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  1. Improving complex kinship analyses with additional STR loci.

    PubMed

    Carboni, Ilaria; Iozzi, Sara; Nutini, Anna Lucia; Torricelli, Francesca; Ricci, Ugo

    2014-11-01

    In a standard paternity testing, mother, child, and alleged father are analyzed with STR markers using commercially available kits. Since Italian civil legislation does not have thresholds to confirm a paternity, paternity is practically proven when likelihood ratio increases prior probability of paternity to posterior, accepted by court as sufficient. However, in some cases the number of markers included in a commercial kit may be insufficient to conclusively prove or disprove a relationship between individuals, especially when complex family scenarios are suspected or indirect analyses are required. Additional genetic information can increase the values of the likelihood ratio regarding the detection of true parental relationships in a pedigree, while reducing the chances of false attributions (e.g. false paternities). In these cases the introduction of a 26Plex amplification system allows to examine 23-26 additional markers depending on the commercial kit used, thus increasing the statistical power of the kinship analysis. The PCR conditions were optimized for a multiplex amplification system and a new generation CE instrument. In order to demonstrate the utility of additional STRs markers, four complex kinship cases are presented.

  2. Water based drilling mud additive

    SciTech Connect

    McCrary, J.L.

    1983-12-13

    A water based fluid additive useful in drilling mud used during drilling of an oil or gas well is disclosed, produced by reacting water at temperatures between 210/sup 0/-280/sup 0/ F. with a mixture comprising in percent by weight: gilsonite 25-30%, tannin 7-15%, lignite 25-35%, sulfonating compound 15-25%, water soluble base compound 5-15%, methylene-yielding compound 1-5%, and then removing substantially all of the remaining water to produce a dried product.

  3. Structured additive distributional regression for analysing landings per unit effort in fisheries research.

    PubMed

    Mamouridis, Valeria; Klein, Nadja; Kneib, Thomas; Cadarso Suarez, Carmen; Maynou, Francesc

    2017-01-01

    We analysed the landings per unit effort (LPUE) from the Barcelona trawl fleet targeting the red shrimp (Aristeus antennatus) using novel Bayesian structured additive distributional regression to gain a better understanding of the dynamics and determinants of variation in LPUE. The data set, covering a time span of 17 years, includes fleet-dependent variables (e.g. the number of trips performed by vessels), temporal variables (inter- and intra-annual variability) and environmental variables (the North Atlantic Oscillation index). Based on structured additive distributional regression, we evaluate (i) the gain in replacing purely linear predictors by additive predictors including nonlinear effects of continuous covariates, (ii) the inclusion of vessel-specific effects based on either fixed or random effects, (iii) different types of distributions for the response, and (iv) the potential gain in not only modelling the location but also the scale/shape parameter of these distributions. Our findings support that flexible model variants are indeed able to improve the fit considerably and that additional insights can be gained. Tools to select within several model specifications and assumptions are discussed in detail as well.

  4. ADDITIONAL STRESS AND FRACTURE MECHANICS ANALYSES OF PRESSURIZED WATER REACTOR PRESSURE VESSEL NOZZLES

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, Matthew; Yin, Shengjun; Stevens, Gary; Sommerville, Daniel; Palm, Nathan; Heinecke, Carol

    2012-01-01

    In past years, the authors have undertaken various studies of nozzles in both boiling water reactors (BWRs) and pressurized water reactors (PWRs) located in the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) adjacent to the core beltline region. Those studies described stress and fracture mechanics analyses performed to assess various RPV nozzle geometries, which were selected based on their proximity to the core beltline region, i.e., those nozzle configurations that are located close enough to the core region such that they may receive sufficient fluence prior to end-of-life (EOL) to require evaluation of embrittlement as part of the RPV analyses associated with pressure-temperature (P-T) limits. In this paper, additional stress and fracture analyses are summarized that were performed for additional PWR nozzles with the following objectives: To expand the population of PWR nozzle configurations evaluated, which was limited in the previous work to just two nozzles (one inlet and one outlet nozzle). To model and understand differences in stress results obtained for an internal pressure load case using a two-dimensional (2-D) axi-symmetric finite element model (FEM) vs. a three-dimensional (3-D) FEM for these PWR nozzles. In particular, the ovalization (stress concentration) effect of two intersecting cylinders, which is typical of RPV nozzle configurations, was investigated. To investigate the applicability of previously recommended linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) hand solutions for calculating the Mode I stress intensity factor for a postulated nozzle corner crack for pressure loading for these PWR nozzles. These analyses were performed to further expand earlier work completed to support potential revision and refinement of Title 10 to the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 50, Appendix G, Fracture Toughness Requirements, and are intended to supplement similar evaluation of nozzles presented at the 2008, 2009, and 2011 Pressure Vessels and Piping (PVP

  5. Cosmetology: Task Analyses. Competency-Based Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henrico County Public Schools, Glen Allen, VA. Virginia Vocational Curriculum Center.

    These task analyses are designed to be used in combination with the "Trade and Industrial Education Service Area Resource" in order to implement competency-based education in the cosmetology program in Virginia. The task analysis document contains the task inventory, suggested task sequence lists, and content outlines for the secondary…

  6. Additional Measurements and Analyses of H217O and H218O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearson, John; Yu, Shanshan; Walters, Adam; Daly, Adam M.

    2015-06-01

    Historically the analysis of the spectrum of water has been a balance between the quality of the data set and the applicability of the Hamiltonian to a highly non-rigid molecule. Recently, a number of different non-rigid analysis approaches have successfully been applied to 16O water resulting in a self-consistent set of transitions and energy levels to high J which allowed the spectrum to be modeled to experimental precision. The data set for 17O and 18O water was previously reviewed and many of the problematic measurements identified, but Hamiltonian modeling of the remaining data resulted in significantly poorer quality fits than that for the 16O parent. As a result, we have made additional microwave measurements and modeled the existing 17O and 18O data sets with an Euler series model. This effort has illuminated a number of additional problematic measurements in the previous data sets and has resulted in analyses of 17O and 18O water that are of similar quality to the 16O analysis. We report the new lines, the analyses and make recommendations on the quality of the experimental data sets. SS. Yu, J.C. Pearson, B.J. Drouin et al. J. Mol. Spectrosc. 279,~16-25 (2012) J. Tennyson, P.F. Bernath, L.R. Brown et al. J. Quant. Spectrosc. Rad. Trans. 117, 29-58 (2013) J. Tennyson, P.F. Bernath, L.R. Brown et al. J. Quant. Spectrosc. Rad. Trans. 110, 573-596 (2009) H.M. Pickett, J.C. Pearson, C.E. Miller J. Mol. Spectrosc. 233, 174-179 (2005)

  7. FY01 Supplemental Science and Performance Analyses, Volume 1: Scientific Bases and Analyses, Rev 00

    SciTech Connect

    David Dobson

    2001-06-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is considering the possible recommendation of a site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for development as a geologic repository for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel. To facilitate public review and comment, in May 2001 the DOE released the Yucca Mountain Science and Engineering Report (S&ER) (DOE 2001 [DIRS 153849]), which presents technical information supporting the consideration of the possible site recommendation. The report summarizes the results of more than 20 years of scientific and engineering studies. A decision to recommend the site has not been made: the DOE has provided the S&ER and its supporting documents as an aid to the public in formulating comments on the possible recommendation. When the S&ER (DOE 2001 [DIRS 153849]) was released, the DOE acknowledged that technical and scientific analyses of the site were ongoing. Therefore, the DOE noted in the Federal Register Notice accompanying the report (66 FR 23 013 [DIRS 155009], p. 2) that additional technical information would be released before the dates, locations, and times for public hearings on the possible recommendation were announced. This information includes: (1) the results of additional technical studies of a potential repository at Yucca Mountain, contained in this FY01 Supplemental Science and Performance Analyses: Vol. 1, Scientific Bases and Analyses; and FY01 Supplemental Science and Performance Analyses: Vol. 2, Performance Analyses (McNeish 2001 [DIRS 155023]) (collectively referred to as the SSPA) and (2) a preliminary evaluation of the Yucca Mountain site's preclosure and postclosure performance against the DOE's proposed site suitability guidelines (10 CFR Part 963 [64 FR 67054] [DIRS 124754]). By making the large amount of information developed on Yucca Mountain available in stages, the DOE intends to provide the public and interested parties with time to review the available materials and to formulate and submit

  8. An experiment in software reliability: Additional analyses using data from automated replications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunham, Janet R.; Lauterbach, Linda A.

    1988-01-01

    A study undertaken to collect software error data of laboratory quality for use in the development of credible methods for predicting the reliability of software used in life-critical applications is summarized. The software error data reported were acquired through automated repetitive run testing of three independent implementations of a launch interceptor condition module of a radar tracking problem. The results are based on 100 test applications to accumulate a sufficient sample size for error rate estimation. The data collected is used to confirm the results of two Boeing studies reported in NASA-CR-165836 Software Reliability: Repetitive Run Experimentation and Modeling, and NASA-CR-172378 Software Reliability: Additional Investigations into Modeling With Replicated Experiments, respectively. That is, the results confirm the log-linear pattern of software error rates and reject the hypothesis of equal error rates per individual fault. This rejection casts doubt on the assumption that the program's failure rate is a constant multiple of the number of residual bugs; an assumption which underlies some of the current models of software reliability. data raises new questions concerning the phenomenon of interacting faults.

  9. Reprocessing the Southern Hemisphere ADditional OZonesondes (SHADOZ) Database for Long-Term Trend Analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witte, J. C.; Thompson, A. M.; Coetzee, G.; Fujiwara, M.; Johnson, B. J.; Sterling, C. W.; Cullis, P.; Ashburn, C. E.; Jordan, A. F.

    2015-12-01

    SHADOZ is a large archive of tropical balloon-bone ozonesonde data at NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center with data from 14 tropical and subtropical stations provided by collaborators in Europe, Asia, Latin America and Africa . The SHADOZ time series began in 1998, using electrochemical concentration cell (ECC) ozonesondes. Like many long-term sounding stations, SHADOZ is characterized by variations in operating procedures, launch protocols, and data processing such that biases within a data record and among sites appear. In addition, over time, the radiosonde and ozonesonde instruments and data processing protocols have changed, adding to the measurement uncertainties at individual stations and limiting the reliability of ozone profile trends and continuous satellite validation. Currently, the ozonesonde community is engaged in reprocessing ECC data, with an emphasis on homogenization of the records to compensate for the variations in instrumentation and technique. The goals are to improve the information and integrity of each measurement record and to support calculation of more reliable trends. We illustrate the reprocessing activity of SHADOZ with selected stations. We will (1) show reprocessing steps based on the recent WMO report that provides post-processing guidelines for ozonesondes; (2) characterize uncertainties in various parts of the ECC conditioning process; and (3) compare original and reprocessed data to co-located ground and satellite measurements of column ozone.

  10. Using Additional Analyses to Clarify the Functions of Problem Behavior: An Analysis of Two Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, Steven W.; Dozier, Claudia L.; Neidert, Pamela L.; Jowett, Erica S.; Newquist, Matthew H.

    2014-01-01

    Functional analyses (FA) have proven useful for identifying contingencies that influence problem behavior. Research has shown that some problem behavior may only occur in specific contexts or be influenced by multiple or idiosyncratic variables. When these contexts or sources of influence are not assessed in an FA, further assessment may be…

  11. Training Residential Staff to Conduct Trial-Based Functional Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Joseph M.; Bloom, Sarah E.; Kunnavatana, S. Shanun; Collins, Shawnee D.; Clay, Casey J.

    2013-01-01

    We taught 6 supervisors of a residential service provider for adults with developmental disabilities to train 9 house managers to conduct trial-based functional analyses. Effects of the training were evaluated with a nonconcurrent multiple baseline. Results suggest that house managers can be trained to conduct trial-based functional analyses with…

  12. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  13. Additive Technologies Based on Composite Powder Nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorynin, I. V.; Oryshchenko, A. S.; Malyshevskii, V. A.; Farmakovskii, B. V.; Kuznetsov, P. A.

    2015-01-01

    The possibilities of application of promising adaptive technologies of bulk laser deposition and selective laser sintering in machine building with the aim of creation of complex-configuration parts and reconditioning of worn components of various-purpose articles from metallic powder materials are considered. The possibilities of the production chain from making of metallic powders to creation of ready coatings and articles on the base of a single unit are described.

  14. Metagenomic analyses of the late Pleistocene permafrost - additional tools for reconstruction of environmental conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivkina, Elizaveta; Petrovskaya, Lada; Vishnivetskaya, Tatiana; Krivushin, Kirill; Shmakova, Lyubov; Tutukina, Maria; Meyers, Arthur; Kondrashov, Fyodor

    2016-04-01

    A comparative analysis of the metagenomes from two 30 000-year-old permafrost samples, one of lake-alluvial origin and the other from late Pleistocene Ice Complex sediments, revealed significant differences within microbial communities. The late Pleistocene Ice Complex sediments (which have been characterized by the absence of methane with lower values of redox potential and Fe2+ content) showed a low abundance of methanogenic archaea and enzymes from both the carbon and nitrogen cycles, but a higher abundance of enzymes associated with the sulfur cycle. The metagenomic and geochemical analyses described in the paper provide evidence that the formation of the sampled late Pleistocene Ice Complex sediments likely took place under much more aerobic conditions than lake-alluvial sediments.

  15. Recent Trends in Conducting School-Based Experimental Functional Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Stacy L.

    2009-01-01

    Demonstrations of school-based experimental functional analyses have received limited attention within the literature. School settings present unique practical and ethical concerns related to the implementation of experimental analyses which were originally developed within clinical settings. Recent examples have made definite contributions toward…

  16. Additional Development and Systems Analyses of Pneumatic Technology for High Speed Civil Transport Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Englar, Robert J.; Willie, F. Scott; Lee, Warren J.

    1999-01-01

    In the Task I portion of this NASA research grant, configuration development and experimental investigations have been conducted on a series of pneumatic high-lift and control surface devices applied to a generic High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) model configuration to determine their potential for improved aerodynamic performance, plus stability and control of higher performance aircraft. These investigations were intended to optimize pneumatic lift and drag performance; provide adequate control and longitudinal stability; reduce separation flowfields at high angle of attack; increase takeoff/climbout lift-to-drag ratios; and reduce system complexity and weight. Experimental aerodynamic evaluations were performed on a semi-span HSCT generic model with improved fuselage fineness ratio and with interchangeable plain flaps, blown flaps, pneumatic Circulation Control Wing (CCW) high-lift configurations, plain and blown canards, a novel Circulation Control (CC) cylinder blown canard, and a clean cruise wing for reference. Conventional tail power was also investigated for longitudinal trim capability. Also evaluated was unsteady pulsed blowing of the wing high-lift system to determine if reduced pulsed mass flow rates and blowing requirements could be made to yield the same lift as that resulting from steady-state blowing. Depending on the pulsing frequency applied, reduced mass flow rates were indeed found able to provide lift augmentation at lesser blowing values than for the steady conditions. Significant improvements in the aerodynamic characteristics leading to improved performance and stability/control were identified, and the various components were compared to evaluate the pneumatic potential of each. Aerodynamic results were provided to the Georgia Tech Aerospace System Design Lab. to conduct the companion system analyses and feasibility study (Task 2) of theses concepts applied to an operational advanced HSCT aircraft. Results and conclusions from these

  17. A group additivity algorithm for polychlorinated dibenzofurans derived from selected DFT analyses.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Dennis; Ewan, Bruce C R

    2007-06-14

    The difficulty in measuring the heats of combustion of polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) has resulted in a shortage of data on their heats of formation, required for the purpose of developing an understanding of the role of thermodynamics and kinetics in their production via industrial processes. B3LYP density functional theory calculations have been carried out on a number of PCDFs using 6-31G(d) and 6-311+G(3df,p) basis sets to estimate their heats of formation based on the known experimental values for dibenzofuran, benzene and chlorobenzene. By examining the interactions among chlorine substituents, it is shown that energy contributions arising from successive chlorination can be interpreted in a predictable way, based on a small number of key energy parameters associated with ring position and chlorine atom repulsions. These parameters have been presented as the basis for a simplified prediction algorithm, which can be used to reproduce the predicted DFT heat of formation to within a few kJ/mol, avoiding the need to carry out extensive DFT calculations on the possible 135 isomers of the dibenzofuran group.

  18. Independet Component Analyses of Ground-based Exoplanetary Transits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva Martins-Filho, Walter; Griffith, Caitlin Ann; Pearson, Kyle; Waldmann, Ingo; Biddle, Lauren; Zellem, Robert Thomas; Alvarez-Candal, Alvaro

    2016-10-01

    Most observations of exoplanetary atmospheres are conducted when a "Hot Jupiter" exoplanet transits in front of its host star. These Jovian-sized planets have small orbital periods, on the order of days, and therefore a short transit time, making them more ameanable to observations. Measurements of Hot Jupiter transits must achieve a 10-4 level of accuracy in the flux to determine the spectral modulations of the exoplanetary atmosphere. In order to accomplish this level of precision, we need to extract systematic errors, and, for ground-based measurements, the effects of Earth's atmosphere, from the signal due to the exoplanet, which is several orders of magnitudes smaller. Currently, the effects of the terrestrial atmosphere and the some of the time-dependent systematic errors are treated by dividing the host star by a reference star at each wavelength and time step of the transit. More recently, Independent Component Analyses (ICA) have been used to remove systematic effects from the raw data of space-based observations (Waldmann 2014,2012; Morello et al.,2015,2016). ICA is a statistical method born from the ideas of the blind-source separation studies, which can be used to de-trend several independent source signals of a data set (Hyvarinen and Oja, 2000). One strength of this method is that it requires no additional prior knowledge of the system. Here, we present a study of the application of ICA to ground-based transit observations of extrasolar planets, which are affected by Earth's atmosphere. We analyze photometric data of two extrasolar planets, WASP-1b and GJ3470b, recorded by the 61" Kuiper Telescope at Stewart Observatory using the Harris B and U filters. The presentation will compare the light curve depths and their dispersions as derived from the ICA analysis to those derived by analyses that ratio of the host star to nearby reference stars.References: Waldmann, I.P. 2012 ApJ, 747, 12, Waldamann, I. P. 2014 ApJ, 780, 23; Morello G. 2015 ApJ, 806

  19. 2010 oil spill: trajectory projections based on ensemble drifter analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yu-Lin; Oey, Leo; Xu, Fang-Hua; Lu, Hung-Fu; Fujisaki, Ayumi

    2011-06-01

    An accurate method for long-term (weeks to months) projections of oil spill trajectories based on multi-year ensemble analyses of simulated surface and subsurface ( z = -800 m) drifters released at the northern Gulf of Mexico spill site is demonstrated during the 2010 oil spill. The simulation compares well with satellite images of the actual oil spill which show that the surface spread of oil was mainly confined to the northern shelf and slope of the Gulf of Mexico, with some (more limited) spreading over the north/northeastern face of the Loop Current, as well as northwestward toward the Louisiana-Texas shelf. At subsurface, the ensemble projection shows drifters spreading south/southwestward, and this tendency agrees well with ADCP current measurements near the spill site during the months of May-July, which also show southward mean currents. An additional model analysis during the spill period (Apr-Jul/2010) confirms the above ensemble projection. The 2010 analysis confirms that the reason for the surface oil spread to be predominantly confined to the northern Gulf shelf and slope is because the 2010 wind was more southerly compared to climatology and also because a cyclone existed north of the Loop Current which moreover was positioned to the south of the spilled site.

  20. Analyser-based phase contrast image reconstruction using geometrical optics.

    PubMed

    Kitchen, M J; Pavlov, K M; Siu, K K W; Menk, R H; Tromba, G; Lewis, R A

    2007-07-21

    Analyser-based phase contrast imaging can provide radiographs of exceptional contrast at high resolution (<100 microm), whilst quantitative phase and attenuation information can be extracted using just two images when the approximations of geometrical optics are satisfied. Analytical phase retrieval can be performed by fitting the analyser rocking curve with a symmetric Pearson type VII function. The Pearson VII function provided at least a 10% better fit to experimentally measured rocking curves than linear or Gaussian functions. A test phantom, a hollow nylon cylinder, was imaged at 20 keV using a Si(1 1 1) analyser at the ELETTRA synchrotron radiation facility. Our phase retrieval method yielded a more accurate object reconstruction than methods based on a linear fit to the rocking curve. Where reconstructions failed to map expected values, calculations of the Takagi number permitted distinction between the violation of the geometrical optics conditions and the failure of curve fitting procedures. The need for synchronized object/detector translation stages was removed by using a large, divergent beam and imaging the object in segments. Our image acquisition and reconstruction procedure enables quantitative phase retrieval for systems with a divergent source and accounts for imperfections in the analyser.

  1. Contract-Based Integration of Cyber-Physical Analyses

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-14

    Physical Analyses 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Ivan Ruchkin, Dionisio De Niz, Sagar Chaki, David Garlan...Architectural views tackle model consistency, not analytic tool consistency [3][4] ● Meta-level AADL languages do not allow domain-specific semantics [5...O- automata by over-approximation of continuous interaction, 2004 [2] Sangiovanni-Vincentelli et al. Taming Dr. Frankenstein: contract-based design

  2. Contract-Based Integration of Cyber-Physical Analyses

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-14

    Physical Analyses 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Dionisio de Niz Ivan Ruchkin; Sagar Chaki; David Garlan...Architectural views tackle model consistency, not analytic tool consistency [3][4] ● Meta-level AADL languages do not allow domain-specific semantics [5...O- automata by over-approximation of continuous interaction, 2004 [2] Sangiovanni-Vincentelli et al. Taming Dr. Frankenstein: contract-based design

  3. Array-based GNSS Ionospheric Sensing: Estimability and Precision Analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teunissen, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Array-based GNSS Ionospheric Sensing: Estimability and Precision Analyses PJG Teunissen1,2, A Khodabandeh1 and B Zhang1 1GNSS Research Centre, Curtin University, Perth, Australia 2Geoscience and Remote Sensing, Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands Introduction: The Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) have proved to be an effective means of measuring the Earth's ionosphere. The well-known geometry-free linear combinations of the GNSS data serve as the input of an external ionospheric model to capture both the spatial and temporal characteristics of the ionosphere. Next to the slant ionospheric delays experienced by the GNSS antennas, the geometry-free combinations also contain additional unknown delays that are caused by the presence of the carrier-phase ambiguous cycles and/or the code instrumental delays. That the geometry-free combinations, without an external ionospheric model, cannot unbiasedly determine the slant ionospheric delays reveals the lack of information content in the GNSS data. Motivation and objectives: With the advent of modernized multi-frequency signals, one is confronted with many different combinations of the GNSS data that are capable of sensing the ionosphere. Owing to such diversity and the lack of information content in the GNSS data, various estimable ionospheric delays of different interpretations (and of different precision) can therefore be formed. How such estimable ionospheric delays should be interpreted and the extent to which they contribute to the precision of the unbiased slant ionosphere are the topics of this contribution. Approach and results: In this contribution, we apply S-system theory to study the estimability and precision of the estimable slant ionospheric delays that are measured by the multi-frequency GNSS data. Two different S-systems are presented, leading to two different estimable parameters of different precision: 1) the phase-driven ionospheric delays and 2) the code-driven ionospheric delays

  4. Chemical Mixture Risk Assessment Additivity-Based Approaches

    EPA Science Inventory

    Powerpoint presentation includes additivity-based chemical mixture risk assessment methods. Basic concepts, theory and example calculations are included. Several slides discuss the use of "common adverse outcomes" in analyzing phthalate mixtures.

  5. Implementation of Complexity Analyzing Based on Additional Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Peng; Li, Na; Liang, Yanhong; Liu, Fang

    According to the Complexity Theory, there is complexity in the system when the functional requirement is not be satisfied. There are several study performances for Complexity Theory based on Axiomatic Design. However, they focus on reducing the complexity in their study and no one focus on method of analyzing the complexity in the system. Therefore, this paper put forth a method of analyzing the complexity which is sought to make up the deficiency of the researches. In order to discussing the method of analyzing the complexity based on additional effect, this paper put forth two concepts which are ideal effect and additional effect. The method of analyzing complexity based on additional effect combines Complexity Theory with Theory of Inventive Problem Solving (TRIZ). It is helpful for designers to analyze the complexity by using additional effect. A case study shows the application of the process.

  6. On the accuracy of population analyses based on fitted densities().

    PubMed

    de la Lande, Aurélien; Clavaguéra, Carine; Köster, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    Population analyses are part of the theoretical chemist's toolbox. They provide means to extract information about the repartition of the electronic density among molecules or solids. The values of atomic multipoles in a molecule can shed light on its electrostatic properties and may help to predict how different molecules could interact or to rationalize chemical reactivity for instance. Not being physical observables to which a quantum mechanical operator can be associated, atomic charges and higher order atomic multipoles cannot be defined unambiguously in a molecule, and therefore, several population schemes (PS) have been devised in the last decades. In the context of density functional theory (DFT), PS based on the electron density seem to be best grounded. In particular, some groups have proposed various iterative schemes the outcomes of which are very encouraging. Modern implementations of DFT that are for example based on density fitting techniques permit the investigation of molecular systems comprising of hundreds of atoms. However, population analyses following iterative schemes may become very CPU time consuming for such large systems. In this article, we investigate if the computationally less expensive analyses of the variationally fitted electronic densities can be safely carried out instead of the Kohn-Sham density. It is shown that as long as flexible auxiliary function sets including f and g functions are used, the multipoles extracted from the fitted densities are extremely close to those obtained from the KS density. We further assess if the multipoles obtained through the Hirshfeld's approach, in its standard or iterative form, can be a useful approach to calculate interaction energies in non-covalent complexes. Relative energies computed with the AMOEBA polarizable forced field combined to iterative Hirshfeld multipoles are encouraging.

  7. EP Additive Performance in Biobased vs. Paraffinic Base Oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A series of commercial extreme pressure (EP) additives containing sulfur, phosphorus, and chlorine were investigated for their EP properties in soybean (SBO) and paraffinic (PRFN) base oils. The investigations were conducted using a 4-ball (4B) and twist-compression (TC) tribometers. The concentra...

  8. Analyses of S-Box in Image Encryption Applications Based on Fuzzy Decision Making Criterion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehman, Inayatur; Shah, Tariq; Hussain, Iqtadar

    2014-06-01

    In this manuscript, we put forward a standard based on fuzzy decision making criterion to examine the current substitution boxes and study their strengths and weaknesses in order to decide their appropriateness in image encryption applications. The proposed standard utilizes the results of correlation analysis, entropy analysis, contrast analysis, homogeneity analysis, energy analysis, and mean of absolute deviation analysis. These analyses are applied to well-known substitution boxes. The outcome of these analyses are additional observed and a fuzzy soft set decision making criterion is used to decide the suitability of an S-box to image encryption applications.

  9. Operational Satellite-based Surface Oil Analyses (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Streett, D.; Warren, C.

    2010-12-01

    During the Deepwater Horizon spill, NOAA imagery analysts in the Satellite Analysis Branch (SAB) issued more than 300 near-real-time satellite-based oil spill analyses. These analyses were used by the oil spill response community for planning, issuing surface oil trajectories and tasking assets (e.g., oil containment booms, skimmers, overflights). SAB analysts used both Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) and high resolution visible/near IR multispectral satellite imagery as well as a variety of ancillary datasets. Satellite imagery used included ENVISAT ASAR (ESA), TerraSAR-X (DLR), Cosmo-Skymed (ASI), ALOS (JAXA), Radarsat (MDA), ENVISAT MERIS (ESA), SPOT (SPOT Image Corp.), Aster (NASA), MODIS (NASA), and AVHRR (NOAA). Ancillary datasets included ocean current information, wind information, location of natural oil seeps and a variety of in situ oil observations. The analyses were available as jpegs, pdfs, shapefiles and through Google, KML files and also available on a variety of websites including Geoplatform and ERMA. From the very first analysis issued just 5 hours after the rig sank through the final analysis issued in August, the complete archive is still publicly available on the NOAA/NESDIS website http://www.ssd.noaa.gov/PS/MPS/deepwater.html SAB personnel also served as the Deepwater Horizon International Disaster Charter Project Manager (at the official request of the USGS). The Project Manager’s primary responsibility was to acquire and oversee the processing and dissemination of satellite data generously donated by numerous private companies and nations in support of the oil spill response including some of the imagery described above. SAB has begun to address a number of goals that will improve our routine oil spill response as well as help assure that we are ready for the next spill of national significance. We hope to (1) secure a steady, abundant and timely stream of suitable satellite imagery even in the absence of large-scale emergencies such as

  10. Mass spectrometry-based proteomic analyses of contact lens deposition

    PubMed Central

    Green-Church, Kari B.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this report is to describe the contact lens deposition proteome associated with two silicone hydrogel contact lenses and care solutions using a mass spectrometric-based approach. Methods This was a randomized, controlled, examiner-masked crossover clinical trial that included 48 participants. Lenses and no-rub care solutions evaluated included galyfilcon A (Acuvue Advance, Vistakon Inc., Jacksonville, FL), lotrafilcon B (O2 Optix, CIBA Vision Inc., Duluth, GA), AQuify (CIBA Vision Inc.), and ReNu MoistureLoc (Bausch and Lomb Inc., Rochester, NY). After two weeks of daily wear in each lens-solution combination, the left lens was removed by the examiner (using gloves and forceps) and placed in a protein precipitation buffer (acetone). The precipitate was quantitated for total protein concentration (per lens), and proteins were then identified using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (nano-LC-MS/MS) and peptide sequencing. Results Between 7.32 and 9.76 µg/lens of protein was observed on average from each lens-solution combination. There were 19 total unique proteins identified across the two lens materials, and six proteins were identified in all four lens-solution combinations including lipocalin, lysozyme, lacritin, lactoferrin, proline rich 4, and Ig Alpha. Lotrafilcon B was associated with 15 individual proteins (across both care solutions), and 53% of these proteins were observed in at least 50% of the analyses. Galyfilcon A was associated with 13 individual proteins, and 38.5% of these proteins were observed in at least 50% of the analyses. There were three unique proteins identified from galyfilcon A and four unique proteins identified from lotrafilcon B. Conclusions The total amount of proteins identified from silicone hydrogel materials is much less than the amount from traditional soft lens materials. For the most part, the deposition proteome across these lenses is similar, although the different polymer characteristics

  11. Additives for cement compositions based on modified peat

    SciTech Connect

    Kopanitsa, Natalya Sarkisov, Yurij Gorshkova, Aleksandra Demyanenko, Olga

    2016-01-15

    High quality competitive dry building mixes require modifying additives for various purposes to be included in their composition. There is insufficient amount of quality additives having stable properties for controlling the properties of cement compositions produced in Russia. Using of foreign modifying additives leads to significant increasing of the final cost of the product. The cost of imported modifiers in the composition of the dry building mixes can be up to 90% of the material cost, depending on the composition complexity. Thus, the problem of import substitution becomes relevant, especially in recent years, due to difficult economic situation. The article discusses the possibility of using local raw materials as a basis for obtaining dry building mixtures components. The properties of organo-mineral additives for cement compositions based on thermally modified peat raw materials are studied. Studies of the structure and composition of the additives are carried out by physicochemical research methods: electron microscopy and X-ray analysis. Results of experimental research showed that the peat additives contribute to improving of cement-sand mortar strength and hydrophysical properties.

  12. Additives for cement compositions based on modified peat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopanitsa, Natalya; Sarkisov, Yurij; Gorshkova, Aleksandra; Demyanenko, Olga

    2016-01-01

    High quality competitive dry building mixes require modifying additives for various purposes to be included in their composition. There is insufficient amount of quality additives having stable properties for controlling the properties of cement compositions produced in Russia. Using of foreign modifying additives leads to significant increasing of the final cost of the product. The cost of imported modifiers in the composition of the dry building mixes can be up to 90% of the material cost, depending on the composition complexity. Thus, the problem of import substitution becomes relevant, especially in recent years, due to difficult economic situation. The article discusses the possibility of using local raw materials as a basis for obtaining dry building mixtures components. The properties of organo-mineral additives for cement compositions based on thermally modified peat raw materials are studied. Studies of the structure and composition of the additives are carried out by physicochemical research methods: electron microscopy and X-ray analysis. Results of experimental research showed that the peat additives contribute to improving of cement-sand mortar strength and hydrophysical properties.

  13. Application features of additives based on metakaolin in concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirsanova, A. A.; Kramar, L. Y.

    2015-01-01

    The present paper is devoted to the influence of additives based on metakaolin (U- YF, UM-YF and YF-UMD) on speed concrete strength development in the early stages of concrete hardening, as well as the strength increase in 28 days. The authors have proved that metakaolin gauging in concrete should not exceed 3%. Introduction of 5% of metakaolin or more entails the fault in concrete strength in the later stages of concrete hardening and decreases its resistance to the influence of sulfate and frosty environments. The most effective of the developed additives are UM-YF and UMD-YF which provide high sulfate and frost resistance to the concrete (up to 800 ... 1000 cycles). The above mentioned influence of additives on concrete properties is connected with an intended formation of structure of the cement matrix of concrete that is resistant to various aggressive environments.

  14. Web-based cephalometric procedure for craniofacial and dentition analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arun Kumar, N. S.; Kamath, Srijit R.; Ram, S.; Muthukumaran, B.; Venkatachalapathy, A.; Nandakumar, A.; Jayakumar, P.

    2000-05-01

    Craniofacial analysis is a very important and widely used procedure in orthodontic caphalometry, which plays a key role in diagnosis and treatment planning. This involves establishing reference standards and specification of landmarks and variables. The manual approach takes up a tremendous amount of the orthodontist's time. In this paper, we developed a web-based approach for the craniofacial and dentition analyses. A digital computed radiography (CR) system is utilized for obtaining the craniofacial image, which is stored as a bitmap file. The system comprises of two components - a server and a client. The server component is a program that runs on a remote machine. To use the system, the user has to connect to the website. The client component is now activated, which uploads the image from the PC and displays it on the canvas area. The landmarks are identified using a mouse interface. The reference lines are generated. The resulting image is then sent to the server which performs all measurement and calculates the mean, standard deviation, etc. of the variables. The results generated are sent immediately to the client where it is displayed on a separate frame along with the standard values for comparison. This system eliminates the need for every user to load other expensive programs on his machine.

  15. Analyser-based x-ray imaging for biomedical research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suortti, Pekka; Keyriläinen, Jani; Thomlinson, William

    2013-12-01

    Analyser-based imaging (ABI) is one of the several phase-contrast x-ray imaging techniques being pursued at synchrotron radiation facilities. With advancements in compact source technology, there is a possibility that ABI will become a clinical imaging modality. This paper presents the history of ABI as it has developed from its laboratory source to synchrotron imaging. The fundamental physics of phase-contrast imaging is presented both in a general sense and specifically for ABI. The technology is dependent on the use of perfect crystal monochromator optics. The theory of the x-ray optics is developed and presented in a way that will allow optimization of the imaging for specific biomedical systems. The advancement of analytical algorithms to produce separate images of the sample absorption, refraction angle map and small-angle x-ray scattering is detailed. Several detailed applications to biomedical imaging are presented to illustrate the broad range of systems and body sites studied preclinically to date: breast, cartilage and bone, soft tissue and organs. Ultimately, the application of ABI in clinical imaging will depend partly on the availability of compact sources with sufficient x-ray intensity comparable with that of the current synchrotron environment.

