot-probe task measuring attentional biases toward such stimuli. They also completed the Spence child anxiety scale for anxiety symptoms and, for attentional control, the child version of the attention control scale measuring the ability to focus and shift attention. Results of a hierarchical regression analysis showed that attentional control significantly explained anxiety. Furthermore, the interaction between attentional control and attentional biases significantly explained anxiety level. These results indicate that attentional control moderates the relation between attentional biases toward threatening facial expressions and anxiety in children. Additionally, a discussion about a possible protective role of attentional control is provided.

  18. Neural Correlates of Attentional Flexibility during Approach and Avoidance Motivation.

    PubMed

    Calcott, Rebecca D; Berkman, Elliot T

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic, momentary approach or avoidance motivational states have downstream effects on eventual goal success and overall well being, but there is still uncertainty about how those states affect the proximal neurocognitive processes (e.g., attention) that mediate the longer-term effects. Attentional flexibility, or the ability to switch between different attentional foci, is one such neurocognitive process that influences outcomes in the long run. The present study examined how approach and avoidance motivational states affect the neural processes involved in attentional flexibility using fMRI with the aim of determining whether flexibility operates via different neural mechanisms under these different states. Attentional flexibility was operationalized as subjects' ability to switch between global and local stimulus features. In addition to subjects' motivational state, the task context was manipulated by varying the ratio of global to local trials in a block in light of recent findings about the moderating role of context on motivation-related differences in attentional flexibility. The neural processes involved in attentional flexibility differ under approach versus avoidance states. First, differences in the preparatory activity in key brain regions suggested that subjects' preparedness to switch was influenced by motivational state (anterior insula) and the interaction between motivation and context (superior temporal gyrus, inferior parietal lobule). Additionally, we observed motivation-related differences the anterior cingulate cortex during switching. These results provide initial evidence that motivation-induced behavioral changes may arise via different mechanisms in approach versus avoidance motivational states.

  19. Slower attentional disengagement but faster perceptual processing near the hand.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Tony; Sunny, Meera Mary

    2017-03-01

    Many recent studies have reported altered visual processing near the hands. However, there is no definitive agreement about the mechanisms responsible for this effect. One viewpoint is that the effect is predominantly attentional while others argue for the role of pre-attentive perceptual differences in the manifestation of the hand-proximity effect. However, in most of the studies pre-attentional and attentional effects have been conflated. We argue that it is important to dissociate the effect of hand proximity on perception and attention to better theorize and understand how visual processing is altered near the hands. We report two experiments using a visual search task where participants completed a visual search task with their hands either on the monitor or on their lap. When on the monitor, the target could appear near the hand or farther away. In experiment 1, a letter search task showed steeper search slope near the hand suggesting slower attentional disengagement. However, the intercept was smaller in the near hand condition suggesting faster perceptual processing. These results were also replicated in experiment 2 with a conjunction search task with target present and absent conditions and 4 set sizes. The results suggest that there are dissociable effects of hand proximity on perception and attention. Importantly, the pre-attentive advantage of hand proximity does not translate to attentional benefit, but a processing cost. The results of experiment 2 additionally indicate that the steeper slope does not arise from any spatial biases in how search proceeds, but an indicator of slower attentional processing near the hands. The results also suggest that the effect of hand proximity on attention is not spatially graded whereas its effect on perceptuo-motor processes seems to be.

  20. Not so different after all: The same oscillatory processes support different types of attention.

    PubMed

    Frey, Julia Natascha; Ruhnau, Philipp; Weisz, Nathan

    2015-11-11

    Scientific research from the last two decades has provided a vast amount of evidence that brain oscillations reflect physiological activity enabling diverse cognitive processes. The goal of this review is to give a broad empirical and conceptual overview of how ongoing oscillatory activity may support attention processes. Keeping in mind that definitions of cognitive constructs like attention are prone to being blurry and ambiguous, the present review focuses mainly on the neural correlates of 'top-down' attention deployment. In particular, we will discuss modulations of (ongoing) oscillatory activity during spatial, temporal, selective, and internal attention. Across these seemingly distinct attentional domains, we will summarize studies showing the involvement of two oscillatory processes observed during attention deployment: power modulations mainly in the alpha band, and phase modulations in lower frequency bands. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Prediction and Attention.

  1. The Structure of the Relationship between Attention and Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schweizer, Karl; Moosbrugger, Helfried; Goldhammer, Frank

    2005-01-01

    The relationship between attention and general intelligence was investigated considering the different types of attention: alertness, sustained attention, focused attention, attentional switching, divided attention, attention according to the supervisory attentional system, attention as inhibition, spatial attention, attention as planning,…

  2. Assessing Special Educational Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfendale, Sheila, Ed.

    This essays in this book contain valuable and up-to-date information about current issues and developments in assessing special educational needs. The context of the book is the mainstream setting in the United Kingdom. The aim of these chapters is to consider special needs in inclusive education, consistent with British special needs legislation.…

  3. Mentoring Special Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitfield, Keith E.; Edwards, Christopher L.

    2011-01-01

    Mentorship is critical for career development. Members of special populations are at increased risk of information shortfalls and advice that is not framed with cultural sensitivity. Special knowledge and skills are needed to successfully mentor members of ethnic minority and other special populations. Midlevel and senior scientists need…

  4. Sleep deprivation and its effects on object-selective attention.

    PubMed

    Chee, Michael W L; Tan, Jiat Chow; Parimal, Sarayu; Zagorodnov, Vitali

    2010-01-15

    Sleep deprivation (SD) affects attention but it is an open question as to whether all subtypes of attention are similarly affected. We investigated the effects of 24 h of total SD on object-selective attention. 26 healthy, young adults viewed quartets of alternating faces or place scenes and performed selective judgments on faces only, scenes only or both faces and scenes. Volunteers underwent fMRI following a normal night of sleep and again following approximately 24 h of total sleep deprivation in a counterbalanced fashion. Sleep deprivation resulted in slower and less accurate picture classification as well as poorer recognition memory for scenes. Attention strongly modulated activation in the Parahippocampal Place Area (PPA). Task-related activation in the fronto-parietal cortex and PPA was reduced in SD, but the relative modulation of PPA activation by attention was preserved. Psychophysiological interaction between the left intra-parietal sulcus and the PPA that was clearly present after a normal night of sleep was reduced below threshold following SD suggesting that PPI may be a more sensitive method of detecting change in selective attention. Sleep deprivation may affect object-selective attention in addition to exerting a task-independent deficit in attention.

  5. Developments in special geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohaupt, Thomas; Vaughan, Owen

    2012-02-01

    We review the special geometry of Script N = 2 supersymmetric vector and hypermultiplets with emphasis on recent developments and applications. A new formulation of the local c-map based on the Hesse potential and special real coordinates is presented. Other recent developments include the Euclidean version of special geometry, and generalizations of special geometry to non-supersymmetric theories. As applications we disucss the proof that the local r-map and c-map preserve geodesic completeness, and the construction of four- and five-dimensional static solutions through dimensional reduction over time. The shared features of the real, complex and quaternionic version of special geometry are stressed throughout.

  6. Split of spatial attention as predicted by a systems-level model of visual attention.

    PubMed

    Zirnsak, Marc; Beuth, Frederik; Hamker, Fred H

    2011-06-01

    Can we attend to multiple distinct spatial locations at the same time? According to a recent psychophysical study [J. Dubois et al. (2009)Journal of Vision, 9, 3.1-11] such a split of spatial attention might be limited to short periods of time. Following N. P. Bichot et al. [(1999)Perception & Psychophysics, 61, 403-423] subjects had to report the identity of multiple letters that were briefly presented at different locations, while two of these locations (targets) were relevant for a concurrent shape comparison task. In addition to the design used by Bichot et al. stimulus onset asynchrony between shape onset and letters was systematically varied. In general, the performance of subjects was superior at target locations. Furthermore, for short stimulus onset asynchronies, performance was simultaneously increasing at both target locations. For longer stimulus onset asynchronies, however, performance deteriorated at one of the target locations while increasing at the other target location. It was hypothesized that this dynamic deployment of attention might be caused by competitive processes in saccade-related structures such as the frontal eye field. Here we simulated the task of Dubois et al. using a systems-level model of attention. Our results are consistent with recent findings in the frontal eye field obtained during covert visual search, and they support the view of a transient deployment of spatial attention to multiple stimuli in the early epoch of target selection.

  7. Visual attention: The past 25 years

    PubMed Central

    Carrasco, Marisa

    2012-01-01

    This review focuses on covert attention and how it alters early vision. I explain why attention is considered a selective process, the constructs of covert attention, spatial endogenous and exogenous attention, and feature-based attention. I explain how in the last 25 years research on attention has characterized the effects of covert attention on spatial filters and how attention influences the selection of stimuli of interest. This review includes the effects of spatial attention on discriminability and appearance in tasks mediated by contrast sensitivity and spatial resolution; the effects of feature-based attention on basic visual processes, and a comparison of the effects of spatial and feature-based attention. The emphasis of this review is on psychophysical studies, but relevant electrophysiological and neuroimaging studies and models regarding how and where neuronal responses are modulated are also discussed. PMID:21549742

  8. Octave effect in auditory attention.

    PubMed

    Borra, Tobias; Versnel, Huib; Kemner, Chantal; van Opstal, A John; van Ee, Raymond

    2013-09-17

    After hearing a tone, the human auditory system becomes more sensitive to similar tones than to other tones. Current auditory models explain this phenomenon by a simple bandpass attention filter. Here, we demonstrate that auditory attention involves multiple pass-bands around octave-related frequencies above and below the cued tone. Intriguingly, this "octave effect" not only occurs for physically presented tones, but even persists for the missing fundamental in complex tones, and for imagined tones. Our results suggest neural interactions combining octave-related frequencies, likely located in nonprimary cortical regions. We speculate that this connectivity scheme evolved from exposure to natural vibrations containing octave-related spectral peaks, e.g., as produced by vocal cords.

  9. Stochastic resonance in attention control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitajo, K.; Yamanaka, K.; Ward, L. M.; Yamamoto, Y.

    2006-12-01

    We investigated the beneficial role of noise in a human higher brain function, namely visual attention control. We asked subjects to detect a weak gray-level target inside a marker box either in the left or the right visual field. Signal detection performance was optimized by presenting a low level of randomly flickering gray-level noise between and outside the two possible target locations. Further, we found that an increase in eye movement (saccade) rate helped to compensate for the usual deterioration in detection performance at higher noise levels. To our knowledge, this is the first experimental evidence that noise can optimize a higher brain function which involves distinct brain regions above the level of primary sensory systems -- switching behavior between multi-stable attention states -- via the mechanism of stochastic resonance.

  10. 10 CFR 70.74 - Additional reporting requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Additional reporting requirements. 70.74 Section 70.74 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DOMESTIC LICENSING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Additional Requirements for Certain Licensees Authorized To Possess a Critical Mass of Special...

  11. 10 CFR 70.74 - Additional reporting requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Additional reporting requirements. 70.74 Section 70.74 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DOMESTIC LICENSING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL Additional Requirements for Certain Licensees Authorized To Possess a Critical Mass of Special...

  12. A Real Attention-Getter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    While most parents would agree that playing videos games is the antithesis of time well spent for their children, recent advances involving NASA biofeedback technology are proving otherwise. The same techniques used to measure brain activity in NASA pilots during flight simulation exercises are now a part of a revolutionary video game system that is helping to improve overall mental awareness for Americans of all ages, including those who suffer from Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).

