Science.gov

Sample records for addition sufficient operating

  1. Minimal sufficient positive-operator valued measure on a separable Hilbert space

    SciTech Connect

    Kuramochi, Yui

    2015-10-15

    We introduce a concept of a minimal sufficient positive-operator valued measure (POVM), which is the least redundant POVM among the POVMs that have the equivalent information about the measured quantum system. Assuming the system Hilbert space to be separable, we show that for a given POVM, a sufficient statistic called a Lehmann-Scheffé-Bahadur statistic induces a minimal sufficient POVM. We also show that every POVM has an equivalent minimal sufficient POVM and that such a minimal sufficient POVM is unique up to relabeling neglecting null sets. We apply these results to discrete POVMs and information conservation conditions proposed by the author.

  2. Is the structural diversity of tripeptides sufficient for developing functional food additives with satisfactory multiple bioactivities?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jian-Hui; Liu, Yong-Le; Ning, Jing-Heng; Yu, Jian; Li, Xiang-Hong; Wang, Fa-Xiang

    2013-05-01

    Multifunctional peptides have attracted increasing attention in the food science community because of their therapeutic potential, low toxicity and rapid intestinal absorption. However, previous study demonstrated that the limited structural variations make it difficult to optimize dipeptide molecules in a good balance between desirable and undesirable properties (F. Tian, P. Zhou, F. Lv, R. Song, Z. Li, J. Pept. Sci. 13 (2007) 549-566). In the present work, we attempt to answer whether the structural diversity is sufficient for a tripeptide to have satisfactory multiple bioactivities. Statistical test, structural examination and energetic analysis confirm that peptides of three amino acids long can bind tightly to human angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) and thus exert significant antihypertensive efficacy. Further quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) modeling and prediction of all 8000 possible tripeptides reveal that their ACE-inhibitory potency exhibits a good (positive) relationship to antioxidative activity, but has only a quite modest correlation with bitterness. This means that it is possible to find certain tripeptide entities possessing the optimal combination of strong ACE-inhibitory potency, high antioxidative activity and weak bitter taste, which are the promising candidates for developing multifunctional food additives with satisfactory multiple bioactivities. The marked difference between dipeptide and tripeptide can be attributed to the fact that the structural diversity of peptides increases dramatically with a slight change in sequence length.

  3. Sufficient conditions for the additivity of stall forces generated by multiple filaments or motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bameta, Tripti; Das, Dipjyoti; Das, Dibyendu; Padinhateeri, Ranjith; Inamdar, Mandar M.

    2017-02-01

    Molecular motors and cytoskeletal filaments work collectively most of the time under opposing forces. This opposing force may be due to cargo carried by motors or resistance coming from the cell membrane pressing against the cytoskeletal filaments. Some recent studies have shown that the collective maximum force (stall force) generated by multiple cytoskeletal filaments or molecular motors may not always be just a simple sum of the stall forces of the individual filaments or motors. To understand this excess or deficit in the collective force, we study a broad class of models of both cytoskeletal filaments and molecular motors. We argue that the stall force generated by a group of filaments or motors is additive, that is, the stall force of N number of filaments (motors) is N times the stall force of one filament (motor), when the system is reversible at stall. Conversely, we show that this additive property typically does not hold true when the system is irreversible at stall. We thus present a novel and unified understanding of the existing models exhibiting such non-addivity, and generalise our arguments by developing new models that demonstrate this phenomena. We also propose a quantity similar to thermodynamic efficiency to easily predict this deviation from stall-force additivity for filament and motor collectives.

  4. 14 CFR 93.129 - Additional operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional operations. 93.129 Section 93.129 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES High Density Traffic Airports §...

  5. OPERATOR BURDEN IN METAL ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, Amy M; Love, Lonnie J

    2016-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) is an emerging manufacturing process that creates usable machine parts via layer-by-layer joining of a stock material. With this layer-wise approach, high-performance geometries can be created which are impossible with traditional manufacturing methods. Metal AM technology has the potential to significantly reduce the manufacturing burden of developing custom hardware; however, a major consideration in choosing a metal AM system is the required amount of operator involvement (i.e., operator burden) in the manufacturing process. The operator burden not only determines the amount of operator training and specialization required but also the usability of the system in a facility. As operators of several metal AM processes, the Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (MDF) at Oak Ridge National Labs is uniquely poised to provide insight into requirements for operator involvement in each of the three major metal AM processes. The paper covers an overview of each of the three metal AM technologies, focusing on the burden on the operator to complete the build cycle, process the part for final use, and reset the AM equipment for future builds.

  6. Optogenetic Mimicry of the Transient Activation of Dopamine Neurons by Natural Reward Is Sufficient for Operant Reinforcement

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyung Man; Baratta, Michael V.; Yang, Aimei; Lee, Doheon; Boyden, Edward S.; Fiorillo, Christopher D.

    2012-01-01

    Activation of dopamine receptors in forebrain regions, for minutes or longer, is known to be sufficient for positive reinforcement of stimuli and actions. However, the firing rate of dopamine neurons is increased for only about 200 milliseconds following natural reward events that are better than expected, a response which has been described as a “reward prediction error” (RPE). Although RPE drives reinforcement learning (RL) in computational models, it has not been possible to directly test whether the transient dopamine signal actually drives RL. Here we have performed optical stimulation of genetically targeted ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine neurons expressing Channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) in mice. We mimicked the transient activation of dopamine neurons that occurs in response to natural reward by applying a light pulse of 200 ms in VTA. When a single light pulse followed each self-initiated nose poke, it was sufficient in itself to cause operant reinforcement. Furthermore, when optical stimulation was delivered in separate sessions according to a predetermined pattern, it increased locomotion and contralateral rotations, behaviors that are known to result from activation of dopamine neurons. All three of the optically induced operant and locomotor behaviors were tightly correlated with the number of VTA dopamine neurons that expressed ChR2, providing additional evidence that the behavioral responses were caused by activation of dopamine neurons. These results provide strong evidence that the transient activation of dopamine neurons provides a functional reward signal that drives learning, in support of RL theories of dopamine function. PMID:22506004

  7. Optogenetic mimicry of the transient activation of dopamine neurons by natural reward is sufficient for operant reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyung Man; Baratta, Michael V; Yang, Aimei; Lee, Doheon; Boyden, Edward S; Fiorillo, Christopher D

    2012-01-01

    Activation of dopamine receptors in forebrain regions, for minutes or longer, is known to be sufficient for positive reinforcement of stimuli and actions. However, the firing rate of dopamine neurons is increased for only about 200 milliseconds following natural reward events that are better than expected, a response which has been described as a "reward prediction error" (RPE). Although RPE drives reinforcement learning (RL) in computational models, it has not been possible to directly test whether the transient dopamine signal actually drives RL. Here we have performed optical stimulation of genetically targeted ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine neurons expressing Channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) in mice. We mimicked the transient activation of dopamine neurons that occurs in response to natural reward by applying a light pulse of 200 ms in VTA. When a single light pulse followed each self-initiated nose poke, it was sufficient in itself to cause operant reinforcement. Furthermore, when optical stimulation was delivered in separate sessions according to a predetermined pattern, it increased locomotion and contralateral rotations, behaviors that are known to result from activation of dopamine neurons. All three of the optically induced operant and locomotor behaviors were tightly correlated with the number of VTA dopamine neurons that expressed ChR2, providing additional evidence that the behavioral responses were caused by activation of dopamine neurons. These results provide strong evidence that the transient activation of dopamine neurons provides a functional reward signal that drives learning, in support of RL theories of dopamine function.

  8. Using Paraffin PCM to Make Optical Communication Type of Payloads Thermally Self-Sufficient for Operation in Orion Crew Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Michael K.

    2016-01-01

    An innovative concept of using paraffin phase change material with a melting point of 28 C to make Optical Communication type of payload thermally self-sufficient for operation in the Orion Crew Module is presented. It stores the waste heat of the payload and permits it to operate for about one hour by maintaining its temperature within the maximum operating limit. It overcomes the problem of relying on the availability of cold plate heat sink in the Orion Crew Module.

  9. 14 CFR 93.129 - Additional operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES High Density Traffic Airports § 93... under IFR at a designated high density traffic airport without regard to the maximum number of operations allocated for that airport if the operation is not a scheduled operation to or from a high...

  10. 14 CFR 93.129 - Additional operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES High Density Traffic Airports § 93... under IFR at a designated high density traffic airport without regard to the maximum number of operations allocated for that airport if the operation is not a scheduled operation to or from a high...

  11. 14 CFR 93.129 - Additional operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES High Density Traffic Airports § 93... under IFR at a designated high density traffic airport without regard to the maximum number of operations allocated for that airport if the operation is not a scheduled operation to or from a high...

  12. 14 CFR 93.129 - Additional operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES SPECIAL AIR TRAFFIC RULES High Density Traffic Airports § 93... under IFR at a designated high density traffic airport without regard to the maximum number of operations allocated for that airport if the operation is not a scheduled operation to or from a high...

  13. Children's Construction of the Operation of Addition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grobecker, Betsey

    Six- to eight-year-old children (N=42) who were identified by their teachers as within the average range of ability in mathematics were individually tested on three different mathematics tasks. On the flashcard task and the nonverbal task where children replicated the number of buttons placed under a box, the same 14 addition problems with sums up…

  14. Duct Drainage Alone is Sufficient in the Operative Management of Pancreatic Pseudocyst in Patients With Chronic Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Nealon, William H.; Walser, Eric

    2003-01-01

    Objective To test a hypothesis that definitive management of pseudocyst associated with chronic pancreatitis is predicated on addressing pancreatic ductal anatomy. Summary Background Data The authors have previously confirmed the impact of pancreatic ductal anatomic abnormalities on the success of percutaneous drainage of pancreatic pseudocyst. The authors have further defined a system to categorize the pancreatic ductal abnormalities that can be seen with pancreatic pseudocyst. The authors have published, as have others, the usefulness of defining ductal anatomy when managing pancreatic pseudocysts associated with chronic pancreatitis. Methods Beginning in 1985, all patients with pseudocyst who were candidates for intervention (operative, percutaneous, or endoscopic) have undergone endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). An associated diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis was established by means of ERCP findings. Patients were candidates for longitudinal pancreaticojejunostomy (LPJ) if they had a pancreatic ductal diameter greater than 7 mm. In a nonrandomized fashion, patients were managed with either combined simultaneous LPJ and pseudocyst drainage or with LPJ alone. Results Two hundred fifty-three patients with pseudocyst have been evaluated. Among these there have been 103 patients with chronic pancreatitis and main pancreatic duct (MPD) dilatation (>7 mm). Among these 103 patients, 56 underwent combined LPJ/pseudocyst drainage and 47 had LPJ alone. Compared to combined LPJ/pseudocyst drainage, the patients undergoing LPJ alone had a shorter operative time, slightly less transfusion requirement, slightly reduced length of hospital stay, and slightly reduced complication rate. Long-term pain relief was achieved in 90%, and pseudocyst recurrence was less than 1%. Rates of each of these long-term outcomes were nearly incidental among the two groups. Conclusions Ductal drainage alone (LPJ) is sufficient in patients with chronic pancreatitis (MPD > 7

  15. 49 CFR 218.107 - Additional operational requirements for hand-operated crossover switches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Additional operational requirements for hand... hand-operated crossover switches. (a) Each railroad shall adopt and comply with an operating rule which... requirements of this section. (b) Hand-operated crossover switches, generally. Both hand-operated switches of...

  16. 49 CFR 218.107 - Additional operational requirements for hand-operated crossover switches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Additional operational requirements for hand... hand-operated crossover switches. (a) Each railroad shall adopt and comply with an operating rule which... requirements of this section. (b) Hand-operated crossover switches, generally. Both hand-operated switches of...

  17. 49 CFR 218.107 - Additional operational requirements for hand-operated crossover switches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Additional operational requirements for hand... hand-operated crossover switches. (a) Each railroad shall adopt and comply with an operating rule which... requirements of this section. (b) Hand-operated crossover switches, generally. Both hand-operated switches of...

  18. 49 CFR 218.105 - Additional operational requirements for hand-operated main track switches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...-operated main track switches. 218.105 Section 218.105 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... PRACTICES Handling Equipment, Switches, and Fixed Derails § 218.105 Additional operational requirements for hand-operated main track switches. (a) Each railroad shall adopt and comply with an operating...

  19. 49 CFR 218.105 - Additional operational requirements for hand-operated main track switches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...-operated main track switches. 218.105 Section 218.105 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... PRACTICES Handling Equipment, Switches, and Fixed Derails § 218.105 Additional operational requirements for hand-operated main track switches. (a) Each railroad shall adopt and comply with an operating...

  20. 49 CFR 218.107 - Additional operational requirements for hand-operated crossover switches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...-operated crossover switches. 218.107 Section 218.107 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... PRACTICES Handling Equipment, Switches, and Fixed Derails § 218.107 Additional operational requirements for hand-operated crossover switches. (a) Each railroad shall adopt and comply with an operating rule...

  1. 49 CFR 218.107 - Additional operational requirements for hand-operated crossover switches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...-operated crossover switches. 218.107 Section 218.107 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... PRACTICES Handling Equipment, Switches, and Fixed Derails § 218.107 Additional operational requirements for hand-operated crossover switches. (a) Each railroad shall adopt and comply with an operating rule...

  2. Computer Maintenance Operations Center (CMOC), additional computer support equipment ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Computer Maintenance Operations Center (CMOC), additional computer support equipment - Beale Air Force Base, Perimeter Acquisition Vehicle Entry Phased-Array Warning System, Techinical Equipment Building, End of Spencer Paul Road, north of Warren Shingle Road (14th Street), Marysville, Yuba County, CA

  3. 49 CFR 218.105 - Additional operational requirements for hand-operated main track switches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Additional operational requirements for hand... hand-operated main track switches. (a) Each railroad shall adopt and comply with an operating rule... the requirements of this section. (b) Designating switch position. The normal position of a...

  4. 49 CFR 218.105 - Additional operational requirements for hand-operated main track switches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Additional operational requirements for hand... hand-operated main track switches. (a) Each railroad shall adopt and comply with an operating rule... the requirements of this section. (b) Designating switch position. The normal position of a...

  5. 49 CFR 218.105 - Additional operational requirements for hand-operated main track switches.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Additional operational requirements for hand... hand-operated main track switches. (a) Each railroad shall adopt and comply with an operating rule... the requirements of this section. (b) Designating switch position. The normal position of a...

  6. Improvements in floating point addition/subtraction operations

    DOEpatents

    Farmwald, P.M.

    1984-02-24

    Apparatus is described for decreasing the latency time associated with floating point addition and subtraction in a computer, using a novel bifurcated, pre-normalization/post-normalization approach that distinguishes between differences of floating point exponents.

  7. [Additional administration of dutasteride in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia who did not respond sufficiently to α1-adrenoceptor antagonist : investigation of clinical factors affecting the therapeutic effect of dutasteride].

    PubMed

    Masuda, Mitsunobu; Murai, Tetsuo; Osada, Yutaka; Kawai, Masaki; Kasuga, Jun; Yokomizo, Yumiko; Kuroda, Shinnosuke; Nakamura, Mami; Noguchi, Go

    2014-02-01

    We performed additional administration of dutasteride in patients who did not respond sufficiently to α1-adrenoceptor antagonist treatment for lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) (LUTS/BPH). Among 76 registered patients, efficacy was analyzed in 58 patients. International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), subscores for voiding and storage symptoms and quality of life (QOL) on the IPSS, and Overactive Bladder Symptom Score (OABSS) were all significantly improved from the third month of administration compared to the time of initiating additional administration of dutasteride. Additional administration of dutasteride also significantly reduced prostate volume, and residual urine with the exception of the sixth month after administration. Age at initiation of administration and voiding symptom subscore on the IPSS were clinical factors affecting the therapeutic effects of dutasteride. The rate of improvement with treatment decreased with increasing age at initiation of dutasteride administration, and increased as voiding symptom subscore on the IPSS increased. Therefore, additional administration of dutasteride appears useful for cases of LUTS/BPH in which a sufficient response is not achieved with α1-adrenoceptor antagonist treatment. Because patients who have severe voiding symptoms or begin dutasteride at an early age may be expected to respond particularly well to dutasteride in terms of clinical efficacy, they were considered to be suitable targets for additional administration.

  8. Characterizations of linear sufficient statistics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, B. C., Jr.; Reoner, R.; Decell, H. P., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    A surjective bounded linear operator T from a Banach space X to a Banach space Y must be a sufficient statistic for a dominated family of probability measures defined on the Borel sets of X. These results were applied, so that they characterize linear sufficient statistics for families of the exponential type, including as special cases the Wishart and multivariate normal distributions. The latter result was used to establish precisely which procedures for sampling from a normal population had the property that the sample mean was a sufficient statistic.

  9. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  10. [Surgical therapy of chronic anal fissure--do additional proctologic operations impair continence?].

    PubMed

    Pfeifer, J; Berger, A; Uranüs, S

    1994-07-01

    78 patients with chronic anal fissures have been mainly operated on by lateral internal sphincterotomy (LATS). Continence have been evaluated by questionnaire at least 9 months postoperatively. Patient without any additional proctological operation had minor disturbances of continence in 17%. Patient with additional operations had disturbances of continence in 30%. Especially the subgroup of patients with LATS and haemorrhoidectomy had bad results. In this group only 45% were fully continent.

  11. 49 CFR 192.328 - Additional construction requirements for steel pipe using alternative maximum allowable operating...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Additional construction requirements for steel pipe using alternative maximum allowable operating pressure. 192.328 Section 192.328 Transportation... Lines and Mains § 192.328 Additional construction requirements for steel pipe using alternative...

  12. 49 CFR 192.328 - Additional construction requirements for steel pipe using alternative maximum allowable operating...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Additional construction requirements for steel pipe using alternative maximum allowable operating pressure. 192.328 Section 192.328 Transportation... Lines and Mains § 192.328 Additional construction requirements for steel pipe using alternative...

  13. 49 CFR 192.328 - Additional construction requirements for steel pipe using alternative maximum allowable operating...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Additional construction requirements for steel pipe using alternative maximum allowable operating pressure. 192.328 Section 192.328 Transportation... Lines and Mains § 192.328 Additional construction requirements for steel pipe using alternative...

  14. Warfighter Support: DOD Needs Additional Steps to Fully Integrate Operational Contract Support into Contingency Planning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-02-01

    Planning Report to the Chairman, Subcommittee on Contracting Oversight, Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs, U.S. Senate...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Warfighter Support: DOD Needs Additional Steps to Fully Integrate Operational Contract Support into Contingency Planning 5a...Support into Contingency Planning Why GAO Did This Study DOD has relied extensively on contractors for operations in Iraq and Afghanistan over the

  15. 77 FR 15976 - Additional Changes to the Schedule of Operations Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-19

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Food Safety and Inspection Service 9 CFR Parts 307 and 381 Additional Changes to the Schedule of Operations Regulations AGENCY: Food Safety and Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: The Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) is proposing to amend the meat...

  16. Operational Momentum in Large-Number Addition and Subtraction by 9-Month-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCrink, Koleen; Wynn, Karen

    2009-01-01

    Recent studies on nonsymbolic arithmetic have illustrated that under conditions that prevent exact calculation, adults display a systematic tendency to overestimate the answers to addition problems and underestimate the answers to subtraction problems. It has been suggested that this "operational momentum" results from exposure to a…

  17. 49 CFR 192.935 - What additional preventive and mitigative measures must an operator take?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... accordance with one of the risk assessment approaches in ASME/ANSI B31.8S (incorporated by reference, see § 192.7), section 5, a risk analysis of its pipeline to identify additional measures to protect the high.... (2) Outside force damage. If an operator determines that outside force (e.g., earth movement,...

  18. 49 CFR 192.935 - What additional preventive and mitigative measures must an operator take?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... accordance with one of the risk assessment approaches in ASME/ANSI B31.8S (incorporated by reference, see § 192.7), section 5, a risk analysis of its pipeline to identify additional measures to protect the high.... (2) Outside force damage. If an operator determines that outside force (e.g., earth movement,...

  19. 77 FR 19565 - Additional Changes to the Schedule of Operations Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-02

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Food Safety and Inspection Service 9 CFR Parts 307 and 381 RIN 0583-AD48 Additional Changes to the Schedule of Operations Regulations AGENCY: Food Safety and Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Correction. SUMMARY: On March 19, 2012, the Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) published a...

  20. Environmental projects, volume 11. Environmental assessment: Addition to operations building, Mars site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    An Environmental Assessment was performed of the proposed addition to building G-86 at the Mars Site, which will provide space for new electronic equipment to consolidate the Deep Space Network (DSN) support facilities from other Goldstone Deep Space Communication Complex (GDSCC) sites at the Mars Site, and will include a fifth telemetry and command group with its associated link monitor, control processor, and operator consoles. The addition of these facilities will increase the capability of the DSN to support future sophisticated NASA spacecraft missions such as the International Solar and Terrestrial Physics (ISTP) Program. The planned construction of this building addition requires an Environmental Assessment (EA) document that records the existing environmental conditions at the Mars Site, that analyzes the environmental effects that possibly could be expected from the construction and use of the new building addition, and that recommends measures to be taken to mitigate any possible deleterious environmental effects.

  1. Effect on the operation properties of DMBR with the addition of GAC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jizhi; Zhang, Qian; Hong, Junming

    2017-01-01

    The membrane bioreactor and dynamic membrane bioreactor were used to examine the effect of granular activated carbon (GAC) on the treatment of synthetic wastewater. After the addition of different volume fractions GAC in the DMBR, the operation parameters, effluent COD, NH4 +-N, NO3 --N, TN concentrations and sludge viscosity of the bioreactor was investigated. The results showed that the addition of GAC could relieve the membrane fouling and improve the removal efficiencies of pollutants in the DMBR. The effluent concentrations of pollutants were linear correlation with the addition of volume fractions of GAC in the bioreactor. The value of R2 of each modulation was almost more than 0.9. The sludge viscosity was almost not affected by the volume fractions of GAC in the bioreactor. The best volume fractions of GAC were 20% in the DMBR.

  2. High operational and environmental stability of high-mobility conjugated polymer field-effect transistors through the use of molecular additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolka, Mark; Nasrallah, Iyad; Rose, Bradley; Ravva, Mahesh Kumar; Broch, Katharina; Sadhanala, Aditya; Harkin, David; Charmet, Jerome; Hurhangee, Michael; Brown, Adam; Illig, Steffen; Too, Patrick; Jongman, Jan; McCulloch, Iain; Bredas, Jean-Luc; Sirringhaus, Henning

    2016-12-01

    Due to their low-temperature processing properties and inherent mechanical flexibility, conjugated polymer field-effect transistors (FETs) are promising candidates for enabling flexible electronic circuits and displays. Much progress has been made on materials performance; however, there remain significant concerns about operational and environmental stability, particularly in the context of applications that require a very high level of threshold voltage stability, such as active-matrix addressing of organic light-emitting diode displays. Here, we investigate the physical mechanisms behind operational and environmental degradation of high-mobility, p-type polymer FETs and demonstrate an effective route to improve device stability. We show that water incorporated in nanometre-sized voids within the polymer microstructure is the key factor in charge trapping and device degradation. By inserting molecular additives that displace water from these voids, it is possible to increase the stability as well as uniformity to a high level sufficient for demanding industrial applications.

  3. High operational and environmental stability of high-mobility conjugated polymer field-effect transistors through the use of molecular additives.

    PubMed

    Nikolka, Mark; Nasrallah, Iyad; Rose, Bradley; Ravva, Mahesh Kumar; Broch, Katharina; Sadhanala, Aditya; Harkin, David; Charmet, Jerome; Hurhangee, Michael; Brown, Adam; Illig, Steffen; Too, Patrick; Jongman, Jan; McCulloch, Iain; Bredas, Jean-Luc; Sirringhaus, Henning

    2017-03-01

    Due to their low-temperature processing properties and inherent mechanical flexibility, conjugated polymer field-effect transistors (FETs) are promising candidates for enabling flexible electronic circuits and displays. Much progress has been made on materials performance; however, there remain significant concerns about operational and environmental stability, particularly in the context of applications that require a very high level of threshold voltage stability, such as active-matrix addressing of organic light-emitting diode displays. Here, we investigate the physical mechanisms behind operational and environmental degradation of high-mobility, p-type polymer FETs and demonstrate an effective route to improve device stability. We show that water incorporated in nanometre-sized voids within the polymer microstructure is the key factor in charge trapping and device degradation. By inserting molecular additives that displace water from these voids, it is possible to increase the stability as well as uniformity to a high level sufficient for demanding industrial applications.

  4. The Database for Astronomical Spectroscopy - Updates, Additions and Plans for Splatalogue for Alma Full Science Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remijan, Anthony; Seifert, Nathan A.; McGuire, Brett A.

    2016-06-01

    For the past 10 years, Splatalogue has been constantly updated, modified and enhanced in order to make molecular spectroscopy data readily available to the astronomical community. Splatalogue is fully integrated into the ALMA Observing Tool, the ALMA data reduction and analysis package (CASA) and several enhanced tools being developed through the ALMA development program including the next generation CASA viewer (CARTA) and the ALMA Data Mining Toolkit (ADMIT). In anticipation for ALMA full science operations, a number of improvements have taken place over the past year to the Splatalogue database including, but not limited too, additions to Splatalogue from the JPL and CDMS line lists, improvements and reconciliation of the Lovas/NIST Catalog assigning NRAO recommended rest frequencies to every astronomically detected transition, including recent astronomical surveys to the list of transitions detected in space and finally, improved search and display features as requested by the astronomical community. Splatalogue is planning for the next 10 years of development and welcomes any and all contributions to improving the data integrity and availability to the scientific community.

  5. 78 FR 21159 - Additional Requirements for Special Dipping and Coating Operations (Dip Tanks); Extension of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-09

    ... Operations (Dip Tanks); Extension of the Office of Management and Budget's Approval of the Information... Coating Operations (Dip Tanks) (29 CFR 1910.126(g)(4)). DATES: Comments must be submitted (postmarked... on Dipping and Coating Operations (29 CFR 1910.126(g)(4)) requires employers to post a...

  6. 40 CFR 60.1275 - What additional requirements must I meet for the operation of my continuous emission monitoring...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... meet for the operation of my continuous emission monitoring systems and continuous opacity monitoring... additional requirements must I meet for the operation of my continuous emission monitoring systems and continuous opacity monitoring system? Use the required span values and applicable performance...

  7. 40 CFR 60.1275 - What additional requirements must I meet for the operation of my continuous emission monitoring...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... meet for the operation of my continuous emission monitoring systems and continuous opacity monitoring... additional requirements must I meet for the operation of my continuous emission monitoring systems and continuous opacity monitoring system? Use the required span values and applicable performance...

  8. 40 CFR 60.1275 - What additional requirements must I meet for the operation of my continuous emission monitoring...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... meet for the operation of my continuous emission monitoring systems and continuous opacity monitoring... additional requirements must I meet for the operation of my continuous emission monitoring systems and continuous opacity monitoring system? Use the required span values and applicable performance...

  9. 40 CFR 60.1275 - What additional requirements must I meet for the operation of my continuous emission monitoring...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... meet for the operation of my continuous emission monitoring systems and continuous opacity monitoring... additional requirements must I meet for the operation of my continuous emission monitoring systems and continuous opacity monitoring system? Use the required span values and applicable performance...

  10. 40 CFR 60.1275 - What additional requirements must I meet for the operation of my continuous emission monitoring...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... meet for the operation of my continuous emission monitoring systems and continuous opacity monitoring... additional requirements must I meet for the operation of my continuous emission monitoring systems and continuous opacity monitoring system? Use the required span values and applicable performance...

  11. 49 CFR 192.328 - Additional construction requirements for steel pipe using alternative maximum allowable operating...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... meet this additional construction requirement: (a) Quality assurance (1) The construction of the... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional construction requirements for steel... Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS...

  12. 49 CFR 192.328 - Additional construction requirements for steel pipe using alternative maximum allowable operating...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... meet this additional construction requirement: (a) Quality assurance (1) The construction of the... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Additional construction requirements for steel... Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS...

  13. 49 CFR 192.935 - What additional preventive and mitigative measures must an operator take?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... STANDARDS Gas Transmission Pipeline Integrity Management § 192.935 What additional preventive and mitigative... detection systems, replacing pipe segments with pipe of heavier wall thickness, providing additional... supervision of known excavation work. (ii) Collecting in a central database information that is...

  14. 49 CFR 192.935 - What additional preventive and mitigative measures must an operator take?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What additional preventive and mitigative measures... STANDARDS Gas Transmission Pipeline Integrity Management § 192.935 What additional preventive and mitigative... those already required by Part 192 to prevent a pipeline failure and to mitigate the consequences of...

  15. 49 CFR 192.935 - What additional preventive and mitigative measures must an operator take?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... detection systems, replacing pipe segments with pipe of heavier wall thickness, providing additional training to personnel on response procedures, conducting drills with local emergency responders and... must, at least, consider the following factors—swiftness of leak detection and pipe...

  16. Associativity and Understanding of the Operation of Addition in Children with Learning Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grobecker, Betsey; Lawrence, Frank

    2000-01-01

    Twenty-seven children (ages 7-10) with learning disabilities and 42 controls were tested on three different mathematics tasks. Significantly more controls abstracted composite unit structures suggestive of operational logic on modified nonverbal and associativity of length tasks. On a flash card task, children with learning disabilities achieved…

  17. Working toward Self-Sufficiency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caplan, Nathan

    1985-01-01

    Upon arrival in the United States, the Southeast Asian "Boat People" faced a multitude of problems that would seem to have hindered their achieving economic self-sufficiency. Nonetheless, by the time of a 1982 research study which interviewed nearly 1,400 refugee households, 25 percent of all the households in the sample had achieved…

  18. A Delphi Study of Additive Manufacturing Applicability for United States Air Force Civil Engineer Contingency Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-26

    This simple process is the basis for most consumer-grade desktop AM machines, commonly known as 3D printers (Pham & Gault, 1998:1270). Material...as a single purchase to decrease initial capital costs. Once the 3D printers are purchased and delivered, the selected bases can begin training...for several Questions if you would liKe to explain or elaborate on your answers. Additional information •out 3D printers and UTCs is provided as an

  19. Additive for Low-Temperature Operation of Li-(CF)n Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, William; Whitacre, Jay

    2009-01-01

    Some progress has been reported in continuing research on the use of anion-receptor compounds as electrolyte additives to increase the sustainable rates of discharge and, hence, the discharge capacities, of lithium-poly(carbon monofluoride) [Li-(CF)n, where n >1] primary electrochemical power cells. Some results of this research at a prior stage were summarized in Increasing Discharge Capacities of Li(CF)n Cells (NPO-42346), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 32, No. 2 (February 2008), page 37. A major difference between the present and previously reported results is that now there is some additional focus on improving performance at temperatures from ambient down to as low as 40 C. To recapitulate from the cited prior article: During the discharge of a Li-(CF)n cell, one of the electrochemical reactions causes LiF to precipitate at the cathode. LiF is almost completely insoluble in most non-aqueous solvents, including those used in the electrolyte solutions of Li- (CF)n cells. LiF is electrochemically inactive and can block the desired transport of electrons at the cathode, and, hence, the precipitation of LiF can form an ever-thickening film on the cathode that limits the rate of discharge. An anion-receptor electrolyte additive helps to increase the discharge capacity in two ways: It renders LiF somewhat soluble in the non-aqueous electrolyte solution, thereby delaying precipitation until a high concentration of LiF in solution has been reached. When precipitation occurs, it promotes the formation of large LiF grains that do not conformally coat the cathode. The net effect is to reduce the blockage caused by precipitation of LiF, thereby maintaining a greater degree of access of electrolyte to the cathode and greater electronic conductivity.

  20. Arsenic Remediation Enhancement Through Chemical Additions to Pump and Treat Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wovkulich, K.; Mailloux, B. J.; Stute, M.; Simpson, H. J.; Keimowitz, A. R.; Powell, A.; Lacko, A.; Chillrud, S. N.

    2008-12-01

    Arsenic is a contaminant found at more than 500 US Superfund sites. Since pump and treat technologies are widely used for remediation of contaminated groundwater, increasing the efficiency of contaminant removal at such sites should allow limited financial resources to clean up more sites. The Vineland Chemical Company Superfund site is extensively contaminated with arsenic after waste arsenic salts were stored and disposed of improperly for much of the company's 44 year manufacturing lifetime. Despite approximately eight years of pump and treat remediation, arsenic concentrations in the recovery wells can still be greater than 1000 ppb. The arsenic concentrations in the groundwater remain high because of slow desorption of arsenic from contaminated aquifer solids. Extrapolation of laboratory column experiments suggest that continuing the current groundwater remediation practice based on flushing ambient groundwater through the system may require on the order of hundreds of years to clean the site. However, chemical additions of phosphate or oxalic acid into the aquifer could decrease the remediation time scale substantially. Laboratory results from a soil column experiment using input of 10 mM oxalic acid suggest that site clean up of groundwater could be decreased to as little as four years. Pilot scale forced gradient field experiments will help establish whether chemical additions can be effective for increasing arsenic mobilization from aquifer solids and thus substantially decrease pump and treat clean up time.

  1. Naval Coastal Warfare Operations from 2000 to Operation Iraqi Freedom and the Deficiencies that Prompted their Addition to the Naval Expeditionary Combat Command

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-11-02

    the historical information will be drawn from personal recollection, personal journals and live interviews. In addition, written transcripts taken from...and troubleshoot problems in live operations during a short two week period of time. Two weeks per year is not much time, especially when one considers...51 Admiral W.C. Marsh.13 The living area we were initially assigned to was located at Camp Arifjan, a U.S. Army staging area several miles inland

  2. Naval Coastal Warfare Operations from 2000 to Operation Iraqi Freedom and the Deficiencies that Prompted their Addition to the Naval Expeditionary Combat Command

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-03

    and live interviews. In addition, written transcripts taken from interviews that were conducted during the first few months of OIF will also be...coordinate, cooperate and troubleshoot problems in live operations during a short two week period of time. Two weeks per year is not much time...as Commander Task Group 51.9 (CTG 51.9) who worked directly for Commander Task Force 51 Admiral W.C. Marsh.13 The living area we were initially

  3. Möbius operators and non-additive quantum probabilities in the Birkhoff-von Neumann lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vourdas, A.

    2016-03-01

    The properties of quantum probabilities are linked to the geometry of quantum mechanics, described by the Birkhoff-von Neumann lattice. Quantum probabilities violate the additivity property of Kolmogorov probabilities, and they are interpreted as Dempster-Shafer probabilities. Deviations from the additivity property are quantified with the Möbius (or non-additivity) operators which are defined through Möbius transforms, and which are shown to be intimately related to commutators. The lack of distributivity in the Birkhoff-von Neumann lattice Λd, causes deviations from the law of the total probability (which is central in Kolmogorov's probability theory). Projectors which quantify the lack of distributivity in Λd, and also deviations from the law of the total probability, are introduced. All these operators, are observables and they can be measured experimentally. Constraints for the Möbius operators, which are based on the properties of the Birkhoff-von Neumann lattice (which in the case of finite quantum systems is a modular lattice), are derived. Application of this formalism in the context of coherent states, generalizes coherence to multi-dimensional structures.

  4. On sufficient statistics of least-squares superposition of vector sets.

    PubMed

    Konagurthu, Arun S; Kasarapu, Parthan; Allison, Lloyd; Collier, James H; Lesk, Arthur M

    2015-06-01

    The problem of superposition of two corresponding vector sets by minimizing their sum-of-squares error under orthogonal transformation is a fundamental task in many areas of science, notably structural molecular biology. This problem can be solved exactly using an algorithm whose time complexity grows linearly with the number of correspondences. This efficient solution has facilitated the widespread use of the superposition task, particularly in studies involving macromolecular structures. This article formally derives a set of sufficient statistics for the least-squares superposition problem. These statistics are additive. This permits a highly efficient (constant time) computation of superpositions (and sufficient statistics) of vector sets that are composed from its constituent vector sets under addition or deletion operation, where the sufficient statistics of the constituent sets are already known (that is, the constituent vector sets have been previously superposed). This results in a drastic improvement in the run time of the methods that commonly superpose vector sets under addition or deletion operations, where previously these operations were carried out ab initio (ignoring the sufficient statistics). We experimentally demonstrate the improvement our work offers in the context of protein structural alignment programs that assemble a reliable structural alignment from well-fitting (substructural) fragment pairs. A C++ library for this task is available online under an open-source license.

  5. Energy Strategic Planning & Sufficiency Project

    SciTech Connect

    Retziaff, Greg

    2005-03-30

    This report provides information regarding options available, their advantages and disadvantages, and the costs for pursuing activities to advance Smith River Rancheria toward an energy program that reduces their energy costs, allows greater self-sufficiency and stimulates economic development and employment opportunities within and around the reservation. The primary subjects addressed in this report are as follows: (1) Baseline Assessment of Current Energy Costs--An evaluation of the historical energy costs for Smith River was conducted to identify the costs for each component of their energy supply to better assess changes that can be considered for energy cost reductions. (2) Research Viable Energy Options--This includes a general description of many power generation technologies and identification of their relative costs, advantages and disadvantages. Through this research the generation technology options that are most suited for this application were identified. (3) Project Development Considerations--The basic steps and associated challenges of developing a generation project utilizing the selected technologies are identified and discussed. This included items like selling to third parties, wheeling, electrical interconnections, fuel supply, permitting, standby power, and transmission studies. (4) Energy Conservation--The myriad of federal, state and utility programs offered for low-income weatherization and utility bill payment assistance are identified, their qualification requirements discussed, and the subsequent benefits outlined. (5) Establishing an Energy Organization--The report includes a high level discussion of formation of a utility to serve the Tribal membership. The value or advantages of such action is discussed along with some of the challenges. (6) Training--Training opportunities available to the Tribal membership are identified.

  6. Addition of parenteral cefoxitin to regimen of oral antibiotics for elective colorectal operations. A randomized prospective study.

    PubMed Central

    Schoetz, D J; Roberts, P L; Murray, J J; Coller, J A; Veidenheimer, M C

    1990-01-01

    The efficacy of cefoxitin, a perioperative parenteral antibiotic, combined with mechanical bowel preparation and oral antibiotics to prevent wound infections and other septic complications in patients undergoing elective colorectal operations, was examined in a prospective randomized study. All 197 patients who completed the study received mechanical bowel preparation and oral neomycin/erythromycin base. In addition a perioperative parenteral antibiotic was given in three divided doses to 101 patients. The other 96 patients received no parenteral antibiotics. The overall incidence of intra-abdominal septic complications was 7.3% (7 of 96) in the control group (no cefoxitin) and 5% (5 of 101) in the treatment group (cefoxitin). This difference was not statistically significant. The incidence of abdominal wound infection was 14.6% in the control group and 5% in the treatment group, a statistically significant difference (p = 0.02). The addition of perioperative parenteral cefoxitin greatly reduced the incidence of wound infections in patients undergoing elective colorectal operations who had been prepared with mechanical bowel cleansing and oral antimicrobial agents. PMID:2100983

  7. 14 CFR 61.321 - How do I obtain privileges to operate an additional category or class of light-sport aircraft?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... additional category or class of light-sport aircraft? 61.321 Section 61.321 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Sport Pilots § 61.321 How do I obtain privileges to operate an additional category or class of light-sport aircraft? If you hold a sport pilot certificate and seek to operate...

  8. 14 CFR 61.321 - How do I obtain privileges to operate an additional category or class of light-sport aircraft?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... additional category or class of light-sport aircraft? 61.321 Section 61.321 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Sport Pilots § 61.321 How do I obtain privileges to operate an additional category or class of light-sport aircraft? If you hold a sport pilot certificate and seek to operate...

  9. 14 CFR 61.321 - How do I obtain privileges to operate an additional category or class of light-sport aircraft?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... additional category or class of light-sport aircraft? 61.321 Section 61.321 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Sport Pilots § 61.321 How do I obtain privileges to operate an additional category or class of light-sport aircraft? If you hold a sport pilot certificate and seek to operate...

  10. 14 CFR 61.321 - How do I obtain privileges to operate an additional category or class of light-sport aircraft?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... additional category or class of light-sport aircraft? 61.321 Section 61.321 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Sport Pilots § 61.321 How do I obtain privileges to operate an additional category or class of light-sport aircraft? If you hold a sport pilot certificate and seek to operate...

  11. 14 CFR 61.321 - How do I obtain privileges to operate an additional category or class of light-sport aircraft?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... additional category or class of light-sport aircraft? 61.321 Section 61.321 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Sport Pilots § 61.321 How do I obtain privileges to operate an additional category or class of light-sport aircraft? If you hold a sport pilot certificate and seek to operate...

  12. 10 CFR 60.132 - Additional design criteria for surface facilities in the geologic repository operations area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... the geologic repository operations area. (a) Facilities for receipt and retrieval of waste. Surface... emplacement or as a result of retrieval from the underground facility. (b) Surface facility...

  13. 10 CFR 60.132 - Additional design criteria for surface facilities in the geologic repository operations area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... the geologic repository operations area. (a) Facilities for receipt and retrieval of waste. Surface... emplacement or as a result of retrieval from the underground facility. (b) Surface facility...

  14. 40 CFR 62.15220 - What additional requirements must I meet for the operation of my continuous emission monitoring...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... meet for the operation of my continuous emission monitoring systems and continuous opacity monitoring system? 62.15220 Section 62.15220 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... the operation of my continuous emission monitoring systems and continuous opacity monitoring...

  15. 40 CFR 62.15220 - What additional requirements must I meet for the operation of my continuous emission monitoring...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... meet for the operation of my continuous emission monitoring systems and continuous opacity monitoring system? 62.15220 Section 62.15220 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... the operation of my continuous emission monitoring systems and continuous opacity monitoring...

  16. 40 CFR 62.15220 - What additional requirements must I meet for the operation of my continuous emission monitoring...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... meet for the operation of my continuous emission monitoring systems and continuous opacity monitoring system? 62.15220 Section 62.15220 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... the operation of my continuous emission monitoring systems and continuous opacity monitoring...

  17. 40 CFR 62.15220 - What additional requirements must I meet for the operation of my continuous emission monitoring...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... meet for the operation of my continuous emission monitoring systems and continuous opacity monitoring system? 62.15220 Section 62.15220 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... the operation of my continuous emission monitoring systems and continuous opacity monitoring...

  18. 40 CFR 62.15220 - What additional requirements must I meet for the operation of my continuous emission monitoring...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... meet for the operation of my continuous emission monitoring systems and continuous opacity monitoring system? 62.15220 Section 62.15220 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... the operation of my continuous emission monitoring systems and continuous opacity monitoring...

  19. Some existence and sufficient conditions of optimality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Assefi, T.

    1976-01-01

    The role of the existence and sufficiency conditions in the field of optimal control was briefly described. The existence theorems are discussed for general nonlinear systems. However, the sufficiency conditions pertain to "nearly" linear systems with integral convex costs. Moreover, a brief discussion of linear systems with multiple-cost functions is presented.

  20. Redundant causation from a sufficient cause perspective.

    PubMed

    Gatto, Nicolle M; Campbell, Ulka B

    2010-08-02

    Sufficient causes of disease are redundant when an individual acquires the components of two or more sufficient causes. In this circumstance, the individual still would have become diseased even if one of the sufficient causes had not been acquired. In the context of a study, when any individuals acquire components of more than one sufficient cause over the observation period, the etiologic effect of the exposure (defined as the absolute or relative difference between the proportion of the exposed who develop the disease by the end of the study period and the proportion of those individuals who would have developed the disease at the moment they did even in the absence of the exposure) may be underestimated. Even in the absence of confounding and bias, the observed effect estimate represents only a subset of the etiologic effect. This underestimation occurs regardless of the measure of effect used.To some extent, redundancy of sufficient causes is always present, and under some circumstances, it may make a true cause of disease appear to be not causal. This problem is particularly relevant when the researcher's goal is to characterize the universe of sufficient causes of the disease, identify risk factors for targeted interventions, or construct causal diagrams. In this paper, we use the sufficient component cause model and the disease response type framework to show how redundant causation arises and the factors that determine the extent of its impact on epidemiologic effect measures.

  1. Energy self-sufficiency for Hawaii

    SciTech Connect

    Shupe, J.W.

    1982-06-11

    Currently, Hawaii is almost totally dependent for energy on imported oil. The island state has a wide variety of renewable energy resources, however, and for the past decade has supported the development of these resources as substitutes for seaborne petroleum. Sufficient progress has been made to date in commercializing a number of these alternative energy sources to give cause for optimism that Hawaii will be able to achieve energy self-sufficiency with its indigenous renewable resources.

  2. 40 CFR 60.1765 - What additional requirements must I meet for the operation of my continuous emission monitoring...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... meet for the operation of my continuous emission monitoring systems and continuous opacity monitoring system? 60.1765 Section 60.1765 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... continuous emission monitoring systems and continuous opacity monitoring system? Use the required span...

  3. 40 CFR 60.1765 - What additional requirements must I meet for the operation of my continuous emission monitoring...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... meet for the operation of my continuous emission monitoring systems and continuous opacity monitoring system? 60.1765 Section 60.1765 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... continuous emission monitoring systems and continuous opacity monitoring system? Use the required span...

  4. 40 CFR 60.1765 - What additional requirements must I meet for the operation of my continuous emission monitoring...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... meet for the operation of my continuous emission monitoring systems and continuous opacity monitoring system? 60.1765 Section 60.1765 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... continuous emission monitoring systems and continuous opacity monitoring system? Use the required span...

  5. 40 CFR 60.1765 - What additional requirements must I meet for the operation of my continuous emission monitoring...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... meet for the operation of my continuous emission monitoring systems and continuous opacity monitoring system? 60.1765 Section 60.1765 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... continuous emission monitoring systems and continuous opacity monitoring system? Use the required span...

  6. 40 CFR 60.1765 - What additional requirements must I meet for the operation of my continuous emission monitoring...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... meet for the operation of my continuous emission monitoring systems and continuous opacity monitoring system? 60.1765 Section 60.1765 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... continuous emission monitoring systems and continuous opacity monitoring system? Use the required span...

  7. Prevalence of type I allergy to natural rubber latex and type IV allergy to latex and rubber additives in operating room staff with glove-related symptoms.

    PubMed

    Miri, Sara; Pourpak, Zahra; Zarinara, Alireza; Zarinara, Alam; Heidarzade, Marzieh; Kazemnejad, Anoushirvan; Kardar, Gholamali; Firooz, Alireza; Moin, Athar

    2007-01-01

    There is lack of data on the prevalence of latex allergy in the health care setting in Iran. This study was performed to determine the prevalence of type I latex allergy and type IV allergy to latex and rubber additives among the operating room staff with glove-related symptoms in 13 general hospitals in Tehran. Skin-prick tests with commercial latex extract, patch tests with latex and 25 rubber additive series, and total and latex-specific IgE detection were performed on the operating room staff who reported latex glove-related symptoms. Five hundred twelve self-administered questionnaires (100%) were completed by all operating room staff and latex glove-related symptoms were reported by 59 (11.5%) employees. Among all symptomatic operating room staff tested, the prevalence of type I latex allergy was 30.5% and the prevalence rates of type IV allergy to latex and rubber additives were 16.7 and 14.6%, respectively. The most positive patch test result with rubber additives was related to tetramethylthiuram monosulfide (38.5%). The risk factors for type I latex allergy were female sex (p = 0.009) and positive patch test with rubber additives (p = 0.012). Subjects who had positive patch test with latex were significantly more likely to have positive patch test with rubber additives (p < 0.0001). Our results showed a high prevalence of type I latex allergy and type IV allergy to latex and rubber additives. Based on this study, we recommend eliminating powdered latex gloves from the operating rooms of the 13 studied general hospitals and support the substitution of powder-free latex gloves.

  8. Effect of Operating Parameters and Chemical Additives on Crystal Habit and Specific Cake Resistance of Zinc Hydroxide Precipitates

    SciTech Connect

    Alwin, Jennifer Louise

    1999-08-01

    The effect of process parameters and chemical additives on the specific cake resistance of zinc hydroxide precipitates was investigated. The ability of a slurry to be filtered is dependent upon the particle habit of the solid and the particle habit is influenced by certain process variables. The process variables studied include neutralization temperature, agitation type, and alkalinity source used for neutralization. Several commercially available chemical additives advertised to aid in solid/liquid separation were also examined in conjunction with hydroxide precipitation. A statistical analysis revealed that the neutralization temperature and the source of alkalinity were statistically significant in influencing the specific cake resistance of zinc hydroxide precipitates in this study. The type of agitation did not significantly effect the specific cake resistance of zinc hydroxide precipitates. The use of chemical additives in conjunction with hydroxide precipitation had a favorable effect on the filterability. The morphology of the hydroxide precipitates was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy.

  9. The effects of the addition of a pediatric surgery fellow on the operative experience of the general surgery resident.

    PubMed

    Raines, Alexander; Garwe, Tabitha; Adeseye, Ademola; Ruiz-Elizalde, Alejandro; Churchill, Warren; Tuggle, David; Mantor, Cameron; Lees, Jason

    2015-06-01

    Adding fellows to surgical departments with residency programs can affect resident education. Our specific aim was to evaluate the effect of adding a pediatric surgery (PS) fellow on the number of index PS cases logged by the general surgery (GS) residents. At a single institution with both PS and GS programs, we examined the number of logged cases for the fellows and residents over 10 years [5 years before (Time 1) and 5 years after (Time 2) the addition of a PS fellow]. Additionally, the procedure related relative value units (RVUs) recorded by the faculty were evaluated. The fellows averaged 752 and 703 cases during Times 1 and 2, respectively, decreasing by 49 (P = 0.2303). The residents averaged 172 and 161 cases annually during Time 1 and Time 2, respectively, decreasing by 11 (P = 0.7340). The total number of procedure related RVUs was 4627 and 6000 during Times 1 and 2, respectively. The number of cases logged by the PS fellows and GS residents decreased after the addition of a PS fellow; however, the decrease was not significant. Programs can reasonably add an additional PS fellow, but care should be taken especially in programs that are otherwise static in size.

  10. Necessary and Sufficient Process leading to Work Smart Standards. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-01

    The Necessary and Sufficient Process leading to Work Smart Standards is a Department of Energy initiative to assure adequate protection for workers, the public, and the environment. The Work Smart Standards initiative directs the Laboratory to develop a set of ES and H standards based on the work performed at the Laboratory and the hazards associated with the work. Berkeley Lab`s set of Work Smart Standards includes required Federal, State and local laws and, additionally, national and international standards which represent the highest operating standards of industrial and commercial institutions.

  11. M Times Photon Subtraction-Addition Coherent Superposition Operated Odd-Schrődinger-cat State: Nonclassicality and Decoherence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Li; Guo, Qin; Jiang, Li-ying; Chen, Ge; Xu, Xue-xiang; Yuan, Wen

    2015-08-01

    We introduce a new non-Gaussian state (MCSO-OSCS), generated by m times coherent superposition operation acos θ + a †sin θ (MCSO) on odd-Schrődinger-cat state | α 0> - | - α 0>(OSCS), whose normalized constant is shown to be related to Hermite polynomials. We investigate the nonclassical properties of the MCSO-OSCS through Mandel's Q-parameter, quadrature squeezing, the photocount distribution and Wigner function (WF), which is turned out to be influenced by parameters m, θ and α 0. Especially the volume of negative region of WF could increase through controlling the parameters m, θ and α 0. We also investigate the decoherence of the MCSO-OSCS in terms of the fadeaway of the negativity of WF in a thermal environment.

  12. ON A SUFFICIENT CONDITION FOR ABSOLUTE CONTINUITY.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The formulation of a condition which yields absolute continuity when combined with continuity and bounded variation is the problem considered in the...Briefly, the formulation is achieved through a discussion which develops a proof by contradiction of a sufficiently theorem for absolute continuity which uses in its hypothesis the condition of continuity and bounded variation .

  13. Professional Development for Professionals: Beyond Sufficiency Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Gerald A.; Calway, Bruce A.

    2008-01-01

    We question the current role of professional associations in developing a culture of learning beyond a sufficiency or competency level. This brings into question the underlying philosophy of Professional Standards legislation. This legislation mandates continuing professional development for professionals without stating what should be achieved…

  14. Energy self-sufficiency for the UK

    SciTech Connect

    Cornell, M.; Belgrave, R.

    1985-01-01

    This book calls for more public debate about the criteria against which government and state industries take decisions on energy matters. It argues that there is a case for seeking to maintain levels of between 50% and 80% self sufficiency in energy.

  15. Self-sufficiency, free trade and safety.

    PubMed

    Rautonen, Jukka

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between free trade, self-sufficiency and safety of blood and blood components has been a perennial discussion topic in the blood service community. Traditionally, national self-sufficiency has been perceived as the ultimate goal that would also maximize safety. However, very few countries are, or can be, truly self-sufficient when self-sufficiency is understood correctly to encompass the whole value chain from the blood donor to the finished product. This is most striking when plasma derived medicines are considered. Free trade of blood products, or competition, as such can have a negative or positive effect on blood safety. Further, free trade of equipment and reagents and several plasma medicines is actually necessary to meet the domestic demand for blood and blood derivatives in most countries. Opposing free trade due to dogmatic reasons is not in the best interest of any country and will be especially harmful for the developing world. Competition between blood services in the USA has been present for decades. The more than threefold differences in blood product prices between European blood services indicate that competition is long overdue in Europe, too. This competition should be welcomed but carefully and proactively regulated to avoid putting safe and secure blood supply at risk.

  16. ACC Neuro-over-Connectivity Is Associated with Mathematically Modeled Additional Encoding Operations of Schizophrenia Stroop-Task Performance

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Reggie; Théberge, Jean; Williamson, Peter C.; Densmore, Maria; Neufeld, Richard W. J.