  16. Conducting Meta-Analyses Based on p Values

    PubMed Central

    van Aert, Robbie C. M.; Wicherts, Jelte M.; van Assen, Marcel A. L. M.

    2016-01-01

    Because of overwhelming evidence of publication bias in psychology, techniques to correct meta-analytic estimates for such bias are greatly needed. The methodology on which the p-uniform and p-curve methods are based has great promise for providing accurate meta-analytic estimates in the presence of publication bias. However, in this article, we show that in some situations, p-curve behaves erratically, whereas p-uniform may yield implausible estimates of negative effect size. Moreover, we show that (and explain why) p-curve and p-uniform result in overestimation of effect size under moderate-to-large heterogeneity and may yield unpredictable bias when researchers employ p-hacking. We offer hands-on recommendations on applying and interpreting results of meta-analyses in general and p-uniform and p-curve in particular. Both methods as well as traditional methods are applied to a meta-analysis on the effect of weight on judgments of importance. We offer guidance for applying p-uniform or p-curve using R and a user-friendly web application for applying p-uniform. PMID:27694466

  17. Fluorescence-based resource for semi-automated genomic analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Kiser, M.B.; Dragwa, C.; Jedlicka, A.E.

    1994-09-01

    To facilitate the practical application of highly efficient semi-automated methods for general application in genomic analyses, we have developed a fluorescence-based marker resource. Ninety highly polymorphic simple tandem repeat markers were combined to provide a rapid, accurate, and highly efficient initial genome-wide screening system. These markers are spaced on average every 33 recombination units, with a mean heterozygosity of 81% (range 65-94%), covering 22 autosomes and the X and Y chromosomes. Less than 3% of the genome lies beyond 30 cM of the nearest marker. Markers were placed in a vertical ladder that we have termed a SET according to the size of the PCR fragments they produce during electrophoresis. Each SET was designed to avoid overlap between loci during gel separations to assure accuracy when scoring genotypes. We have constructed 15 SETS of markers. Three SETS, each labelled with one of three fluors, were combined into what we have termed a GROUP, which is co-electrophoresed with internal size standards that are labelled with a fourth flour. Five GROUPS of markers were assembled that contain a total of 15 SETS of markers. Each GROUP cover 18 regions of the genome that can be detected simultaneously, since this genomic analysis system is fully compatible with automated fragment analyzers using simultaneous four-color fluorescence-based detection systems. This allows for multiplex detection and a throughput of 1,944 genotypes daily per instrument. This system will be highly beneficial in a number of clinical and research applications including: linkage, cancer genetics, forensics, and cytogenetics.

  18. Modeling uranium transport in acidic contaminated groundwater with base addition.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fan; Luo, Wensui; Parker, Jack C; Brooks, Scott C; Watson, David B; Jardine, Philip M; Gu, Baohua

    2011-06-15

    This study investigates reactive transport modeling in a column of uranium(VI)-contaminated sediments with base additions in the circulating influent. The groundwater and sediment exhibit oxic conditions with low pH, high concentrations of NO(3)(-), SO(4)(2-), U and various metal cations. Preliminary batch experiments indicate that additions of strong base induce rapid immobilization of U for this material. In the column experiment that is the focus of the present study, effluent groundwater was titrated with NaOH solution in an inflow reservoir before reinjection to gradually increase the solution pH in the column. An equilibrium hydrolysis, precipitation and ion exchange reaction model developed through simulation of the preliminary batch titration experiments predicted faster reduction of aqueous Al than observed in the column experiment. The model was therefore modified to consider reaction kinetics for the precipitation and dissolution processes which are the major mechanism for Al immobilization. The combined kinetic and equilibrium reaction model adequately described variations in pH, aqueous concentrations of metal cations (Al, Ca, Mg, Sr, Mn, Ni, Co), sulfate and U(VI). The experimental and modeling results indicate that U(VI) can be effectively sequestered with controlled base addition due to sorption by slowly precipitated Al with pH-dependent surface charge. The model may prove useful to predict field-scale U(VI) sequestration and remediation effectiveness.

  19. A Classification of Mediterranean Cyclones Based on Global Analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reale, Oreste; Atlas, Robert

    2003-01-01

    The Mediterranean Sea region is dominated by baroclinic and orographic cyclogenesis. However, previous work has demonstrated the existence of rare but intense subsynoptic-scale cyclones displaying remarkable similarities to tropical cyclones and polar lows, including, but not limited to, an eye-like feature in the satellite imagery. The terms polar low and tropical cyclone have been often used interchangeably when referring to small-scale, convective Mediterranean vortices and no definitive statement has been made so far on their nature, be it sub-tropical or polar. Moreover, most of the classifications of Mediterranean cyclones have neglected the small-scale convective vortices, focusing only on the larger-scale and far more common baroclinic cyclones. A classification of all Mediterranean cyclones based on operational global analyses is proposed The classification is based on normalized horizontal shear, vertical shear, scale, low versus mid-level vorticity, low-level temperature gradients, and sea surface temperatures. In the classification system there is a continuum of possible events, according to the increasing role of barotropic instability and decreasing role of baroclinic instability. One of the main results is that the Mediterranean tropical cyclone-like vortices and the Mediterranean polar lows appear to be different types of events, in spite of the apparent similarity of their satellite imagery. A consistent terminology is adopted, stating that tropical cyclone- like vortices are the less baroclinic of all, followed by polar lows, cold small-scale cyclones and finally baroclinic lee cyclones. This classification is based on all the cyclones which occurred in a four-year period (between 1996 and 1999). Four cyclones, selected among all the ones which developed during this time-frame, are analyzed. Particularly, the classification allows to discriminate between two cyclones (occurred in October 1996 and in March 1999) which both display a very well

  20. Colloidal-based additive manufacturing of bio-inspired composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Studart, Andre R.

    Composite materials in nature exhibit heterogeneous architectures that are tuned to fulfill the functional demands of the surrounding environment. Examples range from the cellulose-based organic structure of plants to highly mineralized collagen-based skeletal parts like bone and teeth. Because they are often utilized to combine opposing properties such as strength and low-density or stiffness and wear resistance, the heterogeneous architecture of natural materials can potentially address several of the technical limitations of artificial homogeneous composites. However, current man-made manufacturing technologies do not allow for the level of composition and fiber orientation control found in natural heterogeneous systems. In this talk, I will present two additive manufacturing technologies recently developed in our group to build composites with exquisite architectures only rivaled by structures made by living organisms in nature. Since the proposed techniques utilize colloidal suspensions as feedstock, understanding the physics underlying the stability, assembly and rheology of the printing inks is key to predict and control the architecture of manufactured parts. Our results will show that additive manufacturing routes offer a new exciting pathway for the fabrication of biologically-inspired composite materials with unprecedented architectures and functionalities.

  1. Broadband seismic illumination and resolution analyses based on staining algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Bo; Jia, Xiao-Feng; Xie, Xiao-Bi

    2016-09-01

    Seismic migration moves reflections to their true subsurface positions and yields seismic images of subsurface areas. However, due to limited acquisition aperture, complex overburden structure and target dipping angle, the migration often generates a distorted image of the actual subsurface structure. Seismic illumination and resolution analyses provide a quantitative description of how the above-mentioned factors distort the image. The point spread function (PSF) gives the resolution of the depth image and carries full information about the factors affecting the quality of the image. The staining algorithm establishes a correspondence between a certain structure and its relevant wavefield and reflected data. In this paper, we use the staining algorithm to calculate the PSFs, then use these PSFs for extracting the acquisition dip response and correcting the original depth image by deconvolution. We present relevant results of the SEG salt model. The staining algorithm provides an efficient tool for calculating the PSF and for conducting broadband seismic illumination and resolution analyses.

  2. Feasibility and Scaling of Composite Based Additive Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Nuttall, David; Chen, Xun; Kunc, Vlastimil; Love, Lonnie J.

    2016-04-27

    Engineers and Researchers at Oak Ridge National Lab s Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (ORNL MDF) collaborated with Impossible Objects (IO) in the characterization of PEEK infused carbon fiber mat manufactured by means of CBAM composite-based additive manufacturing, a first generation assembly methodology developed by Robert Swartz, Chairman, Founder, and CTO of Impossible Objects.[1] The first phase of this project focused on demonstration of CBAM for composite tooling. The outlined steps focused on selecting an appropriate shape that fit the current machine s build envelope, characterized the resulting form, and presented next steps for transitioning to a Phase II CRADA agreement. Phase I of collaborative research and development agreement NFE-15-05698 was initiated in April of 2015 with an introduction to Impossible Objects, and concluded in March of 2016 with a visitation to Impossible Objects headquarters in Chicago, IL. Phase II as discussed herein is under consideration by Impossible Objects as of this writing.

  3. Graphic-based musculoskeletal model for biomechanical analyses and animation.

    PubMed

    Chao, Edmund Y S

    2003-04-01

    The ability to combine physiology and engineering analyses with computer sciences has opened the door to the possibility of creating the 'Virtual Human' reality. This paper presents a broad foundation for a full-featured biomechanical simulator for the human musculoskeletal system physiology. This simulation technology unites the expertise in biomechanical analysis and graphic modeling to investigate joint and connective tissue mechanics at the structural level and to visualize the results in both static and animated forms together with the model. Adaptable anatomical models including prosthetic implants and fracture fixation devices and a robust computational infrastructure for static, kinematic, kinetic, and stress analyses under varying boundary and loading conditions are incorporated on a common platform, the VIMS (Virtual Interactive Musculoskeletal System). Within this software system, a manageable database containing long bone dimensions, connective tissue material properties and a library of skeletal joint system functional activities and loading conditions are also available and they can easily be modified, updated and expanded. Application software is also available to allow end-users to perform biomechanical analyses interactively. This paper details the design, capabilities, and features of the VIMS development at Johns Hopkins University, an effort possible only through academic and commercial collaborations. Examples using these models and the computational algorithms in a virtual laboratory environment are used to demonstrate the utility of this unique database and simulation technology. This integrated system will impact on medical education, basic research, device development and application, and clinical patient care related to musculoskeletal diseases, trauma, and rehabilitation.

  4. Influence of hydroxypropylmethylcellulose addition and homogenization conditions on properties and ageing of corn starch based films.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, Alberto; Fabra, María José; Talens, Pau; Chiralt, Amparo

    2012-06-20

    Edible films based on corn starch, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) and their mixtures were prepared by using two different procedures to homogenize the film forming dispersions (rotor-stator and rotor-stator plus microfluidizer). The influence of both HPMC-starch ratio and the homogenization method on the structural, optical, tensile and barrier properties of the films was analysed. The ageing of the films was also studied by characterizing them after 5 weeks' storage. Starch re-crystallization in newly prepared and stored films was analysed by means of X-ray diffraction. HPMC-corn starch films showed phase separation of polymers, which was enhanced when microfluidization was applied to the film forming dispersion. Nevertheless, HPMC addition inhibited starch re-crystallization during storage, giving rise to more flexible films at the end of the period. Water barrier properties of starch films were hardly affected by the addition of HPMC, although oxygen permeability increased due to its poorer oxygen barrier properties.

  5. Polysulfide and bio-based EP additive performance in vegetable vs. paraffinic base oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Twist compression test (TCT) and 4-ball extreme pressure (EP) methods were used to investigate commercial polysulfide (PS) and bio-based polyester (PE) EP additives in paraffinic (150N) and refined soybean (SOY) base oils of similar viscosity. Binary blends of EP additive and base oil were investiga...

  6. FY01 Supplemental Science and Performance Analysis: Volume 1,Scientific Bases and Analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Bodvarsson, G.S.; Dobson, David

    2001-05-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is considering the possible recommendation of a site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for development as a geologic repository for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel. To facilitate public review and comment, in May 2001 the DOE released the Yucca Mountain Science and Engineering Report (S&ER) (DOE 2001 [DIRS 153849]), which presents technical information supporting the consideration of the possible site recommendation. The report summarizes the results of more than 20 years of scientific and engineering studies. A decision to recommend the site has not been made: the DOE has provided the S&ER and its supporting documents as an aid to the public in formulating comments on the possible recommendation. When the S&ER (DOE 2001 [DIRS 153849]) was released, the DOE acknowledged that technical and scientific analyses of the site were ongoing. Therefore, the DOE noted in the Federal Register Notice accompanying the report (66 FR 23013 [DIRS 155009], p. 2) that additional technical information would be released before the dates, locations, and times for public hearings on the possible recommendation were announced. This information includes: (1) the results of additional technical studies of a potential repository at Yucca Mountain, contained in this FY01 Supplemental Science and Performance Analyses: Vol. 1, Scientific Bases and Analyses; and FY01 Supplemental Science and Performance Analyses: Vol. 2, Performance Analyses (McNeish 2001 [DIRS 155023]) (collectively referred to as the SSPA) and (2) a preliminary evaluation of the Yucca Mountain site's preclosure and postclosure performance against the DOE's proposed site suitability guidelines (10 CFR Part 963 [64 FR 67054 [DIRS 124754

  7. Training Teachers to Conduct Trial-Based Functional Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kunnavatana, S. Shanun; Bloom, Sarah E.; Samaha, Andrew L.; Dayton, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    The trial-based functional analysis (FA) is a promising approach to identification of behavioral function and is especially suited for use in educational settings. Not all studies on trial-based FA have included teachers as therapists, and those studies that have, included minimal information on teacher training. The purpose of this study was to…

  8. Improved dental adhesive formulations based on reactive nanogel additives.

    PubMed

    Morães, R R; Garcia, J W; Wilson, N D; Lewis, S H; Barros, M D; Yang, B; Pfeifer, C S; Stansbury, J W

    2012-02-01

    Current challenges in adhesive dentistry include over-hydrophilic bonding formulations, which facilitate water percolation through the hybrid layer and result in unreliable bonded interfaces. This study introduces nanogel-modified adhesives as a way to control the material's hydrophobic character without changing the basic monomer formulation (keeping water-chasing capacity and operatory techniques unaltered). Nanogel additives of varied hydrophobicity were synthesized in solution, rendering 10- to 100-nm-sized particles. A model BisGMA/HEMA solvated adhesive was prepared (control), to which reactive nanogels were added. The increase in adhesive viscosity did not impair solvent removal by air-thinning. The degree of conversion in the adhesive was similar between control and nanogel-modified materials, while the bulk dry and, particularly, the wet mechanical properties were significantly improved through nanogel-based network reinforcement and reduced water solubility. As preliminary validation of this approach, short-term micro-tensile bond strengths to acid-etched and primed dentin were significantly enhanced by nanogel inclusion in the adhesive resins.

  9. Phylogenetic analyses of phylum Actinobacteria based on whole genome sequences.

    PubMed

    Verma, Mansi; Lal, Devi; Kaur, Jaspreet; Saxena, Anjali; Kaur, Jasvinder; Anand, Shailly; Lal, Rup

    2013-09-01

    Actinobacteria constitute one of the largest and ancient taxonomic phylum within the domain bacteria and are well known for their secondary metabolites. Considerable variation in the metabolic properties, genome size and GC content of the members of this phylum has been observed. Therefore, the placement of new or existing species based on 16S rRNA gene sometimes becomes problematic due to the low congruence level. In the present study, phylogeny of ninety actinobacterial genomes was reconstructed using single gene and whole genome based data. Where alignment-free phylogenetic method was found to be more robust, the concatenation of 94 proteins improved the resolution which all single gene based phylogenies failed to resolve. The comprehensive analysis of 94 conserved proteins resulted in a total of 42,447 informative sites, which is so far the largest meta-alignment obtained for this phylum. But the ultimate resolved phylogeny was obtained by generating a consensus tree by combining the information from single gene and genome based phylogenies. The present investigation clearly revealed that the consensus approach is a useful tool for phylogenetic inference and the taxonomic affiliations must be based on this approach. The consensus approach suggested that there is a need for taxonomic amendments of the orders Frankiales and Micrococcales.

  10. Meta-Analyses of Human Cell-Based Cardiac Regeneration Therapies: Controversies in Meta-Analyses Results on Cardiac Cell-Based Regenerative Studies.

    PubMed

    Gyöngyösi, Mariann; Wojakowski, Wojciech; Navarese, Eliano P; Moye, Lemuel À

    2016-04-15

    In contrast to multiple publication-based meta-analyses involving clinical cardiac regeneration therapy in patients with recent myocardial infarction, a recently published meta-analysis based on individual patient data reported no effect of cell therapy on left ventricular function or clinical outcome. A comprehensive review of the data collection, statistics, and the overall principles of meta-analyses provides further clarification and explanation for this controversy. The advantages and pitfalls of different types of meta-analyses are reviewed here. Each meta-analysis approach has a place when pivotal clinical trials are lacking and sheds light on the magnitude of the treatment in a complex healthcare field.

  11. Characterization of the Tribological Behavior of Graphene-Based Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Erck, Robert

    2014-09-01

    XG-supplied nanocrystalline additives were extensively tested for friction and wear behavior. A technique for investigating the stability of additives was developed, and a report covered filtration and centrifugation methods for settling and filterable content. Friction and wear trends in partially and fully formulated oils were reported. Particle size analysis was performed and reported.

  12. PCR and RFLP analyses based on the ribosomal protein operon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Differentiation and classification of phytoplasmas have been primarily based on the highly conserved 16Sr RNA gene. RFLP analysis of 16Sr RNA gene sequences has identified 31 16Sr RNA (16Sr) groups and more than 100 16Sr subgroups. Classification of phytoplasma strains can however, become more refin...

  13. Agricultural Production: Task Analyses. Competency-Based Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henrico County Public Schools, Glen Allen, VA. Virginia Vocational Curriculum Center.

    This task analysis guide is intended to help teachers and administrators develop instructional materials and implement competency-based education in the agricultural production program. Section 1 contains a validated task inventory for agricultural production. Tasks are divided into 10 duty areas: orienting the student to agricultural production,…

  14. Dental Aide: Task Analyses. Competency-Based Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newport News Public Schools, VA.

    This task analysis guide is intended to help teachers and administrators develop instructional materials and implement competency-based education in the dental aide program. Section 1 contains a validated task inventory for dental aide. For each task, applicable information pertaining to performance and enabling objectives, criterion-referenced…

  15. A Judgement-Based Framework for Analysing Adult Job Choices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Athanasou, James A.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to introduce a judgement-based framework for adult job and career choices. This approach is set out as a perceptual-judgemental-reinforcement approach. Job choice is viewed as cognitive acquisition over time and is epitomised by a learning process. Seven testable assumptions are derived from the model. (Contains 1…

  16. Representer-based analyses in the coastal upwelling system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurapov, A. L.; Egbert, G. D.; Allen, J. S.; Miller, R. N.

    2009-10-01

    The impact of surface velocity and SSH data assimilated in a model of wind-driven upwelling over the shelf is studied using representer and observational array mode analyses and twin experiments, utilizing new tangent linear (TL) and adjoint (ADJ) codes. Bathymetry, forcing, and initial conditions are assumed to be alongshore uniform reducing the problem to classical two-dimensional. The model error is attributed to uncertainty in the surface wind stress. The representers, analyzed in cross-shore sections, show how assimilated observations provide corrections to the wind stress and circulation fields, and give information on the structure of the multivariate prior model error covariance. Since these error covariance fields satisfy the dynamics of the TL model, they maintain dominant balances (Ekman transport, geostrophy, thermal wind). Solutions computed over a flat bottom are qualitatively similar to a known analytical solution. Representers obtained with long cross-shore decorrelation scale for the wind stress errors lx (compared to the distance to coast) exhibit the classical upwelling structure. Solutions obtained with much smaller lx show structure associated with Ekman pumping, and are nearly singular if lx is smaller than the grid resolution. The zones of maximum influence of observations are sensitive to the background ocean conditions and are not necessarily centered around the observation locations. Array mode analysis is utilized to obtain model structures (combinations of representers) that are most stably observed by a given array. This analysis reveals that for realistic measurement errors and observational configurations, surface velocities will be more effective than SSH in providing correction to the wind stress on the scales of tens of km. In the DA test with synthetic observations, the prior nonlinear solution is obtained with spatially uniform alongshore wind stress and the true solution with the wind stress sharply reduced inshore of the

  17. Design and Analyses of a MEMS Based Resonant Magnetometer.

    PubMed

    Ren, Dahai; Wu, Lingqi; Yan, Meizhi; Cui, Mingyang; You, Zheng; Hu, Muzhi

    2009-01-01

    A novel design of a MEMS torsional resonant magnetometer based on Lorentz force is presented and fabricated. The magnetometer consists of a silicon resonator, torsional beam, excitation coil, capacitance plates and glass substrate. Working in a resonant condition, the sensor's vibration amplitude is converted into the sensing capacitance change, which reflects the outside magnetic flux-density. Based on the simulation, the key structure parameters are optimized and the air damping effect is estimated. The test results of the prototype are in accordance with the simulation results of the designed model. The resolution of the magnetometer can reach 30 nT. The test results indicate its sensitivity of more than 400 mV/μT when operating in a 10 Pa vacuum environment.

  18. Phylogenomic analyses of bat subordinal relationships based on transcriptome data

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Ming; Dong, Dong

    2016-01-01

    Bats, order Chiroptera, are one of the largest monophyletic clades in mammals. Based on morphology and behaviour bats were once differentiated into two suborders Megachiroptera and Microchiroptera Recently, researchers proposed alternative views of chiropteran classification (suborders Yinpterochiroptera and Yangochiroptera) based on morphological, molecular and fossil evidence. Since genome-scale data can significantly increase the number of informative characters for analysis, transcriptome RNA-seq data for 12 bat taxa were generated in an attempt to resolve bat subordinal relationships at the genome level. Phylogenetic reconstructions were conducted using up to 1470 orthologous genes and 634,288 aligned sites. We found strong support for the Yinpterochiroptera-Yangochiroptera classification. Next, we built expression distance matrices for each species and reconstructed gene expression trees. The tree is highly consistent with sequence-based phylogeny. We also examined the influence of taxa sampling on the performance of phylogenetic methods, and found that the topology is robust to sampling. Relaxed molecular clock estimates the divergence between Yinpterochiroptera and Yangochiroptera around 63 million years ago. The most recent common ancestor of Yinpterochiroptera, corresponding to the split between Rhinolophoidea and Pteropodidae (Old World Fruit bats), is estimated to have occurred 60 million years ago. Our work provided a valuable resource to further explore the evolutionary relationship within bats. PMID:27291671

  19. Design of the storage location based on the ABC analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jemelka, Milan; Chramcov, Bronislav; Kříž, Pavel

    2016-06-01

    The paper focuses on process efficiency and saving storage costs. Maintaining inventory through putaway strategy takes personnel time and costs money. The aim is to control inventory in the best way. The ABC classification based on Villefredo Pareto theory is used for a design of warehouse layout. New design of storage location reduces the distance of fork-lifters, total costs and it increases inventory process efficiency. The suggested solutions and evaluation of achieved results are described in detail. Proposed solutions were realized in real warehouse operation.

  20. Drag reduction - Jet breakup correlation with kerosene-based additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoyt, J. W.; Altman, R. L.; Taylor, J. J.

    1980-01-01

    The drag-reduction effectiveness of a number of high-polymer additives dissolved in aircraft fuel has been measured in a turbulent-flow rheometer. These solutions were further subjected to high elongational stress and breakup forces in a jet discharging in air. The jet was photographed using a high-resolution camera with special lighting. The object of the work was to study the possible spray-suppression ability of high-polymer additives to aircraft fuel and to correlate this with the drag-reducing properties of the additives. It was found, in fact, that the rheometer results indicate the most effective spray-suppressing additives. Using as a measure the minimum polymer concentration to give a maximum friction-reducing effect, the order of effectiveness of eight different polymer additives as spray-suppressing agents was predicted. These results may find application in the development of antimisting additives for aircraft fuel which may increase fire safety in case of crash or accident.

  1. Activity-based analyses lead to better decision making.

    PubMed

    Player, S

    1998-08-01

    Activity-based costing (ABC) and activity-based management (ABM) are cost-management tools that are relatively new to the healthcare industry. ABC is used for strategic decision making. It assesses the costs associated with specific activities and resources and links those costs to specific internal and external customers of the healthcare enterprise (e.g., patients, service lines, and physician groups) to determine the costs associated with each customer. This cost information then can be adjusted to account for anticipated changes and to predict future costs. ABM, on the other hand, supports operations by focusing on the causes of costs and how costs can be reduced. It assesses cost drivers that directly affect the cost of a product or service, and uses performance measures to evaluate the financial or nonfinancial benefit an activity provides. By identifying each cost driver and assessing the value the element adds to the healthcare enterprise, ABM provides a basis for selecting areas that can be changed to reduce costs.

  2. Hyperbolic tangential function-based progressive addition lens design.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Gufeng; Cui, Xudong

    2015-12-10

    The diopter distribution is key to the successful design of a progressive addition lens. A hyperbolic tangential function is then introduced to describe well the desired diopter distribution on the lens. Simulation and fabrication show that the astigmia on the whole surface is very close to the addition, exhibiting superior performance than that of currently used high-order polynomials and cosine functions. Our investigations found that once the diopter distribution design is reasonable, both the direct and indirect methods of constructing a progressive addition lens can give consistent results. With this function we are able to effectively control the design of critical areas, the position, sizes of far-view and near-view zones, as well as the channel of the lens. This study would provide an efficient way to customize different progressive lenses not only for presbyopia, but also for anti-fatigue, office progressive usages, etc.

  3. Evidence for Endothermy in Pterosaurs Based on Flight Capability Analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, H. S.; Pratson, L. F.

    2005-12-01

    Previous attempts to constrain flight capability in pterosaurs have relied heavily on the fossil record, using bone articulation and apparent muscle allocation to evaluate flight potential (Frey et al., 1997; Padian, 1983; Bramwell, 1974). However, broad definitions of the physical parameters necessary for flight in pterosaurs remain loosely defined and few systematic approaches to constraining flight capability have been synthesized (Templin, 2000; Padian, 1983). Here we present a new method to assess flight capability in pterosaurs as a function of humerus length and flight velocity. By creating an energy-balance model to evaluate the power required for flight against the power available to the animal, we derive a `U'-shaped power curve and infer optimal flight speeds and maximal wingspan lengths for pterosaurs Quetzalcoatlus northropi and Pteranodon ingens. Our model corroborates empirically derived power curves for the modern black-billed magpie ( Pica Pica) and accurately reproduces the mechanical power curve for modern cockatiels ( Nymphicus hollandicus) (Tobalske et al., 2003). When we adjust our model to include an endothermic metabolic rate for pterosaurs, we find a maximal wingspan length of 18 meters for Q. northropi. Model runs using an exothermic metabolism derive maximal wingspans of 6-8 meters. As estimates based on fossil evidence show total wingspan lengths reaching up to 15 meters for Q. northropi, we conclude that large pterosaurs may have been endothermic and therefore more metabolically similar to birds than to reptiles.

  4. [Proposed model of executive functions based on factorial analyses].

    PubMed

    Tirapu-Ustarroz, J; Cordero-Andres, P; Luna-Lario, P; Hernaez-Goni, P

    2017-01-16

    Introduccion. Desde que Lezak acuñara el termino de funciones ejecutivas como las capacidades mentales esenciales para llevar a cabo una conducta eficaz, creativa y aceptada socialmente, estas han adquirido progresivo protagonismo en la investigacion neuropsicologica. Diversos modelos han sido planteados para explicar su naturaleza, pero no existe consenso respecto a si nos encontramos ante un constructo unitario o un sistema de procesamiento multimodal con componentes independientes, pero interconectados. Para conocer la estructura de este constructo se han utilizado estudios de lesion, neuroimagen y, recientemente, el analisis factorial, que se plantea como una metodologia prometedora para ampliar nuestro conocimiento sobre un concepto tan generico como las funciones ejecutivas. Desarrollo. El proposito de este estudio es realizar una revision sistematica de modelos factoriales de atencion y control ejecutivo en adultos, entre los años 1991-2016, utilizando las bases de datos PubMed, OvidSP y PsycINFO. En total, se revisaron 33 articulos. A partir de la bibliografia, se realiza una propuesta integradora de los procesos ejecutivos. Conclusiones. Aunque no disponemos de un unico modelo que pueda explicar la complejidad de las funciones ejecutivas, si parece existir acuerdo respecto a su multidimensionalidad. En analisis factoriales, actualizacion, inhibicion y alternancia gozan de fuerte evidencia, si bien hay trabajos que plantean factores novedosos. Nuestra propuesta integradora trata de combinar los procesos ejecutivos hallados en la bibliografia con sus correspondientes correlatos neuroanatomicos, defendiendo que la metodologia ideal deberia utilizar informacion procedente de estudios de lesion, tecnicas de neuroimagen y modelos psicometricos-computacionales.

  5. Base Oil-Extreme Pressure Additive Synergy in Lubricants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Extreme pressure (EP) additives are those containing reactive elements such as sulfur, phosphorus, and chlorine. In lubrication processes that occur under extremely severe conditions (e.g., high pressure and/or slow speed), these elements undergo chemical reactions generating new materials (tribofi...

  6. Computer-based image-analyses of laminated shales, carboniferous of the Midcontinent and surrounding areas

    SciTech Connect

    Archer, A.W. . Dept. of Geology)

    1993-02-01

    Computerized image-analyses of petrographic data can greatly facilitate the quantification of detailed descriptions and analyses of fine-scale fabric, or petrofabric. In thinly laminated rocks, manual measurement of successive lamina thicknesses is very time consuming, especially when applied to thick, cored sequences. In particular, images of core materials can be digitized and the resulting image then processed as a large matrix. Using such techniques, it is relatively easy to automate continuous measurements of lamina thickness and lateral continuity. This type of analyses has been applied to a variety of Carboniferous strata, particularly those siliciclastics that occur within the outside shale' portions of Kansas cyclothems. Of the various sedimentological processes capable of producing such non-random thickness variations, a model invoking tidal processes appears to be particularly robust. Tidal sedimentation could not only have resulted in the deposition of individual lamina, but in addition tidal-height variations during various phases of the lunar orbit can serve to explain the systematic variations. Comparison of these Carboniferous shales with similar laminations formed in modern high tidal-range environments indicates many similarities. These modern analogs include the Bay of Fundy in Canada, and Bay of Mont-Staint-Michel in France. Lamina-thickness variations, in specific cases, can be correlated with known tidal periodicities. In addition, in some samples, details of the tidal regime can be interpolated, such as the nature of the tidal system (i.e., diurnal or semidiurnal) and some indicators of tidal range can be ascertained based upon modern analogs.

  7. Acid-base bifunctional catalytic surfaces for nucleophilic addition reactions.

    PubMed

    Motokura, Ken; Tada, Mizuki; Iwasawa, Yasuhiro

    2008-09-01

    This article illustrates the modification of oxide surfaces with organic amine functional groups to create acid-base bifunctional catalysts, summarizing our previous reports and also presenting new data. Immobilization of organic amines as bases on inorganic solid-acid surfaces afforded highly active acid-base bifunctional catalysts, which enabled various organic transformations including C--C coupling reactions, though these reactions did not proceed with either the homogeneous amine precursors or the acidic supports alone. Spectroscopic characterization, such as by solid-state MAS NMR and FTIR, revealed not only the interactions between acidic and basic sites but also bifunctional catalytic reaction mechanisms.

  8. SOCR Analyses - an Instructional Java Web-based Statistical Analysis Toolkit.

    PubMed

    Chu, Annie; Cui, Jenny; Dinov, Ivo D

    2009-03-01

    The Statistical Online Computational Resource (SOCR) designs web-based tools for educational use in a variety of undergraduate courses (Dinov 2006). Several studies have demonstrated that these resources significantly improve students' motivation and learning experiences (Dinov et al. 2008). SOCR Analyses is a new component that concentrates on data modeling and analysis using parametric and non-parametric techniques supported with graphical model diagnostics. Currently implemented analyses include commonly used models in undergraduate statistics courses like linear models (Simple Linear Regression, Multiple Linear Regression, One-Way and Two-Way ANOVA). In addition, we implemented tests for sample comparisons, such as t-test in the parametric category; and Wilcoxon rank sum test, Kruskal-Wallis test, Friedman's test, in the non-parametric category. SOCR Analyses also include several hypothesis test models, such as Contingency tables, Friedman's test and Fisher's exact test.The code itself is open source (http://socr.googlecode.com/), hoping to contribute to the efforts of the statistical computing community. The code includes functionality for each specific analysis model and it has general utilities that can be applied in various statistical computing tasks. For example, concrete methods with API (Application Programming Interface) have been implemented in statistical summary, least square solutions of general linear models, rank calculations, etc. HTML interfaces, tutorials, source code, activities, and data are freely available via the web (www.SOCR.ucla.edu). Code examples for developers and demos for educators are provided on the SOCR Wiki website.In this article, the pedagogical utilization of the SOCR Analyses is discussed, as well as the underlying design framework. As the SOCR project is on-going and more functions and tools are being added to it, these resources are constantly improved. The reader is strongly encouraged to check the SOCR site for most

  9. SOCR Analyses – an Instructional Java Web-based Statistical Analysis Toolkit

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Annie; Cui, Jenny; Dinov, Ivo D.

    2011-01-01

    The Statistical Online Computational Resource (SOCR) designs web-based tools for educational use in a variety of undergraduate courses (Dinov 2006). Several studies have demonstrated that these resources significantly improve students' motivation and learning experiences (Dinov et al. 2008). SOCR Analyses is a new component that concentrates on data modeling and analysis using parametric and non-parametric techniques supported with graphical model diagnostics. Currently implemented analyses include commonly used models in undergraduate statistics courses like linear models (Simple Linear Regression, Multiple Linear Regression, One-Way and Two-Way ANOVA). In addition, we implemented tests for sample comparisons, such as t-test in the parametric category; and Wilcoxon rank sum test, Kruskal-Wallis test, Friedman's test, in the non-parametric category. SOCR Analyses also include several hypothesis test models, such as Contingency tables, Friedman's test and Fisher's exact test. The code itself is open source (http://socr.googlecode.com/), hoping to contribute to the efforts of the statistical computing community. The code includes functionality for each specific analysis model and it has general utilities that can be applied in various statistical computing tasks. For example, concrete methods with API (Application Programming Interface) have been implemented in statistical summary, least square solutions of general linear models, rank calculations, etc. HTML interfaces, tutorials, source code, activities, and data are freely available via the web (www.SOCR.ucla.edu). Code examples for developers and demos for educators are provided on the SOCR Wiki website. In this article, the pedagogical utilization of the SOCR Analyses is discussed, as well as the underlying design framework. As the SOCR project is on-going and more functions and tools are being added to it, these resources are constantly improved. The reader is strongly encouraged to check the SOCR site for most

  10. Meta-Analyses and Orthodontic Evidence-Based Clinical Practice in the 21st Century

    PubMed Central

    Papadopoulos, Moschos A.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Aim of this systematic review was to assess the orthodontic related issues which currently provide the best evidence as documented by meta-analyses, by critically evaluating and discussing the methodology used in these studies. Material and Methods: Several electronic databases were searched and handsearching was also performed in order to identify the corresponding meta-analyses investigating orthodontic related subjects. In total, 197 studies were retrieved initially. After applying specific inclusion and exclusion criteria, 27 articles were identified as meta-analyses treating orthodontic-related subjects. Results: Many of these 27 papers presented sufficient quality and followed appropriate meta-analytic approaches to quantitatively synthesize data and presented adequately supported evidence. However, the methodology used in some of them presented weaknesses, limitations or deficiencies. Consequently, the topics in orthodontics which currently provide the best evidence, include some issues related to Class II or Class III treatment, treatment of transverse problems, external apical root resorption, dental anomalies, such as congenital missing teeth and tooth transposition, frequency of severe occlusal problems, nickel hypersensitivity, obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, and computer-assisted learning in orthodontic education. Conclusions: Only a few orthodontic related issues have been so far investigated by means of MAs. In addition, for some of these issues investigated in the corresponding MAs no definite conclusions could be drawn, due to significant methodological deficiencies of these studies. According to this investigation, it can be concluded that at the begin of the 21st century there is evidence for only a few orthodontic related issues as documented by meta-analyses, and more well-conducted high quality research studies are needed to produce strong evidence in order to support evidence-based clinical practice in orthodontics. PMID

  11. Validating Trial-Based Functional Analyses in Mainstream Primary School Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Jennifer L.; Groves, Emily A.; Reynish, Lisa C.; Francis, Laura L.