  13. Focusing, Sustaining, and Switching Attention

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-12

    scene analysis 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: U a. REPORT u b. ABSTRACT u c. THIS PAGE u 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT uu 18. NUMBER OF...humans can communicate in complex acoustic scenes , we must understand the dynamics of focusing, sustaining, and switching selective auditory ...many of whom deal with complex acoustic scenes full of competing sources (where selective auditory attention is challenging in the best of

  14. Unitary attention in callosal agenesis.

    PubMed

    Dell'acqua, R; Jolicoeur, P; Lassonde, M; Angrilli, A; De Bastiani, P; Pascali, A

    2005-01-01

    The interhemispheric organisation of two specific components of attention was investigated in three patients affected by partial or complete agenesis of the corpus callosum. A visuospatial component of attention was explored using a visual search paradigm in which target and distractors were displayed either unilaterally within a single visual hemifield, or bilaterally across both visual hemifields in light of prior work indicating that split-brain patients were twice as fast to scan bilateral displays compared to unilateral displays. A central component of attention was explored using a psychological refractory period (PRP) paradigm in which two visual stimuli were presented laterally at various stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs), with each stimulus associated with a different speeded two-alternative choice task. The stimulus-response compatibility in the second task was systematically manipulated in this paradigm, in light of prior work indicating that split-brain patients exhibited a close-to-normal PRP effect (i.e., slowing of the second response as SOA is decreased), with, however, abnormally decreasing effects of the manipulation of the response mapping on the second task speed as SOA was decreased. The present results showed that, although generally slower than normals in carrying out the two tasks, the performance of each of the three acallosal patients was formally equivalent to the performance of a matched control group of normal individuals. In the visual search task, the search rate of the acallosal patients was the same for unilateral and bilateral displays. Furthermore, in the PRP task, there was more mutual interference between the lateralised tasks for the acallosal patients than that evidenced in the performance of the matched control group. It is concluded that the visuospatial component and the central component of attention in agenesis of the corpus callosum are interhemispherically integrated systems.

  15. Attention, Automaticity and Priority Learning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-01

    paradiams is taken to indicate that processing remains under attentional control. This paper proposes a priority learning mechanism to model the...effects of practice and the development of automaticity, in visual search tasks. A connectionist simulation model implements this learning algorithm. Five...reliable finding from varied mapping studies is proposes a priority learning mechanism to model the effects of that reaction time increases roughly

  16. Effects of attentional and cognitive variables on unilateral spatial neglect.

    PubMed

    Ricci, Raffaella; Salatino, Adriana; Garbarini, Francesca; Ronga, Irene; Genero, Rosanna; Berti, Anna; Neppi-Mòdona, Marco

    2016-11-01

    Patients with visuospatial neglect when asked to cancel targets partially or totally omit to cancel contralesional stimuli. It has been shown that increasing the attentional demands of the cancellation task aggravates neglect contralesionally. However, some preliminary evidence also suggests that neglect might be worsened by engaging the patient in a demanding, non-spatial, cognitive activity (i.e. a mathematical task). We studied cancellation performance of 16 patients with right-hemisphere lesions, 8 with neglect, 8 without neglect, and 8 age-matched healthy control participants by means of five cancellation tasks which varied for the degree of attentional and/or high level cognitive demands (preattentive and attentive search of a visual target, searching for numbers containing the digit 3, even numbers, and multiples of 3). Results showed that attentive search of visual targets, relative to the preattentive search condition, aggravated neglect patients' performance. Moreover, searching for multiples not only worsened spatial neglect contralesionally, but also slowed down performance of patients with right-hemisphere lesions without neglect. Our findings further demonstrate the presence of specific deficits of attention in neglect. In addition, the worse performance of patients without neglect in the 'multiples of 3' task is consistent with the evidence that right-hemisphere lesions per se impair the ability to maintain attention (i.e. sustained attention). This suggests that the exacerbation of neglect during execution of a demanding, non-spatial, cognitive task might be explained by a deficit of sustained attention in addition to a selective deficit of spatial attention.

  17. [Preface for special issue on bioenergy].

    PubMed

    Liu, Dehua

    2011-03-01

    More and more attentions have been being paid to seeking alternatives for fossil fuels. Bioenergy, as a renewable energy, is one of the best solutions. Bioenergy has been developed rapidly in China, which became the third largest producer and consumer of fuel ethanol. In order to promote the research of bioenergy technology in China, this special issue includes latest reports and articles on the fields of bioethanol, biodiesel, microbial lipid and biofuel system analysis.

  18. Forms of momentum across space: representational, operational, and attentional.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, Timothy L

    2014-12-01

    Cognition can exhibit biases consistent with future expectations, and some of these biases result in momentum-like effects and have been linked with the idea of an internalization of the effects of momentum. These momentum-like effects include representational momentum, operational momentum, and attentional momentum. Similarities and differences between these different momentum-like effects are considered. Hubbard's (2005) review of representational momentum is updated to include studies published since that review appeared, and the first full reviews of operational momentum and attentional momentum are provided. It is suggested that (1) many variables that influence one of these momentum-like effects have a similar influence on another momentum-like effect, (2) representational momentum, operational momentum, and attentional momentum reflect similar or overlapping mechanisms, and operational momentum and attentional momentum are special cases of representational momentum, and (3) representational momentum, operational momentum, and attentional momentum reflect properties of a more general spatial representation in which change or transformation of a stimulus is mapped onto motion in a spatial coordinate system.

  19. Attentional sequence-based recognition: Markovian and evidential reasoning.

    PubMed

    Soyer, C; Bozma, H I; Istefanopulos, Y

    2003-01-01

    Biological vision systems explore their environment via allocating their visual resources to only the interesting parts of a scene. This is achieved by a selective attention mechanism that controls eye movements. The data thus generated is a sequence of subimages of different locations and thus a sequence of features extracted from those images - referred to as attentional sequence. In higher level visual processing leading to scene cognition, it is hypothesized that the information contained in attentional sequences are combined and utilized by special mechanisms - although still poorly understood. However, developing models of such mechanisms prove out to be crucial - if we are to understand and mimic this behavior in robotic systems. In this paper, we consider the recognition problem and present two approaches to using attentional sequences for recognition: Markovian and evidential reasoning. Experimental results with our mobile robot APES reveal that simple shapes can be modeled and recognized by these methods - using as few as ten fixations and very simple features. For more complex scenes, longer attentional sequences or more sophisticated features may be required for cognition.

  20. Delayed Special Education Placement for Learning Disabilities among Children of Immigrants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hibel, Jacob; Jasper, Andrea D.

    2012-01-01

    Prior theory and research suggest that children of immigrants would be at especially high risk for special education placement with learning disabilities. However, their longitudinal special education placement patterns have received scant attention. This study examines temporal patterns of special education placement among children of immigrants,…

  1. The Spillover Effects of Having a Sibling with Special Educational Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottfried, Michael A.; McGene, Juliana

    2013-01-01

    The influence that students with special educational needs may exert on the schooling outcomes of their siblings without special educational needs has been given minimal attention in published research. Hence, the authors bring forth a unique contribution by evaluating the within-family effects of being a child without special educational needs in…

  2. Attentional Disengagement in Adults with Williams Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lense, Miriam D.; Key, Alexandra P.; Dykens, Elisabeth M.

    2011-01-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by a distinctive behavioral and cognitive profile, including widespread problems with attention. However, the specific nature of their attentional difficulties, such as inappropriate attentional allocation and/or poor attentional disengagement abilities, has yet to be…

  3. 29 CFR 785.43 - Medical attention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Medical attention. 785.43 Section 785.43 Labor Regulations..., Medical Attention, Civic and Charitable Work, and Suggestion Systems § 785.43 Medical attention. Time spent by an employee in waiting for and receiving medical attention on the premises or at the...

  4. 29 CFR 785.43 - Medical attention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Medical attention. 785.43 Section 785.43 Labor Regulations..., Medical Attention, Civic and Charitable Work, and Suggestion Systems § 785.43 Medical attention. Time spent by an employee in waiting for and receiving medical attention on the premises or at the...

  5. The Attention System of the Human Brain

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-02-28

    attention deficit disorder, among others. The concept of an attentional system of the brain with specific operations allocated to distinct anatomical... attention deficit disorder to the right hemisphere mechanisms that control sustaining of attention. It seems apparent that a combined cognitive and

  6. National Guard Special Forces: Enhancing the Contributions of Reserve Component Army Special Operations Forces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    parachute course, the dive (“ scuba ”) course, and sniper course. They also attend the advanced special operations training (ASOT) and attain high...additional skills, e.g., military free fall parachuting, sniper, scuba , and advanced special operations training (ASOT). These data provide a basis for...skills (e.g., military free fall parachuting, sniper, scuba , and advanced special operations training (ASOT)). These data provide a basis for

  7. Special Test Methods for Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gross, S.

    1984-01-01

    Various methods are described for measuring heat generation in primary and secondary batteries as well as the specific heat of batteries and cell thermal conductance. Problems associated with determining heat generation in large batteries are examined. Special attention is given to monitoring temperature gradients in nickel cadmium cells, the use of auxiliary electrodes for conducting tests on battery charge control, evaluating the linear sweep of current from charge to discharge, and determining zero current voltage. The fast transient behavior of batteries in the microsecond range, and the electrical conductance of nickel sinters in the thickness direction are also considered. Mechanical problems experienced in the vibration of Ni-Cd batteries and tests to simulate cyclic fatigue of the steel table connecting the plates to the comb are considered. Methods of defining the distribution of forces when cells are compressed during battery packaging are also explored.

  8. Feature-selective attention in healthy old age: a selective decline in selective attention?

    PubMed

    Quigley, Cliodhna; Müller, Matthias M

    2014-02-12

    Deficient selection against irrelevant information has been proposed to underlie age-related cognitive decline. We recently reported evidence for maintained early sensory selection when older and younger adults used spatial selective attention to perform a challenging task. Here we explored age-related differences when spatial selection is not possible and feature-selective attention must be deployed. We additionally compared the integrity of feedforward processing by exploiting the well established phenomenon of suppression of visual cortical responses attributable to interstimulus competition. Electroencephalogram was measured while older and younger human adults responded to brief occurrences of coherent motion in an attended stimulus composed of randomly moving, orientation-defined, flickering bars. Attention was directed to horizontal or vertical bars by a pretrial cue, after which two orthogonally oriented, overlapping stimuli or a single stimulus were presented. Horizontal and vertical bars flickered at different frequencies and thereby elicited separable steady-state visual-evoked potentials, which were used to examine the effect of feature-based selection and the competitive influence of a second stimulus on ongoing visual processing. Age differences were found in feature-selective attentional modulation of visual responses: older adults did not show consistent modulation of magnitude or phase. In contrast, the suppressive effect of a second stimulus was robust and comparable in magnitude across age groups, suggesting that bottom-up processing of the current stimuli is essentially unchanged in healthy old age. Thus, it seems that visual processing per se is unchanged, but top-down attentional control is compromised in older adults when space cannot be used to guide selection.

