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Sample records for addition substantial improvements

  1. Have We Substantially Underestimated the Impact of Improved Sanitation Coverage on Child Health? A Generalized Additive Model Panel Analysis of Global Data on Child Mortality and Malnutrition

    PubMed Central

    Prüss-Ustün, Annette

    2016-01-01

    Background Although widely accepted as being one of the most important public health advances of the past hundred years, the contribution that improving sanitation coverage can make to child health is still unclear, especially since the publication of two large studies of sanitation in India which found no effect on child morbidity. We hypothesis that the value of sanitation does not come directly from use of improved sanitation but from improving community coverage. If this is so we further hypothesise that the relationship between sanitation coverage and child health will be non-linear and that most of any health improvement will accrue as sanitation becomes universal. Methods We report a fixed effects panel analysis of country level data using Generalized Additive Models in R. Outcome variables were under 5 childhood mortality, neonatal mortality, under 5 childhood mortality from diarrhoea, proportion of children under 5 with stunting and with underweight. Predictor variables were % coverage by improved sanitation, improved water source, Gross Domestic Product per capita and Health Expenditure per capita. We also identified three studies reporting incidence of diarrhoea in children under five alongside gains in community coverage in improved sanitation. Findings For each of the five outcome variables, sanitation coverage was independently associated with the outcome but this association was highly non-linear. Improving sanitation coverage was very strongly associated with under 5 years diarrhoea mortality, under 5years all-cause mortality, and all-cause neonatal mortality. There was a decline as sanitation coverage increased up to about 20% but then no further decline was seen until about 70% (60% for diarrhoea mortality and 80% for neonatal mortality, respectively). The association was less strong for stunting and underweight but a threshold about 50% coverage was also seen. Three large trials of sanitation on diarrhoea morbidity gave results that were similar

  2. Co-Inheritance Analysis within the Domains of Life Substantially Improves Network Inference by Phylogenetic Profiling

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Junha; Lee, Insuk

    2015-01-01

    Phylogenetic profiling, a network inference method based on gene inheritance profiles, has been widely used to construct functional gene networks in microbes. However, its utility for network inference in higher eukaryotes has been limited. An improved algorithm with an in-depth understanding of pathway evolution may overcome this limitation. In this study, we investigated the effects of taxonomic structures on co-inheritance analysis using 2,144 reference species in four query species: Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Arabidopsis thaliana, and Homo sapiens. We observed three clusters of reference species based on a principal component analysis of the phylogenetic profiles, which correspond to the three domains of life—Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukaryota—suggesting that pathways inherit primarily within specific domains or lower-ranked taxonomic groups during speciation. Hence, the co-inheritance pattern within a taxonomic group may be eroded by confounding inheritance patterns from irrelevant taxonomic groups. We demonstrated that co-inheritance analysis within domains substantially improved network inference not only in microbe species but also in the higher eukaryotes, including humans. Although we observed two sub-domain clusters of reference species within Eukaryota, co-inheritance analysis within these sub-domain taxonomic groups only marginally improved network inference. Therefore, we conclude that co-inheritance analysis within domains is the optimal approach to network inference with the given reference species. The construction of a series of human gene networks with increasing sample sizes of the reference species for each domain revealed that the size of the high-accuracy networks increased as additional reference species genomes were included, suggesting that within-domain co-inheritance analysis will continue to expand human gene networks as genomes of additional species are sequenced. Taken together, we propose that co

  3. Nutrient additions to a tropical rain forest drive substantial soil carbon dioxide losses to the atmosphere

    PubMed Central

    Cleveland, Cory C.; Townsend, Alan R.

    2006-01-01

    Terrestrial biosphere–atmosphere carbon dioxide (CO2) exchange is dominated by tropical forests, where photosynthetic carbon (C) uptake is thought to be phosphorus (P)-limited. In P-poor tropical forests, P may also limit organic matter decomposition and soil C losses. We conducted a field-fertilization experiment to show that P fertilization stimulates soil respiration in a lowland tropical rain forest in Costa Rica. In the early wet season, when soluble organic matter inputs to soil are high, P fertilization drove large increases in soil respiration. Although the P-stimulated increase in soil respiration was largely confined to the dry-to-wet season transition, the seasonal increase was sufficient to drive an 18% annual increase in CO2 efflux from the P-fertilized plots. Nitrogen (N) fertilization caused similar responses, and the net increases in soil respiration in response to the additions of N and P approached annual soil C fluxes in mid-latitude forests. Human activities are altering natural patterns of tropical soil N and P availability by land conversion and enhanced atmospheric deposition. Although our data suggest that the mechanisms driving the observed respiratory responses to increased N and P may be different, the large CO2 losses stimulated by N and P fertilization suggest that knowledge of such patterns and their effects on soil CO2 efflux is critical for understanding the role of tropical forests in a rapidly changing global C cycle. PMID:16793925

  4. Substantial Improvement of Short Wavelength Response in n-SiNW/PEDOT:PSS Solar Cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Zhaoyun; Xu, Ling; Cao, Yunqing; Wu, Tao; Song, Hucheng; Ma, Zhongyuan; Xu, Jun; Chen, Kunji

    2015-08-01

    We report herein on the effects of silicon nanowire with different morphology on the device performance of n-SiNW/PEDOT:PSS hybrid solar cells. The power conversion efficiency (PCE) and external quantum efficiency (EQE) of the SiNW/PEDOT:PSS hybrid solar cells can be optimized by varying the length of the silicon nanowires. The optimal length of silicon nanowires is 0.23 μm, and the hybrid solar cell with the optimal length has the V oc of 569 mV, J sc of 30.1 mA/cm2, and PCE of 9.3 %. We fabricated more isolated silicon nanowires with the diluted etching solution. And the J sc of the hybrid solar cell with more isolated nanowires has a significant enhancement, from 30.1 to 33.2 mA/cm2. The remarkable EQE in the wavelength region of 300 and 600 nm was also obtained, which are in excess of 80 %. Our work provides a simple method to substantially improve the EQE of hybrid solar cell in the short wavelength region.

  5. An experimental substantiation of the design functions imposed on the additional system for passively flooding the core of a VVER reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morozov, A. V.; Remizov, O. V.

    2012-05-01

    Results obtained from a research work on experimentally substantiating the serviceability of the additional system for passively flooding the core of a VVER reactor from the second-stage hydro accumulators are presented.

  6. A Statistical Approach to Identifying Schools Demonstrating Substantial Improvement in Student Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyers, Coby; Lindsay, Jim; Condon, Chris; Wan, Yinmei

    2012-01-01

    The rising tide behind the school turnaround movement is significant, as national education leaders continue to call for the rapid improvement of the nation's lowest-performing schools. To date, little work has been done to identify schools that are drastically improving their performance. Using publically available school-level student…

  7. Viscosity index improver-dispersant additive useful in oil compositions

    SciTech Connect

    Gardiner, J.B.; Dick, M.N.

    1988-10-25

    A process comprising grafting in the substantial absence of solvent a hydrocarbon polymer of C/sub 2/ to C/sub 28/ olefin, the polymer having a number average molecular weight in the range of about 5,000 to 500,000 with an unsaturated material selected from the group consisting of: (A) ethylenically unsaturated C/sub 3/ to C/sub 10/ carboxylic acid having 1 to 2 carboxylic acid groups or an anhydride group, and (B) nitrogen-containing ethylenically unsaturated monomers containing 6 to 30 carbon atoms and 1 to 4 nitrogen atoms, in the presence of a free radical initiator and a chain stopping agent comprising at least one member selected from the group consisting of alphatic mercaptans having 4 to 24 carbon atoms, deithyl hydroxyl amine cumene and phenols, the grafting being conducted in a manner and under conditions sufficient to form a substantially oil soluble graft copolymer useful as a viscosity index improver-dispersant additive for lubricating oil compositions.

  8. Improving ED efficiency to capture additional revenue.

    PubMed

    Mandavia, Sujal; Samaniego, Loretta

    2016-06-01

    An increase in the number of patients visiting emergency departments (EDs) presents an opportunity for additional revenue if hospitals take four steps to optimize resources: Streamline the patient pathway and reduce the amount of time each patient occupies a bed in the ED. Schedule staff according to the busy and light times for patient arrivals. Perform registration and triage bedside, reducing initial wait times. Create an area for patients to wait for test results so beds can be freed up for new arrivals. PMID:27451568

  9. Electrolyte additive for improved battery performance

    DOEpatents

    Bellows, Richard J.; Kantner, Edward

    1989-04-04

    In one embodiment of the present invention, there is provided an electrochemical cell having a metal bromine couple. The cell includes an electrode structure on which to deposit the metal of the couple and a counterelectrode at which to generate bromine. A microporous membrane separates the electrode and counterelectrode. Importantly, the aqueous electrolyte comprises an aqueous metal bromide solution containing a water soluble bromine complexing agent capable of forming a water immiscible complex with bromine and an additive capable of decreasing the wettability of the microporous separators employed in such cells by such water immiscible bromine complexes.

  10. Improving solubilization in microemulsions with additives. 1. The lipophilic linker role

    SciTech Connect

    Graciaa, A.; Lachaise, J.; Cucuphat, C. ); Bourrel, M. ); Salager, J.L. )

    1993-03-01

    Very lipophilic additives are able to substantially improve the solubilization in surfactant-oil-water microemulsions. The so-called lipophilic linker effect is studied, and its role is discussed. It is shown that the presence of a very lipophilic amphiphilic additive may improve substantially the solubilization in microemulsions. This substance is called a lipophilic linker because its preferential orientation in the oil layers next to the interface might provide some ordering of the oil molecules as well as an additional link with the surfactant. Both effects result in a higher interaction on the oil side of the interface. 21 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Substantial Improvements in Performance Indicators Achieved in a Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cell Cryopreservation Quality Assurance Program Using Single Donor Samples▿

    PubMed Central

    Dyer, Wayne B.; Pett, Sarah L.; Sullivan, John S.; Emery, Sean; Cooper, David A.; Kelleher, Anthony D.; Lloyd, Andrew; Lewin, Sharon R.

    2007-01-01

    Storage of high-quality cryopreserved peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) is often a requirement for multicenter clinical trials and requires a reproducibly high standard of practice. A quality assurance program (QAP) was established to assess an Australia-wide network of laboratories in the provision of high-quality PBMC (determined by yield, viability, and function), using blood taken from single donors (human immunodeficiency virus [HIV] positive and HIV negative) and shipped to each site for preparation and cryopreservation of PBMC. The aim of the QAP was to provide laboratory accreditation for participation in clinical trials and cohort studies which require preparation and cryopreservation of PBMC and to assist all laboratories to prepare PBMC with a viability of >80% and yield of >50% following thawing. Many laboratories failed to reach this standard on the initial QAP round. Interventions to improve performance included telephone interviews with the staff at each laboratory, two annual wet workshops, and direct access to a senior scientist to discuss performance following each QAP round. Performance improved substantially in the majority of sites that initially failed the QAP (P = 0.002 and P = 0.001 for viability and yield, respectively). In a minority of laboratories, there was no improvement (n = 2), while a high standard was retained at the laboratories that commenced with adequate performance (n = 3). These findings demonstrate that simple interventions and monitoring of PBMC preparation and cryopreservation from multiple laboratories can significantly improve performance and contribute to maintenance of a network of laboratories accredited for quality PBMC fractionation and cryopreservation. PMID:17050740

  12. Protein kinase inhibitors substantially improve the physical detection of T-cells with peptide-MHC tetramers.

    PubMed

    Lissina, Anna; Ladell, Kristin; Skowera, Ania; Clement, Matthew; Edwards, Emily; Seggewiss, Ruth; van den Berg, Hugo A; Gostick, Emma; Gallagher, Kathleen; Jones, Emma; Melenhorst, J Joseph; Godkin, Andrew J; Peakman, Mark; Price, David A; Sewell, Andrew K; Wooldridge, Linda

    2009-01-01

    Flow cytometry with fluorochrome-conjugated peptide-major histocompatibility complex (pMHC) tetramers has transformed the study of antigen-specific T-cells by enabling their visualization, enumeration, phenotypic characterization and isolation from ex vivo samples. Here, we demonstrate that the reversible protein kinase inhibitor (PKI) dasatinib improves the staining intensity of human (CD8+ and CD4+) and murine T-cells without concomitant increases in background staining. Dasatinib enhances the capture of cognate pMHC tetramers from solution and produces higher intensity staining at lower pMHC concentrations. Furthermore, dasatinib reduces pMHC tetramer-induced cell death and substantially lowers the T-cell receptor (TCR)/pMHC interaction affinity threshold required for cell staining. Accordingly, dasatinib permits the identification of T-cells with very low affinity TCR/pMHC interactions, such as those that typically predominate in tumour-specific responses and autoimmune conditions that are not amenable to detection by current technology.

  13. Improvement of GRCop-84 Through the Addition of Zirconium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, David L.; Lerch, Bradley A.

    2012-01-01

    GRCop-84 (Cu-8 at.% Cr-4 at.% Nb) has excellent strength, creep resistance, low cycle fatigue (LCF) life and stability at elevated temperatures. It suffers in comparison to many commercially available precipitation-strengthened alloys below 500 C (932 F). It was observed that the addition of Zr consistently improved the mechanical properties of Cu-based alloys especially below 500 C. In an effort to improve the low temperature properties of GRCop-84, 0.35 wt.% Zr was added to the alloy. Limited tensile, creep, and LCF testing was conducted to determine if improvements occur. The results showed some dramatic increases in the tensile and creep properties at the conditions tested with the probability of additional improvements being possible through cold working. LCF testing at room temperature did not show an improvement, but improvements might occur at elevated temperatures.

  14. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  15. Establishing Substantial Equivalence: Transcriptomics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baudo, María Marcela; Powers, Stephen J.; Mitchell, Rowan A. C.; Shewry, Peter R.

    Regulatory authorities in Western Europe require transgenic crops to be substantially equivalent to conventionally bred forms if they are to be approved for commercial production. One way to establish substantial equivalence is to compare the transcript profiles of developing grain and other tissues of transgenic and conventionally bred lines, in order to identify any unintended effects of the transformation process. We present detailed protocols for transcriptomic comparisons of developing wheat grain and leaf material, and illustrate their use by reference to our own studies of lines transformed to express additional gluten protein genes controlled by their own endosperm-specific promoters. The results show that the transgenes present in these lines (which included those encoding marker genes) did not have any significant unpredicted effects on the expression of endogenous genes and that the transgenic plants were therefore substantially equivalent to the corresponding parental lines.

  16. Substantial improvement of perovskite solar cells stability by pinhole-free hole transport layer with doping engineering

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Min-Cherl; Raga, Sonia R.; Ono, Luis K.; Qi, Yabing

    2015-01-01

    We fabricated perovskite solar cells using a triple-layer of n-type doped, intrinsic, and p-type doped 2,2′,7,7′-tetrakis(N,N′-di-p-methoxyphenylamine)-9,9′-spirobifluorene (spiro-OMeTAD) (n-i-p) as hole transport layer (HTL) by vacuum evaporation. The doping concentration for n-type doped spiro-OMeTAD was optimized to adjust the highest occupied molecular orbital of spiro-OMeTAD to match the valence band maximum of perovskite for efficient hole extraction while maintaining a high open circuit voltage. Time-dependent solar cell performance measurements revealed significantly improved air stability for perovskite solar cells with the n-i-p structured spiro-OMeTAD HTL showing sustained efficiencies even after 840 h of air exposure. PMID:25985417

  17. Efficient Improvement of Silage Additives by Using Genetic Algorithms

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Zoe S.; Gilbert, Richard J.; Merry, Roger J.; Kell, Douglas B.; Theodorou, Michael K.; Griffith, Gareth W.

    2000-01-01

    The enormous variety of substances which may be added to forage in order to manipulate and improve the ensilage process presents an empirical, combinatorial optimization problem of great complexity. To investigate the utility of genetic algorithms for designing effective silage additive combinations, a series of small-scale proof of principle silage experiments were performed with fresh ryegrass. Having established that significant biochemical changes occur over an ensilage period as short as 2 days, we performed a series of experiments in which we used 50 silage additive combinations (prepared by using eight bacterial and other additives, each of which was added at six different levels, including zero [i.e., no additive]). The decrease in pH, the increase in lactate concentration, and the free amino acid concentration were measured after 2 days and used to calculate a “fitness” value that indicated the quality of the silage (compared to a control silage made without additives). This analysis also included a “cost” element to account for different total additive levels. In the initial experiment additive levels were selected randomly, but subsequently a genetic algorithm program was used to suggest new additive combinations based on the fitness values determined in the preceding experiments. The result was very efficient selection for silages in which large decreases in pH and high levels of lactate occurred along with low levels of free amino acids. During the series of five experiments, each of which comprised 50 treatments, there was a steady increase in the amount of lactate that accumulated; the best treatment combination was that used in the last experiment, which produced 4.6 times more lactate than the untreated silage. The additive combinations that were found to yield the highest fitness values in the final (fifth) experiment were assessed to determine a range of biochemical and microbiological quality parameters during full-term silage

  18. New cement additive improves slurry properties and saves cost

    SciTech Connect

    Pollard, R.; Hibbeler, J.; DiLullo, G.; Shotton, E.A.

    1994-12-31

    A new cement additive has been developed which improves slurry performance and reduces cost. The additive is a vitrified aggregate of calcium-magnesium aluminosilicates with potential cementitious reactivity, hereafter abbreviated CMAS. CMAS has been used successfully on oil and gas wells throughout Indonesia. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the technical enhancements and cost effectiveness of slurries incorporating CMAS. Laboratory data is presented and working mechanisms are defined to highlight CMAS`s positive effect on; compressive strength, fluid loss control, free water control, gas migration control, resistance to strength retrogression and aggressive fluids. Finally, case studies and an economic analysis are presented to show the cost savings for actual well applications.

  19. The Addition of Graphene to Polymer Coatings for Improved Weathering

    DOE PAGES

    Nuraje, Nurxat; Khan, Shifath I.; Misak, Heath; Asmatulu, Ramazan

    2013-01-01

    Graphene nanoflakes in different weight percentages were added to polyurethane top coatings, and the coatings were evaluated relative to exposure to two different experimental conditions: one a QUV accelerated weathering cabinet, while the other a corrosion test carried out in a salt spray chamber. After the exposure tests, the surface morphology and chemical structure of the coatings were investigated via atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) imaging. Our results show that the addition of graphene does in fact improve the resistance of the coatings against ultraviolet (UV) degradation and corrosion. It is believed that this process willmore » improve the properties of the polyurethane top coating used in many industries against environmental factors.« less

  20. Non toxic additives for improved fabric filter performance

    SciTech Connect

    Bustard, C.J.; Baldrey, K.E.; Ebner, T.G.

    1995-11-01

    The overall objective of this three-phase Small Business innovative Research (SBIR) program funded by the Department of Energy pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) is to commercialize a technology based upon the use of non-toxic, novel flue gas conditioning agents to improve particulate air toxic control and overall fabric filter performance. The ultimate objective of the Phase II program currently in progress is to demonstrate that the candidate additives are successful at full-scale on flue gas from a coal-fired utility boiler. This paper covers bench-scale field tests conducted during the period February through May, 1995. The bench-scale additives testing was conducted on a flue gas slipstream taken upstream of the existing particulate control device at a utility power plant firing a Texas lignite coal. These tests were preceded by extensive testing with additives in the laboratory using a simulated flue gas stream and re-dispersed flyash from the same power plant. The bench-scale field testing was undertaken to demonstrate the performance with actual flue gas of the bet candidate additives previously identified in the laboratory. Results from the bench-scale tests will be used to establish operating parameters for a larger-scale demonstration on either a single baghouse compartment or a full baghouse at the same site.

  1. Additional Improvements to the NASA Lewis Ice Accretion Code LEWICE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, William B.; Bidwell, Colin S.

    1995-01-01

    Due to the feedback of the user community, three major features have been added to the NASA Lewis ice accretion code LEWICE. These features include: first, further improvements to the numerics of the code so that more time steps can be run and so that the code is more stable; second, inclusion and refinement of the roughness prediction model described in an earlier paper; third, inclusion of multi-element trajectory and ice accretion capabilities to LEWICE. This paper will describe each of these advancements in full and make comparisons with the experimental data available. Further refinement of these features and inclusion of additional features will be performed as more feedback is received.

  2. Improving properties of Mg with Al–Cu additions

    SciTech Connect

    Rashad, Muhammad; Pan, Fusheng; Asif, Muhammad; Hussain, Shahid; Saleem, Muhammad

    2014-09-15

    The present work reports improvement in tensile properties of the Mg matrix reinforced with micron-sized copper–aluminum particulate hybrids. The Al–Cu particulate hybrids were incorporated into the Mg matrix through powder metallurgy method. The synthesized alloys exhibited homogeneously dispersed Mg{sub 2}Cu particles in the matrix, therefore leading to a 110% increase in yield strength (221 MPa) and a 72% enhancement in ultimate tensile strength (284 MPa) by addition of 1.0 wt.%Al–0.6 wt.%Cu particle hybrids. Optical microscopy, scanning election microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction were used to investigate the microstructure and intermetallic phases of the synthesized alloys. - Highlights: • Mg matrix is reinforced with Al–Cu particulate hybrids. • Powder metallurgic method is used to fabricate the alloys. • Tensile strength and ductility were increased simultaneously.

  3. The improvement of the Pluto orbit using additional new data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girdiuk, A.

    2015-08-01

    Observational series of the Pluto dwarf planet have started since 1913. At this moment observations have covered only a third of the Pluto orbit, therefore, the Pluto orbital elements are defined with insufficient accuracy. A growing number of observations leads to the improvement of the accuracy of the orbit determination. The database of the Pluto's observations was expanded with the help of about 350 observations during 1930-1996 obtained at the Pulkovo Observatory, and about 5500 observations (1995-2013) including occultation data from Brazilian colleagues obtained at the European Southern Observatory and the Pico dos Dias Observatory, and the new analyzed 469 historical photographic observations archived at Lowell Observatory. The new cross-platform software ERA-8 has been developed in IAA RAS and has been used for implementation of all mathematical procedures for constructing Pluto orbit. The modern ephemerides (EPM2011, EPM2013, DE430, DE432, INPOP13c) are chosen for comparison of the ephemeris positions: equatorial coordinates and heliocentric distance. The main result of the work - construction of ephemerides EPM2014a is a significant improvement of the Pluto's orbit using additional observations.

  4. Improved dental adhesive formulations based on reactive nanogel additives.

    PubMed

    Morães, R R; Garcia, J W; Wilson, N D; Lewis, S H; Barros, M D; Yang, B; Pfeifer, C S; Stansbury, J W

    2012-02-01

    Current challenges in adhesive dentistry include over-hydrophilic bonding formulations, which facilitate water percolation through the hybrid layer and result in unreliable bonded interfaces. This study introduces nanogel-modified adhesives as a way to control the material's hydrophobic character without changing the basic monomer formulation (keeping water-chasing capacity and operatory techniques unaltered). Nanogel additives of varied hydrophobicity were synthesized in solution, rendering 10- to 100-nm-sized particles. A model BisGMA/HEMA solvated adhesive was prepared (control), to which reactive nanogels were added. The increase in adhesive viscosity did not impair solvent removal by air-thinning. The degree of conversion in the adhesive was similar between control and nanogel-modified materials, while the bulk dry and, particularly, the wet mechanical properties were significantly improved through nanogel-based network reinforcement and reduced water solubility. As preliminary validation of this approach, short-term micro-tensile bond strengths to acid-etched and primed dentin were significantly enhanced by nanogel inclusion in the adhesive resins. PMID:22019910

  5. ADDITIVE TESTING FOR IMPROVED SULFUR RETENTION: PRELIMINARY REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    Amoroso, J.; Fox, K.

    2011-09-07

    The Savannah River National Laboratory is collaborating with Alfred University to evaluate the potential for additives in borosilicate glass to improve sulfur retention. This preliminary report provides further background on the incorporation of sulfur in glass and outlines the experiments that are being performed by the collaborators. A simulated waste glass composition has been selected for the experimental studies. The first phase of experimental work will evaluate the impacts of BaO, PbO, and V{sub 2}O{sub 5} at concentrations of 1.0, 2.0, and 5.0 wt % on sulfate retention in simulated high level waste borosilicate glass. The second phase of experimental work will evaluate the effects of time at the melt temperature on sulfur retention. The resulting samples will be characterized to determine the amount of sulfur remaining as well as to identify the formation of any crystalline phases. The results will be used to guide the future selection of frits and glass forming chemicals in vitrifying Department of Energy wastes containing high sulfur concentrations.

  6. Mars-GRAM 2010: Additions and Resulting Improvements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justh, Hilary L.; Burns, K. Lee

    2013-01-01

    factors. The adjustment factors generated by this process had to satisfy the gas law as well as the hydrostatic relation and are expressed as a function of height (z), Latitude (Lat) and areocentric solar longitude (Ls). The greatest adjustments are made at large optical depths such as tau greater than 1. The addition of the adjustment factors has led to better correspondence to TES Limb data from 0-60 km altitude as well as better agreement with MGS, ODY and MRO data at approximately 90-130 km altitude. Improved Mars-GRAM atmospheric simulations for various locations, times and dust conditions on Mars will be presented at the workshop session. The latest results validating Mars-GRAM 2010 versus Mars Climate Sounder data will also be presented. Mars-GRAM 2010 updates have resulted in improved atmospheric simulations which will be very important when beginning systems design, performance analysis, and operations planning for future aerocapture, aerobraking or landed missions to Mars.

  7. Improvements in floating point addition/subtraction operations

    DOEpatents

    Farmwald, P.M.

    1984-02-24

    Apparatus is described for decreasing the latency time associated with floating point addition and subtraction in a computer, using a novel bifurcated, pre-normalization/post-normalization approach that distinguishes between differences of floating point exponents.

  8. Additional sampling directions improve detection range of wireless radiofrequency probes

    PubMed Central

    Mada, Marius; Carpenter, T. Adrian; Sawiak, Stephen J.; Williams, Guy B.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose While MRI is enhancing our knowledge about the structure and function of the human brain, subject motion remains a problem in many clinical applications. Recently, the use of wireless radiofrequency markers with three one‐dimensional (1D) navigators for prospective correction was demonstrated. This method is restricted in the range of motion that can be corrected, however, because of limited information in the 1D readouts. Methods Here, the limitation of techniques for disambiguating marker locations was investigated. It was shown that including more sampling directions extends the tracking range for head rotations. The efficiency of trading readout resolution for speed was explored. Results Tracking of head rotations was demonstrated from −19.2 to 34.4°, −2.7 to 10.0°, and −60.9 to 70.9° in the x‐, y‐, and z‐directions, respectively. In the presence of excessive head motion, the deviation of marker estimates from SPM8 was reduced by 17.1% over existing three‐projection methods. This was achieved by using an additional seven directions, extending the time needed for readouts by a factor of 3.3. Much of this increase may be circumvented by reducing resolution, without compromising accuracy. Conclusion Including additional sampling directions extends the range in which markers can be used, for patients who move a lot. Magn Reson Med 76:913–918, 2016. © 2015 The Authors. Magnetic Resonance in Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. PMID:26418189

  9. Establishing Substantial Equivalence: Metabolomics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beale, Michael H.; Ward, Jane L.; Baker, John M.

    Modern ‘metabolomic’ methods allow us to compare levels of many structurally diverse compounds in an automated fashion across a large number of samples. This technology is ideally suited to screening of populations of plants, including trials where the aim is the determination of unintended effects introduced by GM. A number of metabolomic methods have been devised for the determination of substantial equivalence. We have developed a methodology, using [1H]-NMR fingerprinting, for metabolomic screening of plants and have applied it to the study of substantial equivalence of field-grown GM wheat. We describe here the principles and detail of that protocol as applied to the analysis of flour generated from field plots of wheat. Particular emphasis is given to the downstream data processing and comparison of spectra by multivariate analysis, from which conclusions regarding metabolome changes due to the GM can be assessed against the background of natural variation due to environment.

  10. Improvement of fuel properties of cottonseed oil methyl esters with commercial additives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The low temperature operability and oxidative stability of cottonseed (Gossypium hirsutum L.) oil methyl esters (CSME) were improved with addition of commercial additives. Four commercial anti-gel additives: Technol® B100 Biodiesel Cold Flow Improver, Gunk® Premium Diesel Fuel Anti-Gel, Heet® Dies...

  11. Improving the Filtration of Sludge/Monosodium Titanate Slurries by the Addition of Flocculants

    SciTech Connect

    Poirier, M.R.

    2001-06-04

    HLW-PE requested SRTC to investigate methods to improve the separation of sludge and MST solids from high level waste salt solution. This work includes investigating flocculants and additives. This report describes the flocculant and additive testing.

  12. Establishing Substantial Equivalence: Proteomics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovegrove, Alison; Salt, Louise; Shewry, Peter R.

    Wheat is a major crop in world agriculture and is consumed after processing into a range of food products. It is therefore of great importance to determine the consequences (intended and unintended) of transgenesis in wheat and whether genetically modified lines are substantially equivalent to those produced by conventional plant breeding. Proteomic analysis is one of several approaches which can be used to address these questions. Two-dimensional PAGE (2D PAGE) remains the most widely available method for proteomic analysis, but is notoriously difficult to reproduce between laboratories. We therefore describe methods which have been developed as standard operating procedures in our laboratory to ensure the reproducibility of proteomic analyses of wheat using 2D PAGE analysis of grain proteins.

  13. The Addition of Duration Does Not Improve The Luminosity Relations for Gamma Ray Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collazzi, Andrew C.; Schaefer, Bradley E.

    2009-05-01

    Firmani et al. (2006) proposed a new Gamma Ray Burst (GRB) luminosity relation that showed a significant improvement over the Liso-Epeak relation. (Liso is the isotropic peak luminosity and Epeak is the photon energy of the spectral peak for the burst.) The new proposed relation simply modifies the Epeak value by multiplying it by a power of T0.45, where T0.45 is a particular measure of the GRB duration. We begin by reproducing the results of Firmani for his 19 bursts. We then test the Firmani relation for the same 19 bursts except that we use independently measured values for Liso, T0.45 and Epeak, and we find that the relation deteriorates substantially. We further test the relation by using 60 GRBs with measured spectroscopic redshifts, and find a relation that has a comparable scatter as the original Liso-Epeak relation. That is, a much larger sample of bursts does not reproduce the small scatter as reported by Firmani et al. Finally, we investigate whether the Firmani relation is improved by the use of any of 32 measures of duration (e.g., T90, T50, T90/Npeak, the fluence divided by the peak flux, T0.30, and T0.60) in place of T0.45. The quality of each alternative duration measure is evaluated with the root mean square of the scatter between the observed and fitted logarithmic Liso values. Although we find some durations yield slightly better results than T0.45, the differences between the duration measures are minimal. We find that the addition of a duration does not add any significant improvement to the Liso-Epeak relation. We also present a simple and direct derivation of the Firmani relation from both the Liso-Epeak and Amati (2002) relations. In all we conclude that the Firmani relation neither has an independent existence nor does it provide any significant improvement on previously known relations that are simpler.

  14. Process for improving moisture resistance of epoxy resins by addition of chromium ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St.clair, A. K.; Stoakley, D. M.; St.clair, T. L.; Singh, J. J. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A process for improving the moisture resistance properties of epoxidized TGMDA and DGEBA resin system by chemically incorporating chromium ions is described. The addition of chromium ions is believed to prevent the absorption of water molecules.

  15. Incorporating the Last Four Digits of Social Security Numbers Substantially Improves Linking Patient Data from De-identified Hospital Claims Databases

    PubMed Central

    Naessens, James M; Visscher, Sue L; Peterson, Stephanie M; Swanson, Kristi M; Johnson, Matthew G; Rahman, Parvez A; Schindler, Joe; Sonneborn, Mark; Fry, Donald E; Pine, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Objective Assess algorithms for linking patients across de-identified databases without compromising confidentiality. Data Sources/Study Setting Hospital discharges from 11 Mayo Clinic hospitals during January 2008–September 2012 (assessment and validation data). Minnesota death certificates and hospital discharges from 2009 to 2012 for entire state (application data). Study Design Cross-sectional assessment of sensitivity and positive predictive value (PPV) for four linking algorithms tested by identifying readmissions and posthospital mortality on the assessment data with application to statewide data. Data Collection/Extraction Methods De-identified claims included patient gender, birthdate, and zip code. Assessment records were matched with institutional sources containing unique identifiers and the last four digits of Social Security number (SSNL4). Principal Findings Gender, birthdate, and five-digit zip code identified readmissions with a sensitivity of 98.0 percent and a PPV of 97.7 percent and identified postdischarge mortality with 84.4 percent sensitivity and 98.9 percent PPV. Inclusion of SSNL4 produced nearly perfect identification of readmissions and deaths. When applied statewide, regions bordering states with unavailable hospital discharge data had lower rates. Conclusion Addition of SSNL4 to administrative data, accompanied by appropriate data use and data release policies, can enable trusted repositories to link data with nearly perfect accuracy without compromising patient confidentiality. States maintaining centralized de-identified databases should add SSNL4 to data specifications. PMID:26073819

  16. Improving the environmental and performance characteristics of vehicles by introducing the surfactant additive into gasoline.

    PubMed

    Magaril, Elena; Magaril, Romen

    2016-09-01

    The operation of modern vehicles requires the introduction of package of fuel additives to ensure the required level of operating characteristics, some of which cannot be achieved by current oil refining methods. The use of additives allows flexibility of impact on the properties of the fuel at minimal cost, increasing the efficiency and environmental safety of vehicles. Among the wide assortment of additives available on the world market, many are surfactants. It has been shown that the introduction of some surfactants into gasoline concurrently reduces losses from gasoline evaporation, improves the mixture formation during injection of gasoline into the engine and improves detergent and anticorrosive properties. The surfactant gasoline additive that provides significant improvement in the quality of gasoline used and environmental and operating characteristics of vehicles has been developed and thoroughly investigated. The results of studies confirming the efficiency of the gasoline additive application are herein presented. PMID:27206755

  17. Improving the environmental and performance characteristics of vehicles by introducing the surfactant additive into gasoline.

    PubMed

    Magaril, Elena; Magaril, Romen

    2016-09-01

    The operation of modern vehicles requires the introduction of package of fuel additives to ensure the required level of operating characteristics, some of which cannot be achieved by current oil refining methods. The use of additives allows flexibility of impact on the properties of the fuel at minimal cost, increasing the efficiency and environmental safety of vehicles. Among the wide assortment of additives available on the world market, many are surfactants. It has been shown that the introduction of some surfactants into gasoline concurrently reduces losses from gasoline evaporation, improves the mixture formation during injection of gasoline into the engine and improves detergent and anticorrosive properties. The surfactant gasoline additive that provides significant improvement in the quality of gasoline used and environmental and operating characteristics of vehicles has been developed and thoroughly investigated. The results of studies confirming the efficiency of the gasoline additive application are herein presented.

  18. Acetate Salts as Nonhalogen Additives To Improve Perovskite Film Morphology for High-Efficiency Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qiliang; Zhou, Pengcheng; Zhou, Weiran; Wei, Xiangfeng; Chen, Tao; Yang, Shangfeng

    2016-06-22

    A two-step method has been popularly adopted to fabricate a perovskite film of planar heterojunction organo-lead halide perovskite solar cells (PSCs). However, this method often generates uncontrollable film morphology with poor coverage. Herein, we report a facile method to improve perovskite film morphology by incorporating a small amount of acetate (CH3COO(-), Ac(-)) salts (NH4Ac, NaAc) as nonhalogen additives in CH3NH3I solution used for immersing PbI2 film, resulting in improved CH3NH3PbI3 film morphology. Under the optimized NH4Ac additive concentration of 10 wt %, the best power conversion efficiency (PCE) reaches 17.02%, which is enhanced by ∼23.2% relative to that of the pristine device without additive, whereas the NaAc additive does not lead to an efficiency enhancement despite the improvement of the CH3NH3PbI3 film morphology. SEM study reveals that NH4Ac and NaAc additives can both effectively improve perovskite film morphology by increasing the surface coverage via diminishing pinholes. The improvement on CH3NH3PbI3 film morphology is beneficial for increasing the optical absorption of perovskite film and improving the interfacial contact at the perovskite/spiro-OMeTAD interface, leading to the increase of short-circuit current and consequently efficiency enhancement of the PSC device for NH4Ac additive only.

  19. Multifunctional additives to improve the low-temperature properties of distillate fuels and compositions containing same

    SciTech Connect

    Baillargeon, D.J.; Cardis, A.B.; Heck, D.B.

    1992-10-20

    This patent describes a product of the reaction of benzophenone tetracarboxylic dianhydride or its acid equivalent and an aminoalcohol or mixture of aminoalcohols or a combination of an aminoalcohol or mixture of aminoalcohols and a secondary amine the reactants being reacted in substantially molar, less than molar or more than molar amounts at temperatures varying from about 85[degrees] to about 250[degrees] C under pressures varying from about ambient or autogeneous to slightly higher for a time sufficient to obtain the desired ester or ester/amide additive product of reaction and wherein the aminoalcohol is derived from an olefin epoxide and a secondary amine.

  20. The Evaluation of Triphenyl Phosphate as a Flame Retardant Additive to Improve the Safety of Lithium-Ion Battery Electrolytes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smart, M. C.; Krause, F. C.; Hwang, C.; West, W. C.; Soler, J.; Prakash, G. K. S.; Ratnakumar, B. V.

    2011-01-01

    With the intent of improving the safety characteristics of lithium ion cells, electrolytes containing flame retardant additives have been investigated. A number of triphenyl phosphate-containing electrolytes were evaluated in both coin cells and experimental three electrode lithium-ion cells (containing reference electrodes). A number of chemistries were investigated, including MCMB carbon/LiNi(0.8)Co(0.2)O2 (NCO), graphite/LiNi(0.8)Co(0.15)Al(0.05)O2 (NCA), Li/Li(Li(0.17)Ni(0.25)Mn(0.58))O2, Li/LiNiMnCoO2 (NMC) and graphite/LiNiMnCoO2 (NMC), to study the effect that different electrolyte compositions have upon performance. A wide range of TPP-containing electrolytes were demonstrated to have good compatibility with the C/NCO, C/NCA, and Li/NMC systems, however, poor performance was initially observed with the high voltage C/NMC system. This necessitated the development of improved electrolytes with stabilizing additives, leading to formulations containing lithium bis(oxalato)borate (LiBOB) that displayed substantially improved performance.

  1. Antisolvent precipitation of novel xylitol-additive crystals to engineer tablets with improved pharmaceutical performance.

    PubMed

    Kaialy, Waseem; Maniruzzaman, Mohammad; Shojaee, Saeed; Nokhodchi, Ali

    2014-12-30

    The purpose of this work was to develop stable xylitol particles with modified physical properties, improved compactibility and enhanced pharmaceutical performance without altering polymorphic form of xylitol. Xylitol was crystallized using antisolvent crystallization technique in the presence of various hydrophilic polymer additives, i.e., polyethylene glycol (PEG), polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) at a range of concentrations. The crystallization process did not influence the stable polymorphic form or true density of xylitol. However, botryoidal-shaped crystallized xylitols demonstrated different particle morphologies and lower powder bulk and tap densities in comparison to subangular-shaped commercial xylitol. Xylitol crystallized without additive and xylitol crystallized in the presence of PVP or PVA demonstrated significant improvement in hardness of directly compressed tablets; however, such improvement was observed to lesser extent for xylitol crystallized in the presence of PEG. Crystallized xylitols produced enhanced dissolution profiles for indomethacin in comparison to original xylitol. The influence of additive concentration on tablet hardness was dependent on the type of additive, whereas an increased concentration of all additives provided an improvement in the dissolution behavior of indomethacin. Antisolvent crystallization using judiciously selected type and concentration of additive can be a potential approach to prepare xylitol powders with promising physicomechanical and pharmaceutical properties.

  2. Phosphazene Based Additives for Improvement of Safety and Battery Lifetimes in Lithium-Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Mason K Harrup; Kevin L Gering; Harry W Rollins; Sergiy V Sazhin; Michael T Benson; David K Jamison; Christopher J Michelbacher

    2011-10-01

    There need to be significant improvements made in lithium-ion battery technology, principally in the areas of safety and useful lifetimes to truly enable widespread adoption of large format batteries for the electrification of the light transportation fleet. In order to effect the transition to lithium ion technology in a timely fashion, one promising next step is through improvements to the electrolyte in the form of novel additives that simultaneously improve safety and useful lifetimes without impairing performance characteristics over wide temperature and cycle duty ranges. Recent efforts in our laboratory have been focused on the development of such additives with all the requisite properties enumerated above. We present the results of the study of novel phosphazene based electrolytes additives.

  3. High Energy Density Additives for Hybrid Fuel Rockets to Improve Performance and Enhance Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, Richard L.

    2014-01-01

    We propose a conceptual study of prototype strained hydrocarbon molecules as high energy density additives for hybrid rocket fuels to boost the performance of these rockets without compromising safety and reliability. Use of these additives could extend the range of applications for which hybrid rockets become an attractive alternative to conventional solid or liquid fuel rockets. The objectives of the study were to confirm and quantify the high enthalpy of these strained molecules and to assess improvement in rocket performance that would be expected if these additives were blended with conventional fuels. We confirmed the chemical properties (including enthalpy) of these additives. However, the predicted improvement in rocket performance was too small to make this a useful strategy for boosting hybrid rocket performance.

  4. Olefin Metathesis Reaction in Water and in Air Improved by Supramolecular Additives.

    PubMed

    Tomasek, Jasmine; Seßler, Miriam; Gröger, Harald; Schatz, Jürgen

    2015-10-21

    A range of water-immiscible commercially available Grubbs-type precatalysts can be used in ring-closing olefin metathesis reaction in high yields. The synthetic transformation is possible in pure water under ambient conditions. Sulfocalixarenes can help to boost the reactivity of the metathesis reaction by catalyst activation, improved mass transfer, and solubility of reactants in the aqueous reaction media. Additionally, the use of supramolecular additives allows lower catalyst loadings, but still high activity in pure water under aerobic conditions.

  5. The Effectiveness of an Additional Stretching Exercise Program in Improving Flexibility Level among Preschool Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Wee Akina Sia Seng; Rengasamy, Shabeshan A/L; Raju, Subramaniam A/L

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effectiveness of a two minutes' additional stretching exercise program in a 30 minutes games teaching lesson in improving the flexibility level of 6 year old preschool boys (M = 5.92, SD = 0.27) in a preschool in Malaysia. Fifty (50) preschool boys were selected for the study based on the intact sampling…

  6. Chill water additive controls transfer of Salmonella and Campylobacter by improved chlorine efficacy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In earlier work, we showed that a proprietary additive (T-128) maintains chlorine activity in the presence of organic material such as broiler parts. T-128 improves the efficacy of chlorine to control transfer of Campylobacter and Salmonella from inoculated wings to un-inoculated wings during immer...

  7. Improved size-tunable synthesis of monodisperse gold nanorods through the use of aromatic additives.

    PubMed

    Ye, Xingchen; Jin, Linghua; Caglayan, Humeyra; Chen, Jun; Xing, Guozhong; Zheng, Chen; Doan-Nguyen, Vicky; Kang, Yijin; Engheta, Nader; Kagan, Cherie R; Murray, Christopher B

    2012-03-27

    We report an improved synthesis of colloidal gold nanorods (NRs) by using aromatic additives that reduce the concentration of hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide surfactant to ~0.05 M as opposed to 0.1 M in well-established protocols. The method optimizes the synthesis for each of the 11 additives studied, allowing a rich array of monodisperse gold NRs with longitudinal surface plasmon resonance tunable from 627 to 1246 nm to be generated. The gold NRs form large-area ordered assemblies upon slow evaporation of NR solution, exhibiting liquid crystalline ordering and several distinct local packing motifs that are dependent upon the NR's aspect ratio. Tailored synthesis of gold NRs with simultaneous improvements in monodispersity and dimensional tunability through rational introduction of additives will not only help to better understand the mechanism of seed-mediated growth of gold NRs but also advance the research on plasmonic metamaterials incorporating anisotropic metal nanostructures. PMID:22376005

  8. The use of Electrolyte Additives to Improve the High Temperature Resilience of Li-Ion Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smart, Marshall C.; Lucht, B. L.; Ratnakumar, Bugga V.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the use of electrolyte additves to improve the resillience of Lithium ion cells. The objective of this work is to identify lithium-ion electrolytes, which will lead to Li-ion cells with a wide operational temperature range (+60 to -60 C), and to develop Li-ion electrolytes which result in cells that display improved high temperature resilience. Significant improvement in the high temperature resilience of Li-ion cells containing these additives was observed, with the most dramatic benefit being displayed by addition of DMAc. When the electrochemical properties of the individual electrodes were analyzed, the degradation of the anode kinetics was slowed most dramatically by the incorporation of DMAc into the electrolytes. Whereas, the greatest retention in the cathode kinetics was observed in the cell containing the electrolyte with VC added.

  9. [Autoimmune processes after long-term low-level exposure to electromagnetic fields (the results of an experiment). Part 1. Mobile communications and changes in electromagnetic conditions for the population. Needs for additional substantiation of the existing hygienic standards].

    PubMed

    Grigor'ev, Iu G; Grigor'ev, O A; Ivanov, A A; Liaginskaia, A M; Merkulov, A V; Stepanov, V S; Shagina, N B

    2010-01-01

    Mobile communications provides a new source of electromagnetic exposure for almost the whole population of the Russian Federation. For the first time in the history of civilization the brain of mobile phone users was exposed to localized radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic fields (EMF). Population exposure from the base stations is also considered to be specific. However, existing standards for limiting the exposure do not account for this special EMF source and may not ensure the absence of health effects. There was a need for reliable information that would extend databases used for development of new standards. As recommended by the World Health Organization an additional experiment was performed under the supervision of foreign experts, which showed changes in autoimmune status in rats after long-term low-level RF EMF exposure with an incident power density of 500 microW/cm2.

  10. Evaluating mixtures of 14 hygroscopic additives to improve antibody microarray performance.

    PubMed

    Bergeron, Sébastien; Laforte, Veronique; Lo, Pik-Shan; Li, Huiyan; Juncker, David

    2015-11-01

    Microarrays allow the miniaturization and multiplexing of biological assays while only requiring minute amounts of samples. As a consequence of the small volumes used for spotting and the assays, evaporation often deteriorates the quality, reproducibility of spots, and the overall assay performance. Glycerol is commonly added to antibody microarray printing buffers to decrease evaporation; however, it often decreases the binding of antibodies to the surface, thereby negatively affecting assay sensitivity. Here, combinations of 14 hygroscopic chemicals were used as additives to printing buffers for contact-printed antibody microarrays on four different surface chemistries. The ability of the additives to suppress evaporation was quantified by measuring the residual buffer volume in open quill pins over time. The seven best additives were then printed either individually or as a 1:1 mixture of two additives, and the homogeneity, intensity, and reproducibility of both the spotted protein and of a fluorescently labeled analyte in an assay were quantified. Among the 28 combinations on the four slides, many were found to outperform glycerol, and the best additive mixtures were further evaluated by changing the ratio of the two additives. We observed that the optimal additive mixture was dependent on the slide chemistry, and that it was possible to increase the binding of antibodies to the surface threefold compared to 50 % glycerol, while decreasing whole-slide coefficient of variation to 5.9 %. For the two best slides, improvements were made for both the limit of detection (1.6× and 5.9×, respectively) and the quantification range (1.2× and 2.1×, respectively). The additive mixtures identified here thus help improve assay reproducibility and performance, and might be beneficial to all types of microarrays that suffer from evaporation of the printing buffers.

  11. Olefin Metathesis Reaction in Water and in Air Improved by Supramolecular Additives.

    PubMed

    Tomasek, Jasmine; Seßler, Miriam; Gröger, Harald; Schatz, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    A range of water-immiscible commercially available Grubbs-type precatalysts can be used in ring-closing olefin metathesis reaction in high yields. The synthetic transformation is possible in pure water under ambient conditions. Sulfocalixarenes can help to boost the reactivity of the metathesis reaction by catalyst activation, improved mass transfer, and solubility of reactants in the aqueous reaction media. Additionally, the use of supramolecular additives allows lower catalyst loadings, but still high activity in pure water under aerobic conditions. PMID:26506329

  12. Improvement of mechanical properties by additive assisted laser sintering of PEEK

    SciTech Connect

    Kroh, M. Bonten, C.; Eyerer, P.

    2014-05-15

    The additive assisted laser sintering was recently developed at IKT: A carbon black (CB) additive is used to adjust the polymer's laser absorption behavior with the aim to improve the interconnection of sintered powder layers. In this paper a parameter study, Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) samples were prepared with different contents of carbon black and were laser sintered with varying thermal treatment. The samples were mechanically tested and investigated by optical light and transmission electron microscopy. An influence on the morphology at the border areas of particles and intersections of laser sintered layers was found. Depending on the viscosity of the raw material and CB content, different shapes of lamellae were observed. These (trans-) crystalline or polymorph structures, respectively, influence the thermal and mechanical behavior of the virgin PEEK. Moreover, the thermal treatment during the sintering process caused an improvement of mechanical properties like tensile strength and elongation at break.

  13. Improvement of mechanical properties by additive assisted laser sintering of PEEK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kroh, M.; Bonten, C.; Eyerer, P.

    2014-05-01

    The additive assisted laser sintering was recently developed at IKT: A carbon black (CB) additive is used to adjust the polymer's laser absorption behavior with the aim to improve the interconnection of sintered powder layers. In this paper a parameter study, Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) samples were prepared with different contents of carbon black and were laser sintered with varying thermal treatment. The samples were mechanically tested and investigated by optical light and transmission electron microscopy. An influence on the morphology at the border areas of particles and intersections of laser sintered layers was found. Depending on the viscosity of the raw material and CB content, different shapes of lamellae were observed. These (trans-) crystalline or polymorph structures, respectively, influence the thermal and mechanical behavior of the virgin PEEK. Moreover, the thermal treatment during the sintering process caused an improvement of mechanical properties like tensile strength and elongation at break.

  14. Community shifts of actively growing lake bacteria after N-acetyl-glucosamine addition: improving the BrdU-FACS method

    PubMed Central

    Tada, Yuya; Grossart, Hans-Peter

    2014-01-01

    In aquatic environments, community dynamics of bacteria, especially actively growing bacteria (AGB), are tightly linked with dissolved organic matter (DOM) quantity and quality. We analyzed the community dynamics of DNA-synthesizing and accordingly AGB by linking an improved bromodeoxyuridine immunocytochemistry approach with fluorescence-activated cell sorting (BrdU-FACS). FACS-sorted cells of even oligotrophic ecosystems in winter were characterized by 16S rRNA gene analysis. In incubation experiments, we examined community shifts of AGB in response to the addition of N-acetyl-glucosamine (NAG), one of the most abundant aminosugars in aquatic systems. Our improved BrdU-FACS analysis revealed that AGB winter communities of oligotrophic Lake Stechlin (northeastern Germany) substantially differ from those of total bacteria and consist of Alpha-, Beta-, Gamma-, Deltaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Candidatus OP10 and Chloroflexi. AGB populations with different BrdU-fluorescence intensities and cell sizes represented different phylotypes suggesting that single-cell growth potential varies at the taxon level. NAG incubation experiments demonstrated that a variety of widespread taxa related to Alpha-, Beta-, Gammaproteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Planctomycetes, Spirochaetes, Verrucomicrobia and Chloroflexi actively grow in the presence of NAG. The BrdU-FACS approach enables detailed phylogenetic studies of AGB and, thus, to identify those phylotypes which are potential key players in aquatic DOM cycling. PMID:23985742

  15. Improved compressibility, flowability, dissolution and bioavailability of pioglitazone hydrochloride by emulsion solvent diffusion with additives.

    PubMed

    Patil, S V; Pawar, A P; Sahoo, S K

    2012-03-01

    Spherical agglomerates of pioglitazone hydrochloride were prepared by the emulsion solvent diffusion method with additives (polyethylene glycol 6000, polyvinyl pyrrolidone, beta cyclodextrin, eudragit RS100, low acyl gellan gum and xanthan gum) using methanol, chloroform and water as a good solvent, bridging liquid and poor solvent respectively. Prepared agglomerates were evaluated for compressibility, solubility, dissolution rate and bioavailability, and characterized by SEM, XRPD, DSC and FTIR spectroscopy. Particle size, flowability, compactibility, packability, solubility, dissolution rate and bioavailability of plain agglomerates and agglomerates with additives (except with polyvinyl pyrrolidone) were advantageously improved compared with raw crystalline pioglitazone hydrochloride. These improved properties for direct compression were due to their large-spherical shape and enhanced fragmentation during compaction, together with increased tensile strength and reduced elastic recovery of the compacts. XRPD and DSC studies indicated polymorphic transition of pioglitazone hydrochloride from form II to I during recrystallization but this was not associated with any chemical transition, as indicated by FTIR spectra, well supported by stability studies. Thus spherical crystallization by the emulsion solvent diffusion method with selected additives is a satisfactory method for direct tableting of pioglitazone hydrochloride giving improved bioavailability. PMID:22530302

  16. HEAT: High accuracy extrapolated ab initio thermochemistry. III. Additional improvements and overview.

    SciTech Connect

    Harding, M. E.; Vazquez, J.; Ruscic, B.; Wilson, A. K.; Gauss, J.; Stanton, J. F.; Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division; Univ. t Mainz; The Univ. of Texas; Univ. of North Texas

    2008-01-01

    Effects of increased basis-set size as well as a correlated treatment of the diagonal Born-Oppenheimer approximation are studied within the context of the high-accuracy extrapolated ab initio thermochemistry (HEAT) theoretical model chemistry. It is found that the addition of these ostensible improvements does little to increase the overall accuracy of HEAT for the determination of molecular atomization energies. Fortuitous cancellation of high-level effects is shown to give the overall HEAT strategy an accuracy that is, in fact, higher than most of its individual components. In addition, the issue of core-valence electron correlation separation is explored; it is found that approximate additive treatments of the two effects have limitations that are significant in the realm of <1 kJ mol{sup -1} theoretical thermochemistry.

  17. Improved Li-TiS2 cell cycling in ether-based electrolytes with synergistic additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, D. H.; Subbarao, S.; Deligiannis, F.; Huang, C.-K.; Halpert, G.; Dominey, L.; Koch, V. R.; Goldman, J.

    1991-01-01

    Results of the application of 2-MeF and KOH additives to improve the lithium stability in THF, dioxolane, and THF/2-MeTHF solvent-based electrolytes are presented. The stability of these electrolytes with and without additives is evaluated by microcalorimetry and AC impedance spectroscopy. A novel method, cathode turnover number, is proposed to represent the electrolyte performance in a given system. The lithium cycling efficiency and cathode turnover number of the electrolytes are calculated from the cycle life data in experimental Li-TiS2 cells. Overall, THF/2-MeTHF electrolyte containing 2-MeF and/or KOH exhibited higher stability, lithium cycling efficiency, and cathode turnover number compared to THF and dioxolane electrolytes with and without additives.

  18. Improved Li-TiS2 cell cycling in ether-based electrolytes with synergistic additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, D. H.; Subbarao, S.; Deligiannis, F.; Huang, C.-K.; Halpert, G.; Dominey, L.; Koch, V. R.; Goldman, J.

    Results of the application of 2-MeF and KOH additives to improve the lithium stability in THF, dioxolane, and THF/2-MeTHF solvent-based electrolytes are presented. The stability of these electrolytes with and without additives is evaluated by microcalorimetry and AC impedance spectroscopy. A novel method, cathode turnover number, is proposed to represent the electrolyte performance in a given system. The lithium cycling efficiency and cathode turnover number of the electrolytes are calculated from the cycle life data in experimental Li-TiS2 cells. Overall, THF/2-MeTHF electrolyte containing 2-MeF and/or KOH exhibited higher stability, lithium cycling efficiency, and cathode turnover number compared to THF and dioxolane electrolytes with and without additives.

  19. Evaluation of additive element to improve PZT piezoelectricity by using first-principles calculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasoda, Yutaka; Uetsuji, Yasutomo; Tsuchiya, Kazuyoshi

    2015-12-01

    Recently, piezoelectric material has a very important potential for functional material which configure Bio-MEMS (Biological Micro Electro Mechanical Systems) actuator and sensor. Specifically, in implementation of piezoelectric material for Bio-MEMS, thin film fabrication by sputtering method is made from the viewpoint of miniaturization. Furthermore, in piezoelectric material, perovskite type material composed of ABO3 has a high piezoelectricity. Then, PZT (Lead Zirconate Titanate) as the perovskite type piezoelectric material is widely used since it is easy to produce and has high piezoelectricity. PZT has zirconium or titanium in the B site of ABO3 structure. PZT has the features such as physical properties to greatly change by change in the B site composition ratio of zirconium and titanium. Thus, the B site greatly influences physical properties and therefore function improvement by additive element is tried widely. However, experimental method to lack in economy and quantitativeness is mainstream. Therefore, application of the result is difficult and new evaluation method of B site additive element for sputtering fabrication is necessary. Accordingly, in this research, search of an additive element at low cost and quantitative from the viewpoint of energy by first-principles calculation. First of all, the additive elements which capable of substituting for a B site of PZT were searched. Next, change of piezoelectricity was evaluated by change of crystal structure in a PZT system was introduced an additive element that substitution of the B site was possible. As a result, additive elements for the PZT B site capable of improving piezoelectricity were determined.

  20. Improving green waste composting by addition of sugarcane bagasse and exhausted grape marc.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lu; Sun, Xiangyang

    2016-10-01

    The composting of lignocellulosic waste into compost is a potential way of sustainably disposing of a waste while generating a useful product. The current study determined whether the addition of sugarcane bagasse (SCB) (at 0, 15, and 25%) and/or exhausted grape marc (EGM) (at 0, 10, and 20%) improved the two-stage composting of green waste (GW). The combined addition of SCB and EGM improved composting conditions and the quality of the compost product in terms of temperature, water-holding capacity, particle-size distribution, coarseness index, pH, electrical conductivity, water-extractable organic carbon and nitrogen, microbial numbers, enzymatic activities, polysaccharide and lignin content, nutrient content, respiration, and phytotoxicity. The optimal two-stage composting and the best quality compost were obtained with the combined addition of 15% SCB and 20% EGM. With the optimized two-stage composting method, the compost matured in only 21days rather than in the 90-270days required for traditional composting. PMID:27376832

  1. Improving green waste composting by addition of sugarcane bagasse and exhausted grape marc.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lu; Sun, Xiangyang

    2016-10-01

    The composting of lignocellulosic waste into compost is a potential way of sustainably disposing of a waste while generating a useful product. The current study determined whether the addition of sugarcane bagasse (SCB) (at 0, 15, and 25%) and/or exhausted grape marc (EGM) (at 0, 10, and 20%) improved the two-stage composting of green waste (GW). The combined addition of SCB and EGM improved composting conditions and the quality of the compost product in terms of temperature, water-holding capacity, particle-size distribution, coarseness index, pH, electrical conductivity, water-extractable organic carbon and nitrogen, microbial numbers, enzymatic activities, polysaccharide and lignin content, nutrient content, respiration, and phytotoxicity. The optimal two-stage composting and the best quality compost were obtained with the combined addition of 15% SCB and 20% EGM. With the optimized two-stage composting method, the compost matured in only 21days rather than in the 90-270days required for traditional composting.

  2. Improved surface property of PVDF membrane with amphiphilic zwitterionic copolymer as membrane additive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jian-Hua; Li, Mi-Zi; Miao, Jing; Wang, Jia-Bin; Shao, Xi-Sheng; Zhang, Qi-Qing

    2012-06-01

    An attempt to improve hydrophilicity and anti-fouling properties of PVDF membranes, a novel amphiphilic zwitterionic copolymer poly(vinylidene fluoride)-graft-poly(sulfobetaine methacrylate) (PVDF-g-PSBMA) was firstly synthesized by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) and used as amphiphilic copolymer additive in the preparation of PVDF membranes. The PVDF-g-PSBMA/PVDF blend membranes were prepared by immersion precipitation process. Fourier transform infrared attenuated reflection spectroscopy (FTIR-ATR) and X-ray photoelectronic spectroscopy (XPS) measurements confirmed that PSBMA brushes from amphiphilic additives were preferentially segregated to membrane-coagulant interface during membrane formation. The morphology of membranes was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Water contact angle measurements showed that the surface hydrophilicity of PVDF membranes was improved significantly with the increasing of amphiphilic copolymer PVDF-g-PSBMA in cast solution. Protein static adsorption experiment and dynamic fouling resistance experiment revealed that the surface enrichment of PSBMA brush endowed PVDF blend membrane great improvement of surface anti-fouling ability.

  3. Potlining Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolf Keller

    2004-08-10

    In this project, a concept to improve the performance of aluminum production cells by introducing potlining additives was examined and tested. Boron oxide was added to cathode blocks, and titanium was dissolved in the metal pool; this resulted in the formation of titanium diboride and caused the molten aluminum to wet the carbonaceous cathode surface. Such wetting reportedly leads to operational improvements and extended cell life. In addition, boron oxide suppresses cyanide formation. This final report presents and discusses the results of this project. Substantial economic benefits for the practical implementation of the technology are projected, especially for modern cells with graphitized blocks. For example, with an energy savings of about 5% and an increase in pot life from 1500 to 2500 days, a cost savings of $ 0.023 per pound of aluminum produced is projected for a 200 kA pot.

  4. Improving impurities clearance by amino acids addition to buffer solutions for chromatographic purifications of monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Ishihara, Takashi; Hosono, Mareto

    2015-07-15

    The performance of amino acids in Protein A affinity chromatography, anion exchange chromatography and cation exchange chromatography for monoclonal antibody purification was investigated. Glycine, threonine, arginine, glutamate, and histidine were used as buffer components in the equilibration, washing, and elution steps of these chromatographies. Improved clearance of impurity, high molecular weight species (HMW) and host cell proteins (HCP) was observed in the purification processes when using the amino acids as base-buffer constituents, additives or eluents compared with that of buffers without these amino acids. In addition, we designed a buffer system in which the mobile phases were composed of only a single amino acid, histidine, and applied it to the above three chromatographies. Effective HMW and HCP clearance was also obtained in this manner. These results suggest that amino acids may enhance impurity clearance during the purification of monoclonal antibodies. PMID:26057847

  5. Multifunctional fuel additives derived from aminodiols to improve the low-temperature properties of distillate fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Baillargeon, D.J.; Cardis, A.B.; Heck, D.B.

    1991-03-19

    This patent describes a liquid hydrocarbyl fuel composition comprising a major amount of a combustible liquid hydrocarbon fuel and a minor low-temperature properties improving amount of from about 0.001% to about 10 wt % based on the total weight of the composition of an additive comprising a product of reaction made by reacting comonomers. It comprises: an aminodiol or combination or mixture of aminodiols with a reactive acid/anhydride product alone or in combination with other monomers derived from the reaction of benzophenone tetracarboxylic dianhydride or its acid equivalent.

  6. On the asymptotic improvement of supervised learning by utilizing additional unlabeled samples - Normal mixture density case

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shahshahani, Behzad M.; Landgrebe, David A.

    1992-01-01

    The effect of additional unlabeled samples in improving the supervised learning process is studied in this paper. Three learning processes. supervised, unsupervised, and combined supervised-unsupervised, are compared by studying the asymptotic behavior of the estimates obtained under each process. Upper and lower bounds on the asymptotic covariance matrices are derived. It is shown that under a normal mixture density assumption for the probability density function of the feature space, the combined supervised-unsupervised learning is always superior to the supervised learning in achieving better estimates. Experimental results are provided to verify the theoretical concepts.

  7. Nanoparticle delivery of chemosensitizers improve chemotherapy efficacy without incurring additional toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Caster, Joseph M.; Sethi, Manish; Kowalczyk, Sonya; Wang, Edina; Tian, Xi; Hyder, Sayed Nabeel; Wagner, Kyle T.; Zhang, Ying-Ao; Kapadia, Chintan; Au, Kin Man; Wang, Andrew Z.

