Science.gov

Sample records for additional activities include

  1. Photoactive devices including porphyrinoids with coordinating additives

    DOEpatents

    Forrest, Stephen R; Zimmerman, Jeramy; Yu, Eric K; Thompson, Mark E; Trinh, Cong; Whited, Matthew; Diev, Vlacheslav

    2015-05-12

    Coordinating additives are included in porphyrinoid-based materials to promote intermolecular organization and improve one or more photoelectric characteristics of the materials. The coordinating additives are selected from fullerene compounds and organic compounds having free electron pairs. Combinations of different coordinating additives can be used to tailor the characteristic properties of such porphyrinoid-based materials, including porphyrin oligomers. Bidentate ligands are one type of coordinating additive that can form coordination bonds with a central metal ion of two different porphyrinoid compounds to promote porphyrinoid alignment and/or pi-stacking. The coordinating additives can shift the absorption spectrum of a photoactive material toward higher wavelengths, increase the external quantum efficiency of the material, or both.

  2. [Biologically active food additives].

    PubMed

    Velichko, M A; Shevchenko, V P

    1998-07-01

    More than half out of 40 projects for the medical science development by the year of 2000 have been connected with the bio-active edible additives that are called "the food of XXI century", non-pharmacological means for many diseases. Most of these additives--nutricevtics and parapharmacevtics--are intended for the enrichment of food rations for the sick or healthy people. The ecologicaly safest and most effective are combined domestic adaptogens with immuno-modulating and antioxidating action that give anabolic and stimulating effect,--"leveton", "phytoton" and "adapton". The MKTs-229 tablets are residue discharge means. For atherosclerosis and general adiposis they recommend "tsar tablets" and "aiconol (ikhtien)"--on the base of cod-liver oil or "splat" made out of seaweed (algae). All these preparations have been clinically tested and received hygiene certificates from the Institute of Dietology of the Russian Academy of Medical Science. PMID:9752776

  3. 21. Southeast corner of switch house addition, including exterior transformers ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. Southeast corner of switch house addition, including exterior transformers and start of power transmission line. Employee House No. 1 is in the background. - Rock Creek Hydroelectric Project, Rock Creek, Baker County, OR

  4. Constant-Pressure Combustion Charts Including Effects of Diluent Addition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, L Richard; Bogart, Donald

    1949-01-01

    Charts are presented for the calculation of (a) the final temperatures and the temperature changes involved in constant-pressure combustion processes of air and in products of combustion of air and hydrocarbon fuels, and (b) the quantity of hydrocarbon fuels required in order to attain a specified combustion temperature when water, alcohol, water-alcohol mixtures, liquid ammonia, liquid carbon dioxide, liquid nitrogen, liquid oxygen, or their mixtures are added to air as diluents or refrigerants. The ideal combustion process and combustion with incomplete heat release from the primary fuel and from combustible diluents are considered. The effect of preheating the mixture of air and diluents and the effect of an initial water-vapor content in the combustion air on the required fuel quantity are also included. The charts are applicable only to processes in which the final mixture is leaner than stoichiometric and at temperatures where dissociation is unimportant. A chart is also included to permit the calculation of the stoichiometric ratio of hydrocarbon fuel to air with diluent addition. The use of the charts is illustrated by numerical examples.

  5. Active mineral additives of sapropel ashes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khomich, V. A.; Danilina, E. V.; Krivonos, O. I.; Plaksin, G. V.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the presented research is to establish a scientific rational for the possibility of sapropel ashes usage as an active mineral additive. The research included the study of producing active mineral additives from sapropels by their thermal treatment at 850900 °C and afterpowdering, the investigation of the properties of paste matrix with an ash additive, and the study of the ash influence on the cement bonding agent. Thermogravimetric analysis and X-ray investigations allowed us to establish that while burning, organic substances are removed, clay minerals are dehydrated and their structure is broken. Sapropel ashes chemical composition was determined. An amorphous ash constituent is mainly formed from silica of the mineral sapropel part and alumosilicagels resulted from clay minerals decomposition. Properties of PC 400 and PC 500A0 sparopel ash additives were studied. Adding ashes containing Glenium plasticizer to the cement increases paste matrix strength and considerably reduces its water absorption. X-ray phase analysis data shows changes in the phase composition of the paste matrix with an ash additive. Ash additives produce a pozzolanic effect on the cement bonding agent. Besides, an ash additive due to the alumosilicagels content causes transformation from unstable calcium aluminate forms to the stable ones.

  6. Measurement of toverline{t} production with additional jet activity, including b quark jets, in the dilepton decay channel using pp collisions at √{s} = 8 {TeV}

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; Asilar, E.; Bergauer, T.; Brandstetter, J.; Brondolin, E.; Dragicevic, M.; Erö, J.; Friedl, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Ghete, V. M.; Hartl, C.; Hörmann, N.; Hrubec, J.; Jeitler, M.; Knünz, V.; König, A.; Krammer, M.; Krätschmer, I.; Liko, D.; Matsushita, T.; Mikulec, I.; Rabady, D.; Rahbaran, B.; Rohringer, H.; Schieck, J.; Schöfbeck, R.; Strauss, J.; Treberer-Treberspurg, W.; Waltenberger, W.; Wulz, C.-E.; Mossolov, V.; Shumeiko, N.; Suarez Gonzalez, J.; Alderweireldt, S.; Cornelis, T.; de Wolf, E. A.; Janssen, X.; Knutsson, A.; Lauwers, J.; Luyckx, S.; van de Klundert, M.; van Haevermaet, H.; van Mechelen, P.; van Remortel, N.; van Spilbeeck, A.; Abu Zeid, S.; Blekman, F.; D'Hondt, J.; Daci, N.; de Bruyn, I.; Deroover, K.; Heracleous, N.; Keaveney, J.; Lowette, S.; Moreels, L.; Olbrechts, A.; Python, Q.; Strom, D.; Tavernier, S.; van Doninck, W.; van Mulders, P.; van Onsem, G. P.; van Parijs, I.; Barria, P.; Brun, H.; Caillol, C.; Clerbaux, B.; de Lentdecker, G.; Fasanella, G.; Favart, L.; Grebenyuk, A.; Karapostoli, G.; Lenzi, T.; Léonard, A.; Maerschalk, T.; Marinov, A.; Perniè, L.; Randle-Conde, A.; Reis, T.; Seva, T.; Vander Velde, C.; Yonamine, R.; Vanlaer, P.; Yonamine, R.; Zenoni, F.; Zhang, F.; Adler, V.; Beernaert, K.; Benucci, L.; Cimmino, A.; Crucy, S.; Dobur, D.; Fagot, A.; Garcia, G.; Gul, M.; McCartin, J.; Ocampo Rios, A. A.; Poyraz, D.; Ryckbosch, D.; Salva, S.; Sigamani, M.; Strobbe, N.; Tytgat, M.; van Driessche, W.; Yazgan, E.; Zaganidis, N.; Basegmez, S.; Beluffi, C.; Bondu, O.; Brochet, S.; Bruno, G.; Caudron, A.; Ceard, L.; da Silveira, G. G.; Delaere, C.; Favart, D.; Forthomme, L.; Giammanco, A.; Hollar, J.; Jafari, A.; Jez, P.; Komm, M.; Lemaitre, V.; Mertens, A.; Musich, M.; Nuttens, C.; Perrini, L.; Pin, A.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Popov, A.; Quertenmont, L.; Selvaggi, M.; Vidal Marono, M.; Beliy, N.; Hammad, G. H.; Júnior, W. L. Aldá; Alves, F. L.; Alves, G. A.; Brito, L.; Correa Martins Junior, M.; Hamer, M.; Hensel, C.; Mora Herrera, C.; Moraes, A.; Pol, M. E.; Rebello Teles, P.; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, E.; Carvalho, W.; Chinellato, J.; Custódio, A.; da Costa, E. M.; de Jesus Damiao, D.; de Oliveira Martins, C.; Fonseca de Souza, S.; Huertas Guativa, L. M.; Malbouisson, H.; Matos Figueiredo, D.; Mundim, L.; Nogima, H.; Prado da Silva, W. L.; Santoro, A.; Sznajder, A.; Tonelli Manganote, E. J.; Vilela Pereira, A.; Ahuja, S.; Bernardes, C. A.; de Souza Santos, A.; Dogra, S.; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T. R.; Gregores, E. M.; Mercadante, P. G.; Moon, C. S.; Novaes, S. F.; Padula, Sandra S.; Romero Abad, D.; Ruiz Vargas, J. C.; Aleksandrov, A.; Hadjiiska, R.; Iaydjiev, P.; Rodozov, M.; Stoykova, S.; Sultanov, G.; Vutova, M.; Dimitrov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Litov, L.; Pavlov, B.; Petkov, P.; Ahmad, M.; Bian, J. G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, M.; Cheng, T.; Du, R.; Jiang, C. H.; Plestina, R.; Romeo, F.; Shaheen, S. M.; Spiezia, A.; Tao, J.; Wang, C.; Wang, Z.; Zhang, H.; Asawatangtrakuldee, C.; Ban, Y.; Li, Q.; Liu, S.; Mao, Y.; Qian, S. J.; Wang, D.; Xu, Z.; Avila, C.; Cabrera, A.; Chaparro Sierra, L. F.; Florez, C.; Gomez, J. P.; Gomez Moreno, B.; Sanabria, J. C.; Godinovic, N.; Lelas, D.; Puljak, I.; Ribeiro Cipriano, P. M.; Antunovic, Z.; Kovac, M.; Brigljevic, V.; Kadija, K.; Luetic, J.; Micanovic, S.; Sudic, L.; Attikis, A.; Mavromanolakis, G.; Mousa, J.; Nicolaou, C.; Ptochos, F.; Razis, P. A.; Rykaczewski, H.; Bodlak, M.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; El Sawy, M.; El-Khateeb, E.; Elkafrawy, T.; Mohamed, A.; Salama, E.; Calpas, B.; Kadastik, M.; Murumaa, M.; Raidal, M.; Tiko, A.; Veelken, C.; Eerola, P.; Pekkanen, J.; Voutilainen, M.; Härkönen, J.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Mäenpää, T.; Peltola, T.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Wendland, L.; Talvitie, J.; Tuuva, T.; Besancon, M.; Couderc, F.; Dejardin, M.; Denegri, D.; Fabbro, B.; Faure, J. L.; Favaro, C.; Ferri, F.; Ganjour, S.; Givernaud, A.; Gras, P.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Jarry, P.; Locci, E.; Machet, M.; Malcles, J.; Rander, J.; Rosowsky, A.; Titov, M.; Zghiche, A.; Antropov, I.; Baffioni, S.; Beaudette, F.; Busson, P.; Cadamuro, L.; Chapon, E.; Charlot, C.; Dahms, T.; Davignon, O.; Filipovic, N.; Florent, A.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Lisniak, S.; Mastrolorenzo, L.; Miné, P.; Naranjo, I. N.; Nguyen, M.; Ochando, C.; Ortona, G.; Paganini, P.; Pigard, P.; Regnard, S.; Salerno, R.; Sauvan, J. B.; Sirois, Y.; Strebler, T.; Yilmaz, Y.; Zabi, A.; Agram, J.-L.; Andrea, J.; Aubin, A.; Bloch, D.; Brom, J.-M.; Buttignol, M.; Chabert, E. C.; Chanon, N.; Collard, C.; Conte, E.; Coubez, X.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Gelé, D.; Goerlach, U.; Goetzmann, C.

    2016-07-01

    Jet multiplicity distributions in top quark pair ({t}{overline{t}}) events are measured in pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV with the CMS detector at the LHC using a data set corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.7 {fb}^ {-1}. The measurement is performed in the dilepton decay channels (e^+e^-, μ^+ μ^-, and e^{±} μ^{∓}). The absolute and normalized differential cross sections for {t}overline{t} production are measured as a function of the jet multiplicity in the event for different jet transverse momentum thresholds and the kinematic properties of the leading additional jets. The differential {t overline{t} b} and {t overline{t} b overline{b}} cross sections are presented for the first time as a function of the kinematic properties of the leading additional b jets. Furthermore, the fraction of events without additional jets above a threshold is measured as a function of the transverse momenta of the leading additional jets and the scalar sum of the transverse momenta of all additional jets. The data are compared and found to be consistent with predictions from several perturbative quantum chromodynamics event generators and a next-to-leading order calculation.

  7. Measurement of $\\mathrm{ t \\bar{t} } $ production with additional jet activity, including b quark jets, in the dilepton decay channel using pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s} =$ 8 TeV

    SciTech Connect

    Khachatryan, Vardan

    2015-10-13

    Jet multiplicity distributions in top quark pair (tt) events are measured in pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV with the CMS detector at the LHC using a data set corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.7 fb-1. The measurement is performed in the dilepton decay channels (e+e-+μ- and e±μ). Furthermore, the absolute and normalized differential cross sections for tt production are measured as a function of the jet multiplicity in the event for different jet transverse momentum thresholds and the kinematic properties of the leading additional jets. The differential tt-b and tt-bb- cross sections are presented for the first time as a function of the kinematic properties of the leading additional b jets. Furthermore, the fraction of events without additional jets above a threshold is measured as a function of the transverse momenta of the leading additional jets and the scalar sum of the transverse momenta of all additional jets. Finally, the data are compared and found to be consistent with predictions from several perturbative quantum chromodynamics event generators and a next-to-leading ordercalculation.

  8. Measurement of $$\\mathrm{ t \\bar{t} } $$ production with additional jet activity, including b quark jets, in the dilepton decay channel using pp collisions at $$\\sqrt{s} =$$ 8 TeV

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Khachatryan, Vardan

    2016-07-07

    Jet multiplicity distributions in top quark pair (tt) events are measured in pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV with the CMS detector at the LHC using a data set corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.7 fb-1. The measurement is performed in the dilepton decay channels (e+e-,μ+μ- and e±μ∓). Furthermore, the absolute and normalized differential cross sections for tt production are measured as a function of the jet multiplicity in the event for different jet transverse momentum thresholds and the kinematic properties of the leading additional jets. The differential tt-b and tt-bb- cross sections are presented formore » the first time as a function of the kinematic properties of the leading additional b jets. Furthermore, the fraction of events without additional jets above a threshold is measured as a function of the transverse momenta of the leading additional jets and the scalar sum of the transverse momenta of all additional jets. Finally, the data are compared and found to be consistent with predictions from several perturbative quantum chromodynamics event generators and a next-to-leading ordercalculation.« less

  9. 25 CFR 1000.83 - Can additional provisions be included in an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ANNUAL FUNDING AGREEMENTS UNDER THE TRIBAL SELF-GOVERNMENT ACT AMENDMENTS TO THE INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ACT Annual Funding Agreements for Bureau of Indian Affairs Programs Contents and Scope of Annual Funding Agreements § 1000.83 Can additional provisions be included in an AFA? Yes,...

  10. The Big Addition Book. Activity Book [for Grades K-3].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniel, Becky; Daniel, Charlie

    This book contains a variety of worksheets to teach and reinforce addition skills. Secret codes, magic squares, pyramids, coloring activities, and dot-to-dot challenges are included to motivate students. A two-page test of basic addition facts is provided, with the suggestion that the teacher time the test and give it repeatedly to assess…

  11. Maize chromosome and chromosome segment additions to oat including new B73 and Mo17 addition lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oat-maize addition (OMA) lines with one, or occasionally more, chromosomes of maize (Zea mays L., 2n=2x=20) added to oat (Avena sativa L., 2n=6x=42) can be developed from oat x maize crosses. Self-fertile disomic addition lines for maize chromosomes 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, short arm of 10, and a mon...

  12. EVAPORATION: a new vapour pressure estimation methodfor organic molecules including non-additivity and intramolecular interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Compernolle, S.; Ceulemans, K.; Müller, J.-F.

    2011-09-01

    We present EVAPORATION (Estimation of VApour Pressure of ORganics, Accounting for Temperature, Intramolecular, and Non-additivity effects), a method to predict (subcooled) liquid pure compound vapour pressure p0 of organic molecules that requires only molecular structure as input. The method is applicable to zero-, mono- and polyfunctional molecules. A simple formula to describe log10p0(T) is employed, that takes into account both a wide temperature dependence and the non-additivity of functional groups. In order to match the recent data on functionalised diacids an empirical modification to the method was introduced. Contributions due to carbon skeleton, functional groups, and intramolecular interaction between groups are included. Molecules typically originating from oxidation of biogenic molecules are within the scope of this method: aldehydes, ketones, alcohols, ethers, esters, nitrates, acids, peroxides, hydroperoxides, peroxy acyl nitrates and peracids. Therefore the method is especially suited to describe compounds forming secondary organic aerosol (SOA).

  13. Activity Based Curriculum for Elementary Education. Additional Activities, K-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wichita Public Schools, KS.

    This elementary curriculum is a vehicle to provide manipulative activities that reinforce academic skills through meaningful, relevant, activity-based awareness of modern society. The twenty-six activity plans included in the curriculum place a major emphasis upon realistic or concrete experiences that deal with the manipulation and exploration of…

  14. Combinatorial Synthesis of Linearly Condensed Polycyclic Compounds, Including Anthracyclinones, Through Tandem Diels-Alder Additions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, Pierre

    Double exocyclic 1,3-dienes such as 2,3,5,6-tetramethylidene-7-oxabicyclo[2.2.1]heptane and its 1-substituted derivatives undergo two successive Diels-Alder additions with large reactivity difference between the addition of the first equivalent (k 1) and the second equivalent (k 2) of dienophile. This allows one to prepare, through parallel synthesis, a large number of linearly condensed polycyclic systems containing three annulated six-membered rings, including naphthacenyl systems and anthracyclinones. The large k 1/k 2 rate constant ratio is a consequence of the Dimroth principle, the first cycloaddition being significantly more exothermic then the second one. Control of regio- and stereoselectivity of the two successive cycloadditions is possible by 1-substitution of the 2,3,5,6-tetramethylidene-7-oxabicyclo[2.2.1]heptane, for instance by a 1-(dimethoxymethyl) group, or by stereoselective disubstitution of the double diene by arenesulfenyl substituents. Enantiomerically pure anthracyclinones and analogues are obtained using enantiomerically pure dienophiles such as 3-oxo-but-2-en-2-yl esters. The chemistry so-developed has allowed the preparation of enantiomerically pure 6-((aminoalkoxy)oxy)methyl-6,7-dideoxyidarubicinones that are DNA intercalators and inhibitors of topoisomerase II-induced DNA strained religation.

  15. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  16. Genomic prediction of growth in pigs based on a model including additive and dominance effects.

    PubMed

    Lopes, M S; Bastiaansen, J W M; Janss, L; Knol, E F; Bovenhuis, H

    2016-06-01

    Independent of whether prediction is based on pedigree or genomic information, the focus of animal breeders has been on additive genetic effects or 'breeding values'. However, when predicting phenotypes rather than breeding values of an animal, models that account for both additive and dominance effects might be more accurate. Our aim with this study was to compare the accuracy of predicting phenotypes using a model that accounts for only additive effects (MA) and a model that accounts for both additive and dominance effects simultaneously (MAD). Lifetime daily gain (DG) was evaluated in three pig populations (1424 Pietrain, 2023 Landrace, and 2157 Large White). Animals were genotyped using the Illumina SNP60K Beadchip and assigned to either a training data set to estimate the genetic parameters and SNP effects, or to a validation data set to assess the prediction accuracy. Models MA and MAD applied random regression on SNP genotypes and were implemented in the program Bayz. The additive heritability of DG across the three populations and the two models was very similar at approximately 0.26. The proportion of phenotypic variance explained by dominance effects ranged from 0.04 (Large White) to 0.11 (Pietrain), indicating that importance of dominance might be breed-specific. Prediction accuracies were higher when predicting phenotypes using total genetic values (sum of breeding values and dominance deviations) from the MAD model compared to using breeding values from both MA and MAD models. The highest increase in accuracy (from 0.195 to 0.222) was observed in the Pietrain, and the lowest in Large White (from 0.354 to 0.359). Predicting phenotypes using total genetic values instead of breeding values in purebred data improved prediction accuracy and reduced the bias of genomic predictions. Additional benefit of the method is expected when applied to predict crossbred phenotypes, where dominance levels are expected to be higher. PMID:26676611

  17. 39 CFR 447.42 - Additional prohibited political activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Additional prohibited political activities. 447.42... Political Activities § 447.42 Additional prohibited political activities. (a) In addition to the restrictions on political activities mentioned in § 447.51, an employee may not: (1) Display a...

  18. 39 CFR 447.42 - Additional prohibited political activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Additional prohibited political activities. 447.42... Political Activities § 447.42 Additional prohibited political activities. (a) In addition to the restrictions on political activities mentioned in § 447.51, an employee may not: (1) Display a...

  19. 39 CFR 447.42 - Additional prohibited political activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Additional prohibited political activities. 447.42... Political Activities § 447.42 Additional prohibited political activities. (a) In addition to the restrictions on political activities mentioned in § 447.51, an employee may not: (1) Display a...

  20. 39 CFR 447.42 - Additional prohibited political activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Additional prohibited political activities. 447.42... Political Activities § 447.42 Additional prohibited political activities. (a) In addition to the restrictions on political activities mentioned in § 447.51, an employee may not: (1) Display a...

  1. Everglades National Park Including Biscayne National Park. Activity Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruehrwein, Dick

    Intended to help elementary school children learn about the resources of the Everglades and Biscayne National Parks, this activity book includes information, puzzles, games, and quizzes. The booklet deals with concepts related to: (1) the seasons; (2) fire ecology; (3) water; (4) fish; (5) mammals; (6) mosquitos; (7) birds; (8) venomous snakes;…

  2. Antiandrogenic activity of phthalate mixtures: Validity of concentration addition

    SciTech Connect

    Christen, Verena; Crettaz, Pierre; Oberli-Schrämmli, Aurelia; Fent, Karl

    2012-03-01

    Phthalates and bisphenol A have very widespread use leading to significant exposure of humans. They are suspected to interfere with the endocrine system, including the androgen, estrogen and the thyroid hormone system. Here we analyzed the antiandrogenic activity of six binary, and one ternary mixture of phthalates exhibiting complete antiandrogenic dose–response curves, and binary mixtures of phthalates and bisphenol A at equi-effective concentrations of EC{sub 10}, EC{sub 25} and EC{sub 50} in MDA-kb2 cells. Mixture activity followed the concentration addition (CA) model with a tendency to synergism at high and antagonism at low concentrations. Isoboles and the toxic unit approach (TUA) confirmed the additive to synergistic activity of the binary mixtures BBP + DBP, DBP + DEP and DEP + BPA at high concentrations. Both methods indicate a tendency to antagonism for the EC{sub 10} mixtures BBP + DBP, BBP + DEP and DBP + DEP, and the EC{sub 25} mixture of DBP + BPA. A ternary mixture revealed synergism at the EC{sub 50}, and weak antagonistic activity at the EC{sub 25} level by the TUA. A mixture of five phthalates representing a human urine composition and reflecting exposure to corresponding parent compounds showed no antiandrogenic activity. Our study demonstrates that CA is an appropriate concept to account for mixture effects of antiandrogenic phthalates and bisphenol A. The interaction indicates a departure from additivity to antagonism at low concentrations, probably due to interaction with the androgen receptor and/or cofactors. This study emphasizes that a risk assessment of phthalates should account for mixture effects by applying the CA concept. -- Highlights: ► Antiandrogenic activity of mixtures of 2 and 3 phthalates are assessed in MDA-kb2 cells. ► Mixture activities followed the concentration addition model. ► A tendency to synergism at high and antagonism at low levels occurred.

  3. 39 CFR 447.42 - Additional prohibited political activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... with the public or be in the view of the public; (3) Display a political picture or sticker on his... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Additional prohibited political activities. 447.42... Political Activities § 447.42 Additional prohibited political activities. (a) In addition to...

  4. Additional records of metazoan parasites from Caribbean marine mammals, including genetically identified anisakid nematodes.

    PubMed

    Colón-Llavina, Marlene M; Mignucci-Giannoni, Antonio A; Mattiucci, Simonetta; Paoletti, Michela; Nascetti, Giuseppe; Williams, Ernest H

    2009-10-01

    Studies of marine mammal parasites in the Caribbean are scarce. An assessment for marine mammal endo- and ectoparasites from Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands, but extending to other areas of the Caribbean, was conducted between 1989 and 1994. The present study complements the latter and enhances identification of anisakid nematodes using molecular markers. Parasites were collected from 59 carcasses of stranded cetaceans and manatees from 1994 to 2006, including Globicephala macrorhynchus, Kogia breviceps, Kogia sima, Lagenodelphis hosei, Mesoplodon densirostris, Peponocephala electra, Stenella longirostris, Steno bredanensis, Trichechus manatus. Tursiops truncatus, and Ziphius cavirostris. Sixteen species of endoparasitic helminthes were morphologically identified, including two species of acanthocephalans (Bolbosoma capitatum, Bolbosoma vasculosum), nine species of nematodes (Anisakis sp., Anisakis brevispiculata, Anisakis paggiae, Anisakis simplex, Anisakis typica, Anisakis ziphidarium, Crassicauda anthonyi, Heterocheilus tunicatus, Pseudoterranova ceticola), two species of cestodes (Monorygma grimaldi, Phyllobothrium delphini), and three species of trematodes (Chiorchis groschafti, Pulmonicola cochleotrema, Monoligerum blairi). The nematodes belonging to the genus Anisakis recovered in some stranded animals were genetically identified to species level based on their sequence analysis of mitochondrial DNA (629 bp of mtDNA cox 2). A total of five new host records and six new geographic records are presented. PMID:19582477

  5. 36 CFR 1290.4 - Types of materials included in scope of assassination record and additional records and information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... scope of assassination record and additional records and information. 1290.4 Section 1290.4 Parks... COLLECTION ACT OF 1992 (JFK ACT) § 1290.4 Types of materials included in scope of assassination record and additional records and information. The term record in assassination record and additional records...

  6. 36 CFR 1290.4 - Types of materials included in scope of assassination record and additional records and information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... in scope of assassination record and additional records and information. 1290.4 Section 1290.4 Parks... COLLECTION ACT OF 1992 (JFK ACT) § 1290.4 Types of materials included in scope of assassination record and additional records and information. The term record in assassination record and additional records...

  7. 36 CFR 1290.4 - Types of materials included in scope of assassination record and additional records and information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... in scope of assassination record and additional records and information. 1290.4 Section 1290.4 Parks... COLLECTION ACT OF 1992 (JFK ACT) § 1290.4 Types of materials included in scope of assassination record and additional records and information. The term record in assassination record and additional records...

  8. Optimal design of active and semi-active suspensions including time delays and preview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hac', A.; Youn, I.

    1993-10-01

    Several control laws for active and semi-active suspension based on a linear half car model are derived and investigated. The strategies proposed take full advantage of the fact that the road input to the rear wheels is a delayed version of that to the front wheels, which in turn can be obtained either from the measurements of the front wheels and body motions or by direct preview of road irregularities if preview sensors are available. The suspension systems are optimized with respect to ride comfort, road holding and suspension rattle space as expressed by the mean-square-values of body acceleration (including effects of heave and pitch), tire deflections and front and rear suspension travels. The optimal control laws that minimize the given performance index and include passivity constraints in the semi-active case are derived using calculus of variation. The optimal semi-active suspension becomes piecewise linear, varying between passive and fully active systems and combinations of them. The performances of active and semi-active systems with and without preview were evaluated by numerical simulation in the time and frequency domains. The results show that incorporation of time delay between the front and rear axles in controller design improves the dynamic behavior of the rear axle and control of body pitch motion, while additional preview improves front wheel dynamics and body heave.

  9. EVALUATION OF FULL SCALE ACTIVATED SLUDGE SYSTEMS UTILIZING POWDERED ACTIVATED CARBON ADDITION WITH WET AIR REGENERATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The addition of powdered activated carbon (PAC) to activated sludge systems is a proven method of wastewater treatment. Of eleven POTWs in the U.S. that were designed for PAC use, ten included wet air regeneration (WAR) for the destruction of secondary sludge solids and recovery ...

  10. 42 CFR 460.140 - Additional quality assessment activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional quality assessment activities. 460.140... FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) Quality Assessment and Performance Improvement § 460.140 Additional quality assessment activities. A PACE organization must meet external quality assessment and reporting...

  11. Additive for activating iron electrodes in alkaline batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, G.; Haschka, F.

    1981-02-10

    An additive is disclosed for the iron electrodes of alkaline batteries which prevents and counteracts the tendency of iron electrodes to become passive and ineffective. The additive consists of sulfide, selenide or telluride which is sparingly soluble in the electrolyte and has a decomposition potential more electronegative than the final charging potential of the iron electrode. The additive may be placed in the active electrode material during manufacture but may also be placed in the battery during or after manufacture, for example in tablet form. The additive may also be introduced in a manner permitting subsequent activation by electrochemical methods. A number of examples is presented.

  12. 40 CFR 260.23 - Petitions to amend 40 CFR part 273 to include additional hazardous wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM: GENERAL Rulemaking Petitions § 260.23 Petitions to amend 40 CFR part 273 to include additional hazardous wastes. (a) Any person... the Administrator that regulation under the universal waste regulations of 40 CFR part 273:...

  13. 40 CFR 260.23 - Petitions to amend 40 CFR part 273 to include additional hazardous wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM: GENERAL Rulemaking Petitions § 260.23 Petitions to amend 40 CFR part 273 to include additional hazardous wastes. (a) Any person... the Administrator that regulation under the universal waste regulations of 40 CFR part 273:...

  14. 40 CFR 260.23 - Petitions to amend 40 CFR part 273 to include additional hazardous wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM: GENERAL Rulemaking Petitions § 260.23 Petitions to amend 40 CFR part 273 to include additional hazardous wastes. (a) Any person... the Administrator that regulation under the universal waste regulations of 40 CFR part 273:...

  15. 40 CFR 260.23 - Petitions to amend 40 CFR part 273 to include additional hazardous wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM: GENERAL Rulemaking Petitions § 260.23 Petitions to amend 40 CFR part 273 to include additional hazardous wastes. (a) Any person... the Administrator that regulation under the universal waste regulations of 40 CFR part 273:...

  16. 40 CFR 260.23 - Petitions to amend 40 CFR part 273 to include additional hazardous wastes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM: GENERAL Rulemaking Petitions § 260.23 Petitions to amend 40 CFR part 273 to include additional hazardous wastes. (a) Any person... the Administrator that regulation under the universal waste regulations of 40 CFR part 273:...

  17. 14 CFR 11.77 - Is there any additional information I must include in my petition for designating airspace?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Is there any additional information I must include in my petition for designating airspace? 11.77 Section 11.77 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... of the agency, office, facility, or person who would have authority to permit the use of the...

  18. 78 FR 67369 - National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program: Addition to the Vaccine Injury Table to Include All...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-12

    ... the category for new vaccines on the Table. See 70 FR 19092. Subsequently, the Secretary engaged in...). See 76 FR 36367. Since that time, quadrivalent influenza vaccines (meaning that they contain four...: Addition to the Vaccine Injury Table to Include All Vaccines Against Seasonal Influenza AGENCY:...

  19. Additivity, density fluctuations, and nonequilibrium thermodynamics for active Brownian particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborti, Subhadip; Mishra, Shradha; Pradhan, Punyabrata

    2016-05-01

    Using an additivity property, we study particle-number fluctuations in a system of interacting self-propelled particles, called active Brownian particles (ABPs), which consists of repulsive disks with random self-propulsion velocities. From a fluctuation-response relation, a direct consequence of additivity, we formulate a thermodynamic theory which captures the previously observed features of nonequilibrium phase transition in the ABPs from a homogeneous fluid phase to an inhomogeneous phase of coexisting gas and liquid. We substantiate the predictions of additivity by analytically calculating the subsystem particle-number distributions in the homogeneous fluid phase away from criticality where analytically obtained distributions are compatible with simulations in the ABPs.

  20. EVAPORATION: a new vapor pressure estimation method for organic molecules including non-additivity and intramolecular interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Compernolle, S.; Ceulemans, K.; Müller, J.-F.

    2011-04-01

    We present EVAPORATION (Estimation of VApour Pressure of ORganics, Accounting for Temperature, Intramolecular, and Non-additivity effects), a method to predict vapour pressure p0 of organic molecules needing only molecular structure as input. The method is applicable to zero-, mono- and polyfunctional molecules. A simple formula to describe log10p0(T) is employed, that takes into account both a wide temperature dependence and the non-additivity of functional groups. In order to match the recent data on functionalised diacids an empirical modification to the method was introduced. Contributions due to carbon skeleton, functional groups, and intramolecular interaction between groups are included. Molecules typically originating from oxidation of biogenic molecules are within the scope of this method: carbonyls, alcohols, ethers, esters, nitrates, acids, peroxides, hydroperoxides, peroxy acyl nitrates and peracids. Therefore the method is especially suited to describe compounds forming secondary organic aerosol (SOA).

  1. Basophil Activation Test with Food Additives in Chronic Urticaria Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Min-Gyu; Song, Woo-Jung; Park, Han-Ki; Lim, Kyung-Hwan; Kim, Su-Jung; Lee, Suh-Young; Kim, Sae-Hoon; Cho, Sang-Heon; Min, Kyung-Up

    2014-01-01

    The role of food additives in chronic urticaria (CU) is still under investigation. In this study, we aimed to explore the association between food additives and CU by using the basophil activation test (BAT). The BAT using 15 common food additives was performed for 15 patients with CU who had a history of recurrent urticarial aggravation following intake of various foods without a definite food-specific IgE. Of the 15 patients studied, two (13.3%) showed positive BAT results for one of the tested food additives. One patient responded to monosodium glutamate, showing 18.7% of CD203c-positive basophils. Another patient showed a positive BAT result to sodium benzoate. Both patients had clinical correlations with the agents, which were partly determined by elimination diets. The present study suggested that at least a small proportion of patients with CU had symptoms associated with food additives. The results may suggest the potential utility of the BAT to identity the role of food additives in CU. PMID:24527415

  2. Additive genetic effect of APOE and BDNF on hippocampus activity.

    PubMed

    Kauppi, Karolina; Nilsson, Lars-Göran; Persson, Jonas; Nyberg, Lars

    2014-04-01

    Human memory is a highly heritable polygenic trait with complex inheritance patterns. To study the genetics of memory and memory-related diseases, hippocampal functioning has served as an intermediate phenotype. The importance of investigating gene-gene effects on complex phenotypes has been emphasized, but most imaging studies still focus on single polymorphisms. APOE ε4 and BDNF Met, two of the most studied gene variants for variability in memory performance and neuropsychiatric disorders, have both separately been related to poorer episodic memory and altered hippocampal functioning. Here, we investigated the combined effect of APOE and BDNF on hippocampal activation (N=151). No non-additive interaction effects were seen. Instead, the results revealed decreased activation in bilateral hippocampus and parahippocampus as a function of the number of APOE ε4 and BDNF Met alleles present (neither, one, or both). The combined effect was stronger than either of the individual effects, and both gene variables explained significant proportions of variance in BOLD signal change. Thus, there was an additive gene-gene effect of APOE and BDNF on medial temporal lobe (MTL) activation, showing that a larger proportion of variance in brain activation attributed to genetics can be explained by considering more than one gene variant. This effect might be relevant for the understanding of normal variability in memory function as well as memory-related disorders associated with APOE and BDNF. PMID:24321557

  3. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance of the Newcastle NTMS quadrangle, Wyoming, including concentrations of forty-two additional elements

    SciTech Connect

    Goff, S.J.; Sandoval, W.F.; Gallimore, D.L.; Talcott, C.L.; Martinez, R.G.; Minor, M.E.; Mills, C.F.

    1980-06-01

    During the summer and fall of 1977, 533 water and 1226 sediment samples were collected from 1740 locations within the 18,000 km/sup 2/ area of the Newcastle quadrangle, Wyoming. Water samples were collected from wells and springs; sediment samples were collected from stream channels and from springs. Each water sample was analyzed for uranium, and each sediment sample was analyzed for 43 elements, including uranium and thorium. Uranium concentrations in water samples range from below the detection limit of 0.02 ppB to 702.26 ppB and have a median of 1.73 ppB and a mean of 11.76 ppB. Water samples containing high uranium concentrations (>20 ppB) generally are associated with known uranium mining activity or units known to be uranium bearing. About one-third of the water samples containing high uranium concentrations were collected from locations within the Pumpkin Buttes and Turnercrest-Ross Districts. Nearly half of the water samples containing high uranium concentrations were collected from locations just west of the Monument Hill and Highland Flats-Box Creek Districts. Similar anomalous uranium concentrations in this region have been reported updip from Exxon's Highland uranium deposits. High uranium concentrations were also found associated with the Lance Creek-Old Woman Anticline District.

  4. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance of the Newcastle NTMS Quadrangle, Wyoming, including concentrations of forty-two additional elements

    SciTech Connect

    Goff, S.J.; Sandoval, W.F.; Gallimore, D.L.; Talcott, C.L.; Martinez, R.G.; Minor, M.E.; Mills, C.F.

    1980-06-01

    Water and sediment samples were collected and each water sample was analyzed for U, and each sediment sample was analyzed for 43 elements, including U and Th. Uranium concentrations in water samples range from below the detection limit of 0.02 ppB to 702.26 ppB and have a median of 1.73 ppB and a mean of 11.76 ppB. Water samples containing high uranium concentrations generally are associated with known uranium mining activity or units known to be uranium bearing. About one-third of the water samples containing high uranium concentrations were collected from locations within the Pumpkin Buttes and Turnercrest-Ross Districts. Nearly half of the water samples containing high uranium concentrations were collected from locations just west of the Monument Hill and Highland Flats-Box Creek Districts. Similar anomalous uranium concentrations in this region have been reported updip from Exxon's Highland uranium deposits. High uranium concentrations were also found associated with the Lance Creek-Old Woman Anticline District. Uranium concentrations in sediment samples range from 1.14 to 220.70 ppM and have a median of 3.37 ppM and a mean of 4.03 ppM. Throughout the major uranium mining districts of the Powder River Basin, sediment samples with high uranium concentrations were collected from dry streams located near wells producing water samples with high uranium concentrations. High uranium concentrations were also found associated with the Lance Creek oil field where uranium mineralization is known in the White River formation. High uranium concentrations were also found in sediment samples in areas where uranium mineralization is not known. These samples are from dry streams in areas underlain by the White River formation, the Niobrara formation, and the Pierre, Carlisle, Belle Fourche, and Mowry shales.

  5. Automatic activation of addition facts in arithmetic word problems.

    PubMed

    Orrantia, Josetxu; Rodriguez, Laura; Vicente, Santiago

    2010-02-01

    Studies of mental arithmetic have shown that adults solve simple arithmetic problems by retrieving an answer automatically from a network of stored associations. However, most studies have been limited to single-digit addition and multiplication problems. In this article, we examine whether retrieval is also automatic in the context of more complex arithmetic tasks, such as arithmetic word problems. To test this hypothesis, we used a priming procedure with a target-naming task, in which the primes were the numbers included in two sentences containing the numerical information of an arithmetic word problem (e.g., 3 and 2 in "Joe had 3 marbles. Then Tom gave him 2 marbles"), and the targets were either congruent (e.g., 5) or incongruent (e.g., 8) with the prime. A neutral prime was also used replacing the numbers of the problem by capital letters (e.g., X and Y). Manipulating the relationship between the prime and the target and the duration of time that separates these two events, the overall results revealed shorter times in naming the congruent target than in a neutral condition and longer times in naming the incongruent target, even though mental arithmetic was completely irrelevant to the task. These results support the notion that automaticity of arithmetic-fact retrieval is not limited to simple addition, but it is also possible in other tasks, such as arithmetic word problems, which demand more cognitive resources than single-digit addition. PMID:19440930

  6. Major histocompatibility complex harbors widespread genotypic variability of non-additive risk of rheumatoid arthritis including epistasis.

    PubMed

    Wei, Wen-Hua; Bowes, John; Plant, Darren; Viatte, Sebastien; Yarwood, Annie; Massey, Jonathan; Worthington, Jane; Eyre, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Genotypic variability based genome-wide association studies (vGWASs) can identify potentially interacting loci without prior knowledge of the interacting factors. We report a two-stage approach to make vGWAS applicable to diseases: firstly using a mixed model approach to partition dichotomous phenotypes into additive risk and non-additive environmental residuals on the liability scale and secondly using the Levene's (Brown-Forsythe) test to assess equality of the residual variances across genotype groups per marker. We found widespread significant (P < 2.5e-05) vGWAS signals within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) across all three study cohorts of rheumatoid arthritis. We further identified 10 epistatic interactions between the vGWAS signals independent of the MHC additive effects, each with a weak effect but jointly explained 1.9% of phenotypic variance. PTPN22 was also identified in the discovery cohort but replicated in only one independent cohort. Combining the three cohorts boosted power of vGWAS and additionally identified TYK2 and ANKRD55. Both PTPN22 and TYK2 had evidence of interactions reported elsewhere. We conclude that vGWAS can help discover interacting loci for complex diseases but require large samples to find additional signals. PMID:27109064

  7. Major histocompatibility complex harbors widespread genotypic variability of non-additive risk of rheumatoid arthritis including epistasis

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Wen-Hua; Bowes, John; Plant, Darren; Viatte, Sebastien; Yarwood, Annie; Massey, Jonathan; Worthington, Jane; Eyre, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Genotypic variability based genome-wide association studies (vGWASs) can identify potentially interacting loci without prior knowledge of the interacting factors. We report a two-stage approach to make vGWAS applicable to diseases: firstly using a mixed model approach to partition dichotomous phenotypes into additive risk and non-additive environmental residuals on the liability scale and secondly using the Levene’s (Brown-Forsythe) test to assess equality of the residual variances across genotype groups per marker. We found widespread significant (P < 2.5e-05) vGWAS signals within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) across all three study cohorts of rheumatoid arthritis. We further identified 10 epistatic interactions between the vGWAS signals independent of the MHC additive effects, each with a weak effect but jointly explained 1.9% of phenotypic variance. PTPN22 was also identified in the discovery cohort but replicated in only one independent cohort. Combining the three cohorts boosted power of vGWAS and additionally identified TYK2 and ANKRD55. Both PTPN22 and TYK2 had evidence of interactions reported elsewhere. We conclude that vGWAS can help discover interacting loci for complex diseases but require large samples to find additional signals. PMID:27109064

  8. Overview of additive manufacturing activities at MTU aero engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bamberg, Joachim; Dusel, Karl-Heinz; Satzger, Wilhelm

    2015-03-01

    Additive Manufacturing (AM) is a promising technology to produce parts easily and effectively, just by using metallic powder or wire as starting material and a sophisticated melting process. In contrast to milling or turning technologies complex shaped and hollow parts can be built up in one step. That reduces the production costs and allows the implementation of complete new 3D designs. Therefore AM is also of great interest for aerospace and aero engine industry. MTU Aero Engines has focused its AM activities to the selective laser melting technique (SLM). This technique uses metallic powder and a laser for melting and building up the part layer by layer. It is shown which lead part was selected for AM and how the first production line was established. A special focus is set on the quality assurance of the selective laser melting process. In addition to standard non-destructive inspection techniques a new online monitoring tool was developed and integrated into the SLM machines. The basics of this technique is presented.

  9. Highly enantioselective and efficient synthesis of flavanones including pinostrobin through the rhodium-catalyzed asymmetric 1,4-addition.

    PubMed

    Korenaga, Toshinobu; Hayashi, Keigo; Akaki, Yusuke; Maenishi, Ryota; Sakai, Takashi

    2011-04-15

    An efficient synthesis of bioactive chiral flavanones (1) was achieved through the Rh-catalyzed asymmetric 1,4-addition of arylboronic acid to chromone. The reaction in toluene proceeded smoothly at room temperature in the presence of 0.5% Rh catalyst with electron-poor chiral diphosphine MeO-F(12)-BIPHEP. In this reaction, the 1,2-addition to (S)-1 frequently occurred to yield (2S,4R)-2,4-diaryl-4-chromanol as a byproduct, which could be reduced by changing the reaction solvent to CH(2)Cl(2) to deactivate the Rh catalyst (3% required). PMID:21413690

  10. 36 CFR 1290.4 - Types of materials included in scope of assassination record and additional records and information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION JFK ASSASSINATION RECORDS... COLLECTION ACT OF 1992 (JFK ACT) § 1290.4 Types of materials included in scope of assassination record and... information includes, for purposes of interpreting and implementing the JFK Act: (a) Papers, maps, and...

  11. 7 CFR 984.437 - Methods for proposing names of additional candidates to be included on walnut growers' nomination...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... to be included on walnut growers' nomination ballots. 984.437 Section 984.437 Agriculture Regulations... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Administrative... walnut growers' nomination ballots. (a) With regard to Board grower member positions specified in §...

  12. 7 CFR 984.437 - Methods for proposing names of additional candidates to be included on walnut growers' nomination...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... to be included on walnut growers' nomination ballots. 984.437 Section 984.437 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Administrative... walnut growers' nomination ballots. (a) With regard to Board grower member positions specified in §...

  13. 7 CFR 984.437 - Methods for proposing names of additional candidates to be included on walnut growers' nomination...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... to be included on walnut growers' nomination ballots. 984.437 Section 984.437 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Administrative... walnut growers' nomination ballots. (a) With regard to Board grower member positions specified in §...

  14. 7 CFR 984.437 - Methods for proposing names of additional candidates to be included on walnut growers' nomination...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... to be included on walnut growers' nomination ballots. 984.437 Section 984.437 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Administrative... walnut growers' nomination ballots. (a) With regard to Board grower member positions specified in §...

  15. 7 CFR 984.437 - Methods for proposing names of additional candidates to be included on walnut growers' nomination...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... to be included on walnut growers' nomination ballots. 984.437 Section 984.437 Agriculture Regulations... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Administrative... walnut growers' nomination ballots. (a) With regard to Board grower member positions specified in §...

  16. 17 CFR 230.432 - Additional information required to be included in prospectuses relating to tender offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... required to be included in prospectuses relating to tender offers. 230.432 Section 230.432 Commodity and... prospectuses relating to tender offers. Notwithstanding the provisions of any form for the registration of securities under the Act, any prospectus relating to securities to be offered in connection with a...

  17. Influence of nano-dispersive modified additive on cement activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sazonova, Natalya; Badenikov, Artem; Skripnikova, Nelli; Ivanova, Elizaveta

    2016-01-01

    In the work the influence of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) on the cement activity and the processes of structure formation of the hardened cement paste in different periods of hydration are studied. The changes in the kinetic curves of the sample strength growth modified with SWCNT in amount of 0.01 and 0.0005 % are stipulated by the results of differential scanning colorimetry, scanning electronic and ionic microscopy, X-ray-phase analysis. It was found that the nano-modified additive may increase in the axis compressive strength of the system by 1.4-6.3 fold relatively to the reference samples and may reach 179.6 MPa. It may intensify the hydration process of calcium silicates as well as influence on the matrix of hardened cement paste. The studies are conducted on the structural changes in the hardened cement paste, the time periods of increase and decrease of the compressive strength of the samples, the amount of the calcium hydroxide and tobermorite-like gel as well as the degree of hydration C3S and β-C2S.

  18. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnasissance of the Trinidad NTMS Quadrangle, Colorado, including concentrations of forty-two additional elements

    SciTech Connect

    Shannon, S.S. Jr.

    1980-05-01

    Uranium and other elemental data resulting from the Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR) of the Trinidad National Topographic Map Series (NTMS) quadrangle, Colorado, by the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) are reported herein. This study was conducted as part of the United States Department of Energy's National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE), which is designed to provide improved estimates of the availability and economics of nuclear fuel resources and to make available to industry information for use in exploration and development of uranium resources. The HSSR data will ultimately be integrated with other NURE data (e.g., airborne radiometric surveys and geological investigations) to complete the entire NURE program. This report is a supplement to the HSSR uranium evaluation report for the Trinidad quadrange (Morris et al, 1978), which presented the field and uranium data for the 1060 water and 1240 sediment samples collected from 1768 locations in the quadrangle. The earlier report contains an evaluation of the uranium concentrations of the samples as well as descriptions of the geology, hydrology, climate, and uranium occurrences of the quadrange. This supplement presents the sediment field and uranium data again and the analyses of 42 other elements in the sediments. All uranium samples were redetermined by delayed-neutron counting (DNC) when the sediment samples were analyzed for 31 elements by neutron activation. For 99.6% of the sediment samples analyzed, the differences between the uranium contents first determined (Morris et al, 1978) and the analyses reported herein are less than 10%.

  19. Performance of portland limestone cements: Cements designed to be more sustainable that include up to 15% limestone addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrett, Timothy J.

    In 2009, ASTM and AASHTO permitted the use of up to 5% interground limestone in ordinary portland cement (OPC) as a part of a change to ASTM C150/AASHTO M85. When this work was initiated a new proposal was being discussed that would enable up to 15% interground limestone cement to be considered in ASTM C595/AASHTO M234. This work served to provide rapid feedback to the state department of transportation and concrete industry for use in discussions regarding these specifications. Since the time this work was initiated, ASTM C595/AASHTO M234 was passed (2012c) and PLCs are now able to be specified, however they are still not widely used. The proposal for increasing the volume of limestone that would be permitted to be interground in cement is designed to enable more sustainable construction, which may significantly reduce the CO2 that is embodied in the built infrastructure while also extending the life of cement quarries. Research regarding the performance of cements with interground limestone has been conducted by the cement industry since these cements became widely used in Europe over three decades ago, however this work focuses on North American Portland Limestone Cements (PLCs) which are specifically designed to achieve similar performance as the OPCs they replace.This thesis presents a two-phase study in which the potential for application of cements containing limestone was assessed. The first phase of this study utilized a fundamental approach to determine whether cement with up to 15% of interground or blended limestone can be used as a direct substitute to ordinary portland cement. The second phase of the study assessed the concern of early age shrinkage and cracking potential when using PLCs, as these cements are typically ground finer than their OPC counterparts. For the first phase of the study, three commercially produced PLCs were obtained and compared to three commercially produced OPCs made from the same clinker. An additional cement was tested

  20. Performance of portland limestone cements: Cements designed to be more sustainable that include up to 15% limestone addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrett, Timothy J.

    In 2009, ASTM and AASHTO permitted the use of up to 5% interground limestone in ordinary portland cement (OPC) as a part of a change to ASTM C150/AASHTO M85. When this work was initiated a new proposal was being discussed that would enable up to 15% interground limestone cement to be considered in ASTM C595/AASHTO M234. This work served to provide rapid feedback to the state department of transportation and concrete industry for use in discussions regarding these specifications. Since the time this work was initiated, ASTM C595/AASHTO M234 was passed (2012c) and PLCs are now able to be specified, however they are still not widely used. The proposal for increasing the volume of limestone that would be permitted to be interground in cement is designed to enable more sustainable construction, which may significantly reduce the CO2 that is embodied in the built infrastructure while also extending the life of cement quarries. Research regarding the performance of cements with interground limestone has been conducted by the cement industry since these cements became widely used in Europe over three decades ago, however this work focuses on North American Portland Limestone Cements (PLCs) which are specifically designed to achieve similar performance as the OPCs they replace.This thesis presents a two-phase study in which the potential for application of cements containing limestone was assessed. The first phase of this study utilized a fundamental approach to determine whether cement with up to 15% of interground or blended limestone can be used as a direct substitute to ordinary portland cement. The second phase of the study assessed the concern of early age shrinkage and cracking potential when using PLCs, as these cements are typically ground finer than their OPC counterparts. For the first phase of the study, three commercially produced PLCs were obtained and compared to three commercially produced OPCs made from the same clinker. An additional cement was tested

  1. 42 CFR 460.140 - Additional quality assessment activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) Quality Assessment and Performance Improvement § 460.140 Additional...

  2. 42 CFR 460.140 - Additional quality assessment activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) Quality Assessment and Performance Improvement § 460.140 Additional...

  3. 42 CFR 460.140 - Additional quality assessment activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) Quality Assessment and Performance Improvement § 460.140 Additional...

  4. Additive and synergistic antiandrogenic activities of mixtures of azol fungicides and vinclozolin

    SciTech Connect

    Christen, Verena; Crettaz, Pierre; Fent, Karl

    2014-09-15

    Objective: Many pesticides including pyrethroids and azole fungicides are suspected to have an endocrine disrupting property. At present, the joint activity of compound mixtures is only marginally known. Here we tested the hypothesis that the antiandrogenic activity of mixtures of azole fungicides can be predicted by the concentration addition (CA) model. Methods: The antiandrogenic activity was assessed in MDA-kb2 cells. Following assessing single compounds activities mixtures of azole fungicides and vinclozolin were investigated. Interactions were analyzed by direct comparison between experimental and estimated dose–response curves assuming CA, followed by an analysis by the isobole method and the toxic unit approach. Results: The antiandrogenic activity of pyrethroids deltamethrin, cypermethrin, fenvalerate and permethrin was weak, while the azole fungicides tebuconazole, propiconazole, epoxiconazole, econazole and vinclozolin exhibited strong antiandrogenic activity. Ten binary and one ternary mixture combinations of five antiandrogenic fungicides were assessed at equi-effective concentrations of EC{sub 25} and EC{sub 50}. Isoboles indicated that about 50% of the binary mixtures were additive and 50% synergistic. Synergism was even more frequently indicated by the toxic unit approach. Conclusion: Our data lead to the conclusion that interactions in mixtures follow the CA model. However, a surprisingly high percentage of synergistic interactions occurred. Therefore, the mixture activity of antiandrogenic azole fungicides is at least additive. Practice: Mixtures should also be considered for additive antiandrogenic activity in hazard and risk assessment. Implications: Our evaluation provides an appropriate “proof of concept”, but whether it equally translates to in vivo effects should further be investigated. - Highlights: • Humans are exposed to pesticide mixtures such as pyrethroids and azole fungicides. • We assessed the antiandrogenicity of

  5. 7 CFR 981.441 - Credit for market promotion activities, including paid advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... promotion activities, including paid advertising. (a) In order for a handler to receive credit for his/her own promotional activities from his/her pro rata portion of advertising assessment payments, pursuant... professional practices and rates for the type of activity conducted. In the case of claims for...

  6. 7 CFR 981.441 - Credit for market promotion activities, including paid advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... promotion activities, including paid advertising. (a) In order for a handler to receive credit for his/her own promotional activities from his/her pro rata portion of advertising assessment payments, pursuant... professional practices and rates for the type of activity conducted. In the case of claims for...

  7. 7 CFR 981.441 - Credit for market promotion activities, including paid advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... promotion activities, including paid advertising. (a) In order for a handler to receive credit for his/her own promotional activities from his/her pro rata portion of advertising assessment payments, pursuant... professional practices and rates for the type of activity conducted. In the case of claims for...

  8. 7 CFR 981.441 - Credit for market promotion activities, including paid advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... promotion activities, including paid advertising. (a) In order for a handler to receive credit for his/her own promotional activities from his/her pro rata portion of advertising assessment payments, pursuant... professional practices and rates for the type of activity conducted. In the case of claims for...

  9. Improvements to the FATOLA computer program including added actively controlled landing gear subroutines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mall, G. H.

    1983-01-01

    Modifications to a multi-degree-of-freedom flexible aircraft take-off and landing analysis (FATOLA) computer program, including a provision for actively controlled landing gears to expand the programs simulation capabilities, are presented. Supplemental instructions for preparation of data and for use of the modified program are included.

  10. Population and Human Development: A Course Curriculum Including Lesson Plans, Activities and Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Elaine M.

    This course outline suggests materials and learning activities on the interrelated causes and consequences of population growth and other population concerns. Designed to educate general college audiences, it is also intended for use as a preservice course for teachers. In addition, the course can be modified for high school students. The course…

  11. Diffractive laser beam homogenizer including a photo-active material and method of fabricating the same

    DOEpatents

    Bayramian, Andy J; Ebbers, Christopher A; Chen, Diana C

    2014-05-20

    A method of manufacturing a plurality of diffractive optical elements includes providing a partially transmissive slide, providing a first piece of PTR glass, and directing first UV radiation through the partially transmissive slide to impinge on the first piece of PTR glass. The method also includes exposing predetermined portions of the first piece of PTR glass to the first UV radiation and thermally treating the exposed first piece of PTR glass. The method further includes providing a second piece of PTR glass and directing second UV radiation through the thermally treated first piece of PTR glass to impinge on the second piece of PTR glass. The method additionally includes exposing predetermined portions of the second piece of PTR glass to the second UV radiation, thermally treating the exposed second piece of PTR glass, and repeating providing and processing of the second piece of PTR glass using additional pieces of PTR glass.

  12. Solar sail attitude control including active nutation damping in a fixed-momentum wheel satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Azor, Ruth

    1992-01-01

    In geostationary cruise of a momentum biased satellite, it is necessary to stabilize the roll/yaw attitude due to disturbances, caused mainly by solar radiation pressure. This work presents a roll/yaw control which is obtained by the use of solar arrays and fixed flaps as actuators, with a horizon sensor for roll measurement. The design also includes an active nutation damping.

  13. Population and Human Development: A Course Curriculum Including Lesson Plans, Activities, and Bibliography. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Elaine M.; Long, Alison T.

    This course outline suggests materials and learning activities on the interrelated causes and consequences of population growth and other population matters. The document describes 15 class sessions which integrate information for sociology, anthropology, psychology, biology, animal behavior, and education. Topics include the history of human…

  14. Identification of Additional Anti-Persister Activity against Borrelia burgdorferi from an FDA Drug Library.

    PubMed

    Feng, Jie; Weitner, Megan; Shi, Wanliang; Zhang, Shuo; Sullivan, David; Zhang, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Lyme disease is a leading vector-borne disease in the United States. Although the majority of Lyme patients can be cured with standard 2-4 week antibiotic treatment, 10%-20% of patients continue to suffer from prolonged post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome (PTLDS). While the cause for this is unclear, persisting organisms not killed by current Lyme antibiotics may be involved. In our previous study, we screened an FDA drug library and reported 27 top hits that showed high activity against Borrelia persisters. In this study, we present the results of an additional 113 active hits that have higher activity against the stationary phase B. burgdorferi than the currently used Lyme antibiotics. Many antimicrobial agents (antibiotics, antivirals, antifungals, anthelmintics or antiparasitics) used for treating other infections were found to have better activity than the current Lyme antibiotics. These include antibacterials such as rifamycins (3-formal-rifamycin, rifaximin, rifamycin SV), thiostrepton, quinolone drugs (sarafloxacin, clinafloxacin, tosufloxacin), and cell wall inhibitors carbenicillin, tazobactam, aztreonam; antifungal agents such as fluconazole, mepartricin, bifonazole, climbazole, oxiconazole, nystatin; antiviral agents zanamivir, nevirapine, tilorone; antimalarial agents artemisinin, methylene blue, and quidaldine blue; antihelmintic and antiparasitic agents toltrazuril, tartar emetic, potassium antimonyl tartrate trihydrate, oxantel, closantel, hycanthone, pyrimethamine, and tetramisole. Interestingly, drugs used for treating other non-infectious conditions including verteporfin, oltipraz, pyroglutamic acid, pidolic acid, and dextrorphan tartrate, that act on the glutathione/γ-glutamyl pathway involved in protection against free radical damage, and also the antidepressant drug indatraline, were found to have high activity against stationary phase B. burgdorferi. Among the active hits, agents that affect cell membranes, energy production, and reactive

  15. Identification of Additional Anti-Persister Activity against Borrelia burgdorferi from an FDA Drug Library

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Jie; Weitner, Megan; Shi, Wanliang; Zhang, Shuo; Sullivan, David; Zhang, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Lyme disease is a leading vector-borne disease in the United States. Although the majority of Lyme patients can be cured with standard 2–4 week antibiotic treatment, 10%–20% of patients continue to suffer from prolonged post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome (PTLDS). While the cause for this is unclear, persisting organisms not killed by current Lyme antibiotics may be involved. In our previous study, we screened an FDA drug library and reported 27 top hits that showed high activity against Borrelia persisters. In this study, we present the results of an additional 113 active hits that have higher activity against the stationary phase B. burgdorferi than the currently used Lyme antibiotics. Many antimicrobial agents (antibiotics, antivirals, antifungals, anthelmintics or antiparasitics) used for treating other infections were found to have better activity than the current Lyme antibiotics. These include antibacterials such as rifamycins (3-formal-rifamycin, rifaximin, rifamycin SV), thiostrepton, quinolone drugs (sarafloxacin, clinafloxacin, tosufloxacin), and cell wall inhibitors carbenicillin, tazobactam, aztreonam; antifungal agents such as fluconazole, mepartricin, bifonazole, climbazole, oxiconazole, nystatin; antiviral agents zanamivir, nevirapine, tilorone; antimalarial agents artemisinin, methylene blue, and quidaldine blue; antihelmintic and antiparasitic agents toltrazuril, tartar emetic, potassium antimonyl tartrate trihydrate, oxantel, closantel, hycanthone, pyrimethamine, and tetramisole. Interestingly, drugs used for treating other non-infectious conditions including verteporfin, oltipraz, pyroglutamic acid, pidolic acid, and dextrorphan tartrate, that act on the glutathione/γ-glutamyl pathway involved in protection against free radical damage, and also the antidepressant drug indatraline, were found to have high activity against stationary phase B. burgdorferi. Among the active hits, agents that affect cell membranes, energy production, and

  16. Correction of an active space telescope mirror using a gradient approach and an additional deformable mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Matthew R.; Kim, Jae Jun; Agrawal, Brij N.

    2015-09-01

    High development cost is a challenge for space telescopes and imaging satellites. One of the primary reasons for this high cost is the development of the primary mirror, which must meet diffraction limit surface figure requirements. Recent efforts to develop lower cost, lightweight, replicable primary mirrors include development of silicon carbide actuated hybrid mirrors and carbon fiber mirrors. The silicon carbide actuated hybrid mirrors at the Naval Postgraduate School do not meet the surface quality required for an optical telescope due to high spatial frequency residual surface errors. A technique under investigation at the Naval Postgraduate School is to correct the residual surface figure error using a deformable mirror in the optical path. We present a closed loop feedback gradient controller to actively control a SMT active segment and an additional deformable mirror to reduce residual wavefront error. The simulations and experimental results show that the gradient controller reduces the residual wavefront error more than an integral controller.

  17. A Methodology for Post Operational Clean Out of a Highly Active Facility Including Solids Behaviour - 12386

    SciTech Connect

    Edmondson, Michael J.; Ward, Tracy R.; Maxwell, Lisa J.

    2012-07-01

    The Highly Active Liquor Evaporation and Storage (HALES) plant at Sellafield handles acidic fission product containing liquor with typical activities of the order of 18x10{sup 9} Bq/ml. A strategy experimental feedback approach has been used to establish a wash regime for the Post Operational Clean Out (POCO) of the oldest storage tanks for this liquor. Two different wash reagents have been identified as being potentially suitable for removal of acid insoluble fission product precipitates. Ammonium carbamate and sodium carbonate yield similar products during the proposed wash cycle. The proposed wash reagents provide dissolution of caesium phosphomolybdate (CPM) and zirconium molybdate (ZM) solid phases but yields a fine, mobile precipitate of metal carbonates from the Highly Active Liquor (HAL) supernate. Addition of nitric acid to the wash effluent can cause CPM to precipitate where there is sufficient caesium and phosphorous available. Where they are not present (from ZM dissolution) the nitric acid addition initially produces a nitrate precipitate which then re-dissolves, along with the metal carbonates, to give a solid-free solution. The different behaviour of the two solids during the wash cycle has led to the proposal for an amended flowsheet. Additional studies on the potential to change the morphology of crystallising ZM have presented opportunities for changing the rheology of ZM sediments through doping with tellurium or particular organic acids. Two different wash reagents have been identified as being potentially suitable for the POCO of HALES Oldside HASTs. AC and SC both yield similar products during the proposed wash cycle. However, the different behaviour of the two principle HAL solids, CPM and ZM, during the wash cycle has led to the proposal for an amended flowsheet. Additional studies on the potential to change the morphology of crystallising ZM have presented opportunities for changing its rheology through doping with tellurium or certain

  18. ΔPK oncolytic activity includes modulation of the tumour cell milieu.

    PubMed

    Bollino, Dominique; Colunga, Aric; Li, Baiquan; Aurelian, Laure

    2016-02-01

    Oncolytic virotherapy is a unique cancer therapeutic that encompasses tumour cell lysis through both virus replication and programmed cell death (PCD) pathways. Nonetheless, clinical efficacy is relatively modest, likely related to the immunosuppressive tumour milieu. Our studies use the herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2)-based oncolytic virus ΔPK that has documented anti-tumour activity associated with virus replication, PCD and cancer stem cell lysis. They are designed to examine whether ΔPK-mediated oncolysis includes the ability to reverse the immunosuppressive tumour microenvironment by altering the balance of cytokines directly secreted by the melanoma cells and to define its mechanism. Here, we show that melanoma cells secreted the immunosuppressive cytokine IL-10, and that secretion was inhibited by ΔPK through virus replication and c-Jun N-terminal kinase/c-Jun activation. ΔPK-induced IL-10 inhibition upregulated surface expression of MHC class I chain-related protein A, the ligand for the activating NKG2D receptor expressed on NK- and cytotoxic T-cells. Concomitantly, ΔPK also upregulated the secretion of inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor and IL-1β through autophagy-mediated activation of Toll-like receptor 2 pathways and pyroptosis, and it inhibited the expression of the negative immune checkpoint regulator cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4. Pharmacologic inhibition of these processes significantly reduces the oncolytic activity of ΔPK. PMID:26602205

  19. A novel peptide inhibitor of classical and lectin complement activation including ABO incompatibility

    PubMed Central

    Mauriello, Clifford T.; Pallera, Haree K.; Sharp, Julia A.; Woltmann, Jon L.; Qian, Shizhi; Hair, Pamela S.; van der Pol, Pieter; van Kooten, Cees; Thielens, Nicole M.; Lattanzio, Frank A.; Cunnion, Kenji M.; Krishna, Neel K.

    2012-01-01

    Previous experiments from our laboratories have identified peptides derived from the human astrovirus coat protein (CP) that bind C1q and mannose binding lectin (MBL) inhibiting activation of the classical and lectin pathways of complement, respectively. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the function of these coat protein peptides (CPPs) in an in vitro model of complement-mediated disease (ABO incompatibility), preliminarily assess their in vivo complement suppression profile and develop more highly potent derivatives of these molecules. E23A, a 30 amino acid CPP derivative previously demonstrated to inhibit classical pathway activation was able to dose-dependently inhibit lysis of AB erythrocytes treated with mismatched human O serum. Additionally, when injected into rats, E23A inhibited the animals’ serum from lysing antibody-sensitized erythrocytes, providing preliminary in vivo functional evidence that this CPP can cross the species barrier to inhibit serum complement activity in rodents. A rational drug design approach was implemented to identify more potent CPP derivatives, resulting in the identification and characterization of a 15 residue peptide (Polar Assortant (PA)), which demonstrated both superior inhibition of classical complement pathway activation and robust binding to C1q collagen-like tails. PA also inhibited ABO incompatibility in vitro and demonstrated in vivo complement suppression up to 24 hours post-injection. CPP’s ability to inhibit ABO incompatibility in vitro, proof of concept in vivo inhibitory activity in rats and the development of the highly potent PA derivative set the stage for preclinical testing of this molecule in small animal models of complement-mediated disease. PMID:22906481

  20. Active seat suspension for a small vehicle: considerations for control system including observer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsumata, Hiroyuki; Shiino, Hiroshi; Oshinoya, Yasuo; Ishibashi, Kazuhisa; Ozaki, Koichi; Ogino, Hirohiko

    2007-12-01

    We have examined the improvement of ride quality and the reduction of riding fatigue brought about by the active control of the seat suspension of small vehicles such as one-seater electric automobiles. A small active seat suspension, which is easy to install, was designed and manufactured for one-seater electric automobiles. For the actuator, a maintenance-free voice coil motor used as a direct drive was adopted. For fundamental considerations, we designed a one-degree-of-freedom model for the active seat suspension system. Then, we designed a disturbance cancellation control system that includes the observer for a two-degree-of-freedom model. In an actual driving test, a test road, in which the concavity and convexity of an actual road surface were simulated using hard rubber, was prepared and the control performance of vertical vibrations of the seat surface during driving was examined. As a result, in comparison with the one-degree-of-freedom control system, it was confirmed that the control performance was improved by the two-degree-of-freedom control system that includes the observer.