  9. Attentiveness of pediatricians to primary immunodeficiency disorders

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Primary immunodeficiency (PID) is a cluster of serious disorders that requires special alertness on the part of the medical staff for prompt diagnosis and management of the patient. This study explored PID knowledge and experience among pediatricians of wide educational backgrounds, practicing in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Method A self-administered questionnaire was used to determine the competency of pediatricians in their knowledge of PID disorders. This study questionnaire included questions on PID signs and symptoms, syndromes associated with immunodeficiency, screening tests, interpreting laboratory tests and case management. The participants were 263 pediatricians of diverse education working in the 27 governmental hospitals in all regions of UAE. Results The overall performance of the pediatricians did not differ based on their age, gender, origin of certification, rank, or years of experience. Of the 50 questions, 20% of pediatricians answered correctly <60% of the questions, 76% answered correctly 60 to 79% of the questions, and 4% answered correctly ≥80% of the questions. Seventeen of the 19 PID signs and symptoms were identified by 55 to 97%. Four of 5 syndromes associated with immunodeficiency were identified by 50 to 90%. Appropriate screening tests were chosen by 64 to 96%. Attention to the laboratory reference range values as function of patient age was notably limited. Conclusions There was a noteworthy deficiency in PID work-up. Therefore, implementing effective educational strategies is needed to improve the competency of pediatricians to diagnose and manage PID disorders. PMID:22846098

  10. Auditory attentional selection is biased by reward cues

    PubMed Central

    Asutay, Erkin; Västfjäll, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Auditory attention theories suggest that humans are able to decompose the complex acoustic input into separate auditory streams, which then compete for attentional resources. How this attentional competition is influenced by motivational salience of sounds is, however, not well-understood. Here, we investigated whether a positive motivational value associated with sounds could bias the attentional selection in an auditory detection task. Participants went through a reward-learning period, where correct attentional selection of one stimulus (CS+) lead to higher rewards compared to another stimulus (CS−). We assessed the impact of reward-learning by comparing perceptual sensitivity before and after the learning period, when CS+ and CS− were presented as distractors for a different target. Performance decreased after reward-learning when CS+ was a distractor, while it increased when CS− was a distractor. Thus, the findings show that sounds that were associated with high rewards captures attention involuntarily. Additionally, when successful inhibition of a particular sound (CS−) was associated with high rewards then it became easier to ignore it. The current findings have important implications for the understanding of the organizing principles of auditory perception and provide, for the first time, clear behavioral evidence for reward-dependent attentional learning in the auditory domain in humans. PMID:27841363

  11. Exogenous (automatic) attention to emotional stimuli: a review.

    PubMed

    Carretié, Luis

    2014-12-01

    Current knowledge on the architecture of exogenous attention (also called automatic, bottom-up, or stimulus-driven attention, among other terms) has been mainly obtained from studies employing neutral, anodyne stimuli. Since, from an evolutionary perspective, exogenous attention can be understood as an adaptive tool for rapidly detecting salient events, reorienting processing resources to them, and enhancing processing mechanisms, emotional events (which are, by definition, salient for the individual) would seem crucial to a comprehensive understanding of this process. This review, focusing on the visual modality, describes 55 experiments in which both emotional and neutral irrelevant distractors are presented at the same time as ongoing task targets. Qualitative and, when possible, meta-analytic descriptions of results are provided. The most conspicuous result is that, as confirmed by behavioral and/or neural indices, emotional distractors capture exogenous attention to a significantly greater extent than do neutral distractors. The modulatory effects of the nature of distractors capturing attention, of the ongoing task characteristics, and of individual differences, previously proposed as mediating factors, are also described. Additionally, studies reviewed here provide temporal and spatial information-partially absent in traditional cognitive models-on the neural basis of preattention/evaluation, reorienting, and sensory amplification, the main subprocesses involved in exogenous attention. A model integrating these different levels of information is proposed. The present review, which reveals that there are several key issues for which experimental data are surprisingly scarce, confirms the relevance of including emotional distractors in studies on exogenous attention.

  12. An inability to set independent attentional control settings by hemifield.

    PubMed

    Becker, Mark W; Ravizza, Susan M; Peltier, Chad

    2015-11-01

    Recent evidence suggests that people can simultaneously activate attentional control setting for two distinct colors. However, it is unclear whether both attentional control settings must operate globally across the visual field or whether each can be constrained to a particular spatial location. Using two different paradigms, we investigated participants' ability to apply independent color attentional control settings to distinct regions of space. In both experiments, participants were told to identify red letters in one hemifield and green letters in the opposite hemifield. Additionally, some trials used a "relevant distractor"-a letter that matched the opposite side's target color. In Experiment 1, eight letters appeared (four per hemifield) simultaneously for a brief amount of time and then were masked. Relevant distractors increased the error rate and resulted in a greater number of distractor intrusions than irrelevant distractors. Similar results were observed in Experiment 2 in which red and green targets were presented in two rapid serial visual presentation streams. Relevant distractors were found to produce an attentional blink similar in magnitude to an actual target. The results of both experiments suggest that letters matching either attentional control setting were selected by attention and were processed as if they were targets, providing strong evidence that both attentional control settings were applied globally, rather than being constrained to a particular location.

  13. The effect of methylphenidate and placebo on eye-hand coordination functioning and handwriting of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Lufi, Dubi; Gai, Elisheva

    2007-10-01

    Israeli children who were diagnosed as having attention deficit hyperactivity disorder participated in the study. The children were assessed three times in a specially constructed battery of tests. The battery of tests included variables assessing eye-hand coordination skills, writing, and behavioral assessment of the teacher. The design was in the format of a double blind, randomized, crossover, placebo-control procedure. The results showed that methylphenidate (MPH) improved some cognitive functions of eye-hand coordination slightly better than placebo. In addition, behavior variables assessed by the teachers improved only under the influence of MPH.

  14. Attentional selection by distractor suppression.

    PubMed

    Caputo, G; Guerra, S

    1998-03-01

    Selective attention was studied in displays containing singletons popping out for their odd form or color. The target was defined as the form-singleton, the distractor as the color-singleton. The task was to discriminate the length of a longer line inside the target. Target-distractor similarity was controlled using a threshold measurement as dependent variable in experiments in which distractor presence vs absence, bottom-up vs top-down selection (through knowledge of target features), and target-distractor distance were manipulated. The results in the bottom-up condition showed that length threshold was elevated when a distractor was present and that this elevation progressively increased as the number of distractors was increased from one to two. This set-size effect was not accounted by the hypothesis that selective attention intervenes only at the stage of decision before response. Selective attention produced a suppressive surround in which discriminability of neighboring objects was strongly reduced, and a larger surround in which discriminability was reduced by an approximately constant amount. Different results were found in the top-down condition in which target discriminability was unaffected by distractor presence and no effect of target-distractor distance was found. On the other hand, response times in both bottom-up and top-down conditions were slower the shorter the target-distractor distance was. On the basis of the experimental results, selective attention is a parallel process of spatial filtering at an intermediate processing level operating after objects have been segmented. This filtering stage explores high level interactions between objects taking control on combinatorial explosion by operating over only a limited spatial extent: it picks out a selected object and inhibits the neighboring objects; then, non-selected objects are suppressed across the overall image. When no feature-based selection is available in the current behavior, this

  15. Visual Attention to Radar Displays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moray, N.; Richards, M.; Brophy, C.

    1984-01-01

    A model is described which predicts the allocation of attention to the features of a radar display. It uses the growth of uncertainty and the probability of near collision to call the eye to a feature of the display. The main source of uncertainty is forgetting following a fixation, which is modelled as a two dimensional diffusion process. The model was used to predict information overload in intercept controllers, and preliminary validation obtained by recording eye movements of intercept controllers in simulated and live (practice) interception.

  16. Analysis of error-prone survival data under additive hazards models: measurement error effects and adjustments.

    PubMed

    Yan, Ying; Yi, Grace Y

    2016-07-01

    Covariate measurement error occurs commonly in survival analysis. Under the proportional hazards model, measurement error effects have been well studied, and various inference methods have been developed to correct for error effects under such a model. In contrast, error-contaminated survival data under the additive hazards model have received relatively less attention. In this paper, we investigate this problem by exploring measurement error effects on parameter estimation and the change of the hazard function. New insights of measurement error effects are revealed, as opposed to well-documented results for the Cox proportional hazards model. We propose a class of bias correction estimators that embraces certain existing estimators as special cases. In addition, we exploit the regression calibration method to reduce measurement error effects. Theoretical results for the developed methods are established, and numerical assessments are conducted to illustrate the finite sample performance of our methods.

  17. Polyfibroblast: A Self-Healing and Galvanic Protection Additive

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-25

    Laurel, MD 20723 Figure 3: Attempt to encapsulate DABCO 197 surfactant within a polyurea shell. Note the highly wrinkled appearance. The wrinkles...will be used in different concentrations to obtain the best performance. Special attention will be given to the durability of the OTS/ polyurea films

  18. Lateral specialization in unilateral spatial neglect: a cognitive robotics model.

    PubMed

    Conti, Daniela; Di Nuovo, Santo; Cangelosi, Angelo; Di Nuovo, Alessandro

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we present the experimental results of an embodied cognitive robotic approach for modelling the human cognitive deficit known as unilateral spatial neglect (USN). To this end, we introduce an artificial neural network architecture designed and trained to control the spatial attentional focus of the iCub robotic platform. Like the human brain, the architecture is divided into two hemispheres and it incorporates bio-inspired plasticity mechanisms, which allow the development of the phenomenon of the specialization of the right hemisphere for spatial attention. In this study, we validate the model by replicating a previous experiment with human patients affected by the USN and numerical results show that the robot mimics the behaviours previously exhibited by humans. We also simulated recovery after the damage to compare the performance of each of the two hemispheres as additional validation of the model. Finally, we highlight some possible advantages of modelling cognitive dysfunctions of the human brain by means of robotic platforms, which can supplement traditional approaches for studying spatial impairments in humans.

  19. Reduced attentional capture in action video game players.

    PubMed

    Chisholm, Joseph D; Hickey, Clayton; Theeuwes, Jan; Kingstone, Alan

    2010-04-01

    Recent studies indicate that playing action video games improves performance on a number of attention-based tasks. However, it remains unclear whether action video game experience primarily affects endogenous or exogenous forms of spatial orienting. To examine this issue, action video game players and non-action video game players performed an attentional capture task. The results show that action video game players responded quicker than non-action video game players, both when a target appeared in isolation and when a salient, task-irrelevant distractor was present in the display. Action video game players additionally showed a smaller capture effect than did non-action video game players. When coupled with the findings of previous studies, the collective evidence indicates that extensive experience with action video games may enhance players' top-down attentional control, which, in turn, can modulate the negative effects of bottom-up attentional capture.

  20. Additive Similarity Trees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sattath, Shmuel; Tversky, Amos

    1977-01-01

    Tree representations of similarity data are investigated. Hierarchical clustering is critically examined, and a more general procedure, called the additive tree, is presented. The additive tree representation is then compared to multidimensional scaling. (Author/JKS)

  1. 38 CFR 21.154 - Special transportation assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special transportation.... Chapter 31 Special Rehabilitation Services § 21.154 Special transportation assistance. (a) General. A veteran, who because of the effects of disability has transportation expenses in addition to...

  2. 32 CFR 707.8 - Special operations lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Special operations lights. 707.8 Section 707.8 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY NAVIGATION SPECIAL RULES WITH RESPECT TO ADDITIONAL STATION AND SIGNAL LIGHTS § 707.8 Special operations lights. Naval vessels...

  3. 32 CFR 707.8 - Special operations lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Special operations lights. 707.8 Section 707.8 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY NAVIGATION SPECIAL RULES WITH RESPECT TO ADDITIONAL STATION AND SIGNAL LIGHTS § 707.8 Special operations lights. Naval vessels...

  4. 32 CFR 707.8 - Special operations lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Special operations lights. 707.8 Section 707.8 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY NAVIGATION SPECIAL RULES WITH RESPECT TO ADDITIONAL STATION AND SIGNAL LIGHTS § 707.8 Special operations lights. Naval vessels...