    2015-01-01

    There is growing evidence to support the use of trial-based functional analyses, particularly in classroom settings. However, there currently are no evaluations of this procedure with typically developing children. Furthermore, it is possible that refinements may be needed to adapt trial-based analyses to mainstream classrooms. This study was…

  12. Additivity of Feature-Based and Symmetry-Based Grouping Effects in Multiple Object Tracking.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chundi; Zhang, Xuemin; Li, Yongna; Lyu, Chuang

    2016-01-01

    Multiple object tracking (MOT) is an attentional process wherein people track several moving targets among several distractors. Symmetry, an important indicator of regularity, is a general spatial pattern observed in natural and artificial scenes. According to the "laws of perceptual organization" proposed by Gestalt psychologists, regularity is a principle of perceptual grouping, such as similarity and closure. A great deal of research reported that feature-based similarity grouping (e.g., grouping based on color, size, or shape) among targets in MOT tasks can improve tracking performance. However, no additive feature-based grouping effects have been reported where the tracking objects had two or more features. "Additive effect" refers to a greater grouping effect produced by grouping based on multiple cues instead of one cue. Can spatial symmetry produce a similar grouping effect similar to that of feature similarity in MOT tasks? Are the grouping effects based on symmetry and feature similarity additive? This study includes four experiments to address these questions. The results of Experiments 1 and 2 demonstrated the automatic symmetry-based grouping effects. More importantly, an additive grouping effect of symmetry and feature similarity was observed in Experiments 3 and 4. Our findings indicate that symmetry can produce an enhanced grouping effect in MOT and facilitate the grouping effect based on color or shape similarity. The "where" and "what" pathways might have played an important role in the additive grouping effect.

  13. Additivity of Feature-Based and Symmetry-Based Grouping Effects in Multiple Object Tracking

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chundi; Zhang, Xuemin; Li, Yongna; Lyu, Chuang

    2016-01-01

    Multiple object tracking (MOT) is an attentional process wherein people track several moving targets among several distractors. Symmetry, an important indicator of regularity, is a general spatial pattern observed in natural and artificial scenes. According to the “laws of perceptual organization” proposed by Gestalt psychologists, regularity is a principle of perceptual grouping, such as similarity and closure. A great deal of research reported that feature-based similarity grouping (e.g., grouping based on color, size, or shape) among targets in MOT tasks can improve tracking performance. However, no additive feature-based grouping effects have been reported where the tracking objects had two or more features. “Additive effect” refers to a greater grouping effect produced by grouping based on multiple cues instead of one cue. Can spatial symmetry produce a similar grouping effect similar to that of feature similarity in MOT tasks? Are the grouping effects based on symmetry and feature similarity additive? This study includes four experiments to address these questions. The results of Experiments 1 and 2 demonstrated the automatic symmetry-based grouping effects. More importantly, an additive grouping effect of symmetry and feature similarity was observed in Experiments 3 and 4. Our findings indicate that symmetry can produce an enhanced grouping effect in MOT and facilitate the grouping effect based on color or shape similarity. The “where” and “what” pathways might have played an important role in the additive grouping effect. PMID:27199875

  14. System and method for high power diode based additive manufacturing

    DOEpatents

    El-Dasher, Bassem S.; Bayramian, Andrew; Demuth, James A.; Farmer, Joseph C.; Torres, Sharon G.

    2016-04-12

    A system is disclosed for performing an Additive Manufacturing (AM) fabrication process on a powdered material forming a substrate. The system may make use of a diode array for generating an optical signal sufficient to melt a powdered material of the substrate. A mask may be used for preventing a first predetermined portion of the optical signal from reaching the substrate, while allowing a second predetermined portion to reach the substrate. At least one processor may be used for controlling an output of the diode array.

  15. Activity Based Curriculum for Elementary Education. Additional Activities, K-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wichita Public Schools, KS.

    This elementary curriculum is a vehicle to provide manipulative activities that reinforce academic skills through meaningful, relevant, activity-based awareness of modern society. The twenty-six activity plans included in the curriculum place a major emphasis upon realistic or concrete experiences that deal with the manipulation and exploration of…

  16. Multiscale Modeling of Powder Bed-Based Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markl, Matthias; Körner, Carolin

    2016-07-01

    Powder bed fusion processes are additive manufacturing technologies that are expected to induce the third industrial revolution. Components are built up layer by layer in a powder bed by selectively melting confined areas, according to sliced 3D model data. This technique allows for manufacturing of highly complex geometries hardly machinable with conventional technologies. However, the underlying physical phenomena are sparsely understood and difficult to observe during processing. Therefore, an intensive and expensive trial-and-error principle is applied to produce components with the desired dimensional accuracy, material characteristics, and mechanical properties. This review presents numerical modeling approaches on multiple length scales and timescales to describe different aspects of powder bed fusion processes. In combination with tailored experiments, the numerical results enlarge the process understanding of the underlying physical mechanisms and support the development of suitable process strategies and component topologies.

  17. Fingerprinting protocol for images based on additive homomorphic property.

    PubMed

    Kuribayashi, Minoru; Tanaka, Hatsukazu

    2005-12-01

    Homomorphic property of public-key cryptosystems is applied for several cryptographic protocols, such as electronic cash, voting system, bidding protocols, etc. Several fingerprinting protocols also exploit the property to achieve an asymmetric system. However, their enciphering rate is extremely low and the implementation of watermarking technique is difficult. In this paper, we propose a new fingerprinting protocol applying additive homomorphic property of Okamoto-Uchiyama encryption scheme. Exploiting the property ingenuously, the enciphering rate of our fingerprinting scheme can be close to the corresponding cryptosystem. We study the problem of implementation of watermarking technique and propose a successful method to embed an encrypted information without knowing the plain value. The security can also be protected for both a buyer and a merchant in our scheme.

  18. Orbitrap-based mass analyser for in-situ characterization of asteroids: ILMA, Ion Laser Mass Analyser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briois, C.; Cotti, H.; Thirkell, L.; Space Orbitrap Consortium[K. Aradj, French; Bouabdellah, A.; Boukrara, A.; Carrasco, N.; Chalumeau, G.; Chapelon, O.; Colin, F.; Coll, P.; Engrand, C.; Grand, N.; Kukui, A.; Lebreton, J.-P.; Pennanech, C.; Szopa, C.; Thissen, R.; Vuitton, V.; Zapf], P.; Makarov, A.

    2014-07-01

    Since about a decade the boundaries between comets and carbonaceous asteroids are fading [1,2]. No doubt that the Rosetta mission should bring a new wealth of data on the composition of comets. But as promising as it may look, the mass resolving power of the mass spectrometers onboard (so far the best on a space mission) will only be able to partially account for the diversity of chemical structures present. ILMA (Ion-Laser Mass Analyser) is a new generation high mass resolution LDI-MS (Laser Desorption-Ionization Mass Spectrometer) instrument concept using the Orbitrap technique, which has been developed in the frame of the two Marco Polo & Marco Polo-R proposals to the ESA Cosmic Vision program. Flagged by ESA as an instrument concept of interest for the mission in 2012, it has been under study for a few years in the frame of a Research and Technology (R&T) development programme between 5 French laboratories (LPC2E, IPAG, LATMOS, LISA, CSNSM) [3,4], partly funded by the French Space Agency (CNES). The work is undertaken in close collaboration with the Thermo Fisher Scientific Company, which commercialises Orbitrap-based laboratory instruments. The R&T activities are currently concentrating on the core elements of the Orbitrap analyser that are required to reach a sufficient maturity level for allowing design studies of future space instruments. A prototype is under development at LPC2E and a mass resolution (m/Δm FWHM) of 100,000 as been obtained at m/z = 150 for a background pressure of 10^{-8} mbar. ILMA would be a key instrument to measure the molecular, elemental and isotopic composition of objects such as carbonaceous asteroids, comets, or other bodies devoid of atmosphere such as the surface of an icy satellite, the Moon, or Mercury.

  19. Catechol-based matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors with additional antioxidative activity.

    PubMed

    Tauro, Marilena; Laghezza, Antonio; Loiodice, Fulvio; Piemontese, Luca; Caradonna, Alessia; Capelli, Davide; Montanari, Roberta; Pochetti, Giorgio; Di Pizio, Antonella; Agamennone, Mariangela; Campestre, Cristina; Tortorella, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    New catechol-containing chemical entities have been investigated as matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors as well as antioxidant molecules. The combination of the two properties could represent a useful feature due to the potential application in all the pathological processes characterized by increased proteolytic activity and radical oxygen species (ROS) production, such as inflammation and photoaging. A series of catechol-based molecules were synthesized and tested for both proteolytic and oxidative inhibitory activity, and the detailed binding mode was assessed by crystal structure determination of the complex between a catechol derivative and the matrix metalloproteinase-8. Surprisingly, X-ray structure reveals that the catechol oxygens do not coordinates the zinc atom.

  20. Analyses of a Cantilever-Beam Based Instrument for Evaluating the Development of Polymerization Stresses

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Martin Y.M.; Giuseppetti, Anthony A. M.; Qian, Jing; Dunkers, Joy P.; Antonucci, Joseph M.; Schumacher, Gary E.; Gibson, Sheng-Lin

    2011-01-01

    Polymerization stress (PS) remains one of the most critical properties of polymeric dental materials, yet methods that can accurately quantify PS has been limited in part due to the complexity of polymerization, and in part due to the instrumentation itself. In this study, we performed analytical and finite element analyses on a cantilever-beam based tensometer to evaluate shrinkage stresses during the polymerization of dental restorative composite. Results for these analyses were used to generate 1) guidelines for designing a tensometer that satisfies the necessary accuracy requirements, and 2) a formula for calculating PS and the instrument sensitivity. The PS generated by a commercial dental composite determined using our new tensometer agrees with the predicted trend when the beam length and/or specimen height is varied. An analytical solution is also derived for the vertical deflection of beam, which can be used for any combination of bending and shearing to properly calculate the PS. This work demonstrates the importance of beam dimension and component relative rigidity to the accuracy of PS evaluation. In addition, an easy-to-conduct calibration procedure is provided that is desirable for periodic tensometer recalibration. PMID:21714998

  1. Interactions between organic additives and active powders in water-based lithium iron phosphate electrode slurries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chia-Chen; Lin, Yu-Sheng

    2012-12-01

    The interactions of organic additives with active powders are investigated and are found to have great influence on the determination of the mixing process for preparing electrode slurries with good dispersion and electrochemical properties of lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4) electrodes. Based on the analyses of zeta potential, sedimentation, and rheology, it is shown that LiFePO4 prefers to interact with styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) relative to other organic additives such as sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (SCMC), and thus shows preferential adsorption by SBR, whereas SBR has much lower efficiency than SCMC in dispersing LiFePO4. Therefore, for SCMC to interact with and disperse LiFePO4 before the interaction of LiFePO4 with SBR, it is suggested to mix SCMC with LiFePO4 prior to the addition of SBR during the slurry preparation process. For the electrode prepared via the suggested process, i.e., the sequenced adding process in which SCMC is mixed with active powders prior to the addition of SBR, a much better electrochemical performance is obtained than that of the one prepared via the process referred as the simultaneous adding process, in which mixing of SCMC and SBR with active powders in simultaneous.

  2. Synthesis, characterization, and evaluation of 10-undecenoic acid-based epithio derivatives as multifunctional additives.

    PubMed

    Geethanjali, Gorla; Padmaja, Korlipara V; Sammaiah, Arukali; Prasad, Rachapudi B N

    2014-11-26

    Novel epithio compounds from alkyl epoxy undecanoates (n-alkyl, C1, C4, and C6; isoalkyl, C3, C4, and C8) were synthesized using an ammonium thiocyanate in ionic liquid 1-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate/H2O (2:1) solvent system in 85-90% yields by gas chromatographic (GC) analysis. The synthesized products were characterized by (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), gas chromatography, and GC mass spectral (GC-MS) analyses and evaluated for their antioxidant, extreme pressure (EP), and antiwear (AW) properties in three different base oils, namely, epoxy jatropha fatty acid n-butyl esters (EJB), di-2-ethylhexyl sebacate (DOS), and mineral oil (S-105). Among the synthesized products, n-butyl epithio undecanoate exhibited superior antioxidant property (229.2 °C) compared to butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT, 193.8 °C) in base oil DOS and comparable performance in EJB and S-105 base oils. All of the epithio derivatives exhibited significantly enhanced weld point for the base oils EJB and DOS at 2 wt % level and displayed moderate enhancement in S-105 base oil. Methyl epithio undecanoate at 0.6% concentration exhibited considerable improvement in the wear scar of DOS base oil. The synthesized epithio derivatives have potential as multifunctional additives in lubricant formulations.

  3. How Can Meta-Analyses Guide Practice? A Review of the Learning Disability Research Base

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Therrien, William J.; Zaman, Maliha; Banda, Devender R.

    2011-01-01

    Meta-analysis is considered an acceptable method to evaluate research studies for evidence-based practices. The purpose of this review is to examine the applicability of using meta-analyses in the learning disability field to guide classroom practice. The authors evaluated 15 learning disability meta-analyses in three domains: large-scale…

  4. Fall 2014 SEI Research Review Contract-Based Integration of CPS Analyses

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-28

    2014 Carnegie Mellon University Fall 2014 SEI Research Review Contract-Based Integration of CPS Analyses Software Engineering Institute...DATE 28 OCT 2014 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Contract-Based Integration of CPS Analyses - SEI Research Review...etc. Large CPS are integrated out of components developed by suppliers that use their own analysis methods and make their own assumptions

  5. Phylogenetic analyses and characterization of RNase X25 from Drosophila melanogaster suggest a conserved housekeeping role and additional functions for RNase T2 enzymes in protostomes.

    PubMed

    Ambrosio, Linda; Morriss, Stephanie; Riaz, Ayesha; Bailey, Ryan; Ding, Jian; MacIntosh, Gustavo C

    2014-01-01

    Ribonucleases belonging to the RNase T2 family are enzymes associated with the secretory pathway that are almost absolutely conserved in all eukaryotes. Studies in plants and vertebrates suggest they have an important housekeeping function in rRNA recycling. However, little is known about this family of enzymes in protostomes. We characterized RNase X25, the only RNase T2 enzyme in Drosophila melanogaster. We found that RNase X25 is the major contributor of ribonuclease activity in flies as detected by in gel assays, and has an acidic pH preference. Gene expression analyses showed that the RNase X25 transcript is present in all adult tissues and developmental stages. RNase X25 expression is elevated in response to nutritional stresses; consistent with the hypothesis that this enzyme has a housekeeping role in recycling RNA. A correlation between induction of RNase X25 expression and autophagy was observed. Moreover, induction of gene expression was triggered by oxidative stress suggesting that RNase X25 may have additional roles in stress responses. Phylogenetic analyses of this family in protostomes showed that RNase T2 genes have undergone duplication events followed by divergence in several phyla, including the loss of catalytic residues, and suggest that RNase T2 proteins have acquired novel functions. Among those, it is likely that a role in host immunosuppression evolved independently in several groups, including parasitic Platyhelminthes and parasitoid wasps. The presence of only one RNase T2 gene in the D. melanogaster genome, without any other evident secretory RNase activity detected, makes this organism an ideal system to study the cellular functions of RNase T2 proteins associated with RNA recycling and maintenance of cellular homeostasis. On the other hand, the discovery of gene duplications in several protostome genomes also presents interesting new avenues to study additional biological functions of this ancient family of proteins.

  6. Statistical Reform: Evidence-Based Practice, Meta-Analyses, and Single Subject Designs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenson, William R.; Clark, Elaine; Kircher, John C.; Kristjansson, Sean D.

    2007-01-01

    Evidence-based practice approaches to interventions has come of age and promises to provide a new standard of excellence for school psychologists. This article describes several definitions of evidence-based practice and the problems associated with traditional statistical analyses that rely on rejection of the null hypothesis for the…

  7. Additive SMILES-based optimal descriptors in QSAR modelling bee toxicity: Using rare SMILES attributes to define the applicability domain.

    PubMed

    Toropov, A A; Benfenati, E

    2008-05-01

    The additive SMILES-based optimal descriptors have been used for modelling the bee toxicity. The influence of relative prevalence of the SMILES attributes in a training and test sets to the models for bee toxicity has been analysed. Avoiding the use of rare attributes improves statistical characteristics of the model on the external test set. The possibility of using the probability of the presence of SMILES attributes in training and test sets for rational definition of the applicability domain is discussed.

  8. Ecology of Subglacial Lake Vostok (Antarctica), Based on Metagenomic/Metatranscriptomic Analyses of Accretion Ice

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Scott O.; Shtarkman, Yury M.; Koçer, Zeynep A.; Edgar, Robyn; Veerapaneni, Ram; D’Elia, Tom

    2013-01-01

    Lake Vostok is the largest of the nearly 400 subglacial Antarctic lakes and has been continuously buried by glacial ice for 15 million years. Extreme cold, heat (from possible hydrothermal activity), pressure (from the overriding glacier) and dissolved oxygen (delivered by melting meteoric ice), in addition to limited nutrients and complete darkness, combine to produce one of the most extreme environments on Earth. Metagenomic/metatranscriptomic analyses of ice that accreted over a shallow embayment and over the southern main lake basin indicate the presence of thousands of species of organisms (94% Bacteria, 6% Eukarya, and two Archaea). The predominant bacterial sequences were closest to those from species of Firmicutes, Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria, while the predominant eukaryotic sequences were most similar to those from species of ascomycetous and basidiomycetous Fungi. Based on the sequence data, the lake appears to contain a mixture of autotrophs and heterotrophs capable of performing nitrogen fixation, nitrogen cycling, carbon fixation and nutrient recycling. Sequences closest to those of psychrophiles and thermophiles indicate a cold lake with possible hydrothermal activity. Sequences most similar to those from marine and aquatic species suggest the presence of marine and freshwater regions. PMID:24832801

  9. Ecology of subglacial lake vostok (antarctica), based on metagenomic/metatranscriptomic analyses of accretion ice.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Scott O; Shtarkman, Yury M; Koçer, Zeynep A; Edgar, Robyn; Veerapaneni, Ram; D'Elia, Tom

    2013-03-28

    Lake Vostok is the largest of the nearly 400 subglacial Antarctic lakes and has been continuously buried by glacial ice for 15 million years. Extreme cold, heat (from possible hydrothermal activity), pressure (from the overriding glacier) and dissolved oxygen (delivered by melting meteoric ice), in addition to limited nutrients and complete darkness, combine to produce one of the most extreme environments on Earth. Metagenomic/metatranscriptomic analyses of ice that accreted over a shallow embayment and over the southern main lake basin indicate the presence of thousands of species of organisms (94% Bacteria, 6% Eukarya, and two Archaea). The predominant bacterial sequences were closest to those from species of Firmicutes, Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria, while the predominant eukaryotic sequences were most similar to those from species of ascomycetous and basidiomycetous Fungi. Based on the sequence data, the lake appears to contain a mixture of autotrophs and heterotrophs capable of performing nitrogen fixation, nitrogen cycling, carbon fixation and nutrient recycling. Sequences closest to those of psychrophiles and thermophiles indicate a cold lake with possible hydrothermal activity. Sequences most similar to those from marine and aquatic species suggest the presence of marine and freshwater regions.

  10. Gene set based association analyses for the WSSV resistance of Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yang; Liu, Jingwen; Li, Fuhua; Zhang, Xiaojun; Zhang, Chengsong; Xiang, Jianhai

    2017-01-17

    White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) is regarded as a virus with the strongest pathogenicity to shrimp. For the threshold trait such as disease resistance, marker assisted selection (MAS) was considered to be a more effective approach. In the present study, association analyses of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located in a set of immune related genes were conducted to identify markers associated with WSSV resistance. SNPs were detected by bioinformatics analysis on RNA sequencing data generated by Illimina sequencing platform and Roche 454 sequencing technology. A total of 681 SNPs located in the exons of immune related genes were selected as candidate SNPs. Among these SNPs, 77 loci were genotyped in WSSV susceptible group and resistant group. Association analysis was performed based on logistic regression method under an additive and dominance model in GenABEL package. As a result, five SNPs showed associations with WSSV resistance at a significant level of 0.05. Besides, SNP-SNP interaction analysis was conducted. The combination of SNP loci in TRAF6, Cu/Zn SOD and nLvALF2 exhibited a significant effect on the WSSV resistance of shrimp. Gene expression analysis revealed that these SNPs might influence the expression of these immune-related genes. This study provides a useful method for performing MAS in shrimp.

  11. Gene set based association analyses for the WSSV resistance of Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yang; Liu, Jingwen; Li, Fuhua; Zhang, Xiaojun; Zhang, Chengsong; Xiang, Jianhai

    2017-01-01

    White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) is regarded as a virus with the strongest pathogenicity to shrimp. For the threshold trait such as disease resistance, marker assisted selection (MAS) was considered to be a more effective approach. In the present study, association analyses of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located in a set of immune related genes were conducted to identify markers associated with WSSV resistance. SNPs were detected by bioinformatics analysis on RNA sequencing data generated by Illimina sequencing platform and Roche 454 sequencing technology. A total of 681 SNPs located in the exons of immune related genes were selected as candidate SNPs. Among these SNPs, 77 loci were genotyped in WSSV susceptible group and resistant group. Association analysis was performed based on logistic regression method under an additive and dominance model in GenABEL package. As a result, five SNPs showed associations with WSSV resistance at a significant level of 0.05. Besides, SNP-SNP interaction analysis was conducted. The combination of SNP loci in TRAF6, Cu/Zn SOD and nLvALF2 exhibited a significant effect on the WSSV resistance of shrimp. Gene expression analysis revealed that these SNPs might influence the expression of these immune-related genes. This study provides a useful method for performing MAS in shrimp. PMID:28094323

  12. Characterization of Ti and Co based biomaterials processed via laser based additive manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahasrabudhe, Himanshu

    Titanium and Cobalt based metallic materials are currently the most ideal materials for load-bearing metallic bio medical applications. However, the long term tribological degradation of these materials still remains a problem that needs a solution. To improve the tribological performance of these two metallic systems, three different research approaches were adapted, stemming out four different research projects. First, the simplicity of laser gas nitriding was utilized with a modern LENS(TM) technology to form an in situ nitride rich later in titanium substrate material. This nitride rich composite coating improved the hardness by as much as fifteen times and reduced the wear rate by more than a magnitude. The leaching of metallic ions during wear was also reduced by four times. In the second research project, a mixture of titanium and silicon were processed on a titanium substrate in a nitrogen rich environment. The results of this reactive, in situ additive manufacturing process were Ti-Si-Nitride coatings that were harder than the titanium substrate by more than twenty times. These coatings also reduced the wear rate by more than two magnitudes. In the third research approach, composites of CoCrMo alloy and Calcium phosphate (CaP) bio ceramic were processed using LENS(TM) based additive manufacturing. These composites were effective in reducing the wear in the CoCrMo alloy by more than three times as well as reduce the leaching of cobalt and chromium ions during wear. The novel composite materials were found to develop a tribofilm during wear. In the final project, a combination of hard nitride coating and addition of CaP bioceramic was investigated by processing a mixture of Ti6Al4V alloy and CaP in a nitrogen rich environment using the LENS(TM) technology. The resultant Ti64-CaP-Nitride coatings significantly reduced the wear damage on the substrate. There was also a drastic reduction in the metal ions leached during wear. The results indicate that the three

  13. Halogen-free ionic liquid as an additive in zinc(II)-selective electrode: surface analyses as correlated to the membrane activity.

    PubMed

    Al-Asousi, Maryam F; Shoukry, Adel F; Bu-Olayan, Abdul Hadi

    2012-05-30

    Two conventional Zn(II) polyvinyl chloride (PVC) membrane electrodes have been prepared and characterized. They were based on dibenzo-24-crown-8 (DBC) as a neutral carrier, dioctyl phthalate (DOP) as a plasticizer, and potassium tetrakis (p-chlorophenyl) borate, KTpClPB or the halogen-free ionic liquid, tetraoctylammonium dodecylbenzene sulfonate [TOA][DBS] as an additive. The use of ionic liquid has been found to enhance the selectivity of the sensor. For each electrode, the surfaces of two membranes were investigated using X-ray photoelectron, ion-scattering spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. One of the two membranes was conditioned by soaking it for 24 h in a 1.0×10(-3) M Zn(NO(3))(2) solution and the second was soaked in bi-distilled water for the same interval (24 h). Comparing the two surfaces indicated the following: (a) the high selectivity in case of using [TOA][DBS] as an additive is due to the extra mediation caused by the ionic liquid and (b) the working mechanism of the electrode is based on phase equilibrium at the surface of the membrane associated with ion transport through the bulk of the membrane.

  14. Basing assessment and treatment of problem behavior on behavioral momentum theory: Analyses of behavioral persistence.

    PubMed

    Schieltz, Kelly M; Wacker, David P; Ringdahl, Joel E; Berg, Wendy K

    2017-02-17

    The connection, or bridge, between applied and basic behavior analysis has been long-established (Hake, 1982; Mace & Critchfield, 2010). In this article, we describe how clinical decisions can be based more directly on behavioral processes and how basing clinical procedures on behavioral processes can lead to improved clinical outcomes. As a case in point, we describe how applied behavior analyses of maintenance, and specifically the long-term maintenance of treatment effects related to problem behavior, can be adjusted and potentially enhanced by basing treatment on Behavioral Momentum Theory. We provide a brief review of the literature including descriptions of two translational studies that proposed changes in how differential reinforcement of alternative behavior treatments are conducted based on Behavioral Momentum Theory. We then describe current clinical examples of how these translations are continuing to impact the definitions, designs, analyses, and treatment procedures used in our clinical practice.

  15. A Server-Client-Based Graphical Development Environment for Physics Analyses (VISPA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bretz, H.-P.; Erdmann, M.; Fischer, R.; Hinzmann, A.; Klingebiel, D.; Komm, M.; Müller, G.; Rieger, M.; Steffens, J.; Steggemann, J.; and, M. Urban; Winchen, T.

    2012-12-01

    The Visual Physics Analysis (VISPA) project provides a graphical development environment for data analysis. It addresses the typical development cycle of (re-)designing, executing, and verifying an analysis. We present the new server-client-based web application of the VISPA project to perform physics analyses via a standard internet browser. This enables individual scientists to work with a large variety of devices including touch screens, and teams of scientists to share, develop, and execute analyses on a server via the web interface.

  16. TripleR: an R package for social relations analyses based on round-robin designs.

    PubMed

    Schönbrodt, Felix D; Back, Mitja D; Schmukle, Stefan C

    2012-06-01

    In this article, we present TripleR, an R package for the calculation of social relations analyses (Kenny, 1994) based on round-robin designs. The scope of existing software solutions is ported to R and enhanced with previously unimplemented methods of significance testing in single groups (Lashley & Bond, 1997) and handling of missing values. The package requires only minimal knowledge of R, and results can be exported for subsequent analyses to other software packages. We demonstrate the use of TripleR with several didactic examples.

  17. Deciphering Clostridium tyrobutyricum Metabolism Based on the Whole-Genome Sequence and Proteome Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Joungmin; Jang, Yu-Sin; Han, Mee-Jung; Kim, Jin Young

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Clostridium tyrobutyricum is a Gram-positive anaerobic bacterium that efficiently produces butyric acid and is considered a promising host for anaerobic production of bulk chemicals. Due to limited knowledge on the genetic and metabolic characteristics of this strain, however, little progress has been made in metabolic engineering of this strain. Here we report the complete genome sequence of C. tyrobutyricum KCTC 5387 (ATCC 25755), which consists of a 3.07-Mbp chromosome and a 63-kbp plasmid. The results of genomic analyses suggested that C. tyrobutyricum produces butyrate from butyryl-coenzyme A (butyryl-CoA) through acetate reassimilation by CoA transferase, differently from Clostridium acetobutylicum, which uses the phosphotransbutyrylase-butyrate kinase pathway; this was validated by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) of related genes, protein expression levels, in vitro CoA transferase assay, and fed-batch fermentation. In addition, the changes in protein expression levels during the course of batch fermentations on glucose were examined by shotgun proteomics. Unlike C. acetobutylicum, the expression levels of proteins involved in glycolytic and fermentative pathways in C. tyrobutyricum did not decrease even at the stationary phase. Proteins related to energy conservation mechanisms, including Rnf complex, NfnAB, and pyruvate-phosphate dikinase that are absent in C. acetobutylicum, were identified. Such features explain why this organism can produce butyric acid to a much higher titer and better tolerate toxic metabolites. This study presenting the complete genome sequence, global protein expression profiles, and genome-based metabolic characteristics during the batch fermentation of C. tyrobutyricum will be valuable in designing strategies for metabolic engineering of this strain. PMID:27302759

  18. An additive manufacturing-based PCL-alginate-chondrocyte bioprinted scaffold for cartilage tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Kundu, Joydip; Shim, Jin-Hyung; Jang, Jinah; Kim, Sung-Won; Cho, Dong-Woo

    2015-11-01

    Regenerative medicine is targeted to improve, restore or replace damaged tissues or organs using a combination of cells, materials and growth factors. Both tissue engineering and developmental biology currently deal with the process of tissue self-assembly and extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition. In this investigation, additive manufacturing (AM) with a multihead deposition system (MHDS) was used to fabricate three-dimensional (3D) cell-printed scaffolds using layer-by-layer (LBL) deposition of polycaprolactone (PCL) and chondrocyte cell-encapsulated alginate hydrogel. Appropriate cell dispensing conditions and optimum alginate concentrations for maintaining cell viability were determined. In vitro cell-based biochemical assays were performed to determine glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), DNA and total collagen contents from different PCL-alginate gel constructs. PCL-alginate gels containing transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ) showed higher ECM formation. The 3D cell-printed scaffolds of PCL-alginate gel were implanted in the dorsal subcutaneous spaces of female nude mice. Histochemical [Alcian blue and haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining] and immunohistochemical (type II collagen) analyses of the retrieved implants after 4 weeks revealed enhanced cartilage tissue and type II collagen fibril formation in the PCL-alginate gel (+TGFβ) hybrid scaffold. In conclusion, we present an innovative cell-printed scaffold for cartilage regeneration fabricated by an advanced bioprinting technology.

  19. Molecular genotyping of Colletotrichum species based on arbitrarily primed PCR, A + T-Rich DNA, and nuclear DNA analyses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Freeman, S.; Pham, M.; Rodriguez, R.J.

    1993-01-01

    Molecular genotyping of Colletotrichum species based on arbitrarily primed PCR, A + T-rich DNA, and nuclear DNA analyses. Experimental Mycology 17, 309-322. Isolates of Colletotrichum were grouped into 10 separate species based on arbitrarily primed PCR (ap-PCR), A + T-rich DNA (AT-DNA) and nuclear DNA banding patterns. In general, the grouping of Colletotrichum isolates by these molecular approaches corresponded to that done by classical taxonomic identification, however, some exceptions were observed. PCR amplification of genomic DNA using four different primers allowed for reliable differentiation between isolates of the 10 species. HaeIII digestion patterns of AT-DNA also distinguished between species of Colletotrichum by generating species-specific band patterns. In addition, hybridization of the repetitive DNA element (GcpR1) to genomic DNA identified a unique set of Pst 1-digested nuclear DNA fragments in each of the 10 species of Colletotrichum tested. Multiple isolates of C. acutatum, C. coccodes, C. fragariae, C. lindemuthianum, C. magna, C. orbiculare, C. graminicola from maize, and C. graminicola from sorghum showed 86-100% intraspecies similarity based on ap-PCR and AT-DNA analyses. Interspecies similarity determined by ap-PCR and AT-DNA analyses varied between 0 and 33%. Three distinct banding patterns were detected in isolates of C. gloeosporioides from strawberry. Similarly, three different banding patterns were observed among isolates of C. musae from diseased banana.

  20. Valid randomization-based p-values for partially post hoc subgroup analyses

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Joseph J.; Rubin, Donald B.

    2015-01-01

    By ‘partially post-hoc’ subgroup analyses, we mean analyses that compare existing data from a randomized experiment—from which a subgroup specification is derived—to new, subgroup-only experimental data. We describe a motivating example in which partially post hoc subgroup analyses instigated statistical debate about a medical device’s efficacy. We clarify the source of such analyses’ invalidity and then propose a randomization-based approach for generating valid posterior predictive p-values for such partially post hoc subgroups. Lastly, we investigate the approach’s operating characteristics in a simple illustrative setting through a series of simulations, showing that it can have desirable properties under both null and alternative hypotheses. PMID:25959735

  1. Cloud-based bioinformatics workflow platform for large-scale next-generation sequencing analyses

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Bo; Madduri, Ravi K; Sotomayor, Borja; Chard, Kyle; Lacinski, Lukasz; Dave, Utpal J; Li, Jianqiang; Liu, Chunchen; Foster, Ian T

    2014-01-01

    Due to the upcoming data deluge of genome data, the need for storing and processing large-scale genome data, easy access to biomedical analyses tools, efficient data sharing and retrieval has presented significant challenges. The variability in data volume results in variable computing and storage requirements, therefore biomedical researchers are pursuing more reliable, dynamic and convenient methods for conducting sequencing analyses. This paper proposes a Cloud-based bioinformatics workflow platform for large-scale next-generation sequencing analyses, which enables reliable and highly scalable execution of sequencing analyses workflows in a fully automated manner. Our platform extends the existing Galaxy workflow system by adding data management capabilities for transferring large quantities of data efficiently and reliably (via Globus Transfer), domain-specific analyses tools preconfigured for immediate use by researchers (via user-specific tools integration), automatic deployment on Cloud for on-demand resource allocation and pay-as-you-go pricing (via Globus Provision), a Cloud provisioning tool for auto-scaling (via HTCondor scheduler), and the support for validating the correctness of workflows (via semantic verification tools). Two bioinformatics workflow use cases as well as performance evaluation are presented to validate the feasibility of the proposed approach. PMID:24462600

  2. Cloud-based bioinformatics workflow platform for large-scale next-generation sequencing analyses.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bo; Madduri, Ravi K; Sotomayor, Borja; Chard, Kyle; Lacinski, Lukasz; Dave, Utpal J; Li, Jianqiang; Liu, Chunchen; Foster, Ian T

    2014-06-01

    Due to the upcoming data deluge of genome data, the need for storing and processing large-scale genome data, easy access to biomedical analyses tools, efficient data sharing and retrieval has presented significant challenges. The variability in data volume results in variable computing and storage requirements, therefore biomedical researchers are pursuing more reliable, dynamic and convenient methods for conducting sequencing analyses. This paper proposes a Cloud-based bioinformatics workflow platform for large-scale next-generation sequencing analyses, which enables reliable and highly scalable execution of sequencing analyses workflows in a fully automated manner. Our platform extends the existing Galaxy workflow system by adding data management capabilities for transferring large quantities of data efficiently and reliably (via Globus Transfer), domain-specific analyses tools preconfigured for immediate use by researchers (via user-specific tools integration), automatic deployment on Cloud for on-demand resource allocation and pay-as-you-go pricing (via Globus Provision), a Cloud provisioning tool for auto-scaling (via HTCondor scheduler), and the support for validating the correctness of workflows (via semantic verification tools). Two bioinformatics workflow use cases as well as performance evaluation are presented to validate the feasibility of the proposed approach.