    2016-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging at 7.0 Tesla was undertaken among Schizophrenia participants (Sz), and clinical (major mood disorder; MDD) and healthy controls (HC), during performance of the Stoop task. Stroop conditions included congruent and incongruent word color items, color-only items, and word-only items. Previous modeling results extended to this most widely used selective-attention task. All groups executed item-encoding operations (subprocesses of the item encoding process) at the same rate (performance accuracy being similarly high throughout), thus displaying like processing capacity; Sz participants, however, employed more subprocesses for item completions than did the MDD participants, who in turn used more subprocesses than the HC group. The reduced efficiency in deploying cognitive-workload capacity among the Sz participants was paralleled by more diffuse neuroconnectivity (Blood-Oxygen-Level-Dependent co-activation) with the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) (Broadman Area 32), spreading away from this encoding-intensive region; and by less evidence of network dissociation across Stroop conditions. Estimates of cognitive work done to accomplish item completion were greater for the Sz participants, as were estimates of entropy in both the modeled trial-latency distribution, and its associated neuro-circuitry. Findings are held to be symptom and assessment significant, and to have potential implications for clinical intervention. PMID:27695425

  17. Operations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, Jesse L. M.; Norton, Anderson; Boyce, Steven J.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has documented schemes and operations that undergird students' understanding of fractions. This prior research was based, in large part, on small-group teaching experiments. However, written assessments are needed in order for teachers and researchers to assess students' ways of operating on a whole-class scale. In this study,…

  18. Entrepreneurship by any other name: self-sufficiency versus innovation.

    PubMed

    Parker Harris, Sarah; Caldwell, Kate; Renko, Maija

    2014-01-01

    Entrepreneurship has been promoted as an innovative strategy to address the employment of people with disabilities. Research has predominantly focused on the self-sufficiency aspect without fully integrating entrepreneurship literature in the areas of theory, systems change, and demonstration projects. Subsequently there are gaps in services, policies, and research in this field that, in turn, have limited our understanding of the support needs and barriers or facilitators of entrepreneurs with disabilities. A thorough analysis of the literature in these areas led to the development of two core concepts that need to be addressed in integrating entrepreneurship into disability employment research and policy: clarity in operational definitions and better disability statistics and outcome measures. This article interrogates existing research and policy efforts in this regard to argue for a necessary shift in the field from focusing on entrepreneurship as self-sufficiency to understanding entrepreneurship as innovation.

  19. Influence of binder properties, method of addition, powder type and operating conditions on fluid-bed melt granulation and resulting tablet properties.

    PubMed

    Abberger, T

    2001-12-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate melt granulation in a laboratory scale fluid-bed granulator with respect to granule growth, granule properties and resulting tablet properties. The parameters investigated were method of addition of PEG (spray-on or addition as flakes), binder concentration, PEG type (3000, 4000 and 6000, sprayed-on), size (PEG 4000, added as three different sized flakes), powder type (two different sized lactose types and corn starch) and operating conditions (volume air flow and heating temperature). Addition of binder as flakes led to layering as a growth mechanism when the size of the flakes was high. Coalescence occurred when the size was low. Coalescence also occurred when spraying was the method of addition. Due to the greater viscosity of the PEG 6000 melt it produced bigger granules than 3000 or 4000. The influence of volume air flow was moderate and the influence of heating temperature in the range of 70-90 degrees C was very low with both methods of addition. The disintegration time of tablets from granules where PEG was added as flakes was shorter than from granules where PEG was sprayed-on. The latter method of binder addition led to tablets which did not disintegrate but eroded. This was apparently caused by formation of a binder matrix, which could not be destroyed by the disintegrant.

  20. Sufficient conditions for a memory-kernel master equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chruściński, Dariusz; Kossakowski, Andrzej

    2016-08-01

    We derive sufficient conditions for the memory-kernel governing nonlocal master equation which guarantee a legitimate (completely positive and trace-preserving) dynamical map. It turns out that these conditions provide natural parametrizations of the dynamical map being a generalization of the Markovian semigroup. This parametrization is defined by the so-called legitimate pair—monotonic quantum operation and completely positive map—and it is shown that such a class of maps covers almost all known examples from the Markovian semigroup, the semi-Markov evolution, up to collision models and their generalization.

  1. Technology for human self-sufficiency in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, John L.

    1988-01-01

    A proposed Pathfinder program would determine the critical human and technology requirements for human self-sufficiency and productivity on manned and long-duration missions to the moon and Mars. Human health would require countermeasures against weightlessness, protection from space radiation and habitats conducive to psychological well-being. Life support systems would need regeneration of expendable resources, power systems for plant life support and processing; and microbial contaminant control. Operational performance requirements include extravehicular activities suit, interactive systems for shared control between humans and computers, and human-centered semi-autonomous systems.

  2. Beneficial effects of activated carbon additives on the performance of negative lead-acid battery electrode for high-rate partial-state-of-charge operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Jiayuan; Ding, Ping; Zhang, Hao; Wu, Xianzhang; Chen, Jian; Yang, Yusheng

    2013-11-01

    Experiments are made with negative electrode of 2 V cell and 12 V lead-acid battery doped with typical activated carbon additives. It turns out that the negative electrode containing tens-of-micron-sized carbon particles in NAM exhibits markedly increased HRPSoC cycle life than the one containing carbon particles with much smaller size of several microns or the one containing no activated carbon. The improved performance is mainly attributed to the optimized NAM microstructure and the enhanced electrode reaction kinetics by introducing appropriate activated carbon. The beneficial effects can be briefly summarized from three aspects. First, activated carbon acts as new porous-skeleton builder to increase the porosity and active surface of NAM, and thus facilitates the electrolyte diffusion from surface to inner and provides more sites for crystallization/dissolution of lead sulfate; second, activated carbon plays the role of electrolyte supplier to provide sufficient H2SO4 in the inner of plate when the diffusion of H2SO4 from plate surface cannot keep pace of the electrode reaction; Third, activated carbon acts as capacitive buffer to absorb excess charge current which would otherwise lead to insufficient NAM conversion and hydrogen evolution.

  3. Sufficient trial size to inform clinical practice

    PubMed Central

    Manski, Charles F.; Tetenov, Aleksey

    2016-01-01

    Medical research has evolved conventions for choosing sample size in randomized clinical trials that rest on the theory of hypothesis testing. Bayesian statisticians have argued that trials should be designed to maximize subjective expected utility in settings of clinical interest. This perspective is compelling given a credible prior distribution on treatment response, but there is rarely consensus on what the subjective prior beliefs should be. We use Wald’s frequentist statistical decision theory to study design of trials under ambiguity. We show that ε-optimal rules exist when trials have large enough sample size. An ε-optimal rule has expected welfare within ε of the welfare of the best treatment in every state of nature. Equivalently, it has maximum regret no larger than ε. We consider trials that draw predetermined numbers of subjects at random within groups stratified by covariates and treatments. We report exact results for the special case of two treatments and binary outcomes. We give simple sufficient conditions on sample sizes that ensure existence of ε-optimal treatment rules when there are multiple treatments and outcomes are bounded. These conditions are obtained by application of Hoeffding large deviations inequalities to evaluate the performance of empirical success rules. PMID:27601679

  4. Sufficient symmetry conditions for Topological Quantum Order.

    PubMed

    Nussinov, Zohar; Ortiz, Gerardo

    2009-10-06

    We prove sufficient conditions for Topological Quantum Order at zero and finite temperatures. The crux of the proof hinges on the existence of low-dimensional Gauge-Like Symmetries, thus providing a unifying framework based on a symmetry principle. These symmetries may be actual invariances of the system, or may emerge in the low-energy sector. Prominent examples of Topological Quantum Order display Gauge-Like Symmetries. New systems exhibiting such symmetries include Hamiltonians depicting orbital-dependent spin exchange and Jahn-Teller effects in transition metal orbital compounds, short-range frustrated Klein spin models, and p+ip superconducting arrays. We analyze the physical consequences of Gauge-Like Symmetries (including topological terms and charges) and show the insufficiency of the energy spectrum, topological entanglement entropy, maximal string correlators, and fractionalization in establishing Topological Quantum Order. General symmetry considerations illustrate that not withstanding spectral gaps, thermal fluctuations may impose restrictions on suggested quantum computing schemes. Our results allow us to go beyond standard topological field theories and engineer systems with Topological Quantum Order.

  5. Energy Strategic Planning & Self-Sufficiency Project

    SciTech Connect

    Greg Retzlaff

    2005-03-30

    This report provides information regarding options available, their advantages and disadvantages, and the costs for pursuing activities to advance Smith River Rancheria toward an energy program that reduces their energy costs, allows greater self-sufficiency and stimulates economic development and employment opportunities within and around the reservation. The primary subjects addressed in this report are as follow: (1) Baseline Assessment of Current Energy Costs--An evaluation of the historical energy costs for Smith River was conducted to identify the costs for each component of their energy supply to better assess changes that can be considered for energy cost reductions. (2) Research Viable Energy Options--This includes a general description of many power generation technologies and identification of their relative costs, advantages and disadvantages. Through this research the generation technology options that are most suited for this application were identified. (3) Project Development Considerations--The basic steps and associated challenges of developing a generation project utilizing the selected technologies are identified and discussed. This included items like selling to third parties, wheeling, electrical interconnections, fuel supply, permitting, standby power, and transmission studies. (4) Energy Conservation--The myriad of federal, state and utility programs offered for low-income weatherization and utility bill payment assistance are identified, their qualification requirements discussed, and the subsequent benefits outlined. (5) Establishing an Energy Organization--The report includes a high level discussion of formation of a utility to serve the Tribal membership. The value or advantages of such action is discussed along with some of the challenges. (6) Training--Training opportunities available to the Tribal membership are identified.

  6. Grating array systems having a plurality of gratings operative in a coherently additive mode and methods for making such grating array systems

    DOEpatents

    Kessler, Terrance J.; Bunkenburg, Joachim; Huang, Hu

    2007-02-13

    A plurality of gratings (G1, G2) are arranged together with a wavefront sensor, actuators, and feedback system to align the gratings in such a manner, that they operate like a single, large, monolithic grating. Sub-wavelength-scale movements in the mechanical mounting, due to environmental influences, are monitored by an interferometer (28), and compensated by precision actuators (16, 18, 20) that maintain the coherently additive mode. The actuators define the grating plane, and are positioned in response to the wavefronts from the gratings and a reference flat, thus producing the interferogram that contains the alignment information. Movement of the actuators is also in response to a diffraction-limited spot on the CCD (36) to which light diffracted from the gratings is focused. The actuator geometry is implemented to take advantage of the compensating nature of the degrees of freedom between gratings, reducing the number of necessary control variables.

  7. 43 CFR 3281.10 - How will BLM determine that I have sufficient control of the proposed unit area?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... sufficient control of the proposed unit area? 3281.10 Section 3281.10 Public Lands: Interior Regulations... § 3281.10 How will BLM determine that I have sufficient control of the proposed unit area? (a) BLM will determine whether: (1) A unit operator has sufficient control of the proposed unit area by reviewing...

  8. Effect of sucrose availability on wheel-running as an operant and as a reinforcing consequence on a multiple schedule: Additive effects of extrinsic and automatic reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Belke, Terry W; Pierce, W David

    2015-07-01

    As a follow up to Belke and Pierce's (2014) study, we assessed the effects of repeated presentation and removal of sucrose solution on the behavior of rats responding on a two-component multiple schedule. Rats completed 15 wheel turns (FR 15) for either 15% or 0% sucrose solution in the manipulated component and lever pressed 10 times on average (VR 10) for an opportunity to complete 15 wheel turns (FR 15) in the other component. In contrast to our earlier study, the components advanced based on time (every 8min) rather than completed responses. Results showed that in the manipulated component wheel-running rates were higher and the latency to initiate running longer when sucrose was present (15%) compared to absent (0% or water); the number of obtained outcomes (sucrose/water), however, did not differ with the presentation and withdrawal of sucrose. For the wheel-running as reinforcement component, rates of wheel turns, overall lever-pressing rates, and obtained wheel-running reinforcements were higher, and postreinforcement pauses shorter, when sucrose was present (15%) than absent (0%) in manipulated component. Overall, our findings suggest that wheel-running rate regardless of its function (operant or reinforcement) is maintained by automatically generated consequences (automatic reinforcement) and is increased as an operant by adding experimentally arranged sucrose reinforcement (extrinsic reinforcement). This additive effect on operant wheel-running generalizes through induction or arousal to the wheel-running as reinforcement component, increasing the rate of responding for opportunities to run and the rate of wheel-running per opportunity.

  9. Potlining Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolf Keller

    2004-08-10

    In this project, a concept to improve the performance of aluminum production cells by introducing potlining additives was examined and tested. Boron oxide was added to cathode blocks, and titanium was dissolved in the metal pool; this resulted in the formation of titanium diboride and caused the molten aluminum to wet the carbonaceous cathode surface. Such wetting reportedly leads to operational improvements and extended cell life. In addition, boron oxide suppresses cyanide formation. This final report presents and discusses the results of this project. Substantial economic benefits for the practical implementation of the technology are projected, especially for modern cells with graphitized blocks. For example, with an energy savings of about 5% and an increase in pot life from 1500 to 2500 days, a cost savings of $ 0.023 per pound of aluminum produced is projected for a 200 kA pot.

  10. Pakistan oil, gas reforms tied to bid for energy self-sufficiency by 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-09

    This paper reports on oil and gas exploration and development which is accelerating in Pakistan as it seeks to achieve energy self-sufficiency by 2000. In addition to backing out some domestic oil use with burgeoning natural gas supplies and cutting refined products imports by boosting refining capacity, Pakistan is targeting a sharp increase in oil production. Ultimately, industry officials in Pakistan would like to see it become a significant net exporter of oil, perhaps qualifying it for eventual membership in the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries. And foreign investment will play a key role in that effort as the government takes steps to sweeten incentives for foreign oil and gas companies. Consequently, drilling activity and the number of foreign operated concessions are at record levels in Pakistan. Meantime, state owned Oil and Gas Development Corp. has embarked on an ambitious program of exploration in underexplored basins while seeking foreign assistance in hiking oil recovery rates in existing fields.

  11. Variational necessary and sufficient stability conditions for inviscid shear flow

    PubMed Central

    Hirota, M.; Morrison, P. J.; Hattori, Y.

    2014-01-01

    A necessary and sufficient condition for linear stability of inviscid parallel shear flow is formulated by developing a novel variational principle, where the velocity profile is assumed to be monotonic and analytic. It is shown that unstable eigenvalues of Rayleigh's equation (which is a non-self-adjoint eigenvalue problem) can be associated with positive eigenvalues of a certain self-adjoint operator. The stability is therefore determined by maximizing a quadratic form, which is theoretically and numerically more tractable than directly solving Rayleigh's equation. This variational stability criterion is based on the understanding of Kreĭn signature for continuous spectra and is applicable to other stability problems of infinite-dimensional Hamiltonian systems. PMID:25484600

  12. Sludge reduction by direct addition of chlorine dioxide into a sequencing batch reactor under operational mode of repeatedly alternating aeration/non-aeration.

    PubMed

    Peng, Hong; Liu, Weiyi; Li, Yuanmei; Xiao, Hong

    2015-01-01

    The effect of direct addition of chlorine dioxide (ClO2) into a repeatedly alternating aeration/non-aeration sequencing batch reactor (SBR) on its sludge reduction and process performance was investigated. The experimental results showed that the sludge reduction efficiency was 32.9% and the observed growth yield (Yobs) of SBR was 0.11 kg VSS (volatile suspended solids) /kg COD (chemical oxygen demand) for 80 days' operation at the optimum ClO2 dosage of 2.0 mg/g TSS (total suspended solids). It was speculated that cell lysis and cryptic growth, uncoupled metabolism and endogenous metabolism were jointly responsible for the sludge reduction in this study. COD, NH3-N, total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) in the effluent increased on average 29.47, 4.44, 1.97 and 0.05 mg/L, respectively. However, the effluent quality still satisfied the first-class B discharge standards for municipal wastewater treatment plants in China. In that case, the sludge maintained fine viability with the specific oxygen uptake rate (SOUR) being 14.47 mg O2/(g VSS·h) and demonstrated good settleability with the sludge volume index (SVI) being 116 mL/g. The extra cost of sludge reduction at the optimum ClO2 dosage was estimated to be 2.24 CNY (or 0.36 dollar)/kg dry sludge.

  13. Centrosome Amplification Is Sufficient to Promote Spontaneous Tumorigenesis in Mammals.

    PubMed

    Levine, Michelle S; Bakker, Bjorn; Boeckx, Bram; Moyett, Julia; Lu, James; Vitre, Benjamin; Spierings, Diana C; Lansdorp, Peter M; Cleveland, Don W; Lambrechts, Diether; Foijer, Floris; Holland, Andrew J

    2017-02-06

    Centrosome amplification is a common feature of human tumors, but whether this is a cause or a consequence of cancer remains unclear. Here, we test the consequence of centrosome amplification by creating mice in which centrosome number can be chronically increased in the absence of additional genetic defects. We show that increasing centrosome number elevated tumor initiation in a mouse model of intestinal neoplasia. Most importantly, we demonstrate that supernumerary centrosomes are sufficient to drive aneuploidy and the development of spontaneous tumors in multiple tissues. Tumors arising from centrosome amplification exhibit frequent mitotic errors and possess complex karyotypes, recapitulating a common feature of human cancer. Together, our data support a direct causal relationship among centrosome amplification, genomic instability, and tumor development.

  14. "Sufficient health" as perceived by Thai villagers: A qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Arpanantikul, Manee; Phuphaibul, Rutja; Khuwatsumrit, Kusuma

    2017-01-05

    Globalization has led to the rapid modernization of Thai villagers' traditional lifestyle, with significant consequential changes in health. The integration of the sufficiency economy philosophy with health - a concept known as "sufficient health" - can improve health and wellbeing; however, little is known of the actual meaning of "sufficient health." This qualitative study explored the meaning of sufficient health as perceived by Thai villagers. Data were collected from 122 villagers living in a rural Thai community and analyzed using content analysis. The findings revealed five themes reflecting the meaning of sufficient health: being healthy and not having an illness, having regular health check-ups, performing self-care, living sufficiently, and avoiding risks. Understanding the meaning attributed to sufficient health can help nurses provide appropriate health care for villagers while retaining concern and respect for their cultural backgrounds. Importantly, providing opportunities to villagers to participate in health activities could help them recognize and sustain sufficient health.

  15. Using scientifically and statistically sufficient statistics in comparing image segmentations.

    PubMed

    Chi, Yueh-Yun; Muller, Keith E

    2010-01-01

    Automatic computer segmentation in three dimensions creates opportunity to reduce the cost of three-dimensional treatment planning of radiotherapy for cancer treatment. Comparisons between human and computer accuracy in segmenting kidneys in CT scans generate distance values far larger in number than the number of CT scans. Such high dimension, low sample size (HDLSS) data present a grand challenge to statisticians: how do we find good estimates and make credible inference? We recommend discovering and using scientifically and statistically sufficient statistics as an additional strategy for overcoming the curse of dimensionality. First, we reduced the three-dimensional array of distances for each image comparison to a histogram to be modeled individually. Second, we used non-parametric kernel density estimation to explore distributional patterns and assess multi-modality. Third, a systematic exploratory search for parametric distributions and truncated variations led to choosing a Gaussian form as approximating the distribution of a cube root transformation of distance. Fourth, representing each histogram by an individually estimated distribution eliminated the HDLSS problem by reducing on average 26,000 distances per histogram to just 2 parameter estimates. In the fifth and final step we used classical statistical methods to demonstrate that the two human observers disagreed significantly less with each other than with the computer segmentation. Nevertheless, the size of all disagreements was clinically unimportant relative to the size of a kidney. The hierarchal modeling approach to object-oriented data created response variables deemed sufficient by both the scientists and statisticians. We believe the same strategy provides a useful addition to the imaging toolkit and will succeed with many other high throughput technologies in genetics, metabolomics and chemical analysis.

  16. Sufficient penetration of peracetic acid into drilled human femoral heads.

    PubMed

    Brosig, H; Jacker, H-J; Borchert, H-H; Kalus, U; Dörner, T; von Versen, R; Pruss, A

    2005-01-01

    Chemical sterilisation methods for musculoskeletal transplants have the problem of penetration into all tissue strata. The present study examined if a peracetic acid/ethanol solution penetrated to a sufficient extent into specifically prepared femoral heads. To this effect, 10 femoral heads have been provided with drillings (diameter 2 mm, depth 10 mm) at a distance of 15 mm (series B) and placed in a diffusion chamber with sterilisation solution. From an additional central drilling at the femoral neck junction, the sample drawing was made after 30 min each over a period of 4 h for the iodometric determination of peracetic acid (PAA) concentration. Ten femoral heads, which did contain only the central drilling, served as controls (series A). In 9 of the examined femoral heads of series A the defined minimum concentration of PAA of 0.2% (inactivation of bacteria, spores, fungi) has been clearly exceeded over the complete period of measurement. About 0.8% PAA (inactivation of viruses) was achieved within 4 h only with six femoral heads. Nine out of the 10 examined femoral heads in series B show a clearly improved penetration behaviour which was expressed in smaller standard deviations, a faster increase in concentration, as well as in higher starting and final concentrations (approx. 0.9%) of PAA. Previous drying in air leads to a faster penetration into the centre of the bone. Standardised drilling of de-cartilaged femoral heads creates favourable conditions for the penetration of the PAA sterilisation solution into the whole tissue and guarantees a sufficient inactivation of microorganisms.

  17. 30 CFR 250.406 - What additional safety measures must I take when I conduct drilling operations on a platform that...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... when I conduct drilling operations on a platform that has producing wells or has other hydrocarbon flow... hydrocarbon flow? You must take the following safety measures when you conduct drilling operations on a platform with producing wells or that has other hydrocarbon flow: (a) You must install an...

  18. 30 CFR 250.406 - What additional safety measures must I take when I conduct drilling operations on a platform that...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... when I conduct drilling operations on a platform that has producing wells or has other hydrocarbon flow... operations on a platform that has producing wells or has other hydrocarbon flow? You must take the following... hydrocarbon flow: (a) You must install an emergency shutdown station near the driller's console; (b) You...

  19. 30 CFR 250.406 - What additional safety measures must I take when I conduct drilling operations on a platform that...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... when I conduct drilling operations on a platform that has producing wells or has other hydrocarbon flow... when I conduct drilling operations on a platform that has producing wells or has other hydrocarbon flow... producing wells or that has other hydrocarbon flow: (a) You must install an emergency shutdown station...

  20. 30 CFR 250.406 - What additional safety measures must I take when I conduct drilling operations on a platform that...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... when I conduct drilling operations on a platform that has producing wells or has other hydrocarbon flow... when I conduct drilling operations on a platform that has producing wells or has other hydrocarbon flow... producing wells or that has other hydrocarbon flow: (a) You must install an emergency shutdown station...

  1. 30 CFR 250.406 - What additional safety measures must I take when I conduct drilling operations on a platform that...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... when I conduct drilling operations on a platform that has producing wells or has other hydrocarbon flow... when I conduct drilling operations on a platform that has producing wells or has other hydrocarbon flow... producing wells or that has other hydrocarbon flow: (a) You must install an emergency shutdown station...

  2. Improving the Perception of Self-Sufficiency towards Creative Drama

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pekdogan, Serpil; Korkmaz, Halil Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of a Creative Drama Based Perception of Self-sufficiency Skills Training Program on 2nd grade bachelor degree students' (who are attending a preschool teacher training program) perception of self-sufficiency. This is a quasi-experimental study. Totally 50 students were equally divided into…

  3. 27 CFR 25.174 - Bond not sufficient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bond not sufficient. 25.174 Section 25.174 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Tax on Beer Prepayment of Tax § 25.174 Bond not sufficient. When...

  4. 27 CFR 25.174 - Bond not sufficient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bond not sufficient. 25.174 Section 25.174 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Tax on Beer Prepayment of Tax § 25.174 Bond not sufficient. When...

  5. 27 CFR 25.174 - Bond not sufficient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bond not sufficient. 25.174 Section 25.174 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Tax on Beer Prepayment of Tax § 25.174 Bond not sufficient. When...

  6. 27 CFR 25.174 - Bond not sufficient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bond not sufficient. 25.174 Section 25.174 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Tax on Beer Prepayment of Tax § 25.174 Bond not sufficient. When...

  7. 27 CFR 25.174 - Bond not sufficient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bond not sufficient. 25.174 Section 25.174 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Tax on Beer Prepayment of Tax § 25.174 Bond not sufficient. When...

  8. Homeless Families: A Neglected Crisis. Sixty-Third Report by the Committee on Government Operations together with Dissenting and Additional Views.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U. S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Government Operations.

    This report, based on a study by the Subcommittee on Intergovernmental Relations and Human Resources of the Committee on Government Operations examines the magnitude of the problem of homeless families. Its findings include the following: (1) causes of family homelessness include scarcity of low income housing, inadequate income or public…

  9. Food additives

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857

  10. Public and Private Incentives for Investment in Higher Education: Are They Sufficient, Especially for Black Males?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appiah, Elizabeth N.

    2013-01-01

    The institutional costs of higher education have been rising. With diminishing public support per student, tuition and fees private costs have also been rising. But so have the real earnings of college graduates. Are there still sufficient incentives on efficiency grounds for additional public investment in higher education? And in particular,…

  11. The effect of helium impurity addition on current sheath speed in argon-operated plasma focus using a tridimensional magnetic probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panahi, N.; Mohammadi, M. A.; Hedyeh, S.; Rawat, R. S.; Rawat

    2013-10-01

    Using the tridimensional magnetic probe, the current sheath velocity at 0.25 Torr is studied in Sahand, a Filippov-type plasma focus facility. The current sheath velocity in argon-filled plasma focus with different percentages of helium impurity at different operating voltages was studied. The highest average current sheath velocity of 12.26 +/- 1.51 cm μs-1 at the top of the anode in the axial phase was achieved at 17 kV. Minimum average current sheath velocity is 5.24 +/- 1.18 cm μs-1 at 12 kV with 80% argon + 20% helium as a working gas. The full width at half-maximum of peaks of the magnetic probe was found to be inversely related to the current sheath velocity, i.e. smaller at higher voltages for different impurity and decreased with increasing of impurity.

  12. Networking: challenges for network centric operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stotts, Larry B.; Allen, John G.

    2004-11-01

    This paper examines some of the challenges facing the community in providing radio communications to enable information systems for military operations. We believe that much of the on-going/completed work is necessary, but not sufficient, to provide the military Network Centric Operations, which integrates military"s network centric enterprise with network centric warfare. Additional issues need to be addressed to better support battle commanders as well as decider-sensor-effecter linkages. We discuss a possible way ahead.

  13. Food additives

    MedlinePlus

    ... or natural. Natural food additives include: Herbs or spices to add flavor to foods Vinegar for pickling ... Certain colors improve the appearance of foods. Many spices, as well as natural and man-made flavors, ...

  14. CH-54 Operational Statistics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-02-01

    credibility, and sufficiency. Changes in operational . availability resulting from changes in TBO policy, major inspection policies, failure rates , Not...Operationally Ready Supply (NORS) rates , and utilization rates were consistent with actual data from the field. The conclusions contained herein are...simulation runs on sensitivity, credibility, and sufficiency. Changes in utilization, failure rate , N0RS waiting time^ /fcC .1 ,i

  15. Cellular contractility changes are sufficient to drive epithelial scattering.

    PubMed

    Hoj, Jacob P; Davis, John A; Fullmer, Kendra E; Morrell, David J; Saguibo, Nicholas E; Schuler, Jeffrey T; Tuttle, Kevin J; Hansen, Marc D H

    2014-08-15

    Epithelial scattering occurs when cells disassemble cell-cell junctions, allowing individual epithelial cells to act in a solitary manner. Epithelial scattering occurs frequently in development, where it accompanies epithelial-mesenchymal transitions and is required for individual cells to migrate and invade. While migration and invasion have received extensive research focus, how cell-cell junctions are detached remains poorly understood. An open debate has been whether disruption of cell-cell interactions occurs by remodeling of cell-cell adhesions, increased traction forces through cell substrate adhesions, or some combination of both processes. Here we seek to examine how changes in adhesion and contractility are coupled to drive detachment of individual epithelial cells during hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)/scatter factor-induced EMT. We find that HGF signaling does not alter the strength of cell-cell adhesion between cells in suspension, suggesting that changes in cell-cell adhesion strength might not accompany epithelial scattering. Instead, cell-substrate adhesion seems to play a bigger role, as cell-substrate adhesions are stronger in cells treated with HGF and since rapid scattering in cells treated with HGF and TGFβ is associated with a dramatic increase in focal adhesions. Increases in the pliability of the substratum, reducing cells ability to generate traction on the substrate, alter cells׳ ability to scatter. Further consistent with changes in substrate adhesion being required for cell-cell detachment during EMT, scattering is impaired in cells expressing both active and inactive RhoA mutants, though in different ways. In addition to its roles in driving assembly of both stress fibers and focal adhesions, RhoA also generates myosin-based contractility in cells. We therefore sought to examine how RhoA-dependent contractility contributes to cell-cell detachment. Inhibition of Rho kinase or myosin II induces the same effect on cells, namely an

  16. Quantification is Neither Necessary Nor Sufficient for Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mari, Luca; Maul, Andrew; Torres Irribarra, David; Wilson, Mark

    2013-09-01

    Being an infrastructural, widespread activity, measurement is laden with stereotypes. Some of these concern the role of measurement in the relation between quality and quantity. In particular, it is sometimes argued or assumed that quantification is necessary for measurement; it is also sometimes argued or assumed that quantification is sufficient for or synonymous with measurement. To assess the validity of these positions the concepts of measurement and quantitative evaluation should be independently defined and their relationship analyzed. We contend that the defining characteristic of measurement should be the structure of the process, not a feature of its results. Under this perspective, quantitative evaluation is neither sufficient nor necessary for measurement.

  17. Gasoline additive

    SciTech Connect

    Weil, O.A.; Smith, G.G.

    1990-03-06

    This patent describes a method for improving the quality and performance of an internal combustion engine. It comprises: introducing gasoline into the fuel tank of the internal combustion engine; and adding to the gasoline, in an amount effective to improve the performance of an internal combustion engine, a stable dispersion of 3 to 20 volume percent of a compound consisting essentially of polyoxyethylene sorbitol polyoleate in a gasoline-miscible oxygenated organic solvent; and operating the engine.

  18. The integrin-binding domain of invasin is sufficient to allow bacterial entry into mammalian cells.

    PubMed Central

    Rankin, S; Isberg, R R; Leong, J M

    1992-01-01

    Yersinia pseudotuberculosis is able to enter normally nonphagocytic host cells by multiple pathways, the most efficient of which is mediated by invasin, a 986-amino-acid bacterial outer membrane protein. It has previously been shown that the C-terminal 192 amino acids of invasin are sufficient to bind mammalian cells. To determine if additional regions of the invasin protein are necessary to promote entry, we developed a novel assay that tests the ability of various invasin derivatives to confer on Staphylococcus aureus the ability to enter animal cells. We determined that the 192-amino-acid cell-binding region of invasin, when used to coat the bacterial cell surface, was also sufficient to promote cellular penetration. These results suggest that the simple binding of invasin to its receptors is sufficient to mediate entry and that the bacterium plays a largely passive role in the entry process. Images PMID:1500198

  19. Getting to necessary and sufficient-developing accident scenarios for risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Mahn, J.A.

    1996-05-01

    This paper presents a simple, systematic approach for developing accident scenarios using generic accident types. Result is a necessary and sufficient set of accident scenarios that can be used to establish the safety envelope for a facility or operation. Us of this approach along with the methodology of SAND95-0320 will yield more consistent accident analyses between facilities and provide a sound basis for allocating limited risk reduction resources.

  20. Test-Taking Strategies and the Self-Sufficient Learner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annis, Linda Ferrill

    This paper outlines recommended test-taking strategies for the self-sufficient learner based on research in cognitive psychology. The theoretical model used is the information-processing approach involving the three essential steps of paying attention, encoding, and framing associative linkages for the new material. Preparing for examinations is…

  1. Online Learning in Higher Education: Necessary and Sufficient Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Cher Ping

    2005-01-01

    The spectacular development of information and communication technologies through the Internet has provided opportunities for students to explore the virtual world of information. In this article, the author discusses the necessary and sufficient conditions for successful online learning in educational institutions. The necessary conditions…

  2. Increasing urban water self-sufficiency: new era, new challenges.

    PubMed

    Rygaard, Martin; Binning, Philip J; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    2011-01-01

    Urban water supplies are traditionally based on limited freshwater resources located outside the cities. However, a range of concepts and techniques to exploit alternative water resources has gained ground as water demands begin to exceed the freshwater available to cities. Based on 113 cases and 15 in-depth case studies, solutions used to increase water self-sufficiency in urban areas are analyzed. The main drivers for increased self-sufficiency were identified to be direct and indirect lack of water, constrained infrastructure, high quality water demands and commercial and institutional pressures. Case studies demonstrate increases in self-sufficiency ratios to as much as 80% with contributions from recycled water, seawater desalination and rainwater collection. The introduction of alternative water resources raises several challenges: energy requirements vary by more than a factor of ten amongst the alternative techniques, wastewater reclamation can lead to the appearance of trace contaminants in drinking water, and changes to the drinking water system can meet tough resistance from the public. Public water-supply managers aim to achieve a high level of reliability and stability. We conclude that despite the challenges, self-sufficiency concepts in combination with conventional water resources are already helping to reach this goal.

  3. Necessary and sufficient elastic stability conditions in various crystal systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouhat, Félix; Coudert, François-Xavier

    2014-12-01

    While the Born elastic stability criteria are well known for cubic crystals, there is some confusion in the literature about the form they should take for lower-symmetry crystal classes. Here we present closed form necessary and sufficient conditions for elastic stability in all crystal classes, as a concise and pedagogical reference to stability criteria in noncubic materials.

  4. Leadership, the Logic of Sufficiency and the Sustainability of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bottery, Mike

    2012-01-01

    The notion of sufficiency has not yet entered mainstream educational thinking, and it still has to make its mark upon educational leadership. However, a number of related concepts--particularly those of sustainability and complexity theory--are beginning to be noticed. This article examines these two concepts and uses them to critique the…

  5. 19 CFR 351.203 - Determination of sufficiency of petition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Determination of sufficiency of petition. 351.203 Section 351.203 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ANTIDUMPING AND... the Act, unless such domestic producer demonstrates to the Secretary's satisfaction that its...

  6. Sufficient observables for large-scale structure in galaxy surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carron, J.; Szapudi, I.

    2014-03-01

    Beyond the linear regime, the power spectrum and higher order moments of the matter field no longer capture all cosmological information encoded in density fluctuations. While non-linear transforms have been proposed to extract this information lost to traditional methods, up to now, the way to generalize these techniques to discrete processes was unclear; ad hoc extensions had some success. We pointed out in Carron and Szapudi's paper that the logarithmic transform approximates extremely well the optimal `sufficient statistics', observables that extract all information from the (continuous) matter field. Building on these results, we generalize optimal transforms to discrete galaxy fields. We focus our calculations on the Poisson sampling of an underlying lognormal density field. We solve and test the one-point case in detail, and sketch out the sufficient observables for the multipoint case. Moreover, we present an accurate approximation to the sufficient observables in terms of the mean and spectrum of a non-linearly transformed field. We find that the corresponding optimal non-linear transformation is directly related to the maximum a posteriori Bayesian reconstruction of the underlying continuous field with a lognormal prior as put forward in the paper of Kitaura et al.. Thus, simple recipes for realizing the sufficient observables can be built on previously proposed algorithms that have been successfully implemented and tested in simulations.

  7. Intellectual Freedom and Economic Sufficiency as Educational Entitlements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morse, Jane Fowler

    2001-01-01

    Using the theories of John Stuart Mill and Karl Marx, this article supports the educational entitlements of intellectual freedom and economic sufficiency. Explores these issues in reference to their implications for teaching, the teaching profession and its training. Concludes that ideas cannot be controlled by the interests of the dominant class.…

  8. The Indochinese in America: Progress Towards Self Sufficiency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finck, John

    Despite suspicion in some quarters that refugee resettlement has been unduly expensive, evidence indicates that the Indochinese have made steady progress toward self-sufficiency. The majority of Hmong refugees in Providence, Rhode Island, for example, which has been "heavily impacted" by the large number of Indochinese who have become…

  9. Phosphazene additives

    DOEpatents

    Harrup, Mason K; Rollins, Harry W

    2013-11-26

    An additive comprising a phosphazene compound that has at least two reactive functional groups and at least one capping functional group bonded to phosphorus atoms of the phosphazene compound. One of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with cellulose and the other of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with a resin, such as an amine resin of a polycarboxylic acid resin. The at least one capping functional group is selected from the group consisting of a short chain ether group, an alkoxy group, or an aryloxy group. Also disclosed are an additive-resin admixture, a method of treating a wood product, and a wood product.

  10. CROSS-DISCIPLINARY PHYSICS AND RELATED AREAS OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: Simulation of SET Operation in Phase-Change Random Access Memories with Heater Addition and Ring-Type Contactor for Low-Power Consumption by Finite Element Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Yue-Feng; Song, Zhi-Tang; Ling, Yun; Liu, Yan; Feng, Song-Lin

    2009-11-01

    A three-dimensional finite element model for phase change random access memory (PCRAM) is established for comprehensive electrical and thermal analysis during SET operation. The SET behaviours of the heater addition structure (HS) and the ring-type contact in bottom electrode (RIB) structure are compared with each other. There are two ways to reduce the RESET current, applying a high resistivity interfacial layer and building a new device structure. The simulation results indicate that the variation of SET current with different power reduction ways is little. This study takes the RESET and SET operation current into consideration, showing that the RIB structure PCRAM cell is suitable for future devices with high heat efficiency and high-density, due to its high heat efficiency in RESET operation.

  11. Analyzing the Impacts of Increased Wind Power on Generation Revenue Sufficiency: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Qin; Wu, Hongyu; Tan, Jin; Hodge, Bri-Mathias; Li, Wanning; Luo, Cheng

    2016-08-01

    The Revenue Sufficiency Guarantee (RSG), as part of make-whole (or uplift) payments in electricity markets, is designed to recover the generation resources' offer-based production costs that are not otherwise covered by their market revenues. Increased penetrations of wind power will bring significant impacts to the RSG payments in the markets. However, literature related to this topic is sparse. This paper first reviews the industrial practices of implementing RSG in major U.S. independent system operators (ISOs) and regional transmission operators (RTOs) and then develops a general RSG calculation method. Finally, an 18-bus test system is adopted to demonstrate the impacts of increased wind power on RSG payments.

  12. Necessary and sufficient conditions for local unitary equivalence of multiqubit states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, A. M.

    2015-04-01

    We derive the necessary and sufficient conditions for the local unitary (LU) equivalence of two general (pure or mixed) n -qubit states and determine the local unitary operators connecting them. Almost all relevant information is contained in the one-qubit reduced matrices of the multiqubit states under investigation. Our technique relies on identifying ab initio all local symmetries and the corresponding local cyclic unitary operators. To derive the above conditions we use the reference forms of the multiqubit states whose definition requires the diagonalization of the one-qubit reduced matrices. Based on those conditions, we propose a straightforward protocol to decide whether or not two n -qubit states are LU equivalent.

  13. Analyzing the Impacts of Increased Wind Power on Generation Revenue Sufficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Qin; Wu, Hongyu; Tan, Jin; Hodge, Bri-Mathias; Li, Wanning; Luo, Cheng

    2016-11-14

    The Revenue Sufficiency Guarantee (RSG), as part of make-whole (or uplift) payments in electricity markets, is designed to recover the generation resources' offer-based production costs that are not otherwise covered by their market revenues. Increased penetrations of wind power will bring significant impacts to the RSG payments in the markets. However, literature related to this topic is sparse. This paper first reviews the industrial practices of implementing RSG in major U.S. independent system operators (ISOs) and regional transmission operators (RTOs) and then develops a general RSG calculation method. Finally, an 18-bus test system is adopted to demonstrate the impacts of increased wind power on RSG payments.

  14. Efficiency, sufficiency, and recent change in Newfoundland subsistence horticulture

    SciTech Connect

    Omohundro, J.T.

    1986-09-01

    Traditional Newfoundland horticulture has been a subordinate and compensatory element of the subsistence sphere in a plural economy centered on fishing. Criticized as inefficient and ruinous to the land, this tuber-rootbrassica gardening has in fact been a valuable contribution to diet, is relatively efficient, and compensates for the inadequacies of land and weather. Field data from the Great Northern Peninsula, where some traditional practices persist, demonstrate that the practices conserve time and labor, and substitute massive applications of materials to assure a yield sufficient for household needs. The inefficiency in the tradition may be understood as a response to the constraints upon household labor and follows a kind of Leibig's law of the minimum. Recent changes in gardening practices reveal the dynamics of horticulture in the household's mixed economic strategy. As cash and land have become more common, they have been used to further reduce time while maintaining sufficiency.

  15. Retinal flow is sufficient for steering during observer rotation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Li; Warren, William H Jr

    2002-01-01

    How do people control locomotion while their eyes are simultaneously rotating? A previous study found that during simulated rotation, they can perceive a straight path of self-motion from the retinal flow pattern, despite conflicting extraretinal information, on the basis of dense motion parallax and reference objects. Here we report that the same information is sufficient for active control ofjoystick steering. Participants steered toward a target in displays that simulated a pursuit eye movement. Steering was highly inaccurate with a textured ground plane (motion parallax alone), but quite accurate when an array of posts was added (motion parallax plus reference objects). This result is consistent with the theory that instantaneous heading is determined from motion parallax, and the path of self-motion is determined by updating heading relative to environmental objects. Retinal flow is thus sufficient for both perceiving self-motion and controlling self-motion with a joystick; extraretinal and positional information can also contribute, but are not necessary.

  16. Reassessing Rogers' necessary and sufficient conditions of change.

    PubMed

    Watson, Jeanne C

    2007-09-01

    This article reviews the impact of Carl Rogers' postulate about the necessary and sufficient conditions of therapeutic change on the field of psychotherapy. It is proposed that his article (see record 2007-14630-002) made an impact in two ways; first, by acting as a spur to researchers to identify the active ingredients of therapeutic change; and, second, by providing guidelines for therapeutic practice. The role of the necessary and sufficient conditions in process-experiential therapy, an emotion-focused therapy for individuals, and their limitations in terms of research and practice are discussed. It is proposed that although the conditions are necessary and important in promoting clients' affect regulation, they do not take sufficient account of other moderating variables that affect clients' response to treatment and may need to be balanced with more structured interventions. Notwithstanding, Rogers highlighted a way of interacting with clients that is generally acknowledged as essential to effective psychotherapy practice. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Sufficient dimension reduction via squared-loss mutual information estimation.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Taiji; Sugiyama, Masashi

    2013-03-01

    The goal of sufficient dimension reduction in supervised learning is to find the low-dimensional subspace of input features that contains all of the information about the output values that the input features possess. In this letter, we propose a novel sufficient dimension-reduction method using a squared-loss variant of mutual information as a dependency measure. We apply a density-ratio estimator for approximating squared-loss mutual information that is formulated as a minimum contrast estimator on parametric or nonparametric models. Since cross-validation is available for choosing an appropriate model, our method does not require any prespecified structure on the underlying distributions. We elucidate the asymptotic bias of our estimator on parametric models and the asymptotic convergence rate on nonparametric models. The convergence analysis utilizes the uniform tail-bound of a U-process, and the convergence rate is characterized by the bracketing entropy of the model. We then develop a natural gradient algorithm on the Grassmann manifold for sufficient subspace search. The analytic formula of our estimator allows us to compute the gradient efficiently. Numerical experiments show that the proposed method compares favorably with existing dimension-reduction approaches on artificial and benchmark data sets.

  18. Predictive sufficiency and the use of stored internal state

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musliner, David J.; Durfee, Edmund H.; Shin, Kang G.

    1994-01-01

    In all embedded computing systems, some delay exists between sensing and acting. By choosing an action based on sensed data, a system is essentially predicting that there will be no significant changes in the world during this delay. However, the dynamic and uncertain nature of the real world can make these predictions incorrect, and thus, a system may execute inappropriate actions. Making systems more reactive by decreasing the gap between sensing and action leaves less time for predictions to err, but still provides no principled assurance that they will be correct. Using the concept of predictive sufficiency described in this paper, a system can prove that its predictions are valid, and that it will never execute inappropriate actions. In the context of our CIRCA system, we also show how predictive sufficiency allows a system to guarantee worst-case response times to changes in its environment. Using predictive sufficiency, CIRCA is able to build real-time reactive control plans which provide a sound basis for performance guarantees that are unavailable with other reactive systems.

  19. AOP: An R Package For Sufficient Causal Analysis in Pathway ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Summary: How can I quickly find the key events in a pathway that I need to monitor to predict that a/an beneficial/adverse event/outcome will occur? This is a key question when using signaling pathways for drug/chemical screening in pharma-cology, toxicology and risk assessment. By identifying these sufficient causal key events, we have fewer events to monitor for a pathway, thereby decreasing assay costs and time, while maximizing the value of the information. I have developed the “aop” package which uses backdoor analysis of causal net-works to identify these minimal sets of key events that are suf-ficient for making causal predictions. Availability and Implementation: The source and binary are available online through the Bioconductor project (http://www.bioconductor.org/) as an R package titled “aop”. The R/Bioconductor package runs within the R statistical envi-ronment. The package has functions that can take pathways (as directed graphs) formatted as a Cytoscape JSON file as input, or pathways can be represented as directed graphs us-ing the R/Bioconductor “graph” package. The “aop” package has functions that can perform backdoor analysis to identify the minimal set of key events for making causal predictions.Contact: burgoon.lyle@epa.gov This paper describes an R/Bioconductor package that was developed to facilitate the identification of key events within an AOP that are the minimal set of sufficient key events that need to be tested/monit

  20. Geometric derivations of minimal sets of sufficient multiview constraints

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, Orrin H.; Oshel, Edward R.

    2012-01-01

    Geometric interpretations of four of the most common determinant formulations of multiview constraints are given, showing that they all enforce the same geometry and that all of the forms commonly in use in the machine vision community are a subset of a more general form. Generalising the work of Yi Ma yields a new general 2 x 2 determinant trilinear and 3 x 3 determinant quadlinear. Geometric descriptions of degenerate multiview constraints are given, showing that it is necessary, but insufficient, that the determinant equals zero. Understanding the degeneracies leads naturally into proofs for minimum sufficient sets of bilinear, trilinear and quadlinear constraints for arbitrary numbers of conjugate observations.

  1. Joint Space Forces in Theater: Coordination is No Longer Sufficient

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-01

    any other service or joint body, the Air Force has pushed the development of space systems, doctrine, procedures, and education . As the Department...operations and staff assignments. His assignments include Chief of Standardization and Evaluation for the 6th Space Operations Squadron, Offutt AFB...Force, Vandenberg AFB; and Chief of Joint Exercise Development , Headquarters Air Force Space Command, Peterson AFB. He has served in Combined/Joint

  2. Linear stable unity-feedback system - Necessary and sufficient conditions for stability under nonlinear plant perturbations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desoer, C. A.; Kabuli, M. G.

    1989-01-01

    The authors consider a linear (not necessarily time-invariant) stable unity-feedback system, where the plant and the compensator have normalized right-coprime factorizations. They study two cases of nonlinear plant perturbations (additive and feedback), with four subcases resulting from: (1) allowing exogenous input to Delta P or not; 2) allowing the observation of the output of Delta P or not. The plant perturbation Delta P is not required to be stable. Using the factorization approach, the authors obtain necessary and sufficient conditions for all cases in terms of two pairs of nonlinear pseudostate maps. Simple physical considerations explain the form of these necessary and sufficient conditions. Finally, the authors obtain the characterization of all perturbations Delta P for which the perturbed system remains stable.

  3. Stable dynamics in forced systems with sufficiently high/low forcing frequency.

    PubMed

    Bartuccelli, M; Gentile, G; Wright, J A

    2016-08-01

    We consider parametrically forced Hamiltonian systems with one-and-a-half degrees of freedom and study the stability of the dynamics when the frequency of the forcing is relatively high or low. We show that, provided the frequency is sufficiently high, Kolmogorov-Arnold-Moser (KAM) theorem may be applied even when the forcing amplitude is far away from the perturbation regime. A similar result is obtained for sufficiently low frequency, but in that case we need the amplitude of the forcing to be not too large; however, we are still able to consider amplitudes which are outside of the perturbation regime. In addition, we find numerically that the dynamics may be stable even when the forcing amplitude is very large, well beyond the range of validity of the analytical results, provided the frequency of the forcing is taken correspondingly low.

  4. Sufficient conditions for thermal rectification in general graded materials.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Emmanuel

    2011-03-01

    We address a fundamental problem for the advance of phononics: the search of a feasible thermal diode. We establish sufficient conditions for the existence of thermal rectification in general graded materials. By starting from simple assumptions satisfied by the usual anharmonic models that describe heat conduction in solids, we derive an expression for the rectification. The analytical formula shows how to increase the rectification, and the conditions to avoid its decay with the system size, a problem present in the recurrent model of diodes given by the sequential coupling of two or three different parts. Moreover, for these graded systems, we show that the regimes of nondecaying rectification and of normal conductivity do not overlap. Our results indicate the graded systems as optimal materials for a thermal diode, the basic component of several devices of phononics.

  5. Hindbrain ghrelin receptor signaling is sufficient to maintain fasting glucose.

    PubMed

    Scott, Michael M; Perello, Mario; Chuang, Jen-Chieh; Sakata, Ichiro; Gautron, Laurent; Lee, Charlotte E; Lauzon, Danielle; Elmquist, Joel K; Zigman, Jeffrey M

    2012-01-01

    The neuronal coordination of metabolic homeostasis requires the integration of hormonal signals with multiple interrelated central neuronal circuits to produce appropriate levels of food intake, energy expenditure and fuel availability. Ghrelin, a peripherally produced peptide hormone, circulates at high concentrations during nutrient scarcity. Ghrelin promotes food intake, an action lost in ghrelin receptor null mice and also helps maintain fasting blood glucose levels, ensuring an adequate supply of nutrients to the central nervous system. To better understand mechanisms of ghrelin action, we have examined the roles of ghrelin receptor (GHSR) expression in the mouse hindbrain. Notably, selective hindbrain ghrelin receptor expression was not sufficient to restore ghrelin-stimulated food intake. In contrast, the lowered fasting blood glucose levels observed in ghrelin receptor-deficient mice were returned to wild-type levels by selective re-expression of the ghrelin receptor in the hindbrain. Our results demonstrate the distributed nature of the neurons mediating ghrelin action.

  6. [Vitamin-antioxidant sufficiency of winter sports athletes].

    PubMed

    Beketova, N A; Kosheleva, O V; Pereverzeva, O G; Vrzhesinskaia, O A; Kodentsova, V M; Solntseva, T N; Khanfer'ian, R A

    2013-01-01

    The sufficiency of 169 athletes (six disciplines: bullet shooting, biathlon, bobsleigh, skeleton, freestyle skiing, snowboarding) with vitamins A, E, C, B2, and beta-carotene has been investigated in April-September 2013. All athletes (102 juniors, mean age--18.5 +/- 0.3 years, and 67 adult high-performance athletes, mean age--26.8 +/- 0.7 years) were sufficiently supplied with vitamin A (70.7 +/- 1.7 mcg/dl). Mean blood serum retinol level was 15% higher the upper limit of the norm (80 mcg/dl) in biathletes while median reached 90.9 mcg/dl. Blood serum level of tocopherols (1.22 +/- 0.03 mg/dl), ascorbic acid (1.06 +/- 0.03 mg/dl), riboflavin (7.1 +/- 0.4 ng/ml), and beta-carotene (25.1 +/- 1.7 mcg/dl) was in within normal range, but the incidence of insufficiency of vitamins E, C, B2, and carotenoid among athletes varied in the range of 0-25, 0-17, 15-67 and 42-75%, respectively. 95% of adults and 80% of younger athletes were sufficiently provided with vitamin E. Vitamin E level in blood serum of juniors involved in skeleton and biathlon was lower by 51 and 72% (p < 0.05), than this parameter in adult athletes. Vitamin A, C and B2, and beta-carotene blood serum level did not significantly differ in junior and adult athletes. Women were better supplied with vitamins C, B2, and beta-carotene: a reduced blood serum level of these micronutrients in women was detected 2-3 fold rare (p < 0.10) than among men. Blood serum concentration of vitamin C (1.20 +/- 0.05 mg/dl) and beta-carotene (32.0 +/- 3.9 mcg/dl) in women was greater by 15 and 54% (p < 0.05) than in men. In general, the biathletes were better provided with vitamins compared with other athletes. The vast majority (80%) were optimally provided by all three antioxidants (beta-carotene and vitamins E and C). In other sports, the relative quantity of athletes sufficiently supplied with these essential nutrients did not exceed 56%. The quota of supplied with all antioxidants among bullet shooters (31.1%) and

  7. India's baseline plan for nuclear energy self-sufficiency.

    SciTech Connect

    Bucher, R .G.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2009-01-01

    India's nuclear energy strategy has traditionally strived for energy self-sufficiency, driven largely by necessity following trade restrictions imposed by the Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) following India's 'peaceful nuclear explosion' of 1974. On September 6, 2008, the NSG agreed to create an exception opening nuclear trade with India, which may create opportunities for India to modify its baseline strategy. The purpose of this document is to describe India's 'baseline plan,' which was developed under constrained trade conditions, as a basis for understanding changes in India's path as a result of the opening of nuclear commerce. Note that this treatise is based upon publicly available information. No attempt is made to judge whether India can meet specified goals either in scope or schedule. In fact, the reader is warned a priori that India's delivery of stated goals has often fallen short or taken a significantly longer period to accomplish. It has been evident since the early days of nuclear power that India's natural resources would determine the direction of its civil nuclear power program. It's modest uranium but vast thorium reserves dictated that the country's primary objective would be thorium utilization. Estimates of India's natural deposits vary appreciably, but its uranium reserves are known to be extremely limited, totaling approximately 80,000 tons, on the order of 1% of the world's deposits; and nominally one-third of this ore is of very low uranium concentration. However, India's roughly 300,000 tons of thorium reserves account for approximately 30% of the world's total. Confronted with this reality, the future of India's nuclear power industry is strongly dependent on the development of a thorium-based nuclear fuel cycle as the only way to insure a stable, sustainable, and autonomous program. The path to India's nuclear energy self-sufficiency was first outlined in a seminal paper by Drs. H. J. Bhabha and N. B. Prasad presented at the Second

  8. Polylactides in additive biomanufacturing.

    PubMed

    Poh, Patrina S P; Chhaya, Mohit P; Wunner, Felix M; De-Juan-Pardo, Elena M; Schilling, Arndt F; Schantz, Jan-Thorsten; van Griensven, Martijn; Hutmacher, Dietmar W

    2016-12-15

    New advanced manufacturing technologies under the alias of additive biomanufacturing allow the design and fabrication of a range of products from pre-operative models, cutting guides and medical devices to scaffolds. The process of printing in 3 dimensions of cells, extracellular matrix (ECM) and biomaterials (bioinks, powders, etc.) to generate in vitro and/or in vivo tissue analogue structures has been termed bioprinting. To further advance in additive biomanufacturing, there are many aspects that we can learn from the wider additive manufacturing (AM) industry, which have progressed tremendously since its introduction into the manufacturing sector. First, this review gives an overview of additive manufacturing and both industry and academia efforts in addressing specific challenges in the AM technologies to drive toward AM-enabled industrial revolution. After which, considerations of poly(lactides) as a biomaterial in additive biomanufacturing are discussed. Challenges in wider additive biomanufacturing field are discussed in terms of (a) biomaterials; (b) computer-aided design, engineering and manufacturing; (c) AM and additive biomanufacturing printers hardware; and (d) system integration. Finally, the outlook for additive biomanufacturing was discussed.