  5. 24 CFR 1003.203 - Special economic development activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Special economic development... Eligible Activities § 1003.203 Special economic development activities. A grantee may use ICDBG funds for special economic development activities in addition to other activities authorized in this subpart...

  6. 32 CFR 707.8 - Special operations lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Special operations lights. 707.8 Section 707.8 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY NAVIGATION SPECIAL RULES WITH RESPECT TO ADDITIONAL STATION AND SIGNAL LIGHTS § 707.8 Special operations lights. Naval vessels...

  7. 24 CFR 1003.203 - Special economic development activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Special economic development... Eligible Activities § 1003.203 Special economic development activities. A grantee may use ICDBG funds for special economic development activities in addition to other activities authorized in this subpart...

  8. 24 CFR 1003.203 - Special economic development activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Special economic development... Eligible Activities § 1003.203 Special economic development activities. A grantee may use ICDBG funds for special economic development activities in addition to other activities authorized in this subpart...

  9. 32 CFR 707.8 - Special operations lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Special operations lights. 707.8 Section 707.8 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY NAVIGATION SPECIAL RULES WITH RESPECT TO ADDITIONAL STATION AND SIGNAL LIGHTS § 707.8 Special operations lights. Naval vessels...

  10. Special Activities for Very Special Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Indian Affairs (Dept. of Interior), Albuquerque, NM.

    Developed by 41 Bureau of Indian Affairs special education teachers, this booklet presents 25 teaching activities which they found very helpful in their classrooms. The purpose, materials needed, and procedures are given for each activity. The activities cover the alphabet letters, letter recognition, vocabulary development, sentence structure,…

  11. Hemispheric lateralization in top-down attention during spatial relation processing: a Granger causal model approach.

    PubMed

    Falasca, N W; D'Ascenzo, S; Di Domenico, A; Onofrj, M; Tommasi, L; Laeng, B; Franciotti, R

    2015-04-01

    Magnetoencephalography was recorded during a matching-to-sample plus cueing paradigm, in which participants judged the occurrence of changes in either categorical (CAT) or coordinate (COO) spatial relations. Previously, parietal and frontal lobes were identified as key areas in processing spatial relations and it was shown that each hemisphere was differently involved and modulated by the scope of the attention window (e.g. a large and small cue). In this study, Granger analysis highlighted the patterns of causality among involved brain areas--the direction of information transfer ran from the frontal to the visual cortex in the right hemisphere, whereas it ran in the opposite direction in the left side. Thus, the right frontal area seems to exert top-down influence, supporting the idea that, in this task, top-down signals are selectively related to the right side. Additionally, for CAT change preceded by a small cue, the right frontal gyrus was not involved in the information transfer, indicating a selective specialization of the left hemisphere for this condition. The present findings strengthen the conclusion of the presence of a remarkable hemispheric specialization for spatial relation processing and illustrate the complex interactions between the lateralized parts of the neural network. Moreover, they illustrate how focusing attention over large or small regions of the visual field engages these lateralized networks differently, particularly in the frontal regions of each hemisphere, consistent with the theory that spatial relation judgements require a fronto-parietal network in the left hemisphere for categorical relations and on the right hemisphere for coordinate spatial processing.

  12. 14 CFR 93.129 - Additional operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional operations. 93.129 Section 93.129 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES High Density Traffic Airports §...

  13. Attention deficit hyperactivity symptoms and internet addiction.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Hee Jeong; Cho, Soo Churl; Ha, Jihyun; Yune, Sook Kyung; Kim, Seog Ju; Hwang, Jaeuk; Chung, Ain; Sung, Young Hoon; Lyoo, In Kyoon

    2004-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between attention deficit-hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms and Internet addiction. In total, 535 elementary school students (264 boys, 271 girls; mean age, 11.0 +/- 1.0 years) were recruited. The presence or severity of Internet addiction was assessed by the Young's Internet Addiction test. Parents and teachers of the children completed the DuPaul's attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) rating scale (ARS; Korean version, K-ARS) and Child Behavior Checklists. Children with the highest and lowest quartiles in K-ARS scores were defined to be in ADHD and non-ADHD groups, respectively. Five children (0.9%) met criteria for a definite Internet addiction and 75 children (14.0%) met criteria for a probable Internet addiction. K-ARS scores had significant positive correlations with Young's Internet Addiction test scores. The Internet addiction group had higher total scores of K-ARS and ADHD-related subcategories in the Child Behavior Checklists than the non-addiction group. The ADHD group had higher Internet addiction scores compared with the non-ADHD group. Therefore, significant associations have been found between the level of ADHD symptoms and the severity of Internet addiction in children. In addition, current findings suggest that the presence of ADHD symptoms, both in inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity domains, may be one of the important risk factors for Internet addiction.

  14. Visual attention in mixed-gender groups

    PubMed Central

    Amon, Mary Jean

    2015-01-01

    A basic principle of objectification theory is that a mere glance from a stranger represents the potential to be sexualized, triggering women to take on the perspective of others and become vigilant to their appearance. However, research has yet to document gendered gaze patterns in social groups. The present study examined visual attention in groups of varying gender composition to understand how gender and minority status influence gaze behavior. One hundred undergraduates enrolled in psychology courses were photographed, and an additional 76 participants viewed groupings of these photographs while their point of gaze was recorded using a remote eye-tracking device. Participants were not told that their gaze was being recorded. Women were viewed more frequently and for longer periods of time than men in mixed-gender groups. Women were also more likely to be looked at first and last by observers. Men spent more time attending to pictures of women when fewer women were in the group. The opposite effect was found for pictures of men, such that male pictures were viewed less when fewer pictures of men were in the group. Female observers spent more time looking at men compared to male observers, and male observers spent more time looking at women than female observers, though both female and male observers looked at women more than men overall. Consistent with objectification theory, women's appearance garners more attention and interest in mixed-gender social groups. PMID:25628589

  15. Evaluation of methods for the assessment of attention while driving.

    PubMed

    Kircher, Katja; Ahlstrom, Christer

    2017-03-21

    The ability to assess the current attentional state of the driver is important for many aspects of driving, not least in the field of partial automation for transfer of control between vehicle and driver. Knowledge about the driver's attentional state is also necessary for the assessment of the effects of additional tasks on attention. The objective of this paper is to evaluate different methods that can be used to assess attention, first theoretically, and then empirically in a controlled field study and in the laboratory. Six driving instructors participated in all experimental conditions of the study, delivering within-subjects data for all tested methods. Additional participants were recruited for some of the conditions. The test route consisted of 14km of motorway with low to moderate traffic, which was driven three times per participant per condition. The on-road conditions were: baseline, driving with eye tracking and self-paced visual occlusion, and driving while thinking aloud. The laboratory conditions were: Describing how attention should be distributed on a motorway, and thinking aloud while watching a video from the baseline drive. The results show that visual occlusion, especially in combination with eye tracking, was appropriate for assessing spare capacity. The think aloud protocol was appropriate to gain insight about the driver's actual mental representation of the situation at hand. Expert judgement in the laboratory was not reliable for the assessment of drivers' attentional distribution in traffic. Across all assessment techniques, it is evident that meaningful assessment of attention in a dynamic traffic situation can only be achieved when the infrastructure layout, surrounding road users, and intended manoeuvres are taken into account. This requires advanced instrumentation of the vehicle, and subsequent data reduction, analysis and interpretation are demanding. In conclusion, driver attention assessment in real traffic is a complex task, but

  16. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, J. R.; St. Clair, T. L.; Burks, H. D.; Stoakley, D. M.

    1987-01-01

    A method has been found for enhancing the melt flow of thermoplastic polyimides during processing. A high molecular weight 422 copoly(amic acid) or copolyimide was fused with approximately 0.05 to 5 pct by weight of a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive, and this melt was studied by capillary rheometry. Excellent flow and improved composite properties on graphite resulted from the addition of a PMDA-aniline additive to LARC-TPI. Solution viscosity studies imply that amic acid additives temporarily lower molecular weight and, hence, enlarge the processing window. Thus, compositions containing the additive have a lower melt viscosity for a longer time than those unmodified.

  17. [Food additives and healthiness].

    PubMed

    Heinonen, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Additives are used for improving food structure or preventing its spoilage, for example. Many substances used as additives are also naturally present in food. The safety of additives is evaluated according to commonly agreed principles. If high concentrations of an additive cause adverse health effects for humans, a limit of acceptable daily intake (ADI) is set for it. An additive is a risk only when ADI is exceeded. The healthiness of food is measured on the basis of nutrient density and scientifically proven effects.

  18. Decoding the Locus of Covert Visuospatial Attention from EEG Signals

    PubMed Central

    Thiery, Thomas; Lajnef, Tarek; Jerbi, Karim; Arguin, Martin; Aubin, Mercedes; Jolicoeur, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Visuospatial attention can be deployed to different locations in space independently of ocular fixation, and studies have shown that event-related potential (ERP) components can effectively index whether such covert visuospatial attention is deployed to the left or right visual field. However, it is not clear whether we may obtain a more precise spatial localization of the focus of attention based on the EEG signals during central fixation. In this study, we used a modified Posner cueing task with an endogenous cue to determine the degree to which information in the EEG signal can be used to track visual spatial attention in presentation sequences lasting 200 ms. We used a machine learning classification method to evaluate how well EEG signals discriminate between four different locations of the focus of attention. We then used a multi-class support vector machine (SVM) and a leave-one-out cross-validation framework to evaluate the decoding accuracy (DA). We found that ERP-based features from occipital and parietal regions showed a statistically significant valid prediction of the location of the focus of visuospatial attention (DA = 57%, p < .001, chance-level 25%). The mean distance between the predicted and the true focus of attention was 0.62 letter positions, which represented a mean error of 0.55 degrees of visual angle. In addition, ERP responses also successfully predicted whether spatial attention was allocated or not to a given location with an accuracy of 79% (p < .001). These findings are discussed in terms of their implications for visuospatial attention decoding and future paths for research are proposed. PMID:27529476

  19. Neural Correlates of Divided Attention in Natural Scenes.

    PubMed

    Fagioli, Sabrina; Macaluso, Emiliano

    2016-09-01

    Individuals are able to split attention between separate locations, but divided spatial attention incurs the additional requirement of monitoring multiple streams of information. Here, we investigated divided attention using photos of natural scenes, where the rapid categorization of familiar objects and prior knowledge about the likely positions of objects in the real world might affect the interplay between these spatial and nonspatial factors. Sixteen participants underwent fMRI during an object detection task. They were presented with scenes containing either a person or a car, located on the left or right side of the photo. Participants monitored either one or both object categories, in one or both visual hemifields. First, we investigated the interplay between spatial and nonspatial attention by comparing conditions of divided attention between categories and/or locations. We then assessed the contribution of top-down processes versus stimulus-driven signals by separately testing the effects of divided attention in target and nontarget trials. The results revealed activation of a bilateral frontoparietal network when dividing attention between the two object categories versus attending to a single category but no main effect of dividing attention between spatial locations. Within this network, the left dorsal premotor cortex and the left intraparietal sulcus were found to combine task- and stimulus-related signals. These regions showed maximal activation when participants monitored two categories at spatially separate locations and the scene included a nontarget object. We conclude that the dorsal frontoparietal cortex integrates top-down and bottom-up signals in the presence of distractors during divided attention in real-world scenes.