  3. Development and optimization of SERS-based immuno-nanosensor for single cell analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Honggang; Cullum, Brian M.

    2004-03-01

    Surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) is an extremely sensitive and selective spectroscopic technique commonly employed for trace environmental analyses. We are currently developing and optimizing novel SERS based immuno-nanosensors for the monitoring of protein expression within individual living cells. These sensors, based upon antibody bound, silver coated silica nanospheres, can be inserted into individual cells and non-invasively positioned to the subcellular location of interest using optical tweezers. Because a HeNe laser is used for excitation, both photodamage to cells and cellular autofluorescence are minimized. Fabrication of the nanosensors is performed by first depositing a thin layer of silver on silica nanospheres by either homogeneous chemical deposition or vapor deposition. This is followed by binding an antibody against the analyte of interest to the sensor"s surface. In this paper we have investigated and optimized the reduction conditions of a chemical deposition substrate fabrication method and have compared these substrates to three types of vapor deposited substrates: (1) single layer silver film over nanosphere (SFON), (2) dual layer silver film over nanosphere (DUAL-FON) substrates (produced by coating an additional layer of silver film over the SFON), and (3) multilayer silver film over nanosphere (MULTI-FON) substrates (prepared by repeated coatings of several silver films over a SFON). In the case of chemical deposition, parameters optimized included silver nitrate concentration, reaction temperature, and silver coating time of substrates. In general, we have found SFON substrates yield better signal-to-noise ratios (S/N) with less background than the optimized, chemically prepared substrates. Even greater SERS enhancements have been found using multilayered SERS substrates (i.e., DUAL-FON substrates and MULTI-FON substrates). Both the stability and S/N of these substrates are enhanced by using multiple silver layers compared to SFON

  4. Analysing task design and students' responses to context-based problems through different analytical frameworks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broman, Karolina; Bernholt, Sascha; Parchmann, Ilka

    2015-05-01

    Background:Context-based learning approaches are used to enhance students' interest in, and knowledge about, science. According to different empirical studies, students' interest is improved by applying these more non-conventional approaches, while effects on learning outcomes are less coherent. Hence, further insights are needed into the structure of context-based problems in comparison to traditional problems, and into students' problem-solving strategies. Therefore, a suitable framework is necessary, both for the analysis of tasks and strategies. Purpose:The aim of this paper is to explore traditional and context-based tasks as well as students' responses to exemplary tasks to identify a suitable framework for future design and analyses of context-based problems. The paper discusses different established frameworks and applies the Higher-Order Cognitive Skills/Lower-Order Cognitive Skills (HOCS/LOCS) taxonomy and the Model of Hierarchical Complexity in Chemistry (MHC-C) to analyse traditional tasks and students' responses. Sample:Upper secondary students (n=236) at the Natural Science Programme, i.e. possible future scientists, are investigated to explore learning outcomes when they solve chemistry tasks, both more conventional as well as context-based chemistry problems. Design and methods:A typical chemistry examination test has been analysed, first the test items in themselves (n=36), and thereafter 236 students' responses to one representative context-based problem. Content analysis using HOCS/LOCS and MHC-C frameworks has been applied to analyse both quantitative and qualitative data, allowing us to describe different problem-solving strategies. Results:The empirical results show that both frameworks are suitable to identify students' strategies, mainly focusing on recall of memorized facts when solving chemistry test items. Almost all test items were also assessing lower order thinking. The combination of frameworks with the chemistry syllabus has been

  5. Development of a Low-Cost SIA-Based Analyser for Water Samples

    PubMed Central

    Knochen, Moisés; Caamaño, Alejandro; Bentos, Heinkel

    2011-01-01

    An automated multiparametric water analyser was developed and evaluated. The system was based on Sequential Injection Analysis and featured a photometric detection system comprising a tricolour RGB LED source and a photodiode. A program compiled in Visual Basic was used to control the SIA flow system, the LEDs, and the data acquisition and processing. The program loads and executes methods written in ASCII and stored as text files. The system was capable of handling up to four methods simultaneously. When used to carry out methods based on the APHA standard methods, the figures of merit obtained were considered satisfactory for the purpose. The total cost was under US $4600. It was concluded that the analyser is appropriate for routine use and has potential for an increased number of simultaneous methods and for enhanced capabilities if new versions of the software are developed. PMID:21785573

  6. SNiPlay3: a web-based application for exploration and large scale analyses of genomic variations

    PubMed Central

    Dereeper, Alexis; Homa, Felix; Andres, Gwendoline; Sempere, Guilhem; Sarah, Gautier; Hueber, Yann; Dufayard, Jean-François; Ruiz, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    SNiPlay is a web-based tool for detection, management and analysis of genetic variants including both single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and InDels. Version 3 now extends functionalities in order to easily manage and exploit SNPs derived from next generation sequencing technologies, such as GBS (genotyping by sequencing), WGRS (whole gre-sequencing) and RNA-Seq technologies. Based on the standard VCF (variant call format) format, the application offers an intuitive interface for filtering and comparing polymorphisms using user-defined sets of individuals and then establishing a reliable genotyping data matrix for further analyses. Namely, in addition to the various scaled-up analyses allowed by the application (genomic annotation of SNP, diversity analysis, haplotype reconstruction and network, linkage disequilibrium), SNiPlay3 proposes new modules for GWAS (genome-wide association studies), population stratification, distance tree analysis and visualization of SNP density. Additionally, we developed a suite of Galaxy wrappers for each step of the SNiPlay3 process, so that the complete pipeline can also be deployed on a Galaxy instance using the Galaxy ToolShed procedure and then be computed as a Galaxy workflow. SNiPlay is accessible at http://sniplay.southgreen.fr. PMID:26040700

  7. SNiPlay3: a web-based application for exploration and large scale analyses of genomic variations.

    PubMed

    Dereeper, Alexis; Homa, Felix; Andres, Gwendoline; Sempere, Guilhem; Sarah, Gautier; Hueber, Yann; Dufayard, Jean-François; Ruiz, Manuel

    2015-07-01

    SNiPlay is a web-based tool for detection, management and analysis of genetic variants including both single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and InDels. Version 3 now extends functionalities in order to easily manage and exploit SNPs derived from next generation sequencing technologies, such as GBS (genotyping by sequencing), WGRS (whole gre-sequencing) and RNA-Seq technologies. Based on the standard VCF (variant call format) format, the application offers an intuitive interface for filtering and comparing polymorphisms using user-defined sets of individuals and then establishing a reliable genotyping data matrix for further analyses. Namely, in addition to the various scaled-up analyses allowed by the application (genomic annotation of SNP, diversity analysis, haplotype reconstruction and network, linkage disequilibrium), SNiPlay3 proposes new modules for GWAS (genome-wide association studies), population stratification, distance tree analysis and visualization of SNP density. Additionally, we developed a suite of Galaxy wrappers for each step of the SNiPlay3 process, so that the complete pipeline can also be deployed on a Galaxy instance using the Galaxy ToolShed procedure and then be computed as a Galaxy workflow. SNiPlay is accessible at http://sniplay.southgreen.fr.

  8. Designing Location-Based Learning Experiences for People with Intellectual Disabilities and Additional Sensory Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David J.; McHugh, David; Standen, Penny; Evett, Lindsay; Shopland, Nick; Battersby, Steven

    2011-01-01

    The research reported here is part of a larger project which seeks to combine serious games (or games-based learning) with location-based services to help people with intellectual disabilities and additional sensory impairments to develop work based skills. Specifically this paper reports on where these approaches are combined to scaffold the…

  9. 78 FR 54758 - Listing of Color Additives Exempt From Certification; Mica-Based Pearlescent Pigments...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-06

    ... regulations to provide for the safe use of mica-based pearlescent pigments prepared from titanium dioxide and... titanium dioxide and mica as color additives in distilled spirits containing not less than 18 percent...

  10. Thermally stable drilling fluid additive comprised of a copolymer of catechol-based monomer

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, A.D.

    1986-06-17

    A water soluble polymer is described having thermal stability and exhibiting utility as an aqueous drilling fluid additive comprising: (a) a major portion of a catechol based monomer; (b) a minor portion of a dicarboxylic acid monomer.

  11. Phylogenetic Relationships within the Opisthokonta Based on Phylogenomic Analyses of Conserved Single-Copy Protein Domains

    PubMed Central

    Torruella, Guifré; Derelle, Romain; Paps, Jordi; Lang, B. Franz; Roger, Andrew J.; Shalchian-Tabrizi, Kamran; Ruiz-Trillo, Iñaki

    2012-01-01

    Many of the eukaryotic phylogenomic analyses published to date were based on alignments of hundreds to thousands of genes. Frequently, in such analyses, the most realistic evolutionary models currently available are often used to minimize the impact of systematic error. However, controversy remains over whether or not idiosyncratic gene family dynamics (i.e., gene duplications and losses) and incorrect orthology assignments are always appropriately taken into account. In this paper, we present an innovative strategy for overcoming orthology assignment problems. Rather than identifying and eliminating genes with paralogy problems, we have constructed a data set comprised exclusively of conserved single-copy protein domains that, unlike most of the commonly used phylogenomic data sets, should be less confounded by orthology miss-assignments. To evaluate the power of this approach, we performed maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses to infer the evolutionary relationships within the opisthokonts (which includes Metazoa, Fungi, and related unicellular lineages). We used this approach to test 1) whether Filasterea and Ichthyosporea form a clade, 2) the interrelationships of early-branching metazoans, and 3) the relationships among early-branching fungi. We also assessed the impact of some methods that are known to minimize systematic error, including reducing the distance between the outgroup and ingroup taxa or using the CAT evolutionary model. Overall, our analyses support the Filozoa hypothesis in which Ichthyosporea are the first holozoan lineage to emerge followed by Filasterea, Choanoflagellata, and Metazoa. Blastocladiomycota appears as a lineage separate from Chytridiomycota, although this result is not strongly supported. These results represent independent tests of previous phylogenetic hypotheses, highlighting the importance of sophisticated approaches for orthology assignment in phylogenomic analyses. PMID:21771718

  12. Use of a latency-based demand assessment to identify potential demands for functional analyses.

    PubMed

    Call, Nathan A; Miller, Sarah J; Mintz, Joslyn Cynkus; Mevers, Joanna Lomas; Scheithauer, Mindy C; Eshelman, Julie E; Beavers, Gracie A

    2016-12-01

    Unlike potential tangible positive reinforcers, which are typically identified for inclusion in functional analyses empirically using preference assessments, demands are most often selected arbitrarily or based on caregiver report. The present study evaluated the use of a demand assessment with 12 participants who exhibited escape-maintained problem behavior. Participants were exposed to 10 demands, with aversiveness measured by average latency to the first instance of problem behavior. In subsequent functional analyses, results of a demand condition that included the demand with the shortest latency to problem behavior resulted in identification of an escape function for 11 of the participants. In contrast, a demand condition that included the demand with the longest latency resulted in identification of an escape function for only 5 participants. The implication of these findings is that for the remaining 7 participants, selection of the demand for the functional analysis without using the results of the demand assessment could have produced a false-negative finding.

  13. Power Spectrum and Mutual Information Analyses of DNA Base (Nucleotide) Sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isohata, Yasuhiko; Hayashi, Masaki

    2003-03-01

    On the basis of the power spectrum analyses for the base (nucleotide) sequences of various genes, we have studied long-range correlations in total base sequences which are expressed as 1/fα, behaviour of the exponent α for the accumulated base sequences as well as periodicities at short range. In particular from the analysis of content rate distributions of α we have obtained the average value \\barα=0.40± 0.01 and \\barα=0.20± 0.01 for the human genes and S. cerevisiae genes, respectively. We have also performed the analyses using the mutual information function. We show that there exists a clear difference between the content rate distributions of correlation lengths for the sample human genes and the S. cerevisiae genes. We are led to a conjecture that the elongation of the correlation length in the base sequences of genes from the early eukaryote (S. cerevisiae) to the late eukaryote (human) should be the definite reflection of the evolutionary process.

  14. High efficiency iron electrode and additives for use in rechargeable iron-based batteries

    DOEpatents

    Narayan, Sri R.; Prakash, G. K. Surya; Aniszfeld, Robert; Manohar, Aswin; Malkhandi, Souradip; Yang, Bo

    2017-02-21

    An iron electrode and a method of manufacturing an iron electrode for use in an iron-based rechargeable battery are disclosed. In one embodiment, the iron electrode includes carbonyl iron powder and one of a metal sulfide additive or metal oxide additive selected from the group of metals consisting of bismuth, lead, mercury, indium, gallium, and tin for suppressing hydrogen evolution at the iron electrode during charging of the iron-based rechargeable battery. An iron-air rechargeable battery including an iron electrode comprising carbonyl iron is also disclosed, as is an iron-air battery wherein at least one of the iron electrode and the electrolyte includes an organosulfur additive.

  15. Features of Computer-Based Decision Aids: Systematic Review, Thematic Synthesis, and Meta-Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Krömker, Dörthe; Meguerditchian, Ari N; Tamblyn, Robyn

    2016-01-01

    Background Patient information and education, such as decision aids, are gradually moving toward online, computer-based environments. Considerable research has been conducted to guide content and presentation of decision aids. However, given the relatively new shift to computer-based support, little attention has been given to how multimedia and interactivity can improve upon paper-based decision aids. Objective The first objective of this review was to summarize published literature into a proposed classification of features that have been integrated into computer-based decision aids. Building on this classification, the second objective was to assess whether integration of specific features was associated with higher-quality decision making. Methods Relevant studies were located by searching MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, and CENTRAL databases. The review identified studies that evaluated computer-based decision aids for adults faced with preference-sensitive medical decisions and reported quality of decision-making outcomes. A thematic synthesis was conducted to develop the classification of features. Subsequently, meta-analyses were conducted based on standardized mean differences (SMD) from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that reported knowledge or decisional conflict. Further subgroup analyses compared pooled SMDs for decision aids that incorporated a specific feature to other computer-based decision aids that did not incorporate the feature, to assess whether specific features improved quality of decision making. Results Of 3541 unique publications, 58 studies met the target criteria and were included in the thematic synthesis. The synthesis identified six features: content control, tailoring, patient narratives, explicit values clarification, feedback, and social support. A subset of 26 RCTs from the thematic synthesis was used to conduct the meta-analyses. As expected, computer-based decision aids performed better than usual care or alternative aids; however

  16. The modulation of spatial congruency by object-based attention: analysing the "locus" of the modulation.

    PubMed

    Luo, Chunming; Lupiáñez, Juan; Funes, María Jesús; Fu, Xiaolan

    2011-12-01

    Earlier studies have demonstrated that spatial cueing differentially reduces stimulus-stimulus congruency (e.g., spatial Stroop) interference but not stimulus-response congruency (e.g., Simon; e.g., Lupiáñez & Funes, 2005). This spatial cueing modulation over spatial Stroop seems to be entirely attributable to object-based attention (e.g., Luo, Lupiáñez, Funes, & Fu, 2010). In the present study, two experiments were conducted to further explore whether the cueing modulation of spatial Stroop is object based and/or space based and to analyse the "locus" of this modulation. In Experiment 1, we found that the cueing modulation over spatial Stroop is entirely object based, independent of stimulus-response congruency. In Experiment 2, we observed that the modulation of object-based attention over the spatial Stroop only occurred at a short cue-target interval (i.e., stimulus onset asynchrony; SOA), whereas the stimulus-response congruency effect was not modulated either by object-based or by location-based attentional cueing. The overall pattern of results suggests that the spatial cueing modulation over spatial Stroop arises from object-based attention and occurs at the perceptual stage of processing.

  17. Testing for Additivity at Select Mixture Groups of Interest Based on Statistical Equivalence Testing Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Stork, LeAnna M.; Gennings, Chris; Carchman, Richard; Carter, Jr., Walter H.; Pounds, Joel G.; Mumtaz, Moiz

    2006-12-01

    Several assumptions, defined and undefined, are used in the toxicity assessment of chemical mixtures. In scientific practice mixture components in the low-dose region, particularly subthreshold doses, are often assumed to behave additively (i.e., zero interaction) based on heuristic arguments. This assumption has important implications in the practice of risk assessment, but has not been experimentally tested. We have developed methodology to test for additivity in the sense of Berenbaum (Advances in Cancer Research, 1981), based on the statistical equivalence testing literature where the null hypothesis of interaction is rejected for the alternative hypothesis of additivity when data support the claim. The implication of this approach is that conclusions of additivity are made with a false positive rate controlled by the experimenter. The claim of additivity is based on prespecified additivity margins, which are chosen using expert biological judgment such that small deviations from additivity, which are not considered to be biologically important, are not statistically significant. This approach is in contrast to the usual hypothesis-testing framework that assumes additivity in the null hypothesis and rejects when there is significant evidence of interaction. In this scenario, failure to reject may be due to lack of statistical power making the claim of additivity problematic. The proposed method is illustrated in a mixture of five organophosphorus pesticides that were experimentally evaluated alone and at relevant mixing ratios. Motor activity was assessed in adult male rats following acute exposure. Four low-dose mixture groups were evaluated. Evidence of additivity is found in three of the four low-dose mixture groups.The proposed method tests for additivity of the whole mixture and does not take into account subset interactions (e.g., synergistic, antagonistic) that may have occurred and cancelled each other out.

  18. Differentiating LGBT individuals in substance abuse treatment: analyses based on sexuality and drug preference.

    PubMed

    Cochran, Bryan N; Peavy, K Michelle; Santa, Annesa Flentje

    2007-01-01

    In a prior study (Cochran & Cauce, 2006), LGBT individuals seeking treatment demonstrated greater substance use severity, more psychosocial stressors, and increased use of psychiatric services when compared to their heterosexual counterparts. That study, and similar to others in the field of LGBT research, collapsed LGBT individuals into a single category and did not examine individual differences within this category. The present study utilizes the same sample of LGBT clients (N = 610); however, an exploratory cluster analysis was conducted, based on drug preference, to determine which subcategories exist within this unique sample. In a subsequent set of analyses, the sample was divided based on sexuality to determine if there were differences between these groups on psychosocial functioning variables. Results indicated three distinct clusters, which differed in both demographic characteristics and severity of substance use problems. Groups based on sexuality differed in terms of primary problem substance, as well as psychosocial variables. Implications for treatment of these subgroups are discussed.

  19. 20 CFR 10.116 - What additional evidence is needed in cases based on occupational disease?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... based on occupational disease? 10.116 Section 10.116 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION... of Proof § 10.116 What additional evidence is needed in cases based on occupational disease? (a) The... occupational diseases. The medical report should also include the information specified on the checklist...

  20. 20 CFR 10.116 - What additional evidence is needed in cases based on occupational disease?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... based on occupational disease? 10.116 Section 10.116 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION... of Proof § 10.116 What additional evidence is needed in cases based on occupational disease? (a) The... particular occupational diseases. The medical report should also include the information specified on...

  1. 20 CFR 10.116 - What additional evidence is needed in cases based on occupational disease?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... based on occupational disease? 10.116 Section 10.116 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION... of Proof § 10.116 What additional evidence is needed in cases based on occupational disease? (a) The... occupational diseases. The medical report should also include the information specified on the checklist...

  2. 20 CFR 10.116 - What additional evidence is needed in cases based on occupational disease?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... based on occupational disease? 10.116 Section 10.116 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION... of Proof § 10.116 What additional evidence is needed in cases based on occupational disease? (a) The... particular occupational diseases. The medical report should also include the information specified on...

  3. 20 CFR 10.116 - What additional evidence is needed in cases based on occupational disease?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... based on occupational disease? 10.116 Section 10.116 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION... of Proof § 10.116 What additional evidence is needed in cases based on occupational disease? (a) The... particular occupational diseases. The medical report should also include the information specified on...

  4. 78 FR 35115 - Listing of Color Additives Exempt From Certification; Mica-Based Pearlescent Pigments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-12

    ... provide for the safe use of mica-based pearlescent pigments prepared from titanium dioxide and mica as... weight in the distilled spirits. Mica-based pearlescent pigments prepared from titanium dioxide and mica... from titanium dioxide, iron oxide, and mica are permitted for use as color additives in ingested...

  5. 7 CFR 985.153 - Issuance of additional allotment base to new and existing producers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MARKETING ORDER REGULATING THE HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST... base have ability to produce spearmint oil. The names of all eligible new producers from each region... spearmint oil who requests additional allotment base and who has the ability to produce...

  6. 7 CFR 985.153 - Issuance of additional allotment base to new and existing producers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MARKETING ORDER REGULATING THE HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST... base have ability to produce spearmint oil. The names of all eligible new producers from each region... spearmint oil who requests additional allotment base and who has the ability to produce...

  7. 7 CFR 985.153 - Issuance of additional allotment base to new and existing producers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MARKETING ORDER REGULATING THE HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST... base have ability to produce spearmint oil. The names of all eligible new producers from each region... spearmint oil who requests additional allotment base and who has the ability to produce...

  8. 7 CFR 985.153 - Issuance of additional allotment base to new and existing producers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MARKETING ORDER REGULATING THE HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST... base have ability to produce spearmint oil. The names of all eligible new producers from each region... spearmint oil who requests additional allotment base and who has the ability to produce...

  9. 7 CFR 985.153 - Issuance of additional allotment base to new and existing producers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MARKETING ORDER REGULATING THE HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST... base have ability to produce spearmint oil. The names of all eligible new producers from each region... spearmint oil who requests additional allotment base and who has the ability to produce...

  10. Crack propagation criteria in the framework of X-FEM-based structural analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumstorff, Peter; Meschke, Günther

    2007-02-01

    The extended finite element method (X-FEM) has proven to be capable of simulating cracking and crack propagation in quasi-brittle materials, such as cement paste or concrete, without the need for re-meshing. In the framework of the X-FEM cracks are represented as surfaces of discontinuous displacements continuously propagating through finite elements. Since crack path continuity is required in X-FEM-based analyses, the reliability of numerical analyses of cracked structures crucially depends on the correct prediction of the crack path and, consequently, on the criterion used for the determination of the crack propagation direction. In this paper four different crack propagation criteria proposed in the literature are investigated including two local and two global criteria. The two local criteria include an averaged stress criterion and the maximum circumferential stress criterion based on the linear elastic fracture mechanics. The two global criteria include a global tracking criterion proposed by Oliver and Huespe (Online Proceedings of the Fifth World Congress on Computational Mechanics, 2002) and an energy based X-FEM formulation recently proposed in (Computational Plasticity 2005. CIMNE: Barcelona, 2005; 565-568; Comput. Methods Appl. Mech. Eng. 2006, in press). Representative numerical benchmark examples, characterized by mode-I dominant fracture as well as by mixed-mode fracture, are used to study the performance and the robustness of the different crack propagation criteria. Copyright

  11. Analysis of contingency tables based on generalised median polish with power transformations and non-additive models.

    PubMed

    Klawonn, Frank; Jayaram, Balasubramaniam; Crull, Katja; Kukita, Akiko; Pessler, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Contingency tables are a very common basis for the investigation of effects of different treatments or influences on a disease or the health state of patients. Many journals put a strong emphasis on p-values to support the validity of results. Therefore, even small contingency tables are analysed by techniques like t-test or ANOVA. Both these concepts are based on normality assumptions for the underlying data. For larger data sets, this assumption is not so critical, since the underlying statistics are based on sums of (independent) random variables which can be assumed to follow approximately a normal distribution, at least for a larger number of summands. But for smaller data sets, the normality assumption can often not be justified. Robust methods like the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney-U test or the Kruskal-Wallis test do not lead to statistically significant p-values for small samples. Median polish is a robust alternative to analyse contingency tables providing much more insight than just a p-value. Median polish is a technique that provides more information than just a p-value. It explains the contingency table in terms of an overall effect, row and columns effects and residuals. The underlying model for median polish is an additive model which is sometimes too restrictive. In this paper, we propose two related approach to generalise median polish. A power transformation can be applied to the values in the table, so that better results for median polish can be achieved. We propose a graphical method how to find a suitable power transformation. If the original data should be preserved, one can apply other transformations - based on so-called additive generators - that have an inverse transformation. In this way, median polish can be applied to the original data, but based on a non-additive model. The non-linearity of such a model can also be visualised to better understand the joint effects of rows and columns in a contingency table.

  12. World reclassification of the Cardiophorinae (Coleoptera, Elateridae), based on phylogenetic analyses of morphological characters

    PubMed Central

    Douglas, Hume B.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The prior genus-level classification of Cardiophorinae had never been assessed phylogenetically, and not revised since 1906. A phylogeny for Cardiophorinae and Negastriinae is inferred by Bayesian analyses of 163 adult morphological characters to revise the generic classification. Parsimony analysis is also performed to assess the sensitivity of the Bayesian results to the choice of optimality criterion. Bayesian hypothesis testing rejected monophyly for: Negastriinae; Cardiophorinae (but monophyletic after addition of four taxa); Cardiophorini; cardiophorine genera Aphricus LeConte, 1853; Aptopus Eschscholtz, 1829; Cardiophorus Eschscholtz, 1829; Cardiotarsus Eschscholtz, 1836; Paracardiophorus Schwarz, 1895; Phorocardius Fleutiaux, 1931; Dicronychus sensu Platia, 1994; Dicronychus sensu Méquignon, 1931; Craspedostethus sensu Schwarz, 1906 (i.e., including Tropidiplus Fleutiaux, 1903); Paracardiophorus sensu Cobos, 1970, although well-supported alternative classifications were available for only some. Based on taxonomic interpretation of phylogenetic results: Nyctorini is syn. n. of Cardiophorini; Globothorax Fleutiaux, 1891 (Physodactylinae), Margogastrius Schwarz, 1903 (Physodactylinae), and Pachyelater Lesne, 1897 (Dendrometrinae) are transferred to Cardiophorinae. The following changes are proposed for cardiophorine genera: Aptopus Eschscholtz, 1829 is redefined to exclude Horistonotus-like species; Coptostethus Wollaston, 1854 is subgenus of Cardiophorus; Dicronychus Brullé, 1832 and Diocarphus Fleutiaux, 1947, Metacardiophorus Gurjeva, 1966, Platynychus Motschulsky, 1858, and Zygocardiophorus Iablokoff-Khnzorian and Mardjanian, 1981 are placed at genus rank; Paracardiophorus Schwarz, 1895 is redefined based on North American and Eurasian species only; Horistonotus Candèze, 1860 redefined to include species with multiple apices on each side of their tarsal claws; Patriciella Van Zwaluwenburg, 1953 is syn. n. of Aphricus LeConte, 1853; Teslasena

  13. Parallel bulk heterojunction photovoltaics based on all-conjugated block copolymer additives

    SciTech Connect

    Mok, Jorge W.; Kipp, Dylan; Hasbun, Luis R.; Dolocan, Andrei; Strzalka, Joseph; Ganesan, Venkat; Verduzco, Rafael

    2016-08-23

    We demonstrated that the addition of block copolymers to binary donor–acceptor blends represents an effective approach to target equilibrium, co-continuous morphologies of interpenetrating donors and acceptors in our recent study. We report a study of the impact of all-conjugated poly(thieno[3,4-b]-thiophene-co-benzodithiophene)-b-polynaphthalene diimide (PTB7-b-PNDI) block copolymer additives on the electronic properties and photovoltaic performance of bulk heterojunction organic photovoltaic active layers comprised of a PTB7 donor and a phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM61) acceptor. We find that small amounts of BCP additives lead to improved performance due to a large increase in the device open-circuit voltage (VOC), and the VOC is pinned to this higher value for higher BCP additive loadings. Such results contrast prior studies of ternary blend OPVs where either a continuous change in VOC or a value of VOC pinned to the lowest value is observed. We hypothesize and provide evidence in the form of device and morphology analyses that the impact of VOC is likely due to the formation of a parallel bulk heterojunction made up of isolated PCBM and PNDI acceptor domains separated by intermediate PTB7 donor domains. Our work demonstrates that all-conjugated block copolymers can be utilized as additives to both dictate morphology and modulate the electronic properties of the active layer.

  14. Parallel bulk heterojunction photovoltaics based on all-conjugated block copolymer additives

    DOE PAGES

    Mok, Jorge W.; Kipp, Dylan; Hasbun, Luis R.; ...

    2016-08-23

    We demonstrated that the addition of block copolymers to binary donor–acceptor blends represents an effective approach to target equilibrium, co-continuous morphologies of interpenetrating donors and acceptors in our recent study. We report a study of the impact of all-conjugated poly(thieno[3,4-b]-thiophene-co-benzodithiophene)-b-polynaphthalene diimide (PTB7-b-PNDI) block copolymer additives on the electronic properties and photovoltaic performance of bulk heterojunction organic photovoltaic active layers comprised of a PTB7 donor and a phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM61) acceptor. We find that small amounts of BCP additives lead to improved performance due to a large increase in the device open-circuit voltage (VOC), and the VOC is pinnedmore » to this higher value for higher BCP additive loadings. Such results contrast prior studies of ternary blend OPVs where either a continuous change in VOC or a value of VOC pinned to the lowest value is observed. We hypothesize and provide evidence in the form of device and morphology analyses that the impact of VOC is likely due to the formation of a parallel bulk heterojunction made up of isolated PCBM and PNDI acceptor domains separated by intermediate PTB7 donor domains. Our work demonstrates that all-conjugated block copolymers can be utilized as additives to both dictate morphology and modulate the electronic properties of the active layer.« less

  15. Individual-based analyses reveal limited functional overlap in a coral reef fish community.

    PubMed

    Brandl, Simon J; Bellwood, David R

    2014-05-01

    Detailed knowledge of a species' functional niche is crucial for the study of ecological communities and processes. The extent of niche overlap, functional redundancy and functional complementarity is of particular importance if we are to understand ecosystem processes and their vulnerability to disturbances. Coral reefs are among the most threatened marine systems, and anthropogenic activity is changing the functional composition of reefs. The loss of herbivorous fishes is particularly concerning as the removal of algae is crucial for the growth and survival of corals. Yet, the foraging patterns of the various herbivorous fish species are poorly understood. Using a multidimensional framework, we present novel individual-based analyses of species' realized functional niches, which we apply to a herbivorous coral reef fish community. In calculating niche volumes for 21 species, based on their microhabitat utilization patterns during foraging, and computing functional overlaps, we provide a measurement of functional redundancy or complementarity. Complementarity is the inverse of redundancy and is defined as less than 50% overlap in niche volumes. The analyses reveal extensive complementarity with an average functional overlap of just 15.2%. Furthermore, the analyses divide herbivorous reef fishes into two broad groups. The first group (predominantly surgeonfishes and parrotfishes) comprises species feeding on exposed surfaces and predominantly open reef matrix or sandy substrata, resulting in small niche volumes and extensive complementarity. In contrast, the second group consists of species (predominantly rabbitfishes) that feed over a wider range of microhabitats, penetrating the reef matrix to exploit concealed surfaces of various substratum types. These species show high variation among individuals, leading to large niche volumes, more overlap and less complementarity. These results may have crucial consequences for our understanding of herbivorous processes on

  16. Genome-based comparative analyses of Antarctic and temperate species of Paenibacillus.

    PubMed

    Dsouza, Melissa; Taylor, Michael W; Turner, Susan J; Aislabie, Jackie

    2014-01-01

    Antarctic soils represent a unique environment characterised by extremes of temperature, salinity, elevated UV radiation, low nutrient and low water content. Despite the harshness of this environment, members of 15 bacterial phyla have been identified in soils of the Ross Sea Region (RSR). However, the survival mechanisms and ecological roles of these phyla are largely unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate whether strains of Paenibacillus darwinianus owe their resilience to substantial genomic changes. For this, genome-based comparative analyses were performed on three P. darwinianus strains, isolated from gamma-irradiated RSR soils, together with nine temperate, soil-dwelling Paenibacillus spp. The genome of each strain was sequenced to over 1,000-fold coverage, then assembled into contigs totalling approximately 3 Mbp per genome. Based on the occurrence of essential, single-copy genes, genome completeness was estimated at approximately 88%. Genome analysis revealed between 3,043-3,091 protein-coding sequences (CDSs), primarily associated with two-component systems, sigma factors, transporters, sporulation and genes induced by cold-shock, oxidative and osmotic stresses. These comparative analyses provide an insight into the metabolic potential of P. darwinianus, revealing potential adaptive mechanisms for survival in Antarctic soils. However, a large proportion of these mechanisms were also identified in temperate Paenibacillus spp., suggesting that these mechanisms are beneficial for growth and survival in a range of soil environments. These analyses have also revealed that the P. darwinianus genomes contain significantly fewer CDSs and have a lower paralogous content. Notwithstanding the incompleteness of the assemblies, the large differences in genome sizes, determined by the number of genes in paralogous clusters and the CDS content, are indicative of genome content scaling. Finally, these sequences are a resource for further investigations into

  17. Genome-Based Comparative Analyses of Antarctic and Temperate Species of Paenibacillus

    PubMed Central

    Dsouza, Melissa; Taylor, Michael W.; Turner, Susan J.; Aislabie, Jackie

    2014-01-01

    Antarctic soils represent a unique environment characterised by extremes of temperature, salinity, elevated UV radiation, low nutrient and low water content. Despite the harshness of this environment, members of 15 bacterial phyla have been identified in soils of the Ross Sea Region (RSR). However, the survival mechanisms and ecological roles of these phyla are largely unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate whether strains of Paenibacillus darwinianus owe their resilience to substantial genomic changes. For this, genome-based comparative analyses were performed on three P. darwinianus strains, isolated from gamma-irradiated RSR soils, together with nine temperate, soil-dwelling Paenibacillus spp. The genome of each strain was sequenced to over 1,000-fold coverage, then assembled into contigs totalling approximately 3 Mbp per genome. Based on the occurrence of essential, single-copy genes, genome completeness was estimated at approximately 88%. Genome analysis revealed between 3,043–3,091 protein-coding sequences (CDSs), primarily associated with two-component systems, sigma factors, transporters, sporulation and genes induced by cold-shock, oxidative and osmotic stresses. These comparative analyses provide an insight into the metabolic potential of P. darwinianus, revealing potential adaptive mechanisms for survival in Antarctic soils. However, a large proportion of these mechanisms were also identified in temperate Paenibacillus spp., suggesting that these mechanisms are beneficial for growth and survival in a range of soil environments. These analyses have also revealed that the P. darwinianus genomes contain significantly fewer CDSs and have a lower paralogous content. Notwithstanding the incompleteness of the assemblies, the large differences in genome sizes, determined by the number of genes in paralogous clusters and the CDS content, are indicative of genome content scaling. Finally, these sequences are a resource for further investigations into

  18. The Seismic Reliability of Offshore Structures Based on Nonlinear Time History Analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Hosseini, Mahmood; Karimiyani, Somayyeh; Ghafooripour, Amin; Jabbarzadeh, Mohammad Javad

    2008-07-08

    Regarding the past earthquakes damages to offshore structures, as vital structures in the oil and gas industries, it is important that their seismic design is performed by very high reliability. Accepting the Nonlinear Time History Analyses (NLTHA) as the most reliable seismic analysis method, in this paper an offshore platform of jacket type with the height of 304 feet, having a deck of 96 feet by 94 feet, and weighing 290 million pounds has been studied. At first, some Push-Over Analyses (POA) have been preformed to recognize the more critical members of the jacket, based on the range of their plastic deformations. Then NLTHA have been performed by using the 3-components accelerograms of 100 earthquakes, covering a wide range of frequency content, and normalized to three Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) levels of 0.3 g, 0.65 g, and 1.0 g. By using the results of NLTHA the damage and rupture probabilities of critical member have been studied to assess the reliability of the jacket structure. Regarding that different structural members of the jacket have different effects on the stability of the platform, an 'importance factor' has been considered for each critical member based on its location and orientation in the structure, and then the reliability of the whole structure has been obtained by combining the reliability of the critical members, each having its specific importance factor.

