Science.gov

Sample records for addition test pasat

  1. Event-related potential practice effects on the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT)

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Jeffrey M.; Fox, Alison M.

    2012-01-01

    Practice can change the nature and quality of a stimulus-response relationship. The current study observed the effects of repeated administration of the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT) in 12 healthy individuals, in an effort to establish distinct profiles associated with novel and practiced processing. Over four training sessions the mean number of correct responses on this demanding test of attention significantly improved and was approaching ceiling for most task conditions. Behavioural improvements were associated with significantly reduced amplitude of late Processing Negativity, a frontally distributed component of the event-related potential waveform associated with voluntary, limited-capacity activity within higher-order attentional systems. These results suggest that PASAT performance became more efficient as practice seemingly eased the strategic planning and coordination requirements the task places on frontally-mediated executive attention resources. The findings of the current study extend our understanding of the functional and behavioural mechanisms underlying the effects of practice. PMID:23717344

  2. Demographically adjusted normative standards for new indices of performance on the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Task (PASAT).

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Raul; Grant, Igor; Miller, S Walden; Taylor, Michael J; Schweinsburg, Brian C; Carey, Catherine L; Woods, Steven Paul; Norman, Marc A; Rippeth, Julie D; Martin, Eileen M; Heaton, Robert K

    2006-09-01

    The Paced Auditory Serial Addition Task (PASAT) is a complex cognitive test sensitive to neuropsychological disorders. Its traditional Total Correct score seemingly reflects multiple cognitive abilities, including attention, working memory, and processing speed. Snyder, Aniskiewicz, and Snyder (1993) modified scoring guidelines for the PASAT to give credit only for "dyads." This method emphasizes working memory operations and has been found superior to Total Correct scores at detecting cognitive impairments in several investigations. To date, normative standards are not available for the "dyad" scoring method, thus limiting its utility in clinical and research settings. The current investigation provides demographically adjusted normative data based on a sample of 500 healthy adults of varied age, education, sex, and race (African American and Caucasian) for various indices of performance on the PASAT, including "Total Dyads" obtained across the four PASAT trials. In addition, we describe and present normative data on four other indices designed to quantify various aspects of performance on the PASAT: invalid responding, effects of varied information processing speed demands, and tendency to omit responses and to make arithmetic errors.

  3. Magnetic resonance study of the influence of tissue damage and cortical reorganization on PASAT performance at the earliest stage of multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Audoin, Bertrand; Au Duong, My Van; Ranjeva, Jean-Philippe; Ibarrola, Danielle; Malikova, Irina; Confort-Gouny, Sylviane; Soulier, Elisabeth; Viout, Patrick; Ali-Chérif, André; Pelletier, Jean; Cozzone, Patrick J

    2005-03-01

    We sought to determine the influence of tissue damage and the potential impact of cortical reorganization on the performance to the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT) in patients at the earliest stage of multiple sclerosis (MS). Magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) imaging and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiments using PASAT as paradigm were carried out in 18 patients with clinically isolated syndrome suggestive of MS (CISSMS) compared to 18 controls. MTR histogram analyses showed structural abnormalities in patients involving the normal-appearing white matter (NAWM) but also the gray matter (GM). Mean PASAT scores were significantly lower in the group of patients taken as a whole, and were correlated with the mean NAWM MTR value. No correlation was observed between PASAT scores and GM MTR. However, in the subgroup of patients with normal PASAT performance (n = 9), fMRI showed larger activations in bilateral Brodmann area 45 (BA45) and right BA44 compared to that in controls (n = 18). In these areas with potentially compensatory reorganization, the whole group of patients (n = 18) showed significantly greater activation than controls (n = 18). Activation in the right BA45 was inversely correlated with the mean NAWM MTR and the peak position of GM MTR histograms of patients. This study indicates that even at the earliest stage of MS, cortical reorganization is present inside the executive system of working memory and could tend to limit the determinant functional impact of NAWM injury on the execution of the PASAT.

  4. An Additive Manufacturing Test Artifact

    PubMed Central

    Moylan, Shawn; Slotwinski, John; Cooke, April; Jurrens, Kevin; Donmez, M Alkan

    2014-01-01

    A test artifact, intended for standardization, is proposed for the purpose of evaluating the performance of additive manufacturing (AM) systems. A thorough analysis of previously proposed AM test artifacts as well as experience with machining test artifacts have inspired the design of the proposed test artifact. This new artifact is designed to provide a characterization of the capabilities and limitations of an AM system, as well as to allow system improvement by linking specific errors measured in the test artifact to specific sources in the AM system. The proposed test artifact has been built in multiple materials using multiple AM technologies. The results of several of the builds are discussed, demonstrating how the measurement results can be used to characterize and improve a specific AM system. PMID:26601039

  5. An Additive Manufacturing Test Artifact.

    PubMed

    Moylan, Shawn; Slotwinski, John; Cooke, April; Jurrens, Kevin; Donmez, M Alkan

    2014-01-01

    A test artifact, intended for standardization, is proposed for the purpose of evaluating the performance of additive manufacturing (AM) systems. A thorough analysis of previously proposed AM test artifacts as well as experience with machining test artifacts have inspired the design of the proposed test artifact. This new artifact is designed to provide a characterization of the capabilities and limitations of an AM system, as well as to allow system improvement by linking specific errors measured in the test artifact to specific sources in the AM system. The proposed test artifact has been built in multiple materials using multiple AM technologies. The results of several of the builds are discussed, demonstrating how the measurement results can be used to characterize and improve a specific AM system.

  6. 14 CFR 27.927 - Additional tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional tests. 27.927 Section 27.927... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Rotor Drive System § 27.927 Additional tests. (a) Any additional dynamic, endurance, and operational tests, and vibratory investigations necessary to...

  7. 14 CFR 29.927 - Additional tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Additional tests. 29.927 Section 29.927... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Rotor Drive System § 29.927 Additional tests. (a) Any additional dynamic, endurance, and operational tests, and vibratory investigations necessary to...

  8. 14 CFR 27.927 - Additional tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Additional tests. 27.927 Section 27.927... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Rotor Drive System § 27.927 Additional tests. (a) Any additional dynamic, endurance, and operational tests, and vibratory investigations necessary to...

  9. 14 CFR 27.927 - Additional tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Additional tests. 27.927 Section 27.927... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Rotor Drive System § 27.927 Additional tests. (a) Any additional dynamic, endurance, and operational tests, and vibratory investigations necessary to...

  10. 14 CFR 29.927 - Additional tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional tests. 29.927 Section 29.927... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Rotor Drive System § 29.927 Additional tests. (a) Any additional dynamic, endurance, and operational tests, and vibratory investigations necessary to...

  11. 14 CFR 29.927 - Additional tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Additional tests. 29.927 Section 29.927... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Rotor Drive System § 29.927 Additional tests. (a) Any additional dynamic, endurance, and operational tests, and vibratory investigations necessary to...

  12. 78 FR 22209 - Additional Synthetic Drug Testing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-15

    ... COMMISSION 10 CFR Part 26 Additional Synthetic Drug Testing AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION... NRC amend its Fitness for Duty program regulations to amend drug testing requirements to test for additional synthetic drugs currently not included in the regulations. The NRC determined that the...

  13. The Faces Symbol Test, a newly developed screening instrument to assess cognitive decline related to multiple sclerosis: first results of the Berlin Multi-Centre FST Validation Study.

    PubMed

    Scherer, P; Penner, I K; Rohr, A; Boldt, H; Ringel, I; Wilke-Burger, H; Burger-Deinerth, E; Isakowitsch, K; Zimmermann, M; Zahrnt, S; Hauser, R; Hilbert, K; Tiel-Wilck, K; Anvari, K; Behringer, A; Peglau, I; Friedrich, H; Plenio, A; Benesch, G; Ehret, R; Nippert, I; Finke, G; Schulz, I; Bergtholdt, B; Breitkopf, S; Kaskel, P; Reischies, F; Kugler, J

    2007-04-01

    Reliable, language-independent, short screening instruments to test for cognitive function in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) remain rare, despite the high number of patients affected by cognitive decline. We developed a new, short screening instrument, the Faces Symbol Test (FST), and compared its diagnostic test characteristics with a composite of the Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST) and the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT), in 108 MS patients and 33 healthy controls. An Informant-Report Questionnaire, a Self-Report Questionnaire, and a neurologist's estimation of the Every Day Life Cognitive Status were also applied to the MS patients. The statistical analyses comprised of a receiver operating characteristic analysis for test accuracy and for confounding variables. The PASAT and DSST composite score estimated that 36.5% of the MS patients had cognitive impairment. The FST estimated that 40.7% of the MS patients were cognitively impaired (sensitivity 84%; specificity 85%). The FST, DSST and PASAT results were significantly correlated with the patients' physical impairment, as measured by the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS). The results suggest that the FST might be a culture-free, sensitive, and practical short screening instrument for the detection of cognitive decline in patients with MS, including those in the early stages.

  14. The teratology testing of food additives.

    PubMed

    Barrow, Paul C; Spézia, François

    2013-01-01

    The developmental and reproductive toxicity testing (including teratogenicity) of new foods and food additives is performed worldwide according to the guidelines given in the FDA Redbook. These studies are not required for substances that are generally recognized as safe, according to the FDA inventory. The anticipated cumulated human exposure level above which developmental or reproduction studies are required depends on the structure-alert category. For food additives of concern, both developmental (prenatal) and reproduction (multigeneration) studies are required. The developmental studies are performed in two species, usually the rat and the rabbit. The reproduction study is generally performed in the rat. The two rat studies are preferably combined into a single experimental design, if possible. The test methods described in the FDA Redbook are similar to those specified by the OECD for the reproductive toxicity testing of chemicals.

  15. Laboratory tests of sludge-control additives

    SciTech Connect

    Tatnall, R.E.

    1996-07-01

    Laboratory {open_quotes}jar{close_quotes} tests compared eleven different fuel oil and diesel fuel sludge-control additives. Factors studied included (1) ability to disperse and prevent buildup of sludge deposits on surfaces, (2) ability to protect steel from corrosion, (3) ability to inhibit growth and proliferation of bacteria, and (4) ability to disperse water. Results varied greatly, and it was found that many commercial products do not do what they claim. It is concluded that fuel retailers should not believe manufacturers` claims for their additive products, but rather should test such products themselves to be sure that the benefits of treatment are real. A simplified form of the procedure used here is proposed as one way for dealers to do such testing.

  16. Feasibility and Testing of Additive Manufactured Components

    SciTech Connect

    Dehoff, Ryan R.; Hummelt, Ed; Solovyeva, Lyudmila

    2016-09-01

    This project focused on demonstrating the ability to fabricate two parts with different geometry: an arc flash interrupter and a hydraulic manifold. Eaton Corporation provided ORNL solid models, information related to tolerances and sensitive parameters of the parts and provided testing and evaluation. ORNL successfully manufactured both components, provided cost models of the manufacturing (materials, labor, time and post processing) and delivered test components for Eaton evaluation. The arc flash suppressor was fabricated using the Renishaw laser powder bed technology in CoCrMo while the manifold was produced from Ti-6Al-4V using the Arcam electron beam melting technology. These manufacturing techniques were selected based on the design and geometrical tolerances required. A full-scale manifold was produced on the Arcam A2 system (nearly 12 inches tall). A portion of the manifold was also produced in the Arcam Q10 system. Although a full scale manifold could not be produced in the system, a full scale manifold is expected to have similar material properties, geometric accuracy, and surface finish as could be fabricated on an Arcam Q20 system that is capable of producing four full scale manifolds in a production environment. In addition to the manifold, mechanical test specimens, geometric tolerance artifacts, and microstructure samples were produced alongside the manifold. The development and demonstration of these two key components helped Eaton understand the impact additive manufacturing can have on many of their existing products. By working within the MDF and leveraging ORNL’s manufacturing and characterization capabilities, the work will ensure the rapid insertion and commercialization of this technology.

  17. 42 CFR 84.308 - Additional testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... will test the eye protection's resistance to fogging in accordance with the method specified in BS EN 168:2002, Clause 16, Test for resistance to fogging of oculars. The lens shall remain free from fogging for a minimum of 8 seconds, pursuant to Clause 16. (d) The standards required in this section...

  18. 42 CFR 84.308 - Additional testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... will test the eye protection's resistance to fogging in accordance with the method specified in BS EN 168:2002, Clause 16, Test for resistance to fogging of oculars. The lens shall remain free from fogging for a minimum of 8 seconds, pursuant to Clause 16. (d) The standards required in this section...

  19. 42 CFR 84.308 - Additional testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... will test the eye protection's resistance to fogging in accordance with the method specified in BS EN 168:2002, Clause 16, Test for resistance to fogging of oculars. The lens shall remain free from fogging for a minimum of 8 seconds, pursuant to Clause 16. (d) The standards required in this section...

  20. 21 CFR 660.54 - Potency tests, specificity tests, tests for heterospecific antibodies, and additional tests for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... heterospecific antibodies, and additional tests for nonspecific properties. 660.54 Section 660.54 Food and Drugs..., specificity tests, tests for heterospecific antibodies, and additional tests for nonspecific properties. The...) Specificity tests, tests for heterospecific antibodies, and additional tests for nonspecific properties....

  1. 21 CFR 660.54 - Potency tests, specificity tests, tests for heterospecific antibodies, and additional tests for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... heterospecific antibodies, and additional tests for nonspecific properties. 660.54 Section 660.54 Food and Drugs..., specificity tests, tests for heterospecific antibodies, and additional tests for nonspecific properties. The...) Specificity tests, tests for heterospecific antibodies, and additional tests for nonspecific properties....

  2. 21 CFR 660.54 - Potency tests, specificity tests, tests for heterospecific antibodies, and additional tests for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... heterospecific antibodies, and additional tests for nonspecific properties. 660.54 Section 660.54 Food and Drugs..., specificity tests, tests for heterospecific antibodies, and additional tests for nonspecific properties. The...) Specificity tests, tests for heterospecific antibodies, and additional tests for nonspecific properties....

  3. 21 CFR 660.54 - Potency tests, specificity tests, tests for heterospecific antibodies, and additional tests for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... heterospecific antibodies, and additional tests for nonspecific properties. 660.54 Section 660.54 Food and Drugs..., specificity tests, tests for heterospecific antibodies, and additional tests for nonspecific properties. The...) Specificity tests, tests for heterospecific antibodies, and additional tests for nonspecific properties....

  4. 21 CFR 660.54 - Potency tests, specificity tests, tests for heterospecific antibodies, and additional tests for...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... heterospecific antibodies, and additional tests for nonspecific properties. 660.54 Section 660.54 Food and Drugs..., specificity tests, tests for heterospecific antibodies, and additional tests for nonspecific properties. The...) Specificity tests, tests for heterospecific antibodies, and additional tests for nonspecific properties....

  5. Test Procedure - pumping system for caustic addition project

    SciTech Connect

    Leshikar, G.A.

    1994-10-01

    This test procedure provides the requirements for sub-system testing and integrated operational testing of the submersible mixer pump and caustic addition equipment by WHC and Kaiser personnel at the Rotating Equipment Shop run-in pit (Bldg. 272E).

  6. 30. GENERAL TEST ROOM IN 1946 ADDITION, FOURTH FLOOR, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. GENERAL TEST ROOM IN 1946 ADDITION, FOURTH FLOOR, LOOKING WEST. ORIGINALLY HAD SUSPENDED ACOUSTICAL CEILINGS WITH FLOURESCENT LIGHTING AND ASPHALT MASTIC TILE FLOORS - Underwriters' Laboratories, 207-231 East Ohio Street, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  7. Tests of compensatory vs. additive hypotheses of mortality in mallards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burnham, Kenneth P.; Anderson, David R.

    1984-01-01

    Band recovery data from over 410 000 adult Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) banded in North America between 1950 and 1979 were analyzed to examine the effect of exploitation on annual survival rate. Two extreme hypotheses were defined: completely compensatory, and totally additive, and an explicit mathematical model was presented to represent each hypothesis. Comparison of the values of the log-likelihood functions at their maxima allowed discrimination between the two models (hypotheses). Extensive Monte Carlo studies were made on the performance of the discriminant test and the power of the test under the two extreme hypotheses and a range of intermediate hypotheses. The results of the discriminant tests on the data agreed closely with the expected performance of the test if the true underlying process was compensatory. We rejected the hypothesis of total additivity (P=.001). Instead, it appears that hunting mortalities are largely compensated for by other forms of mortality.

  8. Basophil activation test with food additives in chronic urticaria patients.

    PubMed

    Kang, Min-Gyu; Song, Woo-Jung; Park, Han-Ki; Lim, Kyung-Hwan; Kim, Su-Jung; Lee, Suh-Young; Kim, Sae-Hoon; Cho, Sang-Heon; Min, Kyung-Up; Chang, Yoon-Seok

    2014-01-01

    The role of food additives in chronic urticaria (CU) is still under investigation. In this study, we aimed to explore the association between food additives and CU by using the basophil activation test (BAT). The BAT using 15 common food additives was performed for 15 patients with CU who had a history of recurrent urticarial aggravation following intake of various foods without a definite food-specific IgE. Of the 15 patients studied, two (13.3%) showed positive BAT results for one of the tested food additives. One patient responded to monosodium glutamate, showing 18.7% of CD203c-positive basophils. Another patient showed a positive BAT result to sodium benzoate. Both patients had clinical correlations with the agents, which were partly determined by elimination diets. The present study suggested that at least a small proportion of patients with CU had symptoms associated with food additives. The results may suggest the potential utility of the BAT to identity the role of food additives in CU.

  9. Systematic tests for position-dependent additive shear bias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Uitert, Edo; Schneider, Peter

    2016-11-01

    We present new tests to identify stationary position-dependent additive shear biases in weak gravitational lensing data sets. These tests are important diagnostics for currently ongoing and planned cosmic shear surveys, as such biases induce coherent shear patterns that can mimic and potentially bias the cosmic shear signal. The central idea of these tests is to determine the average ellipticity of all galaxies with shape measurements in a grid in the pixel plane. The distribution of the absolute values of these averaged ellipticities can be compared to randomised catalogues; a difference points to systematics in the data. In addition, we introduce a method to quantify the spatial correlation of the additive bias, which suppresses the contribution from cosmic shear and therefore eases the identification of a position-dependent additive shear bias in the data. We apply these tests to the publicly available shear catalogues from the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Lensing Survey (CFHTLenS) and the Kilo Degree Survey (KiDS) and find evidence for a small but non-negligible residual additive bias at small scales. As this residual bias is smaller than the error on the shear correlation signal at those scales, it is highly unlikely that it causes a significant bias in the published cosmic shear results of CFHTLenS. In CFHTLenS, the amplitude of this systematic signal is consistent with zero in fields where the number of stars used to model the point spread function (PSF) is higher than average, suggesting that the position-dependent additive shear bias originates from undersampled PSF variations across the image.

  10. Testing energy non-additivity in white dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmona, J. M.; Cortés, J. L.; Gracia-Ruiz, R.; Loret, N.

    2014-03-01

    We consider a particular effect which can be expected in scenarios of deviations from special relativity induced by Planckian physics: the loss of additivity in the total energy of a system of particles. We argue about the necessity to introduce a length scale to control the effects of non-additivity for macroscopic objects and consider white dwarfs as an appropriate laboratory to test this kind of new physics. We study the sensitivity of the mass-radius relation of the Chandrasekhar model to these corrections by comparing the output of a simple phenomenological model to observational data of white dwarfs.

  11. Statistical tests of additional plate boundaries from plate motion inversions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stein, S.; Gordon, R. G.

    1984-01-01

    The application of the F-ratio test, a standard statistical technique, to the results of relative plate motion inversions has been investigated. The method tests whether the improvement in fit of the model to the data resulting from the addition of another plate to the model is greater than that expected purely by chance. This approach appears to be useful in determining whether additional plate boundaries are justified. Previous results have been confirmed favoring separate North American and South American plates with a boundary located beween 30 N and the equator. Using Chase's global relative motion data, it is shown that in addition to separate West African and Somalian plates, separate West Indian and Australian plates, with a best-fitting boundary between 70 E and 90 E, can be resolved. These results are generally consistent with the observation that the Indian plate's internal deformation extends somewhat westward of the Ninetyeast Ridge. The relative motion pole is similar to Minster and Jordan's and predicts the NW-SE compression observed in earthquake mechanisms near the Ninetyeast Ridge.

  12. The development and evaluation of a clinical test of surgical resident proficiency.

    PubMed

    Anderson, B O; Sun, J H; Moore, E E; Thompson, L L; Harkin, A H; Bartle, E J

    1989-08-01

    The two purposes of this study were to develop a clinical test of surgical resident proficiency and to compare this clinical test with currently applied methods of resident evaluation. Appendicitis is a common surgical disease, and its accurate diagnosis depends largely on clinical acumen. Ten third-year surgical residents prospectively evaluated 107 patients admitted because of suspected appendicitis. After taking a history, performing a physical examination, and reviewing laboratory data, these residents were asked to state, as a percentage, the likelihood that each patient had appendicitis. Sixty-three patients had appendicitis documented by pathologic inspection after appendectomy. Forty-four patients did not have appendicitis, as was determined by operation (17) or by in-house observation and resolution of abdominal pain (27). These outcomes were used to calculate a diagnostic ability score (DAS) for each resident. Residents were evaluated by standard methods including in-service examinations and monthly evaluations by the attending staff. Residents were also evaluated by nonstandard, but potentially useful, neuropsychologic and psychologic tests, including the trail making test, the Ravens progressive matrices test, the paced auditory serial addition test (PASAT), the grooved pegboard test of manual dexterity, and the profile of mood states (POMS) psychologic questionnaire. Cumulative scores were calculated and compared by multiple regression with coefficient variance analysis. The correlation (R2) of DAS with standard evaluation techniques was as follows: In-service (0.055), faculty (0.508), trails (-0.293), Ravens (0.028), PASAT (0.251), dexterity (0.432), POMS (0.381). We found that (1) the DAS is a discriminating clinical test; (2) the DAS correlates with subjective faculty evaluation; and (3) the DAS does not correlate with in-service examination scores. We conclude that faculty evaluation remains the best currently applied test of surgical resident

  13. Development of additional tasks for the executive function performance test.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Bridget; Baum, Carolyn; Moore, Jennifer; Ehrlich-Jones, Linda; Spoeri, Susan; Doherty, Meghan; Wolf, Timothy J

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. The Executive Function Performance Test (EFPT) is a reliable and valid performance-based assessment of executive function for people with stroke. The objective of this study was to enhance the clinical utility of the EFPT by developing and testing additional tasks for the EFPT in the Alternate EFPT (aEFPT). METHOD. We performed a cross-sectional study with poststroke participants (n = 25) and healthy control participants (n = 25). All participants completed a neuropsychological assessment battery and both the EFPT and the aEFPT. RESULTS. No statistically significant differences were found between the EFPT and the aEFPT when examining total scores, construct scores, and two overall task scores. Correlations between the aEFPT and the neuropsychological measures were adequate to strong (r2s = .59-.83). CONCLUSION. The aEFPT tasks are comparable to the original EFPT tasks, providing occupational therapy practitioners with additional tasks that can be used clinically to identify performance-based executive function deficits in people with stroke.

  14. Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive for Enhanced Mercury Control - Pilot-Scale Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Gary M. Blythe

    2006-03-01

    This Topical Report summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42309, ''Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive.'' The objective of the project is to demonstrate the use of a flue gas desulfurization (FGD) additive, Degussa Corporation's TMT-15, to prevent the reemissions of elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) in flue gas exiting wet FGD systems on coal-fired boilers. Furthermore, the project intends to demonstrate that the additive can be used to precipitate most of the mercury (Hg) removed in the wet FGD system as a fine TMT salt that can be separated from the FGD liquor and bulk solid byproducts for separate disposal. The project will conduct pilot and full-scale tests of the TMT-15 additive in wet FGD absorbers. The tests are intended to determine required additive dosage requirements to prevent Hg{sup 0} reemissions and to separate mercury from the normal FGD byproducts for three coal types: Texas lignite/Power River Basin (PRB) coal blend, high-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal, and low-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal. The project team consists of URS Group, Inc., EPRI, TXU Generation Company LP, Southern Company, and Degussa Corporation. TXU Generation has provided the Texas lignite/PRB co-fired test site for pilot FGD tests, Monticello Steam Electric Station Unit 3. Southern Company is providing the low-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal host site for wet scrubbing tests, as well as the pilot and full-scale jet bubbling reactor (JBR) FGD systems to be tested. A third utility, to be named later, will provide the high-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal full-scale FGD test site. Degussa Corporation is providing the TMT-15 additive and technical support to the test program. The project is being conducted in six tasks. Of the six project tasks, Task 1 involves project planning and Task 6 involves management and reporting. The other four tasks involve field testing on FGD systems, either at pilot or full scale. The four tasks include: Task 2 - Pilot Additive Testing in

  15. Low contrast visual acuity testing is associated with cognitive performance in multiple sclerosis: a cross-sectional pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cognitive impairment and visual deterioration are two key clinical symptoms in MS and affect 50 to 80% of patients. Little is known about the influence of cognitive impairment on visual tests recommended for MS such as low contrast sensitivity testing. Our objective was to investigate whether low contrast sensitivity testing is influenced by cognitive impairment in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. Methods Cross-sectional study including 89 patients with relapsing-remitting MS. All patients received cognitive evaluation using Rao’s Brief Repeatable Battery of Neuropsychological Testing (BRB-N). Visual assessments included low contrast sensitivity (CS) by functional acuity contrast testing and high contrast visual acuity (VA) using ETDRS charts. Retinal morphology as visual impairment correlate was measured using retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness by optical coherence tomography. Results In combined analyses using generalized estimating equation models, Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT) and RNFL as well as and the Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT) and RNFL predicted CS. To further control for a potential influence of the anterior visual system we performed partial correlation analyses between visual function and cognitive function test results but controlling for RNFL. Even when controlling for RNFL, CS was associated with PASAT performance and SDMT performance. Conclusion Our data show that: a) cognitive impairment and performance in visual function tests such as low contrast sensitivity testing are associated; b) the main cognitive domains correlating with visual test performance are information processing speed and, to a lesser degree, memory; This preliminary data needs to be substantiated in further studies investigating patients with a higher cognitive burden, healthy controls and in longitudinal settings. PMID:24206900

  16. AFCATT (Anti-Fouling Chemical Additive Test Tower)

    SciTech Connect

    Philpot, E.F.; Newton, M.T.; Noble, R.T.

    1995-06-01

    Polyvinylchloride (PVC) film-type cellular fill is the fill of choice in replacing cement asbestos board fill in existing cooling towers and in new cooling towers because of its high thermal performance, ease of installation, and low initial cost. However, PVC fill has been found to foul quickly with biological and sediment material, significantly reducing tower performance and the fill`s useful life. The Anti-Fouling Chemical Additives Test Tower (AFCATT) has been build to study accumulation rates of fouling deposits in corrugated PVC film fill and to study methods of cleaning and preventing the fouling deposits. This small mechanical draft cooling tower is located next to the Unit 4 natural draft cooling tower at Georgia Power Company`s Plant Bowen. The once-through mechanical draft tower receives hot water from the condenser and returns the cold water to the basin of the host tower. The pilot tower is divided into four chambers allowing for three different treatment programs and one control to be run simultaneously. PVC fill packs are suspended from load cells to allow the weight of the fill packs to be measured continuously. Six vendors participated in the summer 1993 test program. Each proposed different methods of cleaning the fouled fill and were given the opportunity to try their proposed method of fill cleaning. To determine the success of these different treatment programs, statistical analyses were performed on the collected data and the changes in the accumulation rates compared.

  17. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  18. Testing for Additivity at Select Mixture Groups of Interest Based on Statistical Equivalence Testing Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Stork, LeAnna M.; Gennings, Chris; Carchman, Richard; Carter, Jr., Walter H.; Pounds, Joel G.; Mumtaz, Moiz

    2006-12-01

    Several assumptions, defined and undefined, are used in the toxicity assessment of chemical mixtures. In scientific practice mixture components in the low-dose region, particularly subthreshold doses, are often assumed to behave additively (i.e., zero interaction) based on heuristic arguments. This assumption has important implications in the practice of risk assessment, but has not been experimentally tested. We have developed methodology to test for additivity in the sense of Berenbaum (Advances in Cancer Research, 1981), based on the statistical equivalence testing literature where the null hypothesis of interaction is rejected for the alternative hypothesis of additivity when data support the claim. The implication of this approach is that conclusions of additivity are made with a false positive rate controlled by the experimenter. The claim of additivity is based on prespecified additivity margins, which are chosen using expert biological judgment such that small deviations from additivity, which are not considered to be biologically important, are not statistically significant. This approach is in contrast to the usual hypothesis-testing framework that assumes additivity in the null hypothesis and rejects when there is significant evidence of interaction. In this scenario, failure to reject may be due to lack of statistical power making the claim of additivity problematic. The proposed method is illustrated in a mixture of five organophosphorus pesticides that were experimentally evaluated alone and at relevant mixing ratios. Motor activity was assessed in adult male rats following acute exposure. Four low-dose mixture groups were evaluated. Evidence of additivity is found in three of the four low-dose mixture groups.The proposed method tests for additivity of the whole mixture and does not take into account subset interactions (e.g., synergistic, antagonistic) that may have occurred and cancelled each other out.

  19. Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Test Methods Additional Resources

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Supporting documents on the Direct Final Rule that allows refiners and laboratories to use more current and improved fuel testing procedures for twelve American Society for Testing and Materials analytical test methods.

  20. Adipic gets the acid test as flue gas scrubber additive

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, I.R.

    1980-02-11

    The first full-scale demonstration of adipic acid for such use, to be conducted early in the summer of 1980 in a 200 MW power plant burning high-sulfur coal, is designed to clarify the costs and show how to reduce losses of adipic acid via degradation. Adipic acid improves SO/sub 2/ removal by acting as a buffer to limit the pH drop normally occurring at the gas-liquid interface so that the higher SO/sub 2/ concentration in the surface film improves liquid-phase mass transfer; it also promotes higher limestone utilization. Prepared by the Tennessee Valley Authority, a preliminary economic analysis for a 500 MW plant burning 4% sulfur coal indicates that the addition of 1500 ppM of adipic acid (limestone at $7/ton and the acid at $840/ton) would raise SO/sub 2/ removal from 90 to 95%, reduce the total capital investment from $41.5 to $39.5 million, and have a first year revenue requirement of $19.9 million vs. $20.9 million without the acid. The large-scale trial will also help clarify concern over unpleasant odors that have been reported at test sites of the limestone/adipic system; valeric acid has been identified as the cause.

  1. Additional Revised Push-Up Test Norms for College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mozumdar, Arupendra; Liguori, Gary; Baumgartner, Ted A.

    2010-01-01

    The push-up test is commonly used to assess arm and shoulder girdle strength and endurance. Baumgartner, Oh, Chung, and Hales (2002) developed a revised push-up test for college students with a standardized test protocol. The purpose of the present study was to develop percentile norms for the revised push-up test based on the push-up scores of…

  2. 40 CFR 63.1437 - Additional requirements for performance testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Provisions' data analysis, recordkeeping, and reporting requirements in § 63.7(g) refer to the Notification... agreement. (b) Data shall be reduced in accordance with the EPA approved methods specified in the applicable subpart or, if other test methods are used, the data and methods shall be validated according to...

  3. 40 CFR 63.1437 - Additional requirements for performance testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... provided to the Administrator. (2) When the General Provisions' data analysis, recordkeeping, and reporting... delegated State or local agency) by mutual agreement. (b) Data shall be reduced in accordance with the EPA approved methods specified in the applicable subpart or, if other test methods are used, the data...

  4. Large-Scale Spray Releases: Additional Aerosol Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel, Richard C.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Fountain, Matthew S.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Billing, Justin M.; Bontha, Jagannadha R.; Kurath, Dean E.; Jenks, Jeromy WJ; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Mahoney, Lenna A.

    2013-08-01

    One of the events postulated in the hazard analysis for the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities is a breach in process piping that produces aerosols with droplet sizes in the respirable range. The current approach for predicting the size and concentration of aerosols produced in a spray leak event involves extrapolating from correlations reported in the literature. These correlations are based on results obtained from small engineered spray nozzles using pure liquids that behave as a Newtonian fluid. The narrow ranges of physical properties on which the correlations are based do not cover the wide range of slurries and viscous materials that will be processed in the WTP and in processing facilities across the DOE complex. To expand the data set upon which the WTP accident and safety analyses were based, an aerosol spray leak testing program was conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL’s test program addressed two key technical areas to improve the WTP methodology (Larson and Allen 2010). The first technical area was to quantify the role of slurry particles in small breaches where slurry particles may plug the hole and prevent high-pressure sprays. The results from an effort to address this first technical area can be found in Mahoney et al. (2012a). The second technical area was to determine aerosol droplet size distribution and total droplet volume from prototypic breaches and fluids, including sprays from larger breaches and sprays of slurries for which literature data are mostly absent. To address the second technical area, the testing program collected aerosol generation data at two scales, commonly referred to as small-scale and large-scale testing. The small-scale testing and resultant data are described in Mahoney et al. (2012b), and the large-scale testing and resultant data are presented in Schonewill et al. (2012). In tests at both scales, simulants were used

  5. Small-Scale Spray Releases: Additional Aerosol Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Schonewill, Philip P.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Kimura, Marcia L.; Brown, G. N.; Mahoney, Lenna A.; Tran, Diana N.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Kurath, Dean E.

    2013-08-01

    One of the events postulated in the hazard analysis at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) and other U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities is a breach in process piping that produces aerosols with droplet sizes in the respirable range. The current approach for predicting the size and concentration of aerosols produced in a spray leak involves extrapolating from correlations reported in the literature. These correlations are based on results obtained from small engineered spray nozzles using pure liquids with Newtonian fluid behavior. The narrow ranges of physical properties on which the correlations are based do not cover the wide range of slurries and viscous materials that will be processed in the WTP and across processing facilities in the DOE complex. To expand the data set upon which the WTP accident and safety analyses were based, an aerosol spray leak testing program was conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL’s test program addressed two key technical areas to improve the WTP methodology (Larson and Allen 2010). The first technical area was to quantify the role of slurry particles in small breaches where slurry particles may plug the hole and prevent high-pressure sprays. The results from an effort to address this first technical area can be found in Mahoney et al. (2012a). The second technical area was to determine aerosol droplet size distribution and total droplet volume from prototypic breaches and fluids, including sprays from larger breaches and sprays of slurries for which literature data are largely absent. To address the second technical area, the testing program collected aerosol generation data at two scales, commonly referred to as small-scale and large-scale. The small-scale testing and resultant data are described in Mahoney et al. (2012b) and the large-scale testing and resultant data are presented in Schonewill et al. (2012). In tests at both scales, simulants were used to mimic the

  6. ADDITIVE TESTING FOR IMPROVED SULFUR RETENTION: PRELIMINARY REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    Amoroso, J.; Fox, K.

    2011-09-07

    The Savannah River National Laboratory is collaborating with Alfred University to evaluate the potential for additives in borosilicate glass to improve sulfur retention. This preliminary report provides further background on the incorporation of sulfur in glass and outlines the experiments that are being performed by the collaborators. A simulated waste glass composition has been selected for the experimental studies. The first phase of experimental work will evaluate the impacts of BaO, PbO, and V{sub 2}O{sub 5} at concentrations of 1.0, 2.0, and 5.0 wt % on sulfate retention in simulated high level waste borosilicate glass. The second phase of experimental work will evaluate the effects of time at the melt temperature on sulfur retention. The resulting samples will be characterized to determine the amount of sulfur remaining as well as to identify the formation of any crystalline phases. The results will be used to guide the future selection of frits and glass forming chemicals in vitrifying Department of Energy wastes containing high sulfur concentrations.

  7. Examining the association between rumination, negative affectivity, and negative affect induced by a paced auditory serial addition task.

    PubMed

    Feldner, Matthew T; Leen-Feldner, Ellen W; Zvolensky, Michael J; Lejuez, C W

    2006-09-01

    The present study examined the relations among a depressive ruminative response style, a general propensity to experience negative affectivity, and negative affect induced by a paced serial auditory addition task (PASAT). Ninety nonclinical individuals completed a computerized version of the PASAT, which elicits a generalized negative affect response [Lejuez, C. W., Kahler, C. W., & Brown, R. A. (2003). A modified computer version of the paced auditory serial addition task (PASAT) as a laboratory-based stressor: Implications for behavioral assessment. Behavior Therapist, 26, 290-292]. As hypothesized, there was a moderate correlation between depressive rumination and a propensity to experience negative affect, as indexed both by a significant association with a negative affect personality factor and the prediction of negative affect elicited during the provocation. Findings also suggested that dispositional negative affectivity moderated the effects of a depressive ruminative response style on the valence but not arousal dimensions of emotional responding to the challenge. These findings are discussed in terms of improving our understanding of rumination and its potential role in emotional vulnerability processes.

  8. 49 CFR 173.466 - Additional tests for Type A packagings designed for liquids and gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional tests for Type A packagings designed...) Materials § 173.466 Additional tests for Type A packagings designed for liquids and gases. (a) In addition to the tests prescribed in § 173.465, Type A packagings designed for liquids and gases must...

  9. 76 FR 5319 - Regulation of Fuel and Fuel Additives: Alternative Test Method for Olefins in Gasoline

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-31

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 80 RIN 2060-AP17 Regulation of Fuel and Fuel Additives: Alternative Test Method for... correlated to the fuel parameter's respective EPA designated test method. These alternative test methods are... sections 114(a) and 301(a) of the CAA. Regulation of Fuel and Fuel Additives: Alternative Test Method...

  10. 49 CFR 199.111 - Retention of samples and additional testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Drug Testing § 199.111 Retention of samples and additional testing. (a...) Since some analytes may deteriorate during storage, detected levels of the drug below the...

  11. 49 CFR 199.111 - Retention of samples and additional testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Drug Testing § 199.111 Retention of samples and additional testing. (a...) Since some analytes may deteriorate during storage, detected levels of the drug below the...

  12. Advanced Manufacturing Technologies (AMT): Additive Manufactured Hot Fire Planning and Testing in GRC Cell 32 Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fikes, John C.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this project is to hot fire test an additively manufactured thrust chamber assembly TCA (injector and thrust chamber). GRC will install the additively manufactured Inconel 625 injector, two additively manufactured (SLM) water cooled Cu-Cr thrust chamber barrels and one additively manufactured (SLM) water cooled Cu-Cr thrust chamber nozzle on the test stand in Cell 32 and perform hot fire testing of the integrated TCA.

  13. 34 CFR 668.148 - Additional criteria for the approval of certain tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... validity as promulgated in the Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing; (ii) Provide test... 34 Education 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Additional criteria for the approval of certain tests... of Independently Administered Tests; Specification of Passing Score; Approval of State Process §...

  14. 34 CFR 668.148 - Additional criteria for the approval of certain tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... validity as promulgated in the Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing; (ii) Provide test... 34 Education 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Additional criteria for the approval of certain tests... of Independently Administered Tests; Specification of Passing Score; Approval of State Process §...

  15. 34 CFR 668.148 - Additional criteria for the approval of certain tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... validity as promulgated in the Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing; (ii) Provide test... 34 Education 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Additional criteria for the approval of certain tests... of Independently Administered Tests; Specification of Passing Score; Approval of State Process §...

  16. 34 CFR 668.148 - Additional criteria for the approval of certain tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... validity as promulgated in the Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing; (ii) Provide test... 34 Education 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Additional criteria for the approval of certain tests... of Independently Administered Tests; Specification of Passing Score; Approval of State Process §...

  17. Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive for Enhanced Mercury Control - Task 3 Full-scale Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Gary Blythe

    2007-05-01

    This Topical Report summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42309, 'Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive'. The objective of the project is to demonstrate the use of a flue gas desulfurization (FGD) additive, Degussa Corporation's TMT-15, to prevent the reemission of elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) in flue gas exiting wet FGD systems on coal-fired boilers. Furthermore, the project intends to demonstrate whether the additive can be used to precipitate most of the mercury (Hg) removed in the wet FGD system as a fine TMT salt that can be separated from the FGD liquor and bulk solid byproducts for separate disposal. The project is conducting pilot- and full-scale tests of the TMT-15 additive in wet FGD absorbers. The tests are intended to determine required additive dosages to prevent Hg{sup 0} reemissions and to separate mercury from the normal FGD byproducts for three coal types: Texas lignite/Power River Basin (PRB) coal blend, high-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal, and low-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal. The project team consists of URS Group, Inc., EPRI, TXU Generation Company LP, Southern Company, and Degussa Corporation. TXU Generation has provided the Texas lignite/PRB cofired test site for pilot FGD tests, Monticello Steam Electric Station Unit 3. Southern Company is providing the low-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal host site for wet scrubbing tests, as well as the pilot- and full-scale jet bubbling reactor (JBR) FGD systems to be tested. IPL, an AES company, provided the high-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal full-scale FGD test site and cost sharing. Degussa Corporation is providing the TMT-15 additive and technical support to the test program as cost sharing. The project is being conducted in six tasks. Of the six project tasks, Task 1 involves project planning and Task 6 involves management and reporting. The other four tasks involve field testing on FGD systems, either at pilot or full scale. The four tasks include: Task 2 - Pilot Additive Testing

  18. Acceptance test report: Field test of mixer pump for 241-AN-107 caustic addition project

    SciTech Connect

    Leshikar, G.A.

    1997-05-16

    The field acceptance test of a 75 HP mixer pump (Hazleton serial number N-20801) installed in Tank 241-AN-107 was conducted from October 1995 thru February 1996. The objectives defined in the acceptance test were successfully met, with two exceptions recorded. The acceptance test encompassed field verification of mixer pump turntable rotation set-up and operation, verification that the pump instrumentation functions within established limits, facilitation of baseline data collection from the mixer pump mounted ultrasonic instrumentation, verification of mixer pump water flush system operation and validation of a procedure for its operation, and several brief test runs (bump) of the mixer pump.

  19. 30 CFR 75.151 - Tests for methane; qualified person; additional requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Tests for methane; qualified person; additional... Certified Persons § 75.151 Tests for methane; qualified person; additional requirement. Notwithstanding the... methane unless he demonstrates to the satisfaction of an authorized representative of the Secretary...

  20. 30 CFR 75.151 - Tests for methane; qualified person; additional requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tests for methane; qualified person; additional... Certified Persons § 75.151 Tests for methane; qualified person; additional requirement. Notwithstanding the... methane unless he demonstrates to the satisfaction of an authorized representative of the Secretary...

  1. Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive for Enhanced Mercury Control - Task 5 Full-Scale Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Gary Blythe; MariJon Owens

    2007-12-01

    This Topical Report summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42309, 'Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive'. The objective of the project is to demonstrate the use of two flue gas desulfurization (FGD) additives, Evonik Degussa Corporation's TMT-15 and Nalco Company's Nalco 8034, to prevent the re-emission of elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) in flue gas exiting wet FGD systems on coal-fired boilers. Furthermore, the project intends to demonstrate whether the additive can be used to precipitate most of the mercury (Hg) removed in the wet FGD system as a fine salt that can be separated from the FGD liquor and bulk solid byproducts for separate disposal. The project is conducting pilot- and full-scale tests of the additives in wet FGD absorbers. The tests are intended to determine required additive dosages to prevent Hg{sup 0} re-emissions and to separate mercury from the normal FGD byproducts for three coal types: Texas lignite/Powder River Basin (PRB) coal blend, high-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal, and low-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal. The project team consists of URS Group, Inc., EPRI, Luminant Power (was TXU Generation Company LP), Southern Company, IPL (an AES company), Evonik Degussa Corporation and the Nalco Company. Luminant Power has provided the Texas lignite/PRB co-fired test site for pilot FGD tests and cost sharing. Southern Company has provided the low-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal host site for wet scrubbing tests, as well as the pilot- and full-scale jet bubbling reactor (JBR) FGD systems tested. IPL provided the high-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal full-scale FGD test site and cost sharing. Evonik Degussa Corporation is providing the TMT-15 additive, and the Nalco Company is providing the Nalco 8034 additive. Both companies are also supplying technical support to the test program as in-kind cost sharing. The project is being conducted in six tasks. Of the six project tasks, Task 1 involves project planning and Task 6 involves management

  2. Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive for Enhanced Mercury Control

    SciTech Connect

    Gary Blythe; MariJon Owens

    2007-12-31

    This document is the final report for DOE-NETL Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42309, 'Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive'. The objective of the project has been to demonstrate the use of two flue gas desulfurization (FGD) additives, Evonik Degussa Corporation's TMT-15 and Nalco Company's Nalco 8034, to prevent the re-emission of elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) in flue gas exiting wet FGD systems on coal-fired boilers. Furthermore, the project was intended to demonstrate whether such additives can be used to precipitate most of the mercury (Hg) removed in the wet FGD system as a fine salt that can be separated from the FGD liquor and bulk solid byproducts for separate disposal. The project involved pilot- and full-scale tests of the additives in wet FGD absorbers. The tests were intended to determine required additive dosages to prevent Hg{sup 0} re-emissions and to separate mercury from the normal FGD byproducts for three coal types: Texas lignite/Powder River Basin (PRB) coal blend, high-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal, and low-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal. The project team consists of URS Group, Inc., EPRI, Luminant Power (was TXU Generation Company LP), Southern Company, IPL (an AES company), Evonik Degussa Corporation and the Nalco Company. Luminant Power provided the Texas lignite/PRB co-fired test site for pilot FGD tests and project cost sharing. Southern Company provided the low-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal host site for wet scrubbing tests, the pilot- and full-scale jet bubbling reactor (JBR) FGD systems tested, and project cost sharing. IPL provided the high-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal full-scale FGD test site and cost sharing. Evonik Degussa Corporation provided the TMT-15 additive, and the Nalco Company provided the Nalco 8034 additive. Both companies also supplied technical support to the test program as in-kind cost sharing. The project was conducted in six tasks. Of the six tasks, Task 1 involved project planning and Task 6 involved

  3. Testing and commercialization of byproduct dibasic acids as buffer additives for limestone flue gas desulfurization systems

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, J.C.S.; Mobley, J.D.

    1983-10-01

    Pilot plant (0.1 MW) tests and utility boiler full scale demonstration (194 MW) of byproduct organic dibasic acids (DBA) as buffer additives to limestone scrubbers have shown performance improvements equivalent to those achieved by the addition of pure adipic acid. Both SO/sub 2/ removal efficiency and limestone utilization increased, and no significant operating problems were observed with three of the four DBA tested. Chemical and biological evaluations of scrubber samples taken during the DBA testing indicated no detectable toxicity or mutagenicity, and no significant environmental impact is expected as a result of DBA addition. Economic estimates indicate that substitution of DBA for pure adipic acid as a buffer additive will result in additive cost savings of 30% or greater.