  20. Decoding the Locus of Covert Visuospatial Attention from EEG Signals.

    PubMed

    Thiery, Thomas; Lajnef, Tarek; Jerbi, Karim; Arguin, Martin; Aubin, Mercedes; Jolicoeur, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Visuospatial attention can be deployed to different locations in space independently of ocular fixation, and studies have shown that event-related potential (ERP) components can effectively index whether such covert visuospatial attention is deployed to the left or right visual field. However, it is not clear whether we may obtain a more precise spatial localization of the focus of attention based on the EEG signals during central fixation. In this study, we used a modified Posner cueing task with an endogenous cue to determine the degree to which information in the EEG signal can be used to track visual spatial attention in presentation sequences lasting 200 ms. We used a machine learning classification method to evaluate how well EEG signals discriminate between four different locations of the focus of attention. We then used a multi-class support vector machine (SVM) and a leave-one-out cross-validation framework to evaluate the decoding accuracy (DA). We found that ERP-based features from occipital and parietal regions showed a statistically significant valid prediction of the location of the focus of visuospatial attention (DA = 57%, p < .001, chance-level 25%). The mean distance between the predicted and the true focus of attention was 0.62 letter positions, which represented a mean error of 0.55 degrees of visual angle. In addition, ERP responses also successfully predicted whether spatial attention was allocated or not to a given location with an accuracy of 79% (p < .001). These findings are discussed in terms of their implications for visuospatial attention decoding and future paths for research are proposed.

  1. People Are More Generous to a Partner Who Pays Attention to Them.

    PubMed

    Ohtsubo, Yohsuke; Yamaguchi, Chiaki

    2017-01-01

    People use relatively low-cost signals to maintain close relationships, in which they engage in costlier exchanges of tangible support. Paying attention to a partner allows an individual to communicate his or her interest in the relationship with the partner. Previous studies have revealed that when Person A pays attention to Person B, B's feeling of intimacy toward A increases. If social attention strengthens the bond between A and B, it is predicted that A's attention will also increase B's generous behavior toward A. This study tested this prediction. Participants first engaged in a collaborative task using computers. In the task, the putative partner (a computer program) either paid or did not pay attention to participants (high attention condition vs. low attention condition). In the control condition, the partner could not choose when to pay attention to participants. They then played three rounds of the dictator game with the partner. Confirming the previous finding, perceived intimacy was highest in the high attention condition, in the middle in the control condition, and lowest in the low attention condition. More importantly, participants in the high attention condition decided to give more resources to their partner than those in the low attention condition (but the difference between the high attention condition and the control condition was not significant). In addition, self-reported intimacy was positively correlated with the resource allocated to the partner. The results of this study demonstrated that social attention fosters a partner's generosity.

  2. Optics of progressive addition lenses.

    PubMed

    Sheedy, J E; Buri, M; Bailey, I L; Azus, J; Borish, I M

    1987-02-01

    The optical characteristics of the major progressive addition lenses were measured using an automated lensometer with a specially designed lens holder to simulate eye rotation. Measurements were made every 3 degrees (about 1.5 mm) and graphs of isospherical equivalent lines and isocylinder lines were developed. Generally the near zone of these lenses is narrower and lower than in bifocal or trifocal lenses. Distinct differences exist between the various progressive lenses. The width of the near zone, rate of power progression, amount of unwanted cylinder (level with the distance center), and clarity of the distance zone are compared for the various lenses. The optical measurements demonstrate an apparent trade-off between the size of the cylinder-free area of the lens and the amount of the cylinder.

  3. Challenges Facing Special Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyen, Edward L., Ed.; And Others

    This book presents 17 selected papers from recent issues of the journal, "Focus on Exceptional Children," concerning current and emerging challenges facing the field of special education. The book is organized in two parts. Part 1, "Contemporary Challenges," includes the following articles: "Transitions in Early Childhood Special Education: Issues…

  4. Handbook of Special Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kauffman, James M., Ed.; Hallahan, Daniel P., Ed.

    Intended to serve as a basic reference work for students and professionals in special education, the book contains 34 author contributed chapters concerned with the conceptual foundations of special education, service delivery systems, curriculum and methods, and child and child/environmental management. Chapters have the following titles and…

  5. Special Education in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abu-Hamour, Bashir; Al-Hmouz, Hanan

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide a brief background about special education system in Jordan and particularly describes the present types of programmes and legislation provided within the country to students with special needs, as well as integration movement. Jordan has historically provided a limited number of educational opportunities…

  6. Perspectives on Sport Specialization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, Jay

    2002-01-01

    For high school athletes, the pressure increases each year to specialize and focus on their best sport, and if they do not, they risk being surpassed by other athletes who have focused on one sport. This paper discusses the advantages and disadvantages of sport specialization and looks at the rising danger of club sports for high school athletes.…

  7. Special Education Teacher Persistence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorp, Sally A.

    2013-01-01

    The focus of this study was special education teachers, who remained in the teaching field 5 or more years. Through the use of qualitative mixed-methods study, variables contributing to their longevity were explored. Research indicates that 50% of special education teachers leave the field within five years of employment (Alliance for Education,…

  8. Assessing Special Events.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neff, Bonita Dostal

    Special events defined as being "newsworthy events" are becoming a way of American life. They are also a means for making a lot of money. Examples of special events that are cited most frequently are often the most minor of events; e.g., the open house, the new business opening day gala, or a celebration of some event in an organization.…

  9. Preface: ISBB Special Issue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This special issue is published for the International Society of Biocatalysis and Biotechnology (ISBB). The ISBB special issue is devoted to all areas of biocatalysis and agricultural biotechnology in which biological systems are developed and/or used for the provision of commercial goods or serv...

  10. Special Awareness Month.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Granstrom, Jane; And Others

    1982-01-01

    The article reports on the organization and implementation of a "Special Needs Awareness Month" in Quincy, Massachusetts. Noted are the heavy involvement of parents in the multiagency planning committee, and the resulting citywide displays, publications, programs, and publicity on children with special needs. (DB)

  11. Special Education Resource System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kampert, George J.

    The guide to the Special Education Resource System (SERS) of the Flour Bluff (Texas) school system contains policies and procedures regarding organization, services, and process of the system. Noted is the SERS purpose of providing information and access to appropriate instructional media and materials for special education personnel. Briefly…

  12. 47 CFR 11.51 - EAS code and Attention Signal Transmission requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... section on at least one channel. The Attention signal may be produced from a storage device. Additionally... from a storage device. Additionally, these analog cable systems, digital cable systems, and...

  13. The Speed of Feature-Based Attention: Attentional Advantage Is Slow, but Selection Is Fast

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Liqiang

    2010-01-01

    When paying attention to a feature (e.g., red), no attentional advantage is gained in perceiving items with this feature in very brief displays. Therefore, feature-based attention seems to be slow. In previous feature-based attention studies, attention has often been measured as the difference in performance in a secondary task. In our recent work…

  14. Circadian and homeostatic variation in sustained attention.

    PubMed

    Valdez, Pablo; Ramírez, Candelaria; García, Aída; Talamantes, Javier; Cortez, Juventino

    2010-01-01

    circadian variation. Overall, these results suggest a dissociation of the effects of circadian and homeostatic factors on the indices of sustained attention. General stability, short- and long-error runs, and short-hit runs were modulated by both a homeostatic factor and a circadian effect, while long-hit runs and time on task stability were modulated only by a homeostatic factor and did not show circadian variation. There was also a 26 sec "safe period" that seems to be independent of circadian and homeostatic influences. These results suggest that performance at work deteriorates at the end of a shift due to a decrease in general stability, an increase in error runs, decrease of long-hit runs, and decline with time on task. Night shiftworkers are exposed to an additional deterioration of performance during the nighttime due to a decrease in general stability and an increase in error runs.

  15. 47 CFR 11.51 - EAS code and Attention Signal Transmission requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... section on at least one channel. The Attention signal may be produced from a storage device. Additionally... Attention signal may be produced from a storage device. Additionally, these analog cable systems, digital... deployed an Intermediary Device to meet its CAP-related obligations, this requirement shall be...

  16. 47 CFR 11.51 - EAS code and Attention Signal Transmission requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... section on at least one channel. The Attention signal may be produced from a storage device. Additionally... Attention signal may be produced from a storage device. Additionally, these analog cable systems, digital... deployed an Intermediary Device to meet its CAP-related obligations, this requirement shall be...

  17. Geomembrane special study. [UMTRA Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-07-01

    The objective of the Geomembrane Special Study was to asses the suitability of geomembranes in Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project pile designs. Geomembranes, also called flexible membrane liners, are made of polymer resins and are thermoplastic materials. Part of the special study was to evaluate regulatory compliance and acceptability issues. This study was proposed because of the extensive use of geomembranes in hazardous waste site remedial actions and their accepted use in Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) cells as both covers and liners to limit infiltration, or as part of leachate collection systems. This study has reviewed the recent geomembrane literature focusing on: (1) longevity; (2) performance; (3) constructibility; and (4) quality control/quality assurance considerations. In addition to these technical considerations, regulatory compliance and acceptability concerns were also evaluated. This report describes the results of the literature review, including correspondence with manufacturers, resin producers, experts in the field, and long-term major users. 12 refs., 2 tabs.

  18. Neural mechanisms of selective auditory attention are enhanced by computerized training: Electrophysiological evidence from language-impaired and typically developing children

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Courtney; Fanning, Jessica; Coch, Donna; Sanders, Lisa; Neville, Helen

    2008-01-01

    Recent proposals suggest that some interventions designed to improve language skills might also target or train selective attention. The present study examined whether six weeks of high-intensity (100 min/day) training with a computerized intervention program designed to improve language skills would also influence neural mechanisms of selective auditory attention previously shown to be deficient in children with specific language impairment (SLI). Twenty children received computerized training, including 8 children diagnosed with SLI and 12 children with typically developing language. An additional 13 children with typically developing language received no specialized training (NoTx control group) but were tested and retested after a comparable time period to control for maturational and test-retest effects. Before and after training (or a comparable delay period for the NoTx control group), children completed standardized language assessments and an event-related brain potential (ERP) measure of selective auditory attention. Relative to the NoTx control group, children receiving training showed increases in standardized measures of receptive language. In addition, children receiving training showed larger increases in the effects of attention on neural processing following training relative to the NoTx control group. The enhanced effect of attention on neural processing represented a large effect size (Cohen’s d = 0.8), and was specific to changes in signal enhancement of attended stimuli. These findings indicate that the neural mechanisms of selective auditory attention, previously shown to be deficient in children with SLI, can be remediated through training and can accompany improvements on standardized measures of language. Section Cognitive and Behavioral Neuroscience PMID:18353284

  19. Deficient Attention Is Hard to Find: Applying the Perceptual Load Model of Selective Attention to Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Subtypes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang-Pollock, Cynthia L.; Nigg, Joel T.; Carr, Thomas H.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Whether selective attention is a primary deficit in childhood Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) remains in active debate. Methods: We used the "perceptual load" paradigm to examine both early and late selective attention in children with the Primarily Inattentive (ADHD-I) and Combined subtypes (ADHD-C) of ADHD. Results:…

  20. Attention theory and training research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connelly, James G., Jr.; Wickens, Christopher D.; Lintern, Gavan; Harwood, Kelly

    1987-01-01

    This study used elements of attention theory as a methodological basis to decompose a complex training task in order to improve training efficiency. The complex task was a microcomputer flight simulation where subjects were required to control the stability of their own helicopter while acquiring and engaging enemy helicopers in a threat enviroment. Subjects were divided into whole-task, part-task, and part/open loop adaptive task groups in a transfer of training paradigm. The effect of reducing mental workload at the early stages of learning was examined with respect to the degree that subordinate elements of the complex task could be automated through practice of consistent, learnable stimulus-response relationships. Results revealed trends suggesting the benefit of isolating consistently mapped sub-tasks for part-task training and the presence of a time-sharing skill over and above the skill required for the separate subtasks.