  9. On necessity and sufficiency in counseling and psychotherapy (revisited).

    PubMed

    Lazarus, Arnold A

    2007-09-01

    It seems to me that Carl Rogers (see record 2007-14639-002) was far too ambitious in trying to specify general conditions of necessity and sufficiency that would be relevant to the entire spectrum of problems and the diverse expectancies and personalities of the people who seek our help. Rogers' position and orientation almost totally overlook the array of problems under the rubric of "response deficits" that stem from misinformation and missing information and call for active correction, training, and retraining. Rogers also paid scant attention to problems with significant biological determinants. Nevertheless, as exemplified by his seminal 1957 article and many other articles and books, Rogers made major contributions within the domain of the therapeutic alliance. Today, the scientific emphasis looks at accountability, the need to establish various treatments of choice, and the need to understand their presumed mechanisms. Treatment efficacy and generalizability across different methodologies are now considered key issues. The efficacy narrowing and clinically self-limiting consequences of adhering to one particular school of thought are now self-evident to most. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Abundant Inverse Regression using Sufficient Reduction and its Applications

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyunwoo J.; Smith, Brandon M.; Adluru, Nagesh; Dyer, Charles R.; Johnson, Sterling C.; Singh, Vikas

    2016-01-01

    Statistical models such as linear regression drive numerous applications in computer vision and machine learning. The landscape of practical deployments of these formulations is dominated by forward regression models that estimate the parameters of a function mapping a set of p covariates, x, to a response variable, y. The less known alternative, Inverse Regression, offers various benefits that are much less explored in vision problems. The goal of this paper is to show how Inverse Regression in the “abundant” feature setting (i.e., many subsets of features are associated with the target label or response, as is the case for images), together with a statistical construction called Sufficient Reduction, yields highly flexible models that are a natural fit for model estimation tasks in vision. Specifically, we obtain formulations that provide relevance of individual covariates used in prediction, at the level of specific examples/samples — in a sense, explaining why a particular prediction was made. With no compromise in performance relative to other methods, an ability to interpret why a learning algorithm is behaving in a specific way for each prediction, adds significant value in numerous applications. We illustrate these properties and the benefits of Abundant Inverse Regression (AIR) on three distinct applications. PMID:27796010

  11. Stochasticity, spikes and decoding: sufficiency and utility of order statistics.

    PubMed

    Richmond, Barry J

    2009-06-01

    For over 75 years it has been clear that the number of spikes in a neural response is an important part of the neuronal code. Starting as early as the 1950's with MacKay and McCullough, there has been speculation over whether each spike and its exact time of occurrence carry information. Although it is obvious that the firing rate carries information it has been less clear as to whether there is information in exactly timed patterns, when they arise from the dynamics of the neurons and networks, as opposed to when they represent some strong external drive that entrains them. One strong null hypothesis that can be applied is that spike trains arise from stochastic sampling of an underlying deterministic temporally modulated rate function, that is, there is a time-varying rate function. In this view, order statistics seem to provide a sufficient theoretical construct to both generate simulated spike trains that are indistinguishable from those observed experimentally, and to evaluate (decode) the data recovered from experiments. It remains to learn whether there are physiologically important signals that are not described by such a null hypothesis.

  12. Mammary hypoplasia: not every breast can produce sufficient milk.

    PubMed

    Arbour, Megan W; Kessler, Julia Lange

    2013-01-01

    Breast milk is considered the optimal form of nutrition for newborn infants. Current recommendations are to breastfeed for 6 months. Not all women are able to breastfeed. Mammary hypoplasia is a primary cause of failed lactogenesis II, whereby the mother is unable to produce an adequate milk volume. Women with mammary hypoplasia often have normal hormone levels and innervation but lack sufficient glandular tissue to produce an adequate milk supply to sustain their infant. The etiology of this rare condition is unclear, although there are theories that refer to genetic predisposition and estrogenic environmental exposures in select agricultural environments. Women with mammary hypoplasia may not exhibit the typical breast changes associated with pregnancy and may fail to lactate postpartum. Breasts of women with mammary hypoplasia may be widely spaced (1.5 inches or greater), asymmetric, or tuberous in nature. Awareness of the history and clinical signs of mammary hypoplasia during the prenatal period and immediate postpartum increases the likelihood that women will receive the needed education and physical and emotional support and encouragement. Several medications and herbs demonstrate some efficacy in increasing breast milk production in women with mammary hypoplasia.

  13. The Generalized Asymptotic Equipartition Property: Necessary and Sufficient Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Matthew T.

    2011-01-01

    Suppose a string X1n=(X1,X2,…,Xn) generated by a memoryless source (Xn)n≥1 with distribution P is to be compressed with distortion no greater than D ≥ 0, using a memoryless random codebook with distribution Q. The compression performance is determined by the “generalized asymptotic equipartition property” (AEP), which states that the probability of finding a D-close match between X1n and any given codeword Y1n, is approximately 2−nR(P, Q, D), where the rate function R(P, Q, D) can be expressed as an infimum of relative entropies. The main purpose here is to remove various restrictive assumptions on the validity of this result that have appeared in the recent literature. Necessary and sufficient conditions for the generalized AEP are provided in the general setting of abstract alphabets and unbounded distortion measures. All possible distortion levels D ≥ 0 are considered; the source (Xn)n≥1 can be stationary and ergodic; and the codebook distribution can have memory. Moreover, the behavior of the matching probability is precisely characterized, even when the generalized AEP is not valid. Natural characterizations of the rate function R(P, Q, D) are established under equally general conditions. PMID:21614133

  14. Resource Utilization and Site Selection for a Self-Sufficient Martian Outpost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, Donald; Chamitoff, Gregory; James, George

    1998-01-01

    As a planet with striking similarities to Earth, Mars is an important focus for scientific research aimed at understanding the processes of planetary evolution and the formation of our solar system. Fortunately, Mars is also a planet with abundant natural resources, including assessible materials that can be used to support human life and to sustain a self-sufficient martian outpost. Resources required include water, breathable air, food, shelter, energy, and fuel. Through a mission design based on in situ resource development, we can establish a permanent outpost on Mars beginning with the first manned mission. This paper examines the potential for supporting the first manned mission with the objective of achieving self-sufficiency through well-understood resource development and a program of rigorous scientific research aimed at extending that capability. We examine the potential for initially extracting critical resources from the martian environment, and discuss the scientific investigations required to identify additional resources in the atmosphere, on the surface, and within the subsurface. We also discuss our current state of knowledge of Mars, technical considerations of resource utilization, and using unmanned missions' data for selecting an optimal site. The primary goal of achieving self-sufficiency on Mars would accelerate the development of human colonization beyond Earth, while providing a robust and permanent martian base from which humans can explore and conduct long-term research on planetary evolution, the solar system, and life itself.

  15. Redox self-sufficient whole cell biotransformation for amination of alcohols.

    PubMed

    Klatte, Stephanie; Wendisch, Volker F

    2014-10-15

    Whole cell biotransformation is an upcoming tool to replace common chemical routes for functionalization and modification of desired molecules. In the approach presented here the production of various non-natural (di)amines was realized using the designed whole cell biocatalyst Escherichia coli W3110/pTrc99A-ald-adh-ta with plasmid-borne overexpression of genes for an l-alanine dehydrogenase, an alcohol dehydrogenase and a transaminase. Cascading alcohol oxidation with l-alanine dependent transamination and l-alanine dehydrogenase allowed for redox self-sufficient conversion of alcohols to the corresponding amines. The supplementation of the corresponding (di)alcohol precursors as well as amino group donor l-alanine and ammonium chloride were sufficient for amination and redox cofactor recycling in a resting buffer system. The addition of the transaminase cofactor pyridoxal-phosphate and the alcohol dehydrogenase cofactor NAD(+) was not necessary to obtain complete conversion. Secondary and cyclic alcohols, for example, 2-hexanol and cyclohexanol were not aminated. However, efficient redox self-sufficient amination of aliphatic and aromatic (di)alcohols in vivo was achieved with 1-hexanol, 1,10-decanediol and benzylalcohol being aminated best.

  16. Technical Basis for the Determination that Current Characterization Data and Processes are Sufficient to Ensure Safe Storage and to Design Waste Disposal

    SciTech Connect

    SIMPSON, B.C.

    1999-08-12

    This document presents the technical basis for closure of Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) Recommendation 93-5 Implementation Plan milestone 5.6.3.13, ''Core sample all tanks by 2002'' (DOE-RL 1996). The milestone was based on the need for characterization data to ensure safe storage of the waste, to operate the tanks safely, and to plan and implement retrieval and processing of the waste. Sufficient tank characterization data have been obtained to ensure that existing controls are adequate for safe storage of the waste in the 177 waste tanks at the Hanford Site. In addition, a process has been developed, executed, and institutionalized to systemically identify information needs, to integrate and prioritize the needs, and to reliably obtain and analyze the associated samples. This document provides a technical case that the remaining 45 incompletely sampled tanks no longer require sampling to support the intent of the Implementation Plan milestone. Sufficient data have been obtained to close the Unreviewed Safety Questions (USQs), and to ensure that existing hazard controls are adequate and appropriately applied. However, in the future, additional characterization of tanks at the site will be required to support identified information needs. Closure of this milestone allows sampling and analytical data to be obtained in a manner that is consistent with the integrated priority process.

  17. Defining Self-Sufficiency in the United States Marine Corps

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-18

    fuel, and buildings (e.g., roads, ports, airfields, railways, power grids, water purification plants ).  Available natural resources: The...operating forces. Important facilities to be concerned with in the planning process are the available power grid, water purification plants , and oil...in the United States Marine Corps 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER

  18. Increasing adult hippocampal neurogenesis is sufficient to improve pattern separation.

    PubMed

    Sahay, Amar; Scobie, Kimberly N; Hill, Alexis S; O'Carroll, Colin M; Kheirbek, Mazen A; Burghardt, Nesha S; Fenton, André A; Dranovsky, Alex; Hen, René

    2011-04-28

    Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is a unique form of neural circuit plasticity that results in the generation of new neurons in the dentate gyrus throughout life. Neurons that arise in adults (adult-born neurons) show heightened synaptic plasticity during their maturation and can account for up to ten per cent of the entire granule cell population. Moreover, levels of adult hippocampal neurogenesis are increased by interventions that are associated with beneficial effects on cognition and mood, such as learning, environmental enrichment, exercise and chronic treatment with antidepressants. Together, these properties of adult neurogenesis indicate that this process could be harnessed to improve hippocampal functions. However, despite a substantial number of studies demonstrating that adult-born neurons are necessary for mediating specific cognitive functions, as well as some of the behavioural effects of antidepressants, it is unknown whether an increase in adult hippocampal neurogenesis is sufficient to improve cognition and mood. Here we show that inducible genetic expansion of the population of adult-born neurons through enhancing their survival improves performance in a specific cognitive task in which two similar contexts need to be distinguished. Mice with increased adult hippocampal neurogenesis show normal object recognition, spatial learning, contextual fear conditioning and extinction learning but are more efficient in differentiating between overlapping contextual representations, which is indicative of enhanced pattern separation. Furthermore, stimulation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis, when combined with an intervention such as voluntary exercise, produces a robust increase in exploratory behaviour. However, increasing adult hippocampal neurogenesis alone does not produce a behavioural response like that induced by anxiolytic agents or antidepressants. Together, our findings suggest that strategies that are designed to increase adult hippocampal

  19. Greater learnability is not sufficient to produce cultural universals.

    PubMed

    Rafferty, Anna N; Griffiths, Thomas L; Ettlinger, Marc

    2013-10-01

    Looking across human societies reveals regularities in the languages that people speak and the concepts that they use. One explanation that has been proposed for these "cultural universals" is differences in the ease with which people learn particular languages and concepts. A difference in learnability means that languages and concepts possessing a particular property are more likely to be accurately transmitted from one generation of learners to the next. Intuitively, this difference could allow languages and concepts that are more learnable to become more prevalent after multiple generations of cultural transmission. If this is the case, the prevalence of languages and concepts with particular properties can be explained simply by demonstrating empirically that they are more learnable. We evaluate this argument using mathematical analysis and behavioral experiments. Specifically, we provide two counter-examples that show how greater learnability need not result in a property becoming prevalent. First, more learnable languages and concepts can nonetheless be less likely to be produced spontaneously as a result of transmission failures. We simulated cultural transmission in the laboratory to show that this can occur for memory of distinctive items: these items are more likely to be remembered, but not generated spontaneously once they have been forgotten. Second, when there are many languages or concepts that lack the more learnable property, sheer numbers can swamp the benefit produced by greater learnability. We demonstrate this using a second series of experiments involving artificial language learning. Both of these counter-examples show that simply finding a learnability bias experimentally is not sufficient to explain why a particular property is prevalent in the languages or concepts used in human societies: explanations for cultural universals based on cultural transmission need to consider the full set of hypotheses a learner could entertain and all of

  20. Statistical estimation of resin composite polymerization sufficiency using microhardness.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Mark E; Leonard, Daniel L; Charlton, David G; Roberts, Howard W; Ragain, James C

    2004-02-01

    With respect to determining sub-surface resin polymerization sufficiency, this study compared a traditional method of applying linear regression to bottom- to top-surface Knoop hardness ratios to an alternative method based on nonlinear regression. Inverse linear regression on ratios was used to estimate the exposure duration required for 80% bottom-surface hardness with respect to the top, in six light-by-material groups. Alternatively, a one-phase, two-parameter, exponential association of the form Y=Y(max)(1-e(-kt)) (where Y(max) is maximum hardness, k is a rate constant, and t is exposure duration), was used to model hardness. Inverse nonlinear regression estimated, for each condition, the exposure duration required for the bottom surface to achieve 80% of corresponding condition (light and material) top-surface Y(max). Mathematically, analysis of ratios was demonstrated to yield potentially less precise and biased estimates. Nonlinear regression yielded better statistical fit and provided easily accessible tests for differences in k across light-system groups. Another recently proposed nonlinear model for polymerization, Y=Y(max)kt(n)/(1+kt(n)), was also considered. While this new model has substantially greater phenomenological and mechanistic justification, we found that the model-fitting process was more sensitive to initial parameter values and sometimes yielded untenable results when applied to our data. However, we believe that these problems would not occur if sample points are well distributed across a wide range of exposure durations, and that the model, Y=Y(max)kt(n)/(1+kt(n)), should be considered for such data sets.

  1. [Effect of vitamin sufficiency on adaptation syndrome in growing rats].

    PubMed

    Sidorova, Iu S; Beketova, N A; Vrzhesinskaia, O A; Kodentsova, V M; Kosheleva, O V; Zorin, S N; Selifanov, A V; Mazo, V K

    2014-01-01

    The influence of vitamin supply of growing male -Wistar rats (n=21) with an initial body weight 53,5±0,9 g on their resistance to a single distress induced by the electric shock has been investigated. Control rats within 21 days received a complete semisynthetic diet,providingadequate amounts of vitamins. Combined vitamin deficiency in experimental rats was caused by 5-fold decrease of vitamin mixture amount in the feed and the total vitamin E exclusion from the mixture. On the 21st day, one day before the end of the experiment, both groups of rats were subjected to stress impact (electrocutaneous irritation on paws, 0,4 mA for 8 sec) and then animals were placed in metabolic cages to collect urine. By the end of the experiment, the animals with the combined vitamin deficiency lag behind in growth. Vitamin B2, A, B1 and E liver content decreased in experimental rats by 1,6, 2,3, 4,4 and 15 fold accordingly. Retinol plasma concentration was significantly reduced by 18%, α-tocopherol level - by 5 fold, urinary excretionof riboflavin and 4-pyridoxic acid (vitamin B6 metabolite) was significantly reduced by 6,5 and 2,46 times accordingly. MDA blood plasma concentration and the urinary ratio of oxidized and not oxidized form of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxy-guanosine did not differ in both groups of rats. Urinary excretion of stress biomarker corticosterone in rats with combined vitamin deficit was 2,5-fold higher than in control rats. Thus, reducing of vitamins supply resulted in an increase of urine corticosterone in stressed rats, that characterized the intensity of general adaptation syndrome. This fact shows the importance of optimal sufficiency with vitamins in nonspecific (general) resistance to stress.

  2. Working memory maintenance is sufficient to reduce state anxiety.

    PubMed

    Balderston, Nicholas L; Quispe-Escudero, David; Hale, Elizabeth; Davis, Andrew; O'Connell, Katherine; Ernst, Monique; Grillon, Christian

    2016-11-01

    According to the attentional control theory (ACT) proposed by Eysenck and colleagues, anxiety interferes with cognitive processing by prioritizing bottom-up attentional processes over top-down attentional processes, leading to competition for access to limited resources in working memory, particularly the central executive (Eysenck, Derakshan, Santos, & Calvo, ). However, previous research using the n-back working memory task suggests that working memory load also reduces state anxiety. Assuming that similar mechanisms underlie the effect of anxiety on cognition, and the effect of cognition on anxiety, one possible implication of the ACT would suggest that the reduction of state anxiety with increasing working memory load is driven by activation of central executive attentional control processes. We tested this hypothesis using the Sternberg working memory paradigm, where maintenance processes can be isolated from central executive processes (Altamura et al., ; Sternberg, ). Consistent with the n-back results, subjects showed decreased state anxiety during the maintenance period of high-load trials relative to low-load trials, suggesting that maintenance processes alone are sufficient to achieve this state anxiety reduction. Given that the Sternberg task does not require central executive engagement, these results are not consistent with an implication of the ACT where the cognition/anxiety relationship and anxiety/cognition relationship are mediated by similar central executive mechanisms. Instead, we propose an extension of the ACT such that engaging working memory maintenance suppresses state anxiety in a load-dependent manner. Furthermore, we hypothesize that the efficacy of this effect may moderate the effect of trait anxiety on cognition.

  3. [Food self-sufficiency and the population problem in Rwanda].

    PubMed

    Tallon, F

    1988-12-01

    Food self-sufficiency is a central element of Rwanda's development policy and planning. The goal of providing each individual with at least 2100 calories per day will require increased agricultural productivity and more moderate population growth. The actions required to achieve a better balance between food production and population growth will be very difficult to achieve in Rwanda. In the past, famines resulting from war, rainfall irregularities, or other natural disasters regularly decimated the population. The last famine, in 1943-44, may have killed 1 million inhabitants of Rwanda-Urundi. Between 1966-83, the population grew from 3.3 to 5.9 million, an increase of 78%, while food production increased from 2.3 to 4.7 million tons, or 104%. The increase was due to a doubling of cultivated land, from 308,000 to 615,000 hectares, achieved by utilizing marginal lands, pastures, and forests, and by shortening fallow periods. By 1983, under pressure of population growth, the average family plot had fallen to .88 hectare. The current nutritional status of the population is in precarious balance, with adequate calorie production overall, but women and children suffer endemic malnutrition in some population sectors, leaving them vulnerable to disease and death. If population increases as projected to over 10 million in the year 2000, the average family plot may decline to scarcely 1/2 hectare. Innovations such as improved seed selection, more productive crops, use of fertilizers, and crop rotation will be required to avoid drastic declines in productivity due to soil exhaustion and erosion. Rwanda's annual population growth rate of 3.7% is the 2nd highest in the world. Fertility reduction will clearly be necessary but difficult to achieve because of the pronatalist attitudes of the population and widespread inability to envision a different future. The 1983 fertility survey indicated that 31% of married women wanted to use contraception, but despite availability of

  4. Operating Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denning, Peter J.; Brown, Robert L.

    1984-01-01

    A computer operating system spans multiple layers of complexity, from commands entered at a keyboard to the details of electronic switching. In addition, the system is organized as a hierarchy of abstractions. Various parts of such a system and system dynamics (using the Unix operating system as an example) are described. (JN)

  5. Combustion of available fossil fuel resources sufficient to eliminate the Antarctic Ice Sheet.

    PubMed

    Winkelmann, Ricarda; Levermann, Anders; Ridgwell, Andy; Caldeira, Ken

    2015-09-01

    The Antarctic Ice Sheet stores water equivalent to 58 m in global sea-level rise. We show in simulations using the Parallel Ice Sheet Model that burning the currently attainable fossil fuel resources is sufficient to eliminate the ice sheet. With cumulative fossil fuel emissions of 10,000 gigatonnes of carbon (GtC), Antarctica is projected to become almost ice-free with an average contribution to sea-level rise exceeding 3 m per century during the first millennium. Consistent with recent observations and simulations, the West Antarctic Ice Sheet becomes unstable with 600 to 800 GtC of additional carbon emissions. Beyond this additional carbon release, the destabilization of ice basins in both West and East Antarctica results in a threshold increase in global sea level. Unabated carbon emissions thus threaten the Antarctic Ice Sheet in its entirety with associated sea-level rise that far exceeds that of all other possible sources.

  6. PT symmetry and necessary and sufficient conditions for the reality of energy eigenvalues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bender, Carl M.; Mannheim, Philip D.

    2010-04-01

    The mathematical requirement that a Hamiltonian H be Hermitian is sufficient to guarantee the reality of its eigenvalues, but it is not necessary. By establishing three theorems, this Letter gives conditions that are both necessary and sufficient. First, it is shown that if the secular equation is real, the Hamiltonian is necessarily PT symmetric. Second, the set of all operators C that nontrivially obey the two equations [C,H]=0 and C=1 is introduced. For a diagonalizable PT-symmetric Hamiltonian it is shown that the set is nonempty and that the energy eigenvalues of H are all real only if every such C commutes with PT. There is at least one complex-conjugate pair of eigenvalues whenever at least one such C does not commute with PT. Third, the eigenvalues of any nondiagonalizable Jordan-block matrix that possesses just one eigenvector are all real if the block is PT symmetric, and are all complex if it is not. These theorems hold for matrix Hamiltonians of any finite dimensionality.

  7. Impact of Market Behavior, Fleet Composition, and Ancillary Services on Revenue Sufficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Frew, Bethany; Gallo, Giulia; Brinkman, Gregory; Milligan, Michael; Clark, Kara; Bloom, Aaron

    2016-06-01

    Revenue insufficiency, or the missing money problem, occurs when the revenues that generators earn from the market are not sufficient to cover both fixed and variable costs to remain in the market and/or justify investments in new capacity, which may be needed for reliability. The near-zero marginal cost of variable renewable generators further exacerbates these revenue challenges. Estimating the extent of the missing money problem in current electricity markets is an important, nontrivial task that requires representing both how the power system operates and how market participants behave. This paper explores the missing money problem using a production cost model that represented a simplified version of the Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT) energy-only market for the years 2012-2014. We evaluate how various market structures -- including market behavior, ancillary services, and changing fleet compositions -- affect net revenues in this ERCOT-like system. In most production cost modeling exercises, resources are assumed to offer their marginal capabilities at marginal costs. Although this assumption is reasonable for feasibility studies and long-term planning, it does not adequately consider the market behaviors that impact revenue sufficiency. In this work, we simulate a limited set of market participant strategic bidding behaviors by means of different sets of markups; these markups are applied to the true production costs of all gas generators, which are the most prominent generators in ERCOT. Results show that markups can help generators increase their net revenues overall, although net revenues may increase or decrease depending on the technology and the year under study. Results also confirm that conventional, variable-cost-based production cost simulations do not capture prices accurately, and this particular feature calls for proxies for strategic behaviors (e.g., markups) and more accurate representations of how electricity markets work. The

  8. Towards self-sufficiency in health learning materials.

    PubMed

    Dixit, H

    1994-01-01

    The health learning network operating between southeast Asian countries initially consist of 4 pilot projects, supported since 1981 by the United Nations Development Program and the World Health Organization, in Kenya, Morocco, Nepal and Sudan; the program since 1981 has expanded into more than 30 countries. Collaborative networks exist in Nairobi, Kenya, for 9 other countries, in Cotonou for 9 other countries, in Alexandria for the eastern Mediterranean countries, and in Bissau for 6 countries. These networks use respectively, the following languages: English, French, Arabic, and Portuguese. In 1990, the southeast Asian network was established in Kathmandu and exchanged health materials between centers in Jakarta, Indonesia; Yangon, Myanmar; Kathmandu, Nepal; Kalutara Sri Lanka; and Bangkok, Thailand. Some of the materials produced in Nepali cover the following topics: medical textbooks, infectious diseases, health post administration, midwives, community health education, breast feeding guidelines, health care without a dentist, health care without a doctor, environmental sanitation, and biochemistry. In Thailand, audiovisual materials for the health worker have been produced. Even though there are five different languages involved in the participating countries, English provides the link. The centers vary in their level of development. The kings of materials produced include books, manuals, booklets, pamphlets, posters, slides, and video films. There is no copyright, which allows for unfettered translation and adaptation of materials to the local context. Workshops on writing skills and audiovisual application have been held, and surveys on the needs and resources of health education conducted. An outreach effort is underway in Mongolia with the assistance of the five network countries. There is always a need for volunteers from developed countries to train local people in microcomputing design and editing skills and in developing the capacity to network via

  9. Steviol glycoside safety: is the genotoxicity database sufficient?

    PubMed

    Urban, J D; Carakostas, M C; Brusick, D J

    2013-01-01

    The safety of steviol glycoside sweeteners has been extensively reviewed in the literature. National and international food safety agencies and approximately 20 expert panels have concluded that steviol glycosides, including the widely used sweeteners stevioside and rebaudioside A, are not genotoxic. However, concern has been expressed in recent publications that steviol glycosides may be mutagenic based on select studies representing a small fraction of the overall database, and it has been suggested that further in vivo genotoxicity studies are required to complete their safety profiles. To address the utility of conducting additional in vivo genotoxicity studies, this review evaluates the specific genotoxicity studies that are the sources of concern, and evaluates the adequacy of the database including more recent genotoxicity data not mentioned in those publications. The current database of in vitro and in vivo studies for steviol glycosides is robust and does not indicate that either stevioside or rebaudioside A are genotoxic. This, combined with a lack of evidence for neoplasm development in rat bioassays, establish the safety of all steviol glycosides with respect to their genotoxic/carcinogenic potential.

  10. Dormancy Is Not Necessary or Sufficient for Bacterial Persistence

    PubMed Central

    Orman, Mehmet A.

    2013-01-01

    The antibiotic tolerances of bacterial persisters have been attributed to transient dormancy. While persisters have been observed to be growth inhibited prior to antibiotic exposure, we sought to determine whether such a trait was essential to the phenotype. Furthermore, we sought to provide direct experimental evidence of the persister metabolic state so as to determine whether the common assumption of metabolic inactivity was valid. Using fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS), a fluorescent indicator of cell division, a fluorescent measure of metabolic activity, and persistence assays, we found that bacteria that are rapidly growing prior to antibiotic exposure can give rise to persisters and that a lack of replication or low metabolic activity prior to antibiotic treatment simply increases the likelihood that a cell is a persister. Interestingly, a lack of significant growth or metabolic activity does not guarantee persistence, as the majority of even “dormant” subpopulations (>99%) were not persisters. These data suggest that persistence is far more complex than dormancy and point to additional characteristics needed to define the persister phenotype. PMID:23629720

  11. Measuring what latent fingerprint examiners consider sufficient information for individualization determinations.

    PubMed

    Ulery, Bradford T; Hicklin, R Austin; Roberts, Maria Antonia; Buscaglia, JoAnn

    2014-01-01

    Latent print examiners use their expertise to determine whether the information present in a comparison of two fingerprints (or palmprints) is sufficient to conclude that the prints were from the same source (individualization). When fingerprint evidence is presented in court, it is the examiner's determination--not an objective metric--that is presented. This study was designed to ascertain the factors that explain examiners' determinations of sufficiency for individualization. Volunteer latent print examiners (n = 170) were each assigned 22 pairs of latent and exemplar prints for examination, and annotated features, correspondence of features, and clarity. The 320 image pairs were selected specifically to control clarity and quantity of features. The predominant factor differentiating annotations associated with individualization and inconclusive determinations is the count of corresponding minutiae; other factors such as clarity provided minimal additional discriminative value. Examiners' counts of corresponding minutiae were strongly associated with their own determinations; however, due to substantial variation of both annotations and determinations among examiners, one examiner's annotation and determination on a given comparison is a relatively weak predictor of whether another examiner would individualize. The extensive variability in annotations also means that we must treat any individual examiner's minutia counts as interpretations of the (unknowable) information content of the prints: saying "the prints had N corresponding minutiae marked" is not the same as "the prints had N corresponding minutiae." More consistency in annotations, which could be achieved through standardization and training, should lead to process improvements and provide greater transparency in casework.

  12. Human papillomavirus causes an angiogenic switch in keratinocytes which is sufficient to alter endothelial cell behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, W.; Li, F.; Mead, L.; White, H.; Walker, J.; Ingram, D.A.; Roman, A.

    2007-10-10

    One of the requirements for tumor growth is the ability to recruit a blood supply, a process known as angiogenesis. Angiogenesis begins early in the progression of cervical disease from mild to severe dysplasia and on to invasive cancer. We have previously reported that expression of human papillomavirus type 16 E6 and E7 (HPV16 E6E7) proteins in primary foreskin keratinocytes (HFKs) decreases expression of two inhibitors and increases expression of two angiogenic inducers [Toussaint-Smith, E., Donner, D.B., Roman, A., 2004. Expression of human papillomavirus type 16 E6 and E7 oncoproteins in primary foreskin keratinocytes is sufficient to alter the expression of angiogenic factors. Oncogene 23, 2988-2995]. Here we report that HPV-induced early changes in the keratinocyte phenotype are sufficient to alter endothelial cell behavior both in vitro and in vivo. Conditioned media from HPV16 E6E7 expressing HFKs as well as from human cervical keratinocytes containing the intact HPV16 were able to stimulate proliferation and migration of human microvascular endothelial cells. In addition, introduction of the conditioned media into immunocompetent mice using a Matrigel plug model resulted in a clear angiogenic response. These novel data support the hypothesis that HPV proteins contribute not only to the uncontrolled keratinocyte growth seen following HPV infection but also to the angiogenic response needed for tumor formation.

  13. Sufficient and necessary conditions for discrete-time nonlinear switched systems with uniform local exponential stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Junjie; She, Zhikun

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, we investigate sufficient and necessary conditions of uniform local exponential stability (ULES) for the discrete-time nonlinear switched system (DTNSS). We start with the definition of T-step common Lyapunov functions (CLFs), which is a relaxation of traditional CLFs. Then, for a time-varying DTNSS, by constructing such a T-step CLF, a necessary and sufficient condition for its ULES is provided. Afterwards, we strengthen it based on a T-step Lipschitz continuous CLF. Especially, when the system is time-invariant, by the smooth approximation theorem, the Lipschitz continuity condition of T-step CLFs can further be replaced by continuous differentiability; and when the system is time-invariant and homogeneous, due to the extension of Weierstrass approximation theorem, T-step continuously differentiable CLFs can even be strengthened to be T-step polynomial CLFs. Furthermore, three illustrative examples are additionally used to explain our main contribution. In the end, an equivalence between time-varying DTNSSs and their corresponding linearisations is discussed.

  14. Is the standard dose of amoxicillin-clavulanic acid sufficient?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The pharmacodynamic (PD) efficacy target of amoxicillin is 40% time above the minimal inhibition concentration (40%T > MIC). Recent studies of other antibiotics have shown that PD-efficacy targets are not always reached. The aim of this study was to evaluate the percentage of hospitalised patients, using amoxicillin/clavulanic acid intravenously (iv), that reach the pharmacodynamic efficacy target 40%T > MIC. Additionally, the association of demographic anthropomorphic and clinical parameters with the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of amoxicillin were determined. Methods In serum of 57 hospitalised patients amoxicillin concentrations were measured using high performance liquid chromatography. Patients were older than 18 years and most patients had an abdominal infection. The standard amoxicillin/clavulanic acid dose was 4 times a day 1000/200 mg iv. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated with maximum a posteriori Bayesian estimation (MW\\Pharm 3.60). A one-compartment open model was used. Individual dosing simulations were performed with MW\\Pharm. Results In our study population, the mean (±SD) age was 67 (±16) years and the mean clearance corrected for bodyweight was 0.17 (±0.07) L/h/kg. Only, 65% of the patients reached the proposed amoxicillin 40%T > MIC with amoxicillin/clavulanic acid for bacterial MICs of 8 mg/L. A computer simulated increase of the standard dose to 6 times daily, increased this percentage to 95%. In this small study group 40%T > MIC was not associated with clinical or microbiological cure. Conclusion A substantial proportion of the hospitalised patients did not reach the 40%T > MIC with the standard dose amoxicillin/clavulanic acid for a bacterial MIC of 8 mg/L. Therefore, we suggest increasing the standard dose of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid to 6 times a day in patients with severe Enterobacteriaceae infections. Trial registration Trial registration number: NTR1725 16th march 2009. PMID

  15. Co‐immobilized Phosphorylated Cofactors and Enzymes as Self‐Sufficient Heterogeneous Biocatalysts for Chemical Processes

    PubMed Central

    Velasco‐Lozano, Susana; Benítez‐Mateos, Ana I.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Enzyme cofactors play a major role in biocatalysis, as many enzymes require them to catalyze highly valuable reactions in organic synthesis. However, the cofactor recycling is often a hurdle to implement enzymes at the industrial level. The fabrication of heterogeneous biocatalysts co‐immobilizing phosphorylated cofactors (PLP, FAD+, and NAD+) and enzymes onto the same solid material is reported to perform chemical reactions without exogeneous addition of cofactors in aqueous media. In these self‐sufficient heterogeneous biocatalysts, the immobilized enzymes are catalytically active and the immobilized cofactors catalytically available and retained into the solid phase for several reaction cycles. Finally, we have applied a NAD+‐dependent heterogeneous biocatalyst to continuous flow asymmetric reduction of prochiral ketones, thus demonstrating the robustness of this approach for large scale biotransformations. PMID:28000978

  16. [Is the successful eradication of Helicobacter pylori sufficient for the healing of peptic ulcer?].

    PubMed

    Pregun, István; Herszényi, László; Juhász, Márk; Miheller, Pál; Tulassay, Zsolt

    2006-03-12

    Helicobacter pylori has a major role in the pathogenesis of peptic ulcer disease. Cure of the infection is essential in ulcer healing, but an additional PPI therapy after completing eradication treatment is widespread in clinical practice. In the present work clinical studies evaluating peptic ulcer healing followed or not by PPI treatment after eradication therapy were analyzed. The results of these trials are concordant that only a minority of patients with duodenal ulcer would benefit from prolonged acid suppressive treatment, a successful eradication therapy (that counts for a large proportion) is sufficient. There are less data available concerning gastric ulcer: successful eradication is also essential to ulcer healing and to avoid relapse, however it seems that post-eradication PPI therapy might be beneficial.

  17. Co-immobilized Phosphorylated Cofactors and Enzymes as Self-Sufficient Heterogeneous Biocatalysts for Chemical Processes.

    PubMed

    Velasco-Lozano, Susana; Benítez-Mateos, Ana I; López-Gallego, Fernando

    2017-01-16

    Enzyme cofactors play a major role in biocatalysis, as many enzymes require them to catalyze highly valuable reactions in organic synthesis. However, the cofactor recycling is often a hurdle to implement enzymes at the industrial level. The fabrication of heterogeneous biocatalysts co-immobilizing phosphorylated cofactors (PLP, FAD(+) , and NAD(+) ) and enzymes onto the same solid material is reported to perform chemical reactions without exogeneous addition of cofactors in aqueous media. In these self-sufficient heterogeneous biocatalysts, the immobilized enzymes are catalytically active and the immobilized cofactors catalytically available and retained into the solid phase for several reaction cycles. Finally, we have applied a NAD(+) -dependent heterogeneous biocatalyst to continuous flow asymmetric reduction of prochiral ketones, thus demonstrating the robustness of this approach for large scale biotransformations.

  18. Overexpression of ERβ is sufficient to inhibit hypoxia-inducible factor-1 transactivation

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Choa; Lee, YoungJoo

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • We examined the effect of ERβ specific ligand on HIF-1 inhibition. • DPN down-regulates the ARNT protein levels in PC3 cells. • DPN did not show additional effect in ERβ transfected MCF-7 cells. • Our study shows that unliganded ERβ is sufficient to inhibit HIF-1 in systems of overexpression. - Abstract: Estrogen receptor (ER) β is predicted to play an important role in the prevention of breast cancer development and progression. We have previously shown that ERβ suppresses hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1-mediated transcription through aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT) degradation via ubiquitination processes. In this study, we attempted to examine the effect of ERβ specific ligand on HIF-1 inhibition in ERβ positive PC3 cells and ERβ transfected MCF-7 cells. ERβ specific agonist diarylpropionitrile (DPN) stimulated estrogen response element (ERE)-luciferase activity in a similar fashion to estradiol in PC3 cells. We observed that DPN down-regulates the ARNT protein levels leading to an attenuation of hypoxia-induced hypoxia response element (HRE)-driven luciferase reporter gene activation in PC3 cells. Treatment of DPN reduced vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression and co-treatment with ERβ specific antagonist PHTPP abrogated the effect in PC3 cells. We then examined the effect of DPN in ERβ transfected MCF-7 cells. HIF-1 transcriptional activity repression by ERβ was not further reduced by DPN, as examined by HRE-driven luciferase assays. Expression of ERβ significantly decreased VEGF secretion and ARNT expression under hypoxic conditions. However, DPN did not additionally affect this suppression in MCF-7 cells transfected with ERβ. This result shows that unliganded ERβ is sufficient to inhibit HIF-1 in systems of overexpression.

  19. Sufficiency of Longitudinal Moment of Inertia for Haptic Cylinder Length Judgments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cabe, Patrick A.

    2010-01-01

    Many studies invoke moment of inertia (I[subscript ii]) as necessary and sufficient information to perceive cylinder length via wielding, yet some assert that I[subscript ii] is neither necessary (weight, "m", or static moment, M, are sufficient) nor sufficient for length judgments ("m" or M is necessary). Mathematical expressions for I[subscript…

  20. A combined system of microbial fuel cell and intermittently aerated biological filter for energy self-sufficient wastewater treatment

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Yue; Feng, Yujie; Qu, Youpeng; Du, Yue; Zhou, Xiangtong; Liu, Jia

    2015-01-01

    Energy self-sufficiency is a highly desirable goal of sustainable wastewater treatment. Herein, a combined system of a microbial fuel cell and an intermittently aerated biological filter (MFC-IABF) was designed and operated in an energy self-sufficient manner. The system was fed with synthetic wastewater (COD = 1000 mg L−1) in continuous mode for more than 3 months at room temperature (~25 °C). Voltage output was increased to 5 ± 0.4 V using a capacitor-based circuit. The MFC produced electricity to power the pumping and aeration systems in IABF, concomitantly removing COD. The IABF operating under an intermittent aeration mode (aeration rate 1000 ± 80 mL h−1) removed the residual nutrients and improved the water quality at HRT = 7.2 h. This two-stage combined system obtained 93.9% SCOD removal and 91.7% TCOD removal (effluent SCOD = 61 mg L−1, TCOD = 82.8 mg L−1). Energy analysis indicated that the MFC unit produced sufficient energy (0.27 kWh m−3) to support the pumping system (0.014 kWh m−3) and aeration system (0.22 kWh m−3). These results demonstrated that the combined MFC-IABF system could be operated in an energy self-sufficient manner, resulting to high-quality effluent. PMID:26666392

  1. A combined system of microbial fuel cell and intermittently aerated biological filter for energy self-sufficient wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Dong, Yue; Feng, Yujie; Qu, Youpeng; Du, Yue; Zhou, Xiangtong; Liu, Jia

    2015-12-15

    Energy self-sufficiency is a highly desirable goal of sustainable wastewater treatment. Herein, a combined system of a microbial fuel cell and an intermittently aerated biological filter (MFC-IABF) was designed and operated in an energy self-sufficient manner. The system was fed with synthetic wastewater (COD = 1000 mg L(-1)) in continuous mode for more than 3 months at room temperature (~25 °C). Voltage output was increased to 5 ± 0.4 V using a capacitor-based circuit. The MFC produced electricity to power the pumping and aeration systems in IABF, concomitantly removing COD. The IABF operating under an intermittent aeration mode (aeration rate 1000 ± 80 mL h(-1)) removed the residual nutrients and improved the water quality at HRT = 7.2 h. This two-stage combined system obtained 93.9% SCOD removal and 91.7% TCOD removal (effluent SCOD = 61 mg L(-1), TCOD = 82.8 mg L(-1)). Energy analysis indicated that the MFC unit produced sufficient energy (0.27 kWh m(-3)) to support the pumping system (0.014 kWh m(-3)) and aeration system (0.22 kWh m(-3)). These results demonstrated that the combined MFC-IABF system could be operated in an energy self-sufficient manner, resulting to high-quality effluent.

  2. Darwin's passionate environmentalism or the dangerous fallacy of the 'All-sufficiency of natural selection' theory.

    PubMed

    Marsh, David

    2012-01-01

    Following his last edition of the Origin of Species in 1872, Darwin spent much of the rest of his life searching for possible mechanisms, such as the pangenes in the blood, which would communicate information from the environment to the genome. In each of his six editions of the 'Origin', he stated that there were two forces in evolution - natural selection and conditions of existence. Of the two, he claims that the latter is the more powerful. In so doing, he recognized that natural selection could only operate within the bounds of possibility, that is the environment. August Weismann claimed that conditions of existence had no place in evolution. His publication, the 'All-sufficiency of natural selection', was based on mutilation (cutting tails of rodents and watching the next generation grow tails), which has nothing to do with Darwin's concept of conditions of existence. Nonetheless, evolutionary biologists in general followed the line of the 'all sufficiency' theory and ignored Darwin's conditions of existence, which in other words means the environment. Natural selection has a weak predictive power as it is based on random events. However, the conditions of existence have, by contrast, strong predictive powers that can be tested. The environmental views of two of the greatest evolutionists, Lamarck and Darwin, have been consistently ignored by most evolution theorists who came after them, continuing for over 200 years. Looking at the fossil record through the eyes of Darwin's conditions of existence, not to mention the recent changes in height and shape over the last century, it is possible to draw important conclusions about the past and predictions of the future. With new knowledge of epigenetics, it is perhaps time that Darwin's conditions of existence were given a second hearing.

  3. GENERAL THEORY FOR INTERACTIONS IN SUFFICIENT CAUSE MODELS WITH DICHOTOMOUS EXPOSURES

    PubMed Central

    VanderWeele, Tyler J.; Richardson, Thomas S.

    2014-01-01

    The sufficient-component cause framework assumes the existence of sets of sufficient causes that bring about an event. For a binary outcome and an arbitrary number of binary causes any set of potential outcomes can be replicated by positing a set of sufficient causes; typically this representation is not unique. A sufficient cause interaction is said to be present if within all representations there exists a sufficient cause in which two or more particular causes are all present. A singular interaction is said to be present if for some subset of individuals there is a unique minimal sufficient cause. Empirical and counterfactual conditions are given for sufficient cause interactions and singular interactions between an arbitrary number of causes. Conditions are given for cases in which none, some or all of a given set of causes affect the outcome monotonically. The relations between these results, interactions in linear statistical models and Pearl’s probability of causation are discussed. PMID:25552780

  4. Integrable operators and the squares of Hankel operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blower, Gordon

    2008-04-01

    Integrable operators arise in random matrix theory, where they describe the asymptotic eigenvalue distribution of large self-adjoint random matrices from the generalized unitary ensembles. This paper gives sufficient conditions for an integrable operator to be the square of a Hankel operator, and applies the condition to the Airy, associated Laguerre, modified Bessel and Whittaker functions.

  5. 10 CFR 70.65 - Additional content of applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... sufficient detail to understand the theory of operation; and, for each process, the hazards that were... the types of accident sequences; (4) Information that demonstrates the licensee's compliance with...

  6. 10 CFR 70.65 - Additional content of applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... sufficient detail to understand the theory of operation; and, for each process, the hazards that were... the types of accident sequences; (4) Information that demonstrates the licensee's compliance with...

  7. 10 CFR 70.65 - Additional content of applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... sufficient detail to understand the theory of operation; and, for each process, the hazards that were... the types of accident sequences; (4) Information that demonstrates the licensee's compliance with...

  8. 10 CFR 70.65 - Additional content of applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... sufficient detail to understand the theory of operation; and, for each process, the hazards that were... the types of accident sequences; (4) Information that demonstrates the licensee's compliance with...

  9. 10 CFR 70.65 - Additional content of applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... sufficient detail to understand the theory of operation; and, for each process, the hazards that were... the types of accident sequences; (4) Information that demonstrates the licensee's compliance with...

  10. Measuring What Latent Fingerprint Examiners Consider Sufficient Information for Individualization Determinations

    PubMed Central

    Ulery, Bradford T.; Hicklin, R. Austin; Roberts, Maria Antonia; Buscaglia, JoAnn

    2014-01-01

    Latent print examiners use their expertise to determine whether the information present in a comparison of two fingerprints (or palmprints) is sufficient to conclude that the prints were from the same source (individualization). When fingerprint evidence is presented in court, it is the examiner's determination—not an objective metric—that is presented. This study was designed to ascertain the factors that explain examiners' determinations of sufficiency for individualization. Volunteer latent print examiners (n = 170) were each assigned 22 pairs of latent and exemplar prints for examination, and annotated features, correspondence of features, and clarity. The 320 image pairs were selected specifically to control clarity and quantity of features. The predominant factor differentiating annotations associated with individualization and inconclusive determinations is the count of corresponding minutiae; other factors such as clarity provided minimal additional discriminative value. Examiners' counts of corresponding minutiae were strongly associated with their own determinations; however, due to substantial variation of both annotations and determinations among examiners, one examiner's annotation and determination on a given comparison is a relatively weak predictor of whether another examiner would individualize. The extensive variability in annotations also means that we must treat any individual examiner's minutia counts as interpretations of the (unknowable) information content of the prints: saying “the prints had N corresponding minutiae marked” is not the same as “the prints had N corresponding minutiae.” More consistency in annotations, which could be achieved through standardization and training, should lead to process improvements and provide greater transparency in casework. PMID:25372036

  11. What is sufficient evidence for the reliability and validity of patient-reported outcome measures?

    PubMed

    Frost, Marlene H; Reeve, Bryce B; Liepa, Astra M; Stauffer, Joseph W; Hays, Ron D

    2007-01-01

    This article focuses on the necessary psychometric properties of a patient-reported outcomes (PROs) measure. Topics include the importance of reliability and validity, psychometric approaches used to provide reliability and validity estimates, the kinds of evidence needed to indicate that a PRO has a sufficient level of reliability and validity, contexts that may affect psychometric properties, methods available to evaluate PRO instruments when the context varies, and types of reliability and validity testing that are appropriate during different phases of clinical trials. Points discussed include the perspective that the psychometric properties of reliability and validity are on a continuum in which the more evidence one has, the greater confidence there is in the value of the PRO data. Construct validity is the type of validity most frequently used with PRO instruments as few "gold standards" exist to allow the use of criterion validity and content validity by itself only provides beginning evidence of validity. Several guidelines are recommended for establishing sufficient evidence of reliability and validity. For clinical trials, a minimum reliability threshold of 0.70 is recommended. Sample sizes for testing should include at least 200 cases and results should be replicated in at least one additional sample. At least one full report on the development of the instrument and one on the use of the instrument are deemed necessary to evaluate the PRO psychometric properties. Psychometric testing ideally occurs before the initiation of Phase III trials. When testing does not occur prior to a Phase III trial, considerable risk is posed in relation to the ability to substantiate the use of the PRO data. Various qualitative (e.g., focus groups, behavioral coding, cognitive interviews) and quantitative approaches (e.g., differential item functioning testing) are useful in evaluating the reliability and validity of PRO instruments.

  12. Strategies for regeneration of nicotinamide coenzymes emphasizing self-sufficient closed-loop recycling systems.

    PubMed

    Hummel, Werner; Gröger, Harald

    2014-12-10

    Biocatalytic reduction reactions depending on nicotinamide coenzymes require an additional reaction to regenerate the consumed cofactor. For preparative application the preferred method is the simultaneous coupling of an in situ regeneration reaction. There are different strategically advantageous routes to achieve this goal. The standard method uses a second enzyme and a second co-substrate, for example formate and formate dehydrogenase or glucose and glucose dehydrogenase. Alternatively, a second substrate is employed which is converted by the same enzyme used for the primary reaction. For example, alcohol dehydrogenase catalyzed reactions are often coupled with excess 2-propanol which is oxidized to acetone during the regeneration of NAD(P)H. A third method utilizes a reaction-internal sequence by the direct coupling of an oxidizing and a reducing enzyme reaction. Neither an additional substrate nor a further regenerating enzyme are required for the recycling reaction. This kind of "closed-loop" or "self-sufficient" redox process for cofactor regeneration has been used rarely so far. Its most intriguing advantage is that even redox reactions with unstable precursors can be realized provided that this compound is produced in situ by an opposite redox reaction. This elegant method is applicable in special cases only but increasing numbers of examples have been published during the last years.

  13. Metabolic and transcriptomic response of the wine yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain EC1118 after an oxygen impulse under carbon-sufficient, nitrogen-limited fermentative conditions.

    PubMed

    Orellana, Marcelo; Aceituno, Felipe F; Slater, Alex W; Almonacid, Leonardo I; Melo, Francisco; Agosin, Eduardo

    2014-05-01

    During alcoholic fermentation, Saccharomyces cerevisiae is exposed to continuously changing environmental conditions, such as decreasing sugar and increasing ethanol concentrations. Oxygen, a critical nutrient to avoid stuck and sluggish fermentations, is only discretely available throughout the process after pump-over operation. In this work, we studied the physiological response of the wine yeast S. cerevisiae strain EC1118 to a sudden increase in dissolved oxygen, simulating pump-over operation. With this aim, an impulse of dissolved oxygen was added to carbon-sufficient, nitrogen-limited anaerobic continuous cultures. Results showed that genes related to mitochondrial respiration, ergosterol biosynthesis, and oxidative stress, among other metabolic pathways, were induced after the oxygen impulse. On the other hand, mannoprotein coding genes were repressed. The changes in the expression of these genes are coordinated responses that share common elements at the level of transcriptional regulation. Beneficial and detrimental effects of these physiological processes on wine quality highlight the dual role of oxygen in 'making or breaking wines'. These findings will facilitate the development of oxygen addition strategies to optimize yeast performance in industrial fermentations.

  14. Environmental assessment related to the operation of Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-08-01

    In order to evaluate the environmental impacts of Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) operations, this assessment includes a descriptive section which is intended to provide sufficient detail to allow the various impacts to be viewed in proper perspective. In particular, details are provided on site characteristics, current programs, characterization of the existing site environment, and in-place environmental monitoring programs. In addition, specific facilities and operations that could conceivably impact the environment are described at length. 77 refs., 16 figs., 47 tabs.

  15. Maternal and Pediatric Health Outcomes in relation to Gestational Vitamin D Sufficiency

    PubMed Central

    Genuis, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    Juxtaposed with monumental improvement in maternal-fetal outcomes over the last century, there has been the recent emergence of rising rates of gestational complications including preterm birth, operative delivery, and gestational diabetes. At the same time, there has been a burgeoning problem with widespread vitamin D deficiency among populations of many developed nations. This paper provides a brief review of potential health outcomes recently linked to gestational vitamin D deficiency, including preterm birth, cesarean delivery, and gestational diabetes. Although immediate costs for obstetric complications related to gestational vitamin D insufficiency may be modest, the short- and long-term costs for pediatric healthcare resulting from such gestational complications may be enormous and present an enduring burden on healthcare systems. With increasing evidence pointing to fetal origins of some later life disease, securing vitamin D sufficiency in pregnancy appears to be a simple, safe, and cost-effective measure that can be incorporated into routine preconception and prenatal care in the offices of primary care clinicians. Education on gestational nutritional requirements should be a fundamental part of medical education and residency training, instruction that has been sorely lacking to date. PMID:26770200

  16. Safety Sufficiency for NextGen: Assessment of Selected Existing Safety Methods, Tools, Processes, and Regulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, Xidong; Ulrey, Mike L.; Brown, John A.; Mast, James; Lapis, Mary B.