    2015-01-01

    Chemosensitizers can improve the therapeutic index of chemotherapy and overcome treatment resistance. Successful translation of chemosensitizers depends on the development of strategies that can preferentially deliver chemosensitizers to tumors while avoiding normal tissue. We hypothesized that nanoparticle (NP) formulation of chemosensitizers can improve their delivery to tumors which can in turn improve their therapeutic index. To demonstrate the proof of principle of this approach, we engineered NP formulations of two chemosensitizers, the PI3-kindase inhibitor wortmanin (Wtmn) and the PARP inhibitor olaparib. NP Wtmn and NP olaparib were evaluated as chemosensitizers using lung cancer cells and breast cancer cells respectively. We found Wtmn to be an efficient chemosensitizer in all tested lung-cancer cell lines reducing tumor cell growth between 20 and 60% compared to drug alone. NP formulation did not decrease its efficacy in vitro. Olaparib showed less consistent chemosensitization as a free drug or in NP formulation. NP Wtmn was further evaluated as a chemosensitizer using mouse models of lung cancer. We found that NP Wtmn is an effective chemosensitizer and more effective than free Wtmn showing a 32% reduction in tumor growth compared to free Wtmn when given with etoposide. Importantly, NP Wtmn was able to sensitize the multi-drug resistant H69AR cells to etoposide. Additionally, the combination of NP Wtmn and etoposide chemotherapy did not significantly increase toxicity. The present study demonstrates the proof of principle of using NP formulation of chemosensitizing drugs to improve the therapeutic index of chemotherapy. PMID:25584654

  8. Nanoparticle delivery of chemosensitizers improve chemotherapy efficacy without incurring additional toxicity.

    PubMed

    Caster, Joseph M; Sethi, Manish; Kowalczyk, Sonya; Wang, Edina; Tian, Xi; Nabeel Hyder, Sayed; Wagner, Kyle T; Zhang, Ying-Ao; Kapadia, Chintan; Man Au, Kin; Wang, Andrew Z

    2015-02-14

    Chemosensitizers can improve the therapeutic index of chemotherapy and overcome treatment resistance. Successful translation of chemosensitizers depends on the development of strategies that can preferentially deliver chemosensitizers to tumors while avoiding normal tissue. We hypothesized that nanoparticle (NP) formulation of chemosensitizers can improve their delivery to tumors which can in turn improve their therapeutic index. To demonstrate the proof of principle of this approach, we engineered NP formulations of two chemosensitizers, the PI3-kindase inhibitor wortmanin (Wtmn) and the PARP inhibitor olaparib. NP Wtmn and NP olaparib were evaluated as chemosensitizers using lung cancer cells and breast cancer cells respectively. We found Wtmn to be an efficient chemosensitizer in all tested lung-cancer cell lines reducing tumor cell growth between 20 and 60% compared to drug alone. NP formulation did not decrease its efficacy in vitro. Olaparib showed less consistent chemosensitization as a free drug or in NP formulation. NP Wtmn was further evaluated as a chemosensitizer using mouse models of lung cancer. We found that NP Wtmn is an effective chemosensitizer and more effective than free Wtmn showing a 32% reduction in tumor growth compared to free Wtmn when given with etoposide. Importantly, NP Wtmn was able to sensitize the multi-drug resistant H69AR cells to etoposide. Additionally, the combination of NP Wtmn and etoposide chemotherapy did not significantly increase toxicity. The present study demonstrates the proof of principle of using NP formulation of chemosensitizing drugs to improve the therapeutic index of chemotherapy.

  9. Substantially Oxygen-Free Contact Tube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pike, James F. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A device for arc welding is provided in which a continuously-fed electrode wire is in electrical contact with a contact tube. The contact tube is improved by using a substantially oxygen-free conductive alloy in order to reduce the amount of electrical erosion.

  10. Production of substantially pure fructose

    SciTech Connect

    Hatcher, H.J.; Gallian, J.J.; Leeper, S.A.

    1990-05-22

    This patent describes a process for the production of a substantially pure product containing greater than 60% fructose. It comprises: combining a sucrose-containing substrate with effective amounts of a levansucrase enzyme preparation to form levan and glucose; purifying the levan by at least one of the following purification methods: ultrafiltration, diafiltration, hyperfiltration, reverse osmosis, liquid--liquid partition, solvent extraction, chromatography, and precipitation; hydrolyzing the levan to form fructose substantially free of glucose and sucrose; and recovering the fructose by at least one of the following recovery methods: hyperfiltration, reverse osmosis, evaporation, drying, crystallization, and chromatography.

  11. Improving Brush Polymer Infrared One-Dimensional Photonic Crystals via Linear Polymer Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Macfarlane, Robert J.; Kim, Bongkeun; Lee, Byeongdu; Weitekamp, Raymond A.; Bates, Christopher M.; Lee, Siu Fung; Chang, Alice B.; Delaney, Kris T.; Fredrickson, Glen H.; Atwater, Harry A.; Grubbs, Robert H.

    2014-12-17

    Brush block copolymers (BBCPs) enable the rapid fabrication of self-assembled one-dimensional photonic crystals with photonic band gaps that are tunable in the UV-vis-IR, where the peak wavelength of reflection scales with the molecular weight of the BBCPs. Due to the difficulty in synthesizing very large BBCPs, the fidelity of the assembled lamellar nanostructures drastically erodes as the domains become large enough to reflect IR light, severely limiting their performance as optical filters. To overcome this challenge, short linear homopolymers are used to swell the arrays to ~180% of the initial domain spacing, allowing for photonic band gaps up to~1410 nm without significant opacity in the visible, demonstrating improved ordering of the arrays. Additionally, blending BBCPs with random copolymers enables functional groups to be incorporated into the BBCP array without attaching them directly to the BBCPs. The addition of short linear polymers to the BBCP arrays thus offers a facile means of improving the self-assembly and optical properties of these materials, as well as adding a route to achieving films with greater functionality and tailorability, without the need to develop or optimize the processing conditions for each new brush polymer synthesized.

  12. Towards the design of new and improved drilling fluid additives using molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Richard L; Greenwel, H Christopher; Suter, James L; Jarvis, Rebecca M; Coveney, Peter V

    2010-03-01

    During exploration for oil and gas, a technical drilling fluid is used to lubricate the drill bit, maintain hydrostatic pressure, transmit sensor readings, remove rock cuttings and inhibit swelling of unstable clay based reactive shale formations. Increasing environmental awareness and resulting legislation has led to the search for new, improved biodegradable drilling fluid components. In the case of additives for clay swelling inhibition, an understanding of how existing effective additives interact with clays must be gained to allow the design of improved molecules. Owing to the disordered nature and nanoscopic dimension of the interlayer pores of clay minerals, computer simulations have become an increasingly useful tool for studying clay-swelling inhibitor interactions. In this work we briefly review the history of the development of technical drilling fluids, the environmental impact of drilling fluids and the use of computer simulations to study the interactions between clay minerals and swelling inhibitors. We report on results from some recent large-scale molecular dynamics simulation studies on low molecular weight water-soluble macromolecular inhibitor molecules. The structure and interactions of poly(propylene oxide)-diamine, poly(ethylene glycol) and poly(ethylene oxide)-diacrylate inhibitor molecules with montmorillonite clay are studied.

  13. Improvement of capacitive performances of symmetric carbon/carbon supercapacitors by addition of nanostructured polypyrrole powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benhaddad, L.; Gamby, J.; Makhloufi, L.; Pailleret, A.; Pillier, F.; Takenouti, H.

    2016-03-01

    A nanostructured polypyrrole powder was synthesized in a previous work from the oxidation of pyrrole by a nanostructured MnO2 powder used simultaneously as an oxidizing agent and a sacrificial template in a redox heterogeneous mechanism. In this study, this original PPy powder was used as an active additive material with different ratio in carbon/carbon symmetrical supercapacitors whose performances were studied by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) using a Swagelok-type cell. From the EIS spectra, the complex capacitance was extracted using a model involving two Cole-Cole type complex capacitances linked in series. The specific capacitance values evaluated by EIS and cyclic voltammetry are in a good agreement between them. The results show that the addition of nanostructured polypyrrole powder improves significantly the specific capacitance of the carbon electrode and consequently the performances of carbon/carbon supercapacitors. The original and versatile synthesis method used to produce this polypyrrole powder appears to be attractive for large scale production of promising additives for electrode materials of supercapacitors.

  14. Effect of Fruit Pomace Addition on Shortbread Cookies to Improve Their Physical and Nutritional Values.

    PubMed

    Tańska, Małgorzata; Roszkowska, Beata; Czaplicki, Sylwester; Borowska, Eulalia Julitta; Bojarska, Justyna; Dąbrowska, Aneta

    2016-09-01

    Fruit pomace remaining after juice extraction is still a source of bioactive compounds. Especially rich in these compounds is the pomace from blackcurrant fruit and from fruits of little-known horticultural plants, like: rowan, rosehip and elderberry. The addition of fruit pomace to bakery and confectionery products, especially to those made of white flour, may significantly enrich their composition with dietary fiber, vitamins and phenolic compounds. This study was aimed at determining the effect of 20 % addition of fruit pomace from rosehip, rowan, blackcurrant and elderberry on the properties of shortbread cookies. The pomace-containing cookies, compared to those without additives, were characterized by a darker color with a higher contribution of yellowness, and by higher hardness. The overall organoleptic assessment was comparable for all types of cookies, however the cookies with pomace were characterized by more perceptible taste and aroma, and were sourer. The extracts from pomace-supplemented cookies had a significantly stronger antioxidant capacity than that from the cookies without pomace, but they were ineffective in inhibiting lipid oxidation. The study showed that fruit pomace could improve the nutritional value of shortbread cookies. Furthermore, non-typical color of such a new product may be attractive to consumers.

  15. Improvement of the cloud point extraction of uranyl ions by the addition of ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Gao, Song; Sun, Taoxiang; Chen, Qingde; Shen, Xinghai

    2013-12-15

    The cloud point extraction (CPE) of uranyl ions by different kinds of extractants in Triton X-114 (TX-114) micellar solution was investigated upon the addition of ionic liquids (ILs) with various anions, i.e., bromide (Br(-)), tetrafluoroborate (BF4(-)), hexafluorophosphate (PF6(-)) and bis[(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl]imide (NTf2(-)). A significant increase of the extraction efficiency was found on the addition of NTf2(-) based ILs when using neutral extractant tri-octylphosphine oxide (TOPO), and the extraction efficiency kept high at both nearly neutral and high acidity. However, the CPE with acidic extractants, e.g., bis(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (HDEHP) and 8-hydroxyquinoline (8-HQ) which are only effective at nearly neutral condition, was not improved by ILs. The results of zeta potential and (19)F NMR measurements indicated that the anion NTf2(-) penetrated into the TX-114 micelles and was enriched in the surfactant-rich phase during the CPE process. Meanwhile, NTf2(-) may act as a counterion in the CPE of UO2(2+) by TOPO. Furthermore, the addition of IL increased the separation factor of UO2(2+) and La(3+), which implied that in the micelle TOPO, NTf2(-) and NO3(-) established a soft template for UO2(2+). Therefore, the combination of CPE and IL provided a supramolecular recognition to concentrate UO2(2+) efficiently and selectively.

  16. Effect of Fruit Pomace Addition on Shortbread Cookies to Improve Their Physical and Nutritional Values.

    PubMed

    Tańska, Małgorzata; Roszkowska, Beata; Czaplicki, Sylwester; Borowska, Eulalia Julitta; Bojarska, Justyna; Dąbrowska, Aneta

    2016-09-01

    Fruit pomace remaining after juice extraction is still a source of bioactive compounds. Especially rich in these compounds is the pomace from blackcurrant fruit and from fruits of little-known horticultural plants, like: rowan, rosehip and elderberry. The addition of fruit pomace to bakery and confectionery products, especially to those made of white flour, may significantly enrich their composition with dietary fiber, vitamins and phenolic compounds. This study was aimed at determining the effect of 20 % addition of fruit pomace from rosehip, rowan, blackcurrant and elderberry on the properties of shortbread cookies. The pomace-containing cookies, compared to those without additives, were characterized by a darker color with a higher contribution of yellowness, and by higher hardness. The overall organoleptic assessment was comparable for all types of cookies, however the cookies with pomace were characterized by more perceptible taste and aroma, and were sourer. The extracts from pomace-supplemented cookies had a significantly stronger antioxidant capacity than that from the cookies without pomace, but they were ineffective in inhibiting lipid oxidation. The study showed that fruit pomace could improve the nutritional value of shortbread cookies. Furthermore, non-typical color of such a new product may be attractive to consumers. PMID:27319014

  17. Production of substantially pure fructose

    DOEpatents

    Hatcher, Herbert J.; Gallian, John J.; Leeper, Stephen A.

    1990-01-01

    A process is disclosed for the production of substantially pure fructose from sucrose-containing substrates. The process comprises converting the sucrose to levan and glucose, purifying the levan by membrane technology, hydrolyzing the levan to form fructose monomers, and recovering the fructose.

  18. Addition of Alarm Pheromone Components Improves the Effectiveness of Desiccant Dusts Against Cimex lectularius

    PubMed Central

    BENOIT, JOSHUA B.; PHILLIPS, SETH A.; CROXALL, TRAVIS J.; CHRISTENSEN, BRADY S.; YODER, JAY A.; DENLINGER, DAVID L.

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate that the addition of bed bug, Cimex lectularius, alarm pheromone to desiccant formulations greatly enhances their effectiveness during short-term exposure. Two desiccant formulations, diatomaceous earth (DE) and Dri-die (silica gel), were applied at the label rate with and without bed bug alarm pheromone components, (E)-2-hexenal, (E)-2-octenal, and a (E)-2-hexenal:(E)-2-octenal blend. First-instar nymphs and adult females were subjected to 10-min exposures, and water loss rates were used to evaluate the response. Optimal effectiveness was achieved with a pheromone concentration of 0.01 M. With Dri-die alone, the water loss was 21% higher than in untreated controls, and water loss increased nearly two times with (E)-2-hexenal and (E)-2-octenal and three times with the (E)-2-hexenal: (E)-2-octenal blend. This shortened survival of first-instar nymphs from 4 to 1 d, with a similar reduction noted in adult females. DE was effective only if supplemented with pheromone, resulting in a 50% increase in water loss over controls with the (E)-2-hexenal:(E)-2-octenal blend, and a survival decrease from 4 to 2 d in first-instar nymphs. Consistently, the addition of the pheromone blend to desiccant dust was more effective than adding either component by itself or by using Dri-die or DE alone. Based on observations in a small microhabitat, the addition of alarm pheromone components prompted bed bugs to leave their protective harborages and to move through the desiccant, improving the use of desiccants for control. We concluded that short exposure to Dri-die is a more effective treatment against bed bugs than DE and that the effectiveness of the desiccants can be further enhanced by incorporation of alarm pheromone. Presumably, the addition of alarm pheromone elevates excited crawling activity, thereby promoting cuticular changes that increase water loss. PMID:19496429

  19. Addition of alarm pheromone components improves the effectiveness of desiccant dusts against Cimex lectularius.

    PubMed

    Benoit, Joshua B; Phillips, Seth A; Croxall, Travis J; Christensen, Brady S; Yoder, Jay A; Denlinger, David L

    2009-05-01

    We demonstrate that the addition of bed bug, Cimex lectularius, alarm pheromone to desiccant formulations greatly enhances their effectiveness during short-term exposure. Two desiccant formulations, diatomaceous earth (DE) and Dri-die (silica gel), were applied at the label rate with and without bed bug alarm pheromone components, (E)-2-hexenal, (E)-2-octenal, and a (E)-2-hexenal:(E)-2-octenal blend. First-instar nymphs and adult females were subjected to 10-min exposures, and water loss rates were used to evaluate the response. Optimal effectiveness was achieved with a pheromone concentration of 0.01 M. With Dri-die alone, the water loss was 21% higher than in untreated controls, and water loss increased nearly two times with (E)-2-hexenal and (E)-2-octenal and three times with the (E)-2-hexenal: (E)-2-octenal blend. This shortened survival of first-instar nymphs from 4 to 1 d, with a similar reduction noted in adult females. DE was effective only if supplemented with pheromone, resulting in a 50% increase in water loss over controls with the (E)-2-hexenal:(E)-2-octenal blend, and a survival decrease from 4 to 2 d in first-instar nymphs. Consistently, the addition of the pheromone blend to desiccant dust was more effective than adding either component by itself or by using Dri-die or DE alone. Based on observations in a small microhabitat, the addition of alarm pheromone components prompted bed bugs to leave their protective harborages and to move through the desiccant, improving the use of desiccants for control. We concluded that short exposure to Dri-die is a more effective treatment against bed bugs than DE and that the effectiveness of the desiccants can be further enhanced by incorporation of alarm pheromone. Presumably, the addition of alarm pheromone elevates excited crawling activity, thereby promoting cuticular changes that increase water loss.

  20. Improving coeliac disease risk prediction by testing non-HLA variants additional to HLA variants

    PubMed Central

    Romanos, Jihane; Rosén, Anna; Kumar, Vinod; Trynka, Gosia; Franke, Lude; Szperl, Agata; Gutierrez-Achury, Javier; van Diemen, Cleo C; Kanninga, Roan; Jankipersadsing, Soesma A; Steck, Andrea; Eisenbarth, Georges; van Heel, David A; Cukrowska, Bozena; Bruno, Valentina; Mazzilli, Maria Cristina; Núñez, Concepcion; Bilbao, Jose Ramon; Mearin, M Luisa; Barisani, Donatella; Rewers, Marian; Norris, Jill M; Ivarsson, Anneli; Boezen, H Marieke; Liu, Edwin; Wijmenga, Cisca

    2014-01-01

    Background The majority of coeliac disease (CD) patients are not being properly diagnosed and therefore remain untreated, leading to a greater risk of developing CD-associated complications. The major genetic risk heterodimer, HLA-DQ2 and DQ8, is already used clinically to help exclude disease. However, approximately 40% of the population carry these alleles and the majority never develop CD. Objective We explored whether CD risk prediction can be improved by adding non-HLA-susceptible variants to common HLA testing. Design We developed an average weighted genetic risk score with 10, 26 and 57 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in 2675 cases and 2815 controls and assessed the improvement in risk prediction provided by the non-HLA SNP. Moreover, we assessed the transferability of the genetic risk model with 26 non-HLA variants to a nested case–control population (n=1709) and a prospective cohort (n=1245) and then tested how well this model predicted CD outcome for 985 independent individuals. Results Adding 57 non-HLA variants to HLA testing showed a statistically significant improvement compared to scores from models based on HLA only, HLA plus 10 SNP and HLA plus 26 SNP. With 57 non-HLA variants, the area under the receiver operator characteristic curve reached 0.854 compared to 0.823 for HLA only, and 11.1% of individuals were reclassified to a more accurate risk group. We show that the risk model with HLA plus 26 SNP is useful in independent populations. Conclusions Predicting risk with 57 additional non-HLA variants improved the identification of potential CD patients. This demonstrates a possible role for combined HLA and non-HLA genetic testing in diagnostic work for CD. PMID:23704318

  1. Large-scale Manufacturing of Nanoparticulate-based Lubrication Additives for Improved Energy Efficiency and Reduced Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Erdemir, Ali

    2013-09-26

    environmental objectives of DOE and our nation. In this project, most of the boron-based materials with known and potential anti-friction and -wear properties have been manufactured as colloidal additives and tested for their effectiveness in controlling friction and wear. Unlike other anti-friction and -wear additives, which consist of zinc, molybdenum, sulfur, phosphorus, and even chlorine, lubricious boron compounds considered in this project are made of boron, oxygen, nitrogen, and hydrogen, which are more environmentally benign. Among others, boric acid is a natural mineral (known in mineralogy as "sassolite"). Based on our earlier exploratory research, it was found to offer the best overall prospect in terms of performance improvements, environmental friendliness, and ease of manufacturing and, hence, cost effectiveness. Hexagonal boron nitride and borax also offered good prospects for improving the tribological properties of lubricated sliding surfaces. Boron oxide particles were found to be rather hard and somewhat abrasive and, hence, were not considered beyond the initial screening studies. In our bench-top tribological evaluation, we also demonstrated that those additives which worked well with engine oils could work equally well with very common gear oils. When added at appropriate concentrations, such gear oils were found to provide significant resistance to micropitting and scuffing failures in bench-top tribological test systems. Their traction coefficients were also reduced substantially and their scuffing limits were improved considerably. Such impressive tribological behavior of boron-based additives may have been due to their high chemical affinities to interact with sliding contact surfaces and to form slick and protective boundary films. Indeed, our surface studies have confirmed that most of the boron-based nanoparticulate additives prepared in our project possess a strong tendency to form a boron-rich boundary film on sliding contact surfaces. It is

  2. Improving the quality of fresh-cut apples, pears, and melons using natural additives.

    PubMed

    Alandes, L; Quiles, A; Pérez-Munuera, I; Hernando, I

    2009-03-01

    Improving the quality of different fresh-cut fruits by adding natural substances was studied. "Fuji" apples, "Flor de Invierno" pears, and "Piel de Sapo" melons were treated with calcium lactate, N-acetyl-L-cysteine, glutathione, and malic acid and stored for 4 wk at 4 degrees C. Instrumental texture (penetration), microstructure (light microscopy), acidity, soluble solids, color, pectinmethylesterase activity, and microflora were studied. The results showed that the combined treatment reinforced the cell walls strengthening the structure and texture of these fruits and maintained the L* and a* values throughout 4 wk of storage at 4 degrees C. The combination of additives provided low microbial counts in apples until the 4th week and in melons until the 2nd week. So, this combined treatment could be used to extend the shelf life of some fresh-cut fruits while preserving their quality.

  3. Additional experiments on flowability improvements of aviation fuels at low temperatures, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stockemer, F. J.; Deane, R. L.

    1982-01-01

    An investigation was performed to study flow improver additives and scale-model fuel heating systems for use with aviation hydrocarbon fuel at low temperatures. Test were performed in a facility that simulated the heat transfer and temperature profiles anticipated in wing fuel tanks during flight of long-range commercial aircraft. The results are presented of experiments conducted in a test tank simulating a section of an outer wing integral fuel tank approximately full-scale in height, chilled through heat exchange panels bonded to the upper and lower horizontal surfaces. A separate system heated lubricating oil externally by a controllable electric heater, to transfer heat to fuel pumped from the test tank through an oil-to-fuel heat exchanger, and to recirculate the heated fuel back to the test tank.

  4. Palatability of colonic lavage solution is improved by the addition of artificially sweetened flavored drink mixes.

    PubMed

    Gruber, M; Fay, D; Pudhorodsky, T; Lance, P

    1991-12-01

    A frequent complaint of patients asked to drink polyethylene glycol (PEG) colonic lavage solution is the salty flavor. This often results in failure to ingest the entire 4 liters of the solution and compromises bowel cleansing. The purpose of this study was to determine systematically whether the addition of a flavored drink mix sweetened with aspartame to the PEG lavage solution would improve palatability without significantly altering the osmolality of the solution. Eighty-seven (87) staff volunteers participated in a taste test of PEG lavage solutions containing varying amounts of commercially available drink mixes. The solution containing two packages of lemon-flavored KoolAid drink mix sweetened with aspartame was significantly more palatable than the others (p less than 0.005), while osmolality remained within the range specified by the manufacturer of Colyte.

  5. Measuring Substantial Reductions in Activity

    PubMed Central

    Schafer, Charles; Evans, Meredyth; Jason, Leonard A.; So, Suzanna; Brown, Abigail

    2015-01-01

    The case definitions for Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS), Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (ME), and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) each include a disability criterion requiring substantial reductions in activity in order to meet diagnostic criteria. Difficulties have been encountered in defining and operationalizing the substantial reduction disability criterion within these various illness definitions. The present study sought to relate measures of past and current activities in several domains including the SF-36, an objective measure of activity (e.g. actigraphy), a self-reported quality of life scale, and measures of symptom severity. Results of the study revealed that current work activities had the highest number of significant associations with domains such as the SF-36 subscales, actigraphy, and symptom scores. As an example, higher self-reported levels of current work activity were associated with better health. This suggests that current work related activities may provide a useful domain for helping operationalize the construct of substantial reductions in activity. PMID:25584524

  6. Additional Arctic observations improve weather and sea-ice forecasts for the Northern Sea Route

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Jun; Yamazaki, Akira; Ono, Jun; Dethloff, Klaus; Maturilli, Marion; Neuber, Roland; Edwards, Patti; Yamaguchi, Hajime

    2015-11-01

    During ice-free periods, the Northern Sea Route (NSR) could be an attractive shipping route. The decline in Arctic sea-ice extent, however, could be associated with an increase in the frequency of the causes of severe weather phenomena, and high wind-driven waves and the advection of sea ice could make ship navigation along the NSR difficult. Accurate forecasts of weather and sea ice are desirable for safe navigation, but large uncertainties exist in current forecasts, partly owing to the sparse observational network over the Arctic Ocean. Here, we show that the incorporation of additional Arctic observations improves the initial analysis and enhances the skill of weather and sea-ice forecasts, the application of which has socioeconomic benefits. Comparison of 63-member ensemble atmospheric forecasts, using different initial data sets, revealed that additional Arctic radiosonde observations were useful for predicting a persistent strong wind event. The sea-ice forecast, initialised by the wind fields that included the effects of the observations, skilfully predicted rapid wind-driven sea-ice advection along the NSR.

  7. Additional Arctic observations improve weather and sea-ice forecasts for the Northern Sea Route.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Jun; Yamazaki, Akira; Ono, Jun; Dethloff, Klaus; Maturilli, Marion; Neuber, Roland; Edwards, Patti; Yamaguchi, Hajime

    2015-01-01

    During ice-free periods, the Northern Sea Route (NSR) could be an attractive shipping route. The decline in Arctic sea-ice extent, however, could be associated with an increase in the frequency of the causes of severe weather phenomena, and high wind-driven waves and the advection of sea ice could make ship navigation along the NSR difficult. Accurate forecasts of weather and sea ice are desirable for safe navigation, but large uncertainties exist in current forecasts, partly owing to the sparse observational network over the Arctic Ocean. Here, we show that the incorporation of additional Arctic observations improves the initial analysis and enhances the skill of weather and sea-ice forecasts, the application of which has socioeconomic benefits. Comparison of 63-member ensemble atmospheric forecasts, using different initial data sets, revealed that additional Arctic radiosonde observations were useful for predicting a persistent strong wind event. The sea-ice forecast, initialised by the wind fields that included the effects of the observations, skilfully predicted rapid wind-driven sea-ice advection along the NSR. PMID:26585690

  8. Improving functionality of whole egg powder by the addition of gelatine, lactose, and pullulan.

    PubMed

    Koç, Mehmet; Koç, Banu; Susyal, Gonca; Yilmazer, Melike Sakin; Bağdatlıoğlu, Neriman; Kaymak-Ertekin, Figen

    2011-01-01

    The addition of gelatine (G), lactose (L), pullulan (P), and their mixtures at equal ratios (gelatine + lactose [GL] and gelatin + pullulan [GP]) to whole egg prior to drying was studied. Their effects on the functional properties (emulsion and gelling ability, water holding capacity of gel, foaming, color) and soluble protein content of spray dried egg powder during the 6 mo of storage at 20 °C and 50% relative humidity were investigated. It was demonstrated that the emulsion and foaming stability, water holding capacity of gel, and color change were significantly affected by the storage time, whereas storage time did not affect the strength of gel texture prepared by egg powders. Gelatine and pullulan improved the foaming stability and water holding capacity. Lactose caused a decrease in emulsion and foaming stability values. The maximum color change was observed for the plain egg powder, showing that mixing whole egg with carbohydrate- and/or protein-based additives before the drying process preserved the color of egg powder. Adding carbohydrate and/or protein caused significant changes in functional properties of egg powder. PMID:22416722

  9. Additional Arctic observations improve weather and sea-ice forecasts for the Northern Sea Route

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Jun; Yamazaki, Akira; Ono, Jun; Dethloff, Klaus; Maturilli, Marion; Neuber, Roland; Edwards, Patti; Yamaguchi, Hajime

    2015-01-01

    During ice-free periods, the Northern Sea Route (NSR) could be an attractive shipping route. The decline in Arctic sea-ice extent, however, could be associated with an increase in the frequency of the causes of severe weather phenomena, and high wind-driven waves and the advection of sea ice could make ship navigation along the NSR difficult. Accurate forecasts of weather and sea ice are desirable for safe navigation, but large uncertainties exist in current forecasts, partly owing to the sparse observational network over the Arctic Ocean. Here, we show that the incorporation of additional Arctic observations improves the initial analysis and enhances the skill of weather and sea-ice forecasts, the application of which has socioeconomic benefits. Comparison of 63-member ensemble atmospheric forecasts, using different initial data sets, revealed that additional Arctic radiosonde observations were useful for predicting a persistent strong wind event. The sea-ice forecast, initialised by the wind fields that included the effects of the observations, skilfully predicted rapid wind-driven sea-ice advection along the NSR. PMID:26585690

  10. Additional Arctic observations improve weather and sea-ice forecasts for the Northern Sea Route.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Jun; Yamazaki, Akira; Ono, Jun; Dethloff, Klaus; Maturilli, Marion; Neuber, Roland; Edwards, Patti; Yamaguchi, Hajime

    2015-01-01

    During ice-free periods, the Northern Sea Route (NSR) could be an attractive shipping route. The decline in Arctic sea-ice extent, however, could be associated with an increase in the frequency of the causes of severe weather phenomena, and high wind-driven waves and the advection of sea ice could make ship navigation along the NSR difficult. Accurate forecasts of weather and sea ice are desirable for safe navigation, but large uncertainties exist in current forecasts, partly owing to the sparse observational network over the Arctic Ocean. Here, we show that the incorporation of additional Arctic observations improves the initial analysis and enhances the skill of weather and sea-ice forecasts, the application of which has socioeconomic benefits. Comparison of 63-member ensemble atmospheric forecasts, using different initial data sets, revealed that additional Arctic radiosonde observations were useful for predicting a persistent strong wind event. The sea-ice forecast, initialised by the wind fields that included the effects of the observations, skilfully predicted rapid wind-driven sea-ice advection along the NSR.

  11. Rational nanoconjugation improves biocatalytic performance of enzymes: aldol addition catalyzed by immobilized rhamnulose-1-phosphate aldolase.

    PubMed

    Ardao, Inés; Comenge, Joan; Benaiges, M Dolors; Álvaro, Gregorio; Puntes, Víctor F

    2012-04-17

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are attractive materials for the immobilization of enzymes due to several advantages such as high enzyme loading, absence of internal diffusion limitations, and Brownian motion in solution, compared to the conventional immobilization onto porous macroscopic supports. The affinity of AuNPs to different groups present at the protein surface enables direct enzyme binding to the nanoparticle without the need of any coupling agent. Enzyme activity and stability appear to be improved when the biocatalyst is immobilized onto AuNPs. Rhamnulose-1-phosphate aldolase (RhuA) was selected as model enzyme for the immobilization onto AuNPs. The enzyme loading was characterized by four different techniques: surface plasmon resonance (SPR) shift and intensity, dynamic light scattering (DLS), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). AuNPs-RhuA complexes were further applied as biocatalyst of the aldol addition reaction between dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP) and (S)-Cbz-alaninal during two reaction cycles. In these conditions, an improved reaction yield and selectivity, together with a fourfold activity enhancement were observed, as compared to soluble RhuA. PMID:22428999

  12. The underlying reason of DIO additive on the improvement polymer solar cells performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zixuan; Zhang, Fujun; Li, Lingliang; An, Qiaoshi; Wang, Jian; Zhang, Jian

    2014-06-01

    The effect of 1,8-diiodooctane (DIO) on the performance enhancement of polymer solar cells (PSCs) based on [6,6]phenyl-C71-butyric acid methyl ester (PC71BM) as the acceptor and poly[(4,8-bis-(2-ethylhexyloxy)-benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b‧](dithiophene)-2,6-diyl-alt-(4-(2-ethylhexanoyl)-thieno[3,4-b]thiophene)-2,6-diyl](PBDTTT-C) as the donor was investigated from the device physics researches. The short circuit current density (Jsc) was increased from 8.84 to 12.11 mA/cm2, fill factor (FF) was increased from 44.5% to 63.1%, resulting in power conversion efficiency (PCE) with 80% improvement from 2.95% to 5.35% by adding DIO with 3% volume ratio. The enhancement of performance of PSCs could be mainly attributed to the improved charge carrier transport and increased optical field strength in the active layer by adding DIO additive.

  13. Improvement of attenuation functions of a clayey sandstone for landfill leachate containment by bentonite addition.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Ana I; Fernández, Raúl; Sánchez Jiménez, Nicanor; Rodríguez Rastrero, Manuel; Regadío, Mercedes; de Soto, Isabel S; Cuevas, Jaime

    2012-03-01

    Enhanced sand-clay mixtures have been prepared by using a sandstone arkosic material and have been evaluated for consideration as landfill liners. A lab-scale test was carried out under controlled conditions with different amended natural sandstones whereby leachate was passed through the compacted mixtures. The compacted samples consisted of siliceous sand (quartz-feldspar sand separated from the arkose sandstone) and clay (purified clay from arkose sandstone and two commercial bentonites) materials that were mixed in different proportions. The separation of mineral materials from a common and abundant natural source, for soil protection purposes, is proposed as an economic and environmentally efficient practice. The liner qualities were compared for their mineralogical, physicochemical and major ions transport and adsorption properties. Although all samples fulfilled hydraulic conductivity requirements, the addition of bentonite to arkose sandstone was determined to be an effective strategy to decrease the permeability of the soil and to improve the pollutants retention. The clay materials from arkose sandstone also contributed to pollutant retention by a significant improvement of the cation exchange capacity of the bulk material. However, the mixtures prepared with clay materials from the arkose, exhibited a slight increase of hydraulic conductivity. This effect has to be further evaluated. PMID:22285080

  14. Improvement of attenuation functions of a clayey sandstone for landfill leachate containment by bentonite addition.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Ana I; Fernández, Raúl; Sánchez Jiménez, Nicanor; Rodríguez Rastrero, Manuel; Regadío, Mercedes; de Soto, Isabel S; Cuevas, Jaime

    2012-03-01

    Enhanced sand-clay mixtures have been prepared by using a sandstone arkosic material and have been evaluated for consideration as landfill liners. A lab-scale test was carried out under controlled conditions with different amended natural sandstones whereby leachate was passed through the compacted mixtures. The compacted samples consisted of siliceous sand (quartz-feldspar sand separated from the arkose sandstone) and clay (purified clay from arkose sandstone and two commercial bentonites) materials that were mixed in different proportions. The separation of mineral materials from a common and abundant natural source, for soil protection purposes, is proposed as an economic and environmentally efficient practice. The liner qualities were compared for their mineralogical, physicochemical and major ions transport and adsorption properties. Although all samples fulfilled hydraulic conductivity requirements, the addition of bentonite to arkose sandstone was determined to be an effective strategy to decrease the permeability of the soil and to improve the pollutants retention. The clay materials from arkose sandstone also contributed to pollutant retention by a significant improvement of the cation exchange capacity of the bulk material. However, the mixtures prepared with clay materials from the arkose, exhibited a slight increase of hydraulic conductivity. This effect has to be further evaluated.

  15. Significantly improved cyclability of lithium manganese oxide under elevated temperature by an easily oxidized electrolyte additive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yunmin; Rong, Haibo; Mai, Shaowei; Luo, Xueyi; Li, Xiaoping; Li, Weishan

    2015-12-01

    Spinel lithium manganese oxide, LiMn2O4, is a promising cathode for lithium ion battery in large-scale applications, because it possesses many advantages compared with currently used layered lithium cobalt oxide (LiCoO2) and olivine phosphate (LiFePO4), including naturally abundant resource, environmental friendliness and high and long work potential plateau. Its poor cyclability under high temperature, however, limits its application. In this work, we report a significant cyclability improvement of LiMn2O4 under elevated temperature by using dimethyl phenylphonite (DMPP) as an electrolyte additive. Charge/discharge tests demonstrate that the application of 0.5 wt.% DMPP yields a capacity retention improvement from 16% to 82% for LiMn2O4 after 200 cycles under 55 °C at 1 C (1C = 148 mAh g-1) between 3 and 4.5 V. Electrochemical and physical characterizations indicate that DMPP is electrochemically oxidized at the potential lower than that for lithium extraction, forming a protective cathode interphase on LiMn2O4, which suppresses the electrolyte decomposition and prevents LiMn2O4 from crystal destruction.

  16. Attempts to improve nitrogen utilization efficiency of aquaponics through nitrifies addition and filler gradation.

    PubMed

    Zou, Yina; Hu, Zhen; Zhang, Jian; Xie, Huijun; Liang, Shuang; Wang, Jinhe; Yan, Runxin

    2016-04-01

    Aquaponics has attracted worldwide attention in recent years and is considered as an alternative technology for conventional aquaculture. In this study, common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and pakchoi (Brassica chinensis) were cultured in lab-scale aquaponics, and attempts were conducted to enhance its nitrogen utilization efficiency (NUE) through two optimization methods, i.e., nitrifies addition (NA) and filler gradation (FG). Results showed that NA and FG could improve the NUE of aquaponics by 8.8 and 16.0%, respectively, compared with control. The total ammonia (TAN) and nitrite (NO2(-)) concentrations in NA and FG systems were maintained at relatively low level (TAN < 0.5 mg/L, NO2(-) < 0.1 mg/L), which demonstrated that both the NA and FG could provide non-toxic water environment for fish culture. Nitrous oxide conversion ratio of the control, NA, and FG were 0.8, 1.2, and 1.7%, respectively, indicating that media-based aquaponics also contributed to global warming. Although the two proposed attempts in this study caused more N2O emission, they made new breakthrough in improving the NUE of aquaponics.

  17. Attempts to improve nitrogen utilization efficiency of aquaponics through nitrifies addition and filler gradation.

    PubMed

    Zou, Yina; Hu, Zhen; Zhang, Jian; Xie, Huijun; Liang, Shuang; Wang, Jinhe; Yan, Runxin

    2016-04-01

    Aquaponics has attracted worldwide attention in recent years and is considered as an alternative technology for conventional aquaculture. In this study, common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and pakchoi (Brassica chinensis) were cultured in lab-scale aquaponics, and attempts were conducted to enhance its nitrogen utilization efficiency (NUE) through two optimization methods, i.e., nitrifies addition (NA) and filler gradation (FG). Results showed that NA and FG could improve the NUE of aquaponics by 8.8 and 16.0%, respectively, compared with control. The total ammonia (TAN) and nitrite (NO2(-)) concentrations in NA and FG systems were maintained at relatively low level (TAN < 0.5 mg/L, NO2(-) < 0.1 mg/L), which demonstrated that both the NA and FG could provide non-toxic water environment for fish culture. Nitrous oxide conversion ratio of the control, NA, and FG were 0.8, 1.2, and 1.7%, respectively, indicating that media-based aquaponics also contributed to global warming. Although the two proposed attempts in this study caused more N2O emission, they made new breakthrough in improving the NUE of aquaponics. PMID:26645232

  18. Does the Addition of a Duration Improve the Liso-Epeak Relation for Gamma-Ray Bursts?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collazzi, Andrew C.; Schaefer, Bradley E.

    2008-11-01

    Firmani et al. proposed a new gamma ray burst (GRB) luminosity relation that showed a significant improvement over the Liso- Epeak relation (where Liso is the isotropic peak luminosity and Epeak is the photon energy of the spectral peak for the burst). The new proposed relation simply modifies the Epeak value by multiplying it by a power of T0.45, where T0.45 is a particular measure of the GRB duration. We begin by reproducing the results of Firmani for his 19 bursts. We then test the Firmani relation for the same 19 bursts, except that we use independently measured values for Liso, T0.45, and Epeak, and we find that the relation deteriorates substantially. We further test the relation by using 60 GRBs with measured spectroscopic redshifts, and find a relation that has a comparable scatter as the original L iso-Epeak relation. That is, a much larger sample of bursts does not reproduce the small scatter as reported by Firmani et al. Finally, we investigate whether the Firmani relation is improved by the use of any of 32 measures of duration (e.g., T90, T50, T90/Npeak, the fluence divided by the peak flux, T0.30, and T0.60) in place of T0.45. The quality of each alternative duration measure is evaluated with the root mean square of the scatter between the observed and fitted logarithmic Liso values. Although we find that some durations yield slightly better results than T0.45, the differences between the duration measures are minimal. We find that the addition of a duration does not add any significant improvement to the Liso- Epeak relation. We also present a simple and direct derivation of the Firmani relation from both the Liso-Epeak and Amati relations. In all, we conclude that the Firmani relation neither has an independent existence nor does it provide any significant improvement on previously known relations that are simpler.

  19. Improvement of ocean loading correction on gravity data with additional tide gauge measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neumeyer, Juergen; del Pino, Jorge; Dierks, Olaf; Sun, He-Ping; Pflug, Hartmut

    2005-08-01

    Because a gravimeter records the sum of all gravity variations associated with mass redistribution in its near and far surrounding the investigation of a single special gravity effect (e.g. Earth tides or core modes) requires the reduction of all other effects from the data. In our study, we are dealing with the ocean loading effect. High-precision tidal gravity and atmospheric pressure observations are carried out at the station Rio Carpintero in combination with tide gauge measurements at the coast of Santiago de Cuba. The gravity data are subjected to atmospheric pressure and ocean loading corrections with different oceanic tidal models. In order to test the efficiency of the different ocean loading corrections the gravity data are analysed for various tidal waves and the determined Earth tide parameters are compared with model parameters. Additionally, tide gauge measurements are analysed and used for improving the ocean loading correction on gravity data. The results show that present-day global oceanic tidal models, e.g. NAO99b and FES2002 in combination with the ocean loading calculation program (LOAD97), are not sufficient for a complete correction of this effect. With our approach, the discrepancies between the observed Earth tide parameters and those from theoretical prediction for main waves in diurnal and semidiurnal tidal bands are further reduced when taking into account the tide gauge data recorded offshore. After additional removal of oceanic signals, based on the tide gauge data, the analysed Earth tide parameters are closer to the Wahr-Dehant model. The improvement is up to 4% and the noise is reduced from 20 nm/s 2 to 10 nm/s 2 within the examined period range of 10-1500 min. Therefore, high-precision gravity measurements (e.g. with Superconducting Gravimeters), especially for stations near the coastal lines, should take into account tide gauge measurements for the ocean loading correction. With improved ocean loading correction and reduced noise

  20. Use of Additives to Improve Performance of Methyl Butyrate-Based Lithium-Ion Electrolytes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smart, Marshall C.; Bugga, Ratnakumar V.

    2011-01-01

    This work addresses the need for robust rechargeable batteries that can operate well over a wide temperature range. To this end, a number of electrolyte formulations have been developed that incorporate the use of electrolyte additives to improve the high-temperature resilience, low-temperature power capability, and life characteristics of methyl butyrate-based electrolyte solutions. These electrolyte additives include mono-fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC), lithium oxalate, vinylene carbonate (VC), and lithium bis(oxalato)borate (LiBOB), which have been shown to result in improved high-temperature resilience of all carbonate-based electrolytes. Improved performance has been demonstrated of Li-ion cells with methyl butyrate-based electrolytes, including 1.20M LiPF6 in EC+EMC+MB (20:20:60 v/v %); 1.20M LiPF6 in EC+EMC+MB (20:20:60 v/v %) + 2% FEC; 1.20M LiPF6 in EC+EMC+MB (20:20:60 v/v %) + 4% FEC; 1.20M LiPF6 in EC+EMC+MB (20:20:60 v/v %) + lithium oxalate; 1.20M LiPF6 in EC+EMC+MB (20:20:60 v/v %) + 2% VC; and 1.20M LiPF6 in EC+EMC+MB (20:20:60 v/v %) + 0.10M LiBOB. These electrolytes have been shown to improve performance in MCMB-LiNiCoO2 and graphite-LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 experimental Li-ion cells. A number of LiPF6-based mixed carbonate electrolyte formulations have been developed that contain ester co-solvents, which have been optimized for operation at low temperature, while still providing reasonable performance at high temperature. For example, a number of ester co-solvents were investigated, including methyl propionate (MP), ethyl propionate (EP), methyl butyrate (MB), ethyl butyrate (EB), propyl butyrate (PB), and butyl butyrate (BB) in multi-component electrolytes of the following composition: 1.0M LiPF6 in ethylene carbonate (EC) + ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC) + X (20:60:20 v/v %) [where X = ester co-solvent]. ["Optimized Car bon ate and Ester-Based Li-Ion Electrolytes", NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 32, No. 4 (April 2008), p. 56.] Focusing upon improved rate

  1. Copper, Boron, and Cerium Additions in Type 347 Austenitic Steel to Improve Creep Rupture Strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laha, Kinkar; Kyono, J.; Shinya, Norio

    2012-04-01

    Type 347 austenitic stainless steel (18Cr-12Ni-Nb) was alloyed with copper (3 wt pct), boron (0.01 to 0.06 wt pct), and cerium (0.01 wt pct) with an aim to increase the creep rupture strength of the steel through the improved deformation and cavitation resistance. Short-term creep rupture strength was found to increase with the addition of copper in the 347 steel, but the long-term strength was inferior. Extensive creep cavitation deprived the steel of the beneficial effect of creep deformation resistance induced by nano-size copper particles. Boron and cerium additions in the copper-containing steel increased its creep rupture strength and ductility, which were more for higher boron content. Creep deformation, grain boundary sliding, and creep cavity nucleation and growth in the steel were found to be suppressed by microalloying the copper-containing steel with boron and cerium, and the suppression was more for higher boron content. An auger electron spectroscopic study revealed the segregation of boron instead of sulfur on the cavity surface of the boron- and cerium-microalloyed steel. Cerium acted as a scavenger for soluble sulfur in the steels through the precipitation of cerium sulfide (CeS). This inhibited the segregation of sulfur and facilitated the segregation of boron on cavity surface. Boron segregation on the nucleated cavity surface reduced its growth rate. Microalloying the copper-containing 347 steel with boron and cerium thus enabled to use the full extent of creep deformation resistance rendered by copper nano-size particle by increase in creep rupture strength and ductility.

  2. New electrolytes and electrolyte additives to improve the low temperature performance of lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Xiao-Qing

    2008-08-31

    In this program, two different approaches were undertaken to improve the role of electrolyte at low temperature performance - through the improvement in (i) ionic conductivity and (ii) interfacial behavior. Several different types of electrolytes were prepared to examine the feasibil.ity of using these new electrolytes in rechargeable lithium-ion cells in the temperature range of +40°C to -40°C. The feasibility studies include (a) conductivity measurements of the electrolytes, (b) impedance measurements of lithium-ion cells using the screened electrolytes with di.fferent electrochemical history such as [(i) fresh cells prior to formation cycles, (ii) after first charge, and (iii) after first discharge], (c) electrical performance of the cells at room temperatures, and (d) charge discharge behavior at various low temperatures. Among the different types of electrolytes investigated in Phase I and Phase II of this SBIR project, carbonate-based LiPF6 electrolytes with the proposed additives and the low viscous ester as a third component to the carbonate-based LiPF6 electrolytes show promising results at low temperatures. The latter electrolytes deliver over 80% of room temperature capacity at -20{degrees}C when the lithium-ion cells containing these electrolytes were charged at -20 °C. Also, there was no lithium plating when the lithium­-ion cells using C-C composite anode and LiPF{sub 6} in EC/EMC/MP electrolyte were charged at -20{degrees}C at C/5 rate. The studies of ionic conductivity and AC impedance of these new electrolytes, as well as the charge discharge characteristics of lithium-ion cells using these new electrolytes at various low temperatures provide new findings: The reduced capacity and power capability, as well as the problem of lithium plating at low temperatures charging of lithium-ion cells are primarily due to slow the lithium-ion intercalation/de-intercalation kinetics in the carbon structure.

  3. Aripiprazole Improves Associated Comorbid Conditions in Addition to Tics in Adult Patients with Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gerasch, Sarah; Kanaan, Ahmad Seif; Jakubovski, Ewgeni; Müller-Vahl, Kirsten R

    2016-01-01

    Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome (GTS) is characterized by motor and vocal tics, as well as associated comorbid conditions including obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), depression, and anxiety which are present in a substantial number of patients. Although randomized controlled trials including a large number of patients are still missing, aripiprazole is currently considered as a first choice drug for the treatment of tics. The aim of this study was to further investigate efficacy and safety of aripiprazole in a group of drug-free, adult patients. Specifically, we investigated the influence of aripiprazole on tic severity, comorbidities, premonitory urge (PU), and quality of life (QoL). Moreover, we were interested in the factors that influence a patient's decision in electing for-or against- pharmacological treatment. In this prospective uncontrolled open-label study, we included 44 patients and used a number of rating scales to assess tic severity, PU, comorbidities, and QoL at baseline and during treatment with aripiprazole. Eighteen out of fortyfour patients decided for undergoing treatment for their tics with aripiprazole and completed follow-up assessments after 4-6 weeks. Our major findings were (1) aripiprazole resulted in significant reduction of tics, but did not affect PU; (2) aripiprazole significantly improved OCD and showed a trend toward improvement of other comorbidities including depression, anxiety, and ADHD; (3) neither severity of tics, nor PU or QoL influenced patients' decisions for or against treatment of tics with aripiprazole; instead patients with comorbid OCD tended to decide in favor of, while patients with comorbid ADHD tended to decide against tic treatment; (4) most frequently reported adverse effects were sleeping problems; (5) patients' QoL was mostly impaired by comorbid depression. Our results suggest that aripiprazole may improve associated comorbid conditions in addition to tics

  4. Aripiprazole Improves Associated Comorbid Conditions in Addition to Tics in Adult Patients with Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Gerasch, Sarah; Kanaan, Ahmad Seif; Jakubovski, Ewgeni; Müller-Vahl, Kirsten R.

    2016-01-01

    Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome (GTS) is characterized by motor and vocal tics, as well as associated comorbid conditions including obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), depression, and anxiety which are present in a substantial number of patients. Although randomized controlled trials including a large number of patients are still missing, aripiprazole is currently considered as a first choice drug for the treatment of tics. The aim of this study was to further investigate efficacy and safety of aripiprazole in a group of drug-free, adult patients. Specifically, we investigated the influence of aripiprazole on tic severity, comorbidities, premonitory urge (PU), and quality of life (QoL). Moreover, we were interested in the factors that influence a patient's decision in electing for-or against- pharmacological treatment. In this prospective uncontrolled open-label study, we included 44 patients and used a number of rating scales to assess tic severity, PU, comorbidities, and QoL at baseline and during treatment with aripiprazole. Eighteen out of fortyfour patients decided for undergoing treatment for their tics with aripiprazole and completed follow-up assessments after 4–6 weeks. Our major findings were (1) aripiprazole resulted in significant reduction of tics, but did not affect PU; (2) aripiprazole significantly improved OCD and showed a trend toward improvement of other comorbidities including depression, anxiety, and ADHD; (3) neither severity of tics, nor PU or QoL influenced patients' decisions for or against treatment of tics with aripiprazole; instead patients with comorbid OCD tended to decide in favor of, while patients with comorbid ADHD tended to decide against tic treatment; (4) most frequently reported adverse effects were sleeping problems; (5) patients' QoL was mostly impaired by comorbid depression. Our results suggest that aripiprazole may improve associated comorbid conditions in addition to tics

  5. Aripiprazole Improves Associated Comorbid Conditions in Addition to Tics in Adult Patients with Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gerasch, Sarah; Kanaan, Ahmad Seif; Jakubovski, Ewgeni; Müller-Vahl, Kirsten R

    2016-01-01

    Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome (GTS) is characterized by motor and vocal tics, as well as associated comorbid conditions including obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), depression, and anxiety which are present in a substantial number of patients. Although randomized controlled trials including a large number of patients are still missing, aripiprazole is currently considered as a first choice drug for the treatment of tics. The aim of this study was to further investigate efficacy and safety of aripiprazole in a group of drug-free, adult patients. Specifically, we investigated the influence of aripiprazole on tic severity, comorbidities, premonitory urge (PU), and quality of life (QoL). Moreover, we were interested in the factors that influence a patient's decision in electing for-or against- pharmacological treatment. In this prospective uncontrolled open-label study, we included 44 patients and used a number of rating scales to assess tic severity, PU, comorbidities, and QoL at baseline and during treatment with aripiprazole. Eighteen out of fortyfour patients decided for undergoing treatment for their tics with aripiprazole and completed follow-up assessments after 4-6 weeks. Our major findings were (1) aripiprazole resulted in significant reduction of tics, but did not affect PU; (2) aripiprazole significantly improved OCD and showed a trend toward improvement of other comorbidities including depression, anxiety, and ADHD; (3) neither severity of tics, nor PU or QoL influenced patients' decisions for or against treatment of tics with aripiprazole; instead patients with comorbid OCD tended to decide in favor of, while patients with comorbid ADHD tended to decide against tic treatment; (4) most frequently reported adverse effects were sleeping problems; (5) patients' QoL was mostly impaired by comorbid depression. Our results suggest that aripiprazole may improve associated comorbid conditions in addition to tics

  6. Aripiprazole Improves Associated Comorbid Conditions in Addition to Tics in Adult Patients with Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Gerasch, Sarah; Kanaan, Ahmad Seif; Jakubovski, Ewgeni; Müller-Vahl, Kirsten R.

    2016-01-01

    Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome (GTS) is characterized by motor and vocal tics, as well as associated comorbid conditions including obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), depression, and anxiety which are present in a substantial number of patients. Although randomized controlled trials including a large number of patients are still missing, aripiprazole is currently considered as a first choice drug for the treatment of tics. The aim of this study was to further investigate efficacy and safety of aripiprazole in a group of drug-free, adult patients. Specifically, we investigated the influence of aripiprazole on tic severity, comorbidities, premonitory urge (PU), and quality of life (QoL). Moreover, we were interested in the factors that influence a patient's decision in electing for-or against- pharmacological treatment. In this prospective uncontrolled open-label study, we included 44 patients and used a number of rating scales to assess tic severity, PU, comorbidities, and QoL at baseline and during treatment with aripiprazole. Eighteen out of fortyfour patients decided for undergoing treatment for their tics with aripiprazole and completed follow-up assessments after 4–6 weeks. Our major findings were (1) aripiprazole resulted in significant reduction of tics, but did not affect PU; (2) aripiprazole significantly improved OCD and showed a trend toward improvement of other comorbidities including depression, anxiety, and ADHD; (3) neither severity of tics, nor PU or QoL influenced patients' decisions for or against treatment of tics with aripiprazole; instead patients with comorbid OCD tended to decide in favor of, while patients with comorbid ADHD tended to decide against tic treatment; (4) most frequently reported adverse effects were sleeping problems; (5) patients' QoL was mostly impaired by comorbid depression. Our results suggest that aripiprazole may improve associated comorbid conditions in addition to tics

  7. Flue gas conditioning for improved particle collection in electrostatic precipitators. First topical report, Results of laboratory screening of additives

    SciTech Connect

    Durham, M.D.

    1993-04-16

    Several tasks have been completed in a program to evaluate additives to improve fine particle collection in electrostatic precipitators. Screening tests and laboratory evaluations of additives are summarized in this report. Over 20 additives were evaluated; four were found to improve flyash precipitation rates. The Insitec particle analyzer was also evaluated; test results show that the analyzer will provide accurate sizing and counting information for particles in the size range of {le} 10 {mu}m dia.

  8. Improved microstructure of cement-based composites through the addition of rock wool particles

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Wei-Ting; Cheng, An; Huang, Ran; Zou, Si-Yu

    2013-10-15

    Rock wool is an inorganic fibrous substance produced by steam blasting and cooling molten glass. As with other industrial by-products, rock wool particles can be used as cementitious materials or ultra fine fillers in cement-based composites. This study investigated the microstructure of mortar specimens produced with cement-based composites that include various forms of rock wool particles. It conducted compressive strength testing, rapid chloride penetration tests, X-ray diffraction analysis, thermo-gravimetric analysis, and scanning electronic microscopy to evaluate the macro- and micro-properties of the cement-based composites. Test results indicate that inclusion of rock wool particles in composites improved compressive strength and reduced chloride ion penetration at the age of 91 days due to the reduction of calcium hydroxide content. Microscopic analysis confirms that the use of rock wool particles contributed to the formation of a denser, more compact microstructure within the hardened paste. In addition, X-ray diffraction analysis shows few changes in formation of pozzolanic reaction products and no new hydrations are formed with incorporating rock wool particles. - Highlights: • We report the microstructural characterization of cement-based composites. • Different mixes produced with various rock wool particles have been tested. • The influence of different mixes on macro and micro properties has been discussed. • The macro properties are included compressive strength and permeability. • XRD and SEM observations confirm the pozzolanic reaction in the resulting pastes.

  9. Additions and Improvements to the FLASH Code for Simulating High Energy Density Physics Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamb, D. Q.; Daley, C.; Dubey, A.; Fatenejad, M.; Flocke, N.; Graziani, C.; Lee, D.; Tzeferacos, P.; Weide, K.

    2015-11-01

    FLASH is an open source, finite-volume Eulerian, spatially adaptive radiation hydrodynamics and magnetohydrodynamics code that incorporates capabilities for a broad range of physical processes, performs well on a wide range of computer architectures, and has a broad user base. Extensive capabilities have been added to FLASH to make it an open toolset for the academic high energy density physics (HEDP) community. We summarize these capabilities, with particular emphasis on recent additions and improvements. These include advancements in the optical ray tracing laser package, with methods such as bi-cubic 2D and tri-cubic 3D interpolation of electron number density, adaptive stepping and 2nd-, 3rd-, and 4th-order Runge-Kutta integration methods. Moreover, we showcase the simulated magnetic field diagnostic capabilities of the code, including induction coils, Faraday rotation, and proton radiography. We also describe several collaborations with the National Laboratories and the academic community in which FLASH has been used to simulate HEDP experiments. This work was supported in part at the University of Chicago by the DOE NNSA ASC through the Argonne Institute for Computing in Science under field work proposal 57789; and the NSF under grant PHY-0903997.

  10. Improvement of Gd123 superconductor bulks with the additions of BaFe12O19

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yufeng; Peng, Liqi; Zhou, Wenli; Zhou, Xiaojuan; Jia, Lingling; Izumi, Mitsuru

    2015-07-01

    The flux pinning performance of the superconductors is important for the application of the Gd123 bulk superconductors. The study shows that to introduce the secondary phases into the Gd123 bulk matrix can enhance the flux pinning performance. In this article, by using top-seeding melt texture growth process method, single domain GdBa2Cu3O7-δ superconductor bulks doping with the different amounts of BaFe12O19 (0.0mol% to 0.8mol%) were successfully achieved. The property and micro-structure have also been investigated. The result shows that there is an obvious improvement on JC with 0.2mol% BaFe12O19 addition. The fine distribution and smaller size of Gd211 particles appear in the micro-structure which may result in the enhancement of JC. At the same time, BaFe12O19 may also form an effective pinning center to increase JC.

  11. Addition of a monovalent cationic pesticide to improve efficacy of bipyridyl herbicides in Hulah Valley soils.

    PubMed

    Rytwo, Giora; Tavasi, Mordechai

    2003-11-01

    Bipyridyl herbicides are widely used in agriculture and gardening for non-selective weed control. Since they are toxic and relatively expensive, it is ecologically and economically desirable to reduce the amounts applied. A decrease in efficacy of these herbicides is caused by dust accumulated on leaves of weeds. This inactivation arises from the adsorption of the herbicides on dust particles, mainly made of clay minerals, lime and soil organic matter. In order to improve the efficacy and so lower the amounts applied, formulations were developed which include cationic pesticides approved for agricultural use, such as mepiquat or difenzoquat. Such addition restored the efficacy of the bipyridyl herbicides by reducing their binding to dust particles. The proposed formulations, which were tested on a number of different dust-covered plants, allowed the amounts of herbicide applied to be reduced to 50% of the minimum recommended rate. Neither mepiquat or difenzoquat had any herbicidal activity when sprayed alone at the added rates. The results suggest a procedure that may lower the required rates of contact herbicides, reducing costs and toxicity. This procedure, which can be applied immediately, may have broad implications in farming and gardening. PMID:14620056

  12. Can Vitamin D Supplementation in Addition to Asthma Controllers Improve Clinical Outcomes in Patients With Asthma?

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Jian; Liu, Dan; Liu, Chun-Tao

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Effects of vitamin D on acute exacerbation, lung function, and fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) in patients with asthma are controversial. We aim to further evaluate the roles of vitamin D supplementation in addition to asthma controllers in asthmatics. From 1946 to July 2015, we searched the PubMed, Embase, Medline, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and ISI Web of Science using “Vitamin D,” “Vit D,” or “VitD” and “asthma,” and manually reviewed the references listed in the identified articles. Randomized controlled trials which reported rate of asthma exacerbations and adverse events, forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1, % of predicted value), FeNO, asthma control test (ACT), and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were eligible. We conducted the heterogeneities test and sensitivity analysis of the enrolled studies, and random-effects or fixed-effects model was applied to calculate risk ratio (RR) and mean difference for dichotomous and continuous data, respectively. Cochrane systematic review software Review Manager (RevMan) was used to test the hypothesis by Mann–Whitney U test, which were displayed in Forest plots. Seven trials with a total of 903 patients with asthma were pooled in our final studies. Except for asthma exacerbations (I2 = 81%, χ2 = 10.28, P = 0.006), we did not find statistical heterogeneity in outcome measures. The pooled RR of asthma exacerbation was 0.66 (95% confidence interval: 0.32–1.37), but without significant difference (z = 1.12, P = 0.26), neither was in FEV1 (z = 0.30, P = 0.77), FeNO (z = 0.28, P = 0.78), or ACT (z = 0.92, P = 0.36), although serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D was significantly increased (z = 6.16, P < 0.001). Vitamin D supplementation in addition to asthma controllers cannot decrease asthma exacerbation and FeNO, nor improve lung function and asthma symptoms, although it can be safely applied to increase serum 25

  13. Synthesis of substantially monodispersed colloids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klabunde, Kenneth J. (Inventor); Stoeva, Savka (Inventor); Sorensen, Christopher (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A method of forming ligated nanoparticles of the formula Y(Z).sub.x where Y is a nanoparticle selected from the group consisting of elemental metals having atomic numbers ranging from 21-34, 39-52, 57-83 and 89-102, all inclusive, the halides, oxides and sulfides of such metals, and the alkali metal and alkaline earth metal halides, and Z represents ligand moieties such as the alkyl thiols. In the method, a first colloidal dispersion is formed made up of nanoparticles solvated in a molar excess of a first solvent (preferably a ketone such as acetone), a second solvent different than the first solvent (preferably an organic aryl solvent such as toluene) and a quantity of ligand moieties; the first solvent is then removed under vacuum and the ligand moieties ligate to the nanoparticles to give a second colloidal dispersion of the ligated nanoparticles solvated in the second solvent. If substantially monodispersed nanoparticles are desired, the second dispersion is subjected to a digestive ripening process. Upon drying, the ligated nanoparticles may form a three-dimensional superlattice structure.