  1. Are language-based activities in science effective for all students, including low achievers?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivard, Léonard P.

    2004-05-01

    The study investigated achievement status as a factor determining the use of language-based activities for learning science. A total of 154 eighth-grade students were randomly assigned to four groups, all stratified for gender and achievement level. The treatments involved various combinations of talk and writing, and descriptive and explanatory tasks. The dependent measures included scores on multiple choice tests obtained at three times during the study. Records of student talk and writing were also analyzed to identify patterns of differences between groups of achievers. The findings suggested that low achievers complete more problems, and develop better understanding and comprehension of ecology concepts when they have engaged in peer discussions of explanatory tasks. In comparison, high achievers benefit more from writing than talking, and writing explanations enhances comprehension more than restricted writing activities.

  2. Measuring and Reducing Off-Target Activities of Programmable Nucleases Including CRISPR-Cas9.

    PubMed

    Koo, Taeyoung; Lee, Jungjoon; Kim, Jin-Soo

    2015-06-01

    Programmable nucleases, which include zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), and RNA-guided engineered nucleases (RGENs) repurposed from the type II clustered, regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) system are now widely used for genome editing in higher eukaryotic cells and whole organisms, revolutionising almost every discipline in biological research, medicine, and biotechnology. All of these nucleases, however, induce off-target mutations at sites homologous in sequence with on-target sites, limiting their utility in many applications including gene or cell therapy. In this review, we compare methods for detecting nuclease off-target mutations. We also review methods for profiling genome-wide off-target effects and discuss how to reduce or avoid off-target mutations. PMID:25985872

  3. EFFECT OF NITROGEN AND METAL ADDITIONS ON NITROGEN FIXATION ACTIVITY IN BIOLOGICAL SOIL CRUSTS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, K.; Lui, D.; Anbar, A. D.; Garcia-Pichel, F.; Hartnett, H. E.

    2009-12-01

    Biological soil crusts (BSCs) are diverse consortia of microorganisms that live in intimate association with soils in arid environments. Also called cryptogamic or microbiotic crusts, these communities can include cyanobacteria, algae, heterotrophic bacteria, fungi, lichens, and mosses. Together, these organisms provide many services to their surrounding ecosystems, including reduction of water runoff, promotion of water infiltration, and prevention of soil erosion. The cyanobacteria and algae also provide fixed carbon (C) to the soil through photosynthesis, and because atmospheric deposition of nitrogen (N) in arid environments is low, the major input of biologically available N comes from cyanobacteria capable of converting nitrogen gas (N2) to ammonium (NH4+). Biological soil crusts are easily destroyed by livestock grazing, motor vehicle travel, and many forms of recreational and agricultural land use. Loss of BSC cover can leave the soil vulnerable to intense erosion that can remove the nutrients necessary to sustain plant and animal life, thus accelerating the process of desertification. In order to preserve existing crusts and encourage the development of new crusts, it is crucial to understand the nutrient requirements of metabolism and growth in these microbial communities. This study investigated the affect of nitrogen and metal additions on N2-fixation activity in cyanobacterially-dominated crusts from the Colorado Plateau near Moab, Utah. Although N2-fixation has been studied in this system before, the affect of nutrient additions on N2-fixation activity has not been documented. The goal of this work was to understand how N and metal supplementation affects crust N metabolism. Three experiments were conducted to observe how N2-fixation activity changed with the addition of N, molybdenum (Mo), and vanadium (V). Molybdenum and vanadium were chosen because they are most commonly found at the active site of the enzyme nitrogenase, the molecule responsible

  4. Evaluation of school-based dental health activities including fluoride mouth-rinsing in Hiraizumi, Japan.

    PubMed

    Ohara, S; Kawaguchi, Y; Shinada, K; Sasaki, Y

    2000-06-01

    School-based dental health activities conducted in Hiraizumi over the past 20 years have remarkably improved the dental health status of schoolchildren. For example, DMFT index of 12-year-old children decreased to 1.5 in 1998, one-half that of the national average. School dental health activities, which were focused on dental health education, resulted in an increase of filled teeth rates, a decrease in the number of missing teeth, and a decline in incisor caries (1979-1986). In addition, the introduction of a school-based fluoride mouth-rinsing program (1986 - ) showed a positive effect on the prevention of dental caries; a significant decrease was observed in the overall prevalence of dental caries, particularly in the molars. In Japan it seems advantageous to promote the dental health of schoolchildren by school-based programs that combine dental health examination, dental health education and fluoride mouth-rinsing program. Especially, to prevent dental caries in the mandibular first molars more effectively, it is recommended to start fluoride mouth-rinsing at age 5. PMID:12160185

  5. Should Cost-Effectiveness Analysis Include the Cost of Consumption Activities? AN Empirical Investigation.

    PubMed

    Adarkwah, Charles Christian; Sadoghi, Amirhossein; Gandjour, Afschin

    2016-02-01

    There has been a debate on whether cost-effectiveness analysis should consider the cost of consumption and leisure time activities when using the quality-adjusted life year as a measure of health outcome under a societal perspective. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the effects of ill health on consumptive activities are spontaneously considered in a health state valuation exercise and how much this matters. The survey enrolled patients with inflammatory bowel disease in Germany (n = 104). Patients were randomized to explicit and no explicit instruction for the consideration of consumption and leisure effects in a time trade-off (TTO) exercise. Explicit instruction to consider non-health-related utility in TTO exercises did not influence TTO scores. However, spontaneous consideration of non-health-related utility in patients without explicit instruction (60% of respondents) led to significantly lower TTO scores. Results suggest an inclusion of consumption costs in the numerator of the cost-effectiveness ratio, at least for those respondents who spontaneously consider non-health-related utility from treatment. Results also suggest that exercises eliciting health valuations from the general public may include a description of the impact of disease on consumptive activities. PMID:25684073

  6. Antiviral activity of 1-docosanol, an inhibitor of lipid-enveloped viruses including herpes simplex.

    PubMed Central

    Katz, D H; Marcelletti, J F; Khalil, M H; Pope, L E; Katz, L R

    1991-01-01

    This article reports that 1-docosanol, a 22-carbon-long saturated alcohol, exerts a substantial inhibitory effect on replication of certain viruses (e.g., herpes simplex virus and respiratory syncytial virus) within primary target cells in vitro. To study the basis for its viral inhibitory activity, a suspension of 1-docosanol was formulated in an inert and nontoxic surfactant, Pluronic F-68; this suspension exerted potent inhibitory activity on the ability of susceptible viruses to infect cultured target cells. Susceptible viruses included wild-type herpes simplex viruses 1 and 2 as well as acyclovir-resistant herpes simplex virus 2 and also respiratory syncytial virus--all of which are lipid-enveloped. In contrast, nonenveloped poliovirus was not susceptible to the inhibitory action of 1-docosanol. Although the precise mechanism has yet to be defined, current evidence suggests that 1-docosanol inhibits viral replication by interfering with the early intracellular events surrounding viral entry into target cells. It is possible that interaction between the highly lipophilic compound and components of target cell membranes renders such target cells less susceptible to viral fusion and/or entry. If this mechanism proves to be correct, 1-docosanol may provide a broad spectrum activity against many different viruses, especially those with lipid-containing envelopes. Images PMID:1660151

  7. 25 CFR 170.137 - What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and trails program include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... interpretative signs; (4) Provision for non-motorized trail activities including pedestrians and bicycles; (5) Provision for motorized trail activities including all terrain vehicles, motorcycles, snowmobiles, etc.; (6...; (8) Maintenance and restoration of existing recreational trails; (9) Development and...

  8. 25 CFR 170.137 - What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and trails program include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... interpretative signs; (4) Provision for non-motorized trail activities including pedestrians and bicycles; (5) Provision for motorized trail activities including all terrain vehicles, motorcycles, snowmobiles, etc.; (6...; (8) Maintenance and restoration of existing recreational trails; (9) Development and...

  9. 25 CFR 170.137 - What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and trails program include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... interpretative signs; (4) Provision for non-motorized trail activities including pedestrians and bicycles; (5) Provision for motorized trail activities including all terrain vehicles, motorcycles, snowmobiles, etc.; (6...; (8) Maintenance and restoration of existing recreational trails; (9) Development and...

  10. 25 CFR 170.137 - What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and trails program include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... interpretative signs; (4) Provision for non-motorized trail activities including pedestrians and bicycles; (5) Provision for motorized trail activities including all terrain vehicles, motorcycles, snowmobiles, etc.; (6...; (8) Maintenance and restoration of existing recreational trails; (9) Development and...

  11. Familial Vulnerability to ADHD Affects Activity in the Cerebellum in Addition to the Prefrontal Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulder, Martijn J.; Baeyens, Dieter; Davidson, Matthew C.; Casey, B. J.; Van Den Ban, Els; Van Engeland, Herman; Durston, Sarah

    2008-01-01

    The study examines whether cerebellar systems are sensitive to familial risk for ADHD in addition to frontostriatal circuitry. The results conclude that familial vulnerability to ADHD affects activity in both the prefrontal cortex and cerebellum.

  12. Monitoring active volcanoes and mitigating volcanic hazards: the case for including simple approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoiber, Richard E.; Williams, Stanley N.

    1990-07-01

    Simple approaches to problems brought about eruptions and their ensuing hazardous effects should be advocated and used by volcanologists while awaiting more sophisticated remedies. The expedients we advocate have all or many of the following attributes: only locally available materials are required; no extensive training of operators or installation is necessary; they are affordable and do not require foreign aid or exports; they are often labor intensive and are sustainable without outside assistance. Where appropriate, the involvement of local residents is advocated. Examples of simple expedients which can be used in forecasting or mitigating the effects of crises emphasize the relative ease and the less elaborate requirements with which simple approaches can be activated. Emphasis is on visual observations often by untrained observers, simple meteorogical measurements, observations of water level in lakes, temperature and chemistry of springs and fumaroles, new springs and collapse areas and observations of volcanic plumes. Simple methods are suggested which can be applied to mitigating damage from mudflows, nuées ardentes, tephra falls and gas discharge. A review in hindsight at Ruiz includes the use of both chemical indicators and simple mudflow alarms. Simple expedients are sufficiently effective that any expert volcanologist called to aid in a crisis must include them in the package of advice offered. Simple approaches are a critical and logical complement to highly technical solutions to hazardous situations.

  13. Fatty acid-releasing activities in Sinorhizobium meliloti include unusual diacylglycerol lipase.

    PubMed

    Sahonero-Canavesi, Diana X; Sohlenkamp, Christian; Sandoval-Calderón, Mario; Lamsa, Anne; Pogliano, Kit; López-Lara, Isabel M; Geiger, Otto

    2015-09-01

    Phospholipids are well known for their membrane-forming properties and thereby delimit any cell from the exterior world. In addition, membrane phospholipids can act as precursors for signals and other biomolecules during their turnover. Little is known about phospholipid signalling, turnover and remodelling in bacteria. Recently, we showed that a FadD-deficient mutant of Sinorhizobium meliloti, unable to convert free fatty acids to their coenzyme A derivatives, accumulates free fatty acids during the stationary phase of growth. Enzymatic activities responsible for the generation of these free fatty acids were unknown in rhizobia. Searching the genome of S. meliloti, we identified a potential lysophospholipase (SMc04041) and two predicted patatin-like phospholipases A (SMc00930, SMc01003). Although SMc00930 as well as SMc01003 contribute to the release of free fatty acids in S. meliloti, neither one can use phospholipids as substrates. Here we show that SMc01003 converts diacylglycerol to monoacylglycerol and a fatty acid, and that monoacylglycerol can be further degraded by SMc01003 to another fatty acid and glycerol. A SMc01003-deficient mutant of S. meliloti transiently accumulates diacylglycerol, suggesting that SMc01003 also acts as diacylglycerol lipase (DglA) in its native background. Expression of the DglA lipase in Escherichia coli causes lysis of cells in stationary phase of growth. PMID:25711932

  14. Ozone control of biological activity during Earth's history, including the KT catastrophe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheldon, W. R.

    1994-01-01

    There have been brief periods since the beginning of the Cambrian some 600 m.y. ago when mass extinctions destroyed a significant fraction of living species. The most widely studied of these events is the catastrophe at the KT boundary that ended the long dominance of the dinosaurs. In addition to mass extinctions, there is another profound discontinuity in the history of Earth's biota, the explosion of life at the end of the Precambrian era which is an episode that is not explained well at all. For some 3 b.y. before the Cambrian, life had been present on Earth, but maintained a low level of activity which is an aspect of the biota that is puzzling, especially during the last two-thirds of that period. During the last 2 b.y. before the Cambrian, conditions at the Earth's surface were suitable for a burgeoning of the biota, according to most criteria: the oceans neither boiled nor were fozen solid during this time, and the atmosphere contained sufficient O for the development of animals. The purpose of this paper is to suggest that mass extinctions and the lackluster behavior of the Precambrian biota share a common cause: an inadequate amount of ozone in the atmosphere.

  15. Multiplicative and Additive Modulation of Neuronal Tuning with Population Activity Affects Encoded Information.

    PubMed

    Arandia-Romero, Iñigo; Tanabe, Seiji; Drugowitsch, Jan; Kohn, Adam; Moreno-Bote, Rubén

    2016-03-16

    Numerous studies have shown that neuronal responses are modulated by stimulus properties and also by the state of the local network. However, little is known about how activity fluctuations of neuronal populations modulate the sensory tuning of cells and affect their encoded information. We found that fluctuations in ongoing and stimulus-evoked population activity in primate visual cortex modulate the tuning of neurons in a multiplicative and additive manner. While distributed on a continuum, neurons with stronger multiplicative effects tended to have less additive modulation and vice versa. The information encoded by multiplicatively modulated neurons increased with greater population activity, while that of additively modulated neurons decreased. These effects offset each other so that population activity had little effect on total information. Our results thus suggest that intrinsic activity fluctuations may act as a "traffic light" that determines which subset of neurons is most informative. PMID:26924437

  16. Be BOLD: Encouraging Girls to Include Unstructured Bouts of Physical Activity into Daily Routines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Kory; Williams, Gwynne M.

    2014-01-01

    Adolescent girls are less active than their male counterparts and physical activity levels tend to decline as one ages. One of the goals of concerned physical educators is to promote a physically active lifestyle and to teach skills and promote behaviors that will allow students to be active both in and out of school. This article presents a…

  17. RADIO PROPERTIES OF LOW-REDSHIFT BROAD-LINE ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI INCLUDING EXTENDED RADIO SOURCES

    SciTech Connect

    Rafter, Stephen E.; Crenshaw, D. Michael; Wiita, Paul J.

    2011-03-15

    We present a study of the extended radio emission in a sample of 8434 low-redshift (z < 0.35) broad-line active galactic nuclei (AGNs) from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. To calculate the jet and lobe contributions to the total radio luminosity, we have taken the 846 radio core sources detected in our previous study of this sample and performed a systematic search in the FIRST database for extended radio emission that is likely associated with the optical counterparts. We found that 51 out of 846 radio core sources have extended emission (>4'' from the optical AGN) that is positively associated with the AGN, and we have identified an additional 12 AGNs with extended radio emission but no detectable radio core emission. Among these 63 AGNs, we found 6 giant radio galaxies, with projected emission exceeding 750 kpc in length, and several other AGNs with unusual radio morphologies also seen in higher redshift surveys. The optical spectra of many of the extended sources are similar to those of typical broad-line radio galaxy spectra, having broad H{alpha} emission lines with boxy profiles and large M{sub BH}. With extended emission taken into account, we find strong evidence for a bimodal distribution in the radio-loudness parameter R ({identical_to}{nu}{sub radio} L{sub radio}/{nu}{sub opt} L{sub opt}), where the lower radio luminosity core-only sources appear as a population separate from the extended sources, with a dividing line at log(R) {approx}1.75. This dividing line ensures that these are indeed the most radio-loud AGNs, which may have different or extreme physical conditions in their central engines when compared to the more numerous radio-quiet AGNs.

  18. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance data release for the Elk City NTMS Quadrangle, Idaho/Montana, including concentrations of forty-five additional elements

    SciTech Connect

    Broxton, D.E.; Beyth, M.

    1980-07-01

    Totals of 1580 water and 1720 sediment samples were collected from 1754 locations in the quadrangle. Elemental concentration, field measurement, weather, geologic, and geographic data for each sample location are listed for waters in Appendix I-A and for sediments in Appendix I-B. Uranium/thorium ratios for sediment samples are also included in Appendix I-B. All elemental analyses were performed at the LASL. Water samples were initially analyzed for uranium by fluorometry. All water samples containing more than 40 parts per billion (ppB) uranium were reanalyzed by delayed-neutron counting (DNC). A supplemental report containing the multielement analyses of water samples will be open filed in the near future. Sediments were analyzed for uranium and thorium as well as aluminum, antimony, arsenic, barium, beryllium, bismuth, cadmium, calcium, cerium, cesium, chlorine, chromium, cobalt, copper, dysprosium, europium, gold, hafnium, iron, lanthanum, lead, lithium, lutetium, magnesium, manganese, nickel, niobium, potassium, rubidium, samarium, selenium, scandium, silver, sodium, strontium, tantalum, terbium, tin, titanium, tungsten, vanadium, ytterbium, zinc, and zirconium. Basic statistics for 40 of these elements are presented. All sediments were analyzed for uranium by delayed-neutron counting. Other elemental concentrations in sediments were determined by neutron-activation analysis for 30 elements, by x-ray fluorescence for 12 elements, and by arc-source emission spectrography for 2 elements. Analytical results for sediments are reported as parts per million.

  19. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance data release for the Ashton NTMS quadrangle, Idaho/Montana/Wyoming, including concentrations of forty-two additional elements

    SciTech Connect

    Shannon, S.S. Jr; Sandoval, W.F.; Gallimore, D.L.; Hansel, J.M.; Hensley, W.K.; Pirtle, J.; Macdonell, C.J.

    1980-08-01

    This report contains data collected during a geochemical survey for uranium in the Ashton National Topographic Map Series quadrangle of eastern Idaho, southwestern Montana, and northwestern Wyoming by the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) as part of the nationwide Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR). The LASL is responsible for conducting the HSSR primarily in the Rocky Mountain states of New Mexico, Colorado, Wyoming, and Montana and in Alaska. Totals of 1141 water and 1500 sediment samples were collected from 1539 locations in the quadrangle by a commercial contractor. Water samples were collected at streams, springs, wells, ponds, and marshes; sediment samples were obtained from streams, springs, and ponds. Histograms and statistical data for uranium concentrations in water and sediment samples and thorium concentrations in sediment samples are given. Uranium/thorium ratios for sediment samples are also included. All elemental analyses were performed at the LASL. Water samples were initially analyzed for uranium by fluorometry. All water samples containing more than 40 ppB uranium were reanalyzed by delayed-neutron counting (DNC). Sediments were analyzed for uranium and thorium as well as aluminum, antimony, barium, beryllium, bismuth, cadmium, calcium, cerium, cesium, chlorine, chromium, cobalt, copper, dysprosium, europium, gold, hafnium, iron, lanthanum, lead, lithium, lutetium, magnesium, manganese, nickel, niobium, potassium, rubidium, samarium, scandium, silver, sodium, strontium, tantalum, terbium, tin, titanium, tungsten, vanadium, ytterbium, and zinc. All sediments were analyzed for uranium by DNC. Other elemental concentrations in sediments were determined by neutron activation analysis for 31 elements, by x-ray fluorescence for 9 elements, and by arc-source emission spectrography for 2 elements. Analytical results for sediments are reported as parts per million.

  20. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance data release for the Lewistown NTMS Quadrangle, Montana, including concentrations of forty-two additional elements

    SciTech Connect

    Shannon, S.S. Jr.

    1980-08-01

    Totals of 758 water and 1170 sediment samples were collected from 1649 locations in the Levistown quadrangle. Water samples were collected at streams, springs, wells, ponds, and marshes; sediment samples were obtained from streams, springs, and ponds. Histograms and statistical data for uranium concentrations in water and sediment samples and thorium concentrations in sediment samples are given. All samples were collected at the nominal reconnaissance density of one sample location per 10 km/sup 2/. Elemental concentration, field measurement, weather, geologic, and geographic data for each sample location are listed for waters and for sediments. Uranium to thorium (U/Th) ratios for sediment samples are included. Water samples were initially analyzed for uranium by fluorometry. All water samples containing more than 40 ppB U were reanalyzed by delayed-neutron counting. Sediments were analyzed for U and Th as well as Al, Sb, Ba, Be, Bi, Cd, Ca, Ce, Cs, Cl, Cr, Co, Cu, Dy, Eu, Au, Hf, Fe, La, Pb, Li, Lu, Mg, Mn, Ni, Nb, K, Rb, Sa, Sc, Ag, Na, Sr, Ta, Tb, Sn, Ti, W, V, Yb, and Zn. All sediments were analyzed for U by delayed neutron counting. Other elemental concentrations in sediments were determined by neutron activation analysis for 31 elements, by x-ray fluorescence for 9 elements, and by arc-source emission spectrography for 2 elements. Analytical results are reported as parts per million. Descriptions of procedures used for analysis of water and sediments samples as well as analytical precisions and detection limits are given.

  1. ALUM ADDITION AND STEP-FEED STUDIES IN OXYGEN-ACTIVATED SLUDGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A plug flow, O2-activated sludge process was operated with alum addition to remove phosphorus and with lime addition to prevent the process pH from decreasing below 6.4. The O2 reactor was operated at F/M ratios between 0.18 to 0.24 gm of BOD5/gm of MLVSS/day in a typical co-curr...

  2. Using Assistive Technology Adaptations To Include Students with Learning Disabilities in Cooperative Learning Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Diane Pedrotty; Bryant, Brian R.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses a process for integrating technology adaptations for students with learning disabilities into cooperative-learning activities in terms of three components: (1) selecting adaptations; (2) monitoring use of adaptations during cooperative-learning activities; and (3) evaluating the adaptations' effectiveness. Barriers to and support systems…

  3. Interest Inventory. [Includes Academic Interest Measure, Pupil Activity Inventory, and Semantic Differential].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA. Harvard Project Physics.

    This Interest Inventory contains three inventories: Academic Interest Measure (AIM), Pupil Activity Inventory (PAI), and Semantic Differential test (SD). The AIM measures six subscales of academic interests; the PAI measures non-school activities in science; and the SD measures attitudes toward science and physics. The inventories are designed for…

  4. Effect of Surface-active Additives on Physical Properties of Slurries of Vapor-process Magnesium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinns, Murray L

    1955-01-01

    The presence of 3 to 5 percent surface-active additive gave the lowest Brookfield apparent viscosity, plastic viscosity, and yield value that were obtained for slurry fuels containing approximately 50 percent vapor-process magnesium in JP-1 fuel. The slurries settled little and were easily remixed. A polyoxyethylene dodecyl alcohol was the most effective of 13 additives tested in reducing the Brookfield apparent viscosity and the yield value of the slurry. The seven most effective additives all had a hydroxyl group plus an ester or polyoxethylene group in the molecule. The densities of some of the slurries were measured.

  5. Neutron-activation analysis by standard addition and solvent extraction Determination of traces of antimony.

    PubMed

    Alian, A; Shabana, R; Sanad, W; Allam, B; Khalifa, K

    1968-02-01

    The application of neutron activation analysis by standard addition and solvent extraction to the determination of traces of antimony in aluminium and rocks is reported. Three simple extraction procedures, using isopropyl ether, hexone, and tributyl phosphate, are described for the selective separation of radioantimony from interfering radionuclides. Antimony concentration is measured by counting the activities of the (122)Sb and (124)Sb photopeaks at 0.564 and 0.603 MeV. PMID:18960289

  6. Including xpc® feed additive in the diet of inoculated broilers during grow-out helps control salmonella associated with their carcasses after processing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to test XPC® feed additive for control of Salmonella in poultry meat products. Day of hatch broiler chicks were gavaged with 106 cells of a nalidixic acid resistant marker strain of Salmonella Typhimurium and placed on clean pine shavings in 9 separate floor pens (25 ...

  7. Sensitivity to food additives, vaso-active amines and salicylates: a review of the evidence.

    PubMed

    Skypala, Isabel J; Williams, M; Reeves, L; Meyer, R; Venter, C

    2015-01-01

    Although there is considerable literature pertaining to IgE and non IgE-mediated food allergy, there is a paucity of information on non-immune mediated reactions to foods, other than metabolic disorders such as lactose intolerance. Food additives and naturally occurring 'food chemicals' have long been reported as having the potential to provoke symptoms in those who are more sensitive to their effects. Diets low in 'food chemicals' gained prominence in the 1970s and 1980s, and their popularity remains, although the evidence of their efficacy is very limited. This review focuses on the available evidence for the role and likely adverse effects of both added and natural 'food chemicals' including benzoate, sulphite, monosodium glutamate, vaso-active or biogenic amines and salicylate. Studies assessing the efficacy of the restriction of these substances in the diet have mainly been undertaken in adults, but the paper will also touch on the use of such diets in children. The difficulty of reviewing the available evidence is that few of the studies have been controlled and, for many, considerable time has elapsed since their publication. Meanwhile dietary patterns and habits have changed hugely in the interim, so the conclusions may not be relevant for our current dietary norms. The conclusion of the review is that there may be some benefit in the removal of an additive or a group of foods high in natural food chemicals from the diet for a limited period for certain individuals, providing the diagnostic pathway is followed and the foods are reintroduced back into the diet to assess for the efficacy of removal. However diets involving the removal of multiple additives and food chemicals have the very great potential to lead to nutritional deficiency especially in the paediatric population. Any dietary intervention, whether for the purposes of diagnosis or management of food allergy or food intolerance, should be adapted to the individual's dietary habits and a suitably

  8. Additives increasing antioxidant activity of sesamol in soybean oil at frying temperature

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sesamol has drawn a considerable interest as an alternative to synthetic antioxidants due to its excellent radical scavenging ability at room temperature, low cost and additional health-promoting benefits. However, when it was evaluated for its antioxidant activity in soybean oil at frying temperatu...

  9. Estrogenic activity of phenolic additives determined by an in vitro yeast bioassay.

    PubMed Central

    Miller, D; Wheals, B B; Beresford, N; Sumpter, J P

    2001-01-01

    We used a recombinant yeast estrogen assay to assess the activity of 73 phenolic additives that are used as sunscreens, preservatives, disinfectants, antioxidants, flavorings, or for perfumery. Thirty-two of these compounds displayed activity: 22 with potencies relative to 17beta-estradiol, ranging from 1/3,000 to < 1/3,000,000, and 10 compounds with an impaired response that could not be directly compared with 17beta-estradiol. Forty-one compounds were inactive. The major criteria for activity appear to be the presence of an unhindered phenolic OH group in a para position and a molecular weight of 140-250 Da. PMID:11266322

  10. Activation energies for addition of O/3P/ to simple olefins.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demore, W. B.

    1972-01-01

    Description of relative rate measurements for the addition of O(3P) to C2H4, C2F4, C3H6, and C4H8-1 in liquid argon at 87.5 K. The data strongly indicate that the activation energies for the addition of O(3P) to the double bonds of propylene and butene-1 are identical, probably to within 0.1 kcal/mole. It is very doubtful that differences in pre-exponential factors or other factors such as solvent effects, could invalidate this conclusion. A similar argument holds for the C2H4 and C2F4 reactions. Furthermore, the experiments suggest that the activation energy for addition of O(3P) to the double bond of butene-1 is about 0.1 kcal/mole.

  11. Intracellular activity of clinical concentrations of phenothiazines including thioridiazine against phagocytosed Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Ordway, Diane; Viveiros, Miguel; Leandro, Clara; Arroz, Maria Jorge; Amaral, Leonard

    2002-07-01

    The effect of thioridazine (TZ) was studied on the killing activity of human peripheral blood monocyte derived macrophages (HPBMDM) and of human macrophage cell line THP-1 at extracellular concentrations below those achievable clinically. These macrophages have nominal killing activity against bacteria and therefore, would not influence any activity that the compounds may have against intracellular localised Staphylococcus aureus. The results indicated that whereas TZ has an in vitro minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against the strains of S. aureus of 18, 0.1 mg/l of TZ in the medium completely inhibits the growth of S. aureus that has been phagocytosed by macrophages. The latter concentration was non-toxic to macrophages, did not cause cellular expression of activation marker CD69 nor induction of CD3+ T cell production of IFN-gamma, but blocked cellular proliferation and down-regulated the production of T cell-derived cytokines (IFN-gamma, IL-5). These results suggest that TZ induces intracellular bactericidal activities independent of the capacity to generate Type 1 responses against S. aureus. PMID:12127709

  12. Electrode including porous particles with embedded active material for use in a secondary electrochemical cell

    DOEpatents

    Vissers, Donald R.; Nelson, Paul A.; Kaun, Thomas D.; Tomczuk, Zygmunt

    1978-04-25

    Particles of carbonaceous matrices containing embedded electrode active material are prepared for vibratory loading within a porous electrically conductive substrate. In preparing the particles, active materials such as metal chalcogenides, solid alloys of alkali or alkaline earth metals along with other metals and their oxides in powdered or particulate form are blended with a thermosetting resin and particles of a volatile to form a paste mixture. The paste is heated to a temperature at which the volatile transforms into vapor to impart porosity at about the same time as the resin begins to cure into a rigid, solid structure. The solid structure is then comminuted into porous, carbonaceous particles with the embedded active material.

  13. PITBUL: a physics-based modeling package for imaging and tracking of airborne targets for HEL applications including active illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Zandt, Noah R.; McCrae, Jack E.; Fiorino, Steven T.

    2013-05-01

    Aimpoint acquisition and maintenance is critical to high energy laser (HEL) system performance. This study demonstrates the development by the AFIT/CDE of a physics-based modeling package, PITBUL, for tracking airborne targets for HEL applications, including atmospheric and sensor effects and active illumination, which is a focus of this work. High-resolution simulated imagery of the 3D airborne target in-flight as seen from the laser position is generated using the HELSEEM model, and includes solar illumination, laser illumination, and thermal emission. Both CW and pulsed laser illumination are modeled, including the effects of illuminator scintillation, atmospheric backscatter, and speckle, which are treated at a first-principles level. Realistic vertical profiles of molecular and aerosol absorption and scattering, as well as optical turbulence, are generated using AFIT/CDE's Laser Environmental Effects Definition and Reference (LEEDR) model. The spatially and temporally varying effects of turbulence are calculated and applied via a fast-running wave optical method known as light tunneling. Sensor effects, for example blur, sampling, read-out noise, and random photon arrival, are applied to the imagery. Track algorithms, including centroid and Fitts correlation, as a part of a closed loop tracker are applied to the degraded imagery and scored, to provide an estimate of overall system performance. To gauge performance of a laser system against a UAV target, tracking results are presented as a function of signal to noise ratio. Additionally, validation efforts to date involving comparisons between simulated and experimental tracking of UAVs are presented.

  14. Carbon–carbon bond activation of cyclobutenones enabled by the addition of chiral organocatalyst to ketone

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bao-Sheng; Wang, Yuhuang; Jin, Zhichao; Zheng, Pengcheng; Ganguly, Rakesh; Chi, Yonggui Robin

    2015-01-01

    The activation of carbon–carbon (C–C) bonds is an effective strategy in building functional molecules. The C–C bond activation is typically accomplished via metal catalysis, with which high levels of enantioselectivity are difficult to achieve due to high reactivity of metal catalysts and the metal-bound intermediates. It remains largely unexplored to use organocatalysis for C–C bond activation. Here we describe an organocatalytic activation of C–C bonds through the addition of an NHC to a ketone moiety that initiates a C–C single bond cleavage as a key step to generate an NHC-bound intermediate for chemo- and stereo-selective reactions. This reaction constitutes an asymmetric functionalization of cyclobutenones using organocatalysts via a C–C bond activation process. Structurally diverse and multicyclic compounds could be obtained with high optical purities via an atom and redox economic process. PMID:25652912

  15. Sixty Minutes of Physical Activity per Day Included within Preschool Academic Lessons Improves Early Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirk, Stacie M.; Kirk, Erik P.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The effects of increases in physical activity (PA) on early literacy skills in preschool children are not known. Methods: Fifty-four African-American preschool children from a low socioeconomic urban Head Start participated over 8 months. A 2-group, quasi-experimental design was used with one preschool site participating in the PA…

  16. 7 CFR 981.441 - Credit for market promotion activities, including paid advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE ALMONDS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Administrative Rules and Regulations § 981.441 Credit for market... each activity shall be to promote the sale, consumption or use of California almonds, and nothing... in California almond growing counties with more than 1,000 bearing acres: Provided, That...

  17. Observing a fictitious stressful event: haematological changes, including circulating leukocyte activation.

    PubMed

    Mian, Rubina; Shelton-Rayner, Graham; Harkin, Brendan; Williams, Paul

    2003-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of watching a psychological stressful event on the activation of leukocytes in healthy human volunteers. Blood samples were obtained from 32 healthy male and female subjects aged between 20 and 26 years before, during and after either watching an 83-minute horror film that none of the subjects had previously seen (The Texas Chainsaw Massacre, 1974) or by sitting quietly in a room (control group). Total differential cell counts, leukocyte activation as measured by the nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) test, heart rate and blood pressure (BP) measurements were taken at defined time points. There were significant increases in peripheral circulating leukocytes, the number of activated circulating leukocytes, haemoglobin (Hb) concentration and haematocrit (Hct) in response to the stressor. These were accompanied by significant increases in heart rate, systolic and diastolic BP (P<0.05 from baseline). This is the first reported study on the effects of observing a psychologically stressful, albeit fictitious event on circulating leukocyte numbers and the state of leukocyte activation as determined by the nitrotetrazolium test. PMID:12637206

  18. Backyards and Butterflies: Ways to Include Children with Disabilities in Outdoor Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenstein, Doreen; And Others

    This sourcebook is designed for children, parents, and families, detailing ideas for outdoor play and learning activities, with emphasis on involving children with disabilities in outdoor play. A rural perspective permeates the guide, although each chapter contains ideas for making outdoor environments more accessible and safer for all children,…

  19. Beyond Right or Wrong: Challenges of Including Creative Design Activities in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, Karen

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we explore challenges encountered by K-12 educators in establishing classroom cultures that support creative learning activities with the Scratch programming language. Providing opportunities for students to understand and to build capacities for creative work was described by many of the teachers that we interviewed as a central…

  20. Physical Activity Programs in Higher Education: Modifying Net/Wall Games to Include Individuals with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braga, Luciana; Tracy, Julia F.; Taliaferro, Andrea R.

    2015-01-01

    The growing number of students with disabilities in higher education settings has presented challenges for instructors with regards to appropriate inclusion. Concerning physical activity courses in higher education, instructors may not have the knowledge or resources to make modifications and accommodations that will ultimately result in…

  1. An Updated Review of Interventions that Include Promotion of Physical Activity for Adult Men.

    PubMed

    Bottorff, Joan L; Seaton, Cherisse L; Johnson, Steve T; Caperchione, Cristina M; Oliffe, John L; More, Kimberly; Jaffer-Hirji, Haleema; Tillotson, Sherri M

    2015-06-01

    The marked disparity in life expectancy between men and women suggests men are a vulnerable group requiring targeted health promotion programs. As such, there is an increasing need for health promotion strategies that effectively engage men with their health and/or illness management. Programs that promote physical activity could significantly improve the health of men. Although George et al. (Sports Med 42(3):281, 30) reviewed physical activity programs involving adult males published between 1990 and 2010, developments in men's health have prompted the emergence of new sex- and gender-specific approaches targeting men. The purpose of this review was to: (1) extend and update the review undertaken by George et al. (Sports Med 42(3):281, 30) concerning the effectiveness of physical activity programs in males, and (2) evaluate the integration of gender-specific influences in the content, design, and delivery of men's health promotion programs. A search of MEDLINE, CINAHL, ScienceDirect, Web of Science, PsycINFO, the Cochrane Library, and the SPORTDiscus databases for articles published between January 2010 and August 2014 was conducted. In total, 35 studies, involving evaluations of 31 programs, were identified. Findings revealed that a variety of techniques and modes of delivery could effectively promote physical activity among men. Though the majority of programs were offered exclusively to men, 12 programs explicitly integrated gender-related influences in male-specific programs in ways that recognized men's interests and preferences. Innovations in male-only programs that focus on masculine ideals and gender influences to engage men in increasing their physical activity hold potential for informing strategies to promote other areas of men's health. PMID:25430599

  2. Quantum ring-polymer contraction method: Including nuclear quantum effects at no additional computational cost in comparison to ab initio molecular dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    John, Christopher; Spura, Thomas; Habershon, Scott; Kühne, Thomas D.

    2016-04-01

    We present a simple and accurate computational method which facilitates ab initio path-integral molecular dynamics simulations, where the quantum-mechanical nature of the nuclei is explicitly taken into account, at essentially no additional computational cost in comparison to the corresponding calculation using classical nuclei. The predictive power of the proposed quantum ring-polymer contraction method is demonstrated by computing various static and dynamic properties of liquid water at ambient conditions using density functional theory. This development will enable routine inclusion of nuclear quantum effects in ab initio molecular dynamics simulations of condensed-phase systems.

  3. Study Modules for Calculus-Based General Physics. [Includes Modules 1 and 2: Dimensions and Vector Addition; Rectilinear Motion; plus a Trigonometry and Calculus Review].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Robert G., Ed.; And Others

    This is part of a series of 42 Calculus Based Physics (CBP) modules totaling about 1,000 pages. The modules include study guides, practice tests, and mastery tests for a full-year individualized course in calculus-based physics based on the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI). The units are not intended to be used without outside materials;…

  4. 42 CFR 424.516 - Additional provider and supplier requirements for enrolling and maintaining active enrollment...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... the HHS Common Rule at 45 CFR part 76. (b) Reporting requirements Independent Diagnostic Testing... Medicare Billing Privileges § 424.516 Additional provider and supplier requirements for enrolling and... including but not limited to instrument and medical certifications. (ii) Airworthiness certification....

  5. 42 CFR 424.516 - Additional provider and supplier requirements for enrolling and maintaining active enrollment...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... the HHS Common Rule at 45 CFR part 76. (b) Reporting requirements Independent Diagnostic Testing... Medicare Billing Privileges § 424.516 Additional provider and supplier requirements for enrolling and... including but not limited to instrument and medical certifications. (ii) Airworthiness certification....

  6. 42 CFR 424.516 - Additional provider and supplier requirements for enrolling and maintaining active enrollment...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... the HHS Common Rule at 45 CFR part 76. (b) Reporting requirements Independent Diagnostic Testing... Medicare Billing Privileges § 424.516 Additional provider and supplier requirements for enrolling and... including but not limited to instrument and medical certifications. (ii) Airworthiness certification....

  7. 42 CFR 424.516 - Additional provider and supplier requirements for enrolling and maintaining active enrollment...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... the HHS Common Rule at 45 CFR part 76. (b) Reporting requirements Independent Diagnostic Testing... Billing Privileges § 424.516 Additional provider and supplier requirements for enrolling and maintaining... including but not limited to instrument and medical certifications. (ii) Airworthiness certification....

  8. Interactions between organic additives and active powders in water-based lithium iron phosphate electrode slurries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chia-Chen; Lin, Yu-Sheng

    2012-12-01

    The interactions of organic additives with active powders are investigated and are found to have great influence on the determination of the mixing process for preparing electrode slurries with good dispersion and electrochemical properties of lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4) electrodes. Based on the analyses of zeta potential, sedimentation, and rheology, it is shown that LiFePO4 prefers to interact with styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) relative to other organic additives such as sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (SCMC), and thus shows preferential adsorption by SBR, whereas SBR has much lower efficiency than SCMC in dispersing LiFePO4. Therefore, for SCMC to interact with and disperse LiFePO4 before the interaction of LiFePO4 with SBR, it is suggested to mix SCMC with LiFePO4 prior to the addition of SBR during the slurry preparation process. For the electrode prepared via the suggested process, i.e., the sequenced adding process in which SCMC is mixed with active powders prior to the addition of SBR, a much better electrochemical performance is obtained than that of the one prepared via the process referred as the simultaneous adding process, in which mixing of SCMC and SBR with active powders in simultaneous.

  9. Space Resources for Teachers: Biology, Including Suggestions for Classroom Activities and Laboratory Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Tom E.; And Others

    This compilation of resource units concerns the latest developments in space biology. Some of the topics included are oxygen consumption, temperature, radiation, rhythms, weightlessness, acceleration and vibration stress, toxicity, and sensory and perceptual problems. Many of the topics are interdisciplinary and relate biology, physiology,…

  10. Localization of eight additional genes in the human major histocompatibility complex, including the gene encoding the casein kinase II {beta} subunit (CSNK2B)

    SciTech Connect

    Albertella, M.R.; Jones, H.; Thomson, W.

    1996-09-01

    A wide range of autoimmune and other diseases are known to be associated with the major histocompatibility complex. Many of these diseases are linked to the genes encoding the polymorphic histocompatibility complex. Many of these diseases are linked to the genes encoding the polymorphic histocompatibility antigens in the class I and class II regions, but some appear to be more strongly associated with genes in the central 1100-kb class III region, making it important to characterize this region fully for the presence of novel genes. An {approximately}220-kb segment of DNA in the class III region separating the Hsp70 (HSPA1L) and BAT1 (D6S8IE) genes, which was previously known to contain 14 genes. Genomic DNA fragments spanning the gaps between the known genes were used as probes to isolate cDNAs corresponding to five new genes within this region. Evidence from Northern blot analysis and exon trapping experiments that suggested the presence of at least two more new genes was also obtained. Partial cDNA and complete exonic genomic sequencing of one of the new genes has identified it as the casein kinase II{beta} subunit (CSNK2B). Two of the other novel genes lie within a region syntenic to that implicated in susceptibility to experimental allergic orchitis in the mouse, an autoimmune disease of the testis, and represent additional candidates for the Orch-1 locus associated with this disease. In addition, characterization of the 13-kb intergenic gap separating the RD (D6545) and G11 (D6S60E) genes has revealed the presence of a gene encoding a 1246-amino-acid polypeptide that shows significant sequence similarity to the yeast anti-viral Ski2p gene product. 49 refs., 8 figs.

  11. Activity of faropenem tested against Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates including fluoroquinolone-resistant strains.

    PubMed

    Jones, Ronald N; Critchley, Ian A; Whittington, William L H; Janjic, Nebojsa; Pottumarthy, Sudha

    2005-12-01

    We evaluated the anti-gonococcal potency of faropenem along with 7 comparator reference antimicrobials against a preselected collection of clinical isolates. The 265 isolates were inclusive of 2 subsets: 1) 76 well-characterized resistant phenotypes of gonococcal strains (53 quinolone-resistant strains--31 with documented quinolone resistance-determining region changes from Japan, 15 strains resistant to penicillin and tetracycline, and 8 strains with intermediate susceptibility to penicillin) and 2) 189 recent isolates from clinical specimens in 2004 from 6 states across the United States where quinolone resistance is prevalent. Activity of faropenem was adversely affected by l-cysteine hydrochloride in IsoVitaleX (4-fold increase in [minimal inhibitory concentration] MIC50; 0.06 versus 0.25 microg/mL). The rank order of potency of the antimicrobials for the entire collection was ceftriaxone (MIC90, 0.06 microg/mL) > faropenem (0.25 microg/mL) > azithromycin (0.5 microg/mL) > cefuroxime (1 microg/mL) > tetracycline (2 microg/mL) > penicillin = ciprofloxacin = levofloxacin (4 microg/mL). Using MIC90 for comparison, faropenem was 4-fold more potent than cefuroxime (0.25 versus 1 microg/mL), but was 4-fold less active than ceftriaxone (0.25 versus 0.06 microg/mL). Although the activity of faropenem was not affected by either penicillinase production (MIC90, 0.12 microg/mL, penicillinase-positive) or increasing ciprofloxacin MIC (0.25 microg/mL, ciprofloxacin-resistant), increasing penicillin MIC was associated with an increase in MIC90 values (0.016 microg/mL for penicillin-susceptible to 0.25 microg/mL for penicillin-resistant strains). Among the recent (2004) clinical gonococcal isolates tested, reduced susceptibility to penicillins, tetracycline, and fluoroquinolones was high (28.0-94.2%). Geographic distribution of the endemic resistance rates of gonococci varied considerably, with 16.7-66.7% of the gonococcal isolates being ciprofloxacin-resistant in Oregon

  12. Phytophthora infestans Has a Plethora of Phospholipase D Enzymes Including a Subclass That Has Extracellular Activity

    PubMed Central

    Meijer, Harold J. G.; Hassen, Hussen Harrun; Govers, Francine

    2011-01-01

    In eukaryotes phospholipase D (PLD) is involved in many cellular processes. Currently little is known about PLDs in oomycetes. Here we report that the oomycete plant pathogen Phytophthora infestans has a large repertoire of PLDs divided over six subfamilies: PXPH-PLD, PXTM-PLD, TM-PLD, PLD-likes, and type A and B sPLD-likes. Since the latter have signal peptides we developed a method using metabolically labelled phospholipids to monitor if P. infestans secretes PLD. In extracellular medium of ten P. infestans strains PLD activity was detected as demonstrated by the production of phosphatidic acid and the PLD specific marker phosphatidylalcohol. PMID:21423760

  13. Steady-state analysis of activated sludge processes with a settler model including sludge compression.

    PubMed

    Diehl, S; Zambrano, J; Carlsson, B

    2016-01-01

    A reduced model of a completely stirred-tank bioreactor coupled to a settling tank with recycle is analyzed in its steady states. In the reactor, the concentrations of one dominant particulate biomass and one soluble substrate component are modelled. While the biomass decay rate is assumed to be constant, growth kinetics can depend on both substrate and biomass concentrations, and optionally model substrate inhibition. Compressive and hindered settling phenomena are included using the Bürger-Diehl settler model, which consists of a partial differential equation. Steady-state solutions of this partial differential equation are obtained from an ordinary differential equation, making steady-state analysis of the entire plant difficult. A key result showing that the ordinary differential equation can be replaced with an approximate algebraic equation simplifies model analysis. This algebraic equation takes the location of the sludge-blanket during normal operation into account, allowing for the limiting flux capacity caused by compressive settling to easily be included in the steady-state mass balance equations for the entire plant system. This novel approach grants the possibility of more realistic solutions than other previously published reduced models, comprised of yet simpler settler assumptions. The steady-state concentrations, solids residence time, and the wastage flow ratio are functions of the recycle ratio. Solutions are shown for various growth kinetics; with different values of biomass decay rate, influent volumetric flow, and substrate concentration. PMID:26476681

  14. Nuclear Rocket Test Facility Decommissioning Including Controlled Explosive Demolition of a Neutron-Activated Shield Wall

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Kruzic

    2007-09-01

    Located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site, the Test Cell A Facility was used in the 1960s for the testing of nuclear rocket engines, as part of the Nuclear Rocket Development Program. The facility was decontaminated and decommissioned (D&D) in 2005 using the Streamlined Approach For Environmental Restoration (SAFER) process, under the Federal Facilities Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO). Utilities and process piping were verified void of contents, hazardous materials were removed, concrete with removable contamination decontaminated, large sections mechanically demolished, and the remaining five-foot, five-inch thick radiologically-activated reinforced concrete shield wall demolished using open-air controlled explosive demolition (CED). CED of the shield wall was closely monitored and resulted in no radiological exposure or atmospheric release.

  15. Quasielastic neutron scattering experiments including activation energies and mathematical modeling of methyl halide dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirstein, O.; Prager, M.; Grimm, H.; Buchsteiner, A.; Wischnewski, A.

    2007-09-01

    Quasielastic neutron scattering experiments were carried out using the multichopper time-of-flight spectrometer V3 at the Hahn-Meitner Institut, Germany and the backscattering spectrometer at Forschungszentrum Jülich, Germany. Activation energies for CH3X, X =F, Cl, Br, and I, were obtained. In combination with results from previous inelastic neutron scattering experiments the data were taken to describe the dynamics of the halides in terms of two different models, the single particle model and the coupling model. Coupled motions of methyl groups seem to explain the dynamics of the methyl fluoride and chloride; however, the coupling vanishes with the increase of the mass of the halide atom in CH3Br and CH3I.

  16. LIPID PEROXIDATION GENERATES BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE PHOSPHOLIPIDS INCLUDING OXIDATIVELY N-MODIFIED PHOSPHOLIPIDS

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Sean S.; Guo, Lilu

    2014-01-01

    Peroxidation of membranes and lipoproteins converts “inert” phospholipids into a plethora of oxidatively modified phospholipids (oxPL) that can act as signaling molecules. In this review, we will discuss four major classes of oxPL: mildly oxygenated phospholipids, phospholipids with oxidatively truncated acyl chains, phospholipids with cyclized acyl chains, and phospholipids that have been oxidatively N-modified on their headgroups by reactive lipid species. For each class of oxPL we will review the chemical mechanisms of their formation, the evidence for their formation in biological samples, the biological activities and signaling pathways associated with them, and the catabolic pathways for their elimination. We will end by briefly highlighting some of the critical questions that remain about the role of oxPL in physiology and disease. PMID:24704586

  17. Petrographic and Geochemical Characterization of Ore-Bearing Intrusions of the Noril'sk type, Siberia; With Discussion of Their Origin, Including Additional Datasets and Core Logs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Czamanske, Gerald K., (compiler)

    2002-01-01

    The Noril'sk I, Talnakh, and Kharaelakh intrusions of the Noril'sk district host one of the outstanding metal concentrations in the world; contained Cu-Ni resources are comparable to the deposits at Sudbury, Ontario and the platinum group element (PGE) resource is second only to that of the Bushveld Complex. Our opportunity to cooperatively sample and study this district in Siberian Russia arose in 1990 through a memorandum of understanding between the U.S. Geological Survey and the former Ministry of Geology of the U.S.S.R. The world-class significance of these deposits and the possibility that understanding their geologic context, including construction of a credible 'ore-deposit model,' will lead to discovery of similar deposits elsewhere, inspired extensive studies of the ores, the mafic-intrusions which host them, and associated flood basalts.

  18. Spin polarization and additional magneto-optical activity of nonmagnetic layers in Fe/Ag CMF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Y. B.; Zhai, H. R.; Lu, M.; Jin, Q. Y.; Miao, Y. Z.

    1992-08-01

    The experimental magneto-optical Kerr rotation spectra of Fe/Ag compositionally modulated films reported by Katayama et al. are studied theoretically. It is found that the free electrons of Ag are spin polarized. The magnitude of the polarization is about 1% with a direction opposite to that of Fe. The polarized Ag also gives rise to an additional magneto-optical activity as in Pt and Pd.

  19. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance of the Dalhart NTMS quadrangle, New Mexico/Texas/Oklahoma, including concentrations of forty-two additional elements

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, T.L.

    1980-08-01

    Totals of 1583 water samples and 503 sediment samples were collected from 2028 locations within the 20 000-km/sup 2/ area of the quadrangle at an average density of one location per 9.86 km/sup 2/. Water samples were collected from wells, springs, and streams and were analyzed for uranium. Sediment samples were collected from streams and springs and were analyzed for uranium, thorium, and 41 additional elements. All field and analytical data are listed in the appendixes of this report. Discussion is limited to anomalous samples, which are considered to be those containing over 20 ppB uranium for waters and over 5 ppM uranium for sediments. Uranium concentrations in water samples range from below the detection limit of 0.2 ppB to 1457.65 ppB and average 7.41 ppB. Most of the seventy anomalous water samples (4.4% of all water samples) are grouped spatially into five clusters or areas of interest. Samples in three of the clusters were collected along the north edge of the quadrangle where Mesozoic strata are exposed. The other two clusters are from the central and southern portions where the Quaternary Ogallala formation is exposed. Sediment samples from the quadrangle have uranium concentrations that range from 0.90 ppM to 27.20 ppM and average 3.27 ppM. Fourteen samples (2.8% of all sediment samples) contain over 5 ppM uranium and are considered anomalous. The five samples with the highest concentrations occur where downcutting streams expose Cretaceous units beneath the Quaternary surficial deposits. The remaining anomalous sediment samples were collected from scattered locations and do not indicate any single formation or unit as a potential source for the anomalous concentrations.

  20. Optical properties and photocatalytic activities of tungsten oxide (WO3) with platinum co-catalyst addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widiyandari, Hendri; Firdaus, Iqbal; Kadarisman, Vincencius Gunawan Slamet; Purwanto, Agus

    2016-02-01

    This research reported the optical properties and photocatalytic activities of tungsten oxide with platinum co-catalyst addition (WO3/Pt) film. The platinum was deposited on the surface of WO3 particle using photo deposition method, while the film formation of WO3/Pt on the glass substrate was prepared using spray deposition method. The addition of Pt of 0, 1, 2, and 4 wt.% resulted that the energy band gap value of the films were shifted to 2.840, 2.752, 2.623 and 2.507 eV, respectively. The as-prepared films were tested for methylene blue (MB) dye photo-degradation using the LED (light emitting diode) lamp as a visible domestic source light. The enhancement of photocatalytic activity was observed after the addition of Pt as a co-catalyst. The degradation kinetics analysis of the photo-catalyst showed that the Pt addition resulted increasing of photo-catalysis reaction rate constant, k.

  1. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance data release for the Dubois NTMS Quadrangle, Idaho/Montana, including concentrations of forty-five additional elements

    SciTech Connect

    LaDelfe, C.M.

    1980-08-01

    Totals of 1024 water samples and 1600 sediment samples were collected from 1669 locations in the Dubois quadrangle. Water samples were taken at streams, springs, and wells; sediment samples were collected from streams and springs. All field and analytical data are presented for waters in Appendix I-A and for sediments in I-B. All elemental analyses were performed at the LASL. Water samples were initially analyzed for uranium by fluorometry. All water samples containing more than the upper detection limit of uranium were reanalyzed by delayed neutron counting. Sediments were analyzed for uranium and thorium as well as aluminum, antimony, arsenic, barium, beryllium, bismuth, cadmium, calcium, cerium, cesium, chlorine, chromium, cobalt, copper, dysprosium, europium, gold, hafnium, iron, lanthanum, lead, lithium, lutetium, magnesium, manganese, nickel, niobium, potassium rubidium, samarium, scandium, selenium, silver, sodium, strontium, tantalum, terbium, tin, titanium, tungsten, vanadium, ytterbium, zinc and zirconium. All sediments were analyzed for uranium by delayed-neutron counting. Other elemental concentrations in sediments were determined by neutron-activation analysis for 30 elements, by x-ray fluorescence for 12 elements, and by arc-source emission spectrography for 2 elements. Analytical results for sediments are reported as parts per million.

  2. Design of a high-lift experiment in water including active flow control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beutel, T.; Sattler, S.; El Sayed, Y.; Schwerter, M.; Zander, M.; Büttgenbach, S.; Leester-Schädel, M.; Radespiel, R.; Sinapius, M.; Wierach, P.

    2014-07-01

    This paper describes the structural design of an active flow-control experiment. The aim of the experiment is to investigate the increase in efficiency of an internally blown Coanda flap using unsteady blowing. The system uses tailor-made microelectromechanical (MEMS) pressure sensors to determine the state of the oncoming flow and an actuated lip to regulate the mass flow and velocity of a stream near a wall over the internally blown flap. Sensors and actuators are integrated into a highly loaded system that is extremely compact. The sensors are connected to a bus system that feeds the data into a real-time control system. The piezoelectric actuators using the d 33 effect at a comparable low voltage of 120 V are integrated into a lip that controls the blowout slot height. The system is designed for closed-loop control that efficiently avoids flow separation on the Coanda flap. The setup is designed for water-tunnel experiments in order to reduce the free-stream velocity and the system’s control frequency by a factor of 10 compared with that in air. This paper outlines the function and verification of the system’s main components and their development.

  3. Indiana Reading Diagnostic Assessment: Resource & Intervention Guide, First Grade. Additional Activities and Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana Department of Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    The materials included in this manual are organized according to the Indiana Grade 1 Academic Standards for English/Language Arts. In each section teachers will find: (1) Indiana Grade 1 Academic Standards for English/Language Arts; (2) Assessments: diagnostic/practice pages for skill areas, checklists, and rubrics; (3) Classroom Activities:…

  4. 15 CFR 922.164 - Additional activity regulations by Sanctuary area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., breaking, cutting, spearing or similarly injuring any coral or other marine invertebrate, or any plant... injuring any coral, marine invertebrate, fish, bottom formation, algae, seagrass or other living or dead organism, including shells, or attempting any of these activities. However, fish, invertebrates, and...

  5. 15 CFR 922.164 - Additional activity regulations by Sanctuary area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., breaking, cutting, spearing or similarly injuring any coral or other marine invertebrate, or any plant... injuring any coral, marine invertebrate, fish, bottom formation, algae, seagrass or other living or dead organism, including shells, or attempting any of these activities. However, fish, invertebrates, and...

  6. 15 CFR 922.164 - Additional activity regulations by Sanctuary area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., breaking, cutting, spearing or similarly injuring any coral or other marine invertebrate, or any plant... injuring any coral, marine invertebrate, fish, bottom formation, algae, seagrass or other living or dead organism, including shells, or attempting any of these activities. However, fish, invertebrates, and...

  7. 15 CFR 922.164 - Additional activity regulations by Sanctuary area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., breaking, cutting, spearing or similarly injuring any coral or other marine invertebrate, or any plant... injuring any coral, marine invertebrate, fish, bottom formation, algae, seagrass or other living or dead organism, including shells, or attempting any of these activities. However, fish, invertebrates, and...

  8. 15 CFR 922.164 - Additional activity regulations by Sanctuary area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., breaking, cutting, spearing or similarly injuring any coral or other marine invertebrate, or any plant... injuring any coral, marine invertebrate, fish, bottom formation, algae, seagrass or other living or dead organism, including shells, or attempting any of these activities. However, fish, invertebrates, and...

  9. Differences in Lifestyles Including Physical Activity According to Sexual Orientation among Korean Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    YOON, Jin-Ho; SO, Wi-Young

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background The purpose of the present study was to examine differences in lifestyle factors such as physical activity among homosexual (gay or lesbian), bisexual, and heterosexual Korean adolescents. Methods The sample consisted of 74,186 adolescents from grades 7—12 (ages 12—18) who participated in the 8th annual Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey in 2012. Of this sample, only 11,829 provided enough information regarding their romantic and sexual experiences to define them as gay, lesbian, bisexual, or heterosexual. From this information, males were divided into gay (n = 323), bisexual (n = 243), and heterosexual (n = 6,501) groups, and females were divided into lesbian (n = 208), bisexual (n = 113), and heterosexual (n = 4,441) groups. Differences in lifestyle factors according to sexual orientation were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance. Results Males showed significant differences by sexual orientation group in terms of frequency of smoking (P = 0.029), alcohol consumption (P < 0.001), muscular strength exercises (P = 0.020), and walking for at least 10 minutes per week (P < 0.001). Females showed significant differences by sexual orientation group in terms of frequency of smoking (P < 0.001), alcohol consumption (P < 0.001), vigorous physical exercise (P < 0.001), moderate physical exercise (P < 0.001), and muscular strength exercises (P < 0.001), as well as for self-reported mental stress (P < 0.001). Conclusion We concluded those gay and bisexual males and lesbian and bisexual females had significant lifestyle differences as compared with heterosexual adolescents. This effect was stronger for females than for males. PMID:26060636

  10. High temperature hydrogen sulfide adsorption on activated carbon - I. Effects of gas composition and metal addition

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cal, M.P.; Strickler, B.W.; Lizzio, A.A.

    2000-01-01

    Various types of activated carbon sorbents were evaluated for their ability to remove H2S from a simulated coal gas stream at a temperature of 550 ??C. The ability of activated carbon to remove H2S at elevated temperature was examined as a function of carbon surface chemistry (oxidation, thermal desorption, and metal addition), and gas composition. A sorbent prepared by steam activation, HNO3 oxidation and impregnated with Zn, and tested in a gas stream containing 0.5% H2S, 50% CO2 and 49.5% N2, had the greatest H2S adsorption capacity. Addition of H2, CO, and H2O to the inlet gas stream reduced H2S breakthrough time and H2S adsorption capacity. A Zn impregnated activated carbon, when tested using a simulated coal gas containing 0.5% H2S, 49.5% N2, 13% H2, 8.5% H2O, 21% CO, and 7.5% CO2, had a breakthrough time of 75 min, which was less than 25 percent of the length of breakthrough for screening experiments performed with a simplified gas mixture of 0.5% H2S, 50% CO2, and 49.5% N2.

  11. Additive effects on the improvement of insecticidal activity: Design, synthesis, and insecticidal activity of novel pymetrozine derivatives.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yan; Liu, Yuxiu; Song, Hongjian; Li, Yongqiang; Wang, Qingmin

    2016-02-01

    A series of new pymetrozine analogues containing both methyl on the imine carbon and phenoxy group at the pyridine ring were designed and synthesized. Their insecticidal activities against bean aphid (Aphis craccivora), mosquito larvae (Culex pipiens pallens), cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera), corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis) and oriental armyworm (Mythimna separata) were evaluated. The results of bioassays indicated that most of the target compounds showed good insecticidal activity against bean aphid; especially, IIIf (80%) and IIIl (80%) exhibited higher aphicidal activity than pymetrozine (30%) at 5mg/kg, and the two compounds still showed 20% and 30% mortality at 2.5mg/kg, respectively, whereas pymetrozine displayed no activity at the same concentration. These compounds exhibited a completely different structure-activity relationship to that of known pymetrozine derivatives, in which it is thought introducing alkyl group on the imine carbon could be detrimental to the activities. Our new result suggested that the methyl on the imine carbon and phenoxy group at the pyridine ring of phenoxy group may play additive effects on the improvement of aphicidal activity. Besides this, compound IIIs, containing an allyl at the para position of phenoxy group, exhibited excellent insecticidal activity against mosquito larvae, lepidoptera pests cotton bollworm, corn borer and oriental armyworm. PMID:26342545

  12. 45 CFR 287.130 - Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments, job creation and economic development...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... assessments, job creation and economic development activities? 287.130 Section 287.130 Public Welfare... creation and economic development activities? (a) A Tribe may conduct job market assessments within its NEW Program. These might include the following: (1) Consultation with the Tribe's economic development...

  13. 45 CFR 287.130 - Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments, job creation and economic development...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... assessments, job creation and economic development activities? 287.130 Section 287.130 Public Welfare... creation and economic development activities? (a) A Tribe may conduct job market assessments within its NEW Program. These might include the following: (1) Consultation with the Tribe's economic development...

  14. 45 CFR 287.130 - Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments, job creation and economic development...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... assessments, job creation and economic development activities? 287.130 Section 287.130 Public Welfare... creation and economic development activities? (a) A Tribe may conduct job market assessments within its NEW Program. These might include the following: (1) Consultation with the Tribe's economic development...

  15. 45 CFR 287.130 - Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments, job creation and economic development...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... assessments, job creation and economic development activities? 287.130 Section 287.130 Public Welfare... creation and economic development activities? (a) A Tribe may conduct job market assessments within its NEW Program. These might include the following: (1) Consultation with the Tribe's economic development...

  16. 45 CFR 287.130 - Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments, job creation and economic development...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... assessments, job creation and economic development activities? 287.130 Section 287.130 Public Welfare... creation and economic development activities? (a) A Tribe may conduct job market assessments within its NEW Program. These might include the following: (1) Consultation with the Tribe's economic development...

  17. Controlling the corrosion and cathodic activation of magnesium via microalloying additions of Ge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, R. L.; Hurley, M. F.; Kvryan, A.; Williams, G.; Scully, J. R.; Birbilis, N.

    2016-06-01

    The evolution of corrosion morphology and kinetics for magnesium (Mg) have been demonstrated to be influenced by cathodic activation, which implies that the rate of the cathodic partial reaction is enhanced as a result of anodic dissolution. This phenomenon was recently demonstrated to be moderated by the use of arsenic (As) alloying as a poison for the cathodic reaction, leading to significantly improved corrosion resistance. The pursuit of alternatives to toxic As is important as a means to imparting a technologically safe and effective corrosion control method for Mg (and its alloys). In this work, Mg was microalloyed with germanium (Ge), with the aim of improving corrosion resistance by retarding cathodic activation. Based on a combined analysis herein, we report that Ge is potent in supressing the cathodic hydrogen evolution reaction (reduction of water) upon Mg, improving corrosion resistance. With the addition of Ge, cathodic activation of Mg subject to cyclic polarisation was also hindered, with beneficial implications for future Mg electrodes.

  18. Activity of tigecycline tested against a global collection of Enterobacteriaceae, including tetracycline-resistant isolates.