  19. The Seismic Reliability of Offshore Structures Based on Nonlinear Time History Analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseini, Mahmood; Karimiyani, Somayyeh; Ghafooripour, Amin; Jabbarzadeh, Mohammad Javad

    2008-07-01

    Regarding the past earthquakes damages to offshore structures, as vital structures in the oil and gas industries, it is important that their seismic design is performed by very high reliability. Accepting the Nonlinear Time History Analyses (NLTHA) as the most reliable seismic analysis method, in this paper an offshore platform of jacket type with the height of 304 feet, having a deck of 96 feet by 94 feet, and weighing 290 million pounds has been studied. At first, some Push-Over Analyses (POA) have been preformed to recognize the more critical members of the jacket, based on the range of their plastic deformations. Then NLTHA have been performed by using the 3-components accelerograms of 100 earthquakes, covering a wide range of frequency content, and normalized to three Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) levels of 0.3 g, 0.65 g, and 1.0 g. By using the results of NLTHA the damage and rupture probabilities of critical member have been studied to assess the reliability of the jacket structure. Regarding that different structural members of the jacket have different effects on the stability of the platform, an "importance factor" has been considered for each critical member based on its location and orientation in the structure, and then the reliability of the whole structure has been obtained by combining the reliability of the critical members, each having its specific importance factor.

  20. An integrated software suite for surface-based analyses of cerebral cortex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Essen, D. C.; Drury, H. A.; Dickson, J.; Harwell, J.; Hanlon, D.; Anderson, C. H.

    2001-01-01

    The authors describe and illustrate an integrated trio of software programs for carrying out surface-based analyses of cerebral cortex. The first component of this trio, SureFit (Surface Reconstruction by Filtering and Intensity Transformations), is used primarily for cortical segmentation, volume visualization, surface generation, and the mapping of functional neuroimaging data onto surfaces. The second component, Caret (Computerized Anatomical Reconstruction and Editing Tool Kit), provides a wide range of surface visualization and analysis options as well as capabilities for surface flattening, surface-based deformation, and other surface manipulations. The third component, SuMS (Surface Management System), is a database and associated user interface for surface-related data. It provides for efficient insertion, searching, and extraction of surface and volume data from the database.

  1. Chemical and photoluminescence analyses of new carbon-based boron oxynitride phosphors

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Wei-Ning; Kaihatsu, Yutaka; Iskandar, Ferry; Okuyama, Kikuo

    2009-11-15

    Analyses of newly developed carbon-based boron oxynitride phosphors using an electron energy-loss spectrometer and a spectroflurophotometer were carried out. The results showed that the prepared phosphor powder has covalently bonded boron, nitrogen, and oxygen atoms with a soft carbon framework. Photoluminescence characterization revealed that the resultant phosphor has a direct bandgap transition with defect broadened band edges, resulting in a high quantum efficiency, because the atomic distances of the phosphor are smaller than those of conventional carbon-based boron nitride compounds, which have an indirect bandgap transition and a low quantum efficiency. The atomic distances of the phosphor are smaller owing to the presence of oxygen atoms, which have a higher electron affinity and a smaller covalent bond radius compared with boron, carbon and nitrogen.

  2. MULTI-DIMENSIONAL MASS SPECTROMETRY-BASED SHOTGUN LIPIDOMICS AND NOVEL STRATEGIES FOR LIPIDOMIC ANALYSES

    PubMed Central

    Han, Xianlin; Yang, Kui; Gross, Richard W.

    2011-01-01

    Since our last comprehensive review on multi-dimensional mass spectrometry-based shotgun lipidomics (Mass Spectrom. Rev. 24 (2005), 367), many new developments in the field of lipidomics have occurred. These developments include new strategies and refinements for shotgun lipidomic approaches that use direct infusion, including novel fragmentation strategies, identification of multiple new informative dimensions for mass spectrometric interrogation, and the development of new bioinformatic approaches for enhanced identification and quantitation of the individual molecular constituents that comprise each cell’s lipidome. Concurrently, advances in liquid chromatography-based platforms and novel strategies for quantitative matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry for lipidomic analyses have been developed. Through the synergistic use of this repertoire of new mass spectrometric approaches, the power and scope of lipidomics has been greatly expanded to accelerate progress toward the comprehensive understanding of the pleiotropic roles of lipids in biological systems. PMID:21755525

  3. Atom-probe tomography of tribological boundary films resulting from boron-based oil additives

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Yoon-Jun; Baik, Sung-Il; Bertolucci-Coelho, Leonardo; Mazzaferro, Lucca; Ramirez, Giovanni; Erdemir, Ali; Seidman, D K

    2016-01-15

    Correlative characterization using atom-probe tomography (APT) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was performed on a tribofilm formed during sliding frictional testing with a fully formulated engine oil, which also contains a boron-based additive. The tribofilm formed is ~15 nm thick and consists of oxides of iron and compounds of B, Ca, P, and S, which are present in the additive. This study provides strong evidence for boron being embedded in the tribofilm, which effectively reduces friction and wear losses.

  4. Detergent-dispersant additives based on high-molecular-weight alkylphenols

    SciTech Connect

    Kulieva, K.N.; Namazova, I.I.; Ismailova, N.D.; Dorokhina, I.V.

    1988-09-01

    This article describes the synthesis and investigation of Mannich bases produced for alkylphenols, obtained in turn from ethylene oligomers. These oligomers are the still bottoms from distillation products of high-temperature oligomerization of ethylene in the presence of triethylaluminum. Two narrow cuts obtained from the distillation of oligomer fraction were used to study the influence of ethylene oligomer molecular weight on the properties of the additives. The additives were blended in DS-11 oil to evaluate their detergency-dispersancy and other properties. Comparison blends were made with succinimide additives based on the same ethylene oligomers. The Mannich bases give improvements in the oxidation resistance, anticorrosion properties, and detergency-dispersancy of the DS-11 diesel oil.

  5. Additive-dominance genetic model analyses for late-maturity alpha-amylase activity in a bread wheat factorial crossing population.

    PubMed

    Rasul, Golam; Glover, Karl D; Krishnan, Padmanaban G; Wu, Jixiang; Berzonsky, William A; Ibrahim, Amir M H

    2015-12-01

    Elevated level of late maturity α-amylase activity (LMAA) can result in low falling number scores, reduced grain quality, and downgrade of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) class. A mating population was developed by crossing parents with different levels of LMAA. The F2 and F3 hybrids and their parents were evaluated for LMAA, and data were analyzed using the R software package 'qgtools' integrated with an additive-dominance genetic model and a mixed linear model approach. Simulated results showed high testing powers for additive and additive × environment variances, and comparatively low powers for dominance and dominance × environment variances. All variance components and their proportions to the phenotypic variance for the parents and hybrids were significant except for the dominance × environment variance. The estimated narrow-sense heritability and broad-sense heritability for LMAA were 14 and 54%, respectively. High significant negative additive effects for parents suggest that spring wheat cultivars 'Lancer' and 'Chester' can serve as good general combiners, and that 'Kinsman' and 'Seri-82' had negative specific combining ability in some hybrids despite of their own significant positive additive effects, suggesting they can be used as parents to reduce LMAA levels. Seri-82 showed very good general combining ability effect when used as a male parent, indicating the importance of reciprocal effects. High significant negative dominance effects and high-parent heterosis for hybrids demonstrated that the specific hybrid combinations; Chester × Kinsman, 'Lerma52' × Lancer, Lerma52 × 'LoSprout' and 'Janz' × Seri-82 could be generated to produce cultivars with significantly reduced LMAA level.

  6. On the role of DNA in DNA-based catalytic enantioselective conjugate addition reactions.

    PubMed

    Dijk, Ewold W; Boersma, Arnold J; Feringa, Ben L; Roelfes, Gerard

    2010-09-07

    A kinetic study of DNA-based catalytic enantioselective Friedel-Crafts alkylation and Michael addition reactions showed that DNA affects the rate of these reactions significantly. Whereas in the presence of DNA, a large acceleration was found for the Friedel-Crafts alkylation and a modest acceleration in the Michael addition of dimethyl malonate, a deceleration was observed when using nitromethane as nucleophile. Also, the enantioselectivities proved to be dependent on the DNA sequence. In comparison with the previously reported Diels-Alder reaction, the results presented here suggest that DNA plays a similar role in both cycloaddition and conjugate addition reactions.

  7. Non-target screening analyses of organic contaminants in river systems as a base for monitoring measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarzbauer, J.

    2009-04-01

    Organic contaminants discharged to the aquatic environment exhibit a high diversity with respect to their molecular structures and the resulting physico-chemical properties. The chemical analysis of anthropogenic contamination in river systems is still an important feature, especially with respect to (i) the identification and structure elucidation of novel contaminants, (ii) to the characterisation of their environmental behaviour and (iii) to their risk for natural systems. A huge proportion of riverine contamination is caused by low-molecular weight organic compounds, like pesticides plasticizers, pharmaceuticals, personal care products, technical additives etc. Some of them, like PCB or PAH have already been investigated thoroughly and, consequently, their behaviour in aqueous systems is very well described. Although analyses on organic substances in river water traditionally focused on selected pollutants, in particular on common priority pollutants which are monitored routinely, the occurrence of further contaminants, e.g. pharmaceuticals, personal care products or chelating agents has received increasing attention within the last decade. Accompanied, screening analyses revealing an enormous diversity of low-molecular weight organic contaminants in waste water effluents and river water become more and more noticed. Since many of these substances have been rarely noticed so far, it will be an important task for the future to study their occurrence and fate in natural environments. Further on, it should be a main issue of environmental studies to provide a comprehensive view on the state of pollution of river water, in particular with respect to lipophilic low molecular weight organic contaminants. However, such non-target-screening analyses has been performed only rarely in the past. Hence, we applied extended non-target screening analyses on longitudinal sections of the rivers Rhine, Rur and Lippe (Germany) on the base of GC/MS analyses. The investigations

  8. Models of population-based analyses for data collected from large extended families.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenyu; Lee, Elisa T; Howard, Barbara V; Fabsitz, Richard R; Devereux, Richard B; MacCluer, Jean W; Laston, Sandra; Comuzzie, Anthony G; Shara, Nawar M; Welty, Thomas K

    2010-12-01

    Large studies of extended families usually collect valuable phenotypic data that may have scientific value for purposes other than testing genetic hypotheses if the families were not selected in a biased manner. These purposes include assessing population-based associations of diseases with risk factors/covariates and estimating population characteristics such as disease prevalence and incidence. Relatedness among participants however, violates the traditional assumption of independent observations in these classic analyses. The commonly used adjustment method for relatedness in population-based analyses is to use marginal models, in which clusters (families) are assumed to be independent (unrelated) with a simple and identical covariance (family) structure such as those called independent, exchangeable and unstructured covariance structures. However, using these simple covariance structures may not be optimally appropriate for outcomes collected from large extended families, and may under- or over-estimate the variances of estimators and thus lead to uncertainty in inferences. Moreover, the assumption that families are unrelated with an identical family structure in a marginal model may not be satisfied for family studies with large extended families. The aim of this paper is to propose models incorporating marginal models approaches with a covariance structure for assessing population-based associations of diseases with their risk factors/covariates and estimating population characteristics for epidemiological studies while adjusting for the complicated relatedness among outcomes (continuous/categorical, normally/non-normally distributed) collected from large extended families. We also discuss theoretical issues of the proposed models and show that the proposed models and covariance structure are appropriate for and capable of achieving the aim.

  9. Analyses of relationship between Loess Plateau erosion and sunspots based on wavelet transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, P.; Mu, X.-M.; Li, R.; Wang, F.

    2011-01-01

    Loess Plateau is one of the worst soil erosion regions in the world, which may resulted from various factors such as precipitation, land cover and land use, soil, vegetation, human intervention, as well as solar activities. The purpose of this study is to find the relationship between soil erosion and sunspot activity on the Loess Plateau, through analyses of the sunspot relative number and the long-term sediment discharge series in Longmen station in the Yellow River based on the Morlet wavelet method. In this paper, annual sediment discharge series from 1919-2008 in Longmen station and the sunspot relative number were decomposed with Complex Morlet wavelet. The results of real part, modulus and the second power of modulus showed an obvious periodic variability in sediment discharge, with 25-40 years, about 10 years, and less than 10 years scales. There are six centers of energy. From the wavelet variance, 6, 12, and 35 years periods were detected within 50-year scale, and the 35-year period is the most significant one. Similar analyses were conducted for the sunspot relative number during the same period of 1919-2008. The sunspot series showed an 11-year periodic variation, and two energy center. Then, the correlation analyses for 11-year scale were computed. From a long-term period (1919-2008) view, there is no significant correlation between the sediment discharge and the sunspot relative number; however, it is evident that the correlations exist in short-term periods. The results also indicate that the relationships between solar activities and the erosion of the Loess Plateau are complicated.

  10. Molecular systematics of Volvocales (Chlorophyceae, Chlorophyta) based on exhaustive 18S rRNA phylogenetic analyses.

    PubMed

    Nakada, Takashi; Misawa, Kazuharu; Nozaki, Hisayoshi

    2008-07-01

    The taxonomy of Volvocales (Chlorophyceae, Chlorophyta) was traditionally based solely on morphological characteristics. However, because recent molecular phylogeny largely contradicts the traditional subordinal and familial classifications, no classification system has yet been established that describes the subdivision of Volvocales in a manner consistent with the phylogenetic relationships. Towards development of a natural classification system at and above the generic level, identification and sorting of hundreds of sequences based on subjective phylogenetic definitions is a significant step. We constructed an 18S rRNA gene phylogeny based on 449 volvocalean sequences collected using exhaustive BLAST searches of the GenBank database. Many chimeric sequences, which can cause fallacious phylogenetic trees, were detected and excluded during data collection. The results revealed 21 strongly supported primary clades within phylogenetically redefined Volvocales. Phylogenetic classification following PhyloCode was proposed based on the presented 18S rRNA gene phylogeny along with the results of previous combined 18S and 26S rRNA and chloroplast multigene analyses.

  11. Reviewing PSA-based analyses to modify technical specifications at nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Samanta, P.K.; Martinez-Guridi, G.; Vesely, W.E.

    1995-12-01

    Changes to Technical Specifications (TSs) at nuclear power plants (NPPs) require review and approval by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC). Currently, many requests for changes to TSs use analyses that are based on a plant`s probabilistic safety assessment (PSA). This report presents an approach to reviewing such PSA-based submittals for changes to TSs. We discuss the basic objectives of reviewing a PSA-based submittal to modify NPP TSs; the methodology of reviewing a TS submittal, and the differing roles of a PSA review, a PSA Computer Code review, and a review of a TS submittal. To illustrate this approach, we discuss our review of changes to allowed outage time (AOT) and surveillance test interval (STI) in the TS for the South Texas Project Nuclear Generating Station. Based on this experience gained, a check-list of items is given for future reviewers; it can be used to verify that the submittal contains sufficient information, and also that the review has addressed the relevant issues. Finally, recommended steps in the review process and the expected findings of each step are discussed.

  12. Biocompatibility of hydroxyapatite scaffolds processed by lithography-based additive manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Tesavibul, Passakorn; Chantaweroad, Surapol; Laohaprapanon, Apinya; Channasanon, Somruethai; Uppanan, Paweena; Tanodekaew, Siriporn; Chalermkarnnon, Prasert; Sitthiseripratip, Kriskrai

    2015-01-01

    The fabrication of hydroxyapatite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering applications by using lithography-based additive manufacturing techniques has been introduced due to the abilities to control porous structures with suitable resolutions. In this research, the use of hydroxyapatite cellular structures, which are processed by lithography-based additive manufacturing machine, as a bone tissue engineering scaffold was investigated. The utilization of digital light processing system for additive manufacturing machine in laboratory scale was performed in order to fabricate the hydroxyapatite scaffold, of which biocompatibilities were eventually evaluated by direct contact and cell-culturing tests. In addition, the density and compressive strength of the scaffolds were also characterized. The results show that the hydroxyapatite scaffold at 77% of porosity with 91% of theoretical density and 0.36 MPa of the compressive strength are able to be processed. In comparison with a conventionally sintered hydroxyapatite, the scaffold did not present any cytotoxic signs while the viability of cells at 95.1% was reported. After 14 days of cell-culturing tests, the scaffold was able to be attached by pre-osteoblasts (MC3T3-E1) leading to cell proliferation and differentiation. The hydroxyapatite scaffold for bone tissue engineering was able to be processed by the lithography-based additive manufacturing machine while the biocompatibilities were also confirmed.

  13. CaO--P2O5--Na2O-based sintering additives for hydroxyapatite (HAp) ceramics.

    PubMed

    Kalita, S J; Bose, S; Hosick, H L; Bandyopadhyay, A

    2004-05-01

    We have assessed the effect of CaO--P2O5--Na2O-based sintering additives on mechanical and biological properties of hydroxyapatite (HAp) ceramics. Five different compositions of sintering additives were selected and prepared by mixing of CaO, P2O5, and Na2CO3 powders. 2.5 wt% of each additive was combined with commercial HAp powder, separately, followed by ball milling, and sintering at 1250 degrees C and 1300 degrees C in a muffle furnace. Green and sintered densities of the compacts were analyzed for the influence of additives on densification of HAp. Phase analyses were carried out using an X-ray diffractometer. Vickers microhardness testing was used to evaluate hardness of sintered compacts of different compositions. A maximum microhardness of 4.6 (+/- 0.28) GPa was attained for a composition with 2.5 wt% addition of CaO:P2O5:Na2O in the ratio of 3:3:4. Results from mechanical property evaluation showed that some of these sintering additives improved failure strength of HAp under compressive loading. Maximum compressive strength was observed for samples with 2.5 wt% addition of CaO. Average failure strength for this set of samples was calculated to be 220 (+/- 50) MPa. Cytotoxicity, and cell attachment studies were carried out using a modified human osteoblast cell line called OPC-1. In vitro results showed that these compositions were non-toxic. Some sintering aids enhanced cell attachment and proliferation, which was revealed from SEM examination of the scaffolds seeded with OPC-1 cells.

  14. Novel Flow Cytometry Analyses of Boar Sperm Viability: Can the Addition of Whole Sperm-Rich Fraction Seminal Plasma to Frozen-Thawed Boar Sperm Affect It?

    PubMed Central

    Díaz, Rommy; Boguen, Rodrigo; Martins, Simone Maria Massami Kitamura; Ravagnani, Gisele Mouro; Leal, Diego Feitosa; Oliveira, Melissa de Lima; Muro, Bruno Bracco Donatelli; Parra, Beatriz Martins; Meirelles, Flávio Vieira; Papa, Frederico Ozanan; Dell’Aqua, José Antônio; Alvarenga, Marco Antônio; Moretti, Aníbal de Sant’Anna; Sepúlveda, Néstor

    2016-01-01

    Boar semen cryopreservation remains a challenge due to the extension of cold shock damage. Thus, many alternatives have emerged to improve the quality of frozen-thawed boar sperm. Although the use of seminal plasma arising from boar sperm-rich fraction (SP-SRF) has shown good efficacy; however, the majority of actual sperm evaluation techniques include a single or dual sperm parameter analysis, which overrates the real sperm viability. Within this context, this work was performed to introduce a sperm flow cytometry fourfold stain technique for simultaneous evaluation of plasma and acrosomal membrane integrity and mitochondrial membrane potential. We then used the sperm flow cytometry fourfold stain technique to study the effect of SP-SRF on frozen-thawed boar sperm and further evaluated the effect of this treatment on sperm movement, tyrosine phosphorylation and fertility rate (FR). The sperm fourfold stain technique is accurate (R2 = 0.9356, p > 0.01) for simultaneous evaluation of plasma and acrosomal membrane integrity and mitochondrial membrane potential (IPIAH cells). Centrifugation pre-cryopreservation was not deleterious (p > 0.05) for any analyzed variables. Addition of SP-SRF after cryopreservation was able to improve total and progressive motility (p < 0.05) when boar semen was cryopreserved without SP-SRF; however, it was not able to decrease tyrosine phosphorylation (p > 0.05) or improve IPIAH cells (p > 0.05). FR was not (p > 0.05) statistically increased by the addition of seminal plasma, though females inseminated with frozen-thawed boar semen plus SP-SRF did perform better than those inseminated with sperm lacking seminal plasma. Thus, we conclude that sperm fourfold stain can be used to simultaneously evaluate plasma and acrosomal membrane integrity and mitochondrial membrane potential, and the addition of SP-SRF at thawed boar semen cryopreserved in absence of SP-SRF improve its total and progressive motility. PMID:27529819

  15. A synchrotron study of microstructure gradient in laser additively formed epitaxial Ni-based superalloy

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Jiawei; Zhang, Anfeng; Li, Yao; Qian, Dan; Wan, Jingchun; Qi, Baolu; Tamura, Nobumichi; Song, Zhongxiao; Chen, Kai

    2015-01-01

    Laser additive forming is considered to be one of the promising techniques to repair single crystal Ni-based superalloy parts to extend their life and reduce the cost. Preservation of the single crystalline nature and prevention of thermal mechanical failure are two of the most essential issues for the application of this technique. Here we employ synchrotron X-ray microdiffraction to evaluate the quality in terms of crystal orientation and defect distribution of a Ni-based superalloy DZ125L directly formed by a laser additive process rooted from a single crystalline substrate of the same material. We show that a disorientation gradient caused by a high density of geometrically necessary dislocations and resultant subgrains exists in the interfacial region between the epitaxial and stray grains. This creates a potential relationship of stray grain formation and defect accumulation. The observation offers new directions on the study of performance control and reliability of the laser additive manufactured superalloys. PMID:26446425

  16. A synchrotron study of microstructure gradient in laser additively formed epitaxial Ni-based superalloy

    SciTech Connect

    Xue, Jiawei; Zhang, Anfeng; Li, Yao; Qian, Dan; Wan, Jingchun; Qi, Baolu; Tamura, Nobumichi; Song, Zhongxiao; Chen, Kai

    2015-10-08

    Laser additive forming is considered to be one of the promising techniques to repair single crystal Ni-based superalloy parts to extend their life and reduce the cost. Preservation of the single crystalline nature and prevention of thermal mechanical failure are two of the most essential issues for the application of this technique. Here we employ synchrotron X-ray microdiffraction to evaluate the quality in terms of crystal orientation and defect distribution of a Ni-based superalloy DZ125L directly formed by a laser additive process rooted from a single crystalline substrate of the same material. We show that a disorientation gradient caused by a high density of geometrically necessary dislocations and resultant subgrains exists in the interfacial region between the epitaxial and stray grains. This creates a potential relationship of stray grain formation and defect accumulation. In conclusion, the observation offers new directions on the study of performance control and reliability of the laser additive manufactured superalloys.

  17. Comparative Studies of Cathodically-Promoted and Base-Catalyzed Michael Addition Reactions of Levoglucosenone.

    PubMed

    Samet, Alexander V.; Niyazymbetov, Murat E.; Semenov, Victor V.; Laikhter, Andrei L.; Evans, Dennis H.

    1996-12-13

    Regioselective Michael addition of nitro and heterocyclic compounds to levoglucosenone, 1, is effectively catalyzed by amines and also by cathodic electrolysis. In comparison to the base-catalyzed reaction, it was found that under electrochemical conditions the reaction proceeds under milder conditions and with higher yields. Cathodically-initiated Michael addition of thiols to levoglucosenone using small currents produces the previously unknown threo addition product in several instances. The normal erythro isomer, identified as the kinetic product, tends to be formed when large currents are used. In contrast, slow, low current electrolyses promote equilibration of the two forms so that erythro can be converted to threo by the retro reaction and readdition. Addition of 2-naphthalenethiol to (R)-(+)-apoverbenone is also reported.

  18. Beam dynamics in disordered P T -symmetric optical lattices based on eigenstate analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Xiankun; Liu, Xueming

    2017-03-01

    Wave functions will experience a localization process when evolving in disordered lattices. Here, we have demonstrated the effects of disordered P T -symmetric potentials on wave-function characteristics in optics based on eigenstate analyses. In weak-disorder cases, by using the tight-binding approximation method, a conclusion is obtained that the increasing of the imaginary part of potential can enhance the diffraction, while the increasing disorder will block the diffraction and lead to localization. In the general case, band theory is used for band-structure analysis of three bands. We find that the disorder has a smaller effect on the higher-order band, which is proved by the beam evolutions. Our work may be instructive for realizing beam path control by manipulating the strengths of disorder and gain and/or loss of lattice.

  19. Effects of Ga Addition on Interfacial Reactions Between Sn-Based Solders and Ni

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chao-Hong; Li, Kuan-Ting

    2016-12-01

    The use of Ga as a micro-alloying element in Sn-based solders can change the microstructure of solder joints to improve the mechanical properties, and even suppress the interfacial intermetallic compound (IMC) growth. This research investigated the effects of Ga addition (0.2-1 wt.%Ga) on the IMC formation and morphological evolution in the Sn-based solder joints with Ni substrate. In the soldering reaction at 250°C and with less than 0.2 wt.%Ga addition, the formed phase was Ni3Sn4. When the Ga addition increased to 0.5 wt.%, it changed to a thin Ni2Ga3 layer of ˜1 μm thick, which stably existed at the interface in the initial 1-h reaction. Subsequently, the whole Ni2Ga3 layer detached from the Ni substrate and drifted into the molten solder. The Ni3Sn4 phase became dominant in the later stage. Notably, the Ga addition significantly reduced the grain size of Ni3Sn4, resulting in the massive spalling of Ni3Sn4 grains. With 1 wt.%Ga addition, the Ni2Ga3 layer remained very thin with no significant growth, and it stably existed at the interface for more than 10 h. In addition, the solid-state reactions were examined at temperatures of 160°C to 200°C. With addition of 0.5 wt.%Ga, the Ni3Sn4 phase dominated the whole reaction. By contrast, with increasing to 1 wt.%Ga, only a thin Ni2Ga3 layer was found even after aging at 160°C for more than 1200 h. The 1 wt.%Ga addition in solder can effectively inhibit the Ni3Sn4 formation in soldering and the long-term aging process.

  20. Use of TRMM Rainfall Information in Improving Long-Term, Satellite-Based Global Precipitation Analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starr, David OC. (Technical Monitor); Adler, Robert F.; Huffman, George; Curtis, Scott; Bolvin, David; Nelkin, Eric

    2002-01-01

    The TRMM rainfall products are inter-compared among themselves and to the 23 year, monthly, globally complete precipitation analysis of the World Climate Research Program's (WCRP/ GEWEX) Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP). Ways in which the TRMM-based estimates can be used to improve the long-term data set are described. These include improvement of the passive microwave algorithm that is applied to the 15 year SSM/I record and calibration or adjustment of the current GPCP fields utilizing the 4-5 year overlap of TRMM and GPCP. A comparison of the GPCP monthly surface precipitation fields and the TRMM-based multi-satellite analyses indicates that the two are similar, but have significant differences that relate to the different input data sets. Although on a zonal average basis over the ocean the two analyses are similar in the deep Tropics, there are subtle differences between the eastern and western Pacific Ocean in the relative magnitudes. In mid-latitudes the GPCP has somewhat larger mean precipitation than TRMM. Statistical comparisons of TRMM and GPCP monthly fields are carried out in terms of histogram matching for both ocean and land regions and for small areas to diagnose differences. These comparisons form the basis for a TRMM calibration of the GPCP fields using matched histograms over regional areas as a function of season. Although final application of this procedure will likely await the Version 6 of the TRMM products, tests using Version 5 are shown that provide a TRMM-calibrated GPCP version that will produce an improved climatology and a more accurate month-to-month precipitation analysis for the last 20 years.

  1. Assessment of trophic structure of Cretaceous communities based on stable nitrogen isotope analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostrom, P. H.; Macko, S. A.; Engel, M. H.; Russell, D. A.

    1993-06-01

    New δ15N data suggest the retention of an indigenous signal in ancient high molecular weight organic material. These data open the possibility of obtaining new paleoecological information, based on isotopic analyses, on ancient, well-preserved fossil communities. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analyses were performed on high molecular weight organic material isolated from 22 taxa of Late Cretaceous vertebrates (Judith River Formation, Alberta,Canada). The majority of δ13C and δ15N values (-27‰ to -23‰ and 4‰ to 12‰, for δ13C and δ15N, respectively) are similar to those reported for modern consumers. An assessment of trophic levels based on δ15N is consistent with previous interpretations of food web structure derived from paleoecological interpretations. Among terrestrial consumers, carnivorous theropods (tyrannosaurids and dromaeosaurids) have high δ15N values (6.6‰ ±0.4‰ and 7.9‰, respectively) relative to those of the dominant megaherbivore (hadrosaurids, 4.7‰ ±0.5‰). Within aquatic environments, the values of δ15N of the bowfin Amia (11.6‰) and plesiosaur (11.0‰),distinguish the piscivorous tendencies of these organisms from those of tower trophic level consumers such as the benthic feeding sturgeon Acipenser and the turtle Aspideretes (δ15N = 5.1‰ and 4.5‰, respectively). The correlation in trophic position between δ15N values and paleoecological evidence is unlikely to be coincidental.

  2. Static and dynamic stress analyses of the prototype high head Francis runner based on site measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, X.; Oram, C.; Sick, M.

    2014-03-01

    More efforts are put on hydro-power to balance voltage and frequency within seconds for primary control in modern smart grids. This requires hydraulic turbines to run at off-design conditions. especially at low load or speed-no load. Besides. the tendency of increasing power output and decreasing weight of the turbine runners has also led to the high level vibration problem of the runners. especially high head Francis runners. Therefore. it is important to carry out the static and dynamic stress analyses of prototype high head Francis runners. This paper investigates the static and dynamic stresses on the prototype high head Francis runner based on site measurements and numerical simulations. The site measurements are performed with pressure transducers and strain gauges. Based on the measured results. computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations for the flow channel from stay vane to draft tube cone are performed. Static pressure distributions and dynamic pressure pulsations caused by rotor-stator interaction (RSI) are obtained under various operating conditions. With the CFD results. static and dynamic stresses on the runner at different operating points are calculated by means of the finite element method (FEM). The agreement between simulation and measurement is analysed with linear regression method. which indicates that the numerical result agrees well with that of measurement. Furthermore. the maximum static and dynamic stresses on the runner blade are obtained at various operating points. The relations of the maximum stresses and the power output are discussed in detail. The influences of the boundary conditions on the structural behaviour of the runner are also discussed.

  3. Sensitivity analyses of turbulence theory-based variance-covariance matrices of tropospheric slant delays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vennebusch, M.; Schön, S.

    2009-04-01

    Atmospheric turbulence induces physical correlations on any space geodetic technique based on electromagnetic waves. Thus, also GNSS phase observations are both temporally and spatially correlated due to refractivity fluctuations along the signal's path from the transmitter to the receiver. Currently, these physical correlations are rarely considered in GNSS data analysis; yielding too optimistic parameter variances and covariances. Based on turbulence theory, Schön and Brunner (2008) developed a formulation of the variances and covariances induced by refractivity fluctuations in the troposphere. This model adequately describes the variance-covariance matrix (VCM) of tropospheric slant delays. The parametrisation is mainly based on the turbulence structure constant, the outer scale length, the integration height, the wind direction and the observation geometry. The VCM can adequately be used to determine synthetic slant delay time series. In this paper, this strategy will be described by using an exemplary GPS configuration. Furthermore, the latest results of simulation studies and sensitivity analyses of this VCM model w.r.t. the model parameters are presented. As a result, the most dominant parameters (that should be either determined with special care or precisely known) will be identified.

  4. Arachnid relationships based on mitochondrial genomes: asymmetric nucleotide and amino acid bias affects phylogenetic analyses.

    PubMed

    Masta, Susan E; Longhorn, Stuart J; Boore, Jeffrey L

    2009-01-01

    Phylogenetic analyses based on mitochondrial DNA have yielded widely differing relationships among members of the arthropod lineage Arachnida, depending on the nucleotide coding schemes and models of evolution used. We enhanced taxonomic coverage within the Arachnida greatly by sequencing seven new arachnid mitochondrial genomes from five orders. We then used all 13 mitochondrial protein-coding genes from these genomes to evaluate patterns of nucleotide and amino acid biases. Our data show that two of the six orders of arachnids (spiders and scorpions) have experienced shifts in both nucleotide and amino acid usage in all their protein-coding genes, and that these biases mislead phylogeny reconstruction. These biases are most striking for the hydrophobic amino acids isoleucine and valine, which appear to have evolved asymmetrical exchanges in response to shifts in nucleotide composition. To improve phylogenetic accuracy based on amino acid differences, we tested two recoding methods: (1) removing all isoleucine and valine sites and (2) recoding amino acids based on their physiochemical properties. We find that these methods yield phylogenetic trees that are consistent in their support of ancient intraordinal divergences within the major arachnid lineages. Further refinement of amino acid recoding methods may help us better delineate interordinal relationships among these diverse organisms.