  14. Addition of meloxicam to the treatment of clinical mastitis improves subsequent reproductive performance.

    PubMed

    McDougall, S; Abbeloos, E; Piepers, S; Rao, A S; Astiz, S; van Werven, T; Statham, J; Pérez-Villalobos, N

    2016-03-01

    A blinded, negative controlled, randomized intervention study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that addition of meloxicam, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, to antimicrobial treatment of mild to moderate clinical mastitis would improve fertility and reduce the risk of removal from the herd. Cows (n=509) from 61 herds in 8 regions (sites) in 6 European countries were enrolled. Following herd-owner diagnosis of mild to moderate clinical mastitis within the first 120 d of lactation in a single gland, the rectal temperature, milk appearance, and California Mastitis Test score were assessed. Cows were randomly assigned within each site to be treated either with meloxicam or a placebo (control). All cows were additionally treated with 1 to 4 intramammary infusions of cephalexin and kanamycin at 24-h intervals. Prior to treatment and at 14 and 21 d posttreatment, milk samples were collected for bacteriology and somatic cell count. Cows were bred by artificial insemination and pregnancy status was subsequently defined. General estimating equations were used to determine the effect of treatment (meloxicam versus control) on bacteriological cure, somatic cell count, the probability of being inseminated by 21 d after the voluntary waiting period, the probability of conception to first artificial insemination, the number of artificial insemination/conception, the probability of pregnancy by 120 or 200 d postcalving, and the risk of removal by 300 d after treatment. Cox's proportional hazards models were used to test the effect of treatment on the calving to first insemination and calving to conception intervals. Groups did not differ in terms of age, clot score, California Mastitis Test score, rectal temperature, number of antimicrobial treatments given or bacteria present at the time of enrollment, but cows treated with meloxicam had greater days in milk at enrollment. Cows treated with meloxicam had a higher bacteriological cure proportion than those treated with

  15. Addition of meloxicam to the treatment of clinical mastitis improves subsequent reproductive performance.

    PubMed

    McDougall, S; Abbeloos, E; Piepers, S; Rao, A S; Astiz, S; van Werven, T; Statham, J; Pérez-Villalobos, N

    2016-03-01

    A blinded, negative controlled, randomized intervention study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that addition of meloxicam, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, to antimicrobial treatment of mild to moderate clinical mastitis would improve fertility and reduce the risk of removal from the herd. Cows (n=509) from 61 herds in 8 regions (sites) in 6 European countries were enrolled. Following herd-owner diagnosis of mild to moderate clinical mastitis within the first 120 d of lactation in a single gland, the rectal temperature, milk appearance, and California Mastitis Test score were assessed. Cows were randomly assigned within each site to be treated either with meloxicam or a placebo (control). All cows were additionally treated with 1 to 4 intramammary infusions of cephalexin and kanamycin at 24-h intervals. Prior to treatment and at 14 and 21 d posttreatment, milk samples were collected for bacteriology and somatic cell count. Cows were bred by artificial insemination and pregnancy status was subsequently defined. General estimating equations were used to determine the effect of treatment (meloxicam versus control) on bacteriological cure, somatic cell count, the probability of being inseminated by 21 d after the voluntary waiting period, the probability of conception to first artificial insemination, the number of artificial insemination/conception, the probability of pregnancy by 120 or 200 d postcalving, and the risk of removal by 300 d after treatment. Cox's proportional hazards models were used to test the effect of treatment on the calving to first insemination and calving to conception intervals. Groups did not differ in terms of age, clot score, California Mastitis Test score, rectal temperature, number of antimicrobial treatments given or bacteria present at the time of enrollment, but cows treated with meloxicam had greater days in milk at enrollment. Cows treated with meloxicam had a higher bacteriological cure proportion than those treated with

  16. Tank mixture additives approach to improve efficiency of bentazon against broadleaf weeds in peas.

    PubMed

    Balah, Mohamed A; Hanafi, Ahmad; Ghani, Sherif B Abdel

    2012-01-01

    Efficiency of different tank-mixed additives with bentazon at half rate was investigated on (Malva parviflora) and other broad leaf weeds compared with bentazon at the full recommended rate without additives in peas in open field. All the tested additives enhanced the efficiency of bentazon at the half rate. Nonyl phenol and toximol S proved to be the most effective additives in comparison with the full rate treatment. The tested treatments did not show any significant effect on chlorophyll content and soil microorganisms. Bentazon residues were determined in certain treatments to investigate the effect of the tested additives on bentazon deposition. Samples were extracted using QuEChERS method and residues were determined using LC-MS/MS. Residues after 24 hours in the half rate treatment reached 4 times lower than the Maximum Residues Limit (MRL) (0.11 mg kg(-1)), compared to the full rate treatment (0.51 mg kg(-1)), that was slightly above the MRL.

  17. Process for improving mechanical properties of epoxy resins by addition of cobalt ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoakley, D. M.; St.clair, A. K. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A resin product useful as an adhesive, composite or casting resin is described as well as the process used in its preparation to improve its flexural strength mechanical property characteristics. Improved flexural strength is attained with little or no change in density, thermal stability or moisture resistance by chemically incorporating 1.2% to 10.6% by weight Co(3) ions in an epoxidized resin system.

  18. Improved Synthesis of and Nucleophilic Addition to 2-Formyl-2-Cyclohexenone

    PubMed Central

    Adary, Elan M.; Chang, Chih-wei; Auria, Damian T. D’; Nguyen, Phuc M.; Polewacz, Klaudyna; Reinicke, Justin A.; Seo, Hannah; Berger, Gideon O.

    2014-01-01

    A preparation of 2-formyl-2-cyclohexenone in nearly quantitative yield and purity of approximately 95% is described. It is scalable and has been extended to the synthesis of the 5- and 7-membered ring homologs with comparable yields. Conditions have also been developed for the successful conjugate addition of dimethylmalonate to 2-formyl-2-cyclohexenone, in good and scalable yield (60%). This result has been extended to 5 other nucleophile classes, and the dimethylmalonate conjugate addition has been demonstrated with 2-formyl-2-cyclopentenone and 2-formyl-2-cycloheptenone. PMID:25593375

  19. Improvement in topology measurement accuracy of atomic force microscope using additional sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Yeomin; Jeong, Jiseong; Kim, Junsup; Park, Kyihwan

    2015-07-01

    The topology image of an atomic force microscope is obtained by picking up a controlled output of a force-feedback loop that is proportional to the height of a sample under the assumption that no dynamics in a z-axis actuator exist. However, the dynamic effects such as hysteresis and creep in a PZT driving z-axis actuator cannot be ignored. To solve this problem, a strain-gage sensor is used as an additional sensor, which enables measurement of the absolute displacement of a z-axis PZT nano scanner. The advantage of using an additional sensor is experimentally provided and validated in topology images.

  20. Yield Improvement and Energy Savings Uing Phosphonates as Additives in Kraft pulping

    SciTech Connect

    Ulrike W. Tschirner; Timothy Smith

    2007-03-31

    Project Objective: Develop a commercially viable modification to the Kraft process resulting in energy savings, increased yield and improved bleachability. Evaluate the feasibility of this technology across a spectrum of wood species used in North America. Develop detailed fundamental understanding of the mechanism by which phosphonates improve KAPPA number and yield. Evaluate the North American market potential for the use of phosphonates in the Kraft pulping process. Examine determinants of customer perceived value and explore organizational and operational factors influencing attitudes and behaviors. Provide an economic feasibility assessment for the supply chain, both suppliers (chemical supply companies) and buyers (Kraft mills). Provide background to most effectively transfer this new technology to commercial mills.

  1. Addition of glucose oxidase for the improvement of refrigerated dough quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Refrigerated dough encompasses a wide range of products and is a very popular choice for consumers. Two of the largest problems that occur during refrigerated dough storage are dough syruping and loss of dough strength. The goal of this study was to evaluate glucose oxidase as an additive to refri...

  2. Lewis base additives improve the zeolite ferrierite-catalyzed synthesis of isostearic acid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Isostearic acid (IA) is of interest for industrial purposes especially in the area of biolubricants, such as cosmetics and slip additives for polyolefin and related copolymer films. This study was designed to develop a zeolitic catalysis process for IA production through isomerization of fatty aci...

  3. Improving Student Understanding of Addition of Angular Momentum in Quantum Mechanics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Guangtian; Singh, Chandralekha

    2013-01-01

    We describe the difficulties advanced undergraduate and graduate students have with concepts related to addition of angular momentum in quantum mechanics. We also describe the development and implementation of a research-based learning tool, Quantum Interactive Learning Tutorial (QuILT), to reduce these difficulties. The preliminary evaluation…

  4. Low-cost additive improved silage quality and anaerobic digestion performance of napiergrass.

    PubMed

    Lianhua, Li; Feng, Zhen; Yongming, Sun; Zhenhong, Yuan; Xiaoying, Kong; Xianyou, Zhou; Hongzhi, Niu

    2014-12-01

    Effects of molasses-alcoholic wastewater on the ensiling quality of napiergrass were investigated at ambient temperature, and its anaerobic digestion performance was assessed at mesophilic temperature. Results showed that the molasses-alcoholic wastewater had positive effect on silage quality and anaerobic digestion performance. Lower pH values of 5.20-5.28, lower NH3-N contents of 32.65-36.60 g/kg and higher lactic acid contents of 56-61 mg/kg FM were obtained for the silage samples with molasses-alcoholic wastewater addition. Higher specific biogas yield of 273 mL/g VS was obtained for the sample with 11% molasses-alcoholic wastewater added. Therefore 11% molasses-alcoholic wastewater addition was recommended.

  5. Modification of silicone sealant to improve gamma radiation resistance, by addition of protective agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Pérez, Giovanni; Burillo, Guillermina

    2013-09-01

    Poly (dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) sealant (SS) was modified with the addition of different protective compounds to conserve its physical-chemical properties during gamma irradiation. 2-Vinyl naphthalene (2-VN), bisphenol-A (BPA) and poly (vinyl carbazole) (PVK) were used to evaluate radiation protection through the crosslinking effect of radiation. The samples were irradiated with doses from 100 kGy to 500 kGy at room temperature in air, with a 60Co gamma source, and the changes in molecular weight, thermal behavior, elastic properties and infrared spectra (FTIR-ATR) absorbance analysis were determined. The molecular weight of unmodified silicone sealant increases with the absorbed dose because of crosslinking as predominant effect. However, the crosslinking effect was inhibited with the addition of protective agent due to the aromatic compounds present. Modified silicone sealant films present better radiation resistance than unmodified system.

  6. Addition of feruloyl esterase and xylanase produced on-site improves sugarcane bagasse hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Braga, Cleiton Márcio Pinto; Delabona, Priscila da Silva; Lima, Deise Juliana da Silva; Paixão, Douglas Antônio Alvaredo; Pradella, José Geraldo da Cruz; Farinas, Cristiane Sanchez

    2014-10-01

    Accessory enzymes that assist biomass degradation could be used to improve the recovery of fermentable sugar for use in biorefineries. In this study, different fungal strains isolated from the Amazon rainforest were evaluated in terms of their ability to produce feruloyl esterase (FAE) and xylanase enzymes, and an assessment was made of the contributions of the enzymes in the hydrolysis of pretreated sugarcane bagasse. In the selection step, screening using plate assays was followed by shake flask submerged cultivations. After carbon source selection and cultivation in a stirred-tank bioreactor, Aspergillusoryzae P21C3 proved to be a promising strain for production of the enzymes. Supplementation of a commercial enzyme preparation with 30% (v/v) crude enzymatic complex from A. oryzae P21C3 increased the conversion of cellulose derived from pretreated sugarcane bagasse by 36%. Supplementation with FAE and xylanase enzymes produced on-site can therefore be used to improve the hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse.

  7. Improvement of the superconducting properties of polycrystalline FeSe by silver addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazarova, E.; Balchev, N.; Nenkov, K.; Buchkov, K.; Kovacheva, D.; Zahariev, A.; Fuchs, G.

    2015-12-01

    We investigated the influence of different Ag additions (up to 10 wt%) on the superconducting properties of FeSe0.94. The structural investigations (XRD and SEM) indicated that Ag is present in three different forms. Ag at grain boundaries supports the excellent intergrain connections and reduces ΔT to values smaller than 1 K at B = 0 and ΔT ≤ 2.74 K at B = 14 T. Ag insertion in the crystal lattice unit cell provides additional carriers and changes the electron-hole imbalance in FeSe0.94. This results in an increase in the magnetoresistive effect (MR) and critical temperature (T c). Reacted Ag forms a small amount (˜1%) of Ag2Se impurity phase, which may increase the pinning energy in comparison with that of the undoped sample. The enhanced upper critical field (B c2) is also a result of the increased impurity scattering. Thus, unlike cuprates, Ag addition enhances the T c, B c2, pinning energy and MR making the properties of polycrystalline FeSe0.94 similar to those of single crystals.

  8. Improving sulfolane-based electrolyte for high voltage Li-ion cells with electrolyte additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Jian; Dahn, J. R.

    2016-08-01

    An electrolyte mixture containing 1 M LiPF6 in sulfolane:ethylmethyl carbonate 3:7 with vinylene carbonate and other electrolyte additives exhibited promising cycling and storage performance in high voltage Li(Ni0·4Mn0·4Co0.2)O2/graphite pouch type Li-ion cells tested to 4.5 V. Voltage drop during storage, coulombic efficiency, charge endpoint capacity slippage during ultra high precision cycling, charge-transfer resistance after storage or cycling, gas evolution during storage and cycling as well as capacity retention during long-term cycling were examined. The results for cells with sulfolane-based electrolytes were compared with those for cells with ethylene carbonate-based electrolytes containing state-of-the-art electrolyte additives. This survey showed that the combination of vinylene carbonate and triallyl phosphate as electrolyte additives in sulfolane:ethylmethyl carbonate electrolyte yielded cells capable of better performance during tests to 4.5 V than cells with ethylene carbonate-based electrolytes. These results suggest that sulfolane-based electrolytes may be promising for high voltage Li-ion cells.

  9. Improving sulfolane-based electrolyte for high voltage Li-ion cells with electrolyte additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Jian; Dahn, J. R.

    2016-08-01

    An electrolyte mixture containing 1 M LiPF6 in sulfolane:ethylmethyl carbonate 3:7 with vinylene carbonate and other electrolyte additives exhibited promising cycling and storage performance in high voltage Li(Ni0·4Mn0·4Co0.2)O2/graphite pouch type Li-ion cells tested to 4.5 V. Voltage drop during storage, coulombic efficiency, charge endpoint capacity slippage during ultra high precision cycling, charge-transfer resistance after storage or cycling, gas evolution during storage and cycling as well as capacity retention during long-term cycling were examined. The results for cells with sulfolane-based electrolytes were compared with those for cells with ethylene carbonate-based electrolytes containing state-of-the-art electrolyte additives. This survey showed that the combination of vinylene carbonate and triallyl phosphate as electrolyte additives in sulfolane:ethylmethyl carbonate electrolyte yielded cells capable of better performance during tests to 4.5 V than cells with ethylene carbonate-based electrolytes. These results suggest that sulfolane-based electrolytes may be promising for high voltage Li-ion cells.

  10. Improvement of the quality of wheat bread by addition of glycoside hydrolase family 10 xylanases.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Han; Guo, Bing; Chen, Xiu-Lan; Fan, Sou-Jin; Zhang, Yu-Zhong

    2011-04-01

    Although many xylanases are widely used in the baking industry, only one glycoside hydrolase family 10 (GH 10) xylanase has previously been reported to be effective in baking. In this study, we compared the effectiveness of two GH 10 xylanases, psychrophilic XynA from Glaciecola mesophila and mesophilic EX1 from Trichoderma pseudokoningii, in bread making. The optimal dosages needed to improve wheat flour dough and bread quality were 270-U/kg flour for EX1 and 0.9-U/kg flour for XynA. At their optimal dosage, both XynA and EX1 had significant dough-softening ability, resulting in a 50% reduction in Brabender units. XynA was more effective than EX1 in reducing the time to reach maximum consistency. XynA and EX1 showed similar effects in improving the bread volume (~30% increase). EX1 was more effective in reducing the initial crumb firmness. Although both enzymes exhibited similar anti-staling effects on the bread, based on a decrease in the bread firmness, XynA had a greater effect on reducing the firming rate, and EX1 showed an enhanced reduction in the initial firmness. These results show that these two GH 10 xylanases have unique advantages in improving dough and bread quality and indicate their potential in bread making.

  11. Post Processing Methods used to Improve Surface Finish of Products which are Manufactured by Additive Manufacturing Technologies: A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumbhar, N. N.; Mulay, A. V.

    2016-08-01

    The Additive Manufacturing (AM) processes open the possibility to go directly from Computer-Aided Design (CAD) to a physical prototype. These prototypes are used as test models before it is finalized as well as sometimes as a final product. Additive Manufacturing has many advantages over the traditional process used to develop a product such as allowing early customer involvement in product development, complex shape generation and also save time as well as money. Additive manufacturing also possess some special challenges that are usually worth overcoming such as Poor Surface quality, Physical Properties and use of specific raw material for manufacturing. To improve the surface quality several attempts had been made by controlling various process parameters of Additive manufacturing and also applying different post processing techniques on components manufactured by Additive manufacturing. The main objective of this work is to document an extensive literature review in the general area of post processing techniques which are used in Additive manufacturing.

  12. γ-Tocopherol-rich supplementation additively improves vascular endothelial function during smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Mah, Eunice; Pei, Ruisong; Guo, Yi; Ballard, Kevin D; Barker, Tyler; Rogers, Victoria E; Parker, Beth A; Taylor, Alan W; Traber, Maret G; Volek, Jeff S; Bruno, Richard S

    2013-12-01

    Oxidative stress and inflammation persist years after smoking cessation thereby limiting the restoration of vascular endothelial function (VEF). Although short-term smoking cessation improves VEF, no studies have examined co-therapy of antioxidants in combination with smoking cessation to improve VEF. We hypothesized that improvements in γ-tocopherol (γ-T) status during smoking cessation would improve VEF beyond that from smoking cessation alone by decreasing oxidative stress and proinflammatory responses. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted in otherwise healthy smokers (22 ± 1 years; mean ± SEM) who quit smoking for 7 days with placebo (n=14) or γ-T-rich supplementation (n=16; 500 mg γ-T/day). Brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD), cotinine, and biomarkers of antioxidant status, oxidative stress, and inflammation were measured before and after 7 days of smoking cessation. Smoking cessation regardless of supplementation similarly decreased plasma cotinine, whereas γ-T-rich supplementation increased plasma γ-T by seven times and its urinary metabolite γ-carboxyethyl hydroxychroman by nine times (P<0.05). Smoking cessation with γ-T-rich supplementation increased FMD responses by 1.3% (P<0.05) beyond smoking cessation alone (4.1 ± 0.6% vs 2.8 ± 0.3%; mean ± SEM). Although plasma malondialdehyde decreased similarly in both groups (P<0.05), plasma oxidized LDL and urinary F2-isoprostanes were unaffected by smoking cessation or γ-T-rich supplementation. Plasma TNF-α and myeloperoxidase decreased (P<0.05) only in those receiving γ-T-rich supplements and these were inversely related to FMD (P<0.05; R=-0.46 and -0.37, respectively). These findings demonstrate that short-term γ-T-rich supplementation in combination with smoking cessation improved VEF beyond that from smoking cessation alone in young smokers, probably by decreasing the proinflammatory mediators TNF-α and myeloperoxidase.

  13. An Additive to Improve the Wear Characteristics of Perfluoropolyether Based Greases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, David G. V.; Fowzy, Mahmoud A.; Landry, James F.; Jones, William R., Jr.; Shogrin, Bradley A.; Nguyen, QuynhGiao

    1999-01-01

    The friction and wear characteristics of two formulated perfluoropolyether based greases were compared to their non-additive base greases. One grease was developed for the electronics industry (designated as GXL-296A) while the other is for space applications (designated as GXL-320A). The formulated greases (GXL-296B and GXL-320B) contained a proprietary antiwear additive at an optimized concentration. Tests were conducted using a vacuum four-ball tribometer. AISI 52100 steel specimens were used for all GXL-296 tests. Both AISI 52100 steel and 440C stainless steel were tested with the GXL-320 greases. Test conditions included: a pressure less than 6.7 x 10(exp )-4 Pa, a 200N load, a sliding velocity of 28.8 mm/sec (100 rpm) and room temperature (approximately equal to 23 C). Wear rates for each grease were determined from the slope of the wear volume as a function of sliding distance. Both non-additive base greases yielded relatively high wear rates on the order of 10(exp -8) cu mm using AISI 52100 steel specimens. Formulated grease GXL-296B yielded a reduction in wear rate by a factor of approximately 21, while grease GXL-320B had a reduction of approximately 12 times. Lower wear rates (-50%) were observed with both GXL-320 greases using 440C stainless steel. Mean friction coefficients were slightly higher for both formulated greases compared to their base greases. The GXL-296 series (higher base oil viscosity) yielded much higher friction coefficients compared to their GXL-320 series (lower base oil viscosity) counterparts.

  14. Improved Li/TiS2 cell cycling in ether-based electrolytes with synergistic additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominey, L. A.; Goldman, J. L.; Koch, V. R.; Shen, D.; Subbarao, S.; Huang, C.-K.; Halpert, G.; Deligiannis, F.

    1991-01-01

    Based on an extensive series of normalized full cell Li/TiS2 cycling studies, open-circuit storage tests, microcalorimetry and AC impedance studies, and chemical precedent, we propose an integrated chemical model consistent with experimental observations concerning the behavior of numerous LiAsF6/cyclic ether electrolytes. The particularly striking potency of certain additives such as 2-methylfuran and the hydroxide action resides in their ability to intercept several different adverse catalytic processes concurrently in the bulk electrolyte as well as the Li anode and TiS2 cathode.

  15. Improvement of pattern collapse issue by additive-added D.I. water rinse process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Keiichi; Naito, Ryoichiro; Kitada, Tomohiro; Kiba, Yukio; Yamada, Yoshiaki; Kobayashi, Masakazu; Ichikawa, Hiroyuki

    2003-06-01

    Reduction of critical dimension in lithography technology is aggressively promoted. At the same time, further resist thickness reduction is being pursued to increase the resolution capabilities of resist. However, thin film has its limitation because of etch requirements etc. As that result, the promotion of reduction results in increasing the aspect ratio, which leads to pattern collapse. It is well known that at drying step in developing process the capillary effect operates the photoresist pattern. If the force of the capillary effect is greater than the aggregation force of the resist pattern, the pattern collapse is generated. And the key parameters of the capillary effect are the space width between patterns, the aspect ratio, the contact angle of the D.I water rinse and the surface tension of rinse solution. Among these parameters the surface tension of rinse solution can be controlled by us. On the other hand, we've already reported that the penetration of TMAH and D.I water into the resist plays an important role on the lithographic latitude. For example, when we use the resist which TMA ion can be easily diffuse into, D.I water and TMA ion which are penetrated in the resist decreases the aggregation force of resist pattern and causes the pattern collapse even by the weak force against resist pattern. These results indicate that the swelling of photoresist by TMA ion and water is very important factor for controlling the pattern collapse. Currently, two methods are mainly tried to reduce the surface tension of rinse solution: SCF (Super Critical Fluid) and addition of additive to D.I water rinse. We used the latter method this time, because this technique has retrofittability and not special tool. And in this evaluation, we found that the degree of suppressing pattern collapse depends on the additive chemistry or formulation. With consideration given to process factors such as above, we investigated what factors contribute to suppressing pattern collapse

  16. Evaluation Of Electrochemical Machining Technology For Surface Improvements In Additive Manufactured Components

    SciTech Connect

    Dehoff, Ryan R.; List, III, Frederick Alyious; Carver, Keith

    2015-09-23

    ORNL Manufacturing Demonstration Facility worked with ECM Technologies LLC to investigate the use of precision electro-chemical machining technology to polish the surface of parts created by Arcam electron beam melting. The goals for phase one of this project have been met. The project goal was to determine whether electro-chemical machining is a viable method to improve the surface finish of Inconel 718 parts fabricated using the Arcam EBM method. The project partner (ECM) demonstrated viability for parts of both simple and complex geometry. During the course of the project, detailed process knowledge was generated. This project has resulted in the expansion of United States operations for ECM Technologies.

  17. Integrated reservoir characterization: Improvement in heterogeneities stochastic modelling by integration of additional external constraints

    SciTech Connect

    Doligez, B.; Eschard, R.; Geffroy, F.

    1997-08-01

    The classical approach to construct reservoir models is to start with a fine scale geological model which is informed with petrophysical properties. Then scaling-up techniques allow to obtain a reservoir model which is compatible with the fluid flow simulators. Geostatistical modelling techniques are widely used to build the geological models before scaling-up. These methods provide equiprobable images of the area under investigation, which honor the well data, and which variability is the same than the variability computed from the data. At an appraisal phase, when few data are available, or when the wells are insufficient to describe all the heterogeneities and the behavior of the field, additional constraints are needed to obtain a more realistic geological model. For example, seismic data or stratigraphic models can provide average reservoir information with an excellent areal coverage, but with a poor vertical resolution. New advances in modelisation techniques allow now to integrate this type of additional external information in order to constrain the simulations. In particular, 2D or 3D seismic derived information grids, or sand-shale ratios maps coming from stratigraphic models can be used as external drifts to compute the geological image of the reservoir at the fine scale. Examples are presented to illustrate the use of these new tools, their impact on the final reservoir model, and their sensitivity to some key parameters.

  18. Ionic liquids in chromatographic and electrophoretic techniques: toward additional improvements in the separation of natural compounds

    PubMed Central

    Freire, Carmen S. R.; Coutinho, João A. P.; Silvestre, Armando J. D.; Freire, Mara G.

    2016-01-01

    Due to their unique properties, in recent years, ionic liquids (ILs) have been largely investigated in the field of analytical chemistry. Particularly during the last sixteen years, they have been successfully applied in the chromatographic and electrophoretic analysis of value-added compounds extracted from biomass. Considering the growing interest in the use of ILs in this field, this critical review provides a comprehensive overview on the improvements achieved using ILs as constituents of mobile or stationary phases in analytical techniques, namely in capillary electrophoresis and its different modes, in high performance liquid chromatography, and in gas chromatography, for the separation and analysis of natural compounds. The impact of the IL chemical structure and the influence of secondary parameters, such as the IL concentration, temperature, pH, voltage and analysis time (when applied), are also critically addressed regarding the achieved separation improvements. Major conclusions on the role of ILs in the separation mechanisms and the performance of these techniques in terms of efficiency, resolution and selectivity are provided. Based on a critical analysis of all published results, some target-oriented ILs are suggested. Finally, current drawbacks and future challenges in the field are highlighted. In particular, the design and use of more benign and effective ILs as well as the development of integrated (and thus more sustainable) extraction–separation processes using IL aqueous solutions are suggested within a green chemistry perspective. PMID:27667965

  19. Ionic liquids in chromatographic and electrophoretic techniques: toward additional improvements in the separation of natural compounds

    PubMed Central

    Freire, Carmen S. R.; Coutinho, João A. P.; Silvestre, Armando J. D.; Freire, Mara G.

    2016-01-01

    Due to their unique properties, in recent years, ionic liquids (ILs) have been largely investigated in the field of analytical chemistry. Particularly during the last sixteen years, they have been successfully applied in the chromatographic and electrophoretic analysis of value-added compounds extracted from biomass. Considering the growing interest in the use of ILs in this field, this critical review provides a comprehensive overview on the improvements achieved using ILs as constituents of mobile or stationary phases in analytical techniques, namely in capillary electrophoresis and its different modes, in high performance liquid chromatography, and in gas chromatography, for the separation and analysis of natural compounds. The impact of the IL chemical structure and the influence of secondary parameters, such as the IL concentration, temperature, pH, voltage and analysis time (when applied), are also critically addressed regarding the achieved separation improvements. Major conclusions on the role of ILs in the separation mechanisms and the performance of these techniques in terms of efficiency, resolution and selectivity are provided. Based on a critical analysis of all published results, some target-oriented ILs are suggested. Finally, current drawbacks and future challenges in the field are highlighted. In particular, the design and use of more benign and effective ILs as well as the development of integrated (and thus more sustainable) extraction–separation processes using IL aqueous solutions are suggested within a green chemistry perspective.

  20. The addition of high magnifying endoscopy improves rates of high confidence optical diagnosis of colorectal polyps

    PubMed Central

    Iwatate, Mineo; Sano, Yasushi; Hattori, Santa; Sano, Wataru; Hasuike, Noriaki; Ikumoto, Taro; Kotaka, Masahito; Murakami, Yoshitaka; Hewett, David G.; Soetikno, Roy; Kaltenbach, Tonya; Fujimori, Takahiro

    2015-01-01

    Background and study aims: The real-time optical diagnosis of colorectal polyps with high confidence predictions can achieve high levels of accuracy. Increasing the rates of high confidence optical diagnosis can improve the clinical application of real-time optical diagnosis in routine practice. The primary aim of this prospective study was to evaluate whether high magnifying endoscopy improves the rates of high confidence narrow-band imaging (NBI) – based optical diagnosis for differentiating between neoplastic and non-neoplastic colorectal lesions according to the NBI international colorectal endoscopic (NICE) classification. Patients and methods: Consecutive adult patients undergoing colonoscopy with a high magnifying (maximum, × 80) colonoscope between April and August 2012 were recruited. The optical diagnosis for each polyp was evaluated during colonoscopy in two consecutive stages by the same endoscopist, who first used NBI with non-magnifying endoscopy (NBI-NME), then NBI with magnifying endoscopy (NBI-ME). A level of confidence was assigned to each prediction. Results: The analysis included 124 patients (mean age, 56.4 years; male-to-female ratio, 72:52) with 248 polyps smaller than 10 mm. Of the 248 polyps, 210 were 1 to 5 mm in size and 38 were 6 to 9 mm in size; 77 polyps were hyperplastic, 4 were sessile serrated adenomas/polyps, 160 were low grade adenomas, 5 were high grade adenomas, and 2 were deep submucosal invasive carcinomas. The rate of high confidence optical diagnosis when NBI-ME was used was significantly higher than the rate when NBI-NME was used for diminutive (1 – 5 mm) polyps (92.9 % vs 79.5 %, P < 0.001) and for small (6 – 9 mm) polyps (94.7 % vs 84.2 %, P = 0.048). Conclusion: High magnifying endoscopy significantly improved the rates of high confidence NBI-based optical diagnosis of diminutive and small colorectal polyps. Study registration: UMIN 000007608 PMID:26135657

  1. Addition of Selenium Nanoparticles to Electrospun Silk Scaffold Improves the Mammalian Cell Activity While Reducing Bacterial Growth.

    PubMed

    Chung, Stanley; Ercan, Batur; Roy, Amit K; Webster, Thomas J

    2016-01-01

    Silk possesses many beneficial wound healing properties, and electrospun scaffolds are especially applicable for skin applications, due to their smaller interstices and higher surface areas. However, purified silk promotes microbial growth. Selenium nanoparticles have shown excellent antibacterial properties and are a novel antimicrobial chemistry. Here, electrospun silk scaffolds were doped with selenium nanoparticles to impart antibacterial properties to the silk scaffolds. Results showed significantly improved bacterial inhibition and mild improvement in human dermal fibroblast metabolic activity. These results suggest that the addition of selenium nanoparticles to electrospun silk is a promising approach to improve wound healing with reduced infection, without relying on antibiotics. PMID:27471473

  2. Addition of Selenium Nanoparticles to Electrospun Silk Scaffold Improves the Mammalian Cell Activity While Reducing Bacterial Growth

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Stanley; Ercan, Batur; Roy, Amit K.; Webster, Thomas J.

    2016-01-01

    Silk possesses many beneficial wound healing properties, and electrospun scaffolds are especially applicable for skin applications, due to their smaller interstices and higher surface areas. However, purified silk promotes microbial growth. Selenium nanoparticles have shown excellent antibacterial properties and are a novel antimicrobial chemistry. Here, electrospun silk scaffolds were doped with selenium nanoparticles to impart antibacterial properties to the silk scaffolds. Results showed significantly improved bacterial inhibition and mild improvement in human dermal fibroblast metabolic activity. These results suggest that the addition of selenium nanoparticles to electrospun silk is a promising approach to improve wound healing with reduced infection, without relying on antibiotics. PMID:27471473

  3. Color reproductivity improvement with additional virtual color filters for WRGB image sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawada, Shun; Kuroda, Rihito; Sugawa, Shigetoshi

    2013-02-01

    We have developed a high accuracy color reproduction method based on an estimated spectral reflectance of objects using additional virtual color filters for a wide dynamic range WRGB color filter CMOS image sensor. The four virtual color filters are created by multiplying the spectral sensitivity of White pixel by gauss functions which have different central wave length and standard deviation, and the virtual sensor outputs of those virtual filters are estimated from the four real output signals of the WRGB image sensor. The accuracy of color reproduction was evaluated with a Macbeth Color Checker (MCC), and the averaged value of the color difference ΔEab of 24 colors was 1.88 with our approach.

  4. Improved performance of U-Mo dispersion fuel by Si addition in Al matrix.

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Y S; Hofman, G L

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to collect in one publication and fit together work fragments presented in many conferences in the multi-year time span starting 2002 to the present dealing with the problem of large pore formation in U-Mo/Al dispersion fuel plates first observed in 2002. Hence, this report summarizes the excerpts from papers and reports on how we interpreted the relevant results from out-of-pile and in-pile tests and how this problem was dealt with. This report also provides a refined view to explain in detail and in a quantitative manner the underlying mechanism of the role of silicon in improving the irradiation performance of U-Mo/Al.

  5. Addition of Improved Shock-Capturing Schemes to OVERFLOW 2.1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burning, Pieter G.; Nichols, Robert H.; Tramel, Robert W.

    2009-01-01

    Existing approximate Riemann solvers do not perform well when the grid is not aligned with strong shocks in the flow field. Three new approximate Riemann algorithms are investigated to improve solution accuracy and stability in the vicinity of strong shocks. The new algorithms are compared to the existing upwind algorithms in OVERFLOW 2.1. The new algorithms use a multidimensional pressure gradient based switch to transition to a more numerically dissipative algorithm in the vicinity of strong shocks. One new algorithm also attempts to artificially thicken captured shocks in order to alleviate the errors in the solution introduced by "stair-stepping" of the shock resulting from the approximate Riemann solver. This algorithm performed well for all the example cases and produced results that were almost insensitive to the alignment of the grid and the shock.

  6. 29 CFR 1990.145 - Consideration of substantial new issues or substantial new evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... substance any substantial new issues upon which the Secretary did not reach a conclusion in the rulemaking... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Consideration of substantial new issues or substantial new... of substantial new issues or substantial new evidence. (a) Substantial new issues....

  7. 29 CFR 1990.145 - Consideration of substantial new issues or substantial new evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... substance any substantial new issues upon which the Secretary did not reach a conclusion in the rulemaking... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Consideration of substantial new issues or substantial new... of substantial new issues or substantial new evidence. (a) Substantial new issues....

  8. Ethylene copolymer viscosity index improver dispersant additive useful in oil compositions

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, D.Y.

    1989-02-07

    A composition useful as an oil additive is described comprising reaction product of: (i) reaction product of (a) oil soluble ethylene copolymer comprising from about 15 to 90 wt. % ethylene and about 10 to 85 wt. % of at least one C/sub 3/ to C/sub 28/ alpha-olefin, the copolymer having a number average molecular weight within a range of about 10,000 to 500,000, grafted with ethylenically unsaturated carboxylic acid material having 1 to 2 carboxylic acid groups or anhydride group, (b) at least one polyamine selected from the group consisting of poly(alkylene amines) and poly(oxyalkylene amines) having at least two primary amine groups, and (c) at least one carboxylic acid material selected from long chain hydrocarbyl substituted succinic anhydride or acid having about 50 to 400 carbons in the hydrocarbyl; and (ii) a viscosity stabilizing effective amount of at least one C/sub 12/ to about C/sub 16/ aliphatic hydrocarbyl substituted succinic anhydride.

  9. Using porphyritic andesite as a new additive for improving hydrolysis and acidogenesis of solid organic wastes.

    PubMed

    Li, Dawei; Zhou, Tao; Chen, Ling; Jiang, Weizhong; Cheng, Fan; Li, Baoming; Kitamura, Yutaka

    2009-12-01

    The effects of porphyritic andesite on the hydrolysis and acidogenesis of solid organic wastes were investigated by batch and continuous experiments using a rotational drum fermentation system. The results of the batch experiment show that if porphyritic andesite (1%, 3%, and 5% reactants) is added initially, the pH level increases and hydrolysis and acidogenesis are accelerated. The highest surface based hydrolysis constant (26.4x10(-3) kgm(-2) d(-1)) and volatile solid degradation ratio (43.3%) were obtained at a 1% porphyritic andesite addition. In the continuous experiment, porphyritic andesite elevated the first order hydrolysis constant from 13.10x10(-3) d(-1) to 18.82x10(-3) d(-1). A particle mean diameter reduction rate of 33.05 microm/d and a volatile solid degradation rate of 3.53 g/L d(-1) were obtained under the hydraulic retention time of 4, 8, 12 and 16 d.

  10. Natural and synthetic antioxidant additives for improving the performance of new biolubricant formulations.

    PubMed

    Quinchia, Lida A; Delgado, Miguel A; Valencia, Concepción; Franco, José M; Gallegos, Crispulo

    2011-12-28

    Knowledge of the oxidative stability of vegetable oils for lubricant applications is a key point, because vegetable oil oxidation potential is the main disadvantage for its use as a lubricant. Oil degradation after an oxidation process can seriously affect its lubricating function and increase wear. In this work, two different methods for evaluating the oxidation stability of lubricating vegetable oils, the oxidation onset temperature, characterized through DSC measurements (ASTM E 2009-08), and the pressure drop in the oxygen pressure vessel (ASTM D 942-02), have been used. Additionally, thermogravimetric analysis and FTIR studies have also been carried out. High-oleic sunflower (HOSO) and castor (CO) oils were selected and blended with natural ((+)-α-tocopherol (TCP), propyl gallate (PG), l-ascorbic acid 6-palmitate (AP)) or synthetic antioxidants (4,4'-methylenebis(2,6-di-tert-butylphenol) (MBP)), with the aim of formulating biodegradable vegetable-based lubricants according to REACH regulation. (1) The results showed that the most effective biodegradable antioxidant is PG, comparable to MBP, whereas lower effectiveness was obtained for TCP and AP. In relation to the methods tested, DSC measurements achieve accurate data more quickly for evaluating the oxidation stability of these basestocks, showing a linear correlation with the traditional method based on the oxygen bomb test. The empirical equation obtained depends on the mechanism involved in the antioxidant activity.

  11. Using porphyritic andesite as a new additive for improving hydrolysis and acidogenesis of solid organic wastes.

    PubMed

    Li, Dawei; Zhou, Tao; Chen, Ling; Jiang, Weizhong; Cheng, Fan; Li, Baoming; Kitamura, Yutaka

    2009-12-01

    The effects of porphyritic andesite on the hydrolysis and acidogenesis of solid organic wastes were investigated by batch and continuous experiments using a rotational drum fermentation system. The results of the batch experiment show that if porphyritic andesite (1%, 3%, and 5% reactants) is added initially, the pH level increases and hydrolysis and acidogenesis are accelerated. The highest surface based hydrolysis constant (26.4x10(-3) kgm(-2) d(-1)) and volatile solid degradation ratio (43.3%) were obtained at a 1% porphyritic andesite addition. In the continuous experiment, porphyritic andesite elevated the first order hydrolysis constant from 13.10x10(-3) d(-1) to 18.82x10(-3) d(-1). A particle mean diameter reduction rate of 33.05 microm/d and a volatile solid degradation rate of 3.53 g/L d(-1) were obtained under the hydraulic retention time of 4, 8, 12 and 16 d. PMID:19560914

  12. Natural additives to preserve quality and improve nutritional value of fresh-cut nectarine.

    PubMed

    Falagán, Natalia; Artés, Francisco; Aguayo, Encarna

    2016-07-01

    There is currently a high demand for natural and fresh-cut fruits. In this study, natural additives were applied to fresh-cut nectarines: (1) control, nontreated; (2) wedges were dipped in an antibrowning solution containing calcium ascorbate (AB); (3) and (4) wedges were dipped in an AB plus natural antimicrobial agents (vanillin or cinnamic acid, respectively). After these treatments, fresh-cut nectarines were packed and stored at 5 ℃ for eight days. The treatments AB+Vanillin and AB+Cinnamic inhibited microbial counts when compared with control and AB-only samples. The application of these solutions did not impart any aromas or off-flavors to nectarines and maintained firmness during the shelf-life period. AB solutions inhibited polyophenol oxidase action and reduced browning while stabilizing the soluble phenolic content, increasing consumer's acceptance. Nectarine wedges assimilated the ascorbic acid from the AB solution and retained it during the shelf-life period. The combination of an antibrowning agent and natural antimicrobials helped to control microbiological growth while maintaining high-quality parameters. They can be an attractive "green" alternative for organic fresh-cut products to other chemical sanitizers such as chlorine. PMID:26683483

  13. Improving the predictive accuracy of hurricane power outage forecasts using generalized additive models.

    PubMed

    Han, Seung-Ryong; Guikema, Seth D; Quiring, Steven M

    2009-10-01

    Electric power is a critical infrastructure service after hurricanes, and rapid restoration of electric power is important in order to minimize losses in the impacted areas. However, rapid restoration of electric power after a hurricane depends on obtaining the necessary resources, primarily repair crews and materials, before the hurricane makes landfall and then appropriately deploying these resources as soon as possible after the hurricane. This, in turn, depends on having sound estimates of both the overall severity of the storm and the relative risk of power outages in different areas. Past studies have developed statistical, regression-based approaches for estimating the number of power outages in advance of an approaching hurricane. However, these approaches have either not been applicable for future events or have had lower predictive accuracy than desired. This article shows that a different type of regression model, a generalized additive model (GAM), can outperform the types of models used previously. This is done by developing and validating a GAM based on power outage data during past hurricanes in the Gulf Coast region and comparing the results from this model to the previously used generalized linear models.

  14. Addition of Zn to the ternary Mg-Ca-Sr alloys significantly improves their antibacterial property

    PubMed Central

    He, Guanping; Wu, Yuanhao; Zhang, Yu; Zhu, Ye; Liu, Yang; Li, Nan; Li, Mei; Zheng, Guan; He, Baohua; Yin, Qingshui; Zheng, Yufeng; Mao, Chuanbin

    2015-01-01

    Most of the magnesium (Mg) alloys possess excellent biocompatibility, mechanical property and biodegradability in orthopedic applications. However, these alloys may suffer from bacterial infections due to their insufficient antibacterial capability. In order to reduce the post-surgical infections, a series of biocompatible Mg–1Ca-0.5Sr-xZn (x=0, 2, 4, 6) alloys were fabricated with the addition of antibacterial Zn with variable content and evaluated in terms of their biocompatibility and antibacterial property. The in vitro corrosion study showed that Mg-1Ca-0.5Sr-6Zn alloys exhibited a higher hydrogen evolution volume after 100 h immersion and resulted in a higher pH value of the immersion solution. Our work indicated that Zn-containing Mg alloys exhibited good biocompatibility with high cell viability. The antibacterial studies reveal that the number of bacteria adhered on all of these Mg alloy samples diminished remarkably compared to the Ti-6Al-4V control group. We also found that the proliferation of the bacteria was inhibited by these Mg alloys extracts. Among the prepared alloys, Mg-1Ca-0.5Sr-6Zn alloy not only exhibited a strong antibacterial effect, but also promoted the proliferation of MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts, suggesting that it is a promising alloy with both good antibacterial property and good biocompatibility for use as an orthopedic implant. PMID:26693010

  15. Improved nonreductive O-glycan release by hydrazinolysis with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid addition.

    PubMed

    Kozak, Radoslaw P; Royle, Louise; Gardner, Richard A; Bondt, Albert; Fernandes, Daryl L; Wuhrer, Manfred

    2014-05-15

    The study of protein O-glycosylation is receiving increasing attention in biological, medical, and biopharmaceutical research. Improved techniques are required to allow reproducible and quantitative analysis of O-glycans. An established approach for O-glycan analysis relies on their chemical release in high yield by hydrazinolysis, followed by fluorescent labeling at the reducing terminus and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) profiling. However, an unwanted degradation known as "peeling" often compromises hydrazinolysis for O-glycan analysis. Here we addressed this problem using low-molarity solutions of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) in hydrazine for O-glycan release. O-linked glycans from a range of different glycoproteins were analyzed, including bovine fetuin, bovine submaxillary gland mucin, and serum immunoglobulin A (IgA). The data for the O-glycans released by hydrazine with anhydrous EDTA or disodium salt dihydrate EDTA show high yields of the native O-glycans compared with the peeled product, resulting in a markedly increased robustness of the O-glycan profiling method. The presented method for O-glycan release demonstrates significant reduction in peeling and reduces the number of sample handling steps prior to release.

  16. Associating cooking additives with sodium hydroxide to pretreat bamboo residues for improving the enzymatic saccharification and monosaccharides production.

    PubMed

    Huang, Caoxing; He, Juan; Wang, Yan; Min, Douyong; Yong, Qiang

    2015-10-01

    Cooking additive pulping technique is used in kraft mill to increase delignification degree and pulp yield. In this work, cooking additives were firstly applied in the sodium hydroxide pretreatment for improving the bioconversion of bamboo residues to monosaccharides. Meanwhile, steam explosion and sulfuric acid pretreatments were also carried out on the sample to compare their impacts on monosaccharides production. Results indicated that associating anthraquinone with sodium hydroxide pretreatment showed the best performance in improving the original carbohydrates recovery, delignification, enzymatic saccharification, and monosaccharides production. After consecutive pretreatment and enzymatic saccharification process, 347.49 g, 307.48 g, 142.93 g, and 87.15 g of monosaccharides were released from 1000 g dry bamboo residues pretreated by sodium hydroxide associating with anthraquinone, sodium hydroxide, steam explosion and sulfuric acid, respectively. The results suggested that associating cooking additive with sodium hydroxide is an effective pretreatment for bamboo residues to enhance enzymatic saccharification for monosaccharides production.

  17. Improving the quality of polymer-coated urea with recycled plastic, proper additives, and large tablets.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yue-Chao; Zhang, Min; Li, Yuncong; Fan, Xiao-Hui; Geng, Yu-Qing

    2012-11-14

    Polymer-coated urea (PCU) has great potential for increasing crop production and enhancing nitrogen (N) fertilizer use efficiency, benefiting the ecosystem. However, current PCUs are used only in a limited market, and the main obstacle to the wider use of PCUs is high cost compared to that of conventional N fertilizers. In this study, the low cost PCU and large tablet polymer-coated urea (LTPCU) were prepared by using recycling polystyrene foam and various sealants as the coating materials. The structural and chemical characteristics of the coating shells of the coated fertilizers were examined. The N release characteristics of coated fertilizers were determined in 25 °C water under laboratory conditions. The relationship between the N release longevity and the amount of coating material and the percentage of different sealants were evaluated. The results indicated that recycling polystyrene foam was the ideal coating material of the controlled release fertilizer. The polyurethane that was synthesized by the reaction of castor oil and isocyanate was better than the wax as the additive to delay the N release rate of coated urea. The coating material used for LTPCU was 70-80% less than those used for commercial PCUs under the same N release longevity. The cost of the recycling polystyrene foam used for coating one ton of pure N of the LTPCU was about one-seventh to one-eighth of the cost of the traditional polymer used for the commercial PCU. The experimental data showed that the LTPCU with good controlled-release capacities, being economical and eco-friendly, could be promising for wide use in agriculture and horticulture. PMID:23094596

  18. Improving the quality of polymer-coated urea with recycled plastic, proper additives, and large tablets.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yue-Chao; Zhang, Min; Li, Yuncong; Fan, Xiao-Hui; Geng, Yu-Qing

    2012-11-14

    Polymer-coated urea (PCU) has great potential for increasing crop production and enhancing nitrogen (N) fertilizer use efficiency, benefiting the ecosystem. However, current PCUs are used only in a limited market, and the main obstacle to the wider use of PCUs is high cost compared to that of conventional N fertilizers. In this study, the low cost PCU and large tablet polymer-coated urea (LTPCU) were prepared by using recycling polystyrene foam and various sealants as the coating materials. The structural and chemical characteristics of the coating shells of the coated fertilizers were examined. The N release characteristics of coated fertilizers were determined in 25 °C water under laboratory conditions. The relationship between the N release longevity and the amount of coating material and the percentage of different sealants were evaluated. The results indicated that recycling polystyrene foam was the ideal coating material of the controlled release fertilizer. The polyurethane that was synthesized by the reaction of castor oil and isocyanate was better than the wax as the additive to delay the N release rate of coated urea. The coating material used for LTPCU was 70-80% less than those used for commercial PCUs under the same N release longevity. The cost of the recycling polystyrene foam used for coating one ton of pure N of the LTPCU was about one-seventh to one-eighth of the cost of the traditional polymer used for the commercial PCU. The experimental data showed that the LTPCU with good controlled-release capacities, being economical and eco-friendly, could be promising for wide use in agriculture and horticulture.

  19. Humanizing murine IgG3 anti-GD2 antibody m3F8 substantially improves antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity while retaining targeting in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Nai-Kong V.; Guo, Hongfen; Hu, Jian; Tassev, Dimiter V.; Cheung, Irene Y.

    2012-01-01

    Murine IgG3 anti-GD2 antibody m3F8 has shown anti-neuroblastoma activity in Phase I/II studies, where antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) played a key role. Humanization of m3F8 should circumvent human anti-mouse antibody (HAMA) response and enhance its ADCC properties to reduce dosing and pain side effect. Chimeric 3F8 (ch3F8) and humanized 3F8 (hu3F8-IgG1 and hu3F8-IgG4) were produced and purified by protein A affinity chromatography. In vitro comparison was made with m3F8 and other anti-GD2 antibodies in binding, cytotoxicity, and cross-reactivity assays. In GD2 binding studies by SPR, ch3F8 and hu3F8 maintained KD comparable to m3F8. Unlike other anti-GD2 antibodies, m3F8, ch3F8 and hu3F8 had substantially slower koff.. Similar to m3F8, both ch3F8 and hu3F8 inhibited tumor cell growth in vitro, while cross-reactivity with other gangliosides was comparable to that of m3F8. Both peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC)-ADCC and polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN)-ADCC of ch3F8 and hu3F8-IgG1 were more potent than m3F8. This superiority was consistently observed in ADCC assays, irrespective of donors or NK-92MI-transfected human CD16 or CD32, whereas complement mediated cytotoxicity (CMC) was reduced. As expected, hu3F8-IgG4 had near absent PBMC-ADCC and CMC. Hu3F8 and m3F8 had similar tumor-to-non tumor ratios in biodistribution studies. Anti-tumor effect against neuroblastoma xenografts was better with hu3F8-IgG1 than m3F8. In conclusion, humanizing m3F8 produced next generation anti-GD2 antibodies with substantially more potent ADCC in vitro and anti-tumor activity in vivo. By leveraging ADCC over CMC, they may be clinically more effective, while minimizing pain and HAMA side effects. A Phase I trial using hu3F8-IgG1 is ongoing. PMID:22754766

  20. Understanding the Role of Additives in Improving the Performance of Polymer:Fullerene Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wei

    2014-03-01

    Solar cells based on the polymer:fullerene bulk heterojunction (BHJ) represent one of the most promising technologies for next-generation solar energy conversion due to their low-cost and scalability. In the last fifteen years, research efforts have led to organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices with power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) ~ 12%, but these values are still insufficient for the devices to become widely marketable. To further improve solar cell performance, a thorough understanding of the complex processing-structure-performance relationships in OPV devices is required. Recently, the use of processing additives have been proved to be one of the most effective methods to tune the nanomorphology of polymer:fullerene active layer, as the incorporation of a small percentage of solvent additives results in a nearly doubling of device efficiency. However, the physics behind these improved performances by processing additives still remains unclear. In this work, by taking advantage of resonant soft x-ray scattering (RSoXS) and energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM), we have determined that the solvent additives induce the change in the formation mechanism of polymer:fullerene nanomorphologies in the process of film casting. Progress established in the course of these studies on structural and morphological characterizations will serve as the foundation for further improving the efficiency of polymer solar cells to realize their large-scale commercial use.

  1. Improved Performance of Polymer Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells Through the Reduction of Phase Separation via Solvent Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Hoven, Corey V.; Dang, Xuan-Dung; Coffin, Robert C.; Peet, Jeff; Nguyen, Thuc-Quyen; Bazan, Guillermo C.

    2010-02-03

    A high-boiling-point additive that favors both poly[(4,4-didodecyldithieno[3,2-b:2',3'-d]silole)-2,6-diyl-alt-(2,1,3-benzoxadiazole)-4,7-diyl] and PC₇₁BM in a bulk heterojunction solar cell is used to reduce large-scale aggregation and phase separation, which increases device performance. This is in contrast to the majority of high-boiling-point additives that improve performance by increasing phase separation.

  2. Sensory Property Improvement of Jokbal (Korean Pettitoes) Made from Frozen Pig Feet by Addition of Herbal Mixture.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Young-Jung; Hwang, Seol-A; Lee, Ju-Woon

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to improve sensory quality of Jokbal (Korean Pettitoes) made from frozen pig feet by addition of herbal mixture (glasswort, raspberry and Sansa powders). After adding herbal mixture, lipid oxidation (2-thiobarbituric acid values, TBARS), sensory property, and textural property were determined. Herbs were individually added into cooking soup at concentration of 6% (low concentration treatment, LCT) or 12% (high concentration treatment, HCT) of raw pig feet. Refrigerated pig feet were used as control. Thawed feet without any herbal mixture were used as freezing treatment (FT). TBARS in LCT or HCT were lower than that in FT, and showed the similar to that in Control. Addition of the herbal mixture was effective in improving the flavor and textural property of thawed feet by inhibiting lipid oxidation and protein denaturation in a dose-dependent manner. PMID:27499659

  3. Sensory Property Improvement of Jokbal (Korean Pettitoes) Made from Frozen Pig Feet by Addition of Herbal Mixture

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ju-Woon

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to improve sensory quality of Jokbal (Korean Pettitoes) made from frozen pig feet by addition of herbal mixture (glasswort, raspberry and Sansa powders). After adding herbal mixture, lipid oxidation (2-thiobarbituric acid values, TBARS), sensory property, and textural property were determined. Herbs were individually added into cooking soup at concentration of 6% (low concentration treatment, LCT) or 12% (high concentration treatment, HCT) of raw pig feet. Refrigerated pig feet were used as control. Thawed feet without any herbal mixture were used as freezing treatment (FT). TBARS in LCT or HCT were lower than that in FT, and showed the similar to that in Control. Addition of the herbal mixture was effective in improving the flavor and textural property of thawed feet by inhibiting lipid oxidation and protein denaturation in a dose-dependent manner. PMID:27499659

  4. Improvement of Resistance to Slag Penetration in Magnesia-Based Refractory with Colloidal Alumina Addition II by Means of a Proper Particle Size Distribution of MgO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Huijun; Sichen, Du

    2016-06-01

    By addition of colloidal alumina, three different particle sizes of dead burnt MgO were employed as raw materials to prepare MgO-based spinel substrates at 1773 K (1500 °C). It was found that the particle size of MgO, as well as its size distribution, had substantial impact on the resistance of the refractory to the slag penetration at 1873 K (1600 °C). Using relatively small particles of MgO (<0.5 mm) can efficiently limit the slag penetration, due to the formation of solid phases (CaO·Al2O3 and CaO-MgO-Al2O3) at the grain boundaries. A particularly significant improvement against the slag penetration was found on MgO substrates with a proper particle size distribution in a size range of 0-1 mm. The improvement could be mainly related to the higher density and distribution of spinel phase in the MgO matrix, which is mostly located at the borders of large MgO particles.

  5. Buckyball additives improve lubrication

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-31

    When researchers discovered the buckminsterfullerene molecule in 1985, it was considered the ideal candidate for reducing friction between tiny moving components. However, subsequently buckyballs were discovered not to be particularly good lubricators. Now, a team of chemical engineers and chemists has discovered that C60 molecules dissolved in the organic solvent toluene greatly reduce the friction between the liquid and the surface across which it flows.

  6. Improvement in safety and cycle life of lithium-ion batteries by employing quercetin as an electrolyte additive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Meng-Lun; Li, Yu-Han; Yeh, Jien-Wei; Shih, Han C.

    2012-09-01

    Quercetin, an organic antioxidant, has been employed as an additive in lithium-ion cells to enhance the electrochemical performance to enhance the cycle life and the overcharging characteristics of LiPF6/EC + EMC + DMC (1 M) when used as an electrolyte. A LiCoO2/graphite full cell with 0.05% quercetin showed a significant improvement in safety associated with overcharging tolerance and thermal stability, without causing damage in C-rate capability, and even a small improvement in cycle life performance. The quercetin-containing lithium battery showed an improvement in its electrochemical properties with 92% capacity retention after 350 cycles from 2.8 to 4.3 V, at a rate of 1 C; compared to 85% capacity retention for a cell without quercetin operated under the same conditions. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) results for the LiCoO2 cathode show that the addition of 0.05% quercetin provides a significant suppression in the impedance of the cell after 60 cycles. The improvement might result from the formation of a passivation microstructure (from quercetin oxidation) on the electrode's surface. The quercetin-containing batteries provided long term cycling and a high safety performance, making them a viable power source for applications involving electric devices with significant safety requirements.

  7. [High Throughput Screening Analysis of Preservatives and Sweeteners in Carbonated Beverages Based on Improved Standard Addition Method].

    PubMed

    Wang, Su-fang; Liu, Yun; Gong, Li-hua; Dong, Chun-hong; Fu, De-xue; Wang, Guo-qing

    2016-02-01

    Simulated water samples of 3 kinds of preservatives and 4 kinds of sweeteners were formulated by using orthogonal design. Kernel independent component analysis (KICA) was used to process the UV spectra of the simulated water samples and the beverages added different amounts of the additive standards, then the independent components (ICs), i. e. the UV spectral profiles of the additives, and the ICs' coefficient matrices were used to establish UV-KICA-SVR prediction model of the simulated preservatives and sweeteners solutions using support vector regression (SVR) analysis. The standards added beverages samples were obtained by adding different amounts level of additives in carbonated beverages, their UV spectra were processed by KICA, then IC information represented to the additives and other sample matrix were obtained, and the sample background can be deducted by removing the corresponding IC, other ICs' coefficient matrices were used to estimate the amounts of the additives in the standard added beverage samples based on the UV-KICA-SVR model, while the intercept of linear regression equation of predicted amounts and the added amounts in the standard added samples is the additive content in the raw beverage sample. By utilization of chemometric "blind source separation" method for extracting IC information of the tested additives in the beverage and other sample matrix, and using SVR regression modeling to improve the traditional standard addition method, a new method was proposed for the screening of the preservatives and sweeteners in carbonated beverages. The proposed UV-KICA-SVR method can be used to determine 3 kinds of preservatives and 4 kinds of sweetener in the carbonate beverages with the limit of detection (LOD) are located with the range 0.2-1.0 mg · L⁻¹, which are comparable to that of the traditional high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method. PMID:27209754

  8. [High Throughput Screening Analysis of Preservatives and Sweeteners in Carbonated Beverages Based on Improved Standard Addition Method].

    PubMed

    Wang, Su-fang; Liu, Yun; Gong, Li-hua; Dong, Chun-hong; Fu, De-xue; Wang, Guo-qing

    2016-02-01

    Simulated water samples of 3 kinds of preservatives and 4 kinds of sweeteners were formulated by using orthogonal design. Kernel independent component analysis (KICA) was used to process the UV spectra of the simulated water samples and the beverages added different amounts of the additive standards, then the independent components (ICs), i. e. the UV spectral profiles of the additives, and the ICs' coefficient matrices were used to establish UV-KICA-SVR prediction model of the simulated preservatives and sweeteners solutions using support vector regression (SVR) analysis. The standards added beverages samples were obtained by adding different amounts level of additives in carbonated beverages, their UV spectra were processed by KICA, then IC information represented to the additives and other sample matrix were obtained, and the sample background can be deducted by removing the corresponding IC, other ICs' coefficient matrices were used to estimate the amounts of the additives in the standard added beverage samples based on the UV-KICA-SVR model, while the intercept of linear regression equation of predicted amounts and the added amounts in the standard added samples is the additive content in the raw beverage sample. By utilization of chemometric "blind source separation" method for extracting IC information of the tested additives in the beverage and other sample matrix, and using SVR regression modeling to improve the traditional standard addition method, a new method was proposed for the screening of the preservatives and sweeteners in carbonated beverages. The proposed UV-KICA-SVR method can be used to determine 3 kinds of preservatives and 4 kinds of sweetener in the carbonate beverages with the limit of detection (LOD) are located with the range 0.2-1.0 mg · L⁻¹, which are comparable to that of the traditional high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method.

  9. Improved TNT detoxification by starch addition in a nitrogen-fixing Methylophilus-dominant aerobic microbial consortium.

    PubMed

    Khan, Muhammad Imran; Lee, Jaejin; Yoo, Keunje; Kim, Seonghoon; Park, Joonhong

    2015-12-30

    In this study, a novel aerobic microbial consortium for the complete detoxification of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) was developed using starch as a slow-releasing carbon source under nitrogen-fixing conditions. Aerobic TNT biodegradation coupled with microbial growth was effectively stimulated by the co-addition of starch and TNT under nitrogen-fixing conditions. The addition of starch with TNT led to TNT mineralization via ring cleavage without accumulation of any toxic by-products, indicating improved TNT detoxification by the co-addition of starch and TNT. Pyrosequencing targeting the bacterial 16S rRNA gene suggested that Methylophilus and Pseudoxanthomonas population were significantly stimulated by the co-addition of starch and TNT and that the Methylophilus population became predominant in the consortium. Together with our previous study regarding starch-stimulated RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine) degradation (Khan et al., J. Hazard. Mater. 287 (2015) 243-251), this work suggests that the co-addition of starch with a target explosive is an effective way to stimulate aerobic explosive degradation under nitrogen-fixing conditions for enhancing explosive detoxification.

  10. Improving the damping ability by the addition of Nano SiO2 to the concrete materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Dujian; Liu, Tiejun; Teng, Jun

    2009-07-01

    Damping in structures is commonly provided by viscoelastic nonstructural materials. Due to the large volume of structural materials in a structure, the contribution of a structural material to damping can be substantial. In this paper, the experimental investigation on damping ability of concrete materials and its members with Nana SiO2 was carried out by the method of 3-point bending beam damping measurement and cantilever beam free vibration respectively. The microstructure of concrete mix with Nano SiO2 was observed by XRD and SEM, then damping mechanism was discussed. The experimental results show that the damping reinforced effect achieved best with the 4% mixture ratio of Nana SiO2, but the optimal adulteration quantity of Nano SiO2 was 3% of cement weight by the comprehensive consideration of cost, workability, strength and dynamic properties. Nano materials as a mixture increase interfaces, and the non-uniform stress distribution under external force improves frictional damping energy consumption ability of concrete. The experimental results on the damping ratio and the loss tangent of the concrete materials with Nano materials are consistent.

  11. Improvement of mechanical and biological properties of TiNi alloys by addition of Cu and Co to orthodontic archwires.

    PubMed

    Phukaoluan, Aphinan; Khantachawana, Anak; Kaewtatip, Pongpan; Dechkunakorn, Surachai; Kajornchaiyakul, Julathep

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate improved performances of TiNi in order to promote tooth movement. Special attention was paid to the effect on the clinical properties of TiNi of adding Cu and Co to this alloy. Ti49.4Ni50.6, Ti49Ni46Cu5 and Ti50Ni47Co3 (at %) alloys were prepared. Specimens were cold-rolled at 30% reduction and heat-treated at 400°C for 60min. Then, the test results were compared with two types of commercial archwires. The findings showed that superelasticity properties were confirmed in the manufactured commercial alloys at mouth temperature. The difference of stress plateau in TiNi, TiNiCo and commercial wires B at 25°C changed significantly at various testing temperatures due to the combination of martensite and austenite phases. At certain temperatures the alloys exhibited zero recovery stress at 2% strain and consequently produced zero activation force for moving teeth. The corrosion test showed that the addition of Cu and Co to TiNi alloys generates an increase in corrosion potential (Ecorr) and corrosion current densities (Icorr). Finally, we observed that addition of Cu and Co improved cell viability. We conclude that addition of an appropriate amount of a third alloying element can help enhance the performances of TiNi orthodontic archwires. PMID:27520713

  12. Evaluation of the effects of different additives in improving the DNA extraction yield and quality from andosol.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Seishi; Tsurumaru, Hirohito; Wakai, Satoshi; Noritake, Chiaki; Fujishiro, Keisuke; Akasaka, Mariko; Ando, Katsuhiko

    2008-01-01

    A series of additives were evaluated for their effects on improving the yield and quality of DNA extracted from recalcitrant soils. Levels of possible DNA contaminants in these supplements were also assessed. Three of the additives (skim milk, casein, and RNA) were shown to be effective in improving the stable extraction of DNA from recalcitrant samples of Andosol. However, whereas skim milk appeared to be the most effective additive for this purpose, our data indicated that this commercially sourced product contained considerable amounts of contaminant DNA (30 to 40 μg/g skim milk). A ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (RISA) revealed the consistent contamination of different batches of this product with DNA of several species of both eukaryotes (cattle and protists) and prokaryotes. In particular, thermophilic bacteria such as Geobacillus and Anoxybacillus were identified in the sequenced PCR amplicons from skim milk. The results of the RISA clearly also indicated that the impact of contaminated DNA on the analysis of a microbial community could be significant when skim milk is used for extracting DNA from a recalcitrant soil. In contrast, only a trace amount of contaminating DNA was evident in casein and none was detected in the RNA examined in the present study.