    PubMed

    Fritsche, Thomas R; Strabala, Patty A; Sader, Helio S; Dowzicky, Michael J; Jones, Ronald N

    2005-07-01

    Steadily increasing resistance among the Enterobacteriaceae to beta-lactams, fluoroquinolones, aminoglycosides, tetracyclines, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole has compromised the utility of these commonly used antimicrobial classes for many community- or hospital-acquired infections. The development of tigecycline, the sentinel representative of a novel class of broad-spectrum agents (the glycylcyclines), represents an important milestone in addressing this critical need. Resistance to tigecycline might be expected to occur via the same mechanisms that produce tetracycline resistance; however, tigecycline remains stable and largely unaffected by the commonly occurring efflux and ribosomal protection resistance mechanisms. In this study, an international collection of Enterobacteriaceae (11327 isolates; 32.8% tetracycline-resistant) from global surveillance studies (2000-2004) were evaluated against tigecycline and other comparator antimicrobials. Although the most active agents were the carbapenems and aminoglycosides (97.5-99.7% susceptible), tigecycline displayed high potency (MIC50 and MIC90, 0.25 and 1 microg/mL) with 95.7% of all strains being inhibited at < or =2 microg/mL. Despite higher MIC values observed with Serratia spp. and Proteae, between 90.5% and 97.5% of isolates were inhibited by < or =4 microg/mL of tigecycline. Tetracycline-resistant populations demonstrated only modest decreases in potency to tigecycline, which appeared to be species-dependent (up to 2-fold only for Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., and Panteoa agglomerans; and up to 4-fold for Klebsiella spp., Enterobacter spp., and Citrobacter spp.). Among E. coli (263 isolates) and Klebsiella spp. (356) that meet recognized screening definitions for extended-spectrum beta-lactamase production, 100.0% and 94.4% were inhibited by tigecycline at 2 microg/mL, respectively. These findings confirm that tigecycline exhibits potency, breadth of spectrum, and stability to the

  19. Should Physical Activity Be Included in Nutrition Education? A Comparison of Nutrition Outcomes with and without In-Class Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer-Keenan, Debra M.; Corda, Kirsten

    2014-01-01

    Limited-resource adults' dietary intakes and nutrition behaviors improve as a result of Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP)/Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Education (SNAP-Ed) participation; however, physical activity education is needed for improved health. The experimental study reported here assessed if spending…

  20. PCB bioavailability control in Lumbriculus variegatus through different modes of activated carbon addition to sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Xueli Sun; Upal Ghosh

    2007-07-01

    PCB bioavailability to a freshwater oligochaete (Lumbriculus variegatus) was studied using sediments from a PCB-impacted river that was treated with different modes of granular activated carbon (GAC) addition. The GAC used was bituminous coal-based type TOP. For sediment treated with 2.6% GAC and mixed for 2 min prior to L. variegatus addition, the reduction in total PCB biouptake was 70% for 75-300 {mu}m size carbon, and 92% for the 45-180 {mu}m size carbon. For the case where the GAC was placed as a thin layer on top of the sediments without mixing, the reduction in total PCB uptake was 70%. PCB biouptake kinetics study using treated and untreated sediment showed that the maximum PCB uptake in tissue was achieved at 28 days and decreased after that time. Although the absolute uptake of PCB changed over time, the percent reduction in total PCB uptake upon GAC amendment remained constant after the first few days. Our results indicated that PCB bioavailability was reduced upon the addition and little or no mixing of GAC into sediments. PCB aqueous equilibrium concentration and desorption rates were greatly reduced after GAC amendment, indicating reductions in the two primary mechanisms of PCB bioavailability in sediments: chemical activity and chemical accessibility. 29 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Addition of Aromatic Substrates Restores Trichloroethylene Degradation Activity in Pseudomonas putida F1

    PubMed Central

    Morono, Yuki; Unno, Hajime; Tanji, Yasunori; Hori, Katsutoshi

    2004-01-01

    The rate of trichloroethylene (TCE) degradation by toluene dioxygenase (TDO) in resting cells of Pseudomonas putida F1 gradually decreased and eventually stopped within 1.5 h, as in previous reports. However, the subsequent addition of toluene, which is the principal substrate of TDO, resulted in its immediate degradation without a lag phase. After the consumption of toluene, degradation of TCE restarted at a rate similar to its initial degradation, suggesting that this degradation was mediated by TDO molecules that were present before the cessation of TCE degradation. The addition of benzene and cumene, which are also substrates of TDO, also caused restoration of TCE degradation activity: TCE was degraded simultaneously with cumene, and a larger amount of TCE was degraded after cumene was added than after toluene or benzene was added. But substrates that were expected to supply the cells with NADH or energy did not restore TCE degradation activity. This cycle of pseudoinactivation and restoration of TCE degradation was observed repeatedly without a significant decrease in the number of viable cells, even after six additions of toluene spread over 30 h. The results obtained in this study demonstrate a new type of restoration of TCE degradation that has not been previously reported. PMID:15128539

  2. Effect of addition of 2% chlorhexidine or 10% doxycycline on antimicrobial activity of biodentine

    PubMed Central

    Nikhil, Vineeta; Madan, Molly; Agarwal, Charu; Suri, Navleen

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The purpose of this in vitro study was to determine whether the addition of 2% chlorhexidine gluconate or 10% doxycycline would enhance the antimicrobial activity of Biodentine against Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC-25923), Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC-29212), Candida albicans (ATCC-90028), and Streptococcus mutans (MTCC-497). Materials and Methods: Three wells of 4 mm diameter and 4 mm depth on each plate were prepared on the agar medium with standardized suspensions of each microorganism. Biodentine powder mixed with 2% chlorhexidine (0.06 g) or 10% doxycycline (0.30 g) in its liquid or liquid alone was placed to fill each well. Plates were incubated at 37°C as required for microbial growth. A blinded, independent observer measured zones of inhibition. The data were analyzed using independent “t” test to compare the differences among the three cement preparations for different micro-organisms. Results: All Biodentine samples inhibited microbial growth. The highest mean diameters of zone of inhibition for all the micro-organisms were found around Biodentine/chlorhexidine (13.417) followed by Biodentine alone (12.236) and Biodentine/doxycycline (11.25). Conclusion: In conclusion, adding 2% chlorhexidine gluconate in liquid of Biodentine enhanced the antimicrobial activity of Biodentine against all the tested micro-organisms except Candida albicans, while addition of 10% doxycycline decreased the antimicrobial activity of Biodentine. The differences were significant statistically (P < 0.05). PMID:24944453

  3. Increased in vitro activity of ceftriaxone by addition of tazobactam against clinical isolates of anaerobes.

    PubMed

    Aldridge, K E; Morice, N; Schiro, D D

    1994-08-01

    A total of 461 clinical strains of anaerobes were tested using a broth microdilution test to determine the activity of the combination of ceftriaxone and tazobactam and other antimicrobials against these isolates. Ceftriaxone was combined with tazobactam in ratios of 1:1, 2:1, 4:1, and 8:1 and twofold dilutions of ceftriaxone in constant concentrations to tazobactam of 2, 4, 8, 16, and 32 micrograms/ml. Against beta-lactamase-producing strains of the Bacteroides fragilis group, B. capillosus, and Prevotella species all combinations of ceftriaxone and tazobactam showed enhanced in vitro activity and were eight- to 2048-fold more active than ceftriaxone alone. By comparison ceftriaxone and tazobactam showed superior or equal activity to ampicillin and sulbactam, piperacillin and tazobactam, amoxicillin and clavulanate, ticarcillin and clavulanate, and metronidazole against these same strains. Against beta-lactamase nonproducing strains of Porphyromonas, Fusobacterium, Clostridium, Eubacterium, Peptostreptococcus, and Veillonella parvula the addition of tazobactam produced no appreciable enhanced ceftriaxone activity. Fixed concentrations of tazobactam at 2 and 4 micrograms/ml appear to be most suitable for susceptibility testing and are within the pharmacologic profile of this inhibitor. Pharmacologic and toxicity studies will be needed to define the role of ceftriaxone and tazobactam in infectious diseases. PMID:7851086

  4. Controlling a toxic shock of pentachlorophenol (PCP) to anaerobic digestion using activated carbon addition.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yeyuan; De Araujo, Cecilia; Sze, Chun Chau; Stuckey, David C

    2015-04-01

    Several powdered and granular activated carbons (PACs and GACs) were tested for adsorption of pentachlorophenol (PCP) in bench-scale anaerobic digestion reactors to control the toxicity of PCP to acetoclastic methanogenesis. Results showed that the adsorption capacities of PAC were reduced by 21-54%, depending on the PAC addition time, in the presence of the methanogenic sludge compared to the controls without sludge. As a preventive measure, PAC at a low dose of 20% (mass ratio to the VSS) added 24 h prior to, or simultaneously with, the addition of PCP could completely eliminate the toxic effects of PCP. At the same dose, PAC also enabled methanogenesis to recover immediately after the sludge had been exposed to PCP for 24h. GAC was not effective in enabling the recovery of methanogenesis due to its slow adsorption kinetics; however, at a dose of 80% it could partially ameliorate the toxic shock of PCP. PMID:25665874

  5. The inactive-active phase transition in the noisy additive (exclusive-or) probabilistic cellular automaton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendonça, J. Ricardo G.

    2016-07-01

    We investigate the inactive-active phase transition in an array of additive (exclusive-or) cellular automata (CA) under noise. The model is closely related with the Domany-Kinzel (DK) probabilistic cellular automaton (PCA), for which there are rigorous as well as numerical estimates on the transition probabilities. Here, we characterize the critical behavior of the noisy additive cellular automaton by mean field analysis and finite-size scaling and show that its phase transition belongs to the directed percolation universality class of critical behavior. As a by-product of our analysis, we argue that the critical behavior of the noisy elementary CA 90 and 102 (in Wolfram’s enumeration scheme) must be the same. We also perform an empirical investigation of the mean field equations to assess their quality and find that away from the critical point (but not necessarily very far away) the mean field approximations provide a reasonably good description of the dynamics of the PCA.

  6. Neutron activation analysis by standard addition and solvent extraction: Determination of impurities in aluminium.

    PubMed

    Alian, A; Haggag, A

    1967-09-01

    A separation scheme based on selective extraction in conjunction with the standard addition technique has been developed for the determination of impurities in aluminium by neutron activation. Preliminary investigations have been carried out on the extractability of Sc, Co, Hf, Fe, Sn, Cd, Zn, Ag, Cr, Ce, Cs and Rb by TDA and TBP from acidic media. The best conditions are predicted for the separation of these elements into fractions suitable for analysis by gamma-ray spectrometry. Recovery values of approximately 90% were obtained for all the elements. PMID:18960206

  7. Optimization of membrane bioreactors by the addition of powdered activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Ng, Choon Aun; Sun, Darren; Bashir, Mohammed J K; Wai, Soon Han; Wong, Ling Yong; Nisar, Humaira; Wu, Bing; Fane, Anthony G

    2013-06-01

    It was found that with replenishment, powdered activated carbon (PAC) in the membrane bioreactor (MBR) would develop biologically activated carbon (BAC) which could enhance filtration performance of a conventional MBR. This paper addresses two issues (i) effect of PAC size on MBR (BAC) performance; and (ii) effect of sludge retention time (SRT) on the MBR performance with and without PAC. To interpret the trends, particle/floc size, concentration of mixed liquor suspended solid (MLSS), total organic carbon (TOC), short-term filtration properties and transmembrane pressure (TMP) versus time are measured. The results showed improved fouling control with fine, rather than coarse, PAC provided the flux did not exceed the deposition flux for the fine PAC. Without PAC, the longer SRT operation gave lower fouling at modest fluxes. With PAC addition, the shorter SRT gave better fouling control, possibly due to greater replenishment of the fresh PAC. PMID:23612160

  8. Toward Efficient Thick Active PTB7 Photovoltaic Layers Using Diphenyl Ether as a Solvent Additive.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yifan; Goh, Tenghooi; Fan, Pu; Shi, Wei; Yu, Junsheng; Taylor, André D

    2016-06-22

    The development of thick organic photovoltaics (OPV) could increase absorption in the active layer and ease manufacturing constraints in large-scale solar panel production. However, the efficiencies of most low-bandgap OPVs decrease substantially when the active layers exceed ∼100 nm in thickness (because of low crystallinity and a short exciton diffusion length). Herein, we report the use of solvent additive diphenyl ether (DPE) that facilitates the fabrication of thick (180 nm) active layers and triples the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of conventional thienothiophene-co-benzodithiophene polymer (PTB7)-based OPVs from 1.75 to 6.19%. These results demonstrate a PCE 20% higher than those of conventional (PTB7)-based OPV devices using 1,8-diiodooctane. Morphology studies reveal that DPE promotes the formation of nanofibrillar networks and ordered packing of PTB7 in the active layer that facilitate charge transport over longer distances. We further demonstrate that DPE improves the fill factor and photocurrent collection by enhancing the overall optical absorption, reducing the series resistance, and suppressing bimolecular recombination. PMID:27253271

  9. Impact of lubricant additives on the physicochemical properties and activity of three-way catalysts

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Toops, Todd J.; Lance, Michael J.; Qu, Jun; Viola, Michael B; Lewis, Samuel Arthur; Leonard, Donovan N.; Edward W. Hagaman; Xie, Chao

    2016-04-04

    As alternative lubricant anti-wear additives are sought to reduce friction and improve overall fuel economy, it is important that these additives are also compatible with current emissions control catalysts. In the present work, an oil-miscible phosphorous-containing ionic liquid (IL), trihexyltetradecylphosphonium bis(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate ([P66614][DEHP]), is evaluated for its impact on three-way catalysts (TWC) and benchmarked against the industry standard zinc-dialkyl-dithio-phosphate (ZDDP). The TWCs are aged in different scenarios: neat gasoline (no-additive, or NA), gasoline+ZDDP, and gasoline+IL. The aged samples, along with the as received TWC, are characterized through various analytical techniques including catalyst reactivity evaluation in a bench-flow reactor. The temperaturesmore » of 50% conversion (T50) for the ZDDP-aged TWCs increased by 30, 24, and 25 °C for NO, CO, and C3H6, respectively, compared to the no-additive case. Although the IL-aged TWC also increased in T50 for CO and C3H6, it was notably less than ZDDP, 7 and 9 °C, respectively. Additionally, the IL-aged samples had higher water-gas-shift reactivity and oxygen storage capacity than the ZDDP-aged TWC. Characterization of the aged samples indicated the predominant presence of CePO4 in the ZDDP-aged TWC aged by ZDDP, while its formation was retarded in the case of IL where higher levels of AlPO4 is observed. Furthermore, the results in this work indicate that the phosphonium-phosphate IL potentially has less adverse impact on TWC than ZDDP.« less

  10. Performance enhancement with powdered activated carbon (PAC) addition in a membrane bioreactor (MBR) treating distillery effluent.

    PubMed

    Satyawali, Yamini; Balakrishnan, Malini

    2009-10-15

    This work investigated the effect of powdered activated carbon (PAC) addition on the operation of a membrane bioreactor (MBR) treating sugarcane molasses based distillery wastewater (spentwash). The 8L reactor was equipped with a submerged 30 microm nylon mesh filter with 0.05 m(2) filtration area. Detailed characterization of the commercial wood charcoal based PAC was performed before using it in the MBR. The MBR was operated over 200 days at organic loading rates (OLRs) varying from 4.2 to 6.9 kg m(-3)d(-1). PAC addition controlled the reactor foaming during start up and enhanced the critical flux by around 23%; it also prolonged the duration between filter cleaning. Operation at higher loading rates was possible and for a given OLR, the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal was higher with PAC addition. However, biodegradation in the reactor was limited and the high molecular weight compounds were not affected by PAC supplementation. The functional groups on PAC appear to interact with the polysaccharide portion of the sludge, which may reduce its propensity to interact with the nylon mesh. PMID:19467782

  11. Effects of Nutrient Addition on Belowground Stoichiometry and Microbial Activity in an Ombrotrophic Bog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinsonneault, A. J.; Moore, T. R.; Roulet, N. T.

    2015-12-01

    Ombrotrophic bogs are both nutrient-poor systems and important carbon (C) sinks yet there remains a dearth of information on the stoichiometry of C, nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K), an important determinant of substrate quality for microorganisms, in these systems. In this study, we quantified the C, N, P, and K concentrations and stoichiometric ratios of both soil organic matter (SOM) and dissolved organic matter (DOM) as well as microbial extracellular enzyme activity from 0 - 10cm depth in a long-term fertilization experiment at Mer Bleue bog, Ontario, Canada. Though trends in C:N, C:P, and C:K between SOM and DOM seem to follow one another, preliminary results indicate that the stoichiometric ratios of DOM were at least an order of magnitude smaller than those of DOM suggesting that nutrient fertilization impacts the quality of DOM as a microbial substrate to a greater degree than SOM. C:N decreased with greater nitrogen addition but C:P and C:K increased; the magnitude of that increase being smaller in NPK treatments relative to N-only treatments suggesting co-limitation by P and/or K. This is further supported by the increase in activity of both the C-cycling enzyme, β-D-glucosidase (bdG), and the P-cycling enzyme, phosphatase (Phos), with greater nitrogen addition; particularly in NPK-treatments for bdG and N-only treatments for Phos. The activity of the N-cycling enzyme, N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase, and the C-cycling enzyme, phenol oxidase, with greater N-addition suggests a decreased need to breakdown organic nitrogen to meet microbial N-requirements in the former and N-inhibition in the latter consistent with findings in the literature. Taken together, these results suggest that higher levels of nutrients impact both microbial substrate quality as well as the activity of microbial enzymes that are key in the decomposition process which may ultimately decrease the ability of peatlands to sequester carbon.

  12. Active-material additives for high-rate lead/acid batteries: have there been any positive advances?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGregor, K.

    Low positive mass utilization poses a major problem for lead/acid batteries, particularly at high discharge rates, and is one of the major factors that limits the specific energy of the battery. The reasons for the incomplete discharge at high rates are generally ascribed to a combination of various polarization phenomena including: (i) poor acid transport from the bulk of the solution in the interior of the plate, and (ii) a continuous decrease in the conductivity of the plates due to formation of non-conductive PbSO 4. One approach to alleviating these problems is to improve the positive-plate porosity and/or conductivity by the incorporation of additives into the positive active-material. The purpose of this paper is to reew recent work with such additives, and to appraise their effectiveness towards raising battery performance.

  13. Controlling the corrosion and cathodic activation of magnesium via microalloying additions of Ge

    PubMed Central

    Liu, R. L.; Hurley, M. F.; Kvryan, A.; Williams, G.; Scully, J. R.; Birbilis, N.

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of corrosion morphology and kinetics for magnesium (Mg) have been demonstrated to be influenced by cathodic activation, which implies that the rate of the cathodic partial reaction is enhanced as a result of anodic dissolution. This phenomenon was recently demonstrated to be moderated by the use of arsenic (As) alloying as a poison for the cathodic reaction, leading to significantly improved corrosion resistance. The pursuit of alternatives to toxic As is important as a means to imparting a technologically safe and effective corrosion control method for Mg (and its alloys). In this work, Mg was microalloyed with germanium (Ge), with the aim of improving corrosion resistance by retarding cathodic activation. Based on a combined analysis herein, we report that Ge is potent in supressing the cathodic hydrogen evolution reaction (reduction of water) upon Mg, improving corrosion resistance. With the addition of Ge, cathodic activation of Mg subject to cyclic polarisation was also hindered, with beneficial implications for future Mg electrodes. PMID:27350286

  14. Non-Additive Transcriptional Profiles Underlie Dikaryotic Superiority in Pleurotus ostreatus Laccase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Castanera, Raúl; Omarini, Alejandra; Santoyo, Francisco; Pérez, Gúmer; Pisabarro, Antonio G.; Ramírez, Lucía

    2013-01-01

    Background The basidiomycete Pleurotus ostreatus is an efficient producer of laccases, a group of enzymes appreciated for their use in multiple industrial processes. The aim of this study was to reveal the molecular basis of the superiority of laccase production by dikaryotic strains compared to their parental monokaryons. Methodology/Principal Findings We bred and studied a set of dikaryotic strains starting from a meiotic population of monokaryons. We then completely characterised the laccase allelic composition, the laccase gene expression and activity profiles in the dikaryotic strain N001, in two of its meiotic full-sib monokaryons and in the dikaryon formed from their mating. Conclusions/Significance Our results suggested that the dikaryotic superiority observed in laccase activity was due to non-additive transcriptional increases in lacc6 and lacc10 genes. Furthermore, the expression of these genes was divergent in glucose- vs. lignocellulose-supplemented media and was highly correlated to the detected extracellular laccase activity. Moreover, the expression profile of lacc2 in the dikaryotic strains was affected by its allelic composition, indicating a putative single locus heterozygous advantage. PMID:24039902

  15. Controlling the corrosion and cathodic activation of magnesium via microalloying additions of Ge.

    PubMed

    Liu, R L; Hurley, M F; Kvryan, A; Williams, G; Scully, J R; Birbilis, N

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of corrosion morphology and kinetics for magnesium (Mg) have been demonstrated to be influenced by cathodic activation, which implies that the rate of the cathodic partial reaction is enhanced as a result of anodic dissolution. This phenomenon was recently demonstrated to be moderated by the use of arsenic (As) alloying as a poison for the cathodic reaction, leading to significantly improved corrosion resistance. The pursuit of alternatives to toxic As is important as a means to imparting a technologically safe and effective corrosion control method for Mg (and its alloys). In this work, Mg was microalloyed with germanium (Ge), with the aim of improving corrosion resistance by retarding cathodic activation. Based on a combined analysis herein, we report that Ge is potent in supressing the cathodic hydrogen evolution reaction (reduction of water) upon Mg, improving corrosion resistance. With the addition of Ge, cathodic activation of Mg subject to cyclic polarisation was also hindered, with beneficial implications for future Mg electrodes. PMID:27350286

  16. 25 CFR 170.623 - How are IRR Program projects and activities included in a self-governance agreement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... other information required under 25 CFR 1000 subpart K. ... self-governance agreement? 170.623 Section 170.623 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE... self-governance agreement? To include an IRR Program project or activity in a self-governance...

  17. Effects of Leisure Education Programme Including Sportive Activities on Perceived Freedom in Leisure of Adolescents with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ertuzun, Ezgi

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this experimental study is to determine the effect of leisure education programme including sportive activities on the perceived freedom in leisure of adolescents with mild intellectual disabilities. The research was designed with an experimental group (n = 37) and a control group (n = 34), and was conducted among a total of 71…

  18. 25 CFR 170.137 - What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and trails program include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and trails program include? 170.137 Section 170.137 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Indian Reservation Roads Program Policy and Eligibility Recreation, Tourism and Trails...

  19. 25 CFR 170.623 - How are IRR Program projects and activities included in a self-governance agreement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... other information required under 25 CFR 1000 subpart K. ... self-governance agreement? 170.623 Section 170.623 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE... self-governance agreement? To include an IRR Program project or activity in a self-governance...

  20. 25 CFR 170.623 - How are IRR Program projects and activities included in a self-governance agreement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... other information required under 25 CFR 1000 subpart K. ... self-governance agreement? 170.623 Section 170.623 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE... self-governance agreement? To include an IRR Program project or activity in a self-governance...

  1. 25 CFR 170.623 - How are IRR Program projects and activities included in a self-governance agreement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... other information required under 25 CFR 1000 subpart K. ... self-governance agreement? 170.623 Section 170.623 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE... self-governance agreement? To include an IRR Program project or activity in a self-governance...

  2. 25 CFR 170.623 - How are IRR Program projects and activities included in a self-governance agreement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... other information required under 25 CFR 1000 subpart K. ... self-governance agreement? 170.623 Section 170.623 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE... self-governance agreement? To include an IRR Program project or activity in a self-governance...

  3. Ceftaroline versus isolates from animal bite wounds: comparative in vitro activities against 243 isolates, including 156 Pasteurella species isolates.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Ellie J C; Citron, Diane M; Merriam, C Vreni; Tyrrell, Kerin L

    2012-12-01

    More than 5 million Americans are bitten by animals, usually dogs, annually. Bite patients comprise ∼1% of all patients who visit emergency departments (300,000/year), and approximately 10,000 require hospitalization and intravenous antibiotics. Ceftaroline is the bioactive component of the prodrug ceftaroline fosamil, which is FDA approved for the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSIs), including those containing methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). There are no in vitro data about the activity of ceftaroline against Pasteurella multocida subsp. multocida and Pasteurella multocida subsp. septica, other Pasteurella spp., or other bite wound isolates. We therefore studied the in vitro activity of ceftaroline against 243 animal bite isolates. MICs were determined using the broth microdilution method according to CLSI guidelines. Comparator drugs included cefazolin, ceftriaxone, ertapenem, ampicillin-sulbactam, azithromycin, doxycycline, and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (SMX-TMP). Ceftaroline was the most active agent against all 5 Pasteurella species, including P. multocida subsp. multocida and P. multocida subsp. septica, with a maximum MIC of ≤0.008 μg/ml; more active than ceftriaxone and ertapenem (MIC(90)s, ≤0.015 μg/ml); and more active than cefazolin (MIC(90), 0.5 μg/ml) doxycycline (MIC(90), 0.125 μg/ml), azithromycin (MIC(90), 0.5 μg/ml), ampicillin-sulbactam (MIC(90), 0.125 μg/ml), and SMX-TMP (MIC(90), 0.125 μg/ml). Ceftaroline was also very active against all S. aureus isolates (MIC(90), 0.125 μg/ml) and other Staphylococcus and Streptococcus species, with a maximum MIC of 0.125 μg/ml against all bite isolates tested. Ceftaroline has potential clinical utility against infections involving P. multocida, other Pasteurella species, and aerobic Gram-positive isolates, including S. aureus. PMID:23027193

  4. Ceftaroline versus Isolates from Animal Bite Wounds: Comparative In Vitro Activities against 243 Isolates, Including 156 Pasteurella Species Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Citron, Diane M.; Merriam, C. Vreni; Tyrrell, Kerin L.

    2012-01-01

    More than 5 million Americans are bitten by animals, usually dogs, annually. Bite patients comprise ∼1% of all patients who visit emergency departments (300,000/year), and approximately 10,000 require hospitalization and intravenous antibiotics. Ceftaroline is the bioactive component of the prodrug ceftaroline fosamil, which is FDA approved for the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSIs), including those containing methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). There are no in vitro data about the activity of ceftaroline against Pasteurella multocida subsp. multocida and Pasteurella multocida subsp. septica, other Pasteurella spp., or other bite wound isolates. We therefore studied the in vitro activity of ceftaroline against 243 animal bite isolates. MICs were determined using the broth microdilution method according to CLSI guidelines. Comparator drugs included cefazolin, ceftriaxone, ertapenem, ampicillin-sulbactam, azithromycin, doxycycline, and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (SMX-TMP). Ceftaroline was the most active agent against all 5 Pasteurella species, including P. multocida subsp. multocida and P. multocida subsp. septica, with a maximum MIC of ≤0.008 μg/ml; more active than ceftriaxone and ertapenem (MIC90s, ≤0.015 μg/ml); and more active than cefazolin (MIC90, 0.5 μg/ml) doxycycline (MIC90, 0.125 μg/ml), azithromycin (MIC90, 0.5 μg/ml), ampicillin-sulbactam (MIC90, 0.125 μg/ml), and SMX-TMP (MIC90, 0.125 μg/ml). Ceftaroline was also very active against all S. aureus isolates (MIC90, 0.125 μg/ml) and other Staphylococcus and Streptococcus species, with a maximum MIC of 0.125 μg/ml against all bite isolates tested. Ceftaroline has potential clinical utility against infections involving P. multocida, other Pasteurella species, and aerobic Gram-positive isolates, including S. aureus. PMID:23027193

  5. 77 FR 67655 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Food Additive...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-13

    ...) Moderate Category: For a food additive petition without complex chemistry, manufacturing, efficacy, or...) Complex Category: For a food additive petition with complex chemistry, manufacturing, efficacy, and/or... investigational food additive file without complex chemistry, manufacturing, efficacy, or safety issues,...

  6. Switch of SpnR function from activating to inhibiting quorum sensing by its exogenous addition.

    PubMed

    Takayama, Yuriko; Kato, Norihiro

    2016-09-01

    The opportunistic human pathogen Serratia marcescens AS-1 produces the N-hexanoylhomoserine lactone (C6HSL) receptor SpnR, a homologue of LuxR from Vibrio fischeri, which activates pig clusters to produce the antibacterial prodigiosin. In this study, we attempted to artificially regulate quorum sensing (QS) by changing the role of SpnR in N-acylhomoserine lactone (AHL)-mediated QS. SpnR was obtained as a fusion protein tagged with maltose-binding protein (MBP) from overexpression in Escherichia coli, and its specific affinity to C6HSL was demonstrated by quartz crystal microbalance analysis and AHL-bioassay with Chromobacterium violaceum CV026. Prodigiosin production was effectively inhibited by externally added MBP-SpnR in both wild-type AS-1 and the AHL synthase-defective mutant AS-1(ΔspnI). For the mutant, the induced amount of prodigiosin was drastically reduced to approximately 4% with the addition of 18 μM MBP-SpnR to the liquid medium, indicating 81% trapping of C6HSL. A system for inhibiting QS can be constructed by adding exogenous AHL receptor to the culture broth to keep the concentration of free AHL low, whereas intracellular SpnR naturally functions as the activator in response to QS. PMID:27387237

  7. Erythorbyl laurate as a potential food additive with multi-functionalities: Interfacial characteristics and antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Park, Kyung-Min; Lee, Min Joo; Jo, Su-Kyung; Choi, Seung Jun; Lee, JaeHwan; Chang, Pahn-Shick

    2017-01-15

    The interfacial characteristics and antioxidant activities of erythorbyl laurate were investigated to provide information on practical applications as a multi-functional food additive. The critical micelle concentration (CMC) of erythorbyl laurate was 0.101mM and its foam stability was three times (half-life 24.33±0.94h) higher than that of Tween 20 (8.00±1.63h). In free radical scavenging assay, the negligible decrease in EC50 of erythorbyl laurate compared to erythorbic acid manifested that C-5 selective esterification of erythorbic acid with an acyl group (lauric acid) did not reduce the inherent antioxidant activity of the donor (erythorbic acid). Erythorbyl laurate formed lipid peroxides slower (i.e. retarded oxidation) in an emulsion system than did erythorbic acid. The localization of erythorbyl laurate as an emulsifier allowed the antioxidant molecules to be concentrated at the oil-water interface where oxidation is prevalent, which led to more effective retardation of lipid oxidation. PMID:27542455

  8. Enhancing the adsorption of ionic liquids onto activated carbon by the addition of inorganic salts

    PubMed Central

    Neves, Catarina M. S. S.; Lemus, Jesús; Freire, Mara G.; Palomar, Jose; Coutinho, João A. P.

    2014-01-01

    Most ionic liquids (ILs) are either water soluble or present a non-negligible miscibility with water that may cause some harmful effects upon their release into the environment. Among other methods, adsorption of ILs onto activated carbon (AC) has shown to be an effective technique to remove these compounds from aqueous solutions. However, this method has proved to be viable only for hydrophobic ILs rather than for the hydrophilic that, being water soluble, have a larger tendency for contamination. In this context, an alternative approach using the salting-out ability of inorganic salts is here proposed to enhance the adsorption of hydrophilic ILs onto activated carbon. The effect of the concentrations of Na2SO4 on the adsorption of five ILs onto AC was investigated. A wide range of ILs that allow the inspection of the IL cation family (imidazolium- and pyridinium-based) and the anion nature (accounting for its hydrophilicity and fluorination) through the adsorption onto AC was studied. In general, it is shown that the use of Na2SO4 enhances the adsorption of ILs onto AC. In particular, this effect is highly relevant when dealing with hydrophilic ILs that are those that are actually poorly removed by AC. In addition, the COnductor like Screening MOdel for Real Solvents (COSMO-RS) was used aiming at complementing the experimental data obtained. This work contributes with the development of novel methods to remove ILs from water streams aiming at creating “greener” processes. PMID:25516713

  9. Effects of heavy metal and other elemental additives to activated sludge on growth of Eisenia foetida

    SciTech Connect

    Hartenstein, R.; Neuhauser, E.F.; Narahara, A.

    1981-09-01

    The approximate level at which added concentrations of certain elements would cause an activated sludge to induce a toxic effect upon the growth of Eisenia foetida was determined. During 43 trials on sludge samples obtained throughout 1 year of study, earthworms grew from 3 to 10 mg live wt at hatching to 792 mg +- 18% (mean +- C.V.) in 8 weeks, when sludge was 24/sup 0/C and contained no additives. None of several elements commonly used in microbial growth media enhanced the growth rate of the earthworm. At salt concentrations up to about 6.6% on a dry wt basis, none of six anions tested was in and of itself toxic, while five of 15 cations - Co, Hg, Cu, Ni, and Cd - appeared specifically to inhibit growth rate or cause death. Manganese, Cr, and Pb were innocuous even at the highest levels of application - 22,000, 46,000, and 52,000 mg/kg, respectively. Neither the anionic nor cationic component of certain salts, such as NaCl or NH/sub 4/Cl, could be said to inhibit growth, which occurred only at high concentrations of these salts (about 3.3 and/or 6.6%). Below 7 mmho/cm, toxicity could not be correlated with electrolytic conductance, though higher values may help to explain the nonspecific growth inhibitory effects of salts like NaCl and KCl. Nor could toxicity ever be ascribed to hydrogen ion activity, since sludge pH was not altered even at the highest salt dose. It is concluded that except under very extreme conditions, the levels of heavy metals and salts generally found in activated sludges will not have an adverse affect on the growth of E. foetida.

  10. Bifunctional reactivity of amidoximes observed upon nucleophilic addition to metal-activated nitriles.

    PubMed

    Bolotin, Dmitrii S; Demakova, Marina Ya; Novikov, Alexander S; Avdontceva, Margarita S; Kuznetsov, Maxim L; Bokach, Nadezhda A; Kukushkin, Vadim Yu

    2015-04-20

    Treatment of the aromatic nitrile complexes trans-[PtCl2(RC6H4CN)2] (R = p-CF3 NC1, H NC2, o-Cl NC3) with the aryl amidoximes p-R'C6H4C(NH2)=NOH (R' = Me AO1, H AO2, Br AO3, CF3 AO4, NO2 AO5) in all combinations, followed by addition of 1 equiv of AgOTf and then 5 equiv of Et3N, leads to the chelates [PtCl{HN=C(RC6H4)ON=C(C6H4R'-p)NC(RC6H4)═NH}] (1-15; 15 examples; yields 71-88% after column chromatography) derived from the platinum(II)-mediated coupling between metal-activated nitriles and amidoximes. The mechanism of this reaction was studied experimentally by trapping and identification of the reaction intermediates, and it was also investigated theoretically at the DFT level of theory. The combined experimental and theoretical results indicate that the coupling with the nitrile ligands involves both the HON and monodeprotonated NH2 groups of the amidoximes, whereas in the absence of the base, the NH2 functionality is inactive toward the coupling. The observed reaction represents the first example of bifunctional nucleophilic behavior of amidoximes. The complexes 1-16 were characterized by elemental analyses (C, H, N), high-resolution ESI(+)-MS, FTIR, and (1)H NMR techniques, whereas unstable 17 was characterized by HRESI(+)-MS and FTIR. In addition, 8·C4H8O2, 12, and 16·CHCl3 were studied by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. PMID:25822628

  11. Chitosan-Based Film of Tyrothricin for Enhanced Antimicrobial Activity against Common Skin Pathogens Including Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Han, Sang Duk; Sung, Hyun Jung; Lee, Ga Hyeon; Jun, Joon-Ho; Son, Miwon; Kang, Myung Joo

    2016-05-28

    Chitosan-based film-forming gel is regarded as a promising vehicle for topical delivery of antimicrobial agents to skin wounds, since it protects from microbial infection and the cationic polymer itself possesses antibacterial activity. In this study, possible synergistic interaction against common skin pathogens between the cationic polymer and tyrothricin (TRC), a cyclic polypeptide antibiotic, was investigated, by determining the concentration to inhibit 90% of bacterial isolates (MIC). The addition of the polysaccharide to TRC dramatically reduced the MIC values of TRC by 1/33 and 1/4 against both methicillin-resistant and methicillinsusceptible Staphylococcus aureus, respectively. The synergism of TRC and chitosan combination against both strains was demonstrated by the checkerboard method, with a fractional inhibitory concentration index below 0.5. Moreover, co-treatment of TRC and chitosan exhibited antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, due to the antibacterial activity of chitosan, whereas TRC itself did not inhibit the gram-negative bacterial growth. These findings suggested that the use of chitosan-based film for topical delivery of TRC could be an alternative to improve TRC antimicrobial activity against strains that are abundant in skin wounds. PMID:26907760

  12. Biochemical analyses of the antioxidative activity and chemical ingredients in eight different Allium alien monosomic addition lines.

    PubMed

    Yaguchi, Shigenori; Matsumoto, Misato; Date, Rie; Harada, Kazuki; Maeda, Toshimichi; Yamauchi, Naoki; Shigyo, Masayoshi

    2013-01-01

    We measured the antioxidant contents and antioxidative activities in eight Allium fistulosum-shallot monosomic addition lines (MAL; FF+1A-FF+8A). The high antioxidative activity lines (FF+2A and FF+6A) showed high polyphenol accumulation. These additional chromosomes (2A and 6A) would therefore have anonymous genes related to the upregulation of polyphenol production, the antioxidative activities consequently being increased in these MALs. PMID:24317054

  13. Combined analysis of passive and active seismic measurements using additional geologic data for the determination of shallow subsurface structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horstmann, Tobias; Brüstle, Andrea; Spies, Thomas; Schlittenhardt, Jörg; Schmidt, Bernd

    2016-04-01

    A detailed knowledge of subsurface structure is essential for geotechnical projects and local seismic hazard analyses. Passive seismic methods like microtremor measurements are widely used in geotechnical practice, but limitations and developments are still in focus of scientific discussion. The presentation outlines microtremor measurements in the context of microzonation in the scale of districts or small communities. H/V measurements are used to identify zones with similar underground properties. Subsequently a shear wave velocity (Vs) depth profile for each zone is determined by array measurements at selected sites. To reduce possible uncertainties in dispersion curve analyses of passive array measurements and ambiguities within the inversion process, we conducted an additional active seismic experiment and included available geological information. The presented work is realized in the framework of the research project MAGS2 ("Microseismic Activity of Geothermal Systems") and deals with the determination of seismic hazard analysis at sites near deep geothermal power plants in Germany. The measurements were conducted in the Upper Rhine Graben (URG) and the Bavarian molasses, where geothermal power plants are in operation. The results of the H/V- and array-measurements in the region of Landau (URG) are presented and compared to known geological-tectonic structures. The H/V measurements show several zones with similar H/V-curves which indicate homogenous underground properties. Additionally to the passive seismic measurements an active refraction experiment was performed and evaluated using the MASW method („Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves") to strengthen the determination of shear-wave-velocity depth profile. The dispersion curves for Rayleigh-waves of the active experiment support the Rayleigh-dispersion curves from passive measurements and therefore provide a valuable supplement. Furthermore, the Rayleigh-wave ellipticity was calculated to reduce

  14. Active metal-matrix composites with embedded smart materials by ultrasonic additive manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahnlen, Ryan; Dapino, Marcelo J.

    2010-04-01

    This paper presents the development of active aluminum-matrix composites manufactured by Ultrasonic Additive Manufacturing (UAM), an emerging rapid prototyping process based on ultrasonic metal welding. Composites created through this process experience temperatures as low as 25 °C during fabrication, in contrast to current metal-matrix fabrication processes which require temperatures of 500 °C and above. UAM thus provides unprecedented opportunities to develop adaptive structures with seamlessly embedded smart materials and electronic components without degrading the properties that make these materials and components attractive. This research focuses on developing UAM composites with aluminum matrices and embedded shape memory NiTi, magnetostrictive Galfenol, and electroactive PVDF phases. The research on these composites will focus on: (i) electrical insulation between NiTi and Al phases for strain sensors, investigation and modeling of NiTi-Al composites as tunable stiffness materials and thermally invariant structures based on the shape memory effect; (ii) process development and composite testing for Galfenol-Al composites; and (iii) development of PVDF-Al composites for embedded sensing applications. We demonstrate a method to electrically insulate embedded materials from the UAM matrix, the ability create composites containing up to 22.3% NiTi, and their resulting dimensional stability and thermal actuation characteristics. Also demonstrated is Galfenol-Al composite magnetic actuation of up to 54 μ(see manuscript), and creation of a PVDF-Al composite sensor.

  15. Site-directed mutagenesis of tobacco anionic peroxidase: Effect of additional aromatic amino acids on stability and activity.

    PubMed

    Poloznikov, A A; Zakharova, G S; Chubar, T A; Hushpulian, D M; Tishkov, V I; Gazaryan, I G

    2015-08-01

    Tobacco anionic peroxidase (TOP) is known to effectively catalyze luminol oxidation without enhancers, in contrast to horseradish peroxidase (HRP). To pursue structure-activity relationship studies for TOP, two amino acids have been chosen for mutation, namely Thr151, close to the heme plane, and Phe140 at the entrance to the active site pocket. Three mutant forms TOP F140Y, T151W and F140Y/T151W have been expressed in Escherichia coli, and reactivated to yield active enzymes. Single-point mutations introducing additional aromatic amino acid residues at the surface of TOP exhibit a significant effect on the enzyme catalytic activity and stability as judged by the results of steady-state and transient kinetics studies. TOP T151W is up to 4-fold more active towards a number of aromatic substrates including luminol, whereas TOP F140Y is 2-fold more stable against thermal inactivation and 8-fold more stable in the reaction course. These steady-state observations have been rationalized with the help of transient kinetic studies on the enzyme reaction with hydrogen peroxide in a single turnover regime. The stopped-flow data reveal (a) an increased stability of F140Y Compound I towards hydrogen peroxide, and thus, a higher operational stability as compared to the wild-type enzyme, and (b) a lesser leakage of oxidative equivalents from TOP T151W Compound I resulting in the increased catalytic activity. The results obtained show that TOP unique properties can be further improved for practical applications by site-directed mutagenesis. PMID:25957835

  16. The effect of small additional elements on the precipitation of reduced activation Fe9Cr2W steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibayama, T.; Kimura, A.; Kayano, H.

    1996-10-01

    In order to study effects of small additional elements on precipitation of reduced activation Fe9Cr2W steels were irradiated up to 60 dpa at 693 K, 698 K and 733 K in FFTF. Micro-voids were observed in both materials of Fe9Cr2W with or without boron, the density of micro-voids in the steel with boron is larger than without boron, and the mean size of micro-voids is smaller than that without boron. However void swelling was less than 1%. Many precipitates were found to be M 23C 6 which consists of mainly Cr. Several precipitates which were Ti rich including Si and W were also observed at grain boundary at 733 K. Several Y 2O 3 particles was observed in an yttrium containing alloy. No precipitation including Al was observed in an Al containing alloy. Ti addition decreased precipitation of Ta-rich M 6C in 9Cr and 12Cr steels in this irradiation condition.

  17. 75 FR 77645 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Color Additive...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-13

    ... Collection; Comment Request; Color Additive Certification Requests and Recordkeeping AGENCY: Food and Drug... certification of color additives manufactured for use in foods, drugs, cosmetics or medical devices in the... of information technology. Color Additive Certification Requests and Recordkeeping--21 CFR Part...

  18. Placental cadmium as an additional noninvasive bioindicator of active maternal tobacco smoking.

    PubMed

    Piasek, Martina; Jurasović, Jasna; Sekovanić, Ankica; Brajenović, Nataša; Brčić Karačonji, Irena; Mikolić, Anja; Grgec, Antonija Sulimanec; Stasenko, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Tobacco smoke (TS) is a mixture of chemicals that is known to exert carcinogenic and endocrine-disrupting effects, as well as adverse effects on various systems. In TS nicotine is the major alkaloid and cadmium (Cd) the most abundant metal ion. The aim of this investigation was to assess exposure to Cd attributed to TS in healthy postpartum subjects (mean age 28 years) after term vaginal delivery in a clinical hospital by determining metal levels in maternal blood, placenta, and cord blood in relation to nicotine in maternal hair (12-cm-long samples). Two study groups were compared based upon self-reporting data: smokers (n = 32; continual cigarette smoking 3 months before and 9 months during pregnancy) and nonsmokers (n = 54; including passive smokers whose parameters did not differ from unexposed nonsmokers). In smokers compared to nonsmokers maternal hair nicotine concentrations increased approximately sevenfold, while Cd levels rose fourfold in maternal blood and up to twofold in placenta. Significant positive correlations were noted between maternal hair nicotine and placental Cd, maternal hair nicotine and maternal blood Cd, and placental Cd and maternal blood Cd. Levels of cord blood Cd were low in both study groups (<0.1 ng/ml). Data indicate that Cd in placenta may serve as a noninvasive bioindicator in addition to commonly used noninvasive hair nicotine in maternal TS assessment, especially in cases where unavailable or inappropriate (short or chemically treated) hair samples occur. PMID:27210017

  19. Activity of Eravacycline against Enterobacteriaceae and Acinetobacter baumannii, Including Multidrug-Resistant Isolates, from New York City

    PubMed Central

    Abdallah, Marie; Olafisoye, Olawole; Cortes, Christopher; Urban, Carl; Landman, David

    2014-01-01

    Eravacycline demonstrated in vitro activity against a contemporary collection of more than 4,000 Gram-negative pathogens from New York City hospitals, with MIC50/MIC90 values, respectively, for Escherichia coli of 0.12/0.5 μg/ml, Klebsiella pneumoniae of 0.25/1 μg/ml, Enterobacter aerogenes of 0.25/1 μg/ml, Enterobacter cloacae 0.5/1 μg/ml, and Acinetobacter baumannii of 0.5/1 μg/ml. Activity was retained against multidrug-resistant isolates, including those expressing KPC and OXA carbapenemases. For A. baumannii, eravacycline MICs correlated with increased expression of the adeB gene. PMID:25534744

  20. Applying the Model of Goal-Directed Behavior, Including Descriptive Norms, to Physical Activity Intentions: A Contribution to Improving the Theory of Planned Behavior.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Gabriele; van Bavel, René; Baranowski, Tom; Duch-Brown, Néstor

    2016-08-01

    The theory of planned behavior (TPB) has received its fair share of criticism lately, including calls for it to retire. We contribute to improving the theory by testing extensions such as the model of goal-directed behavior (MGDB, which adds desire and anticipated positive and negative emotions) applied to physical activity (PA) intention. We also test the inclusion of a descriptive norms construct as an addition to the subjective norms construct, also applied to PA, resulting in two additional models: TPB including descriptive norms (TPB + DN) and MGDB including descriptive norms (MGDB + DN). The study is based on an online survey of 400 young adult Internet users, previously enrolled in a subject pool. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) showed that TPB and TPB + DN were not fit for purpose, while MGDB and MGDB + DN were. Structural equation modelling (SEM) conducted on MGDB and MGDB + DN showed that the inclusion of descriptive norms took over the significance of injunctive norms, and increased the model's account of total variance in intention to be physically active. PMID:27229344

  1. Modified agar dilution susceptibility testing method for determining in vitro activities of antifungal agents, including azole compounds.

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, T; Jono, K; Okonogi, K

    1997-01-01

    In vitro activities of antifungal agents, including azole compounds, against yeasts were easily determined by using RPMI-1640 agar medium and by incubating the plates in the presence of 20% CO2. The end point of inhibition was clear by this method, even in the case of azole compounds, because of the almost complete inhibition of yeast growth at high concentrations which permitted weak growth of some Candida strains by traditional methods. MICs obtained by the agar dilution method were similar to those obtained by the broth dilution method proposed by the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards. PMID:9174197

  2. Maps showing mines, quarries, oil and gas activity, and sample localities in and near the Sipsey Wilderness and additions, Lawrence and Winston Counties, Alabama

    SciTech Connect

    Mory, P.C.; Behum, P.T.; Ross, R.B. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    This report presents the results of a mineral survey of the Sipsey Wilderness and additions, William B. Bankhead National Forest, Lawrence and Winston Counties, Alabama. The survey includes: limestone quarrying, coal mining, and oil and gas activity. 7 references, 5 figures, 2 tables.

  3. Increasing resource allocation and research into tobacco control activities: a comprehensive approach including primary prevention, treatment and brief intervention.

    PubMed

    Richmond, R

    1993-01-01

    The range of tobacco control activities should be viewed as essential parts of a complex multi-component puzzle. Intervention strategies designed to address tobacco control should be comprehensive and include both primary and secondary prevention activities and be multi-faceted and capable of bringing about change at both the individual and broader social and cultural levels. In this paper I argue for a mutually inclusive framework in which the various components contribute in important and different ways. I examine the prevalence of smoking and identify the high risk groups, then I examine the range of available strategies and present the evidence for their success. I discuss the primary prevention approaches such as warning labels, taxes, price increases, workplace bans, education in schools, mass media and self-help materials, as well as brief interventions and treatment strategies which are conducted at the worksite, general practice and specialized cessation clinics. The areas for future research are delineated for increased resource allocation and include: the best ways to disseminate brief interventions to smokers, methods to motivate smokers; training of health professionals to deliver brief interventions; enhancing quitting and access to existing treatment resources among specific disadvantaged minority groups, e.g. migrants, unemployed youth, the effect on smoking prevalence of warning labels on cigarette packets and price rises on cigarettes. PMID:16818330

  4. An Antimicrobial Metabolite from Bacillus sp.: Significant Activity Against Pathogenic Bacteria Including Multidrug-Resistant Clinical Strains

    PubMed Central

    Chalasani, Ajay G.; Dhanarajan, Gunaseelan; Nema, Sushma; Sen, Ramkrishna; Roy, Utpal

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the cell free modified tryptone soya broth (pH 7.4 ± 0.2) of Bacillus subtilis URID 12.1 showed significant antimicrobial activity against multidrug-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, Streptococcus pyogenes and Enterococcus faecalis. The partially purified antimicrobial molecule was found to be resistant to extremes of pH and temperatures and also to higher concentrations of trypsin and proteinase K. The antimicrobial molecule was purified by a three-step method that included reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were determined for 14 species of bacteria using a microbroth dilution technique. The HPLC-purified fraction showed the MICs ranging from 0.5 to 16 μg/ml for methicillin and vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MVRSA) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE) strains. The molecular mass of the antimicrobial compound was determined to be 842.37 Da. The same antimicrobial fraction showed negligible haemolytic activity against human red blood cells even at a concentration as high as 100 μg/ml. Because of its significant antimicrobial activity at low MIC values coupled with its non-haemolytic property, it may prove to be a novel antimicrobial lead molecule. PMID:26696963

  5. Lewis base activation of Lewis acids. Catalytic enantioselective addition of silyl enol ethers of achiral methyl ketones to aldehydes.

    PubMed

    Denmark, Scott E; Heemstra, John R

    2003-06-26

    A highly enantioselective addition of silyl enol ethers derived from simple methyl ketones is described. The catalyst system of silicon tetrachloride activated by a chiral bisphosphoramide (R,R)-7 effectively promotes the addition of a variety of unsubstituted silyl enol ethers to aromatic, olefinic, and heteroaromatic aldehydes in excellent yield. [reaction: see text] PMID:12816434

  6. 40 CFR 260.40 - Additional regulation of certain hazardous waste recycling activities on a case-by-case basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Additional regulation of certain hazardous waste recycling activities on a case-by-case basis. 260.40 Section 260.40 Protection of... SYSTEM: GENERAL Rulemaking Petitions § 260.40 Additional regulation of certain hazardous waste...

  7. 40 CFR 260.40 - Additional regulation of certain hazardous waste recycling activities on a case-by-case basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Additional regulation of certain hazardous waste recycling activities on a case-by-case basis. 260.40 Section 260.40 Protection of... SYSTEM: GENERAL Rulemaking Petitions § 260.40 Additional regulation of certain hazardous waste...

  8. 40 CFR 260.40 - Additional regulation of certain hazardous waste recycling activities on a case-by-case basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Additional regulation of certain hazardous waste recycling activities on a case-by-case basis. 260.40 Section 260.40 Protection of... SYSTEM: GENERAL Rulemaking Petitions § 260.40 Additional regulation of certain hazardous waste...

  9. 40 CFR 260.40 - Additional regulation of certain hazardous waste recycling activities on a case-by-case basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Additional regulation of certain hazardous waste recycling activities on a case-by-case basis. 260.40 Section 260.40 Protection of... SYSTEM: GENERAL Rulemaking Petitions § 260.40 Additional regulation of certain hazardous waste...

  10. 40 CFR 260.40 - Additional regulation of certain hazardous waste recycling activities on a case-by-case basis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Additional regulation of certain hazardous waste recycling activities on a case-by-case basis. 260.40 Section 260.40 Protection of... SYSTEM: GENERAL Rulemaking Petitions § 260.40 Additional regulation of certain hazardous waste...

  11. Bacterial biodegradation of melamine-contaminated aged soil: influence of different pre-culture media or addition of activation material.

    PubMed

    Hatakeyama, Takashi; Takagi, Kazuhiro

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to investigate the biodegrading potential of Arthrobacter sp. MCO, Arthrobacter sp. CSP, and Nocardioides sp. ATD6 in melamine-contaminated upland soil (melamine: approx. 10.5 mg/kg dry weight) after 30 days of incubation. The soil sample used in this study had undergone annual treatment of lime nitrogen, which included melamine; it was aged for more than 10 years in field. When R2A broth was used as the pre-culture medium, Arthrobacter sp. MCO could degrade 55 % of melamine after 30 days of incubation, but the other strains could hardly degrade melamine (approximately 25 %). The addition of trimethylglycine (betaine) in soil as an activation material enhanced the degradation rate of melamine by each strain; more than 50 % of melamine was degraded by all strains after 30 days of incubation. In particular, strain MCO could degrade 72 % of melamine. When the strains were pre-cultured in R2A broth containing melamine, the degradation rate of melamine in soil increased remarkably. The highest (72 %) melamine degradation rate was noted when strain MCO was used with betaine addition. PMID:27080407

  12. Modeling the Effect of External Carbon Source Addition under Different Electron Acceptor Conditions in Biological Nutrient Removal Activated Sludge Systems.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiang; Wisniewski, Kamil; Czerwionka, Krzysztof; Zhou, Qi; Xie, Li; Makinia, Jacek

    2016-02-16

    The aim of this study was to expand the International Water Association Activated Sludge Model No. 2d (ASM2d) to predict the aerobic/anoxic behavior of polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs) and "ordinary" heterotrophs in the presence of different external carbon sources and electron acceptors. The following new aspects were considered: (1) a new type of the readily biodegradable substrate, not available for the anaerobic activity of PAOs, (2) nitrite as an electron acceptor, and (3) acclimation of "ordinary" heterotrophs to the new external substrate via enzyme synthesis. The expanded model incorporated 30 new or modified process rate equations. The model was evaluated against data from several, especially designed laboratory experiments which focused on the combined effects of different types of external carbon sources (acetate, ethanol and fusel oil) and electron acceptors (dissolved oxygen, nitrate and nitrite) on the behavior of PAOs and "ordinary" heterotrophs. With the proposed expansions, it was possible to improve some deficiencies of the ASM2d in predicting the behavior of biological nutrient removal (BNR) systems with the addition of external carbon sources, including the effect of acclimation to the new carbon source. PMID:26783836

  13. 34 CFR 412.30 - What additional activities must be carried out by Curriculum Coordination Centers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... activities: (a) Assist States in the development, adaptation, adoption, dissemination, and use of curriculum... regional CCC meetings; and (7) Fostering adoption and adaptations of materials available through the...

  14. 34 CFR 412.30 - What additional activities must be carried out by Curriculum Coordination Centers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... activities: (a) Assist States in the development, adaptation, adoption, dissemination, and use of curriculum... regional CCC meetings; and (7) Fostering adoption and adaptations of materials available through the...

  15. 34 CFR 412.30 - What additional activities must be carried out by Curriculum Coordination Centers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... activities: (a) Assist States in the development, adaptation, adoption, dissemination, and use of curriculum... regional CCC meetings; and (7) Fostering adoption and adaptations of materials available through the...

  16. 34 CFR 412.30 - What additional activities must be carried out by Curriculum Coordination Centers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... activities: (a) Assist States in the development, adaptation, adoption, dissemination, and use of curriculum... regional CCC meetings; and (7) Fostering adoption and adaptations of materials available through the...

  17. 34 CFR 412.30 - What additional activities must be carried out by Curriculum Coordination Centers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... activities: (a) Assist States in the development, adaptation, adoption, dissemination, and use of curriculum... regional CCC meetings; and (7) Fostering adoption and adaptations of materials available through the...

  18. Valuation of OSA process and folic acid addition as excess sludge minimization alternatives applied in the activated sludge process.

    PubMed

    Martins, C L; Velho, V F; Ramos, S R A; Pires, A S C D; Duarte, E C N F A; Costa, R H R

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of the oxic-settling-anaerobic (OSA)-process and the folic acid addition applied in the activated sludge process to reduce the excess sludge production. The study was monitored during two distinct periods: activated sludge system with OSA-process, and activated sludge system with folic acid addition. The observed sludge yields (Yobs) were 0.30 and 0.08 kgTSS kg(-1) chemical oxygen demand (COD), control phase and OSA-process (period 1); 0.33 and 0.18 kgTSS kg(-1) COD, control phase and folic acid addition (period 2). The Yobs decreased by 73 and 45% in phases with the OSA-process and folic acid addition, respectively, compared with the control phases. The sludge minimization alternatives result in a decrease in excess sludge production, without negatively affecting the performance of the effluent treatment. PMID:26901714

  19. Antimicrobial characterisation of CEM-101 activity against respiratory tract pathogens, including multidrug-resistant pneumococcal serogroup 19A isolates.

    PubMed

    Farrell, David J; Sader, Helio S; Castanheira, Mariana; Biedenbach, Douglas J; Rhomberg, Paul R; Jones, Ronald N

    2010-06-01

    CEM-101 is a novel fluorinated macrolide-ketolide with potent activity against bacterial pathogens that are susceptible or resistant to other macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B (MLS(B))-ketolide agents. CEM-101 is being developed for oral and parenteral use in moderate to moderately severe community-acquired bacterial pneumonia. The objective of this study was to assess the activity of CEM-101 and comparators against contemporary respiratory tract infection (RTI) isolates. A worldwide sample of organisms was used, including Streptococcus pneumoniae [n=168; 59.3% erythromycin-resistant and 18 multidrug-resistant (MDR) serogroup 19A strains], Moraxella catarrhalis (n=21; 11 beta-lactamase positive), Haemophilus influenzae (n=100; 48 beta-lactamase positive), Haemophilus parainfluenzae and Haemophilus haemolyticus (n=12), and Legionella pneumophila (n=30). Testing and interpretation were performed using reference Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute methods. CEM-101 was very potent against S. pneumoniae [minimum inhibitory concentration for 90% of the organisms (MIC90)=0.25 mg/L; highest MIC at 0.5 mg/L] and was 2- and > or =32-fold more active than telithromycin and clindamycin, respectively. CEM-101 also demonstrated potent activity against S. pneumoniae MDR-19A strains (MIC90=0.5 mg/L). CEM-101 was the most potent antimicrobial agent tested against L. pneumophila, with all MIC values at < or = 0.015 mg/L (telithromycin MIC90=0.03 mg/L). CEM-101 was as potent as azithromycin against Haemophilus spp. RTI pathogens (MIC90=2 mg/L), with no variations for beta-lactamase production. CEM-101 MIC values against M. catarrhalis were all at < or =0.5mg/L. Interestingly, CEM-101 potency was ca. 6 log(2) dilutions greater than telithromycin MIC results among 44 beta-haemolytic streptococci having telithromycin MICs > or = 2 mg/L. CEM-101 exhibited the greatest potency and widest spectrum of activity against RTI pathogens among the tested MLS(B)-ketolide agents

  20. Responses of soil microbial communities and enzyme activities to nitrogen and phosphorus additions in Chinese fir plantations of subtropical China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, W. Y.; Zhang, X. Y.; Liu, X. Y.; Fu, X. L.; Chen, F. S.; Wang, H. M.; Sun, X. M.; Wen, X. F.

    2015-07-01

    Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) additions to forest ecosystems are known to influence various above-ground properties, such as plant productivity and composition, and below-ground properties, such as soil nutrient cycling. However, our understanding of how soil microbial communities and their functions respond to nutrient additions in subtropical plantations is still not complete. In this study, we added N and P to Chinese fir plantations in subtropical China to examine how nutrient additions influenced soil microbial community composition and enzyme activities. The results showed that most soil microbial properties were responsive to N and/or P additions, but responses often varied depending on the nutrient added and the quantity added. For instance, there were more than 30 % greater increases in the activities of β-Glucosidase (βG) and N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) in the treatments that received nutrient additions compared to the control plot, whereas acid phosphatase (aP) activity was always higher (57 and 71 %, respectively) in the P treatment. N and P additions greatly enhanced the PLFA abundanceespecially in the N2P treatment, the bacterial PLFAs (bacPLFAs), fungal PLFAs (funPLFAs) and actinomycic PLFAs (actPLFAs) were about 2.5, 3 and 4 times higher, respectively, than in the CK. Soil enzyme activities were noticeably higher in November than in July, mainly due to seasonal differences in soil moisture content (SMC). βG or NAG activities were significantly and positively correlated with microbial PLFAs. There were also significant relationships between gram-positive (G+) bacteria and all three soil enzymes. These findings indicate that G+ bacteria is the most important microbial community in C, N, and P transformations in Chinese fir plantations, and that βG and NAG would be useful tools for assessing the biogeochemical transformation and metabolic activity of soil microbes. We recommend combined additions of N and P fertilizer to promote soil

  1. Responses of soil microbial communities and enzyme activities to nitrogen and phosphorus additions in Chinese fir plantations of subtropical China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, W. Y.; Zhang, X. Y.; Liu, X. Y.; Fu, X. L.; Chen, F. S.; Wang, H. M.; Sun, X. M.; Wen, X. F.

    2015-09-01

    Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) additions to forest ecosystems are known to influence various above-ground properties, such as plant productivity and composition, and below-ground properties, such as soil nutrient cycling. However, our understanding of how soil microbial communities and their functions respond to nutrient additions in subtropical plantations is still not complete. In this study, we added N and P to Chinese fir plantations in subtropical China to examine how nutrient additions influenced soil microbial community composition and enzyme activities. The results showed that most soil microbial properties were responsive to N and/or P additions, but responses often varied depending on the nutrient added and the quantity added. For instance, there were more than 30 % greater increases in the activities of β-glucosidase (βG) and N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) in the treatments that received nutrient additions compared to the control plot, whereas acid phosphatase (aP) activity was always higher (57 and 71 %, respectively) in the P treatment. N and P additions greatly enhanced the phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) abundance especially in the N2P (100 kg ha-1 yr-1 of N +50 kg ha-1 yr-1 of P) treatment; the bacterial PLFAs (bacPLFAs), fungal PLFAs (funPLFAs) and actinomycic PLFAs (actPLFAs) were about 2.5, 3 and 4 times higher, respectively, than in the CK (control). Soil enzyme activities were noticeably higher in November than in July, mainly due to seasonal differences in soil moisture content (SMC). βG or NAG activities were significantly and positively correlated with microbial PLFAs. These findings indicate that βG and NAG would be useful tools for assessing the biogeochemical transformation and metabolic activity of soil microbes. We recommend combined additions of N and P fertilizer to promote soil fertility and microbial activity in this kind of plantation.

  2. Lewis base activation of Lewis acids: catalytic, enantioselective vinylogous aldol addition reactions.

    PubMed

    Denmark, Scott E; Heemstra, John R

    2007-07-20

    The generality of Lewis base catalyzed, Lewis acid mediated, enantioselective vinylogous aldol addition reactions has been investigated. The combination of silicon tetrachloride and chiral phosphoramides is a competent catalyst for highly selective additions of a variety of alpha,beta-unsaturated ketone-, 1,3-diketone-, and alpha,beta-unsaturated amide-derived dienolates to aldehydes. These reactions provided high levels of gamma-site selectivity for a variety of substitution patterns on the dienyl unit. Both ketone- and morpholine amide-derived dienol ethers afforded high enantio- and diastereoselectivity in the addition to conjugated aldehydes. Although alpha,beta-unsaturated ketone-derived dienolate did not react with aliphatic aldehydes, alpha,beta-unsaturated amide-derived dienolates underwent addition at reasonable rates affording high yields of vinylogous aldol product. The enantioselectivities achieved with the morpholine derived-dienolate in the addition to aliphatic aldehydes was the highest afforded to date with the silicon tetrachloride-chiral phosphoramide system. Furthermore, the ability to cleanly convert the morpholine amide to a methyl ketone was demonstrated. PMID:17583959

  3. 34 CFR 694.23 - What additional activities are allowable for State GEAR UP projects?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... education, which may include the development of graduation and career plans. (e) Disseminating information... associate's or a bachelor's degree), including school designs that give students early exposure to college-level courses and experiences and allow students to earn transferable college credits or an...

  4. 34 CFR 694.23 - What additional activities are allowable for State GEAR UP projects?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... education, which may include the development of graduation and career plans. (e) Disseminating information... associate's or a bachelor's degree), including school designs that give students early exposure to college-level courses and experiences and allow students to earn transferable college credits or an...

  5. 34 CFR 694.23 - What additional activities are allowable for State GEAR UP projects?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... education, which may include the development of graduation and career plans. (e) Disseminating information... associate's or a bachelor's degree), including school designs that give students early exposure to college-level courses and experiences and allow students to earn transferable college credits or an...

  6. 34 CFR 694.23 - What additional activities are allowable for State GEAR UP projects?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... education, which may include the development of graduation and career plans. (e) Disseminating information... associate's or a bachelor's degree), including school designs that give students early exposure to college-level courses and experiences and allow students to earn transferable college credits or an...

  7. Viscosity of sodium-borate melts containing mechanically activated REM oxide additions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryabov, V. V.; Istomin, S. A.; Khokhryakov, A. A.; Ivanov, A. V.; Paivin, A. S.

    2015-08-01

    The viscosity of sodium-borate melts containing 1 wt % mechanically activated lanthanide group REM oxide is measured in the temperature range 950-1650 K using an oscillating viscometer. The dependences of the viscosity on temperature and composition are determined. The logarithmic dependences have high- and low-temperature portions with different viscous flow activation energies. It is found that the melt structure changes as a function of composition and temperature.

  8. Effect of powdered activated carbon (PAC) on MBR performance and effluent trihalomethane formation: At the initial stage of PAC addition.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yue; Ma, Defang; Yue, Qinyan; Gao, Baoyu; Huang, Xia

    2016-09-01

    In this study, the MBR was used to treat municipal wastewater for reuse. Effects of powdered activated carbon (PAC) addition on MBR system in terms of effluent water quality, trihalomethane (THM) formation and membrane organic fouling tendency of MBR sludge supernatant at the initial stage of PAC addition were investigated. Effects of chlorine dose and contact time on THM formation and speciation were also studied. PAC addition enhanced the removal of organic matters, especially aromatic components, which improved the UV254 removal rate from 34% to 83%. PAC addition greatly reduced the membrane organic fouling tendency of MBR sludge supernatant. PAC addition reduced the MBR effluent trihalomethane formation potential (THMFP) from 351.29 to 241.95μg/L, while increased THM formation reactivity by 42%. PAC addition enhanced the formation of higher toxic bromine-containing THMs. High chlorine dose and contact time resulted in higher THM formation but lower proportion of bromine-containing THMs. PMID:27318162

  9. Activation and stabilization of the hydroperoxide lyase enzymatic extract from mint leaves (Mentha spicata) using selected chemical additives.

    PubMed

    Akacha, Najla B; Karboune, Salwa; Gargouri, Mohamed; Kermasha, Selim

    2010-03-01

    The effects of selected lyoprotecting excipients and chemical additives on the specific activity and the thermal stability of the hydroperoxide lyase (HPL) enzymatic extract from mint leaves were investigated. The addition of KCl (5%, w/w) and dextran (2.5%, w/w) to the enzymatic extract, prior to lyophilization, increased the HPL specific activity by 2.0- and 1.2-fold, respectively, compared to the control lyophilized extract. From half-life time (t (1/2)), it can be seen that KCl has enhanced the HPL stability by 1.3- to 2.3-fold, during long-period storage at -20 degrees Celsius and 4 degrees Celsius. Among the selected additives used throughout this study, glycine appeared to be the most effective one. In addition to the activation effect conferred by glycine, it also enhanced the HPL thermal stability. In contrast, polyhydroxyl-containing additives were not effective for stabilizing the HPL enzymatic extract. On the other hand, there was no signification increase in HPL activity and its thermal stability with the presence of Triton X-100. The results also showed that in the presence of glycine (10%), the catalytic efficiency of HPL was increased by 2.45-fold than that without additive. PMID:19430937

  10. 78 FR 52803 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Additional...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-26

    ... on April 9, 2013 (78 FR 21159). OMB authorization for an ICR cannot be for more than three (3) years...; Additional Information Collection Requirements for Special Dipping and Coating Operations ACTION: Notice... Requirements for Special Dipping and Coating Operations,'' to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB)...