  4. A test strategy for the assessment of additive attributed toxicity of tobacco products.

    PubMed

    Kienhuis, Anne S; Staal, Yvonne C M; Soeteman-Hernández, Lya G; van de Nobelen, Suzanne; Talhout, Reinskje

    2016-08-01

    The new EU Tobacco Product Directive (TPD) prohibits tobacco products containing additives that are toxic in unburnt form or that increase overall toxicity of the product. This paper proposes a strategy to assess additive attributed toxicity in the context of the TPD. Literature was searched on toxicity testing strategies for regulatory purposes from tobacco industry and governmental institutes. Although mainly traditional in vivo testing strategies have been applied to assess toxicity of unburnt additives and increases in overall toxicity of tobacco products due to additives, in vitro tests combined with toxicogenomics and validated using biomarkers of exposure and disease are most promising in this respect. As such, tests are needed that are sensitive enough to assess additive attributed toxicity above the overall toxicity of tobacco products, which can associate assay outcomes to human risk and exposure. In conclusion, new, sensitive in vitro assays are needed to conclude whether comparable testing allows for assessment of small changes in overall toxicity attributed to additives. A more pragmatic approach for implementation on a short-term is mandated lowering of toxic emission components. Combined with risk assessment, this approach allows assessment of effectiveness of harm reduction strategies, including banning or reducing of additives.

  5. On-line tests of organic additives for the inhibition of the precipitation of silica from hypersaline geothermal brine IV. Final tests of candidate additives

    SciTech Connect

    Harrar, J.E.; Locke, F.E.; Otto, C.H. Jr.; Lorensen, L.E.; Frey, W.P.; Snell, E.O.

    1980-02-01

    The Lawrence Livermore Laboratory Brine Treatment Test System at Niland, Imperial Valley, California, has been used to evaluate a number of cationic polymers and surfactants as scale control agents. An initial group of compounds was narrowed to four on the basis of their activity as silica precipitation inhibitors. Three of these and certain combinations of compounds were then given a 40-h test to determine their effectiveness in retarding scales formed at 220, 125, and 90/sup 0/C. The best single compound was Corcat P-18 (Cordova Chemical Co. polyethylene imine, M.W. approx. = 1800). It had no effect on the scale at 220/sup 0/C, but it reduced the scales at 125 and 90/sup 0/C by factors of 4 and 18, respectively, and it also has activity as a corrosion inhibitor. Other promising compounds are PAE HCl (Dynapol poly(aminoethylene, HCl salt)), which also somewhat reduces the 220/sup 0/C scale; Ethoquad 18/25 (Armak methyl polyoxyethylene(15) octadecylammonium chloride); and Mirapol A-15 (a Miranol Chemical polydiquaternary compound). The best additive formulation for the brines of the Salton Sea Geothermal Field appears to be a mixture of one of these silica precipitation inhibitors with a small amount of hydrochloric acid and a phosphonate crystalline deposit inhibitor. Speculations are presented as to the mechanism of inhibition of silica precipitation and recommendations for further testing of these additives.

  6. 30 CFR 250.449 - What additional BOP testing requirements must I meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Blowout Preventer (bop) System Requirements § 250.449 What additional BOP... water to conduct this test. You may use drilling fluids to conduct subsequent tests of a subsea...

  7. 30 CFR 250.449 - What additional BOP testing requirements must I meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Blowout Preventer (bop) System Requirements § 250.449 What additional BOP... water to conduct this test. You may use drilling fluids to conduct subsequent tests of a subsea...

  8. 30 CFR 250.449 - What additional BOP testing requirements must I meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations Blowout Preventer (bop) System Requirements § 250.449 What additional BOP... water to conduct this test. You may use drilling fluids to conduct subsequent tests of a subsea...

  9. 76 FR 65382 - Regulation of Fuel and Fuel Additives: Alternative Test Method for Olefins in Gasoline

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-21

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 80 RIN 2060-AP17 Regulation of Fuel and Fuel Additives: Alternative Test Method for... alternative test method for olefin content in gasoline. This final rule will provide flexibility to the... environmental benefits achieved from our fuels programs. ] DATES: This rule is effective November 21,...

  10. Leach testing of in situ stabilization grouts containing additives to sequester contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Serne, R.J.; Ames, L.L.; Martin, P.F.C.; LeGore, V.L.; Lindenmeier, C.W.; Phillips, S.J.

    1993-04-01

    This document discusses laboratory testing performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) of special grout formulations that incorporate specific sequestering agents to help improve the ability of the cement to resist contaminant leaching. To enhance the sequestering of contaminants we chose five additives to introduce (singly) to the control cement. The additives were Florida pebble phosphate, clinoptilolite (a natural zeolite), ferrous sulfide (a reductant), a mixed bed organic ion exchange resin and a proprietary anion-adsorbing mixed metal oxide. These additives were added one per test to the standard formulation and used to encapsulate a diluted high-salt alkaline liquid waste that is produced after various processes to remove uranium and plutonium from spent nuclear fuel. This report documents the testing of these additives.

  11. Hybrid Residual Flexibility/Mass-Additive Method for Structural Dynamic Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tinker, M. L.

    2003-01-01

    A large fixture was designed and constructed for modal vibration testing of International Space Station elements. This fixed-base test fixture, which weighs thousands of pounds and is anchored to a massive concrete floor, initially utilized spherical bearings and pendulum mechanisms to simulate Shuttle orbiter boundary constraints for launch of the hardware. Many difficulties were encountered during a checkout test of the common module prototype structure, mainly due to undesirable friction and excessive clearances in the test-article-to-fixture interface bearings. Measured mode shapes and frequencies were not representative of orbiter-constrained modes due to the friction and clearance effects in the bearings. As a result, a major redesign effort for the interface mechanisms was undertaken. The total cost of the fixture design, construction and checkout, and redesign was over $2 million. Because of the problems experienced with fixed-base testing, alternative free-suspension methods were studied, including the residual flexibility and mass-additive approaches. Free-suspension structural dynamics test methods utilize soft elastic bungee cords and overhead frame suspension systems that are less complex and much less expensive than fixed-base systems. The cost of free-suspension fixturing is on the order of tens of thousands of dollars as opposed to millions, for large fixed-base fixturing. In addition, free-suspension test configurations are portable, allowing modal tests to be done at sites without modal test facilities. For example, a mass-additive modal test of the ASTRO-1 Shuttle payload was done at the Kennedy Space Center launch site. In this Technical Memorandum, the mass-additive and residual flexibility test methods are described in detail. A discussion of a hybrid approach that combines the best characteristics of each method follows and is the focus of the study.

  12. Slug tests in wells screened across the water table: some additional considerations.

    PubMed

    Butler, J J

    2014-01-01

    The majority of slug tests done at sites of shallow groundwater contamination are performed in wells screened across the water table and are affected by mechanisms beyond those considered in the standard slug-test models. These additional mechanisms give rise to a number of practical issues that are yet to be fully resolved; four of these are addressed here. The wells in which slug tests are performed were rarely installed for that purpose, so the well design can result in problematic (small signal to noise ratio) test data. The suitability of a particular well design should thus always be assessed prior to field testing. In slug tests of short duration, it can be difficult to identify which portion of the test represents filter-pack drainage and which represents formation response; application of a mass balance can help confirm that test phases have been correctly identified. A key parameter required for all slug test models is the casing radius. However, in this setting, the effective casing radius (borehole radius corrected for filter-pack porosity), not the nominal well radius, is required; this effective radius is best estimated directly from test data. Finally, although conventional slug-test models do not consider filter-pack drainage, these models will yield reasonable hydraulic conductivity estimates when applied to the formation-response phase of a test from an appropriately developed well.

  13. 16 CFR 1631.32 - Reasonable and representative tests and recordkeeping requirements-additional requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reasonable and representative tests and recordkeeping requirements-additional requirements. 1631.32 Section 1631.32 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE SURFACE FLAMMABILITY OF...

  14. 16 CFR 1631.32 - Reasonable and representative tests and recordkeeping requirements-additional requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Reasonable and representative tests and recordkeeping requirements-additional requirements. 1631.32 Section 1631.32 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE SURFACE FLAMMABILITY OF...

  15. Biodegradability testing of synthetic ester lubricants--effects of additives and usage.

    PubMed

    Eisentraeger, Adolf; Schmidt, Martin; Murrenhoff, Hubertus; Dott, Wolfgang; Hahn, Stefan

    2002-07-01

    The optimised biodegradability test system "O2/CO2 Headspace Test with GC-TCD" is used for the assessment of synthetic ester lubricants. The effects of both additives and usage on biodegradability are examined and discussed. Ester based cutting fluids and hydraulic fluids with and without additives are used under defined conditions at machine tools and hydraulic and plain bearing test benches. The lubricants are characterised additionally with respect to kinematic viscosity, acidity and elemental composition. Furthermore, a formulated mineral oil is characterised before and after usage at an hydraulic test bench. The results clearly show that the mineral oil is far less biodegradable than the ester oils and that their biodegradability is not affected by usage. Biodegradability of the ester oils is mainly depending on the characteristics of the base fluids and not affected by the additives. Antioxidants are influencing stability respectively biodegradability indirectly, since they prevent oxopolymerisation effects. Other effects of usage on biodegradation are not detected. In this context, the antioxidants ensure ready biodegradability and have a positive effect on the environmental fate of synthetic ester lubricants.

  16. Testing for departures from additivity in mixtures of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study is a follow-up to a paper by Carr, et al. that determined a design structure to optimally test for departures from additivity in a fixed ratio mixture of four perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) using an in vitro transiently-transfected COS- 1 PPARa reporter model with an NHA...

  17. 30 CFR 77.102 - Tests for methane; oxygen deficiency; qualified person, additional requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Tests for methane; oxygen deficiency; qualified... methane; oxygen deficiency; qualified person, additional requirement. Notwithstanding the provisions of... and oxygen deficiency unless he has demonstrated to the satisfaction of an authorized...

  18. 30 CFR 77.102 - Tests for methane; oxygen deficiency; qualified person, additional requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Tests for methane; oxygen deficiency; qualified... methane; oxygen deficiency; qualified person, additional requirement. Notwithstanding the provisions of... and oxygen deficiency unless he has demonstrated to the satisfaction of an authorized...

  19. 30 CFR 77.102 - Tests for methane; oxygen deficiency; qualified person, additional requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Tests for methane; oxygen deficiency; qualified... methane; oxygen deficiency; qualified person, additional requirement. Notwithstanding the provisions of... and oxygen deficiency unless he has demonstrated to the satisfaction of an authorized...

  20. 30 CFR 77.102 - Tests for methane; oxygen deficiency; qualified person, additional requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tests for methane; oxygen deficiency; qualified... methane; oxygen deficiency; qualified person, additional requirement. Notwithstanding the provisions of... and oxygen deficiency unless he has demonstrated to the satisfaction of an authorized...

  1. 30 CFR 77.102 - Tests for methane; oxygen deficiency; qualified person, additional requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Tests for methane; oxygen deficiency; qualified... methane; oxygen deficiency; qualified person, additional requirement. Notwithstanding the provisions of... and oxygen deficiency unless he has demonstrated to the satisfaction of an authorized...

  2. Metrology test object for dimensional verification in additive manufacturing of metals for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Teeter, Matthew G; Kopacz, Alexander J; Nikolov, Hristo N; Holdsworth, David W

    2015-01-01

    Additive manufacturing continues to increase in popularity and is being used in applications such as biomaterial ingrowth that requires sub-millimeter dimensional accuracy. The purpose of this study was to design a metrology test object for determining the capabilities of additive manufacturing systems to produce common objects, with a focus on those relevant to medical applications. The test object was designed with a variety of features of varying dimensions, including holes, cylinders, rectangles, gaps, and lattices. The object was built using selective laser melting, and the produced dimensions were compared to the target dimensions. Location of the test objects on the build plate did not affect dimensions. Features with dimensions less than 0.300 mm did not build or were overbuilt to a minimum of 0.300 mm. The mean difference between target and measured dimensions was less than 0.100 mm in all cases. The test object is applicable to multiple systems and materials, tests the effect of location on the build, uses a minimum of material, and can be measured with a variety of efficient metrology tools (including measuring microscopes and micro-CT). Investigators can use this test object to determine the limits of systems and adjust build parameters to achieve maximum accuracy.

  3. Radial distribution functions of non-additive hard sphere mixtures via Percus' test particle route.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, Paul; Schmidt, Matthias

    2011-08-17

    Using fundamental density functional theory we calculate the partial radial distribution functions, g(ij)(r), of a binary non-additive hard sphere mixture using either Percus' test particle approach or inversion of the analytic structure factor obtained via the Ornstein-Zernike route. We find good agreement between the theoretical results and Monte Carlo simulation data for both positive and moderate negative non-additivities. We investigate the asymptotic, [Formula: see text], decay of the g(ij)(r) and show that this agrees with the analytic analysis of the contributions to the partial structure factors in the plane of complex wavevectors. We find the test particle density profiles to be free of unphysical artefacts, contrary to earlier reports.

  4. Formulation and Testing of Paraffin-Based Solid Fuels Containing Energetic Additives for Hybrid Rockets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larson, Daniel B.; Boyer, Eric; Wachs,Trevor; Kuo, Kenneth K.; Story, George

    2012-01-01

    Many approaches have been considered in an effort to improve the regression rate of solid fuels for hybrid rocket applications. One promising method is to use a fuel with a fast burning rate such as paraffin wax; however, additional performance increases to the fuel regression rate are necessary to make the fuel a viable candidate to replace current launch propulsion systems. The addition of energetic and/or nano-sized particles is one way to increase mass-burning rates of the solid fuels and increase the overall performance of the hybrid rocket motor.1,2 Several paraffin-based fuel grains with various energetic additives (e.g., lithium aluminum hydride (LiAlH4) have been cast in an attempt to improve regression rates. There are two major advantages to introducing LiAlH4 additive into the solid fuel matrix: 1) the increased characteristic velocity, 2) decreased dependency of Isp on oxidizer-to-fuel ratio. The testing and characterization of these solid-fuel grains have shown that continued work is necessary to eliminate unburned/unreacted fuel in downstream sections of the test apparatus.3 Changes to the fuel matrix include higher melting point wax and smaller energetic additive particles. The reduction in particle size through various methods can result in more homogeneous grain structure. The higher melting point wax can serve to reduce the melt-layer thickness, allowing the LiAlH4 particles to react closer to the burning surface, thus increasing the heat feedback rate and fuel regression rate. In addition to the formulation of LiAlH4 and paraffin wax solid-fuel grains, liquid additives of triethylaluminum and diisobutylaluminum hydride will be included in this study. Another promising fuel formulation consideration is to incorporate a small percentage of RDX as an additive to paraffin. A novel casting technique will be used by dissolving RDX in a solvent to crystallize the energetic additive. After dissolving the RDX in a solvent chosen for its compatibility

  5. Automated microbial metabolism laboratory. [design of advanced labeled release experiment based on single addition of soil and multiple sequential additions of media into test chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The design and rationale of an advanced labeled release experiment based on single addition of soil and multiple sequential additions of media into each of four test chambers are outlined. The feasibility for multiple addition tests was established and various details of the methodology were studied. The four chamber battery of tests include: (1) determination of the effect of various atmospheric gases and selection of that gas which produces an optimum response; (2) determination of the effect of incubation temperature and selection of the optimum temperature for performing Martian biochemical tests; (3) sterile soil is dosed with a battery of C-14 labeled substrates and subjected to experimental temperature range; and (4) determination of the possible inhibitory effects of water on Martian organisms is performed initially by dosing with 0.01 ml and 0.5 ml of medium, respectively. A series of specifically labeled substrates are then added to obtain patterns in metabolic 14CO2 (C-14)O2 evolution.

  6. Compositions, Functions, and Testing of Friction Brake Materials and Their Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Blau, PJ

    2001-10-22

    The purpose of this report is to present a survey of commercial brake materials and additives, and to indicate their typical properties and functions, especially as regards their use in heavy trucks. Most truck pad and shoe materials described here were designed to wear against cast iron. Brake material test methods are also briefly described. This report does not address issues associated with the fabrication and manufacturing of brake materials. Since there are literally thousands of brake material additives, and their combinations are nearly limitless, it is impractical to list them all here. Rather, an attempt has been made to capture the primary constituents and their functions. An Appendix contains thermo-physical properties of some current and potential brake materials.

  7. Design, Development and Hotfire Testing of Monolithic Copper and Bimetallic Additively Manufactured Combustion Chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gradl, Paul; Barnett, Greg; Brandsmeier, Will; Greene, Sandy Elam; Protz, Chris

    2016-01-01

    NASA and industry partners are working towards fabrication process development to reduce costs and schedules associated with manufacturing liquid rocket engine components with the goal of reducing overall mission costs. One such technique being evaluated is powder-bed fusion or selective laser melting (SLM) otherwise commonly referred to as additive manufacturing. The NASA Low Cost Upper Stage Propulsion (LCUSP) program was designed to develop processes and material characterization for the GRCop-84 copper-alloy commensurate with powder bed additive manufacturing, evaluate bimetallic deposition and complete testing of a full scale combustion chamber. As part of this development, the process has been transferred to industry partners to enable a long-term supply chain of monolithic copper combustion chambers. As a direct spin off of this program, NASA is working with industry partners to further develop the printing process for the GRCop-84 material in addition to the C-18150 (CuCrZr) material. To advance the process further and allow for optimization with multiple materials, NASA is also investigating the feasibility of bimetallic additively manufactured chambers. A 1.2k sized thrust-chamber was designed and developed to compare the printing process of the GRCop-84 and C-18150 SLM materials. A series of similar MCC liners also completed development with an Inconel 625 jacket bonded to the GRcop-84 liner evaluating direct metal deposition (DMD) laser and arc-based techniques. This paper describes the design, development, manufacturing and testing of these combustion chambers and associated lessons learned throughout the design and development process.

  8. Application and testing of additive manufacturing for mirrors and precision structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweeney, Michael; Acreman, Martyn; Vettese, Tom; Myatt, Ray; Thompson, Mike

    2015-09-01

    Additive Manufacturing (aka AM, and 3-D printing) is widely touted in the media as the foundation for the next industrial revolution. Beneath the hype, AM does indeed offer profound advantages in lead-time, dramatically reduced consumption of expensive raw materials, while enabling new and innovative design forms that cannot be produced by other means. General Dynamics and their industry partners have begun to embrace this technology for mirrors and precision structures used in the aerospace, defense, and precision optical instrumentation industries. Aggressively lightweighted, open and closed back test mirror designs, 75-150 mm in size, were first produced by AM from several different materials. Subsequent optical finishing and test experiments have exceeded expectations for density, surface finish, dimensional stability and isotropy of thermal expansion on the optical scale of measurement. Materials currently under examination include aluminum, titanium, beryllium, aluminum beryllium, Inconel 625, stainless steel/bronze, and PEKK polymer.

  9. Loophole-free Bell test using electron spins in diamond: second experiment and additional analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hensen, B.; Kalb, N.; Blok, M. S.; Dréau, A. E.; Reiserer, A.; Vermeulen, R. F. L.; Schouten, R. N.; Markham, M.; Twitchen, D. J.; Goodenough, K.; Elkouss, D.; Wehner, S.; Taminiau, T. H.; Hanson, R.

    2016-01-01

    The recently reported violation of a Bell inequality using entangled electronic spins in diamonds (Hensen et al., Nature 526, 682–686) provided the first loophole-free evidence against local-realist theories of nature. Here we report on data from a second Bell experiment using the same experimental setup with minor modifications. We find a violation of the CHSH-Bell inequality of 2.35 ± 0.18, in agreement with the first run, yielding an overall value of S = 2.38 ± 0.14. We calculate the resulting P-values of the second experiment and of the combined Bell tests. We provide an additional analysis of the distribution of settings choices recorded during the two tests, finding that the observed distributions are consistent with uniform settings for both tests. Finally, we analytically study the effect of particular models of random number generator (RNG) imperfection on our hypothesis test. We find that the winning probability per trial in the CHSH game can be bounded knowing only the mean of the RNG bias. This implies that our experimental result is robust for any model underlying the estimated average RNG bias, for random bits produced up to 690 ns too early by the random number generator. PMID:27509823

  10. Loophole-free Bell test using electron spins in diamond: second experiment and additional analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hensen, B.; Kalb, N.; Blok, M. S.; Dréau, A. E.; Reiserer, A.; Vermeulen, R. F. L.; Schouten, R. N.; Markham, M.; Twitchen, D. J.; Goodenough, K.; Elkouss, D.; Wehner, S.; Taminiau, T. H.; Hanson, R.

    2016-08-01

    The recently reported violation of a Bell inequality using entangled electronic spins in diamonds (Hensen et al., Nature 526, 682–686) provided the first loophole-free evidence against local-realist theories of nature. Here we report on data from a second Bell experiment using the same experimental setup with minor modifications. We find a violation of the CHSH-Bell inequality of 2.35 ± 0.18, in agreement with the first run, yielding an overall value of S = 2.38 ± 0.14. We calculate the resulting P-values of the second experiment and of the combined Bell tests. We provide an additional analysis of the distribution of settings choices recorded during the two tests, finding that the observed distributions are consistent with uniform settings for both tests. Finally, we analytically study the effect of particular models of random number generator (RNG) imperfection on our hypothesis test. We find that the winning probability per trial in the CHSH game can be bounded knowing only the mean of the RNG bias. This implies that our experimental result is robust for any model underlying the estimated average RNG bias, for random bits produced up to 690 ns too early by the random number generator.

  11. A Fully Non-Metallic Gas Turbine Engine Enabled by Additive Manufacturing Part I: System Analysis, Component Identification, Additive Manufacturing, and Testing of Polymer Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grady, Joseph E.; Haller, William J.; Poinsatte, Philip E.; Halbig, Michael C.; Schnulo, Sydney L.; Singh, Mrityunjay; Weir, Don; Wali, Natalie; Vinup, Michael; Jones, Michael G.; Patterson, Clark; Santelle, Tom; Mehl, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    The research and development activities reported in this publication were carried out under NASA Aeronautics Research Institute (NARI) funded project entitled "A Fully Nonmetallic Gas Turbine Engine Enabled by Additive Manufacturing." The objective of the project was to conduct evaluation of emerging materials and manufacturing technologies that will enable fully nonmetallic gas turbine engines. The results of the activities are described in three part report. The first part of the report contains the data and analysis of engine system trade studies, which were carried out to estimate reduction in engine emissions and fuel burn enabled due to advanced materials and manufacturing processes. A number of key engine components were identified in which advanced materials and additive manufacturing processes would provide the most significant benefits to engine operation. The technical scope of activities included an assessment of the feasibility of using additive manufacturing technologies to fabricate gas turbine engine components from polymer and ceramic matrix composites, which were accomplished by fabricating prototype engine components and testing them in simulated engine operating conditions. The manufacturing process parameters were developed and optimized for polymer and ceramic composites (described in detail in the second and third part of the report). A number of prototype components (inlet guide vane (IGV), acoustic liners, engine access door) were additively manufactured using high temperature polymer materials. Ceramic matrix composite components included turbine nozzle components. In addition, IGVs and acoustic liners were tested in simulated engine conditions in test rigs. The test results are reported and discussed in detail.

  12. 46 CFR 160.151-29 - Additional approval tests for SOLAS A and SOLAS B inflatable liferafts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Additional approval tests for SOLAS A and SOLAS B... Inflatable Liferafts (SOLAS) § 160.151-29 Additional approval tests for SOLAS A and SOLAS B inflatable...), Chapter IV/4.3.5 (incorporated by reference, see § 160.151-5 of this subpart), the following test must...

  13. 46 CFR 160.151-29 - Additional approval tests for SOLAS A and SOLAS B inflatable liferafts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Additional approval tests for SOLAS A and SOLAS B... Inflatable Liferafts (SOLAS) § 160.151-29 Additional approval tests for SOLAS A and SOLAS B inflatable...), Chapter IV/4.3.5 (incorporated by reference, see § 160.151-5 of this subpart), the following test must...

  14. Sulfur-free lignins from alkaline pulping tested in mortar for use as mortar additives.

    PubMed

    Nadif, A; Hunkeler, D; Käuper, P

    2002-08-01

    Sulfur-free lignin, obtained through the acid precipitation of black liquor from the soda pulping process, has been tested as water reducer in mortar. It has also been compared to existing commercial additives such as naphthalene sulfonates and lignosulfonates. The ash content and sugar content of these lignins are low in comparison to lignosulfonates, conferring on them higher purity. A procedure for small scale testing derived from the industrial norms SN-EN196 and ASTM (Designation C230-90) is presented. Specifically, all the sulfur-free lignins tested improved the flow of the mortar. Selected flax lignins performed better than lignosulfonates though still less than naphthalene sulfonates. Furthermore, certain hemp lignins gave comparable results to the lignosulfonates. Overall, the straw lignin prepared herein is comparable in performance to commercially available lignins, such as Organocell, Alcell and Curan 100. The plant from which the lignin was isolated, and the process of the pulp mill are the primary influences on the performance of the lignin.

  15. Testing departure from additivity in Tukey's model using shrinkage: application to a longitudinal setting.

    PubMed

    Ko, Yi-An; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Smith, Jennifer A; Park, Sung Kyun; Kardia, Sharon L R; Allison, Matthew A; Vokonas, Pantel S; Chen, Jinbo; Diez-Roux, Ana V

    2014-12-20

    While there has been extensive research developing gene-environment interaction (GEI) methods in case-control studies, little attention has been given to sparse and efficient modeling of GEI in longitudinal studies. In a two-way table for GEI with rows and columns as categorical variables, a conventional saturated interaction model involves estimation of a specific parameter for each cell, with constraints ensuring identifiability. The estimates are unbiased but are potentially inefficient because the number of parameters to be estimated can grow quickly with increasing categories of row/column factors. On the other hand, Tukey's one-degree-of-freedom model for non-additivity treats the interaction term as a scaled product of row and column main effects. Because of the parsimonious form of interaction, the interaction estimate leads to enhanced efficiency, and the corresponding test could lead to increased power. Unfortunately, Tukey's model gives biased estimates and low power if the model is misspecified. When screening multiple GEIs where each genetic and environmental marker may exhibit a distinct interaction pattern, a robust estimator for interaction is important for GEI detection. We propose a shrinkage estimator for interaction effects that combines estimates from both Tukey's and saturated interaction models and use the corresponding Wald test for testing interaction in a longitudinal setting. The proposed estimator is robust to misspecification of interaction structure. We illustrate the proposed methods using two longitudinal studies-the Normative Aging Study and the Multi-ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

  16. Testing Departure from Additivity in Tukey’s Model using Shrinkage: Application to a Longitudinal Setting

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Yi-An; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Smith, Jennifer A.; Park, Sung Kyun; Kardia, Sharon L.R.; Allison, Matthew A.; Vokonas, Pantel S.; Chen, Jinbo; Diez-Roux, Ana V.

    2014-01-01

    While there has been extensive research developing gene-environment interaction (GEI) methods in case-control studies, little attention has been given to sparse and efficient modeling of GEI in longitudinal studies. In a two-way table for GEI with rows and columns as categorical variables, a conventional saturated interaction model involves estimation of a specific parameter for each cell, with constraints ensuring identifiability. The estimates are unbiased but are potentially inefficient because the number of parameters to be estimated can grow quickly with increasing categories of row/column factors. On the other hand, Tukey’s one degree of freedom (df) model for non-additivity treats the interaction term as a scaled product of row and column main effects. Due to the parsimonious form of interaction, the interaction estimate leads to enhanced efficiency and the corresponding test could lead to increased power. Unfortunately, Tukey’s model gives biased estimates and low power if the model is misspecified. When screening multiple GEIs where each genetic and environmental marker may exhibit a distinct interaction pattern, a robust estimator for interaction is important for GEI detection. We propose a shrinkage estimator for interaction effects that combines estimates from both Tukey’s and saturated interaction models and use the corresponding Wald test for testing interaction in a longitudinal setting. The proposed estimator is robust to misspecification of interaction structure. We illustrate the proposed methods using two longitudinal studies — the Normative Aging Study and the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. PMID:25112650

  17. Performance testing of asphalt concrete containing crumb rubber modifier and warm mix additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikpugha, Omo John

    Utilisation of scrap tire has been achieved through the production of crumb rubber modified binders and rubberised asphalt concrete. Terminal and field blended asphalt rubbers have been developed through the wet process to incorporate crumb rubber into the asphalt binder. Warm mix asphalt technologies have been developed to curb the problem associated with the processing and production of such crumb rubber modified binders. Also the lowered production and compaction temperatures associated with warm mix additives suggests the possibility of moisture retention in the mix, which can lead to moisture damage. Conventional moisture sensitivity tests have not effectively discriminated good and poor mixes, due to the difficulty of simulating field moisture damage mechanisms. This study was carried out to investigate performance properties of crumb rubber modified asphalt concrete, using commercial warm mix asphalt technology. Commonly utilised asphalt mixtures in North America such as dense graded and stone mastic asphalt were used in this study. Uniaxial Cyclic Compression Testing (UCCT) was used to measure permanent deformation at high temperatures. Indirect Tensile Testing (IDT) was used to investigate low temperature performance. Moisture Induced Sensitivity Testing (MiST) was proposed to be an effective method for detecting the susceptibility of asphalt mixtures to moisture damage, as it incorporates major field stripping mechanisms. Sonnewarm(TM), Sasobit(TM) and Evotherm(TM) additives improved the resistance to permanent deformation of dense graded mixes at a loading rate of 0.5 percent by weight of the binder. Polymer modified mixtures showed superior resistance to permanent deformation compared to asphalt rubber in all mix types. Rediset(TM) WMX improves low temperature properties of dense graded mixes at 0.5 percent loading on the asphalt cement. Rediset LQ and Rediset WMX showed good anti stripping properties at 0.5 percent loading on the asphalt cement. The

  18. Pilot scale cooling tower fouled fill treatment: AFCATT (Anti-Fouling Chemical Additive Test Tower)

    SciTech Connect

    Newton, M.T.; Noble, R.T.; Philpot, E.F.; Eastis, J.H.

    1995-02-01

    Polyvinylchloride (PVC) film-type cellular fill is the fill of choice in replacing cement asbestor board fill in existing cooling towers and in new cooling towers because of its high thermal performance, ease of installation, and low initial cost. However, PVC fill has been found to foul quickly with biological and sediment material, significant reducing tower performance and the fill`s useful life. The Anti-Fouling Chemical Additives Test Tower (AFCATT) has been built to study accumulation rates of fouling deposits in corrugated PVC film fill and to study methods of cleaning and preventing the fouling deposits. This small mechanical draft cooling tower is located next to the Unit 4 natural draft cooling tower at Georgia Power Company`s Plant Bowen. The once-through mechanical draft tower receives hot water from the condenser and returns the cold water to the basin of the host tower. The pilot tower is divided into four chambers allowing for three different treatment programs and one control to be run simultaneously. PVC fill packs are suspended from load cells to allow the weight of the fill packs to be measured continuously. Six vendors participated in the summer 1993 test program. Each proposed different methods of cleaning the fouled fill and were given the opportunity to try their proposed method of fill cleaning. The success of each treatment program was determined by its ability to reduce fill pack weight (i.e., reduce fouling).

  19. Evaluation of the JP-8+100 additive candidates in the extended duration thermal stability test system

    SciTech Connect

    Binns, K.E.; Dieterle, G.L.

    1996-10-01

    The most promising JP-8+100 additive candidates consists of dispersants, detergents, antioxidants and metal deactivators. A series of tests were conducted in the Extended Duration Thermal Stability Test System to determine the thermal stability effects of the individual JP-8+100 additives and combinations of the additives. This paper will cover the test results and their relationship to future aircraft fuel systems. The Extended Duration Thermal Stability Test System was designed to conduct long duration tests at non-accelerated temperature conditions and resident times representative or aircraft/engine fuel systems. This system and its operating characteristics will also be covered in this paper.

  20. The biobehavioral family model: testing social support as an additional exogenous variable.

    PubMed

    Woods, Sarah B; Priest, Jacob B; Roush, Tara

    2014-12-01

    This study tests the inclusion of social support as a distinct exogenous variable in the Biobehavioral Family Model (BBFM). The BBFM is a biopsychosocial approach to health that proposes that biobehavioral reactivity (anxiety and depression) mediates the relationship between family emotional climate and disease activity. Data for this study included married, English-speaking adult participants (n = 1,321; 55% female; M age = 45.2 years) from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication, a nationally representative epidemiological study of the frequency of mental disorders in the United States. Participants reported their demographics, marital functioning, social support from friends and relatives, anxiety and depression (biobehavioral reactivity), number of chronic health conditions, and number of prescription medications. Confirmatory factor analyses supported the items used in the measures of negative marital interactions, social support, and biobehavioral reactivity, as well as the use of negative marital interactions, friends' social support, and relatives' social support as distinct factors in the model. Structural equation modeling indicated a good fit of the data to the hypothesized model (χ(2)  = 846.04, p = .000, SRMR = .039, CFI = .924, TLI = .914, RMSEA = .043). Negative marital interactions predicted biobehavioral reactivity (β = .38, p < .001), as did relatives' social support, inversely (β = -.16, p < .001). Biobehavioral reactivity predicted disease activity (β = .40, p < .001) and was demonstrated to be a significant mediator through tests of indirect effects. Findings are consistent with previous tests of the BBFM with adult samples, and suggest the important addition of family social support as a predicting factor in the model.

  1. Additive Manufacturing, Design, Testing, and Fabrication: A Full Engineering Experience at JSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zusack, Steven

    2016-01-01

    I worked on several projects this term. While most projects involved additive manufacturing, I was also involved with two design projects, two testing projects, and a fabrication project. The primary mentor for these was Richard Hagen. Secondary mentors were Hai Nguyen, Khadijah Shariff, and fabrication training from James Brown. Overall, my experience at JSC has been successful and what I have learned will continue to help me in my engineering education and profession long after I leave. My 3D printing projects ranged from less than a 1 cubic centimeter to about 1 cubic foot and involved several printers using different printing technologies. It was exciting to become familiar with printing technologies such as industrial grade FDM (Fused Deposition Modeling), the relatively new SLA (Stereolithography), and PolyJet. My primary duty with the FDM printers was to model parts that came in from various sources to print effectively and efficiently. Using methods my mentor taught me and the Stratasys Insight software, I was able to minimize imperfections, hasten build time, improve strength for specific forces (tensile, shear, etc...), and reduce likelihood of a print-failure. Also using FDM, I learned how to repair a part after it was printed. This is done by using a special kind of glue that chemically melts the two faces of plastic parts together to form a fused interface. My first goal with SLA technology was to bring the printer back to operational readiness. In becoming familiar with the Pegasus SLA printer, I researched the leveling, laser settings, and different vats to hold liquid material. With this research, I was successfully able to bring the Pegasus back online and have successfully printed multiple sample parts as well as functional parts. My experience with PolyJet technology has been focused on an understanding of the abilities/limits, costs, and the maintenance for daily use. Still upcoming will be experience with using a composite printer that uses FDM

  2. Evaluation of laser ultrasonic testing for inspection of metal additive manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Everton, Sarah; Dickens, Phill; Tuck, Chris; Dutton, Ben

    2015-03-01

    Additive Manufacturing (AM) offers a number of benefits over conventional processes. However, in order for these benefits to be realised, further development and integration of suitable monitoring and closed loop control systems are needed. Laser Ultrasonic Testing (LUT) is an inspection technology which shows potential for in-situ monitoring of metallic AM processes. Non-contact measurements can be performed on curved surfaces and in difficult to reach areas, even at elevated temperatures. Interrogation of each build layer generates defect information which can be used to highlight processing errors and allow for real-time modification of processing parameters, enabling improved component quality and yield. This study evaluates the use of laser-generated surface waves to detect artificially generated defects in titanium alloy (Ti- 6Al-4V) samples produced by laser-based Powder Bed Fusion. The trials undertaken utilise the latest LUT equipment, recently installed at Manufacturing Technology Centre which is capable of being controlled remotely. This will allow the system to optimise or adapt "on-the-fly", simplifying the eventual integration of the system within an AM machine.

  3. Review and evaluation of literature on testing of chemical additives for scale control in geothermal fluids. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Crane, C.H.; Kenkeremath, D.C.

    1981-01-01

    A selected group of reported tests of chemical additives in actual geothermal fluids are reviewed and evaluated to summarize the status of chemical scale-control testing and identify information and testing needs. The task distinguishes between scale control in the cooling system of a flash plant and elsewhere in the utilization system due to the essentially different operating environments involved. Additives for non-cooling geothermal fluids are discussed by scale type: silica, carbonate, and sulfide.

  4. Sensitization to Food Additives in Patients with Allergy: A Study Based on Skin Test and Open Oral Challenge.

    PubMed

    Moghtaderi, Mozhgan; Hejrati, Zinatosadat; Dehghani, Zahra; Dehghani, Faranak; Kolahi, Niloofar

    2016-06-01

    There has been a great increase in the consumption of various food additives in recent years. The purpose of this study was to identify the incidence of sensitization to food additives by using skin prick test in patients with allergy and to determine the concordance rate between positive skin tests and oral challenge in hypersensitivity to additives. This cross-sectional study included 125 (female 71, male 54) patients aged 2-76 years with allergy and 100 healthy individuals. Skin tests were performed in both patient and control groups with 25 fresh food additives. Among patients with allergy, 22.4% showed positive skin test at least to one of the applied materials. Skin test was negative to all tested food additives in control group. Oral food challenge was done in 28 patients with positive skin test, in whom 9 patients showed reaction to culprit (Concordance rate=32.1%). The present study suggested that about one-third of allergic patients with positive reaction to food additives showed positive oral challenge; it may be considered the potential utility of skin test to identify the role of food additives in patients with allergy.

  5. Addition of carbon sorbents to reduce PCB and PAH bioavailability in marine sediments: physicochemical tests.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, John R; Ghosh, Upal; Millward, Rod N; Bridges, Todd S; Luthy, Richard G

    2004-10-15

    The addition of activated carbon as particulate sorbent to the biologically active layer of contaminated sediment is proposed as an in-situ treatment method to reduce the chemical and biological availability of hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). We report results from physicochemical experiments that assess this concept. PCB- and PAH-contaminated sediment from Hunters Point Naval Shipyard, San Francisco Bay, CA, was contacted with coke and activated carbon for periods of 1 and 6 months. Sediment treated with 3.4 wt % activated carbon showed 92% and 84% reductions in aqueous equilibrium PCB and PAH concentrations, 77% and 83% reductions in PCB and PAH uptake by semipermeable membrane devices (SPMD), respectively, and reductions in PCB flux to overlying water in quiescent systems up to 89%. Adding coke to contaminated sediment did not significantly decrease aqueous equilibrium PCB concentrations nor PCB or PAH availability in SPMD measurements. Coke decreased PAH aqueous equilibrium concentrations by 38-64% depending on coke dose and particle size. The greater effectiveness of activated carbon as compared to coke is attributed to its much greater specific surface area and a pore structure favorable for binding contaminants. The results from the physicochemical tests suggest that adding activated carbon to contaminated field sediment reduces HOC availability to the aqueous phase. The benefit is manifested relatively quickly under optimum contact conditions and improves in effectiveness with contact time from 1 to 6 months. Activated carbon application is a potentially attractive method for in-situ, nonremoval treatment of marine sediment contaminated with HOCs.

  6. Identification of an Abbreviated Test Battery for Detection of HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Impairment in an Early-Managed HIV-Infected Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Moore, David J.; Roediger, Mollie J. P.; Eberly, Lynn E.; Blackstone, Kaitlin; Hale, Braden; Weintrob, Amy; Ganesan, Anuradha; Agan, Brian K.; Letendre, Scott L.; Crum-Cianflone, Nancy F.

    2012-01-01

    Background HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) remain prevalent despite improved antiretroviral treatment (ART), and it is essential to have a sensitive and specific HAND screening tool. Methods Participants were 200 HIV-infected US military beneficiaries, managed early in the course of HIV infection, had few comorbidities, and had open access to ART. Participants completed a comprehensive, seven-domain (16-test), neuropsychological battery (∼120 min); neurocognitive impairment (NCI) was determined using a standardized score derived from demographically adjusted T-scores (global deficit score ≥0.5). Restricting the estimated administration time of the screening battery to < = 20 minutes, we examined the sensitivity and specificity of detecting NCI for all possible combinations of 2-, 3-, and 4- tests from the comprehensive battery. Results Participants were relatively healthy (median CD4 count: 546 cells/mm3) with 64% receiving ART. Prevalence of NCI was low (19%). The best 2-test screener included the Stroop Color Test and the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised (11 min; sensitivity = 73%; specificity = 83%); the best 3-test screener included the above measures plus the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT; 16 min; sensitivity = 86%; specificity = 75%). The addition of Action Fluency to the above three tests improved specificity (18 min; sensitivity = 86%; specificity = 87%). Conclusions Combinations of widely accepted neuropsychological tests with brief implementation time demonstrated good sensitivity and specificity compared to a time intensive neuropsychological test battery. Tests of verbal learning, attention/working memory, and processing speed are particularly useful in detecting NCI. Utilizing validated, easy to administer, traditional neuropsychological tests with established normative data may represent an excellent approach to screening for NCI in HIV. PMID:23144815

  7. 30 CFR 250.449 - What additional BOP testing requirements must I meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Drilling Operations.... You may use drilling fluids to conduct subsequent tests of a subsea BOP system; (c) Alternate tests... sizes of pipe in use, excluding drill collars and bottom-hole tools; (g) Pressure test affected...

  8. 46 CFR 160.035-12 - Additional preapproval tests required for F.R.P. lifeboats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... and final measurements taken. There shall be no fractures or other signs of excessive stress and no... fractures or other signs of excessive stress and no appreciable set as a result of this test. (3) Swing test... span. The thwarts shall not fracture or otherwise be rendered unserviceable. (6) Towing test. With...

  9. Synergistic interactions between commonly used food additives in a developmental neurotoxicity test.

    PubMed

    Lau, Karen; McLean, W Graham; Williams, Dominic P; Howard, C Vyvyan

    2006-03-01

    Exposure to non-nutritional food additives during the critical development window has been implicated in the induction and severity of behavioral disorders such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Although the use of single food additives at their regulated concentrations is believed to be relatively safe in terms of neuronal development, their combined effects remain unclear. We therefore examined the neurotoxic effects of four common food additives in combinations of two (Brilliant Blue and L-glutamic acid, Quinoline Yellow and aspartame) to assess potential interactions. Mouse NB2a neuroblastoma cells were induced to differentiate and grow neurites in the presence of additives. After 24 h, cells were fixed and stained and neurite length measured by light microscopy with computerized image analysis. Neurotoxicity was measured as an inhibition of neurite outgrowth. Two independent models were used to analyze combination effects: effect additivity and dose additivity. Significant synergy was observed between combinations of Brilliant Blue with L-glutamic acid, and Quinoline Yellow with aspartame, in both models. Involvement of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in food additive-induced neurite inhibition was assessed with a NMDA antagonist, CNS-1102. L-glutamic acid- and aspartame-induced neurotoxicity was reduced in the presence of CNS-1102; however, the antagonist did not prevent food color-induced neurotoxicity. Theoretical exposure to additives was calculated based on analysis of content in foodstuff, and estimated percentage absorption from the gut. Inhibition of neurite outgrowth was found at concentrations of additives theoretically achievable in plasma by ingestion of a typical snack and drink. In addition, Trypan Blue dye exclusion was used to evaluate the cellular toxicity of food additives on cell viability of NB2a cells; both combinations had a straightforward additive effect on cytotoxicity. These data have implications for the

  10. 34 CFR 668.148 - Additional criteria for the approval of certain tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... quantitative problem-solving skills, the test publisher must provide— (i) A minimum of four parallel forms of... the American Educational Research Association, the American Psychological Association, and...

  11. 75 FR 2122 - Additional Guidance Regarding Application of Current Procedures for Testing Energy Consumption of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-14

    ... ensure the consistent application of DOE's current test procedure to refrigerator-freezers with French doors, bottom-mounted freezers, and through-the-door (TTD) ice service (French door TTD models). This... application of the current test procedure to refrigerator- freezers with French doors, bottom-mounted...

  12. Laboratory endurance testing of a 25/75 sunflower oil-diesel fuel blend treated with fuel additives

    SciTech Connect

    Ziejewski, M.; Kaufman, K.R.; Tupa, R.C.

    1984-01-01

    The engine performance and durability effects of a barium smoke suppressant additive, Lubrizol 565, and an ashless polymeric additive, Lubrizol 552, in a 25-75 blend (v/v) of alkali refined sunflower oil with diesel fuel were investigated. The study was performed on a direct injected, turbocharged, and intercooled diesel engine. These additives were tested in an attempt to reduce carbon buildup problems observed while using an untreated 25-75 blend of sunflower oil and diesel fuel.

  13. MIXTURES OF THYROID DISRUPTING CHEMICALS: TESTING ADDITIVITY OF HEPATIC INDUCERS AND THYROID PEROXIDASE INHIBITORS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Humans are exposed to chemical mixtures via diet, occupation, and the environment. Previous data demonstrated that low doses of polycyclic halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (PHAHs) acting through similar mechanisms result in an additive reduction of thyroxine (T4). If xenobioti...

  14. Testing for Additivity in Chemical Mixtures Using a Fixed-Ratio Ray Design and Statistical Equivalence Testing Methods

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fixed-ratio ray designs have been used for detecting and characterizing interactions of large numbers of chemicals in combination. Single chemical dose-response data are used to predict an “additivity curve” along an environmentally relevant ray. A “mixture curve” is estimated fr...

  15. 16 CFR 1631.32 - Reasonable and representative tests and recordkeeping requirements-additional requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE SURFACE FLAMMABILITY OF SMALL CARPETS AND RUGS (FF 2-70) Rules and Regulations § 1631.32 Reasonable and representative tests...

  16. 16 CFR 1631.32 - Reasonable and representative tests and recordkeeping requirements-additional requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE SURFACE FLAMMABILITY OF SMALL CARPETS AND RUGS (FF 2-70) Rules and Regulations § 1631.32 Reasonable and representative tests...

  17. 16 CFR 1631.32 - Reasonable and representative tests and recordkeeping requirements-additional requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE SURFACE FLAMMABILITY OF SMALL CARPETS AND RUGS (FF 2-70) Rules and Regulations § 1631.32 Reasonable and representative tests...

  18. Test of the Additivity Principle for Current Fluctuations in a Model of Heat Conduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurtado, Pablo I.; Garrido, Pedro L.

    2009-06-01

    The additivity principle allows to compute the current distribution in many one-dimensional (1D) nonequilibrium systems. Using simulations, we confirm this conjecture in the 1D Kipnis-Marchioro-Presutti model of heat conduction for a wide current interval. The current distribution shows both Gaussian and non-Gaussian regimes, and obeys the Gallavotti-Cohen fluctuation theorem. We verify the existence of a well-defined temperature profile associated to a given current fluctuation. This profile is independent of the sign of the current, and this symmetry extends to higher-order profiles and spatial correlations. We also show that finite-time joint fluctuations of the current and the profile are described by the additivity functional. These results suggest the additivity hypothesis as a general and powerful tool to compute current distributions in many nonequilibrium systems.