    2013-01-01

    NextGen is a complex socio-technical system and, in many ways, it is expected to be more complex than the current system. It is vital to assess the safety impact of the NextGen elements (technologies, systems, and procedures) in a rigorous and systematic way and to ensure that they do not compromise safety. In this study, the NextGen elements in the form of Operational Improvements (OIs), Enablers, Research Activities, Development Activities, and Policy Issues were identified. The overall hazard situation in NextGen was outlined; a high-level hazard analysis was conducted with respect to multiple elements in a representative NextGen OI known as OI-0349 (Automation Support for Separation Management); and the hazards resulting from the highly dynamic complexity involved in an OI-0349 scenario were illustrated. A selected but representative set of the existing safety methods, tools, processes, and regulations was then reviewed and analyzed regarding whether they are sufficient to assess safety in the elements of that OI and ensure that safety will not be compromised and whether they might incur intolerably high costs.

  17. Benthic impacts of intertidal oyster culture, with consideration of taxonomic sufficiency.

    PubMed

    Forrest, Barrie M; Creese, Robert G

    2006-01-01

    An investigation of the impacts from elevated intertidal Pacific oyster culture in a New Zealand estuary showed enhanced sedimentation beneath culture racks compared with other sites. Seabed elevation beneath racks was generally lower than between them, suggesting that topographic patterns more likely result from a local effect of rack structures on hydrodynamic processes than from enhanced deposition. Compared with control sites, seabed sediments within the farm had a greater silt/clay and organic content, and a lower redox potential and shear strength. While a marked trend in macrofaunal species richness was not evident, species composition and dominance patterns were consistent with a disturbance gradient, with farm effects not evident 35 m from the perimeter of the racks. Of the environmental variables measured, sediment shear strength was most closely associated with the distribution and density of macrofauna, suggesting that human-induced disturbance from farming operations may have contributed to the biological patterns. To evaluate the taxonomic sufficiency needed to document impacts, aggregation to the family level based on Linnean classification was compared with an aggregation scheme based on ;general groups' identifiable with limited taxonomic expertise. Compared with species-level analyses, spatial patterns of impact were equally discernible at both aggregation levels used, provided density rather than presence/absence data were used. Once baseline conditions are established and the efficacy of taxonomic aggregation demonstrated, a ;general group' scheme provides an appropriate and increasingly relevant tool for routine monitoring.

  18. Restriction of dopamine signaling to the dorsolateral striatum is sufficient for many cognitive behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Darvas, Martin; Palmiter, Richard D.

    2009-01-01

    The striatum is a vital substrate for performance, procedural memory, and learning. The ventral and medial striatum are thought to be critical for acquisition of tasks while the dorsolateral striatum is important for performance and habitual enactment of skills. Evidence based on cortical, thalamic, and amygdaloid inputs to the striatum suggests a medio-lateral zonation imposed on the classical dorso-ventral distinction. We therefore investigated the functional significance of dopaminergic signaling in cognitive tasks by studying dopamine-deficient (DD) mice and mice with dopamine signaling restored to only the dorsolateral (DL) striatum by viral rescue (vrDD-DL mice). Whereas DD mice failed in all of the tasks examined here, vrDD-DL mice displayed intact discriminatory learning, object recognition, visuospatial learning and spatial memory. Acquisition of operant behavior for food rewards was delayed in vrDD-DL mice and their motivation in a progressive ratio experiments was reduced. Therefore, dopaminergic signaling in the dorsolateral striatum is sufficient for mice to learn several different cognitive tasks although the rate of learning some of them was reduced. These results indicate that dopaminergic signaling in the ventromedial striatum is not absolutely necessary for mastery of these behaviors, but may facilitate them. PMID:19667174

  19. Necessary and Sufficient Conditions of Solution Uniqueness in l(sub 1) Minimization (Preprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-01

    optimality conditions for problems (1a)–(1d), the following theorems give the necessary and sufficient conditions of unique optimality ...the optimality of x∗, Condition 1 is the necessary and sufficient condition for the uniqueness of x∗. Remark 1 For problems (1b)–(1d), the uniqueness of...Noname manuscript No. (will be inserted by the editor) Necessary and sufficient conditions of solution uniqueness in `1 minimization Hui

  20. Membrane alteration is necessary but not sufficient for effective glutamate secretion in Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    PubMed Central

    Hoischen, C; Krämer, R

    1990-01-01

    We showed recently that secretion of glutamate in biotin-limited cells of Corynebacterium glutamicum is mediated by carrier systems in the plasma membrane (C. Hoischen and R. Krämer, Arch. Microbiol. 151:342-347, 1989). In view of the generally accepted hypothesis that glutamate efflux is directly caused by alterations of the membrane, it was necessary to examine the kind of correlation between changes in lipid content and composition of the bacterial membrane and glutamate secretion activity. Two new experimental approaches were used. (i) Changes in lipid content and composition were analyzed in glutamate-producing cells which were forced to switch to nonproducers by addition of biotin in a short-term fermentation. (ii) The time courses of both the fatty acid or phospholipid composition and the efflux activity were analyzed within the first minutes of the switch from high to low secretion activity. The following results were obtained. (i) The time course of the change in fatty acid or phospholipid content and composition was not related to the change in secretion behavior. (ii) There was no specific fatty acid or phospholipid compound which regulated glutamate efflux. (iii) High efflux activity could only be induced when the total lipid content of the membrane was reduced. (iv) Although consistently correlated to high secretion activity, membrane alteration was never a sufficient prerequisite for glutamate efflux in C. glutamicum. PMID:1971623

  1. OVER-EXPRESSION OF THE SODIUM CHLORIDE COTRANSPORTER IS NOT SUFFICIENT TO CAUSE FAMILIAL HYPERKALEMIC HYPERTENSION

    PubMed Central

    McCormick, James A.; Nelson, Joshua H.; Yang, Chao-Ling; Curry, Joshua N.; Ellison, David H.

    2011-01-01

    The sodium chloride co-transporter (NCC) is the primary target of thiazides diuretics, drugs used commonly for long-term hypertension therapy. Thiazides also completely reverse the signs of Familial Hyperkalemic Hypertension (FHHt), suggesting that the primary defect in FHHt is increased NCC activity. To test whether increased NCC abundance alone is sufficient to generate the FHHt phenotype, we generated NCC transgenic mice; surprisingly, these mice did not display an FHHt-like phenotype. Systolic blood pressures of NCC transgenic mice did not differ from those of wild type mice, even after dietary salt-loading. NCC transgenic mice also did not display hyperkalemia or hypercalciuria, even when challenged with dietary electrolyte manipulation. Administration of fludrocortisone to NCC transgenic mice, to stimulate NCC, resulted in an increase in systolic blood pressure equivalent to that of wild type mice (approximately 20 mmHg). Although total NCC abundance was increased in the transgenic animals, phosphorylated (activated) NCC was not, suggesting that the defect in FHHt involves either activation of ion transport pathways other than NCC, or else direct activation of NCC, in addition to an increase in NCC abundance. PMID:21896937

  2. B cell antigen presentation is sufficient to drive neuroinflammation in an animal model of multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Parker Harp, Chelsea R; Archambault, Angela S; Sim, Julia; Ferris, Stephen T; Mikesell, Robert J; Koni, Pandelakis A; Shimoda, Michiko; Linington, Christopher; Russell, John H; Wu, Gregory F

    2015-06-01

    B cells are increasingly regarded as integral to the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis, in part as a result of the success of B cell-depletion therapy. Multiple B cell-dependent mechanisms contributing to inflammatory demyelination of the CNS have been explored using experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a CD4 T cell-dependent animal model for multiple sclerosis. Although B cell Ag presentation was suggested to regulate CNS inflammation during EAE, direct evidence that B cells can independently support Ag-specific autoimmune responses by CD4 T cells in EAE is lacking. Using a newly developed murine model of in vivo conditional expression of MHC class II, we reported previously that encephalitogenic CD4 T cells are incapable of inducing EAE when B cells are the sole APC. In this study, we find that B cells cooperate with dendritic cells to enhance EAE severity resulting from myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) immunization. Further, increasing the precursor frequency of MOG-specific B cells, but not the addition of soluble MOG-specific Ab, is sufficient to drive EAE in mice expressing MHCII by B cells alone. These data support a model in which expansion of Ag-specific B cells during CNS autoimmunity amplifies cognate interactions between B and CD4 T cells and have the capacity to independently drive neuroinflammation at later stages of disease.

  3. The ubiquitous octamer-binding protein(s) is sufficient for transcription of immunoglobulin genes.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, D G; Carayannopoulos, L; Capra, J D; Tucker, P W; Hanke, J H

    1990-01-01

    All immunoglobulin genes contain a conserved octanucleotide promoter element, ATGCAAAT, which has been shown to be required for their normal B-cell-specific transcription. Proteins that bind this octamer have been purified, and cDNAs encoding octamer-binding proteins have been cloned. Some of these proteins (referred to as OTF-2) are lymphoid specific, whereas at least one other, and possibly more (referred to as OTF-1), is found ubiquitously in all cell types. The exact role of these different proteins in directing the tissue-specific expression of immunoglobulin genes is unclear. We have identified two human pre-B-cell lines that contain extremely low levels of OTF-2 yet still express high levels of steady-state immunoglobulin heavy-chain mRNA in vivo and efficiently transcribe an immunoglobulin gene in vitro. Addition of a highly enriched preparation of OTF-1 made from one of these pre-B cells or from HeLa cells specifically stimulated in vitro transcription of an immunoglobulin gene. Furthermore, OFT-1 appeared to have approximately the same transactivation ability as OTF-2 when normalized for binding activity. These results suggest that OTF-1, without OTF-2, is sufficient for transcription of immunoglobulin genes and that OTF-2 alone is not responsible for the B-cell-specific regulation of immunoglobulin gene expression. Images PMID:2304473

  4. Protein arginine deiminase 4 inhibition is sufficient for the amelioration of collagen-induced arthritis.

    PubMed

    Willis, V C; Banda, N K; Cordova, K N; Chandra, P E; Robinson, W H; Cooper, D C; Lugo, D; Mehta, G; Taylor, S; Tak, P P; Prinjha, R K; Lewis, H D; Holers, V M

    2017-01-27

    Citrullination of joint proteins by the protein arginine deiminase (PAD) family of enzymes is recognized increasingly as a key process in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis. This present study was undertaken to explore the efficacy of a novel PAD4-selective inhibitor, GSK199, in the murine collagen-induced arthritis model of rheumatoid arthritis. Mice were dosed daily from the time of collagen immunization with GSK199. Efficacy was assessed against a wide range of end-points, including clinical disease scores, joint histology and immunohistochemistry, serum and joint citrulline levels and quantification of synovial autoantibodies using a proteomic array containing joint peptides. Administration of GSK199 at 30 mg/kg led to significant effects on arthritis, assessed both by global clinical disease activity and by histological analyses of synovial inflammation, pannus formation and damage to cartilage and bone. In addition, significant decreases in complement C3 deposition in both synovium and cartilage were observed robustly with GSK199 at 10 mg/kg. Neither the total levels of citrulline measurable in joint and serum, nor levels of circulating collagen antibodies, were affected significantly by treatment with GSK199 at any dose level. In contrast, a subset of serum antibodies reactive against citrullinated and non-citrullinated joint peptides were reduced with GSK199 treatment. These data extend our previous demonstration of efficacy with the pan-PAD inhibitor Cl-amidine and demonstrate robustly that PAD4 inhibition alone is sufficient to block murine arthritis clinical and histopathological end-points.

  5. 33 CFR 115.30 - Sufficiency of State authority for bridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... for bridges. 115.30 Section 115.30 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES BRIDGE LOCATIONS AND CLEARANCES; ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES § 115.30 Sufficiency of State authority for bridges. An opinion of the attorney general of the State as to the sufficiency of...

  6. 33 CFR 115.30 - Sufficiency of State authority for bridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... for bridges. 115.30 Section 115.30 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES BRIDGE LOCATIONS AND CLEARANCES; ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES § 115.30 Sufficiency of State authority for bridges. An opinion of the attorney general of the State as to the sufficiency of...

  7. 33 CFR 115.30 - Sufficiency of State authority for bridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... for bridges. 115.30 Section 115.30 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES BRIDGE LOCATIONS AND CLEARANCES; ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES § 115.30 Sufficiency of State authority for bridges. An opinion of the attorney general of the State as to the sufficiency of...

  8. 33 CFR 115.30 - Sufficiency of State authority for bridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... for bridges. 115.30 Section 115.30 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES BRIDGE LOCATIONS AND CLEARANCES; ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES § 115.30 Sufficiency of State authority for bridges. An opinion of the attorney general of the State as to the sufficiency of...

  9. 33 CFR 115.30 - Sufficiency of State authority for bridges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... for bridges. 115.30 Section 115.30 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES BRIDGE LOCATIONS AND CLEARANCES; ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES § 115.30 Sufficiency of State authority for bridges. An opinion of the attorney general of the State as to the sufficiency of...

  10. Estimating the proportion of disease due to classes of sufficient causes.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Kurt; Heidemann, Christin; Weikert, Cornelia; Schulze, Matthias B; Boeing, Heiner

    2006-01-01

    Disease can be caused by different mechanisms. A possible causal model proposed by Rothman is a complete causal mechanism or a so-called "sufficient cause" consisting of a set of component causes that can be illustrated in a pie chart. However, this model does not allow finding out what sufficient causes produce the majority of cases. The authors' objective was to extend Rothman's work by quantifying the proportion of disease that can be attributed to a class of sufficient causes. The underlying idea was to consider all combinations of a given set of known risk factors and to assign each combination to a class of sufficient causes. This assignment makes it possible to evaluate a class of sufficient causes by the population attributable fraction of the corresponding combination of risk factors. The approach presented was applied to sufficient causes of myocardial infarction by use of data on participants recruited between 1994 and 1998 into the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Potsdam Study. As a result, 51.8% of cases were attributed to only four different classes of sufficient causes. In conclusion, the statistical method described in the paper may be beneficial for quantifying the importance of different sufficient causes and for improving the efficiency of public health programs.

  11. 29 CFR 4041.47 - PBGC determination of plan sufficiency/insufficiency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false PBGC determination of plan sufficiency/insufficiency. 4041... CORPORATION PLAN TERMINATIONS TERMINATION OF SINGLE-EMPLOYER PLANS Distress Termination Process § 4041.47 PBGC determination of plan sufficiency/insufficiency. (a) General. Upon receipt of participant and...

  12. 29 CFR 780.513 - What employment in growing and harvesting is sufficient.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... qualifying for this exemption even if in some past season he was employed in growing and harvesting such... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What employment in growing and harvesting is sufficient....513 What employment in growing and harvesting is sufficient. To qualify for exemption the...

  13. Dorsal Hippocampal CREB Is Both Necessary and Sufficient for Spatial Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sekeres, Melanie J.; Neve, Rachael L.; Frankland, Paul W.; Josselyn, Sheena A.

    2010-01-01

    Although the transcription factor CREB has been widely implicated in memory, whether it is sufficient to produce spatial memory under conditions that do not normally support memory formation in mammals is unknown. We found that locally and acutely increasing CREB levels in the dorsal hippocampus using viral vectors is sufficient to induce robust…

  14. Sufficiency and Conditional Estimation of Person Parameters in the Polytomous Rasch Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrich, David

    2010-01-01

    Rasch models are characterised by sufficient statistics for all parameters. In the Rasch unidimensional model for two ordered categories, the parameterisation of the person and item is symmetrical and it is readily established that the total scores of a person and item are sufficient statistics for their respective parameters. In contrast, in the…

  15. Operator Lipschitz functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleksandrov, A. B.; Peller, V. V.

    2016-08-01

    The goal of this survey is a comprehensive study of operator Lipschitz functions. A continuous function f on the real line {R} is said to be operator Lipschitz if \\Vert f(A)-f(B)\\Vert≤slant{const}\\Vert A-B\\Vert for arbitrary self-adjoint operators A and B. Sufficient conditions and necessary conditions are given for operator Lipschitzness. The class of operator differentiable functions on {R} is also studied. Further, operator Lipschitz functions on closed subsets of the plane are considered, and the class of commutator Lipschitz functions on such subsets is introduced. An important role for the study of such classes of functions is played by double operator integrals and Schur multipliers. Bibliography: 77 titles.

  16. Ten minutes of dynamic stretching is sufficient to potentiate vertical jump performance characteristics.

    PubMed

    Turki, Olfa; Chaouachi, Anis; Drinkwater, Eric J; Chtara, Moktar; Chamari, Karim; Amri, Mohamed; Behm, David G

    2011-09-01

    The current literature recommends dynamic rather than static stretching for the athletic warm-up. Dynamic stretching and various conditioning stimuli are used to induce potentiation in subsequent athletic performance. However, it is unknown as to which type of activity in conjunction with dynamic stretching within a warm-up provides the optimal potentiation of vertical jump performance. It was the objective of the study to examine the possible potentiating effect of various types of conditioning stimuli with dynamic stretching. Twenty athletes participated in 6 protocols. All the experimental protocols included 10 minutes of dynamic stretching. After the dynamic stretching, the subjects performed a (a) concentric (DS/CON): 3 sets of 3 repetition maximum deadlift exercise; (b) isometric (DS/ISOM): 3 sets of 3-second maximum voluntary contraction back squats; (c) plyometric (DS/PLYO): 3 sets of 3 tuck jumps; (d) eccentric (DS/ECC): 3 modified drop jumps; (e) dynamic stretching only (DS), and (f) control protocol (CON). Before the intervention and at recovery periods of 15 seconds, 4, 8, 12, 16, and 20 minutes, the participants performed 1-2 maximal countermovement jumps. The DS and DS/CON protocols generally had a 95-99% likelihood of exceeding the smallest worthwhile change for vertical jump height, peak power, velocity and force. However, the addition of the deadlift to the DS did not augment the potentiating effect. Time-to-peak potentiation was variable between individuals but was most consistent between 3 and 5 minutes. Thus, the volume and the intensity associated with 10 minutes of dynamic stretching were sufficient to provide the potentiation of vertical jump characteristics. Additional conditioning activities may promote fatigue processes, which do not permit further potentiation.

  17. [Effectiveness of the use of iodized milk protein to improve girls' sufficiency with iodine].

    PubMed

    Bol'shakova, L S; Lisitsin, A B; Chernukha, I M; Zubtsov, Iu N; Litvinova, E V

    2014-01-01

    The work presents the results of the research capabilities of the use of iodized milk protein as a component of food supplement and enriched food product for the correction of iodine sufficiency in girls. Milk iodinated protein was produced by the enzyme-effective iodization of amino acid residues of cow's milk whey proteins. The study involved 30 girls, whose average age was 19.9 +/- 1.4 years. Participants of observation were divided into three groups, for 10 people each. The first group received daily serving of meat cutlets (50g), enriched with dairy iodinated protein. Iodine content in the finished minced was 100 mcg. The second group received iodinated milk protein in the form of food supplement with iodine content of 100 mcg. The third group was a control one. The duration of observations was 30 days. To assess the effectiveness of measures the concentration of iodine in urine, blood levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone and free thyroxine have been determined, changes in cognitive processes (memory and attention) with the use of psychological tests have been evaluated. Studies have shown the effectiveness of using of iodized milk protein for the correction of iodine deficiency in girls. The use of iodized protein, as part of the enriched product and in the form of food supplement increased urinary iodine level and had a positive influence on the state of the hypophysial-thyroid system. In addition, the use of iodized milk protein helped to improve the cognitive functions of the students, which can be considered as an additional positive effect of correction of iodine deficiency.

  18. Mouse Sperm Membrane Potential Hyperpolarization Is Necessary and Sufficient to Prepare Sperm for the Acrosome Reaction*

    PubMed Central

    De La Vega-Beltran, Jose Luis; Sánchez-Cárdenas, Claudia; Krapf, Darío; Hernandez-González, Enrique O.; Wertheimer, Eva; Treviño, Claudia L.; Visconti, Pablo E.; Darszon, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    Mammalian sperm are unable to fertilize the egg immediately after ejaculation; they acquire this capacity during migration in the female reproductive tract. This maturational process is called capacitation and in mouse sperm it involves a plasma membrane reorganization, extensive changes in the state of protein phosphorylation, increases in intracellular pH (pHi) and Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i), and the appearance of hyperactivated motility. In addition, mouse sperm capacitation is associated with the hyperpolarization of the cell membrane potential. However, the functional role of this process is not known. In this work, to dissect the role of this membrane potential change, hyperpolarization was induced in noncapacitated sperm using either the ENaC inhibitor amiloride, the CFTR agonist genistein or the K+ ionophore valinomycin. In this experimental setting, other capacitation-associated processes such as activation of a cAMP-dependent pathway and the consequent increase in protein tyrosine phosphorylation were not observed. However, hyperpolarization was sufficient to prepare sperm for the acrosome reaction induced either by depolarization with high K+ or by addition of solubilized zona pellucida (sZP). Moreover, K+ and sZP were also able to increase [Ca2+]i in non-capacitated sperm treated with these hyperpolarizing agents but not in untreated cells. On the other hand, in conditions that support capacitation-associated processes blocking hyperpolarization by adding valinomycin and increasing K+ concentrations inhibited the agonist-induced acrosome reaction as well as the increase in [Ca2+]i. Altogether, these results suggest that sperm hyperpolarization by itself is key to enabling mice sperm to undergo the acrosome reaction. PMID:23095755

  19. Operational readiness: an integral part of the facility planning process.

    PubMed

    Kidd, LeeAnne; Howe, Rob

    2014-01-01

    Large capital building projects benefit from an operational readiness strategy prior to new facility occupancy. St. Joseph's Healthcare used a structured approach for their readiness planning that included individual work plan meetings, tools for ensuring integration across programs and services and process improvement support to ensure a smooth transition. Over 1100 staff were oriented using a Train-the-Trainer model. Significant effort was required to co-ordinate the customized training, which involved "staffing up" to ensure sufficient resources for backfill. Operational readiness planning places additional demands on managers, requiring support and assistance from dedicated resources both prior to occupancy and several months post-move.

  20. Applied Operations Research: Operator's Assistant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, Stuart K.

    2015-01-01

    NASA operates high value critical equipment (HVCE) that requires trouble shooting, periodic maintenance and continued monitoring by Operations staff. The complexity HVCE and information required to maintain and trouble shoot HVCE to assure continued mission success as paper is voluminous. Training on new HVCE is commensurate with the need for equipment maintenance. LaRC Research Directorate has undertaken a proactive research to support Operations staff by initiation of the development and prototyping an electronic computer based portable maintenance aid (Operator's Assistant). This research established a goal with multiple objectives and a working prototype was developed. The research identified affordable solutions; constraints; demonstrated use of commercial off the shelf software; use of the US Coast Guard maintenance solution; NASA Procedure Representation Language; and the identification of computer system strategies; where these demonstrations and capabilities support the Operator, and maintenance. The results revealed validation against measures of effectiveness and overall proved a substantial training and capability sustainment tool. The research indicated that the OA could be deployed operationally at the LaRC Compressor Station with an expectation of satisfactorily results and to obtain additional lessons learned prior to deployment at other LaRC Research Directorate Facilities. The research revealed projected cost and time savings.

  1. Role of sufficient phosphorus in biodiesel production from diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum.

    PubMed

    Yu, Shi-Jin; Shen, Xiao-Fei; Ge, Huo-Qing; Zheng, Hang; Chu, Fei-Fei; Hu, Hao; Zeng, Raymond J

    2016-08-01

    In order to study the role of sufficient phosphorus (P) in biodiesel production by microalgae, Phaeodactylum tricornutum were cultivated in six different media treatments with combination of nitrogen (N) sufficiency/deprivation and phosphorus sufficiency/limitation/deprivation. Profiles of N and P, biomass, and fatty acids (FAs) content and compositions were measured during a 7-day cultivation period. The results showed that the FA content in microalgae biomass was promoted by P deprivation. However, statistical analysis showed that FA productivity had no significant difference (p = 0.63, >0.05) under the treatments of N deprivation with P sufficiency (N-P) and N deprivation with P deprivation (N-P-), indicating P sufficiency in N deprivation medium has little effect on increasing biodiesel productivity from P. triornutum. It was also found that the P absorption in N-P medium was 1.41 times higher than that in N sufficiency and P sufficiency (NP) medium. N deprivation with P limitation (N-P-l) was the optimal treatment for producing biodiesel from P. triornutum because of both the highest FA productivity and good biodiesel quality.

  2. Melanocortin-3 receptors expressed in Nkx2.1(+ve) neurons are sufficient for controlling appetitive responses to hypocaloric conditioning

    PubMed Central

    Girardet, Clémence; Mavrikaki, Maria M.; Stevens, Joseph R.; Miller, Courtney A.; Marks, Daniel L.; Butler, Andrew A.

    2017-01-01

    Melanocortin-3 receptors (MC3R) have a contextual role in appetite control that is amplified with hypocaloric conditioning. C57BL/6J (B6) mice subjected to hypocaloric feeding schedules (HFS) exhibit compulsive behavioral responses involving food anticipatory activity (FAA) and caloric loading following food access. These homeostatic responses to calorie-poor environs are attenuated in B6 mice in which Mc3r transcription is suppressed by a lox-stop-lox sequence in the 5’UTR (Mc3rTB/TB). Here, we report that optimization of caloric loading in B6 mice subject to HFS, characterized by increased meal size and duration, is not observed in Mc3rTB/TB mice. Analysis of hypothalamic and neuroendocrine responses to HFS throughout the light-dark cycle suggests uncoupling of hypothalamic responses involving appetite-stimulating fasting-responsive hypothalamic neurons expressing agouti-related peptide (AgRP) and neuropeptide Y (Npy). Rescuing Mc3rs expression in Nkx2.1(+ve) neurons is sufficient to restore normal hypothalamic responses to negative energy balance. In addition, Mc3rs expressed in Nkx2.1(+ve) neurons are also sufficient to restore FAA and caloric loading of B6 mice subjected to HFS. In summary, MC3Rs expressed in Nkx2.1(+ve) neurons are sufficient to coordinate hypothalamic response and expression of compulsive behavioral responses involving meal anticipation and consumption of large meals during situations of prolonged negative energy balance. PMID:28294152

  3. Solid rocket booster retrieval operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rasmussen, A. M.

    1985-01-01

    Solid Rocket Booster Retrieval operations are discussed in detail. The recovery of expended boosters and associated hardware without damage attributable to retrieval procedures is the main goal. The retrieval force consists tof ship's personnel and retrieval team members, each of whom has been trained and is highly skilled in multi-faceted operations. The retrieval force is equipped with two specially-built, highly maneuverable ships outfitted with parachute reels, retrieval cranes, towing winches, large volume-low pressure air compressors, SCUBA diving gear, inflatable boats with outboard motors and diver-operated SRB dewatering devices. The two ships are deployed in sufficient time to conduct an electronic and visual search of the impact area prior to launch. Upon search completeion, each ship takes station a safe distance from the predetermined impact point initiating both visual and electronic search in the direction of flight path, ensuring SRB acquisition at splashdown. When safe, the ships enter the impact area and commence recovery of all floating flight hardware which is subsequently returned to the Disassembly Facility for refurbishment and reuse. Retrieval techniques have evolved in parallel with equipment and flight hardware configuration changes. Additional changes have been initiated to improve personnel safety.

  4. Impact of Market Behavior, Fleet Composition, and Ancillary Services on Revenue Sufficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Frew, Bethany

    2016-04-26

    This presentation provides an overview of new and ongoing NREL research that aims to improve our understanding of reliability and revenue sufficiency challenges through modeling tools within a markets framework.

  5. Assessing sufficiency of thermal riverscapes for resilient salmon and steelhead populations

    EPA Science Inventory

    Resilient salmon populations require river networks that provide water temperature regimes sufficient to support a diversity of salmonid life histories across space and time. Efforts to protect, enhance and restore watershed thermal regimes for salmon may target specific location...

  6. Some sufficient conditions for the asymptotic stabilizability of three dimensional homogeneous polynomial systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dayawansa, W. P.; Martin, C. F.

    1989-01-01

    Consideration is given to three-dimensional homogeneous polynomial systems, and some sufficient conditions for their asymptotic stability are derived by using homogeneous feedback. The tests given are geometric in nature.

  7. Retrieval per se is not sufficient to trigger reconsolidation of human fear memory.

    PubMed

    Sevenster, Dieuwke; Beckers, Tom; Kindt, Merel

    2012-03-01

    Ample evidence suggests that consolidated memories, upon their retrieval, enter a labile state, in which they might be susceptible to change. It has been proposed that memory labilization allows for the integration of relevant information in the established memory trace (memory updating). Memory labilization and reconsolidation do not necessarily occur when a memory is being reactivated, but only when there is something to be learned during memory retrieval (prediction error). Thus, updating of a fear memory trace should not occur under retrieval conditions in which the outcome is fully predictable (no prediction error). Here, we addressed this issue, using a human differential fear conditioning procedure, by eliminating the very possibility of reinforcement of the reminder cue. A previously established fear memory (picture-shock pairings) was reactivated with shock-electrodes attached (Propranolol group, n=18) or unattached (Propranolol No-Shock Expectation group, n=19). We additionally tested a placebo-control group with the shock-electrodes attached (Placebo group, n=18). Reconsolidation was not triggered when nothing could be learned during the reminder trial, as noradrenergic blockade did not affect expression of the fear memory 24h later in the Propranolol No-Shock Expectation group. Only when the outcome of the retrieval cue was not fully predictable, propranolol, contrary to placebo, reduced the startle fear response and prevented the return of fear (reinstatement) the following day. In line with previous studies, skin conductance response and shock expectancies were not affected by propranolol. Remarkably, a double dissociation emerged between the emotional (startle response) and more cognitive expression (expectancies, SCR) of the fear memory. Our findings have important implications for reconsolidation blockade as treatment strategy for emotional disorders. First, fear reducing procedures that target the emotional component of fear memory do not

  8. Recurrent Ischemic Stroke Characteristics and Assessment of Sufficiency of Secondary Stroke Prevention

    PubMed Central

    KOCAMAN, Gülşen; DÜRÜYEN, Hümeyra; KOÇER, Abdulkadir; ASİL, Talip

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Disabilities due to stroke lead to a serious individual and socioeconomic burden. In this presented hospital-based study, we aimed to evaluate recurrent ischemic stroke (RIS) characteristics and the sufficiency of secondary prevention regarding the most common modifiable risk factors. Methods The records of patients with a diagnosis of ischemic stroke between November 2009 and November 2011 in our unit were retrospectively investigated. Results Ninety-one (18%) out of 500 patients with ischemic stroke had RIS. Hypertension, diabetes mellitus, ischemic heart disease, hyperlipidemia, atrial fibrillation, and smoking were found in 88%, 43%, 36%, 30%, 11%, and 14% of the patients, respectively. Thirty-eight percent of the patients had more than two risk factors. While 14% of the hypertensive patients did not use antihypertensive medications, antihypertensive treatment was insufficient in 39% of those who already used antihypertensive medications. Twenty-three percent of the patients received no prophylactic agents. Sixty percent of the patients with a history of atrial fibrillation were on oral anticoagulant therapy (warfarin), and the international normalized ratio was <2.0 in 73% of them. Of the diabetic patients, 87% had an HgbA1C level above 6%. The LDL level was higher than 100 mg/dL in 72% of the patients. Conclusion The incidence of RIS and risk factors in our retrospective study was compatible with the results of those in literature. Secondary prophylactic treatment and modification of risk factors in the stroke patients were not satisfactory. The improvement of the patients’ adherence to treatment is also very important in addition to the optimal treatment and follow-up strategy for decreasing the incidence of RIS. A multidisciplinary outpatient model of stroke care may be beneficial for decreasing the incidence of RIS.

  9. Disparate British Breast Reconstruction Utilization: Is Universal Coverage Sufficient to Ensure Expanded Care?

    PubMed Central

    Offodile, Anaeze C.

    2016-01-01

    Summary: Our intent is to improve the understanding of the ability of healthcare providers to deliver high-quality care as we approach an era of universal coverage. We adopted 2 unique vantage points in this article: (1) the mandated coverage for immediate breast reconstruction (IBR) surgery as a microcosmic surrogate for universal coverage overall and (2) we then scrutinized the respective IBR utilization rates in a contemporaneous system of 2 healthcare delivery models in the United Kingdom, that is, the public National Health Service trust versus private-sector hospitals. A literature review was performed for IBR rates across public trust and private-sector hospitals in the United Kingdom. The IBR rate among public trust hospitals was 17% compared with 43% in the private sector. In the trust hospital setting, the enactment of 2 government mandates, intended to increase the access to cancer care, seemed to fall short in maximizing the ability of surgical practitioners to deliver quality care to patients. Among women who did not receive IBR, 65% felt that they had received the sufficient amount of information to appropriately inform their decision. In addition, only 46% of this same cohort reported a consultation with a reconstructive surgeon preoperatively. Private-sector hospitals delivered better IBR care because of the likely presence of infrastructure and financial incentives for physicians. These results serve as a call for a better alignment between policy initiatives designed to expand care access and the perogatives of physicians to ensure an optimized delivery of the expanded care such policy mandates. PMID:27482486

  10. Cytoplasmic inositol hexakisphosphate production is sufficient for mediating the Gle1-mRNA export pathway.

    PubMed

    Miller, Aimee L; Suntharalingam, Mythili; Johnson, Sylvia L; Audhya, Anjon; Emr, Scott D; Wente, Susan R

    2004-12-03

    Production of inositol hexakisphosphate (IP6) by Ipk1, the inositol-1,3,4,5,6-pentakisphosphate 2-kinase, is required for Gle1-mediated mRNA export in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells. To examine the network of interactions that require IP6 production, an analysis of fitness defects was conducted in mutants harboring both an ipk1 null allele and a mutant allele in genes encoding nucleoporins or transport factors. Enhanced lethality was observed with a specific subset of mutants, including nup42, nup116, nup159, dbp5, and gle2, all of which had been previously connected to Gle1 function. Complementation of the nup116Deltaipk1Delta and nup42Deltaipk1Delta double mutants did not require the Phe-Gly repeat domains in the respective nucleoporins, suggesting that IP6 was acting subsequent to heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein targeting to the nuclear pore complex. With Nup42 and Nup159 localized exclusively to the nuclear pore complex cytoplasmic side, we speculated that IP6 may regulate a cytoplasmic step in mRNA export. To test this prediction, the spatial requirements for the production of IP6 were investigated. Restriction of Ipk1 to the cytoplasm did not block IP6 production. Moreover, coincident sequestering of both Ipk1 and Mss4 (an enzyme required for phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate production) to the cytoplasm also did not block IP6 production. Given that the kinase required for inositol 1,3,4,5,6-pentakisphosphate production (Ipk2) is localized in the nucleus, these results indicated that soluble inositides were diffusing between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. Additionally, the cytoplasmic production of IP6 by plasma membrane-anchored Ipk1 rescued a gle1-2 ipk1-4 synthetic lethal mutant. Thus, cytoplasmic IP6 production is sufficient for mediating the Gle1-mRNA export pathway.

  11. Necessary and sufficient conditions for self-focusing of short ultraintense laser pulse in underdense plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, X.L.; Sudan, R.N. )

    1993-04-05

    We analyze the propagation of a short intense laser pulse in underdense cold plasma. When no electron cavitation is present, a global invariant [ital H] is obtained, and its relation with self-focusing is studied. For relativistic self-focusing, [ital H][lt]0 is a sufficient and necessary condition. For relativistic and ponderomotive self-focusing, [ital H][lt]0 is sufficient but not necessary. Numerical simulations are performed to confirm the above points.

  12. Necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of time-dependent global attractor and application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Fengjuan; Liu, Cuncai

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, we are concerned with infinite dimensional dynamical systems in time-dependent space. First, we characterize some necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of the time-dependent global attractor by using a measure of noncompactness. Then, we give a new method to verify the sufficient condition. As a simple application, we prove the existence of the time-dependent global attractor for the damped equation in strong topological space.

  13. An empirical approach to sufficient similarity: combining exposure data and mixtures toxicology data.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Scott; Gennings, Chris; Teuschler, Linda K; Stork, Leanna G; Tornero-Velez, Rogelio; Crofton, Kevin M; Rice, Glenn E

    2013-09-01

    When assessing risks posed by environmental chemical mixtures, whole mixture approaches are preferred to component approaches. When toxicological data on whole mixtures as they occur in the environment are not available, Environmental Protection Agency guidance states that toxicity data from a mixture considered "sufficiently similar" to the environmental mixture can serve as a surrogate. We propose a novel method to examine whether mixtures are sufficiently similar, when exposure data and mixture toxicity study data from at least one representative mixture are available. We define sufficient similarity using equivalence testing methodology comparing the distance between benchmark dose estimates for mixtures in both data-rich and data-poor cases. We construct a "similar mixtures risk indicator"(SMRI) (analogous to the hazard index) on sufficiently similar mixtures linking exposure data with mixtures toxicology data. The methods are illustrated using pyrethroid mixtures occurrence data collected in child care centers (CCC) and dose-response data examining acute neurobehavioral effects of pyrethroid mixtures in rats. Our method shows that the mixtures from 90% of the CCCs were sufficiently similar to the dose-response study mixture. Using exposure estimates for a hypothetical child, the 95th percentile of the (weighted) SMRI for these sufficiently similar mixtures was 0.20 (i.e., where SMRI <1, less concern; >1, more concern).

  14. Additive Similarity Trees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sattath, Shmuel; Tversky, Amos

    1977-01-01

    Tree representations of similarity data are investigated. Hierarchical clustering is critically examined, and a more general procedure, called the additive tree, is presented. The additive tree representation is then compared to multidimensional scaling. (Author/JKS)

  15. [Thoracolaparoscopic simultaneous operations on esophagus].

    PubMed

    Khat'kov, I E; Izrailov, R E; Domrachev, S A; Kononets, P V; Vasnev, O S; Koshkin, M A

    2014-01-01

    Extirpation or subtotal resection of esophagus was performed in 14 patients by using of thoracolaparoscopic technique in terms from November 2011 to March 2014. The mean patients' age was 56 years old (27-67 years). In 10 patients indications for surgery included benign esophagus diseases such as cardiospasm stage IV (2 cases), peptic stricture (5 cases) and burn stricture (3 cases). 4 patients were operated for esophagus cancer including middle one-third cancer in 1 patient, lower one-third cancer in 3 cases. 10 patients underwent extirpation of esophagus with peristaltic gastric tube plasty. 1 patient had esophagus substituted by segment of the left colon. Esophageal anastomoses were formed on the neck (interrupted sutures were applied in 7 patients; staplers - in 3 cases). Lewis operation with intrapleural esophageal-gastric anastomosis forming was performed in 3 patients. The mean surgery duration was 579 minutes (305-710 min), mean blood loss - 141 ml (from 50 to 300 ml). Postoperative period had not complications in 8 of 14 patients. Different complications including partial failure of the anastomosis on the neck (5 cases), intrapleural anastomosis failure (1 case) were observed in 6 patients. Partial failure of the anastomosis on the neck was treated by using of therapy. All patients recovered. Patient with intrapleural anastomosis failure required additional surgery which included uncoupling of anastomosis, esophagostomy on the neck and gastrostomy forming. This patient died from recurrent myocardial infarction. Thus the authors consider that complete thoracolaparoscopic technique provides precise preparation of esophagus and stomach, adequate lymphadenectomy with minimal blood loss and operative trauma. The results after these operations are comparable with those after open interventions. Thoracolaparoscopic simultaneous operations must be applied in clinics having sufficient experience in esophagus surgery and thoracolaparoscopic technique.

  16. 10 CFR 55.7 - Additional requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional requirements. 55.7 Section 55.7 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) OPERATORS' LICENSES General Provisions § 55.7 Additional requirements. The Commission may, by rule, regulation, or order, impose upon any licensee such requirements, in addition...

  17. 10 CFR 55.7 - Additional requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Additional requirements. 55.7 Section 55.7 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) OPERATORS' LICENSES General Provisions § 55.7 Additional requirements. The Commission may, by rule, regulation, or order, impose upon any licensee such requirements, in addition...

  18. 14 CFR 27.927 - Additional tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional tests. 27.927 Section 27.927... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Rotor Drive System § 27.927 Additional tests. (a) Any additional dynamic, endurance, and operational tests, and vibratory investigations necessary to...

  19. 14 CFR 29.927 - Additional tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Additional tests. 29.927 Section 29.927... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Rotor Drive System § 29.927 Additional tests. (a) Any additional dynamic, endurance, and operational tests, and vibratory investigations necessary to...

  20. 14 CFR 27.927 - Additional tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Additional tests. 27.927 Section 27.927... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Rotor Drive System § 27.927 Additional tests. (a) Any additional dynamic, endurance, and operational tests, and vibratory investigations necessary to...

  1. 14 CFR 27.927 - Additional tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Additional tests. 27.927 Section 27.927... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Rotor Drive System § 27.927 Additional tests. (a) Any additional dynamic, endurance, and operational tests, and vibratory investigations necessary to...

  2. 14 CFR 29.927 - Additional tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional tests. 29.927 Section 29.927... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Rotor Drive System § 29.927 Additional tests. (a) Any additional dynamic, endurance, and operational tests, and vibratory investigations necessary to...

  3. 14 CFR 29.927 - Additional tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Additional tests. 29.927 Section 29.927... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Rotor Drive System § 29.927 Additional tests. (a) Any additional dynamic, endurance, and operational tests, and vibratory investigations necessary to...

  4. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, J. R.; St. Clair, T. L.; Burks, H. D.; Stoakley, D. M.

    1987-01-01

    A method has been found for enhancing the melt flow of thermoplastic polyimides during processing. A high molecular weight 422 copoly(amic acid) or copolyimide was fused with approximately 0.05 to 5 pct by weight of a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive, and this melt was studied by capillary rheometry. Excellent flow and improved composite properties on graphite resulted from the addition of a PMDA-aniline additive to LARC-TPI. Solution viscosity studies imply that amic acid additives temporarily lower molecular weight and, hence, enlarge the processing window. Thus, compositions containing the additive have a lower melt viscosity for a longer time than those unmodified.

  5. [Food additives and healthiness].

    PubMed

    Heinonen, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Additives are used for improving food structure or preventing its spoilage, for example. Many substances used as additives are also naturally present in food. The safety of additives is evaluated according to commonly agreed principles. If high concentrations of an additive cause adverse health effects for humans, a limit of acceptable daily intake (ADI) is set for it. An additive is a risk only when ADI is exceeded. The healthiness of food is measured on the basis of nutrient density and scientifically proven effects.

  6. Memristive operations demonstrated by gap-type atomic switches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasegawa, Tsuyoshi; Nayak, Alpana; Ohno, Takeo; Terabe, Kazuya; Tsuruoka, Tohru; Gimzewski, James K.; Aono, Masakazu

    2011-03-01

    We demonstrate memristive operations using gap-type Ag2S atomic switches, in which the growth and shrinkage of an Ag protrusion are controlled by using solid-electrochemical reactions. In addition to conventional memristive operations such as those proposed and demonstrated by resistive random-access memories (ReRAMs) using metal oxide compounds, gap-type Ag2S atomic switches also show new types of memristive operations by storing information from input signals without changing their output until a sufficient number of signals are inputted. The new types of memristive operations resemble the learning process seen in neuroplasticity, where changes occur in the organization of the human brain as a result of experience.

  7. Procalcitonin is not sufficiently reliable to be the sole marker of neonatal sepsis of nosocomial origin

    PubMed Central

    López Sastre, José B; Pérez Solís, David; Roqués Serradilla, Vicente; Fernández Colomer, Belén; Coto Cotallo, Gil D; Krauel Vidal, Xavier; Narbona López, Eduardo; García del Río, Manuel; Sánchez Luna, Manuel; Belaustegui Cueto, Antonio; Moro Serrano, Manuel; Urbón Artero, Alfonso; Álvaro Iglesias, Emilio; Cotero Lavín, Ángel; Martínez Vilalta, Eduardo; Jiménez Cobos, Bartolomé

    2006-01-01

    Background It has recently been suggested that serum procalcitonin (PCT) is of value in the diagnosis of neonatal sepsis, with varying results. The aim of this prospective multicenter study was to assess the usefulness of PCT as a marker of neonatal sepsis of nosocomial origin. Methods One hundred infants aged between 4 and 28 days of life admitted to the Neonatology Services of 13 acute-care teaching hospitals in Spain over 1-year with clinical suspicion of neonatal sepsis of nosocomial origin were included in the study. Serum PCT concentrations were determined by a specific immunoluminometric assay. The reliability of PCT for the diagnosis of nosocomial neonatal sepsis at the time of suspicion of infection and at 12–24 h and 36–48 h after the onset of symptoms was calculated by receiver-operating characteristics (ROC) curves. The Youden's index (sensitivity + specificity - 1) was used for determination of optimal cutoff values of the diagnostic tests in the different postnatal periods. Sensitivity, specificity, and the likelihood ratio of a positive and negative result with the 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated. Results The diagnosis of nosocomial sepsis was confirmed in 61 neonates. Serum PCT concentrations were significantly higher at initial suspicion and at 12–24 h and 36–48 h after the onset of symptoms in neonates with confirmed sepsis than in neonates with clinically suspected but not confirmed sepsis. Optimal PCT thresholds according to ROC curves were 0.59 ng/mL at the time of suspicion of sepsis (sensitivity 81.4%, specificity 80.6%); 1.34 ng/mL within 12–24 h of birth (sensitivity 73.7%, specificity 80.6%), and 0.69 ng/mL within 36–48 h of birth (sensitivity 86.5%, specificity 72.7%). Conclusion Serum PCT concentrations showed a moderate diagnostic reliability for the detection of nosocomial neonatal sepsis from the time of suspicion of infection. PCT is not sufficiently reliable to be the sole marker of sepsis, but would be

  8. Correlation, necessity, and sufficiency: Common errors in the scientific reasoning of undergraduate students for interpreting experiments.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Aaron B; Lam, Diane P; Soowal, Lara N

    2015-01-01

    Gaining an understanding of how science works is central to an undergraduate education in biology and biochemistry. The reasoning required to design or interpret experiments that ask specific questions does not come naturally, and is an essential part of the science process skills that must be learned for an understanding of how scientists conduct research. Gaps in these reasoning skills make it difficult for students to become proficient in reading primary scientific literature. In this study, we assessed the ability of students in an upper-division biochemistry laboratory class to use the concepts of correlation, necessity, and sufficiency in interpreting experiments presented in a format and context that is similar to what they would encounter when reading a journal article. The students were assessed before and after completion of a laboratory module where necessary vs. sufficient reasoning was used to design and interpret experiments. The assessment identified two types of errors that were commonly committed by students when interpreting experimental data. When presented with an experiment that only establishes a correlation between a potential intermediate and a known effect, students frequently interpreted the intermediate as being sufficient (causative) for the effect. Also, when presented with an experiment that tests only necessity for an intermediate, they frequently made unsupported conclusions about sufficiency, and vice versa. Completion of the laboratory module and instruction in necessary vs. sufficient reasoning showed some promise for addressing these common errors.

  9. Predictability of the appearance of anomalous waves at sufficiently small Benjamin-Feir indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruban, V. P.

    2016-05-01

    The numerical simulation of the nonlinear dynamics of random sea waves at sufficiently small Benjamin-Feir indices and its comparison with the linear dynamics (at the coincidence of spatial Fourier harmonics near a spectral peak at a certain time t p) indicate that the appearance of a rogue wave can be predicted in advance. If the linear approximation shows the presence of a sufficiently extensive and/or high group of waves in the near future after t p, an anomalous wave is almost necessarily formed in the nonlinear model. The interval of reliable forecasting covers several hundred wave periods, which can be quite sufficient in practice for, e.g., avoiding the meeting of a ship with a giant wave.

  10. Additive Manufactured Product Integrity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waller, Jess; Wells, Doug; James, Steve; Nichols, Charles

    2017-01-01

    NASA is providing key leadership in an international effort linking NASA and non-NASA resources to speed adoption of additive manufacturing (AM) to meet NASA's mission goals. Participants include industry, NASA's space partners, other government agencies, standards organizations and academia. Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) is identified as a universal need for all aspects of additive manufacturing.

  11. Boiling sheep liver or lung for 30 minutes is necessary and sufficient to kill Echinococcus granulosus protoscoleces in hydatid cysts

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jun; Wu, Chuanchuan; Wang, Hui; Liu, Huanyuan; Vuitton, Dominique A.; Wen, Hao; Zhang, Wenbao

    2014-01-01

    Proper disposal of carcasses and offal after home slaughter is difficult in poor and remote communities and therefore dogs readily have access to hydatid cysts containing offal from livestock, thus completing the parasite cycle of Echinococcus granulosus and putting communities at risk of cystic echinococcosis. Boiling livers and lungs which contain hydatid cysts could be a simple, efficient and energy- and time-saving way to kill the infectious protoscoleces. The aim of this study was to provide precise practical recommendations to livestock owners. Our results show that boiling the whole sheep liver and/or lung, with single or multiple hydatid cysts, for 30 min is necessary and sufficient to kill E. granulosus protoscoleces in hydatid cysts. Advertising on this simple rule in at-risk communities would be an efficient and cheap complement to other veterinary public health operations to control cystic echinococcosis. PMID:25456565

  12. Reliability-based structural optimization using response surface approximations and probabilistic sufficiency factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Xueyong

    Uncertainties exist practically everywhere from structural design to manufacturing, product lifetime service, and maintenance. Uncertainties can be introduced by errors in modeling and simulation; by manufacturing imperfections (such as variability in material properties and structural geometric dimensions); and by variability in loading. Structural design by safety factors using nominal values without considering uncertainties may lead to designs that are either unsafe, or too conservative and thus not efficient. The focus of this dissertation is reliability-based design optimization (RBDO) of composite structures. Uncertainties are modeled by the probabilistic distributions of random variables. Structural reliability is evaluated in term of the probability of failure. RBDO minimizes cost such as structural weight subject to reliability constraints. Since engineering structures usually have multiple failure modes, Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) was used employed to calculate the system probability of failure. Response surface (RS) approximation techniques were used to solve the difficulties associated with MCS. The high computational cost of a large number of MCS samples was alleviated by analysis RS, and numerical noise in the results of MCS was filtered out by design RS. RBDO of composite laminates is investigated for use in hydrogen tanks in cryogenic environments. The major challenge is to reduce the large residual strains developed due to thermal mismatch between matrix and fibers while maintaining the load carrying capacity. RBDO is performed to provide laminate designs, quantify the effects of uncertainties on the optimum weight, and identify those parameters that have the largest influence on optimum design. Studies of weight and reliability tradeoffs indicate that the most cost-effective measure for reducing weight and increasing reliability is quality control. A probabilistic sufficiency factor (PSF) approach was developed to improve the computational

  13. Are single odorous components of a predator sufficient to elicit defensive behaviors in prey species?

    PubMed

    Apfelbach, Raimund; Parsons, Michael H; Soini, Helena A; Novotny, Milos V

    2015-01-01

    When exposed to the odor of a sympatric predator, prey animals typically display escape or defensive responses. These phenomena have been well-documented, especially in rodents, when exposed to the odor of a cat, ferret, or fox. As a result of these experiments new discussions center on the following questions: (1) is a single volatile compound such as a major or a minor mixture constituent in urine or feces, emitted by the predator sufficient to cause defensive reactions in a potential prey species or (2) is a whole array of odors required to elicit a response and (3) will the relative size or escapability of the prey as compared to the predator influence responsiveness. Most predator-prey studies on this topic have been performed in the laboratory or under semi-natural conditions. Field studies could help to find answers to these questions. Australian mammals are completely naïve toward the introduced placental carnivores. That offers ideal opportunities to analyze in the field the responses of potential prey species to unknown predator odors. During the last decades researchers have accumulated an enormous amount of data exploring the effects of eutherian predator odors on native marsupial mammals. In this review, we will give a survey about the development of olfactory research, chemical signals and their influence on the behavior and-in some cases-physiology of prey species. In addition, we report on the effects of predator odor experiments performed under natural conditions in Australia. When studying all these literature we learned that data gained under controlled laboratory conditions elucidate the role of individual odors on brain structures and ultimately on a comparatively narrow range behaviors. In contrast to single odors odor arrays mimic much more the situation prey animals are confronted to in nature. Therefore, a broad range of methodology-from chemistry to ecology including anatomy, physiology, and behavior-is needed to understand all the

  14. Are single odorous components of a predator sufficient to elicit defensive behaviors in prey species?

    PubMed Central

    Apfelbach, Raimund; Parsons, Michael H.; Soini, Helena A.; Novotny, Milos V.