  11. NUCLEOPHILIC ADDITION TO ACTIVATED DOUBLE BONDS: PREDICTION OF REACTIVITY FROM THE LAPLACIAN OF CHARGE DENSITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The reactivities of a series of molecules in a Michael addition reaction are analyzed on the basis of properties expressed in the Laplacian of the charge density distribution. he charge densities of structurally optimized acrylic acid (AA), methacrylic acid (MAA), acrylonitrile (...

  12. Studies on the Food Additive Propyl Gallate: Synthesis, Structural Characterization, and Evaluation of the Antioxidant Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrido, Jorge; Garrido, E. Manuela; Borges, Fernanda

    2012-01-01

    Antioxidants are additives largely used in industry for delaying, retarding, or preventing the development of oxidative deterioration. Propyl gallate (E310) is a phenolic antioxidant extensively used in the food, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical industries. A series of lab experiments have been developed to teach students about the importance and…

  13. Insulin analog with additional disulfide bond has increased stability and preserved activity.

    PubMed

    Vinther, Tine N; Norrman, Mathias; Ribel, Ulla; Huus, Kasper; Schlein, Morten; Steensgaard, Dorte B; Pedersen, Thomas Å; Pettersson, Ingrid; Ludvigsen, Svend; Kjeldsen, Thomas; Jensen, Knud J; Hubálek, František

    2013-03-01

    Insulin is a key hormone controlling glucose homeostasis. All known vertebrate insulin analogs have a classical structure with three 100% conserved disulfide bonds that are essential for structural stability and thus the function of insulin. It might be hypothesized that an additional disulfide bond may enhance insulin structural stability which would be highly desirable in a pharmaceutical use. To address this hypothesis, we designed insulin with an additional interchain disulfide bond in positions A10/B4 based on Cα-Cα distances, solvent exposure, and side-chain orientation in human insulin (HI) structure. This insulin analog had increased affinity for the insulin receptor and apparently augmented glucodynamic potency in a normal rat model compared with HI. Addition of the disulfide bond also resulted in a 34.6°C increase in melting temperature and prevented insulin fibril formation under high physical stress even though the C-terminus of the B-chain thought to be directly involved in fibril formation was not modified. Importantly, this analog was capable of forming hexamer upon Zn addition as typical for wild-type insulin and its crystal structure showed only minor deviations from the classical insulin structure. Furthermore, the additional disulfide bond prevented this insulin analog from adopting the R-state conformation and thus showing that the R-state conformation is not a prerequisite for binding to insulin receptor as previously suggested. In summary, this is the first example of an insulin analog featuring a fourth disulfide bond with increased structural stability and retained function. PMID:23281053

  14. Cytochrome bd oxidase from Escherichia coli displays high catalase activity: an additional defense against oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Borisov, Vitaliy B; Forte, Elena; Davletshin, Albert; Mastronicola, Daniela; Sarti, Paolo; Giuffrè, Alessandro

    2013-07-11

    Cytochrome bd oxygen reductase from Escherichia coli has three hemes, b558, b595 and d. We found that the enzyme, as-prepared or in turnover with O2, rapidly decomposes H2O2 with formation of approximately half a mole of O2 per mole of H2O2. Such catalase activity vanishes upon cytochrome bd reduction, does not compete with the oxygen-reductase activity, is insensitive to NO, CO, antimycin-A and N-ethylmaleimide (NEM), but is inhibited by cyanide (Ki ~2.5μM) and azide. The activity, possibly associated with heme-b595, was also observed in catalase-deficient E. coli cells following cytochrome bd over-expression suggesting a protective role against oxidative stress in vivo. PMID:23727202

  15. Aggregation of Cricket Activity in Response to Resource Addition Increases Local Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Szinwelski, Neucir; Rosa, Cassiano Sousa; Solar, Ricardo Ribeiro de Castro; Sperber, Carlos Frankl

    2015-01-01

    Crickets are often found feeding on fallen fruits among forest litter. Fruits and other sugar-rich resources are not homogeneously distributed, nor are they always available. We therefore expect that crickets dwelling in forest litter have a limited supply of sugar-rich resource, and will perceive this and displace towards resource-supplemented sites. Here we evaluate how sugar availability affects cricket species richness and abundance in old-growth Atlantic forest by spraying sugarcane syrup on leaf litter, simulating increasing availability, and collecting crickets via pitfall trapping. We found an asymptotic positive association between resource addition and species richness, and an interaction between resource addition and species identity on cricket abundance, which indicates differential effects of resource addition among cricket species. Our results indicate that 12 of the 13 cricket species present in forest litter are maintained at low densities by resource scarcity; this highlights sugar-rich resource as a short-term driver of litter cricket community structure in tropical forests. When resource was experimentally increased, species richness increased due to behavioral displacement. We present evidence that the density of many species is limited by resource scarcity and, when resources are added, behavioral displacement promotes increased species packing and alters species composition. Further, our findings have technical applicability for increasing sampling efficiency of local cricket diversity in studies aiming to estimate species richness, but with no regard to local environmental drivers or species-abundance characteristics. PMID:26436669

  16. Two step novel hydrogen system using additives to enhance hydrogen release from the hydrolysis of alane and activated aluminum

    SciTech Connect

    Zidan, Ragaiy; Teprovich, Joseph A.; Motyka, Theodore

    2015-12-01

    A system for the generation of hydrogen for use in portable power systems is set forth utilizing a two-step process that involves the thermal decomposition of AlH.sub.3 (10 wt % H.sub.2) followed by the hydrolysis of the activated aluminum (Al*) byproduct to release additional H.sub.2. Additionally, a process in which water is added directly without prior history to the AlH.sub.3:PA composite is also disclosed.

  17. Evidence for Dose-Additive Effects of Pyrethroids on Motor Activity in Rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    BACKGROUND: Pyrethroids are neurotoxic insecticides used in a variety of indoor and outdoor applications. Previous research characterized the acute dose-effect functions for 11 pyrethroids administered orally in corn oil (1 mL/kg) based on assessment of motor activity. OBJECTIVES...

  18. 42 CFR 424.516 - Additional provider and supplier requirements for enrolling and maintaining active enrollment...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... the HHS Common Rule at 45 CFR part 76. (b) Reporting requirements Independent Diagnostic Testing... enrolling and maintaining active enrollment status in the Medicare program. 424.516 Section 424.516 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...

  19. Addition of activated switchgrass biochar to an aridic subsoil increases microbial nitrogen cycling gene abundances

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It has been demonstrated that soil amended with biochar, designed specifically for use as a soil conditioner, results in changes to the microbial populations that reside therein. These changes have been reflected in studies measuring variations in microbial activity, biomass, and community structure...

  20. Isoprenoid addition to Ras protein is the critical modification for its membrane association and transforming activity.

    PubMed Central

    Kato, K; Cox, A D; Hisaka, M M; Graham, S M; Buss, J E; Der, C J

    1992-01-01

    We have introduced a variety of amino acid substitutions into carboxyl-terminal CA1A2X sequence (C = cysteine; A = aliphatic; X = any amino acid) of the oncogenic [Val12]Ki-Ras4B protein to identify the amino acids that permit Ras processing (isoprenylation, proteolysis, and carboxyl methylation), membrane association, and transformation in cultured mammalian cells. While all substitutions were tolerated at the A1 position, substitutions at A2 and X reduced transforming activity. The A2 residue was important for both isoprenylation and AAX proteolysis, whereas the X residue dictated the extent and specificity of isoprenoid modification only. Differences were observed between Ras processing in living cells and farnesylation efficiency in a cell-free system. Finally, one farnesylated mutant did not undergo either proteolysis or carboxyl methylation but still displayed efficient membrane association (approximately 50%) and transforming activity, indicating that farnesylation alone can support Ras transforming activity. Since both farnesylation and carboxyl methylation are critical for yeast a-factor biological activity, the three CAAX-signaled modifications may have different contributions to the function of different CAAX-containing proteins. Images PMID:1631135

  1. Improvement of the fermentative activity of lactic acid bacteria starter culture by the addition of Mn²⁺.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xin; Dong, Ying; Su, Ping; Xiao, Xiang

    2014-11-01

    Production of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) starter with raw material has received much scientific investigation, but little information is available on the influences of some trace elements on the growth and fermentative activity of LAB. Based on this fact, this paper aimed to investigate the effects of Mn(2+) on the performance of Lactobacillus plantarum CX-15 starter with Jerusalem artichoke (JA) as the main medium substrate. The results showed that Mn(2+) addition had a significant beneficial affect on the fermentative activity of L. plantarum CX-15 starter. In contrast, the lack of Mn(2+) would cause the subsequent fermentation significantly slower, whether the cell density in starter culture was higher or lower. The possible mechanism of these phenomenons was further elucidated by the time course analysis of the specific activities of metabolism key enzymes during the culture processes of L. plantarum CX-15 starter. Compared to the fermentation processes without Mn(2+) addition, it was found that Mn(2+) addition would enhance the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity but reduce the activities of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) and ATPase activity. Therefore, it could be concluded that the improvement of L. plantarum starter fermentative activity was probably a consequence of Mn(2+) acting as "metabolic switch," which regulated the metabolic flux from pyruvic acid to lactic acid and other metabolism pathway. PMID:25146195

  2. Effects of in situ cobalt ion addition on the activity of a gfp-oph fusion protein: the fermentation kinetics.

    PubMed

    Wu, C F; Valdes, J J; Bentley, W E

    2001-01-01

    The effects of cobalt ion addition and inducer concentration were studied in the fermentation of E. coli BL21 expressing a GFP (green fluorescent protein)-OPH (organophosphorus hydrolase) fusion protein. It was found that cobalt ion addition improved the OPH activity significantly. When 2 mM of CoCl(2) was supplied during the IPTG-induction phase, OPH activity was enhanced approximately 10-fold compared to the case without cobalt or by the addition of cobalt to the cell extracts. Results indicate, therefore, that incorporation of the cobalt during synthesis is needed for enhanced activity. Also, the maximum OPH activity was not linearly related to inducer concentration. A mathematical model was then constructed to simulate these phenomena. Model parameters were determined by constrained least-squares and optimal IPTG and cobalt addition concentrations were obtained, pinpointing the conditions for the maximum productivity. Finally, the GFP fluorescence intensity was found linear to the OPH activity in each fermentation, demonstrating the function of GFP for monitoring its fusion partner's quantity in the bioreactor. PMID:11485418

  3. Development and flight evaluation of active controls in the L-1011. [including wing load alleviation and stability augmentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, J. F.; Urie, D. M.

    1978-01-01

    Active controls in the Lockheed L-1011 for increased energy efficiency are discussed. Active wing load alleviation for extended span, increased aspect ratio, and active stability augmentation with a smaller tail for reduced drag and weight are among the topics considered. Flight tests of active wing load alleviation on the baseline aircraft and moving-base piloted simulation developing criteria for stability augmentation are described.

  4. The influence of vibration type, frequency, body position and additional load on the neuromuscular activity during whole body vibration.

    PubMed

    Ritzmann, Ramona; Gollhofer, Albert; Kramer, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the influence of different whole body vibration (WBV) determinants on the electromyographic (EMG) activity during WBV in order to identify those training conditions that cause highest neuromuscular responses and therefore provide optimal training conditions. In a randomized cross-over study, the EMG activity of six leg muscles was analyzed in 18 subjects with respect to the following determinants: (1) vibration type (side-alternating vibration (SV) vs. synchronous vibration (SyV), (2) frequency (5-10-15-20-25-30 Hz), (3) knee flexion angle (10°-30°-60°), (4) stance condition (forefoot vs. normal stance) and (5) load variation (no extra load vs. additional load equal to one-third of the body weight). The results are: (1) neuromuscular activity during SV was enhanced compared to SyV (P < 0.05); (2) a progressive increase in frequency caused a progressive increase in EMG activity (P < 0.05); (3) the EMG activity was highest for the knee extensors when the knee joint was 60° flexed (P < 0.05); (4) for the plantar flexors in the forefoot stance condition (P < 0.05); and (5) additional load caused an increase in neuromuscular activation (P < 0.05). In conclusion, large variations of the EMG activation could be observed across conditions. However, with an appropriate adjustment of specific WBV determinants, high EMG activations and therefore high activation intensities could be achieved in the selected muscles. The combination of high vibration frequencies with additional load on an SV platform led to highest EMG activities. Regarding the body position, a knee flexion of 60° and forefoot stance appear to be beneficial for the knee extensors and the plantar flexors, respectively. PMID:22538279

  5. How nitrogen and sulphur addition, and a single drought event affect root phosphatase activity in Phalaris arundinacea.

    PubMed

    Robroek, Bjorn J M; Adema, Erwin B; Venterink, Harry Olde; Leonardson, Lars; Wassen, Martin J

    2009-03-15

    Conservation and restoration of fens and fen meadows often aim to reduce soil nutrients, mainly nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P). The biogeochemistry of P has received much attention as P-enrichment is expected to negatively impact on species diversity in wetlands. It is known that N, sulphur (S) and hydrological conditions affect the biogeochemistry of P, yet their interactive effects on P-dynamics are largely unknown. Additionally, in Europe, climate change has been predicted to lead to increases in summer drought. We performed a greenhouse experiment to elucidate the interactive effects of N, S and a single drought event on the P-availability for Phalaris arundinacea. Additionally, the response of plant phosphatase activity to these factors was measured over the two year experimental period. In contrast to results from earlier experiments, our treatments hardly affected soil P-availability. This may be explained by the higher pH in our soils, hampering the formation of Fe-P or Fe-Al complexes. Addition of S, however, decreased the plants N:P ratio, indicating an effect of S on the N:P stoichiometry and an effect on the plant's P-demand. Phosphatase activity increased significantly after addition of S, but was not affected by the addition of N or a single drought event. Root phosphatase activity was also positively related to plant tissue N and P concentrations, plant N and P uptake, and plant aboveground biomass, suggesting that the phosphatase enzyme influences P-biogeochemistry. Our results demonstrated that it is difficult to predict the effects of wetland restoration, since the involved mechanisms are not fully understood. Short-term and long-term effects on root phosphatase activity may differ considerably. Additionally, the addition of S can lead to unexpected effects on the biogeochemistry of P. Our results showed that natural resource managers should be careful when restoring degraded fens or preventing desiccation of fen ecosystems. PMID:19101022

  6. EGFR activating mutations correlate with a Fanconi anemia-like cellular phenotype that includes PARP inhibitor sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Pfäffle, Heike N.; Wang, Meng; Gheorghiu, Liliana; Ferraiolo, Natalie; Greninger, Patricia; Borgmann, Kerstin; Settleman, Jeffrey; Benes, Cyril H.; Sequist, Lecia V.; Zou, Lee; Willers, Henning

    2013-01-01

    In lung cancer patients whose tumors harbor activating mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), increased responses to platinum-based chemotherapies are seen compared to wild-type cancers. However, the mechanisms underlying this association have remained elusive. Here, we describe a cellular phenotype of crosslinker sensitivity in a subset of EGFR-mutant lung cancer cell lines that is reminiscent of the defects seen in cells impaired in the Fanconi Anemia pathway, including a pronounced G2/M cell-cycle arrest and chromosomal radial formation. We identified a defect downstream of FANCD2 at the level of recruitment of FAN1 nuclease and DNA interstrand crosslink (ICL) unhooking. The effect of EGFR mutation was epistatic with FANCD2. Consistent with the known role of FANCD2 in promoting RAD51 foci formation and homologous recombination repair (HRR), EGFR-mutant cells also exhibited an impaired RAD51 foci response to ICLs, but not to DNA double-strand breaks. EGFR kinase inhibition affected RAD51 foci formation neither in EGFR mutant nor wild-type cells. In contrast, EGFR depletion or overexpression of mutant EGFR in wild-type cells suppressed RAD51 foci, suggesting an EGFR kinase-independent regulation of DNA repair. Interestingly, EGFR-mutant cells treated with the PARP inhibitor olaparib also displayed decreased FAN1 foci induction, coupled with a putative block in a late HRR step. As a result, EGFR-mutant lung cancer cells exhibited olaparib sensitivity in-vitro and in-vivo. Our findings provide insight into the mechanisms of cisplatin and PARP inhibitor sensitivity of EGFR-mutant cells, yielding potential therapeutic opportunities for further treatment individualization in this genetically defined subset of lung cancer. PMID:23966292

  7. Additive manufactured polymeric 3D scaffolds with tailored surface topography influence mesenchymal stromal cells activity.

    PubMed

    Neves, Sara C; Mota, Carlos; Longoni, Alessia; Barrias, Cristina C; Granja, Pedro L; Moroni, Lorenzo

    2016-06-01

    Additive manufactured three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds with tailored surface topography constitute a clear advantage in tissue regeneration strategies to steer cell behavior. 3D fibrous scaffolds of poly(ethylene oxide terephthalate)/poly(butylene terephthalate) block copolymer presenting different fiber surface features were successfully fabricated by additive manufacturing combined with wet-spinning, in a single step, without any post-processing. The optimization of the processing parameters, mainly driven by different solvent/non-solvent combinations, led to four distinct scaffold types, with average surface roughness values ranging from 0.071 ± 0.012 μm to 1.950 ± 0.553 μm, average pore sizes in the x- and y-axis between 351.1 ± 33.6 μm and 396.1 ± 32.3 μm, in the z-axis between 36.5 ± 5.3 μm and 70.7 ± 8.8 μm, average fiber diameters between 69.4 ± 6.1 μm and 99.0 ± 9.4 μm, and porosity values ranging from 60.2 ± 0.8% to 71.7 ± 2.6%. Human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs) cultured on these scaffolds adhered, proliferated, and produced endogenous extracellular matrix. The effect of surface roughness and topography on hMSCs differentiation was more evident for cells seeded at lower density, where the percentage of cells in direct contact with the surface was higher compared to more densely seeded scaffolds. Under osteogenic conditions, lower surface roughness values (0.227 ± 0.035 μm) had a synergistic effect on hMSCs behavior, while chondrogenesis was favored on rougher surfaces (1.950 ± 0.553 μm). PMID:27219645

  8. Activity of Debio1452, a FabI Inhibitor with Potent Activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Coagulase-Negative Staphylococcus spp., Including Multidrug-Resistant Strains

    PubMed Central

    Rhomberg, Paul R.; Kaplan, Nachum; Jones, Ronald N.; Farrell, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) are responsible for a wide variety of human infections. The investigational antibacterial Debio1450 (previously AFN-1720), a prodrug of Debio1452 (previously AFN-1252), specifically targets staphylococci without significant activity against other Gram-positive or Gram-negative species. Debio1452 inhibits FabI, an enzyme critical to fatty acid biosynthesis in staphylococci. The activity of Debio1452 against CoNS, methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA), and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), including significant clones, was determined. A globally diverse collection of 574 patient isolates from 35 countries was tested that included CoNS (6 species, 103 strains), MSSA (154 strains), MRSA (163 strains), and molecularly characterized strains (including spa-typed MRSA clones; 154 strains). The isolates were tested for susceptibility by CLSI broth microdilution methods against Debio1452 and 10 comparators. The susceptibility rates for the comparators were determined using CLSI and EUCAST breakpoint criteria. All S. aureus and CoNS strains were inhibited by Debio1452 concentrations of ≤0.12 and ≤0.5 μg/ml, respectively. The MIC50s for MSSA, MRSA, and molecularly characterized MRSA strains were 0.004 μg/ml, and the MIC90s ranged from 0.008 to 0.03 μg/ml. The MICs were higher for the CoNS isolates (MIC50/90, 0.015/0.12 μg/ml). Among S. aureus strains, resistance was common for erythromycin (61.6%), levofloxacin (49.0%), clindamycin (27.6%), tetracycline (15.7%), and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (7.0%). Debio1452 demonstrated potent activity against MSSA, MRSA, and CoNS. Debio1452 showed significantly greater activity overall (MIC50, 0.004 μg/ml) than the other agents tested against these staphylococcal species, which included dominant MRSA clones and strains resistant to currently utilized antimicrobial agents. PMID:25691627

  9. Bactericidal activity of the food color additive Phloxine B against Staphylococcus aureus and other food borne microbial pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The spread of antibiotic resistance among Staphylococcus aureus strains requires the development of new anti S. aureus agents. The objective of this study was evaluating the antimicrobial activity of the food color additive Phloxine B against S. aureus and other food microbial pathogens. Our result ...

  10. A Pilot Study to Examine the Effect of Additional Structured Outdoor Playtime on Preschoolers' Physical Activity Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alhassan, Sofiya; Nwaokelemeh, Ogechi; Lyden, Kate; Goldsby, TaShauna; Mendoza, Albert

    2013-01-01

    The impact of additional structured outdoor playtime on preschoolers'; physical activity (PA) level is unclear. The purpose of this pilot study was to explore the effects of increasing structured outdoor playtime on preschoolers'; PA levels. Eight full-day classrooms (n = 134 children) from two preschool programmes were randomised into a treatment…

  11. 34 CFR 379.11 - What additional types of project activities may be authorized under this program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true What additional types of project activities may be authorized under this program? 379.11 Section 379.11 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT...

  12. 34 CFR 379.11 - What additional types of project activities may be authorized under this program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What additional types of project activities may be authorized under this program? 379.11 Section 379.11 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT...

  13. The Impact of Additional Weekdays of Active Commuting to School on Children Achieving a Criterion of 300+ Minutes of Moderate-to-Vigorous Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daly-Smith, Andy J. W.; McKenna, Jim; Radley, Duncan; Long, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the value of additional days of active commuting for meeting a criterion of 300+ minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA; 60+ mins/day x 5) during the school week. Methods: Based on seven-day diaries supported by teachers, binary logistic regression analyses were used to predict achievement of MVPA…

  14. Methanopyrus kandleri topoisomerase V contains three distinct AP lyase active sites in addition to the topoisomerase active site.

    PubMed

    Rajan, Rakhi; Osterman, Amy; Mondragón, Alfonso

    2016-04-20

    Topoisomerase V (Topo-V) is the only topoisomerase with both topoisomerase and DNA repair activities. The topoisomerase activity is conferred by a small alpha-helical domain, whereas the AP lyase activity is found in a region formed by 12 tandem helix-hairpin-helix ((HhH)2) domains. Although it was known that Topo-V has multiple repair sites, only one had been mapped. Here, we show that Topo-V has three AP lyase sites. The atomic structure and Small Angle X-ray Scattering studies of a 97 kDa fragment spanning the topoisomerase and 10 (HhH)2domains reveal that the (HhH)2domains extend away from the topoisomerase domain. A combination of biochemical and structural observations allow the mapping of the second repair site to the junction of the 9th and 10th (HhH)2domains. The second site is structurally similar to the first one and to the sites found in other AP lyases. The 3rd AP lyase site is located in the 12th (HhH)2domain. The results show that Topo-V is an unusual protein: it is the only known protein with more than one (HhH)2domain, the only known topoisomerase with dual activities and is also unique by having three AP lyase repair sites in the same polypeptide. PMID:26908655

  15. Methanopyrus kandleri topoisomerase V contains three distinct AP lyase active sites in addition to the topoisomerase active site

    PubMed Central

    Rajan, Rakhi; Osterman, Amy; Mondragón, Alfonso

    2016-01-01

    Topoisomerase V (Topo-V) is the only topoisomerase with both topoisomerase and DNA repair activities. The topoisomerase activity is conferred by a small alpha-helical domain, whereas the AP lyase activity is found in a region formed by 12 tandem helix-hairpin-helix ((HhH)2) domains. Although it was known that Topo-V has multiple repair sites, only one had been mapped. Here, we show that Topo-V has three AP lyase sites. The atomic structure and Small Angle X-ray Scattering studies of a 97 kDa fragment spanning the topoisomerase and 10 (HhH)2 domains reveal that the (HhH)2 domains extend away from the topoisomerase domain. A combination of biochemical and structural observations allow the mapping of the second repair site to the junction of the 9th and 10th (HhH)2 domains. The second site is structurally similar to the first one and to the sites found in other AP lyases. The 3rd AP lyase site is located in the 12th (HhH)2 domain. The results show that Topo-V is an unusual protein: it is the only known protein with more than one (HhH)2 domain, the only known topoisomerase with dual activities and is also unique by having three AP lyase repair sites in the same polypeptide. PMID:26908655

  16. Rh(I) -Catalyzed Cyclizative Addition Reaction of 1,6-Enyne and Sulfonyl Chloride by Carbophilic Activation.

    PubMed

    Dang, Mengyao; Hou, Longlei; Tong, Xiaofeng

    2016-06-01

    The π-acid-catalyzed cyclizations of 1,n-enynes by carbophilic activation have been extensively studied and appear as highly attractive processes, yet the cases within a catalytic cycle based on redox principle are rare. Herein, we report the cyclizative addition reactions of 1,6-enynes and sulfonyl chlorides by using a [Rh(cod)Cl/dppf] (dppf=1,1'-bis(diphenylphosphino)ferrocene) catalyst system. The process features the involvement of oxidative addition of sulfonyl chloride to Rh(I) catalyst, which generates [(dppf)(RSO2 )RhCl2 ] as a π-acid species to trigger cyclizative addition in a 6-endo-dig manner by carbophilic activation. Moreover, the catalytic protocol is also applicable to 1,6-diene analogues. PMID:27016845

  17. Alteration of extracellular enzyme activity and microbial abundance by biochar addition: Implication for carbon sequestration in subtropical mangrove sediment.

    PubMed

    Luo, Ling; Gu, Ji-Dong

    2016-11-01

    Biochar has attracted more and more attention due to its essential role in adsorbing pollutants, improving soil fertility, and modifying greenhouse gas emission. However, the influences of biochar on extracellular enzyme activity and microbial abundance are still lack and debatable. Currently, there is no information about the impact of biochar on the function of mangrove ecosystems. Therefore, we explored the effects of biochar on extracellular enzyme activity and microbial abundance in subtropical mangrove sediment, and further estimated the contribution of biochar to C sequestration. In this study, sediments were amended with 0 (control), 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0% of biochar and incubated at 25 °C for 90 days. After incubation, enzyme activities, microbial abundance and the increased percentage of sediment organic C content were determined. Both increase (phenol oxidase and β-glucosidase) and decrease (peroxidase, N-acetyl-glucosaminidase and acid phosphatase) of enzyme activities were observed in biochar treatments, but only peroxidase activity showed statistical significance (at least p < 0.01) compared to the control. Moreover, the activities of all enzymes tested were significantly related to the content of biochar addition (at least p < 0.05). On the other hand, bacterial and fungal abundance in biochar treatments were remarkably lower than control (p < 0.001), and the significantly negative relationship (p < 0.05) between bacterial abundance and the content of biochar was found. Additionally, the increased percentage of organic C gradually increased with biochar addition rate, which provided evidence for applying biochar to mitigate climate change. Given the importance of microorganisms and enzyme activities in sediment organic matter decomposition, the increased C sequestration might be explained by the large decrease of microbial abundance and enzyme activity after biochar intervention. PMID:27454094

  18. Impacts of powdered activated carbon addition on trihalomethane formation reactivity of dissolved organic matter in membrane bioreactor effluent.

    PubMed

    Ma, Defang; Gao, Yue; Gao, Baoyu; Wang, Yan; Yue, Qinyan; Li, Qian

    2014-12-01

    Characteristics and trihalomethane (THM) formation reactivity of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in effluents from two membrane bioreactors (MBRs) with and without powdered activated carbon (PAC) addition (referred to as PAC/MBR and MBR, respectively) were examined to investigate the effects of PAC addition on THM formation of MBR effluent during chlorination. PAC addition increased the specific UV absorbance. Hydrophobic DOM especially hydrophobic acids in PAC/MBR effluent (50%) were more than MBR effluent (42%). DOM with molecular weight <1 kDa constituted 12% of PAC/MBR effluent DOM, which was less than that of MBR effluent (16%). Data obtained from excitation and emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopy revealed that PAC/MBR effluent DOM contained more simple aromatic protein, but had less fulvic acid-like and soluble microbial by-product-like. PAC addition reduced the formation of bromine-containing THMs during chlorination of effluents, but increased THM formation reactivity of effluent DOM. PMID:25150685

  19. Effects of waste activated sludge and surfactant addition on primary sludge hydrolysis and short-chain fatty acids accumulation.

    PubMed

    Ji, Zhouying; Chen, Guanlan; Chen, Yinguang

    2010-05-01

    This paper focused on the effects of waste activated sludge (WAS) and surfactant sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate (SDBS) addition on primary sludge (PS) hydrolysis and short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) accumulation in fermentation. The results showed that sludge hydrolysis, SCFA accumulation, NH(4)(+)-N and PO(4)(3-)-P release, and volatile suspended solids (VSS) reduction were increased by WAS addition to PS, which were further increased by the addition of SDBS to the mixture of PS and WAS. Acetic, propionic and valeric acids were the top three SCFA in all experiments. Also, the fermentation liquids of PS, PS+WAS, and PS+WAS+SDBS were added, respectively, to municipal wastewater to examine their effects on biological municipal wastewater treatment, and the enhancement of both wastewater nitrogen and phosphorus removals was observed compared with no fermentation liquid addition. PMID:20096564

  20. HEPS Inventory Tool: An Inventory Tool Including Quality Assessment of School Interventions on Healthy Eating and Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dadaczynski, Kevin; Paulus, Peter; de Vries, Nanne; de Ruiter, Silvia; Buijs, Goof

    2010-01-01

    The HEPS Inventory Tool aims to support stakeholders working in school health promotion to promote high quality interventions on healthy eating and physical activity. As a tool it provides a step-by-step approach on how to develop a national or regional inventory of existing school based interventions on healthy eating and physical activity. It…

  1. Anaerobic Activation of p-Cymene in Denitrifying Betaproteobacteria: Methyl Group Hydroxylation versus Addition to Fumarate

    PubMed Central

    Strijkstra, Annemieke; Trautwein, Kathleen; Jarling, René; Wöhlbrand, Lars; Dörries, Marvin; Reinhardt, Richard; Drozdowska, Marta; Golding, Bernard T.; Wilkes, Heinz

    2014-01-01

    The betaproteobacteria “Aromatoleum aromaticum” pCyN1 and “Thauera” sp. strain pCyN2 anaerobically degrade the plant-derived aromatic hydrocarbon p-cymene (4-isopropyltoluene) under nitrate-reducing conditions. Metabolite analysis of p-cymene-adapted “A. aromaticum” pCyN1 cells demonstrated the specific formation of 4-isopropylbenzyl alcohol and 4-isopropylbenzaldehyde, whereas with “Thauera” sp. pCyN2, exclusively 4-isopropylbenzylsuccinate and tentatively identified (4-isopropylphenyl)itaconate were observed. 4-Isopropylbenzoate in contrast was detected with both strains. Proteogenomic investigation of p-cymene- versus succinate-adapted cells of the two strains revealed distinct protein profiles agreeing with the different metabolites formed from p-cymene. “A. aromaticum” pCyN1 specifically produced (i) a putative p-cymene dehydrogenase (CmdABC) expected to hydroxylate the benzylic methyl group of p-cymene, (ii) two dehydrogenases putatively oxidizing 4-isopropylbenzyl alcohol (Iod) and 4-isopropylbenzaldehyde (Iad), and (iii) the putative 4-isopropylbenzoate-coenzyme A (CoA) ligase (Ibl). The p-cymene-specific protein profile of “Thauera” sp. pCyN2, on the other hand, encompassed proteins homologous to subunits of toluene-activating benzylsuccinate synthase (termed [4-isopropylbenzyl]succinate synthase IbsABCDEF; identified subunits, IbsAE) and protein homologs of the benzylsuccinate β-oxidation (Bbs) pathway (termed BisABCDEFGH; all identified except for BisEF). This study reveals that two related denitrifying bacteria employ fundamentally different peripheral degradation routes for one and the same substrate, p-cymene, with the two pathways apparently converging at the level of 4-isopropylbenzoyl-CoA. PMID:25261521

  2. High performance flexible double-sided micro-supercapacitors with an organic gel electrolyte containing a redox-active additive.

    PubMed

    Kim, Doyeon; Lee, Geumbee; Kim, Daeil; Yun, Junyeong; Lee, Sang-Soo; Ha, Jeong Sook

    2016-08-25

    In this study, we report the fabrication of a high performance flexible micro-supercapacitor (MSC) with an organic gel electrolyte containing a redox-active additive, referred to as poly(methyl methacrylate)-propylene carbonate-lithium perchlorate-hydroquinone (PMMA-PC-LiClO4-HQ). Hexagonal MSCs fabricated on thin polyethylene terephthalate (PET) films had interdigitated electrodes made of spray-coated multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) on Au. The addition of HQ as a redox-active additive enhanced not only the specific capacitance but also the energy density of the MSCs dramatically, which is approximately 35 times higher than that of MSCs without the HQ additive. In addition, both areal capacitance and areal energy density could be doubled by fabrication of double-sided MSCs, where two MSCs are connected in parallel. The double-sided MSCs exhibited stable electrochemical performance during repeated deformation by bending. By dry-transferring the double-sided MSCs based on PMMA-PC-LiClO4-HQ on a deformable polymer substrate, we fabricated a stretchable MSC array, which also retained its electrochemical performance during a uniaxial strain of 40%. Furthermore, a wearable energy storage bracelet made of such an MSC array could operate a μ-LED on the wrist. PMID:27511060

  3. Antiviral activity of human Vδ2 T-cells against WNV includes both cytolytic and non-cytolytic mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Agrati, Chiara; Castilletti, Concetta; Cimini, Eleonora; Romanelli, Antonella; Lapa, Daniele; Quartu, Serena; Martini, Federico; Capobianchi, Maria Rosaria

    2016-04-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) causes a severe central nervous system infection in humans, primarily in the elderly and immunocompromised subjects. Human γδ T-cells play a critical role in the immune response against viruses, and studies of WNV meningoencephalitis in laboratory mice described a role of γδ T-cells in the protective immune response. Aim of this study was to analyze the cytolytic and non-cytolytic antiviral activity of human Vδ2 T-cells against WNV replication. The anti-WNV activity of soluble factor released by zoledronic acid (ZA)-activated Vδ2 T-cell lines and the cytotoxic capability of Vδ2 T-cell lines against WNV-infected cells were tested in vitro. The activation of Vδ2 T-cell lines was able to inhibit WNV replication through the release of soluble factors. IFN-γ is massively released by activated Vδ2 T-cell lines and is involved in the anti-WNV activity. Moreover, the Vδ2 T-cell lines can efficiently kill WNV-infected cells possibly through perforin-mediated mechanism. Altogether, our results provide insight into the effector functions of human Vδ2 T-cells against WNV. The possibility to target these cells by ZA, a commercially available drug used in humans, could potentially offer a new immunotherapeutic strategy for WNV infection. PMID:27196553

  4. Effect of One Percent Chlorhexidine Addition on the Antibacterial Activity and Mechanical Properties of Sealants: An in vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Asokan, Sharath; John, J Baby; Priya, PR Geetha; Devi, Jagadeesan Gnana

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Aim: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of addition of 1% chlorhexidine digluconate solution on the antibacterial activity and mechanical properties of glass ionomer and resin based sealant. Materials and methods: Conventional glass ionomer sealant (GIS) (Fuji VII, Japan) and resin sealant (Clinpro 3M ESPE, USA) were used in this study. Chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX) (20%) liquid was added to both the sealants, and the concentration of chlorhexidine in sealants was adjusted to 1%. The sealants were divided into four groups as: group A (GIS), group B (GIS + 1% CHX), group C (resin sealant), group D (resin sealant + 1% CHX). Five cylindrical specimens were prepared in each group. Their antibacterial activity against Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus, and their mechanical properties (compressive strength and diametrical tensile strength) were assessed. Mann-Whitney and Wilcoxon signed rank test were used appropriately for statistical analysis (SPSS version 19). Result: Addition of one percent chlorhexidine significantly increased the antibacterial activity of both the sealants. There was a significant difference between groups A and B (p < 0.009), and groups C and D (p < 0.008). There was no significant difference in the mechanical properties of the sealants. Conclusion: Addition of one percent chlorhexidine to the glass ionomer and resin based sealants provided sufficient antibacterial activity, without significantly affecting the mechanical property of the sealants. How to cite this article: Shanmugaavel AK, Asokan S, John JB, Geetha Priya PR, Gnana Devi J. Effect of one percent Chlorhexidine Addition on the Antibacterial Activity and Mechanical Properties of Sealants: An in vitro Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015;8(3):196-201. PMID:26628854

  5. Upstream stimulatory factor activates the vasopressin promoter via multiple motifs, including a non-canonical E-box.

    PubMed Central

    Coulson, Judy M; Edgson, Jodie L; Marshall-Jones, Zoe V; Mulgrew, Robert; Quinn, John P; Woll, Penella J

    2003-01-01

    We have described previously a complex E-box enhancer (-147) of the vasopressin promoter in small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) extracts [Coulson, Fiskerstrand, Woll and Quinn, (1999) Biochem. J. 344, 961-970]. Upstream stimulatory factor (USF) heterodimers were one of the complexes binding to this site in vitro. We now report that USF overexpression in non-SCLC (NSCLC) cells can functionally activate vasopressin promoter-driven reporters that are otherwise inactive in this type of lung cancer cell. Site-directed mutagenesis and electrophoretic mobility-shift analysis demonstrate that although the -147 E-box contributes, none of the previously predicted E-boxes (-147, -135, -34) wholly account for this USF-mediated activation in NSCLC. 5' Deletion showed the key promoter region as -52 to +42; however, USF-2 binding was not reliant on the -34 E-box, but on a novel adjacent CACGGG non-canonical E-box at -42 (motif E). This mediated USF binding in both SCLC and USF-2-transfected NSCLC cells. Mutation of motif E or the non-canonical TATA box abolished activity, implying both are required for transcriptional initiation on overexpression of USF-2. Co-transfected dominant negative USF confirmed that binding was required through motif E for function, but that the classical activation domain of USF was not essential. USF-2 bound motif E with 10-fold lower affinity than the -147 E-box. In NSCLC, endogenous USF-2 expression is low, and this basal level appears to be insufficient to activate transcription of arginine vasopressin (AVP). In summary, we have demonstrated a novel mechanism for USF activation, which contributes to differential vasopressin expression in lung cancer. PMID:12403649

  6. The Azorhizobium caulinodans nifA gene: identification of upstream-activating sequences including a new element, the 'anaerobox'.

    PubMed Central

    Nees, D W; Stein, P A; Ludwig, R A

    1988-01-01

    From nucleotide sequencing analyses, the A. caulinodans nifA gene seems to be under dual control by the Ntr (in response to available N) and Fnr (in response to available O2) transcriptional activation/repression systems. Because it fixes N2 in two contexts, the Ntr system might regulate A. caulinodans nif gene expression ex planta, while the Fnr system might similarly regulate in planta. As nifA upstream-activating elements, we have identified: (i) a gpNifA binding site allowing autogenous nifA regulation, (ii) an Ntr-dependent transcription start, presumably the target of gpNifA activation, and (iii) an "anaerobox" tetradecameric nucleotide sequence that is precisely conserved among O2 regulated enteric bacterial genes controlled by the gpFnr transcriptional activator. Because it is precisely positioned upstream of enteric bacterial transcriptional starts, the "anaerobox" sequence may constitute the gpFnr DNA binding site. If so, then a second, Ntr-independent nifA transcription start may exist. We have also deduced the A. caulinodans nifA open reading frame and have compared the gene product (gpNifA) with those of other N2-fixing organisms. These proteins exhibit strongly conserved motifs: (i) sites conserved among ATP-binding proteins, (ii) an interdomain linker region, and (iii) a C-terminal alpha-helix-turn-alpha-helix DNA binding site. PMID:3186446

  7. Endothelial cellular senescence is inhibited by liver X receptor activation with an additional mechanism for its atheroprotection in diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Toshio; Kotani, Hitoshi; Yamaguchi, Tomoe; Taguchi, Kumiko; Iida, Mayu; Ina, Koichiro; Maeda, Morihiko; Kuzuya, Masafumi; Hattori, Yuichi; Ignarro, Louis J.

    2014-01-01

    Senescence of vascular endothelial cells leads to endothelial dysfunction and contributes to the progression of atherosclerosis. Liver X receptors (LXRs) are nuclear receptors whose activation protects against atherosclerosis by transcriptional regulation of genes important in promoting cholesterol efflux and inhibiting inflammation. Here we found that LXR activation with specific ligands reduced the increase in senescence-associated (SA) β-gal activity, a senescence marker, and reversed the decrease in telomerase activity, a replicative senescence marker, in human endothelial cells under high glucose. This effect of LXR activation was associated with reduced reactive oxygen species and increased endothelial NO synthase activity. A series of experiments that used siRNAs indicated that LXRβ mediates the prevention of endothelial cellular senescence, and that sterol regulatory element binding protein-1, which was up-regulated as a direct LXRβ target gene, may act as a brake of endothelial cellular senescence. Although oral administration of the LXR ligand led to severe fatty liver in diabetic rats, concomitant therapy with metformin avoided the development of hepatic steatosis. However, the preventive effect of the LXR ligand on SA β-gal–stained cells in diabetic aortic endothelium was preserved even if metformin was coadministered. Taken together, our studies demonstrate that an additional mechanism, such as the regulation of endothelial cellular senescence, is related to the antiatherogenic properties of LXRs, and concomitant treatment with metformin may provide a clinically useful therapeutic strategy to alleviate an LXR activation-mediated adverse effects on liver triglyceride metabolism. PMID:24398515

  8. The MRX Complex Ensures NHEJ Fidelity through Multiple Pathways Including Xrs2-FHA-Dependent Tel1 Activation.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Daichi; Hayashihara, Kayoko; Shima, Hiroki; Higashide, Mika; Terasawa, Masahiro; Gasser, Susan M; Shinohara, Miki

    2016-03-01

    Because DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are one of the most cytotoxic DNA lesions and often cause genomic instability, precise repair of DSBs is vital for the maintenance of genomic stability. Xrs2/Nbs1 is a multi-functional regulatory subunit of the Mre11-Rad50-Xrs2/Nbs1 (MRX/N) complex, and its function is critical for the primary step of DSB repair, whether by homologous recombination (HR) or non-homologous end joining. In human NBS1, mutations result truncation of the N-terminus region, which contains a forkhead-associated (FHA) domain, cause Nijmegen breakage syndrome. Here we show that the Xrs2 FHA domain of budding yeast is required both to suppress the imprecise repair of DSBs and to promote the robust activation of Tel1 in the DNA damage response pathway. The role of the Xrs2 FHA domain in Tel1 activation was independent of the Tel1-binding activity of the Xrs2 C terminus, which mediates Tel1 recruitment to DSB ends. Both the Xrs2 FHA domain and Tel1 were required for the timely removal of the Ku complex from DSB ends, which correlates with a reduced frequency of imprecise end-joining. Thus, the Xrs2 FHA domain and Tel1 kinase work in a coordinated manner to maintain DSB repair fidelity. PMID:26990569

  9. Age-related changes in trunk neuromuscular activation patterns during a controlled functional transfer task include amplitude and temporal synergies.

    PubMed

    Quirk, D Adam; Hubley-Kozey, Cheryl L

    2014-12-01

    While healthy aging is associated with physiological changes that can impair control of trunk motion, few studies examine how spinal muscle responses change with increasing age. This study examined whether older (over 65 years) compared to younger (20-45 years) adults had higher overall amplitude and altered temporal recruitment patterns of trunk musculature when performing a functional transfer task. Surface electromyograms from twelve bilateral trunk muscle (24) sites were analyzed using principal component analysis, extracting amplitude and temporal features (PCs) from electromyographic waveforms. Two PCs explained 96% of the waveform variance. Three factor ANOVA models tested main effects (group, muscle and reach) and interactions for PC scores. Significant (p<.0125) group interactions were found for all PC scores. Post hoc analysis revealed that relative to younger adults, older adults recruited higher agonist and antagonistic activity, demonstrated continuous activation levels in specific muscle sites despite changing external moments, and had altered temporal synergies within abdominal and back musculature. In summary both older and younger adults recruit highly organized activation patterns in response to changing external moments. Differences in temporal trunk musculature recruitment patterns suggest that older adults experience different dynamic spinal stiffness and loading compared to younger adults during a functional lifting task. PMID:25457424

  10. The IKAROS Interaction with a Complex Including Chromatin Remodeling and Transcription Elongation Activities Is Required for Hematopoiesis

    PubMed Central

    Bottardi, Stefania; Mavoungou, Lionel; Pak, Helen; Daou, Salima; Bourgoin, Vincent; Lakehal, Yahia A.; Affar, El Bachir; Milot, Eric

    2014-01-01

    IKAROS is a critical regulator of hematopoietic cell fate and its dynamic expression pattern is required for proper hematopoiesis. In collaboration with the Nucleosome Remodeling and Deacetylase (NuRD) complex, it promotes gene repression and activation. It remains to be clarified how IKAROS can support transcription activation while being associated with the HDAC-containing complex NuRD. IKAROS also binds to the Positive-Transcription Elongation Factor b (P-TEFb) at gene promoters. Here, we demonstrate that NuRD and P-TEFb are assembled in a complex that can be recruited to specific genes by IKAROS. The expression level of IKAROS influences the recruitment of the NuRD-P-TEFb complex to gene regulatory regions and facilitates transcription elongation by transferring the Protein Phosphatase 1α (PP1α), an IKAROS-binding protein and P-TEFb activator, to CDK9. We show that an IKAROS mutant that is unable to bind PP1α cannot sustain gene expression and impedes normal differentiation of IkNULL hematopoietic progenitors. Finally, the knock-down of the NuRD subunit Mi2 reveals that the occupancy of the NuRD complex at transcribed regions of genes favors the relief of POL II promoter-proximal pausing and thereby, promotes transcription elongation. PMID:25474253

  11. Simultaneous BVI noise and vibration reduction in rotorcraft using actively-controlled flaps and including performance considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patt, Daniel A.

    This work presents the development and application of an active control approach for reduction of both vibration and noise induced by helicopter rotor blade vortex interaction (BVI). Control is implemented through single or dual actively controlled flaps (ACFs) on each blade. Low-speed helicopter flight is prone to severe BVI, resulting in elevated vibration and noise levels. Existing research has suggested that when some form of active control is used to reduce vibration, noise will increase and vice versa. The present research achieves simultaneous reduction of noise and vibration, and also investigates the physical sources of the observed reduction. The initial portion of this work focused on developing a tool for simulating helicopter noise and vibrations in the BVI flight regime. A method for predicting compressible unsteady blade surface pressure distribution on rotor blades was developed and combined with an enhanced free-wake model and an acoustic prediction tool with provisions for blade flexibility. These elements were incorporated within an aeroelastic analysis featuring fully coupled flap-lag-torsional blade dynamics. Subsequently, control algorithms were developed that were effective for reducing noise and vibration even in the nonlinear BVI flight regime; saturation limits were incorporated constraining flap deflections to specified limits. The resulting simulation was also validated with a wide range of experimental data, achieving excellent correlation. Finally, a number of active control studies were performed. Multi-component vibration reductions of 40--80% could be achieved, while incurring a small noise penalty. Noise was reduced using an onboard feedback microphone; reductions of 4--10 dB on the advancing side were observed on a plane beneath the rotor when using dual flaps. Finally, simultaneous noise and vibration reduction was studied. A reduction of about 5 dB in noise on the advancing side combined with a 60% reduction in vibration was

  12. Synthesis and pharmacological screening for muscle relaxant, anticonvulsant, and sedative activities of certain organic compounds produced by Michael addition.

    PubMed

    Said, Makarem M; Ahmed, Amany A E; El-Alfy, Abir T

    2004-12-01

    Michael addition of certain nucleophiles on alpha, beta-unsaturated ketones 1 led to the formation of adducts 2-7 as well as the reaction of arylidene derivatives with secondary amines afforded the amino compounds 9 and 11. Also, dialkylmalonates were treated with alpha-cyano cinnamide to afford 13. On the other hand, double Michael cycloaddition of ethylcyanoacetate or tetrachlorophthalic anhydride to the suitable divinylketone were synthesized to produce 15-17. Selected compounds (13 and 6) were screened for muscle relaxant, anticonvulsant, and sedative activities using established pharmacological models. Their activities were compared with that of phenobarbital sodium taken as standard. Compound 6 was the most potent muscle relaxant while compounds 13a and 13c offered the highest anticonvulsant activity. Meanwhile compound 13c showed the highest potentiation of phenobarbital induced sleep in mice. PMID:15646790

  13. Beta-carotene suppression of benzophenone-sensitized lipid peroxidation in hexane through additional chain-breaking activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cvetković, Dragan; Marković, Dejan

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work is to estimate the antioxidant activity of β-carotene in the presence of two different mixtures of phospholipids in hexane solution, under continuous UV-irradiation from three different ranges (UV-A, UV-B, and UV-C). β-Carotene is employed to control lipid peroxidation process generated by UV-irradiation, in the presence and in the absence of selected photosensitizer, benzophenone, by scavenging the involved, created free radicals. The results show that β-carotene undergoes to a substantial, probably structural dependent destruction (bleaching), highly dependent on UV-photons energy input, more expressed in the presence than in the absence of benzophenone. The additional bleaching is synchronized with the further increase in β-carotene antioxidant activity in the presence of benzophenone, implying the same cause: increase in (phospholipids peroxidation) chain-breaking activities.

  14. Ex Vivo Activity of Endoperoxide Antimalarials, Including Artemisone and Arterolane, against Multidrug-Resistant Plasmodium falciparum Isolates from Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Chaorattanakawee, Suwanna; Lon, Chanthap; Saunders, David L.; Rutvisuttinunt, Wiriya; Yingyuen, Kritsanai; Bathurst, Ian; Ding, Xavier C.; Tyner, Stuart D.

    2014-01-01

    Novel synthetic endoperoxides are being evaluated as new components of artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs) to treat artemisinin-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria. We conducted blinded ex vivo activity testing of fully synthetic (OZ78 and OZ277) and semisynthetic (artemisone, artemiside, artesunate, and dihydroartemisinin) endoperoxides in the histidine-rich protein 2 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay against 200 P. falciparum isolates from areas of artemisinin-resistant malaria in western and northern Cambodia in 2009 and 2010. The order of potency and geometric mean (GM) 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50s) were as follows: artemisone (2.40 nM) > artesunate (8.49 nM) > dihydroartemisinin (11.26 nM) > artemiside (15.28 nM) > OZ277 (31.25 nM) > OZ78 (755.27 nM). Ex vivo activities of test endoperoxides positively correlated with dihydroartemisinin and artesunate. The isolates were over 2-fold less susceptible to dihydroartemisinin than the artemisinin-sensitive P. falciparum W2 clone and showed sensitivity comparable to those with test endoperoxides and artesunate, with isolate/W2 IC50 susceptibility ratios of <2.0. All isolates had P. falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter mutations, with negative correlations in sensitivity to endoperoxides and chloroquine. The activities of endoperoxides (artesunate, dihydroartemisinin, OZ277, and artemisone) significantly correlated with that of the ACT partner drug, mefloquine. Isolates had mutations associated with clinical resistance to mefloquine, with 35% prevalence of P. falciparum multidrug resistance gene 1 (pfmdr1) amplification and 84.5% occurrence of the pfmdr1 Y184F mutation. GM IC50s for mefloquine, lumefantrine, and endoperoxides (artesunate, dihydroartemisinin, OZ277, OZ78, and artemisone) correlated with pfmdr1 copy number. Given that current ACTs are failing potentially from reduced sensitivity to artemisinins and partner drugs, newly identified mutations associated with artemisinin resistance

  15. The Influence of Organized Physical Activity (including Gymnastics) on Young Adult Skeletal Traits: Is Maturity Phase Important?

    PubMed Central

    Bernardoni, Brittney; Scerpella, Tamara A.; Rosenbaum, Paula F.; Kanaley, Jill A.; Raab, Lindsay N.; Li, Quefeng; Wang, Sijian; Dowthwaite, Jodi N.

    2015-01-01

    We prospectively evaluated adolescent organized physical activity (PA) as a factor in adult female bone traits. Annual DXA scans accompanied semi-annual records of anthropometry, maturity and PA for 42 participants in this preliminary analysis (criteria: appropriately timed DXA scans at ~1 year pre-menarche [predictor] and ~5 years post-menarche [dependent variable]). Regression analysis evaluated total adolescent inter-scan PA and PA over 3 maturity sub-phases as predictors of young adult bone outcomes: 1) bone mineral content (BMC), geometry and strength indices at non-dominant distal radius and femoral neck; 2) sub-head BMC; 3) lumbar spine BMC. Analyses accounted for baseline gynecological age (years pre- or post-menarche), baseline bone status, adult body size and inter-scan body size change. Gymnastics training was evaluated as a potentially independent predictor, but did not improve models for any outcomes (p<0.07). Pre-menarcheal bone traits were strong predictors of most adult outcomes (semi-partial r2 = 0.21-0.59, p≤0.001). Adult 1/3 radius and sub-head BMC were predicted by both total PA and PA 1-3 years post-menarche (p<0.03). PA 3-5 years post-menarche predicted femoral narrow neck width, endosteal diameter and buckling ratio (p<0.05). Thus, participation in organized physical activity programs throughout middle and high school may reduce lifetime fracture risk in females. PMID:25386845

  16. The Influence of Organized Physical Activity (Including Gymnastics) on Young Adult Skeletal Traits: Is Maturity Phase Important?

    PubMed

    Bernardoni, Brittney; Scerpella, Tamara A; Rosenbaum, Paula F; Kanaley, Jill A; Raab, Lindsay N; Li, Quefeng; Wang, Sijian; Dowthwaite, Jodi N

    2015-05-01

    We prospectively evaluated adolescent organized physical activity (PA) as a factor in adult female bone traits. Annual DXA scans accompanied semiannual records of anthropometry, maturity, and PA for 42 participants in this preliminary analysis (criteria: appropriately timed DXA scans at ~1 year premenarche [predictor] and ~5 years postmenarche [dependent variable]). Regression analysis evaluated total adolescent interscan PA and PA over 3 maturity subphases as predictors of young adult bone outcomes: 1) bone mineral content (BMC), geometry, and strength indices at nondominant distal radius and femoral neck; 2) subhead BMC; 3) lumbar spine BMC. Analyses accounted for baseline gynecological age (years pre- or postmenarche), baseline bone status, adult body size and interscan body size change. Gymnastics training was evaluated as a potentially independent predictor, but did not improve models for any outcomes (p > .07). Premenarcheal bone traits were strong predictors of most adult outcomes (semipartial r2 = .21-0.59, p ≤ .001). Adult 1/3 radius and subhead BMC were predicted by both total PA and PA 1-3 years postmenarche (p < .03). PA 3-5 years postmenarche predicted femoral narrow neck width, endosteal diameter, and buckling ratio (p < .05). Thus, participation in organized physical activity programs throughout middle and high school may reduce lifetime fracture risk in females. PMID:25386845

  17. [Effects of biologically active food additives with different contents of vitamins on the vitamin status in humans].

    PubMed

    Vrzhesinskaia, O A; Beketova, N A; Nikitina, V A; Pereverzeva, O G; Kharitonchik, L A; Isaeva, V A; Kodentsova, V M; Durnev, A D; Spirichev, V B

    2000-01-01

    The comparative study of influence of two biologically active food additives with the different contents of vitamins is carried out: a drink "Zolotoi Shar", the dose of vitamins in which makes 50-90% from recommended daily consumption, and "Vitabalance 2000", the contents of vitamins in which at 2-17 of time exceeds need of organism. The use of both additives within 3 weeks resulted in increase of levels of vitamins C, A, E, B2, B6 and carotenoids in blood serum. However if in case of consumption of a drink an authentic level was reached only for vitamin C and beta-carotene, in a case "Vitabalance 2000" for all investigated vitamins except vitamin A. Thus, if the consumption of a drink has lowered frequency of deficiency of 3-4 vitamins, but has not allowed to liquidate it completely, in case of "Vitabalance 2000" consumption the simultaneous deficiency 3-4 vitamins. The received data allow to believe the biologically active food additives containing vitamins in amounts exceeding recommended consumption, are convenient for fast liquidation of hypovitaminoses, and the preparations containing vitamins in doses making 30-50% from need of organism, are acceptable for daily filling of insufficient consumption of vitamins with a usual diet for a long time. PMID:10943001

  18. New Pyrrole Derivatives with Potent Tubulin Polymerization Inhibiting Activity As Anticancer Agents Including Hedgehog-Dependent Cancer

    PubMed Central

    La Regina, Giuseppe; Bai, Ruoli; Coluccia, Antonio; Famiglini, Valeria; Pelliccia, Sveva; Passacantilli, Sara; Mazzoccoli, Carmela; Ruggieri, Vitalba; Sisinni, Lorenza; Bolognesi, Alessio; Rensen, Whilelmina Maria; Miele, Andrea; Nalli, Marianna; Alfonsi, Romina; Di Marcotullio, Lucia; Gulino, Alberto; Brancale, Andrea; Novellino, Ettore; Dondio, Giulio; Vultaggio, Stefania; Varasi, Mario; Mercurio, Ciro; Hamel, Ernest; Lavia, Patrizia; Silvestri, Romano

    2014-01-01

    We synthesized 3-aroyl-1-arylpyrrole (ARAP) derivatives as potential anticancer agents having different substituents at the pendant 1-phenyl ring. Both the 1-phenyl ring and 3-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)carbonyl moieties were mandatory to achieve potent inhibition of tubulin polymerization, binding of colchicine to tubulin, and cancer cell growth. ARAP 22 showed strong inhibition of the P-glycoprotein-overexpressing NCI-ADR-RES and Messa/Dx5MDR cell lines. Compounds 22 and 27 suppressed in vitro the Hedgehog signaling pathway, strongly reducing luciferase activity in SAG treated NIH3T3 Shh-Light II cells, and inhibited the growth of medulloblastoma D283 cells at nanomolar concentrations. ARAPs 22 and 27 represent a new potent class of tubulin polymerization and cancer cell growth inhibitors with the potential to inhibit the Hedgehog signaling pathway. PMID:25025991

  19. Optimization of the thermophilic anaerobic co-digestion of pig manure, agriculture waste and inorganic additive through specific methanogenic activity.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, J; Cisneros-Ortiz, M E; Guardia-Puebla, Y; Morgan-Sagastume, J M; Noyola, A

    2014-01-01

    The anaerobic co-digestion of three wastes (manure, rice straw and clay residue, an inorganic additive) at different concentration levels and their interactive effects on methanogenic activity were investigated in this work at thermophilic conditions in order to enhance hydrolytic activity and methane production. A central composite design and the response surface methodology were applied for the optimization of specific methanogenic activity (SMA) by assessing their interaction effects with a reduced number of experiments. The results showed a significant interaction among the wastes on the SMA and confirmed that co-digestion enhances methane production. Rice straw apparently did not supply a significant amount of substrate to make a difference in SMA or methane yield. On the other hand, clay residue had a positive effect as an inorganic additive for stimulating the anaerobic process, based on its mineral content and its adsorbent properties for ammonia. Finally, the optimal conditions for achieving a thermophilic SMA value close to 1.4 g CH4-COD/g VSS · d(-1) were 20.3 gVSS/L of manure, 9.8 gVSS/L of rice straw and 3.3 gTSS/L of clay. PMID:24959998

  20. Prefrontal cortex activity during motor tasks with additional mental load requiring attentional demand: a near-infrared spectroscopy study.

    PubMed

    Mandrick, Kevin; Derosiere, Gérard; Dray, Gérard; Coulon, Denis; Micallef, Jean-Paul; Perrey, Stéphane

    2013-07-01

    Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is suitable for investigating cerebral oxygenation changes during motor and/or mental tasks. In the present study, we investigated how an additional mental load during a motor task at two submaximal loadings affects the fNIRS-measured brain activation over the right prefrontal cortex (PFC). Fifteen healthy males performed isometric grasping contractions at 15% and 30% of the maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) with or without an additional mental (i.e., arithmetic) task. Mental performance, force variability, fNIRS and subjective perception responses were measured in each condition. The performance of the mental task decreased significantly while the force variability increased significantly at 30% MVC as compared to 15% MVC, suggesting that performance of dual-task required more attentional resources. PFC activity increased significantly as the effort increased from 15% to 30% MVC (p<.001). Although a larger change in the deoxyhemoglobin was observed in dual-task conditions (p=.051), PFC activity did not change significantly as compared to the motor tasks alone. In summary, participants were unable to invest more attention and effort in performing the more difficult levels in order to maintain adequate mental performance. PMID:23665138

  1. Effectiveness of Taste Lessons with and without additional experiential learning activities on children's psychosocial determinants of vegetables consumption.

    PubMed

    Battjes-Fries, Marieke C E; Haveman-Nies, Annemien; van Dongen, Ellen J I; Meester, Hante J; van den Top-Pullen, Rinelle; de Graaf, Kees; van 't Veer, Pieter

    2016-10-01

    Experiential learning methods seem to be promising to enhance healthy eating behaviour in children. Therefore, this study compared the effectiveness of the Dutch programme Taste Lessons with and without additional experiential learning activities on children's psychosocial determinants of vegetable consumption. In a quasi-experimental design, 800 children aged 8-11 years old from 34 elementary schools participated in a Taste Lessons (TL: 5 lessons) group, a Taste Lessons Vegetable Menu (TLVM: TL with 3 added experiential learning activities) group, and a control group. During a baseline and follow-up measurement, children completed a questionnaire on psychosocial determinants towards vegetables consumption. Multilevel regression analyses were conducted to compare changes in the determinants between the TLVM group and the TL group, and between the two intervention groups and the control group. The TLVM group showed a significantly higher increase in knowledge (p < 0.001), attitude and subjective norm of the teacher (both p < 0.05), whereas the TL group only showed a significantly higher increase in knowledge (p < 0.001) compared to the control group. Increases in knowledge (p < 0.10), subjective norm (p < 0.10) and cooking self-efficacy (p < 0.05) were higher in the TLVM group than in the TL group. Therefore, more and stronger effects were found in children who participated in the additional hands-on activities. PMID:27317617

  2. Stability of phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity and colour through natural sweeteners addition during storage of sour cherry puree.

    PubMed

    Nowicka, Paulina; Wojdyło, Aneta

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the changes in phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity and colour of sour cherry puree supplemented with different natural sweeteners (sucrose, palm sugar, erythritol, xylitol, steviol glycoside, Luo Han Kuo), and natural prebiotic (inulin). A total of 18 types of polyphenolic compounds were assessed in the following sour cherry puree by LC-MS-QTof analysis, before and after 6 months of storage at 4 °C and 30 °C. Total phenolics determined by UPLC-PDA-FL was 1179.6 mg/100 g dm. In samples with addition of sweeteners the content of phenolic compounds ranged from 1133.1 (puree with steviol glycoside) to 725.6 mg/100 g dm (puree with erythritol), and the content of these compounds strongly affected on antioxidant activity. After 6-month storage, protective effects of some additives (palm sugar, erythritol, steviol glycoside, xylitol and inulin) on the polyphenol content, especially on anthocyanins and consequently on colour, and antioxidant activity were noticed. The results showed that some natural sweeteners might be interesting from a nutritional as well as commercial and pharmaceutical perspective. PMID:26593574

  3. Improving the performance of an aerobic membrane bioreactor (MBR) treating pharmaceutical wastewater with powdered activated carbon (PAC) addition.

    PubMed

    Kaya, Yasemin; Bacaksiz, A Murat; Golebatmaz, Ugur; Vergili, Ilda; Gönder, Z Beril; Yilmaz, Gulsum

    2016-04-01

    In this study, the effects of organic loading rate (OLR) and the addition of powdered activated carbon (PAC) on the performance and membrane fouling of MBR were conducted to treat real pharmaceutical process wastewater. Over 145 days of operation, the MBR system was operated at OLRs ranging from 1 to 2 kg COD m(-3) day(-1) without sludge wasting. The addition of PAC provided an improvement in the flux, despite an increase in the OLR:PAC ratio. The results demonstrated that the hybrid PAC-MBR system maintained a reduced amount of membrane fouling and steadily increased the removal performance of etodolac. PAC addition reduced the deposition of extracellular polymeric substance and organic matter on the membrane surface and resulted an increase in COD removal even at higher OLRs with low PAC addition. Membrane fouling mechanisms were investigated using combined adsorption fouling models. Modified fouling index values and normalized mass transfer coefficient values indicated that predominant fouling mechanism was cake adsorption. PMID:26846538

  4. Short-Range Temporal Interactions in Sleep; Hippocampal Spike Avalanches Support a Large Milieu of Sequential Activity Including Replay.

    PubMed

    Mahoney, J Matthew; Titiz, Ali S; Hernan, Amanda E; Scott, Rod C

    2016-01-01

    Hippocampal neural systems consolidate multiple complex behaviors into memory. However, the temporal structure of neural firing supporting complex memory consolidation is unknown. Replay of hippocampal place cells during sleep supports the view that a simple repetitive behavior modifies sleep firing dynamics, but does not explain how multiple episodes could be integrated into associative networks for recollection during future cognition. Here we decode sequential firing structure within spike avalanches of all pyramidal cells recorded in sleeping rats after running in a circular track. We find that short sequences that combine into multiple long sequences capture the majority of the sequential structure during sleep, including replay of hippocampal place cells. The ensemble, however, is not optimized for maximally producing the behavior-enriched episode. Thus behavioral programming of sequential correlations occurs at the level of short-range interactions, not whole behavioral sequences and these short sequences are assembled into a large and complex milieu that could support complex memory consolidation. PMID:26866597

  5. Short-Range Temporal Interactions in Sleep; Hippocampal Spike Avalanches Support a Large Milieu of Sequential Activity Including Replay

    PubMed Central

    Mahoney, J. Matthew; Titiz, Ali S.; Hernan, Amanda E.; Scott, Rod C.

    2016-01-01

    Hippocampal neural systems consolidate multiple complex behaviors into memory. However, the temporal structure of neural firing supporting complex memory consolidation is unknown. Replay of hippocampal place cells during sleep supports the view that a simple repetitive behavior modifies sleep firing dynamics, but does not explain how multiple episodes could be integrated into associative networks for recollection during future cognition. Here we decode sequential firing structure within spike avalanches of all pyramidal cells recorded in sleeping rats after running in a circular track. We find that short sequences that combine into multiple long sequences capture the majority of the sequential structure during sleep, including replay of hippocampal place cells. The ensemble, however, is not optimized for maximally producing the behavior-enriched episode. Thus behavioral programming of sequential correlations occurs at the level of short-range interactions, not whole behavioral sequences and these short sequences are assembled into a large and complex milieu that could support complex memory consolidation. PMID:26866597

  6. The effect of activated carbon addition on membrane bioreactor processes for wastewater treatment and reclamation - A critical review.