  19. Test of the additivity principle for current fluctuations in a model of heat conduction.

    PubMed

    Hurtado, Pablo I; Garrido, Pedro L

    2009-06-26

    The additivity principle allows to compute the current distribution in many one-dimensional (1D) nonequilibrium systems. Using simulations, we confirm this conjecture in the 1D Kipnis-Marchioro-Presutti model of heat conduction for a wide current interval. The current distribution shows both Gaussian and non-Gaussian regimes, and obeys the Gallavotti-Cohen fluctuation theorem. We verify the existence of a well-defined temperature profile associated to a given current fluctuation. This profile is independent of the sign of the current, and this symmetry extends to higher-order profiles and spatial correlations. We also show that finite-time joint fluctuations of the current and the profile are described by the additivity functional. These results suggest the additivity hypothesis as a general and powerful tool to compute current distributions in many nonequilibrium systems.

  20. Large fluctuations of the macroscopic current in diffusive systems: a numerical test of the additivity principle.

    PubMed

    Hurtado, Pablo I; Garrido, Pedro L

    2010-04-01

    Most systems, when pushed out of equilibrium, respond by building up currents of locally conserved observables. Understanding how microscopic dynamics determines the averages and fluctuations of these currents is one of the main open problems in nonequilibrium statistical physics. The additivity principle is a theoretical proposal that allows to compute the current distribution in many one-dimensional nonequilibrium systems. Using simulations, we validate this conjecture in a simple and general model of energy transport, both in the presence of a temperature gradient and in canonical equilibrium. In particular, we show that the current distribution displays a Gaussian regime for small current fluctuations, as prescribed by the central limit theorem, and non-Gaussian (exponential) tails for large current deviations, obeying in all cases the Gallavotti-Cohen fluctuation theorem. In order to facilitate a given current fluctuation, the system adopts a well-defined temperature profile different from that of the steady state and in accordance with the additivity hypothesis predictions. System statistics during a large current fluctuation is independent of the sign of the current, which implies that the optimal profile (as well as higher-order profiles and spatial correlations) are invariant upon current inversion. We also demonstrate that finite-time joint fluctuations of the current and the profile are well described by the additivity functional. These results suggest the additivity hypothesis as a general and powerful tool to compute current distributions in many nonequilibrium systems.

  1. Large fluctuations of the macroscopic current in diffusive systems: A numerical test of the additivity principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurtado, Pablo I.; Garrido, Pedro L.

    2010-04-01

    Most systems, when pushed out of equilibrium, respond by building up currents of locally conserved observables. Understanding how microscopic dynamics determines the averages and fluctuations of these currents is one of the main open problems in nonequilibrium statistical physics. The additivity principle is a theoretical proposal that allows to compute the current distribution in many one-dimensional nonequilibrium systems. Using simulations, we validate this conjecture in a simple and general model of energy transport, both in the presence of a temperature gradient and in canonical equilibrium. In particular, we show that the current distribution displays a Gaussian regime for small current fluctuations, as prescribed by the central limit theorem, and non-Gaussian (exponential) tails for large current deviations, obeying in all cases the Gallavotti-Cohen fluctuation theorem. In order to facilitate a given current fluctuation, the system adopts a well-defined temperature profile different from that of the steady state and in accordance with the additivity hypothesis predictions. System statistics during a large current fluctuation is independent of the sign of the current, which implies that the optimal profile (as well as higher-order profiles and spatial correlations) are invariant upon current inversion. We also demonstrate that finite-time joint fluctuations of the current and the profile are well described by the additivity functional. These results suggest the additivity hypothesis as a general and powerful tool to compute current distributions in many nonequilibrium systems.

  2. Additional Clarification of Intercollegiate Athletics Policy: Three-Part Test. Part Three

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This Additional Clarification, "User's Guide to Developing Student Interest Surveys Under Title IX" (User's Guide), and related technical report are resources to assist institutions in meeting their compliance obligations. Taken together, they serve to clarify many of the factors OCR will consider under part three, and to facilitate…

  3. Testing a Gender Additive Model: The Role of Body Image in Adolescent Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bearman, Sarah Kate; Stice, Eric

    2008-01-01

    Despite consistent evidence that adolescent girls are at greater risk of developing depression than adolescent boys, risk factor models that account for this difference have been elusive. The objective of this research was to examine risk factors proposed by the "gender additive" model of depression that attempts to partially explain the increased…

  4. 49 CFR 199.111 - Retention of samples and additional testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... request, the sample may be discarded following the end of the 365-day period. (b) If the medical review officer (MRO) determines there is no legitimate medical explanation for a confirmed positive test result... and Human Services. The operator may require the employee to pay in advance the cost of shipment...

  5. Software for Information Storage and Retrieval Tested, Evaluated and Compared: Part VI--Various Additional Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sieverts, Eric G.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Reports on tests evaluating nine microcomputer software packages designed for information storage and retrieval: BRS-Search, dtSearch, InfoBank, Micro-OPC, Q&A, STN-PFS, Strix, TINman, and ZYindex. Tables and narrative evaluations detail results related to security, hardware, user features, search capability, indexing, input, maintenance of files,…

  6. Terahertz imaging and tomography as efficient instruments for testing polymer additive manufacturing objects.

    PubMed

    Perraud, J B; Obaton, A F; Bou-Sleiman, J; Recur, B; Balacey, H; Darracq, F; Guillet, J P; Mounaix, P

    2016-05-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) technology is not only used to make 3D objects but also for rapid prototyping. In industry and laboratories, quality controls for these objects are necessary though difficult to implement compared to classical methods of fabrication because the layer-by-layer printing allows for very complex object manufacturing that is unachievable with standard tools. Furthermore, AM can induce unknown or unexpected defects. Consequently, we demonstrate terahertz (THz) imaging as an innovative method for 2D inspection of polymer materials. Moreover, THz tomography may be considered as an alternative to x-ray tomography and cheaper 3D imaging for routine control. This paper proposes an experimental study of 3D polymer objects obtained by additive manufacturing techniques. This approach allows us to characterize defects and to control dimensions by volumetric measurements on 3D data reconstructed by tomography.

  7. Solubility Testing of Sucrose Esters of Fatty Acids in International Food Additive Specifications.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Yukino; Kawano, Satoko; Motoda, Kenichiro; Tomida, Masaaki; Tatebe, Chiye; Sato, Kyoko; Akiyama, Hiroshi

    2017-03-01

    We investigated the solubility of 10 samples of sucrose esters of fatty acids (SEFA) products that are commercially available worldwide as food additives (emulsifiers). Although one sample dissolved transparently in both water and ethanol, other samples produced white turbidity and/or precipitates and did not meet the solubility criterion established by the Joint Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). When the sample solutions were heated, the solubility in both water and ethanol increased. All of the samples dissolved transparently in ethanol, and dispersed and became white without producing precipitates in water. The present study suggests that the current solubility criterion of the JECFA SEFA specifications needs to be revised.

  8. Neutron measurements of stresses in a test artifact produced by laser-based additive manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Gnäupel-Herold, Thomas; Slotwinski, John; Moylan, Shawn

    2014-02-18

    A stainless steel test artifact produced by Direct Metal Laser Sintering and similar to a proposed standardized test artifact was examined using neutron diffraction. The artifact contained a number of structures with different aspect ratios pertaining to wall thickness, height above base plate, and side length. Through spatial resolutions of the order of one millimeter the volumetric distribution of stresses in several was measured. It was found that the stresses peak in the tensile region around 500 MPa near the top surface, with balancing compressive stresses in the interior. The presence of a support structure (a one millimeter high, thin walled, hence weaker, lattice structure deposited on the base plate, followed by a fully dense AM structure) has only minor effects on the stresses.

  9. A Pilot Test of the Additive Benefits of Physical Exercise to CBT for OCD.

    PubMed

    Rector, Neil A; Richter, Margaret A; Lerman, Bethany; Regev, Rotem

    2015-01-01

    The majority of "responders" to first-line cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) and pharmacological treatments for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are left with residual symptoms that are clinically relevant and disabling. Therefore, there is pressing need for widely accessible efficacious alternative and/or adjunctive treatments for OCD. Accumulating evidence suggests that physical exercise may be one such intervention in the mood and anxiety disorders broadly, although we are aware of only two positive small-scale pilot studies that have tested its clinical benefits in OCD. This pilot study aimed to test the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of adding a structured physical exercise programme to CBT for OCD. A standard CBT group was delivered concurrently with a 12-week customized exercise programme to 11 participants. The exercise regimen was individualized for each participant based on peak heart rate measured using an incremental maximal exercise test. Reports of exercise adherence across the 12-week regimen exceeded 80%. A paired-samples t-test indicated very large treatment effects in Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale scores from pre- to post-treatment in CBT group cohorts led by expert CBT OCD specialists (d = 2.55) and junior CBT clinician non-OCD specialists (d = 2.12). These treatment effects are very large and exceed effects typically observed with individual and group-based CBT for OCD based on leading meta-analytic reviews, as well as previously obtained treatment effects for CBT using the same recruitment protocol without exercise. As such, this pilot work demonstrates the feasibility and significant potential clinical utility of a 12-week aerobic exercise programme delivered in conjunction with CBT for OCD.

  10. Additional Value of CH₄ Measurement in a Combined (13)C/H₂ Lactose Malabsorption Breath Test: A Retrospective Analysis.

    PubMed

    Houben, Els; De Preter, Vicky; Billen, Jaak; Van Ranst, Marc; Verbeke, Kristin

    2015-09-07

    The lactose hydrogen breath test is a commonly used, non-invasive method for the detection of lactose malabsorption and is based on an abnormal increase in breath hydrogen (H₂) excretion after an oral dose of lactose. We use a combined (13)C/H₂ lactose breath test that measures breath (13)CO₂ as a measure of lactose digestion in addition to H₂ and that has a better sensitivity and specificity than the standard test. The present retrospective study evaluated the results of 1051 (13)C/H₂ lactose breath tests to assess the impact on the diagnostic accuracy of measuring breath CH₄ in addition to H₂ and (13)CO₂. Based on the (13)C/H₂ breath test, 314 patients were diagnosed with lactase deficiency, 138 with lactose malabsorption or small bowel bacterial overgrowth (SIBO), and 599 with normal lactose digestion. Additional measurement of CH₄ further improved the accuracy of the test as 16% subjects with normal lactose digestion and no H₂-excretion were found to excrete CH₄. These subjects should have been classified as subjects with lactose malabsorption or SIBO. In conclusion, measuring CH₄-concentrations has an added value to the (13)C/H₂ breath test to identify methanogenic subjects with lactose malabsorption or SIBO.

  11. Core-shell column Tanaka characterization and additional tests using active pharmaceutical ingredients.

    PubMed

    Ludvigsson, Jufang Wu; Karlsson, Anders; Kjellberg, Viktor

    2016-12-01

    In the last decade, core-shell particles have gained more and more attention in fast liquid chromatography separations due to their comparable performance with fully porous sub-2 μm particles and their significantly lower back pressure. Core-shell particles are made of a solid core surrounded by a shell of classic fully porous material. To embrace the developed core-shell column market and use these columns in pharmaceutical analytical applications, 17 core-shell C18 columns purchased from various vendors with various dimensions (50 mm × 2.1 mm to 100 mm × 3 mm) and particle sizes (1.6-2.7 μm) were characterized using Tanaka test protocols. Furthermore, four selected active pharmaceutical ingredients were chosen as test probes to investigate the batch to batch reproducibility for core-shell columns of particle size 2.6-2.7 μm, with dimension of 100 × 3 mm and columns of particle size 1.6 μm, with dimension 100 × 2.1 mm under isocratic elution. Columns of particle size 2.6-2.7 μm were also tested under gradient elution conditions. To confirm the claimed comparable efficiency of 2.6 μm core-shell particles as sub-2 μm fully porous particles, column performances of the selected core-shell columns were compared with BEH C18 , 1.7 μm, a fully porous column material as well.

  12. Formalin treatments pass new tests. Additional notes on the control of ecto-parasitic protozoa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    1940-01-01

    After the completion of the eхреriments reported recently, in which the efficacy of formalin in controlling infections of Gostia mecatrix was demonstrated, the author was afforded an opportunity to test the value of formalin solutions in combatting established mixed infections of (Gyrodactylus, Tricbodina, Cyclochaeta) and a stalked protozoan on rainbow trout fingerlings. This opportunity was provided through the courtesy and cooperation of Clarence F. Pautzke, Chief Biologist for the Washington State Game Department, and Lee Walters, Superintendent of the Washington State Hatchery at Seward Park, Seattle.

  13. Electronics Manufacturer Provided With Testing and Evaluation Data Necessary to Obtain Additional Orders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    A local electronics manufacturer, the Sterling Manufacturing Company, was presented with the opportunity to supply 30,000 automotive cellular antennas to a European subsidiary of a large U.S. auto manufacturer. Although the company built an antenna that they believed would meet the auto manufacturer's specifications, they were unable to conduct the necessary validation tests in-house. They decided to work with NASA Lewis Research Center's Space Electronics Division, which, as part of its technology development program, evaluates the performance of antennas in its Microwave Systems Lab to assess their capabilities for space communications applications. Data measured in Lewis' Microwave Systems Lab proved that Sterling's antenna performed better than specified by the auto manufacturer.

  14. Additional testing of the inlets designed for a tandem fan V/STOL nacelle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ybarra, A. H.

    1981-01-01

    The wind tunnel testing of a scale model of a tandem fan nacelle designed for a type (subsonic cruise) V/STOL aircraft configuration is discussed. The performance for the isolated front inlet and for the combined front and aft inlets is reported. Model variables include front and aft inlets with aft inlet variations of short and long aft inlet cowls, with a shaft simulator and diffuser vortex generators, cowl lip fillets, and nacelle strakes. Inlet pressure recovery, distortion, and inlet angle-to-attack separation limits were evaluated at tunnel velocity from 0 to 240 knots, angles-of-attack from -10 to +40 degrees and inlet flow rates corresponding to throat Mach number from 0.0 to 0.6. Combined nacelle pitch and yaw runs up to 30 deg. were also made.

  15. Influence of compost addition on lead and arsenic bioavailability in reclaimed orchard soil assessed using Porcellio scaber bioaccumulation test.

    PubMed

    Udovic, M; McBride, M B

    2012-02-29

    Long-term application of lead arsenate in orchards has led to a significant accumulation of Pb and As in the topsoil. Reclamation of old orchards for agricultural purposes entails the exposure of humans to Pb and As, which can be reduced by adequate remediation actions. In this study, we assessed the remediation efficiency of compost addition, commonly used as a sustainable agricultural practice, in decreasing the human exposure Pb and As by direct ingestion. The remediation was evaluated based on Pb and As bioavailability, assessed by means of a selective non-exhaustive chemical extraction (modified Morgan extraction, MME), with a physiologically based extraction test (PBET) for the assessment of Pb and As bioavailability in ingested soils and with a novel in vivo bioaccumulation test with isopods (Porcellio scaber). All the tests showed that compost addition consistently reduced Pb, but increased As potential bioavailability. The bioaccumulation test with P. scaber was sensitive to changes in Pb and As bioavailability in test soils. However, the results indicate that the bioavailability of As could be under- or overestimated using solely chemical extraction tests. Indirect assessment of trace metal bioavailability with bioaccumulation in isopods can be used as complementary source of data to the existing in vitro chemical extraction test approach for the estimation of human exposure to trace elements in polluted and remediated soil. This is the first report on the use of As accumulation in P. scaber as a tool for the assessment of As bioavailability in contaminated orchard soil.

  16. Testing the Addition of Topographic Features for Field Scale Infiltration Excess Water Quality Modeling in SWAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collick, A.; Easton, Z. M.; Kleinman, P. J. A.; Sommerlot, A.; White, M. J.; Harmel, D.; Fuka, D.

    2014-12-01

    Watershed planners and managers need reliable tools that can capture the spatial and temporal complexity of agricultural landscapes, and water quality models are increasingly relied upon to represent P loss from agricultural watersheds. While a significant amount of modeling work has attempted to incorporate factors controlling P loss (e.g. representing solubility, manure types, timing and application type), these models still typically require significant calibration and are thus difficult to apply meaningfully in areas without copious data with which to calibrate. This is partially because these models were never really intended as field scale tools, while we are trying to use them to define different hydrologic pathways, area weighted potential energy (slopes and saturated conductivities), and the resulting lag time of P in different transport states. The movement of water within the landscape as surface (or near-surface) storm runoff and interflow is driven by gravity, topography, contributing area and soil and landuse characteristics, which play roles in concentrating water flows. Soil surveys have played a key role in the development of pedology and spatially derived pedon soil maps have become valuable datasets for natural resource management. Unfortunately, the soil surveys, commonly available at ~1:20,000 scale, are not designed to provide the high-resolution models of the soil continuum required in field scale environmental modeling applications and site specific crop and water quality management. The goal of this project is to test a methodology designed initially for representing saturation excess hydrology in the SWAT model to incorporate topographic attributes, and resulting spatially explicit soil morphology, that are missing from standard SWAT model initializations.

  17. Laboratory endurance testing of a 25/75 sunflower oil-diesel fuel blend treated with fuel additives

    SciTech Connect

    Ziejewski, M.; Kaufman, K.R.; Tupa, R.C.

    1984-02-01

    The engine performance and durability effects of a barium smoke suppressant additive, Lubrizol 565, and an ashless polymeric additive, Lubrizol 552, in a 25-75 blend (v/v) of alkali refined sunflower oil with diesel fuel were investigated. The study was performed on a direct injected, turbocharged, and intercooled diesel engine. These additives were tested in an attempt to reduce carbon buildup problems observed while using an untreated 25-75 blend of sunflower oil and diesel fuel. Compared to the engine tests on the untreated 25-75 mixture, the barium smoke suppressant additive proved effective in cleaning the inside of injection nozzles (no needle sticking, no carbon build-up inside the orifices), reducing diesel exhaust smoke, and increasing engine power output. However, there was increased residue accumulation in the combustion chamber and on the exterior of the injection nozzle tips. The ashless dispersant additive also improved nozzle cleanliness but did not demonstrate any effect on engine power or cause excessive carbon buildup on the nozzle tips, top of the pistons, and cylinder head. The Lubrizol 552 dispersant looks very promising as an additive for vegetable oil diesel fuel blends for controlling excessive carbon and lacquer deposits.

  18. A conservative method of testing whether combination analgesics produce additive or synergistic effects using evidence from acute pain and migraine.

    PubMed

    Moore, R A; Derry, C J; Derry, S; Straube, S; McQuay, H J

    2012-04-01

    Fixed-dose combination analgesics are used widely, and available both on prescription and over-the-counter. Combination drugs should provide more analgesia than with any single drug in the combination, but there is no evidence in humans about whether oral combinations have just additive effects, or are synergistic or even subadditive. We suggest that the measured result for the combination would be the summation of the absolute benefit increase (effect of active drug minus effect of placebo) of each component of a combination if effects were (merely) additive, and greater than the sum of the absolute benefits if they were synergistic. We tested measured effects of combination analgesics against the sum of the absolute benefits in acute pain and migraine using meta-analysis where individual components and combinations were tested against placebo in the same trials, and verified the result with meta-analyses where individual components and combinations were tested against placebo in different trials. Results showed that expected numbers needed to treat (NNT) for additive effects were generally within the 95% confidence interval of measured NNTs. This was true for combinations of paracetamol plus ibuprofen and paracetamol plus opioids in acute pain, and naproxen plus sumatriptan in migraine, but not where efficacy was very low or very high, nor combinations of paracetamol plus dextropropoxyphene. There was no evidence of synergy, defined as supra-additive effects.

  19. The life closure scale: additional psychometric testing of a tool to measure psychological adaptation in death and dying.

    PubMed

    Dobratz, Marjorie C

    2004-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct additional psychometric testing on an instrument designed to measure psychological adaptation in end-of-life populations across a wide spectrum of terminal illnesses. A sample of 20 participants completed initial testing of the Life Closure Scale (LCS); however, its usefulness was limited by the small sample size. A larger sample of 113 home hospice individuals who met established criteria and who gave informed consent completed the 27-item LCS for additional psychometric testing. Cronbach's alphas and correlation coefficients were computed, and factor analysis was conducted to establish internal consistency reliability, theoretical clarity, and criterion-related validity. The number of scale items was reduced to 20, with a total alpha of.87. Cronbach's alphas for the two subscales were.80 (self-reconciled) and.82 (self-restructuring). Item-total correlations for the subscales ranged from a low of.37 to a high of.68, with confirmatory factor analysis yielding two loadings. These findings lend credence to the usefulness of the LCS in measuring psychological adaptation in dying persons.

  20. Some arguments in favor of a Myriophyllum aquaticum growth inhibition test in a water-sediment system as an additional test in risk assessment of herbicides.

    PubMed

    Tunić, Tanja; Knežević, Varja; Kerkez, Đurđa; Tubić, Aleksandra; Šunjka, Dragana; Lazić, Sanja; Brkić, Dragica; Teodorović, Ivana

    2015-09-01

    The present study compares the practicability, reproducibility, power, and sensitivity of a Myriophyllum aquaticum growth inhibition test in a water-sediment system with the recently accepted Myriophyllum spicatum test in an equivalent testing system and the standard Lemna sp. test. Special consideration was given to endpoints based on M. aquaticum control plant growth and variability of relative growth rate and yield: shoot length, fresh weight, dry weight, and root weight. Sensitivity analysis was based on tests performed with 3,5-dichlorophenol, atrazine, isoproturon, trifluralin, 2,4-dichlorophenoloxyacetic acid, and dicamba. Growth rates for average M. aquaticum control plants were 0.119 d(-1) and 0.112 d(-1), with average estimated doubling time 6.33 d and 6.74 d for relative growth rate fresh weight and shoot length, respectively. Intrinsic variability of M. aquaticum endpoints was low: 12.9%, 12.5%, and 17.8% for relative growth rate shoot length, relative growth rate fresh weight and yield fresh weight, respectively. The power of the test was fairly high. When the most sensitive endpoints were used for comparison, the 2 Myriophyllum species were similarly sensitive, more sensitive (in the case of auxin simulators), or at least equally sensitive as Lemna minor to other tested herbicides. The M. aquaticum 10-d test with a 7-d exposure period in a water-sediment system has acceptable sensitivity and can provide repeatable, reliable, and reproducible results; therefore, it should not be disregarded as a good and representative additional test in environmental risk assessment.

  1. Stabilization of inorganic mixed waste to pass the TCLP and STLC tests using clay and pH-insensitive additives

    SciTech Connect

    Bowers, J.S.; Anson, J.R.; Painter, S.M.

    1995-12-31

    Stabilization is a best demonstrated available technology, or BDAT. This technology traps toxic contaminants in a matrix so that they do not leach into the environment. The stabilization process routinely uses pozzolanic materials. Portland cement, fly ash-lime mixes, gypsum cements, and clays are some of the most common materials. In many instances, materials that can pass the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP the federal leach test) or the Soluble Threshold Leachate Concentration (STLC the California leach test) must have high concentrations of lime or other caustic material because of the low pH of the leaching media. Both leaching media, California`s and EPA`s, have a pH of 5.0. California uses citric acid and sodium citrate while EPA uses acetic acid and sodium acetate. The concentration in the leachate is approximately ten times higher for the STLC procedure than the TCLP. These media can form ligands that provide excellent metal leaching. Because of the aggressive nature of the leaching medium, stabilized wastes in many cases will not pass the leaching tests. At the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), additives such as dithiocarbamates and thiocarbonates, which are pH-insensitive and provide resistance to ligand formation, are used in the waste stabilization process. Attapulgite, montmorillonite, and sepiolite clays are used because they are forgiving (recipe can be adjusted before the matrix hardens) when formulating a stabilization matrix, and they have a neutral pH. By using these clays and additives, LLNL`s highly concentrated wastewater treatment sludges have passed the TCLP and STLC tests. The most frequently used stabilization process consists of a customized recipe involving waste sludge, clay and dithiocarbamate salt, mixed with a double planetary mixer into a pasty consistency. TCLP and STLC data on this waste matrix have shown that the process matrix meets land disposal requirements.

  2. High SO{sub 2} removal efficiency testing. Topical report - results of sodium formate additive tests at New York State Electric & Gas Corporation`s Kintigh Station

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, J.

    1997-02-14

    Tests were conducted at New York State Gas & Electric`s (NYSEG`s) Kintigh Station to evaluate options for achieving high sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) removal efficiency in the wet limestone flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system. This test program was one of six conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy to evaluate low-capital-cost upgrades to existing FGD systems as a means for utilities to comply with the requirements of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. The upgrade option tested at Kintigh was sodium formate additive. Results from the tests were used to calibrate the Electric Power Research Institute`s (EPRI) FGD PRocess Integration and Simulation Model (FGDPRISM) to the Kintigh scrubber configuration. FGDPRISM was then used to predict system performance for evaluating conditions other than those tested. An economic evaluation was then done to determine the cost effectiveness of various high-efficiency upgrade options. These costs can be compared with the estimated market value of SO{sub 2} allowance or the expected costs of allowances generated by other means, such as fuel switching or new scrubbers, to arrive at the most cost-effective strategy for Clean Air Act compliance.

  3. Power of screening tests for colorectal cancer enhanced by high levels of M2-PK in addition to FOBT.

    PubMed

    Zaccaro, Cristina; Saracino, Ilaria Maria; Fiorini, Giulia; Figura, Natale; Holton, John; Castelli, Valentina; Pesci, Valeria; Gatta, Luigi; Vaira, Dino

    2017-02-02

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a multistep process that involves adenoma-carcinoma sequence. CRC can be prevented by routine screening, which can detect precancerous lesions. The aim of this study is to clarify whether faecal occult blood test (i-FOBT), tumor M2 pyruvate kinase (t-M2-PK), and endocannabinoid system molecules (cannabinoid receptors type 1-CB1, type 2-CB2, and fatty acid amide hydrolase-FAAH) might represent better diagnostic tools, alone or in combination, for an early diagnosis of CRC. An immunochemical FOB test (i-FOBT) and quantitative ELISA stool test for t-M2-PK were performed in 127 consecutive patients during a 12 month period. Endocannabinoid system molecules and t-M2-PK expression were detected by immunostaining in healthy tissues and normal mucosa surrounding adenomatous and cancerous colon lesions. i-FOBT and t-M2-PK combination leads to a better diagnostic accuracy for pre-neoplastic and neoplastic colon lesions. T-M2-PK quantification in stool samples and in biopsy samples (immunostaining) correlates with tumourigenesis stages. CB1 and CB2 are well expressed in healthy tissues, and their expression decreases in the presence of advanced stages of carcinogenesis and disappears in CRC. FAAH signal is well expressed in normal mucosa and low-risk adenoma, and increased in high-risk adenoma and carcinoma adjacent tissues. This study shows that high levels of t-M2-PK in addition to FOBT enhance the power of a CRC screening test. Endocannabinoid system molecule expression correlates with colon carcinogenesis stages. Developing future faecal tests for their quantification must be undertaken to obtain a more accurate early non-invasive diagnosis for CRC.

  4. Interfacial Reactions of Zn-Al Alloys with Na Addition on Cu Substrate During Spreading Test and After Aging Treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gancarz, Tomasz; Pstruś, Janusz; Berent, Katarzyna

    2016-08-01

    Spreading tests for Cu substrate with Zn-Al eutectic-based alloys with 0.2, 0.5, and 1.0 wt.% of Na were studied using the sessile drop method in the presence of QJ201 flux. Spreading tests were performed for 1, 3, 8, 15, 30, and 60 min of contact, at the temperatures of 475, 500, 525, and 550 °C. After cleaning the flux residue from solidified samples, the spreading area of Zn-Al + Na on Cu was determined in accordance with ISO 9455-10:2013-03. Selected, solidified solder-substrate couples were cross-sectioned and subjected to scanning electron microscopy of the interfacial microstructure. The experiment was designed to demonstrate the effect of Na addition on the kinetics of formation and growth of CuZn, Cu5Zn8, and CuZn4 phases, which were identified using x-ray diffraction and energy-dispersive spectroscopy analysis. The addition of Na to eutectic Zn-Al caused the spreading area to decrease and the thickness of intermetallic compound layers at the interface to reduce. Samples after the spreading test at 500 °C for 1 min were subjected to aging for 1, 10, and 30 days at 120,170, and 250 °C. The greater thicknesses of IMC layers were obtained for a temperature of 250 °C. With increasing Na content in Zn-Al + Na alloys, the thickness reduced, which correlates to the highest value of activation energy for Zn-Al with 1% Na.

  5. High SO{sub 2} removal efficiency testing: Results of DBA and sodium formate additive tests at Southwestern Electric Power company`s Pirkey Station

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-30

    Tests were conducted at Southwestern Electric Power Company`s (SWEPCo) Henry W. Pirkey Station wet limestone flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system to evaluate options for achieving high sulfur dioxide removal efficiency. The Pirkey FGD system includes four absorber modules, each with dual slurry recirculation loops and with a perforated plate tray in the upper loop. The options tested involved the use of dibasic acid (DBA) or sodium formate as a performance additive. The effectiveness of other potential options was simulated with the Electric Power Research Institute`s (EPRI) FGD PRocess Integration and Simulation Model (FGDPRISM) after it was calibrated to the system. An economic analysis was done to determine the cost effectiveness of the high-efficiency options. Results are-summarized below.

  6. Assessment of diurnal systemic dose of agrochemicals in regulatory toxicity testing--an integrated approach without additional animal use.

    PubMed

    Saghir, Shakil A; Bartels, Michael J; Rick, David L; McCoy, Alene T; Rasoulpour, Reza J; Ellis-Hutchings, Robert G; Sue Marty, M; Terry, Claire; Bailey, Jason P; Billington, Richard; Bus, James S

    2012-07-01

    Integrated toxicokinetics (TK) data provide information on the rate, extent and duration of systemic exposure across doses, species, strains, gender, and life stages within a toxicology program. While routine for pharmaceuticals, TK assessments of non-pharmaceuticals are still relatively rare, and have never before been included in a full range of guideline studies for a new agrochemical. In order to better understand the relationship between diurnal systemic dose (AUC(24h)) and toxicity of agrochemicals, TK analyses in the study animals is now included in all short- (excluding acute), medium- and long-term guideline mammalian toxicity studies including reproduction/developmental tests. This paper describes a detailed procedure for the implementation of TK in short-, medium- and long-term regulatory toxicity studies, without the use of satellite animals, conducted on three agrochemicals (X11422208, 2,4-D and X574175). In these studies, kinetically-derived maximum doses (KMD) from short-term studies instead of, or along with, maximum tolerated doses (MTD) were used for the selection of the high dose in subsequent longer-term studies. In addition to leveraging TK data to guide dose level selection, the integrated program was also used to select the most appropriate method of oral administration (i.e., gavage versus dietary) of test materials for rat and rabbit developmental toxicity studies. The integrated TK data obtained across toxicity studies (without the use of additional/satellite animals) provided data critical to understanding differences in response across doses, species, strains, sexes, and life stages. Such data should also be useful in mode of action studies and to improve human risk assessments.

  7. Stabilization of inorganic mixed waste to pass the TCLP and STLC tests using clay and pH-insensitive additives

    SciTech Connect

    Bowers, J.S.; Anson, S.M.; Painter, S.M.

    1995-09-01

    Stabilization is a best demonstrated available technology, or BDAT, as defined by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in Title 40, part 268, of the Code of Federal Regulations (40 CFR 268). This technology traps toxic contaminants (usually both chemically and physically) in a matrix so that they do not. leach into the environment. Typical contaminants that are trapped by stabilization are metals (mostly transition metals) that exhibit the characteristic of toxicity as defined by 40 CFR part 261. The stabilization process routinely uses pozzolanic materials. Portland cement, fly ash-lime mixes, gypsum cements, and clays are some of the most common materials. They are inexpensive, easy to use, and effective for wastes containing low concentrations of toxic materials. At the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), additives such as dithiocarbamates and thiocarbonates, which are pH-insensitive and provide resistance to ligand formation are used in the waste stabilization process. Attapulgite, montmorillonite, and sepiolite clays are used because they are forgiving (recipe can be adjusted before the matrix hardens) when formulating a stabilization matrix, and they have a neutral pH. By using these clays and additives, LLNL`s highly concentrated wastewater treatment sludges have passed the TCLP and STLC tests. The most frequently used stabilization process consists of a customized recipe involving waste sludge, clay and dithiocarbamate salt, mixed with a double planetary mixer into a pasty consistency. TCLP and STLC data on this waste matrix have shown that the process matrix meets land disposal requirements.

  8. Stabilization of inorganic mixed waste to pass the TCLP and STLC tests using clay and pH-insensitive additives

    SciTech Connect

    Bowers, J.S.; Anson, J.R.; Painter, S.M.; Maitino, R.E.

    1995-03-01

    Stabilization traps toxic contaminants (usually both chemically and physically) in a matrix so that they do not leach into the environment. Typical contaminants are metals (mostly transition metals) that exhibit the characteristic of toxicity. The stabilization process routinely uses pozzolanic materials. Portland cement, fly ash-lime mixes, gypsum cements, and clays are some of the most common materials. In many instances, materials that can pass the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP-the federal leach test) or the Soluble Threshold Leachate Concentration (STLC-the California leach test) must have high concentrations of lime or other caustic material because of the low pH of the leaching media. Both leaching media, California`s and EPA`s, have a pH of 5.0. California uses citric acid and sodium citrate while EPA uses acetic acid and sodium acetate. These media can form ligands that provide excellent metal leaching. Because of the aggressive nature of the leaching medium, stabilized wastes in many cases will not pass the leaching tests. At the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, additives such as dithiocarbamates and thiocarbonates, which are pH-insensitive and provide resistance to ligand formation, are used in the waste stabilization process. Attapulgite, montmorillonite, and sepiolite clays are used because they are forgiving (recipe can be adjusted before the matrix hardens). The most frequently used stabilization process consists of a customized recipe involving waste sludge, clay and dithiocarbamate salt, mixed with a double planetary mixer into a pasty consistency. TCLP and STLC data on this waste matrix have shown that the process matrix meets land disposal requirements.

  9. Topical report: Natural convection shutdown heat removal test facility (NSTF) evaluation for generating additional reactor cavity cooling system (RCCS) data.

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, M. T.; Kilsdonk, D. J.; Tzanos, C.P.; Lomperski, S.; Aeschlimann, R.W.; Pointer, D.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2005-09-01

    As part of the Department of Energy (DOE) Generation IV roadmapping activity, the Very High Temperature gas cooled Reactor (VHTR) has been selected as the principal concept for hydrogen production and other process-heat applications such as district heating and potable water production. On this basis, the DOE has selected the VHTR for additional R&D with the ultimate goal of demonstrating emission-free electricity and hydrogen production with this advanced reactor concept. One of the key passive safety features of the VHTR is the potential for decay heat removal by natural circulation of air in a Reactor Cavity Cooling System (RCCS). The air-cooled RCCS concept is notably similar to the Reactor Vessel Auxiliary Cooling System (RVACS) that was developed for the General Electric PRISM sodium-cooled fast reactor. As part of the DOE R&D program that supported the development of this fast reactor concept, the Natural Convection Shutdown Heat Removal Test Facility (NSTF) was developed at ANL to provide proof-of-concept data for the RVACS under prototypic natural convection flow, temperature, and heat flux conditions. Due to the similarity between RVACS and the RCCS, current VHTR R&D plans call for the utilization of the NSTF to provide RCCS model development and validation data, in addition to supporting design validation and optimization activities. Both air-cooled and water-cooled RCCS designs are to be included. In support of this effort, ANL has been tasked with the development of an engineering plan for mechanical and instrumentation modifications to NSTF to ensure that sufficiently detailed temperature, heat flux, velocity and turbulence profiles are obtained to adequately qualify the codes under the expected range of air-cooled RCCS flow conditions. Next year, similar work will be carried out for the alternative option of a water-cooled RCCS design. Analysis activities carried out in support of this experiment planning task have shown that: (a) in the RCCS, strong

  10. Influence of Li Addition to Zn-Al Alloys on Cu Substrate During Spreading Test and After Aging Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gancarz, Tomasz; Pstrus, Janusz; Cempura, Grzegorz; Berent, Katarzyna

    2016-12-01

    The spreading of Zn-Al eutectic-based alloys with 0.05 wt.%, 0.1 wt.%, and 0.2 wt.% Li on Cu substrate has been studied using the sessile drop method in presence of QJ201 flux. Wetting tests were performed after 1 min, 3 min, 8 min, 15 min, 30 min, and 60 min of contact at temperatures of 475°C, 500°C, 525°C, and 550°C. Samples after spreading at 500°C for 1 min were subjected to aging for 1 day, 10 days, and 30 days at temperature of 120°C, 170°C, and 250°C. The spreadability of eutectic Zn-5.3Al alloy with different Li contents on Cu substrate was determined in accordance with ISO 9455-10:2013-03. Selected solidified solder-substrate couples were, after spreading and aging tests, cross-sectioned and subjected to scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of the interfacial microstructure. An experiment was designed to demonstrate the effect of Li addition on the kinetics of the formation and growth of CuZn, Cu5Zn8, and CuZn4 intermetallic compound (IMC) phases, during spreading and aging. The IMC layers formed at the interface were identified using XRD and EDS analyses. Increasing addition of Li to Zn-Al alloy caused a reduction in the thickness of the IMC layer at the interface during spreading, and an increase during aging. The activation energy was calculated, being found to increase for the Cu5Zn8 phase but decrease for the CuZn and CuZn4 phases with increasing Li content in the Zn-Al-Li alloys. The highest value of 142 kJ mol-1 was obtained for Zn-Al with 1.0 Li during spreading and 69.2 kJ mol-1 for Zn-Al with 0.05 Li during aging. Aging at 250°C caused an increase in only the Cu5Zn8 layer, which has the lowest Gibbs energy in the Cu-Zn system. This result is connected to the high diffusion of Cu from the substrate to the solder.

  11. Effects of Factor XIII Deficiency on Thromboelastography. Thromboelastography with Calcium and Streptokinase Addition is more Sensitive than Solubility Tests

    PubMed Central

    Martinuzzo, M.; Barrera, L.; Altuna, D.; Baña, F. Tisi; Bieti, J.; Amigo, Q.; D’Adamo, M.; López, M.S.; Oyhamburu, J.; Otaso, J.C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Homozygous or double heterozygous factor XIII (FXIII) deficiency is characterized by soft tissue hematomas, intracranial and delayed spontaneous bleeding. Alterations of thromboelastography (TEG) parameters in these patients have been reported. The aim of the study was to show results of TEG, TEG Lysis (Lys 60) induced by subthreshold concentrations of streptokinase (SK), and to compare them to the clot solubility studies results in samples of a 1-year-old girl with homozygous or double heterozygous FXIII deficiency. Case A year one girl with a history of bleeding from the umbilical cord. During her first year of life, several hematomas appeared in soft upper limb tissue after punctures for vaccination and a gluteal hematoma. One additional sample of a heterozygous patient and three samples of acquired FXIII deficiency were also evaluated. Materials and Methods Clotting tests, von Willebrand factor (vWF) antigen and activity, plasma FXIII-A subunit (pFXIII-A) were measured by an immunoturbidimetric assay in a photo-optical coagulometer. Solubility tests were performed with Ca2+-5 M urea and thrombin-2% acetic acid. Basal and post-FXIII concentrate infusion samples were studied. TEG was performed with CaCl2 or CaCl2 + SK (3.2 U/mL) in a Thromboelastograph. Results Prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), thrombin time, fibrinogen, factor VIIIc, vWF, and platelet aggregation were normal. Antigenic pFXIII-A subunit was < 2%. TEG, evaluated at diagnosis and post FXIII concentrate infusion (pFXIII-A= 37%), presented a normal reaction time (R), 8 min, prolonged k (14 and 11min respectively), a low Maximum-Amplitude (MA) ( 39 and 52 mm respectively), and Clot Lysis (Lys60) slightly increased (23 and 30% respectively). In the sample at diagnosis, clot solubility was abnormal, 50 and 45 min with Ca-Urea and thrombin-acetic acid, respectively, but normal (>16 hours) 1-day post-FXIII infusion. Analysis of FXIII deficient and normal

  12. 77 FR 29307 - Control of Alcohol and Drug Use: Addition of Post-Accident Toxicological Testing for Non...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-17

    ... routinely tests only for alcohol and controlled substances. At this time, FRA intends to add two types of..., FRA intends to add testing for two types of non-controlled substances (tramadol (a synthetic opioid... anithistamines are usually taken as OTC drugs. Adding testing for these types of non-controlled substances to...

  13. TESTING FOR ADDITIVITY IN THE LOW DOSE REGION OF AN ENVIRONMENTALLY RELEVANT MIXTURE OF 18 OLYHALOGENATED AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    A common default assumption in risk assessment of chemical mixtures is that the chemicals combine additively in the low dose region. Under additivity, with information from single chemical dose-response data, the risk associated with the mixture can be estimated. The objective ...

  14. An Evaluation of the Additional Acoustic Power Needed to Overcome the Effects of a Test-Articles Absorption During Reverberant Chamber Acoustic Testing of Spaceflight Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hozman, Aron D.; Hughes, William O.

    2014-01-01

    It is important to realize that some test-articles may have significant sound absorption that may challenge the acoustic power capabilities of a test facility. Therefore, to mitigate this risk of not being able to meet the customers target spectrum, it is prudent to demonstrate early-on an increased acoustic power capability which compensates for this test-article absorption. This paper describes a concise method to reduce this risk when testing aerospace test-articles which have significant absorption. This method was successfully applied during the SpaceX Falcon 9 Payload Fairing acoustic test program at the NASA Glenn Research Center Plum Brook Stations RATF.

  15. Thermal Stability Testing of Fischer-Tropsch Fuel and Various Blends with Jet A, as Well as Aromatic Blend Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klettlinger, J.; Rich, R.; Yen, C.; Surgenor, A.

    2011-01-01

    Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) jet fuel composition differs from petroleum-based, conventional commercial jet fuel because of differences in feedstock and production methodology. Fischer-Tropsch fuel typically has a lower aromatic and sulfur content and consists primarily of iso and normal parafins. The ASTM D3241 specification for Jet Fuel Thermal Oxidation Test (JFTOT) break point testing method was used to test the breakpoint of a baseline conventional Jet A, a commercial grade F-T jet fuel, and various blends of this F-T fuel in Jet A. The testing completed in this report was supported by the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Subsonics Fixed Wing Project.

  16. [Strabogenesis in case of low hypermetropia, in addition a simple comparison test to detect aniseikonia (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Kettesy, A

    1979-01-01

    Author attempts to explain the rise of infantile convergent squint, when the hypermetropia is less than 3,5 diopter. In such cases the low hypermetropia is relative in the sense of Donders, because a sometimes isometropic aniseikonia prevents the fusion. To examine the aniseikonia he recommands a very simple procedure, the comparison test, carried out joined to the cover test.

  17. An Evaluation of the Additional Acoustic Power Needed to Overcome the Effects of a Test-Article's Absorption during Reverberant Chamber Acoustic Testing of Spaceflight Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hozman, Aron D.; Hughes, William O.

    2014-01-01

    The exposure of a customers aerospace test-article to a simulated acoustic launch environment is typically performed in a reverberant acoustic test chamber. The acoustic pre-test runs that will ensure that the sound pressure levels of this environment can indeed be met by a test facility are normally performed without a test-article dynamic simulator of representative acoustic absorption and size. If an acoustic test facilitys available acoustic power capability becomes maximized with the test-article installed during the actual test then the customers environment requirement may become compromised. In order to understand the risk of not achieving the customers in-tolerance spectrum requirement with the test-article installed, an acoustic power margin evaluation as a function of frequency may be performed by the test facility. The method for this evaluation of acoustic power will be discussed in this paper. This method was recently applied at the NASA Glenn Research Center Plum Brook Stations Reverberant Acoustic Test Facility for the SpaceX Falcon 9 Payload Fairing acoustic test program.

  18. An Evaluation of the Additional Acoustic Power Needed to Overcome the Effects of a Test-Article's Absorption During Reverberant Chamber Acoustic Testing of Spaceflight Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hozman, Aron D.; Hughes, William O.

    2014-01-01

    The exposure of a customer's aerospace test-article to a simulated acoustic launch environment is typically performed in a reverberant acoustic test chamber. The acoustic pre-test runs that will ensure that the sound pressure levels of this environment can indeed be met by a test facility are normally performed without a test-article dynamic simulator of representative acoustic absorption and size. If an acoustic test facility's available acoustic power capability becomes maximized with the test-article installed during the actual test then the customer's environment requirement may become compromised. In order to understand the risk of not achieving the customer's in-tolerance spectrum requirement with the test-article installed, an acoustic power margin evaluation as a function of frequency may be performed by the test facility. The method for this evaluation of acoustic power will be discussed in this paper. This method was recently applied at the NASA Glenn Research Center Plum Brook Station's Reverberant Acoustic Test Facility for the SpaceX Falcon 9 Payload Fairing acoustic test program.

  19. 29 CFR Appendix B to Subpart I of... - General Testing Conditions and Additional Guidelines for Personal Fall Protection Systems (Non...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... wire lanyard of sufficient length may need to be added to the system (for test purposes) to create the... waistband with the belt buckle drawn firmly against the weight, as when the belt is worn by a window...

  20. Development and Qualification of a Specialized Gas Turbine Test Stand to Research the Potential Benefits of Nanocatalyst Fuel Additives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-01

    71 ix LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1. Activation Energy Affect on Residence Time (from Davis...altered on a molecular level in order to achieve higher catalytic energies or increase operating ranges. The use of nanocatalysts as a means of...stored fuel. Anti- oxidants can also act to inhibit the formation of peroxide compounds. 3. Static dissipater additives reduce the effects of static

  1. Determining a Robust D-Optimal Design for Testing for Departure from Additivity in a Mixture of Four Perfluoroalkyl Acids.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Our objective is to determine an optimal experimental design for a mixture of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) that is robust to the assumption of additivity. PFAAs are widely used in consumer products and industrial applications. The presence and persistence of PFAAs, especially in ...

  2. DETERMINING A ROBUST D-OPTIMAL DESIGN FOR TESTING FOR DEPARTURE FROM ADDITIVITY IN A MIXTURE OF FOUR PFAAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Our objective was to determine an optimal experimental design for a mixture of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) that is robust to the assumption of additivity. Of particular focus to this research project is whether an environmentally relevant mixture of four PFAAs with long half-liv...