  1. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Biederman, Joseph; Faraone, Stephen V

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a disorder of inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity that affects 8-12% of children worldwide. Although the rate of ADHD falls with age, at least half of children with the disorder will have impairing symptoms in adulthood. Twin, adoption, and molecular genetic studies show ADHD to be highly heritable, and other findings have recorded obstetric complications and psychosocial adversity as predisposing risk factors. Converging evidence from animal and human studies implicates the dysregulation of frontal-subcortical-cerebellar catecholaminergic circuits in the pathophysiology of ADHD, and molecular imaging studies suggest that abnormalities of the dopamine transporter lead to impaired neurotransmission. Studies during the past decade have shown the safety and effectiveness of new non-stimulant drugs and long-acting formulations of methylphenidate and amfetamine. Other investigations have also clarified the appropriate role of targeted psychosocial treatments in the context of ongoing pharmacotherapy.

  2. Tourette's syndrome in a special education population: a pilot study involving a single school district.

    PubMed

    Kurlan, R; Whitmore, D; Irvine, C; McDermott, M P; Como, P G

    1994-04-01

    To determine whether children requiring special education represent a high-risk group for identifying Tourette's syndrome (TS), we performed direct examinations for the presence of tics in 35 special education and 35 regular classroom students from a single school district. Of the special education students, nine (26%) had definite or probable tics as compared with only two (6%) of the regular classroom students. About one-third of the students with tics currently meet diagnostic criteria for TS and probably more will do so in the future. About one-half of the subjects with tics have evidence of obsessive-compulsive behavior (OCB) or an attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). For three randomly selected students with definite tics, direct examinations of first-degree relatives revealed the presence of tics in all families. Subjects to the limitations of this pilot study, we conclude that TS and related tic disorders are commonly associated with the need for special education in this single school district. TS might also be an important contributor to school problems in the childhood population at large and may be a highly prevalent condition. In addition, we conclude that childhood tics are associated with OCB and ADHD, are genetically determined, and are part of the TS clinical spectrum.

  3. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and borderline personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Davids, Eugen; Gastpar, Markus

    2005-07-01

    To evaluate the association between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and the diagnosis of borderline personality disorder (BPD) in adulthood, a systematic review of published follow-up data, mainly from observational studies was done. Electronic databases Medline, PsychInfo and PSYNDEXplus were searched from their earliest entries. All studies suggested significant relationships between ADHD and BPD. From a phenomenological point of view there seem to exist some similarities between these two disorders: deficits in affect regulation and impulse control, substance abuse, low self esteem and disturbed interpersonal relationship are common in both conditions. From a neuropsychological point of view dissociation in BPD might be regarded as a special form of behavioral inhibition and sustained attention comparable to ADHD. Possible therapeutic strategies of comorbid ADHD and BPD are discussed.

  4. Neural Differences between Covert and Overt Attention Studied using EEG with Simultaneous Remote Eye Tracking

    PubMed Central

    Kulke, Louisa V.; Atkinson, Janette; Braddick, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Research on neural mechanisms of attention has generally instructed subjects to direct attention covertly while maintaining a fixed gaze. This study combined simultaneous eye tracking and electroencephalogram (EEG) to measure neural attention responses during exogenous cueing in overt attention shifts (with saccadic eye movements to a target) and compared these with covert attention shifts (responding manually while maintaining central fixation). EEG analysis of the period preceding the saccade latency showed similar occipital response amplitudes for overt and covert shifts, although response latencies differed. However, a frontal positivity was greater during covert attention shifts, possibly reflecting saccade inhibition to maintain fixation. The results show that combined EEG and eye tracking can be successfully used to study natural overt shifts of attention (applicable to non-verbal infants) and that requiring inhibition of saccades can lead to additional frontal responses. Such data can be used to refine current neural models of attention that have been mainly based on covert shifts. PMID:27932962

  5. Fiber pathways of attention subnetworks revealed with tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) and probabilistic tractography.

    PubMed

    Ge, Haitao; Yin, Xuntao; Xu, Junhai; Tang, Yuchun; Han, Yan; Xu, Wenjian; Pang, Zengchang; Meng, Haiwei; Liu, Shuwei

    2013-01-01

    It has been widely accepted that attention can be divided into three subnetworks - alerting, orienting and executive control (EC), and the subnetworks of attention are linked to distinct brain regions. However, the association between specific white matter fibers and the subnetworks of attention is not clear enough. Using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), the white matter connectivity related to the performance of attention was assessed by attention network test (ANT) in 85 healthy adolescents. Tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) and probabilistic diffusion tractography analysis demonstrated that cerebellothalamic tract was involved in alerting, while orienting depended upon the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF). In addition, EC was under the control of anterior corona radiata (ACR). Our findings suggest that different fiber pathways are involved in the three distinct subnetworks of attention. The current study will yield more precise information about the structural substrates of attention function and may aid the efforts to understand the neurophysiology of several attention disorders.

  6. The Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS) in an Argentine Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montes, Silvana Andrea; Ledesma, Rubén Daniel; García, Natalia Mariana; Poó, Fernando Martín

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide evidence of validity for the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale scores in an Argentine sample (Spanish-language version). Results indicated satisfactory psychometric properties (a one-factor structure, good item discrimination, high reliability, and significant correlations with additional measures). This…

  7. Selective visual attention in object recognition and scene analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzaga, Adilson; de Almeida Neves, Evelina M.; Frere, Annie F.

    1998-10-01

    An important feature of human vision system is the ability of selective visual attention. The stimulus that reaches the primate retina is processed in two different cortical pathways; one is specialized for object vision (`What') and the other for spatial vision (`Where'). By this, the visual system is able to recognize objects independently where they appear in the visual field. There are two major theories to explain the human visual attention. According to the Object- Based theory there is a limit on the isolated objects that could be perceived simultaneously and by the Space-Based theory there is a limit on the spatial areas from which the information could be taken up. This paper deals with the Object-Based theory that states the visual world occurs in two stages. The scene is segmented into isolated objects by region growing techniques in the pre-attentive stage. Invariant features (moments) are extracted and used as input of an Artificial Neural Network giving the probable object location (`Where'). In the focal-stage, particular objects are analyzed in detail through another neural network that performs the object recognition (`What'). The number of analyzed objects is based on a top-down process doing a consistent scene interpretation. With Visual Attention is possible the development of more efficient and flexible interfaces between low sensory information and high level process.

  8. Social Eavesdropping in Zebrafish: Tuning of Attention to Social Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Abril-de-Abreu, Rodrigo; Cruz, José; Oliveira, Rui F.

    2015-01-01

    Group living animals may eavesdrop on signalling interactions between conspecifics in order to collect adaptively relevant information obtained from others, without incurring in the costs of first-hand information acquisition. This ability (aka social eavesdropping) is expected to impact Darwinian fitness, and hence predicts the evolution of cognitive processes that enable social animals to use public information available in the environment. These adaptive specializations in cognition may have evolved both at the level of learning and memory mechanisms, and at the level of input mechanisms, such as attention, which select the information that is available for learning. Here we used zebrafish to test if attention in a social species is tuned to the exchange of information between conspecifics. Our results show that zebrafish are more attentive towards interacting (i.e. fighting) than towards non-interacting pairs of conspecifics, with the exposure to fighting not increasing activity or stress levels. Moreover, using video playbacks to manipulate form features of the fighting fish, we show that during the assessment phase of the fight, bystanders’ attention is more driven by form features of the interacting opponents; whereas during the post-resolution phase, it is driven by biological movement features of the dominant fish chasing the subordinate fish. PMID:26242246

  9. A Biophysical Neural Model To Describe Spatial Visual Attention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hugues, Etienne; José, Jorge V.

    2008-02-01

    Visual scenes have enormous spatial and temporal information that are transduced into neural spike trains. Psychophysical experiments indicate that only a small portion of a spatial image is consciously accessible. Electrophysiological experiments in behaving monkeys have revealed a number of modulations of the neural activity in special visual area known as V4, when the animal is paying attention directly towards a particular stimulus location. The nature of the attentional input to V4, however, remains unknown as well as to the mechanisms responsible for these modulations. We use a biophysical neural network model of V4 to address these issues. We first constrain our model to reproduce the experimental results obtained for different external stimulus configurations and without paying attention. To reproduce the known neuronal response variability, we found that the neurons should receive about equal, or balanced, levels of excitatory and inhibitory inputs and whose levels are high as they are in in vivo conditions. Next we consider attentional inputs that can induce and reproduce the observed spiking modulations. We also elucidate the role played by the neural network to generate these modulations.

  10. Infant visual attention and object recognition.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Greg D

    2015-05-15

    This paper explores the role visual attention plays in the recognition of objects in infancy. Research and theory on the development of infant attention and recognition memory are reviewed in three major sections. The first section reviews some of the major findings and theory emerging from a rich tradition of behavioral research utilizing preferential looking tasks to examine visual attention and recognition memory in infancy. The second section examines research utilizing neural measures of attention and object recognition in infancy as well as research on brain-behavior relations in the early development of attention and recognition memory. The third section addresses potential areas of the brain involved in infant object recognition and visual attention. An integrated synthesis of some of the existing models of the development of visual attention is presented which may account for the observed changes in behavioral and neural measures of visual attention and object recognition that occur across infancy.

  11. Superior colliculus and visual spatial attention.

    PubMed

    Krauzlis, Richard J; Lovejoy, Lee P; Zénon, Alexandre

    2013-07-08

    The superior colliculus (SC) has long been known to be part of the network of brain areas involved in spatial attention, but recent findings have dramatically refined our understanding of its functional role. The SC both implements the motor consequences of attention and plays a crucial role in the process of target selection that precedes movement. Moreover, even in the absence of overt orienting movements, SC activity is related to shifts of covert attention and is necessary for the normal control of spatial attention during perceptual judgments. The neuronal circuits that link the SC to spatial attention may include attention-related areas of the cerebral cortex, but recent results show that the SC's contribution involves mechanisms that operate independently of the established signatures of attention in visual cortex. These findings raise new issues and suggest novel possibilities for understanding the brain mechanisms that enable spatial attention.

  12. On the evolution of conscious attention.

    PubMed

    Haladjian, Harry Haroutioun; Montemayor, Carlos

    2015-06-01

    This paper aims to clarify the relationship between consciousness and attention through theoretical considerations about evolution. Specifically, we will argue that the empirical findings on attention and the basic considerations concerning the evolution of the different forms of attention demonstrate that consciousness and attention must be dissociated regardless of which definition of these terms one uses. To the best of our knowledge, no extant view on the relationship between consciousness and attention has this advantage. Because of this characteristic, this paper presents a principled and neutral way to settle debates concerning the relationship between consciousness and attention, without falling into disputes about the meaning of these terms. A decisive conclusion of this approach is that extreme views on the relationship between consciousness and attention must be rejected, including identity and full dissociation views. There is an overlap between the two within conscious attention, but developing a full understanding of this mechanism requires further empirical investigations.

  13. Effects of Psychological Attention on Pronoun Comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, Jennifer E.; Lao, Shin-Yi C.