    2015-01-01

    When exposed to the odor of a sympatric predator, prey animals typically display escape or defensive responses. These phenomena have been well-documented, especially in rodents, when exposed to the odor of a cat, ferret, or fox. As a result of these experiments new discussions center on the following questions: (1) is a single volatile compound such as a major or a minor mixture constituent in urine or feces, emitted by the predator sufficient to cause defensive reactions in a potential prey species or (2) is a whole array of odors required to elicit a response and (3) will the relative size or escapability of the prey as compared to the predator influence responsiveness. Most predator-prey studies on this topic have been performed in the laboratory or under semi-natural conditions. Field studies could help to find answers to these questions. Australian mammals are completely naïve toward the introduced placental carnivores. That offers ideal opportunities to analyze in the field the responses of potential prey species to unknown predator odors. During the last decades researchers have accumulated an enormous amount of data exploring the effects of eutherian predator odors on native marsupial mammals. In this review, we will give a survey about the development of olfactory research, chemical signals and their influence on the behavior and—in some cases—physiology of prey species. In addition, we report on the effects of predator odor experiments performed under natural conditions in Australia. When studying all these literature we learned that data gained under controlled laboratory conditions elucidate the role of individual odors on brain structures and ultimately on a comparatively narrow range behaviors. In contrast to single odors odor arrays mimic much more the situation prey animals are confronted to in nature. Therefore, a broad range of methodology—from chemistry to ecology including anatomy, physiology, and behavior—is needed to understand all

  15. Thyroid function parameters in normal pregnancies in an iodine sufficient population

    PubMed Central

    Moncayo, Roy; Zanon, Birgit; Heim, Kurt; Ortner, Karina; Moncayo, Helga

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this retrospective observational study was to describe thyroid function parameters (fT3, fT4 and TSH) in the course of normal pregnancies. Methods Data were obtained between 2006 and 2007 at the University Hospital in Innsbruck, Austria. The starting point was the identification of women who had had a normal birth as recorded in the birth registry of Tyrol. Thyroid function parameters were determined using methods implemented at the Department of Nuclear Medicine in Innsbruck. Results The fT3 and fT4 values were normally distributed. Grouping the results by trimester revealed the following values: 4.93 ± 0.59, 4.54 ± 0.48, and 4.27 ± 0.45 pmol/l for fT3; and 15.23 ± 2.43, 13.79 ± 1.99, and 13.32 ± 0.2.01 pmol/l for fT4, respectively. The values corresponding to the 10th-percentile were 3.9 pmol/l for fT3 and 11.3 pmol/l for fT4, respectively. TSH values showed a typical left skewed distribution, thus the mean values were calculated after log transformation of the data. The corresponding mean trimestral values for TSH were 1.46 ± 1.29, 1.68 ± 1.23, and 1.70 ± 2.22 mIU/l, respectively. Conclusion In an iodine sufficient population, thyroid function parameters in normal pregnancies do not differ from those in non-pregnant women. Our previously defined reference range for TSH of 0.3 to 3.5 mIU/l is equally valid for normal pregnancies. General significance The question of cognition and IQ development of children has been proposed to be associated with thyroid function. The addition of data regarding normal thyroid function during pregnancy will contribute to this research. PMID:26674060

  16. Biseparability of 3-qubits density matrices using Hilbert-Schmidt decompositions: Sufficient conditions and explicit expressions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-Aryeh, Y.; Mann, A.

    2016-11-01

    Hilbert-Schmidt (HS) decompositions and Frobenius norms are used to analyze biseparability of 3-qubit systems, with particular emphasis on density matrices with maximally disordered subsystems (MDS) and on the W state mixed with white noise. The biseparable form of a MDS density matrix is obtained by using the Bell states of a 2-qubit subsystem, multiplied by density matrices of the third qubit, which include the relevant HS parameters. Using our methods, a sufficient condition and explicit biseparability of the W state mixed with white noise are given. They are compared with the sufficient condition for explicit full separability given in a previous work.

  17. Neuronal overexpression of Glo1 or amygdalar microinjection of methylglyoxal is sufficient to regulate anxiety-like behavior in mice.

    PubMed

    McMurray, K M J; Du, X; Brownlee, M; Palmer, A A

    2016-03-15

    GLO1 (Glyoxalase1) is a ubiquitous cellular enzyme that detoxifies methylglyoxal (MG), which is a byproduct of glycolysis. Previously, we showed that ubiquitous overexpression of Glo1 reduced concentrations of MG and increased anxiety-like behavior, whereas systemic injection of MG reduced anxiety-like behavior. We further showed that MG is a competitive partial agonist at GABA-A receptors. Based on those data we hypothesized that modulation of GABAergic signaling by MG underlies Glo1 and MG's effects on anxiety-like behavior. As previous studies used ubiquitous overexpression, we sought to determine whether neuronal Glo1 overexpression was sufficient to increase anxiety-like behavior. We generated ROSA26 knock-in mice with a floxed-stop codon upstream from human Glo1 (FLOXGlo1KI) and bred them with mice expressing CRE recombinase under the direction of the Synapsin 1 promoter (Syn-CRE) to limit overexpression of Glo1 specifically to neurons. Furthermore, since previous administration of MG had been systemic, we sought to determine if direct microinjection of MG into the basolateral amygdala (BLA) was sufficient to reduce anxiety-like behavior. Thus, we performed bilateral microinjections of saline, MG (12μM or 24μM), or the positive control midazolam (4mM) directly into the BLA. FLOXGlo1KIxSyn-CRE mice showed significantly increased anxiety-like behavior compared to their FLOXGLO1xWT littermates. In addition, bilateral microinjection of MG and midazolam significantly decreased anxiety-like behavior compared to saline treated mice. These studies suggest that anatomically specific manipulations of Glo1 and MG are sufficient to induce changes in anxiety-like behavior.

  18. Local Production of the Alternative Pathway Component Factor B Is Sufficient to Promote Laser-Induced Choroidal Neovascularization

    PubMed Central

    Schnabolk, Gloriane; Coughlin, Beth; Joseph, Kusumam; Kunchithapautham, Kannan; Bandyopadhyay, Mausumi; O'Quinn, Elizabeth C.; Nowling, Tamara; Rohrer, Bärbel

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Complement factor B (CFB) is a required component of the alternative pathway (AP) of complement, and CFB polymorphisms are associated with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) risk. Complement factor B is made in the liver, but expression has also been detected in retina and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE)-choroid. We investigated whether production of CFB by the RPE can promote AP activation in mouse choroidal neovascularization (CNV). Methods. Transgenic mice expressing CFB under the RPE65 promoter were generated and crossed onto factor B-deficient (CFB-KO) mice. Biological activity was determined in vitro using RPE monolayers and in vivo using laser-induced CNV. Contribution of systemic CFB was investigated using CFB-KO reconstituted with CFB-sufficient serum. Results. Transgenic mice (CFB-tg) expressed CFB in RPE-choroid; no CFB was detected in serum. Cultured CFB-tg RPE monolayers secreted CFB apically and basally upon exposure to oxidative stress that was biologically active. Choroidal neovascularization sizes were comparable between wild-type and CFB-tg mice, but significantly increased when compared to lesions in CFB-KO mice. Injections of CFB-sufficient serum into CFB-KO mice resulted in partial reconstitution of systemic AP activity and significantly increased CNV size. Conclusions. Mouse RPE cells express and secrete CFB sufficient to promote RPE damage and CNV. This further supports that local complement production may regulate disease processes; however, the reconstitution experiments suggest that additional components may be sequestered from the bloodstream. Understanding the process of ocular complement production and regulation will further our understanding of the AMD disease process and the requirements of a complement-based therapeutic. PMID:25593023

  19. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fletcher, James C. (Inventor); Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor); Burks, Harold D. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

  20. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor); Burks, Harold D. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of the additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

  1. Food Additives and Hyperkinesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wender, Ester H.

    1977-01-01

    The hypothesis that food additives are causally associated with hyperkinesis and learning disabilities in children is reviewed, and available data are summarized. Available from: American Medical Association 535 North Dearborn Street Chicago, Illinois 60610. (JG)

  2. Smog control fuel additives

    SciTech Connect

    Lundby, W.

    1993-06-29

    A method is described of controlling, reducing or eliminating, ozone and related smog resulting from photochemical reactions between ozone and automotive or industrial gases comprising the addition of iodine or compounds of iodine to hydrocarbon-base fuels prior to or during combustion in an amount of about 1 part iodine per 240 to 10,000,000 parts fuel, by weight, to be accomplished by: (a) the addition of these inhibitors during or after the refining or manufacturing process of liquid fuels; (b) the production of these inhibitors for addition into fuel tanks, such as automotive or industrial tanks; or (c) the addition of these inhibitors into combustion chambers of equipment utilizing solid fuels for the purpose of reducing ozone.

  3. Establishing the cost-effectiveness of new pharmaceuticals under conditions of uncertainty--when is there sufficient evidence?

    PubMed

    Sculpher, Mark; Claxton, Karl

    2005-01-01

    Decisions about which health-care interventions represent adequate value to collectively funded health-care systems are as widespread as they are unavoidable. In the case of new pharmaceuticals, many countries now require formal cost-effectiveness analysis to inform this decision-making process. This requires evidence on parameters associated with health-related utilities, treatment effects, resource use, and costs, for which data from available regulatory trials are invariably absent or highly uncertain. This uncertainty results from a number of factors including the predominance of intermediate end points in the clinical evidence-base and the limited period of follow-up of patients in clinical studies. Despite these imperfections in the evidence base, decisions about whether new pharmaceuticals are sufficiently cost-effective for reimbursement cannot be side-stepped. Data limitations do, however, require the use of rigorous analytical methods to support decision making. Probabilistic decision models and value of information analysis offer a means of structuring decision problems, synthesizing all available data, characterizing the uncertainty in the decision, quantifying the cost of uncertainty, and establishing the expected value of perfect information. This analytical framework is important because it addresses two fundamental questions about new pharmaceuticals. First, is the product expected to be cost-effective on the basis of existing evidence? Second, is additional research concerning the product itself cost-effective? In addressing these questions, the analytical framework can establish when sufficient evidence exists to sustain a claim for a new pharmaceutical to be cost-effective.

  4. Existence of two nontrivial solutions for sufficiently large values of the spectral parameter in eigenvalue problems for equations with discontinuous right-hand sides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlenko, V. N.; Potapov, D. K.

    2017-01-01

    The question on the existence of solutions to eigenvalue problems is treated for nonlinear equations with discontinuous operators in a real Hilbert space. Using a variational method, theorems on the existence of two nontrivial solutions for sufficiently large values of the spectral parameter are proved. As an application, eigenvalue problems for elliptic-type equations with nonlinear terms which are discontinuous in the phase variable are investigated. Bibliography: 22 titles.

  5. The proof of sufficient descent condition for a new type of conjugate gradient methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abashar, Abdelrhaman; Mamat, Mustafa; Rivaie, Mohd; Mohd, Ismail; Omer, Osman

    2014-06-01

    Conjugate gradient methods are effective in solving linear equations and solving non-linear optimization. In this work we compare our new conjugate gradient coefficient βk with classical formula under strong Wolfe line search; our method contains sufficient descent condition. Numerical results have shown that the new βk performs better than classical formula.

  6. Conjugate gradient methods with sufficient descent condition for large-scale unconstrained optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Mei Mei; Leong, Wah June

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, we make a modification to the standard conjugate gradient method so that its search direction satisfies the sufficient descent condition. We prove that the modified conjugate gradient method is globally convergent under Armijo line search. Numerical results show that the proposed conjugate gradient method is efficient compared to some of its standard counterparts for large-scale unconstrained optimization.

  7. 42 CFR 110.72 - Sufficient documentation for eligibility and benefits determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Sufficient documentation for eligibility and benefits determinations. 110.72 Section 110.72 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES VACCINES COUNTERMEASURES INJURY COMPENSATION PROGRAM Secretarial...

  8. 42 CFR 102.72 - Sufficient documentation for eligibility and benefits determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Sufficient documentation for eligibility and benefits determinations. 102.72 Section 102.72 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES VACCINES SMALLPOX COMPENSATION PROGRAM Secretarial Determinations §...

  9. 42 CFR 110.72 - Sufficient documentation for eligibility and benefits determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Sufficient documentation for eligibility and benefits determinations. 110.72 Section 110.72 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES VACCINES COUNTERMEASURES INJURY COMPENSATION PROGRAM Secretarial...

  10. 42 CFR 110.72 - Sufficient documentation for eligibility and benefits determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Sufficient documentation for eligibility and benefits determinations. 110.72 Section 110.72 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES VACCINES COUNTERMEASURES INJURY COMPENSATION PROGRAM Secretarial...

  11. 42 CFR 110.72 - Sufficient documentation for eligibility and benefits determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Sufficient documentation for eligibility and benefits determinations. 110.72 Section 110.72 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES VACCINES COUNTERMEASURES INJURY COMPENSATION PROGRAM Secretarial...

  12. 42 CFR 102.72 - Sufficient documentation for eligibility and benefits determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Sufficient documentation for eligibility and benefits determinations. 102.72 Section 102.72 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES VACCINES SMALLPOX COMPENSATION PROGRAM Secretarial Determinations §...

  13. 42 CFR 102.72 - Sufficient documentation for eligibility and benefits determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sufficient documentation for eligibility and benefits determinations. 102.72 Section 102.72 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES VACCINES SMALLPOX COMPENSATION PROGRAM Secretarial Determinations §...

  14. 42 CFR 102.72 - Sufficient documentation for eligibility and benefits determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Sufficient documentation for eligibility and benefits determinations. 102.72 Section 102.72 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES VACCINES SMALLPOX COMPENSATION PROGRAM Secretarial Determinations §...

  15. 42 CFR 102.72 - Sufficient documentation for eligibility and benefits determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Sufficient documentation for eligibility and benefits determinations. 102.72 Section 102.72 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES VACCINES SMALLPOX COMPENSATION PROGRAM Secretarial Determinations §...

  16. Constitutional Court of South Africa overturns lower court's decision on the right to "sufficient water".

    PubMed

    2009-12-01

    On 8 October 2009, the Constitutional Court of South Africa overturned the judgment of the Supreme Court of Appeal, which addressed the proper interpretation of Section 27(1)(b) of the Constitution of South Africa (Constitution)--namely, everyone's right to have access to sufficient water.

  17. Social Work's Response to Poverty: From Benefits Dependence to Economic Self-Sufficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gates, Lauren B.; Koza, Jennifer; Akabas, Sheila H.

    2017-01-01

    Welfare reform in the 1990s represented a fundamental policy shift in the United States' response to poverty from supporting benefits dependency to promoting economic self-sufficiency. Social work's capacity to integrate this policy shift into practice is central to meeting its mission to alleviate poverty. This study looked at the preparation of…

  18. Faculty Sufficiency and AACSB Accreditation Compliance within a Global University: A Mathematical Modeling Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boronico, Jess; Murdy, Jim; Kong, Xinlu

    2014-01-01

    This manuscript proposes a mathematical model to address faculty sufficiency requirements towards assuring overall high quality management education at a global university. Constraining elements include full-time faculty coverage by discipline, location, and program, across multiple campus locations subject to stated service quality standards of…

  19. Pathway to Self-Sufficiency: Social and Economic Development Strategies of Native American Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Human Development Services (DHHS), Washington, DC.

    In fiscal year (FY) 1984 the Administration for Native Americans awarded 227 grants for social and economic development strategies (SEDS) which would help Native American communities move toward self-sufficiency. More than half the grants were primarily for economic development; approximately one-third were for improving tribal governments, and…

  20. Investigation of Professional Self Sufficiency Levels of Physical Education and Sports Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saracaoglu, Asuman Seda; Ozsaker, Murat; Varol, Rana

    2012-01-01

    The present research aimed at detecting professional self sufficiency levels of physical education and sports teachers who worked in Izmir Province and at investigating them in terms of some variables. For data collection, Teacher's Sense of Efficacy Scale-developed by Moran and Woolfolk-Hoy (2001) and Turkish validity and reliability studies…

  1. Georg Rasch and Benjamin Wright's Struggle with the Unidimensional Polytomous Model with Sufficient Statistics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrich, David

    2016-01-01

    This article reproduces correspondence between Georg Rasch of The University of Copenhagen and Benjamin Wright of The University of Chicago in the period from January 1966 to July 1967. This correspondence reveals their struggle to operationalize a unidimensional measurement model with sufficient statistics for responses in a set of ordered…

  2. 29 CFR 4041.49 - Verification of plan sufficiency prior to closeout.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Verification of plan sufficiency prior to closeout. 4041.49 Section 4041.49 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION PLAN TERMINATIONS TERMINATION OF SINGLE-EMPLOYER PLANS Distress Termination Process § 4041.49 Verification of...

  3. Community Service and University Roles: An Action Research Based on the Philosophy of Sufficiency Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nuangchalerm, Prasart; Chansirisira, Pacharawit

    2012-01-01

    This study employs action research to develop community service through university roles by applying the philosophy of sufficiency economy of His Majesty the King Bhumibol Adulyadej to fulfill villagers' way of life. Participatory learning, seminar, field trip and supervision were employed for strategic plan. Data were collected by participatory…

  4. Mating motives are neither necessary nor sufficient to create the beauty premium.

    PubMed

    Hafenbrädl, Sebastian; Dana, Jason

    2017-01-01

    Mating motives lead decision makers to favor attractive people, but this favoritism is not sufficient to create a beauty premium in competitive settings. Further, economic approaches to discrimination, when correctly characterized, could neatly accommodate the experimental and field evidence of a beauty premium. Connecting labor economics and evolutionary psychology is laudable, but mating motives do not explain the beauty premium.

  5. Analyzing a Work Incentive: The Plan for Achieving Self Sufficiency and School-To-Work Transition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Hugh; And Others

    This paper examines utilization of the Plan for Achieving Self-Sufficiency (PASS), a work incentive available for persons receiving Supplemental Security Income (SSI), designed to parallel the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act transition plan requirement. The PASS program allows persons receiving SSI cash assistance to set aside income…

  6. Programs To Create Economic Self-Sufficiency for Women in Public Housing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Cynthia; DeTardo-Bora, Kimberly; Durbin, Latrisha

    The Wheeling Housing Authority in Wheeling, West Virginia, conducted two residential programs to help women living in public housing develop economic self-sufficiency. The Learning Independence from Employment (LIFE) program was an intensive 3-week program designed to accomplish the following objectives: improve participants' communication skills…

  7. Designing and Managing Public Housing Self-Sufficiency Programs: The Youngs Lake Commons Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleit, Rachel Garshick

    2004-01-01

    This article evaluates an experimental public housing self-sufficiency program that encourages home ownership among low-income families. A quasi-experimental design, in combination with focus groups, records review, and key informant interviews, provides data to focus on four questions: (a) Do these programs simply accelerate move-outs for those…

  8. ADC Mothers Reach Self-Sufficiency through Comprehensive Support and Family Development Services Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randolph, Gayle C., II; McCarthy, Karen V.

    Families whose primary or sole means of financial support is derived from the welfare system are attempting to meet immediate survival needs in the same manner as families outside of the system. Project Self-Sufficiency is a program which dedicates time to building trusting relationships based on mutual respect and the belief that, with support,…

  9. 75 FR 39035 - Housing Choice Voucher (HCV) Family Self-Sufficiency (FSS) Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-07

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Housing Choice Voucher (HCV) Family Self-Sufficiency (FSS) Program AGENCY: Office of... Voucher Program) with public and private resources to enable eligible families to achieve economic...; enter into a Contract of Participation with each eligible family that opts to participate in the...

  10. A Classroom Note on a Sufficient, but Unsatisfied, Condition for Goldbach's Conjecture to Be True

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skurnick, Ronald

    2011-01-01

    This classroom note is presented as a suggested exercise--not to have the class prove or disprove Goldbach's Conjecture, but to stimulate student discussions in the classroom regarding proof, as well as necessary, sufficient, satisfied, and unsatisfied conditions. Goldbach's Conjecture is one of the oldest unsolved problems in the field of number…

  11. Validation of the Employment Hope Scale: Measuring Psychological Self-Sufficiency among Low-Income Jobseekers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Philip Young P.; Polanin, Joshua R.; Pigott, Therese D.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The Employment Hope scale (EHS) was designed to measure the empowerment-based self-sufficiency (SS) outcome among low-income job-seeking clients. This measure captures the psychological SS dimension as opposed to the more commonly used economic SS in workforce development and employment support practice. The study validates the EHS and…

  12. Complementary Log Regression for Sufficient-Cause Modeling of Epidemiologic Data.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jui-Hsiang; Lee, Wen-Chung

    2016-12-13

    The logistic regression model is the workhorse of epidemiological data analysis. The model helps to clarify the relationship between multiple exposures and a binary outcome. Logistic regression analysis is readily implemented using existing statistical software, and this has contributed to it becoming a routine procedure for epidemiologists. In this paper, the authors focus on a causal model which has recently received much attention from the epidemiologic community, namely, the sufficient-component cause model (causal-pie model). The authors show that the sufficient-component cause model is associated with a particular 'link' function: the complementary log link. In a complementary log regression, the exponentiated coefficient of a main-effect term corresponds to an adjusted 'peril ratio', and the coefficient of a cross-product term can be used directly to test for causal mechanistic interaction (sufficient-cause interaction). The authors provide detailed instructions on how to perform a complementary log regression using existing statistical software and use three datasets to illustrate the methodology. Complementary log regression is the model of choice for sufficient-cause analysis of binary outcomes. Its implementation is as easy as conventional logistic regression.

  13. Role of input self-sufficiency in the economic and environmental sustainability of specialised dairy farms.

    PubMed

    Lebacq, T; Baret, P V; Stilmant, D

    2015-03-01

    Increasing input self-sufficiency is often viewed as a target to improve sustainability of dairy farms. However, few studies have specifically analysed input self-sufficiency, by including several technical inputs and without only focussing on animal feeding, in order to explore its impact on farm sustainability. To address this gap, our work has three objectives as follows: (1) identifying the structural characteristics required by specialised dairy farms located in the grassland area to be self-sufficient; (2) analysing the relationships between input self-sufficiency, environmental and economic sustainability; and (3) studying how the farms react to a decrease in milk price according to their self-sufficiency degree. Based on farm accounting databases, we categorised 335 Walloon specialised conventional dairy farms into four classes according to their level of input self-sufficiency. To this end, we used as proxy the indicator of economic autonomy - that is, the ratio between costs of inputs related to animal production, crop production and energy use and the total gross product. Classes were then compared using multiple comparison tests and canonical discriminant analysis. A total of 30 organic farms - among which 63% had a high level of economic autonomy - were considered separately and compared with the most autonomous class. We showed that a high degree of economic autonomy is associated, in conventional farms, with a high proportion of permanent grassland in the agricultural area. The most autonomous farms used less input - especially animal feeding - for a same output level, and therefore combined good environmental and economic performances. Our results also underlined that, in a situation of decrease in milk price, the least autonomous farms had more latitude to decrease their input-related costs without decreasing milk production. Their incomes per work unit were, therefore, less impacted by falling prices, but remained lower than those of more

  14. Gaps of operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Il Bong; Lim, Pil Sang; Park, Sang Soo

    2005-04-01

    We construct examples which distinguish clearly the classes of p-hyponormal operators for 0addition, we show that those examples classify the classes of w-hyponormal, absolute-p-paranormal, and normaloid operators on the complex Hilbert space. Only a few examples of p-hyponormal operators have been examined. Our technique can provide many examples related to the above operators.

  15. 14 CFR 25.1533 - Additional operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... which compliance is shown with the applicable provisions of this part (including the takeoff climb... this part (including the landing and approach climb provisions of §§ 25.119 and 25.121(d) for...

  16. 14 CFR 25.1533 - Additional operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... which compliance is shown with the applicable provisions of this part (including the takeoff climb... this part (including the landing and approach climb provisions of §§ 25.119 and 25.121(d) for...

  17. 14 CFR 25.1533 - Additional operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... which compliance is shown with the applicable provisions of this part (including the takeoff climb... this part (including the landing and approach climb provisions of §§ 25.119 and 25.121(d) for...

  18. 14 CFR 25.1533 - Additional operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... which compliance is shown with the applicable provisions of this part (including the takeoff climb... this part (including the landing and approach climb provisions of §§ 25.119 and 25.121(d) for...

  19. 14 CFR 25.1533 - Additional operating limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... provisions of § 25.121(a) through (c), for altitudes and ambient temperatures). (2) The maximum landing... this part (including the landing and approach climb provisions of §§ 25.119 and 25.121(d) for altitudes....109 and 25.113, for weights, altitudes, temperatures, wind components, runway surface conditions...

  20. Group Sparse Additive Models

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Junming; Chen, Xi; Xing, Eric P.

    2016-01-01

    We consider the problem of sparse variable selection in nonparametric additive models, with the prior knowledge of the structure among the covariates to encourage those variables within a group to be selected jointly. Previous works either study the group sparsity in the parametric setting (e.g., group lasso), or address the problem in the nonparametric setting without exploiting the structural information (e.g., sparse additive models). In this paper, we present a new method, called group sparse additive models (GroupSpAM), which can handle group sparsity in additive models. We generalize the ℓ1/ℓ2 norm to Hilbert spaces as the sparsity-inducing penalty in GroupSpAM. Moreover, we derive a novel thresholding condition for identifying the functional sparsity at the group level, and propose an efficient block coordinate descent algorithm for constructing the estimate. We demonstrate by simulation that GroupSpAM substantially outperforms the competing methods in terms of support recovery and prediction accuracy in additive models, and also conduct a comparative experiment on a real breast cancer dataset.

  1. Additive Manufacturing Infrared Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaddy, Darrell

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing is a rapid prototyping technology that allows parts to be built in a series of thin layers from plastic, ceramics, and metallics. Metallic additive manufacturing is an emerging form of rapid prototyping that allows complex structures to be built using various metallic powders. Significant time and cost savings have also been observed using the metallic additive manufacturing compared with traditional techniques. Development of the metallic additive manufacturing technology has advanced significantly over the last decade, although many of the techniques to inspect parts made from these processes have not advanced significantly or have limitations. Several external geometry inspection techniques exist such as Coordinate Measurement Machines (CMM), Laser Scanners, Structured Light Scanning Systems, or even traditional calipers and gages. All of the aforementioned techniques are limited to external geometry and contours or must use a contact probe to inspect limited internal dimensions. This presentation will document the development of a process for real-time dimensional inspection technique and digital quality record of the additive manufacturing process using Infrared camera imaging and processing techniques.

  2. Phenylethynyl Containing Reactive Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Phenylethynyl containing reactive additives were prepared from aromatic diamine, containing phenylethvnvl groups and various ratios of phthalic anhydride and 4-phenylethynviphthalic anhydride in glacial acetic acid to form the imide in one step or in N-methyl-2-pvrrolidinone to form the amide acid intermediate. The reactive additives were mixed in various amounts (10% to 90%) with oligomers containing either terminal or pendent phenylethynyl groups (or both) to reduce the melt viscosity and thereby enhance processability. Upon thermal cure, the additives react and become chemically incorporated into the matrix and effect an increase in crosslink density relative to that of the host resin. This resultant increase in crosslink density has advantageous consequences on the cured resin properties such as higher glass transition temperature and higher modulus as compared to that of the host resin.

  3. Fused Lasso Additive Model

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Ashley; Witten, Daniela; Simon, Noah

    2016-01-01

    We consider the problem of predicting an outcome variable using p covariates that are measured on n independent observations, in a setting in which additive, flexible, and interpretable fits are desired. We propose the fused lasso additive model (FLAM), in which each additive function is estimated to be piecewise constant with a small number of adaptively-chosen knots. FLAM is the solution to a convex optimization problem, for which a simple algorithm with guaranteed convergence to a global optimum is provided. FLAM is shown to be consistent in high dimensions, and an unbiased estimator of its degrees of freedom is proposed. We evaluate the performance of FLAM in a simulation study and on two data sets. Supplemental materials are available online, and the R package flam is available on CRAN. PMID:28239246

  4. Phenylethynyl Containing Reactive Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Phenylethynyl containing reactive additives were prepared from aromatic diamines containing phenylethynyl groups and various ratios of phthalic anhydride and 4-phenylethynylphthalic anhydride in glacial acetic acid to form the imide in one step or in N-methyl-2-pyrrolidi none to form the amide acid intermediate. The reactive additives were mixed in various amounts (10% to 90%) with oligomers containing either terminal or pendent phenylethynyl groups (or both) to reduce the melt viscosity and thereby enhance processability. Upon thermal cure, the additives react and become chemically incorporated into the matrix and effect an increase in crosslink density relative to that of the host resin. This resultant increase in crosslink density has advantageous consequences on the cured resin properties such as higher glass transition temperature and higher modulus as compared to that of the host resin.

  5. Additives in plastics.

    PubMed Central

    Deanin, R D

    1975-01-01

    The polymers used in plastics are generally harmless. However, they are rarely used in pure form. In almost all commercial plastics, they are "compounded" with monomeric ingredients to improve their processing and end-use performance. In order of total volume used, these monomeric additives may be classified as follows: reinforcing fibers, fillers, and coupling agents; plasticizers; colorants; stabilizers (halogen stabilizers, antioxidants, ultraviolet absorbers, and biological preservatives); processing aids (lubricants, others, and flow controls); flame retardants, peroxides; and antistats. Some information is already available, and much more is needed, on potential toxicity and safe handling of these additives during processing and manufacture of plastics products. PMID:1175566

  6. Additives in plastics.

    PubMed

    Deanin, R D

    1975-06-01

    The polymers used in plastics are generally harmless. However, they are rarely used in pure form. In almost all commercial plastics, they are "compounded" with monomeric ingredients to improve their processing and end-use performance. In order of total volume used, these monomeric additives may be classified as follows: reinforcing fibers, fillers, and coupling agents; plasticizers; colorants; stabilizers (halogen stabilizers, antioxidants, ultraviolet absorbers, and biological preservatives); processing aids (lubricants, others, and flow controls); flame retardants, peroxides; and antistats. Some information is already available, and much more is needed, on potential toxicity and safe handling of these additives during processing and manufacture of plastics products.

  7. 46 CFR 308.502 - Additional insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Additional insurance. 308.502 Section 308.502 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Cargo Insurance I-Introduction § 308.502 Additional insurance. The assured may place increased value...

  8. 46 CFR 308.502 - Additional insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Additional insurance. 308.502 Section 308.502 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Cargo Insurance I-Introduction § 308.502 Additional insurance. The assured may place increased value...

  9. 46 CFR 308.502 - Additional insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Additional insurance. 308.502 Section 308.502 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Cargo Insurance Introduction § 308.502 Additional insurance. The assured may place increased value...

  10. 46 CFR 308.502 - Additional insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional insurance. 308.502 Section 308.502 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Cargo Insurance I-Introduction § 308.502 Additional insurance. The assured may place increased value...

  11. 46 CFR 308.502 - Additional insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Additional insurance. 308.502 Section 308.502 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Cargo Insurance I-Introduction § 308.502 Additional insurance. The assured may place increased value...

  12. 47 CFR 78.65 - Additional orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Additional orders. 78.65 Section 78.65 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES CABLE TELEVISION RELAY SERVICE General Operating Requirements § 78.65 Additional orders. In case the rules of this part do...

  13. 47 CFR 78.65 - Additional orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Additional orders. 78.65 Section 78.65 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES CABLE TELEVISION RELAY SERVICE General Operating Requirements § 78.65 Additional orders. In case the rules of this part do...

  14. 47 CFR 78.65 - Additional orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Additional orders. 78.65 Section 78.65 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES CABLE TELEVISION RELAY SERVICE General Operating Requirements § 78.65 Additional orders. In case the rules of this part do...

  15. 47 CFR 78.65 - Additional orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Additional orders. 78.65 Section 78.65 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES CABLE TELEVISION RELAY SERVICE General Operating Requirements § 78.65 Additional orders. In case the rules of this part do...

  16. 47 CFR 78.65 - Additional orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional orders. 78.65 Section 78.65 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES CABLE TELEVISION RELAY SERVICE General Operating Requirements § 78.65 Additional orders. In case the rules of this part do...

  17. Portfolio of Research in Welfare and Family Self-Sufficiency: FY 2014. OPRE Report 2015-15

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Administration for Children & Families, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The Division of Economic Independence within the Office of Planning, Research and Evaluation (OPRE) has primary responsibility for welfare and family self-sufficiency research. OPRE's research in the area of welfare and family self-sufficiency is designed to expand knowledge about effective programs to promote employment, self-sufficiency, and…

  18. Biobased lubricant additives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fully biobased lubricants are those formulated using all biobased ingredients, i.e. biobased base oils and biobased additives. Such formulations provide the maximum environmental, safety, and economic benefits expected from a biobased product. Currently, there are a number of biobased base oils that...

  19. More Than Additional Space...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CEFP Journal, 1973

    1973-01-01

    A much needed addition to the Jamestown Elementary School turned out to be more than an expansion of walls for more space. A new educational program, a limited budget, and a short time line were tackled on a team approach basis and were successfully resolved. (Author)

  20. Necessary but Not Sufficient: The Respective Roles of Single and Multiple Influences on Individual Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wachs, Theodore D.

    Based on the view that individual variability is best understood as the result of influences from multiple domains operating over time, this book describes how different domains of influence operate, describes the operating processes in common to the different influences, and shows how these processes meet the criteria for a full-fledged system.…

  1. A new conjugate gradient method with sufficient descent without any line search for unconstrained optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omer, Osman; Rivaie, Mohd; Mamat, Mustafa; Amani, Zahrahtul

    2015-02-01

    Conjugate gradient methods are one of the most used methods for solving nonlinear unconstrained optimization problems, especially of large scale. Their wide applications are due to their simplicity and low memory requirement. The sufficient descent property is an important issue in the analyses and implementations of conjugate gradient methods. In this paper, a new conjugate gradient method is proposed for unconstrained optimization problems. The theoretical analysis shows that the directions generated by the new method are always satisfy the sufficient descent property, and this property is independent of the line search used. Furthermore, a numerical experiment based on comparing the new method with other known conjugate gradient methods shows that the new is efficient for some unconstrained optimization problems.

  2. The necessary and sufficient conditions of therapeutic personality change: Reactions to Rogers' 1957 article.

    PubMed

    Samstag, Lisa Wallner

    2007-09-01

    Carl Rogers' article (see record 2007-14639-002) on the necessary and sufficient conditions for personality change has had a significant impact on the field of psychotherapy and psychotherapy research. He emphasized the client as arbiter of his or her own subjective experience and tested his hypothesized therapist-offered conditions of change using recorded sessions. This aided in demystifying the therapeutic process and led to a radical shift in the listening stance of the therapist. I briefly outline my views regarding the influence of the ideas presented in this work, describe the intellectual and cultural context of the times, and discuss a number of ways in which the therapist-offered conditions for psychological transformation are neither necessary nor sufficient. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Methods for obtaining sufficient conditions for the stability of autonomous conservative systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novikov, M. A.

    2016-11-01

    A computational method for obtaining sufficient conditions for the stability of the stationary solution of autonomous conservative systems is proposed in the paper. This method is adapted to linear autonomous gyroscopic systems with three degrees of freedom. It is based on the positive definiteness of a parametric quadratic form composed of the gyroscopic force matrices and the potential function. The control parameters for the stability of the zero solution of the gyroscopic system are the entries of the gyroscopic force matrix. The algorithm of the computational method includes estimating one gyroscopic force parameter in the equation constructed from a necessary stability condition. A special example is used to demonstrate the application of this algorithm. Comparison is performed with some well-known methods for obtaining sufficient conditions on the basis of an incomplete set of first integrals of motion. It is shown that the positive definiteness of the modified potential energy may result in stable as well as unstable motions.

  4. Sufficiency of Mesolimbic Dopamine Neuron Stimulation for the Progression to Addiction.

    PubMed

    Pascoli, Vincent; Terrier, Jean; Hiver, Agnès; Lüscher, Christian

    2015-12-02

    The factors causing the transition from recreational drug consumption to addiction remain largely unknown. It has not been tested whether dopamine (DA) is sufficient to trigger this process. Here we use optogenetic self-stimulation of DA neurons of the ventral tegmental area (VTA) to selectively mimic the defining commonality of addictive drugs. All mice readily acquired self-stimulation. After weeks of abstinence, cue-induced relapse was observed in parallel with a potentiation of excitatory afferents onto D1 receptor-expressing neurons of the nucleus accumbens (NAc). When the mice had to endure a mild electric foot shock to obtain a stimulation, some stopped while others persevered. The resistance to punishment was associated with enhanced neural activity in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) while chemogenetic inhibition of the OFC reduced compulsivity. Together, these results show that stimulating VTA DA neurons induces behavioral and cellular hallmarks of addiction, indicating sufficiency for the induction and progression of the disease.

  5. Co-operative transitions of responsive-polymer coated gold nanoparticles; precision tuning and direct evidence for co-operative aggregation† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c6tb01336h Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Won, Sangho; Phillips, Daniel J.; Walker, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Responsive polymers and polymer-coated nanoparticles have many potential bio-applications with the crucial parameter being the exact temperature where the transition occurs. Chemical modification of hydrophobic/hydrophilic or ligand binding sites has been widely explored as a tool for controlling this transition, but requires the synthesis of many different components to achieve precise control. This study reports an extensive investigation into the use of blending (i.e. mixing) as a powerful tool to modulate the transition temperature of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) coated gold nanoparticles. By simply mixing two nanoparticles of different compositions, precise control over the transition temperature can be imposed. This was shown to be flexible to all possible mixing parameters (different polymers on different particles, different polymers on same particles and different sized particles with identical/different polymers). Evidence of the co-operative aggregation of differently sized nanoparticles (with different cloud points) is shown using transmission electron microscopy; particles with higher cloud points aggregate with those with lower cloud points with homo-aggregates not seen, demonstrating the co-operative behaviour. These interactions, and the opportunities for transition tuning will have implications in the rational design of responsive biomaterials. PMID:27746916

  6. Necessary and sufficient conditions under which an H2 optimal control problem has a unique solution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Ben M.; Saberi, Ali

    1993-01-01

    A set of necessary and sufficient conditions under which a general H2-optimal control problem has a unique solution is derived. It is shown that the solution for an H2-optimal control problem, if it exists, is unique if and only if (1) the transfer function from the control input to the controlled output is left invertible, and (2) the transfer function from the disturbance to the measurement output is right invertible.

  7. Energy Self-Sufficiency for Air Force Logistics Command (AFLC) Bases: An Initial Investigation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-01

    appropriate. Structure of the Report The first four chapters form the background of the current energy situation. Chapter V deals with the defini...relied upon more heavily if the country is to regain some degree of energy self-sufficiency. Petroleum is the first resource to be discussed. Status of...one hundred years to withdraw the first one hundred billion barrels from the U.S. resource on a growth curve of approximately 4% per year. The next

  8. Assessing the Impact of Reasonable Sufficiency on the Structure and Missions of the Former Soviet Navy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-06-01

    would provide the deterrent necessary to prevent such a strike from even ever occurring. Contrarily, Dotsenko believed it necessary to preempt any...refuted in the Dotsenko article as well. Dotsenko provides a matrix in which he identifies the five progressive stages of naval mission development...AD-A256 658 NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA ’•R A DI) Pý THESIS ASSESSING THE IMPACT OF "REASONABLE SUFFICIENCY" ON THE STRUCTURE AND

  9. Necessary and sufficient conditions for stabilizability of discrete-time systems via delayed feedback control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jiandong; Tian, Yu-Ping

    2005-08-01

    In this Letter, the stabilizability problem for single-input chaotic discrete-time systems under delayed feedback control (DFC) is completely solved. Necessary and sufficient conditions for stabilizability via DFC are obtained, which reveal the limitation of DFC more exactly than the odd number limitation. A nonlinear DFC is analytically designed for stabilizing a class of discrete-time systems at an unknown fixed point.

  10. Maximizing Health or Sufficient Capability in Economic Evaluation? A Methodological Experiment of Treatment for Drug Addiction.

    PubMed

    Goranitis, Ilias; Coast, Joanna; Day, Ed; Copello, Alex; Freemantle, Nick; Frew, Emma

    2016-11-17

    Conventional practice within the United Kingdom and beyond is to conduct economic evaluations with "health" as evaluative space and "health maximization" as the decision-making rule. However, there is increasing recognition that this evaluative framework may not always be appropriate, and this is particularly the case within public health and social care contexts. This article presents a methodological case study designed to explore the impact of changing the evaluative space within an economic evaluation from health to capability well-being and the decision-making rule from health maximization to the maximization of sufficient capability. Capability well-being is an evaluative space grounded on Amartya Sen's capability approach and assesses well-being based on individuals' ability to do and be the things they value in life. Sufficient capability is an egalitarian approach to decision making that aims to ensure everyone in society achieves a normatively sufficient level of capability well-being. The case study is treatment for drug addiction, and the cost-effectiveness of 2 psychological interventions relative to usual care is assessed using data from a pilot trial. Analyses are undertaken from a health care and a government perspective. For the purpose of the study, quality-adjusted life years (measured using the EQ-5D-5L) and years of full capability equivalent and years of sufficient capability equivalent (both measured using the ICECAP-A [ICEpop CAPability measure for Adults]) are estimated. The study concludes that different evaluative spaces and decision-making rules have the potential to offer opposing treatment recommendations. The implications for policy makers are discussed.

  11. Retrocausal Effects as a Consequence of Quantum Mechanics Refined to Accommodate the Principle of Sufficient Reason

    SciTech Connect

    Stapp, Henry P.

    2011-05-10

    The principle of sufficient reason asserts that anything that happens does so for a reason: no definite state of affairs can come into being unless there is a sufficient reason why that particular thing should happen. This principle is usually attributed to Leibniz, although the first recorded Western philosopher to use it was Anaximander of Miletus. The demand that nature be rational, in the sense that it be compatible with the principle of sufficient reason, conflicts with a basic feature of contemporary orthodox physical theory, namely the notion that nature's response to the probing action of an observer is determined by pure chance, and hence on the basis of absolutely no reason at all. This appeal to pure chance can be deemed to have no rational fundamental place in reason-based Western science. It is argued here, on the basis of the other basic principles of quantum physics, that in a world that conforms to the principle of sufficient reason, the usual quantum statistical rules will naturally emerge at the pragmatic level, in cases where the reason behind nature's choice of response is unknown, but that the usual statistics can become biased in an empirically manifest way when the reason for the choice is empirically identifiable. It is shown here that if the statistical laws of quantum mechanics were to be biased in this way then the basically forward-in-time unfolding of empirical reality described by orthodox quantum mechanics would generate the appearances of backward-time-effects of the kind that have been reported in the scientific literature.

  12. Transient design of landfill liquid addition systems.

    PubMed

    Jain, Pradeep; Townsend, Timothy G; Tolaymat, Thabet M

    2014-09-01

    This study presents the development of design charts that can be used to estimate lateral and vertical spacing of liquids addition devices (e.g., vertical well, horizontal trenches) and the operating duration needed for transient operating conditions (conditions until steady-state operating conditions are achieved). These design charts should be used in conjunction with steady-state design charts published earlier by Jain et al. (2010a, 2010b). The data suggest that the liquids addition system operating time can be significantly reduced by utilizing moderately closer spacing between liquids addition devices than the spacing needed for steady-state conditions. These design charts can be used by designers to readily estimate achievable flow rate and lateral and vertical extents of the zone of impact from liquid addition devices, and analyze the sensitivity of various input variables (e.g., hydraulic conductivity, anisotropy, well radius, screen length) to the design. The applicability of the design charts, which are developed based on simulations of a continuously operated system, was also evaluated for the design of a system that would be operated intermittently (e.g., systems only operated during facility operating hours). The design charts somewhat underestimates the flow rate achieved and overestimates the lateral extent of the zone of impact over an operating duration for an intermittently operated system. The associated estimation errors would be smaller than the margin of errors associated with measurement of other key design inputs such as waste properties (e.g., hydraulic conductivity) and wider variation of these properties at a given site due to heterogeneous nature of waste.

  13. MSEBAG: a dynamic classifier ensemble generation based on `minimum-sufficient ensemble' and bagging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Lei; Kamel, Mohamed S.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a dynamic classifier system, MSEBAG, which is characterised by searching for the 'minimum-sufficient ensemble' and bagging at the ensemble level. It adopts an 'over-generation and selection' strategy and aims to achieve a good bias-variance trade-off. In the training phase, MSEBAG first searches for the 'minimum-sufficient ensemble', which maximises the in-sample fitness with the minimal number of base classifiers. Then, starting from the 'minimum-sufficient ensemble', a backward stepwise algorithm is employed to generate a collection of ensembles. The objective is to create a collection of ensembles with a descending fitness on the data, as well as a descending complexity in the structure. MSEBAG dynamically selects the ensembles from the collection for the decision aggregation. The extended adaptive aggregation (EAA) approach, a bagging-style algorithm performed at the ensemble level, is employed for this task. EAA searches for the competent ensembles using a score function, which takes into consideration both the in-sample fitness and the confidence of the statistical inference, and averages the decisions of the selected ensembles to label the test pattern. The experimental results show that the proposed MSEBAG outperforms the benchmarks on average.

  14. Evaluation of advanced polymers for additive manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Rios, Orlando; Morrison, Crystal

    2015-09-01

    The goal of this Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (MDF) technical collaboration project between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and PPG Industries, Inc. was to evaluate the feasibility of using conventional coatings chemistry and technology to build up material layer-by-layer. The PPG-ORNL study successfully demonstrated that polymeric coatings formulations may overcome many limitations of common thermoplastics used in additive manufacturing (AM), allow lightweight nozzle design for material deposition and increase build rate. The materials effort focused on layer-by-layer deposition of coatings with each layer fusing together. The combination of materials and deposition results in an additively manufactured build that has sufficient mechanical properties to bear the load of additional layers, yet is capable of bonding across the z-layers to improve build direction strength. The formulation properties were tuned to enable a novel, high-throughput deposition method that is highly scalable, compatible with high loading of reinforcing fillers, and is inherently low-cost.

  15. Operating internationally

    SciTech Connect

    Seeley, R.S.

    1994-02-01

    When Enron Power Corp. took over a 28 MW power facility at the former US Naval base in Subic Bay, the Philippines, the company was required to employ 139 people to run the plant. This large labor force was necessary not because of the plant's operational needs, but because of local labor practices and unemployment pressures. Independent power companies have become all too familiar with the high cost and complexity of developing projects in emerging international markets. Some of the most significant issues involve taxation, unfamiliar legal systems, changing regulations, and foreign investment restrictions. In addition, questions about currency exchange, national credit worthiness, and political stability add to the difficulty of international development. However, one of the most daunting challenges centers not on development, but on long-term operations and maintenance (O M). A key concern is finding qualified labor. Most developers and O M companies agree that local people should run the plant, with the top person, or persons, thoroughly trained in the developer's company philosophy.

  16. Vinyl capped addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vannucci, Raymond D. (Inventor); Malarik, Diane C. (Inventor); Delvigs, Peter (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    Polyimide resins (PMR) are generally useful where high strength and temperature capabilities are required (at temperatures up to about 700 F). Polyimide resins are particularly useful in applications such as jet engine compressor components, for example, blades, vanes, air seals, air splitters, and engine casing parts. Aromatic vinyl capped addition polyimides are obtained by reacting a diamine, an ester of tetracarboxylic acid, and an aromatic vinyl compound. Low void materials with improved oxidative stability when exposed to 700 F air may be fabricated as fiber reinforced high molecular weight capped polyimide composites. The aromatic vinyl capped polyimides are provided with a more aromatic nature and are more thermally stable than highly aliphatic, norbornenyl-type end-capped polyimides employed in PMR resins. The substitution of aromatic vinyl end-caps for norbornenyl end-caps in addition polyimides results in polymers with improved oxidative stability.

  17. Electrophilic addition of astatine

    SciTech Connect

    Norseev, Yu.V.; Vasaros, L.; Nhan, D.D.; Huan, N.K.

    1988-03-01

    It has been shown for the first time that astatine is capable of undergoing addition reactions to unsaturated hydrocarbons. A new compound of astatine, viz., ethylene astatohydrin, has been obtained, and its retention numbers of squalane, Apiezon, and tricresyl phosphate have been found. The influence of various factors on the formation of ethylene astatohydrin has been studied. It has been concluded on the basis of the results obtained that the univalent cations of astatine in an acidic medium is protonated hypoastatous acid.

  18. Functional Generalized Additive Models.

    PubMed

    McLean, Mathew W; Hooker, Giles; Staicu, Ana-Maria; Scheipl, Fabian; Ruppert, David

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the functional generalized additive model (FGAM), a novel regression model for association studies between a scalar response and a functional predictor. We model the link-transformed mean response as the integral with respect to t of F{X(t), t} where F(·,·) is an unknown regression function and X(t) is a functional covariate. Rather than having an additive model in a finite number of principal components as in Müller and Yao (2008), our model incorporates the functional predictor directly and thus our model can be viewed as the natural functional extension of generalized additive models. We estimate F(·,·) using tensor-product B-splines with roughness penalties. A pointwise quantile transformation of the functional predictor is also considered to ensure each tensor-product B-spline has observed data on its support. The methods are evaluated using simulated data and their predictive performance is compared with other competing scalar-on-function regression alternatives. We illustrate the usefulness of our approach through an application to brain tractography, where X(t) is a signal from diffusion tensor imaging at position, t, along a tract in the brain. In one example, the response is disease-status (case or control) and in a second example, it is the score on a cognitive test. R code for performing the simulations and fitting the FGAM can be found in supplemental materials available online.

  19. Space Shuttle operational logistics plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Botts, J. W.

    1983-01-01

    The Kennedy Space Center plan for logistics to support Space Shuttle Operations and to establish the related policies, requirements, and responsibilities are described. The Directorate of Shuttle Management and Operations logistics responsibilities required by the Kennedy Organizational Manual, and the self-sufficiency contracting concept are implemented. The Space Shuttle Program Level 1 and Level 2 logistics policies and requirements applicable to KSC that are presented in HQ NASA and Johnson Space Center directives are also implemented.

  20. Method of operating a coal gasifier

    DOEpatents

    Blaskowski, Henry J.

    1979-01-01

    A method of operating an entrained flow coal gasifier which comprises the steps of firing coal at two levels in a combustion zone with near stoichiometric air, removing molten ash from the combustion zone, conveying combustion products upwardly from the combustion zone through a reduction zone, injecting additional coal into the combustion products in the reduction zone and gasifying at least a portion of the coal to form low BTU gas, conveying the gas to a point of use, including also reducing gasifier output by modifying the ratio of air to coal supplied to the upper level of the combustion zone so that the ratio becomes increasingly substoichiometric thereby extending the gasification of coal from the reduction zone into the upper level of the combustion zone, and maintaining the lower level of coal in the combustion zone at near stoichiometric conditions so as to provide sufficient heat to maintain effective slagging conditions.

  1. Siloxane containing addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maudgal, S.; St. Clair, T. L.

    1984-01-01

    Addition polyimide oligomers have been synthesized from bis(gamma-aminopropyl) tetramethyldisiloxane and 3, 3', 4, 4'-benzophenonetetracarboxylic dianhydride using a variety of latent crosslinking groups as endcappers. The prepolymers were isolated and characterized for solubility (in amide, chlorinated and ether solvents), melt flow and cure properties. The most promising systems, maleimide and acetylene terminated prepolymers, were selected for detailed study. Graphite cloth reinforced composites were prepared and properties compared with those of graphite/Kerimid 601, a commercially available bismaleimide. Mixtures of the maleimide terminated system with Kerimid 601, in varying proportions, were also studied.

  2. The Effect of Herbal Tea Containing Fenugreek Seed on the Signs of Breast Milk Sufficiency in Iranian Girl Infants

    PubMed Central

    Ghasemi, Vida; Kheirkhah, Masoomeh; Vahedi, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    Background: One of the important reasons behind termination of breast-feeding in the first six months after childbirth is insufficient production of breast milk. Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of herbal tea containing fenugreek seed on the signs of breast milk sufficiency in Iranian girl infants aged 0 - 4 months, at the medical health centers of Tehran university of medical sciences. Patients and Methods: This study was a clinical trial with a control group. Seventy-eight girl infants, 0 - 4 months old that were exclusively breastfed by their mothers, were randomly assigned to the intervention group (received herbal tea containing 7.5 g fenugreek seed powder in addition to 3 g of black tea, three times a day) and the control group (received herbal tea containing 3 g of black tea powder, three times a day). Before and during the four weeks of study, the signs of breast milk sufficiency were evaluated through measurement of growth parameters and use of follow-up forms for measuring the number of wet diapers in one day, frequency of defecation and infant breast-feeding times in a day. Results: Before the intervention there was no significant difference between weight, height, head circumference, the number of wet diapers and frequency of defecation between the two groups (P > 0.05), yet the number of breast feeding times of the control group was more than the Fenugreek group. At the end of the fourth week in proportion to the pre-intervention conditions, the weight of the infants in the fenugreek group increased significantly from 5282.0513 ± 1021.51121 to 6383.0769 ± 952.06190, while head circumference increased from 38.3103 ± 1.62736 to 39.9256 ± 1.50660, number of wet diapers from 5.2821 ± 0.93044 to 8.1648 ± 1.20620, frequency of defecation from 1.8846 ± 1.08495 to 2.7326 ± 0.94771 and the number of breast feeding times from 9.1795 ± 1.39778 to 15.9597 ± 1.45056 (P < 0.001). However, there was no significant effect on

  3. IS PROTOSTELLAR HEATING SUFFICIENT TO HALT FRAGMENTATION? A CASE STUDY OF THE MASSIVE PROTOCLUSTER G8.68-0.37

    SciTech Connect

    Longmore, S. N.; Pillai, T.; Keto, E.; Zhang, Q.; Qiu, K.

    2011-01-10

    If star formation proceeds by thermal fragmentation and the subsequent gravitational collapse of the individual fragments, how is it possible to form fragments massive enough for O and B stars in a typical star-forming molecular cloud where the Jeans mass is about 1 M{sub sun} at the typical densities (10{sup 4} cm{sup -3}) and temperatures (10 K)? We test the hypothesis that a first generation of low-mass stars may heat the gas enough that subsequent thermal fragmentation results in fragments {>=}10 M{sub sun}, sufficient to form B stars. We combine ATCA and Submillimeter Array observations of the massive star-forming region G8.68-0.37 with radiative transfer modeling to derive the present-day conditions in the region and use this to infer the conditions in the past, at the time of core formation. Assuming that the current mass/separation of the observed cores equals the fragmentation Jeans mass/length and the region's average density has not changed requires the gas temperature to have been 100 K at the time of fragmentation. The postulated first generation of low-mass stars would still be around today, but the number required to heat the cloud exceeds the limits imposed by the observations. Several lines of evidence suggest the observed cores in the region should eventually form O stars yet none have sufficient raw material. Even if feedback may have suppressed fragmentation, it was not sufficient to halt it to this extent. To develop into O stars, the cores must obtain additional mass from outside their observationally defined boundaries. The observations suggest that they are currently fed via infall from the very massive reservoir ({approx}1500 M{sub sun}) of gas in the larger parsec scale cloud around the star-forming cores. This suggests that massive stars do not form in the collapse of individual massive fragments, but rather in smaller fragments that themselves continue to gain mass by accretion from larger scales.