  3. 78 FR 14217 - Control of Alcohol and Drug Use: Addition of Post-Accident Toxicological Testing for Non...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-05

    ... Appendix B to 49 CFR part 219 to designate Quest Diagnostics in Tucker, Georgia as its post-accident... text of Sec. 219.211(b) as proposed in the NPRM to limit the reporting of post- accident testing... upon request. See Sec. 219.211(f) and (h).) Except for these limited circumstances, all...

  4. 29 CFR Appendix B to Subpart I of... - General Testing Conditions and Additional Guidelines for Personal Fall Protection Systems (Non...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... deflection greater than .04 inches (1 cm) when a force of 2,250 pounds (10.01 Kn) is applied. (3) The... strength and force tests should be a rigid, metal cylindrical or torso-shaped object with a girth of 38... appreciable motion imparted to it. (7) The system's performance should be evaluated, taking into account...

  5. Evaluation of a weighted test in the analysis of ordinal gait scores in an additivity model for five OP pesticides.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Appropriate statistical analyses are critical for evaluating interactions of mixtures with a common mode of action, as is often the case for cumulative risk assessments. Our objective is to develop analyses for use when a response variable is ordinal, and to test for interaction...

  6. Testing of LiAlH4 as a Potential Additive to Paraffin Wax Hybrid Rocket Fuel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-10-30

    Paraffin Wax Hybrid Rocket Fuel Sb . GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER John D. DeSain, Thomas J. Curtiss, Ronald...Petroleum Waxes," ASTM Designation: D 1321-04. 47. "Standard Test Method for Softening Point of Bitumen (Ring-and-Ball Apparatus)," ASTM Designation

  7. INFLUENCE OF TEST TEMPERATURE AND SOLUTE ADDITIONS ON THE PLASTIC FLOW AND STRAIN HARDENING OF ALPHA IRON,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    binary alloys were studied over a range of testing temperatures from +200 to -196 C. A pronounced inversion of the strength of alpha iron was noted for...stress-temperature dependence of alpha iron alloys is shown to be strongly influenced by the amount and type of solute present. Finally, the strain

  8. Serum Basal Paraoxonase 1 Activity as an Additional Liver Function Test for the Evaluation of Patients with Chronic Hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Halappa, Chandrakanth K; Pyati, Sudharani A; Nagaraj; Wali, Vinod

    2015-01-01

    Background The diagnostic accuracy of currently available standard panel of liver function tests is not satisfactory for the reliable diagnosis of chronic liver disorders. Earlier studies have reported that serum basal paraoxonase 1 (PON1) activity measurement may add a significant contribution to the liver function tests. Aim To assess whether the measurement of serum basal paraoxonase 1 (PON1) activity would be useful as an index of liver function status in chronic hepatitis patients. Materials and Methods The study included 50 chronic hepatitis patients and 50 apparently healthy controls based on inclusion & exclusion criteria. In all the subjects, standard liver function tests were analysed by using standard methods. Basal PON1 activity was estimated using spectrophotometric method by the hydrolysis of p-nitrophenylacetate. Student t-test, Pearson’s correlation coefficient, diagnostic validity tests and ROC curve analysis were the methods used for the statistical analysis of the data. Results The serum basal PON1 activity was significantly decreased in chronic hepatitis cases when compared to controls (p< 0.001). Also basal PON1 activity was positively correlated with serum total protein and albumin, and negatively correlated with serum total bilirubin, alanine amino transferase (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) (p< 0.001) in chronic hepatitis cases but not in healthy controls. Diagnostic validity tests showed, basal PON1 activity was a better discriminator of chronic hepatitis than total protein, albumin and ALP with sensitivity of 68%, specificity of 100%, positive predictive value of 100% and negative predictive value of 75%. ROC curve analysis demonstrated highest diagnostic accuracy for ALT (AUC = 0.999) followed by PON1 (AUC = 0.990), total bilirubin (AUC = 0.977), ALP (AUC = 0.904), total protein (AUC = 0.790) and albumin (AUC = 0.595). Conclusion Diagnostic accuracy of serum PON1 activity is better than total bilirubin, total protein, albumin and

  9. Nonmetals Test and Evaluation. Delivery Order 0003: Fuel System Materials Compatibility Testing of Fuel Additives for Reducing the Amount of Small Particulate in Turbine Engine Exhaust

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-10-01

    JAMES J. MAZZA MARY ANN PHILLIPS Team Lead Chief Adhesives, Composites, and Elastomers Team Materials Integrity Branch Materials...P-24441 (Epoxy Polyamide ) Pencil Hardness Unaged 7d/200°F/JP-8+100 (Control) 7d/200°F/Control + #1 (RXP) 7d/200°F/Control + #2...Description Test Conditioning Results MIL-P-24441 (Epoxy Polyamide ) Taber Test (Wear Index) Unaged 7d/200°F/JP-8+100

  10. Test and Evaluation of MK 15 UBA Battery Duration and a MK 15 UBA Oxygen Addition Solenoid

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-10-01

    improved battery test procedures. II. EQUIPMENT DESCRIPTION A. MK 15 UBA. The MK 15 MOD 0 UBA is a closed circuit mixed gas rebreather which utilizes a...the body and adding oxygen to the inspired gas as required. Movement of recirculating gas through the circuit is normally accomplished by the natural...inhalation and exhalation action of the divers lungs. Check valves in the mouthpiece ensure a one-way flow of gas through the circuit . Carbon Dioxide

  11. [Influence Additional Cognitive Tasks on EEG Beta Rhythm Parameters during Forming and Testing Set to Perception of the Facial Expression].

    PubMed

    Yakovenko, I A; Cheremushkin, E A; Kozlov, M K

    2015-01-01

    The research of changes of a beta rhythm parameters on condition of working memory loading by extension of a interstimuli interval between the target and triggering stimuli to 16 sec is investigated on 70 healthy adults in two series of experiments with set to a facial expression. In the second series at the middle of this interval for strengthening of the load was entered the additional cognitive task in the form of conditioning stimuli like Go/NoGo--circles of blue or green color. Data analysis of the research was carried out by means of continuous wavelet-transformation on the basis of "mather" complex Morlet-wavelet in the range of 1-35 Hz. Beta rhythm power was characterized by the mean level, maxima of wavelet-transformation coefficient (WLC) and latent periods of maxima. Introduction of additional cognitive task to pause between the target and triggering stimuli led to essential increase in absolute values of the mean level of beta rhythm WLC and relative sizes of maxima of beta rhythm WLC. In the series of experiments without conditioning stimulus subjects with large number of mistakes (from 6 to 40), i.e. rigid set, in comparison with subjects with small number of mistakes (to 5), i.e. plastic set, at the forming stage were characterized by higher values of the mean level of beta rhythm WLC. Introduction of the conditioning stimuli led to smoothing of intergroup distinctions throughout the experiment.

  12. Potlining Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolf Keller

    2004-08-10

    In this project, a concept to improve the performance of aluminum production cells by introducing potlining additives was examined and tested. Boron oxide was added to cathode blocks, and titanium was dissolved in the metal pool; this resulted in the formation of titanium diboride and caused the molten aluminum to wet the carbonaceous cathode surface. Such wetting reportedly leads to operational improvements and extended cell life. In addition, boron oxide suppresses cyanide formation. This final report presents and discusses the results of this project. Substantial economic benefits for the practical implementation of the technology are projected, especially for modern cells with graphitized blocks. For example, with an energy savings of about 5% and an increase in pot life from 1500 to 2500 days, a cost savings of $ 0.023 per pound of aluminum produced is projected for a 200 kA pot.

  13. Contextual influences on implicit evaluation: a test of additive versus contrastive effects of evaluative context stimuli in affective priming.

    PubMed

    Gawronski, Bertram; Deutsch, Roland; Seidel, Oliver

    2005-09-01

    Drawing on two alternative accounts of the affective priming effect (spreading activation vs. response interference), the present research investigated the underlying processes of how evaluative context stimuli influence implicit evaluations in the affective priming task. Employing two sequentially presented prime stimuli (rather than a single prime), two experiments showed that affective priming effects elicited by a given prime stimulus were more pronounced when this stimulus was preceded by a context prime of the opposite valence than when it was preceded by a context prime of the same valence. This effect consistently emerged for pictures (Experiment 1) and words (Experiment 2) as prime stimuli. These results suggest that the impact of evaluative context stimuli on implicit evaluations is mediated by contrast effects in the attention to evaluative information rather than by additive effects in the activation of evaluative information in associative memory.

  14. Enhanced properties of MgO-Al2O3 composite materials with Al powder addition under 1300 °C creep test and its mechanism analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Peng; Ma, Jiajia; Li, Yong; Yue, Dandan; Tong, Shanghao; Xue, Wendong

    2017-04-01

    The Al-MgO-Al2O3 composite samples were prepared with alumina (fused corundum and sintered alumina), high purity sintered magnesia and aluminum powder. Creep test was carried out at 1300 °C and studied. The results show that the creep rate of sample without aluminum addition decreases gradually. The creep properties of the MgO-Al2O3 composite material are improved by aluminum powder addition, with the sample demonstrating an increase creep rate. The physical properties of the samples are enhanced by aluminum powder addition as well. The mechanism of the improvement on the sample is analyzed by different characterization methods and kinetics calculations. Our results indicates that the AlN and MgAl2O4 spinel phases which are formed during the creep test are acting as the reinforcing phases and therefore enhance the creep performance of the samples.

  15. A cost-benefit analysis of blood donor vaccination as an alternative to additional DNA testing for reducing transfusion transmission of hepatitis B virus.

    PubMed

    Fischinger, J M; Stephan, B; Wasserscheid, K; Eichler, H; Gärtner, B C

    2010-11-16

    A survey-based, cost-benefit analysis was performed comparing blood screening strategies with vaccination strategies for the reduction of transfusion transmission of HBV. 231 whole blood donors and 126 apheresis donors were eligible and completed a questionnaire detailing their donation habits. The cost-benefit analysis included current mandatory HBV testing (HbsAg+anti-Hbc, A1), A1 with additional nucleic acid testing (NAT) for minipool (A2) or individual donation testing (A3), as well as HBV vaccination strategies using time-dependant (B1) or titre dependent booster vaccination solely (B2), or B2 in addition to current mandatory testing procedures (B3). Different cost models were applied using a 5% rate of discount. Absolute costs for current mandatory testing procedures (A1) over 20 years in Germany were €1009 million. Additional NAT would lead to incremental costs of 43% (A2) or 339% (A3), respectively. Vaccination strategies B1 and B2 showed cost-reductions relative to A1 of 30% and 14%, respectively. The number of remaining HBV infections could be reduced from 360 (for A1) to 13, using vaccination, compared with 144 or 105 remaining infections for A2 or A3, respectively. Absolute cost per prevented infection is similar (€2.0 million) for A2 and B3. HBV vaccination offers the near-elimination of transfusion infections while representing a potential cost-reduction.

  16. State Test Programs Mushroom as NCLB Mandate Kicks in: Nearly Half of States Are Expanding Their Testing Programs to Additional Grades This School Year to Comply with the Federal No Child Left Behind Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Lynn

    2005-01-01

    Twenty-three states are expanding their testing programs to additional grades this school year to comply with the federal No Child Left Behind Act. In devising the new tests, most states have defied predictions and chosen to go beyond multiple-choice items, by including questions that ask students to construct their own responses. But many state…

  17. An investigation of the effects of smoke suppressant fuel additives on engine and test cell exhaust gas opacities. Final report for 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Thornburg, D.W.; Darnell, T.R.; Netzer, D.W.

    1982-05-01

    Tests were conducted in a one-eighth scale turbojet test cell with a ramjet type combustor to investigate the effects of fuel additives on smoke reduction. Particle size and mass concentrations were determined at the engine and stack exhausts using three wavelength optical detector systems. Particulate samples were also collected at the engine exhaust and analyzed with a scanning electron microscope. Combustor temperature and fuel additives were found to significantly affect particulate mass concentrations emitted from the engine while particle size appeared to be unaffected. No significant changes in the particulate size or mass occurred from the engine exhaust to the stack exhaust. The optical determination of exhaust mean particulate size/mass concentration with three wavelength optical detector systems appears to be reasonably accurate technique for evaluating the effects of engine and test cell operating conditions and fuel composition changes on the emitted particulates.

  18. Implementation of the Realized Genomic Relationship Matrix to Open-Pollinated White Spruce Family Testing for Disentangling Additive from Nonadditive Genetic Effects

    PubMed Central

    Gamal El-Dien, Omnia; Ratcliffe, Blaise; Klápště, Jaroslav; Porth, Ilga; Chen, Charles; El-Kassaby, Yousry A.

    2016-01-01

    The open-pollinated (OP) family testing combines the simplest known progeny evaluation and quantitative genetics analyses as candidates’ offspring are assumed to represent independent half-sib families. The accuracy of genetic parameter estimates is often questioned as the assumption of “half-sibling” in OP families may often be violated. We compared the pedigree- vs. marker-based genetic models by analysing 22-yr height and 30-yr wood density for 214 white spruce [Picea glauca (Moench) Voss] OP families represented by 1694 individuals growing on one site in Quebec, Canada. Assuming half-sibling, the pedigree-based model was limited to estimating the additive genetic variances which, in turn, were grossly overestimated as they were confounded by very minor dominance and major additive-by-additive epistatic genetic variances. In contrast, the implemented genomic pairwise realized relationship models allowed the disentanglement of additive from all nonadditive factors through genetic variance decomposition. The marker-based models produced more realistic narrow-sense heritability estimates and, for the first time, allowed estimating the dominance and epistatic genetic variances from OP testing. In addition, the genomic models showed better prediction accuracies compared to pedigree models and were able to predict individual breeding values for new individuals from untested families, which was not possible using the pedigree-based model. Clearly, the use of marker-based relationship approach is effective in estimating the quantitative genetic parameters of complex traits even under simple and shallow pedigree structure. PMID:26801647

  19. Implementation of the Realized Genomic Relationship Matrix to Open-Pollinated White Spruce Family Testing for Disentangling Additive from Nonadditive Genetic Effects.

    PubMed

    Gamal El-Dien, Omnia; Ratcliffe, Blaise; Klápště, Jaroslav; Porth, Ilga; Chen, Charles; El-Kassaby, Yousry A

    2016-01-22

    The open-pollinated (OP) family testing combines the simplest known progeny evaluation and quantitative genetics analyses as candidates' offspring are assumed to represent independent half-sib families. The accuracy of genetic parameter estimates is often questioned as the assumption of "half-sibling" in OP families may often be violated. We compared the pedigree- vs. marker-based genetic models by analysing 22-yr height and 30-yr wood density for 214 white spruce [Picea glauca (Moench) Voss] OP families represented by 1694 individuals growing on one site in Quebec, Canada. Assuming half-sibling, the pedigree-based model was limited to estimating the additive genetic variances which, in turn, were grossly overestimated as they were confounded by very minor dominance and major additive-by-additive epistatic genetic variances. In contrast, the implemented genomic pairwise realized relationship models allowed the disentanglement of additive from all nonadditive factors through genetic variance decomposition. The marker-based models produced more realistic narrow-sense heritability estimates and, for the first time, allowed estimating the dominance and epistatic genetic variances from OP testing. In addition, the genomic models showed better prediction accuracies compared to pedigree models and were able to predict individual breeding values for new individuals from untested families, which was not possible using the pedigree-based model. Clearly, the use of marker-based relationship approach is effective in estimating the quantitative genetic parameters of complex traits even under simple and shallow pedigree structure.

  20. [Study on Extraction Conditions of Water-Soluble Substances—Purity Test (4) for Polyvinylpolypyrrolidone Listed in Japan's Specifications and Standards for Food Additives].

    PubMed

    Yanagi, Tokue; Matsumoto, Makoto; Shimizu, Sachiko; Iwamura, Tetsuro; Ogaki, Mamiko

    2015-01-01

    The food additive polyvinylpolypyrrolidone is approved for use as a filter aid. The water-soluble substances test of polyvinylpolypyrrolidone often shows poor reproducibility. The instruction "boil gently while stirring using a stirrer" was considered critical, and so this issue was examined. The results showed that the use of a combination of both an oil bath and a stirrer provided good reproducibility without decomposition or other problems.

  1. Suitability of histopathology as an additional endpoint to the Isolated Chicken Eye Test for classification of non-extreme pH detergent and cleaning products.

    PubMed

    Cazelle, Elodie; Eskes, Chantra; Hermann, Martina; Jones, Penny; McNamee, Pauline; Prinsen, Menk; Taylor, Hannah; Wijnands, Marcel V W

    2014-06-01

    A.I.S.E. investigated the suitability of histopathological evaluations as an additional endpoint to the regulatory adopted ICE in vitro test method (OECD TG 438) to identify non-extreme pH detergent and cleaning products that require classification as EU CLP/UN GHS Category 1 (serious eye damage). To this aim, a total of 30 non-extreme pH products covering the range of in vivo classifications for eye irritation, and representing various product categories were tested. Epithelium vacuolation (mid and lower layers) and erosion (at least moderate) were found to be the most relevant histopathological effects induced by products classified in vivo as Category 1. Histopathology criteria specifically developed for non-extreme pH detergent and cleaning products were shown to correctly identify materials classified as Category 1 based on in vivo persistent effects, and to significantly increase the overall sensitivity of the standard ICE prediction model for Category 1 identification (to 75%) whilst maintaining a good concordance (73%). In contrast, use of EU CLP additivity approach for classification of mixtures was considerably less predictive, with a concordance of only 27%, and 100% over-predictions of non-Category 1 products. As such, use of histopathology as an addition to the ICE test method was found suitable to identify EU CLP/UN GHS Category 1 non-extreme pH detergent and cleaning products and to allow a better discrimination from Category 2 products.

  2. Effect of patient characteristics on the yield of prolonged baseline head-up tilt testing and the additional yield of drug provocation.

    PubMed Central

    Fitzpatrick, A. P.; Lee, R. J.; Epstein, L. M.; Lesh, M. D.; Eisenberg, S.; Sheinman, M. M.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To define the value of tilt testing and hte additional yield of drug provocation over prolonged baseline tilt in different patient subgroups. (Many different protocols are in use for head-up tilt testing in heterogeneous groups of patients. Not all patients in reported series have recurrent syncope, and there is often a wide age range and a variable incidence of structural heart disease.) DESIGN: In a prospective study, baseline 60 degrees head-up tilt testing was undertaken for 45 minutes, initially without drug provocation. Patients who remained symptom free were given intravenous isoprenaline (isoproterenol) and further tilting or edrophonium (10 mg bolus) during tilt, in an order determined randomly before the start of the test. If they were symptom free after the first drug, they were given the other drug. A positive test was recorded when syncope or pre-syncope occurred with a rapid fall (> 30%) in blood pressure. The impact on tilt result of the type of symptoms, presence of significant structural heart disease (SHD), presence of a non-cardiovascular cause of sudden diminished consciousness (SDC), and age was then assessed by subgroup analysis. PATIENTS: 145 patients (73 female, mean age 51 (25), range 8-94) with one or more episodes of pre-syncope or syncope. RESULTS: 39 patients (27%, 21 female, age 49 (25) years) had positive tests and 106 (73%, 52 female, age 52 (25) years) negative tests. 27 (69%) had a positive test during baseline tilt at 20.5 (10.8) minutes, five (13%) with isoprenaline infusion, and seven (18%) with edrophonium bolus. Patients with recurrent syncope rather than single syncopal episodes or single or recurrent pre-syncope were more likely to have a positive tilt test (41% v 17%, P < 0.005) and patients with SHD or SDC (69/14 patients) were much less likely than patients without (16% v 42%, P < 0.0001). The yield of positive tests was similar if patients were below (26%) or above (27%) the mean age (50 years). When multiple

  3. Additional Testing of the DHC-6 Twin Otter Tailplane Iced Airfoil Section in the Ohio State University 7x10 Low Speed Wind Tunnel. Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregorek, Gerald; Dresse, John J.; LaNoe, Karine; Ratvasky, Thomas (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The need for fundamental research in Ice Contaminated Tailplane Stall (ICTS) was established through three international conferences sponsored by the FAA. A joint NASA/FAA Tailplane Icing Program was formed in 1994 with the Ohio State University playing a critical role for wind tunnel and analytical research. Two entries of a full-scale 2-dimensional tailplane airfoil model of a DHC-6 Twin Otter were made in The Ohio State University 7x10 ft wind tunnel. This report describes the second test entry that examined additional ice shapes and roughness, as well as airfoil section differences. The addition data obtained in this test fortified the original database of aerodynamic coefficients that permit a detailed analysis of flight test results with an OSU-developed analytical program. The testing encompassed a full range of angles of attack and elevator deflections at flight Reynolds number conditions. Aerodynamic coefficients, C(L), C(M), and C(He), were obtained by integrating static pressure coefficient, C(P), values obtained from surface taps. Comparisons of clean and iced airfoil results show a significant decrease in the tailplane aeroperformance (decreased C(Lmax), decreased stall angle, increased C(He)) for all ice shapes with the grit having the lease affect and the LEWICE shape having the greatest affect. All results were consistent with observed tailplane stall phenomena and constitute an effective set of data for comprehensive analysis of ICTS.

  4. Decline of Neuropsychological Abilities in a Large Sample of Patients with Multiple Sclerosis: A Two-Year Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Borghi, Martina; Carletto, Sara; Ostacoli, Luca; Scavelli, Francesco; Pia, Lorenzo; Pagani, Marco; Bertolotto, Antonio; Malucchi, Simona; Signori, Alessio; Cavallo, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Objective: In this longitudinal study, we monitored two large groups of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and healthy controls (HC) for 2 years, with the aim of comparing their neuropsychological profile over time. Method: Three hundred and twenty-two patients with MS and 303 HC were administered the Brief Repeatable Battery of Neuropsychological tests (BRB-N); neuropsychiatric measures were also administered. Two follow-ups were scheduled at 1 and 2 years, respectively. Results: A linear mixed model (LMM) with random intercept was run by considering participants’ performance on each test of the BRB-N at the three assessment points (baseline and follow-ups) as the within-subjects variable, and group (patients and controls) as the between-subjects factor. The interaction term was statistically significant for the tests: Symbol Digit Modalities test (SDMT) (p = 0.044), Paced Auditory Serial Addition test (PASAT) (p = 0.011) and Word List Generation (WLG) (p < 0.001), whereas for the PASAT-3 approached statistical significance (p = 0.05). In addition, a LMM with random intercept was also run by identifying three groups (controls, relapsing-remitting course of MS (i.e. RR-MS), and prog-MS). The interaction term was statistically significant for: PASAT-3 (p = 0.017), PASAT-2 (p = 0.0026), and WLG (p = 0.0022). Conclusions: Our results corroborate on a very large scale evidence that the abilities tapped by the tasks SDMT, PASAT and WLG are particularly sensitive to MS, and further extend this issue by showing that these abilities are likely to be more sensitive than others to the progression of the disease, as compared to HC. PMID:27375468

  5. Heat treatment and the use of additives to improve the stability of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins in shellfish tissue reference materials for internal quality control and proficiency testing.

    PubMed

    Burrell, Stephen; Clion, Valentin; Auroy, Virginie; Foley, Barry; Turner, Andrew D

    2015-06-01

    The need for homogenous reference materials stable for paralytic shellfish toxins is vital for the monitoring and quality assurance of these potent neurotoxins in shellfish. Two stabilisation techniques were investigated, heat treatment through autoclaving and the addition of preserving additives into the tissue matrix. Short and long-term stability experiments as well as homogeneity determination were conducted on materials prepared by both techniques in comparison with an untreated control using two LC-FLD methods. Both techniques improved the stability of the matrix and the PSP toxins present compared to the controls. A material was prepared using the combined techniques of heat treatment followed by spiking with additives and data is presented from this optimised reference material as used over a two year period in the Irish national monitoring program and in a development exercise as part of a proficiency testing scheme operated by QUASIMEME (Quality Assurance of Information for Marine Environmental Monitoring in Europe) since 2011. The results were indicative of the long-term stability of the material as evidenced through consistent assigned values in the case of the proficiency testing scheme and a low relative standard deviation of 10.5% for total toxicity data generated over 24 months.

  6. Food additives

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857

  7. Monitoring Impact of a Pesticide Treatment on Bacterial Soil Communities by Metabolic and Genetic Fingerprinting in Addition to Conventional Testing Procedures

    PubMed Central

    Engelen, Bert; Meinken, Kristin; von Wintzingerode, Friedrich; Heuer, Holger; Malkomes, Hans-Peter; Backhaus, Horst

    1998-01-01

    Herbogil (dinoterb), a reference herbicide, the mineral oil Oleo (paraffin oil used as an additive to herbicides), and Goltix (metamitron) were taken as model compounds for the study of impacts on microbial soil communities. After the treatment of soil samples, effects on metabolic sum parameters were determined by monitoring substrate-induced respiration (SIR) and dehydrogenase activity, as well as carbon and nitrogen mineralization. These conventional ecotoxicological testing procedures are used in pesticide registration. Inhibition of biomass-related activities and stimulation of nitrogen mineralization were the most significant effects caused by the application of Herbogil. Even though Goltix and Oleo were used at a higher dosage (10 times higher), the application of Goltix resulted in smaller effects and the additive Oleo was the least-active compound, with minor stimulation of test parameters at later observation times. The results served as a background for investigation of the power of “fingerprinting” methods in microbial ecology. Changes in catabolic activities induced by treatments were analyzed by using the 95 carbon sources provided by the BIOLOG system. Variations in the complex metabolic fingerprints demonstrated inhibition of many catabolic pathways after the application of Herbogil. Again, the effects of the other compounds were expressed at much lower levels and comprised stimulations as well as inhibitions. Testing for significance by a multivariate t test indicated that the sensitivity of this method was similar to the sensitivities of the conventional testing procedures. The variation of sensitive carbon sources, as determined by factor weights at different observation times, indicated the dynamics of the community shift induced by the Herbogil treatment in more detail. DNA extractions from soil resulted in a collection of molecules representing the genetic composition of total bacterial communities. Distinct and highly reproducible

  8. A priori performance prediction in pharmaceutical wet granulation: testing the applicability of the nucleation regime map to a formulation with a broad size distribution and dry binder addition.

    PubMed

    Kayrak-Talay, Defne; Litster, James D

    2011-10-14

    In this study, Hapgood's nucleation regime map (Hapgood et al., 2003) was tested for a formulation that consists of an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) of broad size distribution and a fine dry binder. Gabapentin was used as the API and hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) as the dry binder with deionized water as the liquid binder. The formulation was granulated in a 6l Diosna high shear granulator. The effect of liquid addition method (spray, dripping), liquid addition rate (29-245 g/min), total liquid content (2, 4 and 10%), and impeller speed (250 and 500 rpm) on the granule size distribution and lump formation were investigated. Standard methods were successfully used to characterize the process parameters (spray drop size, spray geometry and powder surface velocity) for calculating the dimensionless spray flux. However, the addition of dry binder had a very strong effect on drop penetration time that could not be predicted from simple capillary flow considerations. This is most likely due to preferential liquid penetration into the fine pores related to the dry binder particles and subsequent partial softening and dissolution of the binder. For systems containing a dry binder or other amorphous powders, it is recommended that drop penetration time be measured directly for the blended formulation and then scaled to the drop size during spraying. Using these approaches to characterize the key dimensionless groups (dimensionless spray flux and drop penetration time), Hapgood's nucleation regime map was successfully used to predict a priori the effect of process conditions on the quality of the granule size distribution as measured by lump formation and the span of the size distribution, both before and after wet massing for range of conditions studied. Wider granule size distributions and higher amount of lumps were obtained moving from intermediate to mechanical dispersion regime. Addition of the liquid in the dripping mode gave the broadest size distribution

  9. Food additives

    MedlinePlus

    ... or natural. Natural food additives include: Herbs or spices to add flavor to foods Vinegar for pickling ... Certain colors improve the appearance of foods. Many spices, as well as natural and man-made flavors, ...

  10. Phosphazene additives

    DOEpatents

    Harrup, Mason K; Rollins, Harry W

    2013-11-26

    An additive comprising a phosphazene compound that has at least two reactive functional groups and at least one capping functional group bonded to phosphorus atoms of the phosphazene compound. One of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with cellulose and the other of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with a resin, such as an amine resin of a polycarboxylic acid resin. The at least one capping functional group is selected from the group consisting of a short chain ether group, an alkoxy group, or an aryloxy group. Also disclosed are an additive-resin admixture, a method of treating a wood product, and a wood product.

  11. Different sleep onset criteria at the multiple sleep latency test (MSLT): an additional marker to differentiate central nervous system (CNS) hypersomnias.

    PubMed

    Pizza, Fabio; Vandi, Stefano; Detto, Stefania; Poli, Francesca; Franceschini, Christian; Montagna, Pasquale; Plazzi, Giuseppe

    2011-03-01

    Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) has different correlates in non-rapid eye movement (NREM) [idiopathic hypersomnia (IH) without long sleep time] and REM sleep [narcolepsy without cataplexy (NwoC) and narcolepsy with cataplexy (NC)]-related hypersomnias of central origin. We analysed sleep onset characteristics at the multiple sleep latency test (MSLT) applying simultaneously two sleep onset criteria in 44 NC, seven NwoC and 16 IH consecutive patients referred for subjective EDS complaint. Sleep latency (SL) at MSLT was assessed both as the time elapsed to the occurrence of a single epoch of sleep Stage 1 NREM (SL) and of unequivocal sleep [three sleep Stage 1 NREM epochs or any other sleep stage epoch, sustained SL (SusSL)]. Idiopathic hypersomnia patients showed significantly (P<0.0001) longer SusSL than SL (7.7±2.5 versus 5.6±1.3 min, respectively) compared to NwoC (5.8±2.5 versus 5.3±2.2 min) and NC patients (4.1±3 versus 3.9±3 min). A mean difference threshold between SusSL and SL ≥27 s reached a diagnostic value to discriminate IH versus NC and NwoC sufferers (sensitivity 88%; specificity 82%). Moreover, NC patients showed better subjective sleepiness perception than NwoC and IH cases in the comparison between naps with or without sleep occurrence. Simultaneous application of the two widely used sleep onset criteria differentiates IH further from NC and NwoC patients: IH fluctuate through a wake-Stage 1 NREM sleep state before the onset of sustained sleep, while NC and NwoC shift abruptly into a sustained sleep. The combination of SusSL and SL determination at MSLT should be tested as an additional objective differential criterion for EDS disorders.

  12. Fuel and Fuel System Materials Compatibility Test Program for A JP-8+100 Fuel Additive. Volume 1: Thermal Stability Additive Package BetzDearborn Spec Aid(Registered) 8Q462

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-10-01

    W W W II.G.2 Gasket “O” Ring MIL-R-25988 Fluorosi l icone OT W W II.G.3 Gasket “O” Ring MIL-R-83485 Fluorosi l icone...O W W II.G.7 Gasket “O” Ring MIL-R-25988 Fluorosi l icone OT OT W ¹ Tested as a coating (tape adhesion and pencil) 73

  13. NIH Toolbox Cognitive Battery (NIHTB-CB): the NIHTB Pattern Comparison Processing Speed Test.

    PubMed

    Carlozzi, Noelle E; Tulsky, David S; Chiaravalloti, Nancy D; Beaumont, Jennifer L; Weintraub, Sandra; Conway, Kevin; Gershon, Richard C

    2014-07-01

    The NIH Toolbox (NIHTB) Pattern Comparison Processing Speed Test was developed to assess processing speed within the NIHTB for the Assessment of Neurological Behavior and Function Cognition Battery (NIHTB-CB). This study highlights validation data collected in adults ages 18-85 on this measure and reports descriptive data, test-retest reliability, construct validity, and preliminary work creating a composite index of processing speed. Results indicated good test-retest reliability. There was also evidence for both convergent and discriminant validity; the Pattern Comparison Processing Speed Test demonstrated moderate significant correlations with other processing speed tests (i.e., WAIS-IV Coding, Symbol Search and Processing Speed Index), small significant correlations with measures of working memory (i.e., WAIS-IV Letter-Number Sequencing and PASAT), and non-significant correlations with a test of vocabulary comprehension (i.e., PPVT-IV). Finally, analyses comparing and combining scores on the NIHTB Pattern Comparison Processing Speed Test with other measures of simple reaction time from the NIHTB-CB indicated that a Processing Speed Composite score performed better than any test examined in isolation. The NIHTB Pattern Comparison Processing Speed Test exhibits several strengths: it is appropriate for use across the lifespan (ages, 3-85 years), it is short and easy to administer, and it has high construct validity.

  14. Release of heavy metals during long-term land application of sewage sludge compost: Percolation leaching tests with repeated additions of compost.

    PubMed

    Fang, Wen; Delapp, Rossane C; Kosson, David S; van der Sloot, Hans A; Liu, Jianguo

    2017-02-01

    Leaching assessment procedures have been used to determine the leachability of heavy metals as input for evaluating the risk from sewage sludge compost land application. However, relatively little attention has been paid to understanding leaching from soils with repeated application of sewage sludge compost with elevated levels of heavy metals. In this paper, leaching assessment is extended to evaluate the potential leaching of heavy metals during repetitive application of composted sewage sludge to soils. Four cycling of compost additions and percolation leaching were conducted to investigate how leaching behavior of heavy metals changed with repeated additions of compost. Results showed that repetitive additions of compost to soil significantly increased the content of organic matter, which favored the formation of reducing condition due to improved microbial activities and oxygen consumption. Establishment of reducing conditions can enhance the leaching concentrations of As by approximately 1 order of magnitude, especially for the soil rich in organic matter. For Cd, Cr, Cu, and Pb, repeated additions of compost will cause accumulation in total contents but not enhancement in leaching concentrations. The infiltration following compost additions will leach out the mobile fraction and the residual fraction might not release in the next cycling of compost addition and infiltration. The cumulative release of Cd, Cr, Cu, and Pb accounted for less than 5% of the total contents during four times of compost applications.

  15. The Utility of Testing Noncognitive Aptitudes as Additional Predictors of Graduation from U.S. Air Force Air Traffic Controller Training

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-11-13

    better coping in stressful situa- tions (Slaski & Cartwright, 2003) and higher levels of phys- ical and emotional health (Day, Therrien, & Carroll , 2005...Although others have found the test to be susceptible to fak- ing (Day & Carroll , 2008; Grubb & McDaniel, 2007), the test has positive and negative... Carroll , S. (2008). Faking emotional intelligence (EI): Comparing response distortion on ability and trait- based EI measures. Journal of Organizational

  16. K Basin Sludge Conditioning Process Testing Fate of PCBs During K Basin Sludge Dissolution in Nitric Acid and with Hydrogen Peroxide Addition

    SciTech Connect

    GM Mong; AJ Schmidt; EW Hoppe; KH Pool; KL Silvers; BM Thornton

    1999-01-04

    The work described in this report is part of the studies being performed to address the fate of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in K Basin sludge before the sludge can be transferred to the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) double shell tanks. One set of tests examined the effect of hydrogen peroxide on the disposition of PCBs in a simulated K Basin dissolver solution containing 0.5 M nitric acid/1 M Fe(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}. A second series of tests examined the disposition of PCBs in a much stronger ({approx}10 M) nitric acid solution, similar to that likely to be encountered in the dissolution of the sludge.

  17. Usefulness of Cardiac MIBG Scintigraphy, Olfactory Testing and Substantia Nigra Hyperechogenicity as Additional Diagnostic Markers for Distinguishing between Parkinson’s Disease and Atypical Parkinsonian Syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Fujita, Hiroaki; Numao, Ayaka; Watanabe, Yuji; Uchiyama, Tomoyuki; Miyamoto, Tomoyuki; Miyamoto, Masayuki; Hirata, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    Background We aimed to evaluate the utility of the combined use of cardiac 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scintigraphy, olfactory testing, and substantia nigra (SN) hyperechogenicity on transcranial sonography (TCS) in differentiating Parkinson’s disease (PD) from atypical parkinsonian syndromes (APSs), such as multiple system atrophy (MSA) and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). Methods Cardiac MIBG scintigraphy, card-type odor identification testing (Open Essence (OE), Wako, Japan), and TCS were performed with 101 patients with PD and 38 patients with APSs (MSA and PSP). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to assess the sensitivity and specificity of these batteries for diagnosing PD from APSs. The diagnostic accuracy of the three tests was also assessed among patients at the early disease stage (drug-naïve patients with a disease duration of 3 years or less). Results In differentiating PD from APSs, the area under the ROC curve was 0.74 (95% CI, 0.65–0.83), 0.8 (95% CI, 0.73–0.87), and 0.75 (95% CI, 0.67–0.82) for TCS, cardiac MIBG scintigraphy, and olfactory testing, respectively. The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were 53.1% and 91.7%, respectively, for TCS, 70.3% and 86.8%, respectively, for cardiac MIBG scintigraphy, 58.4% and 76.3%, respectively, for OE. Among early-stage patients, sensitivity and specificity were 50.0% and 93.8%, respectively, for TCS, 57.1% and 87.5%, respectively, for cardiac MIBG scintigraphy, and 54.8% and 79.2%, respectively, for OE. At least one positive result from 3 tests improved sensitivity (86.1%) but decreased specificity (63.2%). In contrast, at least 2 positive results from 3 tests had good discrimination for both early-stage patients (50.0% sensitivity and 93.8% specificity) and patients overall (57.8% sensitivity and 95.8% specificity). Positive results for all 3 tests yielded 100% specificity but low sensitivity (25%). Conclusions At least 2 positive results from among

  18. Removal of strontium and transuranics from Hanford tank waste via addition of metal cations and chemical oxidant: FY 1995 test results

    SciTech Connect

    Orth, R.J.; Zacher, A.H.; Schmidt, A.J.; Elmore, M.R.; Elliott, K.R.; Neuenschwander, G.G.; Gano, S.R.

    1995-09-01

    Chelating organics and some of their degradation products in the Hanford tank waste, such as EDTA, HEDTA, and NTA act to solubilize strontium and transuranics (TRU) in the tank waste supernatant. Displacement of strontium and TRU will facilitate the removal of these radionuclides via precipitation/filtration, ion exchange, or solvent extraction so that low-level waste feed specifications can be met. Pacific Northwest Laboratory has investigated two methods for releasing organic-complexed strontium and TRU components to allow for effective pretreatment of tank waste supernatant: metal cation addition (to promote displacement and flocculation) and chemical oxidant (pennanganate) addition (to promote chelator destruction/defunctionalization and possibly flocculation). These methods, which can be conducted at near-ambient. temperatures and pressures, could be deployed as intank processes.

  19. Irradiation of Metallic Fuels with Rare Earth Additions for Actinide Transmutation in the Advanced Test Reactor. Experiment Description for AFC-2A and AFC-2B

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, Steven L.

    2006-12-01

    The U.S. Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI), now within the broader context of the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP), seeks to develop and demonstrate the technologies needed to transmute the long-lived transuranic actinide isotopes contained in spent nuclear fuel into shorter-lived fission products, thereby dramatically decreasing the volume of material requiring disposal and the long-term radio-toxicity and heat load of high-level waste sent to a geologic repository. One important component of the technology development is actinide-bearing metallic transmutation fuel forms containing plutonium, neptunium, americium (and possibly curium) isotopes. The proposed AFC-2A and AFC-2B irradiation experiments are a continuation of the metallic fuel test series in progress in the ATR. This report documents the experiment description and test matrix of the proposed experiments and the Post Irradiation Examination (PIE) and fabrication schedule.

  20. C3I Test-Instrumentation System: MANPRINT Evaluation of the Data Collection Subsystem (with Additional Comments Pertaining to the Data Reduction Subsystem)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-06-01

    CLASSIFICATION CODE: UNCLASSIFIED CONFIDENTIAL SECRET TOP SECRET The cursor should jump to the appropriate positions for date and time. Start time should...revalidation test, the hanger was removed. 3.5(10) Tie-downs. FINDING: Rubber bungee straps are provided as tie downs for equipment during vehicle movement...drawer & secures 1622/014: monitor with bungee cord. A stows antenna cable. B winds guy lines. 1614/006: A disconnects generator control- 1623/015

  1. Results of Additional Bioventing Respiration Testing at Sites ST61, ST71, and ST43/55 (Pumphouse III and Valve Pit 3-4)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Initial bioventing pilot tests were completed by Parsons ES at four sites at Elmendorf AFB, Alaska during the period from June 15 through July 19...F41624-92-D-8036 Order 17) to complete remediation monitoring and design and/or closure sampling, and to implement full-scale bioventing at several US Air...Force sites. The purpose of the new task order is to extend the operation of existing bioventing pilot systems, and to move forward with either site

  2. Test/QA plan for the verification testing of alternative or reformulated liquid fuels, fuel additives, fuel emulsions, and lubricants for highway and nonroad use heavy-duty diesel engines

    EPA Science Inventory

    This Environmental Technology Verification Program test/QA plan for heavy-duty diesel engine testing at the Southwest Research Institute’s Department of Emissions Research describes how the Federal Test Procedure (FTP), as listed in 40 CFR Part 86 for highway engines and 40 CFR P...

  3. Testing the efficiency of plant artificial microRNAs by transient expression in Nicotiana benthamiana reveals additional action at the translational level

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Shi; Pilot, Guillaume

    2014-01-01

    Artificial microRNAs (amiRNAs) have become an important tool to assess gene functions due to their high efficiency and specificity to decrease target gene expression. Based on the observed degree of complementarity between microRNAs (miRNAs) and their targets, it was widely accepted that plant miRNAs act at the mRNA stability level, while the animal miRNAs act at the translational level. Contrary to these canonical dogmas, recent evidence suggests that both plant and animal miRNAs act at both levels. Nevertheless, it is still impossible to predict the effect of an artificial miRNA on the stability or translation of the target mRNA in plants. Consequently, identifying and discarding inefficient amiRNAs prior to stable plant transformation would help getting suppressed mutants faster and at reduced cost. We designed and tested a method using transient expression of amiRNAs and the corresponding target genes in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves to test the efficacy of amiRNAs for suppression of the target protein accumulation. The ability of the amiRNAs to suppress the target gene expression in N. benthamiana was then compared to that in stably transformed Arabidopsis. It was found that the efficacy of 16 amiRNAs, targeting a total of four genes, varied greatly. The effects of amiRNAs on target mRNA accumulation did not always correlate with target protein accumulation or the corresponding phenotypes, while a similar trend of the silencing efficacy of amiRNAs could be observed between N. benthamiana and stably transformed Arabidopsis. Our results showed that, similar to endogenous plant miRNAs, plant amiRNAs could act at the translational level, a property needed to be taken into account when testing the efficacy of individual amiRNAs. Preliminary tests in N. benthamiana can help determine which amiRNA would be the most likely to suppress target gene expression in stably transformed plants. PMID:25477887

  4. Delayed uric Acid accumulation in plasma provides additional anti-oxidant protection against iron-triggered oxidative stress after a wingate test.

    PubMed

    Souza-Junior, Tp; Lorenço-Lima, L; Ganini, D; Vardaris, Cv; Polotow, Tg; Barros, Mp

    2014-12-01

    Reactive oxygen species are produced during anaerobic exercise mostly by Fe ions released into plasma and endothelial/muscle xanthine oxidase activation that generates uric acid (UA) as the endpoint metabolite. Paradoxically, UA is considered a major antioxidant by virtue of being able to chelate pro-oxidative iron ions. This work aimed to evaluate the relationship between UA and plasma markers of oxidative stress following the exhaustive Wingate test. Plasma samples of 17 male undergraduate students were collected before, 5 and 60 min after maximal anaerobic effort for the measurement of total iron, haem iron, UA, ferric-reducing antioxidant activity in plasma (FRAP), and malondialdehyde (MDA, biomarker of lipoperoxidation). Iron and FRAP showed similar kinetics in plasma, demonstrating an adequate pro-/antioxidant balance immediately after exercise and during the recovery period (5-60 min). Slight variations of haem iron concentrations did not support a relevant contribution of rhabdomyolysis or haemolysis for iron overload following exercise. UA concentration did not vary immediately after exercise but rather increased 29% during the recovery period. Unaltered MDA levels were concomitantly measured. We propose that delayed UA accumulation in plasma is an auxiliary antioxidant response to post-exercise (iron-mediated) oxidative stress, and the high correlation between total UA and FRAP in plasma (R-Square = 0.636; p = 0.00582) supports this hypothesis.

  5. DELAYED URIC ACID ACCUMULATION IN PLASMA PROVIDES ADDITIONAL ANTI-OXIDANT PROTECTION AGAINST IRON-TRIGGERED OXIDATIVE STRESS AFTER A WINGATE TEST

    PubMed Central

    Souza-Junior, TP; Lorenço-Lima, L; Ganini, D; Vardaris, CV; Polotow, TG

    2014-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species are produced during anaerobic exercise mostly by Fe ions released into plasma and endothelial/muscle xanthine oxidase activation that generates uric acid (UA) as the endpoint metabolite. Paradoxically, UA is considered a major antioxidant by virtue of being able to chelate pro-oxidative iron ions. This work aimed to evaluate the relationship between UA and plasma markers of oxidative stress following the exhaustive Wingate test. Plasma samples of 17 male undergraduate students were collected before, 5 and 60 min after maximal anaerobic effort for the measurement of total iron, haem iron, UA, ferric-reducing antioxidant activity in plasma (FRAP), and malondialdehyde (MDA, biomarker of lipoperoxidation). Iron and FRAP showed similar kinetics in plasma, demonstrating an adequate pro-/antioxidant balance immediately after exercise and during the recovery period (5–60 min). Slight variations of haem iron concentrations did not support a relevant contribution of rhabdomyolysis or haemolysis for iron overload following exercise. UA concentration did not vary immediately after exercise but rather increased 29% during the recovery period. Unaltered MDA levels were concomitantly measured. We propose that delayed UA accumulation in plasma is an auxiliary antioxidant response to post-exercise (iron-mediated) oxidative stress, and the high correlation between total UA and FRAP in plasma (R-Square = 0.636; p = 0.00582) supports this hypothesis. PMID:25435669

  6. TESTING FOR DEPARTURES FROM ADDITIVITY FOR A 2:1 MIXTURE OF CHLORPYRIFOS AND CARBARYL ON CHOLINESTERASE ACTIVITY IN BRAIN, PLASMA, AND RED BLOOD CELLS OF LONG EVANS RATS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Detecting and characterizing interactions among chemicals is an important environmental issue. This study was conducted to test for the existence of a significant departure from additivity for a mixture of two cholinesterase (ChE)-inhibiting pesticides: chlorpyrifos (CPF), an org...

  7. 14 CFR 29.927 - Additional tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... that the rotor drive mechanism is safe, must be performed. (b) If turbine engine torque output to the transmission can exceed the highest engine or transmission torque limit, and that output is not directly... all engines operating, make 200 applications, for 10 seconds each, of torque that is at least equal...

  8. 14 CFR 27.927 - Additional tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... that the rotor drive mechanism is safe, must be performed. (b) If turbine engine torque output to the transmission can exceed the highest engine or transmission torque rating limit, and that output is not directly... all engines operating, make 200 applications, for 10 seconds each, or torque that is at least equal...