  5. A general theory to analyse and design wireless power transfer based on impedance matching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shuo; Chen, Linhui; Zhou, Yongchun; Cui, Tie Jun

    2014-10-01

    We propose a general theory to analyse and design the wireless power transfer (WPT) systems based on impedance matching. We take two commonly used structures as examples, the transformer-coupling-based WPT and the series/parallel capacitor-based WPT, to show how to design the impedance matching network (IMN) to obtain the maximum transfer efficiency and the maximum output power. Using the impedance matching theory (IMT), we derive a simple expression of the overall transfer efficiency by the coils' quality factors and the coupling coefficient, which has perfect accuracy compared to full-circuit simulations. Full-wave electromagnetic software, CST Microwave Studio, has been used to extract the parameters of coils, thus providing us a comprehensive way to simulate WPT systems directly from the coils' physical model. We have also discussed the relationship between the output power and the transfer efficiency, and found that the maximum output power and the maximum transfer efficiency may occur at different frequencies. Hence, both power and efficiency should be considered in real WPT applications. To validate the proposed theory, two types of WPT experiments have been conducted using 30 cm-diameter coils for lighting a 20 W light bulb with 60% efficiency over a distance of 50 cm. The experimental results have very good agreements to the theoretical predictions.

  6. Incorporating external evidence in trial-based cost-effectiveness analyses: the use of resampling methods

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Cost-effectiveness analyses (CEAs) that use patient-specific data from a randomized controlled trial (RCT) are popular, yet such CEAs are criticized because they neglect to incorporate evidence external to the trial. A popular method for quantifying uncertainty in a RCT-based CEA is the bootstrap. The objective of the present study was to further expand the bootstrap method of RCT-based CEA for the incorporation of external evidence. Methods We utilize the Bayesian interpretation of the bootstrap and derive the distribution for the cost and effectiveness outcomes after observing the current RCT data and the external evidence. We propose simple modifications of the bootstrap for sampling from such posterior distributions. Results In a proof-of-concept case study, we use data from a clinical trial and incorporate external evidence on the effect size of treatments to illustrate the method in action. Compared to the parametric models of evidence synthesis, the proposed approach requires fewer distributional assumptions, does not require explicit modeling of the relation between external evidence and outcomes of interest, and is generally easier to implement. A drawback of this approach is potential computational inefficiency compared to the parametric Bayesian methods. Conclusions The bootstrap method of RCT-based CEA can be extended to incorporate external evidence, while preserving its appealing features such as no requirement for parametric modeling of cost and effectiveness outcomes. PMID:24888356

  7. Prediction Uncertainty Analyses for the Combined Physically-Based and Data-Driven Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demissie, Y. K.; Valocchi, A. J.; Minsker, B. S.; Bailey, B. A.

    2007-12-01

    The unavoidable simplification associated with physically-based mathematical models can result in biased parameter estimates and correlated model calibration errors, which in return affect the accuracy of model predictions and the corresponding uncertainty analyses. In this work, a physically-based groundwater model (MODFLOW) together with error-correcting artificial neural networks (ANN) are used in a complementary fashion to obtain an improved prediction (i.e. prediction with reduced bias and error correlation). The associated prediction uncertainty of the coupled MODFLOW-ANN model is then assessed using three alternative methods. The first method estimates the combined model confidence and prediction intervals using first-order least- squares regression approximation theory. The second method uses Monte Carlo and bootstrap techniques for MODFLOW and ANN, respectively, to construct the combined model confidence and prediction intervals. The third method relies on a Bayesian approach that uses analytical or Monte Carlo methods to derive the intervals. The performance of these approaches is compared with Generalized Likelihood Uncertainty Estimation (GLUE) and Calibration-Constrained Monte Carlo (CCMC) intervals of the MODFLOW predictions alone. The results are demonstrated for a hypothetical case study developed based on a phytoremediation site at the Argonne National Laboratory. This case study comprises structural, parameter, and measurement uncertainties. The preliminary results indicate that the proposed three approaches yield comparable confidence and prediction intervals, thus making the computationally efficient first-order least-squares regression approach attractive for estimating the coupled model uncertainty. These results will be compared with GLUE and CCMC results.

  8. PHI-base update: additions to the pathogen–host interaction database

    PubMed Central

    Winnenburg, Rainer; Urban, Martin; Beacham, Andrew; Baldwin, Thomas K.; Holland, Sabrina; Lindeberg, Magdalen; Hansen, Hilde; Rawlings, Christopher; Hammond-Kosack, Kim E.; Köhler, Jacob

    2008-01-01

    The pathogen–host interaction database (PHI-base) is a web-accessible database that catalogues experimentally verified pathogenicity, virulence and effector genes from bacterial, fungal and Oomycete pathogens, which infect human, animal, plant, insect, fish and fungal hosts. Plant endophytes are also included. PHI-base is therefore an invaluable resource for the discovery of genes in medically and agronomically important pathogens, which may be potential targets for chemical intervention. The database is freely accessible to both academic and non-academic users. This publication describes recent additions to the database and both current and future applications. The number of fields that characterize PHI-base entries has almost doubled. Important additional fields deal with new experimental methods, strain information, pathogenicity islands and external references that link the database to external resources, for example, gene ontology terms and Locus IDs. Another important addition is the inclusion of anti-infectives and their target genes that makes it possible to predict the compounds, that may interact with newly identified virulence factors. In parallel, the curation process has been improved and now involves several external experts. On the technical side, several new search tools have been provided and the database is also now distributed in XML format. PHI-base is available at: http://www.phi-base.org/. PMID:17942425

  9. Quantitative and qualitative validations of a sonication-based DNA extraction approach for PCR-based molecular biological analyses.

    PubMed

    Dai, Xiaohu; Chen, Sisi; Li, Ning; Yan, Han

    2016-05-15

    The aim of this study was to comprehensively validate the sonication-based DNA extraction method, in hope of the replacement of the so-called 'standard DNA extraction method' - the commercial kit method. Microbial cells in the digested sludge sample, containing relatively high amount of PCR-inhibitory substances, such as humic acid and protein, were applied as the experimental alternatives. The procedure involving solid/liquid separation of sludge sample and dilution of both DNA templates and inhibitors, the minimum templates for PCR-based analyses, and the in-depth understanding from the bias analysis by pyrosequencing technology were obtained and confirmed the availability of the sonication-based DNA extraction method.

  10. The identity of the discriminator base has an impact on CCA addition

    PubMed Central

    Wende, Sandra; Bonin, Sonja; Götze, Oskar; Betat, Heike; Mörl, Mario

    2015-01-01

    CCA-adding enzymes synthesize and maintain the C-C-A sequence at the tRNA 3′-end, generating the attachment site for amino acids. While tRNAs are the most prominent substrates for this polymerase, CCA additions on non-tRNA transcripts are described as well. To identify general features for substrate requirement, a pool of randomized transcripts was incubated with the human CCA-adding enzyme. Most of the RNAs accepted for CCA addition carry an acceptor stem-like terminal structure, consistent with tRNA as the main substrate group for this enzyme. While these RNAs show no sequence conservation, the position upstream of the CCA end was in most cases represented by an adenosine residue. In tRNA, this position is described as discriminator base, an important identity element for correct aminoacylation. Mutational analysis of the impact of the discriminator identity on CCA addition revealed that purine bases (with a preference for adenosine) are strongly favoured over pyrimidines. Furthermore, depending on the tRNA context, a cytosine discriminator can cause a dramatic number of misincorporations during CCA addition. The data correlate with a high frequency of adenosine residues at the discriminator position observed in vivo. Originally identified as a prominent identity element for aminoacylation, this position represents a likewise important element for efficient and accurate CCA addition. PMID:25958396

  11. The identity of the discriminator base has an impact on CCA addition.

    PubMed

    Wende, Sandra; Bonin, Sonja; Götze, Oskar; Betat, Heike; Mörl, Mario

    2015-06-23

    CCA-adding enzymes synthesize and maintain the C-C-A sequence at the tRNA 3'-end, generating the attachment site for amino acids. While tRNAs are the most prominent substrates for this polymerase, CCA additions on non-tRNA transcripts are described as well. To identify general features for substrate requirement, a pool of randomized transcripts was incubated with the human CCA-adding enzyme. Most of the RNAs accepted for CCA addition carry an acceptor stem-like terminal structure, consistent with tRNA as the main substrate group for this enzyme. While these RNAs show no sequence conservation, the position upstream of the CCA end was in most cases represented by an adenosine residue. In tRNA, this position is described as discriminator base, an important identity element for correct aminoacylation. Mutational analysis of the impact of the discriminator identity on CCA addition revealed that purine bases (with a preference for adenosine) are strongly favoured over pyrimidines. Furthermore, depending on the tRNA context, a cytosine discriminator can cause a dramatic number of misincorporations during CCA addition. The data correlate with a high frequency of adenosine residues at the discriminator position observed in vivo. Originally identified as a prominent identity element for aminoacylation, this position represents a likewise important element for efficient and accurate CCA addition.

  12. Addition of silver nanoparticles reduces the wettability of methacrylate and silorane-based composites.

    PubMed

    Kasraei, Shahin; Azarsina, Mohadese

    2012-01-01

    Incorporation of silver nanoparticles into composite resins is recommended for their reported antibacterial properties, but this incorporation can affect the wettability of such materials. Therefore, this study evaluated the effect of nano-silver addition to silorane-based and methacrylate-based composites on their contact angle. Nano-silver particles were added to Z250 (methacrylate-based) and P90 (silorane-based) composites at 0.5% and 1% by weight. The control group had no additions. SEM-EDX analysis was performed to confirm the homogeneity of the nano-silver distribution. Seventy-two composite discs were prepared and standardized to the identical surface roughness values, and then distributed randomly into 6 groups containing 12 samples each (N = 12). Two random samples from each group were observed by atomic force microscopy. Distilled water contact angle measurements were performed for the wettability measurement. Two-way ANOVA, followed by the Tukey-HSD test, with a significance level of 5%, were used for data analysis. It was observed that wettability was significantly different between the composites (p = 0.0001), and that the addition of nano-silver caused a significant reduction in the contact angle (p = 0.0001). Wettability varied depending on the concentration of the nano silver (p = 0.008). Silorane-based composites have a higher contact angle than methacrylate-based composites. Within the limitations of this study, it can be concluded that the addition of 0.5% nano-silver particles to the composites caused a decrease in the contact angle of water.

  13. Limitations of Species Delimitation Based on Phylogenetic Analyses: A Case Study in the Hypogymnia hypotrypa Group (Parmeliaceae, Ascomycota)

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Xinli; McCune, Bruce; Lumbsch, H. Thorsten; Li, Hui; Leavitt, Steven; Yamamoto, Yoshikazu; Tchabanenko, Svetlana; Wei, Jiangchun

    2016-01-01

    Delimiting species boundaries among closely related lineages often requires a range of independent data sets and analytical approaches. Similar to other organismal groups, robust species circumscriptions in fungi are increasingly investigated within an empirical framework. Here we attempt to delimit species boundaries in a closely related clade of lichen-forming fungi endemic to Asia, the Hypogymnia hypotrypa group (Parmeliaceae). In the current classification, the Hypogymnia hypotrypa group includes two species: H. hypotrypa and H. flavida, which are separated based on distinctive reproductive modes, the former producing soredia but absent in the latter. We reexamined the relationship between these two species using phenotypic characters and molecular sequence data (ITS, GPD, and MCM7 sequences) to address species boundaries in this group. In addition to morphological investigations, we used Bayesian clustering to identify potential genetic groups in the H. hypotrypa/H. flavida clade. We also used a variety of empirical, sequence-based species delimitation approaches, including: the “Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery” (ABGD), the Poisson tree process model (PTP), the General Mixed Yule Coalescent (GMYC), and the multispecies coalescent approach BPP. Different species delimitation scenarios were compared using Bayes factors delimitation analysis, in addition to comparisons of pairwise genetic distances, pairwise fixation indices (FST). The majority of the species delimitation analyses implemented in this study failed to support H. hypotrypa and H. flavida as distinct lineages, as did the Bayesian clustering analysis. However, strong support for the evolutionary independence of H. hypotrypa and H. flavida was inferred using BPP and further supported by Bayes factor delimitation. In spite of rigorous morphological comparisons and a wide range of sequence-based approaches to delimit species, species boundaries in the H. hypotrypa group remain uncertain. This study

  14. Textbook Questions in Context-Based and Traditional Chemistry Curricula Analysed from a Content Perspective and a Learning Activities Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Overman, Michelle; Vermunt, Jan D.; Meijer, Paulien C.; Bulte, Astrid M. W.; Brekelmans, Mieke

    2013-01-01

    In this study, questions in context-based and traditional chemistry textbooks were analysed from two perspectives that are at the heart of chemistry curricula reforms: a content perspective and a learning activities perspective. To analyse these textbook questions, we developed an instrument for each perspective. In total, 971 textbook questions…

  15. Tribological properties of few-layer graphene oxide sheets as oil-based lubricant additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhe; Liu, Yuhong; Luo, Jianbin

    2016-03-01

    The performance of a lubricant largely depends on the additives it involves. However, currently used additives cause severe pollution if they are burned and exhausted. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a new generation of green additives. Graphene oxide (GO) consists of only C, H and O and thus is considered to be environmentally friendly. So the tribological properties of the few-layer GO sheet as an additive in hydrocarbon base oil are investigated systematically. It is found that, with the addition of GO sheets, both the coefficient of friction (COF) and wear are decreased and the working temperature range of the lubricant is expanded in the positive direction. Moreover, GO sheets has better performance under higher sliding speed and the optimized concentration of GO sheets is determined to be 0.5wt%. After rubbing, GO is detected on the wear scars through Raman spectroscopy. And it is believed that, during the rubbing, GO sheets adhere to the sliding surfaces, behaving like protective films and preventing the sliding surfaces from contacting with each other directly. This paper proves that the GO sheet is an effective lubricant additive, illuminates the lubrication mechanism, and provides some critical parameters for the practical application of GO sheets in lubrication.

  16. Postprocessing of Voxel-Based Topologies for Additive Manufacturing Using the Computational Geometry Algorithms Library (CGAL)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    that a structure is built up by layers. Typically, additive manufacturing devices (3-dimensional [3-D] printers , e.g.), use the stereolithography (STL...begin with a standard, voxel-based topology optimization scheme and end with an STL file, ready for use in a 3-D printer or other additive manufacturing...S, Yvinec M. Cgal 4.6 - 3d alpha shapes. 2015 [accessed 2015 May 18]. http://doc.cgal.org/latest/Alpha_shapes_3/index.html#Chapter_3D_ Alpha_Shapes

  17. Alleviation of additional phase noise in fiber optical parametric amplifier based signal regenerator.

    PubMed

    Jin, Lei; Xu, Bo; Yamashita, Shinji

    2012-11-19

    We theoretically and numerically explain the power saturation and the additional phase noise brought by the fiber optical parametric amplifier (FOPA). An equation to calculate an approximation to the saturated signal output power is presented. We also propose a scheme for alleviating the phase noise brought by the FOPA at the saturated state. In simulation, by controlling the decisive factor dispersion difference term Δk of the FOPA, amplitude-noise and additional phase noise reduction of quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK) based on the saturated FOPA is studied, which can provide promising performance to deal with PSK signals.

  18. Comparative UPLC-QTOF-MS-based metabolomics and bioactivities analyses of Garcinia oblongifolia.

    PubMed

    Li, Ping; AnandhiSenthilkumar, Harini; Wu, Shi-biao; Liu, Bo; Guo, Zhi-yong; Fata, Jimmie E; Kennelly, Edward J; Long, Chun-lin

    2016-02-01

    Garcinia oblongifolia Champ. ex Benth. (Clusiaceae) is a well-known medicinal plant from southern China, with edible fruits. However, the phytochemistry and bioactivity of the different plant parts of G. oblongifolia have not been studied extensively. Comparative metabolic profiling and bioactivities of the leaf, branch, and fruit of G. oblongifolia were investigated. A total of 40 compounds such as biflavonoids, xanthones, and benzophenones were identified using UPLC-QTOF-MS and MS(E), including 15 compounds reported for the first time from this species. Heatmap analyses found that benzophenones, xanthones, and biflavonoids were predominately found in branches, with benzophenones present in relatively high concentrations in all three plant parts. Xanthones were found to have limited distribution in fruit while biflavonoids were present at only low levels in leaves. In addition, the cytotoxic (MCF-7 breast cancer cell line) and antioxidant (ABTS and DPPH chemical tests) activities of the crude extracts of G. oblongifolia indicate that the branch extract exhibits greater bioactivity than either the leaf or the fruit extracts. Orthogonal partial least squares discriminate analysis was used to find 12 marker compounds, mainly xanthones, from the branches, including well-known antioxidants and cytotoxic agents. These G. oblongifolia results revealed that the variation in metabolite profiles can be correlated to the differences in bioactivity of the three plant parts investigated. This UPLC-QTOF-MS strategy can be useful to identify bioactive constituents expressed differentially in the various plant parts of a single species.

  19. Two decades [1992-2012] of surface wind analyses based on satellite scatterometer observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desbiolles, Fabien; Bentamy, Abderrahim; Blanke, Bruno; Roy, Claude; Mestas-Nuñez, Alberto M.; Grodsky, Semyon A.; Herbette, Steven; Cambon, Gildas; Maes, Christophe

    2017-04-01

    Surface winds (equivalent neutral wind velocities at 10 m) from scatterometer missions since 1992 have been used to build up a 20-year climate series. Optimal interpolation and kriging methods have been applied to continuously provide surface wind speed and direction estimates over the global ocean on a regular grid in space and time. The use of other data sources such as radiometer data (SSM/I) and atmospheric wind reanalyses (ERA-Interim) has allowed building a blended product available at 1/4° spatial resolution and every 6 h from 1992 to 2012. Sampling issues throughout the different missions (ERS-1, ERS-2, QuikSCAT, and ASCAT) and their possible impact on the homogeneity of the gridded product are discussed. In addition, we assess carefully the quality of the blended product in the absence of scatterometer data (1992 to 1999). Data selection experiments show that the description of the surface wind is significantly improved by including the scatterometer winds. The blended winds compare well with buoy winds (1992-2012) and they resolve finer spatial scales than atmospheric reanalyses, which make them suitable for studying air-sea interactions at mesoscale. The seasonal cycle and interannual variability of the product compare well with other long-term wind analyses. The product is used to calculate 20-year trends in wind speed, as well as in zonal and meridional wind components. These trends show an important asymmetry between the southern and northern hemispheres, which may be an important issue for climate studies.

  20. Phylogenetic analyses of endoparasitic Acanthocephala based on mitochondrial genomes suggest secondary loss of sensory organs.

    PubMed

    Weber, Mathias; Wey-Fabrizius, Alexandra R; Podsiadlowski, Lars; Witek, Alexander; Schill, Ralph O; Sugár, László; Herlyn, Holger; Hankeln, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The metazoan taxon Syndermata (Monogononta, Bdelloidea, Seisonidea, Acanthocephala) comprises species with vastly different lifestyles. The focus of this study is on the phylogeny within the syndermatan subtaxon Acanthocephala (thorny-headed worms, obligate endoparasites). In order to investigate the controversially discussed phylogenetic relationships of acanthocephalan subtaxa we have sequenced the mitochondrial (mt) genomes of Echinorhynchus truttae (Palaeacanthocephala), Paratenuisentis ambiguus (Eoacanthocephala), Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus (Archiacanthocephala), and Philodina citrina (Bdelloidea). In doing so, we present the largest molecular phylogenetic dataset so far for this question comprising all major subgroups of Acanthocephala. Alongside with publicly available mt genome data of four additional syndermatans as well as 18 other lophotrochozoan (spiralian) taxa and one outgroup representative, the derived protein-coding sequences were used for Maximum Likelihood as well as Bayesian phylogenetic analyses. We achieved entirely congruent results, whereupon monophyletic Archiacanthocephala represent the sister taxon of a clade comprising Eoacanthocephala and monophyletic Palaeacanthocephala (Echinorhynchida). This topology suggests the secondary loss of lateral sensory organs (sensory pores) within Palaeacanthocephala and is further in line with the emergence of apical sensory organs in the stem lineage of Archiacanthocephala.

  1. Revised age of deglaciation of Lake Emma based on new radiocarbon and macrofossil analyses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elias, S.A.; Carrara, P.E.; Toolin, L.J.; Jull, A.J.T.

    1991-01-01

    Previous radiocarbon ages of detrital moss fragments in basal organic sediments of Lake Emma indicated that extensive deglaciation of the San Juan Mountains occurred prior to 14,900 yr B.P. (Carrara et al., 1984). Paleoecological analyses of insect and plant macrofossils from these basal sediments cast doubt on the reliability of the radiocarbon ages. Subsequent accelerator radiocarbon dates of insect fossils and wood fragments indicate an early Holocene age, rather than a late Pleistocene age, for the basal sediments of Lake Emma. These new radiocarbon ages suggest that by at least 10,000 yr B.P. deglaciation of the San Juan Mountains was complete. The insect and plant macrofossils from the basal organic sediments indicate a higher-than-present treeline during the early Holocene. The insect assemblages consisted of about 30% bark beetles, which contrasts markedly with the composition of insects from modern lake sediments and modern specimens collected in the Lake Emma cirque, in which bark beetles comprise only about 3% of the assemblages. In addition, in the fossil assemblages there were a number of flightless insect species (not subject to upslope transport by wind) indicative of coniferous forest environments. These insects were likewise absent in the modern assemblage. ?? 1991.

  2. Fluorescent "turn-on" detecting CN- by nucleophilic addition induced Schiff-base hydrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Qi; Cai, Yi; Li, Qiao; Shi, Bing-Bing; Yao, Hong; Zhang, You-Ming; Wei, Tai-Bao

    2015-04-01

    A new chemosensor Sz based on Schiff-base group as recognition site and naphthalene as the fluorescence signal group was designed and synthesised. It could fluorescent "turn-on" detect cyanide (CN-) via a novel mechanism of nucleophilic addition induced Schiff-base hydrolysis. Adding the CN- into the solution of Sz could induce Sz to emit blue fluorescence at 435 nm instantly. Moreover, Sz could also colorimetric detect CN-. Upon the addition of CN-, the Sz showed dramatic color change from yellow to colorless. These sensing procedures could not be interfered by other coexistent competitive anions such as F-, AcO-, H2PO4- and SCN-. In addition, Sz showed high sensitivity for CN-, the detection limits is 3.42 × 10-8 M of CN-, which is far lower than the WHO guideline of CN- in drinking water (less than 1.9 × 10-6 M). The CN- test strips based on Sz could act as a convenient CN- test kits.

  3. The investigation of an amidine-based additive in the perovskite films and solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Guanhaojie; Li, Liang; Wang, Ligang; Gao, Xingyu; Zhou, Huanping

    2017-01-01

    Here, we introduced acetamidine (C2H3N2H3, Aa)-based salt as an additive in the fabrication of perovskite (CH3NH3PbI3) layer for perovskite solar cells. It was found that as an amidine-based salt, this additive successfully enhanced the crystallinity of CH3NH3PbI3 and helped to form smooth and uniform films with comparable grain size and full coverage. Besides, perovskite film with additive showed a much longer carrier lifetime and an obviously enhanced open-circuit voltage in the corresponding devices, indicating that the acetamidine-based salt can reduce the carrier recombination in both the film and device. We further demonstrate a promising perovskite device based on acetamidine salt by using a configuration of ITO/TiO2/Perovskite/Spiro-OMeTAD/Au under < 150 °C fabrication condition. A power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 16.54% was achieved, which is much higher than the control device without acetamidine salt. These results present a simple method for film quality optimization of perovskite to further improve photovoltaic performances of perovskite solar cells, which may also benefit the exploration of A cation in perovskite materials. Project supported by Young Talent Thousand Program and ENN Group.

  4. Comprehensive Logic Based Analyses of Toll-Like Receptor 4 Signal Transduction Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Padwal, Mahesh Kumar; Sarma, Uddipan; Saha, Bhaskar

    2014-01-01

    Among the 13 TLRs in the vertebrate systems, only TLR4 utilizes both Myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) and Toll/Interleukin-1 receptor (TIR)-domain-containing adapter interferon-β-inducing Factor (TRIF) adaptors to transduce signals triggering host-protective immune responses. Earlier studies on the pathway combined various experimental data in the form of one comprehensive map of TLR signaling. But in the absence of adequate kinetic parameters quantitative mathematical models that reveal emerging systems level properties and dynamic inter-regulation among the kinases/phosphatases of the TLR4 network are not yet available. So, here we used reaction stoichiometry-based and parameter independent logical modeling formalism to build the TLR4 signaling network model that captured the feedback regulations, interdependencies between signaling kinases and phosphatases and the outcome of simulated infections. The analyses of the TLR4 signaling network revealed 360 feedback loops, 157 negative and 203 positive; of which, 334 loops had the phosphatase PP1 as an essential component. The network elements' interdependency (positive or negative dependencies) in perturbation conditions such as the phosphatase knockout conditions revealed interdependencies between the dual-specific phosphatases MKP-1 and MKP-3 and the kinases in MAPK modules and the role of PP2A in the auto-regulation of Calmodulin kinase-II. Our simulations under the specific kinase or phosphatase gene-deficiency or inhibition conditions corroborated with several previously reported experimental data. The simulations to mimic Yersinia pestis and E. coli infections identified the key perturbation in the network and potential drug targets. Thus, our analyses of TLR4 signaling highlights the role of phosphatases as key regulatory factors in determining the global interdependencies among the network elements; uncovers novel signaling connections; identifies potential drug targets for infections. PMID:24699232

  5. Field-Based Land Cover Classification Aided with Texture Analyses Using Terrasar-X Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmoud, Ali; Pradhan, Biswajeet; Buchroithner, Manfred

    The present study aims to evaluate the field-based approach for the classification of land cover using the recently launched high resolution SAR data. TerraSAR-X1 (TSX-1) strip mode im-age, coupled with Digital Ortho Photos with 20 cm spatial resolution was used for land cover classification and parcel mapping respectively. Different filtering and texture analyses tech-niques were applied to extract textural information from the TSX-1 image in order to assess the enhancement of the classification accuracy. Several attributes of parcels were derived from the available TSX-1 image in order to define the most suitable attributes discriminating be-tween different land cover types. Then, these attributes were further analyzed by statistical and various image classification methods for landcover classification. The results showed that, tex-tural analysis performed higher classification accuracy than the earlier. The authors conclude that, an integrated landcover classification using the textural information in TerraSAR-X1 has high potential for landcover mapping. Key words: Landcover classification, TerraSARX1, field based, texture analysis

  6. Bacterial regulon modeling and prediction based on systematic cis regulatory motif analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Bingqiang; Zhou, Chuan; Li, Guojun; Zhang, Hanyuan; Zeng, Erliang; Liu, Qi; Ma, Qin

    2016-03-01

    Regulons are the basic units of the response system in a bacterial cell, and each consists of a set of transcriptionally co-regulated operons. Regulon elucidation is the basis for studying the bacterial global transcriptional regulation network. In this study, we designed a novel co-regulation score between a pair of operons based on accurate operon identification and cis regulatory motif analyses, which can capture their co-regulation relationship much better than other scores. Taking full advantage of this discovery, we developed a new computational framework and built a novel graph model for regulon prediction. This model integrates the motif comparison and clustering and makes the regulon prediction problem substantially more solvable and accurate. To evaluate our prediction, a regulon coverage score was designed based on the documented regulons and their overlap with our prediction; and a modified Fisher Exact test was implemented to measure how well our predictions match the co-expressed modules derived from E. coli microarray gene-expression datasets collected under 466 conditions. The results indicate that our program consistently performed better than others in terms of the prediction accuracy. This suggests that our algorithms substantially improve the state-of-the-art, leading to a computational capability to reliably predict regulons for any bacteria.

  7. Risk-based analyses in support of California hazardous site remediation

    SciTech Connect

    Ringland, J.T.

    1995-08-01

    The California Environmental Enterprise (CEE) is a joint program of the Department of Energy (DOE), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, and Sandia National Laboratories. Its goal is to make DOE laboratory expertise accessible to hazardous site cleanups in the state This support might involve working directly with parties responsible for individual cleanups or it might involve working with the California Environmental Protection Agency to develop tools that would be applicable across a broad range of sites. As part of its initial year`s activities, the CEE supported a review to examine where laboratory risk and risk-based systems analysis capabilities might be most effectively applied. To this end, this study draws the following observations. The labs have a clear role in analyses supporting the demonstration and transfer of laboratory characterization or remediation technologies. The labs may have opportunities in developing broadly applicable analysis tools and computer codes for problems such as site characterization or efficient management of resources. Analysis at individual sites, separate from supporting lab technologies or prototyping general tools, may be appropriate only in limited circumstances. In any of these roles, the labs` capabilities extend beyond health risk assessment to the broader areas of risk management and risk-based systems analysis.

  8. Preliminary analyses of space radiation protection for lunar base surface systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nealy, John E.; Wilson, John W.; Townsend, Lawrence W.

    1989-01-01

    Radiation shielding analyses are performed for candidate lunar base habitation modules. The study primarily addresses potential hazards due to contributions from the galactic cosmic rays. The NASA Langley Research Center's high energy nucleon and heavy ion transport codes are used to compute propagation of radiation through conventional and regolith shield materials. Computed values of linear energy transfer are converted to biological dose-equivalent using quality factors established by the International Commision of Radiological Protection. Special fluxes of heavy charged particles and corresponding dosimetric quantities are computed for a series of thicknesses in various shield media and are used as an input data base for algorithms pertaining to specific shielded geometries. Dosimetric results are presented as isodose contour maps of shielded configuration interiors. The dose predictions indicate that shielding requirements are substantial, and an abbreviated uncertainty analysis shows that better definition of the space radiation environment as well as improvement in nuclear interaction cross-section data can greatly increase the accuracy of shield requirement predictions.

  9. Fluorescence-based resource for semiautomated genomic analyses using microsatellite markers

    SciTech Connect

    Levitt, R.C.; Kiser, M.B.; Dragwa, C.

    1994-11-15

    To facilitate the practical application of highly-efficient semiautomated methods for general application in genomic analyses, the authors have developed a fluorescence-based microsatellite marker resource. Ninety highly polymorphic microsatellite markers were combined to provide a rapid, accurate, and highly efficient initial genome-wide screening system. These markers are spaced on average every 33 cM, with a mean heterozygosity of 81% (range 65-94%), covering 22 autosomes and the X and Y chromosomes. Less than 10% of the genome lies beyond 20 cM of the nearest marker. Since this genomic analysis system is fully compatible with automated fragment analyzers using simultaneous four-color fluorescence-based detection systems, the 5 groups of 18 markers can be detected concurrently. This multiplex detection provides a throughput of 1944 genotypes daily per instrument. This system will be highly beneficial in a number of clinical and research applications including linkage, cancer genetics, forensics, and cytogenetics. 16 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  10. Phosphazene Based Additives for Improvement of Safety and Battery Lifetimes in Lithium-Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Mason K Harrup; Kevin L Gering; Harry W Rollins; Sergiy V Sazhin; Michael T Benson; David K Jamison; Christopher J Michelbacher

    2011-10-01

    There need to be significant improvements made in lithium-ion battery technology, principally in the areas of safety and useful lifetimes to truly enable widespread adoption of large format batteries for the electrification of the light transportation fleet. In order to effect the transition to lithium ion technology in a timely fashion, one promising next step is through improvements to the electrolyte in the form of novel additives that simultaneously improve safety and useful lifetimes without impairing performance characteristics over wide temperature and cycle duty ranges. Recent efforts in our laboratory have been focused on the development of such additives with all the requisite properties enumerated above. We present the results of the study of novel phosphazene based electrolytes additives.

  11. Effects of waste glass additions on quality of textile sludge-based bricks.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Ari; Urabe, Takeo; Kishimoto, Naoyuki; Mizuhara, Shinji

    2015-01-01

    This research investigated the utilization of textile sludge as a substitute for clay in brick production. The addition of textile sludge to a brick specimen enhanced its pores, thus reducing the quality of the product. However, the addition of waste glass to brick production materials improved the quality of the brick in terms of both compressive strength and water absorption. Maximum compressive strength was observed with the following composition of waste materials: 30% textile sludge, 60% clay and 10% waste glass. The melting of waste glass clogged up pores on the brick, which improved water absorption performance and compressive strength. Moreover, a leaching test on a sludge-based brick to which 10% waste glass did not detect significant heavy metal compounds in leachates, with the product being in conformance with standard regulations. The recycling of textile sludge for brick production, when combined with waste glass additions, may thus be promising in terms of both product quality and environmental aspects.

  12. The effects of beryllium additions on the oxidation of nickel aluminide and titanium aluminide based intermetallics

    SciTech Connect

    Hanrahan, R.J. Jr.; Chen, K.C.; Brady, M.P.

    1998-12-31

    The effects of Be additions on the oxidation behavior of {beta}-NiAl in moist air at 1,000 C and borderline alumina-forming {gamma} (TiAl) + Laves Ti-Al-Cr based alloys at 800 C and 1,000 C in dry and moist air were investigated. The addition of Be to {beta}-NiAl suppressed the formation of transient alumina, and resulted in the formation of a protective BeAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel phase. In dry air, the addition of Be to the Ti-Al-Cr alloys also resulted in the formation of a protective BeAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel phase. In moist air, only Ti-Al-Cr-Be alloys with a high Cr content (10 to 15 a/o) formed the protective BeAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} scale.

  13. The effects of beryllium additions on the oxidation of nickel aluminide and titanium aluminide based intermetallics

    SciTech Connect

    Hanrahan, R.J. Jr.; Chen, K.C.; Brady, M.P.

    1998-11-01

    The effects of Be additions on the oxidation behavior of {beta}-NiAl in moist air at 1,000 C as well as on the borderline alumina-forming {gamma} + Laves Ti-Al-Cr based alloys at 800 C and 1,000 C in dry and moist air were investigated. The addition of Be to {beta}-NiAl suppressed the formation of transient alumina and resulted in the formation of a protective BeAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel phase. In dry air, the addition of Be to the Ti-Al-Cr alloys also resulted in the formation of a protective BeAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel phase. In moist air, only Ti-Al-Cr-Be alloys with a high Cr content (10 to 15 a/o) formed the protective BeAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} scale.

  14. Improved Li-TiS2 cell cycling in ether-based electrolytes with synergistic additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, D. H.; Subbarao, S.; Deligiannis, F.; Huang, C.-K.; Halpert, G.; Dominey, L.; Koch, V. R.; Goldman, J.

    1991-01-01

    Results of the application of 2-MeF and KOH additives to improve the lithium stability in THF, dioxolane, and THF/2-MeTHF solvent-based electrolytes are presented. The stability of these electrolytes with and without additives is evaluated by microcalorimetry and AC impedance spectroscopy. A novel method, cathode turnover number, is proposed to represent the electrolyte performance in a given system. The lithium cycling efficiency and cathode turnover number of the electrolytes are calculated from the cycle life data in experimental Li-TiS2 cells. Overall, THF/2-MeTHF electrolyte containing 2-MeF and/or KOH exhibited higher stability, lithium cycling efficiency, and cathode turnover number compared to THF and dioxolane electrolytes with and without additives.