    PubMed

    Skouteris, George; Saroj, Devendra; Melidis, Paraschos; Hai, Faisal I; Ouki, Sabèha

    2015-06-01

    This review concentrates on the effect of activated carbon (AC) addition to membrane bioreactors (MBRs) treating wastewaters. Use of AC-assisted MBRs combines adsorption, biodegradation and membrane filtration. This can lead to advanced removal of recalcitrant pollutants and mitigation of membrane fouling. The relative contribution of adsorption and biodegradation to overall removal achieved by an AC-assisted MBR process can vary, and "biological AC" may not fully develop due to competition of target pollutants with bulk organics in wastewater. Thus periodic replenishment of spent AC is necessary. Sludge retention time (SRT) governs the frequency of spent AC withdrawal and addition of fresh AC, and is an important parameter that significantly influences the performance of AC-assisted MBRs. Of utmost importance is AC dosage because AC overdose may aggravate membrane fouling, increase sludge viscosity, impair mass transfer and reduce sludge dewaterability. PMID:25801795

  7. Formation of gold nanostructures on copier paper surface for cost effective SERS active substrate - Effect of halide additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desmonda, Christa; Kar, Sudeshna; Tai, Yian

    2016-03-01

    In this study, we report the simple fabrication of an active substrate assisted by gold nanostructures (AuNS) for application in surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) using copier paper, which is a biodegradable and cost-effective material. As cellulose is the main component of paper, it can behave as a reducing agent and as a capping molecule for the synthesis of AuNS on the paper substrate. AuNS can be directly generated on the surface of the copier paper by addition of halides. The AuNS thus synthesized were characterized by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, SEM, XRD, and XPS. In addition, the SERS effect of the AuNS-paper substrates synthesized by using various halides was investigated by using rhodamine 6G and melamine as probe molecules.

  8. Product and rate determinations with chemically activated nucleotides in the presence of various prebiotic materials, including other mono- and polynucleotides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanavarioti, A.; Alberas, D. J.; Rosenbach, M. T.; Bernasconi, C. F.; Chang, S.

    1991-01-01

    We are investigating the reactions of ImpN's in the presence of a number of prebiotically plausible materials, such as metal ions, phosphate, amines and other nucleotides and hope to learn more about the stability/reactivity of ImpN's in a prebiotic aqueous environment. We find that, in the presence of phosphate, ImpN's form substantial amounts of diphosphate nucleotides. These diphosphate nucleotides are not very good substrates for template directed reactions, but are chemically activated and are known to revert to the phosphoimidazolides in the presence of imidazole under solid state conditions. With respect to our studies of the oligomerization reaction, the determination of the dimerization rate constant of a specific ImpN (guanosine 5'-phospho 2 methylimidazolide) both in the absence and the presence of the template leads to the conclusion that at 37 C the dimerization is not template directed, although the subsequent polymerization steps are. In other words, this specific polynucleotide synthesizing system favors the elongation of oligonucleotides as compared with the formation of dimers and trimers. This favoring of the synthesis of long as opposed to short oligonucleotides may be regarded as a rudimentary example of natural selection at the molecular level.

  9. Origin of Rebound Plasma HIV Includes Cells with Identical Proviruses That Are Transcriptionally Active before Stopping of Antiretroviral Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Wiegand, Ann; Shao, Wei; Coffin, John M.; Mellors, John W.; Lederman, Michael; Gandhi, Rajesh T.; Keele, Brandon F.

    2015-01-01

    found within cells prior to treatment interruption. We found several incidences in which plasma HIV variants exactly matched that of multiple proviral DNA copies from infected blood cells sampled before treatment interruption. In addition, we found that these cells were not dormant but were generating unspliced RNA transcripts before treatment was interrupted. Identification of the HIV reservoir and determining its mechanisms for persistence may aid in the development of strategies toward a cure for HIV. (This study was presented in part at the Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections, Seattle, WA, February 23 to 26 2015.) PMID:26581989

  10. Addition of Selenium Nanoparticles to Electrospun Silk Scaffold Improves the Mammalian Cell Activity While Reducing Bacterial Growth

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Stanley; Ercan, Batur; Roy, Amit K.; Webster, Thomas J.

    2016-01-01

    Silk possesses many beneficial wound healing properties, and electrospun scaffolds are especially applicable for skin applications, due to their smaller interstices and higher surface areas. However, purified silk promotes microbial growth. Selenium nanoparticles have shown excellent antibacterial properties and are a novel antimicrobial chemistry. Here, electrospun silk scaffolds were doped with selenium nanoparticles to impart antibacterial properties to the silk scaffolds. Results showed significantly improved bacterial inhibition and mild improvement in human dermal fibroblast metabolic activity. These results suggest that the addition of selenium nanoparticles to electrospun silk is a promising approach to improve wound healing with reduced infection, without relying on antibiotics. PMID:27471473

  11. Selective Non-nucleoside Inhibitors of Human DNA Methyltransferases Active in Cancer Including in Cancer Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) are important enzymes involved in epigenetic control of gene expression and represent valuable targets in cancer chemotherapy. A number of nucleoside DNMT inhibitors (DNMTi) have been studied in cancer, including in cancer stem cells, and two of them (azacytidine and decitabine) have been approved for treatment of myelodysplastic syndromes. However, only a few non-nucleoside DNMTi have been identified so far, and even fewer have been validated in cancer. Through a process of hit-to-lead optimization, we report here the discovery of compound 5 as a potent non-nucleoside DNMTi that is also selective toward other AdoMet-dependent protein methyltransferases. Compound 5 was potent at single-digit micromolar concentrations against a panel of cancer cells and was less toxic in peripheral blood mononuclear cells than two other compounds tested. In mouse medulloblastoma stem cells, 5 inhibited cell growth, whereas related compound 2 showed high cell differentiation. To the best of our knowledge, 2 and 5 are the first non-nucleoside DNMTi tested in a cancer stem cell line. PMID:24387159

  12. Michael addition of dehydroalanine-containing MAPK peptides to catalytic lysine inhibits the activity of phosphothreonine lyase.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuan; Yang, Ru; Huang, Juan; Liang, Qiujin; Guo, Yanmin; Bian, Weixiang; Luo, Lingfei; Li, Hongtao

    2015-11-30

    The phosphothreonine lyases OspF and SpvC irreversibly inactivate host dual-phosphorylated mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) [pThr-X-pTyr motif] through β-elimination. We found that dual-phosphorylated (pSer-X-pTyr) MAPK substrate peptides and their resulting catalytic products cross-link to OspF and SpvC. Mass spectrometry results revealed that these linkages form between lysine, which acts as a general base, and dehydroalanine (Dha) on catalytic products. The nucleophilic addition efficiency is dependent on the K136 residue being in a deprotonated state. Peptide cross-linking inhibits the activity of SpvC and blocks the inactivation of MAPK signaling by SpvC. Small compounds mimicking these sequences may act as phosphothreonine lyase inhibitors. PMID:26519561

  13. Mo-Fe catalysts supported on activated carbon for synthesis of liquid fuels by the Fischer-Tropsch process: effect of Mo addition on reducibility, activity, and hydrocarbon selectivity

    SciTech Connect

    Wenping Ma; Edwin L. Kugler; James Wright; Dady B. Dadyburjor

    2006-12-15

    The effects of Mo loading (0-12 wt %) on the properties of activated-carbon- (AC-) supported Fe-Cu-K catalysts and their performance for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis are studied. Physicochemical properties studied include particle size, reducibility, and dispersion, and catalytic properties include activity, selectivity, and stability. Catalysts were characterized by N{sub 2} adsorption, energy-dispersive spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), H{sub 2} temperature-programmed reduction (TPR), and CO chemisorption. Catalyst performance was studied at 310-320{sup o}C, 2.2 MPa, 3 Nl/g-cat/h, and H{sub 2}/CO = 0.9. Reaction results in a fixed-bed reactor show that addition of 6% Mo into the Fe-Cu-K/AC catalyst improves catalyst stability without sacrificing activity, but activity is suppressed dramatically on a 12% Mo-loaded catalyst. Detectable hydrocarbons of C{sub 1} to C{sub 34} are produced on the Fe-Cu-K/AC catalysts with or without Mo. However, the addition of Mo results in the production of more CH{sub 4} and less C{sub 5+} hydrocarbons. The Mo promoter greatly enhances secondary reactions of olefins, leading to a large amount of internal olefins (i.e., other than 1-olefins) in the product. TPR shows that a strong interaction between Fe and Mo oxides is present, and the extent of reduction of Fe is suppressed after addition of Mo to the Fe-Cu-K catalyst. CO-chemisorption and XRD studies show increased iron dispersion and decreased particle size of the iron carbide and iron oxide after the addition of Mo. Segregation of iron active sites, thereby preventing them from agglomerating, and a larger number of active sites on the 6% Mo catalyst are possible reasons for the improved stability and higher activity of Mo-promoted catalysts. 54 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  14. Effects of plasmochemical treatments and cerium additions on the structural characteristics and activity of copper catalyst particles in isopropanol dehydrogenation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Platonov, E. A.; Lobanov, N. N.; Galimova, N. A.; Protasova, I. A.; Yagodovskii, V. D.

    2012-08-01

    The effect of the treatment of the 5 wt % Cu/SiO2 (I) and (5 wt % Cu + 0.5 wt % Ce)/SiO2 (II) catalysts with glow discharge plasma in O2, H2, and Ar on their structural characteristics was studied by X-ray phase analysis; the influence of cerium additions and plasmochemical treatments on the catalyst activity in isopropanol dehydrogenation was also investigated. Under the plasmochemical treatment, the diameters of Cu particles in catalyst I nearly doubled and microstresses in the metal particles also changed. Catalyst II was X-ray amorphous both before and after plasmochemical treatments. The activity of I after plasmochemical treatment increased because of the increase in the number of centers and changes in their composition. Growth of the activity of I compared with the activity of II was explained by the formation of new catalytic centers due to positive charging of the Ce+α adatom on the surface of the copper particle.

  15. Activity of the Human Rhinovirus 3C Protease Studied in Various Buffers, Additives and Detergents Solutions for Recombinant Protein Production

    PubMed Central

    Tufail, Soban; Ismat, Fouzia; Imran, Muhammad; Iqbal, Mazhar; Mirza, Osman; Rhaman, Moazur

    2016-01-01

    Proteases are widely used to remove affinity and solubility tags from recombinant proteins to avoid potential interference of these tags with the structure and function of the fusion partner. In recent years, great interest has been seen in use of the human rhinovirus 3C protease owing to its stringent sequence specificity and enhanced activity. Like other proteases, activity of the human rhinovirus 3C protease can be affected in part by the buffer components and additives that are generally employed for purification and stabilization of proteins, hence, necessitate their removal by tedious and time-consuming procedures before proteolysis can occur. To address this issue, we examined the effect of elution buffers used for common affinity based purifications, salt ions, stability/solubility and reducing agents, and detergents on the activity of the human rhinovirus 3C protease using three different fusion proteins at 4°C, a temperature of choice for purification of many proteins. The results show that the human rhinovirus 3C protease performs better at 4°C than the frequently used tobacco etch virus protease and its activity was insensitive to most of the experimental conditions tested. Though number of fusion proteins tested is limited, we expect that these finding will facilitate the use of the human rhinovirus 3C protease in recombinant protein production for pharmaceutical and biotechnological applications. PMID:27093053

  16. Activity of the Human Rhinovirus 3C Protease Studied in Various Buffers, Additives and Detergents Solutions for Recombinant Protein Production.

    PubMed

    Ullah, Raheem; Shah, Majid Ali; Tufail, Soban; Ismat, Fouzia; Imran, Muhammad; Iqbal, Mazhar; Mirza, Osman; Rhaman, Moazur

    2016-01-01

    Proteases are widely used to remove affinity and solubility tags from recombinant proteins to avoid potential interference of these tags with the structure and function of the fusion partner. In recent years, great interest has been seen in use of the human rhinovirus 3C protease owing to its stringent sequence specificity and enhanced activity. Like other proteases, activity of the human rhinovirus 3C protease can be affected in part by the buffer components and additives that are generally employed for purification and stabilization of proteins, hence, necessitate their removal by tedious and time-consuming procedures before proteolysis can occur. To address this issue, we examined the effect of elution buffers used for common affinity based purifications, salt ions, stability/solubility and reducing agents, and detergents on the activity of the human rhinovirus 3C protease using three different fusion proteins at 4°C, a temperature of choice for purification of many proteins. The results show that the human rhinovirus 3C protease performs better at 4°C than the frequently used tobacco etch virus protease and its activity was insensitive to most of the experimental conditions tested. Though number of fusion proteins tested is limited, we expect that these finding will facilitate the use of the human rhinovirus 3C protease in recombinant protein production for pharmaceutical and biotechnological applications. PMID:27093053

  17. Activation of IFN-beta element by IRF-1 requires a posttranslational event in addition to IRF-1 synthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, N; Sakakibara, J; Hovanessian, A G; Taniguchi, T; Fujita, T

    1991-01-01

    Expression of the Type I IFN (i.e., IFN-alpha s and IFN-beta) genes is efficiently induced by viruses at the transcriptional level. This induction is mediated by at least two types of positive regulatory elements located in the human IFN-beta gene promoter: (1) the repeated elements which bind both the transcriptional activator IRF-1 and the repressor IRF-2 (IRF-elements; IRF-Es), and (2) the kappa B element (kappa B-E), which binds NF kappa B and is located between the IRF-Es and the TATA box. In this study we demonstrate that a promoter containing synthetic IRF-E, which displays high affinity for the IRFs can be efficiently activated by Newcastle disease virus (NDV). In contrast, such activation was either very weak or nil when cells were treated by IFN-beta or tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), despite the fact they both efficiently induce de novo synthesis of the short-lived IRF-1 in L929 cells. In fact, efficient activation of the IRF-E apparently requires an event in addition to de novo IRF-1 induction, which can be elicited by NDV even in the presence of protein synthesis inhibitor, cycloheximide. Moreover, efficient activation of the IRF-E by NDV is specifically inhibited by the protein kinase inhibitor, Staurosporin. Hence our results suggest the importance of IRF-1 synthesis and post-translational modification event(s), possibly phosphorylation for the efficient activation of IRF-Es, which are otherwise under negative regulation by IRF-2. Images PMID:1886766

  18. Effects of sugar addition on total polyphenol content and antioxidant activity of frozen and freeze-dried apple purée.

    PubMed

    Loncaric, Ante; Dugalic, Krunoslav; Mihaljevic, Ines; Jakobek, Lidija; Pilizota, Vlasta

    2014-02-19

    The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of simple sugar addition including (glucose, G; fructose, F; sucrose, S; and trehalose, T) on the total polyphenol content (TPC) and antioxidant activity (AOA) of apple purée processed by freezing and freeze-drying and stored for 6 months. The apple polyphenol profile was mostly preserved in the freeze-dried samples with sugar addition during 6 months of storage, whereas the polyphenol profile in frozen samples consists only of quercetin glycosides, of which rutin had the largest share. After 6 months, the highest level of polyphenols was detected in frozen 'Idared' and 'Fuji' apple purée with addition of T 5% (12.2 and 16.7 mg/100 g FW, respectively), whereas in freeze-dried apple purée the highest TPC was in 'Idared' and 'Fuji' with addition of T 1% (16.3 and 13.6 mg/100 g FW, respectively). Results indicate that sugar addition before processing could have potential for enhancing product quality. PMID:24471409

  19. The effects of mediator and granular activated carbon addition on degradation of trace organic contaminants by an enzymatic membrane reactor.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Luong N; Hai, Faisal I; Price, William E; Leusch, Frederic D L; Roddick, Felicity; Ngo, Hao H; Guo, Wenshan; Magram, Saleh F; Nghiem, Long D

    2014-09-01

    The removal of four recalcitrant trace organic contaminants (TrOCs), namely carbamazepine, diclofenac, sulfamethoxazole and atrazine by laccase in an enzymatic membrane reactor (EMR) was studied. Laccases are not effective for degrading non-phenolic compounds; nevertheless, 22-55% removal of these four TrOCs was achieved by the laccase EMR. Addition of the redox-mediator syringaldehyde (SA) to the EMR resulted in a notable dose-dependent improvement (15-45%) of TrOC removal affected by inherent TrOC properties and loading rates. However, SA addition resulted in a concomitant increase in the toxicity of the treated effluent. A further 14-25% improvement in aqueous phase removal of the TrOCs was consistently observed following a one-off dosing of 3g/L granular activated carbon (GAC). Mass balance analysis reveals that this improvement was not due solely to adsorption but also enhanced biodegradation. GAC addition also reduced membrane fouling and the SA-induced toxicity of the effluent. PMID:24980029

  20. High water-stressed population estimated by world water resources assessment including human activities under SRES scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiguchi, M.; Shen, Y.; Kanae, S.; Oki, T.

    2009-04-01

    In an argument of the reduction and the adaptation for the climate change, the evaluation of the influence by the climate change is important. When we argue in adaptation plan from a damage scale and balance with the cost, it is particularly important. Parry et al (2001) evaluated the risks in shortage of water, malaria, food, the risk of the coast flood by temperature function and clarified the level of critical climate change. According to their evaluation, the population to be affected by the shortage of water suddenly increases in the range where temperature increases from 1.5 to 2.0 degree in 2080s. They showed how much we need to reduce emissions in order to draw-down significantly the number at risk. This evaluation of critical climate change threats and targets of water shortage did not include the water withdrawal divided by water availability. Shen et al (2008a) estimated the water withdrawal of projection of future world water resources according to socio-economic driving factors predicted for scenarios A1b, A2, B1, and B2 of the Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES). However, these results were in function of not temperature but time. The assessment of the highly water-stressed population considered the socioeconomic development is necessary for a function of the temperature. Because of it is easy to understand to need to reduce emission. We present a multi-GCM analysis of the global and regional populations lived in highly water-stressed basin for a function of the temperature using the socioeconomic data and the outputs of GCMs. In scenario A2, the population increases gradually with warming. On the other hand, the future projection population in scenario A1b and B1 increase gradually until the temperature anomaly exceeds around from +1 to +1.5 degree. After that the population is almost constant. From Shen et al (2008b), we evaluated the HWSP and its ratio in the world with temperature function for scenarios A1B, A2, and B1 by the index of W

  1. Nutrient addition modifies phosphatase activities along an altitudinal gradient in a tropical montane forest in Southern Ecuador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietrich, Karla; Spoeri, Elena; Oelmann, Yvonne

    2016-02-01

    Atmospheric nutrient deposition and climate change are expected to endanger the diversity of tropical forest ecosystems. Nitrogen (N) deposition might influence nutrient fluxes beyond the N cycle by a concomitant increased demand for other nutritional elements such as phosphorus (P). Organisms might respond to the increased P demand by enhanced activity of enzymes involved in releasing inorganic P from organic matter (OM). Our aims were to assess the effect of i) climate shifts (approximated by an altitudinal gradient), and ii) nutrient addition (N, P, N+P) on phosphatase activity (PA) in organic layer and mineral soil of a tropical montane rainforest in Southern Ecuador. A nutrient manipulation experiment (NUMEX) was set up along an altitudinal gradient (1000, 2000, and 3000 m a.s.l.). We determined PA and inorganic and total P concentrations. PA at 1000 m was significantly lower (mean ± standard error: 48 ± 20 µmol p-NP g-1 dm h-1) as compared to 2000 m and 3000 m (119 ± 11 and 137 ± 19, respectively). One explanation might be that very rapid decomposition of OM at 1000 m results in very thin organic layers reducing the stabilization of enzymes and thus, resulting in leaching loss of enzymes under the humid tropical climate. We found no effect of N addition on PA neither in the organic layer nor in mineral soil, probably because of the low nutrient addition rates that showed ambiguous results so far on productivity measures as a proxy for P demand. In the organic layers of P and N+P treatments, we found decreased PA and increased concentrations of inorganic P. This indicates that the surplus of inorganic P reduced the biosynthesis of phosphatase enzymes. PA in megadiverse montane rainforests is likely to be unaffected by increased atmospheric N deposition but reduced upon atmospheric P deposition.

  2. Structural Insights into an Oxalate-producing Serine Hydrolase with an Unusual Oxyanion Hole and Additional Lyase Activity.

    PubMed

    Oh, Juntaek; Hwang, Ingyu; Rhee, Sangkee

    2016-07-15

    In Burkholderia species, the production of oxalate, an acidic molecule, is a key event for bacterial growth in the stationary phase. Oxalate plays a central role in maintaining environmental pH, which counteracts inevitable population-collapsing alkaline toxicity in amino acid-based culture medium. In the phytopathogen Burkholderia glumae, two enzymes are responsible for oxalate production. First, the enzyme oxalate biosynthetic component A (ObcA) catalyzes the formation of a tetrahedral C6-CoA adduct from the substrates acetyl-CoA and oxaloacetate. Then the ObcB enzyme liberates three products from the C6-CoA adduct: oxalate, acetoacetate, and CoA. Interestingly, these two stepwise reactions are catalyzed by a single bifunctional enzyme, Obc1, from Burkholderia thailandensis and Burkholderia pseudomallei Obc1 has an ObcA-like N-terminal domain and shows ObcB activity in its C-terminal domain despite no sequence homology with ObcB. We report the crystal structure of Obc1 in its apo and glycerol-bound form at 2.5 Å and 2.8 Å resolution, respectively. The Obc1 N-terminal domain is essentially identical both in structure and function to that of ObcA. Its C-terminal domain has an α/β hydrolase fold that has a catalytic triad for oxalate production and a novel oxyanion hole distinct from the canonical HGGG motif in other α/β hydrolases. Functional analyses through mutagenesis studies suggested that His-934 is an additional catalytic acid/base for its lyase activity and liberates two additional products, acetoacetate and CoA. These results provide structural and functional insights into bacterial oxalogenesis and an example of divergent evolution of the α/β hydrolase fold, which has both hydrolase and lyase activity. PMID:27226606

  3. A "Kane's Dynamics" Model for the Active Rack Isolation System. Part 3; Addition of Umbilicals to the Nonlinear Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rupert, J. K.; Hampton, R. D.; Beech, G. S.

    2005-01-01

    In the late 1980s, microgravity researchers began to voice their concern that umbilical-transmitted energy could significantly degrade the acceleration environment of microgravity space science experiments onboard manned spacecraft. Since umbilicals are necessary for many experiments, control designers began to seek ways to compensate for these "indirect" disturbances. Hampton, et al., used the Kane s method to develop a model of the active rack isolation system (ARIS) that includes (1) actuator control forces, (2) direct disturbance forces, and (3) indirect, actuator-transmitted disturbances. Their model does not, however, include the indirect, umbilical-transmitted disturbances. Since the umbilical stiffnesses are not negligible, these indirect disturbances must be included in the model. Until the umbilicals have been appropriately included, the model will be incomplete. This Technical Memorandum presents a nonlinear model of ARIS with umbilicals included. Model verification was achieved by utilizing two commercial-off-the-shelf software tools. Various forces and moments were applied to the model to yield simulated responses of the system. Plots of the simulation results show how various critical points on an ARIS-outfitted international standard payload rack behave under the application of direct disturbances, indirect disturbances, and control forces. Simulations also show system response to a variety of initial conditions.

  4. Community shifts of actively growing lake bacteria after N-acetyl-glucosamine addition: improving the BrdU-FACS method.

    PubMed

    Tada, Yuya; Grossart, Hans-Peter

    2014-02-01

    In aquatic environments, community dynamics of bacteria, especially actively growing bacteria (AGB), are tightly linked with dissolved organic matter (DOM) quantity and quality. We analyzed the community dynamics of DNA-synthesizing and accordingly AGB by linking an improved bromodeoxyuridine immunocytochemistry approach with fluorescence-activated cell sorting (BrdU-FACS). FACS-sorted cells of even oligotrophic ecosystems in winter were characterized by 16S rRNA gene analysis. In incubation experiments, we examined community shifts of AGB in response to the addition of N-acetyl-glucosamine (NAG), one of the most abundant aminosugars in aquatic systems. Our improved BrdU-FACS analysis revealed that AGB winter communities of oligotrophic Lake Stechlin (northeastern Germany) substantially differ from those of total bacteria and consist of Alpha-, Beta-, Gamma-, Deltaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Candidatus OP10 and Chloroflexi. AGB populations with different BrdU-fluorescence intensities and cell sizes represented different phylotypes suggesting that single-cell growth potential varies at the taxon level. NAG incubation experiments demonstrated that a variety of widespread taxa related to Alpha-, Beta-, Gammaproteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Planctomycetes, Spirochaetes, Verrucomicrobia and Chloroflexi actively grow in the presence of NAG. The BrdU-FACS approach enables detailed phylogenetic studies of AGB and, thus, to identify those phylotypes which are potential key players in aquatic DOM cycling. PMID:23985742

  5. Community shifts of actively growing lake bacteria after N-acetyl-glucosamine addition: improving the BrdU-FACS method

    PubMed Central

    Tada, Yuya; Grossart, Hans-Peter

    2014-01-01

    In aquatic environments, community dynamics of bacteria, especially actively growing bacteria (AGB), are tightly linked with dissolved organic matter (DOM) quantity and quality. We analyzed the community dynamics of DNA-synthesizing and accordingly AGB by linking an improved bromodeoxyuridine immunocytochemistry approach with fluorescence-activated cell sorting (BrdU-FACS). FACS-sorted cells of even oligotrophic ecosystems in winter were characterized by 16S rRNA gene analysis. In incubation experiments, we examined community shifts of AGB in response to the addition of N-acetyl-glucosamine (NAG), one of the most abundant aminosugars in aquatic systems. Our improved BrdU-FACS analysis revealed that AGB winter communities of oligotrophic Lake Stechlin (northeastern Germany) substantially differ from those of total bacteria and consist of Alpha-, Beta-, Gamma-, Deltaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Candidatus OP10 and Chloroflexi. AGB populations with different BrdU-fluorescence intensities and cell sizes represented different phylotypes suggesting that single-cell growth potential varies at the taxon level. NAG incubation experiments demonstrated that a variety of widespread taxa related to Alpha-, Beta-, Gammaproteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Planctomycetes, Spirochaetes, Verrucomicrobia and Chloroflexi actively grow in the presence of NAG. The BrdU-FACS approach enables detailed phylogenetic studies of AGB and, thus, to identify those phylotypes which are potential key players in aquatic DOM cycling. PMID:23985742

  6. Kinetics of Hydrogen Radical Reactions with Toluene Including Chemical Activation Theory Employing System-Specific Quantum RRK Theory Calibrated by Variational Transition State Theory.

    PubMed

    Bao, Junwei Lucas; Zheng, Jingjing; Truhlar, Donald G

    2016-03-01

    Pressure-dependent reactions are ubiquitous in combustion and atmospheric chemistry. We employ a new calibration procedure for quantum Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel (QRRK) unimolecular rate theory within a chemical activation mechanism to calculate the pressure-falloff effect of a radical association with an aromatic ring. The new theoretical framework is applied to the reaction of H with toluene, which is a prototypical reaction in the combustion chemistry of aromatic hydrocarbons present in most fuels. Both the hydrogen abstraction reactions and the hydrogen addition reactions are calculated. Our system-specific (SS) QRRK approach is adjusted with SS parameters to agree with multistructural canonical variational transition state theory with multidimensional tunneling (MS-CVT/SCT) at the high-pressure limit. The new method avoids the need for the usual empirical estimations of the QRRK parameters, and it eliminates the need for variational transition state theory calculations as a function of energy, although in this first application we do validate the falloff curves by comparing SS-QRRK results without tunneling to multistructural microcanonical variational transition state theory (MS-μVT) rate constants without tunneling. At low temperatures, the two approaches agree well with each other, but at high temperatures, SS-QRRK tends to overestimate falloff slightly. We also show that the variational effect is important in computing the energy-resolved rate constants. Multiple-structure anharmonicity, torsional-potential anharmonicity, and high-frequency-mode vibrational anharmonicity are all included in the rate computations, and torsional anharmonicity effects on the density of states are investigated. Branching fractions, which are both temperature- and pressure-dependent (and for which only limited data is available from experiment), are predicted as a function of pressure. PMID:26841076

  7. Serum Basal Paraoxonase 1 Activity as an Additional Liver Function Test for the Evaluation of Patients with Chronic Hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Halappa, Chandrakanth K; Pyati, Sudharani A; Nagaraj; Wali, Vinod

    2015-01-01

    Background The diagnostic accuracy of currently available standard panel of liver function tests is not satisfactory for the reliable diagnosis of chronic liver disorders. Earlier studies have reported that serum basal paraoxonase 1 (PON1) activity measurement may add a significant contribution to the liver function tests. Aim To assess whether the measurement of serum basal paraoxonase 1 (PON1) activity would be useful as an index of liver function status in chronic hepatitis patients. Materials and Methods The study included 50 chronic hepatitis patients and 50 apparently healthy controls based on inclusion & exclusion criteria. In all the subjects, standard liver function tests were analysed by using standard methods. Basal PON1 activity was estimated using spectrophotometric method by the hydrolysis of p-nitrophenylacetate. Student t-test, Pearson’s correlation coefficient, diagnostic validity tests and ROC curve analysis were the methods used for the statistical analysis of the data. Results The serum basal PON1 activity was significantly decreased in chronic hepatitis cases when compared to controls (p< 0.001). Also basal PON1 activity was positively correlated with serum total protein and albumin, and negatively correlated with serum total bilirubin, alanine amino transferase (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) (p< 0.001) in chronic hepatitis cases but not in healthy controls. Diagnostic validity tests showed, basal PON1 activity was a better discriminator of chronic hepatitis than total protein, albumin and ALP with sensitivity of 68%, specificity of 100%, positive predictive value of 100% and negative predictive value of 75%. ROC curve analysis demonstrated highest diagnostic accuracy for ALT (AUC = 0.999) followed by PON1 (AUC = 0.990), total bilirubin (AUC = 0.977), ALP (AUC = 0.904), total protein (AUC = 0.790) and albumin (AUC = 0.595). Conclusion Diagnostic accuracy of serum PON1 activity is better than total bilirubin, total protein, albumin and

  8. Addition of Al and Fe salts during treatment of paper mill effluents to improve activated sludge settlement characteristics.

    PubMed

    Agridiotis, V; Forster, C F; Carliell-Marquet, C

    2007-11-01

    Metal salts, ferrous sulphate and aluminium chloride, were added to laboratory-scale activated sludge plant treating paper mill effluents to investigate the effect on settlement characteristics. Before treatment the sludge was filamentous, had stirred sludge volume index (SSVI) values in excess of 300 and was moderately hydrophobic. The use of FeSO4.7H2O took three weeks to reduce the SSVI to 90. Microscopic examination showed that Fe had converted the filamentous flocs into a compact structure. When the iron dosing was stopped, the sludge returned to its bulking state within four weeks. In a subsequent trial, the addition of AlCl3 initially resulted in an improvement of the settlement index but then caused deterioration of the sludge properties. It is possible that aluminium was overdosed and caused charge reversal, increasing the SSVI. PMID:17113285

  9. The use of nanometer tetrabasic lead sulfate as positive active material additive for valve regulated lead-acid battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, Xiaoshi; Wang, Dianlong; Hu, Chiyu; Tang, Shenzhi; Zhu, Junsheng; Guo, Chenfeng

    2014-12-01

    Conventional tetrabasic lead sulfate used as positive active material additive shows the results of the low effective lead dioxide conversion rate due to the large grain size and crossed the crystal structure. In this paper, we study on a type of nanometer tetrabasic lead sulfate. Through the XRD and SEM test and Material Studio software calculation, the purity of tetrabasic lead sulfate is very high, the grain size of the nanometer 4BS is almost unanimous, and can be controlled below 200 nm. When charged and discharged in 1.75 V-2.42 V with the current density of 40 mA g-1, 80 mA g-1 and 160 mA g-1, the effective lead dioxide conversion rate of nanometer 4BS after formation can achieve to 83.48%, 71.42%, and 66.96%. Subsequently, the nanometer 4BS as additive is added to positive paste of lead-acid battery. When the batteries are tested galvanostatically between 1.75 V and 2.42 V at 0.25 C charge and 0.5 C discharge rates at room temperature. The ratio of adding nanometer 4BS is 0%, 1% and 4% and the initial discharge specific capacities are 60 mAh g-1, 65 mAh g-1 and 68 mAh g-1. After 80 cycles, the initial discharge capacity of positive active material with 1% nanometer 4BS decreased less than 10%, while adding 4% nanometer 4BS, the initial discharge capacity doesn't decrease obviously.

  10. Appropriate Fe (II) Addition Significantly Enhances Anaerobic Ammonium Oxidation (Anammox) Activity through Improving the Bacterial Growth Rate

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yiwen; Ni, Bing-Jie

    2015-01-01

    The application of anaerobic ammonium oxidation (Anammox) process is often limited by the slow growth rate of Anammox bacteria. As the essential substrate element that required for culturing Anammox sludge, Fe (II) is expected to affect Anammox bacterial growth. This work systematically studied the effects of Fe (II) addition on Anammox activity based on the kinetic analysis of specific growth rate using data from batch tests with an enriched Anammox sludge at different dosing levels. Results clearly demonstrated that appropriate Fe (II) dosing (i.e., 0.09 mM) significantly enhanced the specific Anammox growth rate up to 0.172 d−1 compared to 0.118 d−1 at regular Fe (II) level (0.03 mM). The relationship between Fe (II) concentration and specific Anammox growth rate was found to be well described by typical substrate inhibition kinetics, which was integrated into currently well-established Anammox model to describe the enhanced Anammox growth with Fe (II) addition. The validity of the integrated Anammox model was verified using long-term experimental data from three independent Anammox reactors with different Fe (II) dosing levels. This Fe (II)-based approach could be potentially implemented to enhance the process rate for possible mainstream application of Anammox technology, in order for an energy autarchic wastewater treatment. PMID:25644239

  11. Appropriate Fe (II) Addition Significantly Enhances Anaerobic Ammonium Oxidation (Anammox) Activity through Improving the Bacterial Growth Rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yiwen; Ni, Bing-Jie

    2015-02-01

    The application of anaerobic ammonium oxidation (Anammox) process is often limited by the slow growth rate of Anammox bacteria. As the essential substrate element that required for culturing Anammox sludge, Fe (II) is expected to affect Anammox bacterial growth. This work systematically studied the effects of Fe (II) addition on Anammox activity based on the kinetic analysis of specific growth rate using data from batch tests with an enriched Anammox sludge at different dosing levels. Results clearly demonstrated that appropriate Fe (II) dosing (i.e., 0.09 mM) significantly enhanced the specific Anammox growth rate up to 0.172 d-1 compared to 0.118 d-1 at regular Fe (II) level (0.03 mM). The relationship between Fe (II) concentration and specific Anammox growth rate was found to be well described by typical substrate inhibition kinetics, which was integrated into currently well-established Anammox model to describe the enhanced Anammox growth with Fe (II) addition. The validity of the integrated Anammox model was verified using long-term experimental data from three independent Anammox reactors with different Fe (II) dosing levels. This Fe (II)-based approach could be potentially implemented to enhance the process rate for possible mainstream application of Anammox technology, in order for an energy autarchic wastewater treatment.

  12. Role of extracellular polymeric substances in enhancement of phosphorus release from waste activated sludge by rhamnolipid addition.

    PubMed

    He, Zhang-Wei; Liu, Wen-Zong; Wang, Ling; Yang, Chun-Xue; Guo, Ze-Chong; Zhou, Ai-Juan; Liu, Jian-Yong; Wang, Ai-Jie

    2016-02-01

    This study investigated the role of extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs) in enhanced performance of phosphorus (P) release from waste activated sludge (WAS) by adding rhamnolipid (RL). Results showed that compared to WAS without pretreatment, the released PO4(3-)-P increased with RL addition from 0 to 0.2 g/gTSS (total suspended solid), and increased by 208% under the optimal condition (0.1 g RL/g TSS and 72-h fermentation time). The cumulative PO4(3-)-P was better fitted with pseudo-first-order kinetic model. Moreover, the contents of metal ions increased in liquid but decreased in EPSs linearly with RL addition increasing, and WAS solubilizations were positively correlated with the released metal ions. The enhanced total dissolved P mainly came from cells and others (69.39%, 2.27-fold higher than that from EPSs), and PO4(3-)-P was the main species in both liquid and loosely bound EPSs, but organic P should be non-negligible in tightly bound EPSs. PMID:26700759

  13. Oxidative Addition of Carbon–Carbon Bonds with a Redox-Active Bis(imino)pyridine Iron Complex

    PubMed Central

    Darmon, Jonathan M.; Stieber, S. Chantal E.; Sylvester, Kevin T.; Fernández, Ignacio; Lobkovsky, Emil; Semproni, Scott P.; Bill, Eckhard; Wieghardt, Karl; DeBeer, Serena; Chirik, Paul J.

    2013-01-01

    Addition of biphenylene to the bis(imino)pyridine iron dinitrogen complexes, (iPrPDI)Fe(N2)2 and [(MePDI)Fe(N2)]2(μ2-N2) (RPDI = 2,6-(2,6-R2—C6H3— N=CMe)2C5H3N; R = Me, iPr), resulted in oxidative addition of a C—C bond at ambient temperature to yield the corresponding iron biphenyl compounds, (RPDI)Fe-(biphenyl). The molecular structures of the resulting bis-(imino)pyridine iron metallacycles were established by X-ray diffraction and revealed idealized square pyramidal geometries. The electronic structures of the compounds were studied by Mössbauer spectroscopy, NMR spectroscopy, magnetochemistry, and X-ray absorption and X-ray emission spectroscopies. The experimental data, in combination with broken-symmetry density functional theory calculations, established spin crossover (low to intermediate spin) ferric compounds antiferromagnetically coupled to bis(imino)pyridine radical anions. Thus, the overall oxidation reaction involves cooperative electron loss from both the iron center and the redox-active bis(imino)pyridine ligand. PMID:23043331

  14. Additive Manufacturing of Aerospace Propulsion Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Misra, Ajay K.; Grady, Joseph E.; Carter, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The presentation will provide an overview of ongoing activities on additive manufacturing of aerospace propulsion components, which included rocket propulsion and gas turbine engines. Future opportunities on additive manufacturing of hybrid electric propulsion components will be discussed.

  15. Metabolic Profiles and Genetic Diversity of Denitrifying Communities in Activated Sludge after Addition of Methanol or Ethanol†

    PubMed Central

    Hallin, Sara; Throbäck, Ingela Noredal; Dicksved, Johan; Pell, Mikael

    2006-01-01

    External carbon sources can enhance denitrification rates and thus improve nitrogen removal in wastewater treatment plants. The effects of adding methanol and ethanol on the genetic and metabolic diversity of denitrifying communities in activated sludge were compared using a pilot-scale plant with two parallel lines. A full-scale plant receiving the same municipal wastewater, but without external carbon source addition, was the reference. Metabolic profiles obtained from potential denitrification rates with 10 electron donors showed that the denitrifying communities altered their preferences for certain compounds after supplementation with methanol or ethanol and that methanol had the greater impact. Clone libraries of nirK and nirS genes, encoding the two different nitrite reductases in denitrifiers, revealed that methanol also increased the diversity of denitrifiers of the nirS type, which indicates that denitrifiers favored by methanol were on the rise in the community. This suggests that there might be a niche differentiation between nirS and nirK genotypes during activated sludge processes. The composition of nirS genotypes also varied greatly among all samples, whereas the nirK communities were more stable. The latter was confirmed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of nirK communities on all sampling occasions. Our results support earlier hypotheses that the compositions of denitrifier communities change during predenitrification processes when external carbon sources are added, although no severe effect could be observed from an operational point of view. PMID:16885297

  16. Reduction of sludge generation by the addition of support material in a cyclic activated sludge system for municipal wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Araujo, Moacir Messias de; Lermontov, André; Araujo, Philippe Lopes da Silva; Zaiat, Marcelo

    2013-09-01

    An innovative biomass carrier (Biobob®) was tested for municipal wastewater treatment in an activated sludge system to evaluate the pollutant removal performance and the sludge generation for different carrier volumes. The experiment was carried out in a pilot-scale cyclic activated sludge system (CASS®) built with three cylindrical tanks in a series: an anoxic selector (2.1 m(3)), an aerobic selector (2.5 m(3)) and the main aerobic reactor (25.1 m(3)). The results showed that by adding the Biobob® carrier decreased the MLVSS concentration, which consequently reduced the waste sludge production of the system. Having 7% and 18% (v/v) support material in the aerobic reactor, the observed biomass yield decreased 18% and 36%, respectively, relative to the reactor operated with suspended biomass. The addition of media did not affect the system's performance for COD and TSS removal. However, TKN and TN removal were improved by 24% and 14%, respectively, using 18% (v/v) carrier. PMID:23831747

  17. Bridged bis(amidinate) lanthanide aryloxides: syntheses, structures, and catalytic activity for addition of amines to carbodiimides.

    PubMed

    Tu, Jing; Li, Wenbo; Xue, Mingqiang; Zhang, Yong; Shen, Qi

    2013-04-28

    Various lanthanide aryloxide complexes supported by bridged bis(amidinate) ligand L, LLnOAr(DME) (L = Me3SiNC(Ph)N(CH2)3NC(Ph)NSiMe3, DME = dimethoxyethane, Ln = Y, Ar = 2,6-(Me)2C6H3 (1), 2,6-((i)Pr)2C6H3 (2), 2,6-((t)Bu)2-4-(Me)C6H2 (3); Ar = 2,6-((t)Bu)2-4-(Me)C6H2, Ln = Nd (4), Sm (5), Yb (6)) were synthesized, and complexes 1, 2 and 4–6 were characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction. All the complexes are efficient precatalysts for catalytic addition of amines to carbodiimides. The catalytic activity is influenced by lanthanide metals and the aryloxide groups (Nd (4) Sm (5) < Y (3) Yb (6) and -2,6-(Me)2C6H3 < -2,6-((i)Pr)2C6H3 < -2,6-((t)Bu)2-4-(Me)C6H2). The catalytic addition reaction with 3 showed a good scope of substrates. The mechanism investigation revealed the real active intermediate being the monoguanidinate complexes supported by an aryloxide and an amidine-functionalized amidinate group, L′Ln[O2,6-((t)Bu)2-4-(Me)C6H2][RNCNHRN(Ar′)] (L′ = Me3SiNHC(Ph)N(CH2)3NC(Ph)NSiMe3, R = (i)Pr, Ar′ = phenyl, Ln = Yb (8), Y (11); R = Cy, Ar′ = phenyl, Ln = Yb (10), Y (12); R = (i)Pr, Ar′ = 4-ClC6H4, Ln = Yb (9)), which were isolated from the reactions of 6 (or 3) with amine and carbodiimide in a molar ratio of 1:1:1 and structurally characterized. The Ln-active group in the present precatalyst is a Ln–amidinate species, not the Ln–OAr group. PMID:23459864

  18. Non-Additive Voltametric Currents From a Mixture of Two, Three and Four Redox-Active Compounds and Electroanalytical Implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dass, Amala; Oh, Woon Su; Gao, Xue-Rong; Rawashdeh, Abdel M.; Leventis, Nicholas

    2004-01-01

    We have published recently the effect of dissimilar diffusion coefficients on the size of the voltammetric waves from a mixture of two redox-active compounds. Similarly, at the potential range where three redox-active species, decamethylferrocene (dMeFc), ferrocene (Fc) and N-methylphenothiazine (MePTZ), are oxidized simultaneously with rates controlled by linear diffusion, electrogenerated radicals diffusing outwards from the electrode react with the original species diffusing towards the electrode from the bulk; thus, Fc(+) reacts with dMeFc producing Fc and dMeFc(+), while MePTZ(+) reacts both with dMeFc producing MePTZ and dMeFc(+), and with Fc producing MePTZ and Fc(+). These reactions replace dMeFc with Fc at the second plateau, and both dMeFc and Fc with MePTZ at the third plateau. Since the diffusion coefficients of the three species are not equal, the mass-transfer limited currents of the second and the third oxidation wave plateaus change by approx. 10%. Numerical simulations of the experimental voltamograms support this mechanism. Similar results were also obtained for a mixture of four redoxactive compounds. The implications of this non-additive nature of currents on: (a) the use of internal voltammetric standards for quantitative analysis of a mixture of redox-active compounds; and, (b) the half wave potentials (E1/2) of the 2nd, 3rd and 4th waves for qualitative analysis, will be discussed.

  19. Surface roughness-induced speed increase for active Janus micromotors† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5cc01607j Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Choudhury, Udit; Soler, Lluís; Gibbs, John G.; Fischer, Peer

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate a simple physical fabrication method to control surface roughness of Janus micromotors and fabricate self-propelled active Janus microparticles with rough catalytic platinum surfaces that show a four-fold increase in their propulsion speed compared to conventional Janus particles coated with a smooth Pt layer. PMID:25905919

  20. A poultry-intestinal isolate of Campylobacter jejuni produces a bacteriocin (CUV-3) active against a range of Gram positive bacterial pathogens including Clostridium perfringens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A newly isolated bacteriocin, CUV-3, produced by a poultry cecal isolate of Campylobacter jejuni strain CUV-3 had inhibitory activity against several Gram positive bacteria including Clostridium perfringens (38 strains), Staphylococcus aureus, Staph.epidermidis and Listeria monocytogenes. The pept...

  1. Including Youth with Intellectual Disabilities in Health Promotion Research: Development and Reliability of a Structured Interview to Assess the Correlates of Physical Activity among Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtin, Carol; Bandini, Linda G.; Must, Aviva; Phillips, Sarah; Maslin, Melissa C. T.; Lo, Charmaine; Gleason, James M.; Fleming, Richard K.; Stanish, Heidi I.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The input of youth with intellectual disabilities in health promotion and health disparities research is essential for understanding their needs and preferences. Regular physical activity (PA) is vital for health and well-being, but levels are low in youth generally, including those with intellectual disabilities. Understanding the…

  2. Enhanced Polysaccharide Binding and Activity on Linear β-Glucans through Addition of Carbohydrate-Binding Modules to Either Terminus of a Glucooligosaccharide Oxidase

    PubMed Central

    Foumani, Maryam; Vuong, Thu V.; MacCormick, Benjamin; Master, Emma R.

    2015-01-01

    The gluco-oligosaccharide oxidase from Sarocladium strictum CBS 346.70 (GOOX) is a single domain flavoenzyme that favourably oxidizes gluco- and xylo- oligosaccharides. In the present study, GOOX was shown to also oxidize plant polysaccharides, including cellulose, glucomannan, β-(1→3,1→4)-glucan, and xyloglucan, albeit to a lesser extent than oligomeric substrates. To improve GOOX activity on polymeric substrates, three carbohydrate binding modules (CBMs) from Clostridium thermocellum, namely CtCBM3 (type A), CtCBM11 (type B), and CtCBM44 (type B), were separately appended to the amino and carboxy termini of the enzyme, generating six fusion proteins. With the exception of GOOX-CtCBM3 and GOOX-CtCBM44, fusion of the selected CBMs increased the catalytic activity of the enzyme (kcat) on cellotetraose by up to 50%. All CBM fusions selectively enhanced GOOX binding to soluble and insoluble polysaccharides, and the immobilized enzyme on a solid cellulose surface remained stable and active. In addition, the CBM fusions increased the activity of GOOX on soluble glucomannan by up to 30 % and on insoluble crystalline as well as amorphous cellulose by over 50 %. PMID:25932926

  3. Addition of gut active carbohydrates to colostrum replacer does not improve passive transfer of immunoglobulin G in Holstein dairy calves.

    PubMed

    Villettaz Robichaud, M; Godden, S M; Haines, D M; Haley, D B; Pearl, D L

    2014-09-01

    The primary objective of this study was to investigate the effects of supplementing a commercial colostrum replacer (CR) with gut active carbohydrates (GAC) on passive transfer of IgG in commercial dairy calves. A secondary objective was to evaluate the effect of treatment on preweaning health and growth. A total of 240 newborn Holstein dairy calves on a commercial dairy farm were enrolled in this study. Newborn heifer and bull calves were weighed and then randomly assigned to either the treated group [GAC: 30g of GAC mixed into 1.5 doses (150g of IgG) of commercial colostrum replacer; n=119] or the control group [CON: 1.5 doses (150g of IgG) of CR; n=121]. The assigned CR treatment was fed within 3.5h of birth using an esophageal tube feeder. Venous blood samples were collected at 0 and 24h of age and used to measure serum IgG (mg/mL) and serum total protein (g/dL) concentrations and to estimate the apparent efficiency of absorption of IgG (%). The 129 heifers calves enrolled (CON=60; GAC=69) were also followed until weaning to assess the effect of GAC addition on preweaning health and growth. Multivariable linear regression showed that the addition of GAC to CR did not influence passive transfer of IgG, as measured by apparent efficiency of absorption at 24h of age (CON=54.0 vs. GAC=54.3%), serum IgG (CON=20.3 vs. GAC=20.2mg/mL), and serum total protein (CON=5.69 vs. GAC=5.68g/dL). Although study sample sizes were not originally derived to evaluate health outcomes, treatment had no effect on weight gain or incidence of health events (diarrhea, pneumonia, mortality) for heifer calves between birth and 7 wk of age. PMID:25022688

  4. A radioreceptor assay to study the affinity of benzodiazepines and their receptor binding activity in human plasma including their active metabolites.

    PubMed Central

    Dorow, R G; Seidler, J; Schneider, H H

    1982-01-01

    1 A radioreceptor assay has been established to measure the receptor affinities of numerous benzodiazepines in clinical use. 2 The time course of receptor binding activity was studied by this method in the plasma of eight healthy subjects randomly treated with 1 mg lormetazepam (Noctamid, 2 mg flunitrazepam (Rohypnol, and 10 mg diazepam (Valium, and placebo on a cross-over basis. Blood samples were collected up to 154 h after treatment. 3 Receptor affinities of numerous benzodiazepines on vitro show good correlation with therapeutic human doses (r = 0.96) and may be predictive of drug potency in man. 4 Mean peak plasma levels of lormetazepam binding equivalents were 4.8 +/- 1 ng/ml at 2 h after lormetazepam, 7.2 +/- 1.8 ng/ml at 8 h after flunitrazepam, and 17.9 +/- 2.7 ng/ml at 15 h after diazepam. Plasma elimination half-lives of benzodiazepine binding equivalents were 9.3, 23 and 63 h, respectively. 5 Slow elimination of benzodiazepine binding equivalents following flunitrazepam and diazepam may be due to persistent active metabolites. PMID:6121579

  5. TRPA1 activation leads to neurogenic vasodilatation: involvement of reactive oxygen nitrogen species in addition to CGRP and NO

    PubMed Central

    Aubdool, Aisah A; Kodji, Xenia; Abdul‐Kader, Nayaab; Heads, Richard; Fernandes, Elizabeth S; Bevan, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background and Purpose Transient receptor potential ankyrin‐1 (TRPA1) activation is known to mediate neurogenic vasodilatation. We investigated the mechanisms involved in TRPA1‐mediated peripheral vasodilatation in vivo using the TRPA1 agonist cinnamaldehyde. Experimental Approach Changes in vascular ear blood flow were measured in anaesthetized mice using laser Doppler flowmetry. Key Results Topical application of cinnamaldehyde to the mouse ear caused a significant increase in blood flow in the skin of anaesthetized wild‐type (WT) mice but not in TRPA1 knockout (KO) mice. Cinnamaldehyde‐induced vasodilatation was inhibited by the pharmacological blockade of the potent microvascular vasodilator neuropeptide CGRP and neuronal NOS‐derived NO pathways. Cinnamaldehyde‐mediated vasodilatation was significantly reduced by treatment with reactive oxygen nitrogen species (RONS) scavenger such as catalase and the SOD mimetic TEMPOL, supporting a role of RONS in the downstream vasodilator TRPA1‐mediated response. Co‐treatment with a non‐selective NOS inhibitor L‐NAME and antioxidant apocynin further inhibited the TRPA1‐mediated vasodilatation. Cinnamaldehyde treatment induced the generation of peroxynitrite that was blocked by the peroxynitrite scavenger FeTPPS and shown to be dependent on TRPA1, as reflected by an increase in protein tyrosine nitration in the skin of WT, but not in TRPA1 KO mice. Conclusion and Implications This study provides in vivo evidence that TRPA1‐induced vasodilatation mediated by cinnamaldehyde requires neuronal NOS‐derived NO, in addition to the traditional neuropeptide component. A novel role of peroxynitrite is revealed, which is generated downstream of TRPA1 activation by cinnamaldehyde. This mechanistic pathway underlying TRPA1‐mediated vasodilatation may be important in understanding the role of TRPA1 in pathophysiological situations. PMID:27189253

  6. Additive reductions in zebrafish PRPS1 activity result in a spectrum of deficiencies modeling several human PRPS1-associated diseases

    PubMed Central

    Pei, Wuhong; Xu, Lisha; Varshney, Gaurav K.; Carrington, Blake; Bishop, Kevin; Jones, MaryPat; Huang, Sunny C.; Idol, Jennifer; Pretorius, Pamela R.; Beirl, Alisha; Schimmenti, Lisa A.; Kindt, Katie S.; Sood, Raman; Burgess, Shawn M.

    2016-01-01

    Phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate synthetase-1 (PRPS1) is a key enzyme in nucleotide biosynthesis, and mutations in PRPS1 are found in several human diseases including nonsyndromic sensorineural deafness, Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease-5, and Arts Syndrome. We utilized zebrafish as a model to confirm that mutations in PRPS1 result in phenotypic deficiencies in zebrafish similar to those in the associated human diseases. We found two paralogs in zebrafish, prps1a and prps1b and characterized each paralogous mutant individually as well as the double mutant fish. Zebrafish prps1a mutants and prps1a;prps1b double mutants showed similar morphological phenotypes with increasingly severe phenotypes as the number of mutant alleles increased. Phenotypes included smaller eyes and reduced hair cell numbers, consistent with the optic atrophy and hearing impairment observed in human patients. The double mutant also showed abnormal development of primary motor neurons, hair cell innervation, and reduced leukocytes, consistent with the neuropathy and recurrent infection of the human patients possessing the most severe reductions of PRPS1 activity. Further analyses indicated the phenotypes were associated with a prolonged cell cycle likely resulting from reduced nucleotide synthesis and energy production in the mutant embryos. We further demonstrated the phenotypes were caused by delays in the tissues most highly expressing the prps1 genes. PMID:27425195

  7. Additive reductions in zebrafish PRPS1 activity result in a spectrum of deficiencies modeling several human PRPS1-associated diseases.

    PubMed

    Pei, Wuhong; Xu, Lisha; Varshney, Gaurav K; Carrington, Blake; Bishop, Kevin; Jones, MaryPat; Huang, Sunny C; Idol, Jennifer; Pretorius, Pamela R; Beirl, Alisha; Schimmenti, Lisa A; Kindt, Katie S; Sood, Raman; Burgess, Shawn M

    2016-01-01

    Phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate synthetase-1 (PRPS1) is a key enzyme in nucleotide biosynthesis, and mutations in PRPS1 are found in several human diseases including nonsyndromic sensorineural deafness, Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease-5, and Arts Syndrome. We utilized zebrafish as a model to confirm that mutations in PRPS1 result in phenotypic deficiencies in zebrafish similar to those in the associated human diseases. We found two paralogs in zebrafish, prps1a and prps1b and characterized each paralogous mutant individually as well as the double mutant fish. Zebrafish prps1a mutants and prps1a;prps1b double mutants showed similar morphological phenotypes with increasingly severe phenotypes as the number of mutant alleles increased. Phenotypes included smaller eyes and reduced hair cell numbers, consistent with the optic atrophy and hearing impairment observed in human patients. The double mutant also showed abnormal development of primary motor neurons, hair cell innervation, and reduced leukocytes, consistent with the neuropathy and recurrent infection of the human patients possessing the most severe reductions of PRPS1 activity. Further analyses indicated the phenotypes were associated with a prolonged cell cycle likely resulting from reduced nucleotide synthesis and energy production in the mutant embryos. We further demonstrated the phenotypes were caused by delays in the tissues most highly expressing the prps1 genes. PMID:27425195

  8. Indole synthesis by conjugate addition of anilines to activated acetylenes and an unusual ligand-free copper(II)-mediated intramolecular cross-coupling.

    PubMed

    Gao, Detian; Back, Thomas G

    2012-11-12

    A versatile new synthesis of indoles was achieved by the conjugate addition of N-formyl-2-haloanilines to acetylenic sulfones, ketones, and esters followed by a copper-catalyzed intramolecular C-arylation. The conjugate addition step was conducted under exceptionally mild conditions at room temperature in basic, aqueous DMF. Surprisingly, the C-arylation was performed most effectively by employing copper(II) acetate as the catalyst in the absence of external ligands, without the need for protection from air or water. An unusual feature of this process, for the case of acetylenic ketones, is the ability of the initial conjugate-addition product to serve as a ligand for the catalyst, which enables it to participate in the catalysis of its further transformation to the final indole product. Mechanistic studies, including EPR experiments, indicated that copper(II) is reduced to the active copper(I) species by the formate ion that is produced by the base-catalyzed hydrolysis of DMF. This process also served to recycle any copper(II) that was produced by the adventitious oxidation of copper(I), thereby preventing deactivation of the catalyst. Several examples of reactions involving acetylenic sulfones attached to a modified Merrifield resin demonstrated the feasibility of solid-phase synthesis of indoles by using this protocol, and tricyclic products were obtained in one pot by employing acetylenic sulfones that contain chloroalkyl substituents. PMID:23019064

  9. Radioactively contaminated electric arc furnace dust as an addition to the immobilization mortar in low- and medium-activity repositories.

    PubMed

    Castellote, Marta; Menéndez, Esperanza; Andrade, Carmen; Zuloaga, Pablo; Navarro, Mariano; Ordóñez, Manuel

    2004-05-15

    Electric arc furnace dust (EAFD), generated by the steel-making industry, is in itself an intrinsic hazardous waste; however, the case may also be that scrap used in the process is accidentally contaminated by radioactive elements such as cesium. In this case the resulting EAFD is to be handled as radioactive waste, being duly confined in low- and medium-activity repositories (LMAR). What this paper studies is the reliability of using this radioactive EAFD as an addition in the immobilization mortar of the containers of the LMAR, that is, from the point of view of the durability. Different mixes of mortar containing different percentages of EAFD have been subjected to flexural and compressive strength, initial and final setting time, XRD study, total porosity and pore size distribution, determination of the chloride diffusion coefficient, dimensional stability tests, hydration heat, workability of the fresh mix, and leaching behavior. What is deduced from the results is that for the conditions used in this research, (cement + sand) can be replaced by EAFD upto a ratio [EAFD/(cement + EAFD)] of 46% in the immobilization mortar of LMAR, apparently without any loss in the long-term durability properties of the mortar. PMID:15212272

  10. Cationic additives in nanosystems activate cytotoxicity and inflammatory response of human neutrophils: lipid nanoparticles versus polymeric nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Tsong-Long; Aljuffali, Ibrahim A; Lin, Chwan-Fwu; Chang, Yuan-Ting; Fang, Jia-You

    2015-01-01

    This report compares the effect of lipid and polymeric nanoparticles upon human neutrophils in the presence of cationic surfactants. Nanostructured lipid carriers and poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid nanoparticles were manufactured as lipid and polymeric systems, respectively. Some cytotoxic and proinflammatory mediators such as lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), elastase, O2•−, and intracellular Ca2+ were examined. The nanoparticles showed a size of 170–225 nm. Incorporation of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide or soyaethyl morpholinium ethosulfate, the cationic surfactant, converted zeta potential from a negative to a positive charge. Nanoparticles without cationic surfactants revealed a negligible change on immune and inflammatory responses. Cationic surfactants in both nanoparticulate and free forms induced cell death and the release of mediators. Lipid nanoparticles generally demonstrated a greater response compared to polymeric nanoparticles. The neutrophil morphology observed by electron microscopy confirmed this trend. Cetyltrimethylammonium bromide as the coating material showed more significant activation of neutrophils than soyaethyl morpholinium ethosulfate. Confocal microscope imaging displayed a limited internalization of nanoparticles into neutrophils. It is proposed that cationic nanoparticles interact with the cell membrane, triggering membrane disruption and the following Ca2+ influx. The elevation of intracellular Ca2+ induces degranulation and oxidative stress. The consequence of these effects is cytotoxicity and cell death. Caution should be taken when selecting feasible nanoparticulate formulations and cationic additives for consideration of applicability and toxicity. PMID:25609950

  11. Synthesis of Highly Active Mg-BASED Hydrides Using Hydriding Combustion Synthesis and NbF5 Additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chourashiya, M. G.; Park, C. N.; Park, C. J.

    2012-09-01

    Superiority of the hydriding combustion (HC) technique over conventional metallurgical approach to the synthesis of cost-effective Mg based hydrides, which show promise as hydrogen storage materials, is well known. In the present research, we report further improvements in HC prepared Mg-based materials, achieved by optimizing the preparative parameters of HC and by catalytic addition. Mg90-Ni60-C40 composites prepared using optimized processing parameters were ball-milled with NbF5 (10 h) and characterized for their micro-structural and hydriding properties. The ball-milled/catalyzed powder showed decreased crystallinity with CNTs on its surfaces. Surface area of the ball-milled powder decreased to almost half of the as-HC powder, while TG analysis revealed a four-fold decrease in the desorption temperature of the milled powder compared to that of the as-HC prepared powder. Activated samples achieved the maximum absorption/desorption limits (5.3 wt.%) at as low as 100°C, underlining the possibility of the use of these materials in portable hydrogen storage devices.

  12. Cationic additives in nanosystems activate cytotoxicity and inflammatory response of human neutrophils: lipid nanoparticles versus polymeric nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Tsong-Long; Aljuffali, Ibrahim A; Lin, Chwan-Fwu; Chang, Yuan-Ting; Fang, Jia-You

    2015-01-01

    This report compares the effect of lipid and polymeric nanoparticles upon human neutrophils in the presence of cationic surfactants. Nanostructured lipid carriers and poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid nanoparticles were manufactured as lipid and polymeric systems, respectively. Some cytotoxic and proinflammatory mediators such as lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), elastase, O2(•-), and intracellular Ca(2+) were examined. The nanoparticles showed a size of 170-225 nm. Incorporation of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide or soyaethyl morpholinium ethosulfate, the cationic surfactant, converted zeta potential from a negative to a positive charge. Nanoparticles without cationic surfactants revealed a negligible change on immune and inflammatory responses. Cationic surfactants in both nanoparticulate and free forms induced cell death and the release of mediators. Lipid nanoparticles generally demonstrated a greater response compared to polymeric nanoparticles. The neutrophil morphology observed by electron microscopy confirmed this trend. Cetyltrimethylammonium bromide as the coating material showed more significant activation of neutrophils than soyaethyl morpholinium ethosulfate. Confocal microscope imaging displayed a limited internalization of nanoparticles into neutrophils. It is proposed that cationic nanoparticles interact with the cell membrane, triggering membrane disruption and the following Ca(2+) influx. The elevation of intracellular Ca(2+) induces degranulation and oxidative stress. The consequence of these effects is cytotoxicity and cell death. Caution should be taken when selecting feasible nanoparticulate formulations and cationic additives for consideration of applicability and toxicity. PMID:25609950

  13. Influence of fat addition on the antimicrobial activity of sodium lactate, lauric arginate and methylparaben in minced meat.

    PubMed

    Magrinyà, Núria; Terjung, Nino; Loeffler, Myriam; Gibis, Monika; Bou, Ricard; Weiss, Jochen

    2015-12-23

    A minced meat model system containing three different fat levels (0, 15, and 50 wt.%) was used to evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of three antimicrobials with different aqueous solubilities (sodium lactate>lauric arginate (Nα-lauroyl-L-arginine ethyl ester, LAE)>methylparaben). Various concentrations of sodium lactate (20, 40, and 60 mg/g), lauric arginate (0.5, 1, 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5 mg/g) and methylparaben (0.1, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 mg/g) were used to evaluate the antimicrobial activity against natural meat microbiota (total aerobic mesophilic colony counts, coliform bacteria, and lactic acid bacteria). The results indicate that the three antimicrobials tested are influenced at different strengths by the changes of the fat addition of the minced meat. The antimicrobial efficacy of LAE and methylparaben is increased by a higher fat content in the meat batter, whereas for lactate no clear lactate proportionality relationship can be seen. This structure sensitivity is most strongly pronounced with lauric arginate, which we attributed to the amphiphilic character of the molecule. PMID:26344644

  14. Health system barriers to implementation of collaborative TB and HIV activities including prevention of mother to child transmission in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Uwimana, J; Jackson, D; Hausler, H; Zarowsky, C

    2012-05-01

    In South Africa, the control of TB and HIV co-infection remains a major challenge despite the availability of international and national guidelines for integration of TB and HIV services. This study was undertaken in KwaZulu-Natal, one of the provinces most affected by both TB and HIV, to identify and understand managers' and community care workers' (CCWs) perceptions of health systems barriers related to the implementation of collaborative TB/HIV activities, including prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV (PMTCT). We conducted 29 in-depth interviews with health managers at provincial, district and facility level and with managers of NGOs involved in TB and HIV care, as well as six focus group discussions with CCWs. Thematic analysis of transcripts revealed a convergence of perspectives on the process and the level of the implementation of policy directives on collaborative TB and HIV activities across all categories of respondents (i.e. province-, district-, facility- and community-based organizations). The majority of participants felt that the implementation of the policy was insufficiently consultative and that leadership and political will were lacking. The predominant themes related to health systems barriers include challenges related to structure and organisational culture; management, planning and power issues; unequal financing; and human resource capacity and regulatory problems notably relating to scope of practice of nurses and CCWs. Accelerated implementation of collaborative TB/HIV activities including PMTCT will require political will and leadership to address these health systems barriers. PMID:22394016

  15. Soil Microbe Active Community Composition and Capability of Responding to Litter Addition after 12 Years of No Inputs

    PubMed Central

    Brewer, Elizabeth; Yarwood, Rockie; Lajtha, Kate; Myrold, David

    2013-01-01

    One explanation given for the high microbial diversity found in soils is that they contain a large inactive biomass that is able to persist in soils for long periods of time. This persistent microbial fraction may help to buffer the functionality of the soil community during times of low nutrients by providing a reservoir of specialized functions that can be reactivated when conditions improve. A study was designed to test the hypothesis: in soils lacking fresh root or detrital inputs, microbial community composition may persist relatively unchanged. Upon addition of new inputs, this community will be stimulated to grow and break down litter similarly to control soils. Soils from two of the Detrital Input and Removal Treatments (DIRT) at the H. J. Andrews Experimental Forest, the no-input and control treatment plots, were used in a microcosm experiment where Douglas-fir needles were added to soils. After 3 and 151 days of incubation, soil microbial DNA and RNA was extracted and characterized using quantitative PCR (qPCR) and 454 pyrosequencing. The abundance of 16S and 28S gene copies and RNA copies did not vary with soil type or amendment; however, treatment differences were observed in the abundance of archaeal ammonia-oxidizing amoA gene abundance. Analysis of ∼110,000 bacterial sequences showed a significant change in the active (RNA-based) community between day 3 and day 151, but microbial composition was similar between soil types. These results show that even after 12 years of plant litter exclusion, the legacy of community composition was well buffered against a dramatic disturbance. PMID:23263952

  16. DEEP, LOW-MASS RATIO OVERCONTACT BINARY SYSTEMS. XII. CK BOOTIS WITH POSSIBLE CYCLIC MAGNETIC ACTIVITY AND ADDITIONAL COMPANION

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Y.-G.; Qian, S.-B.; Soonthornthum, B. E-mail: qsb@ynao.ac.cn

    2012-05-15

    We present precision CCD photometry, a period study, and a two-color simultaneous Wilson code solution of the short-period contact binary CK Bootis. The asymmetric light curves were modeled by a dark spot on the primary component. The result identifies that CK Boo is an A-type W UMa binary with a high fillout of f = 71.7({+-} 4.4)%. From the O - C curve, it is found that the orbital period changes in a complicated mode, i.e., a long-term increase with two sinusoidal variations. One cyclic oscillation with a period of 10.67({+-} 0.20) yr may result from magnetic activity cycles, which are identified by the variability of Max. I - Max. II. Another sinusoidal variation (i.e., A = 0.0131 days({+-} 0.0009 days) and P{sub 3} = 24.16({+-} 0.64) yr) may be attributed to the light-time effect due to a third body. This kind of additional companion can extract angular momentum from the central binary system. The orbital period secularly increases at a rate of dP/dt = +9.79 ({+-}0.80) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -8} days yr{sup -1}, which may be interpreted by conservative mass transfer from the secondary to the primary. This kind of deep, low-mass ratio overcontact binaries may evolve into a rapid-rotating single star, only if the contact configuration do not break down at J{sub spin} > (1/3)J{sub orb}.