  9. 14 CFR 27.927 - Additional tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... that the rotor drive mechanism is safe, must be performed. (b) If turbine engine torque output to the transmission can exceed the highest engine or transmission torque rating limit, and that output is not directly... Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT...

  10. 14 CFR 29.927 - Additional tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... that the rotor drive mechanism is safe, must be performed. (b) If turbine engine torque output to the transmission can exceed the highest engine or transmission torque limit, and that output is not directly... Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT...

  11. Results from expert tests of the TP-100A boiler at the Lugansk thermal power station during the combustion of lean coal and anthracite culm with addition of RA-GEN-F anaklarid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhailov, V. E.; Tupitsyn, S. P.; Sokolov, V. V.; Chebakova, G. F.; Malygin, V. I.; Yazykov, Yu. V.; Kharchenko, A. V.; Chetverikov, A. N.

    2012-08-01

    Results from expert tests of separated combustion of Grade T and Grade ASh anthracite culm in the TP-100A boiler No. 15 at the Lugansk thermal power station carried out with and without addition of RA-GEN-F anaklarid are presented. The possibility of extending the boiler load adjustment range and excluding the use of natural gas for supporting the flame at minimal loads is considered.

  12. Functional Generalized Additive Models.

    PubMed

    McLean, Mathew W; Hooker, Giles; Staicu, Ana-Maria; Scheipl, Fabian; Ruppert, David

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the functional generalized additive model (FGAM), a novel regression model for association studies between a scalar response and a functional predictor. We model the link-transformed mean response as the integral with respect to t of F{X(t), t} where F(·,·) is an unknown regression function and X(t) is a functional covariate. Rather than having an additive model in a finite number of principal components as in Müller and Yao (2008), our model incorporates the functional predictor directly and thus our model can be viewed as the natural functional extension of generalized additive models. We estimate F(·,·) using tensor-product B-splines with roughness penalties. A pointwise quantile transformation of the functional predictor is also considered to ensure each tensor-product B-spline has observed data on its support. The methods are evaluated using simulated data and their predictive performance is compared with other competing scalar-on-function regression alternatives. We illustrate the usefulness of our approach through an application to brain tractography, where X(t) is a signal from diffusion tensor imaging at position, t, along a tract in the brain. In one example, the response is disease-status (case or control) and in a second example, it is the score on a cognitive test. R code for performing the simulations and fitting the FGAM can be found in supplemental materials available online.

  13. Enhanced durability for high-temperature desulfurization sorbents for moving-bed applications -- Option 3 program: Development and testing of additional zinc titanate sorbents. Final report, September 1992--May 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Ayala, R.E.; Chuck, T.L.

    1996-12-31

    GE is developing a moving-bed, high-temperature desulfurization system for the integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) power cycle in which zinc-based regenerable sorbents are currently being used as desulfurization sorbents. Zinc titanate and other zinc-based oxides are being considered as sorbents for use in the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program at Tampa Electric Co.`s Polk Power Station. A key to success in the development of high-temperature desulfurization systems is the matching of sorbent properties for the selected process operating conditions, namely, sustainable desulfurization kinetics, high sulfur capacity, and mechanical durability over multiple cycles. Additionally, the sulfur species produced during regeneration of the sorbent must be in a form compatible with sulfur recovery systems, such as sulfuric acid or elemental sulfur processes. The objective of this contract is to identify and test sorbent fabrication methods and chemical compositions that enhance the long-term chemical reactivity and mechanical strength of zinc titanate and other novel sorbents for moving-bed, high-temperature desulfurization of coal-derived gases. A parametric study on the use of calcium sulfate additives to zinc titanate was conducted for zinc titanates having a 2:1 and 1.5:1 zinc-to-titanium molar ratio, and they showed a beneficial effect on crush strength of fresh 2:1 zinc titanate sorbents. In addition, a test procedure was developed to screen sorbent formulations based on resistance to spalling and pellet breakage induced by zinc sulfate formation in the presence of sulfur dioxide and excess oxygen conditions.

  14. Tribological bench and engine dynamometer tests of a low viscosity SAE 0W-16 engine oil using a combination of ionic liquid and ZDDP as anti-wear additives

    SciTech Connect

    Barnhill, William C.; Gao, Hong; Kheireddin, Bassem; Papke, Brian L.; Luo, Huimin; West, Brian H.; Qu, Jun

    2015-09-29

    We have previously reported an oil-miscible phosphonium-organophosphate ionic liquid (IL) with an effective anti-wear (AW) functionality when added to a base oil by itself or combined with a conventional zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDDP) for a synergistic effect. In this research, we investigated whether this synergy manifests in formulated engine oils. An experimental SAE 0W-16 engine oil was generated containing a combination of IL and ZDDP with equal phosphorus contribution. The prototype engine oil was first evaluated using tribological bench tests: AW performance in boundary lubrication (BL) and friction behavior (Stribeck curves) in elastohydrodynamic, mixed, and BL. In addition, the forthcoming standard Sequence VIE engine dynamometer test was then conducted to demonstrate improved fuel economy. Results were benchmarked against those of another experimental engine oil with almost the same formulation except using ZDDP only without the IL (similar total phosphorus content). The IL-ZDDP formulation consistently outperforms the ZDDP-only formulation in friction reduction and wear protection, and results from the bench and engine tests are well correlated.

  15. Tribological bench and engine dynamometer tests of a low viscosity SAE 0W-16 engine oil using a combination of ionic liquid and ZDDP as anti-wear additives

    DOE PAGES

    Barnhill, William C.; Gao, Hong; Kheireddin, Bassem; ...

    2015-09-29

    We have previously reported an oil-miscible phosphonium-organophosphate ionic liquid (IL) with an effective anti-wear (AW) functionality when added to a base oil by itself or combined with a conventional zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDDP) for a synergistic effect. In this research, we investigated whether this synergy manifests in formulated engine oils. An experimental SAE 0W-16 engine oil was generated containing a combination of IL and ZDDP with equal phosphorus contribution. The prototype engine oil was first evaluated using tribological bench tests: AW performance in boundary lubrication (BL) and friction behavior (Stribeck curves) in elastohydrodynamic, mixed, and BL. In addition, the forthcoming standardmore » Sequence VIE engine dynamometer test was then conducted to demonstrate improved fuel economy. Results were benchmarked against those of another experimental engine oil with almost the same formulation except using ZDDP only without the IL (similar total phosphorus content). The IL-ZDDP formulation consistently outperforms the ZDDP-only formulation in friction reduction and wear protection, and results from the bench and engine tests are well correlated.« less

  16. Risk-based approach to developing a national residue sampling plan for testing under European Union regulation for veterinary medicinal products and coccidiostat feed additives in domestic animal production.

    PubMed

    Danaher, Martin; Shanahan, Conor; Butler, Francis; Evans, Rhodri; O'Sullivan, Dan; Glynn, Denise; Camon, Tim; Lawlor, Peadar; O'Keeffe, Michael

    2016-07-01

    A ranking system for veterinary medicinal products and coccidiostat feed additives has been developed as a tool to be applied in a risk-based approach to the residue testing programme for foods of animal origin in the Irish National Residue Control Plan (NRCP). Three characteristics of substances that may occur as residues in food are included in the developed risk ranking system: Potency, as measured by the acceptable daily intake assigned by the European Medicines Agency Committee for Medicinal Products for Veterinary Use, to each substance; Usage, as measured by the three factors of Number of Doses, use on Individual animals or for Group treatment, and Withdrawal Period; and Residue Occurrence, as measured by the number of Non-Compliant Samples in the NRCP. For both Number of Doses and Non-Compliant Samples, data for the 5-year period 2008-12 have been used. The risk ranking system for substances was developed for beef cattle, sheep and goats, pigs, chickens and dairy cattle using a scoring system applied to the various parameters described above to give an overall score based on the following equation: Potency × Usage (Number of Doses + Individual/Group Use + Withdrawal Period) × Residue Occurrence. Applying this risk ranking system, the following substances are ranked very highly: antimicrobials such as amoxicillin (for all species except pigs), marbofloxacillin (for beef cattle), oxytetracycline (for all species except chickens), sulfadiazine with trimethoprim (for pigs and chickens) and tilmicosin (for chickens); antiparasitic drugs, such as the benzimidazoles triclabendazole (for beef and dairy cattle), fenbendazole/oxfendazole (for sheep/goats and dairy cattle) and albendazole (for dairy cattle), the avermectin ivermectin (for beef cattle), and anti-fluke drugs closantel and rafoxanide (for sheep/goats); the anticoccidials monensin, narasin, nicarbazin and toltrazuril (for chickens). The risk ranking system described is a relatively simple system

  17. Nanoengineered Additives for Active Coatings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-01

    commercial ad bial activ component from the coating, leading to eventual depletion of the film. Small TPU samples were evaluated using a Kirby - Bauer ...7 Table 5. Summary of 24-hr ASTM E 2180 tests with 1 weight-percent additive in PUr (solvent dispersible) based on 6-log loading of...Noveon X-1150). The ASTM E 2180 test is run in triplicate (Note that alternative ro 1° amines) was suspended in dry tetrahydrofuran (THF) (150 mL) in

  18. Additive Similarity Trees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sattath, Shmuel; Tversky, Amos

    1977-01-01

    Tree representations of similarity data are investigated. Hierarchical clustering is critically examined, and a more general procedure, called the additive tree, is presented. The additive tree representation is then compared to multidimensional scaling. (Author/JKS)

  19. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, J. R.; St. Clair, T. L.; Burks, H. D.; Stoakley, D. M.

    1987-01-01

    A method has been found for enhancing the melt flow of thermoplastic polyimides during processing. A high molecular weight 422 copoly(amic acid) or copolyimide was fused with approximately 0.05 to 5 pct by weight of a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive, and this melt was studied by capillary rheometry. Excellent flow and improved composite properties on graphite resulted from the addition of a PMDA-aniline additive to LARC-TPI. Solution viscosity studies imply that amic acid additives temporarily lower molecular weight and, hence, enlarge the processing window. Thus, compositions containing the additive have a lower melt viscosity for a longer time than those unmodified.

  20. [Food additives and healthiness].

    PubMed

    Heinonen, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Additives are used for improving food structure or preventing its spoilage, for example. Many substances used as additives are also naturally present in food. The safety of additives is evaluated according to commonly agreed principles. If high concentrations of an additive cause adverse health effects for humans, a limit of acceptable daily intake (ADI) is set for it. An additive is a risk only when ADI is exceeded. The healthiness of food is measured on the basis of nutrient density and scientifically proven effects.

  1. Amplitudes of Pain-Related Evoked Potentials Are Useful to Detect Small Fiber Involvement in Painful Mixed Fiber Neuropathies in Addition to Quantitative Sensory Testing – An Electrophysiological Study

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Niels; Kahn, Ann-Kathrin; Zeller, Daniel; Katsarava, Zaza; Sommer, Claudia; Üçeyler, Nurcan

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the usefulness of pain-related evoked potentials (PREP) elicited by electrical stimulation for the identification of small fiber involvement in patients with mixed fiber neuropathy (MFN). Eleven MFN patients with clinical signs of large fiber impairment and neuropathic pain and ten healthy controls underwent clinical and electrophysiological evaluation. Small fiber function, electrical conductivity and morphology were examined by quantitative sensory testing (QST), PREP, and skin punch biopsy. MFN was diagnosed following clinical and electrophysiological examination (chronic inflammatory demyelinating neuropathy: n = 6; vasculitic neuropathy: n = 3; chronic axonal ­neuropathy: n = 2). The majority of patients with MFN characterized their pain by descriptors that mainly represent C-fiber-mediated pain. In QST, patients displayed elevated cold, warm, mechanical, and vibration detection thresholds and cold pain thresholds indicative of MFN. PREP amplitudes in patients correlated with cold (p < 0.05) and warm detection thresholds (p < 0.05). Burning pain and the presence of par-/dysesthesias correlated negatively with PREP amplitudes (p < 0.05). PREP amplitudes correlating with cold and warm detection thresholds, burning pain, and par-/dysesthesias support employing PREP amplitudes as an additional tool in conjunction with QST for detecting small fiber impairment in patients with MFN. PMID:26696950

  2. EMC Recent Additions

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page has information about recent changes to promulgated and proposed test methods, perfomance specifications, and quality assurance procedures. It also includes updates and changes to all other approved and proposed test methods.

  3. Rationale, design and methods of the Study of Work and Pain (SWAP): a cluster randomised controlled trial testing the addition of a vocational advice service to best current primary care for patients with musculoskeletal pain (ISRCTN 52269669)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Musculoskeletal pain is a major contributor to short and long term work absence. Patients seek care from their general practitioner (GP) and yet GPs often feel ill-equipped to deal with work issues. Providing a vocational case management service in primary care, to support patients with musculoskeletal problems to remain at or return to work, is one potential solution but requires robust evaluation to test clinical and cost-effectiveness. Methods/Design This protocol describes a cluster randomised controlled trial, with linked qualitative interviews, to investigate the effect of introducing a vocational advice service into general practice, to provide a structured approach to managing work related issues in primary care patients with musculoskeletal pain who are absent from work or struggling to remain in work. General practices (n = 6) will be randomised to offer best current care or best current care plus a vocational advice service. Adults of working age who are absent from or struggling to remain in work due to a musculoskeletal pain problem will be invited to participate and 330 participants will be recruited. Data collection will be through patient completed questionnaires at baseline, 4 and 12 months. The primary outcome is self-reported work absence at 4 months. Incremental cost-utility analysis will be undertaken to calculate the cost per additional QALY gained and incremental net benefits. A linked interview study will explore the experiences of the vocational advice service from the perspectives of GPs, nurse practitioners (NPs), patients and vocational advisors. Discussion This paper presents the rationale, design, and methods of the Study of Work And Pain (SWAP) trial. The results of this trial will provide evidence to inform primary care practice and guide the development of services to provide support for musculoskeletal pain patients with work-related issues. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN52269669. PMID:25012813

  4. Polylactides in additive biomanufacturing.

    PubMed

    Poh, Patrina S P; Chhaya, Mohit P; Wunner, Felix M; De-Juan-Pardo, Elena M; Schilling, Arndt F; Schantz, Jan-Thorsten; van Griensven, Martijn; Hutmacher, Dietmar W

    2016-12-15

    New advanced manufacturing technologies under the alias of additive biomanufacturing allow the design and fabrication of a range of products from pre-operative models, cutting guides and medical devices to scaffolds. The process of printing in 3 dimensions of cells, extracellular matrix (ECM) and biomaterials (bioinks, powders, etc.) to generate in vitro and/or in vivo tissue analogue structures has been termed bioprinting. To further advance in additive biomanufacturing, there are many aspects that we can learn from the wider additive manufacturing (AM) industry, which have progressed tremendously since its introduction into the manufacturing sector. First, this review gives an overview of additive manufacturing and both industry and academia efforts in addressing specific challenges in the AM technologies to drive toward AM-enabled industrial revolution. After which, considerations of poly(lactides) as a biomaterial in additive biomanufacturing are discussed. Challenges in wider additive biomanufacturing field are discussed in terms of (a) biomaterials; (b) computer-aided design, engineering and manufacturing; (c) AM and additive biomanufacturing printers hardware; and (d) system integration. Finally, the outlook for additive biomanufacturing was discussed.

  5. Additive Manufactured Product Integrity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waller, Jess; Wells, Doug; James, Steve; Nichols, Charles

    2017-01-01

    NASA is providing key leadership in an international effort linking NASA and non-NASA resources to speed adoption of additive manufacturing (AM) to meet NASA's mission goals. Participants include industry, NASA's space partners, other government agencies, standards organizations and academia. Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) is identified as a universal need for all aspects of additive manufacturing.

  6. Feasibility and Impact of an 8-Week Integrative Yoga Program in People with Moderate Multiple Sclerosis–Related Disability

    PubMed Central

    Kietrys, David; Fogerite, Susan Gould; Silva, Mariella; Logan, Kristen; Barone, Donald A.; Parrott, J. Scott

    2017-01-01

    Background: This pilot study determined the feasibility of a specifically designed 8-week yoga program for people with moderate multiple sclerosis (MS)–related disability. We explored the program's effect on quality of life (QOL) and physical and mental performance. Methods: We used a single-group design with repeated measurements at baseline, postintervention, and 8-week follow-up. Feasibility was examined through cost, recruitment, retention, attendance, and safety. Outcomes included the Multiple Sclerosis Quality of Life Inventory (MSQLI), 12-item Multiple Sclerosis Walking Scale (MSWS-12), Timed 25-Foot Walk test (T25FW), 6-Minute Walk Test (6MWT), Nine-Hole Peg Test (NHPT), Five-Times Sit-to-Stand Test (FTSTS), Multidirectional Reach Test (MDRT), maximum expiratory pressure, and Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test-3″ (PASAT-3″). Results: Fourteen participants completed the study. The program was feasible. There were significant main effects on the 36-item Short Form Health Status Survey Mental Component Summary (SF-36 MCS), Modified Fatigue Impact Scale (MFIS), Bladder Control Scale (BLCS), Perceived Deficits Questionnaire (PDQ), Mental Health Inventory (MHI), MSWS-12, T25FW, NHPT, PASAT-3″, 6MWT, FTSTS, and MDRT-Back. Improvements were found on the SF-36 MCS, MFIS, BLCS, PDQ, MHI, and MSWS-12 between baseline and postintervention. The effect on PDQ persisted at follow-up. Improvements were found on the T25FW, NHPT, 6MWT, FTSTS, and MDRT-Back between baseline and postintervention that persisted at follow-up. The PASAT-3″ did not change between baseline and postintervention but did between postintervention and follow-up. Conclusions: The yoga program was safe and feasible. Improvements in certain measures of QOL and performance were seen at postintervention and follow-up. PMID:28243184

  7. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fletcher, James C. (Inventor); Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor); Burks, Harold D. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

  8. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor); Burks, Harold D. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of the additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

  9. Shale JP-4 Additive Evaluation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-10-01

    8217. •% . , ’ ,,,r ,% . -- - ,.-. ’ ’ 4,w% %’. " - ,’ . . . * ’, .* . TABLE OF CONTENTS .4q ,4 . * SECTION PAGE I. INTRODUCTION 1 II. TEST PARAMETERS 2 1...42 PRECEDING PAGE BLANK TABLE OF CONTENTS (CON’T) SECT ION PAGE V. CONCLUSIONS 44 REFERENCES 46 APPENDIX A Drum to Test Sample Relationship 47 APPENDIX...B.O.C.L.E. Results 40 vii LIST OF TABLES TABLE PAGE 1 Antioxidants 3 2 Raw Shale/Petroleum Fuel Properties 10 3 Drum Sample Additive Content 13 4

  10. Food Additives and Hyperkinesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wender, Ester H.

    1977-01-01

    The hypothesis that food additives are causally associated with hyperkinesis and learning disabilities in children is reviewed, and available data are summarized. Available from: American Medical Association 535 North Dearborn Street Chicago, Illinois 60610. (JG)

  11. Smog control fuel additives

    SciTech Connect

    Lundby, W.

    1993-06-29

    A method is described of controlling, reducing or eliminating, ozone and related smog resulting from photochemical reactions between ozone and automotive or industrial gases comprising the addition of iodine or compounds of iodine to hydrocarbon-base fuels prior to or during combustion in an amount of about 1 part iodine per 240 to 10,000,000 parts fuel, by weight, to be accomplished by: (a) the addition of these inhibitors during or after the refining or manufacturing process of liquid fuels; (b) the production of these inhibitors for addition into fuel tanks, such as automotive or industrial tanks; or (c) the addition of these inhibitors into combustion chambers of equipment utilizing solid fuels for the purpose of reducing ozone.

  12. Additional Types of Neuropathy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing Medication Doctors, Nurses & More ... us get closer to curing diabetes and better treatments for those living with diabetes. Other Ways to ...

  13. Group Sparse Additive Models

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Junming; Chen, Xi; Xing, Eric P.

    2016-01-01

    We consider the problem of sparse variable selection in nonparametric additive models, with the prior knowledge of the structure among the covariates to encourage those variables within a group to be selected jointly. Previous works either study the group sparsity in the parametric setting (e.g., group lasso), or address the problem in the nonparametric setting without exploiting the structural information (e.g., sparse additive models). In this paper, we present a new method, called group sparse additive models (GroupSpAM), which can handle group sparsity in additive models. We generalize the ℓ1/ℓ2 norm to Hilbert spaces as the sparsity-inducing penalty in GroupSpAM. Moreover, we derive a novel thresholding condition for identifying the functional sparsity at the group level, and propose an efficient block coordinate descent algorithm for constructing the estimate. We demonstrate by simulation that GroupSpAM substantially outperforms the competing methods in terms of support recovery and prediction accuracy in additive models, and also conduct a comparative experiment on a real breast cancer dataset.

  14. Additive Manufacturing Infrared Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaddy, Darrell

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing is a rapid prototyping technology that allows parts to be built in a series of thin layers from plastic, ceramics, and metallics. Metallic additive manufacturing is an emerging form of rapid prototyping that allows complex structures to be built using various metallic powders. Significant time and cost savings have also been observed using the metallic additive manufacturing compared with traditional techniques. Development of the metallic additive manufacturing technology has advanced significantly over the last decade, although many of the techniques to inspect parts made from these processes have not advanced significantly or have limitations. Several external geometry inspection techniques exist such as Coordinate Measurement Machines (CMM), Laser Scanners, Structured Light Scanning Systems, or even traditional calipers and gages. All of the aforementioned techniques are limited to external geometry and contours or must use a contact probe to inspect limited internal dimensions. This presentation will document the development of a process for real-time dimensional inspection technique and digital quality record of the additive manufacturing process using Infrared camera imaging and processing techniques.

  15. Phenylethynyl Containing Reactive Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Phenylethynyl containing reactive additives were prepared from aromatic diamine, containing phenylethvnvl groups and various ratios of phthalic anhydride and 4-phenylethynviphthalic anhydride in glacial acetic acid to form the imide in one step or in N-methyl-2-pvrrolidinone to form the amide acid intermediate. The reactive additives were mixed in various amounts (10% to 90%) with oligomers containing either terminal or pendent phenylethynyl groups (or both) to reduce the melt viscosity and thereby enhance processability. Upon thermal cure, the additives react and become chemically incorporated into the matrix and effect an increase in crosslink density relative to that of the host resin. This resultant increase in crosslink density has advantageous consequences on the cured resin properties such as higher glass transition temperature and higher modulus as compared to that of the host resin.

  16. Fused Lasso Additive Model

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Ashley; Witten, Daniela; Simon, Noah

    2016-01-01

    We consider the problem of predicting an outcome variable using p covariates that are measured on n independent observations, in a setting in which additive, flexible, and interpretable fits are desired. We propose the fused lasso additive model (FLAM), in which each additive function is estimated to be piecewise constant with a small number of adaptively-chosen knots. FLAM is the solution to a convex optimization problem, for which a simple algorithm with guaranteed convergence to a global optimum is provided. FLAM is shown to be consistent in high dimensions, and an unbiased estimator of its degrees of freedom is proposed. We evaluate the performance of FLAM in a simulation study and on two data sets. Supplemental materials are available online, and the R package flam is available on CRAN. PMID:28239246

  17. Phenylethynyl Containing Reactive Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Phenylethynyl containing reactive additives were prepared from aromatic diamines containing phenylethynyl groups and various ratios of phthalic anhydride and 4-phenylethynylphthalic anhydride in glacial acetic acid to form the imide in one step or in N-methyl-2-pyrrolidi none to form the amide acid intermediate. The reactive additives were mixed in various amounts (10% to 90%) with oligomers containing either terminal or pendent phenylethynyl groups (or both) to reduce the melt viscosity and thereby enhance processability. Upon thermal cure, the additives react and become chemically incorporated into the matrix and effect an increase in crosslink density relative to that of the host resin. This resultant increase in crosslink density has advantageous consequences on the cured resin properties such as higher glass transition temperature and higher modulus as compared to that of the host resin.

  18. Additives in plastics.

    PubMed Central

    Deanin, R D

    1975-01-01

    The polymers used in plastics are generally harmless. However, they are rarely used in pure form. In almost all commercial plastics, they are "compounded" with monomeric ingredients to improve their processing and end-use performance. In order of total volume used, these monomeric additives may be classified as follows: reinforcing fibers, fillers, and coupling agents; plasticizers; colorants; stabilizers (halogen stabilizers, antioxidants, ultraviolet absorbers, and biological preservatives); processing aids (lubricants, others, and flow controls); flame retardants, peroxides; and antistats. Some information is already available, and much more is needed, on potential toxicity and safe handling of these additives during processing and manufacture of plastics products. PMID:1175566

  19. Additives in plastics.

    PubMed

    Deanin, R D

    1975-06-01

    The polymers used in plastics are generally harmless. However, they are rarely used in pure form. In almost all commercial plastics, they are "compounded" with monomeric ingredients to improve their processing and end-use performance. In order of total volume used, these monomeric additives may be classified as follows: reinforcing fibers, fillers, and coupling agents; plasticizers; colorants; stabilizers (halogen stabilizers, antioxidants, ultraviolet absorbers, and biological preservatives); processing aids (lubricants, others, and flow controls); flame retardants, peroxides; and antistats. Some information is already available, and much more is needed, on potential toxicity and safe handling of these additives during processing and manufacture of plastics products.

  20. Biobased lubricant additives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fully biobased lubricants are those formulated using all biobased ingredients, i.e. biobased base oils and biobased additives. Such formulations provide the maximum environmental, safety, and economic benefits expected from a biobased product. Currently, there are a number of biobased base oils that...

  1. More Than Additional Space...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CEFP Journal, 1973

    1973-01-01

    A much needed addition to the Jamestown Elementary School turned out to be more than an expansion of walls for more space. A new educational program, a limited budget, and a short time line were tackled on a team approach basis and were successfully resolved. (Author)

  2. Compensatory cortical activation observed by fMRI during a cognitive task at the earliest stage of MS.

    PubMed

    Audoin, Bertrand; Ibarrola, Danielle; Ranjeva, Jean-Philippe; Confort-Gouny, Sylviane; Malikova, Irina; Ali-Chérif, André; Pelletier, Jean; Cozzone, Patrick

    2003-10-01

    Recent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have suggested that functional cortical changes seen in patients with early relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS) can have an adaptive role to limit the clinical impact of tissue injury. To determine whether cortical reorganization occurs during high cognitive processes at the earliest stage of multiple sclerosis (MS), we performed an fMRI experiment using the conventional Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT) as paradigm in a population of ten patients with clinically isolated syndrome suggestive of multiple sclerosis (CISSMS). At the time of the fMRI exploration, mean disease duration was 6.8 +/- 3.3 months. We compared these results to those obtained in a group of ten education-, age-, and sex-matched healthy controls. Subjects were explored on a 1.5 T MRI system using single-shot gradient-echo EPI sequence. Performances of the two groups during PASAT recorded inside the MR scanner were not different. Statistical assessment of brain activation was based on the random effect analysis (between-group analysis two-sample t-test P < 0.005 confirmed by individual analyses performed in the surviving regions P < 0.05 Mann Whitney U-test). Compared to controls, patients showed significantly greater activation in the right frontopolar cortex, the bilateral lateral prefrontal cortices, and the right cerebellum. Healthy controls did not show greater activation compared to CISSMS patients. The present study argues in favor of the existence of compensatory cortical activations at the earliest stage of MS mainly located in regions involved in executive processing in patients performing PASAT. It also suggests that fMRI can evidence the active processes of neuroplasticity contributing to mask the clinical cognitive expression of brain pathology at the earliest stage of MS.

  3. Working memory deficits in adults with ADHD: is there evidence for subtype differences?

    PubMed Central

    Schweitzer, Julie B; Hanford, Russell B; Medoff, Deborah R

    2006-01-01

    Background Working memory performance is important for maintaining functioning in cognitive, academic and social activities. Previous research suggests there are prevalent working memory deficits in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). There is now a growing body of literature characterizing working memory functioning according to ADHD subtypes in children. The expression of working memory deficits in adults with ADHD and how they vary according to subtype, however, remains to be more fully documented. Methods This study assessed differences in working memory functioning between Normal Control (NC) adults (N = 18); patients with ADHD, Combined (ADHD-CT) Type ADHD (N = 17); and ADHD, Inattentive (ADHD-IA) Type (N = 16) using subtests from the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III and Wechsler Memory Scale-III and the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Task (PASAT). Results The ADHD groups displayed significant weaknesses in contrast to the NC group on working memory tests requiring rapid processing and active stimulus manipulation. This included the Letter-Number-Sequencing test of the Wechsler scales, PASAT omission errors and the longest sequence of consecutive correct answers on the PASAT. No overall ADHD group subtype differences emerged; however differences between the ADHD groups and the NC group varied depending on the measure and the gender of the participants. Gender differences in performance were evident on some measures of working memory, regardless of group, with males performing better than females. Conclusion In general, the data support a dimensional interpretation of working memory deficits experienced by the ADHD-CT and ADHD-IA subtypes, rather than an absolute difference between subtypes. Future studies should test the effects of processing speed and load on subtype performance and how those variables interact with gender in adults with ADHD. PMID:17173676

  4. Long-term neuropsychological outcomes following mild traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Vanderploeg, Rodney D; Curtiss, Glenn; Belanger, Heather G

    2005-05-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) is common, yet few studies have examined neuropsychological outcomes more than 1 year postinjury. Studies of nonreferred individuals with MTBI or studies with appropriate control groups are lacking, but necessary to draw conclusions regarding natural recovery from MTBI. We examined the long-term neuropsychological outcomes of a self-reported MTBI an average of 8 years postinjury in a nonreferred community-dwelling sample of male veterans. This was a cross-sectional cohort study derived from the Vietnam Experience Study. Three groups matched on premorbid cognitive ability were examined, those who (1) had not been injured in a MVA nor had a head injury (Normal Control; n = 3214), (2) had been injured in a motor vehicle accident (MVA) but did not have a head injury (MVA Control; n = 539), and (3) had a head injury with altered consciousness (MTBI; n = 254). A MANOVA found no group differences on a standard neuropsychological test battery of 15 measures. Across 15 measures, the average neuropsychological effect size of MTBI compared with either control group was -.03. Subtle aspects of attention and working memory also were examined by comparing groups on Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT) continuation rate and California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT) proactive interference (PI). Compared with normal controls, the MTBI group evidenced attention problems in their lower rate of continuation to completion on the PASAT (odds ratio = 1.32, CI = 1.0-1.73) and in excessive PI (odds ratio = 1.66, CI = 1.11-2.47). Unique to the MTBI group, PASAT continuation problems were associated with left-sided visual imperceptions and excessive PI was associated with impaired tandem gait. These results show that MTBI can have adverse long-term neuropsychological outcomes on subtle aspects of complex attention and working memory.

  5. Fluency with Basic Addition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garza-Kling, Gina

    2011-01-01

    Traditionally, learning basic facts has focused on rote memorization of isolated facts, typically through the use of flash cards, repeated drilling, and timed testing. However, as many experienced teachers have seen, "drill alone does not develop mastery of single-digit combinations." In contrast, a fluency approach to learning basic addition…

  6. Vinyl capped addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vannucci, Raymond D. (Inventor); Malarik, Diane C. (Inventor); Delvigs, Peter (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    Polyimide resins (PMR) are generally useful where high strength and temperature capabilities are required (at temperatures up to about 700 F). Polyimide resins are particularly useful in applications such as jet engine compressor components, for example, blades, vanes, air seals, air splitters, and engine casing parts. Aromatic vinyl capped addition polyimides are obtained by reacting a diamine, an ester of tetracarboxylic acid, and an aromatic vinyl compound. Low void materials with improved oxidative stability when exposed to 700 F air may be fabricated as fiber reinforced high molecular weight capped polyimide composites. The aromatic vinyl capped polyimides are provided with a more aromatic nature and are more thermally stable than highly aliphatic, norbornenyl-type end-capped polyimides employed in PMR resins. The substitution of aromatic vinyl end-caps for norbornenyl end-caps in addition polyimides results in polymers with improved oxidative stability.

  7. Electrophilic addition of astatine

    SciTech Connect

    Norseev, Yu.V.; Vasaros, L.; Nhan, D.D.; Huan, N.K.

    1988-03-01

    It has been shown for the first time that astatine is capable of undergoing addition reactions to unsaturated hydrocarbons. A new compound of astatine, viz., ethylene astatohydrin, has been obtained, and its retention numbers of squalane, Apiezon, and tricresyl phosphate have been found. The influence of various factors on the formation of ethylene astatohydrin has been studied. It has been concluded on the basis of the results obtained that the univalent cations of astatine in an acidic medium is protonated hypoastatous acid.

  8. Siloxane containing addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maudgal, S.; St. Clair, T. L.

    1984-01-01

    Addition polyimide oligomers have been synthesized from bis(gamma-aminopropyl) tetramethyldisiloxane and 3, 3', 4, 4'-benzophenonetetracarboxylic dianhydride using a variety of latent crosslinking groups as endcappers. The prepolymers were isolated and characterized for solubility (in amide, chlorinated and ether solvents), melt flow and cure properties. The most promising systems, maleimide and acetylene terminated prepolymers, were selected for detailed study. Graphite cloth reinforced composites were prepared and properties compared with those of graphite/Kerimid 601, a commercially available bismaleimide. Mixtures of the maleimide terminated system with Kerimid 601, in varying proportions, were also studied.

  9. Walking stability during cell phone use in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Kao, Pei-Chun; Higginson, Christopher I; Seymour, Kelly; Kamerdze, Morgan; Higginson, Jill S

    2015-05-01

    The number of falls and/or accidental injuries associated with cellular phone use during walking is growing rapidly. Understanding the effects of concurrent cell phone use on human gait may help develop safety guidelines for pedestrians. It was shown previously that older adults had more pronounced dual-task interferences than younger adults when concurrent cognitive task required visual information processing. Thus, cell phone use might have greater impact on walking stability in older than in younger adults. This study examined gait stability and variability during a cell phone dialing task (phone) and two classic cognitive tasks, the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT) and Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT). Nine older and seven younger healthy adults walked on a treadmill at four different conditions: walking only, PASAT, phone, and SDMT. We computed short-term local divergence exponent (LDE) of the trunk motion (local stability), dynamic margins of stability (MOS), step spatiotemporal measures, and kinematic variability. Older and younger adults had similar values of short-term LDE during all conditions, indicating that local stability was not affected by the dual-task. Compared to walking only, older and younger adults walked with significantly greater average mediolateral MOS during phone and SDMT conditions but significantly less ankle angle variability during all dual-tasks and less knee angle variability during PASAT. The current findings demonstrate that healthy adults may try to control foot placement and joint kinematics during cell phone use or another cognitive task with a visual component to ensure sufficient dynamic margins of stability and maintain local stability.

  10. Walking Stability during Cell Phone Use in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kao, Pei-Chun; Higginson, Christopher I.; Seymour, Kelly; Kamerdze, Morgan; Higginson, Jill S.

    2015-01-01

    The number of falls and/or accidental injuries associated with cellular phone use during walking is growing rapidly. Understanding the effects of concurrent cell phone use on human gait may help develop safety guidelines for pedestrians. It was shown previously that older adults had more pronounced dual-task interferences than younger adults when concurrent cognitive task required visual information processing. Thus, cell phone use might have greater impact on walking stability in older than in younger adults. This study examined gait stability and variability during a cell phone dialing task (phone) and two classic cognitive tasks, the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT) and Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT). Nine older and seven younger healthy adults walked on a treadmill at four different conditions: walking only, PASAT, phone, and SDMT. We computed short-term local divergence exponent (LDE) of the trunk motion (local stability), dynamic margins of stability (MOS), step spatiotemporal measures, and kinematic variability. Older and younger adults had similar values of short-term LDE during all conditions, indicating that local stability was not affected by the dual-task. Compared to walking only, older and younger adults walked with significantly greater average mediolateral MOS during phone and SDMT conditions but significantly less ankle angle variability during all dual-tasks and less knee angle variability during PASAT. The current findings demonstrate that healthy adults may try to control foot placement and joint kinematics during cell phone use or another cognitive task with a visual component to ensure sufficient dynamic margins of stability and maintain local stability. PMID:25890490

  11. Platelet additive solution - electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Azuma, Hiroshi; Hirayama, Junichi; Akino, Mitsuaki; Ikeda, Hisami

    2011-06-01

    Recent attention to solutions that replace most or all plasma in platelet concentrates, while maintaining satisfactory platelet function, is motivated by the potential of plasma reduction or depletion to mitigate various transfusion-related adverse events. This report considers the electrolytic composition of previously described platelet additive solutions, in order to draw general conclusions about what is required for platelet function and longevity. The optimal concentrations of Na(+) and Cl(-) are 69-115 mM. The presence of both K(+) and Mg(2+) in platelet suspension at nearly physiological concentrations (3-5mM and 1.5-3mM, respectively) is indispensable for good preservation capacity because both electrolytes are required to prevent platelet activation. In contrast to K(+) and Mg(2+), Ca(2+) may not be important because no free Ca(2+) is available in M-sol, which showed excellent platelet preservation capacity at less than 5% plasma concentration. The importance of bicarbonate (approximately 40 mM) can be recognized when the platelets are suspended in additive solution under less than 5% residual plasma concentration.

  12. Salmon testes meal as a functional feed additive in fish meal and plant-protein based diets for rainbow trout(Oncorhynchus mykiss walbaum)and nile tilapia(Oreochromis niloticus L.) fry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We report that salmon testes meal (TM) produced from Alaskan seafood processing byproducts is a potential protein source for aquafeed formulations. A series of feeding trials was conducted using three different fish species; including Nile tilapia, rainbow trout, and white sturgeon at their early gr...

  13. Additive composition, for gasoline

    SciTech Connect

    Vataru, M.

    1989-01-10

    An admixture is described that comprises Diesel fuel and an additive composition added thereto which is between about 0.05 to about 2.0 percent by weight of the fuel, the composition comprising: (a) between about 0.05 and 25% relative weight parts of an organic peroxide, and (b) between about 0.1 and 25% relative weight parts of detergent selected from the component group that consists of: (i) fatty amines; (ii) ethoxylated and propoxylated derivatives of fatty amines; (iii) fatty diamines; (iv) fatty imidazlines; (v) polymeric amines and derivatives thereof; (vi) combination of one or more of the (i) through (v) components with carboxylic acid or acids having from three to forth carbon atoms, (c) from about 99.0 to about 50% by weight of a hydrocarbon solvent.

  14. Teardrop bladder: additional considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Wechsler, R.J.; Brennan, R.E.

    1982-07-01

    Nine cases of teardrop bladder (TDB) seen at excretory urography are presented. In some of these patients, the iliopsoas muscles were at the upper limit of normal in size, and additional evaluation of the perivesical structures with computed tomography (CT) was necessary. CT demonstrated only hypertrophied muscles with or without perivesical fat. The psoas muscles and pelvic width were measured in 8 patients and compared with the measurements of a control group of males without TDB. Patients with TDB had large iliopsoas muscles and narrow pelves compared with the control group. The psoas muscle width/pelvic width ratio was significantly greater (p < 0.0005) in patients with TDB than in the control group, with values of 1.04 + 0.05 and 0.82 + 0.09, respectively. It is concluded that TDB is not an uncommon normal variant in black males. Both iliopsoas muscle hypertrophy and a narrow pelvis are factors that predispose a patient to TDB.

  15. New addition curing polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frimer, Aryeh A.; Cavano, Paul

    1991-01-01

    In an attempt to improve the thermal-oxidative stability (TOS) of PMR-type polymers, the use of 1,4-phenylenebis (phenylmaleic anhydride) PPMA, was evaluated. Two series of nadic end-capped addition curing polyimides were prepared by imidizing PPMA with either 4,4'-methylene dianiline or p-phenylenediamine. The first resulted in improved solubility and increased resin flow while the latter yielded a compression molded neat resin sample with a T(sub g) of 408 C, close to 70 C higher than PME-15. The performance of these materials in long term weight loss studies was below that of PMR-15, independent of post-cure conditions. These results can be rationalized in terms of the thermal lability of the pendant phenyl groups and the incomplete imidization of the sterically congested PPMA. The preparation of model compounds as well as future research directions are discussed.

  16. Perspectives on Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourell, David L.

    2016-07-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has skyrocketed in visibility commercially and in the public sector. This article describes the development of this field from early layered manufacturing approaches of photosculpture, topography, and material deposition. Certain precursors to modern AM processes are also briefly described. The growth of the field over the last 30 years is presented. Included is the standard delineation of AM technologies into seven broad categories. The economics of AM part generation is considered, and the impacts of the economics on application sectors are described. On the basis of current trends, the future outlook will include a convergence of AM fabricators, mass-produced AM fabricators, enabling of topology optimization designs, and specialization in the AM legal arena. Long-term developments with huge impact are organ printing and volume-based printing.

  17. Sewage sludge additive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalvinskas, J. J.; Mueller, W. A.; Ingham, J. D. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    The additive is for a raw sewage treatment process of the type where settling tanks are used for the purpose of permitting the suspended matter in the raw sewage to be settled as well as to permit adsorption of the dissolved contaminants in the water of the sewage. The sludge, which settles down to the bottom of the settling tank is extracted, pyrolyzed and activated to form activated carbon and ash which is mixed with the sewage prior to its introduction into the settling tank. The sludge does not provide all of the activated carbon and ash required for adequate treatment of the raw sewage. It is necessary to add carbon to the process and instead of expensive commercial carbon, coal is used to provide the carbon supplement.

  18. THERMOGRAPHIC INVESTIGATION OF ANTI-ABRASIVE OIL ADDITIVES,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    ANTISEIZE COMPOUNDS, *LUBRICANT ADDITIVES, *LUBRICANTS, ADDITIVES, ALKYL RADICALS, CHLORIDES, ETHYLENES, HEXANES (6 C), HYDROCARBONS, IRON, PHOSPHORUS COMPOUNDS, POWDER METALS, SULFIDES, TEST METHODS, TRANSLATIONS

  19. Additive lattice kirigami.

    PubMed

    Castle, Toen; Sussman, Daniel M; Tanis, Michael; Kamien, Randall D

    2016-09-01

    Kirigami uses bending, folding, cutting, and pasting to create complex three-dimensional (3D) structures from a flat sheet. In the case of lattice kirigami, this cutting and rejoining introduces defects into an underlying 2D lattice in the form of points of nonzero Gaussian curvature. A set of simple rules was previously used to generate a wide variety of stepped structures; we now pare back these rules to their minimum. This allows us to describe a set of techniques that unify a wide variety of cut-and-paste actions under the rubric of lattice kirigami, including adding new material and rejoining material across arbitrary cuts in the sheet. We also explore the use of more complex lattices and the different structures that consequently arise. Regardless of the choice of lattice, creating complex structures may require multiple overlapping kirigami cuts, where subsequent cuts are not performed on a locally flat lattice. Our additive kirigami method describes such cuts, providing a simple methodology and a set of techniques to build a huge variety of complex 3D shapes.

  20. Ceramics with Different Additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Juanjuan; Feng, Lajun; Lei, Ali; Zhao, Kang; Yan, Aijun

    2014-09-01

    Li2CO3, MgCO3, BaCO3, and Bi2O3 dopants were introduced into CaCu3Ti4O12 (CCTO) ceramics in order to improve the dielectric properties. The CCTO ceramics were prepared by conventional solid-state reaction method. The phase structure, microstructure, and dielectric behavior were carefully investigated. The pure structure without any impurity phases can be confirmed by the x-ray diffraction patterns. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) analysis illuminated that the grains of Ca0.90Li0.20Cu3Ti4O12 ceramics were greater than that of pure CCTO. It was important for the properties of the CCTO ceramics to study the additives in complex impedance spectroscopy. It was found that the Ca0.90Li0.20Cu3Ti4O12 ceramics had the higher permittivity (>45000), the lower dielectric loss (<0.025) than those of CCTO at 1 kHz at room temperature and good temperature stability from -30 to 75 °C.

  1. Additive lattice kirigami

    PubMed Central

    Castle, Toen; Sussman, Daniel M.; Tanis, Michael; Kamien, Randall D.

    2016-01-01

    Kirigami uses bending, folding, cutting, and pasting to create complex three-dimensional (3D) structures from a flat sheet. In the case of lattice kirigami, this cutting and rejoining introduces defects into an underlying 2D lattice in the form of points of nonzero Gaussian curvature. A set of simple rules was previously used to generate a wide variety of stepped structures; we now pare back these rules to their minimum. This allows us to describe a set of techniques that unify a wide variety of cut-and-paste actions under the rubric of lattice kirigami, including adding new material and rejoining material across arbitrary cuts in the sheet. We also explore the use of more complex lattices and the different structures that consequently arise. Regardless of the choice of lattice, creating complex structures may require multiple overlapping kirigami cuts, where subsequent cuts are not performed on a locally flat lattice. Our additive kirigami method describes such cuts, providing a simple methodology and a set of techniques to build a huge variety of complex 3D shapes. PMID:27679822

  2. NOAA OTEC CWP (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Cold Water Pipe) at-sea test. Volume 3: Additional tabulation of the power spectra, part 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1983-12-01

    Data collected during the Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Cold Water Pipe At Sea Test are analyzed. Also included are the following ittems: (1) sensor factors and offsets, and the data processing algorithms used to convert the recorded sensor measurements from electrical to engineering units; (2) plots of the power spectra estimates obtained from a fast fourier transform (FFT) analysis of selected channels; (3) plots of selected sensor measurements as a function of time; and (4) plots of bending strain along the pipe using statistics and values presented.

  3. Fuel Additives: Canada bans MMT

    SciTech Connect

    Sissell, K.

    1997-04-16

    The Canadian Senate voted late last week to ban use of the manganese-based fuel additive MMT, produced only in the US by Ethyl. MMT, which has been sold in Canada for the past 20 years and accounts for about half of Ethyl`s Canadian sales, has been criticized by environmentalists, who have raised public health concerns, and automakers, who say it harms emission control systems. {open_quotes}Canada`s vote is a great victory for public health and the environment,{close_quotes} says Environmental Defense Fund executive director Fred Krupp. {open_quotes}The US should move swiftly to follow suit and suspend sales of MMT until adequate toxicity testing on the additive is completed.{close_quotes} EPA had refused to approve MMT for sale because of health concerns but was compelled to do so by a December 1995 court ruling. Ethyl asserts the ban violates Canada`s obligations under Nafta and says it will file a damage claim with the Nafta arbitration panel.