  15. Influence of oxide-based sintering additives on densification and mechanical behavior of tricalcium phosphate (TCP).

    PubMed

    Bhatt, Himesh A; Kalita, Samar J

    2007-05-01

    In this research, we studied and analyzed the effects of four different oxide-based sintering additives on densification, mechanical behavior, biodegradation and biocompatibility of tricalcium phosphate (TCP) bioceramics. Selective sintering additives were introduced into pure TCP ceramics, in small quantities, through homogeneous mixing, using a mortar and pestle. The consequent powders of different compositions were pressed into cylindrical compacts, uniaxially and sintered at elevated temperatures, 1150 degrees C and 1250 degrees C, separately in a muffle furnace. X-ray powder diffraction technique was used to analyze the phase-purity of TCP after sintering. Hardness of these sintered specimens was evaluated using a Vickers hardness tester. Sintered cylindrical samples were tested under uniaxial compressive loading, as a function of composition to determine their failure strength. Biodegradation studies conducted using simulated body fluid under dynamic environment, revealed that these additives could control the rate of resorption and hardness degradation of TCP ceramics.

  16. Densification of silicon carbide using oxy-nitride additives for space-based telescope mirror applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, R. Suresh; Shukla, Anoop K.; Babu, Sankaranarayanan; Sivakumar, Dhenuvakonda; Gandhi, Ashutosh S.

    2011-07-01

    Densification behavior of alpha silicon carbide (SiC) during vacuum hot pressing was studied up to 1900ºC with sintering additives based on AlN and Y2O3 in different proportions. Near theoretical density was obtained with a total sintering additive content of < 4 vol.%. The microstructure of SiC sintered with AlN+Y2O3 revealed fine equiaxed grains against the additional elongated grains exhibited by SiC sintered with AlN alone. The SiC having high density exhibited very good strength, elastic modulus, high thermal conductivity, low coefficient of thermal expansion and excellent polishability for telescope mirror applications.

  17. Enhancing Surface Finish of Additively Manufactured Titanium and Cobalt Chrome Elements Using Laser Based Finishing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gora, Wojciech S.; Tian, Yingtao; Cabo, Aldara Pan; Ardron, Marcus; Maier, Robert R. J.; Prangnell, Philip; Weston, Nicholas J.; Hand, Duncan P.

    Additive manufacturing (AM) offers the possibility of creating a complex free form object as a single element, which is not possible using traditional mechanical machining. Unfortunately the typically rough surface finish of additively manufactured parts is unsuitable for many applications. As a result AM parts must be post-processed; typically mechanically machined and/or and polished using either chemical or mechanical techniques (both of which have their limitations). Laser based polishing is based on remelting of a very thin surface layer and it offers potential as a highly repeatable, higher speed process capable of selective area polishing, and without any waste problems (no abrasives or liquids). In this paper an in-depth investigation of CW laser polishing of titanium and cobalt chrome AM elements is presented. The impact of different scanning strategies, laser parameters and initial surface condition on the achieved surface finish is evaluated.

  18. Sugar additives improve signal fidelity for implementing two-phase resorufin-based enzyme immunoassays.

    PubMed

    Sandoz, Patrick A; Chung, Aram J; Weaver, Westbrook M; Di Carlo, Dino

    2014-06-17

    Enzymatic signal amplification based on fluorogenic substrates is commonly used for immunoassays; however, when transitioning these assays to a digital format in water-in-mineral oil emulsions, such amplification methods have been limited by the leakage of small reporting fluorescent probes. In the present study, we used a microfluidic system to study leakage from aqueous droplets in a controlled manner and confirmed that the leakage of fluorescent resorufin derivatives is mostly due to the presence of the lipophilic surfactant Span80, which is commonly used to preserve emulsion stability. This leakage can be overcome by the addition of specific sugars that most strongly interfered with the surfactants ability to form micelles in water. The application of the microfluidic system to the quantitative analysis of droplets and the implementation of the described sugar additives would allow for alternatives to fluorinated surfactant-based platforms and improve the signal fidelity in enzyme immunoassays implemented through multiphase microfluidics.

  19. Enhancing Fullerene-Based Solar Cell Lifetimes by Addition of a Fullerene Dumbbell**

    PubMed Central

    Schroeder, Bob C; Li, Zhe; Brady, Michael A; Faria, Gregório Couto; Ashraf, Raja Shahid; Takacs, Christopher J; Cowart, John S; Duong, Duc T; Chiu, Kar Ho; Tan, Ching-Hong; Cabral, João T; Salleo, Alberto; Chabinyc, Michael L; Durrant, James R; McCulloch, Iain

    2014-01-01

    Cost-effective, solution-processable organic photovoltaics (OPV) present an interesting alternative to inorganic silicon-based solar cells. However, one of the major remaining challenges of OPV devices is their lack of long-term operational stability, especially at elevated temperatures. The synthesis of a fullerene dumbbell and its use as an additive in the active layer of a PCDTBT:PCBM-based OPV device is reported. The addition of only 20 % of this novel fullerene not only leads to improved device efficiencies, but more importantly also to a dramatic increase in morphological stability under simulated operating conditions. Dynamic secondary ion mass spectrometry (DSIMS) and TEM are used, amongst other techniques, to elucidate the origins of the improved morphological stability. PMID:25264304

  20. An Additive to Improve the Wear Characteristics of Perfluoropolyether Based Greases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, David G. V.; Fowzy, Mahmoud A.; Landry, James F.; Jones, William R., Jr.; Shogrin, Bradley A.; Nguyen, QuynhGiao

    1999-01-01

    The friction and wear characteristics of two formulated perfluoropolyether based greases were compared to their non-additive base greases. One grease was developed for the electronics industry (designated as GXL-296A) while the other is for space applications (designated as GXL-320A). The formulated greases (GXL-296B and GXL-320B) contained a proprietary antiwear additive at an optimized concentration. Tests were conducted using a vacuum four-ball tribometer. AISI 52100 steel specimens were used for all GXL-296 tests. Both AISI 52100 steel and 440C stainless steel were tested with the GXL-320 greases. Test conditions included: a pressure less than 6.7 x 10(exp )-4 Pa, a 200N load, a sliding velocity of 28.8 mm/sec (100 rpm) and room temperature (approximately equal to 23 C). Wear rates for each grease were determined from the slope of the wear volume as a function of sliding distance. Both non-additive base greases yielded relatively high wear rates on the order of 10(exp -8) cu mm using AISI 52100 steel specimens. Formulated grease GXL-296B yielded a reduction in wear rate by a factor of approximately 21, while grease GXL-320B had a reduction of approximately 12 times. Lower wear rates (-50%) were observed with both GXL-320 greases using 440C stainless steel. Mean friction coefficients were slightly higher for both formulated greases compared to their base greases. The GXL-296 series (higher base oil viscosity) yielded much higher friction coefficients compared to their GXL-320 series (lower base oil viscosity) counterparts.

  1. Handbook of methods for risk-based analyses of technical specifications

    SciTech Connect

    Samanta, P.K.; Kim, I.S.; Mankamo, T.; Vesely, W.E.

    1994-12-01

    Technical Specifications (TS) requirements for nuclear power plants define the Limiting Conditions for Operation (LCOs) and Surveillance Requirements (SRs) to assure safety during operation. In general, these requirements are based on deterministic analysis and engineering judgments. Experiences with plant operation indicate that some elements of the requirements are unnecessarily restrictive, while a few may not be conducive to safety. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) Office of Research has sponsored research to develop systematic risk-based methods to improve various aspects of TS requirements. This handbook summarizes these risk-based methods. The scope of the handbook includes reliability and risk-based methods for evaluating allowed outage times (AOTs), scheduled or preventive maintenance, action statements requiring shutdown where shutdown risk may be substantial, surveillance test intervals (STIs), and management of plant configurations resulting from outages of systems, or components. For each topic, the handbook summarizes analytic methods with data needs, outlines the insights to be gained, lists additional references, and gives examples of evaluations.

  2. Lewis base activation of Lewis acids: catalytic, enantioselective vinylogous aldol addition reactions.

    PubMed

    Denmark, Scott E; Heemstra, John R

    2007-07-20

    The generality of Lewis base catalyzed, Lewis acid mediated, enantioselective vinylogous aldol addition reactions has been investigated. The combination of silicon tetrachloride and chiral phosphoramides is a competent catalyst for highly selective additions of a variety of alpha,beta-unsaturated ketone-, 1,3-diketone-, and alpha,beta-unsaturated amide-derived dienolates to aldehydes. These reactions provided high levels of gamma-site selectivity for a variety of substitution patterns on the dienyl unit. Both ketone- and morpholine amide-derived dienol ethers afforded high enantio- and diastereoselectivity in the addition to conjugated aldehydes. Although alpha,beta-unsaturated ketone-derived dienolate did not react with aliphatic aldehydes, alpha,beta-unsaturated amide-derived dienolates underwent addition at reasonable rates affording high yields of vinylogous aldol product. The enantioselectivities achieved with the morpholine derived-dienolate in the addition to aliphatic aldehydes was the highest afforded to date with the silicon tetrachloride-chiral phosphoramide system. Furthermore, the ability to cleanly convert the morpholine amide to a methyl ketone was demonstrated.

  3. Formulation and Testing of Paraffin-Based Solid Fuels Containing Energetic Additives for Hybrid Rockets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larson, Daniel B.; Boyer, Eric; Wachs,Trevor; Kuo, Kenneth K.; Story, George

    2012-01-01

    Many approaches have been considered in an effort to improve the regression rate of solid fuels for hybrid rocket applications. One promising method is to use a fuel with a fast burning rate such as paraffin wax; however, additional performance increases to the fuel regression rate are necessary to make the fuel a viable candidate to replace current launch propulsion systems. The addition of energetic and/or nano-sized particles is one way to increase mass-burning rates of the solid fuels and increase the overall performance of the hybrid rocket motor.1,2 Several paraffin-based fuel grains with various energetic additives (e.g., lithium aluminum hydride (LiAlH4) have been cast in an attempt to improve regression rates. There are two major advantages to introducing LiAlH4 additive into the solid fuel matrix: 1) the increased characteristic velocity, 2) decreased dependency of Isp on oxidizer-to-fuel ratio. The testing and characterization of these solid-fuel grains have shown that continued work is necessary to eliminate unburned/unreacted fuel in downstream sections of the test apparatus.3 Changes to the fuel matrix include higher melting point wax and smaller energetic additive particles. The reduction in particle size through various methods can result in more homogeneous grain structure. The higher melting point wax can serve to reduce the melt-layer thickness, allowing the LiAlH4 particles to react closer to the burning surface, thus increasing the heat feedback rate and fuel regression rate. In addition to the formulation of LiAlH4 and paraffin wax solid-fuel grains, liquid additives of triethylaluminum and diisobutylaluminum hydride will be included in this study. Another promising fuel formulation consideration is to incorporate a small percentage of RDX as an additive to paraffin. A novel casting technique will be used by dissolving RDX in a solvent to crystallize the energetic additive. After dissolving the RDX in a solvent chosen for its compatibility

  4. Cosmological Analyses Based On The Combined Planck And WMAP Mission Datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, Charles

    We propose to: (1) make a detailed comparison of WMAP, Planck, and other cosmic microwave background (CMB) data to understand areas of conflict, and if possible, resolve them; (2) combine WMAP and Planck data into a unified cosmological dataset; and (3)extend cosmological analyses with the combined data. Recent cosmological measurements have revolutionized cosmology and the CMB has played a crucial role. The Planck mission team just released cosmological data and papers, this on the heels of the WMAP team's release of final nine-year data and papers. This proposal is to compare and attempt to understand the subtle but important differences between the two recently released WMAP and Planck cosmological results, to combine the data so as to benefit from the full available small and larger scale measurements, and to use this to enhance cosmological solutions. The WMAP and Planck CMB cosmology datasets are broadly consistent with one another. Yet, differences exist beyond the fact that Planck data extend to finer angular scales than WMAP data. We propose to go beyond the "quick look" we have done so far to identify and help resolve discrepancies. We provide two examples of the kinds of discrepancies that should be resolved. Even though the Planck data release relied on the absolute calibration established by WMAP the two sets of analyzed data appear to be off by a factor of 0.975. This small but significant discrepancy is difficult to explain and merits investigation. Also, while cosmological parameters from Planck agree with WMAP parameters within 1.1# of the larger WMAP uncertainty, this large a discrepancy is difficult to explain in detail since the cosmic variance uncertainties that play a large role in the parameter uncertainties are common to Planck and WMAP: both missions view the same sky. These are just two examples; additional careful and detailed comparisons are required. Over the course of the last several years a number of scientists around the world

  5. White matter disruption in moderate/severe pediatric traumatic brain injury: Advanced tract-based analyses

    PubMed Central

    Dennis, Emily L.; Jin, Yan; Villalon-Reina, Julio E.; Zhan, Liang; Kernan, Claudia L.; Babikian, Talin; Mink, Richard B.; Babbitt, Christopher J.; Johnson, Jeffrey L.; Giza, Christopher C.; Thompson, Paul M.; Asarnow, Robert F.

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the leading cause of death and disability in children and can lead to a wide range of impairments. Brain imaging methods such as DTI (diffusion tensor imaging) are uniquely sensitive to the white matter (WM) damage that is common in TBI. However, higher-level analyses using tractography are complicated by the damage and decreased FA (fractional anisotropy) characteristic of TBI, which can result in premature tract endings. We used the newly developed autoMATE (automated multi-atlas tract extraction) method to identify differences in WM integrity. 63 pediatric patients aged 8–19 years with moderate/severe TBI were examined with cross sectional scanning at one or two time points after injury: a post-acute assessment 1–5 months post-injury and a chronic assessment 13–19 months post-injury. A battery of cognitive function tests was performed in the same time periods. 56 children were examined in the first phase, 28 TBI patients and 28 healthy controls. In the second phase 34 children were studied, 17 TBI patients and 17 controls (27 participants completed both post-acute and chronic phases). We did not find any significant group differences in the post-acute phase. Chronically, we found extensive group differences, mainly for mean and radial diffusivity (MD and RD). In the chronic phase, we found higher MD and RD across a wide range of WM. Additionally, we found correlations between these WM integrity measures and cognitive deficits. This suggests a distributed pattern of WM disruption that continues over the first year following a TBI in children. PMID:25737958

  6. Pallasite formation after a non-destructive impact. An experimental- and image analyses-based study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solferino, Giulio; Golabek, Gregor J.; Nimmo, Francis; Schmidt, Max W.

    2015-04-01

    The formation conditions of pallasite meteorites in the interior of terrestrial planetesimals have been matter of debate over the last 40 years. Among other characteristics, the simple mineralogical composition (i.e., olivine, FeNi, FeS +/- pyroxene) and the dualism between fragmental and rounded olivine-bearing pallasites must be successfully reproduced by a potential formation scenario. This study incorporates a series of annealing experiments with olivine plus Fe-S, and digital image analyses of slabs from Brenham, Brahin, Seymchan, and Springwater pallasites. Additionally a 1D finite-difference numerical model was employed to show that a non-destructive collision followed by mixing of the impactor's core with the target body silicate mantle could lead to the formation of both fragmental and rounded pallasite types. Specifically, an impact occurring right after the accomplishment of the target body differentiation and up to several millions of years afterwards allows for (i) average grain sizes consistent with the observed rounded olivine-bearing pallasites, (ii) a remnant magnetization of Fe-Ni olivine inclusions as measured in natural pallasites and (iii) for the metallographic cooling rates derived from Fe-Ni in pallasites. An important result of this investigation is the definition of the grain growth rate of olivine in molten Fe-S as follows: dn - d0n = k0 exp(-Ea/RT) t, where, d0 is the starting grain size, d the grain size at time t, n = 2.42(46) the growth exponent, k0 = 9.43•E06 μm n s-1 a characteristic constant, Ea = 289 kJ/mol the activation energy for a specific growth process, R the gas constant, and T the absolute temperature. The computed olivine coarsening rate is markedly faster than in olivine-FeNi and olivine-Ni systems.

  7. PASMet: a web-based platform for prediction, modelling and analyses of metabolic systems

    PubMed Central

    Sriyudthsak, Kansuporn; Mejia, Ramon Francisco; Arita, Masanori; Hirai, Masami Yokota

    2016-01-01

    PASMet (Prediction, Analysis and Simulation of Metabolic networks) is a web-based platform for proposing and verifying mathematical models to understand the dynamics of metabolism. The advantages of PASMet include user-friendliness and accessibility, which enable biologists and biochemists to easily perform mathematical modelling. PASMet offers a series of user-functions to handle the time-series data of metabolite concentrations. The functions are organised into four steps: (i) Prediction of a probable metabolic pathway and its regulation; (ii) Construction of mathematical models; (iii) Simulation of metabolic behaviours; and (iv) Analysis of metabolic system characteristics. Each function contains various statistical and mathematical methods that can be used independently. Users who may not have enough knowledge of computing or programming can easily and quickly analyse their local data without software downloads, updates or installations. Users only need to upload their files in comma-separated values (CSV) format or enter their model equations directly into the website. Once the time-series data or mathematical equations are uploaded, PASMet automatically performs computation on server-side. Then, users can interactively view their results and directly download them to their local computers. PASMet is freely available with no login requirement at http://pasmet.riken.jp/ from major web browsers on Windows, Mac and Linux operating systems. PMID:27174940

  8. A Rapid and Simple Method for Microscopy-Based Stomata Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Eisele, Jochen F.; Fäßler, Florian; Bürgel, Patrick F.; Chaban, Christina

    2016-01-01

    There are two major methodical approaches with which changes of status in stomatal pores are addressed: indirectly by measurement of leaf transpiration, and directly by measurement of stomatal apertures. Application of the former method requires special equipment, whereas microscopic images are utilized for the direct measurements. Due to obscure visualization of cell boundaries in intact leaves, a certain degree of invasive leaf manipulation is often required. Our aim was to develop a protocol based on the minimization of leaf manipulation and the reduction of analysis completion time, while still producing consistent results. We applied rhodamine 6G staining of Arabidopsis thaliana leaves for stomata visualization, which greatly simplifies the measurement of stomatal apertures. By using this staining protocol, we successfully conducted analyses of stomatal responses in Arabidopsis leaves to both closure and opening stimuli. We performed long-term monitoring of living stomata and were able to document the same leaf before and after treatment. Moreover, we developed a protocol for rapid-fixation of epidermal peels, which enables high throughput data analysis. The described method allows analysis of stomatal apertures with minimal leaf manipulation and usage of the same leaf for sequential measurements, and will facilitate the analysis of several lines in parallel. PMID:27732636

  9. Assessing cognitive processes with diffusion model analyses: a tutorial based on fast-dm-30

    PubMed Central

    Voss, Andreas; Voss, Jochen; Lerche, Veronika

    2015-01-01

    Diffusion models can be used to infer cognitive processes involved in fast binary decision tasks. The model assumes that information is accumulated continuously until one of two thresholds is hit. In the analysis, response time distributions from numerous trials of the decision task are used to estimate a set of parameters mapping distinct cognitive processes. In recent years, diffusion model analyses have become more and more popular in different fields of psychology. This increased popularity is based on the recent development of several software solutions for the parameter estimation. Although these programs make the application of the model relatively easy, there is a shortage of knowledge about different steps of a state-of-the-art diffusion model study. In this paper, we give a concise tutorial on diffusion modeling, and we present fast-dm-30, a thoroughly revised and extended version of the fast-dm software (Voss and Voss, 2007) for diffusion model data analysis. The most important improvement of the fast-dm version is the possibility to choose between different optimization criteria (i.e., Maximum Likelihood, Chi-Square, and Kolmogorov-Smirnov), which differ in applicability for different data sets. PMID:25870575

  10. PASMet: a web-based platform for prediction, modelling and analyses of metabolic systems.

    PubMed

    Sriyudthsak, Kansuporn; Mejia, Ramon Francisco; Arita, Masanori; Hirai, Masami Yokota

    2016-07-08

    PASMet (Prediction, Analysis and Simulation of Metabolic networks) is a web-based platform for proposing and verifying mathematical models to understand the dynamics of metabolism. The advantages of PASMet include user-friendliness and accessibility, which enable biologists and biochemists to easily perform mathematical modelling. PASMet offers a series of user-functions to handle the time-series data of metabolite concentrations. The functions are organised into four steps: (i) Prediction of a probable metabolic pathway and its regulation; (ii) Construction of mathematical models; (iii) Simulation of metabolic behaviours; and (iv) Analysis of metabolic system characteristics. Each function contains various statistical and mathematical methods that can be used independently. Users who may not have enough knowledge of computing or programming can easily and quickly analyse their local data without software downloads, updates or installations. Users only need to upload their files in comma-separated values (CSV) format or enter their model equations directly into the website. Once the time-series data or mathematical equations are uploaded, PASMet automatically performs computation on server-side. Then, users can interactively view their results and directly download them to their local computers. PASMet is freely available with no login requirement at http://pasmet.riken.jp/ from major web browsers on Windows, Mac and Linux operating systems.

  11. Analysing breast cancer microarrays from African Americans using shrinkage-based discriminant analysis.

    PubMed

    Pang, Herbert; Ebisu, Keita; Watanabe, Emi; Sue, Laura Y; Tong, Tiejun

    2010-10-01

    Breast cancer tumours among African Americans are usually more aggressive than those found in Caucasian populations. African-American patients with breast cancer also have higher mortality rates than Caucasian women. A better understanding of the disease aetiology of these breast cancers can help to improve and develop new methods for cancer prevention, diagnosis and treatment. The main goal of this project was to identify genes that help differentiate between oestrogen receptor-positive and -negative samples among a small group of African-American patients with breast cancer. Breast cancer microarrays from one of the largest genomic consortiums were analysed using 13 African-American and 201 Caucasian samples with oestrogen receptor status. We used a shrinkage-based classification method to identify genes that were informative in discriminating between oestrogen receptor-positive and -negative samples. Subset analysis and permutation were performed to obtain a set of genes unique to the African-American population. We identified a set of 156 probe sets, which gave a misclassification rate of 0.16 in distinguishing between oestrogen receptor-positive and -negative patients. The biological relevance of our findings was explored through literature-mining techniques and pathway mapping. An independent dataset was used to validate our findings and we found that the top ten genes mapped onto this dataset gave a misclassification rate of 0.15. The described method allows us best to utilise the information available from small sample size microarray data in the context of ethnic minorities.

  12. Novel Primer Sets for Next Generation Sequencing-Based Analyses of Water Quality

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Elvina; Khurana, Maninder S.; Whiteley, Andrew S.; Monis, Paul T.; Bath, Andrew; Gordon, Cameron; Ryan, Una M.; Paparini, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Next generation sequencing (NGS) has rapidly become an invaluable tool for the detection, identification and relative quantification of environmental microorganisms. Here, we demonstrate two new 16S rDNA primer sets, which are compatible with NGS approaches and are primarily for use in water quality studies. Compared to 16S rRNA gene based universal primers, in silico and experimental analyses demonstrated that the new primers showed increased specificity for the Cyanobacteria and Proteobacteria phyla, allowing increased sensitivity for the detection, identification and relative quantification of toxic bloom-forming microalgae, microbial water quality bioindicators and common pathogens. Significantly, Cyanobacterial and Proteobacterial sequences accounted for ca. 95% of all sequences obtained within NGS runs (when compared to ca. 50% with standard universal NGS primers), providing higher sensitivity and greater phylogenetic resolution of key water quality microbial groups. The increased selectivity of the new primers allow the parallel sequencing of more samples through reduced sequence retrieval levels required to detect target groups, potentially reducing NGS costs by 50% but still guaranteeing optimal coverage and species discrimination. PMID:28118368

  13. Neural Spike-Train Analyses of the Speech-Based Envelope Power Spectrum Model

    PubMed Central

    Rallapalli, Varsha H.

    2016-01-01

    Diagnosing and treating hearing impairment is challenging because people with similar degrees of sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) often have different speech-recognition abilities. The speech-based envelope power spectrum model (sEPSM) has demonstrated that the signal-to-noise ratio (SNRENV) from a modulation filter bank provides a robust speech-intelligibility measure across a wider range of degraded conditions than many long-standing models. In the sEPSM, noise (N) is assumed to: (a) reduce S + N envelope power by filling in dips within clean speech (S) and (b) introduce an envelope noise floor from intrinsic fluctuations in the noise itself. While the promise of SNRENV has been demonstrated for normal-hearing listeners, it has not been thoroughly extended to hearing-impaired listeners because of limited physiological knowledge of how SNHL affects speech-in-noise envelope coding relative to noise alone. Here, envelope coding to speech-in-noise stimuli was quantified from auditory-nerve model spike trains using shuffled correlograms, which were analyzed in the modulation-frequency domain to compute modulation-band estimates of neural SNRENV. Preliminary spike-train analyses show strong similarities to the sEPSM, demonstrating feasibility of neural SNRENV computations. Results suggest that individual differences can occur based on differential degrees of outer- and inner-hair-cell dysfunction in listeners currently diagnosed into the single audiological SNHL category. The predicted acoustic-SNR dependence in individual differences suggests that the SNR-dependent rate of susceptibility could be an important metric in diagnosing individual differences. Future measurements of the neural SNRENV in animal studies with various forms of SNHL will provide valuable insight for understanding individual differences in speech-in-noise intelligibility.

  14. Single-base-pair discrimination of terminal mismatches by using oligonucleotide microarrays and neural network analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urakawa, Hidetoshi; Noble, Peter A.; El Fantroussi, Said; Kelly, John J.; Stahl, David A.

    2002-01-01

    The effects of single-base-pair near-terminal and terminal mismatches on the dissociation temperature (T(d)) and signal intensity of short DNA duplexes were determined by using oligonucleotide microarrays and neural network (NN) analyses. Two perfect-match probes and 29 probes having a single-base-pair mismatch at positions 1 to 5 from the 5' terminus of the probe were designed to target one of two short sequences representing 16S rRNA. Nonequilibrium dissociation rates (i.e., melting profiles) of all probe-target duplexes were determined simultaneously. Analysis of variance revealed that position of the mismatch, type of mismatch, and formamide concentration significantly affected the T(d) and signal intensity. Increasing the concentration of formamide in the washing buffer decreased the T(d) and signal intensity, and it decreased the variability of the signal. Although T(d)s of probe-target duplexes with mismatches in the first or second position were not significantly different from one another, duplexes with mismatches in the third to fifth positions had significantly lower T(d)s than those with mismatches in the first or second position. The trained NNs predicted the T(d) with high accuracies (R(2) = 0.93). However, the NNs predicted the signal intensity only moderately accurately (R(2) = 0.67), presumably due to increased noise in the signal intensity at low formamide concentrations. Sensitivity analysis revealed that the concentration of formamide explained most (75%) of the variability in T(d)s, followed by position of the mismatch (19%) and type of mismatch (6%). The results suggest that position of the mismatch at or near the 5' terminus plays a greater role in determining the T(d) and signal intensity of duplexes than the type of mismatch.

  15. Linking Proxy-Based and Datum-Based Shorelines on a High-Energy Coastline: Implications for Shoreline Change Analyses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruggiero, P.; Kaminsky, G.M.; Gelfenbaum, G.

    2003-01-01

    A primary purpose of this paper is to quantitatively link variously defined and derived shoreline estimates commonly used for shoreline change analysis. Estimates of shoreline mapping and derivation error, natural shoreline variability, and the relationships between horizontally-derived (proxy-based) shorelines to vertical datums (e.g. MHW) are presented. A series of shoreline repeatability and variability experiments as well as data from a beach monitoring program along the high-energy US Pacific Northwest coast, indicate total uncertainty estimates of the horizontal position of proxy-based shorelines to be approximately ?? 50-150 m for T-sheets and aerial photography and approximately ?? 15 m for datum-based shorelines derived from ground- or air-based topographic surveys. The ability to obtain reliable shoreline change results depends upon both the selected shoreline definition (e.g. horizontal- or feature-based proxy, or datum-based intercept) and the accuracy of the technique used in mapping or interpreting its position. The position of the selected shoreline on the beach profile determines its inherent temporal and spatial variability, an important consideration that has often been overlooked in the scientific literature on shoreline change, Historical shorelines mapped on NOS T-sheets and aerial photos have commonly identified high water line (HWL)-type shorelines, which are shown to be higher on the beach surface than the MHW-datum intercept along coasts subject to wave runup. Analyses of 4.5 years of beach profile data from the southwest Washington coast suggest that both the MHW and HWL-type shorelines have greater natural short-term variability than expected, significantly greater than the variability of shoreline proxies defined farther landward and higher on the beach profile. A model for determining the natural variability of HWL-type shorelines reveals that this short-term variability is the dominant factor in the large total uncertainty values

  16. Validation of a fully autonomous phosphate analyser based on a microfluidic lab-on-a-chip.

    PubMed

    Slater, C; Cleary, J; Lau, K-T; Snakenborg, D; Corcoran, B; Kutter, J P; Diamond, D

    2010-01-01

    This work describes the design of a phosphate analyser that utilises a microfluidic lab-on-a-chip. The analyser contains all the required chemical storage, pumping and electronic components to carry out a complete phosphate assay. The system is self-calibrating and self-cleaning, thus capable of long-term operation. This was proven by a bench top calibration of the analyser using standard solutions and also by comparing the analyser's performance to a commercially available phosphate monitor installed at a waste water treatment plant. The output of the microfluidic lab-on-a-chip analyser was shown to have sensitivity and linear range equivalent to the commercially available monitor and also the ability to operate over an extended period of time.

  17. Luminol-labeled gold nanoparticles for ultrasensitive chemiluminescence-based chemical analyses.

    PubMed

    Syed, Lateef U; Swisher, Luxi Zhang; Huff, Hannah; Rochford, Caitlin; Wang, Fengli; Liu, Jianwei; Wu, Judy; Richter, Mark; Balivada, Sivasai; Troyer, Deryl; Li, Jun

    2013-10-07

    We report a study on chemiluminescence-based chemical analyses using luminol molecules covalently attached to 10 nm diameter gold nanoparticles (GNPs). Chemiluminescence (CL) has been systematically studied under two schemes by varying the concentrations of luminol-labeled GNPs and [Fe(CN)6](3-) catalyst, respectively. The CL signal of luminol-labeled GNPs is enhanced by 5 to 10 times compared to the bulk luminol solutions of the same concentration. The log-log plot of the CL signal versus the number of luminol-labeled GNPs suspended in a standard 96-well plate shows two characteristic linear curves with distinct slopes across eight orders of magnitude variation in the GNP quantity (from 1.82 × 10(2) to 1.82 × 10(10) GNPs per well). The detection limit represented by the cross-point of these two curves can reach down to ~6.1 × 10(5) GNPs per well (corresponding to 1.0 × 10(-14) M GNP and 2.4 × 10(-11) M equivalent luminol concentration). The attachment of luminol molecules to GNP nano-carriers allows a large amount of luminol to be placed in a greatly reduced volume (or area) toward developing miniaturized CL sensors. We have demonstrated this by preloading dried luminol-labeled GNPs in homemade microwell arrays (with a volume of ~12 μL per well). A linear log-log curve can be obtained across the full range from 1 × 10(3) to 1 × 10(10) GNPs per microwell. The CL signal was detectable with as few as ~1000 GNPs. We have further applied this microwell method to the detection of highly diluted blood samples, in both intact and lysed forms, which releases Fe(3+)-containing hemoglobin to catalyze luminol CL. The lysed blood sample can be detected even after a 10(8) fold dilution (corresponding to ~0.18 cells per well). This ultrasensitive CL detection method may be readily adapted for developing various miniaturized multiplex biosensors for rapid chemical/biochemical analyses.

  18. Analyses of murine GBP homology clusters based on in silico, in vitro and in vivo studies.

    PubMed

    Kresse, Alexandra; Konermann, Carolin; Degrandi, Daniel; Beuter-Gunia, Cornelia; Wuerthner, Jan; Pfeffer, Klaus; Beer, Sandra

    2008-04-10

    The interactions between pathogens and hosts lead to a massive upregulation of antimicrobial host effector molecules. Among these, the 65 kDa guanylate binding proteins (GBPs) are interesting candidates as intricate components of the host effector molecule repertoire. Members of the GBP family are highly conserved in vertebrates. Previous reports indicate an antiviral activity of human GBP1 (hGBP1) and murine GBP2 (mGBP2). We recently demonstrated that distinct murine GBP (mGBP) family members are highly upregulated upon Toxoplasma gondii infection and localize around the intracellular protozoa T. gondii. Moreover, we characterised five new mGBP family members within the murine 65 kDa GBP family. Here, we identified a new mGBP locus named mGbp11. Based on bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC), expressed sequence tag (EST), and RT-PCR analyses this study provides a detailed insight into the genomic localization and organization of the mGBPs. These analyses revealed a 166-kb spanning region on chromosome 3 harboring five transcribed mGBPs (mGbp1, mGbp2, mGbp3, mGbp5, and mGbp7) and one pseudogene (pseudomGbp1), as well as a 332-kb spanning region on chromosome 5 consisting of six transcribed mGBPs (mGbp4, mGbp6, mGbp8, mGbp9, mGbp10, and mGbp11), and one pseudogene (pseudomgbp2). Besides the strikingly high homology of 65% to 98% within the coding sequences, the mGBPs on chromosome 5 cluster also exhibit a highly homologous exon-intron structure whereas the mGBP on chromosome 3 reveals a more divergent exon-intron structure. This study details the comprehensive genomic organization of mGBPs and suggests that a continuously changing microbial environment has exerted evolutionary pressure on this gene family leading to multiple gene amplifications. A list of links for this article can be found in the Availability and requirements section.

  19. Energy and exergy analyses of a biomass-based hydrogen production system.

    PubMed

    Cohce, M K; Dincer, I; Rosen, M A

    2011-09-01

    In this paper, a novel biomass-based hydrogen production plant is investigated. The system uses oil palm shell as a feedstock. The main plant processes are biomass gasification, steam methane reforming and shift reaction. The modeling of the gasifier uses the Gibbs free energy minimization approach and chemical equilibrium considerations. The plant, with modifications, is simulated and analyzed thermodynamically using the Aspen Plus process simulation code (version 11.1). Exergy analysis, a useful tool for understanding and improving efficiency, is used throughout the investigation, in addition to energy analysis. The overall performance of the system is evaluated, and its efficiencies become 19% for exergy efficiency and 22% energy efficiency while the gasifier cold gas efficiency is 18%.

  20. Infrared thermography for laser-based powder bed fusion additive manufacturing processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moylan, Shawn; Whitenton, Eric; Lane, Brandon; Slotwinski, John

    2014-02-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has the potential to revolutionize discrete part manufacturing, but improvements in processing of metallic materials are necessary before AM will see widespread adoption. A better understanding of AM processes, resulting from physics-based modeling as well as direct process metrology, will form the basis for these improvements. Infrared (IR) thermography of AM processes can provide direct process metrology, as well as data necessary for the verification of physics-based models. We review selected works examining how IR thermography was implemented and used in various powder-bed AM processes. This previous work, as well as significant experience at the National Institute of Standards and Technology in temperature measurement and IR thermography for machining processes, shapes our own research in AM process metrology with IR thermography. We discuss our experimental design, as well as plans for future IR measurements of a laser-based powder bed fusion AM process.