  13. Improving High-Temperature Tensile and Low-Cycle Fatigue Behavior of Al-Si-Cu-Mg Alloys Through Micro-additions of Ti, V, and Zr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaha, S. K.; Czerwinski, F.; Kasprzak, W.; Friedman, J.; Chen, D. L.

    2015-07-01

    High-temperature tensile and low-cycle fatigue tests were performed to assess the influence of micro-additions of Ti, V, and Zr on the improvement of the Al-7Si-1Cu-0.5Mg (wt pct) alloy in the as-cast condition. Addition of transition metals led to modification of microstructure where in addition to conventional phases present in the Al-7Si-1Cu-0.5Mg base, new thermally stable micro-sized Zr-Ti-V-rich phases Al21.4Si4.1Ti3.5VZr3.9, Al6.7Si1.2TiZr1.8, Al2.8Si3.8V1.6Zr, and Al5.1Si35.4Ti1.6Zr5.7Fe were formed. The tensile tests showed that with increasing test temperature from 298 K to 673 K (25 °C to 400 °C), the yield stress and tensile strength of the present studied alloy decreased from 161 to 84 MPa and from 261 to 102 MPa, respectively. Also, the studied alloy exhibited 18, 12, and 5 pct higher tensile strength than the alloy A356, 354 and existing Al-Si-Cu-Mg alloy modified with additions of Zr, Ti, and Ni, respectively. The fatigue life of the studied alloy was substantially longer than those of the reference alloys A356 and the same Al-7Si-1Cu-0.5Mg base with minor additions of V, Zr, and Ti in the T6 condition. Fractographic analysis after tensile tests revealed that at the lower temperature up to 473 K (200 °C), the cleavage-type brittle fracture for the precipitates and ductile fracture for the matrix were dominant while at higher temperature fully ductile-type fracture with debonding and pull-out of cracked particles was identified. It is believed that the intermetallic precipitates containing Zr, Ti, and V improve the alloy performance at increased temperatures.

  14. Improved synthesis of cyclic tertiary allylic alcohols by asymmetric 1,2-addition of AlMe3 to enones.

    PubMed

    Kolb, Andreas; Zuo, Wei; Siewert, Jürgen; Harms, Klaus; von Zezschwitz, Paultheo

    2013-11-25

    The development of an improved protocol for the enantioselective Rh(I) /binap-catalysed 1,2-addition of AlMe3 to cyclic enones is reported. (31)P NMR analysis of the reaction revealed that the catalyst in its resting state is a chloride-bridged dimer. This insight led to the use of AgBF4 as an additive for in situ activation of the dimeric precatalyst. Thus, the catalyst loading can now be reduced to only 1 mol% with respect to rhodium. Various 5-7-membered cyclic enones can be transformed into tertiary allylic alcohols with excellent levels of enantioselectivity and high yields. The obtained products are versatile synthetic building blocks, shown by a highly enantioselective formal total synthesis of the pheromone (-)-frontalin as well as formation of a bicyclic lactone that has the core structure of the natural flavour component "wine lactone".

  15. Improving water tolerance of Co3O4 by SnO2 addition for CO oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xianglan; Sun, Xiongfei; Han, Hong; Peng, Honggen; Liu, Wenming; Peng, Xing; Wang, Xiang; Yang, Xiangjie

    2015-11-01

    A series of Sn-modified Co3O4 catalysts with different Co/Sn molar ratios were prepared via co-precipitation method and characterized by N2-BET, XRD, H2-TPR, XPS and FTIR techniques. The addition of a small amount of Sn into Co3O4 has a mild influence on its CO oxidation activity, but promotes its water resistance evidently. The major reason is attributed to the effective suppressing of water adsorption on the catalyst surface by Sn addition, as testified by FTIR results. Co0.90Sn0.10, a catalyst with a Co/Sn molar ratio of 0.90/0.10, shows the potential to be used in some real emission control processes for CO oxidation due to its reasonable activity and evidently improved reaction stability in the presence of water vapour.

  16. Improvement of the shape memory characteristics of a Cu-Zn-Al alloy with manganese and zirconium addition

    SciTech Connect

    Zou, W.H.; Lam, C.W.H.; Chung, C.Y.; Lai, J.K.L.

    1997-04-15

    Cu-based shape memory alloys (SMAs) possess good shape memory effect (SME) and have the advantage of lower price than Ti-Ni SMA. However, there are still some problems which should be solved before they can be used widely. Addition of suitable alloying elements can improve the mechanical properties, stabilization of martensitic transformations and also the SME of Cu-based SMAs significantly. Cu-Zn-Al is an important Cu-based SMA that suffers from the martensite stabilization and intergranular cracking in the processing procedures and service. As a modification of Cu-Zn-Al SMAs, the effects of Mn and Zr addition on the structure and martensite transformation behavior of different heat treated Cu-21Zn-6Al-1Mn-0.5Zr (wt%) SMA have been studied and compared to that of Cu-21Zn-6Al (wt%) SMA in the present paper.

  17. Improving the performance of an aerobic membrane bioreactor (MBR) treating pharmaceutical wastewater with powdered activated carbon (PAC) addition.

    PubMed

    Kaya, Yasemin; Bacaksiz, A Murat; Golebatmaz, Ugur; Vergili, Ilda; Gönder, Z Beril; Yilmaz, Gulsum

    2016-04-01

    In this study, the effects of organic loading rate (OLR) and the addition of powdered activated carbon (PAC) on the performance and membrane fouling of MBR were conducted to treat real pharmaceutical process wastewater. Over 145 days of operation, the MBR system was operated at OLRs ranging from 1 to 2 kg COD m(-3) day(-1) without sludge wasting. The addition of PAC provided an improvement in the flux, despite an increase in the OLR:PAC ratio. The results demonstrated that the hybrid PAC-MBR system maintained a reduced amount of membrane fouling and steadily increased the removal performance of etodolac. PAC addition reduced the deposition of extracellular polymeric substance and organic matter on the membrane surface and resulted an increase in COD removal even at higher OLRs with low PAC addition. Membrane fouling mechanisms were investigated using combined adsorption fouling models. Modified fouling index values and normalized mass transfer coefficient values indicated that predominant fouling mechanism was cake adsorption. PMID:26846538

  18. Utilization of deep eutectic solvents as novel mobile phase additives for improving the separation of bioactive quaternary alkaloids.

    PubMed

    Tan, Ting; Zhang, Mingliang; Wan, Yiqun; Qiu, Hongdeng

    2016-01-01

    Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) were used as novel mobile phase additives to improve chromatographic separation of four quaternary alkaloids including coptisine chloride, sanguinarine, berberine chloride and chelerythrine on a C18 column. DESs as a new class of ionic liquids are renewably sourced, environmentally benign, low cost and easy to prepare. Seven DESs were obtained by mixing different hydrogen acceptors and hydrogen-bond donors. The effects of organic solvents, the concentration of DESs, the types of DESs and the pH values of the buffer solution on the separation of the analytes were investigated. The composition of acetonitrile and 1.0% deep eutectic solvents aqueous solution (pH 3.3, adjusted with hydrochloric acid) in a 32:68 (v/v) ratio was used as optimized mobile phase, with which four quaternary alkaloids were well separated. When a small amount of DESs was added in the mobile phase for the separation of alkaloids on the C18 column, noticeable improvements were distinctly observed such as decreasing peak tailing and improving resolution. The separation mechanism mediated by DESs as mobile phase additives can be attributed to combined effect of both hydrogen acceptors and hydrogen-bond donors. For example, choline chloride can effectively cover the residual silanols on silica surface and ethylene glycol can reduce the retention time of analytes. The proposed method has been applied to determine BerbC in Lanqin Chinese herbal oral solution and BerbC tablet. Utilization of DESs in mobile phase can efficiently improve separation and selectivity of analytes from complex samples.

  19. Utilization of deep eutectic solvents as novel mobile phase additives for improving the separation of bioactive quaternary alkaloids.

    PubMed

    Tan, Ting; Zhang, Mingliang; Wan, Yiqun; Qiu, Hongdeng

    2016-03-01

    Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) were used as novel mobile phase additives to improve chromatographic separation of four quaternary alkaloids including coptisine chloride, sanguinarine, berberine chloride and chelerythrine on a C18 column. DESs as a new class of ionic liquids are renewably sourced, environmentally benign, low cost and easy to prepare. Seven DESs were obtained by mixing different hydrogen acceptors and hydrogen-bond donors. The effects of organic solvents, the concentration of DESs, the types of DESs and the pH values of the buffer solution on the separation of the analytes were investigated. The composition of acetonitrile and 1.0% deep eutectic solvents aqueous solution (pH 3.3, adjusted with hydrochloric acid) in a 32:68 (v/v) ratio was used as optimized mobile phase, with which four quaternary alkaloids were well separated. When a small amount of DESs was added in the mobile phase for the separation of alkaloids on the C18 column, noticeable improvements were distinctly observed such as decreasing peak tailing and improving resolution. The separation mechanism mediated by DESs as mobile phase additives can be attributed to combined effect of both hydrogen acceptors and hydrogen-bond donors. For example, choline chloride can effectively cover the residual silanols on silica surface and ethylene glycol can reduce the retention time of analytes. The proposed method has been applied to determine BerbC in Lanqin Chinese herbal oral solution and BerbC tablet. Utilization of DESs in mobile phase can efficiently improve separation and selectivity of analytes from complex samples. PMID:26717817

  20. Improving the efficiency of polymer solar cells based on furan-flanked diketopyrrolopyrrole copolymer via solvent additive and methanol treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Weilong; Chen, Huajie; Lv, Junjie; Chen, Youchun; Zhang, Weifeng; Yu, Gui; Li, Fenghong

    2015-09-01

    We present a furan-flanked DPP copolymer, poly{3,6-difuran-2-yl-2,5-di(2-octyldodecyl)-pyrrolo [3,4-c]pyrrole-1,4-dione-altthienylenevinylene} (PDVF-8), and highlight the improvement in the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of polymer solar cells (PSCs) based on the PDVF-8 as an electron donor via solvent additive and methanol treatment. When 3 vol% 1,8-diiodooctane (DIO) or 1-chloronaphthalene (CN) were used as a solvent additive to the PDVF-8:PC71BM solution in chloroform (CF), the PCE can increase from 0.79% to 3.73% or 4.26%. Methanol treatment (MT) can further enhance the PCE to 4.03% (DIO) and 4.69% (CN). The effect of the solvent additives (DIO and CN) and MT on the phase separation of the PDVF-8:PC71BM thin film has been investigated in detail using atomic force microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), TEM-energy dispersive spectroscopy and X-ray photoemission spectroscopy depth profiling.We present a furan-flanked DPP copolymer, poly{3,6-difuran-2-yl-2,5-di(2-octyldodecyl)-pyrrolo [3,4-c]pyrrole-1,4-dione-altthienylenevinylene} (PDVF-8), and highlight the improvement in the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of polymer solar cells (PSCs) based on the PDVF-8 as an electron donor via solvent additive and methanol treatment. When 3 vol% 1,8-diiodooctane (DIO) or 1-chloronaphthalene (CN) were used as a solvent additive to the PDVF-8:PC71BM solution in chloroform (CF), the PCE can increase from 0.79% to 3.73% or 4.26%. Methanol treatment (MT) can further enhance the PCE to 4.03% (DIO) and 4.69% (CN). The effect of the solvent additives (DIO and CN) and MT on the phase separation of the PDVF-8:PC71BM thin film has been investigated in detail using atomic force microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), TEM-energy dispersive spectroscopy and X-ray photoemission spectroscopy depth profiling. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr04393j

  1. Phosphorus applications improved the soil microbial responses under nitrogen additions in Chinese fir plantations of subtropical China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xinyu; Li, Dandan; Yang, Yang; Tang, Yuqian; Wang, Huimin; Chen, Fusheng; Sun, Xiaomin

    2016-04-01

    Nitrogen (N) deposition and low soil phosphorus (P) content aggravate the P limitation in subtropical forest soils. However, the responses of soil microbial communities, enzyme kinetics, and N cycling genes to P additions in subtropical plantations are still not clear. The hypothesis that P application can alleviate the limitation and improve the soil microbial properties was tested by long term field experiment in the Chinese fir plantations in subtropical China. Thirty 20m×20m plots were established in November 2011 and six different treatments were randomly distributed with five replicates. The treatments are control (CK, no N and P application), low N addition (N1: 50 kg N ha-1 yr-1), high N addition (N2: 100 kg N ha-1 yr-1), P addition (P: 50 kg P ha-1 yr-1), low N and P addition (N1P: 50 kg N ha-1 yr-1 and 50 kg P ha-1 yr-1) and high N and P addition (N2P: 100 kg N ha-1 yr-1 and 50 kg P ha-1 yr-1). A suite of responses of soil microorganism across four years (2012-2015) during three seasons (spring, summer and autumn) were measured. Following 4 years of N amendments, fertilized soils were more acidic and had lower soil microbial biomass carbon contents than CK. However, P alleviated the soil acidification and increased the soil microbial biomass carbon contents. Increases in microbial PLFA biomarkers and exoenzyme kinetics in N fertilized plots were observed in the initial year (2013) but reduced since then (2014 and 2015). Whereas P amendments increased the soil PLFA biomarkers and exoenzyme kinetics through the four years except that the acid phosphatase activities declined after 3 years applications. P applications enhanced the soil N cycling by increases the abundances of nitrifiers (ammonia-oxidizing archea) and denitrifiers (nos Z, norG, and nirK). The bacterial and fungal residue carbons (calculated by amino sugar indicators) were higher under NP fertilizations than the other treatments. Our results suggest that P application could improve the soil

  2. Improved survival with the addition of radiotherapy to androgen deprivation: questions answered and a review of current controversies in radiotherapy for non-metastatic prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kavanagh, Brian D.; Rusthoven, Chad G.

    2016-01-01

    The contemporary standard of care for locally advanced high-risk prostate cancer includes a combination of dose-escalated radiotherapy (RT) plus androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT). However, 20 years ago, at the inception of the National Cancer Institute of Canada (NCIC) led study (NCIC Clinical Trials Group PR.3/Medical Research Council PR07/Intergroup T94-0110), the survival impact of prostate RT for high-risk disease was uncertain. Recently, Mason, Warde and colleagues presented the final results of this NCIC/MRC study (PMID: 25691677) randomizing 1,205 high-risk prostate cancer patients to ADT + RT vs. ADT alone. These updated results confirm substantial improvements with the addition of RT to ADT for the endpoints of overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS), and biochemical recurrence. Close examination of subtleties of this trial’s design highlight some of the most salient controversies in the field of prostate RT, including the risk-stratified roles of ADT, optimal ADT duration, and RT field design in the dose-escalated and intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) era. PMID:26855950

  3. Improvement of microbiological safety and sensorial quality of pork jerky by electron beam irradiation and by addition of onion peel extract and barbecue flavor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyun-Joo; Jung, Samooel; Yong, Hae In; Bae, Young Sik; Kang, Suk Nam; Kim, Il Suk; Jo, Cheorun

    2014-05-01

    The combined effects of electron-beam (EB) irradiation and addition of onion peel (OP) extract and barbecue flavor (BF) on inactivation of foodborne pathogens and the quality of pork jerky was investigated. Prepared pork jerky samples were irradiated (0, 1, 2, and 4 kGy) and stored for 2 month at 25 °C. The D10 values of Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella typhimurium observed in the OP treated samples were 0.19, 0.18, and 0.19 kGy, whereas those in control were 0.25, 0.23, and 0.20 kGy, respectively. Irradiated samples with OP extract and BF had substantially lower total aerobic bacterial counts than the control had. Samples with added OP extract and BF had lower peroxide values than the control had. Sensory evaluation indicated that overall acceptability of treated samples was not changed up to 2 kGy. Therefore, EB irradiation, combined with OP extract and BF, has improved the microbiological safety with no negative effects on the quality of pork jerky.

  4. Addition of in-vitro generated endothelial microparticles to von-Willebrand plasma improves primary and secondary hemostasis.

    PubMed

    Trummer, Arne; Werwitzke, Sonja; Wermes, Cornelia; Ganser, Arnold; Birschmann, Ingvild; Budde, Ulrich; Tiede, Andreas

    2014-03-01

    Increased endothelial microparticles (EMP) as markers for endothelial activation have been associated with worse outcomes in clinical prothrombotic situations. The procoagulant properties of EMP can be attributed to the expression of phospholipids, tissue factor and von-Willebrand factor on their surface. We therefore investigated whether addition of in-vitro generated EMP modifies hemostasis in plasma from patients with severe von-Willebrand disease (VWD). A large EMP pool was obtained from stimulated endothelial cell lines and EMP concentration was quantified by flow cytometry. The influence of EMP on primary and secondary hemostasis in VWD plasma was assessed using ristocetin-induced platelet aggregation (RIPA) and thrombin generation in a calibrated automated thrombogram (CAT), respectively. After addition of EMP, there was a significant increase in the maximal aggregation level in RIPA as well as a significant shortening of lag time and time-to-peak in CAT in comparison to control buffer. In summary, in vitro-generated EMP have the potential to improve hemostasis in severe VWD plasma and these results warrant further clinical reseach regarding their contribution to the clinical bleeding phenotype as well as their potential to improve replacement therapy.

  5. [Urea plus ceramides and vitamins: improving the efficacy of a topical urea preparation by addition of ceramides and vitamins].

    PubMed

    Grether-Beck, S; Mühlberg, K; Brenden, H; Krutmann, J

    2008-09-01

    Topical urea preparations containing urea have been used successfully to improve the barrier function of the skin. We investigated whether the efficacy of an urea-containing topical preparation could be improved by the addition of vitamins and ceramides. For this an intra-individual comparative study was conducted on 10 subjects with healthy skin. The application of the combination preparation containing urea, vitamins and ceramides for 2 weeks was significantly superior to the urea-only preparation in respect to reduction of transepidermal water loss and skin hydration levels. This improved efficacy was associated with a stronger up-regulation of the transcriptional expression of differentiation genes in keratinocytes in the treated skin areas. While both preparations caused an increased expression of the genes encoding transglutaminase-1, involucrin, loricrin and filaggrin, this increase was significantly greater in those skin areas treated with the combination preparation. This study indicates that the efficacy of topical preparations containing urea can be enhanced by the incorporation of ceramides and vitamins.

  6. Additions to Magnetic Trackline Archive For Improvements to Earth Magnetic Anomaly Grid (EMAG2) and Improvements to Data Dissemination at NGDC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, B.; Jencks, J.; Barckhausen, U.; Ishihara, T.; Campagnoli, J.

    2014-12-01

    The National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is the primary archive of marine geophysical data worldwide. However, it has been challenging for scientist to discover and access data due to variable data formats, non-digital data holdings, and transitioning data discovery portals. In 2014, NGDC made a concerted effort to identify, ingest, and archive all publicly available magnetic trackline data for access via a new Trackline Geophysical Data web-based interface. Non-digital data were digitized and added to the Global Geophysical Database and are now available for download in a common MGD77 format. All ancillary and analog data are accessible via the same interface, without having to navigate through multiple directories or prompts. The result is over 16.5 million miles of magnetic trackline data are now available, both through NGDC's improved user interface and as a web service for incorporation into other portals. This allows the geoscience community unprecedented access to global geophysical magnetic trackline data from a secure long-term archive. The addition of 6.5 million miles of magnetic trackline data to the database, since the previous release of the Earth Magnetic Anomaly Grid (EMAG2), will give NGDC the ability to improve the model coverage, especially in areas of low coverage, such as around the Eltanin Fracture Zone in the South Pacific. This poster will focus on some key data additions and how they will help us validate the accuracy of the ocean age model/directional gridding algorithm and improve the Earth Magnetic Anomaly Grid going forward.

  7. Substantial improvement of nanotube processability by freeze-drying.

    PubMed

    Maugey, M; Neri, W; Zakri, C; Derré, A; Pénicaud, A; Noé, L; Chorro, M; Launois, P; Monthioux, M; Poulin, P

    2007-08-01

    As-produced carbon nanotubes often contain a fraction of impurities such as metal catalysts, inorganic supports, and carbon by-products. These impurities can be partially removed by using acidic dissolution. The resulting nanotube materials have to be dried to form a powder. The processability of nanotubes subjected to regular (thermal vaporisation) drying is particularly difficult because capillary forces pack and stick the nanotubes irreversibly, which limits their dispersability in polymeric matrices or solvents. We show that this dramatic limitation can be circumvented by using freeze-drying instead of regular-drying during nanotube purification process. In this case, the nanotubes are trapped in frozen water which is then sublimated. As a result the final powder is significantly less compact and, more important, the nanotubes can be easily dispersed with no apparent aggregates, thereby greatly enhancing their processability, e.g., they can be used to make homogeneous composites and fibers. Results from coagulation spinning from water-based dispersions of regularly-dried and freeze-dried nanotubes are compared. We also show that freeze-dried materials, in contrast to regularly-dried materials, can be dissolved in organic polar solvents using alkali-doped nanotubes. High resolution TEM and XRD analysis demonstrate that the nanotube structure and quality are not affected at the nanoscale by freeze-drying treatments. PMID:17685277

  8. The Symbiotic Performance of Chickpea Rhizobia Can Be Improved by Additional Copies of the clpB Chaperone Gene.

    PubMed

    Paço, Ana; Brígido, Clarisse; Alexandre, Ana; Mateos, Pedro F; Oliveira, Solange

    2016-01-01

    The ClpB chaperone is known to be involved in bacterial stress response. Moreover, recent studies suggest that this protein has also a role in the chickpea-rhizobia symbiosis. In order to improve both stress tolerance and symbiotic performance of a chickpea microsymbiont, the Mesorhizobium mediterraneum UPM-Ca36T strain was genetically transformed with pPHU231 containing an extra-copy of the clpB gene. To investigate if the clpB-transformed strain displays an improved stress tolerance, bacterial growth was evaluated under heat and acid stress conditions. In addition, the effect of the extra-copies of the clpB gene in the symbiotic performance was evaluated using plant growth assays (hydroponic and pot trials). The clpB-transformed strain is more tolerant to heat shock than the strain transformed with pPHU231, supporting the involvement of ClpB in rhizobia heat shock tolerance. Both plant growth assays showed that ClpB has an important role in chickpea-rhizobia symbiosis. The nodulation kinetics analysis showed a higher rate of nodule appearance with the clpB-transformed strain. This strain also induced a greater number of nodules and, more notably, its symbiotic effectiveness increased ~60% at pH5 and 83% at pH7, compared to the wild-type strain. Furthermore, a higher frequency of root hair curling was also observed in plants inoculated with the clpB-transformed strain, compared to the wild-type strain. The superior root hair curling induction, nodulation ability and symbiotic effectiveness of the clpB-transformed strain may be explained by an increased expression of symbiosis genes. Indeed, higher transcript levels of the nodulation genes nodA and nodC (~3 folds) were detected in the clpB-transformed strain. The improvement of rhizobia by addition of extra-copies of the clpB gene may be a promising strategy to obtain strains with enhanced stress tolerance and symbiotic effectiveness, thus contributing to their success as crop inoculants, particularly under

  9. The Symbiotic Performance of Chickpea Rhizobia Can Be Improved by Additional Copies of the clpB Chaperone Gene

    PubMed Central

    Paço, Ana; Brígido, Clarisse; Alexandre, Ana; Mateos, Pedro F.; Oliveira, Solange

    2016-01-01

    The ClpB chaperone is known to be involved in bacterial stress response. Moreover, recent studies suggest that this protein has also a role in the chickpea-rhizobia symbiosis. In order to improve both stress tolerance and symbiotic performance of a chickpea microsymbiont, the Mesorhizobium mediterraneum UPM-Ca36T strain was genetically transformed with pPHU231 containing an extra-copy of the clpB gene. To investigate if the clpB-transformed strain displays an improved stress tolerance, bacterial growth was evaluated under heat and acid stress conditions. In addition, the effect of the extra-copies of the clpB gene in the symbiotic performance was evaluated using plant growth assays (hydroponic and pot trials). The clpB-transformed strain is more tolerant to heat shock than the strain transformed with pPHU231, supporting the involvement of ClpB in rhizobia heat shock tolerance. Both plant growth assays showed that ClpB has an important role in chickpea-rhizobia symbiosis. The nodulation kinetics analysis showed a higher rate of nodule appearance with the clpB-transformed strain. This strain also induced a greater number of nodules and, more notably, its symbiotic effectiveness increased ~60% at pH5 and 83% at pH7, compared to the wild-type strain. Furthermore, a higher frequency of root hair curling was also observed in plants inoculated with the clpB-transformed strain, compared to the wild-type strain. The superior root hair curling induction, nodulation ability and symbiotic effectiveness of the clpB-transformed strain may be explained by an increased expression of symbiosis genes. Indeed, higher transcript levels of the nodulation genes nodA and nodC (~3 folds) were detected in the clpB-transformed strain. The improvement of rhizobia by addition of extra-copies of the clpB gene may be a promising strategy to obtain strains with enhanced stress tolerance and symbiotic effectiveness, thus contributing to their success as crop inoculants, particularly under

  10. The Symbiotic Performance of Chickpea Rhizobia Can Be Improved by Additional Copies of the clpB Chaperone Gene.

    PubMed

    Paço, Ana; Brígido, Clarisse; Alexandre, Ana; Mateos, Pedro F; Oliveira, Solange

    2016-01-01

    The ClpB chaperone is known to be involved in bacterial stress response. Moreover, recent studies suggest that this protein has also a role in the chickpea-rhizobia symbiosis. In order to improve both stress tolerance and symbiotic performance of a chickpea microsymbiont, the Mesorhizobium mediterraneum UPM-Ca36T strain was genetically transformed with pPHU231 containing an extra-copy of the clpB gene. To investigate if the clpB-transformed strain displays an improved stress tolerance, bacterial growth was evaluated under heat and acid stress conditions. In addition, the effect of the extra-copies of the clpB gene in the symbiotic performance was evaluated using plant growth assays (hydroponic and pot trials). The clpB-transformed strain is more tolerant to heat shock than the strain transformed with pPHU231, supporting the involvement of ClpB in rhizobia heat shock tolerance. Both plant growth assays showed that ClpB has an important role in chickpea-rhizobia symbiosis. The nodulation kinetics analysis showed a higher rate of nodule appearance with the clpB-transformed strain. This strain also induced a greater number of nodules and, more notably, its symbiotic effectiveness increased ~60% at pH5 and 83% at pH7, compared to the wild-type strain. Furthermore, a higher frequency of root hair curling was also observed in plants inoculated with the clpB-transformed strain, compared to the wild-type strain. The superior root hair curling induction, nodulation ability and symbiotic effectiveness of the clpB-transformed strain may be explained by an increased expression of symbiosis genes. Indeed, higher transcript levels of the nodulation genes nodA and nodC (~3 folds) were detected in the clpB-transformed strain. The improvement of rhizobia by addition of extra-copies of the clpB gene may be a promising strategy to obtain strains with enhanced stress tolerance and symbiotic effectiveness, thus contributing to their success as crop inoculants, particularly under

  11. Food additives

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857

  12. Additives and solvents-induced phase and morphology modification of NaYF4 for improving up-conversion emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, Jianle; Yang, Xianfeng; Wang, Jing; Lei, Bingfu; Liu, Yingliang; Wu, Mingmei

    2016-01-01

    Both cubic and hexagonal NaYF4 were synthesized in different reaction systems via hydro/solvo-thermal route. The effects of reaction temperature, solvents, and additives on the synthesis of NaYF4 have been studied in detail. It has been shown that phase transformation from cubic NaYF4 to hexagonal NaYF4 always occurred. The sequence of the ability for inducing the phase transformation was ethanol>H2O>acetic acid. It is found that ethanol can not only facilitate the formation of hexagonal NaYF4 but also control the growth of the crystal. This is quite unusual for the growth of H-NaYF4. The up-conversion emission properties of Yb/Er co-doped NaYF4 have also been investigated and the results demonstrated some general principles for improving up-conversion emission.

  13. Investigation of Cross-Linked and Additive Containing Polymer Materials for Membranes with Improved Performance in Pervaporation and Gas Separation

    PubMed Central

    Hunger, Katharina; Schmeling, Nadine; Jeazet, Harold B. Tanh; Janiak, Christoph; Staudt, Claudia; Kleinermanns, Karl

    2012-01-01

    Pervaporation and gas separation performances of polymer membranes can be improved by crosslinking or addition of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). Crosslinked copolyimide membranes show higher plasticization resistance and no significant loss in selectivity compared to non-crosslinked membranes when exposed to mixtures of CO2/CH4 or toluene/cyclohexane. Covalently crosslinked membranes reveal better separation performances than ionically crosslinked systems. Covalent interlacing with 3-hydroxypropyldimethylmaleimide as photocrosslinker can be investigated in situ in solution as well as in films, using transient UV/Vis and FTIR spectroscopy. The photocrosslinking yield can be determined from the FTIR-spectra. It is restricted by the stiffness of the copolyimide backbone, which inhibits the photoreaction due to spatial separation of the crosslinker side chains. Mixed-matrix membranes (MMMs) with MOFs as additives (fillers) have increased permeabilities and often also selectivities compared to the pure polymer. Incorporation of MOFs into polysulfone and Matrimid® polymers for MMMs gives defect-free membranes with performances similar to the best polymer membranes for gas mixtures, such as O2/N2 H2/CH4, CO2/CH4, H2/CO2, CH4/N2 and CO2/N2 (preferentially permeating gas is named first). The MOF porosity, its particle size and content in the MMM are factors to influence the permeability and the separation performance of the membranes. PMID:24958427

  14. Stereoselective Access to Tubuphenylalanine and Tubuvaline: Improved Mn-Mediated Radical Additions and Assembly of A Tubulysin Tetrapeptide Analog

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Koushik; Marié, Jean-Charles; Mali, Umesh; Yao, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Synthesis of tubuphenylalanine and tubuvaline, α-substituted γ-amino acid building blocks for tubulysin family of antimitotic compounds, has been improved using a radical addition reaction in the presence of unprotected hydroxyl functionality. The key carbon–carbon bond construction entails stereoselective Mn-mediated photolytic additions of alkyl iodides to the C=N bond of chiral N-acylhydrazones, and generates the chiral amines in high yield with complete stereocontrol. Reductive N–N bond cleavage and alcohol oxidation converted these amino alcohols into the corresponding γ-amino acids. The route to tubuvaline proceeded via peptide coupling with serine methyl ester, followed by a high-yielding sequence to convert the serine amide to a thiazole. Finally, peptide bond construction established the tubulysin framework in the form of a C-terminal alcohol analog. Attempted oxidation to the C-terminal carboxylate was unsuccessful; control experiments with dipeptide 18 showed a cyclization interfered with the desired oxidation process. PMID:26883395

  15. Stereoselective access to tubuphenylalanine and tubuvaline: improved Mn-mediated radical additions and assembly of a tubulysin tetrapeptide analog.

    PubMed

    Friestad, Gregory K; Banerjee, Koushik; Marié, Jean-Charles; Mali, Umesh; Yao, Lei

    2016-04-01

    Synthesis of tubuphenylalanine and tubuvaline (Tuv), α-substituted γ-amino acid building blocks for tubulysin family of antimitotic compounds, has been improved using a radical addition reaction in the presence of unprotected hydroxyl functionality. The key carbon-carbon bond construction entails stereoselective Mn-mediated photolytic additions of alkyl iodides to the C=N bond of chiral N-acylhydrazones, and generates the chiral amines in high yield with complete stereocontrol. Reductive N-N bond cleavage and alcohol oxidation converted these amino alcohols into the corresponding γ-amino acids. The route to Tuv proceeded via peptide coupling with serine methyl ester, followed by a high-yielding sequence to convert the serine amide to a thiazole. Finally, peptide bond construction established the tubulysin framework in the form of a C-terminal alcohol analog. Attempted oxidation to the C-terminal carboxylate was unsuccessful; control experiments with dipeptide 18 showed a cyclization interfered with the desired oxidation process. PMID:26883395

  16. Improving cyclic stability of lithium nickel manganese oxide cathode at elevated temperature by using dimethyl phenylphosphonite as electrolyte additive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mai, Shaowei; Xu, Mengqing; Liao, Xiaolin; Xing, Lidan; Li, Weishan

    2015-01-01

    A novel electrolyte additive, dimethyl phenylphosphonite (DMPP), is reported in this paper to be able to improve significantly the cyclic stability of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode of high voltage lithium ion battery at elevated temperature. When experiencing charge/discharge cycling at 50 °C with 1C (1C = 146.7 mAh g-1) rate in a standard (STD) electrolyte (1.0 M LiPF6 in ethylene carbonate (EC)/dimethyl carbonate (DMC), EC/DMC = 1/2 in volume), LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 suffers serious discharge capacity decaying, with a capacity retention of 42% after 100 cycles. With adding 0.5% DMPP into the STD electrolyte, the capacity retention is increased to 91%. This improvement can be ascribed to the preferential oxidation of DMPP to the STD electrolyte and the subsequent formation of a protective film on LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4, which suppresses the electrolyte decomposition and protects LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 from destruction. Theoretical calculations together with voltammetric analyses demonstrate the preferential oxidation of DMPP and the consequent suppression of electrolyte decomposition, while the observations from scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectronic spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirm the protection that DMPP provides for LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4.

  17. Improving Co-Amorphous Drug Formulations by the Addition of the Highly Water Soluble Amino Acid, Proline

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Katrine Tarp; Löbmann, Korbinian; Rades, Thomas; Grohganz, Holger

    2014-01-01

    Co-amorphous drug amino acid mixtures were previously shown to be a promising approach to create physically stable amorphous systems with the improved dissolution properties of poorly water-soluble drugs. The aim of this work was to expand the co-amorphous drug amino acid mixture approach by combining the model drug, naproxen (NAP), with an amino acid to physically stabilize the co-amorphous system (tryptophan, TRP, or arginine, ARG) and a second highly soluble amino acid (proline, PRO) for an additional improvement of the dissolution rate. Co-amorphous drug-amino acid blends were prepared by ball milling and investigated for solid state characteristics, stability and the dissolution rate enhancement of NAP. All co-amorphous mixtures were stable at room temperature and 40 °C for a minimum of 84 days. PRO acted as a stabilizer for the co-amorphous system, including NAP–TRP, through enhancing the molecular interactions in the form of hydrogen bonds between all three components in the mixture. A salt formation between the acidic drug, NAP, and the basic amino acid, ARG, was found in co-amorphous NAP–ARG. In comparison to crystalline NAP, binary NAP–TRP and NAP–ARG, it could be shown that the highly soluble amino acid, PRO, improved the dissolution rate of NAP from the ternary co-amorphous systems in combination with either TRP or ARG. In conclusion, both the solubility of the amino acid and potential interactions between the molecules are critical parameters to consider in the development of co-amorphous formulations. PMID:25025400

  18. Randomized clinical trial assessing whether additional massage treatments for chronic neck pain improve 12- and 26-week outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Andrea J.; Wellman, Robert D.; Cherkin, Daniel C.; Kahn, Janet R.; Sherman, Karen J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Context This is the first study to systematically evaluate the value of a longer treatment period for massage. We provide a framework of how to conceptualize an optimal dose in this challenging setting of non-pharmacological treatments. Purpose To determine the optimal dose of massage for neck pain. Study Design/Setting Two-phase randomized trial for persons with chronic non-specific neck pain. Primary randomization to one of 5 groups receiving 4 weeks of massage (30 minutes 2×/ or 3×/week or 60 minutes 1×, 2×, or 3×/week). Booster randomization of participants to receive an additional 6 massages, 60 minute 1×/week, or no additional massage. Patient Sample 179 participants from Group Health and the general population of Seattle, WA USA recruited between June 2010 and August 2011. Outcome Measures Primary outcomes self-reported neck-related dysfunction (Neck Disability Index) and pain (0–10 scale) were assessed at baseline, 12, and 26 weeks. Clinically meaningful improvement was defined as >5 point decrease in dysfunction and > 30% decrease in pain from baseline. Methods Clinically meaningful improvement for each primary outcome with both follow-up times was analyzed using adjusted modified Poisson generalized estimating equations. Secondary analyses for the continuous outcomes used linear generalized estimating equations. This study was funded the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine, NIH, USA (R01 AT004411). The funders had no role in the interpretation or reporting of results. Results There were no observed differences by primary treatment group at 12 or 26 weeks. Those receiving booster dose had improvements in both dysfunction and pain at 12 weeks (dysfunction: RR=1.56(1.08–2.25), P=0.018; pain: RR=1.25(0.98–1.61); P=0.077), but those were non-significant at 26 weeks (dysfunction: RR=1.22(0.85–1.74); pain: RR=1.09(0.82–1.43)). Subgroup analysis by primary and booster treatments found the booster dose only

  19. Toward More Substantial Theories of Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenson, Cinnamon Ann

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive linguists argue that certain sets of knowledge of language are innate. However, critics have argued that the theoretical concept of "innateness" should be eliminated since it is ambiguous and insubstantial. In response, I aim to strengthen theories of language acquisition and identify ways to make them more substantial. I…

  20. 77 FR 39452 - Substantial Business Activities; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-03

    ..., June 12, 2012 (77 FR 34887) regarding whether a foreign corporation has substantial business activities...- 107889-12), which was the subject of FR. Doc. 2012-14238, is corrected as follows: On page 34887, column.... Lyons, (202) 622-3860; and David A. Levine, (202) 622-3860, and regarding the submission of...

  1. 40 CFR 725.94 - Substantiation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... following questions must be answered: (i) What harmful effects to the company's or institution's competitive...? How substantial would the harmful effects of disclosure be? What is the causal relationship between the disclosure and the harmful effects? (ii) Has the identity of the microorganism been...

  2. 40 CFR 725.94 - Substantiation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... following questions must be answered: (i) What harmful effects to the company's or institution's competitive...? How substantial would the harmful effects of disclosure be? What is the causal relationship between the disclosure and the harmful effects? (ii) Has the identity of the microorganism been...

  3. Addition of bortezomib to standard dose chop chemotherapy improves response and survival in relapsed mantle cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Furtado, Michelle; Johnson, Rod; Kruger, Anton; Turner, Deborah; Rule, Simon

    2015-01-01

    The proteasome inhibitor, bortezomib, potentially increases cell sensitivity to chemotherapy. This study was performed to determine the overall response rate (ORR), overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS) and toxicity of CHOP (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisolone) compared to CHOP + bortezomib chemotherapy in mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) patients at first relapse. Forty-six patients were randomly assigned to standard dose CHOP ± bortezomib 1·6 mg/m(2) given on a 21-d cycle for up to eight cycles of treatment. Median age was 71 years (CHOP arm) and 69 years (CHOP-bortezomib arm). Median Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status was 1 (CHOP) and 0 (CHOP-bortezomib) with 65% and 52%, respectively, having a disease stage of IV. ORR was 47·8% (CHOP) and 82·6% (CHOP-bortezomib). Complete response rate was 21·7% (CHOP) vs. 34·8% (CHOP-bortezomib); partial response rate was 26·1% (CHOP) vs. 47·8% (CHOP-bortezomib). Median OS was 11·8 months (CHOP) and 35·6 months (CHOP-bortezomib) (P = 0·01, Hazard ratio [HR] 0·37 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0·16-0·83)] and there was a non-significant improvement in PFS: 8·1 months (CHOP) and 16·5 months (CHOP-bortezomib) [P = 0·12, HR 0·60 (95% CI 0·31-1·15)]. Severe (≥grade 3) sensory neuropathy was similar in both arms (4·3% CHOP vs. 6·5% CHOP-bortezomib). We conclude that the addition of bortezomib to CHOP chemotherapy for relapsed MCL significantly improves outcome with a manageable increase in toxicity.

  4. Sourdough fermentation or addition of organic acids or corresponding salts to bread improves nutritional properties of starch in healthy humans.

    PubMed

    Liljeberg, H G; Lönner, C H; Björck, I M

    1995-06-01

    Postprandial blood glucose and insulin responses to barley bread containing organic acids or corresponding salts were evaluated in healthy human subjects. The satiety score and the rate and extent of in vitro starch digestion were also studied. Lactic acid was generated by use of a homofermentative starter culture or added to the dough. In addition, products were baked with Ca-lactate, or with Na-propionate at two different concentrations. Consumption of the product baked with a high concentration of Na-propionate significantly lowered the postprandial blood glucose and insulin responses, and significantly prolonged the duration of satiety compared with all other breads. When subjects consumed the breads baked with sourdough, lactic acid and Na-propionate, their glucose and insulin responses were reduced compared with the wholemeal bread alone. The rate of in vitro amylolysis was reduced only by ingestion of the breads containing lactic acid, suggesting that the beneficial impact of Na-propionate on metabolic responses and satiety was related to effects other than a reduced rate of starch hydrolysis. All bread products had a similar concentration of in vitro resistant starch of 1.3-2.1 g/100 g (starch basis). It is concluded that sourdough baking and other fermentation processes may improve the nutritional features of starch. The results also demonstrate that certain salts of organic acids may have metabolic effects.

  5. Nano-Fe as feed additive improves the hematological and immunological parameters of fish, Labeo rohita H.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behera, T.; Swain, P.; Rangacharulu, P. V.; Samanta, M.

    2014-08-01

    An experiment was conducted to compare the effects of iron oxide nanoparticles ( T 1) and ferrous sulfate ( T 2) on Indian major carp, Labeo rohita H. There were significant differences ( P < 0.05) in the final weight of T 1 and T 2 compared with the control. Survival rates were not affected by the dietary treatments. Fish fed a basal diet (control) showed lower ( P < 0.05) iron content in muscle compared to T 1 and T 2. Furthermore, the highest value ( P < 0.05) of iron content was observed in T 1. In addition, RBCs and hemoglobin levels were significantly higher in T 1 as compared to other treated groups. Different innate immune parameters such as respiratory burst activity, bactericidal activity and myeloperoxidase activity were higher in nano-Fe-treated diet ( T 1) as compared to other iron source ( T 2) and control in 30 days post-feeding. Moreover, nano-Fe appeared to be more effective ( P < 0.05) than ferrous sulfate in increasing muscle iron and hemoglobin contents. Dietary administration of nano-Fe did not cause any oxidative damage, but improved antioxidant enzymatic activities (SOD and GSH level) irrespective of different iron sources in the basal diet.

  6. An evaluation of EDTA additions for improving the phytoremediation efficiency of different plants under various cultivation systems.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jie; Qi, Shihua; Gu, X W Sophie; Wang, Jinji; Xie, Xianming

    2016-05-01

    Previous studies have shown that phytoremediation usually requires soil amendments, such as chelates, to mobilize low bioavailability heavy metals for better plant absorption and, consequently, for remediation efficiency. A total dry biomass of 3.39 and 0.0138 kg per plant was produced by a phytoremediator, Eucalyptus globulus, and a nitrogen fixing crop, Cicer arietinum (chickpea), respectively. The accumulation of Pb in E. globulus and chickpea reached 1170.61 and 1.33 mg per plant (700 and 324 mg kg(-1)), respectively, under an ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) treatment, which was a five and sixfold increase over the value in untreated experiments, respectively. EDTA enhanced the phytoremediation efficiency and increased the heavy metal concentration in the soil solution. In pot experiments, approximately 27 % of the initial Pb leached from the spiked soil after EDTA and 25 mm artificial precipitation additions into soil without plants, which was considerably larger than the value under the same conditions without EDTA application (7 %). E. globulus planted in a mixed culture had higher water use efficiency than monocultures of either species in field experiments, and E. globulus intercepted almost all of the artificial precipitation in the pot experiments. This study demonstrates that E. globulus can maximize the potential of EDTA for improving the phytoremediation efficiency and minimizing its negative effects to the environment simultaneously by absorbing the metal-rich leachate, especially in a mixed culture of E. globulus and chickpeas. PMID:26846211

  7. Additive effects on the improvement of insecticidal activity: Design, synthesis, and insecticidal activity of novel pymetrozine derivatives.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yan; Liu, Yuxiu; Song, Hongjian; Li, Yongqiang; Wang, Qingmin

    2016-02-01

    A series of new pymetrozine analogues containing both methyl on the imine carbon and phenoxy group at the pyridine ring were designed and synthesized. Their insecticidal activities against bean aphid (Aphis craccivora), mosquito larvae (Culex pipiens pallens), cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera), corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis) and oriental armyworm (Mythimna separata) were evaluated. The results of bioassays indicated that most of the target compounds showed good insecticidal activity against bean aphid; especially, IIIf (80%) and IIIl (80%) exhibited higher aphicidal activity than pymetrozine (30%) at 5mg/kg, and the two compounds still showed 20% and 30% mortality at 2.5mg/kg, respectively, whereas pymetrozine displayed no activity at the same concentration. These compounds exhibited a completely different structure-activity relationship to that of known pymetrozine derivatives, in which it is thought introducing alkyl group on the imine carbon could be detrimental to the activities. Our new result suggested that the methyl on the imine carbon and phenoxy group at the pyridine ring of phenoxy group may play additive effects on the improvement of aphicidal activity. Besides this, compound IIIs, containing an allyl at the para position of phenoxy group, exhibited excellent insecticidal activity against mosquito larvae, lepidoptera pests cotton bollworm, corn borer and oriental armyworm. PMID:26342545

  8. Did the addition of concomitant chemotherapy to radiotherapy improve outcomes in hypopharyngeal cancer? A population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Hall, S.F.; Griffiths, R.

    2016-01-01

    Background For oncologists and for patients, no site-specific clinical trial evidence has emerged for the use of concurrent chemotherapy with radiotherapy (ccrt) over radiotherapy (rt) alone for cancer of the hypopharynx (hpc) or for other human papilloma virus–negative head-and-neck cancers. Methods This retrospective population-based cohort study using administrative data compared treatments over time (1990–2000 vs. 2000–2010), treatment outcomes, and outcomes over time in 1333 cases of hpc diagnosed in Ontario between January 1990 and December 2010. Results The incidence of hpc is declining; the use of ccrt that began in 2001 is increasing; and the 3-year overall survival for all patients remains poor at 34.6%. No difference in overall survival was observed in a comparison of patients treated in the decade before ccrt and of patients treated in the decade during the uptake of ccrt. Conclusions The addition of ccrt to the armamentarium of treatment options for oncologists treating head-and-neck patients did not improve outcomes for hpc at the population level. PMID:27536177

  9. Improvement of bioactivity, degradability, and cytocompatibility of biocement by addition of mesoporous magnesium silicate into sodium-magnesium phosphate cement.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yingyang; Tang, Xiaofeng; Chen, Jie; Tang, Tingting; Guo, Han; Tang, Songchao; Zhao, Liming; Ma, Xuhui; Hong, Hua; Wei, Jie

    2015-09-01

    A novel mesoporous magnesium-based cement (MBC) was fabricated by using the mixed powders of magnesium oxide, sodium dihydrogen phosphate, and mesoporous magnesium silicate (m-MS). The results indicate that the setting time and water absorption of the MBC increased as a function of increasing m-MS content, while compressive strength decreased. In addition, the degradability of the MBC in a solution of Tris-HCl and the ability of apatite formation on the MBC were significantly improved with the increase in m-MS content. In cell culture experiments, the results show that the attachment, proliferation, and alkaline phosphatase activity of the MC3T3-E1 cells on the MBC were significantly enhanced with the increase of the content of m-MS. It can be suggested that the MBC with good cytocompatibility could promote the proliferation and differentiation of the MC3T3-E1 cells. In short, our findings indicate that the MBC containing m-MS had promising potential as a new biocement for bone regeneration and repair applications. PMID:26395363

  10. Improvement of methyl orange dye biotreatment by a novel isolated strain, Aeromonas veronii GRI, by SPB1 biosurfactant addition.

    PubMed

    Mnif, Inès; Maktouf, Sameh; Fendri, Raouia; Kriaa, Mouna; Ellouze, Semia; Ghribi, Dhouha

    2016-01-01

    Aeromonas veronii GRI (KF964486), isolated from acclimated textile effluent after selective enrichment on azo dye, was assessed for methyl orange biodegradation potency. Results suggested the potential of this bacterium for use in effective treatment of azo-dye-contaminated wastewaters under static conditions at neutral and alkaline pH value, characteristic of typical textile effluents. The strain could tolerate higher doses of dyes as it was able to decolorize up to 1000 mg/l. When used as microbial surfactant to enhance methyl orange biodecolorization, Bacillus subtilis SPB1-derived lipopeptide accelerated the decolorization rate and maximized slightly the decolorization efficiency at an optimal concentration of about 0.025%. In order to enhance the process efficiency, a Taguchi design was conducted. Phytotoxicity bioassay using sesame and radish seeds were carried out to assess the biotreatment effectiveness. The bacterium was able to effectively decolorize the azo dye when inoculated with an initial optical density of about 0.5 with 0.25% sucrose, 0.125% yeast extract, 0.01% SPB1 biosurfactant, and when conducting an agitation phase of about 24 h after static incubation. Germination potency showed an increase toward the nonoptimized conditions indicating an improvement of the biotreatment. When comparing with synthetic surfactants, a drastic decrease and an inhibition of orange methyl decolorization were observed in the presence of CTAB and SDS. The nonionic surfactant Tween 80 had a positive effect on methyl orange biodecolorization. Also, studies ensured that methyl orange removal by this strain could be due to endocellular enzymatic activities. To conclude, the addition of SPB1 bioemulsifier reduced energy costs by reducing effective decolorization period, biosurfactant stimulated bacterial decolorization method may provide highly efficient, inexpensive, and time-saving procedure in treatment of textile effluents. PMID:26396008

  11. Improvement of methyl orange dye biotreatment by a novel isolated strain, Aeromonas veronii GRI, by SPB1 biosurfactant addition.

    PubMed

    Mnif, Inès; Maktouf, Sameh; Fendri, Raouia; Kriaa, Mouna; Ellouze, Semia; Ghribi, Dhouha

    2016-01-01

    Aeromonas veronii GRI (KF964486), isolated from acclimated textile effluent after selective enrichment on azo dye, was assessed for methyl orange biodegradation potency. Results suggested the potential of this bacterium for use in effective treatment of azo-dye-contaminated wastewaters under static conditions at neutral and alkaline pH value, characteristic of typical textile effluents. The strain could tolerate higher doses of dyes as it was able to decolorize up to 1000 mg/l. When used as microbial surfactant to enhance methyl orange biodecolorization, Bacillus subtilis SPB1-derived lipopeptide accelerated the decolorization rate and maximized slightly the decolorization efficiency at an optimal concentration of about 0.025%. In order to enhance the process efficiency, a Taguchi design was conducted. Phytotoxicity bioassay using sesame and radish seeds were carried out to assess the biotreatment effectiveness. The bacterium was able to effectively decolorize the azo dye when inoculated with an initial optical density of about 0.5 with 0.25% sucrose, 0.125% yeast extract, 0.01% SPB1 biosurfactant, and when conducting an agitation phase of about 24 h after static incubation. Germination potency showed an increase toward the nonoptimized conditions indicating an improvement of the biotreatment. When comparing with synthetic surfactants, a drastic decrease and an inhibition of orange methyl decolorization were observed in the presence of CTAB and SDS. The nonionic surfactant Tween 80 had a positive effect on methyl orange biodecolorization. Also, studies ensured that methyl orange removal by this strain could be due to endocellular enzymatic activities. To conclude, the addition of SPB1 bioemulsifier reduced energy costs by reducing effective decolorization period, biosurfactant stimulated bacterial decolorization method may provide highly efficient, inexpensive, and time-saving procedure in treatment of textile effluents.

  12. Additional Saturday rehabilitation improves functional independence and quality of life and reduces length of stay: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    control group participants. Intervention group participants were 17% more likely to have achieved a clinically significant change in functional independence of 22 FIM points or more (risk ratio (RR) 1.17, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.34) and 18% more likely to have achieved a clinically significant change in health-related quality of life (RR 1.18, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.34) on discharge compared to the control group. There was some maintenance of effect for functional independence and health-related quality of life at 6-month follow-up but not at 12-month follow-up. There was no difference in the number of adverse events between the groups (incidence rate ratio = 0.81, 95% CI 0.61 to 1.08). Conclusions Providing an additional day of rehabilitation improved functional independence and health-related quality of life at discharge and may have reduced length of stay for patients receiving inpatient rehabilitation. Trial registration Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12609000973213 Please see related commentary: http://www.biomedcentral.com/10.1186/1741-7015-11-199. PMID:24228854

  13. Does Pluto have a substantial atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Trafton, L.

    1980-01-01

    The presence of CH4 ice on Pluto implies that Pluto may have a substantial atmosphere consisting of heavy gases. Without such an atmosphere, sublimation of the CH4 ice would be so rapid on a cosmogonic time scale that either such an atmosphere would soon develop through the exposure of gases trapped in the CH4 ice or else the surface CH4 ice would soon be all sublimated away as other, more stable, ices became exposed. If such stable ices were present from the beginning, the existence of CH4 frosts would also imply that Pluto's present atmosphere contains a remnant of its primordial atmosphere.

  14. Addition of an organic amendment and/or residue mud to bauxite residue sand in order to improve its properties as a growth medium.

    PubMed

    Jones, B E H; Haynes, R J; Phillips, I R

    2012-03-01

    The effects of addition of carbonated residue mud (RMC) or seawater neutralized residue mud (RMS), at two rates, in the presence or absence of added green waste compost, on the chemical, physical and microbial properties of gypsum-treated bauxite residue sand were studied in a laboratory incubation study. The growth of two species commonly used in revegetation of residue sand (Lolium rigidum and Acacia saligna) in the treatments was then studied in a 18-week greenhouse study. Addition of green waste-based compost increased ammonium acetate-extractable (exchangeable) Mg, K and Na. Addition of residue mud at 5 and 10% w/w reduced exchangeable Ca but increased that of Mg and Na (and K for RMS). Concentrations of K, Na, Mg and level of EC in saturation paste extracts were increased by residue mud additions. Concentrations of cations in water extracts were considerably higher than those in saturation paste extracts but trends with treatment were broadly similar. Addition of both compost and residue mud caused a significant decrease in macroporosity with a concomitant increase in mesoporosity and microporosity, available water holding capacity and the quantity of water held at field capacity. Increasing rates of added residue mud reduced the percentage of sample present as discrete sand particles and increased that in aggregated form (particularly in the 1-2 and >10mm diameter ranges). Organic C content, C/N ratio, soluble organic C, microbial biomass C and basal respiration were increased by compost additions. Where compost was added, residue mud additions caused a substantial increase in microbial biomass and basal respiration. L. rigidum grew satisfactorily in all treatments although yields tended to be reduced by additions of mud (especially RMC) particularly in the absence of added compost. Growth of A. saligna was poor in sand alone and mud-amended sand and was greatly promoted by additions of compost. However, in the presence of compost, addition of carbonated

  15. Improvement of corrosion resistance of high-velocity oxyfuel-sprayed stainless steel coatings by addition of molybdenum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawakita, Jin; Kuroda, Seiji; Fukushima, Takeshi; Kodama, Toshiaki

    2005-06-01

    To improve the marine corrosion resistance of stainless steel coatings fabricated by high-velocity oxyfuel (HVOF) spraying with a gas shroud attachment, the molybdenum (Mo) content of stainless steel was increased to form coatings with a chemical composition of Fe balance-18mass%Cr-22mass%Ni-2˜8mass%Mo. These coatings were highly dense, with <0.1 vol.% in porosity, and less oxidized, with 0.5 mass% in oxygen content at most. The corrosion mechanism and resistance of the coatings were investigated by electrochemical measurement, chemical analysis, and statistical processing. The general corrosion resistance of the coatings in 0.5 mol/dm3 sulfuric acid was improved with increases in Mo content, and the corrosion rate could be decreased to 8.8 × 10-2 mg/cm2 per hour (˜1 mm/year) at 8 mass% Mo. The pitting corrosion resistance of the coatings in artificial seawater was improved with increases in Mo content and was superior to that of the 316L stainless steel coating. The crevice corrosion resistance of the coatings in artificial seawater was improved and the number of rust spots at 4 mass% Mo was decreased to 38% of that for the 316L coating. Accordingly, Mo is highly effective in improving the corrosion resistance of the stainless steel coatings by HVOF spraying.

  16. Improvement in antioxidant functionality and shelf life of yukwa (fried rice snack) by turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) powder addition.

    PubMed

    Lim, Seung-Taik; Han, Jung-Ah

    2016-05-15

    The physico-chemical, oxidative and sensory characteristics of fried rice snack, yukwa with different amounts of turmeric powder (Curcuma longa) were investigated. The moisture content of the pallet ranged from 16.47% to 19.84%. After frying the pallet, a slight decrease in the degree of expansion was obtained with increasing turmeric powder content. The textural properties of yukwa were not changed until the turmeric powder content reached 5%; however, over 8% addition induced a decrease in the hardness and an increase in the crispiness. Oxidative deterioration was effectively inhibited by turmeric powder addition, and more turmeric powder in yukwa led to higher free radical scavenging activity. Based on the sensory characteristics, a 5% addition of turmeric powder was the most acceptable for the yukwa product. In the correlation results among variables, the moisture content of the pallet proved to be the most important factor for yukwa quality. PMID:26776012

  17. Improvement in antioxidant functionality and shelf life of yukwa (fried rice snack) by turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) powder addition.

    PubMed

    Lim, Seung-Taik; Han, Jung-Ah

    2016-05-15

    The physico-chemical, oxidative and sensory characteristics of fried rice snack, yukwa with different amounts of turmeric powder (Curcuma longa) were investigated. The moisture content of the pallet ranged from 16.47% to 19.84%. After frying the pallet, a slight decrease in the degree of expansion was obtained with increasing turmeric powder content. The textural properties of yukwa were not changed until the turmeric powder content reached 5%; however, over 8% addition induced a decrease in the hardness and an increase in the crispiness. Oxidative deterioration was effectively inhibited by turmeric powder addition, and more turmeric powder in yukwa led to higher free radical scavenging activity. Based on the sensory characteristics, a 5% addition of turmeric powder was the most acceptable for the yukwa product. In the correlation results among variables, the moisture content of the pallet proved to be the most important factor for yukwa quality.

  18. Early childhood investments substantially boost adult health.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Frances; Conti, Gabriella; Heckman, James J; Moon, Seong Hyeok; Pinto, Rodrigo; Pungello, Elizabeth; Pan, Yi

    2014-03-28

    High-quality early childhood programs have been shown to have substantial benefits in reducing crime, raising earnings, and promoting education. Much less is known about their benefits for adult health. We report on the long-term health effects of one of the oldest and most heavily cited early childhood interventions with long-term follow-up evaluated by the method of randomization: the Carolina Abecedarian Project (ABC). Using recently collected biomedical data, we find that disadvantaged children randomly assigned to treatment have significantly lower prevalence of risk factors for cardiovascular and metabolic diseases in their mid-30s. The evidence is especially strong for males. The mean systolic blood pressure among the control males is 143 millimeters of mercury (mm Hg), whereas it is only 126 mm Hg among the treated. One in four males in the control group is affected by metabolic syndrome, whereas none in the treatment group are affected. To reach these conclusions, we address several statistical challenges. We use exact permutation tests to account for small sample sizes and conduct a parallel bootstrap confidence interval analysis to confirm the permutation analysis. We adjust inference to account for the multiple hypotheses tested and for nonrandom attrition. Our evidence shows the potential of early life interventions for preventing disease and promoting health. PMID:24675955

  19. Substantial bulk photovoltaic effect enhancement via nanolayering

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Fenggong; Young, Steve M.; Zheng, Fan; Grinberg, Ilya; Rappe, Andrew M.

    2016-01-21

    Spontaneous polarization and inversion symmetry breaking in ferroelectric materials lead to their use as photovoltaic devices. However, further advancement of their applications are hindered by the paucity of ways of reducing bandgaps and enhancing photocurrent. By unravelling the correlation between ferroelectric materials’ responses to solar irradiation and their local structure and electric polarization landscapes, here we show from first principles that substantial bulk photovoltaic effect enhancement can be achieved by nanolayering PbTiO3 with nickel ions and oxygen vacancies ((PbNiO2)x(PbTiO3)1–x). The enhancement of the total photocurrent for different spacings between the Ni-containing layers can be as high as 43 times duemore » to a smaller bandgap and photocurrent direction alignment for all absorption energies. This is due to the electrostatic effect that arises from nanolayering. Lastly, this opens up the possibility for control of the bulk photovoltaic effect in ferroelectric materials by nanoscale engineering of their structure and composition.« less

  20. Substantial bulk photovoltaic effect enhancement via nanolayering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fenggong; Young, Steve M.; Zheng, Fan; Grinberg, Ilya; Rappe, Andrew M.

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous polarization and inversion symmetry breaking in ferroelectric materials lead to their use as photovoltaic devices. However, further advancement of their applications are hindered by the paucity of ways of reducing bandgaps and enhancing photocurrent. By unravelling the correlation between ferroelectric materials' responses to solar irradiation and their local structure and electric polarization landscapes, here we show from first principles that substantial bulk photovoltaic effect enhancement can be achieved by nanolayering PbTiO3 with nickel ions and oxygen vacancies ((PbNiO2)x(PbTiO3)1-x). The enhancement of the total photocurrent for different spacings between the Ni-containing layers can be as high as 43 times due to a smaller bandgap and photocurrent direction alignment for all absorption energies. This is due to the electrostatic effect that arises from nanolayering. This opens up the possibility for control of the bulk photovoltaic effect in ferroelectric materials by nanoscale engineering of their structure and composition.

  1. Substantial bulk photovoltaic effect enhancement via nanolayering

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fenggong; Young, Steve M.; Zheng, Fan; Grinberg, Ilya; Rappe, Andrew M.

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous polarization and inversion symmetry breaking in ferroelectric materials lead to their use as photovoltaic devices. However, further advancement of their applications are hindered by the paucity of ways of reducing bandgaps and enhancing photocurrent. By unravelling the correlation between ferroelectric materials' responses to solar irradiation and their local structure and electric polarization landscapes, here we show from first principles that substantial bulk photovoltaic effect enhancement can be achieved by nanolayering PbTiO3 with nickel ions and oxygen vacancies ((PbNiO2)x(PbTiO3)1−x). The enhancement of the total photocurrent for different spacings between the Ni-containing layers can be as high as 43 times due to a smaller bandgap and photocurrent direction alignment for all absorption energies. This is due to the electrostatic effect that arises from nanolayering. This opens up the possibility for control of the bulk photovoltaic effect in ferroelectric materials by nanoscale engineering of their structure and composition. PMID:26791545

  2. Substantial bulk photovoltaic effect enhancement via nanolayering.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fenggong; Young, Steve M; Zheng, Fan; Grinberg, Ilya; Rappe, Andrew M

    2016-01-21

    Spontaneous polarization and inversion symmetry breaking in ferroelectric materials lead to their use as photovoltaic devices. However, further advancement of their applications are hindered by the paucity of ways of reducing bandgaps and enhancing photocurrent. By unravelling the correlation between ferroelectric materials' responses to solar irradiation and their local structure and electric polarization landscapes, here we show from first principles that substantial bulk photovoltaic effect enhancement can be achieved by nanolayering PbTiO3 with nickel ions and oxygen vacancies ((PbNiO2)x(PbTiO3)(1-x)). The enhancement of the total photocurrent for different spacings between the Ni-containing layers can be as high as 43 times due to a smaller bandgap and photocurrent direction alignment for all absorption energies. This is due to the electrostatic effect that arises from nanolayering. This opens up the possibility for control of the bulk photovoltaic effect in ferroelectric materials by nanoscale engineering of their structure and composition.