  4. Effects of acetazolamide on cognitive performance during high-altitude exposure.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiye; Ke, Tao; Zhang, Xiangnan; Chen, Yaoming; Liu, Mingchao; Chen, Jingyuan; Luo, Wenjing

    2013-01-01

    High-altitude hypoxia impedes cognitive performance. It is not well known whether the prophylactic use of acetazolamide for altitude sickness can influence cognitive performance at high altitude. When ascending to high altitude locations, one may face medical risks, including cognitive impairment, which may significantly hinder climbing abilities or exploratory behavior. Effective prophylactic drugs have rarely been reported. Because acetazolamide is commonly used to treat acute mountain sickness (AMS), we assessed the potential effects of acetazolamide on cognitive performance during high-altitude exposure. Twenty-one volunteers aged 22-26 years were randomized to receive a 4-day treatment of acetazolamide (125 mg Bid, n=11) or placebo (n=10) before and after air travel from Xianyang (402 m) to Lhasa (3561 m). Neuropsychological performance was assessed using the digit symbol substitution test (DSST), paced auditory serial addition test (PASAT), operation span task, and free recall test at 6, 30, and 54 h after arrival at Lhasa. The Lake Louise Score (LLS) was used to diagnose AMS. At high altitude, acetazolamide impaired rather than improved neuropsychological measures of concentration, cognitive processing speed, reaction time, short-term memory, and working memory, which were assessed by DSST, PASAT, and operation span task at 6 and 30 h after arrival (p<0.05). However, the prophylactic use of acetazolamide was found to reduce the incidence of AMS compared to the placebo (p<0.05). In conclusion, acetazolamide impairs neuropsychological function, at least in part, shortly after the ascent to high altitude.

  5. Testing Speaking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitao, S. Kathleen; Kitao, Kenji

    Speaking a second language is probably the most difficult skill to test in that it involves a combination of skills that may have no correlation with each other, and which do not lend themselves to objective testing. In addition, what can be understood is a function of the listener's background and ability as well as those of the speaker. Another…

  6. Dimensionless numbers in additive manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, T.; Manvatkar, V.; De, A.; DebRoy, T.

    2017-02-01

    The effects of many process variables and alloy properties on the structure and properties of additively manufactured parts are examined using four dimensionless numbers. The structure and properties of components made from 316 Stainless steel, Ti-6Al-4V, and Inconel 718 powders for various dimensionless heat inputs, Peclet numbers, Marangoni numbers, and Fourier numbers are studied. Temperature fields, cooling rates, solidification parameters, lack of fusion defects, and thermal strains are examined using a well-tested three-dimensional transient heat transfer and fluid flow model. The results show that lack of fusion defects in the fabricated parts can be minimized by strengthening interlayer bonding using high values of dimensionless heat input. The formation of harmful intermetallics such as laves phases in Inconel 718 can be suppressed using low heat input that results in a small molten pool, a steep temperature gradient, and a fast cooling rate. Improved interlayer bonding can be achieved at high Marangoni numbers, which results in vigorous circulation of liquid metal, larger pool dimensions, and greater depth of penetration. A high Fourier number ensures rapid cooling, low thermal distortion, and a high ratio of temperature gradient to the solidification growth rate with a greater tendency of plane front solidification.

  7. 40 CFR 63.1352 - Additional test methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From the Portland Cement Manufacturing Industry... determine the rates of emission of HCl from kilns and associated bypass stacks at portland cement... emission of specific organic HAP from raw material dryers, and kilns at Portland cement...

  8. 40 CFR 63.1352 - Additional test methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From the Portland Cement Manufacturing Industry Monitoring and... rates of emission of HCl from kilns and associated bypass stacks at portland cement manufacturing... specific organic HAP from raw material dryers, kilns and in-line kiln/raw mills at Portland...

  9. 40 CFR 63.1352 - Additional test methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From the Portland Cement Manufacturing Industry... determine the rates of emission of HCl from kilns and associated bypass stacks at portland cement... emission of specific organic HAP from raw material dryers, and kilns at Portland cement...

  10. 40 CFR 63.1352 - Additional test methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From the Portland Cement Manufacturing Industry Monitoring and... rates of emission of HCl from kilns and associated bypass stacks at portland cement manufacturing... specific organic HAP from raw material dryers, kilns and in-line kiln/raw mills at Portland...

  11. 40 CFR 63.1333 - Additional requirements for performance testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... from continuous process vent i as calculated using the procedures specified in § 63.116(c)(4), kg/month. PPM = Amount of polymer produced in one month as determined by the procedures specified in § 63.1318(b... specified in § 63.11(b)(6); and (3) Determine the exit velocity using the techniques specified in...

  12. 40 CFR 63.1333 - Additional requirements for performance testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins § 63.1333... paragraphs (b)(1) and (b)(2) of this section. ER19JN00.041 Where: ERMBS = Emission rate of organic HAP or TOC from continuous process vents, kg/Mg product. Ei = Emission rate of organic HAP or TOC from...

  13. 40 CFR 63.504 - Additional requirements for performance testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group I Polymers and Resins § 63.504... reduction or outlet organic HAP or TOC concentration. If a compliance demonstration has been...

  14. Experimental Tests of Cooling: Expectations and Additional Needs

    SciTech Connect

    Zisman, Michael S

    2008-09-24

    Cooling is a critical aspect for a high-performance Neutrino Factory or a MuonCollider. For this reason, considerable effort is being put toward theexperimental verification of this technique. The international Muon IonizationCooling Experiment, MICE, was approved to operate at Rutherford AppletonLaboratory (RAL) in the UK and beam line commissioning commenced in March, 2008. The MICE collaboration comprises about 130 scientists and engineers from Asia, Europe, and the U.S. In this paper we present the motivation and goals for thisexperiment and describe its present status. MICE is scheduled for completion in2011. We will also indicate the prospects for a future 6D muon coolingexperiment and discuss its possible time schedule.

  15. 40 CFR 63.1352 - Additional test methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From the Portland Cement Manufacturing Industry Monitoring and... bypass stacks at portland cement manufacturing facilities, for use in applicability determinations under... kiln/raw mills and associated bypass stacks at portland cement manufacturing facilities, for use...

  16. 40 CFR 63.1437 - Additional requirements for performance testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... requested, this documentation shall be provided to the Administrator. (2) When the General Provisions' data analysis, recordkeeping, and reporting requirements in § 63.7(g) refer to the Notification of Compliance... date with the Administrator (or delegated State or local agency) by mutual agreement. (b) Data shall...

  17. 40 CFR 63.1437 - Additional requirements for performance testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... requested, this documentation shall be provided to the Administrator. (2) When the General Provisions' data analysis, recordkeeping, and reporting requirements in § 63.7(g) refer to the Notification of Compliance... date with the Administrator (or delegated State or local agency) by mutual agreement. (b) Data shall...

  18. 40 CFR 63.1437 - Additional requirements for performance testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... requested, this documentation shall be provided to the Administrator. (2) When the General Provisions' data analysis, recordkeeping, and reporting requirements in § 63.7(g) refer to the Notification of Compliance... date with the Administrator (or delegated State or local agency) by mutual agreement. (b) Data shall...

  19. Addition Table of Colours: Additive and Subtractive Mixtures Described Using a Single Reasoning Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mota, A. R.; Lopes dos Santos, J. M. B.

    2014-01-01

    Students' misconceptions concerning colour phenomena and the apparent complexity of the underlying concepts--due to the different domains of knowledge involved--make its teaching very difficult. We have developed and tested a teaching device, the addition table of colours (ATC), that encompasses additive and subtractive mixtures in a single…

  20. How Safe Are Color Additives?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home For Consumers Consumer Updates How Safe are Color Additives? Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... Consumer Updates RSS Feed Download PDF (380 K) Color additives give the red tint to your fruit ...

  1. Detergent Additive for Lubricating Oils,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The Russian patent pertains to a method of producing additives for lubricating oils . A method is known for producing an antiwear additive for... lubricating oils by processing phenols with phosphorus oxychloride, phosphoric acid esters are obtained. In order to give the additive detergent properties

  2. Altered functional connectivity related to white matter changes inside the working memory network at the very early stage of MS.

    PubMed

    Au Duong, My-Van; Audoin, Bertrand; Boulanouar, Kader; Ibarrola, Daniella; Malikova, Irina; Confort-Gouny, Sylrane; Celsis, Pierre; Pelletier, Jean; Cozzone, Patrick J; Ranjeva, Jean-Philippe

    2005-10-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) using paced auditory serial addition test (PASAT) as paradigm was used to study the functional connectivity in 18 patients at the very early stage of multiple sclerosis (MS) compared with 18 controls, to determine the existence of circuitry disturbance inside the working memory network and its relationship with white matter abnormalities assessed by conventional MRI and magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) imaging. The left BA 45/46 was selected as the seed region to compute correlation maps with other brain regions. After obtaining the correlation map for each subject, between-group comparisons were performed using random effect procedure. Compared with controls, patients did not show any greater functional connectivity between left BA 45/46 and other regions during PASAT. In contrast, decrease in functional connectivity was observed in patients between left BA 45/46 and left BA 9, right BA 3, and the anterior cingulate cortex (BA 24). In patients, no correlations were found between altered functional connectivity and clinical data. However, functional connectivity observed between left BA 45/46 and BA 24 in patients was correlated with the MTR of normal appearing white matter, and with brain T(2) lesion load. Altered functional connectivity is present inside the working memory network of patients at the very early stage of MS and is related to the extent of diffuse white matter changes.

  3. Acute stress switches spatial navigation strategy from egocentric to allocentric in a virtual Morris water maze.

    PubMed

    van Gerven, Dustin J H; Ferguson, Thomas; Skelton, Ronald W

    2016-07-01

    Stress and stress hormones are known to influence the function of the hippocampus, a brain structure critical for cognitive-map-based, allocentric spatial navigation. The caudate nucleus, a brain structure critical for stimulus-response-based, egocentric navigation, is not as sensitive to stress. Evidence for this comes from rodent studies, which show that acute stress or stress hormones impair allocentric, but not egocentric navigation. However, there have been few studies investigating the effect of acute stress on human spatial navigation, and the results of these have been equivocal. To date, no study has investigated whether acute stress can shift human navigational strategy selection between allocentric and egocentric navigation. The present study investigated this question by exposing participants to an acute psychological stressor (the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Task, PASAT), before testing navigational strategy selection in the Dual-Strategy Maze, a modified virtual Morris water maze. In the Dual-Strategy maze, participants can chose to navigate using a constellation of extra-maze cues (allocentrically) or using a single cue proximal to the goal platform (egocentrically). Surprisingly, PASAT stress biased participants to solve the maze allocentrically significantly more, rather than less, often. These findings have implications for understanding the effects of acute stress on cognitive function in general, and the function of the hippocampus in particular.

  4. Children's Construction of the Operation of Addition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grobecker, Betsey

    Six- to eight-year-old children (N=42) who were identified by their teachers as within the average range of ability in mathematics were individually tested on three different mathematics tasks. On the flashcard task and the nonverbal task where children replicated the number of buttons placed under a box, the same 14 addition problems with sums up…

  5. Incorporation of additives into polymers

    DOEpatents

    McCleskey, T. Mark; Yates, Matthew Z.

    2003-07-29

    There has been invented a method for incorporating additives into polymers comprising: (a) forming an aqueous or alcohol-based colloidal system of the polymer; (b) emulsifying the colloidal system with a compressed fluid; and (c) contacting the colloidal polymer with the additive in the presence of the compressed fluid. The colloidal polymer can be contacted with the additive by having the additive in the compressed fluid used for emulsification or by adding the additive to the colloidal system before or after emulsification with the compressed fluid. The invention process can be carried out either as a batch process or as a continuous on-line process.

  6. Additive manufacturing of optical components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinrich, Andreas; Rank, Manuel; Maillard, Philippe; Suckow, Anne; Bauckhage, Yannick; Rößler, Patrick; Lang, Johannes; Shariff, Fatin; Pekrul, Sven

    2016-08-01

    The development of additive manufacturing methods has enlarged rapidly in recent years. Thereby, the work mainly focuses on the realization of mechanical components, but the additive manufacturing technology offers a high potential in the field of optics as well. Owing to new design possibilities, completely new solutions are possible. This article briefly reviews and compares the most important additive manufacturing methods for polymer optics. Additionally, it points out the characteristics of additive manufactured polymer optics. Thereby, surface quality is of crucial importance. In order to improve it, appropriate post-processing steps are necessary (e.g. robot polishing or coating), which will be discussed. An essential part of this paper deals with various additive manufactured optical components and their use, especially in optical systems for shape metrology (e.g. borehole sensor, tilt sensor, freeform surface sensor, fisheye lens). The examples should demonstrate the potentials and limitations of optical components produced by additive manufacturing.

  7. Enantioselective Michael addition of water.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bi-Shuang; Resch, Verena; Otten, Linda G; Hanefeld, Ulf

    2015-02-09

    The enantioselective Michael addition using water as both nucleophile and solvent has to date proved beyond the ability of synthetic chemists. Herein, the direct, enantioselective Michael addition of water in water to prepare important β-hydroxy carbonyl compounds using whole cells of Rhodococcus strains is described. Good yields and excellent enantioselectivities were achieved with this method. Deuterium labeling studies demonstrate that a Michael hydratase catalyzes the water addition exclusively with anti-stereochemistry.

  8. Enantioselective Michael Addition of Water

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Bi-Shuang; Resch, Verena; Otten, Linda G; Hanefeld, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    The enantioselective Michael addition using water as both nucleophile and solvent has to date proved beyond the ability of synthetic chemists. Herein, the direct, enantioselective Michael addition of water in water to prepare important β-hydroxy carbonyl compounds using whole cells of Rhodococcus strains is described. Good yields and excellent enantioselectivities were achieved with this method. Deuterium labeling studies demonstrate that a Michael hydratase catalyzes the water addition exclusively with anti-stereochemistry. PMID:25529526

  9. Anaerobic sludge digestion with a biocatalytic additive

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, S.; Henry, M.P.; Fedde, P.A.

    1982-01-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of a lactobacillus additive an anaerobic sludge digestion under normal, variable, and overload operating conditions. The additive was a whey fermentation product of an acid-tolerant strain of Lactobacillus acidophilus fortified with CaCO/sub 3/, (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/HPO/sub 4/, ferrous lactate, and lactic acid. The lactobacillus additive is multifunctional in nature and provides growth factors, metabolic intermediates, and enzymes needed for substrate degradation and cellular synthesis. The experimental work consisted of several pairs of parallel mesophilic (35/sup 0/C) digestion runs (control and test) conducted in five experimental phases. Baseline runs without the additive showed that the two experimental digesters had the same methane content, gas production rate (GPR), and ethane yield. The effect of the additive was to increase methane yield and GPR by about 5% (which was statistically significant) during digester operation at a loading rate (LR) of 3.2 kg VS/m/sup 3/-day and a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 14 days. Data collected from the various experimental phases showed that the biochemical additive increased methane yield, gas production rate, and VS reduction, and decreased volatile acids accumulation. In addition, it enhanced digester buffer capacity and improved the fertilizer value and dewatering characteristics of the digested residue.

  10. Color Addition and Subtraction Apps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz, Frances; Ruiz, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Color addition and subtraction apps in HTML5 have been developed for students as an online hands-on experience so that they can more easily master principles introduced through traditional classroom demonstrations. The evolution of the additive RGB color model is traced through the early IBM color adapters so that students can proceed step by step…

  11. Additive Effects on Asymmetric Catalysis.

    PubMed

    Hong, Liang; Sun, Wangsheng; Yang, Dongxu; Li, Guofeng; Wang, Rui

    2016-03-23

    This review highlights a number of additives that can be used to make asymmetric reactions perfect. Without changing other reaction conditions, simply adding additives can lead to improved asymmetric catalysis, such as reduced reaction time, improved yield, or/and increased selectivity.

  12. Polymer: bioceramic composites optimization by tetracycline addition.

    PubMed

    Pataro, André L; Oliveira, Michele F; Teixeira, Karina I R; Turchetti-Maia, Regina M M; Lopes, Miriam T P; Wykrota, Francisco H L; Sinisterra, Rubén D; Cortés, Maria E

    2007-05-04

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the biocompatibility of composites of poly-lactic acid polymer (PLA) and copolymer of lactic and glycolic acid (PLGA), dispersed in a bioceramic matrix, Osteosynt (BC), to which tetracycline (TC) was added. The in vitro test used direct contact test (ASTM F-813) and elution test (USP-XXIII, ISO 10993-5), and in vivo evaluation was performed after subcutaneous implantation in outbread Swiss mice. The 0.01% (w/w) TC addition did not affect composite cytotoxicity in vitro. The macroscopic and histologic evaluation in vivo after 1, 7, 13, 21, 28 and 56 days showed an initial intense infiltrate of inflammatory cells for most of the groups. The tissue showed normal pattern after 21 days for all the groups. TC addition exhibited significantly larger reduction of inflammation signs (Mann-Whitney test, p<0.05) in the critical period of the resolution of the inflammatory process. Angiogenesis, cellular adsorption and fibrous deposit were observed on SEM evaluation. In conclusion, TC addition optimized composites polymer/bioceramic biocompatibility, contributing to anti-inflammatory response during the early phases of the wound healing process.

  13. Printability of alloys for additive manufacturing

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, T.; Zuback, J. S.; De, A.; DebRoy, T.

    2016-01-01

    Although additive manufacturing (AM), or three dimensional (3D) printing, provides significant advantages over existing manufacturing techniques, metallic parts produced by AM are susceptible to distortion, lack of fusion defects and compositional changes. Here we show that the printability, or the ability of an alloy to avoid these defects, can be examined by developing and testing appropriate theories. A theoretical scaling analysis is used to test vulnerability of various alloys to thermal distortion. A theoretical kinetic model is used to examine predisposition of different alloys to AM induced compositional changes. A well-tested numerical heat transfer and fluid flow model is used to compare susceptibilities of various alloys to lack of fusion defects. These results are tested and validated with independent experimental data. The findings presented in this paper are aimed at achieving distortion free, compositionally sound and well bonded metallic parts. PMID:26796864

  14. Printability of alloys for additive manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, T.; Zuback, J. S.; de, A.; Debroy, T.

    2016-01-01

    Although additive manufacturing (AM), or three dimensional (3D) printing, provides significant advantages over existing manufacturing techniques, metallic parts produced by AM are susceptible to distortion, lack of fusion defects and compositional changes. Here we show that the printability, or the ability of an alloy to avoid these defects, can be examined by developing and testing appropriate theories. A theoretical scaling analysis is used to test vulnerability of various alloys to thermal distortion. A theoretical kinetic model is used to examine predisposition of different alloys to AM induced compositional changes. A well-tested numerical heat transfer and fluid flow model is used to compare susceptibilities of various alloys to lack of fusion defects. These results are tested and validated with independent experimental data. The findings presented in this paper are aimed at achieving distortion free, compositionally sound and well bonded metallic parts.

  15. Printability of alloys for additive manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, T; Zuback, J S; De, A; DebRoy, T

    2016-01-22

    Although additive manufacturing (AM), or three dimensional (3D) printing, provides significant advantages over existing manufacturing techniques, metallic parts produced by AM are susceptible to distortion, lack of fusion defects and compositional changes. Here we show that the printability, or the ability of an alloy to avoid these defects, can be examined by developing and testing appropriate theories. A theoretical scaling analysis is used to test vulnerability of various alloys to thermal distortion. A theoretical kinetic model is used to examine predisposition of different alloys to AM induced compositional changes. A well-tested numerical heat transfer and fluid flow model is used to compare susceptibilities of various alloys to lack of fusion defects. These results are tested and validated with independent experimental data. The findings presented in this paper are aimed at achieving distortion free, compositionally sound and well bonded metallic parts.

  16. Printability of alloys for additive manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Mukherjee, T.; Zuback, J. S.; De, A.; DebRoy, T.

    2016-01-22

    Although additive manufacturing (AM), or three dimensional (3D) printing, provides significant advantages over existing manufacturing techniques, metallic parts produced by AM are susceptible to distortion, lack of fusion defects and compositional changes. Here we show that the printability, or the ability of an alloy to avoid these defects, can be examined by developing and testing appropriate theories. A theoretical scaling analysis is used to test vulnerability of various alloys to thermal distortion. A theoretical kinetic model is used to examine predisposition of different alloys to AM induced compositional changes. A well-tested numerical heat transfer and fluid flow model is used to compare susceptibilities of various alloys to lack of fusion defects. These results are tested and validated with independent experimental data. Here, the findings presented in this paper are aimed at achieving distortion free, compositionally sound and well bonded metallic parts.

  17. Printability of alloys for additive manufacturing

    DOE PAGES

    Mukherjee, T.; Zuback, J. S.; De, A.; ...

    2016-01-22

    Although additive manufacturing (AM), or three dimensional (3D) printing, provides significant advantages over existing manufacturing techniques, metallic parts produced by AM are susceptible to distortion, lack of fusion defects and compositional changes. Here we show that the printability, or the ability of an alloy to avoid these defects, can be examined by developing and testing appropriate theories. A theoretical scaling analysis is used to test vulnerability of various alloys to thermal distortion. A theoretical kinetic model is used to examine predisposition of different alloys to AM induced compositional changes. A well-tested numerical heat transfer and fluid flow model is usedmore » to compare susceptibilities of various alloys to lack of fusion defects. These results are tested and validated with independent experimental data. Here, the findings presented in this paper are aimed at achieving distortion free, compositionally sound and well bonded metallic parts.« less

  18. Theory of atomic additivity in molecular hyperpolizabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baird, James K.

    1987-01-01

    Hyperpolarizability is a function of frequency. This is called dispersion. Because of the Kramers-Kronig relations, researchers expect that a material that is dispersing light is also absorbing it. Where there is both dispersion and absorption, the molecular polarizabilities are complex functions of the frequency. This led researchers to consider atomic additivity in both the real and imaginary parts of the ordinary and hyperpolarizabilities. This effort is desirable not only from a theoretical point of view, but also because of the existence of a large body of complex refractive index data, which may be used to test the additivity principle with the complex valued ordinary dipole polarizability.

  19. Color Addition and Subtraction Apps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz, Frances; Ruiz, Michael J.

    2015-10-01

    Color addition and subtraction apps in HTML5 have been developed for students as an online hands-on experience so that they can more easily master principles introduced through traditional classroom demonstrations. The evolution of the additive RGB color model is traced through the early IBM color adapters so that students can proceed step by step in understanding mathematical representations of RGB color. Finally, color addition and subtraction are presented for the X11 colors from web design to illustrate yet another real-life application of color mixing.

  20. Responses to additional JAPC questions

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, T.M.

    1998-02-03

    The goals are to improve performance and reduce costs; the variables tested are fuel fabrication and assembly tolerances and cladding materials. Significant results are: goal lifetimes achieved; D9/HT9 alloys superior--reduced swelling potential duct mechanical attachment methods viable; test performance per design predictions.

  1. Adverse reactions to drug additives.

    PubMed

    Simon, R A

    1984-10-01

    There is a long list of additives used by the pharmaceutical industry. Most of the agents used have not been implicated in hypersensitivity reactions. Among those that have, only reactions to parabens and sulfites have been well established. Parabens have been shown to be responsible for rare immunoglobulin E-mediated reactions that occur after the use of local anesthetics. Sulfites, which are present in many drugs, including agents commonly used to treat asthma, have been shown to provoke severe asthmatic attacks in sensitive individuals. Recent studies indicate that additives do not play a significant role in "hyperactivity." The role of additives in urticaria is not well established and therefore the incidence of adverse reactions in this patient population is simply not known. In double-blind, placebo-controlled studies, reactions to tartrazine or additives other than sulfites, if they occur at all, are indeed quite rare for the asthmatic population, even for the aspirin-sensitive subpopulation.

  2. Radiation Therapy: Additional Treatment Options

    MedlinePlus

    ... SNIPEND SNIPSTART Find A Radiation Oncologist SNIPEND Additional Treatment Options SNIPSTART A A SNIPEND Chemotherapy Medicines prescribed ... such as antibodies, to fight cancer. Novel Targeted Therapies Cancer doctors now know much more about how ...

  3. Calculators and Computers: Graphical Addition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spero, Samuel W.

    1978-01-01

    A computer program is presented that generates problem sets involving sketching graphs of trigonometric functions using graphical addition. The students use calculators to sketch the graphs and a computer solution is used to check it. (MP)

  4. Food additives and preschool children.

    PubMed

    Martyn, Danika M; McNulty, Breige A; Nugent, Anne P; Gibney, Michael J

    2013-02-01

    Food additives have been used throughout history to perform specific functions in foods. A comprehensive framework of legislation is in place within Europe to control the use of additives in the food supply and ensure they pose no risk to human health. Further to this, exposure assessments are regularly carried out to monitor population intakes and verify that intakes are not above acceptable levels (acceptable daily intakes). Young children may have a higher dietary exposure to chemicals than adults due to a combination of rapid growth rates and distinct food intake patterns. For this reason, exposure assessments are particularly important in this age group. The paper will review the use of additives and exposure assessment methods and examine factors that affect dietary exposure by young children. One of the most widely investigated unfavourable health effects associated with food additive intake in preschool-aged children are suggested adverse behavioural effects. Research that has examined this relationship has reported a variety of responses, with many noting an increase in hyperactivity as reported by parents but not when assessed using objective examiners. This review has examined the experimental approaches used in such studies and suggests that efforts are needed to standardise objective methods of measuring behaviour in preschool children. Further to this, a more holistic approach to examining food additive intakes by preschool children is advisable, where overall exposure is considered rather than focusing solely on behavioural effects and possibly examining intakes of food additives other than food colours.

  5. The grays of medical device color additives.

    PubMed

    Seidman, Brenda

    2014-01-01

    The United States' medical device color additive regulations are unknown to some, and confusing to many. This article reviews statutory language on color additives in the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA), as amended, including the Delaney Clause on carcinogenicity; color additive regulatory language as it relates to medical devices in Title 21 of the Code of Federal Regulations (C.F.R.), Parts 70-82; reports on the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) likely current and historical practices in dealing with color additives in medical devices; and speculates on what may have given rise to decades of seemingly ad hoc color additives practices, which may now be difficult to reconstruct and satisfactorily modify. Also addressed is the Center for Devices and Radiological Health's (CDRH's) recent publicly-vetted approach to color additives in Section 7 of its April 2013 draft guidance, Use of International Standard ISO-10993, "Biological Evaluation of Medical Devices Part 1: Evaluation and Testing," which the author concludes is a change in the right direction, but which, at least in its current draft form, is not a fix to the CDRH's color additives dilemma. Lastly, the article suggests what the CDRH might consider in further developing a new approach to color additives. Such an approach would treat color additives as if they were any other potentially toxic group of chemicals, and could be fashioned in such a way that the CDRH could still satisfy the broad aspects of Congressional color additives mandates, and.yet be consistent with ISO 10993. In doing this, the CDRH would need to recommend a more directed use of its Quality System Regulation, 21 C.F.R. Part 820, for material and vendor qualification and validation in general; approach Congress for needed statutory changes; or make administrative changes. In order for any approach to be successful, whether it is a new twist on past practices, or an entirely new path forward, the FDA must, to the best of its

  6. Evaluation of certain food additives.

    PubMed

    2015-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives, including flavouring agents, and to prepare specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation of and assessment of dietary exposure to food additives, including flavouring agents. A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and dietary exposure data for eight food additives (Benzoe tonkinensis; carrageenan; citric and fatty acid esters of glycerol; gardenia yellow; lutein esters from Tagetes erecta; octenyl succinic acid-modified gum arabic; octenyl succinic acid-modified starch; paprika extract; and pectin) and eight groups of flavouring agents (aliphatic and alicyclic hydrocarbons; aliphatic and aromatic ethers; ionones and structurally related substances; miscellaneous nitrogen-containing substances; monocyclic and bicyclic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters; phenol and phenol derivatives; phenyl-substituted aliphatic alcohols and related aldehydes and esters; and sulfur-containing heterocyclic compounds). Specifications for the following food additives were revised: citric acid; gellan gum; polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monostearate; potassium aluminium silicate; and Quillaia extract (Type 2). Annexed to the report are tables summarizing the Committee's recommendations for dietary exposures to and toxicological evaluations of all of the food additives and flavouring agents considered at this meeting.

  7. [INVITED] Lasers in additive manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinkerton, Andrew J.

    2016-04-01

    Additive manufacturing is a topic of considerable ongoing interest, with forecasts predicting it to have major impact on industry in the future. This paper focusses on the current status and potential future development of the technology, with particular reference to the role of lasers within it. It begins by making clear the types and roles of lasers in the different categories of additive manufacturing. This is followed by concise reviews of the economic benefits and disadvantages of the technology, current state of the market and use of additive manufacturing in different industries. Details of these fields are referenced rather than expanded in detail. The paper continues, focusing on current indicators to the future of additive manufacturing. Barriers to its development, trends and opportunities in major industrial sectors, and wider opportunities for its development are covered. Evidence indicates that additive manufacturing may not become the dominant manufacturing technology in all industries, but represents an excellent opportunity for lasers to increase their influence in manufacturing as a whole.

  8. Additive manufacturing of hybrid circuits

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, Nelson S.; Sarobol, Pylin; Cook, Adam; Clem, Paul G.; Keicher, David M.; Hirschfeld, Deidre; Hall, Aaron Christopher

    2016-03-26

    There is a rising interest in developing functional electronics using additively manufactured components. Considerations in materials selection and pathways to forming hybrid circuits and devices must demonstrate useful electronic function; must enable integration; and must complement the complex shape, low cost, high volume, and high functionality of structural but generally electronically passive additively manufactured components. This article reviews several emerging technologies being used in industry and research/development to provide integration advantages of fabricating multilayer hybrid circuits or devices. First, we review a maskless, noncontact, direct write (DW) technology that excels in the deposition of metallic colloid inks for electrical interconnects. Second, we review a complementary technology, aerosol deposition (AD), which excels in the deposition of metallic and ceramic powder as consolidated, thick conformal coatings and is additionally patternable through masking. As a result, we show examples of hybrid circuits/devices integrated beyond 2-D planes, using combinations of DW or AD processes and conventional, established processes.

  9. Tougher Addition Polyimides Containing Siloxane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St. Clair, T. L.; Maudgal, S.

    1986-01-01

    Laminates show increased impact resistances and other desirable mechanical properties. Bismaleamic acid extended by reaction of diaminosiloxane with maleic anhydride in 1:1 molar ratio, followed by reaction with half this molar ratio of aromatic dianhydride. Bismaleamic acid also extended by reaction of diaminosiloxane with maleic anhydride in 1:2 molar ratio, followed by reaction with half this molar ratio of aromatic diamine (Michael-addition reaction). Impact resistances improved over those of unmodified bismaleimide, showing significant increase in toughness. Aromatic addition polyimides developed as both matrix and adhesive resins for applications on future aircraft and spacecraft.

  10. Learning Basic Addition Facts from Choosing between Alternative Answers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Galen, Mirte S.; Reitsma, Pieter

    2010-01-01

    The acquisition of addition facts was investigated in a practice study. Participants were 103 Grade 1 children who practiced simple addition problems with three different methods: (a) writing down the answer, (b) choosing between two alternative answers, and (c) filling in the second missing addend. On a test with simple addition problems,…

  11. Composite filter aids for cleanup of additives

    SciTech Connect

    Rudenko, L.I.; Sklyar, V.Y.

    1984-03-01

    This article examines the properties of composite filter aids in additive cleanup using two- and three-component filter aid composites based on perlite, kieselguhr, diatomite, asbestos, and wood flour. Filtration tests were run on naphtha solutions of the additive zinc dialkyldithiophosphate. The laboratory studies indicate that composites of perlite and kieselguhr with fibrous materials (wood flour or asbestos) show great promise for the removal of solid contaminants from the zinc disalkydithiophosphate additive. The advantages of the filter aid composite based on perlite, kieselguhr, and wood flour in comparison with the two-component composites are the higher filtration rate (by 26%) and the smaller losses of additive (by a factor of 2.1) and isobutyl alcohol (by a factor of 1.6). It is demonstrated that the filtration rate with the three components is 50-60% higher than with the composite of perlite with kieselguhr. The filtration of the zinc dialkyldithiophosphate additive using the composite filter aid based on perlite, kieselguhr, and wood flour, has been adopted at the Volgograd Petroleum Refinery. Includes 2 tables.

  12. Pyrophosphorolysis of CCA addition: implication for fidelity.

    PubMed

    Igarashi, Takao; Liu, Cuiping; Morinaga, Hironobu; Kim, Sangbumn; Hou, Ya-Ming

    2011-11-18

    In nucleic acid polymerization reaction, pyrophosphorolysis is the reversal of nucleotide addition, in which the terminal nucleotide is excised in the presence of inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi). The CCA enzymes are unusual RNA polymerases, which catalyze CCA addition to positions 74-76 at the tRNA 3' end without using a nucleic acid template. To better understand the reaction mechanism of CCA addition, we tested pyrophosphorolysis of CCA enzymes, which are divided into two structurally distinct classes. Here, we show that only class II CCA enzymes catalyze pyrophosphorolysis and that the reaction can initiate from all three CCA positions and proceed processively until the removal of nucleotide C74. Pyrophosphorolysis of class II enzymes establishes a fundamental difference from class I enzymes, and it is achieved only with the tRNA structure and with specific divalent metal ions. Importantly, pyrophosphorolysis enables class II enzymes to efficiently remove an incorrect A75 nucleotide from the 3' end, at a rate much faster than the rate of A75 incorporation, suggesting the ability to perform a previously unexpected quality control mechanism for CCA synthesis. Measurement of kinetic parameters of the class II Escherichia coli CCA enzyme reveals that the enzyme catalyzes pyrophosphorolysis slowly relative to the forward nucleotide addition and that it exhibits weak binding affinity to PPi relative to NTP, suggesting a mechanism in which PPi is rapidly released after each nucleotide addition as a driving force to promote the forward synthesis of CCA.

  13. The Additive Property of Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsaoussis, Dimitris S.

    1995-01-01

    Presents exercises that analyze the additive property of energy. Concludes that if a body has more than one component of energy depending on the same physical quantity, the body's total energy will be the algebraic sum of the components if a linear relationship exists between the energy components and that physical quantity. (JRH)

  14. Tetrasulfide extreme pressure lubricant additives

    SciTech Connect

    Gast, L.E.; Kenney, H.E.; Schwab, A.W.

    1980-08-19

    A novel class of compounds has been prepared comprising the tetrasulfides of /sup 18/C hydrocarbons, /sup 18/C fatty acids, and /sup 18/C fatty and alkyl and triglyceride esters. These tetrasulfides are useful as extreme pressure lubricant additives and show potential as replacements for sulfurized sperm whale oil.

  15. Out of bounds additive manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Holshouser, Chris; Newell, Clint; Palas, Sid; Love, Lonnie J.; Kunc, Vlastimil; Lind, Randall F.; Lloyd, Peter D.; Rowe, John C.; Blue, Craig A.; Duty, Chad E.; Peter, William H.; Dehoff, Ryan R.

    2013-03-01

    Lockheed Martin and Oak Ridge National Laboratory are working on an additive manufacturing system capable of manufacturing components measured not in terms of inches or feet, but multiple yards in all dimensions with the potential to manufacture parts that are completely unbounded in size.

  16. Additive Manufacturing for Affordable Rocket Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, Brian; Robertson, Elizabeth; Osborne, Robin; Calvert, Marty

    2016-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (also known as 3D printing) technology has the potential to drastically reduce costs and lead times associated with the development of complex liquid rocket engine systems. NASA is using 3D printing to manufacture rocket engine components including augmented spark igniters, injectors, turbopumps, and valves. NASA is advancing the process to certify these components for flight. Success Story: MSFC has been developing rocket 3D-printing technology using the Selective Laser Melting (SLM) process. Over the last several years, NASA has built and tested several injectors and combustion chambers. Recently, MSFC has 3D printed an augmented spark igniter for potential use the RS-25 engines that will be used on the Space Launch System. The new design is expected to reduce the cost of the igniter by a factor of four. MSFC has also 3D printed and tested a liquid hydrogen turbopump for potential use on an Upper Stage Engine. Additive manufacturing of the turbopump resulted in a 45% part count reduction. To understanding how the 3D printed parts perform and to certify them for flight, MSFC built a breadboard liquid rocket engine using additive manufactured components including injectors, turbomachinery, and valves. The liquid rocket engine was tested seven times in 2016 using liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. In addition to exposing the hardware to harsh environments, engineers learned to design for the new manufacturing technique, taking advantage of its capabilities and gaining awareness of its limitations. Benefit: The 3D-printing technology promises reduced cost and schedule for rocket engines. Cost is a function of complexity, and the most complicated features provide the largest opportunities for cost reductions. This is especially true where brazes or welds can be eliminated. The drastic reduction in part count achievable with 3D printing creates a waterfall effect that reduces the number of processes and drawings, decreases the amount of touch

  17. Evaluation of certain food additives.

    PubMed

    2012-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives, including flavouring agents, with a view to concluding as to safety concerns and to preparing specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation of and assessment of dietary exposure to food additives, including flavouring agents. A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and dietary exposure data for five food additives (magnesium dihydrogen diphosphate; mineral oil (medium and low viscosity) classes II and III; 3-phytase from Aspergillus niger expressed in Aspergillus niger; serine protease (chymotrypsin) from Nocardiopsis prasina expressed in Bacillus licheniformis; and serine protease (trypsin) from Fusarium oxysporum expressed in Fusarium venenatum) and 16 groups of flavouring agents (aliphatic and aromatic amines and amides; aliphatic and aromatic ethers; aliphatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids and related esters, sulfides, disulfides and ethers containing furan substitution; aliphatic linear alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes, acids and related alcohols, acetals and esters; amino acids and related substances; epoxides; furfuryl alcohol and related substances; linear and branched-chain aliphatic, unsaturated, unconjugated alcohols, aldehydes, acids and related esters; miscellaneous nitrogen-containing substances; phenol and phenol derivatives; pyrazine derivatives; pyridine, pyrrole and quinoline derivatives; saturated aliphatic acyclic branched-chain primary alcohols, aldehydes and acids; simple aliphatic and aromatic sulfides and thiols; sulfur-containing heterocyclic compounds; and sulfur-substituted furan derivatives). Specifications for the following food additives were revised: ethyl cellulose, mineral oil (medium viscosity), modified starches and titanium

  18. 21 CFR 25.32 - Foods, food additives, and color additives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... use in food, drugs, devices, or cosmetics. (d) Testing and certification of batches of a color... for humans or animals on FDA's initiative or in response to a petition, under parts 182, 184, 186, or... for humans or animals to use as animal feeds. (i) Approval of a food additive petition or...

  19. The Frontiers of Additive Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Grote, Christopher John

    2016-03-03

    Additive manufacturing, more commonly known as 3-D printing, has become a ubiquitous tool in science for its precise control over mechanical design. For additive manufacturing to work, a 3-D structure is split into thin 2D slices, and then different physical properties, such as photo-polymerization or melting, are used to grow the sequential layers. The level of control allows not only for devices to be made with a variety of materials: e.g. plastics, metals, and quantum dots, but to also have finely controlled structures leading to other novel properties. While 3-D printing is widely used by hobbyists for making models, it also has industrial applications in structural engineering, biological tissue scaffolding, customized electric circuitry, fuel cells, security, and more.

  20. Decontamination formulation with sorbent additive

    DOEpatents

    Tucker; Mark D. , Comstock; Robert H.

    2007-10-16

    A decontamination formulation and method of making that neutralizes the adverse health effects of both chemical and biological compounds, especially chemical warfare (CW) and biological warfare (BW) agents, and toxic industrial chemicals. The formulation provides solubilizing compounds that serve to effectively render the chemical and biological compounds, particularly CW and BW compounds, susceptible to attack, and at least one reactive compound that serves to attack (and detoxify or kill) the compound. The formulation includes at least one solubilizing agent, a reactive compound, a bleaching activator, a sorbent additive, and water. The highly adsorbent, water-soluble sorbent additive (e.g., sorbitol or mannitol) is used to "dry out" one or more liquid ingredients, such as the liquid bleaching activator (e.g., propylene glycol diacetate or glycerol diacetate) and convert the activator into a dry, free-flowing powder that has an extended shelf life, and is more convenient to handle and mix in the field.

  1. Diesel fuel detergent additive performance and assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Vincent, M.W.; Papachristos, M.J.; Williams, D.; Burton, J.

    1994-10-01

    Diesel fuel detergent additives are increasingly linked with high quality automotive diesel fuels. Both in Europe and in the USA, field problems associated with fuel injector coking or fouling have been experienced. In Europe indirect injection (IDI) light duty engines used in passenger cars were affected, while in the USA, a direct injection (DI) engine in heavy duty truck applications experienced field problems. In both cases, a fuel additive detergent performance test has evolved using an engine linked with the original field problem, although engine design modifications employed by the manufacturers have ensured improved operation in service. Increasing awareness of the potential for injector nozzle coking to cause deterioration in engine performance is coupled with a need to meet ever more stringent exhaust emissions legislation. These two requirements indicate that the use of detergency additives will continue to be associated with high quality diesel fuels. The paper examines detergency performance evaluated in a range of IDI and DI engines and correlates performance in the two most widely recognised test engines, namely the Peugeot 1.9 litre IDI, and Cummins L10 DI engines. 17 refs., 18 figs., 5 tabs.

  2. Additive Manufacturing Integrated Energy Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, Roderick; Lee, Brian; Love, Lonnie; Mabe, Gavin; Keller, Martin; Curran, Scott; Chinthavali, Madhu; Green, Johney; Sawyer, Karma; Enquist, Phil

    2016-02-05

    Meet AMIE - the Additive Manufacturing Integrated Energy demonstration project. Led by Oak Ridge National Laboratory and many industry partners, the AMIE project changes the way we think about generating, storing, and using electrical power. AMIE uses an integrated energy system that shares energy between a building and a vehicle. And, utilizing advanced manufacturing and rapid innovation, it only took one year from concept to launch.

  3. Robust stability under additive perturbations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhaya, A.; Desoer, C. A.

    1985-01-01

    A MIMO linear time-invariant feedback system 1S(P,C) is considered which is assumed to be U-stable. The plant P is subjected to an additive perturbation Delta P which is proper but not necessarily stable. It is proved that the perturbed system is U-stable if and only if Delta P(I + Q x Delta P) exp -1 is U-stable.

  4. Additive Manufacturing Integrated Energy Demonstration

    ScienceCinema

    Jackson, Roderick; Lee, Brian; Love, Lonnie; Mabe, Gavin; Keller, Martin; Curran, Scott; Chinthavali, Madhu; Green, Johney; Sawyer, Karma; Enquist, Phil

    2016-07-12

    Meet AMIE - the Additive Manufacturing Integrated Energy demonstration project. Led by Oak Ridge National Laboratory and many industry partners, the AMIE project changes the way we think about generating, storing, and using electrical power. AMIE uses an integrated energy system that shares energy between a building and a vehicle. And, utilizing advanced manufacturing and rapid innovation, it only took one year from concept to launch.

  5. Reversible Oxidative Addition at Carbon.

    PubMed

    Eichhorn, Antonius F; Fuchs, Sonja; Flock, Marco; Marder, Todd B; Radius, Udo

    2017-04-07

    The reactivity of N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) and cyclic alkyl amino carbenes (cAACs) with arylboronate esters is reported. The reaction with NHCs leads to the reversible formation of thermally stable Lewis acid/base adducts Ar-B(OR)2 ⋅NHC (Add1-Add6). Addition of cAAC(Me) to the catecholboronate esters 4-R-C6 H4 -Bcat (R=Me, OMe) also afforded the adducts 4-R-C6 H4 Bcat⋅cAAC(Me) (Add7, R=Me and Add8, R=OMe), which react further at room temperature to give the cAAC(Me) ring-expanded products RER1 and RER2. The boronate esters Ar-B(OR)2 of pinacol, neopentylglycol, and ethyleneglycol react with cAAC at RT via reversible B-C oxidative addition to the carbene carbon atom to afford cAAC(Me) (B{OR}2 )(Ar) (BCA1-BCA6). NMR studies of cAAC(Me) (Bneop)(4-Me-C6 H4 ) (BCA4) demonstrate the reversible nature of this oxidative addition process.

  6. Additive manufacturing of hybrid circuits

    DOE PAGES

    Bell, Nelson S.; Sarobol, Pylin; Cook, Adam; ...

    2016-03-26

    There is a rising interest in developing functional electronics using additively manufactured components. Considerations in materials selection and pathways to forming hybrid circuits and devices must demonstrate useful electronic function; must enable integration; and must complement the complex shape, low cost, high volume, and high functionality of structural but generally electronically passive additively manufactured components. This article reviews several emerging technologies being used in industry and research/development to provide integration advantages of fabricating multilayer hybrid circuits or devices. First, we review a maskless, noncontact, direct write (DW) technology that excels in the deposition of metallic colloid inks for electrical interconnects.more » Second, we review a complementary technology, aerosol deposition (AD), which excels in the deposition of metallic and ceramic powder as consolidated, thick conformal coatings and is additionally patternable through masking. As a result, we show examples of hybrid circuits/devices integrated beyond 2-D planes, using combinations of DW or AD processes and conventional, established processes.« less

  7. Fire-Retardant Polymeric Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Martha K.; Smith, Trent M.

    2011-01-01

    Polyhydroxyamide (PHA) and polymethoxyamide (PMeOA) are fire-retardant (FR) thermoplastic polymers and have been found to be useful as an additive for imparting fire retardant properties to other compatible, thermoplastic polymers (including some elastomers). Examples of compatible flammable polymers include nylons, polyesters, and acrylics. Unlike most prior additives, PHA and PMeOA do not appreciably degrade the mechanical properties of the matrix polymer; indeed, in some cases, mechanical properties are enhanced. Also, unlike some prior additives, PHA and PMeOA do not decompose into large amounts of corrosive or toxic compounds during combustion and can be processed at elevated temperatures. PMeOA derivative formulations were synthesized and used as an FR additive in the fabrication of polyamide (PA) and polystyrene (PS) composites with notable reduction (>30 percent for PS) in peak heat release rates compared to the neat polymer as measured by a Cone Calorimeter (ASTM E1354). Synergistic effects were noted with nanosilica composites. These nanosilica composites had more than 50-percent reduction in peak heat release rates. In a typical application, a flammable thermoplastic, thermoplastic blend, or elastomer that one seeks to render flame-retardant is first dry-mixed with PHA or PMeOA or derivative thereof. The proportion of PHA or PMeOA or derivative in the mixture is typically chosen to lie between 1 and 20 weight percent. The dry blend can then be melt-extruded. The extruded polymer blend can further be extruded and/or molded into fibers, pipes, or any other of a variety of objects that may be required to be fire-retardant. The physical and chemical mechanisms which impart flame retardancy of the additive include inhibiting free-radical oxidation in the vapor phase, preventing vaporization of fuel (the polymer), and cooling through the formation of chemical bonds in either the vapor or the condensed phase. Under thermal stress, the cyclic hydroxyl/ methoxy

  8. Evaluation of certain food additives.

    PubMed

    2009-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives, including flavouring agents, with a view to recommending acceptable daily intakes (ADIs) and to preparing specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation and assessment of intake of food additives (in particular, flavouring agents). A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and intake data for certain food additives (asparaginase from Aspergillus niger expressed in A. niger, calcium lignosulfonate (40-65), ethyl lauroyl arginate, paprika extract, phospholipase C expressed in Pichia pastoris, phytosterols, phytostanols and their esters, polydimethylsiloxane, steviol glycosides and sulfites [assessment of dietary exposure]) and 10 groups of related flavouring agents (aliphatic branched-chain saturated and unsaturated alcohols, aldehydes, acids and related esters; aliphatic linear alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes, acids and related alcohols, acetals and esters; aliphatic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters; alkoxy-substituted allylbenzenes present in foods and essential oils and used as flavouring agents; esters of aliphatic acyclic primary alcohols with aliphatic linear saturated carboxylic acids; furan-substituted aliphatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids and related esters, sulfides, disulfides and ethers; miscellaneous nitrogen-containing substances; monocyclic and bicyclic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters; hydroxy- and alkoxy-substituted benzyl derivatives; and substances structurally related to menthol). Specifications for the following food additives were revised: canthaxanthin; carob bean gum and carob bean gum (clarified); chlorophyllin copper complexes, sodium and potassium salts; Fast Green FCF; guar gum and guar gum (clarified

  9. Lubricant and additive effects on spur gear fatigue life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, D. P.; Zaretsky, E. V.; Scibbe, H. W.