    2015-01-01

    Pronoun comprehension is facilitated for referents that are focused in the discourse context. Discourse focus has been described as a function of attention, especially shared attention, but few studies have explicitly tested this idea. Two experiments used an exogenous capture cue paradigm to demonstrate that listeners’ visual attention at the onset of a story influences their preferences during pronoun resolution later in the story. In both experiments trial-initial attention modulated listeners’ transitory biases while considering referents for the pronoun, whether it was in response to the capture cue or not. These biases even had a small influence on listeners’ final interpretation of the pronoun. These results provide independently-motivated evidence that the listener’s attention influences the on-line processes of pronoun comprehension. Trial-initial attentional shifts were made on the basis of non-shared, private information, demonstrating that attentional effects on pronoun comprehension are not restricted to shared attention among interlocutors. PMID:26191533

  14. Capturing Dynamics of Biased Attention: Are New Attention Variability Measures the Way Forward?

    PubMed Central

    Field, Andy P.; Fox, Elaine

    2016-01-01

    Background New indices, calculated on data from the widely used Dot Probe Task, were recently proposed to capture variability in biased attention allocation. We observed that it remains unclear which data pattern is meant to be indicative of dynamic bias and thus to be captured by these indices. Moreover, we hypothesized that the new indices are sensitive to SD differences at the response time (RT) level in the absence of bias. Method Randomly generated datasets were analyzed to assess properties of the Attention Bias Variability (ABV) and Trial Level Bias Score (TL-BS) indices. Sensitivity to creating differences in 1) RT standard deviation, 2) mean RT, and 3) bias magnitude were assessed. In addition, two possible definitions of dynamic attention bias were explored by creating differences in 4) frequency of bias switching, and 5) bias magnitude in the presence of constant switching. Results ABV and TL-BS indices were found highly sensitive to increasing SD at the response time level, insensitive to increasing bias, linearly sensitive to increasing bias magnitude in the presence of bias switches, and non-linearly sensitive to increasing the frequency of bias switches. The ABV index was also found responsive to increasing mean response times in the absence of bias. Conclusion Recently proposed DPT derived variability indices cannot uncouple measurement error from bias variability. Significant group differences may be observed even if there is no bias present in any individual dataset. This renders the new indices in their current form unfit for empirical purposes. Our discussion focuses on fostering debate and ideas for new research to validate the potentially very important notion of biased attention being dynamic. PMID:27875536

  15. 78 FR 51818 - Notice of Applications for Modification of Special Permits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-21

    ... modification of special permits (e.g. to provide for additional hazardous materials, packaging design changes... special Inc. Lenoir, NC. permit to authorize 1H2 drums as additional packaging. 14188-M IDQ Operating...

  16. Modality-specificity of Selective Attention Networks

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Hannah J.; Amitay, Sygal

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To establish the modality specificity and generality of selective attention networks. Method: Forty-eight young adults completed a battery of four auditory and visual selective attention tests based upon the Attention Network framework: the visual and auditory Attention Network Tests (vANT, aANT), the Test of Everyday Attention (TEA), and the Test of Attention in Listening (TAiL). These provided independent measures for auditory and visual alerting, orienting, and conflict resolution networks. The measures were subjected to an exploratory factor analysis to assess underlying attention constructs. Results: The analysis yielded a four-component solution. The first component comprised of a range of measures from the TEA and was labeled “general attention.” The third component was labeled “auditory attention,” as it only contained measures from the TAiL using pitch as the attended stimulus feature. The second and fourth components were labeled as “spatial orienting” and “spatial conflict,” respectively—they were comprised of orienting and conflict resolution measures from the vANT, aANT, and TAiL attend-location task—all tasks based upon spatial judgments (e.g., the direction of a target arrow or sound location). Conclusions: These results do not support our a-priori hypothesis that attention networks are either modality specific or supramodal. Auditory attention separated into selectively attending to spatial and non-spatial features, with the auditory spatial attention loading onto the same factor as visual spatial attention, suggesting spatial attention is supramodal. However, since our study did not include a non-spatial measure of visual attention, further research will be required to ascertain whether non-spatial attention is modality-specific. PMID:26635709

  17. Attentional Modulation of Auditory Steady-State Responses

    PubMed Central

    Mahajan, Yatin; Davis, Chris; Kim, Jeesun

    2014-01-01

    Auditory selective attention enables task-relevant auditory events to be enhanced and irrelevant ones suppressed. In the present study we used a frequency tagging paradigm to investigate the effects of attention on auditory steady state responses (ASSR). The ASSR was elicited by simultaneously presenting two different streams of white noise, amplitude modulated at either 16 and 23.5 Hz or 32.5 and 40 Hz. The two different frequencies were presented to each ear and participants were instructed to selectively attend to one ear or the other (confirmed by behavioral evidence). The results revealed that modulation of ASSR by selective attention depended on the modulation frequencies used and whether the activation was contralateral or ipsilateral. Attention enhanced the ASSR for contralateral activation from either ear for 16 Hz and suppressed the ASSR for ipsilateral activation for 16 Hz and 23.5 Hz. For modulation frequencies of 32.5 or 40 Hz attention did not affect the ASSR. We propose that the pattern of enhancement and inhibition may be due to binaural suppressive effects on ipsilateral stimulation and the dominance of contralateral hemisphere during dichotic listening. In addition to the influence of cortical processing asymmetries, these results may also reflect a bias towards inhibitory ipsilateral and excitatory contralateral activation present at the level of inferior colliculus. That the effect of attention was clearest for the lower modulation frequencies suggests that such effects are likely mediated by cortical brain structures or by those in close proximity to cortex. PMID:25334021

  18. Attentional Mechanisms during the Performance of a Subsecond Timing Task

    PubMed Central

    Velázquez-Martínez, David N.

    2016-01-01

    There is evidence that timing processes in the suprasecond scale are modulated by attentional mechanisms; in addition, some studies have shown that attentional mechanisms also affect timing in the subsecond scale. Our aim was to study eye movements and pupil diameter during a temporal bisection task in the subsecond range. Subjects were trained to discriminate anchor intervals of 200 or 800 msec, and were then confronted with intermediate durations. Eye movements revealed that subjects used different cognitive strategies during the bisection timing task. When the stimulus to be timed appeared randomly at a central or 4 peripheral positions on a screen, some subjects choose to maintain their gaze toward the central area while other followed the peripheral placement of the stimulus; some others subjects used both strategies. The time of subjective equality did not differ between subjects who employed different attentional mechanisms. However, differences emerged in the timing variance and attentional indexes (time taken to initial fixation, latency to respond, pupil dilatation and duration and number of fixations to stimulus areas). Timing in the subsecond range seems invariant despite the use of different attentional strategies. Future research should determine whether the selection of attentional mechanisms is related to particular timing tasks or instructions or whether it represents idiosyncratic cognitive “styles”. PMID:27467762

  19. Color impact in visual attention deployment considering emotional images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamaret, C.

    2012-03-01

    Color is a predominant factor in the human visual attention system. Even if it cannot be sufficient to the global or complete understanding of a scene, it may impact the visual attention deployment. We propose to study the color impact as well as the emotion aspect of pictures regarding the visual attention deployment. An eye-tracking campaign has been conducted involving twenty people watching half pictures of database in full color and the other half of database in grey color. The eye fixations of color and black and white images were highly correlated leading to the question of the integration of such cues in the design of visual attention model. Indeed, the prediction of two state-of-the-art computational models shows similar results for the two color categories. Similarly, the study of saccade amplitude and fixation duration versus time viewing did not bring any significant differences between the two mentioned categories. In addition, spatial coordinates of eye fixations reveal an interesting indicator for investigating the differences of visual attention deployment over time and fixation number. The second factor related to emotion categories shows evidences of emotional inter-categories differences between color and grey eye fixations for passive and positive emotion. The particular aspect associated to this category induces a specific behavior, rather based on high frequencies, where the color components influence the visual attention deployment.

  20. Polylactides in additive biomanufacturing.

    PubMed

    Poh, Patrina S P; Chhaya, Mohit P; Wunner, Felix M; De-Juan-Pardo, Elena M; Schilling, Arndt F; Schantz, Jan-Thorsten; van Griensven, Martijn; Hutmacher, Dietmar W

    2016-12-15

    New advanced manufacturing technologies under the alias of additive biomanufacturing allow the design and fabrication of a range of products from pre-operative models, cutting guides and medical devices to scaffolds. The process of printing in 3 dimensions of cells, extracellular matrix (ECM) and biomaterials (bioinks, powders, etc.) to generate in vitro and/or in vivo tissue analogue structures has been termed bioprinting. To further advance in additive biomanufacturing, there are many aspects that we can learn from the wider additive manufacturing (AM) industry, which have progressed tremendously since its introduction into the manufacturing sector. First, this review gives an overview of additive manufacturing and both industry and academia efforts in addressing specific challenges in the AM technologies to drive toward AM-enabled industrial revolution. After which, considerations of poly(lactides) as a biomaterial in additive biomanufacturing are discussed. Challenges in wider additive biomanufacturing field are discussed in terms of (a) biomaterials; (b) computer-aided design, engineering and manufacturing; (c) AM and additive biomanufacturing printers hardware; and (d) system integration. Finally, the outlook for additive biomanufacturing was discussed.

  1. Additive Manufactured Product Integrity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waller, Jess; Wells, Doug; James, Steve; Nichols, Charles

    2017-01-01

    NASA is providing key leadership in an international effort linking NASA and non-NASA resources to speed adoption of additive manufacturing (AM) to meet NASA's mission goals. Participants include industry, NASA's space partners, other government agencies, standards organizations and academia. Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) is identified as a universal need for all aspects of additive manufacturing.

  2. Persistence of Value-Driven Attentional Capture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Brian A.; Yantis, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Stimuli that have previously been associated with the delivery of reward involuntarily capture attention when presented as unrewarded and task-irrelevant distractors in a subsequent visual search task. It is unknown how long such effects of reward learning on attention persist. One possibility is that value-driven attentional biases are plastic…

  3. Everyday Attention Failures: An Individual Differences Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unsworth, Nash; McMillan, Brittany D.; Brewer, Gene A.; Spillers, Gregory J.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined individual differences in everyday attention failures. Undergraduate students completed various cognitive ability measures in the laboratory and recorded everyday attention failures in a diary over the course of a week. The majority of attention failures were failures of distraction or mind wandering in educational…

  4. Target Predictability, Sustained Attention, and Response Inhibition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Leonie; Russell, Paul N.; Helton, William S.

    2013-01-01

    We examined whether the sustained attention to response task is a better measure of response inhibition or sustained attention. Participants performed a number detection task for 37.3 min using either a Sustained Attention to Response Task (SART; high Go low No-Go) or a more traditionally formatted vigilance task (TFT; high No-Go low Go) response…

  5. The Attentional Blink in Developing Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLean, Gregor M. T.; Stuart, Geoffrey W.; Visser, Troy A. W.; Castles, Anne

    2009-01-01

    The attentional blink refers to a reduction in accuracy that occurs when identifying the second of two targets presented within approximately 500 msec of each other. This research explored individual differences in the attentional blink in a sample of 86 children (aged 8-10) with normally developing reading skills. The attentional blink was…

  6. Separable Attentional Predictors of Language Outcome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salley, Brenda; Panneton, Robin K.; Colombo, John

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the combined influences of infants' attention and use of social cues in the prediction of their language outcomes. This longitudinal study measured infants' visual attention on a distractibility task (11 months), joint attention (14 months), and language outcomes (word-object association, 14 months; MBCDI…

  7. A taxonomy of external and internal attention.

    PubMed

    Chun, Marvin M; Golomb, Julie D; Turk-Browne, Nicholas B

    2011-01-01

    Attention is a core property of all perceptual and cognitive operations. Given limited capacity to process competing options, attentional mechanisms select, modulate, and sustain focus on information most relevant for behavior. A significant problem, however, is that attention is so ubiquitous that it is unwieldy to study. We propose a taxonomy based on the types of information that attention operates over--the targets of attention. At the broadest level, the taxonomy distinguishes between external attention and internal attention. External attention refers to the selection and modulation of sensory information. External attention selects locations in space, points in time, or modality-specific input. Such perceptual attention can also select features defined across any of these dimensions, or object representations that integrate over space, time, and modality. Internal attention refers to the selection, modulation, and maintenance of internally generated information, such as task rules, responses, long-term memory, or working memory. Working memory, in particular, lies closest to the intersection between external and internal attention. The taxonomy provides an organizing framework that recasts classic debates, raises new issues, and frames understanding of neural mechanisms.