  3. Substantial nitrogen pollution embedded in international trade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oita, Azusa; Malik, Arunima; Kanemoto, Keiichiro; Geschke, Arne; Nishijima, Shota; Lenzen, Manfred

    2016-02-01

    Anthropogenic emissions of reactive nitrogen to the atmosphere and water bodies can damage human health and ecosystems. As a measure of a nation’s contribution to this potential damage, a country’s nitrogen footprint has been defined as the quantity of reactive nitrogen emitted during the production, consumption and transportation of commodities consumed within that country, whether those commodities are produced domestically or internationally. Here we use global emissions databases, a global nitrogen cycle model, and a global input-output database of domestic and international trade to calculate the nitrogen footprints for 188 countries as the sum of emissions of ammonia, nitrogen oxides and nitrous oxide to the atmosphere, and of nitrogen potentially exportable to water bodies. Per-capita footprints range from under 7 kg N yr-1 in some developing countries to over 100 kg N yr-1 in some wealthy nations. Consumption in China, India, the United States and Brazil is responsible for 46% of global emissions. Roughly a quarter of the global nitrogen footprint is from commodities that were traded across country borders. The main net exporters have significant agricultural, food and textile exports, and are often developing countries, whereas important net importers are almost exclusively developed economies. We conclude that substantial local nitrogen pollution is driven by demand from consumers in other countries.

  4. Improving Classroom Performance in Underachieving Preadolescents: The Additive Effects of Response Cost to a School-Home Note System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCain, Alyson P.; Kelley, Mary Lou

    1994-01-01

    Compared the effectiveness of a school-home note with and without response cost on the disruptive and on-task behavior of three preadolescents. Inclusion of response cost was associated with marked improvements in attentiveness and stabilization of disruptive behavior as compared with that obtained with a traditional school-home note. (LKS)

  5. 26 CFR 1.6662-4 - Substantial understatement of income tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Substantial understatement of income tax. 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Additions to the Tax, Additional Amounts, and Assessable Penalties § 1.6662-4 Substantial understatement of income tax. (a) In general. If any portion...

  6. Improved operating scenarios of the DIII-D tokamak as a result of the addition of UNIX computer systems

    SciTech Connect

    Henline, P.A.

    1995-10-01

    The increased use of UNIX based computer systems for machine control, data handling and analysis has greatly enhanced the operating scenarios and operating efficiency of the DRI-D tokamak. This paper will describe some of these UNIX systems and their specific uses. These include the plasma control system, the electron cyclotron heating control system, the analysis of electron temperature and density measurements and the general data acquisition system (which is collecting over 130 Mbytes of data). The speed and total capability of these systems has dramatically affected the ability to operate DIII-D. The improved operating scenarios include better plasma shape control due to the more thorough MHD calculations done between shots and the new ability to see the time dependence of profile data as it relates across different spatial locations in the tokamak. Other analysis which engenders improved operating abilities will be described.

  7. An improved UPLC method for the detection of undeclared horse meat addition by using myoglobin as molecular marker.

    PubMed

    Di Giuseppe, Antonella M A; Giarretta, Nicola; Lippert, Martina; Severino, Valeria; Di Maro, Antimo

    2015-02-15

    In 2013, following the scandal of the presence of undeclared horse meat in various processed beef products across the Europe, several researches have been undertaken for the safety of consumer health. In this framework, an improved UPLC separation method has been developed to detect the presence of horse myoglobin in raw meat samples. The separation of both horse and beef myoglobins was achieved in only seven minutes. The methodology was improved by preparing mixtures with different composition percentages of horse and beef meat. By using myoglobin as marker, low amounts (0.50mg/0.50g, w/w; ∼0.1%) of horse meat can be detected and quantified in minced raw meat samples with high reproducibility and sensitivity, thus offering a valid alternative to conventional PCR techniques.

  8. Comments on 'Improved delay-dependent stability criteria for continuous systems with two additive time-varying delay components'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramakrishnan, K.; Venkatachalam, V.; Ray, G.

    2015-07-01

    In this write-up, comments on the omission of few important inequality conditions (or constraints) in the LMI optimization problem stated as delay-dependent stability criterion for a class of linear systems with two additive time-varying state-delays in Cheng et al. (2014) is reported. The omission paves way to incorrectness of the published result. The consequence of the omission, and the revised result are presented in the sequel.

  9. Improvement of stability and carotenoids fraction of virgin olive oils by addition of microalgae Scenedesmus almeriensis extracts.

    PubMed

    Limón, Piedad; Malheiro, Ricardo; Casal, Susana; Acién-Fernández, F Gabriel; Fernández-Sevilla, José M; Rodrigues, Nuno; Cruz, Rebeca; Bermejo, Ruperto; Pereira, José Alberto

    2015-05-15

    Humans are not capable of synthesizing carotenoids de novo and thus, their presence in human tissues is entirely of dietary origin. Consumption of essential carotenoids is reduced due to the lower intake of fruits and vegetables. Microalgae are a good source of carotenoids that can be exploited. In the present work, carotenoids rich extracts from Scenedesmus almeriensis were added to extra-virgin olive oils at different concentrations (0.1 and 0.21 mg/mL) in order to enhance the consumption of these bioactives. Extracts brought changes in olive oils color, turning them orange-reddish. Quality of olive oils was improved, since peroxidation was inhibited. Olive oils fatty acids and tocopherols were not affected. β-carotene and lutein contents increase considerably, as well as oxidative stability, improving olive oils shelf-life and nutritional value. Inclusion of S. almeriensis extracts is a good strategy to improve and enhance the consumption of carotenoids, since olive oil consumption is increasing.

  10. 20 CFR 220.141 - Substantial gainful activity, defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) Substantial work activity. Substantial work activity is work activity that involves doing significant physical... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Substantial gainful activity, defined. 220... RETIREMENT ACT DETERMINING DISABILITY Substantial Gainful Activity § 220.141 Substantial gainful...

  11. 20 CFR 220.141 - Substantial gainful activity, defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) Substantial work activity. Substantial work activity is work activity that involves doing significant physical... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Substantial gainful activity, defined. 220... RETIREMENT ACT DETERMINING DISABILITY Substantial Gainful Activity § 220.141 Substantial gainful...

  12. Optimization of the CHARMM additive force field for DNA: Improved treatment of the BI/BII conformational equilibrium.

    PubMed

    Hart, Katarina; Foloppe, Nicolas; Baker, Christopher M; Denning, Elizabeth J; Nilsson, Lennart; Mackerell, Alexander D

    2012-01-10

    The B-form of DNA can populate two different backbone conformations: BI and BII, defined by the difference between the torsion angles ε and ζ (BI = ε-ζ < 0 and BII = ε-ζ > 0). BI is the most populated state, but the population of the BII state, which is sequence dependent, is significant and accumulating evidence shows that BII affects the overall structure of DNA, and thus influences protein-DNA recognition. This work presents a reparametrization of the CHARMM27 additive nucleic acid force field to increase the sampling of the BII form in MD simulations of DNA. In addition, minor modifications of sugar puckering were introduced to facilitate sampling of the A form of DNA under the appropriate environmental conditions. Parameter optimization was guided by quantum mechanical data on model compounds, followed by calculations on several DNA duplexes in the condensed phase. The selected optimized parameters were then validated against a number of DNA duplexes, with the most extensive tests performed on the EcoRI dodecamer, including comparative calculations using the Amber Parm99bsc0 force field. The new CHARMM model better reproduces experimentally observed sampling of the BII conformation, including sampling as a function of sequence. In addition, the model reproduces the A form of the 1ZF1 duplex in 75 % ethanol, and yields a stable Z-DNA conformation of duplex (GTACGTAC) in its crystal environment. The resulting model, in combination with a recent reoptimization of the CHARMM27 force field for RNA, will be referred to as CHARMM36.

  13. [Substantiation of active surgical tactics for patients with puerperal endometritis].

    PubMed

    Nikonov, A P; Ankirskaia, A S

    1991-01-01

    An active surgical tactics for managing patients (uterine wash and its cavity content vacuum aspiration) was applied in 34 patients with postnatal endometritis. Echography and hysteroscopy demonstrated that in 28 of 34 patients, the endometritis developed in the presence of pathological involvements into the uterine cavity, which made the use of surgical endometrial treatment justifiable. In addition, the surgical treatment substantially decreased the bacterial dissemination of the content in the uterine cavity. The proposed procedure enabled uterine extirpation to be avoided in 5 of 6 patients with partial suture inadequacy. PMID:2042714

  14. The improved mechanical properties of β-CaSiO3 bioceramics with Si3N4 addition.

    PubMed

    Pan, Ying; Zuo, Kaihui; Yao, Dongxu; Yin, Jinwei; Xin, Yunchuan; Xia, Yongfeng; Liang, Hanqin; Zeng, Yuping

    2015-03-01

    The motivation of this study is to investigate the effect of Si3N4 addition on the sinterability of β-CaSiO3 ceramics. β-CaSiO3 ceramics with different content of Si3N4 were prepared at the sintering temperature ranging from 1000°C to 1150°C. The results showed that Si3N4 can be successfully used as sintering additive by being oxidized to form SiO2. The β-CaSiO3 ceramics with 3wt% Si3N4 sintered at 1100°C revealed flexural strength, hardness and fracture toughness of 157.2MPa, 4.4GPa and 2.3MPam(1/2) respectively, which was much higher than that of pure β-CaSiO3 ceramics (41.1MPa, 1.0GPa, 1.1MPam(1/2)). XRD analysis and SEM observation indicated that the main phase maintained to be β-phase after sintering. PMID:26580024

  15. Appropriate Fe (II) Addition Significantly Enhances Anaerobic Ammonium Oxidation (Anammox) Activity through Improving the Bacterial Growth Rate

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yiwen; Ni, Bing-Jie

    2015-01-01

    The application of anaerobic ammonium oxidation (Anammox) process is often limited by the slow growth rate of Anammox bacteria. As the essential substrate element that required for culturing Anammox sludge, Fe (II) is expected to affect Anammox bacterial growth. This work systematically studied the effects of Fe (II) addition on Anammox activity based on the kinetic analysis of specific growth rate using data from batch tests with an enriched Anammox sludge at different dosing levels. Results clearly demonstrated that appropriate Fe (II) dosing (i.e., 0.09 mM) significantly enhanced the specific Anammox growth rate up to 0.172 d−1 compared to 0.118 d−1 at regular Fe (II) level (0.03 mM). The relationship between Fe (II) concentration and specific Anammox growth rate was found to be well described by typical substrate inhibition kinetics, which was integrated into currently well-established Anammox model to describe the enhanced Anammox growth with Fe (II) addition. The validity of the integrated Anammox model was verified using long-term experimental data from three independent Anammox reactors with different Fe (II) dosing levels. This Fe (II)-based approach could be potentially implemented to enhance the process rate for possible mainstream application of Anammox technology, in order for an energy autarchic wastewater treatment. PMID:25644239

  16. Appropriate Fe (II) Addition Significantly Enhances Anaerobic Ammonium Oxidation (Anammox) Activity through Improving the Bacterial Growth Rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yiwen; Ni, Bing-Jie

    2015-02-01

    The application of anaerobic ammonium oxidation (Anammox) process is often limited by the slow growth rate of Anammox bacteria. As the essential substrate element that required for culturing Anammox sludge, Fe (II) is expected to affect Anammox bacterial growth. This work systematically studied the effects of Fe (II) addition on Anammox activity based on the kinetic analysis of specific growth rate using data from batch tests with an enriched Anammox sludge at different dosing levels. Results clearly demonstrated that appropriate Fe (II) dosing (i.e., 0.09 mM) significantly enhanced the specific Anammox growth rate up to 0.172 d-1 compared to 0.118 d-1 at regular Fe (II) level (0.03 mM). The relationship between Fe (II) concentration and specific Anammox growth rate was found to be well described by typical substrate inhibition kinetics, which was integrated into currently well-established Anammox model to describe the enhanced Anammox growth with Fe (II) addition. The validity of the integrated Anammox model was verified using long-term experimental data from three independent Anammox reactors with different Fe (II) dosing levels. This Fe (II)-based approach could be potentially implemented to enhance the process rate for possible mainstream application of Anammox technology, in order for an energy autarchic wastewater treatment.

  17. Appropriate Fe (II) addition significantly enhances anaerobic ammonium oxidation (Anammox) activity through improving the bacterial growth rate.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yiwen; Ni, Bing-Jie

    2015-01-01

    The application of anaerobic ammonium oxidation (Anammox) process is often limited by the slow growth rate of Anammox bacteria. As the essential substrate element that required for culturing Anammox sludge, Fe (II) is expected to affect Anammox bacterial growth. This work systematically studied the effects of Fe (II) addition on Anammox activity based on the kinetic analysis of specific growth rate using data from batch tests with an enriched Anammox sludge at different dosing levels. Results clearly demonstrated that appropriate Fe (II) dosing (i.e., 0.09 mM) significantly enhanced the specific Anammox growth rate up to 0.172 d(-1) compared to 0.118 d(-1) at regular Fe (II) level (0.03 mM). The relationship between Fe (II) concentration and specific Anammox growth rate was found to be well described by typical substrate inhibition kinetics, which was integrated into currently well-established Anammox model to describe the enhanced Anammox growth with Fe (II) addition. The validity of the integrated Anammox model was verified using long-term experimental data from three independent Anammox reactors with different Fe (II) dosing levels. This Fe (II)-based approach could be potentially implemented to enhance the process rate for possible mainstream application of Anammox technology, in order for an energy autarchic wastewater treatment. PMID:25644239

  18. Improved Bioactivity of Antimicrobial Peptides by Addition of Amino-Terminal Copper and Nickel (ATCUN) Binding Motifs

    PubMed Central

    Libardo, M. Daben; Cervantes, Jorge L.; Salazar, Juan C.; Angeles-Boza, Alfredo M.

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are promising candidates to help circumvent antibiotic resistance, which is an increasing clinical problem. Amino-terminal copper and nickel (ATCUN) binding motifs are known to actively form reactive oxygen species (ROS) upon metal binding. The combination of these two peptidic constructs could lead to a novel class of dual-acting antimicrobial agents. To test this hypothesis, a set of ATCUN binding motifs were screened for their ability to induce ROS formation, and the most potent were then used to modify AMPs with different modes of action. ATCUN binding motif-containing derivatives of anoplin (GLLKRIKTLL-NH2), pro-apoptotic peptide (PAP; KLAKLAKKLAKLAK-NH2), and sh-buforin (RAGLQFPVGRVHRLLRK-NH2) were synthesized and found to be more active than the parent AMPs against a panel of clinically relevant bacteria. The lower minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values for the ATCUN-anoplin peptides are attributed to the higher pore-forming activity along with their ability to cause ROS-induced membrane damage. The addition of the ATCUN motifs to PAP also increases its ability to disrupt membranes. DNA damage is the major contributor to the activity of the ATCUN-sh-buforin peptides. Our findings indicate that the addition of ATCUN motifs to AMPs is a simple strategy that leads to AMPs with higher antibacterial activity and possibly to more potent, usable antibacterial agents. PMID:24803240

  19. Improvement in perception of image sharpness through the addition of noise and its relationship with memory texture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Xiazi; Kobayashi, Hiroyuki; Aoki, Naokazu

    2015-03-01

    In a preceding study, we investigated the effects of image noise on the perception of image sharpness using white noise, and one- and two-dimensional single-frequency sinusoidal patterns as stimuli. This study extends our preceding study by evaluating natural color images, rather than black-and-white patterns. The results showed that the effect of noise in improving image sharpness perception is more evident in blurred images than in sharp images. This is consistent with the results of the preceding study. In another preceding study, we proposed "memory texture" to explain the preferred granularity of images, as a concept similar to "memory color" for preferred color reproduction. We observed individual differences in type of memory texture for each object, that is, white or 1/f noise. This study discusses the relationship between improvement of sharpness perception by adding noise, and the memory texture, following its individual differences. We found that memory texture is one of the elements that affect sharpness perception.

  20. Flue gas conditioning for improved particle collection in electrostatic precipitators. Second topical report, Results of bench-scale screening of additives

    SciTech Connect

    Durham, M.D.

    1993-08-13

    ADA Technologies, Inc. (ADA) has completed the bench-scale testing phase of a program to evaluate additives that will improve the collection of fine particles in electrostatic precipitators (ESPs). A bench-scale ESP was installed at the Consolidation Coal Company (CONSOL) combustion research and development facility in Library, PA in order to conduct the evaluation. During a two-week test, four candidate additives were injected into the flue gas ahead of a 100 acfm ESP to determine the effect on fly ash collectability. Two additives were found to reduce the emissions from the ESP. Additives ``C`` and ``D`` performed better than initially anticipated -- reducing emissions initially by 17%. Emissions were reduced by 27% after the ESP was modified by the installation of baffles to minimize sneakage. In addition to the measured improvements in performance, no detrimental effects (i.e., electrode fouling) were observed in the operation of the ESP during the testing. The measures of success identified for the bench-scale phase of the program have been surpassed. Since the additives will affect only non-rapping reentrainment particle losses, it is expected that an even greater improvement in particle collection will be observed in larger-scale ESPs. Therefore, positive results are anticipated during the pilot-scale phase of the program and during a future full-scale demonstration test. A preliminary economic analysis was performed to evaluate the cost of the additive process and to compare its costs against alternative means for reducing emissions from ESPs. The results show that conditioning with additive C at a rate of 0.05% (wt. additive to wt. fly ash) is much less expensive than adding new ESP capacity, and more cost competitive than existing chemical conditioning processes. Preliminary chemical analysis of conditioned fly ash shows that it passes the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure criteria.

  1. Improvement of Frozen Storage Tolerance by the Addition of Sugar in Dusky Spinefoot, Lizard fish and Horse mackerel Surimi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawashima, Akane; Hamada, Yuki; Kusano, Sawa; Osako, Kazufumi; Tachibana, Katsuyasu; Nozaki, Yukinori

    The effects of three different sugars (sucrose, trehalose, sorbitol, at 5%) were analyzed and compared against a control for frozen surimi (-25 °C) made from dusky spinefoot, lizard fish and horse mackerel, for a total storage period of 180 days. Kamaboko was prepared at defined time intervals, and its jelly strength (J.S.), water holding capacity (W.H.C.), and whiteness, and the total Ca-ATPase activity of surimi were analyzed. Present results showed that all parameters of sugar free control samples decreased faster than those of sugar added samples during frozen storage.Sugar resulted a good additive for long time surimi conservation for all the species analyzed.

  2. The Evaluation of Triphenyl Phosphate as a Flame Retardant Additive to Improve the Safety of Lithium-Ion Battery Electrolytes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smart, M. C.; Krause, F. C.; Hwang, C.; Westa, W. C.; Soler, J.; Prakash, G. K. S.; Ratnakumar, B. V.

    2011-01-01

    NASA is actively pursuing the development of advanced electrochemical energy storage and conversion devices for future lunar and Mars missions. The Exploration Technology Development Program, Energy Storage Project is sponsoring the development of advanced Li-ion batteries and PEM fuel cell and regenerative fuel cell systems for the Altair Lunar Lander, Extravehicular Activities (EVA), and rovers and as the primary energy storage system for Lunar Surface Systems. At JPL, in collaboration with NASA-GRC, NASA-JSC and industry, we are actively developing advanced Li-ion batteries with improved specific energy, energy density and safety. One effort is focused upon developing Li-ion battery electrolyte with enhanced safety characteristics (i.e., low flammability). A number of commercial applications also require Li-ion batteries with enhanced safety, especially for automotive applications.

  3. Improving high temperature creep resistance of reduced activation steels by addition of nitrogen and intermediate heat treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, W. B.; Zhang, C.; Xia, Z. X.; Yang, Z. G.

    2014-12-01

    In the present study, we report an enhanced high-temperature creep resistance in reduced activation ferrite/martensite (RAFM) steels, by introducing nitrogen (0.035 wt%, M3 steel) and employing a novel intermediate heat treatment I-Q-T (intermediate treatment, quenching and tempering). In comparison with all the control groups, the uniaxial tests of the I-Q-T treated M3 steel showed significant increase in rupture time and decrease in elongation. The microstructures of the samples were further characterized to elucidate the origin of the enhanced creep resistance. It is found that, by introducing nitrogen, the primary TaC particles were refined; by employing the I-Q-T heat treatment, the dispersed fine secondary MX precipitates, as well as the lath subgrains containing high-density dislocations, were increased: all are responsible for the improved creep resistance.

  4. Addition of n-butyl cyanoacrylate to classic transarterial chemoembolization may improve the radiological response in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Monsignore, Lucas Moretti; Elias-Junior, Jorge; Muglia, Valdair Francisco; Teixeira, Andreza Correa; Mente, Enio David; de Lourdes Candolo Martinelli, Ana; Abud, Daniel Giansante

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Transarterial chemoembolization is the treatment of choice for intermediate-stage hepatocellular carcinoma. However, there are no clear data supporting transarterial chemoembolization vs. transarterial embolization or regarding the best chemotherapeutic agent, which may suggest a preponderant role of ischemia over chemotherapeutic action. This study sought to evaluate the radiological response and outcome of transarterial chemoembolization modified by n-butyl cyanoacrylate addition compared to conventional transarterial chemoembolization in hepatocellular carcinoma patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective review identified forty-seven patients who underwent modified chemoembolization and thirty-three who underwent conventional chemoembolization between June 2006 and December 2011. The radiological response was reassessed using the modified Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors. The sustained complete response, time to progression and overall survival rates were also analyzed. RESULTS: Complete response rates were significantly higher in patients who had undergone modified chemoembolization compared to those who had undergone conventional treatment (61.7% and 24.3%, respectively; p<0.001). The rate of sustained complete response was significantly higher in the modified chemoembolization group compared to the conventional chemoembolization group (median of 236 and 37 days, respectively; p<0.001). Time to progression was significantly higher in the modified chemoembolization group compared to the conventional chemoembolization group (median of 424 and 201 days, respectively; p=0.042). Overall survival rates revealed no difference between patients who received modified chemoembolization and conventional chemoembolization (median of 483 and 399 days, respectively; p=0.316). CONCLUSION: Transarterial chemoembolization modified by n-butyl cyanoacrylate addition was superior to conventional transarterial chemoembolization in terms of the

  5. Addition of immunosuppressive treatment to hemoperfusion is associated with improved survival after paraquat poisoning: a nationwide study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wen-Pyng; Lai, Ming-Nan; Lin, Ching-Heng; Li, Yu-Fen; Lin, Ching-Yuang; Wu, Ming-Ju

    2014-01-01

    Paraquat poisoning associates very high mortality rate. Early treatment with hemoperfusion is strongly suggested by animal and human studies. Although the survival benefit of additional immunosuppressive treatment (IST) in combination with hemoperfusion is also reported since 1971, the large-scale randomized control trials to confirm the effects of IST is difficult to be executed. Therefore, we designed this nationwide large-scale population-based retrospective cohort study to investigate the outcome of paraquat poisoning with hemoperfusion and the additional effects of IST combined with hemoperfusion. This nationwide retrospective cohort study utilized data retrieved from the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) of Taiwan. A total of 1811 hospitalized patients with a diagnosis of paraquat poisoning who received hemoperfusion between 1997 and 2009 were enrolled. The mean age of all 1811 study subjects was 47.3 years. 70% was male. The overall survival rate was only 26.4%. Respiratory failure and renal failure were diagnosed in 56.2% and 36% patients. The average frequency of hemoperfusion was twice. IST was added in 42.2% patients. IST significantly increases survival rate (from 24.3% to 29.3%, P<0.001). The combined IST with methylprednisolone, cyclophosphamide and dexamethasone associates with the highest survival rate (48%, P<0.001). Moreover, patients younger than 45 years of age in the IST group had the best survival (41.0% vs. 33.7%, p<0.001). Our results support the use of IST with hemoperfusion for paraquat-poisoned patients. The best survival effect of IST is the combination of methylprednisolone, cyclophosphamide and daily dexamethasone, especially in patients with younger age.

  6. Case study I: application of the divalent cation bridging theory to improve biofloc properties and industrial activated sludge system performance-direct addition of divalent cations.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Matthew J; Tom, Lou Ann; Sobeck, David C

    2004-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine the application of the divalent cation bridging theory (DCBT) to improve settling, dewatering, and effluent quality in pilot-scale reactors and a full-scale system treating an industrial wastewater. This was accomplished by lowering the monovalent-to-divalent (M/D) cation ratio by direct divalent cation addition. Research has shown that the M/D ratio is a potential indicator for settling and dewatering problems at wastewater treatment plants, and M/D ratios above 2 have been associated with poor settling, dewatering, and effluent quality. The M/D ratio of the wastewater in this study ranged from 6 to 20. The cations studied were calcium and magnesium. Results showed that the addition of calcium improved floc properties compared to control reactors with no calcium addition. The reductions in sludge volume index, effluent chemical oxygen demand (COD), and effluent total suspended solids (TSS) were approximately 35, 34, and 55%, respectively, when the M/D ratio was decreased to approximately 2:1. In addition, the cake solids from a belt filter press simulator increased by 72% and the optimum polymer dose required for conditioning was reduced by 70% in the reactor fed the highest calcium concentration when compared to control reactors with no calcium addition. The addition of calcium also decreased the negative effect of high filamentous organism numbers. In general, the addition of magnesium (Mg2+) had similar effects on effluent quality and dewatering properties, although some differences were measured. A full-scale test using calcium addition was performed. Measurements of effluent quality and floc properties were performed before, during, and after the calcium (Ca2+) addition period. The average M/D ratio during these periods was 6.2, 4.6, and 14.0, respectively. The addition of Ca2+ decreased the effluent five-day biochemical oxygen demand, effluent TSS, and effluent COD. The increased Ca2+ concentration also improved

  7. Effects of Sucrose Stearate Addition on the Quality Improvement of Ready-To-Eat Samgyetang During Storage at 25℃

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The effects of sucrose stearate at various concentrations (0.1%, 0.2%, and 0.3%, w/v) on the physico-chemical characteristics of ready-to-eat (RTE) Samgyetang were investigated during storage at 25℃ for 12 mon. Over the storage duration, the addition of sucrose stearate had no significant effects on the proximate composition of Samgyetang, including meat, broth, and porridge, or the hardness and spreadability of the porridge, although it resulted in significantly higher CIE L* values for the porridge. The CIE L* values of Samgyetang porridge with added sucrose stearate increased until 9 mon, while the control decreased until 6 mon, and the values for both changed insignificantly thereafter. The breast meat of Samgyetang treated with sucrose stearate showed higher percentages of polyunsaturated fatty acid after 3 mon and lower percentages of monounsaturated fatty acid after 6 mon compared to the control (p<0.05), while no significant differences were observed with the different sucrose stearate concentrations (p>0.05). The overall sensory acceptability scores were higher at sucrose stearate concentrations of 0.2% or 0.3% after 6 mon and at 0.1% after 9 mon compared to those of the control. PMID:26761503

  8. Addition of Adipose-Derived Stem Cells to Mesenchymal Stem Cell Sheets Improves Bone Formation at an Ectopic Site

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhifa; Li, Zhijin; Dai, Taiqiang; Zong, Chunlin; Liu, Yanpu; Liu, Bin

    2016-01-01

    To determine the effect of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) added to bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) sheets on bone formation at an ectopic site. We isolated MSCs and ADSCs from the same rabbits. We then prepared MSC sheets for implantation with or without ADSCs subcutaneously in the backs of severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice. We assessed bone formation at eight weeks after implantation by micro-computed tomography and histological analysis. In osteogenic medium, MSCs grew to form multilayer sheets containing many calcium nodules. MSC sheets without ADSCs formed bone-like tissue; although neo-bone and cartilage-like tissues were sparse and unevenly distributed by eight weeks after implantation. In comparison, MSC sheets with ADSCs promoted better bone regeneration as evidenced by the greater density of bone, increased mineral deposition, obvious formation of blood vessels, large number of interconnected ossified trabeculae and woven bone structures, and greater bone volume/total volume within the composite constructs. Our results indicate that although sheets of only MSCs have the potential to form tissue engineered bone at an ectopic site, the addition of ADSCs can significantly increase the osteogenic potential of MSC sheets. Thus, the combination of MSC sheets with ADSCs may be regarded as a promising therapeutic strategy to stimulate bone regeneration. PMID:26848656

  9. Improving iron-enriched basalt with additions of ZrO{sub 2} and TiO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Reimann, G.A.; Kong, P.C.

    1993-06-01

    The iron-enriched basalt (IEB) waste form, developed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory a decade ago, was modified to IEB4 by adding sufficient ZrO{sub 2} and TiO{sub 2} to develop crystals of zirconolite upon cooling, in addition to the crystals that normally form in a cooling basalt. Zirconolite (CaZrTi{sub 2}O{sub 7}) is an extremely leach-resistant mineral with a strong affinity for actinides. Zirconolite crystals containing uranium and thorium have been found that have endured more than 2 billion years of natural processes. On this basis, zirconolite was considered to be an ideal host crystal for the actinides contained in transuranic (TRU)-contaminated wastes. Crystals of zirconolite were developed in laboratory melts of IEB4 that contained 5% each of ZrO{sub 2} and TiO{sub 2} and that were slow-cooled in the 1200--1000{degrees}C range. When actinide surrogates were added to IEB4, these oxides were incorporated into the crystals of zirconolite rather than precipitating in the residual glass phase. Zirconolite crystals developed in IEB4 should stabilize and immobilize the dilute TRUs in heterogeneous, buried low-level wastes as effectively as this same phase does in the various formulations of Synroc used for the more concentrated TRUs encountered in high-level wastes. Synroc requires hot-pressing equipment, while IEB4 precipitates zirconolite from a cooling basaltic melt.

  10. Effects of Sucrose Stearate Addition on the Quality Improvement of Ready-To-Eat Samgyetang During Storage at 25℃.

    PubMed

    Triyannanto, Endy; Lee, Jin Ho; Lee, Keun Taik

    2014-01-01

    The effects of sucrose stearate at various concentrations (0.1%, 0.2%, and 0.3%, w/v) on the physico-chemical characteristics of ready-to-eat (RTE) Samgyetang were investigated during storage at 25℃ for 12 mon. Over the storage duration, the addition of sucrose stearate had no significant effects on the proximate composition of Samgyetang, including meat, broth, and porridge, or the hardness and spreadability of the porridge, although it resulted in significantly higher CIE L* values for the porridge. The CIE L* values of Samgyetang porridge with added sucrose stearate increased until 9 mon, while the control decreased until 6 mon, and the values for both changed insignificantly thereafter. The breast meat of Samgyetang treated with sucrose stearate showed higher percentages of polyunsaturated fatty acid after 3 mon and lower percentages of monounsaturated fatty acid after 6 mon compared to the control (p<0.05), while no significant differences were observed with the different sucrose stearate concentrations (p>0.05). The overall sensory acceptability scores were higher at sucrose stearate concentrations of 0.2% or 0.3% after 6 mon and at 0.1% after 9 mon compared to those of the control.

  11. Addition of Adipose-Derived Stem Cells to Mesenchymal Stem Cell Sheets Improves Bone Formation at an Ectopic Site.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhifa; Li, Zhijin; Dai, Taiqiang; Zong, Chunlin; Liu, Yanpu; Liu, Bin

    2016-01-01

    To determine the effect of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) added to bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) sheets on bone formation at an ectopic site. We isolated MSCs and ADSCs from the same rabbits. We then prepared MSC sheets for implantation with or without ADSCs subcutaneously in the backs of severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice. We assessed bone formation at eight weeks after implantation by micro-computed tomography and histological analysis. In osteogenic medium, MSCs grew to form multilayer sheets containing many calcium nodules. MSC sheets without ADSCs formed bone-like tissue; although neo-bone and cartilage-like tissues were sparse and unevenly distributed by eight weeks after implantation. In comparison, MSC sheets with ADSCs promoted better bone regeneration as evidenced by the greater density of bone, increased mineral deposition, obvious formation of blood vessels, large number of interconnected ossified trabeculae and woven bone structures, and greater bone volume/total volume within the composite constructs. Our results indicate that although sheets of only MSCs have the potential to form tissue engineered bone at an ectopic site, the addition of ADSCs can significantly increase the osteogenic potential of MSC sheets. Thus, the combination of MSC sheets with ADSCs may be regarded as a promising therapeutic strategy to stimulate bone regeneration.

  12. Perspectives on the utilization of aquaculture coproduct in Europe and Asia: prospects for value addition and improved resource efficiency.

    PubMed

    Newton, Richard; Telfer, Trevor; Little, Dave

    2014-01-01

    Aquaculture has often been criticized for its environmental impacts, especially efficiencies concerning global fisheries resources for use in aquafeeds among others. However, little attention has been paid to the contribution of coproducts from aquaculture, which can vary between 40% and 70% of the production. These have often been underutilized and could be redirected to maximize the efficient use of resource inputs including reducing the burden on fisheries resources. In this review, we identify strategies to enhance the overall value of the harvested yield including noneffluent processing coproducts for three of the most important global aquaculture species, and discuss the current and prospective utilization of these resources for value addition and environmental impact reduction. The review concludes that in Europe coproducts are often underutilized because of logistical reasons such as the disconnected nature of the value chain, and perceived legislative barriers. However, in Asia, most coproducts are used, often innovatively but not to their full economic potential and sometimes with possible human health and biosecurity risks. These include possible spread of diseased material and low traceability in some circumstances. Full economic and environmental appraisal is long overdue for the current and potential strategies available for coproduct utilization.

  13. Addition of a video camera system improves the ease of Airtraq(®) tracheal intubation during chest compression.

    PubMed

    Kohama, Hanako; Komasawa, Nobuyasu; Ueki, Ryusuke; Itani, Motoi; Nishi, Shin-ichi; Kaminoh, Yoshiroh

    2012-04-01

    Recent resuscitation guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation emphasize that rescuers should perform tracheal intubation with minimal interruption of chest compressions. We evaluated the use of video guidance to facilitate tracheal intubation with the Airtraq (ATQ) laryngoscope during chest compression. Eighteen novice physicians in our anesthesia department performed tracheal intubation on a manikin using the ATQ with a video camera system (ATQ-V) or with no video guidance (ATQ-N) during chest compression. All participants were able to intubate the manikin using the ATQ-N without chest compression, but five failed during chest compression (P < 0.05). In contrast, all participants successfully secured the airway with the ATQ-V, with or without chest compression. Concurrent chest compression increased the time required for intubation with the ATQ-N (without chest compression 14.8 ± 4.5 s; with chest compression, 28.2 ± 10.6 s; P < 0.05), but not with the ATQ-V (without chest compression, 15.9 ± 5.8 s; with chest compression, 17.3 ± 5.3 s; P > 0.05). The ATQ video camera system improves the ease of tracheal intubation during chest compressions.

  14. Improvement of the thermal stability of sintered Nd-Fe-B magnets by intergranular addition of Dy{sub 82.3}Co{sub 17.7}

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Xiaofeng; Guo, Shuai; Yan, Changjiang; Cai, Lingwen; Chen, Renjie; Yan, Aru; Lee, Don

    2014-05-07

    In this study, microstructure and magnetic properties of sintered Nd-Fe-B magnets with addition of Dy{sub 82.3}Co{sub 17.7} (wt. %) were investigated. By adding a small amount of Dy{sub 82.3}Co{sub 17.7}, the coercivity is improved greatly, and the irreversible loss is decreased sharply. The increase of Curie temperature suggests that Co atoms have entered into the 2:14:1 main phase. Microstructural analysis indicates that a well-developed core-shell structure was formed in the magnets with the addition of Dy{sub 82.3}Co{sub 17.7}. The improvement of magnetic properties can be attributed to the microstructural modification and the intrinsic properties' improvement.

  15. [Population policy: substantial but insufficient advances].

    PubMed

    Rodriguez Y Gonzalez, A

    1988-01-01

    Population policy was revised in Mexico in 1973 following the introduction of family planning and the abolition of rules prohibiting contraceptives. The laws of 1936 and 1947 favored population growth, but it was due to the improvement of public health (and the resulting drop in mortality rates), agricultural reform, and industrialization that an accelerated demographic expansion occurred. The National Council on Population (CONAPO) was created whose activities include family planning with modern contraceptive technology and maternal-infant health care. In accordance with the goals set in 1977, population growth is sought to be reduced to 1%/year by the year 2000. Public educational programs about reproduction, the family, and the community have been launched. The integration of women into the development of the country under the aegis of the Comision Nacional de las Mujer has not been fully achieved. The processing and analysis of demographic information for longterm policy development has also been limited. The lack of clear guidance from CONAPO has limited the involvement of state and municipal councils in the solution of Mexico's population problems. Future challenges will focus on the legal framework for reconciling public and private interests, and the interaction of population programs and economic and social development. The centralized decision making of population policy has involved more organizations, but still more needs to be done.

  16. Reducing metal alloy powder costs for use in powder bed fusion additive manufacturing: Improving the economics for production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medina, Fransisco

    Titanium and its associated alloys have been used in industry for over 50 years and have become more popular in the recent decades. Titanium has been most successful in areas where the high strength to weight ratio provides an advantage over aluminum and steels. Other advantages of titanium include biocompatibility and corrosion resistance. Electron Beam Melting (EBM) is an additive manufacturing (AM) technology that has been successfully applied in the manufacturing of titanium components for the aerospace and medical industry with equivalent or better mechanical properties as parts fabricated via more traditional casting and machining methods. As the demand for titanium powder continues to increase, the price also increases. Titanium spheroidized powder from different vendors has a price range from 260/kg-450/kg, other spheroidized alloys such as Niobium can cost as high as $1,200/kg. Alternative titanium powders produced from methods such as the Titanium Hydride-Dehydride (HDH) process and the Armstrong Commercially Pure Titanium (CPTi) process can be fabricated at a fraction of the cost of powders fabricated via gas atomization. The alternative powders can be spheroidized and blended. Current sectors in additive manufacturing such as the medical industry are concerned that there will not be enough spherical powder for production and are seeking other powder options. It is believed the EBM technology can use a blend of spherical and angular powder to build fully dense parts with equal mechanical properties to those produced using traditional powders. Some of the challenges with angular and irregular powders are overcoming the poor flow characteristics and the attainment of the same or better packing densities as spherical powders. The goal of this research is to demonstrate the feasibility of utilizing alternative and lower cost powders in the EBM process. As a result, reducing the cost of the raw material to reduce the overall cost of the product produced with

  17. Heat acclimation improves intermittent sprinting in the heat but additional pre-cooling offers no further ergogenic effect.

    PubMed

    Castle, Paul; Mackenzie, Richard W; Maxwell, Neil; Webborn, Anthony D J; Watt, Peter W

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of 10 days of heat acclimation with and without pre-cooling on intermittent sprint exercise performance in the heat. Eight males completed three intermittent cycling sprint protocols before and after 10 days of heat acclimation. Before acclimation, one sprint protocol was conducted in control conditions (21.8 ± 2.2°C, 42.8 ± 6.7% relative humidity) and two sprint protocols in hot, humid conditions (33.3 ± 0.6°C, 52.2 ± 6.8% relative humidity) in a randomized order. One hot, humid condition was preceded by 20 min of thigh pre-cooling with ice packs (-16.2 ± 4.5°C). After heat acclimation, the two hot, humid sprint protocols were repeated. Before heat acclimation, peak power output declined in the heat (P < 0.05) but pre-cooling prevented this. Ten days of heat acclimation reduced resting rectal temperature from 37.8 ± 0.3°C to 37.4 ± 0.3°C (P < 0.01). When acclimated, peak power output increased by ∼2% (P < 0.05, main effect) and no reductions in individual sprint peak power output were observed. Additional pre-cooling offered no further ergogenic effect. Unacclimated athletes competing in the heat should pre-cool to prevent reductions in peak power output, but heat acclimate for an increased peak power output. PMID:21777052

  18. Controlled laboratory challenge demonstrates substantial additive genetic variation in resistance to Streptococcus iniae in Nile tilapia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Streptococcus iniae is an etiologic agent of streptococcal disease in tilapia and is one of several Streptococcus spp. that negatively impact worldwide tilapia production. Methods for the prevention and control of S. iniae include vaccines, management strategies, and antibiotics. An alternative and ...

  19. 20 CFR 416.1075 - Finding of substantial failure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Finding of substantial failure. 416.1075... AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determinations of Disability Substantial Failure § 416.1075 Finding of substantial failure. A finding of substantial failure with respect to a State may not be made unless and...

  20. 20 CFR 404.1675 - Finding of substantial failure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Finding of substantial failure. 404.1675... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determinations of Disability Substantial Failure § 404.1675 Finding of substantial failure. A finding of substantial failure with respect to a State may not be made unless and...

  1. 20 CFR 416.1075 - Finding of substantial failure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Finding of substantial failure. 416.1075... AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determinations of Disability Substantial Failure § 416.1075 Finding of substantial failure. A finding of substantial failure with respect to a State may not be made unless and...

  2. 20 CFR 404.1675 - Finding of substantial failure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Finding of substantial failure. 404.1675... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determinations of Disability Substantial Failure § 404.1675 Finding of substantial failure. A finding of substantial failure with respect to a State may not be made unless and...

  3. Electrolyte additive to improve performance of MCMB/LiNi 1/3Co 1/3Mn 1/3O 2 Li-ion cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Yan; Chen, Zonghai; Lu, Wenquan; Amine, Khalil

    The electrolyte additive, 3,9-divinyl-2,4,8,10-tetraoxaspiro[5,5] undecane (TOS), was investigated as a means to improve the life of mesocarbon microbead (MCMB)/Li 1.1[Ni 1/3Co 1/3Mn 1/3] 0.9O 2 (NCM) cells for high-power applications. With the addition of an appropriate amount of TOS (no more than 1 wt%) to MCMB/NCM cells, the capacity retention was significantly improved at 55 °C compared with cells containing pristine electrolyte. Aging tests at 55 °C indicated that the capacity retention of the negative electrode had benefited as a result of the formation of a stable passivation film at the surface of the carbon electrode due to TOS reduction. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy showed that a TOS addition of more than 0.5 wt% increased the cell interfacial impedance. Differential scanning calorimetry showed that the thermal stability of lithiated MCMB was also improved with the TOS addition.

  4. Microstructure refinement and improvements of magnetic properties of Pr2(Fe, Co)14B/α-(Fe, Co) nanocomposites by additional Ga

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wen-Yong; Zhang, Jiang; Cheng, Zhao-Hua; Zhang, Shao-Ying; Shen, Bao-, Gen

    2001-04-01

    The effect of additive Ga on the microstructure and magnetic properties of nanocomposite Pr2(Fe,Co)14B/α-(Fe, Co) ribbons has been investigated. One per cent Ga addition was found to improve significantly its magnetic properties. The remanence and maximum energy product increase from 1.14 T, 17 MG Oe for Ga-free samples to 1.22 T, 22.2 MG Oe for Ga-doped samples. The significant improvements of magnetic properties originate from the refinement of the grains of the samples by introducing Ga, which leads to a stronger exchange coupling between the magnetically hard and soft phases in comparison with that in Ga-free samples.

  5. Drastic Improvement in Wettability of 6,13-Bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl)pentacene by Addition of Silica Nanoparticles for Solution-Processable Organic Field-Effect Transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamazaki, Saori; Hamada, Takashi; Nagase, Takashi; Tokai, Sakae; Yoshikawa, Masashi; Kobayashi, Takashi; Michiwaki, Yoshiki; Watase, Seiji; Watanabe, Mitsuru; Matsukawa, Kimihiro; Naito, Hiroyoshi

    2010-09-01

    It is essential to control the wettability of soluble organic semiconductors on polymer gate dielectrics to realize low-cost, flexible, and large-area electronic circuits employing organic field-effect transistors using solution processes. We find that the addition of a small amount of silica nanoparticles (SNPs) drastically improves the wettability of the soluble organic semiconductor of 6,13-bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl)pentacene onto the hydrophobic polymer gate dielectric of poly(methylsilsesquioxane) in the spin-coating process. The improvement in wettability by the addition of SNPs is also demonstrated in the ink-jet printing process, which allows the direct patterning of soluble organic semiconductors on polymer gate dielectrics.

  6. Modification of the active layer/PEDOT:PSS interface by solvent additives resulting in improvement of the performance of organic solar cells.

    PubMed

    Synooka, Olesia; Kretschmer, Florian; Hager, Martin D; Himmerlich, Marcel; Krischok, Stefan; Gehrig, Dominik; Laquai, Frédéric; Schubert, Ulrich S; Gobsch, Gerhard; Hoppe, Harald

    2014-07-23

    The influence of various polar solvent additives with different dipole moments has been investigated since the performance of a photovoltaic device comprising a donor-acceptor copolymer (benzothiadiazole-fluorene-diketopyrrolopyrrole (BTD-F-DKPP)) and phenyl-C60-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) was notably increased. A common approach for controlling bulk heterojunction morphology and thereby improving the solar cell performance involves the use of solvent additives exhibiting boiling points higher than that of the surrounding solvent in order to allow the fullerene to aggregate during the host solvent evaporation and film solidification. In contrast to that, we report the application of polar solvent additives with widely varied dipole moments, where intentionally no dependence on their boiling points was applied. We found that an appropriate amount of the additive can improve all solar cell parameters. This beneficial effect could be largely attributed to a modification of the poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS)-active layer interface within the device layer stack, which was successfully reproduced for polymer solar cells based on the commonly used PCDTBT (poly[N-900-hepta-decanyl-2,7-carbazole-alt-5,5-(40,70-di-2-thienyl-20,10,30-benzothiadiazole)]) copolymer. PMID:24979240

  7. Clozapine-induced dysphagia with secondary substantial weight loss.

    PubMed

    Osman, Mugtaba; Devadas, Vekneswaran

    2016-01-01

    Dysphagia is listed as a 'rare' side effect following clozapine treatment. In this case report, we describe how significant clozapine-induced dysphagia has led to significant reduction of nutritional intake with subsequent substantial weight loss. An 18-year-old single man with an established diagnosis of treatment-resistant paranoid schizophrenia recovered well on a therapeutic dose of clozapine. However, he was noted to lose weight significantly (up to 20% of his original weight) as the dose was uptitrated. This was brought about by development of dysphagia, likely to be due to clozapine. Addition of nutritional supplementary liquids and initiation of a modified behavioural dietary/swallowing programme, while repeatedly mastering the Mendelsohn manoeuvre technique, alleviated the swallowing difficulties and restored his weight. PMID:27543610

  8. Coercivity and thermal stability improvement in sintered Nd-Fe-B permanent magnets by intergranular addition of Dy-Mn alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiangbin; Liu, Shuo; Cao, Xuejing; Zhou, Beibei; Chen, Ling; Yan, Aru; Yan, Gaolin

    2016-06-01

    To increase coercivity and thermal stability of sintered Nd-Fe-B magnets for high temperature applications, Dy88Mn12 (wt%) alloy powders were intergranular added into (Pr0.25Nd0.75)30.6Cu0.15FebalB1 (wt%) starting magnet. The magnetic properties, microstructure and thermal stability of the sintered magnets with different amounts of Dy88Mn12 were investigated. By adding a small amount of Dy88Mn12, the coercivity was significantly increased from 12.56 kOe to 17.49 kOe. Microstructure analysis showed that a optimized microstructure, i.e. continuous, uniform grain boundary phase was achieved with Dy88Mn12 alloy addition, and Dy was enriched in the outer region of the Nd2Fe14B matrix grains during the sintering process, which favored to substitute for Nd in matrix grains to form the (Nd,Dy)2Fe14B core-shell phase. The greatly increased magnetocrystalline anisotropy of the core-shell phase and the improved decoupling by the continuous grain boundary phase accounted for the coercivity enhancement. Furthermore, by adding 0-4 wt% Dy88Mn12, the reversible temperature coefficients of remanence (α) and coercivity (β) of the magnet were improved from -0.115%/ºC to -0.107%/ºC and -0.744%/ºC to -0.696%/ºC in the range of 20-100 °C, respectively. In addition, the irreversible flux loss of magnetic flow (hirr) decreased sharply as Dy88Mn12 addition. The temperature-dependent magnetic properties results indicated that with intergranular addition of Dy88Mn12 alloy, the thermal stability of the magnets was effectively improved.

  9. 19 CFR 10.7 - Substantial containers or holders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Substantial containers or holders. 10.7 Section 10... Exported and Returned § 10.7 Substantial containers or holders. (a) Substantial containers or holders... domestic products exported and returned. When such containers or holders are imported not containing...

  10. 20 CFR 416.910 - Meaning of substantial gainful activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Meaning of substantial gainful activity. 416....910 Meaning of substantial gainful activity. Substantial gainful activity means work that— (a) Involves doing significant and productive physical or mental duties; and (b) Is done (or intended) for...

  11. 24 CFR 907.3 - Bases for substantial default.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bases for substantial default. 907.3 Section 907.3 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT... DEVELOPMENT SUBSTANTIAL DEFAULT BY A PUBLIC HOUSING AGENCY § 907.3 Bases for substantial default....

  12. 24 CFR 907.3 - Bases for substantial default.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bases for substantial default. 907.3 Section 907.3 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT... DEVELOPMENT SUBSTANTIAL DEFAULT BY A PUBLIC HOUSING AGENCY § 907.3 Bases for substantial default....

  13. 24 CFR 907.3 - Bases for substantial default.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bases for substantial default. 907.3 Section 907.3 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT... DEVELOPMENT SUBSTANTIAL DEFAULT BY A PUBLIC HOUSING AGENCY § 907.3 Bases for substantial default....

  14. 24 CFR 907.3 - Bases for substantial default.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bases for substantial default. 907.3 Section 907.3 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT... DEVELOPMENT SUBSTANTIAL DEFAULT BY A PUBLIC HOUSING AGENCY § 907.3 Bases for substantial default....

  15. 20 CFR 416.910 - Meaning of substantial gainful activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Meaning of substantial gainful activity. 416....910 Meaning of substantial gainful activity. Substantial gainful activity means work that— (a) Involves doing significant and productive physical or mental duties; and (b) Is done (or intended) for...

  16. Effect of Manganese Additive on the Improvement of Low-Temperature Catalytic Activity of VO(x)-WO(x)/TiO2 Nanoparticles for Chlorobenzene Combustion.

    PubMed

    He, Fei; Chen, Chunxiao; Liu, Shantang

    2016-06-01

    In this study, V-W/TiO2, Mn-V-W/TiO2 and Mn-W/TiO2 nanoparticles were prepared by homogeneous precipitation method and investigated for the catalytic combustion of chlorobenzene (CB), which was used as a model compound of chlorinated volatile organic compounds (CVOCs). The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), nitrogen adsorption-desorption, transmission electron microscope (TEM) and hydrogen temperature-programed reduction (H2-TPR). The average size of the nanoparticles was -20 nm. Manganese species were evenly distributed on the surface of the V-W/TiO2 catalyst, and a small amount of manganese addition did not affect the crystal form, crystallinity and morphology of the V-W/TiO2 catalyst. In addition, low-temperature catalytic activity of V-W/TiO2 catalysts could be effectively improved. When the molar ratio of Mn/(Mn + V) was 0.25 or 0.4, the catalyst displayed the highest low-temperature activity. This was possibly due to Mn (VO3)x formed by the reaction of manganese and vanadium species. Meanwhile, we also found that the addition of oxalic acid was benefit to the improvement of the catalytic activities. When manganese content was high, such as Mn (0.75) VW/Ti, the catalyst activity declined seriously, and the reason was also discussed.

  17. Effect of Manganese Additive on the Improvement of Low-Temperature Catalytic Activity of VO(x)-WO(x)/TiO2 Nanoparticles for Chlorobenzene Combustion.

    PubMed

    He, Fei; Chen, Chunxiao; Liu, Shantang

    2016-06-01

    In this study, V-W/TiO2, Mn-V-W/TiO2 and Mn-W/TiO2 nanoparticles were prepared by homogeneous precipitation method and investigated for the catalytic combustion of chlorobenzene (CB), which was used as a model compound of chlorinated volatile organic compounds (CVOCs). The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), nitrogen adsorption-desorption, transmission electron microscope (TEM) and hydrogen temperature-programed reduction (H2-TPR). The average size of the nanoparticles was -20 nm. Manganese species were evenly distributed on the surface of the V-W/TiO2 catalyst, and a small amount of manganese addition did not affect the crystal form, crystallinity and morphology of the V-W/TiO2 catalyst. In addition, low-temperature catalytic activity of V-W/TiO2 catalysts could be effectively improved. When the molar ratio of Mn/(Mn + V) was 0.25 or 0.4, the catalyst displayed the highest low-temperature activity. This was possibly due to Mn (VO3)x formed by the reaction of manganese and vanadium species. Meanwhile, we also found that the addition of oxalic acid was benefit to the improvement of the catalytic activities. When manganese content was high, such as Mn (0.75) VW/Ti, the catalyst activity declined seriously, and the reason was also discussed. PMID:27427700

  18. Addition of P3HT-grafted Silica nanoparticles improves bulk-heterojunction morphology in P3HT-PCBM blends

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Mohit; Padmanabhan, Venkat

    2016-01-01

    We present molecular dynamics simulations of a ternary blend of P3HT, PCBM and P3HT-grafted silica nanoparticles (SiNP) for applications in polymer-based solar cells. Using coarse-grained models, we study the effect of SiNP on the spatial arrangement of PCBM in P3HT. Our results suggest that addition of SiNP not only alters the morphology of PCBM clusters but also improves the crystallinity of P3HT. We exploit the property of grafted SiNP to self-assemble into a variety of anisotropic structures and the tendency of PCBM to preferentially adhere to SiNP surface, due to favorable interactions, to achieve morphologies with desirable characteristics for the active layer, including domain size, crystallinity of P3HT, and elimination of isolated islands of PCBM. As the concentration of SiNP increases, the number of isolated PCBM molecules decreases, which in turn improves the crystallinity of P3HT domains. We also observe that by tuning the grafting parameters of SiNP, it is possible to achieve structures ranging from cylindrical to sheets to highly interconnected network of strings. The changes brought about by addition of SiNP shows a promising potential to improve the performance of these materials when used as active layers in organic photovoltaics. PMID:27628895

  19. Addition of P3HT-grafted Silica nanoparticles improves bulk-heterojunction morphology in P3HT-PCBM blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garg, Mohit; Padmanabhan, Venkat

    2016-09-01

    We present molecular dynamics simulations of a ternary blend of P3HT, PCBM and P3HT-grafted silica nanoparticles (SiNP) for applications in polymer-based solar cells. Using coarse-grained models, we study the effect of SiNP on the spatial arrangement of PCBM in P3HT. Our results suggest that addition of SiNP not only alters the morphology of PCBM clusters but also improves the crystallinity of P3HT. We exploit the property of grafted SiNP to self-assemble into a variety of anisotropic structures and the tendency of PCBM to preferentially adhere to SiNP surface, due to favorable interactions, to achieve morphologies with desirable characteristics for the active layer, including domain size, crystallinity of P3HT, and elimination of isolated islands of PCBM. As the concentration of SiNP increases, the number of isolated PCBM molecules decreases, which in turn improves the crystallinity of P3HT domains. We also observe that by tuning the grafting parameters of SiNP, it is possible to achieve structures ranging from cylindrical to sheets to highly interconnected network of strings. The changes brought about by addition of SiNP shows a promising potential to improve the performance of these materials when used as active layers in organic photovoltaics.

  20. An efficacy study on improving balance and gait in subacute stroke patients by balance training with additional motor imagery: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Young-Hyeon; Ko, YoungJun; Ha, HyunGeun; Ahn, So Yeon; Lee, WanHee; Lee, Suk Min

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The few studies conducted on subacute stroke patients have focused only on gait function improvement. This study therefore aimed to confirm the effect of balance training with additional motor imagery on balance and gait improvement in subacute stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] Participants were divided into an experimental or control group. The experimental group received balance training for 20 minutes/day with mental imagery for 10 minutes/day, three days/week, for four weeks. The control group received only balance training for 30 minutes. Before and after the 12 sessions, balance and gait ability were assessed by the researcher and a physical therapist. [Results] After completion of the 4-week intervention, Berg Balance Scale, Timed Up and Go test, Functional Reach Test, and Four Square Step test scores significantly increased in the experimental group. In the control group, Berg Balance Scale and Functional Reach Test scores significantly improved. Changes in the Timed Up and Go test, Functional Reach Test, and Four Square Step Test scores after intervention were significantly higher in the experimental than in the control group. [Conclusion] Specific balance training with additional motor imagery may result in better rehabilitation outcomes of gait and balance ability than balance training alone. PMID:26644684

  1. Addition of P3HT-grafted Silica nanoparticles improves bulk-heterojunction morphology in P3HT-PCBM blends.

    PubMed

    Garg, Mohit; Padmanabhan, Venkat

    2016-01-01

    We present molecular dynamics simulations of a ternary blend of P3HT, PCBM and P3HT-grafted silica nanoparticles (SiNP) for applications in polymer-based solar cells. Using coarse-grained models, we study the effect of SiNP on the spatial arrangement of PCBM in P3HT. Our results suggest that addition of SiNP not only alters the morphology of PCBM clusters but also improves the crystallinity of P3HT. We exploit the property of grafted SiNP to self-assemble into a variety of anisotropic structures and the tendency of PCBM to preferentially adhere to SiNP surface, due to favorable interactions, to achieve morphologies with desirable characteristics for the active layer, including domain size, crystallinity of P3HT, and elimination of isolated islands of PCBM. As the concentration of SiNP increases, the number of isolated PCBM molecules decreases, which in turn improves the crystallinity of P3HT domains. We also observe that by tuning the grafting parameters of SiNP, it is possible to achieve structures ranging from cylindrical to sheets to highly interconnected network of strings. The changes brought about by addition of SiNP shows a promising potential to improve the performance of these materials when used as active layers in organic photovoltaics. PMID:27628895

  2. Improvement in dielectric and mechanical performance of CaCu3.1Ti4O12.1 by addition of Al2O3 nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Puchmark, Chompoonuch; Rujijanagul, Gobwute

    2012-01-05

    The properties of CaCu3.1Ti4O12.1 [CC3.1TO] ceramics with the addition of Al2O3 nanoparticles, prepared via a solid-state reaction technique, were investigated. The nanoparticle additive was found to inhibit grain growth with the average grain size decreasing from approximately 7.5 μm for CC3.1TO to approximately 2.0 μm for the unmodified samples, while the Knoop hardness value was found to improve with a maximum value of 9.8 GPa for the 1 vol.% Al2O3 sample. A very high dielectric constant > 60,000 with a low loss tangent (approximately 0.09) was observed for the 0.5 vol.% Al2O3 sample at 1 kHz and at room temperature. These data suggest that nanocomposites have a great potential for dielectric applications.

  3. Improvement in dielectric and mechanical performance of CaCu3.1Ti4O12.1 by addition of Al2O3 nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The properties of CaCu3.1Ti4O12.1 [CC3.1TO] ceramics with the addition of Al2O3 nanoparticles, prepared via a solid-state reaction technique, were investigated. The nanoparticle additive was found to inhibit grain growth with the average grain size decreasing from approximately 7.5 μm for CC3.1TO to approximately 2.0 μm for the unmodified samples, while the Knoop hardness value was found to improve with a maximum value of 9.8 GPa for the 1 vol.% Al2O3 sample. A very high dielectric constant > 60,000 with a low loss tangent (approximately 0.09) was observed for the 0.5 vol.% Al2O3 sample at 1 kHz and at room temperature. These data suggest that nanocomposites have a great potential for dielectric applications. PMID:22221316

  4. 10 CFR 840.4 - Criterion I-Substantial discharge of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels offsite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Criterion I-Substantial discharge of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels offsite. 840.4 Section 840.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY EXTRAORDINARY NUCLEAR OCCURRENCES § 840.4 Criterion I—Substantial discharge of radioactive material...

  5. 10 CFR 840.4 - Criterion I-Substantial discharge of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels offsite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Criterion I-Substantial discharge of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels offsite. 840.4 Section 840.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY EXTRAORDINARY NUCLEAR OCCURRENCES § 840.4 Criterion I—Substantial discharge of radioactive material...

  6. 10 CFR 840.4 - Criterion I-Substantial discharge of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels offsite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Criterion I-Substantial discharge of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels offsite. 840.4 Section 840.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY EXTRAORDINARY NUCLEAR OCCURRENCES § 840.4 Criterion I—Substantial discharge of radioactive material...

  7. 10 CFR 840.4 - Criterion I-Substantial discharge of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels offsite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Criterion I-Substantial discharge of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels offsite. 840.4 Section 840.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY EXTRAORDINARY NUCLEAR OCCURRENCES § 840.4 Criterion I—Substantial discharge of radioactive material...

  8. 10 CFR 140.84 - Criterion I-Substantial discharge of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels offsite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... § 140.84 Criterion I—Substantial discharge of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels... radioactive material offsite, or that there have been substantial levels of radiation offsite, when, as a... facility and such contamination is characterized by levels of radiation in excess of one of the...

  9. 10 CFR 140.84 - Criterion I-Substantial discharge of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels offsite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... § 140.84 Criterion I—Substantial discharge of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels... radioactive material offsite, or that there have been substantial levels of radiation offsite, when, as a... facility and such contamination is characterized by levels of radiation in excess of one of the...

  10. 10 CFR 140.84 - Criterion I-Substantial discharge of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels offsite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... § 140.84 Criterion I—Substantial discharge of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels... radioactive material offsite, or that there have been substantial levels of radiation offsite, when, as a... facility and such contamination is characterized by levels of radiation in excess of one of the...

  11. 10 CFR 140.84 - Criterion I-Substantial discharge of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels offsite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... § 140.84 Criterion I—Substantial discharge of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels... radioactive material offsite, or that there have been substantial levels of radiation offsite, when, as a... facility and such contamination is characterized by levels of radiation in excess of one of the...

  12. Improvement of texture and sensory properties of cakes by addition of potato peel powder with high level of dietary fiber and protein.

    PubMed

    Ben Jeddou, Khawla; Bouaziz, Fatma; Zouari-Ellouzi, Soumaya; Chaari, Fatma; Ellouz-Chaabouni, Semia; Ellouz-Ghorbel, Raoudha; Nouri-Ellouz, Oumèma

    2017-02-15

    Demand for health oriented products such as low calories and high fiber product is increasing. The aim of the present work was to determine the effect of the addition of potato peel powders as protein and dietary fiber source on the quality of the dough and the cake. Powders obtained from the two types of peel flour showed interesting water binding capacity and fat absorption capacity. Potato peel flours were incorporated in wheat flours at different concentration. The results showed that peel powders additionally considerably improved the Alveograph profile of dough and the texture of the prepared cakes. In addition color measurements showed a significant difference between the control dough and the dough containing potato peels. The replacement of wheat flour with the potato powders reduced the cake hardness significantly and the L(*) and b(*) dough color values. The increased consumption of cake enriched with potato peel fiber is proposed for health reasons. The study demonstrated that protein/fiber-enriched cake with good sensory quality could be produced by the substitution of wheat flour by 5% of potato peel powder. In addition and technological point of view, the incorporation of potato peel powder at 5% increase the dough strength and elasticity-to-extensibility ratio (P/L). PMID:27664685

  13. Improvement of texture and sensory properties of cakes by addition of potato peel powder with high level of dietary fiber and protein.

    PubMed

    Ben Jeddou, Khawla; Bouaziz, Fatma; Zouari-Ellouzi, Soumaya; Chaari, Fatma; Ellouz-Chaabouni, Semia; Ellouz-Ghorbel, Raoudha; Nouri-Ellouz, Oumèma

    2017-02-15

    Demand for health oriented products such as low calories and high fiber product is increasing. The aim of the present work was to determine the effect of the addition of potato peel powders as protein and dietary fiber source on the quality of the dough and the cake. Powders obtained from the two types of peel flour showed interesting water binding capacity and fat absorption capacity. Potato peel flours were incorporated in wheat flours at different concentration. The results showed that peel powders additionally considerably improved the Alveograph profile of dough and the texture of the prepared cakes. In addition color measurements showed a significant difference between the control dough and the dough containing potato peels. The replacement of wheat flour with the potato powders reduced the cake hardness significantly and the L(*) and b(*) dough color values. The increased consumption of cake enriched with potato peel fiber is proposed for health reasons. The study demonstrated that protein/fiber-enriched cake with good sensory quality could be produced by the substitution of wheat flour by 5% of potato peel powder. In addition and technological point of view, the incorporation of potato peel powder at 5% increase the dough strength and elasticity-to-extensibility ratio (P/L).

  14. Improved detection of sugar addition to maple syrup using malic acid as internal standard and in 13C isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS).