  17. Cooperative redox-active additives of anthraquinone-2,7-disulphonate and K4Fe(CN)6 for enhanced performance of active carbon-based capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Ying; Liu, Ming; Che, Ruxing; Xue, Rong; Huang, Liping

    2016-08-01

    Two redox additives of anthraquinone-2,7-disulphonate (AQDS) and K4Fe(CN)6 are introduced into the neutral medium of KNO3 for enhanced performance of active carbon-based (AC) capacitor. The Faradaic redox reactions of AQ/H2AQ and Fe(CN)63-/Fe(CN)64- are diffusion-controlled and occurred on the negative electrode and the positive electrode respectively and simultaneously, resulting in the enhancement of specific capacitance, power density and energy density of 240 F g-1, 527 W kg-1 and 26.3 Wh kg-1, respectively at a current density of 1.0 A g-1 for a symmetric AC capacitor in the electrolyte of 1 M KNO3-0.017 M K4Fe(CN)6-0.017 M AQDS. These values are much higher than those in the controls of either 1 M KNO3-0.017 M K4Fe(CN)6 or 1 M KNO3-0.017 M AQDS with only one pair of redox additives. These results demonstrate the cooperative K4Fe(CN)6 and AQDS for enhanced performance of AC capacitor, and thus provide an alternative approach for efficient capacitors.

  18. {sup 13}C chemical shift anisotropies for carbonate ions in cement minerals and the use of {sup 13}C, {sup 27}Al and {sup 29}Si MAS NMR in studies of Portland cement including limestone additions

    SciTech Connect

    Sevelsted, Tine F.; Herfort, Duncan

    2013-10-15

    {sup 13}C isotropic chemical shifts and chemical shift anisotropy parameters have been determined for a number of inorganic carbonates relevant in cement chemistry from slow-speed {sup 13}C MAS or {sup 13}C({sup 1}H) CP/MAS NMR spectra (9.4 T or 14.1 T) for {sup 13}C in natural abundance. The variation in the {sup 13}C chemical shift parameters is relatively small, raising some doubts that different carbonate species in Portland cement-based materials may not be sufficiently resolved in {sup 13}C MAS NMR spectra. However, it is shown that by combining {sup 13}C MAS and {sup 13}C({sup 1}H) CP/MAS NMR carbonate anions in anhydrous and hydrated phases can be distinguished, thereby providing valuable information about the reactivity of limestone in cement blends. This is illustrated for three cement pastes prepared from an ordinary Portland cement, including 0, 16, and 25 wt.% limestone, and following the hydration for up to one year. For these blends {sup 29}Si MAS NMR reveals that the limestone filler accelerates the hydration for alite and also results in a smaller fraction of tetrahedrally coordinated Al incorporated in the C-S-H phase. The latter result is more clearly observed in {sup 27}Al MAS NMR spectra of the cement–limestone blends and suggests that dissolved aluminate species in the cement–limestone blends readily react with carbonate ions from the limestone filler, forming calcium monocarboaluminate hydrate. -- Highlights: •{sup 13}C chemical shift anisotropies for inorganic carbonates from {sup 13}C MAS NMR. •Narrow {sup 13}C NMR chemical shift range (163–171 ppm) for inorganic carbonates. •Anhydrous and hydrated carbonate species by {sup 13}C MAS and {sup 13}C({sup 1}H) CP/MAS NMR. •Limestone accelerates the hydration for alite in Portland – limestone cements. •Limestone reduces the amount of aluminium incorporated in the C-S-H phase.

  19. Inhibition of protein kinase C catalytic activity by additional regions within the human protein kinase Calpha-regulatory domain lying outside of the pseudosubstrate sequence.

    PubMed

    Kirwan, Angie F; Bibby, Ashley C; Mvilongo, Thierry; Riedel, Heimo; Burke, Thomas; Millis, Sherri Z; Parissenti, Amadeo M

    2003-07-15

    The N-terminal pseudosubstrate site within the protein kinase Calpha (PKCalpha)-regulatory domain has long been regarded as the major determinant for autoinhibition of catalytic domain activity. Previously, we observed that the PKC-inhibitory capacity of the human PKCalpha-regulatory domain was only reduced partially on removal of the pseudosubstrate sequence [Parissenti, Kirwan, Kim, Colantonio and Schimmer (1998) J. Biol. Chem. 273, 8940-8945]. This finding suggested that one or more additional region(s) contributes to the inhibition of catalytic domain activity. To assess this hypothesis, we first examined the PKC-inhibitory capacity of a smaller fragment of the PKCalpha-regulatory domain consisting of the C1a, C1b and V2 regions [GST-Ralpha(39-177): this protein contained the full regulatory domain of human PKCalpha fused to glutathione S-transferase (GST), but lacked amino acids 1-38 (including the pseudosubstrate sequence) and amino acids 178-270 (including the C2 region)]. GST-Ralpha(39-177) significantly inhibited PKC in a phorbol-independent manner and could not bind the peptide substrate used in our assays. These results suggested that a region within C1/V2 directly inhibits catalytic domain activity. Providing further in vivo support for this hypothesis, we found that expression of N-terminally truncated pseudosubstrate-less bovine PKCalpha holoenzymes in yeast was capable of inhibiting cell growth in a phorbol-dependent manner. This suggested that additional autoinhibitory force(s) remained within the truncated holoenzymes that could be relieved by phorbol ester. Using tandem PCR-mediated mutagenesis, we observed that mutation of amino acids 33-86 within GST-Ralpha(39-177) dramatically reduced its PKC-inhibitory capacity when protamine was used as substrate. Mutagenesis of a broad range of sequences within C2 (amino acids 159-242) also significantly reduced PKC-inhibitory capacity. Taken together, these observations support strongly the existence of

  20. Addition of telephone coaching to a physiotherapist-delivered physical activity program in people with knee osteoarthritis: A randomised controlled trial protocol

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the most common and costly chronic musculoskeletal conditions world-wide and is associated with substantial pain and disability. Many people with knee OA also experience co-morbidities that further add to the OA burden. Uptake of and adherence to physical activity recommendations is suboptimal in this patient population, leading to poorer OA outcomes and greater impact of associated co-morbidities. This pragmatic randomised controlled trial will investigate the clinical- and cost-effectiveness of adding telephone coaching to a physiotherapist-delivered physical activity intervention for people with knee OA. Methods/Design 168 people with clinically diagnosed knee OA will be recruited from the community in metropolitan and regional areas and randomly allocated to physiotherapy only, or physiotherapy plus nurse-delivered telephone coaching. Physiotherapy involves five treatment sessions over 6 months, incorporating a home exercise program of 4–6 exercises (targeting knee extensor and hip abductor strength) and advice to increase daily physical activity. Telephone coaching comprises 6–12 telephone calls over 6 months by health practitioners trained in applying the Health Change Australia (HCA) Model of Health Change to provide behaviour change support. The telephone coaching intervention aims to maximise adherence to the physiotherapy program, as well as facilitate increased levels of participation in general physical activity. The primary outcomes are pain measured by an 11-point numeric rating scale and self-reported physical function measured by the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index subscale after 6 months. Secondary outcomes include physical activity levels, quality-of-life, and potential moderators and mediators of outcomes including self-efficacy, pain coping and depression. Relative cost-effectiveness will be determined from health service usage and outcome data. Follow

  1. REACTIVITIES OF ACRYLIC AND METHACRYLIC ACIDS IN A NUCLEOPHILIC ADDITION MODEL OF THEIR BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY (JOURNAL VERSION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The reactivities of derivatives of acrylic and methacrylic acid (AA and MAA) in Michael reactions of nucleophilic addition that have been proposed as the underlying mechanisms for the toxicity of such compounds are evaluated from a study of the mechanism of addition of a nucleoph...

  2. Food additives

    MedlinePlus

    Food additives are substances that become part of a food product when they are added during the processing or making of that food. "Direct" food additives are often added during processing to: Add nutrients ...

  3. Capillary electrophoretic behaviors of pharmacologically active xanthones from Securidaca inappendiculata with beta-cyclodextrin as a buffer additive.

    PubMed

    Bo, Tao; Huang, Yongfa; Yang, Xuedong; Li, Ke An; Liu, Huwei; Xu, Lizhen

    2003-04-01

    The capillary electrophoretic (CE) behaviors of ten xanthones in the presence of beta-cyclodextrin (CD) are investigated, and apparent analyte-selector binding constants between beta-CD and the xanthones in the CE running buffer are calculated to elucidate the migration order. Also, the separation selectivity with beta-CD additive is compared with that of sulfated beta-CD additive. It is indicated that beta-CD can greatly change the separation selectivity of xanthones, and the electrophoretic behaviors of xanthones are rather different when using beta-CD from that when using sulfated beta-CD as an additive. PMID:12803804

  4. Use of an Activated Beta-Catenin to Identify Wnt Pathway Target Genes in Caenorhabditis elegans, Including a Subset of Collagen Genes Expressed in Late Larval Development

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Belinda M.; Abete-Luzi, Patricia; Krause, Michael W.; Eisenmann, David M.

    2014-01-01

    The Wnt signaling pathway plays a fundamental role during metazoan development, where it regulates diverse processes, including cell fate specification, cell migration, and stem cell renewal. Activation of the beta-catenin−dependent/canonical Wnt pathway up-regulates expression of Wnt target genes to mediate a cellular response. In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, a canonical Wnt signaling pathway regulates several processes during larval development; however, few target genes of this pathway have been identified. To address this deficit, we used a novel approach of conditionally activated Wnt signaling during a defined stage of larval life by overexpressing an activated beta-catenin protein, then used microarray analysis to identify genes showing altered expression compared with control animals. We identified 166 differentially expressed genes, of which 104 were up-regulated. A subset of the up-regulated genes was shown to have altered expression in mutants with decreased or increased Wnt signaling; we consider these genes to be bona fide C. elegans Wnt pathway targets. Among these was a group of six genes, including the cuticular collagen genes, bli-1col-38, col-49, and col-71. These genes show a peak of expression in the mid L4 stage during normal development, suggesting a role in adult cuticle formation. Consistent with this finding, reduction of function for several of the genes causes phenotypes suggestive of defects in cuticle function or integrity. Therefore, this work has identified a large number of putative Wnt pathway target genes during larval life, including a small subset of Wnt-regulated collagen genes that may function in synthesis of the adult cuticle. PMID:24569038

  5. Food additives

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857

  6. 34 CFR 403.71 - In what additional ways may funds be used under the State Programs and State Leadership Activities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false In what additional ways may funds be used under the... the required activities in § 403.70, a State may use funds reserved under section 102(a)(3) of the Act for the State Programs and State Leadership Activities in accordance with § 403.180(b)(3) for...

  7. 15 CFR 922.73 - Additional prohibited or otherwise regulated activities-marine reserves and marine conservation...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... prohibited by 50 CFR part 660 (Fisheries off West Coast States), the following activities are prohibited and... 50 CFR part 660 (Fisheries off West Coast States), the following activities are prohibited and thus... (ii) Commercial and recreational fishing for lobster. (2) Possessing fishing gear on board a...

  8. 15 CFR 922.73 - Additional prohibited or otherwise regulated activities-marine reserves and marine conservation...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... prohibited by 50 CFR part 660 (Fisheries off West Coast States), the following activities are prohibited and... 50 CFR part 660 (Fisheries off West Coast States), the following activities are prohibited and thus... (ii) Commercial and recreational fishing for lobster. (2) Possessing fishing gear on board a...

  9. 15 CFR 922.73 - Additional prohibited or otherwise regulated activities-marine reserves and marine conservation...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... prohibited by 50 CFR part 660 (Fisheries off West Coast States), the following activities are prohibited and... 50 CFR part 660 (Fisheries off West Coast States), the following activities are prohibited and thus... (ii) Commercial and recreational fishing for lobster. (2) Possessing fishing gear on board a...

  10. 15 CFR 922.73 - Additional prohibited or otherwise regulated activities-marine reserves and marine conservation...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... prohibited by 50 CFR part 660 (Fisheries off West Coast States), the following activities are prohibited and... 50 CFR part 660 (Fisheries off West Coast States), the following activities are prohibited and thus... (ii) Commercial and recreational fishing for lobster. (2) Possessing fishing gear on board a...

  11. 15 CFR 922.73 - Additional prohibited or otherwise regulated activities-marine reserves and marine conservation...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... prohibited by 50 CFR part 660 (Fisheries off West Coast States), the following activities are prohibited and... 50 CFR part 660 (Fisheries off West Coast States), the following activities are prohibited and thus... (ii) Commercial and recreational fishing for lobster. (2) Possessing fishing gear on board a...

  12. Optical modulator including grapene

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Ming; Yin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-06-07

    The present invention provides for a one or more layer graphene optical modulator. In a first exemplary embodiment the optical modulator includes an optical waveguide, a nanoscale oxide spacer adjacent to a working region of the waveguide, and a monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to the spacer. In a second exemplary embodiment, the optical modulator includes at least one pair of active media, where the pair includes an oxide spacer, a first monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a first side of the spacer, and a second monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a second side of the spacer, and at least one optical waveguide adjacent to the pair.

  13. Enhanced performance of a submerged membrane bioreactor with powdered activated carbon addition for municipal secondary effluent treatment.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hongjun; Wang, Fangyuan; Ding, Linxian; Hong, Huachang; Chen, Jianrong; Lu, Xiaofeng

    2011-09-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of PAC-MBR process treating municipal secondary effluent. Two laboratory-scale submerged MBRs (SMBR) with and without PAC addition were continuously operated in parallel for secondary effluent treatment. Approximately 63%TOC, 95% NH(4)(+)-N and 98% turbidity in secondary effluent were removed by the PAC-MBR process. Most organics in the secondary effluent were found to be low molecular weight (MW) substances, which could be retained in the reactor and then removed to some extent by using PAC-MBR process. Parallel experiments showed that the addition of PAC significantly increased organic removal and responsible for the largest fraction of organic removal. Membrane fouling analysis showed the enhanced membrane performance in terms of sustainable operational time and filtration resistances by PAC addition. Based on these results, the PAC-MBR process was considered as an attractive option for the reduction of pollutants in secondary effluent. PMID:21794980

  14. Responses of absolute and specific soil enzyme activities to long term additions of organic and mineral fertilizer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinyu; Dong, Wenyi; Dai, Xiaoqin; Schaeffer, Sean; Yang, Fengting; Radosevich, Mark; Xu, Lili; Liu, Xiyu; Sun, Xiaomin

    2015-12-01

    Long-term phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) applications may seriously affect soil microbial activity. A long-term field fertilizer application trial was established on reddish paddy soils in the subtropical region of southern China in 1998. We assessed the effects of swine manure and seven different rates or ratios of NPK fertilizer treatments on (1) the absolute and specific enzyme activities per unit of soil organic carbon (SOC) or microbial biomass carbon (MBC) involved in C, N, and P transformations and (2) their relationships with soil environmental factors and soil microbial community structures. The results showed that manure applications led to increases in the absolute and specific activities of soil β-1,4-glucosidase(βG), β-1,4-N-acetylglucosaminidase (NAG), and leucine aminopeptidase (LAP). The absolute and specific acid phosphatase (AP) activities decreased as mineral P fertilizer application rates and ratios increased. Redundancy analysis (RDA) showed that there were negative correlations between absolute and specific AP activities, pH, and total P contents, while there were positive correlations between soil absolute and specific βG, NAG, and LAP enzyme activities, and SOC and total N contents. RDA showed that the contents of actinomycete and Gram-positive bacterium PLFA biomarkers are more closely related to the absolute and specific enzyme activities than the other PLFA biomarkers (P<0.01). Our results suggest that both the absolute and specific enzyme activities could be used as sensitive soil quality indicators that provide useful linkages with the microbial community structures and environmental factors. To maintain microbial activity and to minimize environmental impacts, P should be applied as a combination of inorganic and organic forms, and total P fertilizer application rates to subtropical paddy soils should not exceed 44 kg P ha(-1) year(-1). PMID:26196069

  15. Lewis base activation of Lewis acids. Vinylogous aldol addition reactions of conjugated N,O-silyl ketene acetals to aldehydes.

    PubMed

    Denmark, Scott E; Heemstra, John R

    2006-02-01

    N,O-Silyl dienyl ketene acetals derived from unsaturated morpholine amides have been developed as highly useful reagents for vinylogous aldol addition reactions. In the presence of SiCl4 and the catalytic action of chiral phosphoramide (R,R)-3, N,O-silyl dienyl ketene acetal 8 undergoes high-yielding and highly site-selective addition to a wide variety of aldehydes with excellent enantioselectivity. Of particular note is the high yields and selectivities obtained from aliphatic aldehydes. Low catalyst loadings (2-5 mol %) can be employed. The morpholine amide serves as a useful precursor for further synthetic manipulation. PMID:16433495

  16. Electrophilic Activation of α,β-Unsaturated Amides: Catalytic Asymmetric Vinylogous Conjugate Addition of Unsaturated γ-Butyrolactones.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ming; Kumagai, Naoya; Shibasaki, Masakatsu

    2016-04-11

    Although catalytic asymmetric conjugate addition reactions have remarkably advanced over the last two decades, the application of less electrophilic α,β-unsaturated carboxylic acid derivatives in this useful reaction manifold remains challenging. Herein, we report that α,β-unsaturated 7-azaindoline amides act as reactive electrophiles to participate in catalytic diastereo- and enantioselective vinylogous conjugate addition of γ-butyrolactones in the presence of a cooperative catalyst comprising of a soft Lewis acid and a Brønsted base. Reactions mostly reached completion with as little as 1 mol % of catalyst loading to give the desired conjugate adducts in a highly stereoselective manner. PMID:26970428

  17. Catalytic, Enantioselective Addition of Alkyl Radicals to Alkenes via Visible-Light-Activated Photoredox Catalysis with a Chiral Rhodium Complex.

    PubMed

    Huo, Haohua; Harms, Klaus; Meggers, Eric

    2016-06-01

    An efficient enantioselective addition of alkyl radicals, oxidatively generated from organotrifluoroborates, to acceptor-substituted alkenes is catalyzed by a bis-cyclometalated rhodium catalyst (4 mol %) under photoredox conditions. The practical method provides yields up to 97% with excellent enantioselectivities up to 99% ee and can be classified as a redox neutral, electron-transfer-catalyzed reaction. PMID:27218134

  18. 78 FR 60816 - Proposed Directive for Additional Seasonal or Year-Round Recreation Activities at Ski Areas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-02

    ... would be revised to add ``race gates'' to the locations where support for snow sport race courses and... trails that have been cleared, graded, groomed or covered with manmade snow. Additionally, this paragraph... purpose of the ski area to other than snow sports; encouraging outdoor recreation and enjoyment of...

  19. Stages of change for physical activity and dietary habits in persons with type 2 diabetes included in a mobile health intervention: the Norwegian study in RENEWING HEALTH

    PubMed Central

    Holmen, Heidi; Wahl, Astrid; Torbjørnsen, Astrid; Jenum, Anne Karen; Småstuen, Milada Cvancarova; Ribu, Lis

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate stages of change for physical activity and dietary habits using baseline data from persons with type 2 diabetes included in a mobile health intervention. We examined the associations between stages of change for physical activity change and dietary change, and between stages of change for each behavior and individual characteristics, health-related quality of life, self-management, depressive symptoms, and lifestyle. Research design and methods We examined 151 persons with type 2 diabetes with an glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level ≥7.1%, aged ≥18 years at baseline of a randomized controlled trial, before testing a mobile app with or without health counseling. Stages of change were dichotomized into ‘pre-action’ and ‘action’. Self-management was measured using the Health Education Impact Questionnaire (heiQ) where a higher score reflects increased self-management, and health-related quality of life was measured with the Short-Form-36 (SF-36). Logistic regression modeling was performed. Results The median HbA1c level was 7.9% (7.1–12.4), 90% were overweight or obese, and 20% had ≥3 comorbidities. 58% were in the preaction stage for physical activity change and 79% in the preaction stage for dietary change. Higher scores of self-management were associated with an increased chance of being in the action stage for both dietary change and physical activity change. Higher body mass index was associated with an 8% reduced chance of being in the action stage for physical activity change (OR 0.92, 95% CI 0.86 to 0.99). Conclusions Being in the action stage was associated with higher scores of self-management, crucial for type 2 diabetes. Over half of the participants were in the preaction stage for physical activity and dietary change, and many had a high disease burden with comorbidities and overweight. Trial registration number NCT01315756. PMID:27239317

  20. Human Simulated Studies of Aztreonam and Aztreonam-Avibactam To Evaluate Activity against Challenging Gram-Negative Organisms, Including Metallo-β-Lactamase Producers

    PubMed Central

    Crandon, Jared L.

    2013-01-01

    Secondary to the stability of aztreonam against metallo-β-lactamases, coupled with avibatam's neutralizing activity against often coproduced extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) or AmpC enzymes, the combination of aztreonam and avibactam has been proposed as a principal candidate for the treatment of infections with metallo-β-lactamase-producing Gram-negative organisms. Using the neutropenic-mouse thigh infection model, we evaluated the efficacy of human simulated doses of aztreonam-avibactam and aztreonam against 14 Enterobacteriaceae and 13 Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates, of which 25 produced metallo-β-lactamases. Additionally, six P. aeruginosa isolates were also evaluated in immunocompetent animals. A humanized aztreonam dose of 2 g every 6 h (1-h infusion) was evaluated alone and in combination with avibactam at 375 or 600 mg every 6 h (1-h infusion), targeting the percentage of the dosing interval in which free-drug concentrations remained above the MIC (fT>MIC). Efficacy was evaluated as the change in bacterial density after 24 h compared with the bacterial density at the initiation of dosing. Aztreonam monotherapy resulted in reductions of two of the Enterobacteriaceae bacterial isolates (aztreonam MIC, ≤32 μg/ml; fT>MIC, ≥38%) and minimal activity against the remaining isolates (aztreonam MIC, ≥128 μg/ml; fT>MIC, 0%). Alternatively, aztreonam-avibactam therapy resulted in the reduction of all 14 Enterobacteriaceae isolates (aztreonam-avibactam MICs, ≤16 μg/ml; fT>MIC, ≥65%) and no difference between the 375- and 600-mg doses of avibactam was noted. Similar pharmacodynamically predictable activity against P. aeruginosa was noted in studies with neutropenic and immunocompetent mice, with activity occurring when the MICs were ≤16 μg/ml and variable efficacy noted when the MICs were ≥32 μg/ml. Again, no difference in efficacy between the 375- and 600-mg doses of avibactam was observed. Aztreonam-avibactam represents an attractive

  1. Rhinacanthus nasutus Extracts Prevent Glutamate and Amyloid-β Neurotoxicity in HT-22 Mouse Hippocampal Cells: Possible Active Compounds Include Lupeol, Stigmasterol and β-Sitosterol

    PubMed Central

    Brimson, James M.; Brimson, Sirikalaya J.; Brimson, Christopher A.; Rakkhitawatthana, Varaporn; Tencomnao, Tewin

    2012-01-01

    The Herb Rhinacanthus nasutus (L.) Kurz, which is native to Thailand and Southeast Asia, has become known for its antioxidant properties. Neuronal loss in a number of diseases including Alzheimer’s disease is thought to result, in part, from oxidative stress. Glutamate causes cell death in the mouse hippocampal cell line, HT-22, by unbalancing redox homeostasis, brought about by a reduction in glutathione levels, and amyloid-β has been shown to induce reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Here in, we show that ethanol extracts of R. nasutus leaf and root are capable of dose dependently attenuating the neuron cell death caused by both glutamate and amyloid-β treatment. We used free radical scavenging assays to measure the extracts antioxidant activities and as well as quantifying phenolic, flavonoid and sterol content. Molecules found in R. nasutus, lupeol, stigmasterol and β-sitosterol are protective against glutamate toxicity. PMID:22606031

  2. Lags in Training Response to Changes in Economic Activity: An Update for Five Industries and an Addition of Two

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azevedo, Ross E.; Park, Jin S.; Akdere, Mesut

    2008-01-01

    An expanded investigation of the time it takes training budgets in five, now seven, industries to respond to changes in market demand and productive activity. A serious question, this reflects directly on the ability of the American economy to respond to changes in economic environment. Results indicate that for three of the five initial…

  3. In Vitro Antibacterial and Antibiofilm Activities of Chlorogenic Acid against Clinical Isolates of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia including the Trimethoprim/Sulfamethoxazole Resistant Strain

    PubMed Central

    Karunanidhi, Arunkumar; Thomas, Renjan; van Belkum, Alex; Neela, Vasanthakumari

    2013-01-01

    The in vitro antibacterial and antibiofilm activity of chlorogenic acid against clinical isolates of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia was investigated through disk diffusion, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC), time-kill and biofilm assays. A total of 9 clinical S. maltophilia isolates including one isolate resistant to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX) were tested. The inhibition zone sizes for the isolates ranged from 17 to 29 mm, while the MIC and MBC values ranged from 8 to 16 μg mL−1 and 16 to 32 μg mL−1. Chlorogenic acid appeared to be strongly bactericidal at 4x MIC, with a 2-log reduction in viable bacteria at 10 h. In vitro antibiofilm testing showed a 4-fold reduction in biofilm viability at 4x MIC compared to 1x MIC values (0.085 < 0.397 A 490 nm) of chlorogenic acid. The data from this study support the notion that the chlorogenic acid has promising in vitro antibacterial and antibiofilm activities against S. maltophilia. PMID:23509719

  4. How do Soil Microbial Enzyme Activities Respond to Changes in Temperature, Carbon, and Nutrient Additions across Gradients in Mineralogy and Nutrient Availability?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCleery, T.; Cusack, D. F.; Reed, S.; Wieder, W. R.; Taylor, P.; Cleveland, C. C.; Chadwick, O.; Vitousek, P.

    2013-12-01

    Microbial enzyme activities are the direct agents of organic matter decomposition, and thus play a crucial role in global carbon (C) cycling. Global change factors like warming and nutrient inputs to soils have the potential to alter the activities of these enzymes, with background site conditions likely driving responses. We hypothesized that enzyme activities in sites with high background nutrient and/or carbon availability would be less sensitive to nutrient additions than nutrient-poor sites. We also hypothesized that sites poor in background nutrients and/or carbon would show greater sensitivity to changes in temperature because of a less robust microbial community. To test our hypothesis we used laboratory temperature incubations combined with long- and short-term nutrient additions to assess changes in enzyme activities for 8 common soil enzymes that acquire nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and C from organic matter. We collected mineral soils (0-10 cm depth) from 8 Hawaiian sites that provided maximum variation in nutrient availability and background soil C. Soils were sieved, pooled by site, and homogenized prior to a laboratory addition of a simple C (sucrose) plus N and/or P in full factorial design. The 8 soils were also incubated at 7 different temperatures from 4 - 40 degrees C. We found that temperature sensitivities varied significantly among the sites, and that the laboratory fertilizations altered enzyme activities. Across the 8 sites, laboratory sucrose+N additions nearly doubled P-acquisition enzyme activity (p < 0.05), with the strongest effect in a younger forest soil that was naturally low in N. Similarly, laboratory sucrose+N and sucrose+NP additions significantly increased N-acquiring enzyme activity (p < 0.05), with the strongest effect in a drier, nutrient poor and carbon poor soil. Carbon-acquiring enzyme activities were less responsive, but also increased significantly with additions of sucrose+N and sucrose+NP across sites, with the

  5. The convergence of complete active space self-consistent-field configuration interaction including all single and double excitation energies to the complete basis set limit.

    PubMed

    Petersson, George A; Malick, David K; Frisch, Michael J; Braunstein, Matthew

    2006-07-28

    Examination of the convergence of full valence complete active space self-consistent-field configuration interaction including all single and double excitation (CASSCF-CISD) energies with expansion of the one-electron basis set reveals a pattern very similar to the convergence of single determinant energies. Calculations on the lowest four singlet states and the lowest four triplet states of N(2) with the sequence of n-tuple-zeta augmented polarized (nZaP) basis sets (n=2, 3, 4, 5, and 6) are used to establish the complete basis set limits. Full configuration-interaction (CI) and core electron contributions must be included for very accurate potential energy surfaces. However, a simple extrapolation scheme that has no adjustable parameters and requires nothing more demanding than CAS(10e(-),8orb)-CISD/3ZaP calculations gives the R(e), omega(e), omega(e)X(e), T(e), and D(e) for these eight states with rms errors of 0.0006 Angstrom, 4.43 cm(-1), 0.35 cm(-1), 0.063 eV, and 0.018 eV, respectively. PMID:16942134

  6. A Concentration Addition Model to Assess Activation of the Pregnane X Receptor (PXR) by Pesticide Mixtures Found in the French Diet

    PubMed Central

    de Sousa, Georges; Nawaz, Ahmad; Cravedi, Jean-Pierre; Rahmani, Roger

    2014-01-01

    French consumers are exposed to mixtures of pesticide residues in part through food consumption. As a xenosensor, the pregnane X receptor (hPXR) is activated by numerous pesticides, the combined effect of which is currently unknown. We examined the activation of hPXR by seven pesticide mixtures most likely found in the French diet and their individual components. The mixture's effect was estimated using the concentration addition (CA) model. PXR transactivation was measured by monitoring luciferase activity in hPXR/HepG2 cells and CYP3A4 expression in human hepatocytes. The three mixtures with the highest potency were evaluated using the CA model, at equimolar concentrations and at their relative proportion in the diet. The seven mixtures significantly activated hPXR and induced the expression of CYP3A4 in human hepatocytes. Of the 14 pesticides which constitute the three most active mixtures, four were found to be strong hPXR agonists, four medium, and six weak. Depending on the mixture and pesticide proportions, additive, greater than additive or less than additive effects between compounds were demonstrated. Predictions of the combined effects were obtained with both real-life and equimolar proportions at low concentrations. Pesticides act mostly additively to activate hPXR, when present in a mixture. Modulation of hPXR activation and its target genes induction may represent a risk factor contributing to exacerbate the physiological response of the hPXR signaling pathways and to explain some adverse effects in humans. PMID:25028461

  7. A concentration addition model to assess activation of the pregnane X receptor (PXR) by pesticide mixtures found in the French diet.

    PubMed

    de Sousa, Georges; Nawaz, Ahmad; Cravedi, Jean-Pierre; Rahmani, Roger

    2014-09-01

    French consumers are exposed to mixtures of pesticide residues in part through food consumption. As a xenosensor, the pregnane X receptor (hPXR) is activated by numerous pesticides, the combined effect of which is currently unknown. We examined the activation of hPXR by seven pesticide mixtures most likely found in the French diet and their individual components. The mixture's effect was estimated using the concentration addition (CA) model. PXR transactivation was measured by monitoring luciferase activity in hPXR/HepG2 cells and CYP3A4 expression in human hepatocytes. The three mixtures with the highest potency were evaluated using the CA model, at equimolar concentrations and at their relative proportion in the diet. The seven mixtures significantly activated hPXR and induced the expression of CYP3A4 in human hepatocytes. Of the 14 pesticides which constitute the three most active mixtures, four were found to be strong hPXR agonists, four medium, and six weak. Depending on the mixture and pesticide proportions, additive, greater than additive or less than additive effects between compounds were demonstrated. Predictions of the combined effects were obtained with both real-life and equimolar proportions at low concentrations. Pesticides act mostly additively to activate hPXR, when present in a mixture. Modulation of hPXR activation and its target genes induction may represent a risk factor contributing to exacerbate the physiological response of the hPXR signaling pathways and to explain some adverse effects in humans. PMID:25028461

  8. PREFACE: 9th International Fröhlich's Symposium: Electrodynamic Activity of Living Cells (Including Microtubule Coherent Modes and Cancer Cell Physics)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cifra, Michal; Pokorný, Jirí; Kucera, Ondrej

    2011-12-01

    This volume contains papers presented at the International Fröhlich's Symposium entitled 'Electrodynamic Activity of Living Cells' (1-3 July 2011, Prague, Czech Republic). The Symposium was the 9th meeting devoted to physical processes in living matter organized in Prague since 1987. The hypothesis of oscillation systems in living cells featured by non-linear interaction between elastic and electrical polarization fields, non-linear interactions between the system and the heat bath leading to energy downconversion along the frequency scale, energy condensation in the lowest frequency mode and creation of a coherent state was formulated by H Fröhlich, founder of the theory of dielectric materials. He assumed that biological activity is based not only on biochemical but also on biophysical mechanisms and that their disturbances form basic links along the cancer transformation pathway. Fröhlich outlined general ideas of non-linear physical processes in biological systems. The downconversion and the elastic-polarization interactions should be connected in a unified theory and the solution based on comprehensive non-linear characteristics. Biochemical and genetic research of biological systems are highly developed and have disclosed a variety of cellular and subcellular structures, chemical reactions, molecular information transfer, and genetic code sequences - including their pathological development. Nevertheless, the cancer problem is still a big challenge. Warburg's discovery of suppressed oxidative metabolism in mitochondria in cancer cells suggested the essential role of physical mechanisms (but his discovery has remained without impact on cancer research and on the study of physical properties of biological systems for a long time). Mitochondria, the power plants of the cell, have several areas of activity-oxidative energy production is connected with the formation of a strong static electric field around them, water ordering, and liberation of non

  9. Food additives.

    PubMed

    Berglund, F

    1978-01-01

    The use of additives to food fulfils many purposes, as shown by the index issued by the Codex Committee on Food Additives: Acids, bases and salts; Preservatives, Antioxidants and antioxidant synergists; Anticaking agents; Colours; Emulfifiers; Thickening agents; Flour-treatment agents; Extraction solvents; Carrier solvents; Flavours (synthetic); Flavour enhancers; Non-nutritive sweeteners; Processing aids; Enzyme preparations. Many additives occur naturally in foods, but this does not exclude toxicity at higher levels. Some food additives are nutrients, or even essential nutritents, e.g. NaCl. Examples are known of food additives causing toxicity in man even when used according to regulations, e.g. cobalt in beer. In other instances, poisoning has been due to carry-over, e.g. by nitrate in cheese whey - when used for artificial feed for infants. Poisonings also occur as the result of the permitted substance being added at too high levels, by accident or carelessness, e.g. nitrite in fish. Finally, there are examples of hypersensitivity to food additives, e.g. to tartrazine and other food colours. The toxicological evaluation, based on animal feeding studies, may be complicated by impurities, e.g. orthotoluene-sulfonamide in saccharin; by transformation or disappearance of the additive in food processing in storage, e.g. bisulfite in raisins; by reaction products with food constituents, e.g. formation of ethylurethane from diethyl pyrocarbonate; by metabolic transformation products, e.g. formation in the gut of cyclohexylamine from cyclamate. Metabolic end products may differ in experimental animals and in man: guanylic acid and inosinic acid are metabolized to allantoin in the rat but to uric acid in man. The magnitude of the safety margin in man of the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) is not identical to the "safety factor" used when calculating the ADI. The symptoms of Chinese Restaurant Syndrome, although not hazardous, furthermore illustrate that the whole ADI

  10. The road to the first, fully active and more stable human insulin variant with an additional disulfide bond.

    PubMed

    Vinther, Tine N; Kjeldsen, Thomas B; Jensen, Knud J; Hubálek, František

    2015-11-01

    Insulin, a small peptide hormone, is crucial in maintaining blood glucose homeostasis. The stability and activity of the protein is directed by an intricate system involving disulfide bonds to stabilize the active monomeric species and by their non-covalent oligomerization. All known insulin variants in vertebrates consist of two peptide chains and have six cysteine residues, which form three disulfide bonds, two of them link the two chains and a third is an intra-chain bond in the A-chain. This classical insulin fold appears to have been conserved over half a billion years of evolution. We addressed the question whether a human insulin variant with four disulfide bonds could exist and be fully functional. In this review, we give an overview of the road to engineering four-disulfide bonded insulin analogs. During our journey, we discovered several active four disulfide bonded insulin analogs with markedly improved stability and gained insights into the instability of analogs with seven cysteine residues, importance of dimerization for stability, insulin fibril formation process, and the conformation of insulin binding to its receptor. Our results also open the way for new strategies in the development of insulin biopharmaceuticals. PMID:26382042

  11. Design of the SHAPE-2 study: the effect of physical activity, in addition to weight loss, on biomarkers of postmenopausal breast cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Physical inactivity and overweight are two known risk factors for postmenopausal breast cancer. Former exercise intervention studies showed that physical activity influences sex hormone levels, known to be related to postmenopausal breast cancer, mainly when concordant loss of body weight was achieved. The question remains whether there is an additional beneficial effect of physical activity when weight loss is reached. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect attributable to exercise on postmenopausal breast cancer risk biomarkers, when equivalent weight loss is achieved compared with diet-induced weight loss. Design The SHAPE-2 study is a three-armed, multicentre trial. 243 sedentary, postmenopausal women who are overweight or obese (BMI 25–35 kg/m2) are enrolled. After a 4-6 week run-in period, wherein a baseline diet is prescribed, women are randomly allocated to (1) a diet group, (2) an exercise group or (3) a control group. The aim of both intervention groups is to lose an amount of 5–6 kg body weight in 10–14 weeks. The diet group follows an energy restricted diet and maintains the habitual physical activity level. The exercise group participates in a 16-week endurance and strength training programme of 4 hours per week. Furthermore, they are prescribed a moderate caloric restriction. The control group is asked to maintain body weight and continue the run-in baseline diet. Measurements include blood sampling, questionnaires, anthropometrics (weight, height, waist and hip circumference), maximal cycle exercise test (VO2peak), DEXA-scan (body composition) and abdominal MRI (subcutaneous and visceral fat). Primary outcomes are serum levels of oestradiol, oestrone, testosterone and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG). Discussion This study will give insight in the potential attributable effect of physical activity on breast cancer risk biomarkers and whether this effect is mediated by changes in body composition, in postmenopausal

  12. U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Activities in the Exploration of Antarctica: Introduction to Antarctica (Including USGS Field Personnel: 1946-59)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tony K. Meunier Edited by Williams, Richard S., Jr.; Ferrigno, Jane G.

    2007-01-01

    international) programs in biology, geology, geophysics, hydrology, and mapping. Therefore, the USGS was the obvious choice for these tasks, because it already had a professional staff of experienced mapmakers, scientists, and program managers with the foresight, dedication, and understanding of the need for accurate maps to support the science programs in Antarctica when asked to do so by the U.S. National Academy of Sciences. Public Laws 85-743 and 87-626, signed in August 1958, and in September 1962, respectively, authorized the Secretary, U.S. Department of the Interior, through the USGS, to support mapping and scientific work in Antarctica (Meunier, 1979 [2007], appendix A). Open-File Report 2006-1116 includes scanned facsimiles of postal cachets. It has become an international practice to create postal cachets to commemorate special events and projects in Antarctica. A cachet is defined as a seal or commemorative design printed or stamped on an envelope to mark a philatelic or special event. The inked impression illustrates to the scientist, historian, stamp collector, and general public the multidisciplinary science projects staffed by USGS and collaborating scientists during the field season. Since 1960, philatelic cachets have been created by team members for each USGS field season and, in most cases, these cachets depict the specific geographic areas and field season program objectives. The cachets become a convenient documentation of the people, projects, and geographic places of interest for that year. Because the cachets are representative of USGS activities, each year's cachet is included as a digital facsimile in that year's Open-File Report. In the 1980s, multiple USGS cachets were prepared each year, one for use by the winter team at Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station and the other for the project work areas of the austral summer field season programs.

  13. In vitro activity of ceftazidime/avibactam against Gram-negative pathogens isolated from pneumonia in hospitalised patients, including ventilated patients.

    PubMed

    Flamm, Robert K; Nichols, Wright W; Sader, Helio S; Farrell, David J; Jones, Ronald N

    2016-03-01

    The activities of the novel β-lactam/non-β-lactam β-lactamase inhibitor combination ceftazidime/avibactam and comparators were evaluated against isolates from pneumonia in hospitalised patients including ventilated patients (PHP, pneumonia not designated as VABP; VABP, pneumonia in ventilated patients). Isolates were from the European-Mediterranean region (EuM), China and the USA collected in the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program between 2009 and 2011 inclusive. A total of 2393 organisms from PHP were from the EuM, 888 from China and 3213 from the USA; from VABP patients there were 918, 97 and 692 organisms collected, respectively. Among Enterobacteriaceae from PHP, ceftazidime/avibactam MIC90 values against Escherichia coli ranged from 0.25-0.5mg/L and Klebsiella spp. MIC90 values were 0.5mg/L in each region. Among VABP isolates, MIC90 values for ceftazidime/avibactam against E. coli were 0.25mg/L; for Klebsiella spp. from VABP patients, MIC90 values were similar to those obtained against PHP isolates. The MIC of ceftazidime/avibactam was ≤8mg/L against 92-96% of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from PHP patients. Isolates of P. aeruginosa from VABP patients were of lower susceptibility to all antibacterial agents (e.g. depending on region, meropenem susceptibilities were 51.2-69.4% in contrast to 68.3-76.7% among PHP patients). However, ceftazidime/avibactam inhibited 79.2-95.4% of VABP isolates at an MIC of ≤8mg/L. Acinetobacter spp. were resistant to many agents and only rates of susceptibility to colistin were >90% across all regions both for PHP and VABP isolates. Ceftazidime/avibactam was generally active against a high proportion of isolates resistant to ceftazidime from PHP and VAPB patients. PMID:26920105

  14. Enhanced anti-oxidative activity and lignocellulosic ethanol production by biotin addition to medium in Pichia guilliermondii fermentation.

    PubMed

    Qi, Kai; Xia, Xiao-Xia; Zhong, Jian-Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Commercialization of lignocellulosic ethanol fermentation requires its high titer, but the reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation during the bioprocess damaged the cells and compromised this goal. To improve the cellular anti-oxidative activity during non-detoxified corncob residue hydrolysate fermentation, seed cells were prepared to possess a higher level of intracellular biotin pool (IBP), which facilitated the biosyntheses of catalase and porphyrin. As a result, the catalase activity increased by 1.3-folds compared to control while the ROS level reduced by 50%. Cell viability in high-IBP cells was 1.7-folds of control and the final ethanol titer increased from 31.2 to 41.8 g L(-1) in batch fermentation. The high-IBP cells were further used for repeated-batch fermentation in the non-detoxified lignocellulosic hydrolysate, and the highest titer and average productivity of ethanol reached 63.7 g L(-1) and 1.2 g L(-1)h(-1). The results were favorable to future industrial application of this lignocellulosic bioethanol process. PMID:25864029

  15. 34 CFR 403.71 - In what additional ways may funds be used under the State Programs and State Leadership Activities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false In what additional ways may funds be used under the State Programs and State Leadership Activities? 403.71 Section 403.71 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF VOCATIONAL AND ADULT EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STATE VOCATIONAL AND...

  16. Telechelic Poly(2-oxazoline)s with a biocidal and a polymerizable terminal as collagenase inhibiting additive for long-term active antimicrobial dental materials

    PubMed Central

    Fik, Christoph P.; Konieczny, Stefan; Pashley, David H.; Waschinski, Christian J.; Ladisch, Reinhild S.; Salz, Ulrich; Bock, Thorsten; Tiller, Joerg C.

    2015-01-01

    Although modern dental repair materials show excellent mechanical and adhesion properties, they still face two major problems: First, any microbes that remain alive below the composite fillings actively decompose dentin and thus, subsequently cause secondary caries. Second, even if those microbes are killed, the extracellular proteases such as MMP, remain active and can still degrade collagenousdental tissue. In order to address both problems, a poly(2-methyloxazoline) with a biocidal quaternary ammonium and a polymerizable methacrylate terminal was explored as additive for a commercial dental adhesive. It could be demonstrated that the adhesive rendered the adhesive contact-active antimicrobial against S. mutans at a concentration of only 2.5 wt% and even constant washing with water for 101 days did not diminish this effect. Increasing the amount of the additive to 5 wt% allowed killing S. mutans cells in the tubuli of bovinedentin upon application of the adhesive. Further, the additive fully inhibited bacterial collagenase at a concentration of 0.5 wt% and reduced human recombinant collagenase MMP-9 to 13% of its original activity at that concentration. Human MMPs naturally bound to dentin were inhibited by more than 96% in a medium containing 5 wt% of the additive. Moreover, no adverse effect on the enamel/dentine shear bond strength was detected in combination with a dental composite. PMID:25130877

  17. 34 CFR 403.71 - In what additional ways may funds be used under the State Programs and State Leadership Activities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... agencies; (b) The support for tech-prep education as described in 34 CFR part 406; (c)(1) The support of... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false In what additional ways may funds be used under the State Programs and State Leadership Activities? 403.71 Section 403.71 Education Regulations of...

  18. Addition of an N-terminal epitope tag significantly increases the activity of plant fatty acid desaturases expressed in yeast cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae shows great potential for development of bioreactor systems geared towards the production of high-value lipids such as polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids, the yields of which are largely dependent on the activity of ectopically-expressed enzymes. Here we show that the addit...

  19. Detection of triazole deicing additives in soil samples from airports with low, mid, and large volume aircraft deicing activities.

    PubMed

    McNeill, K S; Cancilla, D A

    2009-03-01

    Soil samples from three USA airports representing low, mid, and large volume users of aircraft deicing fluids (ADAFs) were analyzed by LC/MS/MS for the presence of triazoles, a class of corrosion inhibitors historically used in ADAFs. Triazoles, specifically the 4-methyl-1H-benzotriazole and the 5-methyl-1H-benzotriazole, were detected in a majority of samples and ranged from 2.35 to 424.19 microg/kg. Previous studies have focused primarily on ground and surface water impacts of larger volume ADAF users. The detection of triazoles in soils at low volume ADAF use airports suggests that deicing activities may have a broader environmental impact than previously considered. PMID:19082516

  20. Improving high temperature creep resistance of reduced activation steels by addition of nitrogen and intermediate heat treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, W. B.; Zhang, C.; Xia, Z. X.; Yang, Z. G.

    2014-12-01

    In the present study, we report an enhanced high-temperature creep resistance in reduced activation ferrite/martensite (RAFM) steels, by introducing nitrogen (0.035 wt%, M3 steel) and employing a novel intermediate heat treatment I-Q-T (intermediate treatment, quenching and tempering). In comparison with all the control groups, the uniaxial tests of the I-Q-T treated M3 steel showed significant increase in rupture time and decrease in elongation. The microstructures of the samples were further characterized to elucidate the origin of the enhanced creep resistance. It is found that, by introducing nitrogen, the primary TaC particles were refined; by employing the I-Q-T heat treatment, the dispersed fine secondary MX precipitates, as well as the lath subgrains containing high-density dislocations, were increased: all are responsible for the improved creep resistance.

  1. Denitrification of industrial wastewater: Influence of glycerol addition on metabolic activity and community shifts in a microbial consortium.

    PubMed

    Cyplik, Paweł; Juzwa, Wojciech; Marecik, Roman; Powierska-Czarny, Jolanta; Piotrowska-Cyplik, Agnieszka; Czarny, Jakub; Drożdżyńska, Agnieszka; Chrzanowski, Lukasz

    2013-11-01

    The wastewater originating from explosives manufacturing plants are characterized by a high concentration of nitrates (3200mgNL(-1)), sulfates (1470mgL(-1)) and low pH (1.5) as well as the presence of organic compounds, such as nitroglycerin (1.9mgL(-1)) and nitroglycol (4.8mgL(-1)). The application of glycerol (C/N=3) at such a high concentration enabled complete removal of nitrates and did not cause the anaerobic glycerol metabolic pathway of the DNC4 consortium to activate, as confirmed by the low concentrations of 1,3-propanediol (0.16gL(-1)) and acetic acid (0.11gL(-1)) in the wastewater. Increasing the glycerol content (C/N=5) contributed to a notable increase in the concentration of both compounds: 1.12gL(-1) for acetic acid and 1.82 for 1,3-PD (1,3-propanediol). The nitrate reduction rate was at 44mgNg(-1) biomass d(-1). In order to assess the metabolic activity of the microorganisms, a method to determine the redox potential was employed. It was established, that the microorganisms can be divided into four groups, based on the determined denitrification efficiency and zero-order nitrate removal constants. The first group, involving Pseudomonas putida and Pseudomonas stutzeri, accounts for microorganisms capable of the most rapid denitrification, the second involves rapid denitrifying microbes (Citrobacter freundi and Pseudomonas alcaligenes), the third group are microorganisms exhibiting moderate denitrification ability: Achrobactrum xylosoxidans, Ochrobactrum intermedium and Stenotrophomonas maltophila, while the last group consists of slow denitrifying bacteria: Rodococcus rubber and Sphignobacterium multivorum. PMID:24161581

  2. Template Catalysis by Metal-Ligand Cooperation. C-C Bond Formation via Conjugate Addition of Non-activated Nitriles under Mild, Base-free Conditions Catalyzed by a Manganese Pincer Complex.

    PubMed

    Nerush, Alexander; Vogt, Matthias; Gellrich, Urs; Leitus, Gregory; Ben-David, Yehoshoa; Milstein, David

    2016-06-01

    The first example of a catalytic Michael addition reaction of non-activated aliphatic nitriles to α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compounds under mild, neutral conditions is reported. A new de-aromatized pyridine-based PNP pincer complex of the Earth-abundant, first-row transition metal manganese serves as the catalyst. The reaction tolerates a variety of nitriles and Michael acceptors with different steric features and acceptor strengths. Mechanistic investigations including temperature-dependent NMR spectroscopy and DFT calculations reveal that the cooperative activation of alkyl nitriles, which leads to the generation of metalated nitrile nucleophile species (α-cyano carbanion analogues), is a key step of the mechanism. The metal center is not directly involved in the catalytic bond formation but rather serves, cooperatively with the ligand, as a template for the substrate activation. This approach of "template catalysis" expands the scope of potential donors for conjugate addition reactions. PMID:27164437

  3. Short-Term Responses of Soil Respiration and C-Cycle Enzyme Activities to Additions of Biochar and Urea in a Calcareous Soil.

    PubMed

    Song, Dali; Xi, Xiangyin; Huang, Shaomin; Liang, Guoqing; Sun, Jingwen; Zhou, Wei; Wang, Xiubin

    2016-01-01

    Biochar (BC) addition to soil is a proposed strategy to enhance soil fertility and crop productivity. However, there is limited knowledge regarding responses of soil respiration and C-cycle enzyme activities to BC and nitrogen (N) additions in a calcareous soil. A 56-day incubation experiment was conducted to investigate the combined effects of BC addition rates (0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5 and 5.0% by mass) and urea (U) application on soil nutrients, soil respiration and C-cycle enzyme activities in a calcareous soil in the North China Plain. Our results showed soil pH values in both U-only and U plus BC treatments significantly decreased within the first 14 days and then stabilized, and CO2emission rate in all U plus BC soils decreased exponentially, while there was no significant difference in the contents of soil total organic carbon (TOC), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), total nitrogen (TN), and C/N ratio in each treatment over time. At each incubation time, soil pH, electrical conductivity (EC), TOC, TN, C/N ratio, DOC and cumulative CO2 emission significantly increased with increasing BC addition rate, while soil potential activities of the four hydrolytic enzymes increased first and then decreased with increasing BC addition rate, with the largest values in the U + 1.0%BC treatment. However, phenol oxidase activity in all U plus BC soils showed a decreasing trend with the increase of BC addition rate. Our results suggest that U plus BC application at a rate of 1% promotes increases in hydrolytic enzymes, does not highly increase C/N and C mineralization, and can improve in soil fertility. PMID:27589265

  4. Optimization studies of carbon additives to negative active material for the purpose of extending the life of VRLA batteries in high-rate partial-state-of-charge operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boden, D. P.; Loosemore, D. V.; Spence, M. A.; Wojcinski, T. D.

    The negative plates of lead-acid batteries subjected to partial-state-of-charge (PSOC) operation fail because of the development of an electrically inert film of lead sulfate on their surfaces. It has been found that carbon additives to the negative active material can significantly increase their cycle life in this type of operation. In this paper we show that various types of carbon, including graphite, carbon black eliminate the surface development of lead sulfate and that, in their presence, the lead sulfate becomes homogeneously distributed throughout the active material. Examination of active material by energy dispersive spectroscopy after extensive cycling shows that lead formed during charge of lead sulfate preferentially deposits on the carbon particles that have been embedded in the active material. Electrochemical studies have been carried out on a number of types of carbon additives having a wide range of properties. These included flake, expanded and synthetic graphite, isotropically graphitized carbon, carbon black and activated carbon. We have investigated their effect on the resistivity and surface areas of the negative active material and also on such electrochemical properties as active material utilization and cycle life. Most of the carbon additives increase the utilization of the active material and impressive increases in cycle life have been obtained with over 6000 capacity turnovers having been achieved. However, at this time, we have not been able to correlate either the type or the properties of the carbon with capacity or cycle life. Further work is needed in this area. The increases that have been achieved in cycle life provide evidence that the lead-acid battery is a viable low cost option for hybrid-electric vehicle use.

  5. Addition of metal ions to a (hemi)cellulolytic enzymatic cocktail produced in-house improves its activity, thermostability, and efficiency in the saccharification of pretreated sugarcane bagasse.

    PubMed

    Vasconcellos, V M; Tardioli, P W; Giordano, R L C; Farinas, C S

    2016-05-25

    High activity and stability are essential for (hemi)cellulolytic enzymes used in biomass conversion, while non-productive binding of cellulases to lignin reduces saccharification efficiency and needs to be avoided. One potential strategy is the addition of inexpensive metal ions. This paper describes the influence of divalent metal ions on the activity, thermostability, and saccharification efficiency of (hemi)cellulolytic enzymes produced in-house by Aspergillus niger under solid-state fermentation (SSF). The use of Mn(2+) provided the best (hemi)cellulolytic activity and stability, with an increase in endoglucanase activity of up to 57%. The use of Mn(2+) was then investigated in the saccharification of sugarcane bagasse submitted to acid, steam-explosion, and hydrothermal pretreatments. The addition of Mn(2+) ions at 10mM in the saccharification of acid-pretreated bagasse resulted in a 34% increase in glucose release. These positive effects appeared to be due to a reduction in non-productive enzyme adsorption. The findings suggest that the addition of inexpensive metal ions can help to improve activity, thermostability, and saccharification efficiency of (hemi)cellulolytic enzymes. PMID:26709004

  6. Cutting edge: identification of a novel chemokine receptor that binds dendritic cell- and T cell-active chemokines including ELC, SLC, and TECK.

    PubMed

    Gosling, J; Dairaghi, D J; Wang, Y; Hanley, M; Talbot, D; Miao, Z; Schall, T J

    2000-03-15

    Searching for new receptors of dendritic cell- and T cell-active chemokines, we used a combination of techniques to interrogate orphan chemokine receptors. We report here on human CCX CKR, previously represented only by noncontiguous expressed sequence tags homologous to bovine PPR1, a putative gustatory receptor. We employed a two-tiered process of ligand assignment, where immobilized chemokines constructed on stalks (stalkokines) were used as bait for adhesion of cells expressing CCX CKR. These cells adhered to stalkokines representing ELC, a chemokine previously thought to bind only CCR7. Adhesion was abolished in the presence of soluble ELC, SLC (CCR7 ligands), and TECK (a CCR9 ligand). Complete ligand profiles were further determined by radiolabeled ligand binding and competition with >80 chemokines. ELC, SLC, and TECK comprised high affinity ligands (IC50 <15 nM); lower affinity ligands include BLC and vMIP-II (IC50 <150 nM). With its high affinity for CC chemokines and homology to CC receptors, we provisionally designate this new receptor CCR10. PMID:10706668

  7. Polyphenols content, phenolics profile and antioxidant activity of organic red wines produced without sulfur dioxide/sulfites addition in comparison to conventional red wines.

    PubMed

    Garaguso, Ivana; Nardini, Mirella

    2015-07-15

    Wine exerts beneficial effects on human health when it is drunk with moderation. Nevertheless, wine may also contain components negatively affecting human health. Among these, sulfites may induce adverse effects after ingestion. We examined total polyphenols and flavonoids content, phenolics profile and antioxidant activity of eight organic red wines produced without sulfur dioxide/sulfites addition in comparison to those of eight conventional red wines. Polyphenols and flavonoids content were slightly higher in organic wines in respect to conventional wines, however differences did not reach statistical significance. The phenolic acids profile was quite similar in both groups of wines. Antioxidant activity was higher in organic wines compared to conventional wines, although differences were not statistically significant. Our results indicate that organic red wines produced without sulfur dioxide/sulfites addition are comparable to conventional red wines with regard to the total polyphenols and flavonoids content, the phenolics profile and the antioxidant activity. PMID:25722174

  8. Potlining Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolf Keller

    2004-08-10

    In this project, a concept to improve the performance of aluminum production cells by introducing potlining additives was examined and tested. Boron oxide was added to cathode blocks, and titanium was dissolved in the metal pool; this resulted in the formation of titanium diboride and caused the molten aluminum to wet the carbonaceous cathode surface. Such wetting reportedly leads to operational improvements and extended cell life. In addition, boron oxide suppresses cyanide formation. This final report presents and discusses the results of this project. Substantial economic benefits for the practical implementation of the technology are projected, especially for modern cells with graphitized blocks. For example, with an energy savings of about 5% and an increase in pot life from 1500 to 2500 days, a cost savings of $ 0.023 per pound of aluminum produced is projected for a 200 kA pot.

  9. Phosphazene additives

    SciTech Connect

    Harrup, Mason K; Rollins, Harry W

    2013-11-26

    An additive comprising a phosphazene compound that has at least two reactive functional groups and at least one capping functional group bonded to phosphorus atoms of the phosphazene compound. One of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with cellulose and the other of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with a resin, such as an amine resin of a polycarboxylic acid resin. The at least one capping functional group is selected from the group consisting of a short chain ether group, an alkoxy group, or an aryloxy group. Also disclosed are an additive-resin admixture, a method of treating a wood product, and a wood product.

  10. Analysis of the Diversity of Substrate Utilisation of Soil Bacteria Exposed to Cd and Earthworm Activity Using Generalised Additive Models

    PubMed Central

    Muñiz, Selene; Lacarta, Juan; Pata, María P.; Jiménez, Juan José; Navarro, Enrique

    2014-01-01

    Biolog EcoPlates™ can be used to measure the carbon substrate utilisation patterns of microbial communities. This method results in a community-level physiological profile (CLPP), which yields a very large amount of data that may be difficult to interpret. In this work, we explore a combination of statistical techniques (particularly the use of generalised additive models [GAMs]) to improve the exploitation of CLPP data. The strength of GAMs lies in their ability to address highly non-linear relationships between the response and the set of explanatory variables. We studied the impact of earthworms (Aporrectodea caliginosa Savigny 1826) and cadmium (Cd) on the CLPP of soil bacteria. The results indicated that both Cd and earthworms modified the CLPP. GAMs were used to assess time-course changes in the diversity of substrate utilisation (DSU) using the Shannon-Wiener index. GAMs revealed significant differences for all treatments (compared to control -S-). The Cd exposed microbial community presented very high metabolic capacities on a few substrata, resulting in an initial acute decrease of DSU (i.e. intense utilization of a few carbon substrata). After 54 h, and over the next 43 h the increase of the DSU suggest that other taxa, less dominant, reached high numbers in the wells containing sources that are less suitable for the Cd-tolerant taxa. Earthworms were a much more determining factor in explaining time course changes in DSU than Cd. Accordingly, Ew and EwCd soils presented similar trends, regardless the presence of Cd. Moreover, both treatments presented similar number of bacteria and higher than Cd-treated soils. This experimental approach, based on the use of DSU and GAMs allowed for a global and statistically relevant interpretation of the changes in carbon source utilisation, highlighting the key role of earthworms on the protection of microbial communities against the Cd. PMID:24416339

  11. Activities of daily living as an additional predictor of complications and outcomes in elderly patients with acute myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Nakajima, Hiroyuki; Yoshioka, Jiro; Totsuka, Nobuyuki; Miyazawa, Izumi; Usui, Tatsuya; Urasawa, Nobuyuki; Kobayashi, Takahiro; Mochidome, Tomoaki

    2016-01-01

    Background Age is an important determinant of outcome in acute myocardial infarction (AMI). However, in clinical settings, there is an occasional mismatch between chronological age and physical age. We evaluated whether activities of daily living (ADL), which reflect physical age, also predict complications and prognosis in elderly patients with AMI. Design Single-center, observational, and retrospective cohort study. Methods Preserved ADL and low ADL were defined according to the scale for independence degree of daily living for the disabled elderly by the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour, and Welfare. We examined 82 consecutive patients aged ≥75 years with AMI who underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention. Patients were divided into preserved ADL (n=52; mean age, 81.8±4.8 years; male, 59.6%) and low ADL (n=30; mean age, 85.8±4.7 years; male, 40.0%) groups according to prehospital ADL. Results The prevalence of Killip class II–IV and in-hospital mortality rate were significantly higher with low ADL compared to that with preserved ADL (23.1% vs 60.0%, P=0.0019; 5.8% vs 30.0%, P=0.0068, respectively). Multivariate analysis showed that ADL was an independent predictor of Killip class II–IV and 1-year mortality after adjusting for age, sex, and other possible confounders (odds ratio 5.11, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.52–17.2, P=0.0083; hazard ratio 4.32, 95% CI 1.31–14.3, P=0.017, respectively). Conclusion Prehospital ADL is a significant predictor of heart failure complications and prognosis in elderly patients with AMI undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention, irrespective of age and sex. PMID:27601890

  12. Effect of Manganese Additive on the Improvement of Low-Temperature Catalytic Activity of VO(x)-WO(x)/TiO2 Nanoparticles for Chlorobenzene Combustion.

    PubMed

    He, Fei; Chen, Chunxiao; Liu, Shantang

    2016-06-01

    In this study, V-W/TiO2, Mn-V-W/TiO2 and Mn-W/TiO2 nanoparticles were prepared by homogeneous precipitation method and investigated for the catalytic combustion of chlorobenzene (CB), which was used as a model compound of chlorinated volatile organic compounds (CVOCs). The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), nitrogen adsorption-desorption, transmission electron microscope (TEM) and hydrogen temperature-programed reduction (H2-TPR). The average size of the nanoparticles was -20 nm. Manganese species were evenly distributed on the surface of the V-W/TiO2 catalyst, and a small amount of manganese addition did not affect the crystal form, crystallinity and morphology of the V-W/TiO2 catalyst. In addition, low-temperature catalytic activity of V-W/TiO2 catalysts could be effectively improved. When the molar ratio of Mn/(Mn + V) was 0.25 or 0.4, the catalyst displayed the highest low-temperature activity. This was possibly due to Mn (VO3)x formed by the reaction of manganese and vanadium species. Meanwhile, we also found that the addition of oxalic acid was benefit to the improvement of the catalytic activities. When manganese content was high, such as Mn (0.75) VW/Ti, the catalyst activity declined seriously, and the reason was also discussed. PMID:27427700

  13. Effect of lecithin and MgCO3 as additives on the enzymatic activity of carbonic anhydrase encapsulated in poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) microspheres.

    PubMed

    Sandor, Maryellen; Riechel, Alex; Kaplan, Ian; Mathiowitz, Edith

    2002-02-15

    A model enzyme, carbonic anhydrase, was encapsulated and released from poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) microspheres (1-3 microm) made by a novel phase inversion technique. Lecithin was used as a surfactant in the encapsulation process and was incorporated in either the organic phase, aqueous phase, both phases, or not at all. Additional microspheres were also made with lecithin incorporated in the aqueous phase and a basic salt, MgCO3, in the polymeric phase. Released carbonic anhydrase, protein extracted from microspheres, or enzyme incubated with lecithin and PLGA were analyzed via HPLC and activity assay to determine the effect of these additives on protein integrity and activity. Lecithin in the aqueous phase appeared to increase the fraction of enzyme in monomeric form as well as its activity for both extracted protein and released protein as compared to the other formulations without MgCO3. Incubation of enzyme with PLGA degradation products indicated that the acidic environment within the microspheres aids in the irreversible inactivation of the encapsulated protein. Addition of MgCO3 further increased the amount of monomer in both the extracted and released protein by decreasing the amount of acid-induced cleavage and noncovalent aggregation, but still greatly decreased the activity of the enzyme. PMID:11960690

  14. Challenges and solutions in the bioanalysis of BMS-986094 and its metabolites including a highly polar, active nucleoside triphosphate in plasma and tissues using LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ang; Lute, John; Gu, Huidong; Wang, Bonnie; Trouba, Kevin J; Arnold, Mark E; Aubry, Anne-Françoise; Wang, Jian

    2015-09-01

    BMS-986094, a nucleotide polymerase inhibitor of the hepatitis C virus, was withdrawn from clinical trials because of a serious safety issue. To investigate a potential association between drug/metabolite exposure and toxicity in evaluations conducted after the termination of the BMS-986094 development program, it was essential to determine the levels of BMS-986094 and its major metabolites INX-08032, INX-08144 and INX-09054 in circulation and the active nucleoside triphosphate INX-09114 in target and non-target tissues. However, there were many challenges in the bioanalysis of these compounds. The chromatography challenge for the extremely polar nucleoside triphosphate was solved by applying mixed-mode chromatography which combined anion exchange and reversed-phase interactions. The LC conditions provided adequate retention and good peak shape of the analyte and showed good robustness. A strategy using simultaneous extraction but separate LC analysis of the prodrug BMS-986094 and its major circulating metabolites was used to overcome a carryover issue of the hydrophobic prodrug while still achieving good chromatography of the polar metabolites. In addition, the nucleotide analytes were not stable in the presence of endogenous enzymes. Low pH and low temperature were required for blood collection and plasma sample processing. However, the use of phosphatase inhibitor and immediate homogenization and extraction were critical for the quantitative analysis of the active triphosphate, INX-09114, in tissue samples. To alleviate the bioanalytical complexity caused by multiple analytes, different matrices, and various species, a fit-for-purpose approach to assay validation was implemented based on the needs of drug safety assessment in non-clinical (GLP or non-GLP) studies. The assay for INX-08032 was fully validated in plasma of toxicology species. The lower limit of quantification was 1.00ng/mL and the linear curve range was 1.00-500.00ng/mL using a weighted (1/x(2

  15. 34 CFR 303.15 - Include; including.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Include; including. 303.15 Section 303.15 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION EARLY INTERVENTION PROGRAM FOR INFANTS AND TODDLERS...