  4. Platelet additive solution - electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Azuma, Hiroshi; Hirayama, Junichi; Akino, Mitsuaki; Ikeda, Hisami

    2011-06-01

    Recent attention to solutions that replace most or all plasma in platelet concentrates, while maintaining satisfactory platelet function, is motivated by the potential of plasma reduction or depletion to mitigate various transfusion-related adverse events. This report considers the electrolytic composition of previously described platelet additive solutions, in order to draw general conclusions about what is required for platelet function and longevity. The optimal concentrations of Na(+) and Cl(-) are 69-115 mM. The presence of both K(+) and Mg(2+) in platelet suspension at nearly physiological concentrations (3-5mM and 1.5-3mM, respectively) is indispensable for good preservation capacity because both electrolytes are required to prevent platelet activation. In contrast to K(+) and Mg(2+), Ca(2+) may not be important because no free Ca(2+) is available in M-sol, which showed excellent platelet preservation capacity at less than 5% plasma concentration. The importance of bicarbonate (approximately 40 mM) can be recognized when the platelets are suspended in additive solution under less than 5% residual plasma concentration.

  5. Electrocommunication signals alone are sufficient to increase neurogenesis in the brain of adult electric fish, Apteronotus leptorhynchus.

    PubMed

    Dunlap, Kent D; McCarthy, Elizabeth A; Jashari, Denisa

    2008-10-01

    Social interaction can have profound influences on the structure of the adult brain, but little is known about the precise stimulus feature found within social interaction that induces such brain plasticity. We examined the effects of social stimuli on cell addition and radial glial fiber formation in the brains of adult electric fish. These fish communicate primarily through weak, quasi-sinusoidal electric signals. Fish were housed in isolation, paired with another fish or exposed to only the electrocommunication signals of another fish for 7 days. After 3 days of exposure to these stimulus conditions, fish were injected with bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) to mark newborn cells. We sacrificed the fish 4 days after BrdU injection and used immunohistochemistry to measure cell addition (BrdU+), the fraction of added cells that differentiated into neurons (BrdU+/NeuroTrace+) and the density of radial glia fibers (vimentin+) in the periventricular zone of the diencephalon. Fish that were exposed only to the electrocommunication signals of another fish and no other social stimuli had equivalent levels of cell addition and radial glial fiber density to fish that were housed with full social interaction and higher levels than fish housed in isolation. About 60% of the added cells differentiated into neurons; this fraction did not differ among treatment groups. Artificial sine wave electrical stimuli that mimicked electrocommunication signals were ineffective in increasing cell addition and glia fiber formation above those found in isolated fish. Thus, stimuli through a single modality are sufficient for inducing this brain plasticity, but the waveform or dynamic features of communication signals are crucial for the effect.

  6. The delta-opioid receptor is sufficient, but not necessary, for spinal opioid-adrenergic analgesic synergy.

    PubMed

    Chabot-Doré, Anne-Julie; Millecamps, Magali; Stone, Laura S

    2013-12-01

    Spinal administration of opioid and α2-adrenergic receptor (α2AR) agonists produces analgesia, and agonists interact synergistically when coadministered. The molecular mechanism underlying this synergy is largely unknown. Pharmacological studies have identified both the delta and the mu-opioid receptors (DOR and MOR) as candidate receptors capable of interacting synergistically with α2AR agonists. However, recent studies attribute the antinociceptive effect of DOR agonists to actions at the MOR, calling the role of DOR in opioid-adrenergic synergy into question. Other studies suggesting that DOR is implicated in morphine antinociception raise the possibility that DOR is nonetheless required for morphine synergy with α2AR agonists. This study aimed to determine whether DOR activation is sufficient and necessary to mediate opioid-adrenergic synergistic interactions in the spinal cord. The antinociceptive effects of clonidine, [D-Ala(2)]-deltorphin II (DeltII), morphine, and [D-Ala(2), N-Me-Phe(4), Gly-ol(5)]-enkephalin (DAMGO) were evaluated using the substance P (SP) behavioral assay in wild type (WT) and DOR-knockout (KO) mice. Opioid-adrenergic drug interactions were evaluated after spinal coadministration of clonidine with DeltII, morphine, or DAMGO. Isobolographic analyses of dose-response curves determined whether interactions were synergistic or additive. The absence of DeltII antinociceptive efficacy in DOR-KO confirmed its selectivity in the SP assay. Although DeltII+clonidine interacted synergistically in WT mice, no interaction with clonidine was observed in DOR-KO mice. Clonidine was synergistic with morphine in both mouse strains. DAMGO did not synergize with clonidine in either strain. These findings confirm that although other opioid receptors can interact synergistically with α2AR agonists, DOR is sufficient for spinal opioid-adrenergic interactions.

  7. Approximate approach for optimization space flights with a low thrust on the basis of sufficient optimality conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salmin, Vadim V.

    2017-01-01

    Flight mechanics with a low-thrust is a new chapter of mechanics of space flight, considered plurality of all problems trajectory optimization and movement control laws and the design parameters of spacecraft. Thus tasks associated with taking into account the additional factors in mathematical models of the motion of spacecraft becomes increasingly important, as well as additional restrictions on the possibilities of the thrust vector control. The complication of the mathematical models of controlled motion leads to difficulties in solving optimization problems. Author proposed methods of finding approximate optimal control and evaluating their optimality based on analytical solutions. These methods are based on the principle of extending the class of admissible states and controls and sufficient conditions for the absolute minimum. Developed procedures of the estimation enabling to determine how close to the optimal founded solution, and indicate ways to improve them. Authors describes procedures of estimate for approximately optimal control laws for space flight mechanics problems, in particular for optimization flight low-thrust between the circular non-coplanar orbits, optimization the control angle and trajectory movement of the spacecraft during interorbital flights, optimization flights with low-thrust between arbitrary elliptical orbits Earth satellites.

  8. Invertible linear ordinary differential operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chetverikov, Vladimir N.

    2017-03-01

    We consider invertible linear ordinary differential operators whose inversions are also differential operators. To each such operator we assign a numerical table. These tables are described in the elementary geometrical language. The table does not uniquely determine the operator. To define this operator uniquely some additional information should be added, as it is described in detail in this paper. The possibility of generalization of these results to partial differential operators is also discussed.

  9. Are changes in MAPK/ERK necessary or sufficient for entrainment in chick pineal cells?

    PubMed

    Yadav, Geetha; Straume, Martin; Heath, James; Zatz, Martin

    2003-11-05

    Chick pineal cells in culture display a circadian rhythm of melatonin release. Light pulses can entrain (phase shift) the rhythm. One candidate for the photoentrainment pathway uses a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), also known as extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). We tested the hypothesis that activation of ERK (by phosphorylation to p-ERK) is necessary and/or sufficient for entrainment by measuring the ability of several drugs, light, and other perturbations to change levels of p-ERK and to induce phase shifts in the melatonin rhythm. If changes in the levels of p-ERK are sufficient for photoentrainment, then all perturbations that reduce its level must induce light-like phase shifts, and all those that increase its level must induce dark-like phase shifts. If such changes are necessary for photoentrainment, then light pulses must reduce p-ERK levels, and the duration of the light pulse, the magnitude and duration of the change in p-ERK, and the size of the phase shift must correlate. We found five perturbations that reduced p-ERK levels. Of these, two induced light-like phase shifts (PD 98059 and caffeine), one induced dark-like phase shifts (SB203580), and two did not induce phase shifts at all (U0126 and omitting a medium change). Serum increased p-ERK levels without inducing any phase shifts. Finally, light pulses did not elicit changes in p-ERK, nor was there a diurnal rhythm in p-ERK levels, nor could rapid changes in p-ERK levels have accounted for duration effects of light pulses on phase shifts. Taken together, these results argue strongly against the hypothesis that reduction (or increases) in MAPK/ERK activation is necessary or sufficient for entrainment in chick pineal cells.

  10. Purified TMEM16A is sufficient to form Ca2+-activated Cl− channels

    PubMed Central

    Terashima, Hiroyuki; Picollo, Alessandra; Accardi, Alessio

    2013-01-01

    Ca2+-activated Cl− channels (CaCCs) are key regulators of numerous physiological functions, ranging from electrolyte secretion in airway epithelia to cellular excitability in sensory neurons and muscle fibers. Recently, TMEM16A (ANO1) and -B were shown to be critical components of CaCCs. It is still unknown whether they are also sufficient to form functional CaCCs, or whether association with other subunits is required. Recent reports suggest that the Ca2+ sensitivity of TMEM16A is mediated by its association with calmodulin, suggesting that functional CaCCs are heteromultimers. To test whether TMEM16A is necessary and sufficient to form functional CaCCs, we expressed, purified, and reconstituted human TMEM16A. The purified protein mediates Ca2+-dependent Cl− transport with submicromolar sensitivity to Ca2+, consistent with what is seen in patch–clamp experiments. The channel is synergistically gated by Ca2+ and voltage, so that opening is promoted by depolarizing potentials. Mutating two conserved glutamates in the TM6-7 intracellular loop selectively abolishes the Ca2+ dependence of reconstituted TMEM16A, in a manner similar to what was reported for the heterologously expressed channel. Well-characterized CaCC blockers inhibit Cl− transport with Kis comparable to those measured for native and heterologously expressed CaCCs. Finally, direct physical interactions between calmodulin and TMEM16A could not be detected in copurification experiments or in functional assays. Our results demonstrate that purified TMEM16A is necessary and sufficient to recapitulate the biophysical and pharmacological properties of native and heterologously expressed CaCCs. Our results also show that association of TMEM16A with other proteins, such as calmodulin, is not required for function. PMID:24167264

  11. On the role of budget sufficiency, cost efficiency, and uncertainty in species management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    van der Burg, Max Post; Bly, Bartholomew B.; Vercauteren, Tammy; Grand, James B.; Tyre, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    Many conservation planning frameworks rely on the assumption that one should prioritize locations for management actions based on the highest predicted conservation value (i.e., abundance, occupancy). This strategy may underperform relative to the expected outcome if one is working with a limited budget or the predicted responses are uncertain. Yet, cost and tolerance to uncertainty rarely become part of species management plans. We used field data and predictive models to simulate a decision problem involving western burrowing owls (Athene cunicularia hypugaea) using prairie dog colonies (Cynomys ludovicianus) in western Nebraska. We considered 2 species management strategies: one maximized abundance and the other maximized abundance in a cost-efficient way. We then used heuristic decision algorithms to compare the 2 strategies in terms of how well they met a hypothetical conservation objective. Finally, we performed an info-gap decision analysis to determine how these strategies performed under different budget constraints and uncertainty about owl response. Our results suggested that when budgets were sufficient to manage all sites, the maximizing strategy was optimal and suggested investing more in expensive actions. This pattern persisted for restricted budgets up to approximately 50% of the sufficient budget. Below this budget, the cost-efficient strategy was optimal and suggested investing in cheaper actions. When uncertainty in the expected responses was introduced, the strategy that maximized abundance remained robust under a sufficient budget. Reducing the budget induced a slight trade-off between expected performance and robustness, which suggested that the most robust strategy depended both on one's budget and tolerance to uncertainty. Our results suggest that wildlife managers should explicitly account for budget limitations and be realistic about their expected levels of performance.

  12. Virtual water and water self-sufficiency in agricultural and livestock products in Brazil.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Vicente de Paulo R; de Oliveira, Sonaly D; Braga, Célia C; Brito, José Ivaldo B; de Sousa, Francisco de Assis S; de Holanda, Romildo M; Campos, João Hugo B C; de Souza, Enio P; Braga, Armando César R; Rodrigues Almeida, Rafaela S; de Araújo, Lincoln E

    2016-12-15

    Virtual water trade is often considered a solution for restricted water availability in many regions of the world. Brazil is the world leader in the production and export of various agricultural and livestock products. The country is either a strong net importer or a strong net exporter of these products. The objective of this study is to determine the volume of virtual water contained in agricultural and livestock products imported/exported by Brazil from 1997 to 2012, and to define the water self-sufficiency index of agricultural and livestock products in Brazil. The indexes of water scarcity (WSI), water dependency (WDI) and water self-sufficiency (WSSI) were calculated for each Brazilian state. These indexes and the virtual water balance were calculated following the methodology developed by Chapagain and Hoekstra (2008) and Hoekstra and Hung (2005). The total water exports and imports embedded in agricultural and livestock products were 5.28 × 10(10) and 1.22 × 10(10) Gm(3) yr(-1), respectively, which results in positive virtual water balance of 4.05 × 10(10) Gm(3) yr(-1). Brazil is either a strong net importer or a strong net exporter of agricultural and livestock products among the Mercosur countries. Brazil has a positive virtual water balance of 1.85 × 10(10) Gm(3) yr(-1). The indexes used in this study reveal that Brazil is self-sufficient in food production, except for a few products such as wheat and rice. Horticultural products (tomato, onion, potato, cassava and garlic) make up a unique product group with negative virtual water balance in Brazil.

  13. Is Transducer Hygiene sufficient when Vaginal Probes are used in the Clinical Routine?

    PubMed

    Merz, E

    2016-04-01

    probe, after removal of the cover, must undergo disinfection measures providing bactericidal, fungicidal and virucidal effects. Since the transducer handle also poses a significant risk of transmission of germs, this component must likewise be sufficiently disinfected. In the event of perforation or rupture of the latex cover, thus resulting in the probe coming into contact with vaginal secretions or blood, the probe must be not only cleaned, but effectively disinfected with a virucide as well. It should also be noted that infection by bacteria and viruses can be caused not only by a contaminated probe, but by the ultrasound gel as well. According to studies by Heeg and Gauer 15, Buescher et al. as well as Ryndock et al., the fully automatic HLD system operated with hydrogen peroxide is currently the only validated system proven to provide HLD of ultrasound probes in a 7-minute cycle, thus suitable for application in the daily routine. Likewise it can also be presumed that this procedure also offers good material compatibility.

  14. Aging, primary care, and self-sufficiency: health care workforce challenges ahead.

    PubMed

    Mullan, Fitzhugh; Frehywot, Seble; Jolley, Laura J

    2008-01-01

    A combination of "environmental factors" in the U.S. has led to an increased demand for health care professionals. However, there has been a significant decrease in the number of U.S. medical graduates selecting careers in family medicine and general internal medicine, thus driving demand for international medical graduates. At the heart of our national workforce policy needs to be good domestic and foreign policies, such as self-sufficiency approaches that include strategies to incentivize rural and underserved practice for U.S. medical graduates.

  15. Sufficient conditions for rate-independent hysteresis in autoregressive identified models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, Samir Angelo Milani; Aguirre, Luis Antonio

    2016-06-01

    This paper shows how hysteresis can be described using polynomial models and what are the sufficient conditions to be met by the model in order to have hysteresis. Such conditions are related to the model equilibria, to the forcing function and to certain term clusters in the polynomial models. The main results of the paper are used in the identification and analysis of nonlinear models estimated from data produced by a magneto-rheological damper (MRD) model with Bouc-Wen rate-independent hysteresis. A striking feature of the identified model is its simplicity and this could turn out to be a key factor in controller design.

  16. Stability boundaries and sufficient stability conditions for stably stratified, monotonic shear flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirota, Makoto; Morrison, Philip J.

    2016-05-01

    Linear stability of inviscid, parallel, and stably stratified shear flow is studied under the assumption of smooth strictly monotonic profiles of shear flow and density, so that the local Richardson number is positive everywhere. The marginally unstable modes are systematically found by solving a one-parameter family of regular Sturm-Liouville problems, which can determine the stability boundaries more efficiently than solving the Taylor-Goldstein equation directly. By arguing for the non-existence of a marginally unstable mode, we derive new sufficient conditions for stability, which generalize the Rayleigh-Fjørtoft criterion for unstratified shear flows.

  17. The Autonomous House: A Bio-Hydrogen Based Energy Self-Sufficient Approach

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shang-Yuan; Chu, Chen-Yeon; Cheng, Ming-jen; Lin, Chiu-Yue

    2009-01-01

    In the wake of the greenhouse effect and global energy crisis, finding sources of clean, alternative energy and developing everyday life applications have become urgent tasks. This study proposes the development of an “autonomous house” emphasizing the use of modern green energy technology to reduce environmental load, achieve energy autonomy and use energy intelligently in order to create a sustainable, comfortable living environment. The houses’ two attributes are: (1) a self-sufficient energy cycle and (2) autonomous energy control to maintain environmental comfort. The autonomous house thus combines energy-conserving, carbon emission-reducing passive design with active elements needed to maintain a comfortable environment. PMID:19440531

  18. The autonomous house: a bio-hydrogen based energy self-sufficient approach.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shang-Yuan; Chu, Chen-Yeon; Cheng, Ming-Jen; Lin, Chiu-Yue

    2009-04-01

    In the wake of the greenhouse effect and global energy crisis, finding sources of clean, alternative energy and developing everyday life applications have become urgent tasks. This study proposes the development of an "autonomous house" emphasizing the use of modern green energy technology to reduce environmental load, achieve energy autonomy and use energy intelligently in order to create a sustainable, comfortable living environment. The houses' two attributes are: (1) a self-sufficient energy cycle and (2) autonomous energy control to maintain environmental comfort. The autonomous house thus combines energy-conserving, carbon emission-reducing passive design with active elements needed to maintain a comfortable environment.

  19. Dynamics of ultrasonic additive manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Hehr, Adam; Dapino, Marcelo J

    2017-01-01

    Ultrasonic additive manufacturing (UAM) is a solid-state technology for joining similar and dissimilar metal foils near room temperature by scrubbing them together with ultrasonic vibrations under pressure. Structural dynamics of the welding assembly and work piece influence how energy is transferred during the process and ultimately, part quality. To understand the effect of structural dynamics during UAM, a linear time-invariant model is proposed to relate the inputs of shear force and electric current to resultant welder velocity and voltage. Measured frequency response and operating performance of the welder under no load is used to identify model parameters. Using this model and in-situ measurements, shear force and welder efficiency are estimated to be near 2000N and 80% when welding Al 6061-H18 weld foil, respectively. Shear force and welder efficiency have never been estimated before in UAM. The influence of processing conditions, i.e., welder amplitude, normal force, and weld speed, on shear force and welder efficiency are investigated. Welder velocity was found to strongly influence the shear force magnitude and efficiency while normal force and weld speed showed little to no influence. The proposed model is used to describe high frequency harmonic content in the velocity response of the welder during welding operations and coupling of the UAM build with the welder.

  20. Additive composition, for gasoline

    SciTech Connect

    Vataru, M.

    1989-01-10

    An admixture is described that comprises Diesel fuel and an additive composition added thereto which is between about 0.05 to about 2.0 percent by weight of the fuel, the composition comprising: (a) between about 0.05 and 25% relative weight parts of an organic peroxide, and (b) between about 0.1 and 25% relative weight parts of detergent selected from the component group that consists of: (i) fatty amines; (ii) ethoxylated and propoxylated derivatives of fatty amines; (iii) fatty diamines; (iv) fatty imidazlines; (v) polymeric amines and derivatives thereof; (vi) combination of one or more of the (i) through (v) components with carboxylic acid or acids having from three to forth carbon atoms, (c) from about 99.0 to about 50% by weight of a hydrocarbon solvent.

  1. Teardrop bladder: additional considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Wechsler, R.J.; Brennan, R.E.

    1982-07-01

    Nine cases of teardrop bladder (TDB) seen at excretory urography are presented. In some of these patients, the iliopsoas muscles were at the upper limit of normal in size, and additional evaluation of the perivesical structures with computed tomography (CT) was necessary. CT demonstrated only hypertrophied muscles with or without perivesical fat. The psoas muscles and pelvic width were measured in 8 patients and compared with the measurements of a control group of males without TDB. Patients with TDB had large iliopsoas muscles and narrow pelves compared with the control group. The psoas muscle width/pelvic width ratio was significantly greater (p < 0.0005) in patients with TDB than in the control group, with values of 1.04 + 0.05 and 0.82 + 0.09, respectively. It is concluded that TDB is not an uncommon normal variant in black males. Both iliopsoas muscle hypertrophy and a narrow pelvis are factors that predispose a patient to TDB.

  2. New addition curing polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frimer, Aryeh A.; Cavano, Paul

    1991-01-01

    In an attempt to improve the thermal-oxidative stability (TOS) of PMR-type polymers, the use of 1,4-phenylenebis (phenylmaleic anhydride) PPMA, was evaluated. Two series of nadic end-capped addition curing polyimides were prepared by imidizing PPMA with either 4,4'-methylene dianiline or p-phenylenediamine. The first resulted in improved solubility and increased resin flow while the latter yielded a compression molded neat resin sample with a T(sub g) of 408 C, close to 70 C higher than PME-15. The performance of these materials in long term weight loss studies was below that of PMR-15, independent of post-cure conditions. These results can be rationalized in terms of the thermal lability of the pendant phenyl groups and the incomplete imidization of the sterically congested PPMA. The preparation of model compounds as well as future research directions are discussed.

  3. Perspectives on Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourell, David L.

    2016-07-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has skyrocketed in visibility commercially and in the public sector. This article describes the development of this field from early layered manufacturing approaches of photosculpture, topography, and material deposition. Certain precursors to modern AM processes are also briefly described. The growth of the field over the last 30 years is presented. Included is the standard delineation of AM technologies into seven broad categories. The economics of AM part generation is considered, and the impacts of the economics on application sectors are described. On the basis of current trends, the future outlook will include a convergence of AM fabricators, mass-produced AM fabricators, enabling of topology optimization designs, and specialization in the AM legal arena. Long-term developments with huge impact are organ printing and volume-based printing.

  4. Sewage sludge additive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalvinskas, J. J.; Mueller, W. A.; Ingham, J. D. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    The additive is for a raw sewage treatment process of the type where settling tanks are used for the purpose of permitting the suspended matter in the raw sewage to be settled as well as to permit adsorption of the dissolved contaminants in the water of the sewage. The sludge, which settles down to the bottom of the settling tank is extracted, pyrolyzed and activated to form activated carbon and ash which is mixed with the sewage prior to its introduction into the settling tank. The sludge does not provide all of the activated carbon and ash required for adequate treatment of the raw sewage. It is necessary to add carbon to the process and instead of expensive commercial carbon, coal is used to provide the carbon supplement.

  5. Video Telescope Operating Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Divers, Stephen J

    2015-09-01

    Exotic pet veterinarians frequently have to operate on small animals, and magnification is commonly used. Existing endoscopy equipment can be used with a mechanical arm and telescope to enable video telescope operating microscopy. The additional equipment items and their specifics are described, and several case examples are provided.

  6. Additional Technologies and Investigations for Provision of Future Aeronautical Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, Tricia; Jin, Jenny; Berger, Jason; Henriksen, Steve

    2008-01-01

    The following NASA Contractor Report documents the in-depth studies on select technologies that could support long-term aeronautical mobile communications operating concepts. This work was performed during the third and final phase of NASA s Technology Assessment for the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA)/EUROCONTROL Future Communications Study (FCS) under a multiyear NASA contract. It includes the associated findings of ITT Corporation and NASA Glenn Research Center to the FAA as of the end of May 2007. The activities documented in this report focus on three final technology candidates identified by the United States, and were completed before sufficient information about two additional technology candidates proposed by EUROCONTROL was made available. A separate report to be published by NASA/CR-2008-215144, entitled Final Report on Technology Investigations for Provision of Future Aeronautical Communications will include an assessment of all five final candidate technologies considered by the U.S. agencies (FAA and NASA) and EUROCONTROL. It will also provide an overview of the entire technology assessment process, including final recommendations. All three phases of this work were performed in compliance with the Terms of Reference for the Action Plan number 17 (AP-17) cooperative research agreement among EUROCONTROL, FAA, and NASA along with the general guidance of the FAA and EUROCONTROL available throughout this study.

  7. Multiphase pumping - operation & control

    SciTech Connect

    Salis, J. de; Marolies, C. de; Falcimaigne, J.

    1996-12-31

    This paper reviews field issues related to the planning, installation and operation of the helico-axial multiphase pumps. Interest for multiphase production, which leads to simpler and smaller in-field installations, is primarily dictated by the need for more a cost effective production system. Multiphase pumping is essentially a means of adding energy to the unprocessed effluent which enables the liquid/gas mixture to be transported over long distances without the need for prior separation. The Poseidon helico-axial pumps, under normal operating conditions, are largely unaffected by process fluctuations at pump inlet (changes in pressure, liquid or gas flow rate). They have demonstrated a stable behavior (self-adaptive capability with regards to instantaneous changes). A multiphase pump set is designed to operate under changing/fluctuating process conditions. An important issue related to pump operability and flexibility has to do with the driver selection: fixed speed vs. variable speed. In some cases a fixed speed drive provides sufficient operational flexibility. In other cases variable speed can be chosen. Pump operation & control strategies are presented and discussed.

  8. Sufficient oxygen for animal respiration 1,400 million years ago.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuichang; Wang, Xiaomei; Wang, Huajian; Bjerrum, Christian J; Hammarlund, Emma U; Costa, M Mafalda; Connelly, James N; Zhang, Baomin; Su, Jin; Canfield, Donald E

    2016-02-16

    The Mesoproterozoic Eon [1,600-1,000 million years ago (Ma)] is emerging as a key interval in Earth history, with a unique geochemical history that might have influenced the course of biological evolution on Earth. Indeed, although this time interval is rather poorly understood, recent chromium isotope results suggest that atmospheric oxygen levels were <0.1% of present levels, sufficiently low to have inhibited the evolution of animal life. In contrast, using a different approach, we explore the distribution and enrichments of redox-sensitive trace metals in the 1,400 Ma sediments of Unit 3 of the Xiamaling Formation, North China Block. Patterns of trace metal enrichments reveal oxygenated bottom waters during deposition of the sediments, and biomarker results demonstrate the presence of green sulfur bacteria in the water column. Thus, we document an ancient oxygen minimum zone. We develop a simple, yet comprehensive, model of marine carbon-oxygen cycle dynamics to show that our geochemical results are consistent with atmospheric oxygen levels >4% of present-day levels. Therefore, in contrast to previous suggestions, we show that there was sufficient oxygen to fuel animal respiration long before the evolution of animals themselves.

  9. Plasma membrane restricted RhoGEF activity is sufficient for RhoA-mediated actin polymerization

    PubMed Central

    van Unen, Jakobus; Reinhard, Nathalie R.; Yin, Taofei; Wu, Yi I.; Postma, Marten; Gadella, Theodorus W.J.; Goedhart, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    The small GTPase RhoA is involved in cell morphology and migration. RhoA activity is tightly regulated in time and space and depends on guanine exchange factors (GEFs). However, the kinetics and subcellular localization of GEF activity towards RhoA are poorly defined. To study the mechanism underlying the spatiotemporal control of RhoA activity by GEFs, we performed single cell imaging with an improved FRET sensor reporting on the nucleotide loading state of RhoA. By employing the FRET sensor we show that a plasma membrane located RhoGEF, p63RhoGEF, can rapidly activate RhoA through endogenous GPCRs and that localized RhoA activity at the cell periphery correlates with actin polymerization. Moreover, synthetic recruitment of the catalytic domain derived from p63RhoGEF to the plasma membrane, but not to the Golgi apparatus, is sufficient to activate RhoA. The synthetic system enables local activation of endogenous RhoA and effectively induces actin polymerization and changes in cellular morphology. Together, our data demonstrate that GEF activity at the plasma membrane is sufficient for actin polymerization via local RhoA signaling. PMID:26435194

  10. Application of nitrogen sufficiency conversion strategy for microalgae-based ammonium-rich wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinghan; Zhou, Wenguang; Yang, Haizhen; Ruan, Roger

    2016-10-01

    Ammonium ([Formula: see text]-N)-rich wastewater, a main cause for eutrophication, can serve as a promising medium for fast microalgae cultivation with efficient [Formula: see text]-N removal. To achieve this goal, a well-controlled three-stage treatment process was developed. Two trophic modes (mixotrophy and heterotrophy) in Stage 1 and Stage 2, with two nitrogen availability conditions (N sufficient and N deprived) in Stage 2, and different [Formula: see text]-N concentrations in Stage 3 were compared to investigate the effects of nitrogen sufficiency conversion on indigenous strain UMN266 for [Formula: see text]-N removal. Results showed that mixotrophic cultures in the first two stages with N deprivation in Stage 2 was the optimum treatment strategy, and higher [Formula: see text]-N concentration in Stage 3 facilitated both microalgal growth and [Formula: see text]-N removal, with average and maximum biomass productivity of 55.3 and 161.0 mg L(-1) d(-1), and corresponding removal rates of 4.2 and 15.0 mg L(-1) d(-1), respectively, superior to previously published results. Observations of intracellular compositions confirmed the optimum treatment strategy, discovering excellent starch accumulating property of strain UMN266 as well. Combination of bioethanol production with the proposed three-stage process using various real wastewater streams at corresponding stages was suggested for future application.

  11. Nitric oxide is neither necessary nor sufficient for resolution of Plasmodium chabaudi malaria in mice.

    PubMed

    van der Heyde, H C; Gu, Y; Zhang, Q; Sun, G; Grisham, M B

    2000-09-15

    Malaria is a life-threatening re-emerging disease, yet it is still not clear how bloodstage malarial parasites are killed. Nitric oxide (NO), which has potent anti-microbial activity, may represent an important killing mechanism. The production of NO during descending Plasmodium chabaudi parasitemia, a period when parasites are killed by the immune response, supports this concept. However, NOS20/0 and NOS30/0 mice as well as mice treated with NO synthase 2 (NOS2) inhibitors do not develop exacerbated malaria, indicating that NO production is not necessary for the suppression of P. chabaudi parasitemia. It is possible due to the plasticity in the immune response during malaria that Ab-mediated immunity is enhanced in the absence of NO, thereby explaining the lack of exacerbated malaria in NOS-deficient mice even though NO may function in protection. However, NOS2- and B cell-deficient mice, which cannot use Ab-mediated immunity, suppress their parasitemia with a similar time course as B cell-deficient controls. C57BL/6 mice treated with Propionibacterium acnes to elicit high levels of macrophage-derived NO have a similar time course of P. chabaudi parasitemia as P. acnes-treated NOS20/0 mice, which do not produce NO; this indicates that NO is not sufficient for parasite killing. Collectively, these results indicate that NO is not necessary or sufficient to resolve P. chabaudi malaria.

  12. Necessary and sufficient liveness condition of GS3PR Petri nets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, GaiYun; Barkaoui, Kamel

    2015-05-01

    Structural analysis is one of the most important and efficient methods to investigate the behaviour of Petri nets. Liveness is a significant behavioural property of Petri nets. Siphons, as structural objects of a Petri net, are closely related to its liveness. Many deadlock control policies for flexible manufacturing systems (FMS) modelled by Petri nets are implemented via siphon control. Most of the existing methods design liveness-enforcing supervisors by adding control places for siphons based on their controllability conditions. To compute a liveness-enforcing supervisor with as much as permissive behaviour, it is both theoretically and practically significant to find an exact controllability condition for siphons. However, the existing conditions, max, max‧, and max″-controllability of siphons are all overly restrictive and generally sufficient only. This paper develops a new condition called max*-controllability of the siphons in generalised systems of simple sequential processes with resources (GS3PR), which are a net subclass that can model many real-world automated manufacturing systems. We show that a GS3PR is live if all its strict minimal siphons (SMS) are max*-controlled. Compared with the existing conditions, i.e., max-, max‧-, and max″-controllability of siphons, max*-controllability of the SMS is not only sufficient but also necessary. An example is used to illustrate the proposed method.

  13. Knowledge of response location alone is not sufficient to generate social inhibition of return.

    PubMed

    Welsh, Timothy N; Manzone, Joseph; McDougall, Laura

    2014-11-01

    Previous research has revealed that the inhibition of return (IOR) effect emerges when individuals respond to a target at the same location as their own previous response or the previous response of a co-actor. The latter social IOR effect is thought to occur because the observation of co-actor's response evokes a representation of that action in the observer and that the observation-evoked response code subsequently activates the inhibitory mechanisms underlying IOR. The present study was conducted to determine if knowledge of the co-actor's response alone is sufficient to evoke social IOR. Pairs of participants completed responses to targets that appeared at different button locations. Button contact generated location-contingent auditory stimuli (high and low tones in Experiment 1 and colour words in Experiment 2). In the Full condition, the observer saw the response and heard the auditory stimuli. In the Auditory Only condition, the observer did not see the co-actor's response, but heard the auditory stimuli generated via button contact to indicate response endpoint. It was found that, although significant individual and social IOR effects emerged in the Full conditions, there were no social IOR effects in the Auditory Only conditions. These findings suggest that knowledge of the co-actor's response alone via auditory information is not sufficient to activate the inhibitory processes leading to IOR. The activation of the mechanisms that lead to social IOR seems to be dependent on processing channels that code the spatial characteristics of action.

  14. Revenue Sufficiency and Reliability in a Zero Marginal Cost Future: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Frew, Bethany A.; Milligan, Michael; Brinkman, Greg; Bloom, Aaron; Clark, Kara; Denholm, Paul

    2016-12-01

    Features of existing wholesale electricity markets, such as administrative pricing rules and policy-based reliability standards, can distort market incentives from allowing generators sufficient opportunities to recover both fixed and variable costs. Moreover, these challenges can be amplified by other factors, including (1) inelastic demand resulting from a lack of price signal clarity, (2) low- or near-zero marginal cost generation, particularly arising from low natural gas fuel prices and variable generation (VG), such as wind and solar, and (3) the variability and uncertainty of this VG. As power systems begin to incorporate higher shares of VG, many questions arise about the suitability of the existing marginal-cost-based price formation, primarily within an energy-only market structure, to ensure the economic viability of resources that might be needed to provide system reliability. This article discusses these questions and provides a summary of completed and ongoing modelling-based work at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory to better understand the impacts of evolving power systems on reliability and revenue sufficiency.

  15. The promoter of the cereal VERNALIZATION1 gene is sufficient for transcriptional induction by prolonged cold.

    PubMed

    Alonso-Peral, Maria M; Oliver, Sandra N; Casao, M Cristina; Greenup, Aaron A; Trevaskis, Ben

    2011-01-01

    The VERNALIZATION1 (VRN1) gene of temperate cereals is transcriptionally activated by prolonged cold during winter (vernalization) to promote flowering. To investigate the mechanisms controlling induction of VRN1 by prolonged cold, different regions of the VRN1 gene were fused to the GREEN FLUORESCENT PROTEIN (GFP) reporter and expression of the resulting gene constructs was assayed in transgenic barley (Hordeum vulgare). A 2 kb segment of the promoter of VRN1 was sufficient for GFP expression in the leaves and shoot apex of transgenic barley plants. Fluorescence increased at the shoot apex prior to inflorescence initiation and was subsequently maintained in the developing inflorescence. The promoter was also sufficient for low-temperature induction of GFP expression. A naturally occurring insertion in the proximal promoter, which is associated with elevated VRN1 expression and early flowering in some spring wheats, did not abolish induction of VRN1 transcription by prolonged cold, however. A translational fusion of the promoter and transcribed regions of VRN1 to GFP, VRN1::GFP, was localised to nuclei of cells at the shoot apex of transgenic barley plants. The distribution of VRN1::GFP at the shoot apex was similar to the expression pattern of the VRN1 promoter-GFP reporter gene. Fluorescence from the VRN1::GFP fusion protein increased in the developing leaves after prolonged cold treatment. These observations suggest that the promoter of VRN1 is targeted by mechanisms that trigger vernalization-induced flowering in economically important temperate cereal crops.

  16. Comparison of methods for calculating conditional expectations of sufficient statistics for continuous time Markov chains

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Continuous time Markov chains (CTMCs) is a widely used model for describing the evolution of DNA sequences on the nucleotide, amino acid or codon level. The sufficient statistics for CTMCs are the time spent in a state and the number of changes between any two states. In applications past evolutionary events (exact times and types of changes) are unaccessible and the past must be inferred from DNA sequence data observed in the present. Results We describe and implement three algorithms for computing linear combinations of expected values of the sufficient statistics, conditioned on the end-points of the chain, and compare their performance with respect to accuracy and running time. The first algorithm is based on an eigenvalue decomposition of the rate matrix (EVD), the second on uniformization (UNI), and the third on integrals of matrix exponentials (EXPM). The implementation in R of the algorithms is available at http://www.birc.au.dk/~paula/. Conclusions We use two different models to analyze the accuracy and eight experiments to investigate the speed of the three algorithms. We find that they have similar accuracy and that EXPM is the slowest method. Furthermore we find that UNI is usually faster than EVD. PMID:22142146

  17. Neurite beading is sufficient to decrease the apparent diffusion coefficient after ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Budde, Matthew D; Frank, Joseph A

    2010-08-10

    Diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) is a sensitive and reliable marker of cerebral ischemia. Within minutes of an ischemic event in the brain, the microscopic motion of water molecules measured with DWI, termed the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), decreases within the infarcted region. However, although the change is related to cell swelling, the precise pathological mechanism remains elusive. We show that focal enlargement and constriction, or beading, in axons and dendrites are sufficient to substantially decrease ADC. We first derived a biophysical model of neurite beading, and we show that the beaded morphology allows a larger volume to be encompassed within an equivalent surface area and is, therefore, a consequence of osmotic imbalance after ischemia. The DWI experiment simulated within the model revealed that intracellular ADC decreased by 79% in beaded neurites compared with the unbeaded form. To validate the model experimentally, excised rat sciatic nerves were subjected to stretching, which induced beading but did not cause a bulk shift of water into the axon (i.e., swelling). Beading-induced changes in cell-membrane morphology were sufficient to significantly hinder water mobility and thereby decrease ADC, and the experimental measurements were in excellent agreement with the simulated values. This is a demonstration that neurite beading accurately captures the diffusion changes measured in vivo. The results significantly advance the specificity of DWI in ischemia and other acute neurological injuries and will greatly aid the development of treatment strategies to monitor and repair damaged brain in both clinical and experimental settings.

  18. Sufficient oxygen for animal respiration 1,400 million years ago

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shuichang; Wang, Xiaomei; Wang, Huajian; Bjerrum, Christian J.; Hammarlund, Emma U.; Costa, M. Mafalda; Connelly, James N.; Zhang, Baomin; Su, Jin; Canfield, Donald E.

    2016-01-01

    The Mesoproterozoic Eon [1,600–1,000 million years ago (Ma)] is emerging as a key interval in Earth history, with a unique geochemical history that might have influenced the course of biological evolution on Earth. Indeed, although this time interval is rather poorly understood, recent chromium isotope results suggest that atmospheric oxygen levels were <0.1% of present levels, sufficiently low to have inhibited the evolution of animal life. In contrast, using a different approach, we explore the distribution and enrichments of redox-sensitive trace metals in the 1,400 Ma sediments of Unit 3 of the Xiamaling Formation, North China Block. Patterns of trace metal enrichments reveal oxygenated bottom waters during deposition of the sediments, and biomarker results demonstrate the presence of green sulfur bacteria in the water column. Thus, we document an ancient oxygen minimum zone. We develop a simple, yet comprehensive, model of marine carbon−oxygen cycle dynamics to show that our geochemical results are consistent with atmospheric oxygen levels >4% of present-day levels. Therefore, in contrast to previous suggestions, we show that there was sufficient oxygen to fuel animal respiration long before the evolution of animals themselves. PMID:26729865

  19. Necessary and sufficient conditions for multipartite Bell violations with only one trusted device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taddei, M. M.; Nery, R. V.; Aolita, L.

    2016-09-01

    We study multipartite Bell nonlocality in a framework native of multipartite Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) steering scenarios with a single trusted measurement device. We derive a closed-form necessary and sufficient criterion for systems composed of a qubit and N -1 untrusted black-box measurement devices to violate, under general dichotomic measurements on the qubit, a generic Bell inequality from a broad family of linear inequalities with arbitrarily many outputs for the N -1 untrusted devices and inputs for all N parties. The optimal quantum measurements for maximal violation are also obtained. For two users and two inputs and two outputs per user, our criterion becomes necessary and sufficient for Bell nonlocality. Furthermore, in that setting, its form generalizes recently obtained steering inequalities, which allows us to provide useful feedback from nonlocality to the detection of steering. Our findings constitute a practical tool for the study of the interplay between EPR steering and Bell nonlocality, with potential applications in multipartite information processing.

  20. Pulmonary lesions induced by Pasteurella haemolytica in neutrophil sufficient and neutrophil deficient calves.

    PubMed Central

    Breider, M A; Walker, R D; Hopkins, F M; Schultz, T W; Bowersock, T L

    1988-01-01

    The role of neutrophils in the development of peracute lung lesions of bovine pneumonic pasteurellosis was investigated. Eight calves were divided into two groups of four calves each. Group I was treated with intravenous phosphate-buffered saline and served as the neutrophil sufficient calves. Group II was treated with intravenous hydroxyurea which produced a state of neutropenia. When peripheral blood neutrophil numbers dropped below 300 cells/microL in group II, all calves were challenged with an intrabronchial bolus of Pasteurella haemolytica in the log phase of growth. An acute inflammatory process occurred in both groups of calves indicated by a rise in body temperature. While pulmonary lesions occurred in both groups by six hours postinoculation, they varied in pathological characteristics. Pulmonary lesions in the neutrophil sufficient calves consisted of fibrinopurulent alveolitis-bronchiolitis with associated alveolar septal necrosis, interlobular edema, and intravascular thrombi. The neutrophil deficient calves had extensive intra-alveolar edema, interlobular edema, intraalveolar hemorrhage, atelectasis, and focal areas of alveolar septal necrosis. These results show that P. haemolytica can induce severe pulmonary tissue damage through both neutrophil dependent and neutrophil independent mechanisms. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. PMID:3370555

  1. Hydrodynamic property of the cytoplasm is sufficient to mediate cytoplasmic streaming in the Caenorhabditis elegans embryo.

    PubMed

    Niwayama, Ritsuya; Shinohara, Kyosuke; Kimura, Akatsuki

    2011-07-19

    Cytoplasmic streaming is a type of intracellular transport widely seen in nature. Cytoplasmic streaming in Caenorhabditis elegans at the one-cell stage is bidirectional; the flow near the cortex ("cortical flow") is oriented toward the anterior, whereas the flow in the central region ("cytoplasmic flow") is oriented toward the posterior. Both cortical flow and cytoplasmic flow depend on non-muscle-myosin II (NMY-2), which primarily localizes in the cortex. The manner in which NMY-2 proteins drive cytoplasmic flow in the opposite direction from remote locations has not been fully understood. In this study, we demonstrated that the hydrodynamic properties of the cytoplasm are sufficient to mediate the forces generated by the cortical myosin to drive bidirectional streaming throughout the cytoplasm. We quantified the flow velocities of cytoplasmic streaming using particle image velocimetry (PIV) and conducted a three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulation using the moving particle semiimplicit method. Our simulation quantitatively reconstructed the quantified flow velocity distribution resolved through PIV analysis. Furthermore, our PIV analyses detected microtubule-dependent flows during the pronuclear migration stage. These flows were reproduced via hydrodynamic interactions between moving pronuclei and the cytoplasm. The agreement of flow dynamics in vivo and in simulation indicates that the hydrodynamic properties of the cytoplasm are sufficient to mediate cytoplasmic streaming in C. elegans embryos.

  2. Eyes only? Perceiving eye contact is neither sufficient nor necessary for attentional capture by face direction.

    PubMed

    Böckler, Anne; van der Wel, Robrecht P R D; Welsh, Timothy N

    2015-09-01

    Direct eye contact and motion onset both constitute powerful cues that capture attention. Recent research suggests that (social) gaze and (non-social) motion onset influence information processing in parallel, even when combined as sudden onset direct gaze cues (i.e., faces suddenly establishing eye contact). The present study investigated the role of eye visibility for attention capture by these sudden onset face cues. To this end, face direction was manipulated (away or towards onlooker) while faces had closed eyes (eliminating visibility of eyes, Experiment 1), wore sunglasses (eliminating visible eyes, but allowing for the expectation of eyes to be open, Experiment 2), and were inverted with visible eyes (disrupting the integration of eyes and faces, Experiment 3). Participants classified targets appearing on one of four faces. Initially, two faces were oriented towards participants and two faces were oriented away from participants. Simultaneous to target presentation, one averted face became directed and one directed face became averted. Attention capture by face direction (i.e., facilitation for faces directed towards participants) was absent when eyes were closed, but present when faces wore sunglasses. Sudden onset direct faces can, hence, induce attentional capture, even when lacking eye cues. Inverted faces, by contrast, did not elicit attentional capture. Thus, when eyes cannot be integrated into a holistic face representation they are not sufficient to capture attention. Overall, the results suggest that visibility of eyes is neither necessary nor sufficient for the sudden direct face effect.

  3. Increasing Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis is Sufficient to Reduce Anxiety and Depression-Like Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Hill, Alexis S; Sahay, Amar; Hen, René

    2015-09-01

    Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is increased by antidepressants, and is required for some of their behavioral effects. However, it remains unclear whether expanding the population of adult-born neurons is sufficient to affect anxiety and depression-related behavior. Here, we use an inducible transgenic mouse model in which the pro-apoptotic gene Bax is deleted from neural stem cells and their progeny in the adult brain, and thereby increases adult neurogenesis. We find no effects on baseline anxiety and depression-related behavior; however, we find that increasing adult neurogenesis is sufficient to reduce anxiety and depression-related behaviors in mice treated chronically with corticosterone (CORT), a mouse model of stress. Thus, neurogenesis differentially affects behavior under baseline conditions and in a model of chronic stress. Moreover, we find no effect of increased adult hippocampal neurogenesis on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis regulation, either at baseline or following chronic CORT administration, suggesting that increasing adult hippocampal neurogenesis can affect anxiety and depression-related behavior through a mechanism independent of the HPA axis. The use of future techniques to specifically inhibit BAX in the hippocampus could be used to augment adult neurogenesis, and may therefore represent a novel strategy to promote antidepressant-like behavioral effects.

  4. Manipulation of BK channel expression is sufficient to alter auditory hair cell thresholds in larval zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Rohmann, Kevin N.; Tripp, Joel A.; Genova, Rachel M.; Bass, Andrew H.

    2014-01-01

    Non-mammalian vertebrates rely on electrical resonance for frequency tuning in auditory hair cells. A key component of the resonance exhibited by these cells is an outward calcium-activated potassium current that flows through large-conductance calcium-activated potassium (BK) channels. Previous work in midshipman fish (Porichthys notatus) has shown that BK expression correlates with seasonal changes in hearing sensitivity and that pharmacologically blocking these channels replicates the natural decreases in sensitivity during the winter non-reproductive season. To test the hypothesis that reducing BK channel function is sufficient to change auditory thresholds in fish, morpholino oligonucleotides (MOs) were used in larval zebrafish (Danio rerio) to alter expression of slo1a and slo1b, duplicate genes coding for the pore-forming α-subunits of BK channels. Following MO injection, microphonic potentials were recorded from the inner ear of larvae. Quantitative real-time PCR was then used to determine the MO effect on slo1a and slo1b expression in these same fish. Knockdown of either slo1a or slo1b resulted in disrupted gene expression and increased auditory thresholds across the same range of frequencies of natural auditory plasticity observed in midshipman. We conclude that interference with the normal expression of individual slo1 genes is sufficient to increase auditory thresholds in zebrafish larvae and that changes in BK channel expression are a direct mechanism for regulation of peripheral hearing sensitivity among fishes. PMID:24803460

  5. Additive lattice kirigami.

    PubMed

    Castle, Toen; Sussman, Daniel M; Tanis, Michael; Kamien, Randall D

    2016-09-01

    Kirigami uses bending, folding, cutting, and pasting to create complex three-dimensional (3D) structures from a flat sheet. In the case of lattice kirigami, this cutting and rejoining introduces defects into an underlying 2D lattice in the form of points of nonzero Gaussian curvature. A set of simple rules was previously used to generate a wide variety of stepped structures; we now pare back these rules to their minimum. This allows us to describe a set of techniques that unify a wide variety of cut-and-paste actions under the rubric of lattice kirigami, including adding new material and rejoining material across arbitrary cuts in the sheet. We also explore the use of more complex lattices and the different structures that consequently arise. Regardless of the choice of lattice, creating complex structures may require multiple overlapping kirigami cuts, where subsequent cuts are not performed on a locally flat lattice. Our additive kirigami method describes such cuts, providing a simple methodology and a set of techniques to build a huge variety of complex 3D shapes.

  6. Ceramics with Different Additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Juanjuan; Feng, Lajun; Lei, Ali; Zhao, Kang; Yan, Aijun

    2014-09-01

    Li2CO3, MgCO3, BaCO3, and Bi2O3 dopants were introduced into CaCu3Ti4O12 (CCTO) ceramics in order to improve the dielectric properties. The CCTO ceramics were prepared by conventional solid-state reaction method. The phase structure, microstructure, and dielectric behavior were carefully investigated. The pure structure without any impurity phases can be confirmed by the x-ray diffraction patterns. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) analysis illuminated that the grains of Ca0.90Li0.20Cu3Ti4O12 ceramics were greater than that of pure CCTO. It was important for the properties of the CCTO ceramics to study the additives in complex impedance spectroscopy. It was found that the Ca0.90Li0.20Cu3Ti4O12 ceramics had the higher permittivity (>45000), the lower dielectric loss (<0.025) than those of CCTO at 1 kHz at room temperature and good temperature stability from -30 to 75 °C.

  7. Additive lattice kirigami

    PubMed Central

    Castle, Toen; Sussman, Daniel M.; Tanis, Michael; Kamien, Randall D.

    2016-01-01

    Kirigami uses bending, folding, cutting, and pasting to create complex three-dimensional (3D) structures from a flat sheet. In the case of lattice kirigami, this cutting and rejoining introduces defects into an underlying 2D lattice in the form of points of nonzero Gaussian curvature. A set of simple rules was previously used to generate a wide variety of stepped structures; we now pare back these rules to their minimum. This allows us to describe a set of techniques that unify a wide variety of cut-and-paste actions under the rubric of lattice kirigami, including adding new material and rejoining material across arbitrary cuts in the sheet. We also explore the use of more complex lattices and the different structures that consequently arise. Regardless of the choice of lattice, creating complex structures may require multiple overlapping kirigami cuts, where subsequent cuts are not performed on a locally flat lattice. Our additive kirigami method describes such cuts, providing a simple methodology and a set of techniques to build a huge variety of complex 3D shapes. PMID:27679822

  8. Calcium mobilization is both required and sufficient for initiating chromatin decondensation during activation of peripheral T-cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Megan D.; Bingham, Kellie N.; Mitchell, Taylor Y.; Meredith, Jenna L.; Rawlings, Jason S.

    2014-01-01

    Antigen engagement of the T-cell receptor (TCR) induces a rapid and dramatic decondensation of chromatin that is necessary for T-cell activation. This decondensation makes T-cells competent to respond to Interleukin-2 providing a mechanism to ensure clonotypic proliferation during an immune response. Using murine T-cells, we investigated the mechanism by which TCR signaling can initiate chromatin decondensation, focusing on the role of calcium mobilization. During T-cell activation, calcium is first released from intracellular stores, followed by influx of extracellular calcium via store operated calcium entry. We show that mobilization of intracellular calcium is required for TCR-induced chromatin decondensation. However, the decondensation is not dependent on the activity of the downstream transcription factor NFAT. Furthermore, we show that the influx of extracellular calcium is dispensable for initiating chromatin decondensation. Finally, we show that mobilization of calcium from intracellular stores is sufficient to induce decondensation, independent of TCR engagement. Collectively, our data suggest that chromatin decondensation in peripheral T-cells is controlled by modulating intracellular calcium levels. PMID:25453467

  9. A 90-liter stackable baffled microbial fuel cell for brewery wastewater treatment based on energy self-sufficient mode.

    PubMed

    Dong, Yue; Qu, Youpeng; He, Weihua; Du, Yue; Liu, Jia; Han, Xiaoyu; Feng, Yujie

    2015-11-01

    A 90-liter stackable pilot microbial fuel cell was designed and proved to be capable for brewery wastewater treatment and simultaneous electricity harvested. The system was stacked by 5 easily-stackable modules, and operated in an energy self-sufficient manner for more than 6 months. Tests were conducted under two different influent strengths (diluted wastewater, stage 1; raw wastewater, stage 2). The COD, SS removal efficiencies were 84.7% and 81.7% at stage 1, 87.6% and 86.3% at stage 2. The system produced enough energy (0.056 kWh/m(3) at stage 1, 0.097 kWh/m(3) at stage 2) to power the pumping system (0.027 kWh/m(3) at both stages), net electrical energy of 0.021 kWh/m(3) and 0.034 kWh/m(3) were harvested. These results show that this pilot-scale system could be used to effectively treat real wastewater with zero energy input.

  10. The use of Jatropha curcas to achieve a self sufficient water distribution system: A case study in rural Senegal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Archer, Alexandra

    The use of Jatropha curcas as a source of oil for fueling water pumps holds promise for rural communities struggling to achieve water security in arid climates. The potential for use in developing communities as an affordable, sustainable fuel source has been highly recommended for many reasons: it is easily propagated, drought resistant, grows rapidly, and has high-oil-content seeds, as well as medicinal and economic potential. This study uses a rural community in Senegal, West Africa, and calculates at what level of Jatropha curcas production the village is able to be self-sufficient in fueling their water system to meet drinking, sanitation and irrigation requirements. The current water distribution system was modelled to represent irrigation requirements for nine different Jatropha curcas cultivation and processing schemes. It was found that a combination of using recycled greywater for irrigation and a mechanical press to maximize oil recovered from the seeds of mature Jatropha curcas trees, would be able to operate the water system with no diesel required.

  11. 3D-additive manufactured optical mount

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mammini, Paul V.; Ciscel, David; Wooten, John

    2015-09-01

    The Area Defense Anti-Munitions (ADAM) is a low cost and effective high power laser weapon system. It's designed to address and negate important threats such as short-range rockets, UAVs, and small boats. Many critical optical components operate in the system. The optics and mounts must accommodate thermal and mechanical stresses, plus maintain an exceptional wave front during operation. Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company (LMSSC) developed, designed, and currently operates ADAM. This paper covers the design and development of a key monolithic, flexured, titanium mirror mount that was manufactured by CalRAM using additive processes.