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Patrice; Paquin, Réal

    2007-01-24

    Stable carbon isotope ratio mass spectrometry (delta13C IRMS) was used to detect maple syrup adulteration by exogenous sugar addition (beet and cane sugar). Malic acid present in maple syrup is proposed as an isotopic internal standard to improve actual adulteration detection levels. A lead precipitation method has been modified to isolate quantitatively malic acid from maple syrup using preparative reversed-phase liquid chromatography. The stable carbon isotopic ratio of malic acid isolated from this procedure shows an excellent accuracy and repeatability of 0.01 and 0.1 per thousand respectively, confirming that the modified lead precipitation method is an isotopic fractionation-free process. A new approach is proposed to detect adulteration based on the correlation existing between the delta13Cmalic acid and the delta13Csugars-delta13Cmalic acid (r = 0.704). This technique has been tested on a set of 56 authentic maple syrup samples. Additionally, authentic samples were spiked with exogeneous sugars. The mean theoretical detection level was statistically lowered using this technique in comparison with the usual two-standard deviation approach, especially when maple syrup is adulterated with beet sugar : 24 +/- 12% of adulteration detection versus 48 +/- 20% (t-test, p = 7.3 x 10-15). The method was also applied to published data for pineapple juices and honey with the same improvement. PMID:17227042

  15. Improvement of Cycling Performance of Lithium-Sulfur Batteries by Using Magnesium Oxide as a Functional Additive for Trapping Lithium Polysulfide.

    PubMed

    Ponraj, Rubha; Kannan, Aravindaraj G; Ahn, Jun Hwan; Kim, Dong-Won

    2016-02-17

    Trapping lithium polysulfides formed in the sulfur positive electrode of lithium-sulfur batteries is one of the promising approaches to overcome the issues related to polysulfide dissolution. In this work, we demonstrate that intrinsically hydrophilic magnesium oxide (MgO) nanoparticles having surface hydroxyl groups can be used as effective additives to trap lithium polysulfides in the positive electrode. MgO nanoparticles were uniformly distributed on the surface of the active sulfur, and the addition of MgO into the sulfur electrode resulted in an increase in capacity retention of the lithium-sulfur cell compared to a cell with pristine sulfur electrode. The improvement in cycling stability was attributed to the strong chemical interactions between MgO and lithium polysulfide species, which suppressed the shuttling effect of lithium polysulfides and enhanced the utilization of the sulfur active material. To the best of our knowledge, this report is the first demonstration of MgO as an effective functional additive to trap lithium polysulfides in lithium-sulfur cells. PMID:26808673

  16. Heat treatment and the use of additives to improve the stability of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins in shellfish tissue reference materials for internal quality control and proficiency testing.

    PubMed

    Burrell, Stephen; Clion, Valentin; Auroy, Virginie; Foley, Barry; Turner, Andrew D

    2015-06-01

    The need for homogenous reference materials stable for paralytic shellfish toxins is vital for the monitoring and quality assurance of these potent neurotoxins in shellfish. Two stabilisation techniques were investigated, heat treatment through autoclaving and the addition of preserving additives into the tissue matrix. Short and long-term stability experiments as well as homogeneity determination were conducted on materials prepared by both techniques in comparison with an untreated control using two LC-FLD methods. Both techniques improved the stability of the matrix and the PSP toxins present compared to the controls. A material was prepared using the combined techniques of heat treatment followed by spiking with additives and data is presented from this optimised reference material as used over a two year period in the Irish national monitoring program and in a development exercise as part of a proficiency testing scheme operated by QUASIMEME (Quality Assurance of Information for Marine Environmental Monitoring in Europe) since 2011. The results were indicative of the long-term stability of the material as evidenced through consistent assigned values in the case of the proficiency testing scheme and a low relative standard deviation of 10.5% for total toxicity data generated over 24 months.

  17. Tris(trimethylsilyl)borate as an electrolyte additive for improving interfacial stability of high voltage layered lithium-rich oxide cathode/carbonate-based electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jianhui; Xing, Lidan; Zhang, Ruiqin; Chen, Min; Wang, Zaisheng; Xu, Mengqing; Li, Weishan

    2015-07-01

    Tris(trimethylsilyl)borate (TMSB) is used as an electrolyte additive for high voltage lithium-rich oxide cathode of lithium ion battery. The interfacial natures of Li[Li0.2Mn0.54Ni0.13Co0.13]O2/carbonate-based electrolyte are investigated with a combination of electrochemical measurements and physical characterizations. Charge/discharge tests show that the cyclic performance of Li[Li0.2Mn0.54Ni0.13Co0.13]O2 in a mixed carbonate electrolyte is significantly improved by using TMSB. After 200 cycles between 2 V and 4.8 V (vs. Li/Li+) at 0.5 C rate, the capacity retention of Li[Li0.2Mn0.54Ni0.13Co0.13]O2 is only 19% in the blank electrolyte, while it is improved to 74% when 0.5% TMSB is applied. The results from physical characterizations demonstrate that this excellent cyclic performance is attributed to the improved interfacial stability of Li[Li0.2Mn0.54Ni0.13Co0.13]O2/electrolyte due to the thin and protective film generated by TMSB.

  18. 49 CFR 384.301 - Substantial compliance-general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... statutes, regulations, administrative procedures and practices, organizational structures, internal control... 49 CFR 383.123 not later than September 30, 2006. (c) A State must come into substantial...

  19. 49 CFR 384.301 - Substantial compliance-general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., organizational structures, internal control mechanisms, resource assignments (facilities, equipment, and... come into substantial compliance with 49 CFR 383.123 not later than September 30, 2006. (c) A...

  20. SWOG S0800 (NCI CDR0000636131): addition of bevacizumab to neoadjuvant nab-paclitaxel with dose-dense doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide improves pathologic complete response (pCR) rates in inflammatory or locally advanced breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Nahleh, Z A; Barlow, W E; Hayes, D F; Schott, A F; Gralow, J R; Sikov, W M; Perez, E A; Chennuru, S; Mirshahidi, H R; Corso, S W; Lew, D L; Pusztai, L; Livingston, R B; Hortobagyi, G N

    2016-08-01

    SWOG S0800, a randomized open-label Phase II clinical trial, compared the combination of weekly nab-paclitaxel and bevacizumab followed by dose-dense doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide (AC) with nab-paclitaxel followed or preceded by AC as neoadjuvant treatment for HER2-negative locally advanced breast cancer (LABC) or inflammatory breast cancer (IBC). Patients were randomly allocated (2:1:1) to three neoadjuvant chemotherapy arms: (1) nab-paclitaxel with concurrent bevacizumab followed by AC; (2) nab-paclitaxel followed by AC; or (3) AC followed by nab-paclitaxel. The primary endpoint was pathologic complete response (pCR) with stratification by disease type (non-IBC LABC vs. IBC) and hormone receptor status (positive vs. negative). Overall survival (OS), event-free survival (EFS), and toxicity were secondary endpoints. Analyses were intent-to-treat comparing bevacizumab to the combined control arms. A total of 215 patients were accrued including 11 % with IBC and 32 % with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). The addition of bevacizumab significantly increased the pCR rate overall (36 vs. 21 %; p = 0.019) and in TNBC (59 vs. 29 %; p = 0.014), but not in hormone receptor-positive disease (24 vs. 18 %; p = 0.41). Sequence of administration of nab-paclitaxel and AC did not affect the pCR rate. While no significant differences in OS or EFS were seen, a trend favored the addition of bevacizumab for EFS (p = 0.06) in TNBC. Overall, Grade 3-4 adverse events did not differ substantially by treatment arm. The addition of bevacizumab to nab-paclitaxel prior to dose-dense AC neoadjuvant chemotherapy significantly improved the pCR rate compared to chemotherapy alone in patients with triple-negative LABC/IBC and was accompanied by a trend for improved EFS. This suggests reconsideration of the role of bevacizumab in high-risk triple-negative locally advanced breast cancer.

  1. 19 CFR 134.35 - Articles substantially changed by manufacture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Articles substantially changed by manufacture. 134...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY COUNTRY OF ORIGIN MARKING Exceptions to Marking Requirements § 134.35 Articles substantially changed by manufacture. (a) Articles other than goods of a NAFTA country. An article used in...

  2. 19 CFR 134.35 - Articles substantially changed by manufacture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Articles substantially changed by manufacture. 134...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY COUNTRY OF ORIGIN MARKING Exceptions to Marking Requirements § 134.35 Articles substantially changed by manufacture. (a) Articles other than goods of a NAFTA country. An article used in...

  3. 20 CFR 404.1675 - Finding of substantial failure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Finding of substantial failure. 404.1675 Section 404.1675 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determinations of Disability Substantial Failure § 404.1675 Finding...

  4. 26 CFR 1.528-4 - Substantiality test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Substantiality test. 1.528-4 Section 1.528-4 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Homeowners Associations § 1.528-4 Substantiality test. (a) In general. In...

  5. 5 CFR 550.183 - Substantial hours requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Substantial hours requirement. 550.183 Section 550.183 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Premium Pay Law Enforcement Availability Pay § 550.183 Substantial hours requirement....

  6. 5 CFR 550.183 - Substantial hours requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Substantial hours requirement. 550.183 Section 550.183 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Premium Pay Law Enforcement Availability Pay § 550.183 Substantial hours requirement....

  7. 19 CFR 134.35 - Articles substantially changed by manufacture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Articles substantially changed by manufacture. 134... substantially changed by manufacture. (a) Articles other than goods of a NAFTA country. An article used in the United States in manufacture which results in an article having a name, character, or use differing...

  8. 19 CFR 134.35 - Articles substantially changed by manufacture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Articles substantially changed by manufacture. 134... substantially changed by manufacture. (a) Articles other than goods of a NAFTA country. An article used in the United States in manufacture which results in an article having a name, character, or use differing...

  9. 19 CFR 134.35 - Articles substantially changed by manufacture.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Articles substantially changed by manufacture. 134... substantially changed by manufacture. (a) Articles other than goods of a NAFTA country. An article used in the United States in manufacture which results in an article having a name, character, or use differing...

  10. Evaluation of the improvement in the figure of merit of Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} - based alloys with addition of ultrafine scattering centers

    SciTech Connect

    Fleurial, J.P.

    1993-09-01

    The addition of ultrafine scattering centers into Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3}-based materials and their impact on the thermal and electrical transport properties in a 200-500 K temperature range are discussed. Based on previous theoretical efforts, the resulting improvements in the figure of merit of these heavily doped thermoelectric semiconductors were calculated as a function of composition, temperature, doping level, particulate size and concentration. Determination of the lattice thermal conductivity of the various alloys was conducted by considering phonon-phonon, carrier-phonon, point defect and inert scattering center scattering mechanisms. Degradation of the electrical properties due to the increase scattering rate was also taken into account. Practical application of these results is considered.

  11. Further improvement in ganoderic acid production in static liquid culture of Ganoderma lucidum by integrating nitrogen limitation and calcium ion addition.

    PubMed

    Li, Huan-Jun; Zhang, De-Huai; Han, Li-Liang; Yu, Xuya; Zhao, Peng; Li, Tao; Zhong, Jian-Jiang; Xu, Jun-Wei

    2016-01-01

    To further improve the ganoderic acid (GA) production, a novel integrated strategy by combining nitrogen limitation and calcium ion addition was developed. The effects of the integrated combination on the content of GA-T (one powerful anticancer compound), their intermediates (squalene and lanosterol) and on the transcription levels of GA biosynthetic genes in G. lucidum fermentation were investigated. The maximum GA-T content with the integrated strategy were 1.87 mg/ 100 mg dry cell weight, which was 2.1-4.2 fold higher than that obtained with either calcium ion addition or nitrogen limitation alone, and it is also the highest record as ever reported in submerged fermentation of G. lucidum. The squalene content was increased by 3.9- and 2.2-fold in this case compared with either individual strategy alone. Moreover, the transcription levels of the GA biosynthetic genes encoding 3-hydroxy-3-methyglutaryl coenzyme A reductase and lanosterol synthase were also up-regulated by 3.3-7.5 and 1.3-2.3 fold, respectively. PMID:26508324

  12. Further improvement in ganoderic acid production in static liquid culture of Ganoderma lucidum by integrating nitrogen limitation and calcium ion addition.

    PubMed

    Li, Huan-Jun; Zhang, De-Huai; Han, Li-Liang; Yu, Xuya; Zhao, Peng; Li, Tao; Zhong, Jian-Jiang; Xu, Jun-Wei

    2016-01-01

    To further improve the ganoderic acid (GA) production, a novel integrated strategy by combining nitrogen limitation and calcium ion addition was developed. The effects of the integrated combination on the content of GA-T (one powerful anticancer compound), their intermediates (squalene and lanosterol) and on the transcription levels of GA biosynthetic genes in G. lucidum fermentation were investigated. The maximum GA-T content with the integrated strategy were 1.87 mg/ 100 mg dry cell weight, which was 2.1-4.2 fold higher than that obtained with either calcium ion addition or nitrogen limitation alone, and it is also the highest record as ever reported in submerged fermentation of G. lucidum. The squalene content was increased by 3.9- and 2.2-fold in this case compared with either individual strategy alone. Moreover, the transcription levels of the GA biosynthetic genes encoding 3-hydroxy-3-methyglutaryl coenzyme A reductase and lanosterol synthase were also up-regulated by 3.3-7.5 and 1.3-2.3 fold, respectively.

  13. Cycle-life improvement of Zn/NiOOH cells by the addition of Ca(OH) sub 2 to the zinc electrode

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, R.; McLarnon, F.R.; Cairns, E.J.

    1989-08-01

    The addition of Ca(OH){sub 2} to the zinc electrode of Zn/NiOOH cells was investigated in order to determine its effect on reducing the rate of Zinc redistribution. Cells containing 0, 10, 25, and 40 mol% Ca(OH){sub 2} in the zinc electrode were constructed and tested. Ca(OH){sub 2} was found to form a calcium zincate complex with the zincate-supersaturated KOH solution created during the discharge half-cycle. As Ca(OH){sub 2} is insoluble in the electrolyte, the formation of this complex (containing two Zn atoms to one Ca) significantly reduces the Zinc redistribution rate. Electrodes with only 10% Ca(OH){sub 2} were found to contain insufficient Ca(OH){sub 2} to complex with enough Zinc to make a dramatic improvement on cycle life. The 25%-Ca(OH){sub 2} electrodes, however, were found to retain their capacity beyond 150 deep discharge cycles, with indication that further Zinc redistribution would occur very slowly. The Zinc utilization of the Ca-containing electrodes showed dramatic improvement over the Ca-free zinc electrodes. 23 refs., 49 figs., 7 tabs.

  14. Biogas production improvement and C/N control by natural clinoptilolite addition into anaerobic co-digestion of Phragmites australis, feces and kitchen waste.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaowei; Zhang, Lieyu; Xi, Beidou; Sun, Wenjun; Xia, Xunfeng; Zhu, Chaowei; He, Xiaosong; Li, Mingxiao; Yang, Tianxue; Wang, Pengfei; Zhang, Zhonglei

    2015-03-01

    Anaerobic co-digestion (A co-D) performance of Phragmites australis, feces and kitchen waste with addition of clinoptilolite (one main kind of zeolite) was investigated to evaluate the improvement of biogas/methane production and internal mechanism of nitrogen and organics control. A better biogas/methane production was observed by 10% clinoptilolite (v/v) than bentonite and diatomite, with the shortest lag phase of 0.070d(-1), the max rate of 15.89L/(kgVSday) and ultimate biogas production of 308.2L/kgVS as the modified Gompertz equation predicted. Accordingly, the content of methane in the biogas was increased from 44.10% to 65.30%. Furthermore, the clinoptilolite inhibited the acidification of digestion liquid (optimum pH 7.0-7.5) and enhanced the VFAs (acetic acid, propionic acid and butyric acid) destruction. Moreover, 10% of clinoptilolite optimally enhanced the microbial utilization of Ca(2+)/Mg(2+), controlled the C/N ratio, and improved the biogas production as well as NH3-N/NO3-N inhibition efficiency.

  15. Biogas production improvement and C/N control by natural clinoptilolite addition into anaerobic co-digestion of Phragmites australis, feces and kitchen waste.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaowei; Zhang, Lieyu; Xi, Beidou; Sun, Wenjun; Xia, Xunfeng; Zhu, Chaowei; He, Xiaosong; Li, Mingxiao; Yang, Tianxue; Wang, Pengfei; Zhang, Zhonglei

    2015-03-01

    Anaerobic co-digestion (A co-D) performance of Phragmites australis, feces and kitchen waste with addition of clinoptilolite (one main kind of zeolite) was investigated to evaluate the improvement of biogas/methane production and internal mechanism of nitrogen and organics control. A better biogas/methane production was observed by 10% clinoptilolite (v/v) than bentonite and diatomite, with the shortest lag phase of 0.070d(-1), the max rate of 15.89L/(kgVSday) and ultimate biogas production of 308.2L/kgVS as the modified Gompertz equation predicted. Accordingly, the content of methane in the biogas was increased from 44.10% to 65.30%. Furthermore, the clinoptilolite inhibited the acidification of digestion liquid (optimum pH 7.0-7.5) and enhanced the VFAs (acetic acid, propionic acid and butyric acid) destruction. Moreover, 10% of clinoptilolite optimally enhanced the microbial utilization of Ca(2+)/Mg(2+), controlled the C/N ratio, and improved the biogas production as well as NH3-N/NO3-N inhibition efficiency. PMID:25603527

  16. Design of Phosphonium-Type Zwitterion as an Additive to Improve Saturated Water Content of Phase-Separated Ionic Liquid from Aqueous Phase toward Reversible Extraction of Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Yoritsugu; Kohno, Yuki; Nakamura, Nobuhumi; Ohno, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    We designed phosphonium-type zwitterion (ZI) to control the saturated water content of separated ionic liquid (IL) phase in the hydrophobic IL/water biphasic systems. The saturated water content of separated IL phase, 1-butyl-3-methyimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide, was considerably improved from 0.4 wt% to 62.8 wt% by adding N,N,N-tripentyl-4-sulfonyl-1-butanephosphonium-type ZI (P555C4S). In addition, the maximum water content decreased from 62.8 wt% to 34.1 wt% by increasing KH2PO4/K2HPO4 salt content in upper aqueous phosphate buffer phase. Horse heart cytochrome c (cyt.c) was dissolved selectively in IL phase by improving the water content of IL phase, and spectroscopic analysis revealed that the dissolved cyt.c retained its higher ordered structure. Furthermore, cyt. c dissolved in IL phase was re-extracted again from IL phase to aqueous phase by increasing the concentration of inorganic salts of the buffer solution. PMID:24013379

  17. The performance improvement of automatic classification among obstructive lung diseases on the basis of the features of shape analysis, in addition to texture analysis at HRCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Youngjoo; Kim, Namkug; Seo, Joon Beom; Lee, JuneGoo; Kang, Suk Ho

    2007-03-01

    In this paper, we proposed novel shape features to improve classification performance of differentiating obstructive lung diseases, based on HRCT (High Resolution Computerized Tomography) images. The images were selected from HRCT images, obtained from 82 subjects. For each image, two experienced radiologists selected rectangular ROIs with various sizes (16x16, 32x32, and 64x64 pixels), representing each disease or normal lung parenchyma. Besides thirteen textural features, we employed additional seven shape features; cluster shape features, and Top-hat transform features. To evaluate the contribution of shape features for differentiation of obstructive lung diseases, several experiments were conducted with two different types of classifiers and various ROI sizes. For automated classification, the Bayesian classifier and support vector machine (SVM) were implemented. To assess the performance and cross-validation of the system, 5-folding method was used. In comparison to employing only textural features, adding shape features yields significant enhancement of overall sensitivity(5.9, 5.4, 4.4% in the Bayesian and 9.0, 7.3, 5.3% in the SVM), in the order of ROI size 16x16, 32x32, 64x64 pixels, respectively (t-test, p<0.01). Moreover, this enhancement was largely due to the improvement on class-specific sensitivity of mild centrilobular emphysema and bronchiolitis obliterans which are most hard to differentiate for radiologists. According to these experimental results, adding shape features to conventional texture features is much useful to improve classification performance of obstructive lung diseases in both Bayesian and SVM classifiers.

  18. The addition of functional task-oriented mental practice to conventional physical therapy improves motor skills in daily functions after stroke*

    PubMed Central

    Santos-Couto-Paz, Clarissa C.; Teixeira-Salmela, Luci F.; Tierra-Criollo, Carlos J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Mental practice (MP) is a cognitive strategy which may improve the acquisition of motor skills and functional performance of athletes and individuals with neurological injuries. Objective To determine whether an individualized, specific functional task-oriented MP, when added to conventional physical therapy (PT), promoted better learning of motor skills in daily functions in individuals with chronic stroke (13±6.5 months post-stroke). Method Nine individuals with stable mild and moderate upper limb impairments participated, by employing an A1-B-A2 single-case design. Phases A1 and A2 included one month of conventional PT, and phase B the addition of MP training to PT. The motor activity log (MAL-Brazil) was used to assess the amount of use (AOU) and quality of movement (QOM) of the paretic upper limb; the revised motor imagery questionnaire (MIQ-RS) to assess the abilities in kinesthetic and visual motor imagery; the Minnesota manual dexterity test to assess manual dexterity; and gait speed to assess mobility. Results After phase A1, no significant changes were observed for any of the outcome measures. However, after phase B, significant improvements were observed for the MAL, AOU and QOM scores (p<0.0001), and MIQ-RS kinesthetic and visual scores (p=0.003; p=0.007, respectively). The significant gains in manual dexterity (p=0.002) and gait speed (p=0.019) were maintained after phase A2. Conclusions Specific functional task-oriented MP, when added to conventional PT, led to improvements in motor imagery abilities combined with increases in the AOU and QOM in daily functions, manual dexterity, and gait speed. PMID:24271094

  19. Improvement of the antifungal activity of lactic acid bacteria by addition to the growth medium of phenylpyruvic acid, a precursor of phenyllactic acid.

    PubMed

    Valerio, Francesca; Di Biase, Mariaelena; Lattanzio, Veronica M T; Lavermicocca, Paola

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the current study was to improve the antifungal activity of eight lactic acid bacterial (LAB) strains by the addition of phenylpyruvic acid (PPA), a precursor of the antifungal compound phenyllactic acid (PLA), to a defined growth medium (DM). The effect of PPA addition on the LABs antifungal activity related to the production of organic acids (PLA, d-lactic, l-lactic, acetic, citric, formic and 4-hydroxy-phenyllactic acids) and of other phenylpyruvic-derived molecules, was investigated. In the presence of PPA the inhibitory activity (expressed as growth inhibition percentage) against fungal bread contaminants Aspergillus niger and Penicillium roqueforti significantly increased and was, even if not completely, associated to PLA increase (from a mean value of 0.44 to 0.93 mM). While the inhibitory activity against Endomyces fibuliger was mainly correlated to the low pH and to lactic, acetic and p-OH-PLA acids. When the PCA analysis based on data of growth inhibition percentage and organic acid concentrations was performed, strains grown in DM+PPA separated from those grown in DM and the most active strains Lactobacillus plantarum 21B, Lactobacillus fermentum 18B and Lactobacillus brevis 18F grouped together. The antifungal activity resulted to be strain-related, based on a different mechanism of action for filamentous fungi and the yeast and was not exclusively associated to the increase of PLA. Therefore, a further investigation on the unique unidentified peak in HPLC-UV chromatograms, was performed by LC-MS/MS analysis. Actually, full scan mass spectra (negative ion mode) recorded at the retention time of the unknown compound, showed a main peak of m/z 291.0 which was consistent with the nominal mass of the molecular ion [M-H](-) of polyporic acid, a PPA derivative whose antifungal activity has been previously reported (Brewer et al., 1977). In conclusion, the addition of PPA to the growth medium contributed to improve the antifungal activity of LAB

  20. Improvement of the antifungal activity of lactic acid bacteria by addition to the growth medium of phenylpyruvic acid, a precursor of phenyllactic acid.

    PubMed

    Valerio, Francesca; Di Biase, Mariaelena; Lattanzio, Veronica M T; Lavermicocca, Paola

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the current study was to improve the antifungal activity of eight lactic acid bacterial (LAB) strains by the addition of phenylpyruvic acid (PPA), a precursor of the antifungal compound phenyllactic acid (PLA), to a defined growth medium (DM). The effect of PPA addition on the LABs antifungal activity related to the production of organic acids (PLA, d-lactic, l-lactic, acetic, citric, formic and 4-hydroxy-phenyllactic acids) and of other phenylpyruvic-derived molecules, was investigated. In the presence of PPA the inhibitory activity (expressed as growth inhibition percentage) against fungal bread contaminants Aspergillus niger and Penicillium roqueforti significantly increased and was, even if not completely, associated to PLA increase (from a mean value of 0.44 to 0.93 mM). While the inhibitory activity against Endomyces fibuliger was mainly correlated to the low pH and to lactic, acetic and p-OH-PLA acids. When the PCA analysis based on data of growth inhibition percentage and organic acid concentrations was performed, strains grown in DM+PPA separated from those grown in DM and the most active strains Lactobacillus plantarum 21B, Lactobacillus fermentum 18B and Lactobacillus brevis 18F grouped together. The antifungal activity resulted to be strain-related, based on a different mechanism of action for filamentous fungi and the yeast and was not exclusively associated to the increase of PLA. Therefore, a further investigation on the unique unidentified peak in HPLC-UV chromatograms, was performed by LC-MS/MS analysis. Actually, full scan mass spectra (negative ion mode) recorded at the retention time of the unknown compound, showed a main peak of m/z 291.0 which was consistent with the nominal mass of the molecular ion [M-H](-) of polyporic acid, a PPA derivative whose antifungal activity has been previously reported (Brewer et al., 1977). In conclusion, the addition of PPA to the growth medium contributed to improve the antifungal activity of LAB

  1. Creep Resistance of ZrO2 Ceramic Improved by the Addition of a Small Amount of Er2O3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martinez-Fernandez, Julian; Sayir, Ali; Farmer, Serene C.

    2003-01-01

    Zirconia (ZrO2) has great technological importance in structural, electrical, and chemical applications. It is the crucial component for state-of-the art thermal barrier coatings and an enabling component as a solid electrolyte for solid-oxide fuel cell systems. Pure ZrO2 is of limited use for industrial applications because of the phase transformations that occur. Upon the addition of stabilizers, cubic (c-ZrO2) and tetragonal (t-ZrO2) forms can be preserved. It is the stabilized and partially stabilized forms of zirconia that function as thermal barrier coatings, solid electrolytes, and oxygen sensors and that have numerous applications in the electrochemical industry. The cubic form of ZrO2 is typically stabilized through Y2O3 additions. However, Y2O3-stabilized zirconia is susceptible to deformation at high temperatures (greater than 900 C) because of the large number of slip systems and the high oxygen diffusion rates, which result in high creep rates at high temperatures. Successful use of ZrO2 at high temperatures requires that new dopant additives be found that will retain or enhance the desirable properties of cubic ZrO2 and yet produce a material with lower creep rates. At the NASA Glenn Research Center, erbium oxide (Er2O3) was identified as a promising dopant for improving the creep resistance of. ZrO2. The selection of Er2O3 was based on the strong interactions of point defects and dislocations. Single crystals of 5 mol% Er2O3- doped ZrO2 rods (4 mm in diameter) and monofilaments (200 to 300 mm in diameter and 30 cm long) were grown using the laser-heated float zone technique, and their creep behavior was measured as a function of temperature. The addition of 5 mol% Er2O3 to single-crystal ZrO2 improved its creep resistance at high temperatures by 2 to 3 orders of magnitude over state-of-the-art Y2O3-doped crystals. Detailed microstructural characterization of ZrO2-Er2O3 single crystals has identified new mechanisms for improving the creep resistance

  2. The design of probiotic studies to substantiate health claims.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Glenn R; Brummer, Robert J; Isolauri, Erika; Lochs, Herbert; Morelli, Lorenzo; Ockhuizen, Theo; Rowland, Ian R; Schrezenmeir, Jürgen; Stanton, Catherine; Verbeke, Kristin

    2011-09-01

    The EC Regulation No. 1924/2006 on Nutrition and Health claims made on foods has generated considerable debate and concern among scientists and industry. At the time of writing, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) has not approved any probiotic claims despite numerous human trials and meta-analyses showing evidence of beneficial effects. On 29th and 30th September 2010, ten independent, academic scientists with a documented record in probiotic research, met to discuss designs for future probiotic studies to demonstrate health benefits for gut and immune function. The expert panel recommended the following: (i) always formulate a precise and concrete hypothesis, and appropriate goals and parameters before starting a trial; (ii) ensure trials have sufficient sample size, such that they are adequately powered to reach statistically significant conclusions, either supporting or rejecting the a priori hypothesis, taking into account adjustment for multiple testing (this might necessitate more than one recruitment site); (iii) ensure trials are of appropriate duration; (iv) focus on a single, primary objective and only evaluate multiple parameters when they are hypothesis-driven. The panel agreed that there was an urgent need to better define which biomarkers are considered valuable for substantiation of a health claim. As a first step, the panel welcomed the publication on the day of the meeting of EFSA's draft guidance document on immune and gut health, although it came too late for study designs and dossiers to be adjusted accordingly. New validated biomarkers need to be identified in order to properly determine the range of physiological functions influenced by probiotics. In addition, validated biomarkers reflecting risk factors for disease, are required for article 14 claims (EC Regulation No. 1924/2006). Finally, the panel concluded that consensus among scientists is needed to decide appropriate clinical endpoints for trials. PMID:22067941

  3. Strategies to improve the nutritive value of rice bran in poultry diets. III. The addition of inorganic phosphorus and a phytase to duck diets.

    PubMed

    Farrell, D J; Martin, E A

    1998-12-01

    1. In the first of 2 experiments ducklings grown from 2 to 19 d were given diets with 0, 200 or 400 g rice bran, with or without a phytase and with 1 or 3 g inorganic phosphorus (Pi) per kg for rice bran-based diets only. In the 2nd experiment rice bran concentrations were 0, 300 or 600 g rice bran per kg with or without a phytase and 1 g Pi/kg. Ducks were grown from 19 to 40 d of age. 2. In experiment 1, a response to phytase was observed for weight gain and food intake on most diets except those with 200 g rice bran (3 g Pi) and 4.00 g rice bran (1 g P)i/kg. Main effects showed that 400 g rice bran depressed growth rate and food conversion ratio (FCR); increasing Pi depressed food intake, while food phytase increased food intake and growth rate over 2 to 19 d. There were several interactions. Dry matter and P retention were reduced but N digestibility improved when rice bran was increased from 200 g to 400 g/kg at 2 to 10 d of age; apparent metabolisable energy (AME) and calcium retentions were improved, similar results being seen at 10 to 19 d of age. Calcium and P retentions increased with the addition of food phytase and, at 10 to 19 d of age, phytase increased dry matter digestibility. Increasing Pi improved calcium and P retention, but only at 2 to 10 d of age. 3. Tibia ash (g or g/kg) content of bone was lowest on the diet without rice bran and without phytase; Pi concentration had no effect but phytase increased tibia ash on diets with 0 and 200 g rice bran and 1 g Pi/kg. Retention of several minerals in tibia ash declined at the highest rice bran inclusion rate; Pi level and phytase both increased Mg retention. 4. In experiment 2, food intake and growth rate of ducks, but not FCR, declined as rice bran inclusion increased from 0 to 600 g/kg. Phytase improved growth rate but not food intake and FCR on all 3 diets. Dry matter digestibility declined with increasing rice bran inclusion, but AME increased; retention of P and Mg declined but those of Ca and Fe

  4. Additional food folate derived exclusively from natural sources improves folate status in young women with the MTHFR 677 CC or TT genotype.

    PubMed

    Hung, Jean; Yang, Tai Li; Urrutia, Tania F; Li, Rui; Perry, Cydne A; Hata, Hiroko; Cogger, Edward A; Moriarty, David J; Caudill, Marie A

    2006-11-01

    The effectiveness of additional food folate in improving folate status in humans is uncertain particularly in people with the common genetic variant (677 C-->T) in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene. To examine the effect of a doubling of food folate consumption on folate status response variables, women (n=32; 18-46 years) with the MTHFR 677 CC or TT genotype consumed either 400 (n=15; 7 CC and 8 TT) or 800 (n=17; 8 CC and 9 TT) microg/day of dietary folate equivalents (DFE) derived exclusively from naturally occurring food folate for 12 weeks. A repeated measures two-factor ANOVA was used to examine the effect of the dietary treatment, the MTHFR C677T genotype and their interactions on serum folate, RBC folate and plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) during the last 3 weeks of the study. Consumption of 800 microg DFE/day resulted in serum folate concentrations that were 67% (P=.005) higher than consumption of 400 microg DFE/day (18.6+/-2.9 vs. 31.0+/-2.7 nmol/L, respectively) and RBC folate concentrations that were 33% (P=.001) higher (1172+/-75 vs. 1559+/-70 nmol/L, respectively). Serum folate (P=.065) and RBC folate (P=.022) concentrations were lower and plasma tHcy was higher (P=.039) in women with the MTHFR 677 TT genotype relative to the CC genotype. However, no genotype by dietary treatment interaction was detected. These data suggest that a doubling of food folate intake will lead to marked improvements in folate status in women with the MTHFR 677 CC or TT genotype.

  5. Use of generalized additive models and cokriging of spatial residuals to improve land-use regression estimates of nitrogen oxides in Southern California

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lianfa; Wu, Jun; Wilhelm, Michelle; Ritz, Beate

    2012-01-01

    Land-use regression (LUR) models have been developed to estimate spatial distributions of traffic-related pollutants. Several studies have examined spatial autocorrelation among residuals in LUR models, but few utilized spatial residual information in model prediction, or examined the impact of modeling methods, monitoring site selection, or traffic data quality on LUR performance. This study aims to improve spatial models for traffic-related pollutants using generalized additive models (GAM) combined with cokriging of spatial residuals. Specifically, we developed spatial models for nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) concentrations in Southern California separately for two seasons (summer and winter) based on over 240 sampling locations. Pollutant concentrations were disaggregated into three components: local means, spatial residuals, and normal random residuals. Local means were modeled by GAM. Spatial residuals were cokriged with global residuals at nearby sampling locations that were spatially auto-correlated. We compared this two-stage approach with four commonly-used spatial models: universal kriging, multiple linear LUR and GAM with and without a spatial smoothing term. Leave-one-out cross validation was conducted for model validation and comparison purposes. The results show that our GAM plus cokriging models predicted summer and winter NO2 and NOx concentration surfaces well, with cross validation R2 values ranging from 0.88 to 0.92. While local covariates accounted for partial variance of the measured NO2 and NOx concentrations, spatial autocorrelation accounted for about 20% of the variance. Our spatial GAM model improved R2 considerably compared to the other four approaches. Conclusively, our two-stage model captured summer and winter differences in NO2 and NOx spatial distributions in Southern California well. When sampling location selection cannot be optimized for the intended model and fewer covariates are available as predictors for

  6. Addition of trim coils to the Tandem Mirror Experiment Upgrade (TMX-U) magnet system to improve the magnetic field mapping

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, R.L.; Pedrotti, L.R.; Baldwin, D.E.; Hibbs, S.M.; Hill, D.N.; Hornady, R.H.; Jackson, M.C.

    1985-11-14

    The mapping of the magnetic flux bundle from the center cell to the Plasma Potential Control plates (PPC) on the end fan of the Tandem Mirror Experiment Upgrade (TMX-U), was improved by the addition of trim coils (12,000 amp-turns) on each side of each end fan next to the pump beam magnetic shields. The coils' axes are oriented perpendicular to the machine centerline. These coils made the necessary corrections to the field-line mapping, while keeping the field in the nearby pump beam magnetic shield below the saturation threshold. This paper briefly describes the problem, discusses the design as it evolved, and presents the results of the field testing. The disturbance to the field mapping and the appropriate corrections were determined using the code GFUN (a three dimensional electromagnetic field analysis code that includes the presence of permeable materials). The racetrack-shaped coils have dimensions of 1.5 feet by 3 feet and are powered by a renovated 600 kW Bart-Messing power supply controlled by the machine's magnet control system. The magnets were fabricated from polyimide-coated magnet wire. They are rated to 200/sup 0/C, although in pulsed operation they rise only a few degrees centigrade. The coils are placed outside of the vacuum system, and thus are considerably simpler than the other machine magnets. The restraints are designed to withstand a force of 1000 pounds per coil and a turning moment of 1000 foot pounds. The calculated field strengths were verified on the machine by inserting a Hall probe along the axis. The perturbations to the neutral beam magnetic shields were also measured. A brief description of the improvement in the machine performance is also included.

  7. Fasiglifam/TAK-875, a Selective GPR40 Agonist, Improves Hyperglycemia in Rats Unresponsive to Sulfonylureas and Acts Additively with Sulfonylureas.

    PubMed

    Ito, Ryo; Tsujihata, Yoshiyuki; Suzuki, Masami; Miyawaki, Kazumasa; Matsuda, Kae; Takeuchi, Koji

    2016-04-01

    Sulfonylureas (SUs) are widely used insulin secretagogues, but they have adverse effects including hypoglycemia and secondary failure. Fasiglifam/TAK-875, a selective GPR40 agonist, enhances glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and improves hyperglycemia. In the present study, we compared the in vivo glucose-lowering effects of fasiglifam with SUs. The risk of secondary failure of fasiglifam and the efficacy in rats desensitized to SUs were also evaluated. Moreover, we assessed whether fasiglifam was effective when combined with SUs. In diabetic neonatally streptozotocin-induced rats 1.5 days after birth (N-STZ-1.5), oral administrations of fasiglifam (3-30 mg/kg) dose dependently improved glucose tolerance; the effect was greater than that of glibenclamide at maximal effective doses (glucose AUC: fasiglifam, -37.6%; glibenclamide, -12.3%). Although the glucose-lowering effects of glibenclamide (10 mg/kg/day) were completely diminished in N-STZ-1.5 rats after 4 weeks of treatment, effects were maintained in rats receiving fasiglifam (10 mg/kg/day), even after 15 weeks. Fasiglifam (3-10 mg/kg) was still effective in two models desensitized to SUs: 15-week glibenclamide-treated N-STZ-1.5 rats and aged Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats. Acute administration of fasiglifam (3 mg/kg) and glimepiride (10 mg/kg) in combination additively decreased glucose AUC (fasiglifam, -25.3%; glimepiride, -20.0%; combination, -43.1%). Although glimepiride (10 mg/kg) decreased plasma glucose below normal in nonfasted control rats, fasiglifam (3 mg/kg) maintained normoglycemia, and no further exaggeration of hypoglycemia was observed with combination treatment. These results indicate that GPR40 agonists could be more effective and durable than SUs. Our results also provide new insights into GPR40 pharmacology and rationale for the use of GPR40 agonists in diabetic patients with SU failure. PMID:26813930

  8. Improving the mining soil quality for a vegetation cover after addition of sewage sludges: inorganic ions and low-molecular-weight organic acids in the soil solution.

    PubMed

    Peña, Aránzazu; Mingorance, Ma Dolores; Guzmán-Carrizosa, Ignacio; Fernández-Espinosa, Antonio J

    2015-03-01

    We assessed the effects of applying stabilized sewage sludge (SSL) and composted sewage sludge (CLV), at 5 and 10% to an acid mining soil. Limed soil (NCL) amended or not with SSL and CLV was incubated for 47 days. We studied the cations and organic and inorganic anions in the soil solution by means of ion chromatography. Liming led to big increases in Ca(2+) and SO4(2-) and to significant decreases in K(+), Mg(2+), NH4(+) and NO3(-). Addition of both organic amendments increased some cations (NH4(+), K(+), Mg(2+), Na(+)) and anions (Cl(-), NO3(-) only with CLV and PO4(3-) only with SSL) and provided a greater amount of low-molecular-weight organic acids (LMWOAs) (SSL more than CLV). Incubation led to decreases in all cations, particularly remarkable for Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) in SSL-10. A decrease in NH4(+) was associated with variations in NO2(-) and NO3(-) resulting from nitrification reactions. During incubation the LMWOAs content tended to decrease similarly to the cations, especially in SSL-10. Chemometric tools revealed a clear discrimination between SSL, CLV and NCL. Furthermore, treatment effects depended upon dose, mainly in SSL. Amendment nature and dose affect the quality of a mining soil and improve conditions for plant establishment.

  9. Improvement of modified charcoal-cefoperazone-deoxycholate agar by addition of potassium clavulanate for detecting Campylobacter spp. in chicken carcass rinse.

    PubMed

    Chon, Jung-Whan; Kim, Hyunsook; Kim, Hong-Seok; Seo, Kun-Ho

    2013-07-01

    The presence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli (E. coli) in raw poultry is one of the most common factors that interfere with the isolation of Campylobacter by cefoperazone-based selective agar. The performance of modified charcoal-cefoperazone-deoxycholate agar (mCCDA) was improved by addition of an ESBL inhibitor, potassium clavulanate (0.5 mg/L). The ability of the supplemented medium (C-mCCDA) to detect Campylobacter species from chicken carcass rinse was compared with that of normal mCCDA. The isolation rate using C-mCCDA was significantly (p<0.05) higher compared with that using mCCDA (C-mCCDA, 67 out of 120; mCCDA, 38 out of 120). Furthermore, the selectivity of the C-mCCDA as assessed by comparing the number of contaminated plates (C-mCCDA, 44 out of 120; mCCDA, 110 out of 120) and growth index (C-mCCDA, 1.76; mCCDA, 2.79) of competing flora was also better (p<0.05) than that of mCCDA.

  10. Use of ion-molecule reactions and methanol addition to improve arsenic determination in high chlorine food samples by DRC-ICP-MS.

    PubMed

    Guo, Wei; Hu, Shenghong; Li, Xiaofang; Zhao, Jian; Jin, Shesheng; Liu, Wenjuan; Zhang, Hongfei

    2011-05-15

    Direct determination of trace arsenic in high chlorine food samples by ICP-MS is complicated by the presence of ArCl(+) interferences, and the high first ionization energy of As (9.81 eV) also results in low analytical sensitivity in ICP-MS. In this work, two strategies based on ion-molecule reactions were successfully used to eliminate ArCl spectral interference in a dynamic reaction cell (DRC). The interference ion ((40)Ar(35)Cl(+)) was directly removed by the reaction with methane gas, and the background signal was reduced by up to 100-fold at m/z 75. Alternatively, by using molecule oxygen as the reaction gas, (75)As(+) was effectively converted to (75)As(16)O(+) that could be detected at m/z 91 where the background is low. The poor signal intensity of As or AsO was improved 3-4 times by addition of 4% methanol in the analyzed solutions. The limit of quantitation (LOQ) for (75)As (CH(4)-DRC method) and (75)As(16)O (O(2)-DRC method) was 0.8 and 0.3 ng g(-1) and the analytical results of seaweed and yellow croaker standard reference materials were in good agreement with the certified values. As the routine arsenic monitoring method in our laboratory, it was applied to the accuracy determination of 119 high chlorine food samples from eight different markets of Beijing.

  11. Improving the mining soil quality for a vegetation cover after addition of sewage sludges: inorganic ions and low-molecular-weight organic acids in the soil solution.

    PubMed

    Peña, Aránzazu; Mingorance, Ma Dolores; Guzmán-Carrizosa, Ignacio; Fernández-Espinosa, Antonio J

    2015-03-01

    We assessed the effects of applying stabilized sewage sludge (SSL) and composted sewage sludge (CLV), at 5 and 10% to an acid mining soil. Limed soil (NCL) amended or not with SSL and CLV was incubated for 47 days. We studied the cations and organic and inorganic anions in the soil solution by means of ion chromatography. Liming led to big increases in Ca(2+) and SO4(2-) and to significant decreases in K(+), Mg(2+), NH4(+) and NO3(-). Addition of both organic amendments increased some cations (NH4(+), K(+), Mg(2+), Na(+)) and anions (Cl(-), NO3(-) only with CLV and PO4(3-) only with SSL) and provided a greater amount of low-molecular-weight organic acids (LMWOAs) (SSL more than CLV). Incubation led to decreases in all cations, particularly remarkable for Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) in SSL-10. A decrease in NH4(+) was associated with variations in NO2(-) and NO3(-) resulting from nitrification reactions. During incubation the LMWOAs content tended to decrease similarly to the cations, especially in SSL-10. Chemometric tools revealed a clear discrimination between SSL, CLV and NCL. Furthermore, treatment effects depended upon dose, mainly in SSL. Amendment nature and dose affect the quality of a mining soil and improve conditions for plant establishment. PMID:25506677

  12. Does the Addition of Involved Field Radiotherapy to High-Dose Chemotherapy and Stem Cell Transplantation Improve Outcomes for Patients With Relapsed/Refractory Hodgkin Lymphoma?

    SciTech Connect

    Kahn, Shannon; Flowers, Christopher; Xu Zhiheng; Esiashvili, Natia

    2011-09-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the value of adding involved field radiotherapy (IFRT) to patients with relapsed/refractory Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) undergoing high-dose chemotherapy (HDCT) and stem cell transplantation (SCT). Methods and Materials: Ninety-two patients with relapsed/refractory HL undergoing HDCT and SCT from 1995 to 2008 were analyzed in a case-control design. Forty-six HL patients treated with IFRT within 2 months of SCT were matched to 46 HL patients who did not receive IFRT based on age, stage at relapse, timing of relapse, histology, and year of SCT. All were evaluated for response, survival, and toxicity with a median followup of 63.5 months. Results: There was a trend for better disease control in patients receiving IFRT. Specifically, 10/46 IFRT patients (22%) relapsed/progressed after SCT compared with 17/46 control patients (37%). Of the failures after IFRT, 70% were inside the radiation field, all in sites of bulky disease. In patients with nonbulky disease, IFRT also resulted in significantly improved outcomes (failure rate 6% vs. 33%, respectively). When stratified by disease bulk, the use of IFRT was found to significantly improve DFS (p = 0.032), but did not affect OS. In addition, IFRT and nonbulky disease were found to be positive prognostic indicators for DFS with hazard ratios of 0.357 (p = 0.032) and 0.383 (p = 0.034), respectively. Grade IV/V toxicities were significantly higher in the IFRT vs. non-IFRT group (28% vs. 2%; p < 0.001), observed only in patients receiving a busulfan-based conditioning regimen. Conclusion: Patients with refractory or relapsed HL undergoing HDCT and SCT have a high risk of relapse in sites of prior disease involvement, especially in sites of bulky disease. The use of IFRT is associated with a lower risk of disease progression in these sites; however bulky disease sites are still difficult to control. Toxicity risk is significant, particularly when busulfan-based conditioning is combined with IFRT, and alternative

  13. 75 FR 79327 - Finding of Substantial Inadequacy of Implementation Plan; Call for Utah State Implementation Plan...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-20

    ... 19, 2010 (75 FR 70888). In the November 19, 2010 document, EPA proposed a finding that the Utah State... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Finding of Substantial Inadequacy of Implementation Plan; Call for Utah State... additional information on submitting comments, see the November 19, 2010 (75 FR 70888) proposed rule....

  14. Supplementation with micronutrients in addition to iron and folic acid does not further improve the hematologic status of pregnant women in rural Nepal.

    PubMed

    Christian, Parul; Shrestha, Jaibar; LeClerq, Steven C; Khatry, Subarna K; Jiang, Tianan; Wagner, Tracey; Katz, Joanne; West, Keith P

    2003-11-01

    Iron deficiency is one of the main causes of anemia during pregnancy, although other micronutrient deficiencies may play a role. We examined the effects of daily antenatal and postnatal supplementation with four combinations of micronutrients on maternal hematologic indicators in a double-masked randomized controlled community trial. Communities, called sectors, were randomly assigned to supplementation with folic acid (400 microg), folic acid plus iron (60 mg), folic acid plus iron and zinc (30 mg) and folic acid plus iron, zinc and 11 other micronutrients, each at the approximate recommended daily allowance for pregnancy all given with vitamin A as retinol acetate (1000 microg retinol equivalent), or vitamin A alone as the control group. Hemoglobin (Hb) and indicators of iron status were assessed at baseline and at 32 wk of gestation. At 6-wk postpartum, Hb assessment was repeated using a finger stick. Severely anemic women (Hb < 70 g/L) were treated according to WHO recommendations. Folic acid alone had no effect on maternal anemia or iron status. Hb concentrations were 14 g/L, [95% confidence limits (CL), 8.3-19.2], 10.0 g/L (CL, 5.2-14.8) and 9.4 g/L (CL, 4.7-14.1) higher in the groups receiving folic acid plus iron, folic acid plus iron and zinc and folic acid plus iron, zinc and multiple micronutrients, respectively, relative to the control. Anemia in the third trimester was reduced by 54% with folic acid plus iron, by 48% with folic acid plus iron and zinc and by 36% with folic acid plus iron, zinc and multiple micronutrients supplementation, relative to the control (P < 0.05). Thus, the combinations of folic acid plus iron and zinc and folic acid plus iron, zinc and multiple micronutrients provided no additional benefit in improving maternal hematologic status during pregnancy compared with folic acid plus iron. The level of compliance and baseline Hb concentrations modified the effect of iron.

  15. Method of sealing an ultracapacitor substantially free of water

    DOEpatents

    Chapman-Irwin, Patricia; Feist, Thomas Paul

    2002-04-02

    A method of sealing an ultracapacitor substantially free of water is disclosed. The method includes providing a multilayer cell comprising two solid, non porous current collectors, separated by two porous electrodes with a separator between the two electrodes, sealing the cell with a reclosable hermetic closure. Water inside the closure is dissociated by an applied voltage to the cell and escapes in the form of hydrogen and oxygen when the closure is unmated, the closure is then mated to hermetically seal the cell which is substantially free of water.

  16. 20 CFR 604.6 - Conformity and substantial compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... general. A State's UC law must conform with, and the administration of its law must substantially comply... the FUTA (26 U.S.C. 3304(c)), with respect to whether employers are eligible to receive credit against the Federal unemployment tax established by section 3301 of the FUTA (26 U.S.C. 3301), and (2)...

  17. 20 CFR 604.6 - Conformity and substantial compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... general. A State's UC law must conform with, and the administration of its law must substantially comply... the FUTA (26 U.S.C. 3304(c)), with respect to whether employers are eligible to receive credit against the Federal unemployment tax established by section 3301 of the FUTA (26 U.S.C. 3301), and (2)...

  18. 20 CFR 604.6 - Conformity and substantial compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... general. A State's UC law must conform with, and the administration of its law must substantially comply... the FUTA (26 U.S.C. 3304(c)), with respect to whether employers are eligible to receive credit against the Federal unemployment tax established by section 3301 of the FUTA (26 U.S.C. 3301), and (2)...

  19. 20 CFR 604.6 - Conformity and substantial compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... general. A State's UC law must conform with, and the administration of its law must substantially comply... the FUTA (26 U.S.C. 3304(c)), with respect to whether employers are eligible to receive credit against the Federal unemployment tax established by section 3301 of the FUTA (26 U.S.C. 3301), and (2)...

  20. 20 CFR 604.6 - Conformity and substantial compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... general. A State's UC law must conform with, and the administration of its law must substantially comply... the FUTA (26 U.S.C. 3304(c)), with respect to whether employers are eligible to receive credit against the Federal unemployment tax established by section 3301 of the FUTA (26 U.S.C. 3301), and (2)...

  1. 29 CFR 4043.27 - Distribution to a substantial owner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... TERMINATIONS REPORTABLE EVENTS AND CERTAIN OTHER NOTIFICATION REQUIREMENTS Post-Event Notice of Reportable Events § 4043.27 Distribution to a substantial owner. (a) Reportable event. A reportable event occurs for... does not exceed the limitation (as of the date the reportable event occurs) under section...

  2. 40 CFR Appendix C to Part 112 - Substantial Harm Criteria

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... POLLUTION PREVENTION Pt. 112, App. C Appendix C to Part 112—Substantial Harm Criteria 1.0Introduction The... Pass, LA to Baton Rouge, LA; (7) Louisiana Offshore Oil Port (LOOP), LA; (8) Lake Charles, LA; (9... EPA Region. 1.1.3Inland Area means the area shoreward of the boundary lines defined in 46 CFR part...

  3. 40 CFR Appendix C to Part 112 - Substantial Harm Criteria

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... POLLUTION PREVENTION Pt. 112, App. C Appendix C to Part 112—Substantial Harm Criteria 1.0Introduction The... Pass, LA to Baton Rouge, LA; (7) Louisiana Offshore Oil Port (LOOP), LA; (8) Lake Charles, LA; (9... EPA Region. 1.1.3Inland Area means the area shoreward of the boundary lines defined in 46 CFR part...

  4. 40 CFR Appendix C to Part 112 - Substantial Harm Criteria

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... POLLUTION PREVENTION Pt. 112, App. C Appendix C to Part 112—Substantial Harm Criteria 1.0Introduction The... Pass, LA to Baton Rouge, LA; (7) Louisiana Offshore Oil Port (LOOP), LA; (8) Lake Charles, LA; (9... EPA Region. 1.1.3Inland Area means the area shoreward of the boundary lines defined in 46 CFR part...

  5. 40 CFR Appendix C to Part 112 - Substantial Harm Criteria

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... POLLUTION PREVENTION Pt. 112, App. C Appendix C to Part 112—Substantial Harm Criteria 1.0Introduction The... Pass, LA to Baton Rouge, LA; (7) Louisiana Offshore Oil Port (LOOP), LA; (8) Lake Charles, LA; (9... EPA Region. 1.1.3Inland Area means the area shoreward of the boundary lines defined in 46 CFR part...

  6. 40 CFR Appendix C to Part 112 - Substantial Harm Criteria

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... POLLUTION PREVENTION Pt. 112, App. C Appendix C to Part 112—Substantial Harm Criteria 1.0Introduction The... Pass, LA to Baton Rouge, LA; (7) Louisiana Offshore Oil Port (LOOP), LA; (8) Lake Charles, LA; (9... EPA Region. 1.1.3Inland Area means the area shoreward of the boundary lines defined in 46 CFR part...

  7. 40 CFR 350.7 - Substantiating claims of trade secrecy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substantiating claims of trade secrecy. 350.7 Section 350.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND... by providing a specific answer including, where applicable, specific facts, to each of the...

  8. Mistreatment in Assisted Living Facilities: Complaints, Substantiations, and Risk Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Linda R.; Guo, Guifang

    2011-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: Use archived public data from Arizona to explore relationships among selected institutional and resident risk and situation-specific factors and complaints and substantiated allegations of various types of mistreatment in assisted living facilities (ALFs). Design and Methods: An exploratory/descriptive 2-group design was…

  9. 76 FR 38961 - Tobacco Products, Exemptions From Substantial Equivalence Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-05

    ...: Demonstrating Substantial Equivalence for Tobacco Products'' (76 FR 789, January 6, 2011); those comments will... Register of January 6, 2011 (76 FR 737), FDA issued a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to establish a... Products'' (76 FR 789, January 6, 2011)) will ``impose an incredible and unnecessary administrative...

  10. Substantiated Best Practices in Transition: Fifteen Plus Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landmark, Leena Jo; Ju, Song; Zhang, Dalun

    2010-01-01

    Since the transition movement in the 1980s, numerous transition practices have been developed. Kohler (1993) provided a comprehensive review and analysis of transition best practices and divided them into substantiated and implied practices based on the existence of empirical evidence. Since that review was published, the field of transition has…

  11. 29 CFR 825.218 - Substantial and grievous economic injury.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 825.218 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Employee Leave Entitlements Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.218 Substantial and grievous economic injury. (a) In order to deny restoration...

  12. 29 CFR 825.218 - Substantial and grievous economic injury.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 825.218 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Employee Leave Entitlements Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.218 Substantial and grievous economic injury. (a) In order to deny restoration...

  13. 29 CFR 825.218 - Substantial and grievous economic injury.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 825.218 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Employee Leave Entitlements Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.218 Substantial and grievous economic injury. (a) In order to deny restoration...

  14. 29 CFR 825.218 - Substantial and grievous economic injury.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 825.218 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Employee Leave Entitlements Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.218 Substantial and grievous economic injury. (a) In order to deny restoration...

  15. 29 CFR 825.218 - Substantial and grievous economic injury.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 825.218 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Employee Leave Entitlements Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.218 Substantial and grievous economic injury. (a) In order to deny restoration...

  16. 20 CFR 404.1510 - Meaning of substantial gainful activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Meaning of substantial gainful activity. 404.1510 Section 404.1510 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Definition of Disability §...

  17. 20 CFR 404.1510 - Meaning of substantial gainful activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Meaning of substantial gainful activity. 404.1510 Section 404.1510 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Definition of Disability §...

  18. 20 CFR 404.1510 - Meaning of substantial gainful activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Meaning of substantial gainful activity. 404.1510 Section 404.1510 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Definition of Disability §...

  19. 20 CFR 404.1510 - Meaning of substantial gainful activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Meaning of substantial gainful activity. 404.1510 Section 404.1510 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Definition of Disability §...

  20. 20 CFR 404.1510 - Meaning of substantial gainful activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Meaning of substantial gainful activity. 404.1510 Section 404.1510 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Definition of Disability §...

  1. Phosphazene additives

    DOEpatents

    Harrup, Mason K; Rollins, Harry W

    2013-11-26

    An additive comprising a phosphazene compound that has at least two reactive functional groups and at least one capping functional group bonded to phosphorus atoms of the phosphazene compound. One of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with cellulose and the other of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with a resin, such as an amine resin of a polycarboxylic acid resin. The at least one capping functional group is selected from the group consisting of a short chain ether group, an alkoxy group, or an aryloxy group. Also disclosed are an additive-resin admixture, a method of treating a wood product, and a wood product.

  2. 10 CFR 840.4 - Criterion I-Substantial discharge of radioactive material or substantial radiation levels offsite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... dispersal of radioactive material offsite, or that there have been substantial levels of radiation offsite... facility or device and such contamination is characterized by levels of radiation in excess of one of the... and such contamination is characterized by levels of radiation in excess of one of the values...

  3. Reauthorizing the Higher Education Act: Opportunities to Improve Student Success. Additional Submitted Testimony from Lashawn Richburg-Hayes, MDRC, to the Senate Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richburg-Hayes, Lashawn

    2015-01-01

    MDRC is pleased to have this opportunity to provide additional information for the consideration of Chairman Alexander, Ranking Member Murray, and members of the Committee on ways research can be used to improve the academic success of low-income college students. The goal of this additional testimony is to reiterate the second recommendation in…

  4. Substantial Life Extension and the Fair Distribution of Healthspans.

    PubMed

    Wareham, Christopher S

    2016-10-01

    One of the strongest objections to the development and use of substantially life-extending interventions is that they would exacerbate existing unjust disparities of healthy lifespans between rich and poor members of society. In both popular opinion and ethical theory, this consequence is sometimes thought to justify a ban on life-prolonging technologies. However, the practical and ethical drawbacks of banning receive little attention, and the viability of alternative policies is seldom considered. Moreover, where ethicists do propose alternatives, there is scant effort to consider their merits in light of developing world priorities. In response to these shortcomings, I distinguish four policy options and, on the basis of a plausible intuition about fairness, evaluate their implications for a fair distribution of healthy lifespans. I claim that even in developing nations it would be fairest to favor policies that promote equal access to at least one promising category of substantially life-extending intervention: calorie restriction mimetics. PMID:27465775

  5. Patients' substantialization of disease, the hybrid symptom and metaphysical care.

    PubMed

    Pârvan, Alexandra

    2015-06-01

    In the context of current scholarship concerned with facilitating integration between the biomedical and the patient-centred models of care, the article suggests that disease brings about an ontological disruption in patients, which is not directly addressed in either model, and may interfere with treatment and therapy outcomes if not met with a type of care termed here as 'metaphysical'. The receipt of diagnosis and medical care can give patients the sense that they are ontologically diminished, or less of a human, and along with physicians' approaches to and discourses about disease, may prompt them to seek ontological restoration or security in the same way as psychologically traumatized patients sometimes do: by treating the disease and/or the experience of harm associated with it as a thing that exists per se. I call this 'substantialization' of disease (or harm) and draw on Augustine's theory of non-substantial deficiencies (physiological and moral) and on Plato's and Plotinus's different takes on such defects in order to discuss what substantialization can do for patients. Based on literature that examines patients' ways of talking about and living with their disease, I speculate that substantialization can generate a 'hybrid symptom', consisting in patterns of exercising agency which may predispose to non-adherence. Ways in which physicians could provide metaphysical care are proposed, along with an understanding of chronic patients as hybrid ontological and agentic units, which draws on theories of enactive cognition. I opine that metaphysical care may facilitate integration between the depersonalized and personalized models of care. PMID:25312387

  6. Additional cooling and heating load improvements in seasonal performance modeling of room and central air conditioners and heat pumps. Topical report, Subtask 3. 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-04-09

    The study focuses on improving the load modeling technique of Seasonal Performance Model (SPM) in order to estimate a more realistic load for seasonal analysis calculations on an hourly basis. A computer simulation program, Seasonal Performance Model Load (SPMLD), was used to calculate the cooling and heating loads for a typical residence in Caribou, Maine; Columbia, Missouri; and Fort Worth, Texas. The derivation of the SPMLD is described and changes made to improve cooling and heating load estimates are identified. (MCW)

  7. Experience in using the covariances of some ENDF/B-V dosimetry cross sections: proposed improvements and addition of cross-reaction covariances

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, C.Y.; Hetrick, D.M.

    1982-01-01

    Recent ratio data, with carefully evaluated covariances, were combined with eleven of the ENDF/B-V dosimetry cross sections using the generalized least-squares method. The purpose was to improve these evaluated cross sections and covariances, as well as to generate values for the cross-reaction covariances. The results represent improved cross sections as well as realistic and usable covariances. The latter are necessary for meaningful intergral-differential comparisons and for spectrum unfolding.

  8. Improving efficiency and color purity of poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene) through addition of a high boiling-point solvent of 1-chloronaphthalene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Junfei; Yu, Lei; Zhao, Sen; Ying, Lei; Liu, Feng; Yang, Wei; Peng, Junbiao; Cao, Yong

    2016-07-01

    In this work, the β-phase of poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene) (PFO) was used as a probe to study the effects of the addition of a high boiling-point solvent of 1-chloronaphthalene on the nanostructures and electroluminescence of PFO films. Both absorption and photoluminescence spectra showed that the content of the β-phase in PFO film was obviously enhanced as a result of the addition of a small amount of 1-chloronaphthalene into the processing solvent of p-xylenes. Apparently rougher morphology associated with the effectively enhanced ordering of polymer chains across the entire film was observed for films processed from p-xylene solutions consisting of a certain amount of 1-chloronaphthalene, as revealed by atomic force microscopy and grazing incidence x-ray diffraction measurements. In addition to the effects on the nanostructures of films, of particular interest is that the performance and color purity of polymer light-emitting devices can be noticeably enhanced upon the addition of 1-chloronaphthalene. These observations highlight the importance of controlling the nanostructures of the emissive layer, and demonstrate that the addition of a low volume ratio of high boiling-point additive can be a promising strategy to attain high-performance polymer light-emitting diodes.

  9. Improving efficiency and color purity of poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene) through addition of a high boiling-point solvent of 1-chloronaphthalene.

    PubMed

    Liang, Junfei; Yu, Lei; Sen Zhao; Ying, Lei; Liu, Feng; Yang, Wei; Peng, Junbiao; Cao, Yong

    2016-07-15

    In this work, the β-phase of poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene) (PFO) was used as a probe to study the effects of the addition of a high boiling-point solvent of 1-chloronaphthalene on the nanostructures and electroluminescence of PFO films. Both absorption and photoluminescence spectra showed that the content of the β-phase in PFO film was obviously enhanced as a result of the addition of a small amount of 1-chloronaphthalene into the processing solvent of p-xylenes. Apparently rougher morphology associated with the effectively enhanced ordering of polymer chains across the entire film was observed for films processed from p-xylene solutions consisting of a certain amount of 1-chloronaphthalene, as revealed by atomic force microscopy and grazing incidence x-ray diffraction measurements. In addition to the effects on the nanostructures of films, of particular interest is that the performance and color purity of polymer light-emitting devices can be noticeably enhanced upon the addition of 1-chloronaphthalene. These observations highlight the importance of controlling the nanostructures of the emissive layer, and demonstrate that the addition of a low volume ratio of high boiling-point additive can be a promising strategy to attain high-performance polymer light-emitting diodes.

  10. Improving efficiency and color purity of poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene) through addition of a high boiling-point solvent of 1-chloronaphthalene.