  16. Benthic food web structure in the Comau fjord, Chile (∼42°S): Preliminary assessment including a site with chemosynthetic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zapata-Hernández, Germán; Sellanes, Javier; Mayr, Christoph; Muñoz, Práxedes

    2014-12-01

    Using C and N stable isotopes we analyzed different trophic aspects of the benthic fauna at two sites in the Comau fjord: one with presence of venting of chemically reducing fluids and extensive patches of bacterial mats (XH: X-Huinay), and one control site (PG: Punta Gruesa) with a typical fjord benthic habitat. Due to the widespread presence of such microbial patches in the fjord and their recognized trophic role in reducing environments, we hypothesize that these microbial communities could be contributing to the assimilated food of consumers and transferring carbon into high trophic levels in the food web. Food sources in the area included macroalgae with a wide range of δ13C values (-34.7 to -11.9‰), particulate organic matter (POM, δ13C = -20.1‰), terrestrial organic matter (TOM, δ13C = -32.3‰ to -27.9‰) and chemosynthetic filamentous bacteria (δ13C = ∼-33‰). At both sites, fauna depicted typical values indicating photosynthetic production as a main food source (>-20‰). However, at XH selected taxa reported lower δ13C values (e.g. -26.5‰ in Nacella deaurata), suggesting a partial use of chemosynthetic production. Furthermore, enhanced variability at this site in δ13C values of the polyplacophoran Chiton magnificus, the limpet Fissurella picta and the tanaid Zeuxoides sp. may also be responding to the use of a wider scope of primary food sources. Trophic position estimates suggest three trophic levels of consumers at both sites. However, low δ15N values in some grazer and suspension-feeder species suggest that these taxa could be using other sources still to be identified (e.g. bacterial films, microalgae and organic particles of small size-fractions). Furthermore, between-site comparisons of isotopic niche width measurements in some trophic guilds indicate that grazers from XH have more heterogenic trophic niches than at PG (measured as mean distance to centroid and standard deviation of nearest neighbor distance). This last could be

  17. Simultaneous active intracellular delivery of doxorubicin and C6-ceramide shifts the additive/antagonistic drug interaction of non-encapsulated combination.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Nuno A; Gomes-da-Silva, Lígia C; Moura, Vera; Simões, Sérgio; Moreira, João Nuno

    2014-12-28

    Drug resistance remains the Achilles tendon undermining the success of chemotherapy. It has been recognized that success requires the identification of compounds that, when combined, lead to synergistic tumor inhibition while simultaneously minimizing systemic toxicity. However, in vivo application of such protocols is dependent on the ability to deliver the appropriate drug ratio at the tumor level. In this respect, nanotechnology-based delivery platforms, like liposomes, offer an elegant solution for the in vivo translation of such strategy. In this work, we propose the active intracellular delivery of combinations of doxorubicin and the pro-apoptotic sphingolipid, C6-ceramide, using our previously described cytosolic triggered release-enabling liposomes, targeting nucleolin with the F3 peptide. Combination of doxorubicin (DXR):C6-ceramide (C6-Cer) at 1:2 molar ratio interacted synergistically against drug resistant/triple negative MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells, as well as drug sensitive MDA-MB-435S melanoma cells. Cell viability studies indicated that F3-targeted liposomes encapsulating DXR:C6-Cer 1:2 molar ratio (p[F3]DC12) performed similarly as targeted liposomal DXR (p[F3]SL), encapsulating twice the amount of DXR, at the IC50, for an incubation time of 24 h. Importantly, F3-targeted liposomes encapsulating DXR:C6-Cer 1:2 molar ratio (p[F3]DC12) enabled a cell death above 90% at 24 h of treatment against both DXR-resistant and sensitive cells, unattainable by the F3-targeted liposomal doxorubicin. Furthermore, a F3-targeted formulation encapsulating a mildly additive/antagonistic DXR:C6-Cer 1:1 molar ratio (p[F3]DC11) enabled an effect above 90% for an incubation period as short as 4 h, suggesting that the delivery route at the cell level may shift the nature of drug interaction. Such activity, including the one for p[F3]DC12, induced a marked cell and nucleus swelling at similar extent, consistent with necrotic cell death. Overall, these results

  18. Evaluation of additivity of binary mixtures of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPARa) activation in vitro

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are found globally in the environment and in animal tissues, and are present as mixtures of PFAA congeners. Mechanistic studies have found that in vivo effects of PFAAs are mediated by PPARL. Our previous studies showed that individual PFAAs activate ...

  19. Higher Education Amendments of 1998. Report of the Committee on Education and the Workforce. House of Representatives on H.R. 6, Together with Additional and Dissenting Views (Including Cost Estimate of the Congressional Budget Office). House of Representatives, 105th Congress, 2d Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and the Workforce.

    This volume presents the report of the Committee on Education and the Workforce regarding the Higher Education Amendments of 1998, including additional and dissenting views. The report, which features both the text of the amendments and the Committee's review of them, covers the following sections of the proposed legislation (H.R. 6), set to go…

  20. Use of different spices as potential natural antioxidant additives on cooked beans (Phaseolus vulgaris). Increase of DPPH radical scavenging activity and total phenolic content.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Marina Pelincer; Tavano, Olga Luisa

    2014-12-01

    Herbs and spices, excellent sources of phenolic compounds, can be considered potential antioxidant additives. The use of spices must strike a balance between their potential antioxidant capabilities during preparation and the flavor acceptance, in order to avoid rejection of the food. The aimed of this study is to evaluate the influence of different spices and their concentrations on cooked common beans, focusing its potential as antioxidant additives. Onion, parsley, spring onion, laurel and coriander increased the antioxidant activity of preparation when used at 7.96 g of onion, 1.06 g parsley, 3.43 g spring onion, 0.25 g laurel (dry leaves), and 0.43 g coriander/100 g of cooked beans. Besides, these spices concentrations enhance total phenolics and alter the mixture protein digestibility minimally. For garlic samples it was not possible to establish a concentration that increases the antioxidant activity of cooked beans. PMID:25179942

  1. Calcium addition at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest increases sugar storage, antioxidant activity and cold tolerance in native red spruce (Picea rubens).

    PubMed

    Halman, Joshua M; Schaberg, Paul G; Hawley, Gary J; Eagar, Christopher

    2008-06-01

    In fall (November 2005) and winter (February 2006), we collected current-year foliage of native red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) growing in a reference watershed and in a watershed treated in 1999 with wollastonite (CaSiO(3), a slow-release calcium source) to simulate preindustrial soil calcium concentrations (Ca-addition watershed) at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest (Thornton, NH). We analyzed nutrition, soluble sugar concentrations, ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activity and cold tolerance, to evaluate the basis of recent (2003) differences between watersheds in red spruce foliar winter injury. Foliar Ca and total sugar concentrations were significantly higher in trees in the Ca-addition watershed than in trees in the reference watershed during both fall (P=0.037 and 0.035, respectively) and winter (P=0.055 and 0.036, respectively). The Ca-addition treatment significantly increased foliar fructose and glucose concentrations in November (P=0.013 and 0.007, respectively) and foliar sucrose concentrations in winter (P=0.040). Foliar APX activity was similar in trees in both watersheds during fall (P=0.28), but higher in trees in the Ca-addition watershed during winter (P=0.063). Cold tolerance of foliage was significantly greater in trees in the Ca-addition watershed than in trees in the reference watershed (P<0.001). Our results suggest that low foliar sugar concentrations and APX activity, and reduced cold tolerance in trees in the reference watershed contributed to their high vulnerability to winter injury in 2003. Because the reference watershed reflects forest conditions in the region, the consequences of impaired physiological function caused by soil Ca depletion may have widespread implications for forest health. PMID:18381266

  2. Identification of novel estrogen receptor (ER) agonists that have additional and complementary anti-cancer activities via ER-independent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Kim, Taelim; Kim, Hye-In; An, Ji-Young; Lee, Jun; Lee, Na-Rae; Heo, Jinyuk; Kim, Ji-Eun; Yu, Jihyun; Lee, Yong Sup; Inn, Kyung-Soo; Kim, Nam-Jung

    2016-04-01

    In this study, a series of bis(4-hydroxy)benzophenone oxime ether derivatives such as 12c, 12e and 12h were identified as novel estrogen receptor (ER) agonists that have additional and complementary anti-proliferative activities via ER-independent mechanism in cancer cells. These compounds are expected to overcome the therapeutic limitation of existing ER agonists such as estradiol and tamoxifen, which have been known to induce the proliferation of cancer cells. PMID:26905830

  3. Effects of Lifestyle Interventions That Include a Physical Activity Component in Class II and III Obese Individuals: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Baillot, Aurélie; Romain, Ahmed J.; Boisvert-Vigneault, Katherine; Audet, Mélisa; Baillargeon, Jean Patrice; Dionne, Isabelle J.; Valiquette, Louis; Chakra, Claire Nour Abou; Avignon, Antoine; Langlois, Marie-France

    2015-01-01

    Background In class II and III obese individuals, lifestyle intervention is the first step to achieve weight loss and treat obesity-related comorbidities before considering bariatric surgery. A systematic review, meta-analysis, and meta-regression were performed to assess the impact of lifestyle interventions incorporating a physical activity (PA) component on health outcomes of class II and III obese individuals. Methods An electronic search was conducted in 4 databases (Medline, Scopus, CINAHL and Sportdiscus). Two independent investigators selected original studies assessing the impact of lifestyle interventions with PA components on anthropometric parameters, cardiometabolic risk factors (fat mass, blood pressure, lipid and glucose metabolism), behaviour modification (PA and nutritional changes), and quality of life in adults with body mass index (BMI) ≥ 35 kg/m2. Estimates were pooled using a random-effect model (DerSimonian and Laird method). Heterogeneity between studies was assessed by the Cochran’s chi-square test and quantified through an estimation of the I². Results Of the 3,170 identified articles, 56 met our eligibility criteria, with a large majority of uncontrolled studies (80%). The meta-analysis based on uncontrolled studies showed significant heterogeneity among all included studies. The pooled mean difference in weight loss was 8.9 kg (95% CI, 10.2–7.7; p < 0.01) and 2.8 kg/m² in BMI loss (95% CI, 3.4–2.2; p < 0.01). Long-term interventions produced superior weight loss (11.3 kg) compared to short-term (7.2 kg) and intermediate-term (8.0 kg) interventions. A significant global effect of lifestyle intervention on fat mass, waist circumference, blood pressure, total cholesterol, LDL-C, triglycerides and fasting insulin was found (p<0.01), without significant effect on HDL-C and fasting blood glucose. Conclusions Lifestyle interventions incorporating a PA component can improve weight and various cardiometabolic risk factors in class II

  4. Long-Term Post-Stroke Changes Include Myelin Loss, Specific Deficits in Sensory and Motor Behaviors and Complex Cognitive Impairment Detected Using Active Place Avoidance

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jie; Ooi, Evelyn; Bloom, Jonathan; Poon, Carrie; Lax, Daniel; Rosenbaum, Daniel M.; Barone, Frank C.

    2013-01-01

    Persistent neurobehavioral deficits and brain changes need validation for brain restoration. Two hours middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) or sham surgery was performed in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Neurobehavioral and cognitive deficits were measured over 10 weeks included: (1) sensory, motor, beam balance, reflex/abnormal responses, hindlimb placement, forepaw foot fault and cylinder placement tests, and (2) complex active place avoidance learning (APA) and simple passive avoidance retention (PA). Electroretinogram (ERG), hemispheric loss (infarction), hippocampus CA1 neuronal loss and myelin (Luxol Fast Blue) staining in several fiber tracts were also measured. In comparison to Sham surgery, tMCAO surgery produced significant deficits in all behavioral tests except reflex/abnormal responses. Acute, short lived deficits following tMCAO were observed for forelimb foot fault and forelimb cylinder placement. Persistent, sustained deficits for the whole 10 weeks were exhibited for motor (p<0.001), sensory (p<0.001), beam balance performance (p<0.01) and hindlimb placement behavior (p<0.01). tMCAO produced much greater and prolonged cognitive deficits in APA learning (maximum on last trial of 604±83% change, p<0.05) but only a small, comparative effect on PA retention. Hemispheric loss/atrophy was measured 10 weeks after tMCAO and cross-validated by two methods (e.g., almost identical % ischemic hemispheric loss of 33.4±3.5% for H&E and of 34.2±3.5% for TTC staining). No visual dysfunction by ERG and no hippocampus neuronal loss were detected after tMCAO. Fiber tract damage measured by Luxol Fast Blue myelin staining intensity was significant (p<0.01) in the external capsule and striatum but not in corpus callosum and anterior commissure. In summary, persistent neurobehavioral deficits were validated as important endpoints for stroke restorative research in the future. Fiber myelin loss appears to contribute to these long term behavioral dysfunctions and can be

  5. Long-term post-stroke changes include myelin loss, specific deficits in sensory and motor behaviors and complex cognitive impairment detected using active place avoidance.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jin; Zhuang, Jian; Li, Jie; Ooi, Evelyn; Bloom, Jonathan; Poon, Carrie; Lax, Daniel; Rosenbaum, Daniel M; Barone, Frank C

    2013-01-01

    Persistent neurobehavioral deficits and brain changes need validation for brain restoration. Two hours middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) or sham surgery was performed in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Neurobehavioral and cognitive deficits were measured over 10 weeks included: (1) sensory, motor, beam balance, reflex/abnormal responses, hindlimb placement, forepaw foot fault and cylinder placement tests, and (2) complex active place avoidance learning (APA) and simple passive avoidance retention (PA). Electroretinogram (ERG), hemispheric loss (infarction), hippocampus CA1 neuronal loss and myelin (Luxol Fast Blue) staining in several fiber tracts were also measured. In comparison to Sham surgery, tMCAO surgery produced significant deficits in all behavioral tests except reflex/abnormal responses. Acute, short lived deficits following tMCAO were observed for forelimb foot fault and forelimb cylinder placement. Persistent, sustained deficits for the whole 10 weeks were exhibited for motor (p<0.001), sensory (p<0.001), beam balance performance (p<0.01) and hindlimb placement behavior (p<0.01). tMCAO produced much greater and prolonged cognitive deficits in APA learning (maximum on last trial of 604±83% change, p<0.05) but only a small, comparative effect on PA retention. Hemispheric loss/atrophy was measured 10 weeks after tMCAO and cross-validated by two methods (e.g., almost identical % ischemic hemispheric loss of 33.4±3.5% for H&E and of 34.2±3.5% for TTC staining). No visual dysfunction by ERG and no hippocampus neuronal loss were detected after tMCAO. Fiber tract damage measured by Luxol Fast Blue myelin staining intensity was significant (p<0.01) in the external capsule and striatum but not in corpus callosum and anterior commissure. In summary, persistent neurobehavioral deficits were validated as important endpoints for stroke restorative research in the future. Fiber myelin loss appears to contribute to these long term behavioral dysfunctions and can be

  6. Beneficial effects of activated carbon additives on the performance of negative lead-acid battery electrode for high-rate partial-state-of-charge operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Jiayuan; Ding, Ping; Zhang, Hao; Wu, Xianzhang; Chen, Jian; Yang, Yusheng

    2013-11-01

    Experiments are made with negative electrode of 2 V cell and 12 V lead-acid battery doped with typical activated carbon additives. It turns out that the negative electrode containing tens-of-micron-sized carbon particles in NAM exhibits markedly increased HRPSoC cycle life than the one containing carbon particles with much smaller size of several microns or the one containing no activated carbon. The improved performance is mainly attributed to the optimized NAM microstructure and the enhanced electrode reaction kinetics by introducing appropriate activated carbon. The beneficial effects can be briefly summarized from three aspects. First, activated carbon acts as new porous-skeleton builder to increase the porosity and active surface of NAM, and thus facilitates the electrolyte diffusion from surface to inner and provides more sites for crystallization/dissolution of lead sulfate; second, activated carbon plays the role of electrolyte supplier to provide sufficient H2SO4 in the inner of plate when the diffusion of H2SO4 from plate surface cannot keep pace of the electrode reaction; Third, activated carbon acts as capacitive buffer to absorb excess charge current which would otherwise lead to insufficient NAM conversion and hydrogen evolution.

  7. Enhancing the quantity and quality of short-chain fatty acids production from waste activated sludge using CaO2 as an additive.

    PubMed

    Li, Yongmei; Wang, Jie; Zhang, Ai; Wang, Lin

    2015-10-15

    The effect of calcium peroxide (CaO2) addition on anaerobic fermentation of waste activated sludge (WAS) was investigated. The lab-scale experiments were conducted at 35 °C with CaO2 doses ranging from 0.05 to 0.3 g/g VSS. The performances of hydrolysis and acidification of WAS were significantly enhanced by CaO2 addition, whereas the production of methane was inhibited. Maximum total short-chain fatty acids (TSCFA) production (284 mg COD/g VSS) occurred at a CaO2 dose of 0.2 g/g VSS and fermentation time of 7 d, which was 3.9 times higher than the control tests. Further, CaO2 addition led to the conversion of other SCFAs to acetic acid. Acetic acid comprised 60.2% of TSCFA with the addition of 0.2 g CaO2/g VSS compared with 45.1% in the control tests. The mechanism of improved SCFAs generation was analyzed from the view of both chemical and biological effects. Chemical effect facilitated the disintegration of WAS, and improved the activities of both hydrolytic enzymes and acid-forming enzymes. Illumina MiSeq sequencing analysis revealed that bacteria within phylum Firmicutes increased significantly due to CaO2 addition, which played an important role in the hydrolysis and acidification of WAS. In addition, CaO2 oxidized most refractory organic contaminants, which were difficult to biodegrade under the ordinary anaerobic condition. Hydroxyl radicals were the most abundant reactive oxygen species released by CaO2, which played a key role in the removal of refractory organic compounds. We developed a promising technology to produce a valuable carbon source from WAS. PMID:26141424

  8. Pharmacokinetics of digoxin cross-reacting substances in patients with acute yellow oleander (Thevetia peruviana) poisoning, including the effect of activated charcoal.

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Darren M; Southcott, Emma; Potter, Julia M; Roberts, Michael S; Eddleston, Michael; Buckley, Nick A

    2008-01-01

    Intentional self-poisonings with seeds from the yellow oleander tree (Thevetia peruviana) are widely reported. Activated charcoal has been suggested to benefit patients with yellow oleander poisoning by reducing absorption and/or facilitating elimination. Two recent randomised controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the efficacy of activated charcoal reported conflicting outcomes in terms of mortality. The effect of activated charcoal on the pharmacokinetics of Thevetia cardenolides has not been assessed. This information may be useful for determining whether further studies are necessary. Serial blood samples were obtained from patients enrolled in a RCT assessing the relative efficacy of single dose (SDAC) and multiple doses (MDAC) of activated charcoal compared to no activated charcoal (NoAC). The concentration of Thevetia cardenolides was estimated using a digoxin immunoassay. The effect of activated charcoal on cardenolide pharmacokinetics was compared between treatment groups using the AUC24, the 24h Mean Residence Time (MRT24), and regression lines obtained from serial concentration points adjusted for exposure. Erratic and prolonged absorption patterns were noted in each patient group. The apparent terminal half-life was highly variable, with a median time of 42.9h. There was a reduction in MRT24 and the apparent terminal half-life estimated from linear regression in patients administered activated charcoal compared to the control group (NoAC). This effect was approximately equal in patients administered MDAC or SDAC. Activated charcoal appears to favourably influence the pharmacokinetic profile of Thevetia cardenolides in patients with acute self-poisoning, which may have clinical benefits. Given the conflicting clinical outcomes noted in previous RCTs, this mechanistic data supports the need for further studies to determine whether a subgroup of patients (eg. those presenting soon after poisoning) will benefit from activated charcoal. PMID:17164695

  9. The Recombinant Bacteriophage Endolysin HY-133 Exhibits In Vitro Activity against Different African Clonal Lineages of the Staphylococcus aureus Complex, Including Staphylococcus schweitzeri.

    PubMed

    Idelevich, Evgeny A; Schaumburg, Frieder; Knaack, Dennis; Scherzinger, Anna S; Mutter, Wolfgang; Peters, Georg; Peschel, Andreas; Becker, Karsten

    2016-04-01

    HY-133 is a recombinant bacteriophage endolysin with bactericidal activity againstStaphylococcus aureus Here, HY-133 showedin vitroactivity against major African methicillin-susceptible and methicillin-resistantS. aureuslineages and ceftaroline/ceftobiprole- and borderline oxacillin-resistant isolates. HY-133 was also active againstStaphylococcus schweitzeri, a recently described species of theS. aureuscomplex. The activity of HY-133 on the tested isolates (MIC50, 0.25 μg/ml; MIC90, 0.5 μg/ml; range, 0.125 to 0.5 μg/ml) was independent of the species and strain background or antibiotic resistance. PMID:26833148

  10. Enhancement of anti-complementary and radical scavenging activities in the submerged culture of Cordyceps sinensis by addition of citrus peel.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jang Won; Ra, Kyung Soo; Kim, Seong Yeong; Yoon, Taek Joon; Yu, Kwang-Won; Shin, Kwang-Soon; Lee, Sam Pin; Suh, Hyung Joo

    2010-08-01

    To investigate the optimal conditions for the production of Cordyceps sinensis by the submerged culture method, glucosamine and exopolysaccharide (EPS) productivities were determined in culture broth containing different carbon sources, principally rice bran and citrus peel. An optimal medium composition (1.5% rice bran, 0.5% molasses, 3% CSL, 0.1% KH(2)PO(4), and 0.05% MgSO(4)) and the optimal condition (25 degrees C and 5-6 d culture time) for high EPS productivity with potent immune-stimulating activities were obtained. The addition of citrus peel to the culture of C. sinensis under the optimized conditions improved EPS productivity and glucosamine content. Furthermore, anti-complementary activity was higher (58.0-80.8%) using citrus peel as compared to no addition of citrus peel (48.2-68.7%). Antioxidant activity (AEAC value) of the citrus peel culture was high (284.3-384.6 mg/100g) compared to that of the culture without citrus peel (142.8-219.5mg/100g), indicating that the citrus peel helped enhance the anti-complementary and antioxidant activities of C. sinensis. PMID:20299211

  11. Antileishmanial Activity of Disulfiram and Thiuram Disulfide Analogs in an Ex Vivo Model System Is Selectively Enhanced by the Addition of Divalent Metal Ions

    PubMed Central

    Peniche, Alex G.; Renslo, Adam R.; Melby, Peter C.

    2015-01-01

    Current treatments for cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis are toxic, expensive, difficult to administer, and limited in efficacy and availability. Disulfiram has primarily been used to treat alcoholism. More recently, it has shown some efficacy as therapy against protozoan pathogens and certain cancers, suggesting a wide range of biological activities. We used an ex vivo system to screen several thiuram disulfide compounds for antileishmanial activity. We found five compounds (compound identifier [CID] 7188, 5455, 95876, 12892, and 3117 [disulfiram]) with anti-Leishmania activity at nanomolar concentrations. We further evaluated these compounds with the addition of divalent metal salts based on studies that indicated these salts could potentiate the action of disulfiram. In addition, clinical studies suggested that zinc has some efficacy in treating cutaneous leishmaniasis. Several divalent metal salts were evaluated at 1 μM, which is lower than the normal levels of copper and zinc in plasma of healthy individuals. The leishmanicidal activity of disulfiram and CID 7188 were enhanced by several divalent metal salts at 1 μM. The in vitro therapeutic index (IVTI) of disulfiram and CID 7188 increased 12- and 2.3-fold, respectively, against L. major when combined with ZnCl2. The combination of disulfiram with ZnSO4 resulted in a 1.8-fold increase in IVTI against L. donovani. This novel combination of thiuram disulfides and divalent metal ions salts could have application as topical and/or oral therapies for treatment of cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis. PMID:26239994

  12. Antileishmanial Activity of Disulfiram and Thiuram Disulfide Analogs in an Ex Vivo Model System Is Selectively Enhanced by the Addition of Divalent Metal Ions.

    PubMed

    Peniche, Alex G; Renslo, Adam R; Melby, Peter C; Travi, Bruno L

    2015-10-01

    Current treatments for cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis are toxic, expensive, difficult to administer, and limited in efficacy and availability. Disulfiram has primarily been used to treat alcoholism. More recently, it has shown some efficacy as therapy against protozoan pathogens and certain cancers, suggesting a wide range of biological activities. We used an ex vivo system to screen several thiuram disulfide compounds for antileishmanial activity. We found five compounds (compound identifier [CID] 7188, 5455, 95876, 12892, and 3117 [disulfiram]) with anti-Leishmania activity at nanomolar concentrations. We further evaluated these compounds with the addition of divalent metal salts based on studies that indicated these salts could potentiate the action of disulfiram. In addition, clinical studies suggested that zinc has some efficacy in treating cutaneous leishmaniasis. Several divalent metal salts were evaluated at 1 μM, which is lower than the normal levels of copper and zinc in plasma of healthy individuals. The leishmanicidal activity of disulfiram and CID 7188 were enhanced by several divalent metal salts at 1 μM. The in vitro therapeutic index (IVTI) of disulfiram and CID 7188 increased 12- and 2.3-fold, respectively, against L. major when combined with ZnCl2. The combination of disulfiram with ZnSO4 resulted in a 1.8-fold increase in IVTI against L. donovani. This novel combination of thiuram disulfides and divalent metal ions salts could have application as topical and/or oral therapies for treatment of cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis. PMID:26239994

  13. Improvement of the antifungal activity of lactic acid bacteria by addition to the growth medium of phenylpyruvic acid, a precursor of phenyllactic acid.

    PubMed

    Valerio, Francesca; Di Biase, Mariaelena; Lattanzio, Veronica M T; Lavermicocca, Paola

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the current study was to improve the antifungal activity of eight lactic acid bacterial (LAB) strains by the addition of phenylpyruvic acid (PPA), a precursor of the antifungal compound phenyllactic acid (PLA), to a defined growth medium (DM). The effect of PPA addition on the LABs antifungal activity related to the production of organic acids (PLA, d-lactic, l-lactic, acetic, citric, formic and 4-hydroxy-phenyllactic acids) and of other phenylpyruvic-derived molecules, was investigated. In the presence of PPA the inhibitory activity (expressed as growth inhibition percentage) against fungal bread contaminants Aspergillus niger and Penicillium roqueforti significantly increased and was, even if not completely, associated to PLA increase (from a mean value of 0.44 to 0.93 mM). While the inhibitory activity against Endomyces fibuliger was mainly correlated to the low pH and to lactic, acetic and p-OH-PLA acids. When the PCA analysis based on data of growth inhibition percentage and organic acid concentrations was performed, strains grown in DM+PPA separated from those grown in DM and the most active strains Lactobacillus plantarum 21B, Lactobacillus fermentum 18B and Lactobacillus brevis 18F grouped together. The antifungal activity resulted to be strain-related, based on a different mechanism of action for filamentous fungi and the yeast and was not exclusively associated to the increase of PLA. Therefore, a further investigation on the unique unidentified peak in HPLC-UV chromatograms, was performed by LC-MS/MS analysis. Actually, full scan mass spectra (negative ion mode) recorded at the retention time of the unknown compound, showed a main peak of m/z 291.0 which was consistent with the nominal mass of the molecular ion [M-H](-) of polyporic acid, a PPA derivative whose antifungal activity has been previously reported (Brewer et al., 1977). In conclusion, the addition of PPA to the growth medium contributed to improve the antifungal activity of LAB

  14. Activated carbons as potentially useful non-nutritive additives to prevent the effect of fumonisin B1 on sodium bentonite activity against chronic aflatoxicosis.

    PubMed

    Monge, María Del Pilar; Magnoli, Alejandra Paola; Bergesio, Maria Virginia; Tancredi, Nestor; Magnoli, Carina E; Chiacchiera, Stella Maris

    2016-06-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and fumonisin B1 (FB1) are mycotoxins that often co-occur in feedstuffs. The ingestion of AFB1 causes aflatoxicosis in humans and animals. Sodium bentonite (NaB), a cheap non-nutritive unselective sequestering agent incorporated in animal diets, can effectively prevent aflatoxicosis. Fumonisins are responsible for equine leukoencephalomalacia and porcine pulmonary oedema, and often have subclinical toxic effects in poultries. Fumonisin B1 and aflatoxin B1 are both strongly adsorbed in vitro on sodium bentonite. Co-adsorption studies, carried out with a weight ratio of FB1 to AFB1 that mimics the natural occurrence (200:1), showed that FB1 greatly decreases the in vitro ability of NaB to adsorb AFB1. The ability of two activated carbons to adsorb FB1 was also investigated. Both carbons showed high affinity for FB1. A complex behaviour of the FB1 adsorption isotherms with pH was observed. In vitro results suggest that under natural contamination levels of AFB1 and FB1, a mixture of activated carbon and sodium bentonite might be potentially useful for prevention of sub-acute aflatoxicosis. PMID:27159550

  15. Decontamination formulation with sorbent additive

    DOEpatents

    Tucker; Mark D. , Comstock; Robert H.

    2007-10-16

    A decontamination formulation and method of making that neutralizes the adverse health effects of both chemical and biological compounds, especially chemical warfare (CW) and biological warfare (BW) agents, and toxic industrial chemicals. The formulation provides solubilizing compounds that serve to effectively render the chemical and biological compounds, particularly CW and BW compounds, susceptible to attack, and at least one reactive compound that serves to attack (and detoxify or kill) the compound. The formulation includes at least one solubilizing agent, a reactive compound, a bleaching activator, a sorbent additive, and water. The highly adsorbent, water-soluble sorbent additive (e.g., sorbitol or mannitol) is used to "dry out" one or more liquid ingredients, such as the liquid bleaching activator (e.g., propylene glycol diacetate or glycerol diacetate) and convert the activator into a dry, free-flowing powder that has an extended shelf life, and is more convenient to handle and mix in the field.

  16. Effects of Fe(III) and organic matter additions on methanogenic activity and Fe(III) reduction in boreal lake and wetland sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karvinen, Anu; Lehtinen, Lotta; Kankaala, Paula

    2013-04-01

    We studied potential methane production and Fe(III) reduction activity in lake sediments and wetland peat sampled from 14 sites in southern and eastern Finland. The concentration of total iron in the sediments and peat varied between 0.5 and 1200 ppm and their organic matter content (loss of ignition) varied between 1-98% of dry weight. Also the effects of added amorphous Fe(III) oxyhydroxide and organic matter (ammoniumacetate and/or sodiumacetate) on methanogenic and Fe(III) reduction activities were studied in anaerobic laboratory incubations (in vitro) lasting 5-20 days at 15 °C in darkness. Potential methane production and the effects of iron and acetate additions were highly variable between lake and peatland sites. The highest methanogenic potential was generally measured in productive littoral sites, especially in those dominated by Phragmites australis vegetation stands. In these sediments the total iron concentrations were high and acetate additions clearly increased methane production whereas Fe(III) additions decreased it. Our results demonstrate that microbial Fe(III) reduction plays an important role in the anaerobic organic matter decomposition in many boreal lakes.

  17. On the recent seismic activity in North-Eastern Aegean Sea including the M(w)5.8 earthquake on 8 January 2013.

    PubMed

    Sarlis, Nicholas V

    2013-01-01

    In the last week of November 2012, we announced that a strong electrotelluric disturbance, which we judged to be a Seismic Electric Signal (SES) activity, was recorded at station Assiros located in Northern Greece. This disturbance was actually followed by an Mw5.8 earthquake on 8 January 2013 in North-Eastern Aegean Sea. Here we show that, by analyzing this SES activity and employing the natural time analysis of subsequent seismicity, we estimated the epicentral location, magnitude and occurrence time which are reasonably compatible with those of the Mw5.8 event. PMID:24213207

  18. On the recent seismic activity in North-Eastern Aegean Sea including the Mw5.8 earthquake on 8 January 2013

    PubMed Central

    SARLIS, Nicholas V.

    2013-01-01

    In the last week of November 2012, we announced that a strong electrotelluric disturbance, which we judged to be a Seismic Electric Signal (SES) activity, was recorded at station Assiros located in Northern Greece. This disturbance was actually followed by an Mw5.8 earthquake on 8 January 2013 in North-Eastern Aegean Sea. Here we show that, by analyzing this SES activity and employing the natural time analysis of subsequent seismicity, we estimated the epicentral location, magnitude and occurrence time which are reasonably compatible with those of the Mw5.8 event. PMID:24213207

  19. Enhancement of antimicrobial activities of whole and sub-fractionated white tea by addition of copper (II) sulphate and vitamin C against Staphylococcus aureus; a mechanistic approach

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Enhancement of antimicrobial plant products e.g. pomegranate extract by copper (II) sulphate is known. Such combinations have applications in various settings, including the identification of novel compositions to study, treat and control infection. Methods A combination of white tea (WT) (made allowing 10 minutes infusion time at 100°C) was combined with 4.8 mM copper (II) sulphate and tested for antimicrobial effect on the viability of Staphylococcus aureus NCTC 06571. Comparisons were made with green (GT) and black (BT) teas. A WT sub-fraction (WTF < 1000 Da) was tested with copper (II) sulphate and 4.8 mM vitamin C. pH measurements of samples were taken for controls and to observe any changes due to tea/agent interaction. Catalase was used to investigate hydrogen peroxide release. UV-vis. was used to compare WT and WTF. Results A 30 minute incubation at room temperature of copper (II) sulphate alone and combined with WT reduced the viability of S. aureus NCTC 06571 by c.a 1 log10 cfu mL-1. GT and BT with copper (II) sulphate negated activity to buffer values. Combined with copper (II) sulphate, vitamin C, WTF and, vitamin C plus WTF all reduced the viability of S. aureus NCTC 06571 by c.a. 3.5 log10 cfu mL-1. Independent experiments showed the results were not due to pH effects. Adding WT or WTF to copper (II) sulphate resulted in increased acidity. Copper (II) sulphate alone and combined with WT required c.a 300 μg mL-1 (final concentration) catalase to restore S. aureus viability, WTF with copper (II) sulphate and added vitamin C required c.a 600 μg mL-1. WT and WTF UV-visible spectra were similar. Conclusions WT showed no efficacy in the combinations tested. WTF was enhanced with copper (II) sulphate and further with vitamin C. WT and WTF increased acidity of copper (II) sulphate possibly via the formation of chemical complexes. The difference in WT/WTF absorbance possibly represented substances less concentrated or absent in WTF

  20. Isolation and identification of the cDNA encoding the pheromone biosynthesis activating neuropeptide and additional neuropeptides in the oriental tobacco budworm, Helicoverpa assulta (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Choi, M Y; Tanaka, M; Kataoka, H; Boo, K S; Tatsuki, S

    1998-10-01

    The present study is concerned with cloning and characterizing Has-PBAN cDNA which is 756 nucleotides long, isolated from the brain and suboesophageal ganglion complex (Br-Sg) of Helicoverpa assulta adults. The 194-amino acid sequence deduced from this cDNA possessed the proteolytic endocleavage sites to generate multiple peptides. From the processing of the prepro-hormone, it can be predicted that the cDNA has a PBAN domain with 33 amino acids and four additional peptide domains: 24 amino acid-, 7 amino acid-, 18 amino acid- and 8 amino acid-long sequences, with FXPR (or K) L (X = G, T or S) amidated at their C-termini. The amino acid sequence of all five predicted peptides, including the PBAN, are identical to that of Helicoverpa zea (Raina, A.K., Jaffe, H., Kempe, T.G., Keim, P., Blacher, R.W., Fales, H.M., Riley, C.T., Klun, J.A., Ridgway, R.L., Hayes, D.K., 1989. Identification of a neuropeptide hormone that regulates sex pheromone production in female moths. Science 244, 796-798 and Ma, P.W.K., Knipple, D.C., Roelofs, W.L., 1994. Structural organization of the Helicoverpa zea gene encoding the precursor protein for pheromone biosynthesis-activating neuropeptide and other neuropeptides. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., U.S.A. 91, 506-510). A single mRNA species corresponding to the size of Has-PBAN cDNA was detected from the Br-Sg of 1-3-day old female and male adults, and their expression was also at a similar level. Pheromone production was induced upon injection of female or male Br-Sg extracts or synthetic PBAN into the haemocoel of decapitated 1-3-day old female adults during the photophase when they are not supposed to produce pheromone. From these results, H. assulta adult females seem to use their own PBAN for regulating sex pheromone biosynthesis. Functions of the four other peptides ending with FXPR (or K) L in the Has-PBAN cDNA and of the male PBAN remain to be elucidated. PMID:9807222

  1. Speech Improvement for the Trainable Retarded: A Manual for the Classroom Teacher. Revised Edition. (Includes Speech Improvement Activity Book). NCEMMH Reprint Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Elizabeth; Ross, Jeanne

    Presented are 39 lessons and student worksheets designed to help the classroom teacher improve the speech skills of trainable retarded elementary school children. It is explained that the lessons and corresponding activity sheets focus on auditory discrimination, speech sounds and sentence patterns. Lessons are sequenced and usually contain a…

  2. Doped-CuCl2/Al2O3 catalysts for ethylene oxychlorination: Influence of additives on the nature of active phase and reducibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gianolio, D.; Muddada, N. B.; Olsbye, U.; Lamberti, C.

    2012-08-01

    Doped CuCl2/Al2O3 is an industrial catalyst used to produce dichloroethane, key intermediate of the polyvinyl chloride (PVC) chemistry. Using in situ and operando X-ray absorption spectroscopies, combined with laboratory techniques, we succeeded in understanding the nature of the active phase and the role played by most used additives for fluid and fixed beds technologies (LiCl, KCl, CsCl, MgCl2, and LaCl3). Moreover we were able to quantify relative fraction, reducibility and dispersion of Cu-phases adjoining catalytic tests in a pulse reactor. EXAFS and XANES highlighted that all additives contribute more or less efficiently in increasing the fraction of the active species (supported CuCl2). EXAFS directly, UV-vis and IR spectroscopies indirectly proved the formation of mixed salts, when KCl or CsCl are added, so displacing the rate determining step from the CuCl oxidation to the CuCl2 reduction. Fully oxidized catalyst is inactive, so copper in the working catalyst, exhibits a I/II mixed valence state. Coupling the ethylene conversion, measured with a pulse reactor, with XANES spectra collected after interaction with C2H4, we could differentiate the ability of doped samples to be reduced by ethylene. We obtained slightly different results explainable by the different dispersion of the active phase, measured by CO chemisorption.

  3. Improvement in enzyme activity and stability by addition of low molecular weight polyethylene glycol to sodium bis(2-ethyl-L-hexyl)sulfosuccinate/isooctane reverse micellar system.

    PubMed

    Talukder, M M R; Takeyama, T; Hayashi, Y; Wu, J C; Kawanishi, T; Shimizu, N; Ogino, C

    2003-08-01

    The activity and stability of Chromobacterium viscosum lipase (glycerolester hydrolase, EC 3.1.1.3)-catalyzed olive oil hydrolysis in sodium bis (2-ethyl-l-hexyl)sulfosuccinate (AOT)/isooctane reverse micelles is increased appreciably when low molecular weight polyethylene glycol (PEG 400) is added to the reverse micelles. To understand the effect of PEG 400 on the phase behavior of the reverse micellar system, the phase diagram of AOT/ PEG 400/water/isooctane system was studied. The influences of relevant parameters on the catalytic activity in AOT/PEG 400 reverse micelles were investigated and compared with the results in the simple AOT reverse micelles. In the presence of PEG 400, the linear decreasing trend of the lipase activity with AOT concentration, which is observed in the simple AOT reverse micelles, disappeared. Enzyme entrapped in AOT/PEG reverse micelles was very stable, retaining >75% of its initial activity after 60 d, whereas the half-life in simple AOT reverse micelles was 38 d. The kinetics parameter maximum velocity (Vmax) exhibiting the temperature dependence and the activation energy obtained by Arrhenius plot was suppressed significantly by the addition of PEG 400. PMID:14515025

  4. Influence of the reaction medium on enzyme activity in bio-organic synthesis: behaviour of lipase from Candida rugosa in the presence of polar additives.

    PubMed

    Triantafyllou, A O; Adlercreutz, P; Mattiasson, B

    1993-04-01

    Lipase from Candida rugosa immobilized on Celite was employed as the biocatalyst in order to examine the effect of the reaction medium upon enzymic activity and selectivity. As the model reaction, transesterification between tributyrin and pentan-2-ol in iso-octane (2,2,4-trimethylpentane) was chosen. A small amount of water (0.05%, v/v) was added to the reaction medium. Enhanced transesterification yields and increased selectivity of the lipase could be obtained by manipulating the microenvironment of the catalyst. Addition of 0.2% NN-dimethylformamide allowed a 93% higher ester yield compared with that obtained when no extra addition was made. Under the same conditions, the ratio of the amount of transesterification product over the amount of hydrolysis product after 48 h, became 52% higher than the ratio determined in the absence of additives. It was concluded that addition of compounds that have low logP3 (P is the partition coefficient in the octanol/water two-phase system) values and high dielectric constant was advantageous in order to favour transesterification over hydrolytic processes. PMID:8484905

  5. Effect of highly active antiretroviral therapy on the serological response to additional measles vaccinations in human immunodeficiency virus-infected children.

    PubMed

    Berkelhamer, S; Borock, E; Elsen, C; Englund, J; Johnson, D

    2001-04-01

    Children infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) often lose their vaccine-induced antibody to measles virus. Before highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), an additional immunization against measles infrequently resulted in protective antibodies. The antibody response to an additional measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccination was compared in 28 HIV-infected children who lacked protective antibody to measles virus and were undergoing HAART or non-HAART regimens. Serostatus was measured by automated enzyme-linked immunoassay. Nine (64.3%) of 14 children undergoing HAART, compared with 3 (21.4%) of 14 in the non-HAART group, had antibody to measles virus after the additional vaccination with MMR (P=.027). The groups showed no significant difference in CD4 cell values. Ten of 14 HAART patients had undetectable levels of HIV. The mean HIV load for the HAART group was 27,700 copies/mL (median, <400 copies/mL); for the non-HAART group, it was 86,000 copies/mL (median, 9000 copies/mL). Thus, HAART improves the response to an additional MMR vaccination, which is consistent with immune system reconstitution. PMID:11264038

  6. Role of enzymatic activity in muscle damage and cytotoxicity induced by Bothrops asper Asp49 phospholipase A2 myotoxins: are there additional effector mechanisms involved?

    PubMed Central

    Mora-Obando, Diana; Díaz, Cecilia; Angulo, Yamileth; Gutiérrez, José María

    2014-01-01

    Viperid venoms often contain mixtures of Asp49 and Lys49 PLA2 myotoxin isoforms, relevant to development of myonecrosis. Given their difference in catalytic activity, mechanistic studies on each type require highly purified samples. Studies on Asp49 PLA2s have shown that enzyme inactivation using p-bromophenacyl bromide (p-BPB) drastically affects toxicity. However, based on the variable levels of residual toxicity observed in some studies, it has been suggested that effector mechanisms independent of catalysis may additionally be involved in the toxicity of these enzymes, possibly resembling those of the enzymatically inactive Lys49 myotoxins. A possibility that Lys49 isoforms could be present in Asp49 PLA2 preparations exists and, if undetected in previous studies, could explain the variable residual toxicity. This question is here addressed by using an enzyme preparation ascertained to be free of Lys49 myotoxins. In agreement with previous reports, inactivation of the catalytic activity of an Asp49 myotoxin preparation led to major inhibition of toxic effects in vitro and in vivo. The very low residual levels of myotoxicity (7%) and cytotoxicity (4%) observed can be attributed to the low, although detectable, enzyme remaining active after p-BPB treatment (2.7%), and would be difficult to reconcile with the proposed existence of additional catalytic-independent toxic mechanisms. These findings favor the concept that the effector mechanism of toxicity of Asp49 PLA2 myotoxins from viperids fundamentally relies on their ability to hydrolyze phospholipids, arguing against the proposal that membrane disruption may also be caused by additional mechanisms that are independent of catalysis. PMID:25276503

  7. Applying the model of Goal-Directed Behavior, including descriptive norms, to physical activity intentions: A contribution to improving the Theory of Planned Behavior

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The theory of planned behavior (TPB) has received its fair share of criticism lately, including calls for it to retire. We contributed to improving the theory by testing extensions such as the model of goal-directed behavior (MGDB, which adds desire and anticipated positive and negative emotions) ap...

  8. Sugar beet activities of the USDA-ARS East Lansing conducted in cooperation with Saginaw Valley Bean and Beet Farm during 2011 (including Project 905)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Evaluation and rating plots were planted at the Saginaw Valley Research & Extension Center in Frankenmuth, MI in 2011 that focused on Cercospora leaf spot performance, conducted in conjunction with Beet Sugar Development Foundation and including USDA-ARS cooperators. 263 breeding lines were tested i...

  9. EspC, an Autotransporter Protein Secreted by Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli, Causes Apoptosis and Necrosis through Caspase and Calpain Activation, Including Direct Procaspase-3 Cleavage

    PubMed Central

    Serapio-Palacios, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) has the ability to antagonize host apoptosis during infection through promotion and inhibition of effectors injected by the type III secretion system (T3SS), but the total number of these effectors and the overall functional relationships between these effectors during infection are poorly understood. EspC produced by EPEC cleaves fodrin, paxillin, and focal adhesion kinase (FAK), which are also cleaved by caspases and calpains during apoptosis. Here we show the role of EspC in cell death induced by EPEC. EspC is involved in EPEC-mediated cell death and induces both apoptosis and necrosis in epithelial cells. EspC induces apoptosis through the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway by provoking (i) a decrease in the expression levels of antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2, (ii) translocation of the proapoptotic protein Bax from cytosol to mitochondria, (iii) cytochrome c release from mitochondria to the cytoplasm, (iv) loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, (v) caspase-9 activation, (vi) cleavage of procaspase-3 and (vii) an increase in caspase-3 activity, (viii) PARP proteolysis, and (ix) nuclear fragmentation and an increase in the sub-G1 population. Interestingly, EspC-induced apoptosis was triggered through a dual mechanism involving both independent and dependent functions of its EspC serine protease motif, the direct cleavage of procaspase-3 being dependent on this motif. This is the first report showing a shortcut for induction of apoptosis by the catalytic activity of an EPEC protein. Furthermore, this atypical intrinsic apoptosis appeared to induce necrosis through the activation of calpain and through the increase of intracellular calcium induced by EspC. Our data indicate that EspC plays a relevant role in cell death induced by EPEC. PMID:27329750

  10. Improved Programming Efficiency through Additional Boron Implantation at the Active Area Edge in 90 nm Localized Charge-Trapping Non-volatile Memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yue; Yan, Feng; Chen, Dun-Jun; Shi, Yi; Wang, Yong-Gang; Li, Zhi-Guo; Yang, Fan; Wang, Jos-Hua; Lin, Peter; Chang, Jian-Guang

    2010-06-01

    As the scaling-down of non-volatile memory (NVM) cells continues, the impact of shallow trench isolation (STI) on NVM cells becomes more severe. It has been observed in the 90 nm localized charge-trapping non-volatile memory (NROM™) that the programming efficiency of edge cells adjacent to STI is remarkably lower than that of other cells when channel hot electron injection is applied. Boron segregation is found to be mainly responsible for the low programming efficiency of edge cells. Meanwhile, an additional boron implantation of 10° tilt at the active area edge as a new solution to solve this problem is developed.

  11. One-pot synthesis of 3,4,5-trisubstituted 1,2,4-triazoles via the addition of hydrazides to activated secondary amides.

    PubMed

    Bechara, William S; Khazhieva, Inna S; Rodriguez, Elsa; Charette, André B

    2015-03-01

    A general approach has been developed for the one-pot synthesis of 3,4,5-trisubstituted 1,2,4-triazoles from secondary amides and hydrazides via triflic anhydride activation followed by microwave-induced cyclodehydration. In addition, the 1,2,4-triazole moiety is shown to be a useful directing group for Ru-catalyzed C-H arylation. Access to 1,2,4-triazolophenanthridine can be achieved from the reaction products using a Pd-catalyzed intramolecular C-H functionalization reaction. PMID:25700199

  12. Additive-dominance genetic model analyses for late-maturity alpha-amylase activity in a bread wheat factorial crossing population.

    PubMed

    Rasul, Golam; Glover, Karl D; Krishnan, Padmanaban G; Wu, Jixiang; Berzonsky, William A; Ibrahim, Amir M H

    2015-12-01

    Elevated level of late maturity α-amylase activity (LMAA) can result in low falling number scores, reduced grain quality, and downgrade of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) class. A mating population was developed by crossing parents with different levels of LMAA. The F2 and F3 hybrids and their parents were evaluated for LMAA, and data were analyzed using the R software package 'qgtools' integrated with an additive-dominance genetic model and a mixed linear model approach. Simulated results showed high testing powers for additive and additive × environment variances, and comparatively low powers for dominance and dominance × environment variances. All variance components and their proportions to the phenotypic variance for the parents and hybrids were significant except for the dominance × environment variance. The estimated narrow-sense heritability and broad-sense heritability for LMAA were 14 and 54%, respectively. High significant negative additive effects for parents suggest that spring wheat cultivars 'Lancer' and 'Chester' can serve as good general combiners, and that 'Kinsman' and 'Seri-82' had negative specific combining ability in some hybrids despite of their own significant positive additive effects, suggesting they can be used as parents to reduce LMAA levels. Seri-82 showed very good general combining ability effect when used as a male parent, indicating the importance of reciprocal effects. High significant negative dominance effects and high-parent heterosis for hybrids demonstrated that the specific hybrid combinations; Chester × Kinsman, 'Lerma52' × Lancer, Lerma52 × 'LoSprout' and 'Janz' × Seri-82 could be generated to produce cultivars with significantly reduced LMAA level. PMID:26403988

  13. Shaping frequency response of a vibrating plate for passive and active control applications by simultaneous optimization of arrangement of additional masses and ribs. Part I: Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wrona, Stanislaw; Pawelczyk, Marek

    2016-03-01

    An ability to shape frequency response of a vibrating plate according to precisely defined demands has a very high practical potential. It can be applied to improve acoustic radiation of the plate for required frequencies or enhance acoustic isolation of noise barriers and device casings by using both passive and active control. The proposed method is based on mounting severaladditional ribs and masses (passive and/or active) to the plate surface at locations followed from an optimization process. This paper, Part I, concerns derivation of a mathematical model of the plate with attached elements in the function of their shape and placement. The model is validated by means of simulations and laboratory experiments, and compared with models known from the literature. This paper is followed by a companion paper, Part II, where the optimization process is described. It includes arrangement of passive elements as well as actuators and sensors to improve controllability and observability measures, if active control is concerned.

  14. Isolation of estrogen-degrading bacteria from an activated sludge bioreactor treating swine waste, including a strain that converts estrone to β-estradiol.

    PubMed

    Isabelle, Martine; Villemur, Richard; Juteau, Pierre; Lépine, François

    2011-07-01

    An estrogen-degrading bacterial consortium from a swine wastewater biotreatment was enriched in the presence of low concentrations (1 mg/L) of estrone (E1), 17β-estradiol (βE2), and equol (EQO) as sole carbon sources. The consortium removed 99% ± 1% of these three estrogens in 48 h. Estrogen removal occurred even in the presence of an ammonia monooxygenase inhibitor, suggesting that nitrifiers are not involved. Five strains showing estrogen-metabolizing activity were isolated from the consortium on mineral agar medium with estrogens as sole carbon source. They are related to four genera ( Methylobacterium (strain MI6.1R), Ochrobactrum (strains MI6.1B and MI9.3), Pseudomonas (strain MI14.1), and Mycobacterium (strain MI21.2)) distributed among three classes (Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and Actinobacteria). Depending on the culture medium, strains MI6.1B, MI9.3, MI14.1, and MI21.2 partially transform βE2 into E1, whereas Methylobacterium sp. strain MI6.1R reduces E1 into βE2 under aerobic conditions, in contrast with the usually observed conversion of βE2 into E1. Since βE2 is a more potent endocrine disruptor than E1, it means that the presence of Methylobacterium sp. strain MI6.1R (or other bacteria with the same E1-reducing activity) in a treatment could transiently increase the estrogenicity of the effluent. MI6.1R can also reduce the ketone group of 16-ketoestradiol, a hydroxylated analog of E1. All βE2 and E1 transformation activities were constitutive, and many of them are favoured in a rich medium than a medium containing no other carbon source. None of the isolated strains could degrade EQO. PMID:21770814

  15. Chimeric Beta-Defensin Analogs, Including the Novel 3NI Analog, Display Salt-Resistant Antimicrobial Activity and Lack Toxicity in Human Epithelial Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Scudiero, Olga; Galdiero, Stefania; Nigro, Ersilia; Del Vecchio, Luigi; Di Noto, Rosa; Cantisani, Marco; Colavita, Irene; Galdiero, Massimiliano; Cassiman, Jean-Jacques; Daniele, Aurora; Pedone, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    Human beta-defensins (hBDs) are crucial peptides for the innate immune response and are thus prime candidates as therapeutic agents directed against infective diseases. Based on the properties of wild-type hBD1 and hBD3 and of previously synthesized analogs (1C, 3I, and 3N), we have designed a new analog, 3NI, and investigated its potential as an antimicrobial drug. Specifically, we evaluated the antimicrobial activities of 3NI versus those of hBD1, hBD3, 1C, 3I, and 3N. Our results show that 3NI exerted greater antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Enterococcus faecalis than did hBD1 and hBD3, even with elevated salt concentrations. Moreover, its antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus 1 was greater than that of hBD1 and similar to that of hBD3. Subsequently, we investigated the cytotoxic effects of all peptides in three human epithelial carcinoma cell lines: A549 from lung, CaCo-2 from colon, and Capan-1 from pancreas. None of the analogs significantly reduced cell viability versus wild-type hBD1 and hBD3. They did not induce genotoxicity or cause an increase in the number of apoptotic cells. Using confocal microscopy, we also investigated the localization of the peptides during their incubation with epithelial cells and found that they were distributed on the cell surface, from which they were internalized. Finally, we show that hBD1 and hBD3 are characterized by high resistance to serum degradation. In conclusion, the new analog 3NI seems to be a promising anti-infective agent, particularly given its high salt resistance—a feature that is relevant in diseases such as cystic fibrosis. PMID:23357761

  16. Characteristics of maize biochar with different pyrolysis temperatures and its effects on organic carbon, nitrogen and enzymatic activities after addition to fluvo-aquic soil.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiubin; Zhou, Wei; Liang, Guoqing; Song, Dali; Zhang, Xiaoya

    2015-12-15

    In this study, the characteristics of maize biochar produced at different pyrolysis temperatures (300, 450 and 600°C) and its effects on organic carbon, nitrogen and enzymatic activities after addition to fluvo-aquic soil were investigated. As pyrolysis temperature increased, ash content, pH, electrical conductivity, surface area, pore volume and aromatic carbon content of biochar increased while yield, ratios of oxygen:carbon and hydrogen: carbon and alkyl carbon content decreased. During incubation, SOC, total N, and ammonium-N contents increased in all biochar-amended treatments compared with the urea treatment; however, soil nitrate-N content first increased and then decreased with increasing pyrolysis temperature of the applied biochar. Extracellular enzyme activities associated with carbon transformation first increased and then decreased with biochars pyrolyzed at 450 and 600°C. Protease activity markedly increased with increased pyrolysis temperatures, whereas pyrolysis temperature had limited effect on soil urease activity. The results indicated that the responses of extracellular enzymes to biochar were dependent on the pyrolysis temperature, the enzyme itself and incubation time as well. PMID:26298256

  17. Influence of powdered activated carbon addition on water quality, sludge properties, and microbial characteristics in the biological treatment of commingled industrial wastewater.

    PubMed

    Hu, Qing-Yuan; Li, Meng; Wang, Can; Ji, Min

    2015-09-15

    A powdered activated carbon-activated sludge (PAC-AS) system, a traditional activated sludge (AS) system, and a powdered activated carbon (PAC) system were operated to examine the insights into the influence of PAC addition on biological treatment. The average COD removal efficiencies of the PAC-AS system (39%) were nearly double that of the AS system (20%). Compared with the average efficiencies of the PAC system (7%), COD removal by biodegradation in the PAC-AS system was remarkably higher than that in the AS system. The analysis of the influence of PAC on water quality and sludge properties showed that PAC facilitated the removal of hydrophobic matter and metabolic acidic products, and also enhanced the biomass accumulation, sludge settleability, and specific oxygen uptake rate inside the biological system. The microbial community structures in the PAC-AS and AS systems were monitored. The results showed that the average well color development in the PAC-AS system was higher than that in the AS system. The utilization of various substrates by microorganisms in the two systems did not differ. The dissimilarity index was far less than one; thus, showing that the microbial community structures of the two systems were the same. PMID:25863578

  18. Estrogenic Activity Including Bone Enhancement and Effect on Lipid Profile of Luteolin-7-O-glucoside Isolated from Trifolium alexandrinum L. in Ovariectomized Rats.

    PubMed

    Ammar, N M; El-Hawary, S S; Mohamed, D A; El-Halawany, A M; El-Anssary, A A; El-Kassem, L T Abou; Hussein, R A; Jaleel, G A Abdel; El-Dosoky, A H

    2016-05-01

    Luteolin-7-O-glycoside (LG), an abundant component in many edible plants, was found to be one of the major constituents of the aqueous methanol extract of Trifolium alexandrinum L. family Fabaceae, a fodder plant widely cultivated in Egypt. The estrogenic activity of LG concerning the effect on uterotrophy, lipid profile, weight gain and bone enhancement activity was determined in ovariectomized rat model at a dose of 5 mg/kg. Luteolin-7-O-glycoside showed significant estrogenic effect through the preservation of normal uterine weight and plasma estradiol level. It also significantly inhibited the bone turnover markers plasma bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, plasma osteocalsin, type I procollagen N-terminal, and C-telopeptide of type II collagen levels. It induced a significant improvement in plasma lipid profile. The effect of LG was comparable with estradiol with lower effect on uterine weight. Liver and kidney functions revealed a wide safety of LG at this dose level. The present study revealed that LG may be a promising hormone replacement therapy after being examined thoroughly on human. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27145225

  19. Fumigant toxicity of Oriental sweetgum (Liquidambar orientalis) and valerian (Valeriana wallichii) essential oils and their components, including their acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity, against Japanese termites (Reticulitermes speratus).

    PubMed

    Park, Il-Kwon

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the fumigant toxicity of oriental sweetgum (Liquidambar orientalis) and valerian (Valeriana wallichii) essential oils and their components against the Japanese termite (Reticulitermes speratus). The fumigant toxicity of oriental sweetgum and valerian oil differed significantly according to exposure time. Oriental sweetgum showed toxicity at short exposure times (2 days), and the toxicity of valerian oil was high 7 days after treatment. The main constituents of oriental sweetgum and valerian oils were tested individually for their fumigant toxicity against Japanese termites. Among the test compounds, benzyl alcohol, acetophenone, 1-phenyl-1-ethanol, hydrocinnamyl alcohol, trans-cinnamyl aldehyde, trans-cinnamyl alcohol, cis-asarone, styrene, and cis-ocimene showed toxicity against Japanese termites 7 days after treatment. Hydrocinnamyl alcohol and trans-cinnamyl alcohol were found to be the major contributors to the fumigant antitermitic toxicity of oriental sweetgum oil. The acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition activity of two oils and their constituents was tested to determine their mode of action. Only cis-ocimene showed strong AChE inhibition activity with an IC50 value of 0.131 mg/mL. Further studies are warranted to determine the potential of these essential oils and their constituents as fumigants for termite control. PMID:25153870

  20. Development of additives in negative active-material to suppress sulfation during high-rate partial-state-of-charge operation of lead-acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawai, Ken; Funato, Takayuki; Watanabe, Masashi; Wada, Hidetoshi; Nakamura, Kenji; Shiomi, Masaaki; Osumi, Shigeharu

    Additives in the negative active-material of lead-acid batteries were examined to determine whether they could prevent progressive accumulation of lead sulfate (PbSO 4) in negative plates during high-rate partial-state-of-charge (HRPSoC) operation. This phenomenon is caused by progressive growth of PbSO 4 particles and a lack of conductive paths near these PbSO 4 particles. Barium sulfate (BaSO 4) particles in various sizes and synthetic lignin were added to the negative active-material to control PbSO 4 particle size during HRPSoC cycle-life. Some types of carbon fibres were also added to form conductive paths around the PbSO 4 particles. Synthetic lignin was found to be the most effective additive for improving battery life in HRPSoC cycle-life tests, whereas the other factors such as BaSO 4 size or carbon fibre extended less influence. The growth rate of PbSO 4 particles per cycle was much lower in a cell with synthetic lignin than in a cell with natural lignin.

  1. Enhanced performance of starter lighting ignition type lead-acid batteries with carbon nanotubes as an additive to the active mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marom, Rotem; Ziv, Baruch; Banerjee, Anjan; Cahana, Beni; Luski, Shalom; Aurbach, Doron

    2015-11-01

    Addition of various carbon materials into lead-acid battery electrodes was studied and examined in order to enhance the power density, improve cycle life and stability of both negative and positive electrodes in lead acid batteries. High electrical-conductivity, high-aspect ratio, good mechanical properties and chemical stability of multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT, unmodified and mofified with carboxylic groups) position them as viable additives to enhance the electrodes' electrical conductivity, to mitigate the well-known sulfation failure mechanism and improve the physical integration of the electrodes. In this study, we investigated the incorporation-effect of carbon nanotubes (CNT) to the positive and the negative active materials in lead-acid battery prototypes in a configuration of flooded cells, as well as gelled cells. The cells were tested at 25% and 30% depth-of-discharge (DOD). The positive effect of the carbon nanotubes (CNT) utilization as additives to both positive and negative electrodes of lead-acid batteries was clearly demonstrated and is explained herein based on microscopic studies.

  2. Increase in activity of essential oil components carvacrol and thymol against Escherichia coli O157:H7 by addition of food stabilizers.

    PubMed

    Burt, Sara A; Vlielander, René; Haagsman, Henk P; Veldhuizen, Edwin J A

    2005-05-01

    The major components of oregano and thyme essential oils that had previously been shown to inhibit Escherichia coli O157:H7 were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection and liquid chromatographic tandem mass spectrometry. The MICs and MBCs of carvacrol, thymol, p-cymene, and gamma-terpinene against a strain of E. coli O157: H7 phage type 34 isolated from bovine feces were determined by microdilution assay. The constituents were then tested in checkerboard assays to detect possible interactions. Carvacrol and thymol displayed bacteriostatic and bactericidal properties with MICs of 1.2 mmol/liter and were additive in combination. p-Cymene and gamma-terpinene displayed no measurable antibacterial activity up to 50 mmol/liter, and neither influenced the activity of carvacrol or thymol. Growth curves in the presence of nonlethal concentrations of carvacrol with the addition of agar (0.05%, wt/vol) or carrageenan (0.125%, wt/vol) as stabilizer were produced by optical density measurement. The stabilizers agar and carrageenan both significantly improved the effectiveness of carvacrol in broth, possibly because of a delay in the separation of the hydrophobic substrate from the aqueous phase of the medium. When carvacrol was dissolved in ethanol before addition to broth, stabilizers were not needed. Carvacrol and thymol, particularly when used in combination with a stabilizer or in an ethanol solution, may be effective in reducing the number or preventing growth of E. coli O157:H7 in liquid foods. PMID:15895722

  3. Activation of Human Monocytes by Live Borrelia burgdorferi Generates TLR2-Dependent and -Independent Responses Which Include Induction of IFN-β

    PubMed Central

    Salazar, Juan C.; Duhnam-Ems, Star; La Vake, Carson; Cruz, Adriana R.; Moore, Meagan W.; Caimano, Melissa J.; Velez-Climent, Leonor; Shupe, Jonathan; Krueger, Winfried; Radolf, Justin D.

    2009-01-01

    It is widely believed that innate immune responses to Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb) are primarily triggered by the spirochete's outer membrane lipoproteins signaling through cell surface TLR1/2. We recently challenged this notion by demonstrating that phagocytosis of live Bb by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) elicited greater production of proinflammatory cytokines than did equivalent bacterial lysates. Using whole genome microarrays, we show herein that, compared to lysates, live spirochetes elicited a more intense and much broader transcriptional response involving genes associated with diverse cellular processes; among these were IFN-β and a number of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs), which are not known to result from TLR2 signaling. Using isolated monocytes, we demonstrated that cell activation signals elicited by live Bb result from cell surface interactions and uptake and degradation of organisms within phagosomes. As with PBCMs, live Bb induced markedly greater transcription and secretion of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10 and IL-1β in monocytes than did lysates. Secreted IL-18, which, like IL-1β, also requires cleavage by activated caspase-1, was generated only in response to live Bb. Pro-inflammatory cytokine production by TLR2-deficient murine macrophages was only moderately diminished in response to live Bb but was drastically impaired against lysates; TLR2 deficiency had no significant effect on uptake and degradation of spirochetes. As with PBMCs, live Bb was a much more potent inducer of IFN-β and ISGs in isolated monocytes than were lysates or a synthetic TLR2 agonist. Collectively, our results indicate that the enhanced innate immune responses of monocytes following phagocytosis of live Bb have both TLR2-dependent and -independent components and that the latter induce transcription of type I IFNs and ISGs. PMID:19461888

  4. The ethanol extract of Scutellaria baicalensis and the active compounds induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis including upregulation of p53 and Bax in human lung cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Gao Jiayu; Morgan, Winston A.; Sanchez-Medina, Alberto; Corcoran, Olivia

    2011-08-01

    Despite a lack of scientific authentication, Scutellaria baicalensis is clinically used in Chinese medicine as a traditional adjuvant to chemotherapy of lung cancer. In this study, cytotoxicity assays demonstrated that crude ethanolic extracts of S. baicalensis were selectively toxic to human lung cancer cell lines A549, SK-LU-1 and SK-MES-1 compared with normal human lung fibroblasts. The active compounds baicalin, baicalein and wogonin did not exhibit such selectivity. Following exposure to the crude extracts, cellular protein expression in the cancer cell lines was assessed using 2D gel electrophoresis coupled with MALDI-TOF-MS/Protein Fingerprinting. The altered protein expression indicated that cell growth arrest and apoptosis were potential mechanisms of cytotoxicity. These observations were supported by PI staining cell cycle analysis using flow cytometry and Annexin-V apoptotic analysis by fluorescence microscopy of cancer cells treated with the crude extract and pure active compounds. Moreover, specific immunoblotting identification showed the decreased expression of cyclin A results in the S phase arrest of A549 whereas the G{sub 0}/G{sub 1} phase arrest in SK-MES-1 cells results from the decreased expression of cyclin D1. Following treatment, increased expression in the cancer cells of key proteins related to the enhancement of apoptosis was observed for p53 and Bax. These results provide further insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying the clinical use of this herb as an adjuvant to lung cancer therapy. - Research Highlights: > Scutellaria baicalensis is a clinical adjuvant to lung cancer chemotherapy in China. > Scutellaria ethanol extracts selectively toxic to A549, SK-LU-1 and SK-MES-1. > Baicalin, baicalein and wogonin were toxic to all lung cancer cell lines. > Proteomics identified increased p53 and BAX in response to Scutellaria extracts.