  12. Food Self-Sufficiency across scales: How local can we go?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradhan, Prajal; Lüdeke, Matthias K. B.; Reusser, Dominik E.; Kropp, Jürgen P.

    2013-04-01

    "Think global, act local" is a phrase often used in sustainability debates. Here, we explore the potential of regions to go for local supply in context of sustainable food consumption considering both the present state and the plausible future scenarios. We analyze data on the gridded crop calories production, the gridded livestock calories production, the gridded feed calories use and the gridded food calories consumption in 5' resolution. We derived these gridded data from various sources: Global Agro-ecological Zone (GAEZ v3.0), Gridded Livestock of the World (GLW), FAOSTAT, and Global Rural-Urban Mapping Project (GRUMP). For scenarios analysis, we considered changes in population, dietary patterns and possibility of obtaining the maximum potential yield. We investigate the food self-sufficiency multiple spatial scales. We start from the 5' resolution (i.e. around 10 km x 10 km in the equator) and look at 8 levels of aggregation ranging from the plausible lowest administrative level to the continental level. Results for the different spatial scales show that about 1.9 billion people live in the area of 5' resolution where enough calories can be produced to sustain their food consumption and the feed used. On the country level, about 4.4 billion population can be sustained without international food trade. For about 1 billion population from Asia and Africa, there is a need for cross-continental food trade. However, if we were able to achieve the maximum potential crop yield, about 2.6 billion population can be sustained within their living area of 5' resolution. Furthermore, Africa and Asia could be food self-sufficient by achieving their maximum potential crop yield and only round 630 million populations would be dependent on the international food trade. However, the food self-sufficiency status might differ under consideration of the future change in population, dietary patterns and climatic conditions. We provide an initial approach for investigating the

  13. Case Study: Operation Enduring Freedom Philippines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-10-01

    Special Operations units worked with local authorities, host nation military and non- governmental agencies, to ensure unity of effort. Over time...relatively short time, the local population was made sufficiently comfortable with the host nation and US forces that they began to provide useful...Enduring Freedom Philippines 4 local communities by the terrorist group, highlighted by friendly psychological operations, probably facilitated the

  14. Senseless, a Zn finger transcription factor, is necessary and sufficient for sensory organ development in Drosophila

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nolo, R.; Abbott, L. A.; Bellen, H. J.

    2000-01-01

    The senseless (sens) gene is required for proper development of most cell types of the embryonic and adult peripheral nervous system (PNS) of Drosophila. Sens is a nuclear protein with four Zn fingers that is expressed and required in the sensory organ precursors (SOP) for proper proneural gene expression. Ectopic expression of Sens in many ectodermal cells causes induction of PNS external sensory organ formation and is able to recreate an ectopic proneural field. Hence, sens is both necessary and sufficient for PNS development. Our data indicate that proneural genes activate sens expression. Sens is then in turn required to further activate and maintain proneural gene expression. This feedback mechanism is essential for selective enhancement and maintenance of proneural gene expression in the SOPs.

  15. Children's sleep needs: is there sufficient evidence to recommend optimal sleep for children?

    PubMed

    Matricciani, Lisa; Blunden, Sarah; Rigney, Gabrielle; Williams, Marie T; Olds, Tim S

    2013-04-01

    It is widely recognized that sleep is important for children's health and well-being and that short sleep duration is associated with a wide range of negative health outcomes. Recently, there has been much interest in whether or not there are sufficient data to support the specific recommendations made for how much sleep children need. In this article we explore concepts related to children's sleep need, discuss the theory, rationale, and empirical evidence for contemporary sleep recommendations, and outline future research directions for sleep recommendations. If sleep is to be treated as a therapeutic intervention, then consensus guidelines, statements, and evidence-based best-practice documents are needed to underpin sleep recommendations for children.

  16. [Pharmacovigilance idea should be introduced sufficiently into the safety monitoring and evaluation process of Chinese drugs].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Yang, Xiao-Hui

    2009-09-01

    Along with the general improving of public consciousness on drugs' safety and the increasing of new Chinese drugs' manufacture and application, the safety of Chinese drugs has become a more prominent concern and a focus of attention. The scientific identification, analysis and evaluation of this affairs greatly impacts the scientific decision-making for ensuring the public use of drugs in security, also influences the healthy development of Chinese medicine industry. In this paper, the different meanings of "adverse reaction" and "adverse events" of Chinese drugs were introduced from pharmacovigilance idealistic view, and the influencing factors on safety of Chinese drugs were analyzed from the perspective of pharmacovigilance. The authors proposed that "Chinese medicine safety monitoring and evaluation" is a much more practical concept in consistency with the current situation. They pointed out that introducing sufficiently the concept of pharmaco vigilance idea into the safety monitoring and evaluation process is the basis for overall evaluation and effective risk controlling of Chinese drugs.

  17. From necessity to sufficiency in memory research: when sleep helps to understand wake experiences.

    PubMed

    Lacroix, Marie Masako; De Lavilléon, Gaetan; Benchenane, Karim

    2015-12-01

    Memory is the ability to adapt our behavior by using the stored information, previously encoded. The first investigations of the neuronal bases of the memory trace concerned its properties (location, cellular and molecular mechanisms, among others). However, to understand how this is achieved at the scale of neurons, we must provide evidence about the necessity of a neuronal subpopulation to support the memory trace, but also its sufficiency. Here, we will present past and recent studies that provide information about the neuronal nature of memories. We will show that research on sleep, when cells assembly supposedly carrying information from the past are replayed, could also provide valuable information about the memory processes at stake during wake.

  18. Necessary and sufficient quantum information characterization of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering.

    PubMed

    Piani, Marco; Watrous, John

    2015-02-13

    Steering is the entanglement-based quantum effect that embodies the "spooky action at a distance" disliked by Einstein and scrutinized by Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen. Here we provide a necessary and sufficient characterization of steering, based on a quantum information processing task: the discrimination of branches in a quantum evolution, which we dub subchannel discrimination. We prove that, for any bipartite steerable state, there are instances of the quantum subchannel discrimination problem for which this state allows a correct discrimination with strictly higher probability than in the absence of entanglement, even when measurements are restricted to local measurements aided by one-way communication. On the other hand, unsteerable states are useless in such conditions, even when entangled. We also prove that the above steering advantage can be exactly quantified in terms of the steering robustness, which is a natural measure of the steerability exhibited by the state.

  19. Necessary and Sufficient Quantum Information Characterization of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen Steering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piani, Marco; Watrous, John

    2015-02-01

    Steering is the entanglement-based quantum effect that embodies the "spooky action at a distance" disliked by Einstein and scrutinized by Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen. Here we provide a necessary and sufficient characterization of steering, based on a quantum information processing task: the discrimination of branches in a quantum evolution, which we dub subchannel discrimination. We prove that, for any bipartite steerable state, there are instances of the quantum subchannel discrimination problem for which this state allows a correct discrimination with strictly higher probability than in the absence of entanglement, even when measurements are restricted to local measurements aided by one-way communication. On the other hand, unsteerable states are useless in such conditions, even when entangled. We also prove that the above steering advantage can be exactly quantified in terms of the steering robustness, which is a natural measure of the steerability exhibited by the state.

  20. Self-Monitoring Artificial Red Cells with Sufficient Oxygen Supply for Enhanced Photodynamic Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Zhenyu; Zheng, Mingbin; Zhao, Pengfei; Chen, Ze; Siu, Fungming; Gong, Ping; Gao, Guanhui; Sheng, Zonghai; Zheng, Cuifang; Ma, Yifan; Cai, Lintao

    2016-03-01

    Photodynamic therapy has been increasingly applied in clinical cancer treatments. However, native hypoxic tumoural microenvironment and lacking oxygen supply are the major barriers hindering photodynamic reactions. To solve this problem, we have developed biomimetic artificial red cells by loading complexes of oxygen-carrier (hemoglobin) and photosensitizer (indocyanine green) for boosted photodynamic strategy. Such nanosystem provides a coupling structure with stable self-oxygen supply and acting as an ideal fluorescent/photoacoustic imaging probe, dynamically monitoring the nanoparticle biodistribution and the treatment of PDT. Upon exposure to near-infrared laser, the remote-triggered photosensitizer generates massive cytotoxic reactive oxygen species (ROS) with sufficient oxygen supply. Importantly, hemoglobin is simultaneously oxidized into the more active and resident ferryl-hemoglobin leading to persistent cytotoxicity. ROS and ferryl-hemoglobin synergistically trigger the oxidative damage of xenograft tumour resulting in complete suppression. The artificial red cells with self-monitoring and boosted photodynamic efficacy could serve as a versatile theranostic platform.

  1. Design of Fracture Fixation Plate for Necessary and Sufficient Bone Stress Shielding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramakrishna, Kotlanka; Sridhar, Idapalapati; Sivashanker, Sathiamoorthy; Khong, Kok Sun; Ghista, Dhanjoo N.

    The objective of treating the fractured bone is to achieve painless functioning of the bone and undisturbed healing at the fracture. Internal fixation by stiff bone-plate is one of the standard methods to achieve these objectives. Recently, there is considerable interest in the usage of compliant plates to enhance bone healing with reduced stress shielding. Herein, first an analytical solution is developed to determine screw forces in the bone-plate assembly that conforms the plate and the bone under bending load. Based on the analytical calculations, an optimal fixator plate selection criterion for necessary and sufficient stress shielding is proposed. Second, effectiveness of employing a non-homogeneous stiffness graded (SG) plate rather than a homogeneous stainless steel (SS) plate for stress shielding is investigated using a finite element method. It is found that stress shielding on bone by SG plate is less compared to SS plate.

  2. Dopamine transients are sufficient and necessary for acquisition of model-based associations.

    PubMed

    Sharpe, Melissa J; Chang, Chun Yun; Liu, Melissa A; Batchelor, Hannah M; Mueller, Lauren E; Jones, Joshua L; Niv, Yael; Schoenbaum, Geoffrey

    2017-04-03

    Associative learning is driven by prediction errors. Dopamine transients correlate with these errors, which current interpretations limit to endowing cues with a scalar quantity reflecting the value of future rewards. We tested whether dopamine might act more broadly to support learning of an associative model of the environment. Using sensory preconditioning, we show that prediction errors underlying stimulus-stimulus learning can be blocked behaviorally and reinstated by optogenetically activating dopamine neurons. We further show that suppressing the firing of these neurons across the transition prevents normal stimulus-stimulus learning. These results establish that the acquisition of model-based information about transitions between nonrewarding events is also driven by prediction errors and that, contrary to existing canon, dopamine transients are both sufficient and necessary to support this type of learning. Our findings open new possibilities for how these biological signals might support associative learning in the mammalian brain in these and other contexts.

  3. Necessary and sufficient conditions of stationary average consensus for second-order multi-agent systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pei, Yongquan; Sun, Jitao

    2016-11-01

    This paper investigates the stationary average consensus problem for second-order discrete-time multi-agent systems (SDMAS). A stationary consensus problem is to find a control algorithm that brings the state of a group of agents to a common constant value which is called the collective decision. We introduce the concept of stationary average consensus of SDMAS and propose a consensus algorithm. Based on the polynomial stability and the graph theory, we obtain two necessary and sufficient conditions of stationary average consensus of SDMAS. The last theorem provides an algebraic criterion of stationary average consensus, and can help us to determine the parameters in the consensus algorithm. Furthermore, in this consensus algorithm, only the states of the agents are transferred among the agents. Therefore, this algorithm can not only solve the stationary average consensus problem but also reduce the amount of transferred data. A numerical example is provided to illustrate the efficiency of our results.

  4. Sufficient and Necessary Open-Loop Stackelberg Strategy for Two-Player Game With Time Delay.

    PubMed

    Xu, Juanjuan; Zhang, Huanshui

    2016-02-01

    This paper is concerned with both difference and differential leader-follower games with time delay. The problem remains challenging although the leader-follower game for delay-free system has been well studied in the past decades. The main obstacle encountered is the noncausality of strategy design caused by the delay. The key technique developed to overcome the difficulty is the introduction of the new co-states which capture the future information of the control and the new state which contains the past effects. The novel contributions of this paper are as follows. First, the sufficient and necessary solvability condition is given to ensure the existence of a unique open-loop Stackelberg strategy for the difference game. Second, the open-loop strategy is explicitly obtained in terms of decoupled and symmetric Riccati equations. Last but not least, a unique strategy for continuous time systems is also given by applying the techniques developed in this paper.

  5. Sufficient condition for the existence of interface states in some two-dimensional photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xueqin; Xiao, Meng; Zhang, Zhao-Qing; Chan, C. T.

    2014-08-01

    There is no assurance that interface states can be found at the boundary separating two materials. While a strong perturbation typically favors wave localization, we show on the contrary that in some two-dimensional photonic crystals (PCs) possessing a Dirac-like cone at k = 0 derived from monopole and dipoles excitation, a small perturbation is sufficient to create interface states. The conical dispersion together with the flat band at the zone center generates the existence of gaps in the projected band structure and the existence of single mode interface states inside the projected band gaps stems from the geometric phases of the bulk bands. The underlying physics for the existence of an interface state is related to the sign change of the surface impedance in the gaps above and below the flat band. The established results are applicable for long wavelength regimes where there is only one propagating diffraction order for an interlayer scattering.

  6. [Giant thrombus in the left atrium after mitral bioprosthesis implantation: is standard oral anticoagulation always sufficient?].

    PubMed

    Tomaszuk-Kazberuk, Anna; Lisowska, Anna; Sobkowicz, Bożena; Młodawska, Elżbieta; Łopatowska, Paulina; Kosacka, Urszula; Krajewska, Agnieszka; Musiał, Włodzimierz J

    2013-01-01

    We present a case of 70-year old male after coronary by-pass surgery and mitral bioprosthesis implantation due to infective endocarditis, with continuous atrial fibrillation, who was admitted to the hospital due to the worsening of the heart failure. He was on oral antivitamine K agents with therapeutic value of INR. On echocardiography we found enlargement of all cavities with extremely big left atrium (9.5 cm) and poor contractile left ventricular function (EF 25%). An enormously big old thrombus was found in the left atrium. The patient was disqualified from surgical treatment. Treatment with unfractionated heparin was unsuccessful. We discuss if standard antithrombotic treatment is always sufficient in such unusual cases.

  7. Retesting of bone donors 2 months after donation guarantees sufficient safety of bone allografts.

    PubMed

    Hirn, M Y; Krusius, T

    1998-12-01

    Both allogeneic bone grafting and blood transfusion may transmit infections from the donor to the recipient. The most effective means to reduce the risk of infection is careful donor selection and screening of donors for markers of infection. The risk of blood transfusion-transmitted HIV infection in Finland, calculated with the incidence/window period model, is approximately 1:3,300,000. The calculated risk for hepatitis B (HBV) and C (HCV) is 1:217,000 and 1:147,000 donations, respectively. In bone banking we can further reduce the risks by retesting the living donors. Retesting 2 months after donation seems to be sufficient, at least in countries with a low incidence of transplantation-transmitted infections.

  8. Dexamethasone and rosiglitazone are sufficient and necessary for producing functional adipocytes from mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Contador, David; Ezquer, Fernando; Espinosa, Maximiliano; Arango-Rodriguez, Martha; Puebla, Carlos; Sobrevia, Luis; Conget, Paulette

    2015-09-01

    The final product of adipogenesis is a functional adipocyte. This mature cell acquires the necessary machinery for lipid metabolism, loses its proliferation potential, increases its insulin sensitivity, and secretes adipokines. Multipotent mesechymal stromal cells have been recognized as a source of adipocytes both in vivo and in vitro. The in vitro adipogenic differentiation of human MSC (hMSC) has been induced up to now by using a complex stimulus which includes dexamethasone, 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine, indomethacin, and insulin (a classical cocktail) and evaluated according to morphological changes. The present work was aimed at demonstrating that the simultaneous activation of dexamethasone's canonical signaling pathways, through the glucocorticoid receptor and CCAAT-enhancer-binding proteins (C/EBPs) and rosiglitazone through peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-gamma) is sufficient yet necessary for inducing hMSC adipogenic differentiation. It was also ascertained that hMSC exposed just to dexamethasone and rosiglitazone (D&R) differentiated into cells which accumulated neutral lipid droplets, expressed C/EBP-alpha, PPAR-gamma, aP2, lipoprotein lipase, acyl-CoA synthetase, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, adiponectin, and leptin genes but did not proliferate. Glucose uptake was dose dependent on insulin stimulus and high levels of adipokines were secreted (i.e. displaying not only the morphology but also expressing mature adipocytes' specific genes and functional characteristics). This work has demonstrated that (i) the activating C/EBPs and PPAR-gamma signaling pathways were sufficient to induce adipogenic differentiation from hMSC, (ii) D&R producing functional adipocytes from hMSC, (iii) D&R induce adipogenic differentiation from mammalian MSC (including those which are refractory to classical adipogenic differentiation stimuli). D&R would thus seem to be a useful tool for MSC characterization, studying adipogenesis pathways and

  9. Optically-Induced Neuronal Activity Is Sufficient to Promote Functional Motor Axon Regeneration In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Patricia J.; Jones, Laura N.; Mulligan, Amanda; Goolsby, William; Wilhelm, Jennifer C.; English, Arthur W.

    2016-01-01

    Peripheral nerve injuries are common, and functional recovery is very poor. Beyond surgical repair of the nerve, there are currently no treatment options for these patients. In experimental models of nerve injury, interventions (such as exercise and electrical stimulation) that increase neuronal activity of the injured neurons effectively enhance axon regeneration. Here, we utilized optogenetics to determine whether increased activity alone is sufficient to promote motor axon regeneration. In thy-1-ChR2/YFP transgenic mice in which a subset of motoneurons express the light-sensitive cation channel, channelrhodopsin (ChR2), we activated axons in the sciatic nerve using blue light immediately prior to transection and surgical repair of the sciatic nerve. At four weeks post-injury, direct muscle EMG responses evoked with both optical and electrical stimuli as well as the ratio of these optical/electrical evoked EMG responses were significantly greater in mice that received optical treatment. Thus, significantly more ChR2+ axons successfully re-innervated the gastrocnemius muscle in mice that received optical treatment. Sections of the gastrocnemius muscles were reacted with antibodies to Synaptic Vesicle Protein 2 (SV2) to quantify the number of re-occupied motor endplates. The number of SV2+ endplates was greater in mice that received optical treatment. The number of retrogradely-labeled motoneurons following intramuscular injection of cholera toxin subunit B (conjugated to Alexa Fluor 555) was greater in mice that received optical treatment. Thus, the acute (1 hour), one-time optical treatment resulted in robust, long-lasting effects compared to untreated animals as well as untreated axons (ChR2-). We conclude that neuronal activation is sufficient to promote motor axon regeneration, and this regenerative effect is specific to the activated neurons. PMID:27152611

  10. Having excess levels of PCSK9 is not sufficient to induce complex formation between PCSK9 and the LDL receptor.

    PubMed

    Wooten, Catherine J; Adcock, Audrey F; Agina-Obu, DaTonye I; Lopez, Dayami

    2014-03-01

    Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin-9 (PCSK9) acts mainly by forming complexes with the LDL receptor at the cell surface, which are then degraded in the lysosome. Studies were performed to determine whether excess levels of PCSK9 was sufficient to induce PCSK9/LDL receptor complex formation in human hepatocyte-like C3A cells. It was demonstrated using ELISA that instead of considering the overall levels of PCSK9 protein that is produced in response to certain treatment, what is critical is how much PCSK9 is actually capable of forming complexes. Despite the high levels, most of the PCSK9 produced as a result of incubating cells with a medium supplemented with BD™ MITO+ serum extender (MITO+ medium) appeared to be inhibited by a secreted factor. Having lower levels of PCSK9/LDL receptor complexes did not prevent an increase in the degradation rate of LDL receptors in MITO+ medium as compared to fetal bovine serum (FBS) containing medium (Regular medium), an effect that did not correlate with an increase in protein levels of the inducible degrader of LDL receptors (IDOL), as demonstrated using Western blotting analysis. Additional studies are required to determine the exact mechanism(s) for the degradation of the LDL receptor and/or to identify the secreted inhibitor of PCSK9.

  11. The single transmembrane segment of gp210 is sufficient for sorting to the pore membrane domain of the nuclear envelope

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    The glycoprotein gp210 is located in the "pore membrane," a specialized domain of the nuclear envelope to which the nuclear pore complex (NPC) is anchored. gp210 contains a large cisternal domain, a single transmembrane segment (TM), and a COOH-terminal, 58-amino acid residue cytoplasmic tail (CT) (Wozniak, R. W., E. Bartnik, and G. Blobel. 1989. J. Cell Biol. 108:2083-2092; Greber, U. F., A. Senior, and L. Gerace. 1990. EMBO (Eur. Mol. Biol. Organ.) J. 9:1495-1502). To locate determinants for sorting of gp210 to the pore membrane, we constructed various cDNAs coding for wild-type, mutant, and chimeric gp210, and monitored localization of the expressed protein in 3T3 cells by immunofluorescence microscopy using appropriate antibodies. The large cisternal domain of gp210 (95% of its mass) did not reveal any sorting determinants. Surprisingly, the TM of gp210 is sufficient for sorting to the pore membrane. The CT also contains a sorting determinant, but it is weaker than that of the TM. We propose specific lateral association of the transmembrane helices of two proteins to yield either a gp210 homodimer or a heterodimer of gp210 and another protein. The cytoplasmically oriented tails of these dimers may bind cooperatively to the adjacent NPCs. In addition, we demonstrate that gp210 co-localizes with cytoplasmically dispersed nucleoporins, suggesting a cytoplasmic association of these components. PMID:1281815

  12. Podocyte-Specific Overexpression of Wild Type or Mutant Trpc6 in Mice Is Sufficient to Cause Glomerular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kairath, Pamela; Carmona-Mora, Paulina; Molina, Jessica; Carpio, J. Daniel; Ruiz, Phillip; Mezzano, Sergio A.; Li, Jing; Wei, Changli; Reiser, Jochen; Young, Juan I.; Walz, Katherina

    2010-01-01

    Mutations in the TRPC6 calcium channel (Transient receptor potential channel 6) gene have been associated with familiar forms of Focal and Segmental Glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) affecting children and adults. In addition, acquired glomerular diseases are associated with increased expression levels of TRPC6. However, the exact role of TRPC6 in the pathogenesis of FSGS remains to be elucidated. In this work we describe the generation and phenotypic characterization of three different transgenic mouse lines with podocyte-specific overexpression of the wild type or any of two mutant forms of Trpc6 (P111Q and E896K) previously related to FSGS. Consistent with the human phenotype a non-nephrotic range of albuminuria was detectable in almost all transgenic lines. The histological analysis demonstrated that the transgenic mice developed a kidney disease similar to human FSGS. Differences of 2–3 folds in the presence of glomerular lesions were found between the non transgenic and transgenic mice expressing Trpc6 in its wild type or mutant forms specifically in podocytes. Electron microscopy of glomerulus from transgenic mice showed extensive podocyte foot process effacement. We conclude that overexpression of Trpc6 (wild type or mutated) in podocytes is sufficient to cause a kidney disease consistent with FSGS. Our results contribute to reinforce the central role of podocytes in the etiology of FSGS. These mice constitute an important new model in which to study future therapies and outcomes of this complex disease. PMID:20877463

  13. The canonical Wingless signaling pathway is required but not sufficient for inflow tract formation in the Drosophila melanogaster heart.

    PubMed

    Trujillo, Gloriana V; Nodal, Dalea H; Lovato, Candice V; Hendren, Jill D; Helander, Lynda A; Lovato, TyAnna L; Bodmer, Rolf; Cripps, Richard M

    2016-05-01

    The inflow tracts of the embryonic Drosophila cardiac tube, termed ostia, arise in its posterior three segments from cardiac cells that co-express the homeotic transcription factor Abdominal-A (abdA), the orphan nuclear receptor Seven-up (Svp), and the signaling molecule Wingless (Wg). To define the roles of these factors in inflow tract development, we assessed their function in inflow tract formation. We demonstrate, using several criteria, that abdA, svp, and wg are each critical for normal inflow tract formation. We further show that Wg acts in an autocrine manner to impact ostia fate, and that it mediates this effect at least partially through the canonical Wg signaling pathway. By contrast, neither wg expression nor Wg signaling are sufficient for inflow tract formation when expressed in anterior Svp cells that do not normally form inflow tracts in the embryo. Instead, ectopic abd-A expression throughout the cardiac tube is required for the formation of ectopic inflow tracts, indicating that autocrine Wg signaling must be supplemented by additional Hox-dependent factors to effect inflow tract formation. Taken together, these studies define important cellular and molecular events that contribute to cardiac inflow tract development in Drosophila. Given the broad conservation of the cardiac regulatory network through evolution, our studies provide insight into mechanisms of cardiac development in higher animals.

  14. Assisting Young, Unmarried Mothers to Become Self-Sufficient: The Effects of Different Types of Early Economic Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandfort, Jodi R.; Hill, Martha S.

    1996-01-01

    Considers how different types of economic support, received soon after the birth of a first child, contribute to the later self-sufficiency of young, unmarried mothers. Findings suggest that certain economic supports assist these mothers and that life choices they make after their child's birth are important to self-sufficiency. (RJM)

  15. The Development of University Students' Self-Sufficiency Based on Interactive Technologies by Their Immersion in the Professional Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ljubimova, Elena Mikhaelovna; Galimullina, Elvira Zufarovna; Ibatullin, Rinat Rivkatovich

    2015-01-01

    The article discusses the problems of using web technologies in the development of self-sufficiency of University students. We hypothesize that real professional situations in which he/she is obliged to work independently on the basis of web technologies contribute to the development of students' self-sufficiency. It is shown that the activity…

  16. Children's Understanding of Addition and Subtraction Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Katherine M.; Dube, Adam K.

    2009-01-01

    After the onset of formal schooling, little is known about the development of children's understanding of the arithmetic concepts of inversion and associativity. On problems of the form a+b-b (e.g., 3+26-26), if children understand the inversion concept (i.e., that addition and subtraction are inverse operations), then no calculations are needed…

  17. 40 CFR 412.47 - Additional measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Additional measures. 412.47 Section 412.47 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CONCENTRATED ANIMAL FEEDING OPERATIONS (CAFO) POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Swine, Poultry, and...

  18. 40 CFR 412.47 - Additional measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Additional measures. 412.47 Section 412.47 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CONCENTRATED ANIMAL FEEDING OPERATIONS (CAFO) POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Swine, Poultry, and...

  19. 40 CFR 412.47 - Additional measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Additional measures. 412.47 Section 412.47 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CONCENTRATED ANIMAL FEEDING OPERATIONS (CAFO) POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Swine, Poultry, and...

  20. Schwartz operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keyl, M.; Kiukas, J.; Werner, R. F.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we introduce Schwartz operators as a non-commutative analog of Schwartz functions and provide a detailed discussion of their properties. We equip them, in particular, with a number of different (but equivalent) families of seminorms which turns the space of Schwartz operators into a Fréchet space. The study of the topological dual leads to non-commutative tempered distributions which are discussed in detail as well. We show, in particular, that the latter can be identified with a certain class of quadratic forms, therefore making operations like products with bounded (and also some unbounded) operators and quantum harmonic analysis available to objects which are otherwise too singular for being a Hilbert space operator. Finally, we show how the new methods can be applied by studying operator moment problems and convergence properties of fluctuation operators.

  1. Anaerobic sludge digestion with a biocatalytic additive

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, S.; Henry, M.P.; Fedde, P.A.

    1982-01-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of a lactobacillus additive an anaerobic sludge digestion under normal, variable, and overload operating conditions. The additive was a whey fermentation product of an acid-tolerant strain of Lactobacillus acidophilus fortified with CaCO/sub 3/, (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/HPO/sub 4/, ferrous lactate, and lactic acid. The lactobacillus additive is multifunctional in nature and provides growth factors, metabolic intermediates, and enzymes needed for substrate degradation and cellular synthesis. The experimental work consisted of several pairs of parallel mesophilic (35/sup 0/C) digestion runs (control and test) conducted in five experimental phases. Baseline runs without the additive showed that the two experimental digesters had the same methane content, gas production rate (GPR), and ethane yield. The effect of the additive was to increase methane yield and GPR by about 5% (which was statistically significant) during digester operation at a loading rate (LR) of 3.2 kg VS/m/sup 3/-day and a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 14 days. Data collected from the various experimental phases showed that the biochemical additive increased methane yield, gas production rate, and VS reduction, and decreased volatile acids accumulation. In addition, it enhanced digester buffer capacity and improved the fertilizer value and dewatering characteristics of the digested residue.

  2. Adenosine A2A receptors are necessary and sufficient to trigger memory impairment in adult mice

    PubMed Central

    Pagnussat, N; Almeida, A S; Marques, D M; Nunes, F; Chenet, G C; Botton, P H S; Mioranzza, S; Loss, C M; Cunha, R A; Porciúncula, L O

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Caffeine (a non-selective adenosine receptor antagonist) prevents memory deficits in aging and Alzheimer’s disease, an effect mimicked by adenosine A2A receptor, but not A1 receptor, antagonists. Hence, we investigated the effects of adenosine receptor agonists and antagonists on memory performance and scopolamine-induced memory impairment in mice. Experimental Approach We determined whether A2A receptors are necessary for the emergence of memory impairments induced by scopolamine and whether A2A receptor activation triggers memory deficits in naïve mice, using three tests to assess short-term memory, namely the object recognition task, inhibitory avoidance and modified Y-maze. Key Results Scopolamine (1.0 mg·kg−1, i.p.) impaired short-term memory performance in all three tests and this scopolamine-induced amnesia was prevented by the A2A receptor antagonist (SCH 58261, 0.1–1.0 mg·kg−1, i.p.) and by the A1 receptor antagonist (DPCPX, 0.2–5.0 mg·kg−1, i.p.), except in the modified Y-maze where only SCH58261 was effective. Both antagonists were devoid of effects on memory or locomotion in naïve rats. Notably, the activation of A2A receptors with CGS 21680 (0.1–0.5 mg·kg−1, i.p.) before the training session was sufficient to trigger memory impairment in the three tests in naïve mice, and this effect was prevented by SCH 58261 (1.0 mg·kg−1, i.p.). Furthermore, i.c.v. administration of CGS 21680 (50 nmol) also impaired recognition memory in the object recognition task. Conclusions and Implications These results show that A2A receptors are necessary and sufficient to trigger memory impairment and further suggest that A1 receptors might also be selectively engaged to control the cholinergic-driven memory impairment. PMID:25939452

  3. A brief intervention is sufficient for many adolescents seeking help from low threshold adolescent psychiatric services

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background There has been a considerable increase in the need for psychiatric services for adolescents. Primary health care practitioners have a major role in detecting, screening and helping these adolescents. An intervention entitled SCREEN is described in this article. The SCREEN intervention was developed to help practitioners to detect and screen adolescent needs, to care for adolescents at the primary health care level and to facilitate the referral of adolescents to secondary care services in collaboration between primary and secondary health care. Secondly, the article presents the background and clinical characteristics of youths seeking help from the SCREEN services, and compares the background factors and clinical characteristics of those patients referred and not referred to secondary care services. Methods The SCREEN intervention consisted of 1 to 5 sessions, including assessment by a semi-structured anamnesis interview, the structured Global Assessment Scale, and by a structured priority rating scale, as well as a brief intervention for each adolescent's chosen problem. Parents took part in the assessment in 39% of cases involving girls and 50% involving boys. During 34 months, 2071 adolescents (69% females) entered the intervention and 70% completed it. The mean age was 17.1 years for boys and 17.3 years for girls. Results For 69% of adolescents, this was the first contact with psychiatric services. The most common reasons for seeking services were depressive symptoms (31%). Self-harming behaviour had occurred in 25% of girls and 16% of boys. The intervention was sufficient for 37% of those who completed it. Psychosocial functioning improved during the intervention. Factors associated with referral for further treatment were female gender, anxiety as the main complaint, previous psychiatric treatment, self-harming behaviour, a previous need for child welfare services, poor psychosocial functioning and a high score in the priority rating scale

  4. Neutron Characterization for Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watkins, Thomas; Bilheux, Hassina; An, Ke; Payzant, Andrew; DeHoff, Ryan; Duty, Chad; Peter, William; Blue, Craig; Brice, Craig A.

    2013-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is leveraging decades of experience in neutron characterization of advanced materials together with resources such as the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) and the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) shown in Fig. 1 to solve challenging problems in additive manufacturing (AM). Additive manufacturing, or three-dimensional (3-D) printing, is a rapidly maturing technology wherein components are built by selectively adding feedstock material at locations specified by a computer model. The majority of these technologies use thermally driven phase change mechanisms to convert the feedstock into functioning material. As the molten material cools and solidifies, the component is subjected to significant thermal gradients, generating significant internal stresses throughout the part (Fig. 2). As layers are added, inherent residual stresses cause warping and distortions that lead to geometrical differences between the final part and the original computer generated design. This effect also limits geometries that can be fabricated using AM, such as thin-walled, high-aspect- ratio, and overhanging structures. Distortion may be minimized by intelligent toolpath planning or strategic placement of support structures, but these approaches are not well understood and often "Edisonian" in nature. Residual stresses can also impact component performance during operation. For example, in a thermally cycled environment such as a high-pressure turbine engine, residual stresses can cause components to distort unpredictably. Different thermal treatments on as-fabricated AM components have been used to minimize residual stress, but components still retain a nonhomogeneous stress state and/or demonstrate a relaxation-derived geometric distortion. Industry, federal laboratory, and university collaboration is needed to address these challenges and enable the U.S. to compete in the global market. Work is currently being conducted on AM technologies at the ORNL

  5. One rhinophore probably provides sufficient sensory input for odour-based navigation by the nudibranch mollusc Tritonia diomedea.

    PubMed

    McCullagh, Gregory B; Bishop, Cory D; Wyeth, Russell C

    2014-12-01

    Tritonia diomedea (synonymous with Tritonia tetraquetra) navigates in turbulent odour plumes, crawling upstream towards prey and downstream to avoid predators. This is probably accomplished by odour-gated rheotaxis, but other possibilities have not been excluded. Our goal was to test whether T. diomedea uses odour-gated rheotaxis and to simultaneously determine which of the cephalic sensory organs (rhinophores and oral veil) are required for navigation. In a first experiment, slugs showed no coherent responses to streams of odour directed at single rhinophores. In a second experiment, navigation in prey and predator odour plumes was compared between animals with unilateral rhinophore lesions, denervated oral veils, or combined unilateral rhinophore lesions and denervated oral veils. In all treatments, animals navigated in a similar manner to that of control and sham-operated animals, indicating that a single rhinophore provides sufficient sensory input for navigation (assuming that a distributed flow measurement system would also be affected by the denervations). Amongst various potential navigational strategies, only odour-gated positive rheotaxis can produce the navigation tracks we observed in prey plumes while receiving input from a single sensor. Thus, we provide strong evidence that T. diomedea uses odour-gated rheotaxis in attractive odour plumes, with odours and flow detected by the rhinophores. In predator plumes, slugs turned downstream to varying degrees rather than orienting directly downstream for crawling, resulting in greater dispersion for negative rheotaxis in aversive plumes. These conclusions are the first explicit confirmation of odour-gated rheotaxis as a navigational strategy in gastropods and are also a foundation for exploring the neural circuits that mediate odour-gated rheotaxis.

  6. Limited physical contact through a mesh barrier is sufficient for social reward-conditioned place preference in adolescent male rats.

    PubMed

    Peartree, Natalie A; Hood, Lauren E; Thiel, Kenneth J; Sanabria, Federico; Pentkowski, Nathan S; Chandler, Kayla N; Neisewander, Janet L

    2012-02-01

    Adolescence is a period of enhanced sensitivity to social influences and vulnerability to drug abuse. Social reward in adolescent rats has been demonstrated with the conditioned place preference (CPP) model, but it is not clear whether limited contact with another rat without play is sufficient to produce reward. We investigated this issue using an apparatus containing two main compartment, each with a wire mesh barrier that allowed rats placed on either side of the barrier to have limited physical contact. Adolescent male rats were given two conditioning sessions/day for 2 or 8 days following baseline preference tests. Rats were placed into their preferred side alone for one daily 10-min session and into their initially non-preferred side (i.e., CS) for the other session during which they either had restricted or unrestricted physical access to another rat (Rat/Mesh or Rat/Phys, respectively) or to a tennis ball (Ball/Mesh or Ball/Phys, respectively) unconditioned stimulus (US). Only the Rat/Phys group exhibited CPP after 2 CS-US pairings; however, after 8 CS-US pairings, the Rat/Mesh and Ball/Phys groups also exhibited CPP. During conditioning, the rat US elicited more robust approach and contact behavior compared to the ball, regardless of physical or restricted access. The incidence of contact and/or approach increased as the number of exposures increased. The results suggest that the rank order of US reward efficacy was physical contact with a rat>limited contact with a rat>physical contact with a ball, and that rough-and-tumble play is not necessary to establish social reward-CPP. The findings have important implications for emerging drug self-administration models in which two rats self-administering drug intravenously have limited physical contact via a mesh barrier shared between their respective operant conditioning chambers.

  7. Identifying Pathways for Improving Household Food Self-Sufficiency Outcomes in the Hills of Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Karki, Tika B.; Sah, Shrawan K.; Thapa, Resam B.; McDonald, Andrew J.; Davis, Adam S.

    2015-01-01

    Maintaining and improving household food self-sufficiency (FSS) in mountain regions is an ongoing challenge. There are many facets to the issue, including comparatively high levels of land fragmentation, challenging terrain and transportation bottlenecks, declining labor availability due to out-migration, and low technical knowledge, among others. Using a nonparametric multivariate approach, we quantified primary associations underlying current levels of FSS in the mid-hills of Nepal. A needs assessment survey was administered to 77 households in Lungaun (Baglung District), Pang (Parbat District), and Pathlekhet (Myagdi District), with a total of 80 variables covering five performance areas; resulting data were analyzed using Classification and Regression Trees. The most parsimonious statistical model for household FSS highlighted associations with agronomic management, including yields of maize and fingermillet within a relay cropping system and adoption of improved crop cultivars. Secondary analyses of the variables retained in the first model again focused primarily on crop and livestock management. It thus appears that continued emphasis on technical agricultural improvements is warranted, independent of factors such as land holding size that, in any case, are very difficult to change through development interventions. Initiatives to increase household FSS in the mid-hills of Nepal will benefit from placing a primary focus on methods of agricultural intensification to improve crop yields and effective technology transfer to increase adoption of these methods. PMID:26047508

  8. Cyclic AMP is sufficient for triggering the exocytic recruitment of aquaporin-2 in renal epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Lorenz, Dorothea; Krylov, Andrey; Hahm, Daniel; Hagen, Volker; Rosenthal, Walter; Pohl, Peter; Maric, Kenan

    2003-01-01

    The initial response of renal epithelial cells to the antidiuretic hormone arginine vasopressin (AVP) is an increase in cyclic AMP. By applying immunofluorescence, cell membrane capacitance and transepithelial water flux measurements we show that cAMP alone is sufficient to elicit the antidiuretic cellular response in primary cultured epithelial cells from renal inner medulla, namely the transport of aquaporin-2 (AQP2)-bearing vesicles to, and their subsequent fusion with, the plasma membrane (AQP2 shuttle). The AQP2 shuttle is evoked neither by AVP-independent Ca2+ increases nor by AVP-induced Ca2+ increases. However, clamping cytosolic Ca2+ concentrations below resting levels at 25 nM inhibited exocytosis. Exocytosis was confined to a slow monophasic response, and readily releasable vesicles were missing. Analysis of endocytic capacitance steps revealed that cAMP does not decelerate the retrieval of AQP2 from the plasma membrane. Our data suggest that cAMP initiates an early step, namely the transport of AQP2-bearing vesicles towards the plasma membrane, and do not support a regulatory function for Ca2+ in the AQP2 shuttle. PMID:12524527

  9. On the enduring and substantial influence of Carl Rogers' not-quite necessary nor sufficient conditions.

    PubMed

    Farber, Barry A

    2007-09-01

    Carl Rogers' 1957 paper (see record 2007-14639-002) is arguably the most successful of his many attempts to clarify and render testable the ideas behind client-centered therapy. While each of the conditions that Rogers postulated has been linked to positive therapeutic outcome, taken together they have never been conclusively proved (nor disproved) to be either necessary or sufficient for positive outcome. Nevertheless, the overriding "take-home" message in this classic paper--that the therapist's attitude and caring presence is critical for therapeutic success--is one that has had virtually unparalleled influence in every segment of the psychotherapeutic community. Clinical and theoretical innovations in the psychoanalytic community serve as examples of the following proposition: that Rogers' concepts, while accepted more than ever by a remarkably wide variety of psychotherapists, remain essentially unacknowledged as originating with him or in the tradition of humanistic and client-centered therapy. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. TEGs as self-sufficient power supply for sensors and microelectromechanical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schönhoff, M.; Hilleringmann, U.

    2016-02-01

    Thermoelectric generators (TEGs) can be used as robust and maintenance-free power supplies. The power density of currently available TEGs is about 1 W/cm² and sufficient for many low power sensor/microelectromechanical systems. By changing the sintering atmosphere and using a special set-up a standard industry process used for insulating or metallic materials was transferred to thermoelectric FeSi2-, Mg2Si- and SiGe-material. Thereby, separated compact- and sintering steps allows a mass producible process in contrast to the almost exclusively used SPS- and FAST-processes. All three materials have been further processed to functional TEG-modules by sawing, bonding and electrically contacting with TiSi2. Thereby, the mechanical bond as well as the electrical contacts are thermally stable up to 800 °C. The general functionality and the characteristics of the final TEG-modules were confirmed by analysis in a measurement setup that simulates an application in a realistic environment.

  11. The Translocation Domain in Trimeric Autotransporter Adhesins Is Necessary and Sufficient for Trimerization and Autotransportation

    PubMed Central

    Mikula, Kornelia M.; Leo, Jack C.; Łyskowski, Andrzej; Kedracka-Krok, Sylwia; Pirog, Artur

    2012-01-01

    Trimeric autotransporter adhesins (TAAs) comprise one of the secretion pathways of the type V secretion system. The mechanism of their translocation across the outer membrane remains unclear, but it most probably occurs by the formation of a hairpin inside the β-barrel translocation unit, leading to transportation of the passenger domain from the C terminus to the N terminus through the lumen of the β-barrel. We further investigated the phenomenon of autotransportation and the rules that govern it. We showed by coexpressing different Escherichia coli immunoglobulin-binding (Eib) proteins that highly similar TAAs could form stochastically mixed structures (heterotrimers). We further investigated this phenomenon by coexpressing two more distantly related TAAs, EibA and YadA. These, however, did not form heterotrimers; indeed, coexpression was lethal to the cells, leading to elimination of one or another of the genes. However, substituting in either protein the barrel of the other one so that the barrels were identical led to formation of heterotrimers as for Eibs. Our work shows that trimerization of the β-barrel, but not the passenger domain, is necessary and sufficient for TAA secretion while the passenger domain is not. PMID:22155776

  12. Sufficient conditions for the avoidance of spectral dispersion in optical prisms.

    PubMed

    Lin, Psang Dain

    2016-07-01

    Prisms are common optical elements consisting of only flat boundary surfaces. Two conditions need to be fulfilled to avoid chromatic aberration for a prism, namely, no mutual image tilt and no mutual image shift for different wavelengths. Mutual image tilt occurs when the unit directional vector of the exit ray varies as a function of the prism's refractive index, resulting in spectral dispersion. In a previous study by the present group [Appl. Opt.45, 3951 (2006)APOPAI0003-693510.1364/AO.45.003951], it was shown that when the rays enter and exit a prism perpendicularly, image reorientation is achieved without spectral dispersion. The present study derives a further sufficient condition to avoid spectral dispersion caused by refraction. The condition explains the ability of Dove prisms and solid glass corner cubes to produce the required image orientation even when the entrance and exit rays are not normal to the respective boundary surfaces. In general, the proposed condition provides a useful analytical guideline for avoiding spectral dispersion in a wide variety of optical systems.

  13. Loss of Desmoglein Binding Is Not Sufficient for Keratinocyte Dissociation in Pemphigus.

    PubMed

    Vielmuth, Franziska; Waschke, Jens; Spindler, Volker

    2015-12-01

    Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) is a severe autoimmune disease in which autoantibodies against the desmosomal cell adhesion molecules desmoglein (Dsg) 1 and Dsg3 cause intraepidermal blister formation. Mechanistically, the fundamental question is still unresolved whether loss of cell cohesion is a result of (1) direct inhibition of Dsg interaction by autoantibodies or (2) intracellular signaling events, which are altered in response to antibody binding and finally cause desmosome destabilization. We used atomic force microscopy (AFM) to perform Dsg3 adhesion measurements on living keratinocytes to investigate the contributions of direct inhibition and signaling to loss of cell cohesion after autoantibody treatment. Dsg3 binding was rapidly blocked following antibody exposure under conditions where no depletion of surface Dsg3 was detectable, demonstrating direct inhibition of Dsg3 interaction. Inhibition of p38MAPK, a central signaling molecule in PV pathogenesis, abrogated loss of cell cohesion, but had a minor effect on loss of Dsg3 binding. Similarly, the cholesterol-depleting agent methyl-β-cyclodextrin (β-MCD) fully blocked cell dissociation, but did not restore Dsg3 interactions or prevent the activation of p38MAPK. These results demonstrate that inhibition of Dsg3 binding is not sufficient to cause loss of cell cohesion, but rather alters signaling events which, in lipid raft-dependent manner, induce cell dissociation.

  14. Protein Kinase-A Inhibition Is Sufficient to Support Human Neural Stem Cells Self-Renewal.

    PubMed

    Georges, Pauline; Boissart, Claire; Poulet, Aurélie; Peschanski, Marc; Benchoua, Alexandra

    2015-12-01

    Human pluripotent stem cell-derived neural stem cells offer unprecedented opportunities for producing specific types of neurons for several biomedical applications. However, to achieve it, protocols of production and amplification of human neural stem cells need to be standardized, cost effective, and safe. This means that small molecules should progressively replace the use of media containing cocktails of protein-based growth factors. Here we have conducted a phenotypical screening to identify pathways involved in the regulation of hNSC self-renewal. We analyzed 80 small molecules acting as kinase inhibitors and identified compounds of the 5-isoquinolinesulfonamide family, described as protein kinase A (PKA) and protein kinase G inhibitors, as candidates to support hNSC self-renewal. Investigating the mode of action of these compounds, we found that modulation of PKA activity was central in controlling the choice between self-renewal or terminal neuronal differentiation of hNSC. We finally demonstrated that the pharmacological inhibition of PKA using the small molecule HA1004 was sufficient to support the full derivation, propagation, and long-term maintenance of stable hNSC in absence of any other extrinsic signals. Our results indicated that tuning of PKA activity is a core mechanism regulating hNSC self-renewal and differentiation and delineate the minimal culture media requirement to maintain undifferentiated hNSC in vitro.

  15. Seeing vs. believing: Is believing sufficient to activate the processes of response co-representation?

    PubMed

    Welsh, Timothy N; Higgins, Laura; Ray, Matthew; Weeks, Daniel J

    2007-12-01

    It has been suggested that the observation of another person's action affects the behavior of the observer because the observation of action leads to the excitation of similar response codes in the observer. It is unknown, however, if one must witness the action or if it is sufficient for one to believe that the other agent is responding for response co-representation to occur. To this end, participants in the present study performed a joint spatial-compatibility task with a confederate when: (1) the confederate sat beside the participant; and, (2) the confederate left the room and told the participant that they would continue to perform their component of the task on a networked computer in another room. Even though participants believed that the confederate performed the task in another room, joint spatial-compatibility was only observed when the confederate was present. These results reveal that the actions of another person may only be represented by the observer when the observer is able to witness a portion of the action.

  16. Limited sufficiency of antigen presentation by dendritic cells in models of central nervous system autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Wu, Gregory F; Shindler, Kenneth S; Allenspach, Eric J; Stephen, Tom L; Thomas, Hannah L; Mikesell, Robert J; Cross, Anne H; Laufer, Terri M

    2011-02-01

    Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a model for the human disease multiple sclerosis (MS), is dependent upon the activation and effector functions of autoreactive CD4 T cells. Multiple interactions between CD4 T cells and major histocompatibility class II (MHCII)+ antigen presenting cells (APCs) must occur in both the periphery and central nervous system (CNS) to elicit autoimmunity. The identity of the MHCII+ APCs involved throughout this process remains in question. We investigated which APC in the periphery and CNS mediates disease using transgenic mice with MHCII expression restricted to dendritic cells (DCs). MHCII expression restricted to DCs results in normal susceptibility to peptide-mediated EAE. Indeed, radiation-sensitive bone marrow-derived DCs were sufficient for all APC functions during peptide-induced disease. However, DCs alone were inefficient at promoting disease after immunization with the myelin protein myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG), even in the presence of MHCII-deficient B cells. Consistent with a defect in disease induction following protein immunization, antigen presentation by DCs alone was incapable of mediating spontaneous optic neuritis. These results indicate that DCs are capable of perpetuating CNS-targeted autoimmunity when antigens are readily available, but other APCs are required to efficiently initiate pathogenic cognate CD4 T cell responses.

  17. Are typical human serum BPA concentrations measurable and sufficient to be estrogenic in the general population?

    PubMed

    Teeguarden, Justin; Hanson-Drury, Sesha; Fisher, Jeffrey W; Doerge, Daniel R

    2013-12-01

    Mammalian estrogen receptors modulate many physiological processes. Chemicals with structural features similar to estrogens can interact with estrogen receptors to produce biological effects similar to those caused by endogenous estrogens in the body. Bisphenol A (BPA) is a structural analogue of estrogen that binds to estrogen receptors. Exposure to BPA in humans is virtually ubiquitous in industrialized societies, but BPA is rapidly detoxified by metabolism and does not accumulate in the body. Whether or not serum concentrations of BPA in humans are sufficiently high to disrupt normal estrogen-related biology is the subject of intense political and scientific debate. Here we show a convergence of robust methods for measuring or calculating serum concentrations of BPA in humans from 93 published studies of more than 30,000 individuals in 19 countries across all life stages. Typical serum BPA concentrations are orders of magnitude lower than levels measurable by modern analytical methods and below concentrations required to occupy more than 0.0009% of Type II Estrogen Binding Sites, GPR30, ERα or ERβ receptors. Occupancies would be higher, but ≤0.04%, for the highest affinity receptor, ERRγ. Our results show limited or no potential for estrogenicity in humans, and question reports of measurable BPA in human serum.

  18. Changes in cytokinins are sufficient to alter developmental patterns of defense metabolites in Nicotiana attenuata.

    PubMed

    Brütting, Christoph; Schäfer, Martin; Vanková, Radomíra; Gase, Klaus; Baldwin, Ian T; Meldau, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Plant defense metabolites are well known to be regulated developmentally. The optimal defense (OD) theory posits that a tssue's fitness values and probability of attack should determine defense metabolite allocations. Young leaves are expected to provide a larger fitness value to the plant, and therefore their defense allocations should be higher when compared with older leaves. The mechanisms that coordinate development with defense remain unknown and frequently confound tests of the OD theory predictions. Here we demonstrate that cytokinins (CKs) modulate ontogeny-dependent defenses in Nicotiana attenuata. We found that leaf CK levels highly correlate with inducible defense expressions with high levels in young and low levels in older leaves. We genetically manipulated the developmental patterns of two different CK classes by using senescence- and chemically inducible expression of CK biosynthesis genes. Genetically modifying the levels of different CKs in leaves was sufficient to alter ontogenic patterns of defense metabolites. We conclude that the developmental regulation of growth hormones that include CKs plays central roles in connecting development with defense and therefore in establishing optimal patterns of defense allocation in plants.

  19. Two synaptobrevin molecules are sufficient for vesicle fusion in central nervous system synapses.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Raunak; Ahmed, Saheeb; Jahn, Reinhard; Klingauf, Jurgen

    2011-08-23

    Exocytosis of synaptic vesicles (SVs) during fast synaptic transmission is mediated by soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) complex assembly formed by the coil-coiling of three members of this protein family: vesicle SNARE protein, synaptobrevin 2 (syb2), and the presynaptic membrane SNAREs syntaxin-1A and SNAP-25. However, it is controversially debated how many SNARE complexes are minimally needed for SV priming and fusion. To quantify this effective number, we measured the fluorescence responses from single fusing vesicles expressing pHluorin (pHl), a pH-sensitive variant of GFP, fused to the luminal domain of the vesicular SNARE syb2 (spH) in cultured hippocampal neurons lacking endogenous syb2. Fluorescence responses were quantal, with the unitary signals precisely corresponding to single pHluorin molecules. Using this approach we found that two copies of spH per SV fully rescued evoked fusion whereas SVs expressing only one spH were unable to rapidly fuse upon stimulation. Thus, two syb2 molecules and likely two SNARE complexes are necessary and sufficient for SV fusion during fast synaptic transmission.