    PubMed

    Liang, Junfei; Yu, Lei; Sen Zhao; Ying, Lei; Liu, Feng; Yang, Wei; Peng, Junbiao; Cao, Yong

    2016-07-15

    In this work, the β-phase of poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene) (PFO) was used as a probe to study the effects of the addition of a high boiling-point solvent of 1-chloronaphthalene on the nanostructures and electroluminescence of PFO films. Both absorption and photoluminescence spectra showed that the content of the β-phase in PFO film was obviously enhanced as a result of the addition of a small amount of 1-chloronaphthalene into the processing solvent of p-xylenes. Apparently rougher morphology associated with the effectively enhanced ordering of polymer chains across the entire film was observed for films processed from p-xylene solutions consisting of a certain amount of 1-chloronaphthalene, as revealed by atomic force microscopy and grazing incidence x-ray diffraction measurements. In addition to the effects on the nanostructures of films, of particular interest is that the performance and color purity of polymer light-emitting devices can be noticeably enhanced upon the addition of 1-chloronaphthalene. These observations highlight the importance of controlling the nanostructures of the emissive layer, and demonstrate that the addition of a low volume ratio of high boiling-point additive can be a promising strategy to attain high-performance polymer light-emitting diodes. PMID:27250786

  11. [Food additives and healthiness].

    PubMed

    Heinonen, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Additives are used for improving food structure or preventing its spoilage, for example. Many substances used as additives are also naturally present in food. The safety of additives is evaluated according to commonly agreed principles. If high concentrations of an additive cause adverse health effects for humans, a limit of acceptable daily intake (ADI) is set for it. An additive is a risk only when ADI is exceeded. The healthiness of food is measured on the basis of nutrient density and scientifically proven effects.

  12. Development of a novel Sinapis arvensis disomic addition line in Brassica napus containing the restorer gene for Nsa CMS and improved resistance to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and pod shattering.

    PubMed

    Wei, Wenhui; Li, Yunchang; Wang, Lijun; Liu, Shengyi; Yan, Xiaohong; Mei, Desheng; Li, Yinde; Xu, Yusong; Peng, Pengfei; Hu, Qiong

    2010-04-01

    An allo-cytoplasmic male sterile line, which was developed through somatic hybridization between Brassica napus and Sinapis arvensis (thus designated as Nsa CMS line), possesses high potential for hybrid production of rapeseed. In order to select for restorer lines, fertile plants derived from the same somatic hybridization combination were self-pollinated and testcrossed with the parental Nsa CMS line for six generations. A novel disomic alien addition line, B. napus-S. arvensis, has been successfully developed. GISH analysis showed that it contains one pair of chromosomes from S. arvensis and 19 pairs from B. napus, and retains stable and regular mitotic and meiotic processes. The addition line displays very strong restoration ability to Nsa CMS line, high resistance to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and a low incidence of pod shattering. Because the addition line shares these very important agricultural characters, it is a valuable restorer to Nsa CMS line, and is named NR1 here (Nsa restorer no. 1).

  13. Tribological characteristics of bisphenol AF bis(diphenyl phosphate) as an antiwear additive in polyalkylene glycol and polyurea grease for significantly improved lubrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Lili; Wu, Xinhu; Zhao, Gaiqing; Wang, Xiaobo

    2016-02-01

    A new antiwear additive of Bisphenol AF bis(diphenyl phosphate) (BAFDP) was synthesized and characterized. The tribological behaviors of the additive for polyalkylene glycol (PAG) and polyurea grease (PG) application in steel/steel contacts were evaluated on an Optimol SRV-IV oscillating reciprocating friction and wear tester at elevated temperature. The results revealed that BAFDP could drastically reduce friction and wear of sliding pairs in both PAG and also in PG at 100 °C. The tribological properties of BAFDP are superior to the normally used zinc dialkyldithiophosphate-based additive package (ZDDP) in PAG and PG. Moreover, BAFDP as additive for PAG and PG displays relatively significant tribological properties in temperature-ramp tests by performing well at 50-300 °C, indicating the excellent high temperature friction reduction and anti-wear capacity of BAFDP. XPS results showed that boundary lubrication films composed of Fe(OH)O, Fe3O4, FePO4, FeF2, FeF3, compounds containing the Psbnd O bonds, nitrogen oxide, and so forth, were formed on the worn surface, which contributed to excellent friction reduction and antiwear performance.

  14. School Improvement Grants: Education Should Take Additional Steps to Enhance Accountability for Schools and Contractors. Report to Congressional Requesters. GAO-12-373

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, George A.

    2012-01-01

    The School Improvement Grant (SIG) program funds reforms in low performing schools. Congress provided $3.5 billion for SIG in fiscal year 2009, and a total of about $1.6 billion was appropriated in fiscal years 2010-2012. SIG requirements changed significantly in 2010. Many schools receiving SIG funds must now use the funding for specific…

  15. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fletcher, James C. (Inventor); Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor); Burks, Harold D. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

  16. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor); Burks, Harold D. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of the additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

  17. Improvement of the cycle life of composite xerogel V2O5/C in aqueous LiNO3 solution by addition of vinylene carbonate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stojković, I.; Cvijetićanin, N.; Mentus, S.

    2011-12-01

    The xerogel V2O5/C composite was synthesized by a sol-gel method, using the suspension of carbon black in the solution of crystalline V2O5 in hydrogen peroxide as the precursor solution. The Li+ intercalation/deintercalation reactions of the xerogel V2O5/C composite, used as an anode material of a two-electrode cell with an aqueous LiNO3 solution as the electrolyte, was studied before and after the addition of vinylene carbonate (VC). Upon addition of vinylene carbonate in an amount of only l wt %, the coulombic capacity during galvanostatic cycling, instead of commonly observed permanent fade, displayed an initial increase and then a stable plateau.

  18. Controlled challenge experiment demonstrates substantial additive genetic variation in resistance of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) to Streptococcus iniae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Streptococcus iniae is an etiologic agent of streptococcal disease in tilapia and is one of several Streptococcus spp. that negatively impact worldwide tilapia production. Methods for the prevention and control of S. iniae include vaccines, management strategies, and antibiotics. A complimentary pre...

  19. RF Sputtering for preparing substantially pure amorphous silicon monohydride

    DOEpatents

    Jeffrey, Frank R.; Shanks, Howard R.

    1982-10-12

    A process for controlling the dihydride and monohydride bond densities in hydrogenated amorphous silicon produced by reactive rf sputtering of an amorphous silicon target. There is provided a chamber with an amorphous silicon target and a substrate therein with the substrate and the target positioned such that when rf power is applied to the target the substrate is in contact with the sputtering plasma produced thereby. Hydrogen and argon are fed to the chamber and the pressure is reduced in the chamber to a value sufficient to maintain a sputtering plasma therein, and then rf power is applied to the silicon target to provide a power density in the range of from about 7 watts per square inch to about 22 watts per square inch to sputter an amorphous silicon hydride onto the substrate, the dihydride bond density decreasing with an increase in the rf power density. Substantially pure monohydride films may be produced.

  20. Borehole survey method and apparatus for drilling substantially horizontal boreholes

    SciTech Connect

    Trowsdale, L.S.

    1982-11-30

    A borehole survey method and apparatus are claimed for use in drilling substantially horizontal boreholes through a mineral deposit wherein a dip accelerometer, a roll accelerometer assembly and a fluxgate are disposed near the drill bit, which is mounted on a bent sub, and connected to a surface computation and display unit by a cable which extends through the drill string. The dip angle of the borehole near the drill bit, the azimuth of the borehole near the drill bit and the roll angle or orientation of the bent sub are measured and selectively displayed at the surface while the drill string is in the borehole for utilization in guiding the drill bit through the mineral deposit along a predetermined path.

  1. Resonant infrared detector with substantially unit quantum efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farhoomand, Jam (Inventor); Mcmurray, Robert E., Jr. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A resonant infrared detector includes an infrared-active layer which has first and second parallel faces and which absorbs radiation of a given wavelength. The detector also includes a first tuned reflective layer, disposed opposite the first face of the infrared-active layer, which reflects a specific portion of the radiation incident thereon and allows a specific portion of the incident radiation at the given wavelength to reach the infrared-active layer. A second reflective layer, disposed opposite the second face of the infrared-active layer, reflects back into the infrared-active layer substantially all of the radiation at the given wavelength which passes through the infrared-active layer. The reflective layers have the effect of increasing the quantum efficiency of the infrared detector relative to the quantum efficiency of the infrared-active layer alone.

  2. Improving the biotreatment of hydrocarbons-contaminated soils by addition of activated sludge taken from the wastewater treatment facilities of an oil refinery.

    PubMed

    Juteau, Pierre; Bisaillon, Jean-Guy; Lépine, François; Ratheau, Valérie; Beaudet, Réjean; Villemur, Richard

    2003-01-01

    Addition of activated sludge taken from the wastewater treatment facilities of an oil refinery to a soil contaminated with oily sludge stimulated hydrocarbon biodegradation in microcosms, bioreactors and biopile. Microcosms containing 50 g of soil to which 0.07% (w/w) of activated sludge was added presented a higher degradation of alkanes (80% vs 24%) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) (77% vs 49%) as compared to the one receiving only water, after 30 days of incubation at room temperature. Addition of ammonium nitrate or sterile sludge filtrate instead of activated sludge resulted in a similar removal of PAHs but not of alkanes suggesting that the nitrogen contained in the activated sludge plays a major role in the degradation of PAHs while microorganisms of the sludge are active against alkanes. Addition of sludge also stimulated hydrocarbon biodegradation in 10-kg bioreactors operated during 60 days and in a 50-m3 biopile operated during 126 days. This biopile treatment allowed the use of the soil for industrial purpose based on provincial regulation ("C" criteria). In contrast, the soil of the control biopile that received only water still exceeded C criteria for C10-C50 hydrocarbons, total PAHs, chrysene and benzo[a]anthracene. The stimulation effect of sludge was stronger on the 4-rings than on 2-rings PAHs. The soil of the biopile that received sludge was 4-5 times less toxic than the control. These results suggest that this particular type of activated sludge could be used to increase the efficiency of the treatment of hydrocarbon-contaminated soils in a biopile.

  3. The addition of a Buttiauxella sp. phytase to lactating sow diets deficient in phosphorus and calcium reduces weight loss and improves nutrient digestibility.

    PubMed

    Wealleans, A L; Bold, R M; Dersjant-Li, Y; Awati, A

    2015-11-01

    Improving the efficiency of P use by pigs is especially important for lactating sows, whose metabolic requirements for P and Ca are high. The effect of a sp. phytase on lactating sow performance and nutrient digestibility was investigated using the combined data set for 6 studies. Treatments included a nutritionally adequate positive control diet (PC), a negative control diet (NC; with an average reduction of 0.16% available phosphorous and 0.15% Ca vs. PC), and NC supplemented with a sp. phytase at 250, 500, 1,000 or 2,000 phytase unit (FTU)/kg, respectively. Phosphorus and Ca deficiency in the NC resulted in significantly higher BW loss compared with the PC. All phytase treatments maintained BW loss at the same level as the PC. Increasing doses of phytase significantly ( < 0.05) reduced sow BW loss and increased energy intake, with improvements most apparent in sows older than parity 5. The positive effects on BW and energy intake were not observed in first-parity sows. This may be a consequence of fewer first parity sows in the data set. The apparent total tract digestibility of DM, OM, and CP were not affected by phytase supplementation. Digestible P and Ca were significantly improved (linear, < 0.0001; quadratic, < 0.0001) by increasing the dose of phytase supplementation. Significantly lower apparent total tract digestibility of energy, Ca, and P was found in the NC treatment vs. the PC treatment, whereas no significant differences were found between phytase treatment and the PC treatment. In conclusion, phytase supplementation at a level of 250 FTU/kg can replace 0.16% available phosphorous and 0.15% Ca; however, increasing the phytase dose can further reduce BW loss in sows fed P- and Ca- deficient diets.

  4. Governing the morphology of Pt–Au heteronanocrystals with improved electrocatalytic performance† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Additional tabulated data, TEM, HAADF-STEM, HRTEM images, UV-visible measurements, XPS spectra, ICP elemental analysis, EDX-mapping, cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry measurements and tomography videos. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr07481e Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Mourdikoudis, Stefanos; Chirea, Mariana; Zanaga, Daniele; Altantzis, Thomas; Mitrakas, Manasis; Bals, Sara; Liz-Marzán, Luis M.

    2015-01-01

    Platinum–gold heteronanostructures comprising either dimer (Pt–Au) or core–satellite (Pt@Au) configurations were synthesized by means of a seeded growth procedure using platinum nanodendrites as seeds. Careful control of the reduction kinetics of the gold precursor can be used to direct the nucleation and growth of gold nanoparticles on either one or multiple surface sites simultaneously, leading to the formation of either dimers or core–satellite nanoparticles, respectively, in high yields. Characterization by electron tomography and high resolution electron microscopy provided a better understanding of the actual three-dimensional particle morphology, as well as the Au–Pt interface, revealing quasi-epitaxial growth of Au on Pt. The prepared Pt–Au bimetallic nanostructures are highly efficient catalysts for ethanol oxidation in alkaline solution, showing accurate selectivity, high sensitivity, and improved efficiency by generating higher current densities than their monometallic counterparts. PMID:25904481

  5. Weighted mutual information analysis substantially improves domain-based functional network models

    PubMed Central

    Shim, Jung Eun; Lee, Insuk

    2016-01-01

    Motivation: Functional protein–protein interaction (PPI) networks elucidate molecular pathways underlying complex phenotypes, including those of human diseases. Extrapolation of domain–domain interactions (DDIs) from known PPIs is a major domain-based method for inferring functional PPI networks. However, the protein domain is a functional unit of the protein. Therefore, we should be able to effectively infer functional interactions between proteins based on the co-occurrence of domains. Results: Here, we present a method for inferring accurate functional PPIs based on the similarity of domain composition between proteins by weighted mutual information (MI) that assigned different weights to the domains based on their genome-wide frequencies. Weighted MI outperforms other domain-based network inference methods and is highly predictive for pathways as well as phenotypes. A genome-scale human functional network determined by our method reveals numerous communities that are significantly associated with known pathways and diseases. Domain-based functional networks may, therefore, have potential applications in mapping domain-to-pathway or domain-to-phenotype associations. Availability and Implementation: Source code for calculating weighted mutual information based on the domain profile matrix is available from www.netbiolab.org/w/WMI. Contact: Insuklee@yonsei.ac.kr Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:27207946

  6. Improving methane production in cow dung and corn straw co-fermentation systems via enhanced degradation of cellulose by cabbage addition.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wenyang; Chen, Yong; Faisal, Shah; Khan, Aman; Chen, Zhengjun; Ling, Zhenmin; Liu, Pu; Li, Xiangkai

    2016-09-19

    The effects of cabbage waste (CW) addition on methane production in cow dung and corn straw co-fermentation systems were investigated. Four experimental groups, each containing 55 g of substrate, were set up as follows: 100% cow dung (C); 36% cabbage and 64% cow dung (CC); 36% straw and 64% cow dung (SC); and 18% cabbage, 18% straw, and 64% cow dung (CSC). After seven days of fermentation, the maximum methane yield was 134 mL in the CSC group, which was 2.81-fold, 1.78-fold, and 1340-fold higher than that obtained in the CC, SC, and C groups, respectively. CW treatment of the CSC group enhanced cellulase activity and enriched culturable cellulose-degrading bacterial strains. Miseq sequencing data revealed that the predominant phylum in the CSC group was Bacteroidetes, which contains most of the cellulose-degrading bacteria. Our results suggested that CW treatment elevated cellulose degradation and promoted methane production.

  7. Generation of a recombinant rabies Flury LEP virus carrying an additional G gene creates an improved seed virus for inactivated vaccine production.

    PubMed

    Tao, Lihong; Ge, Jinying; Wang, Xijun; Wen, Zhiyuan; Zhai, Hongyue; Hua, Tao; Zhao, Bolin; Kong, Dongni; Yang, Chinglai; Bu, Zhigao

    2011-01-01

    The rabies Flury Low Egg Passage virus (LEP) has been widely used as a seed virus to generate inactive vaccine. Here, we established a reverse genetic system for LEP and generated a recombinant LEP virus (rLEP-G) that carries two identical G genes. This recombinant virus showed similar properties to those of LEP with respect to in vitro growth, neurotropism index, and virulence in mice. rLEP-G produced 4.3-fold more G protein than did LEP in BHK-21 cells. The inactivated vaccine generated from rLEP-G induced significantly higher virus neutralization titers in mice and dogs than those produced in response to LEP-derived vaccine. Our results suggest that rLEP-G is an improved seed virus candidate for inactivated rabies virus vaccine manufacture.

  8. Carbon dioxide addition to microbial fuel cell cathodes maintains sustainable catholyte pH and improves anolyte pH, alkalinity, and conductivity.

    PubMed

    Fornero, Jeffrey J; Rosenbaum, Miriam; Cotta, Michael A; Angenent, Largus T

    2010-04-01

    Bioelectrochemical system (BES) pH imbalances develop due to anodic proton-generating oxidation reactions and cathodic hydroxide-ion-generating reduction reactions. Until now, workers added unsustainable buffers to reduce the pH difference between the anode and cathode because the pH imbalance contributes to BES potential losses and, therefore, power losses. Here, we report that adding carbon dioxide (CO(2)) gas to the cathode, which creates a CO(2)/bicarbonate buffered catholyte system, can diminish microbial fuel cell (MFC) pH imbalances in contrast to the CO(2)/carbonate buffered catholyte system by Torres, Lee, and Rittmann [Environ. Sci. Technol. 2008, 42, 8773]. We operated an air-cathode and liquid-cathode MFC side-by-side. For the air-cathode MFC, CO(2) addition resulted in a stable catholyte film pH of 6.61 +/- 0.12 and a 152% increase in steady-state power density. By adding CO(2) to the liquid-cathode system, we sustained a steady catholyte pH (pH = 5.94 +/- 0.02) and a low pH imbalance (DeltapH = 0.65 +/- 0.18) over a 2-week period without external salt buffer addition. By migrating bicarbonate ions from the cathode to the anode (with an anion-exchange membrane), we increased the anolyte pH (DeltapH = 0.39 +/- 0.31), total alkalinity (494 +/- 6 to 582 +/- 6 as mg CaCO(3)/L), and conductivity (1.53 +/- 0.49 to 2.16 +/- 0.03 mS/cm) relative to the feed properties. We also verified with a phosphate-buffered MFC that our reaction rates were limited mainly by the reactor configuration rather than limitations due to the bicarbonate buffer.

  9. Addition of superoxide dismutase mimics during cooling process prevents oxidative stress and improves semen quality parameters in frozen/thawed ram spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Santiani, Alexei; Evangelista, Shirley; Sepúlveda, Néstor; Risopatrón, Jennie; Villegas, Juana; Sánchez, Raúl

    2014-10-01

    High levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which may be related to reduced semen quality, are detected during semen cryopreservation in some species. The objectives of this study were to measure the oxidative stress during ram semen cryopreservation and to evaluate the effect of adding 2 antioxidant mimics of superoxide dismutase (Tempo and Tempol) during the cooling process on sperm motility, viability, acrosomal integrity, capacitation status, ROS levels, and lipid peroxidation in frozen and/or thawed ram spermatozoa. Measuring of ROS levels during the cooling process at 35, 25, 15, and 5 °C and after freezing and/or thawing showed a directly proportional increase (P < 0.05) when temperatures were lowering. Adding antioxidants at 10 °C confered a higher motility and sperm viability after cryopreservation in comparison with adding at 35 °C or at 35 °C/5 °C. After freezing and/or thawing, sperm motility was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in Tempo and Tempol 1 mM than that in control group. Percentage of capacitated spermatozoa was lower (P < 0.05) in Tempo and Tempol 1 mM in comparison with that in control group. In addition, ROS levels and lipid peroxidation in group Tempo 1 mM were lower (P < 0.05) than those in control group. These results demonstrate that ram spermatozoa are exposed to oxidative stress during the cooling process, specifically when maintained at 5 °C and that lipid peroxidation induced by high levels of ROS decreases sperm motility and induces premature sperm capacitation. In contrast, the addition of Tempo or Tempol at 0.5 to 1 mM during the cooling process (10 °C) protects ram spermatozoa from oxidative stress.

  10. Under which conditions, additional monitoring data are worth gathering for improving decision making? Application of the VOI theory in the Bayesian Event Tree eruption forecasting framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loschetter, Annick; Rohmer, Jérémy

    2016-04-01

    Standard and new generation of monitoring observations provide in almost real-time important information about the evolution of the volcanic system. These observations are used to update the model and contribute to a better hazard assessment and to support decision making concerning potential evacuation. The framework BET_EF (based on Bayesian Event Tree) developed by INGV enables dealing with the integration of information from monitoring with the prospect of decision making. Using this framework, the objectives of the present work are i. to propose a method to assess the added value of information (within the Value Of Information (VOI) theory) from monitoring; ii. to perform sensitivity analysis on the different parameters that influence the VOI from monitoring. VOI consists in assessing the possible increase in expected value provided by gathering information, for instance through monitoring. Basically, the VOI is the difference between the value with information and the value without additional information in a Cost-Benefit approach. This theory is well suited to deal with situations that can be represented in the form of a decision tree such as the BET_EF tool. Reference values and ranges of variation (for sensitivity analysis) were defined for input parameters, based on data from the MESIMEX exercise (performed at Vesuvio volcano in 2006). Complementary methods for sensitivity analyses were implemented: local, global using Sobol' indices and regional using Contribution to Sample Mean and Variance plots. The results (specific to the case considered) obtained with the different techniques are in good agreement and enable answering the following questions: i. Which characteristics of monitoring are important for early warning (reliability)? ii. How do experts' opinions influence the hazard assessment and thus the decision? Concerning the characteristics of monitoring, the more influent parameters are the means rather than the variances for the case considered

  11. Improvement of the butanol production selectivity and butanol to acetone ratio (B:A) by addition of electron carriers in the batch culture of a new local isolate of Clostridium acetobutylicum YM1.

    PubMed

    Nasser Al-Shorgani, Najeeb Kaid; Kalil, Mohd Sahaid; Wan Yusoff, Wan Mohtar; Shukor, Hafiza; Hamid, Aidil Abdul

    2015-12-01

    Improvement in the butanol production selectivity or enhanced butanol:acetone ratio (B:A) is desirable in acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation by Clostridium strains. In this study, artificial electron carriers were added to the fermentation medium of a new isolate of Clostridium acetobutylicum YM1 in order to improve the butanol yield and B:A ratio. The results revealed that medium supplementation with electron carriers changed the metabolism flux of electron and carbon in ABE fermentation by YM1. A decrease in acetone production, which subsequently improved the B:A ratio, was observed. Further improvement in the butanol production and B:A ratios were obtained when the fermentation medium was supplemented with butyric acid. The maximum butanol production (18.20 ± 1.38 g/L) was gained when a combination of methyl red and butyric acid was added. Although the addition of benzyl viologen (0.1 mM) and butyric acid resulted in high a B:A ratio of 16:1 (800% increment compared with the conventional 2:1 ratio), the addition of benzyl viologen to the culture after 4 h resulted in the production of 18.05 g/L butanol. Manipulating the metabolic flux to butanol through the addition of electron carriers could become an alternative strategy to achieve higher butanol productivity and improve the B:A ratio.

  12. Improvement of the butanol production selectivity and butanol to acetone ratio (B:A) by addition of electron carriers in the batch culture of a new local isolate of Clostridium acetobutylicum YM1.

    PubMed

    Nasser Al-Shorgani, Najeeb Kaid; Kalil, Mohd Sahaid; Wan Yusoff, Wan Mohtar; Shukor, Hafiza; Hamid, Aidil Abdul

    2015-12-01

    Improvement in the butanol production selectivity or enhanced butanol:acetone ratio (B:A) is desirable in acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation by Clostridium strains. In this study, artificial electron carriers were added to the fermentation medium of a new isolate of Clostridium acetobutylicum YM1 in order to improve the butanol yield and B:A ratio. The results revealed that medium supplementation with electron carriers changed the metabolism flux of electron and carbon in ABE fermentation by YM1. A decrease in acetone production, which subsequently improved the B:A ratio, was observed. Further improvement in the butanol production and B:A ratios were obtained when the fermentation medium was supplemented with butyric acid. The maximum butanol production (18.20 ± 1.38 g/L) was gained when a combination of methyl red and butyric acid was added. Although the addition of benzyl viologen (0.1 mM) and butyric acid resulted in high a B:A ratio of 16:1 (800% increment compared with the conventional 2:1 ratio), the addition of benzyl viologen to the culture after 4 h resulted in the production of 18.05 g/L butanol. Manipulating the metabolic flux to butanol through the addition of electron carriers could become an alternative strategy to achieve higher butanol productivity and improve the B:A ratio. PMID:26439644

  13. Extending Vaidyanathan's procedure to improve the performance of unitary filter banks with a fixed lowpass by using additional elementary building blocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steffen, Peter; Brandhuber, Wolfgang

    2007-09-01

    Wavelet decomposition of signals using the classical Daubechies-Wavelets could also be considered as a decomposition using a filter bank with two channels, a low pass and a high pass channel, represented by the father and mother wavelet, respectively. By generalizing this two channel approach filter banks with N >= 2 channels can be constructed. They possess one scaling function or father wavelet representing the low pass filter and one, two or more mother wavelets representing band pass filters. The resulting band pass filters do not show a satisfactory selective behavior, in general. Hence, a modification of the generalized design seems appropriate. Based on Vaidyanathan's procedure we developed a method to modify the modulation matrix under the condition that the low pass is unchanged and the degree of the band pass filters is not increased. This can be achieved by introducing one or more additional elementary building blocks under certain orthogonality constraints with respect to their generating vectors. While the (polynomial) degree of the modulation matrix remains unchanged, its complexity increases due to its increased McMillan degree.

  14. Different Effect of the Additional Electron-Withdrawing Cyano Group in Different Conjugation Bridge: The Adjusted Molecular Energy Levels and Largely Improved Photovoltaic Performance.

    PubMed

    Li, Huiyang; Fang, Manman; Hou, Yingqin; Tang, Runli; Yang, Yizhou; Zhong, Cheng; Li, Qianqian; Li, Zhen

    2016-05-18

    Four organic sensitizers (LI-68-LI-71) bearing various conjugated bridges were designed and synthesized, in which the only difference between LI-68 and LI-69 (or LI-70 and LI-71) was the absence/presence of the CN group as the auxiliary electron acceptor. Interestingly, compared to the reference dye of LI-68, LI-69 bearing the additional CN group exhibited the bad performance with the decreased Jsc and Voc values. However, once one thiophene moiety near the anchor group was replaced by pyrrole with the electron-rich property, the resultant LI-71 exhibited a photoelectric conversion efficiency increase by about 3 folds from 2.75% (LI-69) to 7.95% (LI-71), displaying the synergistic effect of the two moieties (CN and pyrrole). Computational analysis disclosed that pyrrole as the auxiliary electron donor (D') in the conjugated bridge can compensate for the lower negative charge in the electron acceptor, which was caused by the CN group as the electron trap, leading to the more efficient electron injection and better photovoltaic performance.

  15. Tellurium addition as a solution to improve compactness of ex-situ processed MgB2-SiC superconducting tapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandu, V.; Aldica, G.; Popa, S.; Enculescu, Monica; Badica, P.

    2016-06-01

    Ex-situ spark plasma sintering (SPS) was used to obtain dense MgB2-based tapes in a Fe sheath with the starting composition (MgB2)0.975 + (SiC)0.025 + Te0.01. Prior to the SPS procedure of tape formation, the samples were submitted to a series of cold working processes typical for the powder-in-tube technique. The tapes were compared with optimal doped bulk samples (having the same starting composition) and a pristine MgB2 tape. The morphology of the composite samples, the phase structure of both the core and the inner face of the metallic sheath shows the formation of a plethora of traces as a result of interaction between MgB2, additives, and the Fe sheath. Important critical parameters, like critical current density and the irreversibility field, show that there is a field and temperature range where the SiC and Te-added tapes display better critical parameters comparative to either pristine MgB2 tapes in the Fe sheath or SiC and Te doped MgB2 bulk samples.

  16. Improving methane production in cow dung and corn straw co-fermentation systems via enhanced degradation of cellulose by cabbage addition

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Wenyang; Chen, Yong; Faisal, Shah; Khan, Aman; Chen, Zhengjun; Ling, Zhenmin; Liu, Pu; Li, Xiangkai

    2016-01-01

    The effects of cabbage waste (CW) addition on methane production in cow dung and corn straw co-fermentation systems were investigated. Four experimental groups, each containing 55 g of substrate, were set up as follows: 100% cow dung (C); 36% cabbage and 64% cow dung (CC); 36% straw and 64% cow dung (SC); and 18% cabbage, 18% straw, and 64% cow dung (CSC). After seven days of fermentation, the maximum methane yield was 134 mL in the CSC group, which was 2.81-fold, 1.78-fold, and 1340-fold higher than that obtained in the CC, SC, and C groups, respectively. CW treatment of the CSC group enhanced cellulase activity and enriched culturable cellulose-degrading bacterial strains. Miseq sequencing data revealed that the predominant phylum in the CSC group was Bacteroidetes, which contains most of the cellulose-degrading bacteria. Our results suggested that CW treatment elevated cellulose degradation and promoted methane production. PMID:27641709

  17. LPS ligand and culture additives improve production of monomeric MD-1 and 2 in Pichia pastoris by decreasing aggregation and intermolecular disulfide bonding.

    PubMed

    Mengwasser, Kristen E; Bryant, Clare E; Gay, Nick J; Gangloff, Monique

    2011-04-01

    Myeloid differentiation proteins MD-1 and MD-2 have both been shown to form a heterogeneous collection of oligomers when expressed in absence of their respective receptor, RP105 and TLR4. The biological relevance of these oligomers is not clear. Only monomeric proteins have been found to be active and able to trigger an immune response to endotoxin by modulating the TLR4 pathway. In this study, we produced variants of MD-1 and MD-2 in Pichia pastoris. To minimize the time and expense of initial expression tests, small-scale cultures have been set up to allow the rapid identification of the highest expressing clone and the optimal expression conditions. The expression vectors used, the site of linearization and the locus of integration affected the yield of transformation. Next we screened culture additives and found that they significantly increased the fraction of monomeric proteins secreted in the culture medium (up to 15% of the total MD protein produced). We confirmed their presence by size-exclusion chromatography. Optimal anti-aggregation agents were protein-dependent except for LPS that presented stabilizing effects for all MD proteins. Contrary to previous reports, this study suggests that MD-1 can bind to LPS. PMID:21130168

  18. Solving the Big Data (BD) Problem in Advanced Manufacturing (Subcategory for work done at Georgia Tech. Study Process and Design Factors for Additive Manufacturing Improvement)

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, Brett W.; Diaz, Kimberly A.; Ochiobi, Chinaza Darlene; Paynabar, Kamran

    2015-09-01

    3D printing originally known as additive manufacturing is a process of making 3 dimensional solid objects from a CAD file. This ground breaking technology is widely used for industrial and biomedical purposes such as building objects, tools, body parts and cosmetics. An important benefit of 3D printing is the cost reduction and manufacturing flexibility; complex parts are built at the fraction of the price. However, layer by layer printing of complex shapes adds error due to the surface roughness. Any such error results in poor quality products with inaccurate dimensions. The main purpose of this research is to measure the amount of printing errors for parts with different geometric shapes and to analyze them for finding optimal printing settings to minimize the error. We use a Design of Experiments framework, and focus on studying parts with cone and ellipsoid shapes. We found that the orientation and the shape of geometric shapes have significant effect on the printing error. From our analysis, we also determined the optimal orientation that gives the least printing error.

  19. Improving nutrient management practices in agriculture: The role of risk-based beliefs in understanding farmers' attitudes toward taking additional action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Robyn S.; Howard, Gregory; Burnett, Elizabeth A.

    2014-08-01

    A recent increase in the amount of dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP) entering the western Lake Erie basin is likely due to increased spring storm events in combination with issues related to fertilizer application and timing. These factors in combination with warmer lake temperatures have amplified the spread of toxic algal blooms. We assessed the attitudes of farmers in northwest Ohio toward taking at least one additional action to reduce nutrient loss on their farm. Specifically, we (1) identified to what extent farm and farmer characteristics (e.g., age, gross farm sales) as well as risk-based beliefs (e.g., efficacy, risk perception) influenced attitudes, and (2) assessed how these characteristics and beliefs differ in their predictive ability based on unobservable latent classes of farmers. Risk perception, or a belief that negative impacts to profit and water quality from nutrient loss were likely, was the most consistent predictor of farmer attitudes. Response efficacy, or a belief that taking action on one's farm made a difference, was found to significantly influence attitudes, although this belief was particularly salient for the minority class of farmers who were older and more motivated by profit. Communication efforts should focus on the negative impacts of nutrient loss to both the farm (i.e., profit) and the natural environment (i.e., water quality) to raise individual perceived risk among the majority, while the minority need higher perceived efficacy or more specific information about the economic effectiveness of particular recommended practices.

  20. Different Effect of the Additional Electron-Withdrawing Cyano Group in Different Conjugation Bridge: The Adjusted Molecular Energy Levels and Largely Improved Photovoltaic Performance.

    PubMed

    Li, Huiyang; Fang, Manman; Hou, Yingqin; Tang, Runli; Yang, Yizhou; Zhong, Cheng; Li, Qianqian; Li, Zhen

    2016-05-18

    Four organic sensitizers (LI-68-LI-71) bearing various conjugated bridges were designed and synthesized, in which the only difference between LI-68 and LI-69 (or LI-70 and LI-71) was the absence/presence of the CN group as the auxiliary electron acceptor. Interestingly, compared to the reference dye of LI-68, LI-69 bearing the additional CN group exhibited the bad performance with the decreased Jsc and Voc values. However, once one thiophene moiety near the anchor group was replaced by pyrrole with the electron-rich property, the resultant LI-71 exhibited a photoelectric conversion efficiency increase by about 3 folds from 2.75% (LI-69) to 7.95% (LI-71), displaying the synergistic effect of the two moieties (CN and pyrrole). Computational analysis disclosed that pyrrole as the auxiliary electron donor (D') in the conjugated bridge can compensate for the lower negative charge in the electron acceptor, which was caused by the CN group as the electron trap, leading to the more efficient electron injection and better photovoltaic performance. PMID:27101840

  1. Improving methane production in cow dung and corn straw co-fermentation systems via enhanced degradation of cellulose by cabbage addition.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wenyang; Chen, Yong; Faisal, Shah; Khan, Aman; Chen, Zhengjun; Ling, Zhenmin; Liu, Pu; Li, Xiangkai

    2016-01-01

    The effects of cabbage waste (CW) addition on methane production in cow dung and corn straw co-fermentation systems were investigated. Four experimental groups, each containing 55 g of substrate, were set up as follows: 100% cow dung (C); 36% cabbage and 64% cow dung (CC); 36% straw and 64% cow dung (SC); and 18% cabbage, 18% straw, and 64% cow dung (CSC). After seven days of fermentation, the maximum methane yield was 134 mL in the CSC group, which was 2.81-fold, 1.78-fold, and 1340-fold higher than that obtained in the CC, SC, and C groups, respectively. CW treatment of the CSC group enhanced cellulase activity and enriched culturable cellulose-degrading bacterial strains. Miseq sequencing data revealed that the predominant phylum in the CSC group was Bacteroidetes, which contains most of the cellulose-degrading bacteria. Our results suggested that CW treatment elevated cellulose degradation and promoted methane production. PMID:27641709

  2. Improvement of Karmali agar by addition of polymyxin B for the detection of Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli in whole-chicken carcass rinse.

    PubMed

    Chon, Jung-Whan; Kim, Hyunsook; Yim, Jin-Hyeok; Song, Kwang-Young; Moon, Jin-San; Kim, Young-Jo; Seo, Kun-Ho

    2013-05-01

    The Karmali agar was modified by supplementation with a high concentration of polymyxin B. The goal of the study was to evaluate the effect of a high concentration of polymyxin B on the ability and selectivity of the modified Karmali agar to isolate Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli from whole chicken carcass rinse. A total of 80 whole chickens were rinsed with 400 mL of buffer peptone water. The rinsed samples were incubated with 2× blood-free modified Bolton enrichment broth for 48 h, and then streaked onto unmodified Karmali agar and modified Karmali agar supplemented with 100000 IU/L polymixin B (P-Karmali agar). The suspected colonies were finally confirmed by colony PCR. The P-Karmali agar exhibited a significantly better (P < 0.05) isolation rate than the unmodified Karmali agar (P-Karmali agar, 73.8%; unmodified Karmali agar, 33.8%). Moreover, the selectivity of the P-Karmali agar was also better (P < 0.05) than that of the other selective agar when comparing the number of contaminated plates (P-Karmali agar, 68.8%; unmodified Karmali agar, 87.5%) and growth index of competing flora (P-Karmali agar, 1.4; unmodified Karmali agar, 2.7). The improved selective agar excluded competing flora resistant to antibiotic agents in unmodified Karmali agar, increasing isolation rate and selectivity for C. jejuni and C. coli.

  3. The addition of ortho-hexagon nano spinel Co3O4 to improve the performance of activated carbon air cathode microbial fuel cell.

    PubMed

    Ge, Baochao; Li, Kexun; Fu, Zhou; Pu, Liangtao; Zhang, Xi

    2015-11-01

    Commercial Co3O4 and ortho-hexagon spinel nano-Co3O4 (OHSNC) were doped in the AC at a different percentage (5%, 10% and 15%) to enhance the performance of microbial fuel cell (MFC). The maximum power density of MFC with 10% OHSNC doped cathode was 1500±14 mW m(-2), which was 97.36% and 41.24% higher than that with the bare AC air cathode and commercial Co3O4 respectively. The electrocatalytic behavior for their better performance was discussed in detail with the help of various structural and electrochemical techniques. The OHSNC was characterized via X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results showed that the improved performance owed to the enhancement of both kinetics activity and the number of electron transfer in the ORR, and the internal resistance was largely reduced. Therefore, OHSNC was proved to be an excellent cathodic catalyst in AC air cathode MFC.

  4. Process for preparing superconducting film having substantially uniform phase development

    SciTech Connect

    Bharacharya, R.; Parilla, P.A.; Blaugher, R.D.

    1995-12-19

    A process is disclosed for preparing a superconducting film, such as a thallium-barium-calcium-copper oxide superconducting film, having substantially uniform phase development. The process comprises providing an electrodeposition bath having one or more soluble salts of one or more respective potentially superconducting metals in respective amounts adequate to yield a superconducting film upon subsequent appropriate treatment. Should all of the metals required for producing a superconducting film not be made available in the bath, such metals can be a part of the ambient during a subsequent annealing process. A soluble silver salt in an amount between about 0.1% and about 4.0% by weight of the provided other salts is also provided to the bath, and the bath is electrically energized to thereby form a plated film. The film is annealed in ambient conditions suitable to cause formation of a superconductor film. Doping with silver reduces the temperature at which the liquid phase appears during the annealing step, initiates a liquid phase throughout the entire volume of deposited material, and influences the nucleation and growth of the deposited material. 3 figs.

  5. Process for preparing superconducting film having substantially uniform phase development

    SciTech Connect

    Bharacharya, Raghuthan; Parilla, Philip A.; Blaugher, Richard D.

    1995-01-01

    A process for preparing a superconducting film, such as a thallium-barium-calcium-copper oxide superconducting film, having substantially uniform phase development. The process comprises providing an electrodeposition bath having one or more soluble salts of one or more respective potentially superconducting metals in respective amounts adequate to yield a superconducting film upon subsequent appropriate treatment. Should all of the metals required for producing a superconducting film not be made available in the bath, such metals can be a part of the ambient during a subsequent annealing process. A soluble silver salt in an amount between about 0.1% and about 4.0% by weight of the provided other salts is also provided to the bath, and the bath is electrically energized to thereby form a plated film. The film is annealed in ambient conditions suitable to cause formation of a superconductor film. Doping with silver reduces the temperature at which the liquid phase appears during the annealing step, initiates a liquid phase throughout the entire volume of deposited material, and influences the nucleation and growth of the deposited material.

  6. Familial Influences on Recantation in Substantiated Child Sexual Abuse Cases.

    PubMed

    Malloy, Lindsay C; Mugno, Allison P; Rivard, Jillian R; Lyon, Thomas D; Quas, Jodi A

    2016-08-01

    The underlying reasons for recantation in children's disclosure of child sexual abuse (CSA) have been debated in recent years. In the present study, we examined the largest sample of substantiated CSA cases involving recantations to date (n = 58 cases). We specifically matched those cases to 58 nonrecanters on key variables found to predict recantation in prior research (i.e., child age, alleged parent figure perpetrator, and caregiver unsupportiveness). Bivariate analyses revealed that children were less likely to recant when they were (1) initially removed from home postdisclosure and (2) initially separated from siblings postdisclosure. Multivariate analyses revealed that children were less likely to recant when family members (other than the nonoffending caregiver) expressed belief in the children's allegations and more likely to recant when family members (other than the nonoffending caregiver) expressed disbelief in the allegations and when visitations with the alleged perpetrator were recommended at their first hearing. Results have implications for understanding the complex ways in which social processes may motivate some children to retract previous reports of sexual abuse. PMID:27234520

  7. Improvement of Short-Term Outcomes for High-Risk Bleeding Peptic Ulcers With Addition of Argon Plasma Coagulation Following Endoscopic Injection Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Huay-Min; Tsai, Wei-Lun; Yu, Hsien-Chung; Chan, Hoi-Hung; Chen, Wen-Chi; Lin, Kung-Hung; Tsai, Tzung-Jiun; Kao, Sung-Shuo; Sun, Wei-Chih; Hsu, Ping-I.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A second endoscopic method together with injection therapy is recommended to treat high-risk bleeding peptic ulcers. This study investigated whether additional argon plasma coagulation (APC) treatment could influence hemostatic efficacy following endoscopic injection therapy to treat high-risk bleeding ulcers. From October 2010 to January 2012, eligible patients with high-risk bleeding ulcers were admitted to our hospital. They prospectively randomly underwent either APC therapy along with distilled water injection or distilled water injection alone. Episodes of rebleeding were retreated with endoscopic combination therapy. Patients in whom retreatment was ineffective underwent emergency surgery or transarterial embolization (TAE). A total of 116 enrolled patients were analyzed. The hemostatic efficacy in 58 patients treated with APC along with distilled water injection was compared with that in 58 patients treated with distilled water injection alone. The 2 treatment groups were similar with respect to all baseline characteristics. Initial hemostasis was accomplished in 56 patients treated with combined therapy, and 55 patients treated with distilled water injection therapy (97% vs 95%, P = 0.648). Bleeding recurred in 2 patients treated with combined therapy, and 9 patients treated with distilled water injection (3.6% vs 16%, P = 0.029). Treatment method was the only independent prognostic factor for recurrent bleeding (odds ratio 0.17; 95% confidence interval 0.03–0.84; P = 0.029). The 2 groups did not differ significantly in hospital stay, TAE, surgery, and mortality. Endoscopic therapy with APC following distilled water injection is more effective than distilled water injection alone for preventing rebleeding of peptic ulcer. PMID:26266385

  8. A novel ion-pairing chromatographic method for the simultaneous determination of both nicarbazin components in feed additives: chemometric tools for improving the optimization and validation.

    PubMed

    De Zan, María M; Teglia, Carla M; Robles, Juan C; Goicoechea, Héctor C

    2011-07-15

    The development, optimization and validation of an ion-pairing high performance liquid chromatography method for the simultaneous determination of both nicarbazin (NIC) components: 4,4'-dinitrocarbanilide (DNC) and 2-hydroxy-4,6-dimethylpyrimidine (HDP) in bulk materials and feed additives are described. An experimental design was used for the optimization of the chromatographic system. Four variables, including mobile phase composition and oven temperature, were analyzed through a central composite design exploring their contribution to analyte separation. Five responses: peak resolutions, HDP capacity factor, HDP tailing and analysis time, were modelled by using the response surface methodology and were optimized simultaneously by implementing the desirability function. The optimum conditions resulted in a mobile phase consisting of 10.0 mmol L(-1) of 1-heptanesulfonate, 20.0 mmol L(-1) of sodium acetate, pH=3.30 buffer and acetonitrile in a gradient system at a flow rate of 1.00 mL min(-1). Column was an INERSTIL ODS-3 (4.6 mm×150 mm, 5 μm particle size) at 40.0°C. Detection was performed at 300 nm by a diode array detector. The validation results of the method indicated a high selectivity and good precision characteristics, with RSD less than 1.0% for both components, both in intra and inter-assay precision studies. Linearity was proved for a range of 32.0-50.0 μg mL(-1) of NIC in sample solution. The recovery, studied at three different fortification levels, varied from 98.0 to 101.4 for HDP and from 99.1 to 100.2 for DNC. The applicability of the method was demonstrated by determining DNC and HDP content in raw materials and commercial formulations used for coccidiosis prevention. Assays results on real samples showed that considerable differences in molecular ratio DNC:HDP exist among them.

  9. Does the addition of specific acupuncture to standard swallowing training improve outcomes in patients with dysphagia after stroke? a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Wenguang; Zheng, Chanjuan; Zhu, Suiqiang; Tang, Zhouping

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effect of adding acupuncture to standard swallowing training for patients with dysphagia after stroke. Design: Single-blind randomized controlled trial. Setting: Inpatient and outpatient clinics. Subjects: A total of 124 patients with dysphagia after stroke were randomly divided into two groups: acupuncture and control. Interventions: The acupuncture group received standard swallowing training and acupuncture treatment. In comparison, the control group only received standard swallowing training. Participants in both groups received six days of therapy per week for a four-week period. Main measures: The primary outcome measures included the Standardized Swallowing Assessment and the Dysphagia Outcome Severity Scale. The secondary outcome measures included the Modified Barthel Index and Swallowing-Related Quality of Life, which were assessed before and after the four-week therapy period. Results: A total of 120 dysphagic subjects completed the study (60 in acupuncture group and 60 in control group). Significant differences existed in the Standardized Swallowing Assessment, Dysphagia Outcome Severity Scale, Modified Barthel Index, and Swallowing-Related Quality of Life scores of each group after the treatment (P < 0.01). After the four-week treatment, the Standardized Swallowing Assessment (mean difference − 2.9; 95% confidence interval (CI) – 5.0 to − 0.81; P < 0.01), Dysphagia Outcome Severity Scale (mean difference 2.3; 95% CI 0.7 to 1.2; P < 0.01), Modified Barthel Index (mean difference 17.2; 95% CI 2.6 to 9.3; P < 0.05) and Swallowing-Related Quality of Life scores (mean difference 31.4; 95% CI 3.2 to 11.4; P < 0.01) showed more significant improvement in the acupuncture group than the control group. Conclusions: Acupuncture combined with the standard swallowing training may be beneficial for dysphagic patients after stroke. PMID:25819076

  10. Improved hydrogen storage kinetics of the Li-Mg-N-H system by addition of Mg(BH4)2.

    PubMed

    Pan, Hongge; Shi, Songbo; Liu, Yongfeng; Li, Bo; Yang, Yanjing; Gao, Mingxia

    2013-03-21

    A Mg(BH(4))(2)-added Mg(NH(2))(2)-2LiH system was prepared by ball milling the corresponding chemicals. The hydrogen storage properties of the Mg(NH(2))(2)-2LiH-xMg(BH(4))(2) (x = 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3) samples and the role played by Mg(BH(4))(2) were systematically investigated. The results show that the onset and peak temperatures for hydrogen desorption from the Mg(BH(4))(2)-added Mg(NH(2))(2)-2LiH sample shifted to lower temperatures. In particular, the Mg(NH(2))(2)-2LiH-0.1Mg(BH(4))(2) sample could reversibly absorb ~4.5 wt% of hydrogen in the temperature range of 120-150 °C, which is superior to the pristine sample. During ball milling, a metathesis reaction between Mg(BH(4))(2) and LiH readily occurred to form LiBH(4) and MgH(2) and subsequently, the newly formed MgH(2) reacted with Mg(NH(2))(2) to generate MgNH. Upon heating, the presence of LiBH(4) not only decreased the recrystallization temperature of Mg(NH(2))(2) but also reacted with LiNH(2) to form the Li(4)(BH(4))(NH(2))(3) intermediate, which weakens the N-H bonding and enhances the ion conductivity. Meanwhile, MgNH may act as the nucleation center for the dehydrogenation product of Li(2)MgN(2)H(2) due to the structural similarity. Thus, the in situ formed LiBH(4) and MgNH provide a synergetic effect to improve the hydrogen storage performances of the Mg(NH(2))(2)-2LiH system. PMID:23178338

  11. Addition of SiC Particles to Ag Die-Attach Paste to Improve High-Temperature Stability; Grain Growth Kinetics of Sintered Porous Ag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hao; Nagao, Shijo; Suganuma, Katsuaki

    2015-10-01

    To improve the high-temperature reliability of sintered Ag joints, three types of silicon carbide particle (SiCp) of different size and morphology were added to Ag micron-flake paste. Quality sintered joints between Cu dummy chips and Cu substrate were obtained at a relatively low temperature (250°C), in air, under low load (0.4 MPa), and 35 MPa die-shear strength was achieved. High-temperature stability was investigated by means of aging tests at 150, 200, and 250°C for 500 h, and by thermal cycling between -50°C and 250°C for up to 170 cycles. The best distribution and compatibility with porous sintered Ag structures was observed for sub-micron SiC particles with an average diameter of 600 nm. After high-temperature storage for 500 h at 250°C, mean Ag grain size of the SiC-containing joints was unchanged whereas that for pure sintered Ag increased from 1.1 to 2.5 μm. Ag joints containing the optimum amount (2 wt.%) of SiCp retained their original strength (20 MPa) after storage at 250°C for 500 h. The shear strength of Ag joints without added SiCp decreased from 27 to 7 MPa after 500 h because of grain growth, which obeyed the classical parabolic law. Grain growth in pure Ag joints is discussed in terms of a temperature-dependent exponent n and activation energy Q. Our SiCp-containing joints resisted the grain growth that induces interfacial cracks during thermal cycling.

  12. Addition of sitagliptin or metformin to insulin monotherapy improves blood glucose control via different effects on insulin and glucagon secretion in hyperglycemic Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Otsuka, Yuichiro; Yamaguchi, Suguru; Furukawa, Asami; Kosuda, Minami; Nakazaki, Mitsuhiro; Ishihara, Hisamitsu

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the effects of the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor sitagliptin and the biguanide metformin on the secretion of insulin and glucagon, as well as incretin levels, in Japanese subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus poorly controlled with insulin monotherapy. This was a single-center, randomized, open-label, parallel group study, enrolling 25 subjects. Eleven patients (hemoglobin A1c [HbA1c] 8.40 ± 0.96%) and 10 patients (8.10 ± 0.54%) on insulin monotherapy completed 12-week treatment with sitagliptin (50 mg) and metformin (750 mg), respectively. Before and after treatment, each subject underwent a meal tolerance test. The plasma glucose, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), C-peptide, and glucagon responses to a meal challenge were measured. HbA1c reductions were similar in patients treated with sitagliptin (0.76 ± 0.18%) and metformin (0.77 ± 0.17%). In the sitagliptin group, glucose excursion during a meal tolerance test was reduced and accompanied by elevations in active GLP-1 and active GIP concentrations. C-peptide levels were unaltered despite reduced glucose responses, while glucagon responses were significantly suppressed (-7.93 ± 1.95% of baseline). In the metformin group, glucose excursion and incretin responses were unaltered. C-peptide levels were slightly increased but glucagon responses were unchanged. Our data indicate that sitagliptin and metformin exert different effects on islet hormone secretion in Japanese type 2 diabetic patients on insulin monotherapy. A glucagon suppressing effect of sitagliptin could be one of the factors improving blood glucose control in patients inadequately controlled with insulin therapy.

  13. 42 CFR 412.87 - Additional payment for new medical services and technologies: General provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Additional payment for new medical services and technologies: General provisions. 412.87 Section 412.87 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES... service or technology represents an advance that substantially improves, relative to...

  14. Does the addition of losartan improve the beneficial effects of ACE inhibitors in patients with anterior myocardial infarction? A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Di, P; Bucca, V; Scalzo, S; Cannizzaro, S; Giubilato, A; Paterna, S

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To verify the efficacy of the combination of captopril (75 mg day) and losartan (25 mg/day) in early postinfarction phases of reperfused anterior acute myocardial infarction.
DESIGN AND PATIENTS—99 patients, hospitalised for suspected anterior acute myocardial infarction within four hours from the onset of symptoms, were randomised into two groups: group A included 50 patients who received captopril 75 mg/day and placebo; group B included 49 patients who received captopril 75 mg/day within three days of admission plus losartan 12.5 mg, as a first dose, and 25 mg/day successively. An additional 23 patients with anterior acute myocardial infarction received losartan 25 mg alone and acted as controls (group C) to check the effects of losartan on plasma angiotensin II (AII) concentrations. Noradrenaline (norepinephrine) (NA) and AII plasma concentrations were measured on the third and 10th day after admission in 93 patients (35 from group A, 35 from group B, and 23 from group C). 90 days after admission patients underwent echocardiography to determine end systolic volume (ESV) and ejection fraction (EF).
RESULTS—Patients in groups A and B were similar with regard to age, sex, creatine kinase peak, EF, ESV, and risk factors. Group B (captopril plus losartan) patients showed a significant reduction in mean (SD) systolic blood pressure within the group (basal 128 (10) mm Hg; 10 days after admission 105 (9) mm Hg, p < 0.001), and in comparison with group A (captopril) patients (basal 127 (11) mm Hg; 10 days after admission 116 (10) mm Hg, p < 0.001). Diastolic blood pressure was also lower in group B patients versus group A (66 (11) v 77 (11) mm Hg). Group C (losartan) patients also showed a significant reduction in systolic blood pressure (131 (13) mm Hg down to 121 (12) mm Hg, p < 0.001). Neither NA nor AII plasma concentrations in groups A and B differed significantly in basal samples (NA 673 (138) v 675

  15. Electrolyte additive to improve performance of MCMB LiNi{sub 1/3}Co{sub 1/3}Mn{sub 1/3}O{sub 2} Li-ion cell.

    SciTech Connect

    Qin, Y.; Chen, Z.; Lu, W.; Amine, K.; Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division

    2010-10-01

    The electrolyte additive, 3,9-divinyl-2,4,8,10-tetraoxaspiro[5,5] undecane (TOS), was investigated as a means to improve the life of mesocarbon microbead (MCMB)/Li1.1[Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/3]0.9O2 (NCM) cells for high-power applications. With the addition of an appropriate amount of TOS (no more than 1 wt%) to MCMB/NCM cells, the capacity retention was significantly improved at 55 C compared with cells containing pristine electrolyte. Aging tests at 55 C indicated that the capacity retention of the negative electrode had benefited as a result of the formation of a stable passivation film at the surface of the carbon electrode due to TOS reduction. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy showed that a TOS addition of more than 0.5 wt% increased the cell interfacial impedance. Differential scanning calorimetry showed that the thermal stability of lithiated MCMB was also improved with the TOS addition.

  16. Multifunctional fuel additives

    SciTech Connect

    Baillargeon, D.J.; Cardis, A.B.; Heck, D.B.

    1991-03-26

    This paper discusses a composition comprising a major amount of a liquid hydrocarbyl fuel and a minor low-temperature flow properties improving amount of an additive product of the reaction of a suitable diol and product of a benzophenone tetracarboxylic dianhydride and a long-chain hydrocarbyl aminoalcohol.

  17. Role of dynamics in enzyme catalysis: substantial versus semantic controversies.

    PubMed

    Kohen, Amnon

    2015-02-17

    CONSPECTUS: The role of the enzyme's dynamic motions in catalysis is at the center of heated contemporary debates among both theoreticians and experimentalists. Resolving these apparent disputes is of both intellectual and practical importance: incorporation of enzyme dynamics could be critical for any calculation of enzymatic function and may have profound implications for structure-based drug design and the design of biomimetic catalysts. Analysis of the literature suggests that while part of the dispute may reflect substantial differences between theoretical approaches, much of the debate is semantic. For example, the term "protein dynamics" is often used by some researchers when addressing motions that are in thermal equilibrium with their environment, while other researchers only use this term for nonequilibrium events. The last cases are those in which thermal energy is "stored" in a specific protein mode and "used" for catalysis before it can dissipate to its environment (i.e., "nonstatistical dynamics"). This terminology issue aside, a debate has arisen among theoreticians around the roles of nonstatistical vs statistical dynamics in catalysis. However, the author knows of no experimental findings available today that examined this question in enzyme catalyzed reactions. Another source of perhaps nonsubstantial argument might stem from the varying time scales of enzymatic motions, which range from seconds to femtoseconds. Motions at different time scales play different roles in the many events along the catalytic cascade (reactant binding, reprotonation of reactants, structural rearrangement toward the transition state, product release, etc.). In several cases, when various experimental tools have been used to probe catalytic events at differing time scales, illusory contradictions seem to have emerged. In this Account, recent attempts to sort the merits of those questions are discussed along with possible future directions. A possible summary of current

  18. Unraveling Additive from Nonadditive Effects Using Genomic Relationship Matrices

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz, Patricio R.; Resende, Marcio F. R.; Gezan, Salvador A.; Resende, Marcos Deon Vilela; de los Campos, Gustavo; Kirst, Matias; Huber, Dudley; Peter, Gary F.

    2014-01-01

    The application of quantitative genetics in plant and animal breeding has largely focused on additive models, which may also capture dominance and epistatic effects. Partitioning genetic variance into its additive and nonadditive components using pedigree-based models (P-genomic best linear unbiased predictor) (P-BLUP) is difficult with most commonly available family structures. However, the availability of dense panels of molecular markers makes possible the use of additive- and dominance-realized genomic relationships for the estimation of variance components and the prediction of genetic values (G-BLUP). We evaluated height data from a multifamily population of the tree species Pinus taeda with a systematic series of models accounting for additive, dominance, and first-order epistatic interactions (additive by additive, dominance by dominance, and additive by dominance), using either pedigree- or marker-based information. We show that, compared with the pedigree, use of realized genomic relationships in marker-based models yields a substantially more precise separation of additive and nonadditive components of genetic variance. We conclude that the marker-based relationship matrices in a model including additive and nonadditive effects performed better, improving breeding value prediction. Moreover, our results suggest that, for tree height in this population, the additive and nonadditive components of genetic variance are similar in magnitude. This novel result improves our current understanding of the genetic control and architecture of a quantitative trait and should be considered when developing breeding strategies. PMID:25324160

  19. Clinically insignificant improvement of prostate cancer prediction by addition of sex steroid hormones and SHBG serum levels to serum PSA, fPSA%, and age in a screening setting.

    PubMed

    Heidegger, Isabel; Popovscaia, Marina; Ramoner, Reinhold; Schäfer, Georg; Stenzel, Birgit; Bektic, Jasmin; Horninger, Wolfgang; Klocker, Helmut

    2012-10-01

    Abstract Various findings implicate sex hormones in prostate growth and development and also in prostate carcinogenesis. We investigated if addition of sex steroid hormone and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) serum levels to standard risk assessment parameters [prostate-specific antigen (PSA), free PSA percentage (fPSA%), and age] improves prostate cancer prediction in a PSA screening setting. Steroid hormones testosterone (T), free testosterone (fT), and estradiol (E2), and binding protein SHBG levels were measured in 762 men undergoing prostate biopsy due to suspect PSA serum levels. Prostate cancer was diagnosed in 286 (37.5%) of these men. Our data confirmed that PSA (mean BE=5.09; mean CA=6.05; p=1.24×10-5), fPSA% (mean BE=22.08; mean CA=18.67; p=1.97×10-7), and age (mean BE=60.64; mean CA=64.5; p=7.05×10-10) differentiate men with cancer (CA) and men with benign disease (BE), such as benign prostate hyperplasia. In addition, SHBG (mean BE=50.3; mean CA=54.9; p=0.008) also differed statistically significantly between these two groups. All hormones except E2 and tumor markers correlated significantly with age (T: ρ=-0.09; fT: ρ=-0.27; SHBG: ρ=0.21; PSA: ρ=0.32; and fPSA%: ρ=0.22). Furthermore, we found that PSA correlates with E2 (ρ=0.08), and fPSA% with SHBG (ρ=0.1) and fT (ρ=-0.09). Addition of hormones and SHBG to a baseline marker model including PSA, fPSA%, and age improved cancer prediction in three multivariate classification methods; however, the improvement was minimal. The best improvement by 0.8% was obtained in the logistic regression model with the addition of T and SHBG or of E2 and SHBG, or in the support vector machine model with the addition of SHBG and all steroid hormones to the combination of standard markers PSA, fPSA%, and age; however, this additional gain of accuracy is too small to justify the additional efforts and costs.

  20. Immunity Traits in Pigs: Substantial Genetic Variation and Limited Covariation

    PubMed Central

    Flori, Laurence; Gao, Yu; Laloë, Denis; Lemonnier, Gaëtan; Leplat, Jean-Jacques; Teillaud, Angélique; Cossalter, Anne-Marie; Laffitte, Joëlle; Pinton, Philippe; de Vaureix, Christiane; Bouffaud, Marcel; Mercat, Marie-José; Lefèvre, François; Oswald, Isabelle P.; Bidanel, Jean-Pierre; Rogel-Gaillard, Claire

    2011-01-01

    Background Increasing robustness via improvement of resistance to pathogens is a major selection objective in livestock breeding. As resistance traits are difficult or impossible to measure directly, potential indirect criteria are measures of immune traits (ITs). Our underlying hypothesis is that levels of ITs with no focus on specific pathogens define an individual's immunocompetence and thus predict response to pathogens in general. Since variation in ITs depends on genetic, environmental and probably epigenetic factors, our aim was to estimate the relative importance of genetics. In this report, we present a large genetic survey of innate and adaptive ITs in pig families bred in the same environment. Methodology/Principal Findings Fifty four ITs were studied on 443 Large White pigs vaccinated against Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and analyzed by combining a principal component analysis (PCA) and genetic parameter estimation. ITs include specific and non specific antibodies, seric inflammatory proteins, cell subsets by hemogram and flow cytometry, ex vivo production of cytokines (IFNα, TNFα, IL6, IL8, IL12, IFNγ, IL2, IL4, IL10), phagocytosis and lymphocyte proliferation. While six ITs had heritabilities that were weak or not significantly different from zero, 18 and 30 ITs had moderate (0.10.4) heritability values, respectively. Phenotypic and genetic correlations between ITs were weak except for a few traits that mostly include cell subsets. PCA revealed no cluster of innate or adaptive ITs. Conclusions/Significance Our results demonstrate that variation in many innate and adaptive ITs is genetically controlled in swine, as already reported for a smaller number of traits by other laboratories. A limited redundancy of the traits was also observed confirming the high degree of complementarity between innate and adaptive ITs. Our data provide a genetic framework for choosing ITs to be included as selection criteria in multitrait selection

  1. Iron-control additives improve acidizing

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, M.; Dill, W. ); Besler, M. )

    1989-07-24

    Iron sulfide and sulfur precipitation in sour wells can be controlled with iron-sequestering agents and sulfide modifiers. Oil production has been routinely increased in sour wells where precipitation of iron sulfide and elemental sulfur has been brought under control. Production increases have been especially noteworthy on wells that had a history of rapid production decline after acid stimulation. Twenty-fold production increases have been recorded. Key to the production increase has been to increase permeability with: Iron chelating agents that control precipitation of iron sulfide. A sulfide modifier that reduces precipitation of solids in the presence of excessive amounts of hydrogen sulfide and prevents precipitation of elemental sulfur.

  2. Claim substantiation and efficiency of hydrating body lotions and protective creams.

    PubMed

    de Paepe, K; Derde, M P; Roseeuw, D; Rogiers, V

    2000-04-01

    In the present work a practical claim substantiation study is shown by the example of 5 commercially available body lotions. Their efficacy with respect to effects on transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and stratum corneum (SC) hydration of ageing skin has been examined. Results were obtained after single and repeated application (14 days, 2 x a day). The best performing product was then selected and further tested for its potential effects on sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS)-damaged skin. This was done in a younger population and the recovery of the impaired barrier function was followed by TEWL measurements. The selected body lotion had a high efficacy, improving both the TEWL and SC hydration of ageing skin by more than 30%. When applied to SLS-damaged skin, the product was able to improve skin barrier repair in comparison with physiological barrier repair. The results of this study show that a combination of non-invasive objective measurements can be used to substantiate product claims. Claims can be made with respect to protective and preventive properties of products, but also as to effectiveness of topical skin treatment in the case of abnormal barrier function or barrier restoration.