  5. Characterization of Novel Paternal ncRNAs at the Plagl1 Locus, Including Hymai, Predicted to Interact with Regulators of Active Chromatin

    PubMed Central

    Cirillo, Davide; Court, Franck; Guillaumet-Adkins, Amy; Camprubi, Cristina; Bourc’his, Deborah; Hata, Kenichiro; Feil, Robert; Tartaglia, Gian; Arnaud, Philippe; Monk, David

    2012-01-01

    Genomic imprinting is a complex epigenetic mechanism of transcriptional control that utilizes DNA methylation and histone modifications to bring about parent-of-origin specific monoallelic expression in mammals. Genes subject to imprinting are often organised in clusters associated with large non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), some of which have cis-regulatory functions. Here we have undertaken a detailed allelic expression analysis of an imprinted domain on mouse proximal chromosome 10 comprising the paternally expressed Plagl1 gene. We identified three novel Plagl1 transcripts, only one of which contains protein-coding exons. In addition, we characterised two unspliced ncRNAs, Hymai, the mouse orthologue of HYMAI, and Plagl1it (Plagl1 intronic transcript), a transcript located in intron 5 of Plagl1. Imprinted expression of these novel ncRNAs requires DNMT3L-mediated maternal DNA methylation, which is also indispensable for establishing the correct chromatin profile at the Plagl1 DMR. Significantly, the two ncRNAs are retained in the nucleus, consistent with a potential regulatory function at the imprinted domain. Analysis with catRAPID, a protein-ncRNA association prediction algorithm, suggests that Hymai and Plagl1it RNAs both have potentially high affinity for Trithorax chromatin regulators. The two ncRNAs could therefore help to protect the paternal allele from DNA methylation by attracting Trithorax proteins that mediate H3 lysine-4 methylation. Submitted GenBank nucleotides sequences: Plagl1it: JN595789 Hymai: JN595790 PMID:22723905

  6. EFFECT OF QUARTZ/MULLITE BLEND CERAMIC ADDITIVE ON IMPROVING RESISTANCE TO ACID OF SODIUM SILICATE-ACTIVATED SLAG CEMENT. CELCIUS BRINE.

    SciTech Connect

    SUGAMA, T.; BROTHERS, L.E.; VAN DE PUTTE, T.R.

    2006-06-01

    We evaluated the usefulness of manufactured quartz/mullite blend (MQMB) ceramic powder in increasing the resistance to acid of sodium silicate-activated slag (SSAS) cementitious material for geothermal wells. A 15-day exposure to 90{sup o} CO{sub 2}-laden H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} revealed that the MQMB had high potential as an acid-resistant additive for SSAS cement. Two factors, the appropriate ratio of slag/MQMB and the autoclave temperature, contributed to better performance of MQMB-modified SSAS cement in abating its acid erosion. The most effective slag/MQMB ratio in minimizing the loss in weight by acid erosion was 70/30 by weight. For autoclave temperature, the loss in weight of 100 C autoclaved cement was a less than 2%, but at 300 C it was even lower. Before exposure to acid, the cement autoclaved at 100 C was essentially amorphous; increasing the temperature to 200 C led to the formation of crystalline analcime in the zeolitic mineral family during reactions between the mullite in MQMB and the Na from sodium silicate. In addition, at 300 C, crystal of calcium silicate hydrate (1) (CSH) was generated in reactions between the quartz in MQMB and the activated slag. These two crystalline phases (CSH and analcime) were responsible for densifying the autoclaved cement, conveying improved compressive strength and minimizing water permeability. The CSH was susceptible to reactions with H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, forming two corrosion products, bassanite and ionized monosilicic acid. However, the uptake of ionized monosilicic acid by Mg dissociated from the activated slag resulted in the formation of lizardite as magnesium silicate hydrate. On the other hand, the analcime was barely susceptible to acid if at all. Thus, the excellent acid resistance of MQMB-modified SSAS cement was due to the combined phases of lizardite and analcime.

  7. Protein interaction module-assisted function X (PIMAX) approach to producing challenging proteins including hyperphosphorylated tau and active CDK5/p25 kinase complex.

    PubMed

    Sui, Dexin; Xu, Xinjing; Ye, Xuemei; Liu, Mengyu; Mianecki, Maxwell; Rattanasinchai, Chotirat; Buehl, Christopher; Deng, Xiexiong; Kuo, Min-Hao

    2015-01-01

    Many biomedically critical proteins are underrepresented in proteomics and biochemical studies because of the difficulty of their production in Escherichia coli. These proteins might possess posttranslational modifications vital to their functions, tend to misfold and be partitioned into bacterial inclusion bodies, or act only in a stoichiometric dimeric complex. Successful production of these proteins requires efficient interaction between these proteins and a specific "facilitator," such as a protein-modifying enzyme, a molecular chaperone, or a natural physical partner within the dimeric complex. Here we report the design and application of a protein interaction module-assisted function X (PIMAX) system that effectively overcomes these hurdles. By fusing two proteins of interest to a pair of well-studied protein-protein interaction modules, we were able to potentiate the association of these two proteins, resulting in successful production of an enzymatically active cyclin-dependent kinase complex and hyperphosphorylated tau protein, which is intimately linked to Alzheimer disease. Furthermore, using tau isoforms quantitatively phosphorylated by GSK-3β and CDK5 kinases via PIMAX, we demonstrated the hyperphosphorylation-stimulated tau oligomerization in vitro, paving the way for new Alzheimer disease drug discoveries. Vectors for PIMAX can be easily modified to meet the needs of different applications. This approach thus provides a convenient and modular suite with broad implications for proteomics and biomedical research. PMID:25385071

  8. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation activity worldwide in 2012 and a SWOT analysis of the Worldwide Network for Blood and Marrow Transplantation Group including the global survey.

    PubMed

    Niederwieser, D; Baldomero, H; Szer, J; Gratwohl, M; Aljurf, M; Atsuta, Y; Bouzas, L F; Confer, D; Greinix, H; Horowitz, M; Iida, M; Lipton, J; Mohty, M; Novitzky, N; Nunez, J; Passweg, J; Pasquini, M C; Kodera, Y; Apperley, J; Seber, A; Gratwohl, A

    2016-06-01

    Data on 68 146 hematopoietic stem cell transplants (HSCTs) (53% autologous and 47% allogeneic) gathered by 1566 teams from 77 countries and reported through their regional transplant organizations were analyzed by main indication, donor type and stem cell source for the year 2012. With transplant rates ranging from 0.1 to 1001 per 10 million inhabitants, more HSCTs were registered from unrelated 16 433 donors than related 15 493 donors. Grafts were collected from peripheral blood (66%), bone marrow (24%; mainly non-malignant disorders) and cord blood (10%). Compared with 2006, an increase of 46% total (57% allogeneic and 38% autologous) was observed. Growth was due to an increase in reporting teams (18%) and median transplant activity/team (from 38 to 48 HSCTs/team). An increase of 167% was noted in mismatched/haploidentical family HSCT. A Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats (SWOT) analysis revealed the global perspective of WBMT to be its major strength and identified potential to be the key professional body for patients and authorities. The limited data collection remains its major weakness and threat. In conclusion, global HSCT grows over the years without plateauing (allogeneic>autologous) and at different rates in the four World Health Organization regions. Major increases were observed in allogeneic, haploidentical HSCT and, to a lesser extent, in cord blood transplantation. PMID:26901703

  9. Building Astronomy Curriculum to Include the Sight Impaired: Week long summer camp activities for Middle School Students adherent to Washington State Curriculum Standards (EALR's)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramien, Natalie; Loebman, S. R.; Player, V.; Larson, A.; Torcolini, N. B.; Traverse, A.

    2011-01-01

    Currently astronomy learning is heavily geared towards visual aids; however, roughly 10 million people in North America are sight impaired. Every student should have access to meaningful astronomy curriculum; an understanding of astronomy is an expectation of national and state science learning requirements. Over the last ten years, Noreen Grice has developed Braille and large print astronomy text books aimed at sight impaired learners. We build upon Grice's written work and present here a five day lesson plan that integrates 2D reading with 3D activities. Through this curriculum, students develop an intuitive understanding of astronomical distance, size, composition and lifetimes. We present five distinct lesson modules that can be taught individually or in a sequential form: the planets, our sun, stars, stellar evolution and galaxies. We have tested these modules on sight impaired students and report the results here. Overall, we find the work presented here lends itself equally well to a week long science camp geared toward middle school sight impaired taught by astronomers or as supplemental material integrated into a regular classroom science curriculum. This work was made possible by a 2007 Simple Effective Education and Dissemination (SEED) Grant For Astronomy Researchers, Astronomical Society of the Pacific through funds provided by the Planck Mission, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology.

  10. Hoxb-2 transcriptional activation in rhombomeres 3 and 5 requires an evolutionarily conserved cis-acting element in addition to the Krox-20 binding site.

    PubMed Central

    Vesque, C; Maconochie, M; Nonchev, S; Ariza-McNaughton, L; Kuroiwa, A; Charnay, P; Krumlauf, R

    1996-01-01

    Segmentation is a key feature of the development of the vertebrate hindbrain where it involves the generation of repetitive morphological units termed rhombomeres (r). Hox genes are likely to play an essential role in the specification of segmental identity and we have been investigating their regulation. We show here that the mouse and chicken Hoxb-2 genes are dependent for their expression in r3 and r5 on homologous enhancer elements and on binding to this enhancer of the r3/r5-specific transcriptional activator Krox-20. Among the three Krox-20 binding sites of the mouse Hoxb-2 enhancer, only the high-affinity site is absolutely necessary for activity. In contrast, we have identified an additional cis-acting element, Box1, essential for r3/r5 enhancer activity. It is conserved both in sequence and in position respective to the high-affinity Krox-20 binding site within the mouse and chicken enhancers. Furthermore, a short 44 bp sequence spanning the Box1 and Krox-20 sites can act as an r3/r5 enhancer when oligomerized. Box1 may therefore constitute a recognition sequence for another factor cooperating with Krox-20. Taken together, these data demonstrate the conservation of Hox gene regulation and of Krox-20 function during vertebrate evolution. Images PMID:8895582

  11. Hypocholesterolaemic Activity of Lupin Peptides: Investigation on the Crosstalk between Human Enterocytes and Hepatocytes Using a Co-Culture System Including Caco-2 and HepG2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lammi, Carmen; Zanoni, Chiara; Ferruzza, Simonetta; Ranaldi, Giulia; Sambuy, Yula; Arnoldi, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Literature indicates that peptic and tryptic peptides derived from the enzymatic hydrolysis of lupin protein are able to modulate cholesterol metabolism in human hepatic HepG2 cells and that part of these peptides are absorbed in a small intestine model based on differentiated human Caco-2 cells. In this paper, a co-culture system, including Caco-2 and HepG2 cells, was investigated with two objectives: (a) to verify whether cholesterol metabolism in HepG2 cells was modified by the peptides absorption through Caco-2 cells; (b) to investigate how lupin peptides influence cholesterol metabolism in Caco-2 cells. The experiments showed that the absorbed peptides, not only maintained their bioactivity on HepG2 cells, but that this activity was improved by the crosstalk of the two cells systems in co-culture. In addition, lupin peptides showed a positive influence on cholesterol metabolism in Caco-2 cells, decreasing the proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) secretion. PMID:27455315

  12. Hypocholesterolaemic Activity of Lupin Peptides: Investigation on the Crosstalk between Human Enterocytes and Hepatocytes Using a Co-Culture System Including Caco-2 and HepG2 Cells.

    PubMed

    Lammi, Carmen; Zanoni, Chiara; Ferruzza, Simonetta; Ranaldi, Giulia; Sambuy, Yula; Arnoldi, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Literature indicates that peptic and tryptic peptides derived from the enzymatic hydrolysis of lupin protein are able to modulate cholesterol metabolism in human hepatic HepG2 cells and that part of these peptides are absorbed in a small intestine model based on differentiated human Caco-2 cells. In this paper, a co-culture system, including Caco-2 and HepG2 cells, was investigated with two objectives: (a) to verify whether cholesterol metabolism in HepG2 cells was modified by the peptides absorption through Caco-2 cells; (b) to investigate how lupin peptides influence cholesterol metabolism in Caco-2 cells. The experiments showed that the absorbed peptides, not only maintained their bioactivity on HepG2 cells, but that this activity was improved by the crosstalk of the two cells systems in co-culture. In addition, lupin peptides showed a positive influence on cholesterol metabolism in Caco-2 cells, decreasing the proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) secretion. PMID:27455315

  13. CD161++CD8+ T cells, including the MAIT cell subset, are specifically activated by IL-12+IL-18 in a TCR-independent manner

    PubMed Central

    Ussher, James E; Bilton, Matthew; Attwod, Emma; Shadwell, Jonathan; Richardson, Rachel; de Lara, Catherine; Mettke, Elisabeth; Kurioka, Ayako; Hansen, Ted H; Klenerman, Paul; Willberg, Christian B

    2014-01-01

    CD161++CD8+ T cells represent a novel subset that is dominated in adult peripheral blood by mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells, as defined by the expression of a variable-α chain 7.2 (Vα7.2)-Jα33 TCR, and IL-18Rα. Stimulation with IL-18+IL-12 is known to induce IFN-γ by both NK cells and, to a more limited extent, T cells. Here, we show the CD161++ CD8+ T-cell population is the primary T-cell population triggered by this mechanism. Both CD161++Vα7.2+ and CD161++Vα7.2− T-cell subsets responded to IL-12+IL-18 stimulation, demonstrating this response was not restricted to the MAIT cells, but to the CD161++ phenotype. Bacteria and TLR agonists also indirectly triggered IFN-γ expression via IL-12 and IL-18. These data show that CD161++ T cells are the predominant T-cell population that responds directly to IL-12+IL-18 stimulation. Furthermore, our findings broaden the potential role of MAIT cells beyond bacterial responsiveness to potentially include viral infections and other inflammatory stimuli. PMID:24019201

  14. Evolution of the CD4 family: teleost fish possess two divergent forms of CD4 in addition to lymphocyte activation gene-3

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Laing, K.J.; Zou, J.J.; Purcell, M.K.; Phillips, R.; Secombes, C.J.; Hansen, J.D.

    2006-01-01

    The T cell coreceptor CD4 is a transmembrane glycoprotein belonging to the Ig superfamily and is essential for cell-mediated immunity. Two different genes were identified in rainbow trout that resemble mammalian CD4. One (trout CD4) encodes four extracellular Ig domains reminiscent off mammalian CD4, whereas the other (CD4REL) codes for two Ig domains. Structural motifs within the amino acid sequences suggest that the two Ig domains of CD4REL duplicated to generate the four-domain molecule of CD4 and the related gene, lymphocyte activation gene-3. Here we present evidence that both of these molecules in trout are homologous to mammalian CD4 and that teleosts encode an additional CD4 family member, lymphocyte activation gene-3, which is a marker for activated T cells. The syntenic relationships of similar genes in other teleost and non-fish genomes provide evidence for the likely evolution of CD4-related molecules in vertebrates, with CD4REL likely representing the primordial form in fish. Expression of both CD4 genes is highest in the thymus and spleen, and mRNA expression of these genes is limited to surface IgM- lymphocytes, consistent with a role for T cell functionality. Finally, the intracellular regions of both CD4 and CD4REL possess the canonical CXC motif involved in the interaction off CD4 with p56LCK, implying that similar mechanisms for CD4 + T cell activation are present in all vertebrates. Our results therefore raise new questions about T cell development and functionality in lower vertebrates that cannot be answered by current mammalian models and, thus, is of fundamental importance for understanding the evolution of cell-mediated immunity in gnathosomes. Copyright ?? 2006 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  15. Shaping frequency response of a vibrating plate for passive and active control applications by simultaneous optimization of arrangement of additional masses and ribs. Part II: Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wrona, Stanislaw; Pawelczyk, Marek

    2016-03-01

    It was shown in Part I that an ability to shape frequency response of a vibrating plate according to precisely defined demands has a very high practical potential. It can be used to improve acoustic radiation of the plate for required frequencies or enhance acoustic isolation of noise barriers and device casings. It can be used for both passive and active control. The proposed method is based on mounting several additional ribs and masses (passive and/or active) to the plate surface at locations followed from an optimisation process. In Part I a relevant model of such structure, as a function of arrangement of the additional elements was derived and validated. The model allows calculating natural frequencies and mode-shapes of the whole structure. The aim of this companion paper, Part II, is to present the second stage of the method. This is an optimization process that results in arrangement of the elements guaranteeing desired plate frequency response, and enhancement of controllability and observability measures. For that purpose appropriate cost functions, and constraints followed from technological feasibility are defined. Then, a memetic algorithm is employed to obtain a numerical solution with parameters of the arrangement. The optimization results are initially presented for simple cases to validate the method. Then, more complex scenarios are analysed with very special demands concerning the frequency response to present the full potential of the method. Subsequently, a laboratory experiment is presented and discussed. Finally, other areas of applications of the proposed method are shown and conclusions for future research are drawn.

  16. Comparing bottom-up and top-down approaches at the landscape scale, including agricultural activities and water systems, at the Roskilde Fjord, Denmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lequy, Emeline; Ibrom, Andreas; Ambus, Per; Massad, Raia-Silvia; Markager, Stiig; Asmala, Eero; Garnier, Josette; Gabrielle, Benoit; Loubet, Benjamin

    2015-04-01

    The greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O) mainly originates in direct emissions from agricultural soils due to microbial reactions stimulated by the use of nitrogen fertilisers. Indirect N2O emissions from water systems due to nitrogen leaching and deposition from crop fields range between 26 and 37% of direct agricultural emissions, indicating their potential importance and uncertainty (Reay et al. 2012). The study presented here couples a top-down approach with eddy covariance (EC) and a bottom-up approach using different models and measurements. A QCL sensor at 96-m height on a tall tower measures the emissions of N2O from 1100 ha of crop fields and from the south part of the Roskilde fjord, in a 5-km radius area around the tall tower at Roskilde, Denmark. The bottom-up approach includes ecosystem modelling with CERES-EGC for the crops and PaSIM for the grasslands, and the N2O fluxes from the Roskilde fjord are derived from N2O sea water concentration measurements. EC measurements are now available from July to December 2014, and indicate a magnitude of the emissions from the crop fields around 0.2 mg N2O-N m-2 day-1 (range -9 to 5) which is consistent with the CERES-EGC simulations and calculations using IPCC emission factors. N2O fluxes from the Roskilde fjord in May and July indicated quite constant N2O concentrations around 0.1 µg N L-1 despite variations of nitrate and ammonium in the fjord. The calculated fluxes from these concentrations and the tall tower measurements consistently ranged between -7 and 6 mg N2O-N m-2 day-1. The study site also contains a waste water treatment plant, whose direct emissions will be measured in early 2015 using a dynamic plume tracer dispersion method (Mønster et al. 2014). A refined source attribution methodology together with more measurements and simulations of the N2O fluxes from the different land uses in this study site will provide a clearer view of the dynamics and budgets of N2O at the regional scale. The

  17. Additive usage levels.

    PubMed

    Langlais, R

    1996-01-01

    With the adoption of the European Parliament and Council Directives on sweeteners, colours and miscellaneous additives the Commission is now embarking on the project of coordinating the activities of the European Union Member States in the collection of the data that are to make up the report on food additive intake requested by the European Parliament. This presentation looks at the inventory of available sources on additive use levels and concludes that for the time being national legislation is still the best source of information considering that the directives have yet to be transposed into national legislation. Furthermore, this presentation covers the correlation of the food categories as found in the additives directives with those used by national consumption surveys and finds that in a number of instances this correlation still leaves a lot to be desired. The intake of additives via food ingestion and the intake of substances which are chemically identical to additives but which occur naturally in fruits and vegetables is found in a number of cases to be higher than the intake of additives added during the manufacture of foodstuffs. While the difficulties are recognized in contributing to the compilation of food additive intake data, industry as a whole, i.e. the food manufacturing and food additive manufacturing industries, are confident that in a concerted effort, use data on food additives by industry can be made available. Lastly, the paper points out that with the transportation of the additives directives into national legislation and the time by which the food industry will be able to make use of the new food legislative environment several years will still go by; food additives use data by the food industry will thus have to be reviewed at the beginning of the next century. PMID:8792135

  18. Markedly additive antitumor activity with the combination of a selective survivin suppressant YM155 and alemtuzumab in adult T-cell leukemia.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing; Pise-Masison, Cynthia A; Shih, Joanna H; Morris, John C; Janik, John E; Conlon, Kevin C; Keating, Anne; Waldmann, Thomas A

    2013-03-14

    Adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) is an aggressive malignancy of CD4(+)CD25(+) lymphocytes caused by human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1. Currently, there is no accepted curative therapy for ATL. In gene expression profiling, the antiapoptotic protein survivin (BIRC5) demonstrated a striking increase in ATL, and its expression was increased in patient ATL cells resistant to the anti-CD52 monoclonal antibody alemtuzumab (Campath-1H). In this study, we investigated the antitumor activity of a small-molecule survivin suppressant YM155 alone and in combination with alemtuzumab in a murine model of human ATL (MET-1). Both YM155 alone and its combination with alemtuzumab demonstrated therapeutic efficacy by lowering serum soluble IL-2Rα (sIL-2Rα) levels (P < .001) and prolonged the survival of tumor-bearing mice (P < .0001). Moreover, the combination of YM155 with alemtuzumab demonstrated markedly additive antitumor activity by significantly lowering serum sIL-2Rα levels and improving the survival of leukemia-bearing mice compared with monotherapy with either YM155 (P < .001) or alemtuzumab (P < .05). More significantly, all mice that received the combination therapy survived and were tumor free >6 months after treatment. Our data support a clinical trial of the combination of YM155 with alemtuzumab in ATL. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00061048. PMID:23321252

  19. Markedly additive antitumor activity with the combination of a selective survivin suppressant YM155 and alemtuzumab in adult T-cell leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jing; Pise-Masison, Cynthia A.; Shih, Joanna H.; Morris, John C.; Janik, John E.; Conlon, Kevin C.; Keating, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) is an aggressive malignancy of CD4+CD25+ lymphocytes caused by human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1. Currently, there is no accepted curative therapy for ATL. In gene expression profiling, the antiapoptotic protein survivin (BIRC5) demonstrated a striking increase in ATL, and its expression was increased in patient ATL cells resistant to the anti-CD52 monoclonal antibody alemtuzumab (Campath-1H). In this study, we investigated the antitumor activity of a small-molecule survivin suppressant YM155 alone and in combination with alemtuzumab in a murine model of human ATL (MET-1). Both YM155 alone and its combination with alemtuzumab demonstrated therapeutic efficacy by lowering serum soluble IL-2Rα (sIL-2Rα) levels (P < .001) and prolonged the survival of tumor-bearing mice (P < .0001). Moreover, the combination of YM155 with alemtuzumab demonstrated markedly additive antitumor activity by significantly lowering serum sIL-2Rα levels and improving the survival of leukemia-bearing mice compared with monotherapy with either YM155 (P < .001) or alemtuzumab (P < .05). More significantly, all mice that received the combination therapy survived and were tumor free >6 months after treatment. Our data support a clinical trial of the combination of YM155 with alemtuzumab in ATL. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00061048. PMID:23321252

  20. Pump apparatus including deconsolidator

    DOEpatents

    Sonwane, Chandrashekhar; Saunders, Timothy; Fitzsimmons, Mark Andrew

    2014-10-07

    A pump apparatus includes a particulate pump that defines a passage that extends from an inlet to an outlet. A duct is in flow communication with the outlet. The duct includes a deconsolidator configured to fragment particle agglomerates received from the passage.

  1. Eating and drinking activity of newly weaned piglets: effects of individual characteristics, social mixing, and addition of extra zinc to the feed.

    PubMed

    Dybkjaer, L; Jacobsen, A P; Tøgersen, F A; Poulsen, H D

    2006-03-01

    In production systems, piglets usually fast for a period after weaning, thereby increasing the risk of diarrhea and a reduction in growth. The low level of eating may relate to insufficient drinking activity, as solid feed intake must be accompanied by water intake. Mixing of newly weaned piglets is a well-known stressor and a common procedure in pig production. The effect of mixing on the temporal development of eating and drinking activity in newly weaned piglets has not been elucidated. High concentrations of zinc (Zn) in the feed improve the health and performance of piglets after weaning, but the underlying mechanisms are still obscure. One possibility is that Zn affects eating and drinking behavior. The effects of mixing 4 littermates from each of 2 litters and adding zinc oxide (ZnO; 2,500 ppm of Zn) to the feed were studied in a 2 x 2 factorial experiment using 123 piglets weaned at 27 d of age. Individual eating and drinking times during the initial 48 h after weaning were analyzed on 2 levels of aggregation, day and hour. The piglets spent less time eating on the first day after weaning compared with the second day (20 +/- 5 vs. 98 +/- 10 min, respectively; P < 0.001), whereas they spent more time drinking on the first day compared with the second day (13 +/- 1 vs. 9 +/- 0.5 min, respectively; P < 0.001). Eating and drinking times were positively associated (P < 0.001). Females ate for longer than males (61 +/- 8 vs. 44 +/- 7 min/24 h, respectively, P = 0.002), whereas sex did not affect drinking time. Drinking time increased (P = 0.003) and eating time decreased (P = 0.001) with increasing preweaning growth rate and weaning weight. Neither mixing nor addition of ZnO affected the daily eating time. However, nonmixed piglets given 2,500 ppm of Zn as ZnO in the feed spent more time drinking per day (12 +/- 1 min) than did nonmixed piglets offered 100 ppm of Zn as ZnO (10 +/- 1 min; P = 0.002). Mixing also affected the hourly distribution of the drinking

  2. Addition of niclosamide to palladium(II) saccharinate complex of terpyridine results in enhanced cytotoxic activity inducing apoptosis on cancer stem cells of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Karakas, Didem; Cevatemre, Buse; Aztopal, Nazlihan; Ari, Ferda; Yilmaz, Veysel Turan; Ulukaya, Engin

    2015-09-01

    Wnt signaling is one of the core signaling pathways of cancer stem cells (CSCs). It is re-activated in CSCs and plays essential role in the survival, self-renewal and proliferation of these cells. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the cytotoxic effects of palladium(II) complex which is formulated as [PdCl(terpy)](sac)2H2O and its combination with niclosamide which is an inhibitor of Wnt signaling pathway associated with breast cancer stem cells. Characteristic cell surface markers (CD44(+)/CD24(-)) were determined by flow cytometry in CSCs. ATP viability assay was used to determine the cytotoxic activity. The mode of cell death was evaluated morphologically using fluorescence microscopy and biochemically using M30 ELISA assay as well as performing qPCR. Our study demonstrated that the combination of niclosamide (1.5 μM) and Pd(II) complex (12.5, 25 and 50 μM) at 48 h has enhanced cytotoxic activity resulted from the induction of apoptosis (indicated by the presence of pyknotic nuclei, increments in M30 and over expression of proapoptotic genes of TNFRSF10A and FAS). Importantly, the addition of niclosamide resulted in the suppression of autophagy (proved by the decrease in ATG5 gene levels) that might have contributed to the enhanced cytotoxicity. In conclusion, the application of this combination may be regarded as a novel and effective approach for the treatment of breast cancer due to its promising cytotoxic effect on cancer stem cells that cause recurrence of the disease. PMID:26234907

  3. The Association of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor δ and Additional Gene-Gene Interaction with C-Reactive Protein in Chinese Population

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Xiao-Ying; Yuan, Hao-Zheng; Gu, Ru; Gao, Yan-Feng; Liu, Xiao-Gang; Gao, Ya

    2016-01-01

    Aims. To examine the association between 4 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors δ (PPARδ) polymorphisms and C-reactive protein (CRP) level and additional gene-gene interaction. Methods. Line regression analysis was performed to verify polymorphism association between SNP and CRP levels. Generalized multifactor dimensionality reduction (GMDR) was employed to analyze the interaction. Results. A total of 1028 subjects (538 men, 490 women) were selected. The carriers of the C allele (TC or CC) of rs2016520 were associated with a significant decreased level of CRP, regression coefficients was −0.338, and standard error was 0.104 (p = 0.001). The carriers of the G allele (CG or GG) of rs9794 were also significantly associated with decreased level of CRP, regression coefficients was −0.219, and standard error was 0.114 (p = 0.012). We also found a potential gene-gene interaction between rs2016520 and rs9794. Subjects with rs2016520-TC or CC, rs9794-CG or GG genotypes have lowest CRP level, difference (95% CI) = −0.50 (−0.69 to −0.21) (p < 0.001), compared to subjects with rs2016520-TT and rs9794-CC genotypes. Conclusions. rs2016520 and rs9794 minor allele of PPARδ and combined effect between the two SNP were associated with decreased CRP level. PMID:26884762

  4. [Hospital pharmacist has a rule for best practice use and French hospital activity tariffs. Example of a pharmaceutical quality control for drugs reimbursed in addition of DRGs].

    PubMed

    Hedoux, S; Dode, X; Pivot, C; Couray-Targe, S; Aulagner, G

    2012-07-01

    The best practice contract has given a new objective to the hospital pharmacists for the reimbursement in addition to Diagnosis Related Groups' (DRGs) tariffs. We built our pharmaceutical quality control for the administration traceability follow-up regarding the DRGs and the cost of care, for two reasons: the nominal drugs dispensation in link with the prescription made by pharmacist and the important expenditure of these drugs. Our organization depends on the development level of the informatized drugs circuit and minimizes the risk of financial shortfalls or wrong benefits, possible causes of economic penalties for our hospital. On the basis of this follow-up, we highlighted our activity and identified problems of management and drugs circuit organization. The quality of the administration traceability impacts directly on the quality of the medical records and the reimbursements of the expensive drugs. A better knowledge of prescription software is also required for a better quality and security of the medical data used in the medical informatic systems. The drugs management and the personal treatment in and between the care units need to be improved too. We have to continue and improve our organization with the future financial model for ATU drugs and the FIDES project. The health personnel awareness and the development of best informatic tools are also required. PMID:22818260

  5. Light, Including Ultraviolet

    PubMed Central

    Maverakis, Emanual; Miyamura, Yoshinori; Bowen, Michael P.; Correa, Genevieve; Ono, Yoko; Goodarzi, Heidi

    2009-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) light is intricately linked to the functional status of the cutaneous immune system. In susceptible individuals, UV radiation can ignite pathogenic inflammatory pathways leading to allergy or autoimmunity. In others, this same UV radiation can be used as a phototherapy to suppress pathogenic cutaneous immune responses. These vastly different properties are a direct result of UV light’s ability to ionize molecules in the skin and thereby chemically alter them. Sometimes these UV-induced chemical reactions are essential, the formation of pre-vitamin D3 from 7-dehydrocholesterol, for example. In other instances they can be potentially detrimental. UV radiation can ionize a cell’s DNA causing adjacent pyrimidine bases to chemically bond to each other. To prevent malignant transformation, a cell may respond to this UV-induced DNA damage by undergoing apoptosis. Although this pathway prevents skin cancer it also has the potential of inducing or exacerbating autoreactive immune responses by exposing the cell’s nuclear antigens. Ultaviolet-induced chemical reactions can activate the immune system by a variety of other mechanisms as well. In response to UV irradiation keratinocytes secrete cytokines and chemokines, which activate and recruit leukocytes to the skin. In some individuals UV-induced chemical reactions can synthesize novel antigens resulting in a photoallergy. Alternatively, photosensitizing molecules can damage cells by initiating sunburn-like phototoxic reactions. Herein we review all types of UV-induced skin reactions, especially those involving the immune system. PMID:20018479

  6. Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clearing: Nature and Learning in the Pacific Northwest, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Presents three activities: (1) investigating succession in a schoolground; (2) investigating oak galls; and (3) making sun prints (photographs made without camera or darkroom). Each activity includes a list of materials needed and procedures used. (JN)

  7. Suppression of activation energy and superconductivity by the addition of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles in CuTl-1223 matrix

    SciTech Connect

    Jabbar, Abdul; Qasim, Irfan; Mumtaz, M.; Zubair, M.; Nadeem, K.; Khurram, A. A.

    2014-05-28

    Low anisotropic (Cu{sub 0.5}Tl{sub 0.5})Ba{sub 2}Ca{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 10−δ} (CuTl-1223) high T{sub c} superconducting matrix was synthesized by solid-state reaction and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles were prepared separately by co-precipitation method. Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles were added with different concentrations during the final sintering cycle of CuTl-1223 superconducting matrix to get the required (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}){sub y}/CuTl-1223, y = 0.0, 0.5, 0.7, 1.0, and 1.5 wt. %, composites. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray, and dc-resistivity (ρ) measurements. The activation energy and superconductivity were suppressed with increasing concentration of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles in (CuTl-1223) matrix. The XRD analysis showed that the addition of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles did not affect the crystal structure of the parent CuTl-1223 superconducting phase. The suppression of activation energy and superconducting properties is most probably due to weak flux pinning in the samples. The possible reason of weak flux pinning is reduction of weak links and enhanced inter-grain coupling due to the presence of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles at the grain boundaries. The presence of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles at the grain boundaries possibly reduced the number of flux pinning centers, which were present in the form of weak links in the pure CuTl-1223 superconducting matrix. The increase in the values of inter-grain coupling (α) deduced from the fluctuation induced conductivity analysis with the increased concentration of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles is a theoretical evidence of improved inter-grain coupling.

  8. Should family planning include STD services?

    PubMed

    Finger, W R

    1994-05-01

    Recent reviews suggest that the addition of programs aimed at preventing and controlling sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), specifically human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), to existing family planning programs does not necessarily dilute overall program effectiveness. In Colombia, Mexico, and Jamaica, where condom distribution and/or information to prevent HIV transmission was integrated into the activities of family planning field workers, no negative effect on the image of condoms as a pregnancy prevention method was observed and there was a great demand on the part of family planning clients for information about acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). In Brazil, family planning staff are receiving training in HIV risk assessment and the counseling of women in partner negotiation skills. However, steps must be taken to reach men since it is their high-risk behavior that puts most women at risk of HIV. Both separate STD clinics for men and condom social marketing projects have yielded promising results. Obstacles to the addition of STD services to family planning programs include the need to treat male partners as well as female clients, a shortage of diagnostic tools and antibiotics for treatment, and the fact that the majority of women with STDs are asymptomatic. Indicative of the increased attention being given this approach, however, is the recent release of guidelines by the US Agency for International Development Office of Population on how family planning programs should approach integration. Suggested activities include condom promotion, behavior change, counseling, information, contraceptive development, and selected efforts at STD treatment. PMID:12287744

  9. Determinant for β-subunit regulation in high-conductance voltage-activated and Ca2+-sensitive K+ channels: An additional transmembrane region at the N terminus

    PubMed Central

    Wallner, Martin; Meera, Pratap; Toro, Ligia

    1996-01-01

    The pore-forming α subunit of large conductance voltage- and Ca2+-sensitive K (MaxiK) channels is regulated by a β subunit that has two membrane-spanning regions separated by an extracellular loop. To investigate the structural determinants in the pore-forming α subunit necessary for β-subunit modulation, we made chimeric constructs between a human MaxiK channel and the Drosophila homologue, which we show is insensitive to β-subunit modulation, and analyzed the topology of the α subunit. A comparison of multiple sequence alignments with hydrophobicity plots revealed that MaxiK channel α subunits have a unique hydrophobic segment (S0) at the N terminus. This segment is in addition to the six putative transmembrane segments (S1–S6) usually found in voltage-dependent ion channels. The transmembrane nature of this unique S0 region was demonstrated by in vitro translation experiments. Moreover, normal functional expression of signal sequence fusions and in vitro N-linked glycosylation experiments indicate that S0 leads to an exoplasmic N terminus. Therefore, we propose a new model where MaxiK channels have a seventh transmembrane segment at the N terminus (S0). Chimeric exchange of 41 N-terminal amino acids, including S0, from the human MaxiK channel to the Drosophila homologue transfers β-subunit regulation to the otherwise unresponsive Drosophila channel. Both the unique S0 region and the exoplasmic N terminus are necessary for this gain of function. PMID:8962157

  10. Determinant for beta-subunit regulation in high-conductance voltage-activated and Ca(2+)-sensitive K+ channels: an additional transmembrane region at the N terminus.

    PubMed

    Wallner, M; Meera, P; Toro, L

    1996-12-10

    The pore-forming alpha subunit of large conductance voltage- and Ca(2+)-sensitive K (MaxiK) channels is regulated by a beta subunit that has two membrane-spanning regions separated by an extracellular loop. To investigate the structural determinants in the pore-forming alpha subunit necessary for beta-subunit modulation, we made chimeric constructs between a human MaxiK channel and the Drosophila homologue, which we show is insensitive to beta-subunit modulation, and analyzed the topology of the alpha subunit. A comparison of multiple sequence alignments with hydrophobicity plots revealed that MaxiK channel alpha subunits have a unique hydrophobic segment (S0) at the N terminus. This segment is in addition to the six putative transmembrane segments (S1-S6) usually found in voltage-dependent ion channels. The transmembrane nature of this unique S0 region was demonstrated by in vitro translation experiments. Moreover, normal functional expression of signal sequence fusions and in vitro N-linked glycosylation experiments indicate that S0 leads to an exoplasmic N terminus. Therefore, we propose a new model where MaxiK channels have a seventh transmembrane segment at the N terminus (S0). Chimeric exchange of 41 N-terminal amino acids, including S0, from the human MaxiK channel to the Drosophila homologue transfers beta-subunit regulation to the otherwise unresponsive Drosophila channel. Both the unique S0 region and the exoplasmic N terminus are necessary for this gain of function. PMID:8962157

  11. Go! Including Movement during Routines and Transitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orlowski, Marietta A.; Hart, Aaron

    2010-01-01

    Good schools for children ages 5 to 8 provide multiple opportunities for physical activity throughout the school day. Ideally, physical education, recess, extracurricular activities, and classroom activities together help ensure that children meet the recommended 60 minutes a day of structured activity and 60 of unstructured. Additionally, brief…

  12. Sewage sludge additive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalvinskas, J. J.; Mueller, W. A.; Ingham, J. D. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    The additive is for a raw sewage treatment process of the type where settling tanks are used for the purpose of permitting the suspended matter in the raw sewage to be settled as well as to permit adsorption of the dissolved contaminants in the water of the sewage. The sludge, which settles down to the bottom of the settling tank is extracted, pyrolyzed and activated to form activated carbon and ash which is mixed with the sewage prior to its introduction into the settling tank. The sludge does not provide all of the activated carbon and ash required for adequate treatment of the raw sewage. It is necessary to add carbon to the process and instead of expensive commercial carbon, coal is used to provide the carbon supplement.

  13. Generalizing the Concept of Specific Compound Formulation Additives towards Non-Fluorescent Drugs: A Solubilization Study on Potential Anti-Alzheimer-Active Small-Molecule Compounds.

    PubMed

    Lawatscheck, Carmen; Pickhardt, Marcus; Wieczorek, Sebastian; Grafmüller, Andrea; Mandelkow, Eckhard; Börner, Hans G

    2016-07-18

    Tailor-made compound formulation additives enable the testing of potential drugs with undesirable pharmacological profiles. A combinatorial approach using Raman microscopy as the readout method is presented to select peptide sequences from large one-bead-one-compound libraries. The resulting peptide-PEG conjugates solubilize potential prophylactic and therapeutic anti-Alzheimer compounds and can be used as specific additives not only for fluorescent but also for non-fluorescent compounds. PMID:27282127

  14. A Meta-Analytic Review of the Theories of Reasoned Action and Planned Behavior in Physical Activity: Predictive Validity and the Contribution of Additional Variables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagger, Martin S.; Chatzisarantis, Nikos L. D.; Biddle, Stuart J. H.

    2002-01-01

    Examined relations between behavior, intentions, attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, self-efficacy, and past behaviors using the Theories of Reasoned Action (TRA) and Planned Behavior (TPB) in physical activity. This quantitative integration of the physical activity literature supported the major relationships of the…

  15. The type 1 human immunodeficiency virus Tat binding protein is a transcriptional activator belonging to an additional family of evolutionarily conserved genes.

    PubMed Central

    Ohana, B; Moore, P A; Ruben, S M; Southgate, C D; Green, M R; Rosen, C A

    1993-01-01

    The type 1 human immunodeficiency virus Tat protein is a powerful transcriptional activator when bound to an RNA structure (TAR) present at the extreme 5' terminus of viral mRNA. Since transcriptional activation requires binding of Tat to RNA, it has been suggested that Tat enhances initiation or elongation through a direct interaction with cellular transcription factors. Here we show through protein fusion experiments that the previously identified cellular Tat binding protein, TBP-1, although unable to bind DNA, is a strong transcriptional activator when brought into proximity of several promoter elements. Transcriptional activity depends upon the integrity of at least two highly conserved domains: one resembling a nucleotide-binding motif and the other motif common to proteins with helicase activity. Our studies further reveal that TBP-1 represents one member of a large, highly conserved gene family that encodes proteins demonstrating strong amino acid conservation across species. Finally, we identified a second family member that, although 77% similar to TBP-1, does not activate transcription from the promoters examined. This finding, together with the observation that TBP-1 does not activate each promoter examined, suggests that this gene family may encode promoter-specific transcriptional activators. Images PMID:8419915

  16. 34 CFR 403.71 - In what additional ways may funds be used under the State Programs and State Leadership Activities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... agencies; (b) The support for tech-prep education as described in 34 CFR part 406; (c)(1) The support of... State Programs and State Leadership Activities? 403.71 Section 403.71 Education Regulations of the... Secretary Assist Under the Basic Programs? State Programs and State Leadership Activities § 403.71 In...

  17. 34 CFR 403.71 - In what additional ways may funds be used under the State Programs and State Leadership Activities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... agencies; (b) The support for tech-prep education as described in 34 CFR part 406; (c)(1) The support of... State Programs and State Leadership Activities? 403.71 Section 403.71 Education Regulations of the... Secretary Assist Under the Basic Programs? State Programs and State Leadership Activities § 403.71 In...

  18. Multi-targeted neuroprotection by the HSV-2 gene ICP10PK includes robust bystander activity through PI3-K/Akt and/or MEK/ERK-dependent neuronal release of vascular endothelial growth factor and fractalkine

    PubMed Central

    Laing, Jennifer M.; Smith, Cynthia C.; Aurelian, Laure

    2013-01-01

    Hippocampal cultures infected with the ΔRR vector for the HSV-2 anti-apoptotic gene ICP10PK survive cell death triggered by a wide variety of insults. Survival includes robust protection of uninfected neurons, but the mechanism of this bystander activity is still unclear. Here we report that ICP10PK+ neurons release soluble factors that protect uninfected neurons from NMDA and MPP+-induced apoptosis. Release depends on ICP10PK-mediated activation of the Ras signaling pathways MEK/ERK and PI3-K/Akt, and it was not seen for cultures infected with the ICP10PK negative vector ΔPK. The released neuroprotective factors include vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and fractalkine, the levels of which were significantly higher in conditioned media from hippocampal cultures infected with ΔRR (NCMΔRR) than ΔPK or phosphate-buffered saline (mock infection). VEGF neutralization inhibited the neuroprotective activity of NCMΔRR, indicating that the VEGF protective function is through neuron-neuron cross-talk. NCMΔRR also stimulated microglia to release increased levels of IL-10 and decreased levels of TNF-α that were protective for uninfected neurons. These release patterns were not seen for microglia given NCMΔRR in which fractalkine was neutralized, indicating that the fractalkine protective function is through bidirectional neuron-microglia communication. Collectively, the data indicate that ΔRR is a multiple target strategy to rescue neurons from excitotoxic injury. PMID:19891735

  19. The level of intracellular glutathione is a key regulator for the induction of stress-activated signal transduction pathways including Jun N-terminal protein kinases and p38 kinase by alkylating agents.

    PubMed Central

    Wilhelm, D; Bender, K; Knebel, A; Angel, P

    1997-01-01

    Monofunctional alkylating agents like methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) and N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) are potent inducers of cellular stress leading to chromosomal aberrations, point mutations, and cell killing. We show that these agents induce a specific cellular stress response program which includes the activation of Jun N-terminal kinases/stress-activated protein kinases (JNK/SAPKs), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, and the upstream kinase SEK1/MKK4 and which depends on the reaction mechanism of the alkylating agent in question. Similar to another inducer of cellular stress, UV irradiation, damage of nuclear DNA by alkylation is not involved in the MMS-induced response. However, in contrast to UV and other inducers of the JNK/SAPKs and p38 pathways, activation of growth factor and G-protein-coupled receptors does not play a role in the MMS response. We identified the intracellular glutathione (GSH) level as critical for JNK/SAPK activation by MMS: enhancing the GSH level by pretreatment of the cells with GSH or N-acetylcysteine inhibits, whereas depletion of the cellular GSH pool causes hyperinduction of JNK/SAPK activity by MMS. In light of the JNK/SAPK-dependent induction of c-jun and c-fos transcription, and the Jun/Fos-induced transcription of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes, these data provide a potential critical role of JNK/SAPK and p38 in the induction of a cellular defense program against cytotoxic xenobiotics such as MMS. PMID:9234735

  20. Enhancer additivity and non-additivity are determined by enhancer strength in the Drosophila embryo

    PubMed Central

    Bothma, Jacques P; Garcia, Hernan G; Ng, Samuel; Perry, Michael W; Gregor, Thomas; Levine, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Metazoan genes are embedded in a rich milieu of regulatory information that often includes multiple enhancers possessing overlapping activities. In this study, we employ quantitative live imaging methods to assess the function of pairs of primary and shadow enhancers in the regulation of key patterning genes-knirps, hunchback, and snail-in developing Drosophila embryos. The knirps enhancers exhibit additive, sometimes even super-additive activities, consistent with classical gene fusion studies. In contrast, the hunchback enhancers function sub-additively in anterior regions containing saturating levels of the Bicoid activator, but function additively in regions where there are diminishing levels of the Bicoid gradient. Strikingly sub-additive behavior is also observed for snail, whereby removal of the proximal enhancer causes a significant increase in gene expression. Quantitative modeling of enhancer–promoter interactions suggests that weakly active enhancers function additively while strong enhancers behave sub-additively due to competition with the target promoter. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.07956.001 PMID:26267217

  1. Update of the BIPM comparison BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Sr-85 of activity measurements of the radionuclide 85Sr to include the 2009 result of the POLATOM (Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michotte, C.; Ratel, G.; Courte, S.; Dziel, T.; Listkowska, A.

    2015-01-01

    Since 1975, ten laboratories have submitted 27 samples of known activity of 85Sr to the International Reference System (SIR) for activity comparison at the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM), with comparison identifier BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Sr-85. The values of the activity submitted were between about 0.2 MBq and 19 MBq. The key comparison reference value (KCRV) has been recalculated to include the primary standardization result for the POLATOM, Poland. There are now four results in the BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Sr-85 comparison. The degrees of equivalence between each equivalent activity measured in the SIR and the updated KCRV have been calculated and the results are given in the form of a table. A graphical presentation is also given. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCRI, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  2. Perspectives on Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourell, David L.

    2016-07-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has skyrocketed in visibility commercially and in the public sector. This article describes the development of this field from early layered manufacturing approaches of photosculpture, topography, and material deposition. Certain precursors to modern AM processes are also briefly described. The growth of the field over the last 30 years is presented. Included is the standard delineation of AM technologies into seven broad categories. The economics of AM part generation is considered, and the impacts of the economics on application sectors are described. On the basis of current trends, the future outlook will include a convergence of AM fabricators, mass-produced AM fabricators, enabling of topology optimization designs, and specialization in the AM legal arena. Long-term developments with huge impact are organ printing and volume-based printing.

  3. Non starch polysaccharide hydrolyzing enzymes as feed additives: detection of enzyme activities and problems encountered with quantitative determination in complex samples.

    PubMed

    Vahjen, W; Gläser, K; Froeck, M; Simon, O

    1997-01-01

    Chromogenic substrates, an agar diffusion assay and viscosity reduction were used to estimate beta-glucanase and xylanase activities in water soluble extracts of different feedstuffs and digesta supernatants. The dinitrosalicylic acid reducing sugar method was employed to calibrate results from different methods based on international units (IU, glucose equivalents). The detection of dye release from chromogenic substrates was a suitable method, allowing the detection of 0.05 IU of enzyme activity per ml of extract, although measurements in digesta supernatants were limited in linearity (0.1-0.5 IU/ml supernatant). With the agar diffusion assay the detection of enzyme activity was possible over a wider concentration range (extracts: 0.05-1 IU/ml, digesta supernatants: 0.1-1 IU/ml), but visual evaluation led to inaccurate measurement. Accuracy can be improved by computer based evaluation of digital images. The use of viscosity reduction produced linear standard curves from 0.01 to 0.5 IU/ml in feed extracts, but reliability of measurements depended on modification of substrates. Quantification of enzyme activities was influenced by matrix effects of complex samples. Cereal dependant differences were found in various extracts of feed mixtures and cereal extracts. Digesta supernatants partly inhibited enzyme activity, depending on the origin of the sample. Interaction of substrates with digesta components varied between methods. The sensitivity of the methods is comparable, however, all methods require specific calibrations to account for matrix- and enzyme specific effects. PMID:9345597

  4. Effect of Stevia rebaudiana addition on bioaccessibility of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of beverages based on exotic fruits mixed with oat following simulated human digestion.

    PubMed

    Carbonell-Capella, Juana M; Buniowska, Magdalena; Esteve, María J; Frígola, Ana

    2015-10-01

    In order to determine the impact of Stevia rebaudiana (SR) addition on bioactive compounds bioaccessibility of a new developed functional beverage based on exotic fruits (mango juice, papaya juice and açaí) mixed with orange juice and oat, an in vitro gastrointestinal digestion was performed. Ascorbic acid, total carotenoids, total phenolics, total anthocyanins, total antioxidant capacity and steviol glycosides were evaluated before and after a simulated gastrointestinal digestion. Salivary and gastric digestion had no substantial effect on any of the major phenolic compounds, ascorbic acid, total antioxidant capacity and steviol glycosides, whereas carotenoids and anthocyanins diminished significantly during the gastric step. All analysed compounds were significantly altered during the pancreatic-bile digestion and this effect was more marked for carotenoids and total anthocyanins. However, phenolic compounds, anthocyanins, total antioxidant capacity and steviol glycosides bioaccessibility increased as did SR concentration. Ascorbic acid bioaccessibility was negatively affected by the SR addition. PMID:25872434

  5. Correction of Mitochondrial Enzyme Activities in the Skeletal Muscles of Old Rats in Response to Addition of Olive Oil to the Ration.

    PubMed

    Bronnikov, G E; Kulagina, T P; Aripovskii, A V; Kramarova, L I

    2015-06-01

    Activities of mitochondrial electron transport chain enzymes NADH-CoQ oxidoreductase (complex I), cytochrome C-oxidase (complex IV), and citrate synthase were measured by spectrophotometry in m. quadriceps femoris homogenate from old rats receiving olive oil with the ration. Reduced activities of complexes I and IV in old animals were restored to the level of young animals after 6-week consumption of olive oil. Activity of citrate synthase did not change with age. Positive effect of olive oil on fatty-acid composition of the muscle tissue in old animals was demonstrated. The content of summary monounsaturated fatty acids, reduced with aging, and of summary polyunsaturated ones, increasing with age, were restored in old rats to the levels virtually not differing from the levels of young animals. PMID:26087754

  6. Cognitive training with and without additional physical activity in healthy older adults: cognitive effects, neurobiological mechanisms, and prediction of training success

    PubMed Central

    Rahe, Julia; Becker, Jutta; Fink, Gereon R.; Kessler, Josef; Kukolja, Juraj; Rahn, Andreas; Rosen, Jan B.; Szabados, Florian; Wirth, Brunhilde; Kalbe, Elke

    2015-01-01

    Data is inconsistent concerning the question whether cognitive-physical training (CPT) yields stronger cognitive gains than cognitive training (CT). Effects of additional counseling, neurobiological mechanisms, and predictors have scarcely been studied. Healthy older adults were trained with CT (n = 20), CPT (n = 25), or CPT with counseling (CPT+C; n = 23). Cognition, physical fitness, BDNF, IGF-1, and VEGF were assessed at pre- and post-test. No interaction effects were found except for one effect showing that CPT+C led to stronger gains in verbal fluency than CPT (p = 0.03). However, this superiority could not be assigned to additional physical training gains. Low baseline cognitive performance and BDNF, not carrying apoE4, gains in physical fitness and the moderation of gains in physical fitness × gains in BDNF predicted training success. Although all types of interventions seem successful to enhance cognition, our data do not support the hypotheses that CPT shows superior CT gains compared to CT or that CPT+C adds merit to CPT. However, as CPT leads to additional gains in physical fitness which in turn is known to have positive impact on cognition in the long-term, CPT seems more beneficial. Training success can partly be predicted by neuropsychological, neurobiological, and genetic parameters. Unique Identifier: WHO ICTRP (http://www.who.int/ictrp); ID: DRKS00005194. PMID:26528177

  7. Gasoline additives, emissions, and performance

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    The papers included in this publication deal with the influence of fuel, additive, and hardware changes on a variety of vehicle performance characteristics. Advanced techniques for measuring these performance parameters are also described. Contents include: Fleet test evaluation of gasoline additives for intake valve and combustion chamber deposit clean up; A technique for evaluating octane requirement additives in modern engines on dynamometer test stands; A fleet test of two additive technologies comparing their effects on tailpipe emissions; Investigation into the vehicle exhaust emissions of high percentage ethanol blends; Variability in hydrocarbon speciation measurements at low emission (ULEV) levels; and more.

  8. Fire extinct experiments with water mist by adding additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Lijun; Zhao, Jianbo

    2011-12-01

    The effects of fire extinguishment with water mist by adding different additives were studied. Tens of chemical substances (including alkali metal salt, dilution agent and surface active agent) were selected as additives due to their different extinct mechanisms. At first the performance of fire extinguishment with single additive was studied, then the effects of the same kinds of chemical substances under the same mass fraction were compared to study their influences on the fire extinguishment factors, including extinct time, fire temperature and oxygen concentration from which the fire extinct mechanism with additives could be concluded. Based on this the experiments were conducted to study the cooperate effect of the complexity of different additives. It indicated the relations between different firefighting mechanisms and different additives were competitive. From a large number of experiments the extinct mechanism with water mist by adding additives was concluded and an optimal compounding additive was selected.

  9. Maps showing mines, quarries, oil and gas activity, and sample localities in and near the Sipsey Wilderness and additions, Lawrence and Winston counties, Alabama

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mory, Peter C.; Behum, Paul T.; Ross, Robert B., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    No mining activities are being conducted in the study area at present.  Previous mining has been limited to small-scale production of limestone and coal.  Two oil and gas test holes have been drilled inside the study area.

  10. Commercial Activities in Schools: Use of Student Data Is Limited and Additional Dissemination of Guidance Could Help Districts Develop Policies. Report to Congressional Requesters. GAO-04-810.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaul, Marnie S.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined (1) the extent to which, since 2000, states have enacted and proposed statutes and regulations to govern commercial activities in schools; (2) the extent to which districts have developed policies implementing amended provisions of the Protection of Pupil Rights Amendment (PPRA) in the No Child Left Behind Act on the use of…

  11. Effect of the nature of a structure-forming additive on the physicochemical properties of zeolites and the activity of Zn-containing catalysts based on them in ethane aromatization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vosmerikova, L. N.; Barbashin, Ya. E.; Vosmerikov, A. V.

    2014-03-01

    The effect the nature of the structure-forming additive has on the physicochemical properties of synthesized zeolites and the activity of Zn-containing catalysts prepared on their basis in converting ethane into aromatic hydrocarbons is studied. It is shown that the structure-forming additive plays an important role in the hydrothermal synthesis of zeolites. It is found that the highest activity and stability in ethane aromatization is exhibited by a catalyst based on a zeolite synthesized using hexamethylenediamine as a template.

  12. Using a biomimetic membrane surface experiment to investigate the activity of the magnetite biomineralisation protein Mms6† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Including Mms6 protein and peptide sequences, additional QCM-D and SEM data and protein modelling. See DOI: 10.1039/c5ra16469a Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Bird, Scott M.; Rawlings, Andrea E.; Galloway, Johanna M.

    2016-01-01

    Magnetotactic bacteria are able to synthesise precise nanoparticles of the iron oxide magnetite within their cells. These particles are formed in dedicated organelles termed magnetosomes. These lipid membrane compartments use a range of biomineralisation proteins to nucleate and regulate the magnetite crystallisation process. A key component is the membrane protein Mms6, which binds to iron ions and helps to control the formation of the inorganic core. We have previously used Mms6 on gold surfaces patterned with a self-assembled monolayer to successfully produce arrays of magnetic nanoparticles. Here we use this surface system as a mimic of the interior face of the magnetosome membrane to study differences between intact Mms6 and the acid-rich C-terminal peptide subregion of the Mms6 protein. When immobilised on surfaces, the peptide is unable to reproduce the particle size or homogeneity control exhibited by the full Mms6 protein in our experimental setup. Moreover, the peptide is unable to support anchoring of a dense array of nanoparticles to the surface. This system also allows us to deconvolute particle binding from particle nucleation, and shows that Mms6 particle binding is less efficient when supplied with preformed magnetite nanoparticles when compared to particles precipitated from solution in the presence of the surface immobilised Mms6. This suggests that Mms6 binds to iron ions rather than to magnetite surfaces in our system, and is perhaps a nucleating agent rather than a controller of magnetite crystal growth. The comparison between the peptide and the protein under identical experimental conditions indicates that the full length sequence is required to support the full function of Mms6 on surfaces. PMID:27019707

  13. h-BN nanosheets as simple and effective additives to largely enhance the activity of Au/TiO2 plasmonic photocatalysts.

    PubMed

    Ide, Y; Nagao, K; Saito, K; Komaguchi, K; Fuji, R; Kogure, A; Sugahara, Y; Bando, Y; Golberg, D

    2016-01-01

    The activity of Au nanoparticle-loaded P25 TiO2 (Au/P25) plasmonic photocatalysts, evaluated by the oxidative decomposition of formic acid in water under visible light irradiation, was enhanced up to 3 times by simply mixing Au/P25 with photocatalytically inactive h-BN nanosheets as a result of electron transfer from photoexcited Au/TiO2 to the h-BN nanosheets and retardation of the charge recombination. PMID:26607027

  14. A new subfamily of penaeidin with an additional serine-rich region from kuruma shrimp (Marsupenaeus japonicus) contributes to antimicrobial and phagocytic activities.

    PubMed

    An, Ming-Yu; Gao, Jie; Zhao, Xiao-Fan; Wang, Jin-Xing

    2016-06-01

    Penaeidins are an important family of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) in penaeid shrimp. To date, five groups of penaeidins have been identified in penaeid shrimp. All are composed of a proline-rich N-terminus and a C-terminus containing six cysteine residues engaged in three disulfide bridges. In this study, a new type of penaeidin from Marsupenaeus japonicus was identified. The full-length penaeidin contains a unique serine-rich region and a penaeidin domain, which consists of a proline-rich region and a cysteine-rich region. Here, we classify all penaeidins into two subfamilies. All reported penaeidins are in subfamily I, and the new penaeidin identified in M. japonicus is designated as Penaeidin subfamily II (MjPen-II). MjPen-II was expressed in hemocytes, heart, hepatopancreas, gills, stomach and intestine, and was upregulated after bacterial challenge. A liquid bacteriostatic assay showed that MjPen-II had antibacterial activity to some Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. MjPen-II could bind to bacteria by binding to polysaccharides on the surface of bacteria, thus promoting bacterial agglutination. The serine-rich region enhanced the agglutination activity of MjPen-II. The proline-rich domain had a stronger bacterial-binding activity and polysaccharide-binding activity than the cysteine-rich domain. MjPen-II was also found to be involved in the phagocytosis of bacteria and efficiently improved the phagocytosis rate. Therefore, MjPen-II eliminates bacteria through direct bacterial inhibition as well as by promoting phagocytosis in shrimp. PMID:26855016

  15. Nucleophile-catalyzed additions to activated triple bonds. Protection of lactams, imides, and nucleosides with MocVinyl and related groups.

    PubMed

    Mola, Laura; Font, Joan; Bosch, Lluís; Caner, Joaquim; Costa, Anna M; Etxebarría-Jardí, Gorka; Pineda, Oriol; de Vicente, David; Vilarrasa, Jaume

    2013-06-21

    Additions of lactams, imides, (S)-4-benzyl-1,3-oxazolidin-2-one, 2-pyridone, pyrimidine-2,4-diones (AZT derivatives), or inosines to the electron-deficient triple bonds of methyl propynoate, tert-butyl propynoate, 3-butyn-2-one, N-propynoylmorpholine, or N-methoxy-N-methylpropynamide in the presence of many potential catalysts were examined. DABCO and, second, DMAP appeared to be the best (highest reaction rates and E/Z ratios), while RuCl3, RuClCp*(PPh3)2, AuCl, AuCl(PPh3), CuI, and Cu2(OTf)2 were incapable of catalyzing such additions. The groups incorporated (for example, the 2-(methoxycarbonyl)ethenyl group that we name MocVinyl) serve as protecting groups for the above-mentioned heterocyclic CONH or CONHCO moieties. Deprotections were accomplished via exchange with good nucleophiles: the 1-dodecanethiolate anion turned out to be the most general and efficient reagent, but in some particular cases other nucleophiles also worked (e.g., MocVinyl-inosines can be cleaved with succinimide anion). Some structural and mechanistic details have been accounted for with the help of DFT and MP2 calculations. PMID:23713491

  16. Halogen-free ionic liquid as an additive in zinc(II)-selective electrode: surface analyses as correlated to the membrane activity.

    PubMed

    Al-Asousi, Maryam F; Shoukry, Adel F; Bu-Olayan, Abdul Hadi

    2012-05-30

    Two conventional Zn(II) polyvinyl chloride (PVC) membrane electrodes have been prepared and characterized. They were based on dibenzo-24-crown-8 (DBC) as a neutral carrier, dioctyl phthalate (DOP) as a plasticizer, and potassium tetrakis (p-chlorophenyl) borate, KTpClPB or the halogen-free ionic liquid, tetraoctylammonium dodecylbenzene sulfonate [TOA][DBS] as an additive. The use of ionic liquid has been found to enhance the selectivity of the sensor. For each electrode, the surfaces of two membranes were investigated using X-ray photoelectron, ion-scattering spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. One of the two membranes was conditioned by soaking it for 24 h in a 1.0×10(-3) M Zn(NO(3))(2) solution and the second was soaked in bi-distilled water for the same interval (24 h). Comparing the two surfaces indicated the following: (a) the high selectivity in case of using [TOA][DBS] as an additive is due to the extra mediation caused by the ionic liquid and (b) the working mechanism of the electrode is based on phase equilibrium at the surface of the membrane associated with ion transport through the bulk of the membrane. PMID:22608433

  17. Role of CdO addition on the growth and photocatalytic activity of electrospun ZnO nanofibers: UV vs. visible light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samadi, Morasae; Pourjavadi, Ali; Moshfegh, A. Z.

    2014-04-01

    (ZnO)1-x(CdO)x nanofibers were fabricated via electrospinning of polymer precursor by subsequent annealing in air. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) showed the smooth and beadless nanofibers and X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) showed the ZnO hexagonal and the CdO cubic structure. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) showed the band gap energy reduction by increasing the amount of CdO in (ZnO)1-x(CdO)x nanofibers that resulted in the photocatalytic activity under the visible light for dye degradation. Under the UV light CdO acted as both electron and hole sink in the (ZnO)1-x(CdO)x nanofibers and a possible photocatalytic activity mechanism was proposed. The effect of annealing rate on the nanofiber properties was also studied. Thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) plot revealed that different heating rates influence on both peak position and maximum amount of decomposition. Improvement of the crystallinity and the increase in the photocatalytic activity were obtained by increasing the annealing rate from 3 to 20 °C/min.

  18. Ru(II)-Catalyzed C-H Activation: Amide-Directed 1,4-Addition of the Ortho C-H Bond to Maleimides.

    PubMed

    Keshri, Puspam; Bettadapur, Kiran R; Lanke, Veeranjaneyulu; Prabhu, Kandikere Ramaiah

    2016-07-15

    Maleimide has been used as a selective coupling partner to generate conjugate addition products exclusively. The typical Heck-type oxidative coupling that occurs when alkenes are used is avoided by choosing maleimide as an alkene, which cannot undergo β-hydride elimination due to the unavailability of a syn-periplanar β-hydrogen atom. The amide nitrogen, which is notorious for undergoing tandem reactions to generate spirocyclic or annulation products under cross-coupling conditions, remains innocent in this report. Along with the substrate scope, a robustness screen has been performed to analyze the performance of amide as a directing group in the presence of other directing groups and also to examine the tolerance of the reaction conditions for other frequently encountered functional groups. PMID:27314834

  19. Fundamental studies and development of nickel-catalyzed trifluoromethylthiolation of aryl chlorides: active catalytic species and key roles of ligand and traceless MeCN additive revealed.

    PubMed

    Yin, Guoyin; Kalvet, Indrek; Englert, Ulli; Schoenebeck, Franziska

    2015-04-01

    A catalytic protocol to convert aryl and heteroaryl chlorides to the corresponding trifluoromethyl sulfides is reported herein. It relies on a relatively inexpensive Ni(cod)2/dppf (cod = 1,5-cyclooctadiene; dppf = 1,1'-bis(diphenylphosphino)ferrocene) catalyst system and the readily accessible coupling reagent (Me4N)SCF3. Our computational and experimental mechanistic data are consistent with a Ni(0)/Ni(II) cycle and inconsistent with Ni(I) as the reactive species. The relevant intermediates were prepared, characterized by X-ray crystallography, and tested for their catalytic competence. This revealed that a monomeric tricoordinate Ni(I) complex is favored for dppf and Cl whose role was unambiguously assigned as being an off-cycle catalyst deactivation product. Only bidentate ligands with wide bite angles (e.g., dppf) are effective. These bulky ligands render the catalyst resting state as [(P-P)Ni(cod)]. The latter is more reactive than Ni(P-P)2, which was found to be the resting state for ligands with smaller bite angles and suffers from an initial high-energy dissociation of one ligand prior to oxidative addition, rendering the system unreactive. The key to effective catalysis is hence the presence of a labile auxiliary ligand in the catalyst resting state. For more challenging substrates, high conversions were achieved via the employment of MeCN as a traceless additive. Mechanistic data suggest that its beneficial role lies in decreasing the energetic span, therefore accelerating product formation. Finally, the methodology has been applied to synthetic targets of pharmaceutical relevance. PMID:25790253

  20. Effect of addition of chitosan to self-etching primer: antibacterial activity and push-out bond strength to radicular dentin

    PubMed Central

    Elsaka, Shaymaa; Elnaghy, Amr

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of a modified self-etching primer incorporating chitosan and whether this modification affected the bond strength to radicular dentin. A modified self-etching primer was prepared by adding chitosan solutions at 0.03%, 0.06%, 0.12% and 0.25% (W/W) to RealSeal selfe-tching primer. RealSeal primer without chitosan was used as the control. The antibacterial activity of the modified self-etching primer was evaluated using the direct contact test against Enterococcus faecalis. The bonding ability of the RealSeal system to radicular dentin was evaluated using the push-out bond strength test. The modes of failure were examined under a stereomicroscope. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's test, with a P-value < 0.05 indicating statistical significance. The results showed that the antibacterial properties of the freshly prepared and aged modified self-etching primer incorporating chitosan exhibited potent antibacterial effect against Enterococcus faecalis compared with the unmodified primer. The RealSeal system with the aged modified self-etching primer incorporating chitosan showed no significant differences in the bond strength as compared with the control (P = 0.99). The findings suggest that modified self-etching primer incorporating chitosan is a promising antibacterial primer which does not adversely affect the bond strength of the RealSeal system to radicular dentin. PMID:23554762