  20. An EB1-kinesin complex is sufficient to steer microtubule growth in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yalei; Rolls, Melissa M.; Hancock, William O.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Proper microtubule polarity underlies overall neuronal polarity, but mechanisms for maintaining microtubule polarity are not well understood. Previous live imaging in Drosophila dendritic arborization (da) neurons showed that, while microtubules are uniformly plus-end out in axons, dendrites possess uniformly minus-end-out microtubules [1]. Thus, maintaining uniform microtubule polarity in dendrites requires that growing microtubule plus-ends entering branch points must be actively directed towards the cell body. A model was proposed in which EB1 tracks the plus-ends of microtubules growing into a branches and an associated kinesin-2 motor walks along a static microtubule to steer the plus-end toward the cell body. However, the fast plus-end binding dynamics of EB1 [2–5] appear at odds with this proposed mechanical function. To test this model in vitro, we reconstituted the system by artificially dimerizing EB1 to kinesin, growing microtubules from immobilized seeds, and imaging encounters between growing microtubule plus-ends and static microtubules. Consistent with in vivo observations, the EB1-kinesin complex actively steered growing microtubules. Thus EB1 kinetics and mechanics are sufficient to bend microtubules for several seconds. Other kinesins also demonstrated this activity, suggesting this is a general mechanism for organizing and maintaining proper microtubule polarity in cells. PMID:24462004

  1. Root morphological and proteomic responses to growth restriction in maize plants supplied with sufficient N.

    PubMed

    Yan, Huifeng; Li, Ke; Ding, Hong; Liao, Chengsong; Li, Xuexian; Yuan, Lixing; Li, Chunjian

    2011-07-01

    The primary objective of this study was to better understand how root morphological alteration stimulates N uptake in maize plants after root growth restriction, by investigating the changes in length and number of lateral roots, (15)NO(3)(-) influx, the expression level of the low-affinity Nitrate transporter ZmNrt1.1, and proteomic composition of primary roots. Maize seedlings were hydroponically cultured with three different types of root systems: an intact root system, embryonic roots only, or primary roots only. In spite of sufficient N supply, root growth restriction stimulated compensatory growth of remaining roots, as indicated by the increased lateral root number and root density. On the other hand, there was no significant difference in (15)NO(3)(-) influx between control and primary root plants; neither in ZmNrt1.1 expression levels in primary roots of different treatments. Our data suggested that increased N uptake by maize seedlings experiencing root growth restriction is attributed to root morphological adaptation, rather than explained by the variation in N uptake activity. Eight proteins were differentially accumulated in embryonic and primary root plants compared to control plants. These differentially accumulated proteins were closely related to signal transduction and increased root growth.

  2. Necessary and Sufficient Standards Closure Process pilot: F- and H-Area groundwater remediation

    SciTech Connect

    Bullington, M.

    1995-09-25

    The DOE Standards Committee`s Necessary and Sufficient (N and S) Standards Closure Process was piloted at SRS on the F- and H- Area Seepage Basins Groundwater Remediation Project. For this existing Environmental Restoration project, the set of N and S standards for design and safety documentation were identified, independently confirmed and approved. Implementation of these standards on the project can lead to a $2.8 Million cost savings on the design, construction/installation, and safety documentation scope of $18 Million. These savings were primarily from site design of power distribution and piping for the water treatment units. Also contributing to the savings were a more appropriate level of safety documentation and the alternate ``commercial`` bids made by vendors in response to a request for proposals for water treatment units. The use of the N and S Process on an ER activity, details on the cost savings, lessons learned and recommendations for broader implementation of the N and S Process are described herein.

  3. Morphology in conjunction with immunohistochemistry is sufficient for the diagnosis of mammary analogue secretory carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Shah, Akeesha A; Wenig, Bruce M; LeGallo, Robin D; Mills, Stacey E; Stelow, Edward B

    2015-03-01

    The recently described mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) is a low-grade salivary gland malignancy that harbors the recurrent cytogenetic abnormality t(12;15) (p13;q25) ETV6-NTRK3. Confirmation of this is currently considered the gold standard for diagnosis. Some have postulated that morphology together with supporting immunohistochemistry is sufficient to diagnose MASC. In this study we retrospectively review a series of 19 MASCs diagnosed based on histology in conjunction with immunohistochemistry; subsequently we performed in situ hybridization using an ETV6 break-apart probe. Immunohistochemistry for S100 protein and mammaglobin as well as fluorescence in situ hybridization using the Vysis ETV6 Dual Color Break-Apart FISH Probe Kit were performed on all cases. The 19 cases were from 12 females and 7 males with ages ranging from 16 to 76 years (mean = 45 years). Sixteen cases were from the parotid gland, 1 case was from a periparotid lymph node and 2 cases were from the submandibular gland. All 19 cases demonstrated moderate to strong expression of S100 protein. Eighteen cases demonstrated strong, diffuse expression of mammaglobin, while one case had only rare tumor cells that strongly expressed mammaglobin. Eighteen of 19 cases (95 %) demonstrated the ETV6 rearrangement by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Given that morphology together with immunohistochemistry is highly correlated with the ETV6 gene rearrangement, we conclude that molecular confirmation is not required to diagnose MASC.

  4. Spirituality, hope, and self-sufficiency among low-income job seekers.

    PubMed

    2015-04-01

    Self-sufficiency (SS) is an important social welfare policy goal in the United States, yet little is known about the process that leads to SS. To address this gap in the literature, this study examined the relationship between spirituality, hope, and SS among a sample of low-income job seekers (N = 116). It was hypothesized that spirituality would be related to hope, and that hope, in turn, would be related to SS. Using survey data from two workforce development agencies, this hypothesis was confirmed-hope fully mediated the relationship between spirituality and SS. Of the two factors through which hope is commonly operationalized-agency and pathways-supplemental analysis suggested that spirituality only affects SS through the agency channel. To help foster hope in direct practice settings, it is suggested that social workers might employ spiritually modified cognitive-behavioral therapy protocols. Macrostructural interventions that block the pathway component of hope are also suggested to help reverse exclusion from labor market entry. As such, hope needs to be addressed comprehensively-intrapsychically and macrostructurally-to effect bottom-up change for SS. Engendering hope may assist clients overcome some of the many challenges they encounter on the journey to SS.

  5. Kinetochore–microtubule attachment is sufficient to satisfy the human spindle assembly checkpoint

    PubMed Central

    Etemad, Banafsheh; Kuijt, Timo E. F.; Kops, Geert J. P. L.

    2015-01-01

    The spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) is a genome surveillance mechanism that protects against aneuploidization. Despite profound progress on understanding mechanisms of its activation, it remains unknown what aspect of chromosome–spindle interactions is monitored by the SAC: kinetochore–microtubule attachment or the force generated by dynamic microtubules that signals stable biorientation of chromosomes? To answer this, we uncoupled these two processes by expressing a non-phosphorylatable version of the main microtubule-binding protein at kinetochores (HEC1-9A), causing stabilization of incorrect kinetochore–microtubule attachments despite persistent activity of the error-correction machinery. The SAC is fully functional in HEC1-9A-expressing cells, yet cells in which chromosomes cannot biorient but are stably attached to microtubules satisfy the SAC and exit mitosis. SAC satisfaction requires neither intra-kinetochore stretching nor dynamic microtubules. Our findings support the hypothesis that in human cells the end-on interactions of microtubules with kinetochores are sufficient to satisfy the SAC without the need for microtubule-based pulling forces. PMID:26621779

  6. Transcriptional Activation by Oct4 Is Sufficient for the Maintenance and Induction of Pluripotency

    PubMed Central

    Hammachi, Fella; Morrison, Gillian M.; Sharov, Alexei A.; Livigni, Alessandra; Narayan, Santosh; Papapetrou, Eirini P.; O'Malley, James; Kaji, Keisuke; Ko, Minoru S.H.; Ptashne, Mark; Brickman, Joshua M.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Oct4 is an essential regulator of pluripotency in vivo and in vitro in embryonic stem cells, as well as a key mediator of the reprogramming of somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem cells. It is not known whether activation and/or repression of specific genes by Oct4 is relevant to these functions. Here, we show that fusion proteins containing the coding sequence of Oct4 or Xlpou91 (the Xenopus homolog of Oct4) fused to activating regions, but not those fused to repressing regions, behave as Oct4, suppressing differentiation and promoting maintenance of undifferentiated phenotypes in vivo and in vitro. An Oct4 activation domain fusion supported embryonic stem cell self-renewal in vitro at lower concentrations than that required for Oct4 while alleviating the ordinary requirement for the cytokine LIF. At still lower levels of the fusion, LIF dependence was restored. We conclude that the necessary and sufficient function of Oct4 in promoting pluripotency is to activate specific target genes. PMID:22832160

  7. Low Oxygen Tension During Incubation Periods of Chondrocyte Expansion Is Sufficient to Enhance Postexpansion Chondrogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Ginley, Nell M.; Caplan, Arnold I.; Niyibizi, Christopher; Dennis, James E.

    2010-01-01

    To determine whether low oxygen (O2) tension during expansion affects the matrix density, as well as quantity, of cartilage formed, and to determine whether application of low O2 tension during incubation periods alone is sufficient to modulate chondrogenic expression, rabbit chondrocytes expanded at either 21% O2 or 5% O2 were analyzed for glycosaminoglycan (GAG) and DNA content, total collagen, and gene expression during expansion and postexpansion aggregate cultures. When cultured as aggregates at 21% O2, chondrocytes expanded at 5% O2 produced cartilage aggregates that contained more total GAG, GAG per wet weight, GAG per DNA, and total collagen than chondrocytes expanded at 21% O2. Less of an effect on GAG and collagen content was observed when aggregate culture was performed at 5% O2. Real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis of COL2A1 expression showed upregulated levels of type IIA (an early marker) and IIB (a late marker) during expansion and elevated levels of type IIB during aggregate culture in chondrocytes expanded in low O2. The application of low O2 tension during incubation periods of chondrocyte expansion enhances the ultimate cartilage matrix density and quantity, and this enhancement can be achieved through the use of an O2 control incubator. PMID:19958052

  8. Infant photometry: are mean adult isoluminance values a sufficient approximation to individual infant values?

    PubMed

    Pereverzeva, Maria; Hui-Lin Chien, Sarina; Palmer, John; Teller, Davida Y

    2002-06-01

    Individual differences in isoluminance values were studied in infants and adults using a motion nulling paradigm. Two luminance-modulated sinusoidal grating components (spatial frequency=0.25 cpd, temporal frequency=5.6 Hz, speed=22.4 deg/s) were superimposed and moved in opposite directions across a color video screen. The contrasts of the two components were traded off to determine motion nulls. Two conditions were used: red/black vs. green/black, and red/black vs. blue/black grating components. An eye movement based response measure was used for infant subjects, and an average of 308 trials per infant were obtained. As observed in earlier studies, the mean motion null values for infants and adults were highly similar in each condition. The standard errors of motion null values for individual subjects were very small. Individual differences among infants were also small, and were clearly measurable only in the red/black vs. blue/black condition. The close similarity of mean null values, combined with the small individual differences among infants, supports the idea that under the right circumstances mean adult isoluminance values can be used as a sufficient approximation to individual infant isoluminance values in studies of infant color vision. These circumstances are discussed and evaluated in detail.

  9. Dorsal hippocampus is necessary for novel learning but sufficient for subsequent similar learning.

    PubMed

    Wang, Szu-Han; Finnie, Peter S B; Hardt, Oliver; Nader, Karim

    2012-11-01

    Our current understanding of brain mechanisms involved in learning and memory has been derived largely from studies using experimentally naïve animals. However, it is becoming increasingly clear that not all identified mechanisms may generalize to subsequent learning. For example, N-methyl-D-aspartate glutamate (NMDA) receptors in the dorsal hippocampus are required for contextual fear conditioning in naïve animals but not in animals previously trained in a similar task. Here we investigated how animals learn contextual fear conditioning for a second time-a response which is not due to habituation or generalization. We found that dorsal hippocampus infusions of voltage-dependent calcium channel blockers or the inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) agonist impaired the first, not the second contextual learning. Only manipulations of the entire hippocampus led to an impairment in second learning. Specifically, inactivation of either the dorsal or ventral hippocampus caused the remaining portion of the hippocampus to acquire and consolidate the second learning. Thus, dorsal hippocampus seems necessary for initial contextual fear conditioning, but either the dorsal or ventral hippocampus is sufficient for subsequent conditioning in a different context. Together, these findings suggest that prior training experiences can change how the hippocampus processes subsequent similar learning.

  10. Orexin 2 Receptor Antagonism is Sufficient to Promote NREM and REM Sleep from Mouse to Man

    PubMed Central

    Gotter, Anthony L.; Forman, Mark S.; Harrell, Charles M.; Stevens, Joanne; Svetnik, Vladimir; Yee, Ka Lai; Li, Xiaodong; Roecker, Anthony J.; Fox, Steven V.; Tannenbaum, Pamela L.; Garson, Susan L.; Lepeleire, Inge De; Calder, Nicole; Rosen, Laura; Struyk, Arie; Coleman, Paul J.; Herring, W. Joseph; Renger, John J.; Winrow, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    Orexin neuropeptides regulate sleep/wake through orexin receptors (OX1R, OX2R); OX2R is the predominant mediator of arousal promotion. The potential for single OX2R antagonism to effectively promote sleep has yet to be demonstrated in humans. MK-1064 is an OX2R-single antagonist. Preclinically, MK-1064 promotes sleep and increases both rapid eye movement (REM) and non-REM (NREM) sleep in rats at OX2R occupancies higher than the range observed for dual orexin receptor antagonists. Similar to dual antagonists, MK-1064 increases NREM and REM sleep in dogs without inducing cataplexy. Two Phase I studies in healthy human subjects evaluated safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics and sleep-promoting effects of MK-1064, and demonstrated dose-dependent increases in subjective somnolence (via Karolinska Sleepiness Scale and Visual Analogue Scale measures) and sleep (via polysomnography), including increased REM and NREM sleep. Thus, selective OX2R antagonism is sufficient to promote REM and NREM sleep across species, similarly to that seen with dual orexin receptor antagonism. PMID:27256922

  11. Chronic lower limb ischemia and advanced renal failure. Do we possess sufficient therapeutic knowledge?

    PubMed

    Gacka, M; Adamiec, R

    2013-08-01

    Chronic lower limb ischemia diminishes the quality of life and is associated with a higher risk of limb amputation and cardiovascular mortality. Coexisting chronic renal disease can modulate the response to pharmacotherapy and revascularization, and thus influence prognosis. This paper reviews current literary evidence regarding therapeutic problems observed in patients with obliterative atherosclerosis and renal failure. We reviewed articles from peer-reviewed medical journals which were published between 2000 and 2011. The poorer clinical response in the discussed patients is not only connected with the direct failure of surgical and endovascular procedures, but first of all with the high mortality of the patients. There is still a lack of sufficient evidence on the effectiveness of currently used anti-atherosclerotic agents in patients with end-stage renal failure. A certain priority is the search for an effective therapeutic strategy that would reduce mortality associated with cardiovascular conditions in this particular group of patients. Identifying patients who can benefit most from costly endovascular procedures is another vital issue.

  12. Activation of Pim Kinases Is Sufficient to Promote Resistance to MET Small Molecule Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    An, Ningfei; Xiong, Ying; LaRue, Amanda C.; Kraft, Andrew S.; Cen, Bo

    2015-01-01

    MET blockade offers a new targeted therapy particularly in those cancers with MET amplification. However, the efficacy and the duration of the response to MET inhibitors are limited by the emergence of drug resistance. Here we report that resistance to small molecule inhibitors of MET can arise from increased expression of the pro-survival Pim protein kinases. This resistance mechanism was documented in non-small cell lung cancer and gastric cancer cells with MET amplification. Inhibition of Pim kinases enhanced cell death triggered by short-term treatment with MET inhibitors. Pim kinases control the translation of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 at an internal ribosome entry site and this mechanism was identified as the basis for Pim-mediated resistance to MET inhibitors. Protein synthesis was increased in drug-resistant cells, secondary to a Pim-mediated increase in cap-independent translation. In cells rendered drug resistant by chronic treatment with MET inhibitors, genetic or pharmacological inhibition of Pim kinases was sufficient to restore sensitivity in vitro and in vivo. Taken together, our results rationalize Pim inhibition as a strategy to augment responses and blunt acquired resistance to MET inhibitors in cancer. PMID:26670562

  13. Sufficient production of geranylgeraniol is required to maintain endotoxin tolerance in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jinyong; Lee, Joon No; Ye, James; Hao, Rosy; Debose-Boyd, Russell; Ye, Jin

    2013-12-01

    Endotoxin tolerance allows macrophages to produce large quantities of proinflammatory cytokines immediately after their contact with lipopolysaccharides (LPSs), but prevents their further production after repeated exposure to LPSs. While this response is known to prevent overproduction of proinflammatory cytokines, the mechanism through which endotoxin tolerance is established has not been identified. In the current study, we demonstrate that sufficient production of geranylgeraniol (GGOH) in macrophages is required to maintain endotoxin tolerance. We show that increased synthesis of 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCR) protein following LPS treatment is required to produce enough GGOH to inhibit expression of Malt1, a protein known to stimulate expression of proinflammatory cytokines, in macrophages repeatedly exposed to LPSs. Depletion of GGOH caused by inhibition of HMGCR led to increased Malt1 expression in macrophages subjected to repeated exposure to LPSs. Consequently, endotoxin tolerance was impaired, and production of interleukin 1-β and other proinflammatory cytokines was markedly elevated in these cells. These results suggest that insufficient production of GGOH in macrophages may cause autoinflammatory diseases.

  14. A dual inhibitory mechanism sufficient to maintain cell cycle restricted CENP-A assembly

    PubMed Central

    Stankovic, Ana; Guo, Lucie Y.; Mata, João F.; Bodor, Dani L.; Cao, Xing-Jun; Bailey, Aaron O.; Shabanowitz, Jeffrey; Hunt, Donald F.; Garcia, Benjamin A.; Black, Ben E.; Jansen, Lars E.T

    2017-01-01

    Summary Chromatin featuring the H3 variant CENP-A at the centromere is critical for its mitotic function and epigenetic maintenance. Assembly of centromeric chromatin is restricted to G1 phase through inhibitory action of Cdk1/2 kinases in other phases of the cell cycle. Here, we identify the two key targets sufficient to maintain cell cycle control of CENP-A assembly. We uncovered a single phosphorylation site in the licensing factor M18BP1 and a cyclin A binding site in the CENP-A chaperone, HJURP, mediating specific inhibitory phosphorylation. Simultaneous expression of mutant proteins lacking these residues, results in complete uncoupling from the cell cycle. Consequently, CENP-A assembly is fully recapitulated under high Cdk activities, indistinguishable from G1 assembly. We find that Cdk-mediated inhibition is exerted by sequestering active factors away from the centromere. Finally, we show that displacement of M18BP1 from the centromere is critical for the assembly mechanism of CENP-A. PMID:28017591

  15. The case for neuropsychoanalysis: Why a dialogue with neuroscience is necessary but not sufficient for psychoanalysis.

    PubMed

    Yovell, Yoram; Solms, Mark; Fotopoulou, Aikaterini

    2015-12-01

    Recent advances in the cognitive, affective and social neurosciences have enabled these fields to study aspects of the mind that are central to psychoanalysis. These developments raise a number of possibilities for psychoanalysis. Can it engage the neurosciences in a productive and mutually enriching dialogue without compromising its own integrity and unique perspective? While many analysts welcome interdisciplinary exchanges with the neurosciences, termed neuropsychoanalysis, some have voiced concerns about their potentially deleterious effects on psychoanalytic theory and practice. In this paper we outline the development and aims of neuropsychoanalysis, and consider its reception in psychoanalysis and in the neurosciences. We then discuss some of the concerns raised within psychoanalysis, with particular emphasis on the epistemological foundations of neuropsychoanalysis. While this paper does not attempt to fully address the clinical applications of neuropsychoanalysis, we offer and discuss a brief case illustration in order to demonstrate that neuroscientific research findings can be used to enrich our models of the mind in ways that, in turn, may influence how analysts work with their patients. We will conclude that neuropsychoanalysis is grounded in the history of psychoanalysis, that it is part of the psychoanalytic worldview, and that it is necessary, albeit not sufficient, for the future viability of psychoanalysis.

  16. Construction and engineering of a thermostable self-sufficient cytochrome P450

    SciTech Connect

    Mandai, Takao; Fujiwara, Shinsuke; Imaoka, Susumu

    2009-06-19

    CYP175A1 is a thermophilic cytochrome P450 and hydroxylates {beta}-carotene. We previously identified a native electron transport system for CYP175A1. In this report, we constructed two fusion proteins consisting of CYP175A1, ferredoxin (Fdx), and ferredoxin-NADP{sup +} reductase (FNR): H{sub 2}N-CYP175A1-Fdx-FNR-COOH (175FR) and H{sub 2}N-CYP175A1-FNR-Fdx-COOH (175RF). Both 175FR and 175RF were expressed in Escherichia coli and purified. The V{sub max} value for {beta}-carotene hydroxylation was 25 times higher with 175RF than 175FR and 9 times higher with 175RF than CYP175A1 (non-fused protein), although the k{sub m} values of these enzymes were similar. 175RF retained 50% residual activity even at 80 {sup o}C. Furthermore, several mutants of the CYP175A1 domain of 175RF were prepared and one mutant (Q67G/Y68I) catalyzed the hydroxylation of an unnatural substrate, testosterone. Thus, this is the first report of a thermostable self-sufficient cytochrome P450 and the engineering of a thermophilic cytochrome P450 for the oxidation of an unnatural substrate.

  17. Decontamination procedures for drugs of abuse in hair: are they sufficient?

    PubMed

    Blank, D L; Kidwell, D A

    1995-01-05

    This paper reviews the methods for decontaminating hair exposed to external solutions of drugs of abuse. Exposure of hair to cocaine at 1 microgram/ml for 5 min is sufficient to contaminate hair, yet decontamination is a very slow process. Using externally contaminated hair, a number of decontamination procedures were attempted, and none removed all the contamination. The percentage of external contamination removed depended on the hair type, with thick black hair being the most resistant to decontamination. Hair treated by dying incorporated externally applied drugs differently, depending on the hair type. Thick black hair became more absorbent whereas thin brown hair became less absorbent. Kinetic wash criteria are evaluated for their ability/inability to determine if hair has been contaminated from external sources. A theoretical framework for the incorporation and removal of drugs from hair is discussed, and the hypothesis that inaccessible domains exist in hair which trap drugs is critically examined. The results presented in this paper strongly suggest that much more information on the decontamination of hair and the differentiation of exogenously and endogenously incorporated drugs is needed before hair analysis can be employed in most forensic applications. We propose that the radioactive tracer methods discussed herein are well suited for evaluating any new decontamination or extraction technique.

  18. Identifying Pathways for Improving Household Food Self-Sufficiency Outcomes in the Hills of Nepal.

    PubMed

    Karki, Tika B; Sah, Shrawan K; Thapa, Resam B; McDonald, Andrew J; Davis, Adam S

    2015-01-01

    Maintaining and improving household food self-sufficiency (FSS) in mountain regions is an ongoing challenge. There are many facets to the issue, including comparatively high levels of land fragmentation, challenging terrain and transportation bottlenecks, declining labor availability due to out-migration, and low technical knowledge, among others. Using a nonparametric multivariate approach, we quantified primary associations underlying current levels of FSS in the mid-hills of Nepal. A needs assessment survey was administered to 77 households in Lungaun (Baglung District), Pang (Parbat District), and Pathlekhet (Myagdi District), with a total of 80 variables covering five performance areas; resulting data were analyzed using Classification and Regression Trees. The most parsimonious statistical model for household FSS highlighted associations with agronomic management, including yields of maize and fingermillet within a relay cropping system and adoption of improved crop cultivars. Secondary analyses of the variables retained in the first model again focused primarily on crop and livestock management. It thus appears that continued emphasis on technical agricultural improvements is warranted, independent of factors such as land holding size that, in any case, are very difficult to change through development interventions. Initiatives to increase household FSS in the mid-hills of Nepal will benefit from placing a primary focus on methods of agricultural intensification to improve crop yields and effective technology transfer to increase adoption of these methods.

  19. Endogenously released GLP-1 is not sufficient to alter postprandial glucose regulation in the dog

    PubMed Central

    Farmer, Tiffany; Schurr, Kathleen; Donahue, E. Patrick; Farmer, Ben; Neal, Doss; Cherrington, Alan D.

    2017-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is secreted from the L cell of the gut in response to oral nutrient delivery. To determine if endogenously released GLP-1 contributes to the incretin effect and postprandial glucose regulation, conscious dogs (n = 8) underwent an acclimation period (t = −60 to −20 min), followed by a basal sampling period (t = −20 to 0 min) and an experimental period (t = 0–320 min). At the beginning of the experimental period, t = 0 min, a peripheral infusion of either saline or GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) antagonist, exendin (9–39) (Ex-9, 500 pmol/kg/min), was started. At t = 30 min, animals consumed a liquid mixed meal, spiked with acetaminophen. All animals were studied twice (± Ex-9) in random fashion, and the experiments were separated by a 1–2-week washout period. Antagonism of the GLP-1R did not have an effect, as indicated by repeated-measures MANOVA analysis of the Δ AUC from t = 45–320 min of arterial plasma glucose, GLP-1, insulin, glucagon, and acetaminophen levels. Therefore, endogenous GLP-1 is not sufficient to alter postprandial glucose regulation in the dog. PMID:21547512

  20. Entropic inequalities as a necessary and sufficient condition to noncontextuality and locality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaves, Rafael

    2013-02-01

    The assumption of local realism, in a Bell locality scenario, imposes nontrivial conditions on the Shannon entropies of the associated probability distributions, expressed by linear entropic Bell inequalities. In principle, these entropic inequalities provide necessary but not sufficient criteria for the existence of a local hidden variable model reproducing the correlations, as, for example, the paradigmatic nonlocal Popescu-Rohrlich (PR) box is entropically not different from a classically correlated box. In this paper we show that for the n-cycle scenario, entropic inequalities completely characterize the set of local correlations. In particular, every nonsignaling box which violates the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (CHSH) inequality—including the PR box—can be locally modified so that it also violates the entropic version of CHSH inequality. As we show, any nonlocal probabilistic model when appropriately mixed with a local model, violates an entropic inequality, thus evidencing a very peculiar kind of nonlocality. As the n-cycle captures equally well both the notion of local realism introduced by Bell and that of noncontextuality presented by the Kochen-Specker theorem, the results are also valid for noncontextuality scenarios.

  1. Variability in delivered dose and respirable delivered dose from nebulizers: are current regulatory testing guidelines sufficient to produce meaningful information?

    PubMed Central

    Hatley, Ross HM; Byrne, Sarah M

    2017-01-01

    Background To improve convenience to patients, there have been advances in the operation of nebulizers, resulting in fast treatment times and less drug lost to the environment. However, limited attention has been paid to the effects of these developments on the delivered dose (DD) and respirable delivered dose (RDD). Published pharmacopoeia and ISO testing guidelines for adult-use testing utilize a single breathing pattern, which may not be sufficient to enable effective comparisons between the devices. Materials and methods The DD of 5 mg of salbutamol sulfate into adult breathing patterns with inhalation:exhalation (I:E) ratios between 1:1 and 1:4 was determined. Droplet size was determined by laser diffraction and RDD calculated. Nine different nebulizer brands with different modes of operation (conventional, venturi, breath-enhanced, mesh, and breath-activated) were tested. Results Between the non-breath-activated nebulizers, a 2.5-fold difference in DD (~750–1,900 µg salbutamol) was found; with RDD, there was a more than fourfold difference (~210–980 µg). With increasing time spent on exhalation, there were progressive reductions in DD and RDD, with the RDD at an I:E ratio of 1:4 being as little as 40% of the dose with the 1:1 I:E ratio. The DD and RDD from the breath-activated mesh nebulizer were independent of the I:E ratio, and for the breath-activated jet nebulizer, there was less than 20% change in RDD between the I:E ratios of 1:1 and 1:4. Conclusion Comparing nebulizers using the I:E ratio recommended in the guidelines does not predict relative performance between the devices at other ratios. There was significant variance in DD or RDD between different brands of non-breath-activated nebulizer. In future, consideration should be given to revision of the test protocols included in the guidelines, to reflect more accurately the potential therapeutic dose that is delivered to a realistic spectrum of breathing patterns. PMID:28203110

  2. Biomass Energy Self-Sufficiency Resource Alternatives for a Forested Air Force Installation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-05-01

    to support basewide biomass energy systems. The study confirmed the feasibility of a biomass energy plantation supplying the required fuel wood to...support the basewide biomass energy systems while, at the same time not conflicting with any of the operational missions of Eglin AFB. This conclusion is...have an installation that provides all of its electrical and thermal energy requirements through the utilization of the Biomass Energy Island concept. (Author)

  3. Are Standard Diagnostic Test Characteristics Sufficient for the Assessment of Continual Patient Monitoring?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-02-01

    REPORT unclassified b. ABSTRACT unclassified c . THIS PAGE unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 In this...thoracic or abdominal hematomas, c ) explicit vascular injury and operative repair, or d) limb amputation. Patients who received blood but did not meet...see panel C ). For instance, at 2 min, fewer than 25% of the patients had a decision rendered by the SPRT, and consequently, the corre- sponding

  4. Business & Operations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agron, Joe

    2007-01-01

    This article presents an interview with John D. Musso, executive director of the Association of School Business Officials (ASBO) International. Musso talks about trends and issues that will most affect school business and operations in 2007 and beyond. Despite the challenges facing school operations, he believes that the key to being successful at…

  5. Operational Amplifiers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foxcroft, G. E.

    1986-01-01

    Addresses the introduction of low cost equipment into high school and college physical science classes. Examines the properties of an "ideal" operational amplifier and discusses how it might be used under saturated and non-saturated conditions. Notes the action of a "real" operational amplifier. (TW)

  6. Corps Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-26

    Coordinates and synchronizes aviation operations. Coordinates and synchronizes space support. Provides terrain visualization and terrain...section acquires, manages, and distributes geospatial data and terrain visualization products to the CG and staff. This section includes imagery analysts...operations by integrating information from internal and external sources. The ABCS provides a COP using a common map set and database to present a visual

  7. Payload Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cissom, R. D.; Melton, T. L.; Schneider, M. P.; Lapenta, C. C.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to provide the future ISS scientist and/or engineer a sense of what ISS payload operations are expected to be. This paper uses a real-time operations scenario to convey this message. The real-time operations scenario begins at the initiation of payload operations and runs through post run experiment analysis. In developing this scenario, it is assumed that the ISS payload operations flight and ground capabilities are fully available for use by the payload user community. Emphasis is placed on telescience operations whose main objective is to enable researchers to utilize experiment hardware onboard the International Space Station as if it were located in their terrestrial laboratory. An overview of the Payload Operations Integration Center (POIC) systems and user ground system options is included to provide an understanding of the systems and interfaces users will utilize to perform payload operations. Detailed information regarding POIC capabilities can be found in the POIC Capabilities Document, SSP 50304.

  8. Dietary Iodine Sufficiency and Moderate Insufficiency in the Lactating Mother and Nursing Infant: A Computational Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, W.; Wang, Jian; George, Nysia I.; Gearhart, Jeffery M.; McLanahan, Eva D.

    2016-01-01

    The Institute of Medicine recommends that lactating women ingest 290 μg iodide/d and a nursing infant, less than two years of age, 110 μg/d. The World Health Organization, United Nations Children’s Fund, and International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders recommend population maternal and infant urinary iodide concentrations ≥ 100 μg/L to ensure iodide sufficiency. For breast milk, researchers have proposed an iodide concentration range of 150–180 μg/L indicates iodide sufficiency for the mother and infant, however no national or international guidelines exist for breast milk iodine concentration. For the first time, a lactating woman and nursing infant biologically based model, from delivery to 90 days postpartum, was constructed to predict maternal and infant urinary iodide concentration, breast milk iodide concentration, the amount of iodide transferred in breast milk to the nursing infant each day and maternal and infant serum thyroid hormone kinetics. The maternal and infant models each consisted of three sub-models, iodide, thyroxine (T4), and triiodothyronine (T3). Using our model to simulate a maternal intake of 290 μg iodide/d, the average daily amount of iodide ingested by the nursing infant, after 4 days of life, gradually increased from 50 to 101 μg/day over 90 days postpartum. The predicted average lactating mother and infant urinary iodide concentrations were both in excess of 100 μg/L and the predicted average breast milk iodide concentration, 157 μg/L. The predicted serum thyroid hormones (T4, free T4 (fT4), and T3) in both the nursing infant and lactating mother were indicative of euthyroidism. The model was calibrated using serum thyroid hormone concentrations for lactating women from the United States and was successful in predicting serum T4 and fT4 levels (within a factor of two) for lactating women in other countries. T3 levels were adequately predicted. Infant serum thyroid hormone levels were adequately

  9. Sunlight exposure increases vitamin D sufficiency in growing pigs fed a diet formulated to exceed requirements.

    PubMed

    Alexander, B M; Ingold, B C; Young, J L; Fensterseifer, S R; Wechsler, P J; Austin, K J; Larson-Meyer, D E

    2017-04-01

    Traditional confinement practices limit exposure to sunlight and vitamin D synthesis, and vitamin insufficiency occurs even with dietary supplementation. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of limited sun exposure on serum concentration of vitamin D and the expression of vitamin D synthesizing enzymes in the liver and kidney of pigs on a vitamin D sufficient diet. White-pigmented grower pigs (29.7 ± 2.3 kg) fed 15% CP diet ad libitum providing >1,200 IU vitamin D3/kg of feed were exposed to sunlight for 1 h each day at solar noon for 14 d at the spring equinox (March pigs, n = 10) or summer solstice (June pigs, n = 5) and again before slaughter in June (March pigs) and September (June pigs). Blood for the analysis of 25(OH)D was collected before and after sunlight exposure. Traditionally housed pigs served as controls. After initial sun exposure, blood samples were collected from June pigs daily for 5 d and weekly for 8 wk to determine vitamin D3 and 25(OH)D decay, respectively. Kidney and liver samples were collected from the June pigs at slaughter after sun exposure for analysis of messenger RNA expression of vitamin D binding protein and synthesizing/degrading enzymes. Average daily gain (ADG) was not influenced (P > 0.5) by sunlight exposure. June pigs had fewer days on feed, lower (P = 0.003) ADG and were slaughtered at a lighter (P < 0.001) weight. Exposure to sunlight increased (P < 0.001) 25(OH) vitamin D for all pigs. March pigs, obtained from a Midwest producer, had lower (P < 0.001) concentration of 25(OH)D than June pigs born on-farm. Initial sunlight exposure increased serum concentration of 25(OH)D in March pigs by 200% and June pigs by 67%. Serum concentration of vitamin D3 was decreased (P < 0.05) by 72 h with 25(OH)D decreased (P < 0.05) by wk 4 after exposure. Expression of vitamin D binding protein, vitamin D synthesizing CYP2R1, CYP27A1, CYP2D25, or degrading enzyme CYP24A1 were not influenced (P ≥ 0.19) by sunlight

  10. Dietary Iodine Sufficiency and Moderate Insufficiency in the Lactating Mother and Nursing Infant: A Computational Perspective.

    PubMed

    Fisher, W; Wang, Jian; George, Nysia I; Gearhart, Jeffery M; McLanahan, Eva D

    2016-01-01

    The Institute of Medicine recommends that lactating women ingest 290 μg iodide/d and a nursing infant, less than two years of age, 110 μg/d. The World Health Organization, United Nations Children's Fund, and International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders recommend population maternal and infant urinary iodide concentrations ≥ 100 μg/L to ensure iodide sufficiency. For breast milk, researchers have proposed an iodide concentration range of 150-180 μg/L indicates iodide sufficiency for the mother and infant, however no national or international guidelines exist for breast milk iodine concentration. For the first time, a lactating woman and nursing infant biologically based model, from delivery to 90 days postpartum, was constructed to predict maternal and infant urinary iodide concentration, breast milk iodide concentration, the amount of iodide transferred in breast milk to the nursing infant each day and maternal and infant serum thyroid hormone kinetics. The maternal and infant models each consisted of three sub-models, iodide, thyroxine (T4), and triiodothyronine (T3). Using our model to simulate a maternal intake of 290 μg iodide/d, the average daily amount of iodide ingested by the nursing infant, after 4 days of life, gradually increased from 50 to 101 μg/day over 90 days postpartum. The predicted average lactating mother and infant urinary iodide concentrations were both in excess of 100 μg/L and the predicted average breast milk iodide concentration, 157 μg/L. The predicted serum thyroid hormones (T4, free T4 (fT4), and T3) in both the nursing infant and lactating mother were indicative of euthyroidism. The model was calibrated using serum thyroid hormone concentrations for lactating women from the United States and was successful in predicting serum T4 and fT4 levels (within a factor of two) for lactating women in other countries. T3 levels were adequately predicted. Infant serum thyroid hormone levels were adequately

  11. A single heterologously expressed plant cellulose synthase isoform is sufficient for cellulose microfibril formation in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Purushotham, Pallinti; Cho, Sung Hyun; Díaz-Moreno, Sara M.; Kumar, Manish; Nixon, B. Tracy; Bulone, Vincent; Zimmer, Jochen

    2016-01-01

    Plant cell walls are a composite material of polysaccharides, proteins, and other noncarbohydrate polymers. In the majority of plant tissues, the most abundant polysaccharide is cellulose, a linear polymer of glucose molecules. As the load-bearing component of the cell wall, individual cellulose chains are frequently bundled into micro and macrofibrils and are wrapped around the cell. Cellulose is synthesized by membrane-integrated and processive glycosyltransferases that polymerize UDP-activated glucose and secrete the nascent polymer through a channel formed by their own transmembrane regions. Plants express several different cellulose synthase isoforms during primary and secondary cell wall formation; however, so far, none has been functionally reconstituted in vitro for detailed biochemical analyses. Here we report the heterologous expression, purification, and functional reconstitution of Populus tremula x tremuloides CesA8 (PttCesA8), implicated in secondary cell wall formation. The recombinant enzyme polymerizes UDP-activated glucose to cellulose, as determined by enzyme degradation, permethylation glycosyl linkage analysis, electron microscopy, and mutagenesis studies. Catalytic activity is dependent on the presence of a lipid bilayer environment and divalent manganese cations. Further, electron microscopy analyses reveal that PttCesA8 produces cellulose fibers several micrometers long that occasionally are capped by globular particles, likely representing PttCesA8 complexes. Deletion of the enzyme’s N-terminal RING-finger domain almost completely abolishes fiber formation but not cellulose biosynthetic activity. Our results demonstrate that reconstituted PttCesA8 is not only sufficient for cellulose biosynthesis in vitro but also suffices to bundle individual glucan chains into cellulose microfibrils. PMID:27647898

  12. IS COMPTON COOLING SUFFICIENT TO EXPLAIN EVOLUTION OF OBSERVED QUASI-PERIODIC OSCILLATIONS IN OUTBURST SOURCES?

    SciTech Connect

    Mondal, Santanu; Chakrabarti, Sandip K.; Debnath, Dipak E-mail: chakraba@bose.res.in

    2015-01-01

    In outburst sources, quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO) frequency is known to evolve in a certain way: in the rising phase, it monotonically goes up until a soft intermediate state is achieved. In the propagating oscillatory shock model, oscillation of the Compton cloud is thought to cause QPOs. Thus, in order to increase QPO frequency, the Compton cloud must collapse steadily in the rising phase. In decline phases, the exact opposite should be true. We investigate cause of this evolution of the Compton cloud. The same viscosity parameter that increases the Keplerian disk rate also moves the inner edge of the Keplerian component, thereby reducing the size of the Compton cloud and reducing the cooling timescale. We show that cooling of the Compton cloud by inverse Comptonization is enough for it to collapse sufficiently so as to explain the QPO evolution. In the two-component advective flow configuration of Chakrabarti-Titarchuk, centrifugal force-induced shock represents the boundary of the Compton cloud. We take the rising phase of 2010 outburst of Galactic black hole candidate H 1743-322 and find an estimation of variation of the α parameter of the sub-Keplerian flow to be monotonically rising from 0.0001 to 0.02, well within the range suggested by magnetorotational instability. We also estimate the inward velocity of the Compton cloud to be a few meters per second, which is comparable to what is found in several earlier studies of our group by empirically fitting the shock locations with the time of observations.

  13. Is reduction of tumor burden sufficient for the 21st century?

    PubMed

    Nahas, George; Bliss, Sarah A; Sinha, Garima; Ganta, Teja; Greco, Steven J; Rameshwar, Pranela

    2015-01-28

    Currently, animal models are used to test the efficacy of tumor treatment. A significant reduction of tumor mass is lauded as great improvement. As we begin the 21st century, one wonders if this is sufficient and acceptable for cancer treatment. Although the presence of cancer stem cell (CSCs) is not a new phenomenon, their role in the initiation of the tumor for clinical resurgence is mostly ignored when testing drugs. The current treatment then poses a major limitation to aggressively target the cells most responsible for tumor initiation and resurgence. The review does not trivialize the problem since it is acknowledged that the tumors and cells within the tissue microenvironment would interact through complex mechanisms. It is quite possible that the interaction by CSCs and the microenvironment will vary, depending on the tissue, e.g., bone marrow versus brain. Research studies are needed to investigate if CSCs from the same organ differ after migrating to other tissues. If so, this will pose an economic dilemma for targeted drug development. It will not be feasible to develop drugs for each organ. Besides, the cost, there could be problems to effectively deliver the drugs to all organs, problems to assess drug distribution to particular tissues and toxicity for specific drugs. If multiple drugs are required to eradicate CSCs in different tissues, there is a problem of possible untoward effect for the simultaneous delivery of multiple drugs to a single cancer patient. As new drugs are developed, the investigators will need to pay attention for dedifferentiation of non-CSCs to CSCs. The metabolic pathways will have to be given equal attention as the stem cells genes since their pathways might show major differences rather than the stem cells genes, which are shared by the normal stem cells.

  14. Smoking Lung Cancer Patients and Tobacco Cessation - Is the Current Treatment in Germany Sufficient?

    PubMed

    Vitzthum, K; Thielke, L; Deter, A; Riemer, T; Eggeling, S; Pankow, W; Mache, S

    2015-11-01

    Lung cancer is the most preventable neoplastic disease for men and women. The incidence rate per year is 14.000 in Germany. Smoking is the main risk factor for the onset of lung cancer and for a share of 90% of cases, lung cancer is associated with smoking. Recent studies have shown that the time slot of diagnosing lung cancer is a teachable moment for tobacco cessation interventions. The therapy that was rated most effective was a combination of cognitive behavioral therapy and pharmacotherapy (e. g. NRT, Bupropion, Varenicline). We examined the smoking status of all patients undergoing lung cancer surgery in 2011, 2012 and 2013 in this study. A retrospective semi structured interview via telephone was conducted regarding smoking habits and current quality of life. 131 patients (36.6% female, average age of 68.7 years) of an urban German hospital were included.Results showed a relapse rate of 22.3%, while 86.2% used to be highly addicted smokers; A multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) indicated a significant overall impact of smoking status on quality of life with a medium effect size, controlled for age, gender, living conditions, tumor stage, duration of smoking abstinence, type of cancer therapy, type of resection method, and the time period between the date of surgery and of the survey. Two thirds of all smokers did not see an association between their habit and their disease.So far motivation to quit and long term abstinence rates are not sufficiently established even among seriously sick patients in Germany; further initiatives should focus on new and more intense interventions and educational strategies.

  15. Listeriolysin O Is Necessary and Sufficient to Induce Autophagy during Listeria monocytogenes Infection

    PubMed Central

    Meyer-Morse, Nicole; Robbins, Jennifer R.; Rae, Chris S.; Mochegova, Sofia N.; Swanson, Michele S.; Zhao, Zijiang; Virgin, Herbert W.; Portnoy, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Background Recent studies have suggested that autophagy is utilized by cells as a protective mechanism against Listeria monocytogenes infection. Methodology/Principal Findings However we find autophagy has no measurable role in vacuolar escape and intracellular growth in primary cultured bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDMs) deficient for autophagy (atg5−/−). Nevertheless, we provide evidence that the pore forming activity of the cholesterol-dependent cytolysin listeriolysin O (LLO) can induce autophagy subsequent to infection by L. monocytogenes. Infection of BMDMs with L. monocytogenes induced microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3) lipidation, consistent with autophagy activation, whereas a mutant lacking LLO did not. Infection of BMDMs that express LC3-GFP demonstrated that wild-type L. monocytogenes was encapsulated by LC3-GFP, consistent with autophagy activation, whereas a mutant lacking LLO was not. Bacillus subtilis expressing either LLO or a related cytolysin, perfringolysin O (PFO), induced LC3 colocalization and LC3 lipidation. Further, LLO-containing liposomes also recruited LC3-GFP, indicating that LLO was sufficient to induce targeted autophagy in the absence of infection. The role of autophagy had variable effects depending on the cell type assayed. In atg5−/− mouse embryonic fibroblasts, L. monocytogenes had a primary vacuole escape defect. However, the bacteria escaped and grew normally in atg5−/− BMDMs. Conclusions/Significance We propose that membrane damage, such as that caused by LLO, triggers bacterial-targeted autophagy, although autophagy does not affect the fate of wild-type intracellular L. monocytogenes in primary BMDMs. PMID:20062534

  16. Peroral Estradiol Is Sufficient to Induce Carcinogen-Induced Mammary Tumorigenesis in Ovariectomized Rats without Progesterone

    PubMed Central

    Stires, Hillary; Saboya, Mariana; Globerman, Samantha P.; Cohick, Wendie S.

    2016-01-01

    A role for estrogens in breast cancer is widely accepted, however, recent evidence highlights that timing and exposure levels are important in determining whether they elicit harmful versus beneficial effects. The rat chemical carcinogen model has been widely used to study the effects of estrogens but conclusions on the levels that lead to tumor development and an absolute requirement for progesterone (P4) are lacking. A newer method of hormone administration mixes hormones with nut butter for peroral consumption allowing for a less stressful method of long-term administration with lower spikes in serum estradiol (E2) levels. The present study was designed to determine if estrogens alone at a physiological dose can drive carcinogen-induced tumors in ovariectomized (OVX) rats or if P4 is also required using this method of hormone administration. Short-term studies were conducted to determine the dose of estrogen (E) that would lead to increased uterine weight following OVX. Subsequently, rats were OVX on postnatal day (PND) 40 then treated daily with E (600 μg/kg/day), P4 (15 mg/kg/day), or the combination. On PND 50, all rats were injected with nitrosomethylurea to induce mammary tumors. Uterine weights, body weights, and serum E2 levels were measured to demonstrate the efficacy of the method for increasing E2 levels during long-term treatment. After 26 weeks, tumor incidence was similar in Sham, E, and E + P4 animals indicating that E was sufficient to induce tumorigenesis when hormone levels were normalized by this method. This study demonstrates peroral administration can be used in long-term studies to elucidate relationships between different types and levels of steroid hormones. PMID:27611094

  17. Maternal Obesity and Vitamin D Sufficiency Are Associated with Cord Blood Vitamin D Insufficiency

    PubMed Central

    Feinglass, Joseph; Rademaker, Alfred W.; Metzger, Boyd E.; Zeiss, Dinah M.; Price, Heather E.; Langman, Craig B.

    2013-01-01

    Context: An inverse relationship between total serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH D) and increased adiposity has been established in children, adolescents, and adults. However, the relationship between neonatal adiposity and vitamin D status has not been reported. Both maternal obesity and vitamin D deficiency in pregnancy are common and are associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Objective: The aim of the study was to determine the relationship between vitamin D levels in mothers and newborns, as influenced by maternal obesity, and evaluate these associations with neonatal adiposity. Design, Setting, and Patients: Sixty-one maternal-neonatal pairs participated in this cross-sectional study at an academic medical center. Mothers had a prepregnancy body mass index that was normal or obese. Outcome Measures: Maternal and cord blood sera were assayed for 25-OH D, and neonatal body composition was measured by air displacement plethysmography. Results: Mothers had similar and sufficient levels of 25-OH D when measured at 36–38 wk gestation, irrespective of body mass index category (normal weight, 46.05, vs. obese, 49.84 ng/ml; P = not significant). However, cord blood 25-OH D was higher in neonates of normal-weight mothers compared to neonates of obese mothers (27.45 vs. 20.81 ng/ml; P = 0.02). The variance in cord blood 25-OH D was explained by four factors: maternal 25-OH D level, the presence of maternal obesity, maternal age, and neonatal adiposity (r2 = 0.66). Conclusion: Obese women transfer less 25-OH D to offspring than normal-weight women, despite similar serum levels. Cord blood 25-OH D levels directly correlate to neonatal percentage body fat. These novel findings underscore the evolving relationships between maternal obesity, vitamin D nutritional status, and adiposity in the neonatal period that may influence subsequent childhood and adulthood vitamin D-dependent processes. PMID:23144468

  18. Linear noise approximation is valid over limited times for any chemical system that is sufficiently large.

    PubMed

    Wallace, E W J; Gillespie, D T; Sanft, K R; Petzold, L R

    2012-08-01

    The linear noise approximation (LNA) is a way of approximating the stochastic time evolution of a well-stirred chemically reacting system. It can be obtained either as the lowest order correction to the deterministic chemical reaction rate equation (RRE) in van Kampen's system-size expansion of the chemical master equation (CME), or by linearising the two-term-truncated chemical Kramers-Moyal equation. However, neither of those derivations sheds much light on the validity of the LNA. The problematic character of the system-size expansion of the CME for some chemical systems, the arbitrariness of truncating the chemical Kramers-Moyal equation at two terms, and the sometimes poor agreement of the LNA with the solution of the CME, have all raised concerns about the validity and usefulness of the LNA. Here, the authors argue that these concerns can be resolved by viewing the LNA as an approximation of the chemical Langevin equation (CLE). This view is already implicit in Gardiner's derivation of the LNA from the truncated Kramers-Moyal equation, as that equation is mathematically equivalent to the CLE. However, the CLE can be more convincingly derived in a way that does not involve either the truncated Kramers-Moyal equation or the system-size expansion. This derivation shows that the CLE will be valid, at least for a limited span of time, for any system that is sufficiently close to the thermodynamic (large-system) limit. The relatively easy derivation of the LNA from the CLE shows that the LNA shares the CLE's conditions of validity, and it also suggests that what the LNA really gives us is a description of the initial departure of the CLE from the RRE as we back away from the thermodynamic limit to a large but finite system. The authors show that this approach to the LNA simplifies its derivation, clarifies its limitations, and affords an easier path to its solution.

  19. Human cerebrospinal fluid monoclonal N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor autoantibodies are sufficient for encephalitis pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kreye, Jakob; Wenke, Nina K; Chayka, Mariya; Leubner, Jonas; Murugan, Rajagopal; Maier, Nikolaus; Jurek, Betty; Ly, Lam-Thanh; Brandl, Doreen; Rost, Benjamin R; Stumpf, Alexander; Schulz, Paulina; Radbruch, Helena; Hauser, Anja E; Pache, Florence; Meisel, Andreas; Harms, Lutz; Paul, Friedemann; Dirnagl, Ulrich; Garner, Craig; Schmitz, Dietmar; Wardemann, Hedda; Prüss, Harald

    2016-10-01

    SEE ZEKERIDOU AND LENNON DOI101093/AWW213 FOR A SCIENTIFIC COMMENTARY ON THIS ARTICLE: Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis is a recently discovered autoimmune syndrome associated with psychosis, dyskinesias, and seizures. Little is known about the cerebrospinal fluid autoantibody repertoire. Antibodies against the NR1 subunit of the NMDAR are thought to be pathogenic; however, direct proof is lacking as previous experiments could not distinguish the contribution of further anti-neuronal antibodies. Using single cell cloning of full-length immunoglobulin heavy and light chain genes, we generated a panel of recombinant monoclonal NR1 antibodies from cerebrospinal fluid memory B cells and antibody secreting cells of NMDAR encephalitis patients. Cells typically carried somatically mutated immunoglobulin genes and had undergone class-switching to immunoglobulin G, clonally expanded cells carried identical somatic hypermutation patterns. A fraction of NR1 antibodies were non-mutated, thus resembling 'naturally occurring antibodies' and indicating that tolerance induction against NMDAR was incomplete and somatic hypermutation not essential for functional antibodies. However, only a small percentage of cerebrospinal fluid-derived antibodies reacted against NR1. Instead, nearly all further antibodies bound specifically to diverse brain-expressed epitopes including neuronal surfaces, suggesting that a broad repertoire of antibody-secreting cells enrich in the central nervous system during encephalitis. Our functional data using primary hippocampal neurons indicate that human cerebrospinal fluid-derived monoclonal NR1 antibodies alone are sufficient to cause neuronal surface receptor downregulation and subsequent impairment of NMDAR-mediated currents, thus providing ultimate proof of antibody pathogenicity. The observed formation of immunological memory might be relevant for clinical relapses.

  20. Is polychaete family-level sufficient to assess impact on tropical estuarine gradients?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nóbrega-Silva, Climélia; Patrício, Joana; Marques, João Carlos; Olímpio, Monalisa dos Santos; Farias, Jéssica Natyelle Barros; Molozzi, Joseline

    2016-11-01

    Regular, robust monitoring programs set up to assess the environmental conditions of aquatic systems often target different biological groups. And, of these, macroinvertebrate communities and particularly the class Polychaeta are frequently used. Identifying these organisms takes time, money and specialized expertise to ensure correct identification to the lowest possible taxonomic level. Identification errors can lead to an erroneous assessment. The concept of taxonomic sufficiency has been proposed both to minimize errors and to save time and money. This study tested the usefulness of this concept in tropical estuaries in northeast Brazil. We selected two transitional systems with different degrees of human impact due to different land uses and different conservation systems: the Mamanguape estuary, which is in an environmental conservation unit for sustainable use, and the highly impacted, urban Paraíba do Norte estuary. The results clearly showed that nutrient concentrations were markedly higher in the Paraíba do Norte estuary in the dry season and that the composition of the polychaete assemblages differed between the two estuaries as well as along the spatial gradient of each estuary. The use of either genus or family level led to equivalent representation in each system in terms of taxon richness and both the Margalef and Shannon-Wiener diversity indices. Both taxonomic levels described similar changes in the polychaete assemblage along the estuarine gradients. Based on our findings, the use of a coarser taxonomic level (i.e., family) is a good option when the aim is to implement a monitoring program in tropical estuaries with the polychaete assemblages as one of the target groups. This time-efficient taxonomic resolution can help improve sampling designs and allow long-term monitoring studies without losing much vital information.