    1985-01-01

    Spur gear endurance tests were conducted with six lubricants using a single lot of consumable-electrode vacuum melted (CVM) AISI 9310 spur gears. The sixth lubricant was divided into four batches each of which had a different additive content. Lubricants tested with a phosphorus-type load carrying additive showed a statistically significant improvement in life over lubricants without this type of additive. The presence of sulfur type antiwear additives in the lubricant did not appear to affect the surface fatigue life of the gears. No statistical difference in life was produced with those lubricants of different base stocks but with similar viscosity, pressure-viscosity coefficients and antiwear additives. Gears tested with a 0.1 wt % sulfur and 0.1 wt % phosphorus EP additives in the lubricant had reactive films that were 200 to 400 (0.8 to 1.6 microns) thick.

  10. The Mozart Effect: Additional Data.

    PubMed

    Hughes, John R.

    2002-04-01

    After the review of the Mozart effect was published in this journal (Hughes JR. Epilepsy Behav 2001;2:369-417), additional data from the music of Haydn and Liszt have been analyzed that may account for the decrease in seizure activity originally reported during Mozart music. Even with these added data Mozart music continued to score significantly higher than the selections from the other six composers in one of the important characteristics of this music, namely, the repetition of the melody. However Haydn's values were second highest among Mozart, J. S. Bach, Wagner, Beethoven, Chopin, and Liszt.

  11. Water based drilling mud additive

    SciTech Connect

    McCrary, J.L.

    1983-12-13

    A water based fluid additive useful in drilling mud used during drilling of an oil or gas well is disclosed, produced by reacting water at temperatures between 210/sup 0/-280/sup 0/ F. with a mixture comprising in percent by weight: gilsonite 25-30%, tannin 7-15%, lignite 25-35%, sulfonating compound 15-25%, water soluble base compound 5-15%, methylene-yielding compound 1-5%, and then removing substantially all of the remaining water to produce a dried product.

  12. Metal Additive Manufacturing: A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frazier, William E.

    2014-06-01

    This paper reviews the state-of-the-art of an important, rapidly emerging, manufacturing technology that is alternatively called additive manufacturing (AM), direct digital manufacturing, free form fabrication, or 3D printing, etc. A broad contextual overview of metallic AM is provided. AM has the potential to revolutionize the global parts manufacturing and logistics landscape. It enables distributed manufacturing and the productions of parts-on-demand while offering the potential to reduce cost, energy consumption, and carbon footprint. This paper explores the material science, processes, and business consideration associated with achieving these performance gains. It is concluded that a paradigm shift is required in order to fully exploit AM potential.

  13. Theatre fleet's vital additional capacity.

    PubMed

    2012-11-01

    Vanguard Healthcare's fleet of mobile surgical facilities has been deployed to healthcare sites throughout Europe and beyond for over a decade, providing vital additional clinical capacity when existing buildings are refurbished or upgraded, in the event of flood or fire, or simply to help hospitals cater for rising demand. It is a combination of careful planning, teamwork, and the specialist expertise of Vanguard's personnel--many with a clinical background--that ensures not only each unit's successful installation, but equally its subsequent running, servicing, and maintenance, the company explains.

  14. Dielectric breakdown of additively manufactured polymeric materials

    SciTech Connect

    Monzel, W. Jacob; Hoff, Brad W.; Maestas, Sabrina S.; French, David M.; Hayden, Steven C.

    2016-01-11

    Dielectric strength testing of selected Polyjet-printed polymer plastics was performed in accordance with ASTM D149. This dielectric strength data is compared to manufacturer-provided dielectric strength data for selected plastics printed using the stereolithography (SLA), fused deposition modeling (FDM), and selective laser sintering (SLS) methods. Tested Polyjet samples demonstrated dielectric strengths as high as 47.5 kV/mm for a 0.5 mm thick sample and 32.1 kV/mm for a 1.0 mm sample. As a result, the dielectric strength of the additively manufactured plastics evaluated as part of this study was lower than the majority of non-printed plastics by at least 15% (with the exception of polycarbonate).

  15. Dielectric breakdown of additively manufactured polymeric materials

    DOE PAGES

    Monzel, W. Jacob; Hoff, Brad W.; Maestas, Sabrina S.; ...

    2016-01-11

    Dielectric strength testing of selected Polyjet-printed polymer plastics was performed in accordance with ASTM D149. This dielectric strength data is compared to manufacturer-provided dielectric strength data for selected plastics printed using the stereolithography (SLA), fused deposition modeling (FDM), and selective laser sintering (SLS) methods. Tested Polyjet samples demonstrated dielectric strengths as high as 47.5 kV/mm for a 0.5 mm thick sample and 32.1 kV/mm for a 1.0 mm sample. As a result, the dielectric strength of the additively manufactured plastics evaluated as part of this study was lower than the majority of non-printed plastics by at least 15% (with themore » exception of polycarbonate).« less

  16. Additively Manufactured Metals in Oxygen Systems Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tylka, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Metals produced by additive manufacturing methods, such as Powder Bed Fusion Technology, are now mature enough to be considered for qualification in human spaceflight oxygen systems. The mechanical properties of metals produced through AM processes are being systematically studied. However, it is unknown whether AM metals in oxygen applications may present an increased risk of flammability or ignition as compared to wrought metals of the same metallurgical composition due to increased porosity. Per NASA-STD-6001B materials to be used in oxygen system applications shall be based on flammability and combustion test data, followed by a flammability assessment. Without systematic flammability and ignition testing in oxygen there is no credible method for NASA to accurately evaluate the risk of using AM metals in oxygen systems.

  17. High Flow Addition Curing Polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chuang, Kathy C.; Vannucci, Raymond D.; Ansari, Irfan; Cerny, Lawrence L.; Scheiman, Daniel A.

    1994-01-01

    A new series of high flow PMR-type addition curing polyimides was developed, which employed the substitution of 2,2'-bis (trifluoromethyl) -4,4'-diaminobiphenyl (BTDB) for p-phenylenediamine (p -PDA) in a PMR-IL formulation. These thermoset polyimides, designated as 12F resins, were prepared from BTDB and the dimethyl ester of 4,4'- (hexafluo- roisopropylidene) -diphthalic acid (HFDE) with either nadic ester (NE) or p-aminostyrene (PAS) as the endcaps for addition curing. The 12F prepolymers displayed lower melting temperatures in DSC analysis, and higher melt flow in rheological studies than the cor- responding PMR-11 polyimides. Long-term isothermal aging studies showed that BTDB- based 12F resins exhibited comparable thermo-oxidative stability to P-PDA based PMR-11 polyimides. The noncoplanar 2- and 2'-disubstituted biphenyldiamine (BTDB) not only lowered the melt viscosities of 12F prepolymers, but also retained reasonable thermal sta- bility of the cured resins. The 12F polyimide resin with p-aminostyrene endcaps showed the best promise for long-term, high-temperature application at 343 C (650 F).

  18. Additive interaction between heterogeneous environmental ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    BACKGROUND Environmental exposures often occur in tandem; however, epidemiological research often focuses on singular exposures. Statistical interactions among broad, well-characterized environmental domains have not yet been evaluated in association with health. We address this gap by conducting a county-level cross-sectional analysis of interactions between Environmental Quality Index (EQI) domain indices on preterm birth in the Unites States from 2000-2005.METHODS: The EQI, a county-level index constructed for the 2000-2005 time period, was constructed from five domain-specific indices (air, water, land, built and sociodemographic) using principal component analyses. County-level preterm birth rates (n=3141) were estimated using live births from the National Center for Health Statistics. Linear regression was used to estimate prevalence differences (PD) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) comparing worse environmental quality to the better quality for each model for a) each individual domain main effect b) the interaction contrast and c) the two main effects plus interaction effect (i.e. the “net effect”) to show departure from additive interaction for the all U.S counties. Analyses were also performed for subgroupings by four urban/rural strata. RESULTS: We found the suggestion of antagonistic interactions but no synergism, along with several purely additive (i.e., no interaction) associations. In the non-stratified model, we observed antagonistic interac

  19. Additive manufacturing of RF absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, Matthew S.

    The ability of additive manufacturing techniques to fabricate integrated electromagnetic absorbers tuned for specific radio frequency bands within structural composites allows for unique combinations of mechanical and electromagnetic properties. These composites and films can be used for RF shielding of sensitive electromagnetic components through in-plane and out-of-plane RF absorption. Structural composites are a common building block of many commercial platforms. These platforms may be placed in situations in which there is a need for embedded RF absorbing properties along with structural properties. Instead of adding radar absorbing treatments to the external surface of existing structures, which adds increased size, weight and cost; it could prove to be advantageous to integrate the microwave absorbing properties directly into the composite during the fabrication process. In this thesis, a method based on additive manufacturing techniques of composites structures with prescribed electromagnetic loss, within the frequency range 1 to 26GHz, is presented. This method utilizes screen printing and nScrypt micro dispensing to pattern a carbon based ink onto low loss substrates. The materials chosen for this study will be presented, and the fabrication technique that these materials went through to create RF absorbing structures will be described. The calibration methods used, the modeling of the RF structures, and the applications in which this technology can be utilized will also be presented.

  20. Additional Sawmill Electrical Energy Study.

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, Hatch & Associates.

    1987-02-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the potential for reducing use of electrical energy at lumber dry kilns by reducing fan speeds part way through the lumber drying process. It included three tasks: to quantify energy savings at a typical mill through field tests; to investigate the level of electric energy use at a representative sample of other mills and thereby to estimate the transferability of the conservation to the region; and to prepare a guidebook to present the technology to mill operators, and to allow them to estimate the economic value of adopting the technique at their facilities. This document reports on the first two tasks.

  1. New process additive reduces HF cloud-forming potential

    SciTech Connect

    Sheckler, J.C.; Hammershaimb, H.U. ); Ross, L.J. ); Comey, K.R. III )

    1994-08-22

    The Texaco-UOP HF additive technology has demonstrated significant aerosol reduction in both small-scale and large-scale releases. The pilot plant testing did not indicate any adverse impact on the alkylation reaction, as was confirmed in a short trial at Texaco Refining and Marketing Inc.'s El Dorado, Kan., refinery in 1992. Equipment to enable continuous addition of the additive was installed in the second quarter of 1994 at the refinery. The paper discusses HF alkylation, mitigation technology, additive development, aerosol reduction, and testing on pilot scale and large scale.

  2. Neutron Characterization for Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watkins, Thomas; Bilheux, Hassina; An, Ke; Payzant, Andrew; DeHoff, Ryan; Duty, Chad; Peter, William; Blue, Craig; Brice, Craig A.

    2013-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is leveraging decades of experience in neutron characterization of advanced materials together with resources such as the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) and the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) shown in Fig. 1 to solve challenging problems in additive manufacturing (AM). Additive manufacturing, or three-dimensional (3-D) printing, is a rapidly maturing technology wherein components are built by selectively adding feedstock material at locations specified by a computer model. The majority of these technologies use thermally driven phase change mechanisms to convert the feedstock into functioning material. As the molten material cools and solidifies, the component is subjected to significant thermal gradients, generating significant internal stresses throughout the part (Fig. 2). As layers are added, inherent residual stresses cause warping and distortions that lead to geometrical differences between the final part and the original computer generated design. This effect also limits geometries that can be fabricated using AM, such as thin-walled, high-aspect- ratio, and overhanging structures. Distortion may be minimized by intelligent toolpath planning or strategic placement of support structures, but these approaches are not well understood and often "Edisonian" in nature. Residual stresses can also impact component performance during operation. For example, in a thermally cycled environment such as a high-pressure turbine engine, residual stresses can cause components to distort unpredictably. Different thermal treatments on as-fabricated AM components have been used to minimize residual stress, but components still retain a nonhomogeneous stress state and/or demonstrate a relaxation-derived geometric distortion. Industry, federal laboratory, and university collaboration is needed to address these challenges and enable the U.S. to compete in the global market. Work is currently being conducted on AM technologies at the ORNL

  3. Additives in fibers and fabrics.

    PubMed Central

    Barker, R H

    1975-01-01

    The additives and contaminants which occur in textile fibers vary widely, depending on the type of fiber and the pretreatment which it has received. Synthetic fibers such as nylon and polyester contain trace amounts of contaminants such as catalysts and catalyst deactivators which remain after the synthesis of the basic polymers. In addition, there are frequently a number of materials which are added to perform specific functions in almost all man-made fibers. Examples of these would include traces of metals or metal salts used as tracers for identification of specific lots of fiber, TiO2 or similar materials added as delustrants, and a host of organic species added for such special purposes as antistatic agents or flame retardants. There may also be considerable quantities of residual monomer or small oligomers dissolved in the polymer matrix. The situation becomes even more complex after the fibers are converted into fabric form. Numerous materials are applied at various stages of fabric preparation to act as lubricants, sizing agents, antistats, bleaches, and wetting agents to facilitate the processing, but these are normally removed before the fabric reaches the cutters of the ultimate consumers and therefore usually do not constitute potential hazards. However, there are many other chemical agents which are frequently added during the later stages of fabric preparation and which are not designed to be removed. Aside from dyes and printing pigments, the most common additive for apparel fabrics is a durable press treatment. This generally involves the use of materials capable of crosslinking cellulosics by reacting through such functions as N-methylolated amides or related compounds such as ureas and carbamates. These materials pose some potential hazards due to both the nitrogenous bases and the formaldehyde which they usually release. There is usually also some residual catalyst in fabrics which have received such treatments. Other types of chemical treatments

  4. Optics of progressive addition lenses.

    PubMed

    Sheedy, J E; Buri, M; Bailey, I L; Azus, J; Borish, I M

    1987-02-01

    The optical characteristics of the major progressive addition lenses were measured using an automated lensometer with a specially designed lens holder to simulate eye rotation. Measurements were made every 3 degrees (about 1.5 mm) and graphs of isospherical equivalent lines and isocylinder lines were developed. Generally the near zone of these lenses is narrower and lower than in bifocal or trifocal lenses. Distinct differences exist between the various progressive lenses. The width of the near zone, rate of power progression, amount of unwanted cylinder (level with the distance center), and clarity of the distance zone are compared for the various lenses. The optical measurements demonstrate an apparent trade-off between the size of the cylinder-free area of the lens and the amount of the cylinder.

  5. Follow-Up Testing

    MedlinePlus

    ... the test is not important. The University of Chicago Celiac Disease Center recommends additional testing, because the ... well. For more information contact the University of Chicago Celiac Disease Center at 773.702.7593 or ...

  6. Sleep and Cognitive Function in Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Braley, Tiffany J.; Kratz, Anna L.; Kaplish, Neeraj; Chervin, Ronald D.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: To examine associations between cognitive performance and polysomnographic measures of obstructive sleep apnea in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Methods: Participants underwent a comprehensive MS-specific cognitive testing battery (the Minimal Assessment of Cognitive Function in MS, or MACFIMS) and in-laboratory overnight PSG. Results: In adjusted linear regression models, the oxygen desaturation index (ODI) and minimum oxygen saturation (MinO2) were significantly associated with performance on multiple MACFIMS measures, including the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT; 2-sec and 3-sec versions), which assesses working memory, processing speed, and attention, and on the Brief Visuospatial Memory Test-Revised, a test of delayed visual memory. The respiratory disturbance index (RDI) was also significantly associated with PASAT-3 scores as well as the California Verbal Learning Test-II (CVLT-II) Discriminability Index, a test of verbal memory and response inhibition. Among these associations, apnea severity measures accounted for between 12% and 23% of the variance in cognitive test performance. Polysomnographic measures of sleep fragmentation (as reflected by the total arousal index) and total sleep time also showed significant associations with a component of the CVLT-II that assesses response inhibition, explaining 18% and 27% of the variance in performance. Conclusions: Among patients with MS, obstructive sleep apnea and sleep disturbance are significantly associated with diminished visual memory, verbal memory, executive function (as reflected by response inhibition), attention, processing speed, and working memory. If sleep disorders degrade these cognitive functions, effective treatment could offer new opportunities to improve cognitive functioning in patients with MS. Commentary: A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 1489. Citation: Braley TJ, Kratz AL, Kaplish N, Chervin RD. Sleep and cognitive function

  7. Evaluation of the Adherence to Immunmodulatory Treatment in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    KÖŞKDERELİOĞLU, Aslı; GEDİZLİOĞLU, Muhteşem; ORTAN, Pınar; ÖCEK, Özge

    2015-01-01

    Introduction In this article, we report the data regarding treatment adherence of a group of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and relapsing–remitting or secondary progressive disease who were followed in the MS outpatient clinic of Bozyaka Education and Research Hospital, Izmir. Methods We collected the demographic data of 219 patients with MS who were treated with immunomodulatory drugs and the documentary data on the disease characteristics from the patient’ files. Each patient was provided a detailed questionnaire regarding treatment adherence in addition to the Beck depression scale (BDS) and Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT). Nonadherence was defined as the discontinuation of the drug, i.e., more than one dose a month for intramuscular interferon, six doses a month for glatiramer acetate, and four doses a month for subcutaneous interferons. Statistical analyses were performed using Medcalc statistics package. For those parameters with an even distribution, the paired samples t-test was used to compare the results. Results Of the 219 [183 relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) and 36 secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS)] patients included in the study, 143 patients were women and 76 were men. The mean age of the patients was 40.77±10.36 years. The mean expanded disability status scale (EDSS) score was 2.90±1.88, and mean annualized attack rate (ARR) was .65±.55. Of the 219 patients, 75.1% continued the immunomodulatory treatment. Thirty-three patients in the RRMS group and 23 patients in the SPMS group abandoned the immunomodulatory treatment. Treatment adherences were similar between patients with RRMS and SPMS (53%). Adherence revealed no correlation with age, ARR, PASAT score, and disease duration. However, higher EDSS and depression scores had significant positive correlation with adherence. Moreover, treatment adherence was noted to be lower in the group with higher education levels. Treatment discontinuation did not

  8. Additively manufactured porous tantalum implants.

    PubMed

    Wauthle, Ruben; van der Stok, Johan; Amin Yavari, Saber; Van Humbeeck, Jan; Kruth, Jean-Pierre; Zadpoor, Amir Abbas; Weinans, Harrie; Mulier, Michiel; Schrooten, Jan

    2015-03-01

    The medical device industry's interest in open porous, metallic biomaterials has increased in response to additive manufacturing techniques enabling the production of complex shapes that cannot be produced with conventional techniques. Tantalum is an important metal for medical devices because of its good biocompatibility. In this study selective laser melting technology was used for the first time to manufacture highly porous pure tantalum implants with fully interconnected open pores. The architecture of the porous structure in combination with the material properties of tantalum result in mechanical properties close to those of human bone and allow for bone ingrowth. The bone regeneration performance of the porous tantalum was evaluated in vivo using an orthotopic load-bearing bone defect model in the rat femur. After 12 weeks, substantial bone ingrowth, good quality of the regenerated bone and a strong, functional implant-bone interface connection were observed. Compared to identical porous Ti-6Al-4V structures, laser-melted tantalum shows excellent osteoconductive properties, has a higher normalized fatigue strength and allows for more plastic deformation due to its high ductility. It is therefore concluded that this is a first step towards a new generation of open porous tantalum implants manufactured using selective laser melting.

  9. Additive Transforms Paint into Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Tech Traders Inc. sought assistance developing low-cost, highly effective coatings and paints that created useful thermal reflectance and were safe and non-toxic. In cooperation with a group of engineers at Kennedy Space Center., Tech Traders created Insuladd, a powder additive made up of microscopic, inert gas-filled, ceramic microspheres that can be mixed into ordinary interior or exterior paint, allowing the paint to act like a layer of insulation. When the paint dries, this forms a radiant heat barrier, turning the ordinary house paint into heat-reflecting thermal paint. According to Tech Traders, the product works with all types of paints and coatings and will not change the coverage rate, application, or adhesion of the paint. Other useful applications include feed storage silos to help prevent feed spoilage, poultry hatcheries to reduce the summer heat and winter cold effects, and on military vehicles and ships. Tech Traders has continued its connection to the aerospace community by recently providing Lockheed Martin Corporation with one of its thermal products for use on the F-22 Raptor.

  10. Sustainability Characterization for Additive Manufacturing

    PubMed Central

    Mani, Mahesh; Lyons, Kevin W; Gupta, SK

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has the potential to create geometrically complex parts that require a high degree of customization, using less material and producing less waste. Recent studies have shown that AM can be an economically viable option for use by the industry, yet there are some inherent challenges associated with AM for wider acceptance. The lack of standards in AM impedes its use for parts production since industries primarily depend on established standards in processes and material selection to ensure the consistency and quality. Inability to compare AM performance against traditional manufacturing methods can be a barrier for implementing AM processes. AM process sustainability has become a driver due to growing environmental concerns for manufacturing. This has reinforced the importance to understand and characterize AM processes for sustainability. Process characterization for sustainability will help close the gaps for comparing AM performance to traditional manufacturing methods. Based on a literature review, this paper first examines the potential environmental impacts of AM. A methodology for sustainability characterization of AM is then proposed to serve as a resource for the community to benchmark AM processes for sustainability. Next, research perspectives are discussed along with relevant standardization efforts. PMID:26601038

  11. Sustainability Characterization for Additive Manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Mani, Mahesh; Lyons, Kevin W; Gupta, S K

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has the potential to create geometrically complex parts that require a high degree of customization, using less material and producing less waste. Recent studies have shown that AM can be an economically viable option for use by the industry, yet there are some inherent challenges associated with AM for wider acceptance. The lack of standards in AM impedes its use for parts production since industries primarily depend on established standards in processes and material selection to ensure the consistency and quality. Inability to compare AM performance against traditional manufacturing methods can be a barrier for implementing AM processes. AM process sustainability has become a driver due to growing environmental concerns for manufacturing. This has reinforced the importance to understand and characterize AM processes for sustainability. Process characterization for sustainability will help close the gaps for comparing AM performance to traditional manufacturing methods. Based on a literature review, this paper first examines the potential environmental impacts of AM. A methodology for sustainability characterization of AM is then proposed to serve as a resource for the community to benchmark AM processes for sustainability. Next, research perspectives are discussed along with relevant standardization efforts.

  12. Dynamics of ultrasonic additive manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Hehr, Adam; Dapino, Marcelo J

    2017-01-01

    Ultrasonic additive manufacturing (UAM) is a solid-state technology for joining similar and dissimilar metal foils near room temperature by scrubbing them together with ultrasonic vibrations under pressure. Structural dynamics of the welding assembly and work piece influence how energy is transferred during the process and ultimately, part quality. To understand the effect of structural dynamics during UAM, a linear time-invariant model is proposed to relate the inputs of shear force and electric current to resultant welder velocity and voltage. Measured frequency response and operating performance of the welder under no load is used to identify model parameters. Using this model and in-situ measurements, shear force and welder efficiency are estimated to be near 2000N and 80% when welding Al 6061-H18 weld foil, respectively. Shear force and welder efficiency have never been estimated before in UAM. The influence of processing conditions, i.e., welder amplitude, normal force, and weld speed, on shear force and welder efficiency are investigated. Welder velocity was found to strongly influence the shear force magnitude and efficiency while normal force and weld speed showed little to no influence. The proposed model is used to describe high frequency harmonic content in the velocity response of the welder during welding operations and coupling of the UAM build with the welder.

  13. Children's understanding of additive concepts.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Katherine M; Dubé, Adam K; Beatch, Jacqueline-Ann

    2017-04-01

    Most research on children's arithmetic concepts is based on one concept at a time, limiting the conclusions that can be made about how children's conceptual knowledge of arithmetic develops. This study examined six arithmetic concepts (identity, negation, commutativity, equivalence, inversion, and addition and subtraction associativity) in Grades 3, 4, and 5. Identity (a-0=a) and negation (a-a=0) were well understood, followed by moderate understanding of commutativity (a+b=b+a) and inversion (a+b-b=a), with weak understanding of equivalence (a+b+c=a+[b+c]) and associativity (a+b-c=[b-c]+a). Understanding increased across grade only for commutativity and equivalence. Four clusters were found: The Weak Concept cluster understood only identity and negation; the Two-Term Concept cluster also understood commutativity; the Inversion Concept cluster understood identity, negation, and inversion; and the Strong Concept cluster had the strongest understanding of all of the concepts. Grade 3 students tended to be in the Weak and Inversion Concept clusters, Grade 4 students were equally likely to be in any of the clusters, and Grade 5 students were most likely to be in the Two-Term and Strong Concept clusters. The findings of this study highlight that conclusions about the development of arithmetic concepts are highly dependent on which concepts are being assessed and underscore the need for multiple concepts to be investigated at the same time.

  14. 26. GENERAL VIEW OF SHIPPING AND RECEIVING ROOM, 1923 ADDITION, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. GENERAL VIEW OF SHIPPING AND RECEIVING ROOM, 1923 ADDITION, FIRST FLOOR, LOOKING NORTHWEST. FLAMMABLE TEST ROOM IS ON EXTREME RIGHT - Underwriters' Laboratories, 207-231 East Ohio Street, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  15. View of building 11050, showing metal clad addition on east ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of building 11050, showing metal clad addition on east elevation, looking southwest. - Naval Ordnance Test Station Inyokern, China Lake Pilot Plant, Machine Shop, C Street, China Lake, Kern County, CA

  16. View of building 11050 showing south side with modern addition ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of building 11050 showing south side with modern addition on the left and freestanding structure in the center. - Naval Ordnance Test Station Inyokern, China Lake Pilot Plant, Maintenance Shop, C Street, China Lake, Kern County, CA

  17. View of building 11050, showing two additions on east and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of building 11050, showing two additions on east and north side. Looking southwest. - Naval Ordnance Test Station Inyokern, China Lake Pilot Plant, Machine Shop, C Street, China Lake, Kern County, CA

  18. Cognitive functions over the course of 1 year in multiple sclerosis patients treated with disease modifying therapies

    PubMed Central

    Utz, Kathrin S.; Lee, De-Hyung; Lämmer, Alexandra; Waschbisch, Anne; Linker, Ralf A.; Schenk, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) are applied to delay or prevent disease progression in multiple sclerosis (MS). While this has mostly been proven for physical symptoms, available studies regarding long-term effects of DMTs on cognitive functions are rare and sometimes inconsistent due to methodological shortcomings. Particularly in the case of fingolimod, comprehensive data on cognitive functions are not yet available. Therefore, we set out to reliably assess cognitive functions in patients with relapsing–remitting MS (RRMS) treated with DMTs over 1 year. Methods: Cognitive functions were assessed with eight tests at three timepoints: baseline, 6-month follow up and 12-month follow up. First, we investigated whether the stability of cognitive functions (i.e. not falling below the 5% cut-off in more than one test) over 1 year in RRMS patients (n = 41) corresponds to the stability in healthy individuals (n = 40) of a previous study. Second, we compared the percentage of declined and improved patients in the different tests. Third, we compared patients treated with fingolimod (n = 22) with patients treated with natalizumab (n = 11) with regard to cognitive stability. Fourth, based on the patient data, the Reliable Change Index was applied to compute cut-offs for reliable cognitive change. Results: Approximately 75% of RRMS patients treated with DMTs remained stable over the course of 1 year. The Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT) and the Spatial Recall Test (SPART), produced improvements in 12.5% and 30.6%, respectively, probably due to practice effects. Patients treated with fingolimod did not differ from patients treated with natalizumab with regard to cognitive stability. Conclusions: Cognitive functions remain relatively stable under DMT treatment over 1 year, irrespective of the type of medication. Furthermore, the tests PASAT and SPART should be interpreted cautiously in studies examining performance changes over time. The provided RCI

  19. Study on thermal effects & sulfurized additives, in lubricating greases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, Ami Atul

    Lithium Base grease constitutes about 50% of market. The greases are developed to be able to work in multiple working conditions and have longer working life. Greases with extreme pressure additives and anti-wear additives have been developed as a solution to many of the applications. These developed greases are tested under ASTM D2266 testing conditions to meet the requirements. The actual working conditions, although, differ than the real testing conditions. The loading, speed and temperature conditions can be more harsh, or fluctuating in nature. The cyclic nature of the parameters cannot be directly related to the test performance. For this purpose studies on the performance under spectrum loading, variable speed and fluctuating temperature must be performed. This study includes tests to understand the effect of thermal variation on some of the most commonly used grease additives that perform well under ASTM D2266 testing conditions. The studied additives include most widely used industrial extreme pressure additive MoS2. Performance of ZDDP which is trying to replace MoS2 in its industrial applications has also been studied. The tests cover study of extreme pressure, anti-wear and friction modifier additives to get a general idea on the effects of thermal variation in three areas. Sulphur is the most common extreme pressure additive. Sulphur based MoS 2 is extensively used grease additive. Study to understand the tribological performance of this additive through wear testing and SEM/EDX studies has been done. This performance is also studied for other metallic sulfides like WS2 and sulphur based organic compound. The aim is to study the importance of the type of bond that sulphur shares in its additive's structure on its performance. The MoS2 film formation is found to be on the basis of the FeS formation on the substrate and protection through sacrificial monolayer deposition of the MoS2 sheared structure. The free Mo then tends to oxidise. An attempt to

  20. Computed Tomography Inspection and Analysis for Additive Manufacturing Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beshears, Ronald D.

    2016-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) inspection was performed on test articles additively manufactured from metallic materials. Metallic AM and machined wrought alloy test articles with programmed flaws were inspected using a 2MeV linear accelerator based CT system. Performance of CT inspection on identically configured wrought and AM components and programmed flaws was assessed using standard image analysis techniques to determine the impact of additive manufacturing on inspectability of objects with complex geometries.

  1. Additive Manufacturing of Ultem Polymers and Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chuang, Kathy C.; Grady, Joseph E.; Draper, Robert D.; Shin, Euy-Sik E.; Patterson, Clark; Santelle, Thomas D.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this project was to conduct additive manufacturing to produce aircraft engine components by Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM), using commercially available polyetherimdes Ultem 9085 and experimental Ultem 1000 filled with 10 chopped carbon fiber. A property comparison between FDM-printed and injection molded coupons for Ultem 9085, Ultem 1000 resin and the fiber-filled composite Ultem 1000 was carried out. Furthermore, an acoustic liner was printed from Ultem 9085 simulating conventional honeycomb structured liners and tested in a wind tunnel. Composite compressor inlet guide vanes were also printed using fiber-filled Ultem 1000 filaments and tested in a cascade rig. The fiber-filled Ultem 1000 filaments and composite vanes were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and acid digestion to determine the porosity of FDM-printed articles which ranged from 25-31. Coupons of Ultem 9085, experimental Ultem 1000 composites and XH6050 resin were tested at room temperature and 400F to evaluate their corresponding mechanical properties.

  2. Feasibility of a simplified fuel additive evaluation protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Lister, S.J.; Hunzinger, R.D.; Taghizadeh, A.

    1998-12-31

    This report describes the work carried out during the four stages of the first phase of a project that involved the determination of the feasibility of replacing the Association of American Railroads Recommended Practice (ARRP) 503 protocol for testing diesel fuel oil additives with a new procedure using the single cylinder research engine SCRE-251 as the laboratory test engine, which tests for both engine performance as well as emissions compliance. The report begins with a review of the literature on fuel additive testing, then reviews the new US Environmental Protection Agency regulations regarding locomotive diesel emissions. This is followed by a review of the ARRP 503 protocol and the proposed new procedure, a comparison of the ARRP 503 test engines and the SCRE-251, and a study of the SCRE-251`s ability to represent a multi-cylinder medium-speed diesel engine. Appendices include fuel additive manufacturers` information sheets.

  3. 20. Photographic copy of an asconstructed site plan for additions ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. Photographic copy of an as-constructed site plan for additions to North Base: Job No. A(8-1), Military Construction, Materiel Command Flight Test Base, Muroc, California; Additional Construction, Location Plan, Sheet No. 2, October 1943. Reproduced from the holdings of the National Archives, Pacific Southwest Region - Edwards Air Force Base, North Base, North Base Road, Boron, Kern County, CA

  4. Anomaly Detection In Additively Manufactured Parts Using Laser Doppler Vibrometery

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez, Carlos A.

    2015-09-29

    Additively manufactured parts are susceptible to non-uniform structure caused by the unique manufacturing process. This can lead to structural weakness or catastrophic failure. Using laser Doppler vibrometry and frequency response analysis, non-contact detection of anomalies in additively manufactured parts may be possible. Preliminary tests show promise for small scale detection, but more future work is necessary.

  5. Characterization of the Tribological Behavior of Graphene-Based Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Erck, Robert

    2014-09-01

    XG-supplied nanocrystalline additives were extensively tested for friction and wear behavior. A technique for investigating the stability of additives was developed, and a report covered filtration and centrifugation methods for settling and filterable content. Friction and wear trends in partially and fully formulated oils were reported. Particle size analysis was performed and reported.

  6. Additives In Meat and Poultry Products

    MedlinePlus

    ... What is a food additive? What is a "direct" food additive? What is an 'indirect" food additive? ... convenience foods. [ Top of Page ] What is a “direct” food additive? According to the FDA, “Direct food ...

  7. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT: ENVIROFUELS DIESEL FUEL CATALYZER FUEL ADDITIVE

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA's Environmental Technology Verification Program has tested EnviroFuels diesel fuel additive, called the Diesel Fuel Catalyzer. EnviroFuels has stated that heavy-duty on and off road diesel engines are the intended market for the catalyzer. Preliminary tests conducted indicate...

  8. 12 CFR 1238.8 - Additional implementing action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Additional implementing action. 1238.8 Section 1238.8 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY ENTITY REGULATIONS STRESS TESTING OF REGULATED..., require any regulated entity not subject to this part to conduct stress testing hereunder; and from...

  9. Test Architecture, Test Retrofit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulcher, Glenn; Davidson, Fred

    2009-01-01

    Just like buildings, tests are designed and built for specific purposes, people, and uses. However, both buildings and tests grow and change over time as the needs of their users change. Sometimes, they are also both used for purposes other than those intended in the original designs. This paper explores architecture as a metaphor for language…

  10. Activating additives for intensification of primary crude oil distillation

    SciTech Connect

    Saidakhmedov, I.M.; Syunyaev, Z.I.; Glagoleva, O.F.

    1987-03-01

    The proposed approach was tested by distilling an atmospheric resid from West Siberian crude in LPRN apparatus, following procedures given previously. The No, III lube cut from a commercial atmospheric-vacuum pipestill unit was added to the atmospheric resid. In order to evaluate the influence of the composition of the process additive on the vacuum distillation results, comparative tests were run on another type of additive differing substantially in hydrocarbon composition from the No. III lube cut - namely, the raffinate from the lube cut. The physicochemical characteristics of the atmospheric resid and the additives are listed.

  11. Intolerance to food additives - does it exist?

    PubMed

    Turner, Paul J; Kemp, Andrew S

    2012-02-01

    'Food intolerance' is often confused with a range of adverse symptoms which may be coincidental to ingestion of food. 'Food intolerance' is defined as a reaction in which symptoms must be objectively reproducible and not known to involve an immunological mechanism. A more precise term is non-allergic food hypersensitivity, which contrasts with food allergies which are due to an immunological mechanism. Some children will experience food reactions to food additives. Reported symptoms range from urticaria/angioedema to hyperactive behaviours. While parents/carers report that over one fifth of children experience of food reaction, only 1 in 20 of these are confirmed to have a non-allergic food hypersensitivity on testing.

  12. 21 CFR 660.26 - Specificity tests and avidity tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Specificity tests and avidity tests. 660.26 Section...) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Blood Grouping Reagent § 660.26 Specificity tests and avidity tests. Specificity and avidity tests shall be performed using...

  13. 21 CFR 660.26 - Specificity tests and avidity tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Specificity tests and avidity tests. 660.26... (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Blood Grouping Reagent § 660.26 Specificity tests and avidity tests. Specificity and avidity tests shall be...

  14. Evaluation of biodegradation-promoting additives for plastics.

    PubMed

    Selke, Susan; Auras, Rafael; Nguyen, Tuan Anh; Castro Aguirre, Edgar; Cheruvathur, Rijosh; Liu, Yan

    2015-03-17

    Biodegradation-promoting additives for polymers are increasingly being used around the world with the claim that they effectively render commercial polymers biodegradable. However, there is a lot of uncertainty about their effectiveness in degrading polymers in different environments. In this study, we evaluated the effect of biodegradation-promoting additives on the biodegradation of polyethylene (PE) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET). Biodegradation was evaluated in compost, anaerobic digestion, and soil burial environments. None of the five different additives tested significantly increased biodegradation in any of these environments. Thus, no evidence was found that these additives promote and/or enhance biodegradation of PE or PET polymers. So, anaerobic and aerobic biodegradation are not recommended as feasible disposal routes for nonbiodegradable plastics containing any of the five tested biodegradation-promoting additives.

  15. Longitudinal time-domain optic coherence study of retinal nerve fiber layer in IFNβ-treated and untreated multiple sclerosis patients.

    PubMed

    Pul, Refik; Saadat, Mehdi; Morbiducci, Franco; Skripuletz, Thomas; Pul, Ünsal; Brockmann, Dorothee; Sühs, Kurt-Wolfram; Schwenkenbecher, Philipp; Kahl, Kai Günter; Pars, Kaweh; Stangel, Martin; Trebst, Corinna

    2016-07-01

    Quantification of the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) by optical coherence tomography (OCT) has been proposed to provide an indirect measure for retinal axonal loss. The aim of the present study was to determine whether interferon beta (IFNβ) treatment impedes retinal axonal loss in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. A total of 48 patients with MS (24 IFNβ-1b-treated and 24 untreated subjects) and 12 healthy controls were enrolled in a prospective longitudinal OCT study. OCT measurements were performed for both eyes of each subject at baseline, and at 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-up examinations using a time-domain OCT. At each visit, we additionally recorded full-field visual evoked potential (VEP) responses and performed the paced auditory serial addition test (PASAT), in addition to expanded disability status scale (EDSS) scoring. Generalized estimation equation (GEE) was used to account for repeated measurements and paired-data. The model-based approach predicted a monthly reduction in the RNFL thickness by 0.19 µm in the eyes of the MS subjects. The reduction was estimated to be 0.17 µm in case of IFNβ-treatment and 0.16 µm in case of no treatment. Treatment duration and group allocation were not significantly associated with the RNFL thickness. Inclusion of further longitudinal data (EDSS, two and three second PASAT) in each of our models did not result in any significant association. In summary, over a period of one year no significant association between IFNβ-1b treatment and RNFL thinning was identified in patients with MS.

  16. Longitudinal time-domain optic coherence study of retinal nerve fiber layer in IFNβ-treated and untreated multiple sclerosis patients

    PubMed Central

    PUL, REFIK; SAADAT, MEHDI; MORBIDUCCI, FRANCO; SKRIPULETZ, THOMAS; PUL, ÜNSAL; BROCKMANN, DOROTHEE; SÜHS, KURT-WOLFRAM; SCHWENKENBECHER, PHILIPP; KAHL, KAI GÜNTER; PARS, KAWEH; STANGEL, MARTIN; TREBST, CORINNA

    2016-01-01

    Quantification of the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) by optical coherence tomography (OCT) has been proposed to provide an indirect measure for retinal axonal loss. The aim of the present study was to determine whether interferon beta (IFNβ) treatment impedes retinal axonal loss in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. A total of 48 patients with MS (24 IFNβ-1b-treated and 24 untreated subjects) and 12 healthy controls were enrolled in a prospective longitudinal OCT study. OCT measurements were performed for both eyes of each subject at baseline, and at 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-up examinations using a time-domain OCT. At each visit, we additionally recorded full-field visual evoked potential (VEP) responses and performed the paced auditory serial addition test (PASAT), in addition to expanded disability status scale (EDSS) scoring. Generalized estimation equation (GEE) was used to account for repeated measurements and paired-data. The model-based approach predicted a monthly reduction in the RNFL thickness by 0.19 µm in the eyes of the MS subjects. The reduction was estimated to be 0.17 µm in case of IFNβ-treatment and 0.16 µm in case of no treatment. Treatment duration and group allocation were not significantly associated with the RNFL thickness. Inclusion of further longitudinal data (EDSS, two and three second PASAT) in each of our models did not result in any significant association. In summary, over a period of one year no significant association between IFNβ-1b treatment and RNFL thinning was identified in patients with MS. PMID:27347038

  17. Computerized Testing: The Hidden Figures Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Ronald L.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    This study adapted the Hidden Figures Test for use on PLATO and determined the reliability of the computerized version compared to the paper and pencil version. Results indicate the test was successfully adapted with some modifications, and it was judged reliable although it may be measuring additional constructs. (MBR)

  18. Test plan for Simulated Saltcake Retrieval Test

    SciTech Connect

    HERTING, D.L.

    2000-07-19

    This document describes the plan for a bench-scale laboratory test to evaluate physical and chemical parameters associated with dissolution of a simulated saltcake waste. Parameters to be measured during the test include water addition rate, liquid drainage rate, visual observations of flow patterns, physical appearance and volume of dissolving saltcake, chemical composition of drained liquid, and polarized light microscopy analysis of solids.

  19. Overview of Food Ingredients, Additives and Colors

    MedlinePlus

    ... pesticides where other legal premarket approval requirements apply. Direct food additives are those that are added to ... and other foods to add texture -- is a direct additive. Most direct additives are identified on the ...

  20. 21 CFR 71.15 - Confidentiality of data and information in color additive petitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... established in § 20.61 of this chapter. (6) All records showing the Food and Drug Administration's testing of... studies and tests of a color additive on animals and humans and all studies and tests on a color...

  1. Uniform Additivity in Classical and Quantum Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cross, Andrew; Li, Ke; Smith, Graeme

    2017-01-01

    Information theory quantifies the optimal rates of resource interconversions, usually in terms of entropies. However, nonadditivity often makes evaluating entropic formulas intractable. In a few auspicious cases, additivity allows a full characterization of optimal rates. We study uniform additivity of formulas, which is easily evaluated and captures all known additive quantum formulas. Our complete characterization of uniform additivity exposes an intriguing new additive quantity and identifies a remarkable coincidence—the classical and quantum uniformly additive functions with one auxiliary variable are identical.

  2. Flight Test Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pavlock, Kate Maureen

    2013-01-01

    Although the scope of flight test engineering efforts may vary among organizations, all point to a common theme: flight test engineering is an interdisciplinary effort to test an asset in its operational flight environment. Upfront planning where design, implementation, and test efforts are clearly aligned with the flight test objective are keys to success. This chapter provides a top level perspective of flight test engineering for the non-expert. Additional research and reading on the topic is encouraged to develop a deeper understanding of specific considerations involved in each phase of flight test engineering.

  3. 16 CFR 1102.16 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... PUBLICLY AVAILABLE CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY INFORMATION DATABASE Content Requirements § 1102.16 Additional... in the Database any additional information it determines to be in the public interest,...

  4. 16 CFR 1102.16 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... PUBLICLY AVAILABLE CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY INFORMATION DATABASE Content Requirements § 1102.16 Additional... in the Database any additional information it determines to be in the public interest,...

  5. 16 CFR 1102.16 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... PUBLICLY AVAILABLE CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY INFORMATION DATABASE Content Requirements § 1102.16 Additional... in the Database any additional information it determines to be in the public interest,...

  6. 40 CFR 262.43 - Additional reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Recordkeeping and Reporting § 262.43 Additional... require generators to furnish additional reports concerning the quantities and disposition of...

  7. 40 CFR 262.43 - Additional reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Recordkeeping and Reporting § 262.43 Additional... require generators to furnish additional reports concerning the quantities and disposition of...

  8. 40 CFR 262.43 - Additional reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Recordkeeping and Reporting § 262.43 Additional... require generators to furnish additional reports concerning the quantities and disposition of...

  9. 40 CFR 262.43 - Additional reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Recordkeeping and Reporting § 262.43 Additional... require generators to furnish additional reports concerning the quantities and disposition of...

  10. 40 CFR 262.43 - Additional reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Recordkeeping and Reporting § 262.43 Additional... require generators to furnish additional reports concerning the quantities and disposition of...

  11. Non toxic additives for improved fabric filter performance

    SciTech Connect

    Bustard, C.J.; Baldrey, K.E.; Ebner, T.G.

    1995-11-01

    The overall objective of this three-phase Small Business innovative Research (SBIR) program funded by the Department of Energy pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) is to commercialize a technology based upon the use of non-toxic, novel flue gas conditioning agents to improve particulate air toxic control and overall fabric filter performance. The ultimate objective of the Phase II program currently in progress is to demonstrate that the candidate additives are successful at full-scale on flue gas from a coal-fired utility boiler. This paper covers bench-scale field tests conducted during the period February through May, 1995. The bench-scale additives testing was conducted on a flue gas slipstream taken upstream of the existing particulate control device at a utility power plant firing a Texas lignite coal. These tests were preceded by extensive testing with additives in the laboratory using a simulated flue gas stream and re-dispersed flyash from the same power plant. The bench-scale field testing was undertaken to demonstrate the performance with actual flue gas of the bet candidate additives previously identified in the laboratory. Results from the bench-scale tests will be used to establish operating parameters for a larger-scale demonstration on either a single baghouse compartment or a full baghouse at the same site.

  12. Test plan :

    SciTech Connect

    Dwyer, Stephen F.

    2013-05-01

    This test plan is a document that provides a systematic approach to the planned testing of rooftop structures to determine their actual load carrying capacity. This document identifies typical tests to be performed, the responsible parties for testing, the general feature of the tests, the testing approach, test deliverables, testing schedule, monitoring requirements, and environmental and safety compliance.