  8. Search Asymmetry, Sustained Attention, and Response Inhibition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Hugh; Russell, Paul N.; Helton, William S.

    2011-01-01

    In the present experiment, we used search asymmetry to test whether the sustained attention to response task is a better measure of response inhibition or sustained attention. Participants performed feature present and feature absent target detection tasks using either a sustained attention to response task (SART; high Go low No-Go) or a…

  9. Attentional Bias for Exercise-Related Images

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Tanya R.; Spence, John C.; Stolp, Sean M.

    2011-01-01

    This research examined attentional bias toward exercise-related images using a visual probe task. It was hypothesized that more-active participants would display attentional bias toward the exercise-related images. The results showed that men displayed attentional bias for the exercise images. There was a significant interaction of activity level…

  10. Context-Dependent Control over Attentional Capture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cosman, Joshua D.; Vecera, Shaun P.

    2013-01-01

    A number of studies have demonstrated that the likelihood of a salient item capturing attention is dependent on the "attentional set" an individual employs in a given situation. The instantiation of an attentional set is often viewed as a strategic, voluntary process, relying on working memory systems that represent immediate task…

  11. Behold: Silence and Attention in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewin, David

    2014-01-01

    Educators continually ask about the best means to engage students and how best to capture attention. These concerns often make the problematic assumption that students can directly govern their own attention. In order to address the role and limits of attention in education, some theorists have sought to recover the significance of silence or…

  12. Perceptual Load Influences Selective Attention across Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Couperus, Jane W.

    2011-01-01

    Research suggests that visual selective attention develops across childhood. However, there is relatively little understanding of the neurological changes that accompany this development, particularly in the context of adult theories of selective attention, such as N. Lavie's (1995) perceptual load theory of attention. This study examined visual…

  13. An Operant Analysis of Joint Attention Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holth, Per

    2005-01-01

    Joint attention, a synchronizing of the attention of two or more persons, has been an increasing focus of research in cognitive developmental psychology. Research in this area has progressed mainly outside of behavior analysis, and behavior-analytic research and theory has tended to ignore the work on joint attention. It is argued here, on the one…

  14. Social Attention, Joint Attention and Sustained Attention in Autism Spectrum Disorder and Williams Syndrome: Convergences and Divergences.

    PubMed

    Vivanti, Giacomo; Fanning, Peter A J; Hocking, Darren R; Sievers, Stephanie; Dissanayake, Cheryl

    2017-03-27

    There is limited knowledge on shared and syndrome-specific attentional profiles in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and Williams syndrome (WS). Using eye-tracking, we examined attentional profiles of 35 preschoolers with ASD, 22 preschoolers with WS and 20 typically developing children across social and non-social dimensions of attention. Children with ASD and those with WS presented with overlapping deficits in spontaneous visual engagement with the target of others' attention and in sustained attention. Children with ASD showed syndrome-specific abnormalities in monitoring and following a person's referential gaze, as well as a lack of preferential attention to social stimuli. Children with ASD and WS present with shared as well as syndrome-specific abnormalities across social and non-social dimensions of attention.

  15. Hypertension in special populations.

    PubMed

    Nesbitt, Shawna D

    2005-07-01

    Hypertension is a multifaceted disease that may present somewhat differently in various populations. It is clear that hypertensive treatment reduces cardiovascular, renal, and cerebrovascular outcomes for all patients, yet recent clinical trial data suggest that some groups may benefit more than others from specific drug intervention. Furthermore, these data justify specific approaches for some special populations. This article reviews important features of the presentation, rationale for treatment, and treatment recommendations for the treatment of hypertension in special populations. The special populations addressed include diabetic patients, the elderly, and women.

  16. Attention deficit and attention training in early twentieth-century Japan.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Toshinobu; Ando, Mizuho; Kumagai, Keiko

    2015-06-01

    Yuzero Motora (1856-1912), regarded as the first professional Japanese psychologist, tried to address students' attention difficulties through attention training methods of his own design. His reports contain the first description of ADHD-like symptoms in the history of Japan. Motora viewed "distractibility" as the irregular transition of attention. Students with low scores and attention difficulties who participated in Motora's exercises showed improvement in arithmetic, psychological testing, and certain aspects of daily life. This article describes Motora's theoretical conception of attention and attention training methodology, the history of attention deficit and attention training, and the significance of Motora's experiments.

  17. Objective Assessment of the Human Visual Attentional State

    PubMed Central

    Willeford, Kevin T.; Ciuffreda, Kenneth J.; Yadav, Naveen K.; Ludlam, Diana P.

    2014-01-01

    Primary objective The purpose of this study was to develop an objective way to assess human visual attention using the alpha band component of the visual-evoked potential (VEP). Design and methods Six different attentional conditions were tested: eyes-open, eyes-closed, eyes-closed with backwards number counting, and three rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) tasks. 18 visually-normal, young-adult subjects (ages 21 to 28 years) were tested binocularly at 1 meter for each condition on two separate days. The Diopsys™ NOVA-TR system was used to obtain the visual-evoked potential (VEP) and extracted alpha-wave and its related power spectrum. Additionally, the Visual Search and Attention Test (VSAT) was administered as a subjective measure of visual attention. Results Subjects exhibited significant decreases in power in the alpha band when comparing the eyes-closed to the eyes-open conditions, with power in the eyes-closed condition being, on average, twice as large. The response from the other four conditions did not reflect the differential attentional demands. The ratio of the power in the eyes-closed condition to the eyes open condition in the lower alpha frequencies (8–10 Hz) was found to be significantly correlated to the group’s performance on the VSAT, especially the 10 Hz component. Conclusions An individual’s ability to attenuate their alpha-component during visual processing may be a predictor of their visual attentional state. These findings solidify the role of the VEP alpha subcomponent as an objective electrophysiological correlate of visual attention, which may be useful in the diagnosis and treatment of human visual-attention disorders in the future. PMID:23111658

  18. Postnatal arsenic exposure and attention impairment in school children.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Barranco, Miguel; Gil, Fernando; Hernández, Antonio F; Alguacil, Juan; Lorca, Andres; Mendoza, Ramón; Gómez, Inmaculada; Molina-Villalba, Isabel; González-Alzaga, Beatriz; Aguilar-Garduño, Clemente; Rohlman, Diane S; Lacasaña, Marina

    2016-01-01

    Over the last few decades there has been an increased concern about the health risks from exposure to metallic trace elements, including arsenic, because of their potential neurotoxic effects on the developing brain. This study assessed whether urinary arsenic (UA) levels are associated with attention performance and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in children living in an area with high industrial and mining activities in Southwestern Spain. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 261 children aged 6-9 years. Arsenic levels were determined in urine samples. Attention was measured by using 4 independent tools: a) tests from the Behavioral Assessment and Research System (BARS) designed to measure attention function: Simple Reaction Time Test (RTT), Continuous Performance Test (CPT) and Selective Attention Test (SAT); b) AULA Test, a virtual reality (VR)-based test that evaluates children's response to several stimuli in an environment simulating a classroom; c) Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), administered to parents; and d) Teacher's Report Form (TRF), administered to teachers. Multivariate linear and logistic regression models, adjusted for potential confounders, were used to estimate the magnitude of the association between UA levels and attention performance scores. Higher UA levels were associated with an increased latency of response in RTT (β = 12.3; 95% confidence interval (CI): 3.5-21.1) and SAT (β = 3.6; 95% CI: .4-6.8) as well as with worse performance on selective and focalized attention in the AULA test (β for impulsivity = .6; 95% CI: .1-1.1; β for inattention = .5; 95% CI: .03-1.0). A dose-response relationship was observed between UA levels and inattention and impulsivity scores. In contrast, results from the CBCL and TRF tests failed to show a significant association with UA levels. In conclusion, UA levels were associated with impaired attention/cognitive function, even at levels considered safe. These results provide

  19. Electrophysiological correlates of attention networks in childhood and early adulthood.

    PubMed

    Abundis-Gutiérrez, Alicia; Checa, Purificación; Castellanos, Concepción; Rosario Rueda, M

    2014-05-01

    Attention has been related to functions of alerting, orienting, and executive control, which are associated with distinct brain networks. This study aimed at understanding the neural mechanisms underlying the development of attention functions during childhood. A total of 46 healthy 4-13-year-old children and 15 adults performed an adapted version of the Attention Network Task (ANT) while brain activation was registered with a high-density EEG system. Performance of the ANT revealed changes in the efficiency of attention networks across ages. While no differences were observed on the alerting score, both orienting and executive attention scores showed a more protracted developmental curve. Further, age-related differences in brain activity were mostly observed in early ERP components. Young children had poorer early processing of warning cues compared to 10-13-year-olds and adults, as shown by an immature auditory-evoked potential complex elicited by warning tones. Also, 4-6-year-olds exhibited a poorer processing of orienting cues as indexed by lack of modulation of the N1. Finally, flanker congruency produced earlier modulation of ERPs amplitude with age. Flanker congruency effects were delayed and more anteriorly distributed for young children, compared to adults who showed a clear modulation of the N2 in fronto-parietal channels. Additionally, interactions among attention networks were examined. Both alerting and orienting conditions modulated the effectiveness of conflict processing by the executive attention network. The Orienting×Executive networks interactions was only observed after about age 7. Results are informative of the neural correlates of the development of attention networks in childhood.

  20. Attentional Flexibility During Approach and Avoidance Motivational States: The Role of Context in Shifts of Attentional Breadth

    PubMed Central

    Calcott, Rebecca D.; Berkman, Elliot T.

    2014-01-01

    In the present studies, we aimed to understand how approach and avoidance states affect attentional flexibility by examining attentional shifts on a trial-by-trial basis. We also examined how a novel construct in this area, task context, might interact with motivation to influence attentional flexibility. Participants completed a modified composite letter task in which the ratio of global to local targets was varied by block, making different levels of attentional focus beneficial to performance on different blocks. Study 1 demonstrated that, in the absence of a motivation manipulation, switch costs were lowest on blocks with an even ratio of global and local trials and were higher on blocks with an uneven ratio. Other participants completed the task while viewing pictures (Studies 2 and 3) and assuming arm positions (Studies 2 and 4) to induce approach, avoidance, and neutral motivational states. Avoidance motivation reduced switch costs in evenly proportioned contexts, whereas approach motivation reduced switch costs in mostly global contexts. Additionally, approach motivation imparted a similar switch cost magnitude across different contexts, whereas avoidance and neutral states led to variable switch costs depending on the context. Subsequent analyses revealed that these effects were driven largely by faster switching to local targets on mostly global blocks in the approach condition. These findings suggest that avoidance facilitates attentional shifts when switches are frequent, whereas approach facilitates responding to rare or unexpected local stimuli. The main implication of these results is that motivation has different effects on attentional shifts depending on the context. PMID:24294866