  3. Substantial and sustained seizure reduction with ketogenic diet in a patient with Ohtahara syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sivaraju, Adithya; Nussbaum, Ilisa; Cardoza, Candace S; Mattson, Richard H

    2015-01-01

    Ketogenic diet has been shown to be efficacious in some epileptic encephalopathies but rarely reported as being useful in children with Ohtahara syndrome. This could possibly be attributed to the rarity of the disease and associated short survival period. We report on a 5-year-old child with Ohtahara syndrome, whose seizures failed to improve with all known medications, continued to show persistent suppression-burst pattern on the electroencephalography (EEG) and had substantial reduction in seizure frequency for one year post-initiation of ketogenic diet. He has not had a single visit to the emergency room because of seizures in the last one year, and more importantly, there has been a clear improvement noted in his level of interaction and temperament. Patients with Ohtahara syndrome invariably have medically intractable seizures and catastrophic neurodevelopmental outcome. Ketogenic diet is a treatment modality that might be worth considering even in this group of patients. PMID:26005637

  4. Strategies to improve the nutritive value of rice bran in poultry diets. IV. Effects of addition of fish meal and a microbial phytase to duckling diets on bird performance and amino acid digestibility.

    PubMed

    Martin, E A; Nolan, J V; Nitsan, Z; Farrell, D J

    1998-12-01

    1. Ducklings were given diets with vegetable protein (VP) and 0 or 600 g rice bran/kg; fish meal (60 g/kg) and a phytase (+, -) were added to the diets (VP + AP). An additional 40 g soyabean meal/kg was added to the diet with rice bran (VP ++). Amino acid digestibility and mineral retention were measured in the lower ileum of ducklings killed at 23 d of age. Acid insoluble ash was used as an inert marker. Trypsin and amylase activities were also measured and weights of the pancreas and small intestine recorded at slaughter. 2. Addition of soyabean meal (VP ++) to the diet with rice bran improved growth rate and food intake compared to the diet without (VP) and gave the same food intake and growth rate as the comparable basal diet (VP) without rice bran. Fish meal improved growth rate on the diets without rice bran and improved food intake on this diet (VP + AP). Rice bran depressed growth rate and food conversion ratio (FCR); protein source affected growth rate, food intake and FCR; phytase increased food intake only. There were several interactions. 3. Determined total amino acid composition of the diets appeared to meet the essential amino acid requirements of ducklings. Rice bran depressed the ileal digestibility of virtually all amino acids and phytase had no direct effect, although there were interactions. Fish meal addition to diets with rice bran improved the apparent digestibility of several essential amino acids as well as that of dry matter and crude protein. 4. Ileal retention of some minerals and tibia ash content were reduced by rice bran. Fish meal and phytase inclusion increased P retention and ash in tibia. 5. Higher intestinal trypsin activity and increased pancreas size were seen in ducklings on diets with rice bran compared to those without. Intestinal amylase activity was reduced in ducklings given rice bran, probably because of its low starch content. 6. The stimulating effect of fish meal on duckling performance was probably caused in part by

  5. Precursor solution additives improve desiccated La0.6Sr0.4Co0.8Fe0.2O3-x infiltrated solid oxide fuel cell cathode performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burye, Theodore E.; Nicholas, Jason D.

    2016-01-01

    Here, the addition of the surfactant Triton X-100 or the chelating agent citric acid to Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) La0.6Sr0.4Co0.8Fe0.2O3-x (LSCF) precursor nitrate solutions is shown via scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) to reduce average infiltrate nano-particle size and improve infiltrate phase purity. In addition, the desiccation of LSCF precursor solutions containing the aforementioned organic solution additives further reduces the average LSCF infiltrate nano-particle size and improves the low-temperature infiltrate phase purity. In particular, CaCl2-desiccation reduces the average size of Triton X-100 derived (TXD) LSCF particles fired at 700 °C from 48 to 22 nm, and reduces the average size of citric acid derived LSCF particles fired at 700 °C from 50 to 41 nm. Modeling and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) tests indicate that particle size reductions alone are responsible for desiccation-induced cathode performance improvements such as CaCl2-desiccated TXD La0.6Sr0.4Co0.8Fe0.2O3-x - Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95 (LSCF-GDC) cathodes reaching a polarization resistance of 0.17 Ωcm2 at 540 °C, compared to 600 °C for undesiccated TXD LSCF-GDC cathodes. This excellent low-temperature performance, combined with a low open-circuit 540 °C degradation rate, suggests that the desiccation of organic-additive-containing infiltrate precursor solutions may be useful for the development of durable, high-power, low-temperature SOFCs.

  6. The addition of rituximab to fludarabine and cyclophosphamide chemotherapy results in a significant improvement in overall survival in patients with newly diagnosed mantle cell lymphoma: results of a randomized UK National Cancer Research Institute trial

    PubMed Central

    Rule, Simon; Smith, Paul; Johnson, Peter W.M.; Bolam, Simon; Follows, George; Gambell, Joanne; Hillmen, Peter; Jack, Andrew; Johnson, Stephen; Kirkwood, Amy A; Kruger, Anton; Pocock, Christopher; Seymour, John F.; Toncheva, Milena; Walewski, Jan; Linch, David

    2016-01-01

    Mantle cell lymphoma is an incurable and generally aggressive lymphoma that is more common in elderly patients. Whilst a number of different chemotherapeutic regimens are active in this disease, there is no established gold standard therapy. Rituximab has been used widely to good effect in B-cell malignancies but there is no evidence that it improves outcomes when added to chemotherapy in this disease. We performed a randomized, open-label, multicenter study looking at the addition of rituximab to the standard chemotherapy regimen of fludarabine and cyclophosphamide in patients with newly diagnosed mantle cell lymphoma. A total of 370 patients were randomized. With a median follow up of six years, rituximab improved the median progression-free survival from 14.9 to 29.8 months (P<0.001) and overall survival from 37.0 to 44.5 months (P=0.005). This equates to absolute differences of 9.0% and 22.1% for overall and progression-free survival, respectively, at two years. Overall response rates were similar, but complete response rates were significantly higher in the rituximab arm: 52.7% vs. 39.9% (P=0.014). There was no clinically significant additional toxicity observed with the addition of rituximab. Overall, approximately 18% of patients died of non-lymphomatous causes, most commonly infections. The addition of rituximab to fludarabine and cyclophosphamide chemotherapy significantly improves outcomes in patients with mantle cell lymphoma. However, these regimens have significant late toxicity and should be used with caution. This trial has been registered (ISRCTN81133184 and clinicaltrials.gov:00641095) and is supported by the UK National Cancer Research Network. PMID:26611473

  7. Vinyl capped addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vannucci, Raymond D. (Inventor); Malarik, Diane C. (Inventor); Delvigs, Peter (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    Polyimide resins (PMR) are generally useful where high strength and temperature capabilities are required (at temperatures up to about 700 F). Polyimide resins are particularly useful in applications such as jet engine compressor components, for example, blades, vanes, air seals, air splitters, and engine casing parts. Aromatic vinyl capped addition polyimides are obtained by reacting a diamine, an ester of tetracarboxylic acid, and an aromatic vinyl compound. Low void materials with improved oxidative stability when exposed to 700 F air may be fabricated as fiber reinforced high molecular weight capped polyimide composites. The aromatic vinyl capped polyimides are provided with a more aromatic nature and are more thermally stable than highly aliphatic, norbornenyl-type end-capped polyimides employed in PMR resins. The substitution of aromatic vinyl end-caps for norbornenyl end-caps in addition polyimides results in polymers with improved oxidative stability.

  8. Heritability Estimates Identify a Substantial Genetic Contribution to Risk and Outcome of Intracerebral Hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Devan, William J.; Falcone, Guido J.; Anderson, Christopher D.; Jagiella, Jeremiasz M.; Schmidt, Helena; Hansen, Björn M.; Jimenez-Conde, Jordi; Giralt-Steinhauer, Eva; Cuadrado-Godia, Elisa; Soriano, Carolina; Ayres, Alison M.; Schwab, Kristin; Kassis, Sylvia Baedorf; Valant, Valerie; Pera, Joanna; Urbanik, Andrzej; Viswanathan, Anand; Rost, Natalia S.; Goldstein, Joshua N.; Freudenberger, Paul; Stögerer, Eva-Maria; Norrving, Bo; Tirschwell, David L.; Selim, Magdy; Brown, Devin L.; Silliman, Scott L.; Worrall, Bradford B.; Meschia, James F.; Kidwell, Chelsea S.; Montaner, Joan; Fernandez-Cadenas, Israel; Delgado, Pilar; Greenberg, Steven M.; Roquer, Jaume; Lindgren, Arne; Slowik, Agnieszka; Schmidt, Reinhold; Woo, Daniel; Rosand, Jonathan; Biffi, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose Previous studies suggest that genetic variation plays a substantial role in occurrence and evolution of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Genetic contribution to disease can be determined by calculating heritability using family-based data, but such an approach is impractical for ICH because of lack of large pedigree-based studies. However, a novel analytic tool based on genome-wide data allows heritability estimation from unrelated subjects. We sought to apply this method to provide heritability estimates for ICH risk, severity, and outcome. Methods We analyzed genome-wide genotype data for 791 ICH cases and 876 controls, and determined heritability as the proportion of variation in phenotype attributable to captured genetic variants. Contribution to heritability was separately estimated for the APOE (encoding apolipoprotein E) gene, an established genetic risk factor, and for the rest of the genome. Analyzed phenotypes included ICH risk, admission hematoma volume, and 90-day mortality. Results ICH risk heritability was estimated at 29% (SE, 11%) for non-APOE loci and at 15% (SE, 10%) for APOE. Heritability for 90-day ICH mortality was 41% for non-APOE loci and 10% (SE, 9%) for APOE. Genetic influence on hematoma volume was also substantial: admission volume heritability was estimated at 60% (SE, 70%) for non-APOE loci and at 12% (SE, 4%) for APOE. Conclusions Genetic variation plays a substantial role in ICH risk, outcome, and hematoma volume. Previously reported risk variants account for only a portion of inherited genetic influence on ICH pathophysiology, pointing to additional loci yet to be identified. PMID:23559261

  9. Videolaryngoscopes differ substantially in illumination of the oral cavity: A manikin study

    PubMed Central

    Pieters, Barbe MA; van Zundert, André AJ

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Insufficient illumination of the oral cavity during endotracheal intubation may result in suboptimal conditions. Consequently, suboptimal illumination and laryngoscopy may lead to potential unwanted trauma to soft tissues of the pharyngeal mucosa. We investigated illumination of the oral cavity by different videolaryngoscopes (VLS) in a manikin model. Methods: We measured light intensity from the mouth opening of a Laerdal intubation trainer comparing different direct and indirect VLS at three occasions, resembling optimal to less-than-optimal intubation conditions; at the photographer's dark room, in an operating theatre and outdoors in bright sunlight. Results: Substantial differences in luminance were detected between VLS. The use of LED light significantly improved light production. All VLS produced substantial higher luminance values in a well-luminated environment compared to the dark photographer's room. The experiments outside-in bright sunlight-were interfered with by direct sunlight penetration through the synthetic material of the manikin, making correct measurement of luminance in the oropharynx invalid. Conclusion: Illumination of the oral cavity differs widely among direct and indirect VLS. The clinician should be aware of the possibility of suboptimal illumination of the oral cavity and the potential risk this poses for the patient. PMID:27212719

  10. Substantial equivalence--an appropriate paradigm for the safety assessment of genetically modified foods?

    PubMed

    Kuiper, Harry A; Kleter, Gijs A; Noteborn, Hub P J M; Kok, Esther J

    2002-12-27

    Safety assessment of genetically modified food crops is based on the concept of substantial equivalence, developed by OECD and further elaborated by FAO/WHO. The concept embraces a comparative approach to identify possible differences between the genetically modified food and its traditional comparator, which is considered to be safe. The concept is not a safety assessment in itself, it identifies hazards but does not assess them. The outcome of the comparative exercise will further guide the safety assessment, which may include (immuno)toxicological and biochemical testing. Application of the concept of substantial equivalence may encounter practical difficulties: (i) the availability of near-isogenic parental lines to compare the genetically modified food with; (ii) limited availability of methods for the detection of (un)intended effects resulting from the genetic modification; and (iii) limited information on natural variations in levels of relevant crop constituents. In order to further improve the methodology for identification of unintended effects, new 'profiling' methods are recommended. Such methods will allow for the screening of potential changes in the modified host organism at different integration levels, i.e. at the genome level, during gene expression and protein translation, and at the level of cellular metabolism.

  11. Improvements in the energy resolution and high-count-rate performance of bismuth germanate

    SciTech Connect

    Koehler, P.E.; Wender, S.A.; Kapustinsky, J.S.

    1985-01-01

    Several methods for improving the energy resolution of bismuth germanate (BGO) have been investigated. It is shown that some of these methods resulted in a substantial improvement in the energy resolution. In addition, a method to improve the performance of BGO at high counting rates has been systematically studied. The results of this study are presented and discussed.

  12. GRAPHIC REANALYSIS OF THE TWO NINDS-TPA TRIALS CONFIRMS SUBSTANTIAL TREATMENT BENEFIT

    PubMed Central

    Saver, Jeffrey L.; Gornbein, Jeffrey; Starkman, Sidney

    2010-01-01

    Background of Comment/Review Multiple statistical analyses of the two NINDS-TPA Trials have confirmed study findings of benefit of fibrinolytic therapy. A recent graphic analysis departed from best practices in the visual display of quantitative information by failing to take into account the skewed functional importance NIH Stroke Scale raw scores and by scaling change axes at up to twenty times the range achievable by individual patients. Methods Using the publicly available datasets of the 2 NINDS-TPA Trials, we generated a variety of figures appropriate to the characteristics of acute stroke trial data. Results A diverse array of figures all visually delineated substantial benefits of fibrinolytic therapy, including: bar charts of normalized gain and loss; stacked bar, bar, and matrix plots of clinically relevant ordinal ranks; a time series stacked line plot of continuous scale disability weights; and line plot, bubble chart, and person icon array graphs of joint outcome table analysis. The achievable change figure showed substantially greater improvement among TPA than placebo patients, median 66.7% (IQR 0–92.0) vs 50.0% (IQR −7.1 – 80.0), p=0.003. Conclusions On average, under 3 hour patients treated with TPA recovered two-thirds while placebo patients improved only half of the way towards fully normal. Graphical analyses of the two NINDS-TPA trials, when performed according to best practices, is a useful means of conveying details about patient response to therapy not fully delineated by summary statistics, and confirms a valuable treatment benefit of under 3 hour fibrinolytic therapy in acute stroke. PMID:20829518

  13. Tackifier for addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, J. M.; St.clair, T. L.

    1980-01-01

    A modification to the addition polyimide, LaRC-160, was prepared to improve tack and drape and increase prepeg out-time. The essentially solventless, high viscosity laminating resin is synthesized from low cost liquid monomers. The modified version takes advantage of a reactive, liquid plasticizer which is used in place of solvent and helps solve a major problem of maintaining good prepeg tack and drape, or the ability of the prepeg to adhere to adjacent plies and conform to a desired shape during the lay up process. This alternate solventless approach allows both longer life of the polymer prepeg and the processing of low void laminates. This approach appears to be applicable to all addition polyimide systems.

  14. 20 CFR 416.972 - What we mean by substantial gainful activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... work activity that involves doing significant physical or mental activities. Your work may be... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What we mean by substantial gainful activity... Activity § 416.972 What we mean by substantial gainful activity. Substantial gainful activity is...

  15. 24 CFR 115.201 - The two phases of substantial equivalency certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false The two phases of substantial... ENFORCEMENT AGENCIES Certification of Substantially Equivalent Agencies § 115.201 The two phases of.... The Department has developed a two-phase process of substantial equivalency certification....

  16. 26 CFR 1.671-1 - Grantors and others treated as substantial owners; scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Grantors and others treated as substantial... TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Grantors and Others Treated As Substantial Owners § 1.671-1 Grantors and others treated as substantial owners; scope. (a) Subpart E...

  17. 26 CFR 1.671-1 - Grantors and others treated as substantial owners; scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Grantors and others treated as substantial... TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Grantors and Others Treated As Substantial Owners § 1.671-1 Grantors and others treated as substantial owners; scope. (a) Subpart E...

  18. 26 CFR 1.671-1 - Grantors and others treated as substantial owners; scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Grantors and others treated as substantial... TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Grantors and Others Treated As Substantial Owners § 1.671-1 Grantors and others treated as substantial owners; scope. (a) Subpart E (section 671...

  19. 26 CFR 1.671-1 - Grantors and others treated as substantial owners; scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Grantors and others treated as substantial... TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Grantors and Others Treated As Substantial Owners § 1.671-1 Grantors and others treated as substantial owners; scope. (a) Subpart E...

  20. 26 CFR 1.671-1 - Grantors and others treated as substantial owners; scope.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Grantors and others treated as substantial... TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Grantors and Others Treated As Substantial Owners § 1.671-1 Grantors and others treated as substantial owners; scope. (a) Subpart E...

  1. 20 CFR 654.13 - Determination of areas of substantial unemployment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determination of areas of substantial unemployment. 654.13 Section 654.13 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... 10582 § 654.13 Determination of areas of substantial unemployment. An area of substantial...

  2. 20 CFR 654.13 - Determination of areas of substantial unemployment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Determination of areas of substantial unemployment. 654.13 Section 654.13 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... 10582 § 654.13 Determination of areas of substantial unemployment. An area of substantial...

  3. 20 CFR 654.13 - Determination of areas of substantial unemployment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Determination of areas of substantial unemployment. 654.13 Section 654.13 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... 10582 § 654.13 Determination of areas of substantial unemployment. An area of substantial...

  4. 20 CFR 654.13 - Determination of areas of substantial unemployment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Determination of areas of substantial unemployment. 654.13 Section 654.13 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... 10582 § 654.13 Determination of areas of substantial unemployment. An area of substantial...

  5. 20 CFR 654.13 - Determination of areas of substantial unemployment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Determination of areas of substantial unemployment. 654.13 Section 654.13 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... 10582 § 654.13 Determination of areas of substantial unemployment. An area of substantial...

  6. 42 CFR 422.356 - Determining substantial financial risk and majority financial interest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Determining substantial financial risk and majority...-Sponsored Organizations § 422.356 Determining substantial financial risk and majority financial interest. (a) Determining substantial financial risk. The PSO must demonstrate to CMS's satisfaction that it apportions...

  7. Improved activity and stability of Ni-Ce0.8Sm0.2O1.9 anode for solid oxide fuel cells fed with methanol through addition of molybdenum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ping; Yu, Baolong; Li, Jiang; Yao, Xueli; Zhao, Yicheng; Li, Yongdan

    2016-07-01

    Ni-Mo-Ce0.8Sm0.2O1.9 (SDC) composites are prepared and investigated as anodes of solid oxide fuel cells with methanol as fuel. The addition of Mo improves the catalytic activity for methanol pyrolysis and the resistance to carbon deposition of Ni-SDC anode. The anode with a mole ratio of Mo to Ni of 0.03:1 exhibits the lowest polarization resistance. The cell with that anode and SDC-carbonate composite electrolyte shows a maximum power density of 680 mW cm-2 at 700 °C. The stability of the cell is enhanced with the increase of the content of Mo in the anode, which is mainly attributed to the decreased amount of carbon deposits with a high graphitization degree.

  8. Anaerobic crystallization and initial X-ray diffraction data of biphenyl 2,3-dioxygenase from Burkholderia xenovorans LB400: addition of agarose improved the quality of the crystals

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Pravindra; Gómez-Gil, Leticia; Mohammadi, Mahmood; Sylvestre, Michel; Eltis, Lindsay D.; Bolin, Jeffrey T.

    2011-01-01

    Biphenyl 2,3-dioxygenase (BPDO; EC 1.14.12.18) catalyzes the initial step in the degradation of biphenyl and some polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). BPDOLB400, the terminal dioxygenase component from Burkholderia xenovorans LB400, a proteobacterial species that degrades a broad range of PCBs, has been crystallized under anaerobic conditions by sitting-drop vapour diffusion. Initial crystals obtained using various polyethylene glycols as precipitating agents diffracted to very low resolution (∼8 Å) and the recorded reflections were diffuse and poorly shaped. The quality of the crystals was significantly improved by the addition of 0.2% agarose to the crystallization cocktail. In the presence of agarose, wild-type BPDOLB400 crystals that diffracted to 2.4 Å resolution grew in space group P1. Crystals of the BPDOP4 and BPDORR41 variants of BPDOLB400 grew in space group P21. PMID:21206025

  9. Intensification of antiretroviral therapy through addition of enfuvirtide in naive HIV-1-infected patients with severe immunosuppression does not improve immunological response: results of a randomized multicenter trial (ANRS 130 Apollo).

    PubMed

    Joly, Véronique; Fagard, Catherine; Grondin, Carine; Descamps, Diane; Yazdanpanah, Yazdan; Charpentier, Charlotte; Colin de Verdiere, Nathalie; Tabuteau, Sophie; Raffi, François; Cabie, André; Chene, Geneviève; Yeni, Patrick

    2013-02-01

    We studied whether addition of enfuvirtide (ENF) to a background combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) would improve the CD4 cell count response at week 24 in naive patients with advanced HIV disease. ANRS 130 Apollo is a randomized study, conducted in naive HIV-1-infected patients, either asymptomatic with CD4 counts of <100/mm(3) or stage B/C disease with CD4 counts of <200/mm(3). Patients received tenofovir-emtricitabine with lopinavir-ritonavir (LPV/r) or efavirenz and were randomized to receive ENF for 24 weeks (ENF arm) or not (control arm). The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients with CD4 counts of ≥ 200/mm(3) at week 24. A total of 195 patients were randomized: 73% had stage C disease, 78% were male, the mean age was 44 years, the median CD4 count was 30/mm(3), and the median HIV-1 RNA load was 5.4 log(10) copies/ml. Eighty-one percent of patients received LPV/r. One patient was lost to follow-up, and eight discontinued the study (four in each arm). The proportions of patients with CD4 counts of ≥ 200/mm(3) at week 24 were 34% and 38% in the ENF and control arms, respectively (P = 0.53). The proportions of patients with HIV-1 RNA loads of <50 copies/ml were 74% and 58% at week 24 in the ENF and control arms, respectively (P < 0.02), and the proportion reached 79% in both arms at week 48. Twenty (20%) and 12 patients (13%) in the ENF and control arms, respectively, experienced at least one AIDS event during follow-up (P = 0.17). Although inducing a more rapid virological response, addition of ENF to a standard cART does not improve the immunological outcome in naive HIV-infected patients with severe immunosuppression. PMID:23165467

  10. Intensification of antiretroviral therapy through addition of enfuvirtide in naive HIV-1-infected patients with severe immunosuppression does not improve immunological response: results of a randomized multicenter trial (ANRS 130 Apollo).

    PubMed

    Joly, Véronique; Fagard, Catherine; Grondin, Carine; Descamps, Diane; Yazdanpanah, Yazdan; Charpentier, Charlotte; Colin de Verdiere, Nathalie; Tabuteau, Sophie; Raffi, François; Cabie, André; Chene, Geneviève; Yeni, Patrick

    2013-02-01

    We studied whether addition of enfuvirtide (ENF) to a background combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) would improve the CD4 cell count response at week 24 in naive patients with advanced HIV disease. ANRS 130 Apollo is a randomized study, conducted in naive HIV-1-infected patients, either asymptomatic with CD4 counts of <100/mm(3) or stage B/C disease with CD4 counts of <200/mm(3). Patients received tenofovir-emtricitabine with lopinavir-ritonavir (LPV/r) or efavirenz and were randomized to receive ENF for 24 weeks (ENF arm) or not (control arm). The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients with CD4 counts of ≥ 200/mm(3) at week 24. A total of 195 patients were randomized: 73% had stage C disease, 78% were male, the mean age was 44 years, the median CD4 count was 30/mm(3), and the median HIV-1 RNA load was 5.4 log(10) copies/ml. Eighty-one percent of patients received LPV/r. One patient was lost to follow-up, and eight discontinued the study (four in each arm). The proportions of patients with CD4 counts of ≥ 200/mm(3) at week 24 were 34% and 38% in the ENF and control arms, respectively (P = 0.53). The proportions of patients with HIV-1 RNA loads of <50 copies/ml were 74% and 58% at week 24 in the ENF and control arms, respectively (P < 0.02), and the proportion reached 79% in both arms at week 48. Twenty (20%) and 12 patients (13%) in the ENF and control arms, respectively, experienced at least one AIDS event during follow-up (P = 0.17). Although inducing a more rapid virological response, addition of ENF to a standard cART does not improve the immunological outcome in naive HIV-infected patients with severe immunosuppression.

  11. Broad Hepatitis C Treatment Scenarios Return Substantial Health Gains, But Capacity Is A Concern.

    PubMed

    Van Nuys, Karen; Brookmeyer, Ronald; Chou, Jacquelyn W; Dreyfus, David; Dieterich, Douglas; Goldman, Dana P

    2015-10-01

    Treatment of hepatitis C virus, the most common chronic viral infection in the United States, has historically suffered from challenges including serious side effects, low efficacy, and ongoing transmission and reinfection. Recent innovations have produced breakthrough therapies that are effective in more than 90 percent of patients. These treatments could dramatically reduce the virus's prevalence but are costly. To quantify the benefit of these treatments to society, including the value of reduced transmission, we estimated the effects of several hepatitis C treatment strategies on cost and population health. Treating patients at all disease stages could generate $610-$1,221 billion in additional quality-adjusted life-years, plus an additional $139 billion in saved medical expenditures over fifty years, and minimize the disease burden, but up-front treatment costs would exceed $150 billion. An intermediate scenario--treating 5 percent of the infected population annually, regardless of patients' disease stages--would also return substantial benefits and would be much more affordable under current financing schemes.

  12. Using scenario tree modelling for targeted herd sampling to substantiate freedom from disease

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In order to optimise the cost-effectiveness of active surveillance to substantiate freedom from disease, a new approach using targeted sampling of farms was developed and applied on the example of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) and enzootic bovine leucosis (EBL) in Switzerland. Relevant risk factors (RF) for the introduction of IBR and EBL into Swiss cattle farms were identified and their relative risks defined based on literature review and expert opinions. A quantitative model based on the scenario tree method was subsequently used to calculate the required sample size of a targeted sampling approach (TS) for a given sensitivity. We compared the sample size with that of a stratified random sample (sRS) with regard to efficiency. Results The required sample sizes to substantiate disease freedom were 1,241 farms for IBR and 1,750 farms for EBL to detect 0.2% herd prevalence with 99% sensitivity. Using conventional sRS, the required sample sizes were 2,259 farms for IBR and 2,243 for EBL. Considering the additional administrative expenses required for the planning of TS, the risk-based approach was still more cost-effective than a sRS (40% reduction on the full survey costs for IBR and 8% for EBL) due to the considerable reduction in sample size. Conclusions As the model depends on RF selected through literature review and was parameterised with values estimated by experts, it is subject to some degree of uncertainty. Nevertheless, this approach provides the veterinary authorities with a promising tool for future cost-effective sampling designs. PMID:21843367

  13. Prolonging the hydration and active metabolism from light periods into nights substantially enhances lichen growth.

    PubMed

    Bidussi, Massimo; Gauslaa, Yngvar; Solhaug, Knut Asbjørn

    2013-05-01

    This study investigates how hydration during light and dark periods influences growth in two epiphytic old forest lichens, the green algal Lobaria pulmonaria and the cyanobacterial L. scrobiculata. The lichens were cultivated in growth chambers for 14 days (200 μmol m(-1) s(-2); 12 h photoperiod) at four temperature regimes (25/20 °C, 21/16 °C, 13/8 °C, and 6/1 °C; day/night temperatures) and two hydration regimes (12 h day-time hydration; 12 h day-time + 12 h night-time hydration). Growth was highly dynamic, showing that short-term growth experiments in growth cabinets have a high, but largely unexplored potential in functional lichen studies. The highest measured growth rates were not far from the maximal dry matter gain estimated from published net photosynthetic CO2 uptake data. For the entire data set, photobiont type, temperature, hydration regime and specific thallus mass accounted for 46.6 % of the variation in relative growth rate (RGR). Both species showed substantially higher relative growth rates based on both biomass (RGR) and thallus area (RTAGR) when they were hydrated day and night compared to hydration in light only. Chronic photoinhibition was substantial in thalli hydrated only during the day time and kept at the highest and lowest temperature regimes, resulting in exponential increases in RGR with increasing maximal PSII efficiency (F v/F m) in both species. However, the depression in F v/F m was stronger for the cyanolichen than for the cephalolichen at extreme temperatures. The growth-stimulating effect of night-time hydration suggests that nocturnal metabolic activity improves recovery of photoinhibition and/or enhances the conversion rate of photosynthates into thallus extension.

  14. Additive manufacturing of optical components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinrich, Andreas; Rank, Manuel; Maillard, Philippe; Suckow, Anne; Bauckhage, Yannick; Rößler, Patrick; Lang, Johannes; Shariff, Fatin; Pekrul, Sven

    2016-08-01

    The development of additive manufacturing methods has enlarged rapidly in recent years. Thereby, the work mainly focuses on the realization of mechanical components, but the additive manufacturing technology offers a high potential in the field of optics as well. Owing to new design possibilities, completely new solutions are possible. This article briefly reviews and compares the most important additive manufacturing methods for polymer optics. Additionally, it points out the characteristics of additive manufactured polymer optics. Thereby, surface quality is of crucial importance. In order to improve it, appropriate post-processing steps are necessary (e.g. robot polishing or coating), which will be discussed. An essential part of this paper deals with various additive manufactured optical components and their use, especially in optical systems for shape metrology (e.g. borehole sensor, tilt sensor, freeform surface sensor, fisheye lens). The examples should demonstrate the potentials and limitations of optical components produced by additive manufacturing.

  15. Capability of different non-nutritive feed additives on improving productive and physiological traits of broiler chicks fed diets with or without aflatoxin during the first 3 weeks of life.

    PubMed

    Attia, Y A; Allakany, H F; Abd Al-Hamid, A E; Al-Saffar, A A; Hassan, R A; Mohamed, N A

    2013-08-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine whether some non-nutritive feed additives (NNFA) could block the adverse effects of aflatoxin (AF) on growth performance and physiological parameters of Cobb broilers throughout the period from 1 to 21 day of age. There were eight treatments consisting of two levels of AF at 0 and 200 ppb and four NNFA within each AF level. These additives included mannan oligosaccharides (MOS) at 2 g/kg diet, hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (HSCAS) at 2 g/kg diet and Lactobacillus acidophilus (Lac) at 2 g/kg diet. At 21 day of age, five chickens of each treatment were slaughtered to study dressing percentage and relative weight of inner organs and glands. AF had a significant negative effect on body weight gain (BWG), and feed intake, while impairing feed conversion ratio (FCR). Aflatoxin significantly increased percentage liver, lymphocyte (%), monocyte (%), serum triglyceride level, and the aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT), concentrations while decreasing dressing percentage, intestinal percentage, white blood cells (WBCs), red blood cells (RBCs), haemoglobin (Hgb), packed cell volume (PCV), heterophil (%), heterophil/lymphocyte ratio, total serum protein and serum albumin. Aflatoxin adversely affected the morphology of the liver, bursa and the thymus. There was a significant interaction between AF and NNFA on the relative weights of liver, heart and intestine. Lac completely blocked the negative effects of AF on the percentage liver and the heart and partially on the intestine. In conclusion, Lac was most effective in reversing the adverse effects of AF on growth and FCR and on the percentage, functions and morphology of the liver. Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate also improved the economic traits of broilers but was less effective than Lac and more effective than MOS.

  16. A novel imidazole-based electrolyte additive for improved electrochemical performance at elevated temperature of high-voltage LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rong, Haibo; Xu, Mengqing; Xie, Boyuan; Lin, Haibin; Zhu, Yunmin; Zheng, Xiongwen; Huang, Weizhao; Liao, Youhao; Xing, Lidan; Li, Weishan

    2016-10-01

    A novel electrolyte additive, 1,1‧-sulfonyldiimidazole (SDM), is firstly reported to improve the cycling performance of LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 at high voltage and elevated temperature (55 °C). Linear sweep voltammetry (LSV), initial differential capacity vs. voltage, and computation results indicate that SDM is oxidized at a lower potential than the solvents of the electrolyte. Coulombic efficiency and capacity retention of a Li/LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cell can be significantly enhanced in the presence of SDM, and moreover cells with SDM deliver lower impedance after 100 cycles at elevated temperature. To better understand the functional mechanism of the enhanced performance with incorporation of SDM in the electrolyte, ex-situ analytical techniques, including scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) are employed to gain insight into the reaction mechanism of SDM on the LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 electrode at high voltage and elevated temperature (55 °C). Surface analysis reveals that the improved electrochemical performance of the cells can be ascribed to the highly stable surface layer generated by SDM, which thus mitigates the detrimental decomposition of the electrolyte occurring and stabilizes the interphase of spinel LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 cathode while cycling at high voltage and elevated temperature.

  17. Earliest and first Northern Hemispheric hoatzin fossils substantiate Old World origin of a "Neotropic endemic".

    PubMed

    Mayr, Gerald; De Pietri, Vanesa L

    2014-02-01

    The recent identification of hoatzins (Opisthocomiformes) in the Miocene of Africa showed part of the evolution of these birds, which are now only found in South America, to have taken place outside the Neotropic region. Here, we describe a new fossil species from the late Eocene of France, which constitutes the earliest fossil record of hoatzins and the first one from the Northern Hemisphere. Protoazin parisiensis gen. et sp. nov. is more closely related to South American Opisthocomiformes than the African taxon Namibiavis and substantiates an Old World origin of hoatzins, as well as a relictual distribution of the single extant species. Although recognition of hoatzins in Europe may challenge their presumed transatlantic dispersal, there are still no North American fossils in support of an alternative, Northern Hemispheric, dispersal route. In addition to Opisthocomiformes, other avian taxa are known from the Cenozoic of Europe, the extant representatives of which are only found in South America. Recognition of hoatzins in the early Cenozoic of Europe is of particular significance because Opisthocomiformes have a fossil record in sub-Saharan Africa, which supports the hypothesis that extinction of at least some of these "South American" groups outside the Neotropic region was not primarily due to climatic factors.

  18. 78 FR 20855 - State Implementation Plans: Response to Petition for Rulemaking; Findings of Substantial...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-08

    ... February 22, 2013 (78 FR 12460) must be received on or before May 13, 2013. ADDRESSES: Submit your comments...; Findings of Substantial Inadequacy; and SIP Calls To Amend Provisions Applying to Excess Emissions During...; Findings of Substantial Inadequacy; and SIP Calls to Amend Provisions Applying to Excess Emissions...

  19. 12 CFR 366.5 - What causes a substantial loss to a federal deposit insurance fund?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... deposit insurance fund? 366.5 Section 366.5 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION... § 366.5 What causes a substantial loss to a federal deposit insurance fund? You cause a substantial loss to the Deposit Insurance Fund (or any predecessor deposit insurance fund) under § 366.3(d) when...

  20. 12 CFR 366.5 - What causes a substantial loss to a federal deposit insurance fund?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... deposit insurance fund? 366.5 Section 366.5 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION... § 366.5 What causes a substantial loss to a federal deposit insurance fund? You cause a substantial loss to the Deposit Insurance Fund (or any predecessor deposit insurance fund) under § 366.3(d) when...

  1. 24 CFR 247.10 - Inapplicability to substantial rehabilitation or demolition; right of disposition unimpaired.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... rehabilitation or demolition; right of disposition unimpaired. 247.10 Section 247.10 Housing and Urban... SUBSIDIZED AND HUD-OWNED PROJECTS HUD-Owned Projects § 247.10 Inapplicability to substantial rehabilitation... of substantial rehabilitation or demolition. Nothing in this subpart should be construed to affect...

  2. 26 CFR 1.7874-3T - Substantial business activities (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... rules in § 1.7874-2T(g), as contained in 26 CFR part 1 revised as of April 12, 2012, or the rules set... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Substantial business activities (temporary). 1... Substantial business activities (temporary). (a) Scope. This section provides rules regarding whether...

  3. 26 CFR 1.6043-3T - Returns regarding liquidation, dissolution, termination, or substantial contraction of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., termination, or substantial contraction of organizations exempt from taxation under section 501(a) (temporary... liquidation, dissolution, termination, or substantial contraction of organizations exempt from taxation under section 501(a) (temporary). (a) through (b)(7) For further guidance, see § 1.6043-3(a) through (b)(7)....

  4. 26 CFR 1.6043-3T - Returns regarding liquidation, dissolution, termination, or substantial contraction of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., termination, or substantial contraction of organizations exempt from taxation under section 501(a) (temporary..., dissolution, termination, or substantial contraction of organizations exempt from taxation under section 501(a) (temporary). (a) through (b)(7) For further guidance, see § 1.6043-3(a) through (b)(7). (b)(8)...

  5. 46 CFR 252.22 - Substantiality and extent of foreign-flag competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Substantiality and extent of foreign-flag competition... WORLDWIDE SERVICES Operation § 252.22 Substantiality and extent of foreign-flag competition. (a) Type and tonnage groupings. Foreign-flag competition shall be determined, as of January 1 of the year...

  6. 46 CFR 252.22 - Substantiality and extent of foreign-flag competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Substantiality and extent of foreign-flag competition... WORLDWIDE SERVICES Operation § 252.22 Substantiality and extent of foreign-flag competition. (a) Type and tonnage groupings. Foreign-flag competition shall be determined, as of January 1 of the year...

  7. 32 CFR 48.302 - Substantiating evidence regarding dependency and age of dependents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... youngest child birth date as applicable to the option elected. At or before the time of his retirement, he... age of the dependents must be substantiated by a birth certificate or other competent evidence. The birth date of a member must be verified by his service record. All required substantiating evidence...

  8. 32 CFR 48.302 - Substantiating evidence regarding dependency and age of dependents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... youngest child birth date as applicable to the option elected. At or before the time of his retirement, he... age of the dependents must be substantiated by a birth certificate or other competent evidence. The birth date of a member must be verified by his service record. All required substantiating evidence...

  9. Alloy substantially free of dendrites and method of forming the same

    DOEpatents

    de Figueredo, Anacleto M.; Apelian, Diran; Findon, Matt M.; Saddock, Nicholas

    2009-04-07

    Described herein are alloys substantially free of dendrites. A method includes forming an alloy substantially free of dendrites. A superheated alloy is cooled to form a nucleated alloy. The temperature of the nucleated alloy is controlled to prevent the nuclei from melting. The nucleated alloy is mixed to distribute the nuclei throughout the alloy. The nucleated alloy is cooled with nuclei distributed throughout.

  10. 26 CFR 1.6662-5T - Substantial and gross valuation misstatements under chapter 1 (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Substantial and gross valuation misstatements under chapter 1 (temporary). 1.6662-5T Section 1.6662-5T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... Amounts, and Assessable Penalties § 1.6662-5T Substantial and gross valuation misstatements under...

  11. 24 CFR 247.5 - Inapplicability to substantial rehabilitation or demolition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... rehabilitation or demolition. 247.5 Section 247.5 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing... Projects § 247.5 Inapplicability to substantial rehabilitation or demolition. This subpart shall not apply... project to a purchaser who purchases for the purpose of substantial rehabilitation or demolition....

  12. 24 CFR 247.5 - Inapplicability to substantial rehabilitation or demolition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... rehabilitation or demolition. 247.5 Section 247.5 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing... Projects § 247.5 Inapplicability to substantial rehabilitation or demolition. This subpart shall not apply... project to a purchaser who purchases for the purpose of substantial rehabilitation or demolition....

  13. 26 CFR 1.162-17 - Reporting and substantiation of certain business expenses of employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reporting and substantiation of certain business... Individuals and Corporations § 1.162-17 Reporting and substantiation of certain business expenses of employees... reporting of information on income tax returns by taxpayers who pay or incur ordinary and necessary...

  14. What Criteria Do Child Protective Services Investigators Use to Substantiate Exposure to Domestic Violence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coohey, Carol

    2007-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study is to determine whether child protective services investigators apply a recognizable set of criteria to substantiate batterers and victims of battering for exposing their children to domestic violence. Although domestic violence occurred in 35% of the 1,248 substantiated incidents of child maltreatment, only 31…

  15. 26 CFR 601.507 - Evidence required to substantiate facts alleged by a recognized representative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 20 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Evidence required to substantiate facts alleged... Practice Requirements § 601.507 Evidence required to substantiate facts alleged by a recognized... perjury) that the recognized representative prepared such submission and that the facts contained...

  16. 20 CFR 404.1572 - What we mean by substantial gainful activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What we mean by substantial gainful activity. 404.1572 Section 404.1572 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Substantial...

  17. 20 CFR 404.1572 - What we mean by substantial gainful activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What we mean by substantial gainful activity. 404.1572 Section 404.1572 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Substantial...

  18. 20 CFR 404.1572 - What we mean by substantial gainful activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What we mean by substantial gainful activity. 404.1572 Section 404.1572 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Substantial...

  19. 20 CFR 404.1572 - What we mean by substantial gainful activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What we mean by substantial gainful activity. 404.1572 Section 404.1572 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Substantial...

  20. 20 CFR 404.1572 - What we mean by substantial gainful activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What we mean by substantial gainful activity. 404.1572 Section 404.1572 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Substantial...

  1. 20 CFR 416.1080 - Notice of right to hearing on proposed finding of substantial failure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Notice of right to hearing on proposed finding of substantial failure. 416.1080 Section 416.1080 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY... Hearings and Appeals § 416.1080 Notice of right to hearing on proposed finding of substantial failure....

  2. 20 CFR 416.1080 - Notice of right to hearing on proposed finding of substantial failure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice of right to hearing on proposed finding of substantial failure. 416.1080 Section 416.1080 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY... Hearings and Appeals § 416.1080 Notice of right to hearing on proposed finding of substantial failure....

  3. Throwing induces substantial torsional adaptation within the midshaft humerus of male baseball players.

    PubMed

    Warden, Stuart J; Bogenschutz, Elizabeth D; Smith, Heather D; Gutierrez, Anthony R

    2009-11-01

    Athletes participating in unilateral dominant sports are useful models for investigating skeletal responses to mechanical loading as they provide controlled evidence in the absence of completing a randomized controlled trial. Throwing athletes may be an additional model for this purpose as they overload their dominant upper extremity enabling the contralateral side to act as an internal control and load the bones of the upper extremity purely via the generation of internal (i.e. muscular) forces without superposition of externally applied loads (i.e. impact with an external object). The aim of this study was to investigate upper extremity bone adaptation in throwing athletes and explore factors that predict this adaptation. Two cohorts were recruited-male baseball players (throwers; n=15) and matched controls (controls; n=15). Each subject was assessed for shoulder range and strength, and upper extremity bone mass, structure and estimated strength. Throwers had substantially greater skeletal differences between their dominant and nondominant upper extremities than controls, indicating that throwing induces greater adaptation than induced by habitual loading of the dominant upper extremity. Bone adaptation in throwers was localized to the humerus, with the midshaft humerus in the dominant upper extremity of throwers having enhanced bone mass, structure and estimated strength. The largest effect was for estimated strength of the midshaft humerus which had 30% greater polar moment of inertia (I(P)) in throwers and suggests adaptation to resist torsional loads. The skeletal effect of throwing at the midshaft humerus was influenced by playing position with pitchers and catchers displaying greater dominant-to-nondominant differences than fielders, and was predicted by years throwing and dominant-to-nondominant difference in upper arm lean cross-sectional area. The latter two variables explained 67% of the variance in dominant-to-nondominant differences in I

  4. An Active Area Model of Rapid Infiltration Response at Substantial Depth in the Unsaturated Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, L.; Nimmo, J. R.

    2011-12-01

    In a porous medium subject to preferential flow, response to surface water infiltration can occur rapidly even at substantial depth in the unsaturated zone. In a ponding experiment at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) the profile of undisturbed natural soil, seasonally dry at the start, was observed to approach field saturation throughout a 2 meter depth within 6 hours (Nimmo and Perkins, 2007). Traditional use of Richards' equation would require an unrealistically large unsaturated hydraulic conductivity of 40 m/day to capture the observed non-classic wetting behavior. Here we present a model for rapid flow using an active area concept similar to the active fracture model (Liu and others, 1998, WRR 34:2633-2646). The active area concept is incorporated within the preferential flow domain (which allows rapid downward movement) of a dual-domain model that also contains a diffuse-flow domain in which flow can be described by Richards' equation. Development of the active area model is motivated by observation of rapid wetting at substantial depth, as well as a phenomenon in which deep flow is observed before shallow flow. In this model water movement in the preferential domain can be physically conceptualized as laminar flow in free-surface films of constant average thickness. For a given medium, the preferential domain is characterized by an effective areal density (area per unit bulk volume) that describes the free-surface film capacity of the domain as a function of depth. The active area is defined as a portion of the effective areal density that dictates the depth and temporal distribution of domain-exchange and new infiltration within the preferential domain. With the addition of the active area concept, the model is capable of simulating non-diffusive vertical transport patterns. Advantages of the model include simulating rapid response for a variety of infiltration types, including ponding and rain events, as well as modeling relatively rapid aquifer

  5. Throwing induces substantial torsional adaptation within the midshaft humerus of male baseball players.

    PubMed

    Warden, Stuart J; Bogenschutz, Elizabeth D; Smith, Heather D; Gutierrez, Anthony R

    2009-11-01

    Athletes participating in unilateral dominant sports are useful models for investigating skeletal responses to mechanical loading as they provide controlled evidence in the absence of completing a randomized controlled trial. Throwing athletes may be an additional model for this purpose as they overload their dominant upper extremity enabling the contralateral side to act as an internal control and load the bones of the upper extremity purely via the generation of internal (i.e. muscular) forces without superposition of externally applied loads (i.e. impact with an external object). The aim of this study was to investigate upper extremity bone adaptation in throwing athletes and explore factors that predict this adaptation. Two cohorts were recruited-male baseball players (throwers; n=15) and matched controls (controls; n=15). Each subject was assessed for shoulder range and strength, and upper extremity bone mass, structure and estimated strength. Throwers had substantially greater skeletal differences between their dominant and nondominant upper extremities than controls, indicating that throwing induces greater adaptation than induced by habitual loading of the dominant upper extremity. Bone adaptation in throwers was localized to the humerus, with the midshaft humerus in the dominant upper extremity of throwers having enhanced bone mass, structure and estimated strength. The largest effect was for estimated strength of the midshaft humerus which had 30% greater polar moment of inertia (I(P)) in throwers and suggests adaptation to resist torsional loads. The skeletal effect of throwing at the midshaft humerus was influenced by playing position with pitchers and catchers displaying greater dominant-to-nondominant differences than fielders, and was predicted by years throwing and dominant-to-nondominant difference in upper arm lean cross-sectional area. The latter two variables explained 67% of the variance in dominant-to-nondominant differences in I

  6. Additive concentrates for distillate fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Rossi, A.; Lewtas, K.

    1985-08-27

    An additive concentrate for incorporation into wax containing petroleum fuel oil compositions to improve low temperature flow properties comprising an oil solution containing: 3% to 90 wt. % of a C30-C300 oil-soluble nitrogen compound wax crystal growth inhibitor having at least one straight C8-C40 alkyl chain and partial esters, and at least one mole per mole of an organic acid capable of hydrogen bonding to improve the solubility in the oil.

  7. How to improve fertility of African soils? Leguminous fallows (Cameroon), addition of farmyard manure and mineral fertilizer (Kenya), organic residues management and introduction of N2 fixing species in forest plantations (Congo).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koutika, Lydie-Stella; Mareschal, Louis; Mouanda, Cadeau; Epron, Daniel

    2014-05-01

    Most of African soils are inherently infertile and poor in nutrients mainly nitrogen and phosphorus. Several practices are used to improve soil fertility, increase productivity and ensure their sustainability. Soil fertility in the leguminous fallows was evaluated through particulate organic matter (POM), the more active part of soil organic matter (SOM) in Cameroon. The combination of mineral and organic (manure) fertilizers increased microbial P biomass allowing the release of P along the plant growing period in the Kenyan soils. Organic residues management and introduction of nitrogen fixing species (Acacia) were used to improve soil fertility and sustain forest productivity on the coastal plains of Congo. SOM fractionation was made under Pueraria, Mucuna fallows and natural regrowth mainly Chromolaena and under 3 forest plantation treatments installed in previous savanna: 1) no input, 2) normal input, and 3) double input of organic residues. Microbial P biomass and sequential P fractionation were evaluated in high and low P fixing soils. N, C, available P and pH were determined on soil sampled in acacia (100A), eucalypt (100E) and mixed-species (50A:50E) stands. N and P were determined in aboveground litters and in leaves, bark and wood of trees. The two leguminous fallows increased N content in POM fractions i.e., N >1% for Pueraria and Mucuna against N<1% for natural regrowth in the 0-0.10m depth, probably through N input from N2 fixation from the atmosphere (Cameroon).The addition of mineral fertilizers and farmyard manure increases P biomass (4.8 after 2 weeks to 15.2 after 16 weeks), and then decreased to 9.7 mg P g-1 soil (week 32). It also changes the P Hedley fractions partition in the high P fixing Kenyan soil (0-0.10m). After two rotations (14 years), SOM mineralization was the highest in the double input of organic residues treatment (low coarse POM 5.6 g kg-1 of soil and high organo-mineral fraction (OMF) 115 g kg-1 of soil). The introduction of A

  8. Addition of a C-Terminal Cysteine Improves the Anti-Herpes Simplex Virus Activity of a Peptide Containing the Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 TAT Protein Transduction Domain▿

    PubMed Central

    Bultmann, Hermann; Teuton, Jeremy; Brandt, Curtis R.

    2007-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that peptides containing the protein transduction domain (PTD) of the human immunodeficiency virus tat protein (GRKKRRQRRR) were effective inhibitors of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) entry (H. Bultmann and C. R. Brandt, J. Biol. Chem. 277:36018-36023, 2002). We now show that the addition of a single cysteine residue to the C terminus of the TAT PTD (TAT-C peptide) improves the antiviral activity against HSV-1 and HSV-2. The principle effect of adding the cysteine was to enable the peptide to inactivate virions and to induce a state of resistance to infection in cells pretreated with peptide. The TAT-C peptide acted extracellularly, immediately blocked entry of adsorbed virus, prevented VP16 translocation to the nucleus, and blocked syncytium formation and cell-cell spread. Thus, TAT-C peptides are fusion inhibitors. The induction of the resistance of cells to infection was rapid, recovered with a half-life of 5 to 6 h, and could be reinduced by peptide treatment. TAT-C bound to heparan sulfate but was a poor competitor for viral attachment. The antiviral activity depended on the net positive charge of the peptide but not on chirality, and a free sulfhydryl group was not essential for antiviral activity because TAT-C dimers were at least as effective as monomers. The unique combination of antiviral activities and low toxicity combine to make TAT-C a strong candidate for further development as a drug to block HSV infection. PMID:17261627

  9. Child protection decisions to substantiate hospital child protection teams' reports of suspected maltreatment.

    PubMed

    Jedwab, Merav; Benbenishty, Rami; Chen, Wendy; Glasser, Saralee; Siegal, Gil; Lerner-Geva, Liat

    2015-02-01

    The present study focuses on the way child protection officers (CPOs) in Israel assess suspected abuse and neglect (SCAN) reports made by hospital child protection teams (CPTs), to determine whether the alleged maltreatment is substantiated. The study was conducted in six medical centers and included 358 reports investigated by CPOs for SCAN. A structured questionnaire was completed by hospital CPTs to capture all relevant information on each child referred to the CPTs. Structured phone interviews were conducted with each of the CPOs who received a CPT report. Bivariate associations and multivariate logistic regressions were conducted to estimate the substantiation rate of cases reported by CPTs and the types of maltreatment substantiated, as well as to identify case characteristics of the child and the family that were associated with the CPOs' substantiation decision. CPO follow-up investigations revealed a substantiation rate of 53.5%. The maltreatment type most commonly substantiated was neglect. The case characteristics associated with substantiation included socio-demographic background, parents' health and functioning, previous contact with social services, characteristics of the hospital referral, medical findings and an assessment of the parents' behaviors. The findings of the study highlighted the importance of cooperation between the health and welfare services and the policy makers. This cooperation is essential for identifying early signs of maltreatment. Enhanced cooperation and effective information transfer between various professionals would help prevent or at least reduce the recurrence of maltreatment and would ensure that the children and their families are treated appropriately. PMID:25550100

  10. NSRD-06. Computational Capability to Substantiate DOE-HDBK-3010 Data

    SciTech Connect

    Louie, David L.Y.; Brown, Alexander L.

    2015-12-01

    Safety basis analysts throughout the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex rely heavily on the information provided in the DOE Hand book, DOE-HDBK-3010, Airborne Release Fractions/Rates and Resp irable Fractions for Nonreactor Nuclear Facilities , to determine source terms. In calcula ting source terms, analysts tend to use the DOE Handbook's bounding values on airbor ne release fractions (ARFs) and respirable fractions (RFs) for various cat egories of insults (representing potential accident release categories). This is typica lly due to both time constraints and the avoidance of regulatory critique. Unfort unately, these bounding ARFs/RFs represent extremely conservative values. Moreover, th ey were derived from very limited small- scale table-top and bench/labo ratory experiments and/or fr om engineered judgment. Thus the basis for the data may not be re presentative to the actual unique accident conditions and configura tions being evaluated. The goal of this res earch is to develop a more ac curate method to identify bounding values for the DOE Handbook using the st ate-of-art multi-physics-based high performance computer codes. This enable s us to better understand the fundamental physics and phenomena associated with the ty pes of accidents for the data described in it. This research has examined two of the DOE Handbook's liquid fire experiments to substantiate the airborne release frac tion data. We found th at additional physical phenomena (i.e., resuspension) need to be included to derive bounding values. For the specific cases of solid powder under pre ssurized condition and mechanical insult conditions the codes demonstrated that we can simulate the phenomena. This work thus provides a low-cost method to establis h physics-justified sa fety bounds by taking into account specific geometri es and conditions that may not have been previously measured and/or are too costly to do so.

  11. The Genetics of Bene Israel from India Reveals Both Substantial Jewish and Indian Ancestry.

    PubMed

    Waldman, Yedael Y; Biddanda, Arjun; Davidson, Natalie R; Billing-Ross, Paul; Dubrovsky, Maya; Campbell, Christopher L; Oddoux, Carole; Friedman, Eitan; Atzmon, Gil; Halperin, Eran; Ostrer, Harry; Keinan, Alon

    2016-01-01

    The Bene Israel Jewish community from West India is a unique population whose history before the 18th century remains largely unknown. Bene Israel members consider themselves as descendants of Jews, yet the identity of Jewish ancestors and their arrival time to India are unknown, with speculations on arrival time varying between the 8th century BCE and the 6th century CE. Here, we characterize the genetic history of Bene Israel by collecting and genotyping 18 Bene Israel individuals. Combining with 486 individuals from 41 other Jewish, Indian and Pakistani populations, and additional individuals from worldwide populations, we conducted comprehensive genome-wide analyses based on FST, principal component analysis, ADMIXTURE, identity-by-descent sharing, admixture linkage disequilibrium decay, haplotype sharing and allele sharing autocorrelation decay, as well as contrasted patterns between the X chromosome and the autosomes. The genetics of Bene Israel individuals resemble local Indian populations, while at the same time constituting a clearly separated and unique population in India. They are unique among Indian and Pakistani populations we analyzed in sharing considerable genetic ancestry with other Jewish populations. Putting together the results from all analyses point to Bene Israel being an admixed population with both Jewish and Indian ancestry, with the genetic contribution of each of these ancestral populations being substantial. The admixture took place in the last millennium, about 19-33 generations ago. It involved Middle-Eastern Jews and was sex-biased, with more male Jewish and local female contribution. It was followed by a population bottleneck and high endogamy, which can lead to increased prevalence of recessive diseases in this population. This study provides an example of how genetic analysis advances our knowledge of human history in cases where other disciplines lack the relevant data to do so.

  12. The Genetics of Bene Israel from India Reveals Both Substantial Jewish and Indian Ancestry.

    PubMed

    Waldman, Yedael Y; Biddanda, Arjun; Davidson, Natalie R; Billing-Ross, Paul; Dubrovsky, Maya; Campbell, Christopher L; Oddoux, Carole; Friedman, Eitan; Atzmon, Gil; Halperin, Eran; Ostrer, Harry; Keinan, Alon

    2016-01-01

    The Bene Israel Jewish community from West India is a unique population whose history before the 18th century remains largely unknown. Bene Israel members consider themselves as descendants of Jews, yet the identity of Jewish ancestors and their arrival time to India are unknown, with speculations on arrival time varying between the 8th century BCE and the 6th century CE. Here, we characterize the genetic history of Bene Israel by collecting and genotyping 18 Bene Israel individuals. Combining with 486 individuals from 41 other Jewish, Indian and Pakistani populations, and additional individuals from worldwide populations, we conducted comprehensive genome-wide analyses based on FST, principal component analysis, ADMIXTURE, identity-by-descent sharing, admixture linkage disequilibrium decay, haplotype sharing and allele sharing autocorrelation decay, as well as contrasted patterns between the X chromosome and the autosomes. The genetics of Bene Israel individuals resemble local Indian populations, while at the same time constituting a clearly separated and unique population in India. They are unique among Indian and Pakistani populations we analyzed in sharing considerable genetic ancestry with other Jewish populations. Putting together the results from all analyses point to Bene Israel being an admixed population with both Jewish and Indian ancestry, with the genetic contribution of each of these ancestral populations being substantial. The admixture took place in the last millennium, about 19-33 generations ago. It involved Middle-Eastern Jews and was sex-biased, with more male Jewish and local female contribution. It was followed by a population bottleneck and high endogamy, which can lead to increased prevalence of recessive diseases in this population. This study provides an example of how genetic analysis advances our knowledge of human history in cases where other disciplines lack the relevant data to do so. PMID:27010569

  13. The Genetics of Bene Israel from India Reveals Both Substantial Jewish and Indian Ancestry

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Natalie R.; Billing-Ross, Paul; Dubrovsky, Maya; Campbell, Christopher L.; Oddoux, Carole; Friedman, Eitan; Atzmon, Gil; Halperin, Eran; Ostrer, Harry; Keinan, Alon

    2016-01-01

    The Bene Israel Jewish community from West India is a unique population whose history before the 18th century remains largely unknown. Bene Israel members consider themselves as descendants of Jews, yet the identity of Jewish ancestors and their arrival time to India are unknown, with speculations on arrival time varying between the 8th century BCE and the 6th century CE. Here, we characterize the genetic history of Bene Israel by collecting and genotyping 18 Bene Israel individuals. Combining with 486 individuals from 41 other Jewish, Indian and Pakistani populations, and additional individuals from worldwide populations, we conducted comprehensive genome-wide analyses based on FST, principal component analysis, ADMIXTURE, identity-by-descent sharing, admixture linkage disequilibrium decay, haplotype sharing and allele sharing autocorrelation decay, as well as contrasted patterns between the X chromosome and the autosomes. The genetics of Bene Israel individuals resemble local Indian populations, while at the same time constituting a clearly separated and unique population in India. They are unique among Indian and Pakistani populations we analyzed in sharing considerable genetic ancestry with other Jewish populations. Putting together the results from all analyses point to Bene Israel being an admixed population with both Jewish and Indian ancestry, with the genetic contribution of each of these ancestral populations being substantial. The admixture took place in the last millennium, about 19–33 generations ago. It involved Middle-Eastern Jews and was sex-biased, with more male Jewish and local female contribution. It was followed by a population bottleneck and high endogamy, which can lead to increased prevalence of recessive diseases in this population. This study provides an example of how genetic analysis advances our knowledge of human history in cases where other disciplines lack the relevant data to do so. PMID:27010569

  14. Substantial Family History of Prostate Cancer in Black Men Recruited for Prostate Cancer Screening

    PubMed Central

    Mastalski, Kathleen; Coups, Elliot J.; Ruth, Karen; Raysor, Susan; Giri, Veda N.

    2008-01-01

    Background Black men are at increased risk for prostate cancer (PCA), particularly with a family history (FH) of the disease. Previous reports have raised concern for suboptimal screening of Black men with a FH of PCA. We report on the extent of FH of PCA from a prospective, longitudinal PCA screening program for high-risk men. Methods Black men ages 35-69 are eligible for PCA screening through the Prostate Cancer Risk Assessment Program (PRAP) regardless of FH. Rates of self-reported FH of PCA, breast, and colon cancer at baseline were compared with an age-matched sample of Black men from the 2005 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) using standard statistical methods. Results As of January 2007, 332 Black men with pedigree information were enrolled in PRAP and FH of PCA was compared to 838 Black men from the 2005 NHIS. Black men in PRAP reported significantly more first-degree relatives with PCA compared to Black men in the 2005 NHIS (34.3%, 95% CI 29.2-39.7 vs. 5.7%, 95% CI 3.9-7.4). Black men in PRAP also had more FH of breast cancer compared to the 2005 NHIS (11.5%, 95% CI 8.2-15.4 vs 6.3%, 95% CI 4.6-8.0). Conclusions FH of PCA appears to be a motivating factor for Black men seeking PCA screening. Targeted recruitment and education among Black families should improve PCA screening rates. Efforts to recruit Black men without a FH of PCA are also needed. Condensed Abstract Black men seeking prostate cancer screening have a substantial burden of family history of prostate cancer. Targeted education and enhancing discussion in Black families should increase prostate cancer screening and adherence. PMID:18816608

  15. Toughening of dental porcelain by tetragonal ZrO/sub 2/ additions

    SciTech Connect

    Morena, R.; Lockwood, P.E.; Evans, A.L.; Fairhurst, C.W.

    1986-04-01

    The effect of mechanical behavior of ZrO/sub 2/ additions to a dental porcelain was investigated. The ZrO/sub 2/ was introduced into the glassy matrix phase of the porcelain by refritting the all-glass porcelain constituent. X-ray diffraction indicated that a sizeable fraction of the ZrO/sub 2/ was retained in the tetragonal from after the porcelain was fired. Zirconia additions to the porcelain produced substantial improvements in fracture toughness, strength, and thermal shock resistance.

  16. Controlled-release fertilizer composition substantially coated with an impermeable layer

    DOEpatents

    Ankeny, Mark

    2016-03-29

    A controlled-release fertilizer composition is provided that is substantially coated with an impermeable layer. The fertilizer composition may further include one or more hollow sections to allow for root penetration and efficient delivery of nutrients.

  17. 77 FR 65169 - Extension of Certain Timber Sale Contracts; Finding of Substantial Overriding Public Interest

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-25

    ... Forest Service Extension of Certain Timber Sale Contracts; Finding of Substantial Overriding Public... needed. The Government benefits if defaulted timber sale contracts, mill closures, and bankruptcies can be avoided by granting extensions. Having numerous, economically viable, timber sale...

  18. 16 CFR 260.5 - Interpretation and substantiation of environmental marketing claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... reliable scientific evidence, defined as tests, analyses, research, studies or other evidence based on the... Statement on the Advertising Substantiation Doctrine. 49 FR 30999 (1984); appended to Thompson Medical...

  19. 16 CFR 260.5 - Interpretation and substantiation of environmental marketing claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... reliable scientific evidence, defined as tests, analyses, research, studies or other evidence based on the... Statement on the Advertising Substantiation Doctrine. 49 FR 30999 (1984); appended to Thompson Medical...

  20. 16 CFR 260.5 - Interpretation and substantiation of environmental marketing claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... reliable scientific evidence, defined as tests, analyses, research, studies or other evidence based on the... Statement on the Advertising Substantiation Doctrine. 49 FR 30999 (1984); appended to Thompson Medical...