  13. Pinworm test

    MedlinePlus

    Oxyuriasis test; Enterobiasis test; Tape test ... diagnose this infection is to do a tape test. The best time to do this is in ... lay their eggs at night. Steps for the test are: Firmly press the sticky side of a ...

  14. Thyroid Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... calories and how fast your heart beats. Thyroid tests check how well your thyroid is working. They ... thyroid diseases such as hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism. Thyroid tests include blood tests and imaging tests. Blood tests ...

  15. Susceptibility Testing

    MedlinePlus

    ... Also known as: Sensitivity Testing; Drug Resistance Testing; Culture and Sensitivity; C & S; Antimicrobial Susceptibility Formal name: Bacterial and Fungal Susceptibility Testing Related tests: Urine Culture ; Blood Culture ; Bacterial Wound Culture ; AFB Testing ; MRSA ; ...

  16. Additively Manufactured and Surface Biofunctionalized Porous Nitinol.

    PubMed

    Gorgin Karaji, Z; Speirs, M; Dadbakhsh, S; Kruth, J-P; Weinans, H; Zadpoor, A A; Amin Yavari, S

    2017-01-18

    Enhanced bone tissue regeneration and improved osseointegration are among the most important goals in design of multifunctional orthopedic biomaterials. In this study, we used additive manufacturing (selective laser melting) to develop multifunctional porous nitinol that combines superelasticity with a rationally designed microarchitecture and biofunctionalized surface. The rational design based on triply periodic minimal surfaces aimed to properly adjust the pore size, increase the surface area (thereby amplifying the effects of surface biofunctionalization), and resemble the curvature characteristics of trabecular bone. The surface of additively manufactured (AM) porous nitinol was biofunctionalized using polydopamine-immobilized rhBMP2 for better control of the release kinetics. The actual morphological properties of porous nitinol measured by microcomputed tomography (e.g., open/close porosity, and surface area) closely matched the design values. The superelasticity originated from the austenite phase formed in the nitinol porous structure at room temperature. Polydopamine and rhBMP2 signature peaks were confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy tests. The release of rhBMP2 continued until 28 days. The early time and long-term release profiles were found to be adjustable independent of each other. In vitro cell culture showed improved cell attachment, cell proliferation, cell morphology (spreading, spindle-like shape), and cell coverage as well as elevated levels of ALP activity and increased calcium content for biofunctionalized surfaces as compared to as-manufactured specimens. The demonstrated functionalities of porous nitinol could be used as a basis for deployable orthopedic implants with rationally designed microarchitectures that maximize bone tissue regeneration performance by release of biomolecules with adjustable and well-controlled release profiles.

  17. 14 CFR 1274.917 - Additional funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional funds. 1274.917 Section 1274.917... FIRMS Other Provisions and Special Conditions § 1274.917 Additional funds. Additional Funds July 2002... under the terms of this cooperative agreement. NASA is under no obligation to provide additional...

  18. Assessment of Gasoline Additive Containing Ditert-butoxypropanol

    SciTech Connect

    West, Brian H.; Connatser, Raynella M.; Lewis, Samuel Arthur

    2016-04-01

    The Fuels, Engines, and Emissions Research Center completed analysis and testing of the CPS Powershot gasoline additive under the auspices of the Department of Energy’s Technical Assistance for US Small Businesses in Vehicle Technologies. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to quantify the makeup of the additive, finding a predominance of 2,3-Ditert-Butoxypropanol, also known as Glyceryl Di-Tert-Butyl Ether (GTBE). Blends of the additive at 2 and 4 volume percent were subjected to a number of standard ASTM tests, including Research Octane Number, Motor Octane Number, distillation, and vapor pressure. Results show a high boiling range and low vapor pressure for the additive, and a very modest octane boosting effect in gasoline with and without ethanol.

  19. Co-occurring nonnative woody shrubs have additive and non-additive soil legacies.

    PubMed

    Kuebbing, Sara E; Patterson, Courtney M; Classen, Aimée T; Simberloff, Daniel

    2016-09-01

    To maximize limited conservation funds and prioritize management projects that are likely to succeed, accurate assessment of invasive nonnative species impacts is essential. A common challenge to prioritization is a limited knowledge of the difference between the impacts of a single nonnative species compared to the impacts of nonnative species when they co-occur, and in particular predicting when impacts of co-occurring nonnative species will be non-additive. Understanding non-additivity is important for management decisions because the management of only one co-occurring invader will not necessarily lead to a predictable reduction in the impact or growth of the other nonnative plant. Nonnative plants are frequently associated with changes in soil biotic and abiotic characteristics, which lead to plant-soil interactions that influence the performance of other species grown in those soils. Whether co-occurring nonnative plants alter soil properties additively or non-additively relative to their effects on soils when they grow in monoculture is rarely addressed. We use a greenhouse plant-soil feedback experiment to test for non-additive soil impacts of two common invasive nonnative woody shrubs, Lonicera maackii and Ligustrum sinense, in deciduous forests of the southeastern United States. We measured the performance of each nonnative shrub, a native herbaceous community, and a nonnative woody vine in soils conditioned by each shrub singly or together in polyculture. Soils conditioned by both nonnative shrubs had non-additive impacts on native and nonnative performance. Root mass of the native herbaceous community was 1.5 times lower and the root mass of the nonnative L. sinense was 1.8 times higher in soils conditioned by both L. maackii and L. sinense than expected based upon growth in soils conditioned by either shrub singly. This result indicates that when these two nonnative shrubs co-occur, their influence on soils disproportionally favors persistence

  20. 19. Photographic copy of an asconstructed site plan for additions ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. Photographic copy of an as-constructed site plan for additions to North Base: Job No. Muroc A(511), Military Construction, Third District Region, San Bernardino, California; Muroc Bombing Range, Muroc Lake, Calif; Additional Temporary Construction, Materiel Center Flight Test Base, Location Grading & Paving Plan, Sheet No. 1 of 21, March 1943. Reproduced from the holdings of the National Archives, Pacific Southwest Region - Edwards Air Force Base, North Base, North Base Road, Boron, Kern County, CA

  1. 18. Photographic copy of site plan for additions to North ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Photographic copy of site plan for additions to North Base: Job No. Muroc A(511), Military Construction, Third District Region, San Bernardino, California; Muroc Bombing Range, Muroc Lake, Calif; Additional Temporary Construction, Materiel Center Flight Test Base, Location Plan, February 1943. Reproduced from the holdings of the National Archives, Pacific Southwest Region - Edwards Air Force Base, North Base, North Base Road, Boron, Kern County, CA

  2. Ionic Liquids as Novel Lubricants and /or Lubricant Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Qu, J.; Viola, M. B.

    2013-10-31

    This ORNL-GM CRADA developed ionic liquids (ILs) as novel lubricants or oil additives for engine lubrication. A new group of oil-miscible ILs have been designed and synthesized with high thermal stability, non-corrosiveness, excellent wettability, and most importantly effective anti-scuffing/anti-wear and friction reduction characteristics. Mechanistic analysis attributes the superior lubricating performance of IL additives to their physical and chemical interactions with metallic surfaces. Working with a leading lubricant formulation company, the team has successfully developed a prototype low-viscosity engine oil using a phosphonium-phosphate IL as an anti-wear additive. Tribological bench tests of the IL-additized formulated oil showed 20-33% lower friction in mixed and elastohydrodynamic lubrication and 38-92% lower wear in boundary lubrication when compared with commercial Mobil 1 and Mobil Clean 5W-30 engine oils. High-temperature, high load (HTHL) full-size engine tests confirmed the excellent anti-wear performance for the IL-additized engine oil. Sequence VID engine dynamometer tests demonstrated an improved fuel economy by >2% for this IL-additized engine oil benchmarked against the Mobil 1 5W-30 oil. In addition, accelerated catalyst aging tests suggest that the IL additive may potentially have less adverse impact on three-way catalysts compared to the conventional ZDDP. Follow-on research is needed for further development and optimization of IL chemistry and oil formulation to fully meet ILSAC GF-5 specifications and further enhance the automotive engine efficiency and durability.

  3. IN718 Additive Manufacturing Properties and Influences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, Dennis M.

    2015-01-01

    The results of tensile, fracture, and fatigue testing of IN718 coupons produced using the selective laser melting (SLM) additive manufacturing technique are presented. The data have been "sanitized" to remove the numerical values, although certain references to material standards are provided. This document provides some knowledge of the effect of variation of controlled build parameters used in the SLM process, a snapshot of the capabilities of SLM in industry at present, and shares some of the lessons learned along the way. For the build parameter characterization, the parameters were varied over a range that was centered about the machine manufacturer's recommended value, and in each case they were varied individually, although some co-variance of those parameters would be expected. Tensile, fracture, and high-cycle fatigue properties equivalent to wrought IN718 are achievable with SLM-produced IN718. Build and post-build processes need to be determined and then controlled to established limits to accomplish this. It is recommended that a multi-variable evaluation, e.g., design-of experiment (DOE), of the build parameters be performed to better evaluate the co-variance of the parameters.

  4. IN718 Additive Manufacturing Properties and Influences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, Dennis M.

    2015-01-01

    The results of tensile, fracture, and fatigue testing of IN718 coupons produced using the selective laser melting (SLM) additive manufacturing technique are presented. The data has been "generalized" to remove the numerical values, although certain references to material standards are provided. This document provides some knowledge of the effect of variation of controlled build parameters used in the SLM process, a snapshot of the capabilities of SLM in industry at present, and shares some of the lessons learned along the way. For the build parameter characterization, the parameters were varied over a range about the machine manufacturer's recommended value, and in each case they were varied individually, although some co-variance of those parameters would be expected. SLM-produced IN718, tensile, fracture, and high-cycle fatigue properties equivalent to wrought IN718 are achievable. Build and post-build processes need to be determined and then controlled to established limits to accomplish this. It is recommended that a multi-variable evaluation, e.g., design-of-experiment (DOE), of the build parameters be performed to better evaluate the co-variance of the parameters.

  5. Computed tomography characterisation of additive manufacturing materials.

    PubMed

    Bibb, Richard; Thompson, Darren; Winder, John

    2011-06-01

    Additive manufacturing, covering processes frequently referred to as rapid prototyping and rapid manufacturing, provides new opportunities in the manufacture of highly complex and custom-fitting medical devices and products. Whilst many medical applications of AM have been explored and physical properties of the resulting parts have been studied, the characterisation of AM materials in computed tomography has not been explored. The aim of this study was to determine the CT number of commonly used AM materials. There are many potential applications of the information resulting from this study in the design and manufacture of wearable medical devices, implants, prostheses and medical imaging test phantoms. A selection of 19 AM material samples were CT scanned and the resultant images analysed to ascertain the materials' CT number and appearance in the images. It was found that some AM materials have CT numbers very similar to human tissues, FDM, SLA and SLS produce samples that appear uniform on CT images and that 3D printed materials show a variation in internal structure.

  6. Pharmacogenomic Testing

    MedlinePlus

    ... Primary care providers Specialists Getting covered Research Basic science research Research in people ... screening Diagnostic testing Direct-to-consumer genetic testing Newborn screening Pharmacogenomic testing ...

  7. Predictive Testing

    MedlinePlus

    ... Primary care providers Specialists Getting covered Research Basic science research Research in people ... screening Diagnostic testing Direct-to-consumer genetic testing Newborn screening Pharmacogenomic testing ...

  8. Evaluation of Additive Manufacturing for Composite Part Molds

    SciTech Connect

    Duty, Chad E.; Springfield, Robert M.

    2015-02-01

    The ORNL Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (MDF) collaborated with Tru-Design to test the quality and durability of molds used for making fiber reinforced composites using additive manufacturing. The partners developed surface treatment techniques including epoxy coatings and machining to improve the quality of the surface finish. Test samples made using the printed and surface finished molds demonstrated life spans suitable for one-of-a-kind and low-volume applications, meeting the project objective.

  9. Application of Additively Manufactured Components in Rocket Engine Turbopumps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calvert, Marty, Jr.; Hanks, Andrew; Schmauch, Preston; Delessio, Steve

    2015-01-01

    The use of additive manufacturing technology has the potential to revolutionize the development of turbopump components in liquid rocket engines. When designing turbomachinery with the additive process there are several benefits and risks that are leveraged relative to a traditional development cycle. This topic explores the details and development of a 90,000 RPM Liquid Hydrogen Turbopump from which 90% of the parts were derived from the additive process. This turbopump was designed, developed and will be tested later this year at Marshall Space Flight Center.

  10. [Allergic contact dermatitis as a consequence of additional occupations].

    PubMed

    Paravina, M; Stanojević, M; Spalević, Lj; Jovanović, D

    1994-01-01

    During discovering etiology of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) anamnesis is of great importance (date of life, profession of a patients, activities besides the profession, habits, hobbies). Many people have additional professions, habits, hobbies). Many people have additional professions, either as hobbies or as financial reasons. They can show senzibilization to substances they come to contact with. The aim of this work is to point to this possibility of generating ACD. Five petients suffering from ACD were presented. All of them were tested by standard series and by substances thej came to contact with, while going in for additional occupations. 1. A metalsmith, going in for beekeeping, had positive tests to propolis and balsam of Peru. 2. A construction worker growing fruit, hat positive tests to TMT and fingicid melpreks. 3. Stics weaver, engaging in constructions work, had positive tests to potassium bichromate. 4. Retired professor in matematics, engaged in constructions works, had positive tests to potassium bichromate, too. 5. A law student, going in for photography, had positive tests to colour film developer. The nature of allergens, length of exposure, possibilites for elimination of allergens, means of protection etc have been discussed. It was conslused that a detail examination of patients was necessary for proving causes of ACD.

  11. Test Analysis Guidelines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeng, Frank F.

    2007-01-01

    Development of analysis guidelines for Exploration Life Support (ELS) technology tests was completed. The guidelines were developed based on analysis experiences gained from supporting Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) technology development in air revitalization systems and water recovery systems. Analyses are vital during all three phases of the ELS technology test: pre-test, during test and post test. Pre-test analyses of a test system help define hardware components, predict system and component performances, required test duration, sampling frequencies of operation parameters, etc. Analyses conducted during tests could verify the consistency of all the measurements and the performance of the test system. Post test analyses are an essential part of the test task. Results of post test analyses are an important factor in judging whether the technology development is a successful one. In addition, development of a rigorous model for a test system is an important objective of any new technology development. Test data analyses, especially post test data analyses, serve to verify the model. Test analyses have supported development of many ECLSS technologies. Some test analysis tasks in ECLSS technology development are listed in the Appendix. To have effective analysis support for ECLSS technology tests, analysis guidelines would be a useful tool. These test guidelines were developed based on experiences gained through previous analysis support of various ECLSS technology tests. A comment on analysis from an experienced NASA ECLSS manager (1) follows: "Bad analysis was one that bent the test to prove that the analysis was right to begin with. Good analysis was one that directed where the testing should go and also bridged the gap between the reality of the test facility and what was expected on orbit."

  12. Pregnancy Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... Us Home A-Z Health Topics Pregnancy tests Pregnancy tests > A-Z Health Topics Pregnancy test fact ... To receive Publications email updates Enter email Submit Pregnancy tests If you think you may be pregnant , ...

  13. VDRL test

    MedlinePlus

    ... The VDRL test is a screening test for syphilis. It measures substances (proteins), called antibodies, that your ... come in contact with the bacteria that cause syphilis. How the Test is Performed The test is ...

  14. Coombs test

    MedlinePlus

    Direct antiglobulin test; Indirect antiglobulin test; Anemia - hemolytic ... No special preparation is necessary for this test. ... There are 2 types of the Coombs test: Direct Indirect The direct ... that are stuck to the surface of red blood cells. Many diseases ...

  15. Ham test

    MedlinePlus

    Acid hemolysin test; Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria - Ham test; PNH - Ham test ... BJ. In: Chernecky CC, Berger BJ, eds. Laboratory Tests and Diagnostic Procedures . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier ...

  16. Trichomonas Testing

    MedlinePlus

    ... Trichomonas vaginalis by Amplified Detection; Trichomonas vaginalis by Direct Fluorescent Antibody (DFA) Related tests: Pap Test , Chlamydia ... by one of the following methods: Molecular testing, direct DNA probes, or nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs)— ...

  17. ADHD Diet: Do Food Additives Cause Hyperactivity?

    MedlinePlus

    ... There's no solid evidence that food additives cause attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, the topic of food additives and their possible effects is controversial. Some studies indicate that certain food ...

  18. Additive Manufacturing of Aerospace Propulsion Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Misra, Ajay K.; Grady, Joseph E.; Carter, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The presentation will provide an overview of ongoing activities on additive manufacturing of aerospace propulsion components, which included rocket propulsion and gas turbine engines. Future opportunities on additive manufacturing of hybrid electric propulsion components will be discussed.

  19. [Safety of food additives in Japan].

    PubMed

    Ito, Sumio

    2011-01-01

    Recently, many accidents relating to food happened in Japan. The consumer's distrust for food, food companies, and the administration is increasing. The consumer especially has an extreme refusal feeling for chemicals such as food additives and agricultural chemicals, and begins to request agricultural chemical-free vegetables and food additive-free food. Food companies also state no agricultural chemicals and no food additives to correspond with consumers' request and aim at differentiating. The food additive is that the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare specifies the one that person's health might not be ruined by providing for Food Sanitation Law Article 10 in our country. The standard for food additives and standard for use of food additives are provided according to regulations of Food Sanitation Law Article 11. Therefore, it is thought that the food additive used is safe now. Then, it reports on the procedure and the safety examination, etc. in our country for designation for food additive this time.

  20. Additive-driven assembly of block copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Ying; Daga, Vikram; Anderson, Eric; Watkins, James

    2011-03-01

    One challenge to the formation of well ordered hybrid materials is the incorporation of nanoscale additives including metal, semiconductor and dielectric nanoparticles at high loadings while maintaining strong segregation. Here we describe the molecular and functional design of small molecule and nanoparticle additives that enhance phase segregation in their block copolymer host and enable high additive loadings. Our approach includes the use of hydrogen bond interactions between the functional groups on the additive or particle that serve as hydrogen bond donors and one segment of the block copolymer containing hydrogen bond acceptors. Further, the additives show strong selectively towards the targeted domains, leading to enhancements in contrast between properties of the phases. In addition to structural changes, we explore how large changes in the thermal and mechanical properties occur upon incorporation of the additives. Generalization of this additive-induced ordering strategy to various block copolymers will be discussed.

  1. Turbine Windage Torque Tests.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-01

    Rotordynamics : Mr. B. Rowan Mr. J. Hodges Development Laboratory: Mr. D. Butman Mr. C. Brown iii TABLE OF CONTEATS PAGE Introduction 1 Task I - Design...Analysis 2 Drive System and Mounting 2 Torquemeter Selection 10 Rotordynamic Analysis 11 Task II - Hardware Preparation 22 Task III - Testing 40 Facility...Two additional critical speeds appear in the test system with the addition of the torquemeter. A detailed discussion of the system rotordynamics is

  2. Additive Construction using Basalt Regolith Fines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, Robert P.; Sibille, Laurent; Hintze, Paul E.; Lippitt, Thomas C.; Mantovani, James G.; Nugent, Matthew W.; Townsend, Ivan I.

    2014-01-01

    Planetary surfaces are often covered in regolith (crushed rock), whose geologic origin is largely basalt. The lunar surface is made of small-particulate regolith and areas of boulders located in the vicinity of craters. Regolith composition also varies with location, reflecting the local bedrock geology and the nature and efficiency of the micrometeorite-impact processes. In the lowland mare areas (suitable for habitation), the regolith is composed of small granules (20 - 100 microns average size) of mare basalt and volcanic glass. Impacting micrometeorites may cause local melting, and the formation of larger glassy particles, and this regolith may contain 10-80% glass. Studies of lunar regolith are traditionally conducted with lunar regolith simulant (reconstructed soil with compositions patterned after the lunar samples returned by Apollo). The NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Granular Mechanics & Regolith Operations (GMRO) lab has identified a low fidelity but economical geo-technical simulant designated as Black Point-1 (BP-1). It was found at the site of the Arizona Desert Research and Technology Studies (RATS) analog field test site at the Black Point lava flow in adjacent basalt quarry spoil mounds. This paper summarizes activities at KSC regarding the utilization of BP-1 basalt regolith and comparative work with lunar basalt simulant JSC-1A as a building material for robotic additive construction of large structures. In an effort to reduce the import or in-situ fabrication of binder additives, we focused this work on in-situ processing of regolith for construction in a single-step process after its excavation. High-temperature melting of regolith involves techniques used in glassmaking and casting (with melts of lower density and higher viscosity than those of metals), producing basaltic glass with high durability and low abrasive wear. Most Lunar simulants melt at temperatures above 1100 C, although melt processing of terrestrial regolith at 1500 C is not

  3. 7 CFR 1944.686 - Additional grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2011-01-01 2009-01-01 true Additional grants. 1944.686 Section 1944.686...) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) HOUSING Housing Preservation Grants § 1944.686 Additional grants. An additional HPG grant may be made when the grantee has achieved or nearly achieved the goals established...

  4. 7 CFR 1944.545 - Additional grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Additional grants. 1944.545 Section 1944.545...) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) HOUSING Technical and Supervisory Assistance Grants § 1944.545 Additional grants. An additional grant may be made to an applicant that has previously received a TSA grant and...

  5. 7 CFR 1944.545 - Additional grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2011-01-01 2009-01-01 true Additional grants. 1944.545 Section 1944.545...) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) HOUSING Technical and Supervisory Assistance Grants § 1944.545 Additional grants. An additional grant may be made to an applicant that has previously received a TSA grant and...

  6. 7 CFR 1944.686 - Additional grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Additional grants. 1944.686 Section 1944.686...) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) HOUSING Housing Preservation Grants § 1944.686 Additional grants. An additional HPG grant may be made when the grantee has achieved or nearly achieved the goals established...

  7. 7 CFR 1944.545 - Additional grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Additional grants. 1944.545 Section 1944.545...) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) HOUSING Technical and Supervisory Assistance Grants § 1944.545 Additional grants. An additional grant may be made to an applicant that has previously received a TSA grant and...

  8. 10 CFR 55.7 - Additional requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional requirements. 55.7 Section 55.7 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) OPERATORS' LICENSES General Provisions § 55.7 Additional requirements. The Commission may, by rule, regulation, or order, impose upon any licensee such requirements, in addition...

  9. Polymeric Additives For Graphite/Epoxy Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kourtides, D. A.; Nir, Z.

    1990-01-01

    Report describes experimental studies of properties of several graphite/epoxy composites containing polymeric additives as flexibilizing or toughening agents. Emphasizes effects of brominated polymeric additives (BPA's) with or without carboxy-terminated butadiene acrylonitrile rubber. Reviews effects of individual and combined additives on fracture toughnesses, environmental stabilities, hot/wet strengths, thermomechanical behaviors, and other mechanical properties of composites.

  10. 10 CFR 55.7 - Additional requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Additional requirements. 55.7 Section 55.7 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) OPERATORS' LICENSES General Provisions § 55.7 Additional requirements. The Commission may, by rule, regulation, or order, impose upon any licensee such requirements, in addition...

  11. 17 CFR 48.10 - Additional contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Additional contracts. 48.10...) REGISTRATION OF FOREIGN BOARDS OF TRADE § 48.10 Additional contracts. (a) Generally. A registered foreign board of trade that wishes to make an additional futures, option or swap contract available for trading...

  12. 17 CFR 48.10 - Additional contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Additional contracts. 48.10... FOREIGN BOARDS OF TRADE § 48.10 Additional contracts. (a) Generally. A registered foreign board of trade that wishes to make an additional futures, option or swap contract available for trading by...

  13. 12 CFR 615.5460 - Additional provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional provisions. 615.5460 Section 615.5460 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM FUNDING AND FISCAL AFFAIRS, LOAN... Additional provisions. (a) Additional requirements. In any case or any class of cases arising under...

  14. 46 CFR 355.5 - Additional material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Additional material. 355.5 Section 355.5 Shipping... STATES CITIZENSHIP § 355.5 Additional material. If additional material is determined to be essential to clarify or support the evidence of U.S. citizenship, such material shall be furnished by...

  15. 7 CFR 1944.545 - Additional grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Additional grants. 1944.545 Section 1944.545...) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) HOUSING Technical and Supervisory Assistance Grants § 1944.545 Additional grants. An additional grant may be made to an applicant that has previously received a TSA grant and...

  16. 7 CFR 1944.686 - Additional grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Additional grants. 1944.686 Section 1944.686...) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) HOUSING Housing Preservation Grants § 1944.686 Additional grants. An additional HPG grant may be made when the grantee has achieved or nearly achieved the goals established...

  17. 7 CFR 1944.545 - Additional grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Additional grants. 1944.545 Section 1944.545...) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) HOUSING Technical and Supervisory Assistance Grants § 1944.545 Additional grants. An additional grant may be made to an applicant that has previously received a TSA grant and...

  18. 7 CFR 1944.686 - Additional grants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Additional grants. 1944.686 Section 1944.686...) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) HOUSING Housing Preservation Grants § 1944.686 Additional grants. An additional HPG grant may be made when the grantee has achieved or nearly achieved the goals established...

  19. 46 CFR 355.5 - Additional material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Additional material. 355.5 Section 355.5 Shipping... STATES CITIZENSHIP § 355.5 Additional material. If additional material is determined to be essential to clarify or support the evidence of U.S. citizenship, such material shall be furnished by...

  20. 46 CFR 355.5 - Additional material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Additional material. 355.5 Section 355.5 Shipping... STATES CITIZENSHIP § 355.5 Additional material. If additional material is determined to be essential to clarify or support the evidence of U.S. citizenship, such material shall be furnished by...

  1. 46 CFR 355.5 - Additional material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Additional material. 355.5 Section 355.5 Shipping... STATES CITIZENSHIP § 355.5 Additional material. If additional material is determined to be essential to clarify or support the evidence of U.S. citizenship, such material shall be furnished by...

  2. 5 CFR 841.1006 - Additional provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional provisions. 841.1006 Section....1006 Additional provisions. These additional provisions are also binding on the State and OPM: (a) A... will issue an accounting. If the State finds this accounting unacceptable, it may then and only...

  3. 5 CFR 831.1905 - Additional provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional provisions. 831.1905 Section... (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT State Income Tax Withholding § 831.1905 Additional provisions. These additional provisions are also binding on the State and OPM: (a) A request or revocation is effective when processed...

  4. 48 CFR 235.072 - Additional contract clauses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ....072 Additional contract clauses. (a) Use the clause at 252.235-7002, Animal Welfare, or one... involving research on live vertebrate animals. (b) Use the basic or the alternate of the clause at 252.235..., testing, or operating a device requiring a frequency authorization. (1) Use the basic clause if...

  5. A Novel Approach for Evaluating Carbamate Mixtures for Dose Additivity

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two mathematical approaches were used to test the hypothesis ofdose-addition for a binary and a seven-chemical mixture ofN-methyl carbamates, toxicologically similar chemicals that inhibit cholinesterase (ChE). In the more novel approach, mixture data were not included in the ana...

  6. Recent Additions to the General College Career Development Program Offerings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hixson, Bruce, Ed.

    1981-01-01

    Recent additions to the career development offerings at the University of Minnesota's General College are described. The aviation training program, which is described by Thomas Brothen, is designed to prepare students for licensure testing through the Federal Aviation Administration. Background information on aviation training at the University of…

  7. Polyfibroblast: A Self-Healing and Galvanic Protection Additive

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-25

    increase with microcapsule loading, but they eventually decrease at high loading most likely because of voids. In addition, the corrosion potential ...nondestructive test therefore has the potential to allow continuous monitoring to the health of the microcapsules while in service. In contrast, Fourier...complex dielectric constant depends on the amount of entrained OTS. Bottom row shows the bare electrode and painted electrode, respectively

  8. Enriching Addition and Subtraction Fact Mastery through Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bay-Williams, Jennifer M.; Kling, Gina

    2014-01-01

    The learning of "basic facts"--single-digit combinations for addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division--has long been a focus of elementary school mathematics. Many people remember completing endless worksheets, timed tests, and flash card drills as they attempted to "master" their basic facts as children. However,…

  9. Evaluation of zinc addition to PWR primary coolant

    SciTech Connect

    Pathania, R.; Yagnik, S.; Gold, R.E.; Dove, M.; Kolstad, E.

    1995-12-31

    Laboratory studies have shown that addition of zinc to a PWR environment reduces the general corrosion rates of materials in the primary system and delays the initiation of primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) in Alloy 600. Because of the potential benefits of zinc addition in reducing radiation fields and mitigating PWSCC of Alloy 600 a project was initiated to qualify zinc addition to a PWR. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of zinc addition on radiation fields, PWSCC of Alloy 600 and fuel cladding corrosion at the Farley-2 PWR. In order to provide an early warning of any potential adverse effects on the fuel cladding, corrosion studies were initiated at the Halden test reactor prior to zinc addition at Farley-2. This paper provides an overview of the scope of the zinc addition demonstration at Farley-2 and the fuel cladding corrosion tests at Halden. The zinc concentration in the Farley-2 coolant is approximately 40 ppb and that in Halden is 50 ppb. The paper presents initial results from these studies which are still in progress.

  10. Improvement of GRCop-84 Through the Addition of Zirconium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, David L.; Lerch, Bradley A.

    2012-01-01

    GRCop-84 (Cu-8 at.% Cr-4 at.% Nb) has excellent strength, creep resistance, low cycle fatigue (LCF) life and stability at elevated temperatures. It suffers in comparison to many commercially available precipitation-strengthened alloys below 500 C (932 F). It was observed that the addition of Zr consistently improved the mechanical properties of Cu-based alloys especially below 500 C. In an effort to improve the low temperature properties of GRCop-84, 0.35 wt.% Zr was added to the alloy. Limited tensile, creep, and LCF testing was conducted to determine if improvements occur. The results showed some dramatic increases in the tensile and creep properties at the conditions tested with the probability of additional improvements being possible through cold working. LCF testing at room temperature did not show an improvement, but improvements might occur at elevated temperatures.

  11. Anti-wear additive derived from soybean oil and boron utilized in a gear oil formulation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The synthesis of lubricant additives based on boron and epoxidized soybean oil are presented. These additives are made from a simple patent pending method involving a ring opening reaction and addition of the borate. A pair of different additives were tested in soybean oil, polyalpha olefin basestoc...

  12. Nitrogen as a friendly addition to steel

    SciTech Connect

    Rawers, J.C.

    2006-01-01

    Interstitial alloying with nitrogen or carbon is a common means of enhancing properties of iron-based alloys. Interstitial nitrogen addition to fcc-phase Fe-Cr-Mn/Ni alloys results in improved mechanical properties, whereas addition of carbon can result in the formation of unwanted carbides. Carbon addition to low alloy, bcc-phase iron alloys significantly improves strength through the formation of carbides, whereas addition of nitrogen in bcc-phase iron alloys can result in porous casting and reduced mechanical properties. This study will show that alloying iron-based alloys with both nitrogen and carbon can produce positive results. Nitrogen addition to Fe-C and Fe-Cr-C alloys, and both nitrogen and nitrogen-carbon additions to Fe-Cr-Mn/Ni alloys altered the microstructure, improved mechanical properties, increased hardness, and reduced wear by stabilizing the fcc-phase and altering (possibly eliminating) precipitate formation.

  13. Cincinnati Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM)

    SciTech Connect

    Duty, Chad E.; Love, Lonnie J.

    2015-03-04

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) worked with Cincinnati Incorporated (CI) to demonstrate Big Area Additive Manufacturing which increases the speed of the additive manufacturing (AM) process by over 1000X, increases the size of parts by over 10X and shows a cost reduction of over 100X. ORNL worked with CI to transition the Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) technology from a proof-of-principle (TRL 2-3) demonstration to a prototype product stage (TRL 7-8).

  14. 42 CFR 67.22 - Additional conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... AGENCY FOR HEALTH CARE POLICY AND RESEARCH GRANTS AND CONTRACTS Research Grants for Health Services Research, Evaluation, Demonstration, and Dissemination Projects § 67.22 Additional conditions....

  15. Selection of color additives: a regulatory view.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Anuj; Dureja, Harish; Madan, Anil K

    2012-01-01

    Color additives have a unique place in the categories of the excipients. However, most of the color additives are complex heterogeneous organic compounds. In pharmaceuticals, colors are used in various oral (solid, liquid) and topical dosage form. Different regulatory authorities have their own specific set of regulation for registration, approval, and control of color additives. However, at this time of globalization, selection of appropriate color is not an easy task when a company wants to sale its product in many countries. In this article, the authors have explored various important factors which should be considered in the selection of color additives.

  16. Allergic and immunologic reactions to food additives.

    PubMed

    Gultekin, Fatih; Doguc, Duygu Kumbul

    2013-08-01

    For centuries, food additives have been used for flavouring, colouring and extension of the useful shelf life of food, as well as the promotion of food safety. During the last 20 years, the studies implicating the additives contained in foods and medicine as a causative factor of allergic reactions have been proliferated considerably. In this review, we aimed to overview all of the food additives which were approved to consume in EU and find out how common and serious allergic reactions come into existence following the consuming of food additives.

  17. Classification of additives for organic photovoltaic devices.

    PubMed

    Machui, Florian; Maisch, Philipp; Burgués-Ceballos, Ignasi; Langner, Stefan; Krantz, Johannes; Ameri, Tayebeh; Brabec, Christoph J

    2015-04-27

    The use of additives to improve the performance of organic photovoltaic cells has been intensely researched in recent years. However, so far, no system has been reported for the classification of additives and their functions. In this report, a system for classifying additives according to the fundamental mechanism by which they influence microstructure formation for P3HT:PCBM is suggested. The major parameters used for their classification are solubility and drying kinetics. Both are discussed in detail and their consequences on processing are analyzed. Furthermore, a general mechanism to classify the impact of additives on structure formation is suggested and discussed for different materials relevant to organic photovoltaic devices.

  18. Thyroid Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... the thyroid, a computerized tomography (CT) scan, or nuclear medicine tests, to diagnose and find the cause ... is having the scan for other health problems. Nuclear medicine tests. Nuclear medicine tests of the thyroid ...

  19. Laboratory Tests

    MedlinePlus

    Laboratory tests check a sample of your blood, urine, or body tissues. A technician or your doctor ... compare your results to results from previous tests. Laboratory tests are often part of a routine checkup ...

  20. Lipase Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... known as: LPS Formal name: Lipase Related tests: Amylase , Trypsin , Trypsinogen At a Glance Test Sample The ... lipase is most often used, along with an amylase test , to help diagnose and monitor acute pancreatitis . ...

  1. IQ testing

    MedlinePlus

    IQ (intelligence quotient) testing is a series of exams used to determine your general intelligence in relation ... Many IQ tests are used today. Whether they measure actual intelligence or simply certain abilities is controversial. IQ tests ...

  2. Test Madness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedrick, Wanda B., Ed.

    2007-01-01

    There's accountability and then there's the testing craze an iatrogenic practice that undermines real learning. Hedrick documents the negative effects of testing, giving teachers another weapon in their arsenal against mindless preparation for high-stakes tests.

  3. Chlamydia Testing

    MedlinePlus

    ... of testing for chlamydia. NAAT is a molecular test that detects the genetic material ( DNA ) of Chlamydia trachomatis . It is generally more sensitive and specific than other chlamydia tests and can be performed on a vaginal swab ...

  4. Reactive Additives for Phenylethynyl-Containing Resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W.; Smith, Joseph G., Jr.; Hergenrother, Paul M.; Rommel, Monica L.

    2005-01-01

    Phenylethynyl-containing reactive additive (PERA) compounds and mixtures have been found to be useful for improving the processability of oligomers, polymers, co-oligomers, and copolymers that contain phenylethynyl groups. The additives can be incorporated in different forms: A solution of an amide acid or an imide of a PERA can be added to a solution of phenylethynyl-containing oligomer, polymer, co-oligomer, or copolymer; or An imide powder of a PERA can be mixed with a dry powder of a phenylethynyl-containing oligomer, polymer, co-oligomer, or copolymer. The effect of a given PERA on the processability and other properties of the resin system depends on whether the PERA is used in the amide acid or an imide form. With proper formulation, the PERA reduces the melt viscosity of the resin and thereby reduces the processing pressures needed to form the adhesive bonds, consolidate filled or unfilled moldings, or fabricate fiber-reinforced composite laminates. During thermal cure, a PERA reacts with itself as well as with the phenylethynyl-containing host resin and thereby becomes chemically incorporated into the resin system. The effects of the PERA on mechanical properties, relative to those of the host resin, depend on the amount of PERA used. Typically, the incorporation of the PERA results in (1) increases in the glass-transition temperature (Tg), modulus of elasticity, and parameters that characterize behavior under compression, and (2) greater retention of the aforementioned mechanical properties at elevated temperatures without (3) significant reduction of toughness or damage tolerance. Of the formulations tested thus far, the ones found to yield the best overall results were those for which the host resin was the amide acid form of a phenylethynyl-terminated imide (PETI) co-oligomer having a molecular weight of 5,000 g/mole [hence, designated PETI-5] and a PERA denoted as PERA-1. PETI-5 was made from 3,3',4'4'-biphenyltetracarboxylic dianhydride, 3

  5. Assessing CAT Test Security Severity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yi, Qing; Zhang, Jinming; Chang, Hua-Hua

    2006-01-01

    In addition to its precision superiority over nonadaptive tests, another known advantage of computerized adaptive tests (CATs) is that they can be offered on a continuous basis. This is advantageous to examinees in terms of flexibility of test scheduling, as well as advantageous to schools and other testing centers in terms of both space and…

  6. 21 CFR 71.15 - Confidentiality of data and information in color additive petitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... has been abandoned and they no longer represent a trade secret or confidential commercial or financial... studies and tests of a color additive on animals and humans and all studies and tests on a color...

  7. 21 CFR 71.15 - Confidentiality of data and information in color additive petitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... has been abandoned and they no longer represent a trade secret or confidential commercial or financial... studies and tests of a color additive on animals and humans and all studies and tests on a color...

  8. Fuel additive programs at crossroads of regulation, market dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Adler, K.

    1998-01-01

    Fuel additive manufacturers, gasoline marketers and automakers seem to be forgetting about the power of the marketplace in their efforts to use additives to help reduce emissions and improve vehicle performance. Recall that the port fuel injector (PFI) and intake valve deposit (IVD) problems of the 1980s were addressed quickly by the fuels industry. In just a few months after the PFID problem surfaced, additive makers had detergents on the market, and fuel marketers followed up with an effective advertising campaign. Formal regulations came about a decade later. The solution to the BMW IVD problem was similar. BMW provided an enticing incentive for oil companies to differentiate through better additives and many did. Contrast those developments with the command-and-control approach that has been in effect since January 1995. EPA`s additive rule is working almost to perfection - if adherence to strict rules is considered. All gasolines in the US are additized, and a wide variety of packages have been developed that meet the regulatory standards. But by the measure of real-world performance, the circumstances can look quite different. And with industry finalizing a better IVD test and conducting research into the need for a combustion chamber deposit (CCD) regulation, now may be the time to limit the regulatory approach and let refiners and additive suppliers return to creating products that target excellence instead of regulatory minimums.

  9. 49 CFR 1108.12 - Additional matters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional matters. 1108.12 Section 1108.12 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT... JURISDICTION OF THE SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD § 1108.12 Additional matters. Where an arbitration demand...

  10. 49 CFR 1108.12 - Additional matters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Additional matters. 1108.12 Section 1108.12 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT... JURISDICTION OF THE SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD § 1108.12 Additional matters. Where an arbitration demand...

  11. 49 CFR 1108.12 - Additional matters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Additional matters. 1108.12 Section 1108.12 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT... JURISDICTION OF THE SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD § 1108.12 Additional matters. Where an arbitration demand...

  12. 15 CFR 990.66 - Additional considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional considerations. 990.66 Section 990.66 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued... NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Restoration Implementation Phase § 990.66 Additional...

  13. 10 CFR 2.605 - Additional considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional considerations. 2.605 Section 2.605 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE FOR DOMESTIC LICENSING PROCEEDINGS AND ISSUANCE OF ORDERS... Permit § 2.605 Additional considerations. (a) The Commission will not conduct more than one review...

  14. 10 CFR 2.625 - Additional considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional considerations. 2.625 Section 2.625 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE FOR DOMESTIC LICENSING PROCEEDINGS AND ISSUANCE OF ORDERS... License Under 10 Cfr Part 52 § 2.625 Additional considerations. (a) The Commission will not conduct...

  15. 42 CFR 52d.9 - Additional conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Additional conditions. 52d.9 Section 52d.9 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS NATIONAL CANCER INSTITUTE CLINICAL CANCER EDUCATION PROGRAM § 52d.9 Additional conditions. The Director, NCI, may with respect to...

  16. 42 CFR 52d.9 - Additional conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Additional conditions. 52d.9 Section 52d.9 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS NATIONAL CANCER INSTITUTE CLINICAL CANCER EDUCATION PROGRAM § 52d.9 Additional conditions. The Director, NCI, may with respect to...

  17. 42 CFR 52d.9 - Additional conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Additional conditions. 52d.9 Section 52d.9 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS NATIONAL CANCER INSTITUTE CLINICAL CANCER EDUCATION PROGRAM § 52d.9 Additional conditions. The Director, NCI, may with respect to...

  18. 42 CFR 52d.9 - Additional conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Additional conditions. 52d.9 Section 52d.9 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS NATIONAL CANCER INSTITUTE CLINICAL CANCER EDUCATION PROGRAM § 52d.9 Additional conditions. The Director, NCI, may with respect to...

  19. 42 CFR 52d.9 - Additional conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional conditions. 52d.9 Section 52d.9 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS NATIONAL CANCER INSTITUTE CLINICAL CANCER EDUCATION PROGRAM § 52d.9 Additional conditions. The Director, NCI, may with respect to...

  20. 43 CFR 3154.2 - Additional bonding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Additional bonding. 3154.2 Section 3154.2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Requirements § 3154.2 Additional bonding. The authorized officer may increase the amount of any bond that...

  1. Asthma and anaphylactoid reactions to food additives.

    PubMed Central

    Tarlo, S. M.; Sussman, G. L.

    1993-01-01

    Presumed allergic reactions to hidden food additives are both controversial and important. Clinical manifestations include asthma, urticaria, angioedema, and anaphylactic-anaphylactoid events. Most adverse reactions are caused by just a few additives, such as sulfites and monosodium glutamate. Diagnosis is suspected from the history and confirmed by specific challenge. The treatment is specific avoidance. PMID:8499792

  2. 42 CFR 52e.9 - Additional conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Additional conditions. 52e.9 Section 52e.9 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS NATIONAL HEART, LUNG, AND BLOOD INSTITUTE GRANTS FOR PREVENTION AND CONTROL PROJECTS § 52e.9 Additional conditions. The...

  3. 42 CFR 52e.9 - Additional conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Additional conditions. 52e.9 Section 52e.9 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS NATIONAL HEART, LUNG, AND BLOOD INSTITUTE GRANTS FOR PREVENTION AND CONTROL PROJECTS § 52e.9 Additional conditions. The...

  4. 42 CFR 52e.9 - Additional conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Additional conditions. 52e.9 Section 52e.9 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS NATIONAL HEART, LUNG, AND BLOOD INSTITUTE GRANTS FOR PREVENTION AND CONTROL PROJECTS § 52e.9 Additional conditions. The...

  5. Fuel compositions containing deposit control additives

    SciTech Connect

    Lilburn, J.E.

    1980-11-18

    Fuel compositions are provided which contain a deposit control additive. The deposit control additive is produced by reacting a hydrocarbylpoly(oxyalkylene) alcohol with excess phosgene and an excess amount of certain polyamines. The product comprises hydrocarbylpoly(oxyalkylene) ureylene carbamates.

  6. 42 CFR 52a.9 - Additional conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Additional conditions. 52a.9 Section 52a.9 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH CENTER GRANTS § 52a.9 Additional conditions. The Director may, with respect to any grant...

  7. 42 CFR 52b.13 - Additional conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Additional conditions. 52b.13 Section 52b.13 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH CONSTRUCTION GRANTS § 52b.13 Additional conditions. The Director may with respect to any...

  8. 42 CFR 52b.13 - Additional conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Additional conditions. 52b.13 Section 52b.13 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH CONSTRUCTION GRANTS § 52b.13 Additional conditions. The Director may with respect to any...

  9. 42 CFR 52a.9 - Additional conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional conditions. 52a.9 Section 52a.9 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH CENTER GRANTS § 52a.9 Additional conditions. The Director may, with respect to any grant...

  10. 42 CFR 52a.9 - Additional conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Additional conditions. 52a.9 Section 52a.9 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH CENTER GRANTS § 52a.9 Additional conditions. The Director may, with respect to any grant...

  11. 42 CFR 52a.9 - Additional conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Additional conditions. 52a.9 Section 52a.9 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH CENTER GRANTS § 52a.9 Additional conditions. The Director may, with respect to any grant...

  12. 42 CFR 52b.13 - Additional conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional conditions. 52b.13 Section 52b.13 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH CONSTRUCTION GRANTS § 52b.13 Additional conditions. The Director may with respect to any...

  13. 42 CFR 52b.13 - Additional conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Additional conditions. 52b.13 Section 52b.13 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH CONSTRUCTION GRANTS § 52b.13 Additional conditions. The Director may with respect to any...

  14. 42 CFR 52b.13 - Additional conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Additional conditions. 52b.13 Section 52b.13 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH CONSTRUCTION GRANTS § 52b.13 Additional conditions. The Director may with respect to any...

  15. 42 CFR 52a.9 - Additional conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Additional conditions. 52a.9 Section 52a.9 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH CENTER GRANTS § 52a.9 Additional conditions. The Director may, with respect to any grant...

  16. 42 CFR 52c.8 - Additional conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional conditions. 52c.8 Section 52c.8 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS MINORITY BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH SUPPORT PROGRAM § 52c.8 Additional conditions. The Secretary may with respect to any grant award...

  17. 42 CFR 52c.8 - Additional conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Additional conditions. 52c.8 Section 52c.8 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS MINORITY BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH SUPPORT PROGRAM § 52c.8 Additional conditions. The Secretary may with respect to any grant award...

  18. 42 CFR 52c.8 - Additional conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Additional conditions. 52c.8 Section 52c.8 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS MINORITY BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH SUPPORT PROGRAM § 52c.8 Additional conditions. The Secretary may with respect to any grant award...

  19. 42 CFR 52c.8 - Additional conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Additional conditions. 52c.8 Section 52c.8 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS MINORITY BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH SUPPORT PROGRAM § 52c.8 Additional conditions. The Secretary may with respect to any grant award...

  20. 42 CFR 52c.8 - Additional conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Additional conditions. 52c.8 Section 52c.8 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS MINORITY BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH SUPPORT PROGRAM § 52c.8 Additional conditions. The Secretary may with respect to any grant award...