  1. Infrared thermography for laser-based powder bed fusion additive manufacturing processes

    SciTech Connect

    Moylan, Shawn; Whitenton, Eric; Lane, Brandon; Slotwinski, John

    2014-02-18

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has the potential to revolutionize discrete part manufacturing, but improvements in processing of metallic materials are necessary before AM will see widespread adoption. A better understanding of AM processes, resulting from physics-based modeling as well as direct process metrology, will form the basis for these improvements. Infrared (IR) thermography of AM processes can provide direct process metrology, as well as data necessary for the verification of physics-based models. We review selected works examining how IR thermography was implemented and used in various powder-bed AM processes. This previous work, as well as significant experience at the National Institute of Standards and Technology in temperature measurement and IR thermography for machining processes, shapes our own research in AM process metrology with IR thermography. We discuss our experimental design, as well as plans for future IR measurements of a laser-based powder bed fusion AM process.

  2. Processing of New Materials by Additive Manufacturing: Iron-Based Alloys Containing Silver for Biomedical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niendorf, Thomas; Brenne, Florian; Hoyer, Peter; Schwarze, Dieter; Schaper, Mirko; Grothe, Richard; Wiesener, Markus; Grundmeier, Guido; Maier, Hans Jürgen

    2015-07-01

    In the biomedical sector, production of bioresorbable implants remains challenging due to improper dissolution rates or deficient strength of many candidate alloys. Promising materials for overcoming the prevalent drawbacks are iron-based alloys containing silver. However, due to immiscibility of iron and silver these alloys cannot be manufactured based on conventional processing routes. In this study, iron-manganese-silver alloys were for the first time synthesized by means of additive manufacturing. Based on combined mechanical, microscopic, and electrochemical studies, it is shown that silver particles well distributed in the matrix can be obtained, leading to cathodic sites in the composite material. Eventually, this results in an increased dissolution rate of the alloy. Stress-strain curves showed that the incorporation of silver barely affects the mechanical properties.

  3. Effect of conductive additives to gel electrolytes on activated carbon-based supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barzegar, Farshad; Dangbegnon, Julien K.; Bello, Abdulhakeem; Momodu, Damilola Y.; Johnson, A. T. Charlie; Manyala, Ncholu

    2015-09-01

    This article is focused on polymer based gel electrolyte due to the fact that polymers are cheap and can be used to achieve extended potential window for improved energy density of the supercapacitor devices when compared to aqueous electrolytes. Electrochemical characterization of a symmetric supercapacitor devices based on activated carbon in different polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) based gel electrolytes was carried out. The device exhibited a maximum energy density of 24 Wh kg-1 when carbon black was added to the gel electrolyte as conductive additive. The good energy density was correlated with the improved conductivity of the electrolyte medium which is favorable for fast ion transport in this relatively viscous environment. Most importantly, the device remained stable with no capacitance lost after 10,000 cycles.

  4. A synchrotron study of microstructure gradient in laser additively formed epitaxial Ni-based superalloy

    DOE PAGES

    Xue, Jiawei; Zhang, Anfeng; Li, Yao; ...

    2015-10-08

    Laser additive forming is considered to be one of the promising techniques to repair single crystal Ni-based superalloy parts to extend their life and reduce the cost. Preservation of the single crystalline nature and prevention of thermal mechanical failure are two of the most essential issues for the application of this technique. Here we employ synchrotron X-ray microdiffraction to evaluate the quality in terms of crystal orientation and defect distribution of a Ni-based superalloy DZ125L directly formed by a laser additive process rooted from a single crystalline substrate of the same material. We show that a disorientation gradient caused bymore » a high density of geometrically necessary dislocations and resultant subgrains exists in the interfacial region between the epitaxial and stray grains. This creates a potential relationship of stray grain formation and defect accumulation. In conclusion, the observation offers new directions on the study of performance control and reliability of the laser additive manufactured superalloys.« less

  5. Effect of additives on tribochemical stability of greases with easter base oil

    SciTech Connect

    Nikonorov, E.M.; Demina, L.V.; Skryabina, T.G.; Sosulina, L.N.

    1984-03-01

    This article investigates the possibility of improving the tribochemical stability of soap-base grease formulated with polyol ester oils, by the use of additives of the phenol and amine types. Model greases formulated with a pentaerythritol ester (PET) and the polyester PAK, taken in a 9:1 ratio, were examined. The tribochemical stability of the greases was evaluated according to the rate of conversion of their dispersion medium in a rolling friction zone. The rate of additive exhaustion was evaluated by analogy with the rate of triboconversion of the dispersion medium. The additives used were phenyl-..cap alpha..-naphthylamine (PAN), diphenylamine (DPA), 2, 6-di-tert-butyl-p-cresol (ionol), a technical-grade dialkylated diphenylamine (DAT), and mixtures of the inhibitors. It is determined that the greatest effect in increasing the tribochemical stability is achieved by the introduction of combinations of additives: DAT + ionol (in Li and cCa greases) and PAN + DAT (in cCa grease).

  6. Ionic liquids based on phosphonium cations as neat lubricants or lubricant additives for a steel/steel contact.

    PubMed

    Otero, Inés; López, Enriqueta R; Reichelt, Manuela; Villanueva, María; Salgado, Josefa; Fernández, Josefa

    2014-08-13

    After doing several miscibility essays with eight ionic liquids (ILs) and four base oils, the ILs tri(butyl)ethylphosphonium diethylphosphate [P4,4,4,2][C2C2PO4] and trihexyl(tetradecyl)phosphonium tris(pentafluoroethyl)trifluorophosphate [P6,6,6,14][(C2F5)3PF3] were selected to be studied as lubricant additives. The neat IL [P4,4,4,2][C2C2PO4], the base oils, and several blends were characterized in terms of density, viscosity, and thermal stability. The tribological performance of the miscible base oil/IL blends (1 wt %) and the neat [P4,4,4,2][C2C2PO4] were evaluated for the lubrication of an AISI 420 steel-100Cr6 steel contact pair. The friction coefficients and wear volumes obtained are also compared with those corresponding to the pure base oils and their mixtures with conventional additive zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDDP). As neat lubricants, [P4,4,4,2][C2C2PO4] showed the best antifriction ability, whereas in terms of wear, better results were obtained with [P6,6,6,14][(C2F5)3PF3]. However, higher improvements in both friction and wear were found for blends containing [P4,4,4,2][C2C2PO4]. XPS analyses of the worn surfaces lubricated with these mixtures indicated the presence of phosphorus in the tribofilm formed on the wear track. However, this compound was slightly detected on tribosamples lubricated with blends containing [P6,6,6,14][(C2F5)3PF3].

  7. Constitutive Analyses of Nontraditional Stabilization Additives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-11-01

    Final report Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Prepared for Headquarters, U. S. Army Corps of Engineers Washington, DC 20314-1000...program, AT22 Work Package 238, currently sponsored by Headquarters, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (CECW-EW). This publication was prepared by personnel...Dr. Steve L. Larson and vii Ms. Barbara Tardy, Inorganics Remediation Team, EL. Mr. Tingle and associates prepared this publication under the

  8. Population-based cost-offset analyses for disorder-specific treatment of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa in Germany.

    PubMed

    Bode, Katharina; Götz von Olenhusen, Nina Maria; Wunsch, Eva-Maria; Kliem, Sören; Kröger, Christoph

    2017-02-02

    Previous research has shown that anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) are expensive illnesses to treat. To reduce their economic burden, adequate interventions need to be established. Our objective was to conduct cost-offset analyses for evidence-based treatment of eating disorders using outcome data from a psychotherapy trial involving cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and focal psychodynamic therapy (FPT) for AN and a trial involving CBT for BN. Assuming a currently running, ideal healthcare system using a 12-month, prevalence-based approach and varying the willingness to participate in treatment, we investigated whether the potential financial benefits of AN- and BN-related treatment outweigh the therapy costs at the population level. We elaborated on a formula that allows calculating cost-benefit relationships whereby the calculation of the parameters is based on estimates from data of health institutions within the German healthcare system. Additional intangible benefits were calculated with the aid of Quality-Adjusted Life Years. The annual costs of an untreated eating disorder were 2.38 billion EUR for AN and 617.69 million EUR for BN. Independent of the willingness to participate in treatment, the cost-benefit relationships for the treatment remained constant at 2.51 (CBT) and 2.33 (FPT) for AN and 4.05 (CBT) for BN. This consistency implies that for each EUR invested in the treatment, between 2.33 and 4.05 EUR could be saved each year. Our findings suggest that the implementation of evidence-based psychotherapy treatments for AN and BN may achieve substantial cost savings at the population level.

  9. Online measurement of bead geometry in GMAW-based additive manufacturing using passive vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Jun; Zhang, Guangjun

    2013-11-01

    Additive manufacturing based on gas metal arc welding is an advanced technique for depositing fully dense components with low cost. Despite this fact, techniques to achieve accurate control and automation of the process have not yet been perfectly developed. The online measurement of the deposited bead geometry is a key problem for reliable control. In this work a passive vision-sensing system, comprising two cameras and composite filtering techniques, was proposed for real-time detection of the bead height and width through deposition of thin walls. The nozzle to the top surface distance was monitored for eliminating accumulated height errors during the multi-layer deposition process. Various image processing algorithms were applied and discussed for extracting feature parameters. A calibration procedure was presented for the monitoring system. Validation experiments confirmed the effectiveness of the online measurement system for bead geometry in layered additive manufacturing.

  10. A method for classifying metabolites in topological pathway analyses based on minimization of pathway number.

    PubMed

    Dandekar, Thomas; Moldenhauer, Ferdinand; Bulik, Sascha; Bertram, Helge; Schuster, Stefan

    2003-08-01

    Metabolic pathway analysis based on the concept of elementary flux mode is a valuable tool for reconstruction of bacterial metabolisms and in predicting optimal conversion yields in biotechnology. However, pathway analysis of large and highly entangled metabolic networks meets the problem of combinatorial explosion of possible routes across the networks. Here we propose a method for coping with this problem by suitably classifying metabolites as external or internal. External metabolites are considered to have buffered concentrations while internal metabolites have to fulfil a balance condition at steady state. For many substances such as nutrients and excreted products, there are biochemical reasons to classify them as external. In addition, other substances (especially at central branching points) can operationally be considered external in order to avoid combinatorial explosion. We suggest to find such a classification of metabolites that minimizes the number of elementary flux modes (pathways). This is motivated by the objectives of finding such a description of the system that reduces as much as possible the amount of necessary data and of removing the ambiguity and arbitrariness in the classification of metabolites in an automated, systematic way. For networks of moderate size, the solution to this combinatorial minimization problem can be found by exhaustive search. To tackle also larger systems, a stochastic optimization program based on the Metropolis algorithm was developed. Both methods are applied, for illustration, to several reaction schemes including a larger network representing glutathione metabolism.

  11. A brief survey of sensing for metal-based powder bed fusion additive manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, Bryant K.; Reutzel, Edward W.; Nassar, Abdalla R.; Dickman, Corey J.; Hall, Benjamin T.

    2015-05-01

    Purpose - Powder bed fusion additive manufacturing (PBFAM) of metal components has attracted much attention, but the inability to quickly and easily ensure quality has limited its industrial use. Since the technology is currently being investigated for critical engineered components and is largely considered unsuitable for high volume production, traditional statistical quality control methods cannot be readily applied. An alternative strategy for quality control is to monitor the build in real time with a variety of sensing methods and, when possible, to correct any defects as they occur. This article reviews the cause of common defects in powder bed additive manufacturing, briefly surveys process monitoring strategies in the literature, and summarizes recently-developed strategies to monitor part quality during the build process. Design/methodology/approach - Factors that affect part quality in powder bed additive manufacturing are categorized as those influenced by machine variables and those affected by other build attributes. Within each category, multiple process monitoring methods are presented. Findings - A multitude of factors contribute to the overall quality of a part built using PBFAM. Rather than limiting processing to a pre-defined build recipe and assuming complete repeatability, part quality will be ensured by monitoring the process as it occurs and, when possible, altering the process conditions or build plan in real-time. Recent work shows promise in this area and brings us closer to the goal of wide-spread adoption of additive manufacturing technology. Originality/value - This work serves to introduce and define the possible sources of defects and errors in metal-based PBFAM, and surveys sensing and control methods which have recently been investigated to increase overall part quality. Emphasis has been placed on novel developments in the field and their contribution to the understanding of the additive manufacturing process.

  12. Additive mode locking based on a nonlinear loop mirror ring laser

    SciTech Connect

    Kbashi, Hani J

    2012-03-31

    We present an experimental demonstration of additive pulse mode locking based on a nonlinear loop mirror ring laser. The proposed design uses nonlinear phase shifts induced by a loop mirror. The results show that interference between two overlapping pulses from two coupled fibres, containing a nonlinear medium for power-dependent phase modulation, leads to pulse compression, and can provide mode locking with different repetition rates depending on the interplay or combination between the modulated frequency (active mode locking) and the nonlinearity (passive mode locking) generated in the loop mirror.

  13. Determination of the spinel group end-members based on electron microprobe analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferracutti, Gabriela R.; Gargiulo, M. Florencia; Ganuza, M. Luján; Bjerg, Ernesto A.; Castro, Silvia M.

    2015-04-01

    The spinel group minerals have been the focus of many studies, not only because of their economic interest, but also due to the fact that they are very useful as petrogenetic indicators. The application End-Members Generator (EMG) allows to establish, based on electron microprobe analyses (EMPA), the 19 end-members of the spinel group: MgAl2O4 (Spinel sensu stricto, s.s.), FeAl2O4 (Hercynite), MnAl2O4 (Galaxite), ZnAl2O4 (Gahnite), MgFe2O4 (Magnesioferrite), Fe3O4 (Magnetite), MnFe2O4 (Jacobsite), ZnFe2O4 (Franklinite), NiFe2O4 (Trevorite), MgCr2O4 (Magnesiochromite), FeCr2O4 (Chromite), MnCr2O4 (Manganochromite), ZnCr2O4 (Zincochromite), NiCr2O4 (Nichromite), MgV2O4 (Magnesiocoulsonite), FeV2O4 (Coulsonite), MnV2O4 (Vuorelainenite), Mg2TiO4 (Qandilite) and Fe2TiO4 (Ulvöspinel). EMG is an application that does not require an installation process and was created with the purpose of performing calculations to obtain: cation proportions (per formula unit, p.f.u.), end-members of the spinel group, redistribution proportions for the corresponding end-members in the Magnetite prism or Ulvöspinel prism and a data validation section to check the results. EMG accepts .csv data files and the results obtained can be used to represent a given dataset with the SpinelViz program or any other 2D and/or 3D graph plotting software.

  14. Molecular Characterization of Five Potyviruses Infecting Korean Sweet Potatoes Based on Analyses of Complete Genome Sequences.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Hae-Ryun; Kim, Jaedeok; Kim, Mi-Kyeong; Seo, Jang-Kyun; Jung, Mi-Nam; Kim, Jeong-Soo; Lee, Sukchan; Choi, Hong-Soo

    2015-12-01

    Sweet potatoes (Ipomea batatas L.) are grown extensively, in tropical and temperate regions, and are important food crops worldwide. In Korea, potyviruses, including Sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV), Sweet potato virus C (SPVC), Sweet potato virus G (SPVG), Sweet potato virus 2 (SPV2), and Sweet potato latent virus (SPLV), have been detected in sweet potato fields at a high (~95%) incidence. In the present work, complete genome sequences of 18 isolates, representing the five potyviruses mentioned above, were compared with previously reported genome sequences. The complete genomes consisted of 10,081 to 10,830 nucleotides, excluding the poly-A tails. Their genomic organizations were typical of the Potyvirus genus, including one target open reading frame coding for a putative polyprotein. Based on phylogenetic analyses and sequence comparisons, the Korean SPFMV isolates belonged to the strains RC and O with >98% nucleotide sequence identity. Korean SPVC isolates had 99% identity to the Japanese isolate SPVC-Bungo and 70% identity to the SPFMV isolates. The Korean SPVG isolates showed 99% identity to the three previously reported SPVG isolates. Korean SPV2 isolates had 97% identity to the SPV2 GWB-2 isolate from the USA. Korean SPLV isolates had a relatively low (88%) nucleotide sequence identity with the Taiwanese SPLV-TW isolates, and they were phylogenetically distantly related to SPFMV isolates. Recombination analysis revealed that possible recombination events occurred in the P1, HC-Pro and NIa-NIb regions of SPFMV and SPLV isolates and these regions were identified as hotspots for recombination in the sweet potato potyviruses.

  15. Late Quaternary climate and landscape changes in Southern Africa based on integrative analyses of geoarchives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huerkamp, K.; Voelkel, J.; Heine, K.; Bens, O.; Winkelbauer, J.

    2009-12-01

    Although it is clear that large, rapid temperature changes have occurred during the last glacial-interglacial cycle and the Holocene in Southern Africa, we have only limited, and often imprecise, knowledge of how the major moisture-bearing atmospheric circulation systems have reacted to these changes. Using slope deposits, soils and sediments as palaeoclimatic geoarchives we will overcome these constraints. The role of many geoarchives in the reconstruction of the Quaternary climate in Southern Africa remains controversial, since the palaeoclimate data are based on evidence from marine cores, lake sediments, speleothems and spring sinter, fluvial sediments, aeolian sands and dust, colluvium, and coastal sediments. To elucidate climate controls on Quaternary landscape evolution and to use these data for palaeoclimatic reconstructions, slope deposits, soils and sediments have been investigated. The project will employ state-of-the-art geoscience methodology to interpret the record of precipitation changes of the Late Quaternary, including the shifting of the summer and winter rain belts, the chronology of catastrophic floods, the wind intensity and direction, and the role climatic factors may have played for prehistoric cultures. High resolution Late Quaternary records are provided by analysing the interstratification of slope deposits and soils with fluvial, lacustrine and aeolian sediment sequences. Earlier research has shown that aeolian and fluvial processes were active at the same time in the southwestern Kalahari during the LGM, documented by sequences of alternate bedding of aeolian, colluvial and fluvial sediments. The interfingering of slope deposits with fluvial flood sediments (slackwater deposits) in Namib Desert valleys document extreme precipitation events in the upper highland catchments and rains at the same time in the desert itself.

  16. Fatigue analyses of the prototype Francis runners based on site measurements and simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, X.; Chamberland-Lauzon, J.; Oram, C.; Klopfer, A.; Ruchonnet, N.

    2014-03-01

    With the increasing development of solar power and wind power which give an unstable output to the electrical grid, hydropower is required to give a rapid and flexible compensation, and the hydraulic turbines have to operate at off-design conditions frequently. Prototype Francis runners suffer from strong vibrations induced by high pressure pulsations at part load, low part load, speed-no-load and during start-stops and load rejections. Fatigue and damage may be caused by the alternating stress on the runner blades. Therefore, it becomes increasingly important to carry out fatigue analysis and life time assessment of the prototype Francis runners, especially at off-design conditions. This paper presents the fatigue analyses of the prototype Francis runners based on the strain gauge site measurements and numerical simulations. In the case of low part load, speed-no-load and transient events, since the Francis runners are subjected to complex hydraulic loading, which shows a stochastic characteristic, the rainflow counting method is used to obtain the number of cycles for various dynamic amplitude ranges. From middle load to full load, pressure pulsations caused by Rotor-stator- Interaction become the dominant hydraulic excitation of the runners. Forced response analysis is performed to calculate the maximum dynamic stress. The agreement between numerical and experimental stresses is evaluated using linear regression method. Taking into account the effect of the static stress on the S-N curve, the Miner's rule, a linear cumulative fatigue damage theory, is employed to calculate the damage factors of the prototype Francis runners at various operating conditions. The relative damage factors of the runners at different operating points are compared and discussed in detail.

  17. A Case Study Analysing the Process of Analogy-Based Learning in a Teaching Unit about Simple Electric Circuits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paatz, Roland; Ryder, James; Schwedes, Hannelore; Scott, Philip

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this case study is to analyse the learning processes of a 16-year-old student as she learns about simple electric circuits in response to an analogy-based teaching sequence. Analogical thinking processes are modelled by a sequence of four steps according to Gentner's structure mapping theory (activate base domain, postulate local…

  18. Automated microbial metabolism laboratory. [design of advanced labeled release experiment based on single addition of soil and multiple sequential additions of media into test chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The design and rationale of an advanced labeled release experiment based on single addition of soil and multiple sequential additions of media into each of four test chambers are outlined. The feasibility for multiple addition tests was established and various details of the methodology were studied. The four chamber battery of tests include: (1) determination of the effect of various atmospheric gases and selection of that gas which produces an optimum response; (2) determination of the effect of incubation temperature and selection of the optimum temperature for performing Martian biochemical tests; (3) sterile soil is dosed with a battery of C-14 labeled substrates and subjected to experimental temperature range; and (4) determination of the possible inhibitory effects of water on Martian organisms is performed initially by dosing with 0.01 ml and 0.5 ml of medium, respectively. A series of specifically labeled substrates are then added to obtain patterns in metabolic 14CO2 (C-14)O2 evolution.

  19. Metal hydride and pyrophoric fuel additives for dicyclopentadiene based hybrid propellants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shark, Steven C.

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the use of reactive energetic fuel additives that have the potential to increase the combustion performance of hybrid rocket propellants in terms of solid fuel regression rate and combustion efficiency. Additives that can augment the combustion flame zone in a hybrid rocket motor by means of increased energy feedback to the fuel grain surface are of great interest. Metal hydrides have large volumetric hydrogen densities, which gives these materials high performance potential as fuel additives in terms of specifc impulse. The excess hydrogen and corresponding base metal may also cause an increase in the hybrid rocket solid fuel regression rate. Pyrophoric additives also have potential to increase the solid fuel regression rate by reacting more readily near the burning fuel surface providing rapid energy feedback. An experimental performance evaluation of metal hydride fuel additives for hybrid rocket motor propulsion systems is examined in this study. Hypergolic ignition droplet tests and an accelerated aging study revealed the protection capabilities of Dicyclopentadiene (DCPD) as a fuel binder, and the ability for unaided ignition. Static hybrid rocket motor experiments were conducted using DCPD as the fuel. Sodium borohydride (NabH4) and aluminum hydride (AlH3) were examined as fuel additives. Ninety percent rocket grade hydrogen peroxide (RGHP) was used as the oxidizer. In this study, the sensitivity of solid fuel regression rate and characteristic velocity (C*) efficiency to total fuel grain port mass flux and particle loading is examined. These results were compared to HTPB combustion performance as a baseline. Chamber pressure histories revealed steady motor operation in most tests, with reduced ignition delays when using NabH4 as a fuel additive. The addition of NabH4 and AlH3 produced up to a 47% and 85% increase in regression rate over neat DCPD, respectively. For all test conditions examined C* efficiency ranges

  20. Magnetic Force Microscopy Study of Zr2Co11 -Based Nanocrystalline Materials: Effect of Mo Addition

    DOE PAGES

    Yue, Lanping; Jin, Yunlong; Zhang, Wenyong; ...

    2015-01-01

    Tmore » he addition of Molybdenum was used to modify the nanostructure and enhance coercivity of rare-earth-free Zr2Co11-based nanocrystalline permanent magnets. he effect of Mo addition on magnetic domain structures of melt spun nanocrystalline Zr16Co84-xMox(x=0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2.0) ribbons has been investigated. It was found that magnetic properties and local domain structures are strongly influenced by Mo doping. he coercivity of the samples increases with the increase in Mo content (x≤1.5). he maximum energy product(BH)maxincreases with increasingxfrom 0.5 MGOe forx=0to a maximum value of 4.2 MGOe forx=1.5. he smallest domain size with a relatively short magnetic correlation length of 128 nm and largest root-mean-square phase shiftΦrmsvalue of 0.66° are observed for thex=1.5. he optimal Mo addition promotes magnetic domain structure refinement and thus leads to a significant increase in coercivity and energy product in this sample.« less

  1. Effect of additives on the tensile performance and protein solubility of industrial oilseed residual based plastics.

    PubMed

    Newson, William R; Kuktaite, Ramune; Hedenqvist, Mikael S; Gällstedt, Mikael; Johansson, Eva

    2014-07-16

    Ten chemical additives were selected from the literature for their proposed modifying activity in protein-protein interactions. These consisted of acids, bases, reducing agents, and denaturants and were added to residual deoiled meals of Crambe abyssinica (crambe) and Brassica carinata (carinata) to modify the properties of plastics produced through hot compression molding at 130 °C. The films produced were examined for tensile properties, protein solubility, molecular weight distribution, and water absorption. Of the additives tested, NaOH had the greatest positive effect on tensile properties, with increases of 105% in maximum stress and 200% in strain at maximum stress for crambe and a 70% increase in strain at maximum stress for carinata. Stiffness was not increased by any of the applied additives. Changes in tensile strength and elongation for crambe and elongation for carinata were related to changes in protein solubility. Increased pH was the most successful in improving the protein aggregation and mechanical properties within the complex chemistry of residual oilseed meals.

  2. Additive Manufacturing of Silicon Carbide-Based Ceramic Matrix Composites: Technical Challenges and Opportunities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Mrityunjay; Halbig, Michael C.; Grady, Joseph E.

    2016-01-01

    Advanced SiC-based ceramic matrix composites offer significant contributions toward reducing fuel burn and emissions by enabling high overall pressure ratio (OPR) of gas turbine engines and reducing or eliminating cooling air in the hot-section components, such as shrouds, combustor liners, vanes, and blades. Additive manufacturing (AM), which allows high value, custom designed parts layer by layer, has been demonstrated for metals and polymer matrix composites. However, there has been limited activity on additive manufacturing of ceramic matrix composites (CMCs). In this presentation, laminated object manufacturing (LOM), binder jet process, and 3-D printing approaches for developing ceramic composite materials are presented. For the laminated object manufacturing (LOM), fiber prepreg laminates were cut into shape with a laser and stacked to form the desired part followed by high temperature heat treatments. For the binder jet, processing optimization was pursued through silicon carbide powder blending, infiltration with and without SiC nano powder loading, and integration of fibers into the powder bed. Scanning electron microscopy was conducted along with XRD, TGA, and mechanical testing. Various technical challenges and opportunities for additive manufacturing of ceramics and CMCs will be presented.

  3. Development of new peat based growing media by addition of pruning waste and biochars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieto, Aurora; Gascó, Gabriel; Paz-Ferreiro, Jorge; Plaza, César; Fernández, José Manuel; Méndez, Ana

    2015-04-01

    In the last years, several researches have been performed to find high quality and low cost substrates from different organic wastes in order to decrease peat consumption since the indiscriminate exploitation of peat lands is exhausting this non-renewable useful resource and destroying endangered wetland ecosystems worldwide. The use of organic wastes as soil amendments or possible peat substitute could be improved by pyrolysis treatment, leading to biochar, a carbon-rich material that has attached important attention. Our research group has been worked in the formulation of new based-growing media by peat substitution in 50 and 75 vol% of pruning waste (PW), commercial charcoal (CC), biochar from PW at 300°C (B300) and 500°C (B500). Growing media show adequate physicochemical and hydrophysical properties. Experiments performed with lettuce germination show that PW addition in a 75vol% reduces germination index probably due to their high content on phenolic compounds. Lettuce growing experiments were performed during 5 weeks and show that addition of PW and CC to peat decreases biomass production whereas; B300 and specially, B500 addition significantly increases the lettuce biomass.

  4. Cloud-Based Automated Design and Additive Manufacturing: A Usage Data-Enabled Paradigm Shift

    PubMed Central

    Lehmhus, Dirk; Wuest, Thorsten; Wellsandt, Stefan; Bosse, Stefan; Kaihara, Toshiya; Thoben, Klaus-Dieter; Busse, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Integration of sensors into various kinds of products and machines provides access to in-depth usage information as basis for product optimization. Presently, this large potential for more user-friendly and efficient products is not being realized because (a) sensor integration and thus usage information is not available on a large scale and (b) product optimization requires considerable efforts in terms of manpower and adaptation of production equipment. However, with the advent of cloud-based services and highly flexible additive manufacturing techniques, these obstacles are currently crumbling away at rapid pace. The present study explores the state of the art in gathering and evaluating product usage and life cycle data, additive manufacturing and sensor integration, automated design and cloud-based services in manufacturing. By joining and extrapolating development trends in these areas, it delimits the foundations of a manufacturing concept that will allow continuous and economically viable product optimization on a general, user group or individual user level. This projection is checked against three different application scenarios, each of which stresses different aspects of the underlying holistic concept. The following discussion identifies critical issues and research needs by adopting the relevant stakeholder perspectives. PMID:26703606

  5. Water sorption of CH3- and CF3-Bis-GMA based resins with additives

    PubMed Central

    PRAKKI, Anuradha; CILLI, Renato; VIEIRA, Ian Matos; DUDUMAS, Kristina; PEREIRA, José Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the effect of additives on the water sorption characteristics of Bis-GMA based copolymers and composites containing TEGDMA, CH3Bis-GMA or CF3Bis-GMA. Material and methods Fifteen experimental copolymers and corresponding composites were prepared combining Bis-GMA and TEGDMA, CH3Bis-GMA or CF3Bis-GMA, with aldehyde or diketone (24 and 32 mol%) totaling 30 groups. For composites, barium aluminosilicate glass and pyrogenic silica was added to comonomer mixtures. Photopolymerization was effected by 0.2 wt% each of camphorquinone and N,N-dimethyl-p-toluidine. Specimen densities in dry and water saturated conditions were obtained by Archimedes' method. Water sorption and desorption were evaluated in a desorption-sorption-desorption cycle. Water uptake (%WU), water desorption (%WD), equilibrium solubility (ES; µg/mm3), swelling (f) and volume increase (%V) were calculated using appropriate equations. Results All resins with additives had increased %WU and ES. TEGDMA-containing systems presented higher %WU, %WD, ES, f and %V values, followed by resins based on CH3Bis-GMA and CF3Bis-GMA. Conclusions Aldehyde and diketone led to increases in the water sorption characteristics of experimental resins. PMID:23032211

  6. Cloud-Based Automated Design and Additive Manufacturing: A Usage Data-Enabled Paradigm Shift.

    PubMed

    Lehmhus, Dirk; Wuest, Thorsten; Wellsandt, Stefan; Bosse, Stefan; Kaihara, Toshiya; Thoben, Klaus-Dieter; Busse, Matthias

    2015-12-19

    Integration of sensors into various kinds of products and machines provides access to in-depth usage information as basis for product optimization. Presently, this large potential for more user-friendly and efficient products is not being realized because (a) sensor integration and thus usage information is not available on a large scale and (b) product optimization requires considerable efforts in terms of manpower and adaptation of production equipment. However, with the advent of cloud-based services and highly flexible additive manufacturing techniques, these obstacles are currently crumbling away at rapid pace. The present study explores the state of the art in gathering and evaluating product usage and life cycle data, additive manufacturing and sensor integration, automated design and cloud-based services in manufacturing. By joining and extrapolating development trends in these areas, it delimits the foundations of a manufacturing concept that will allow continuous and economically viable product optimization on a general, user group or individual user level. This projection is checked against three different application scenarios, each of which stresses different aspects of the underlying holistic concept. The following discussion identifies critical issues and research needs by adopting the relevant stakeholder perspectives.

  7. Selectivity descriptors for the Michael addition reaction as obtained from density functional based approaches.

    PubMed

    Madjarova, G; Tadjer, A; Cholakova, Tz P; Dobrev, A A; Mineva, T

    2005-01-20

    Density functional (DF) based numerical approaches for computing orbital and atomic reactivity indices were employed in the study of selectivity descriptors for the 1,4 Michael addition reaction. To this aim, atomic and orbital Fukui indices and atomic softnesses for 2-arylmethylene-1,4-butanolides and N,N-disubstituted phenylacetamides were computed. Further on, these local selectivity descriptors have been rationalized in terms of the Pearson's hard-soft-acid-base principle to explain the observed regioselectivity. It is shown that the methods employed for local (atomic and orbital) reactivity index computations are useful and reliable for prediction of the regioselectivity upon conjugate addition of ambident nucleophiles to 2,3-unsaturated carboxylic esters. All the results reveal similar degree of localization/hardness of the 1,4-butanolides C4 and active alpha-carbon belonging to the N,N-dimethyl-phenylacetamide, while the soft alpha-carbon in LiCH2CN reacts with the soft C2 1,4-butanolide center.

  8. Some Lewis acid-base adducts involving boron trifluoride as electrolyte additives for lithium ion cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Mengyun; Madec, L.; Xia, J.; Hall, D. S.; Dahn, J. R.

    2016-10-01

    Three complexes with boron trifluoride (BF3) as the Lewis acid and different Lewis bases were synthesized and used as electrolyte additives in Li[Ni1/3Mn1/3Co1/3]O2/graphite and Li[Ni0.42Mn0.42Co0.16]O2/graphite pouch cells. Lewis acid-base adducts with a boron-oxygen (Bsbnd O) bond were trimethyl phosphate boron trifluoride (TMP-BF) and triphenyl phosphine oxide boron trifluoride (TPPO-BF). These were compared to pyridine boron trifluoride (PBF) which has a boron-nitrogen (Bsbnd N) bond. The experimental results showed that cells with PBF had the least voltage drop during storage at 4.2 V, 4.4 V and 4.7 V at 40 °C and the best capacity retention during long-term cycling at 55 °C compared to cells with the other additives. Charge-hold-discharge cycling combined with simultaneous electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements showed that impedance growth in TMP-BF and TPPO-BF containing cells was faster than cells containing 2%PBF, suggesting that PBF is useful for impedance control at high voltages (>4.4 V). XPS analysis of the SEI films highlighted a specific reactivity of the PBF-derived SEI species that apparently hinders the degradation of both LiPF6 and solvent during formation and charge-hold-discharge cycling. The modified SEI films may explain the improved impedance, the smaller voltage drop during storage and the improved capacity retention during cycling of cells containing the PBF additive.

  9. 3D printed microfluidic circuitry via multijet-based additive manufacturing†

    PubMed Central

    Sochol, R. D.; Sweet, E.; Glick, C. C.; Venkatesh, S.; Avetisyan, A.; Ekman, K. F.; Raulinaitis, A.; Tsai, A.; Wienkers, A.; Korner, K.; Hanson, K.; Long, A.; Hightower, B. J.; Slatton, G.; Burnett, D. C.; Massey, T. L.; Iwai, K.; Lee, L. P.; Pister, K. S. J.; Lin, L.

    2016-01-01

    The miniaturization of integrated fluidic processors affords extensive benefits for chemical and biological fields, yet traditional, monolithic methods of microfabrication present numerous obstacles for the scaling of fluidic operators. Recently, researchers have investigated the use of additive manufacturing or “three-dimensional (3D) printing” technologies – predominantly stereolithography – as a promising alternative for the construction of submillimeter-scale fluidic components. One challenge, however, is that current stereolithography methods lack the ability to simultaneously print sacrificial support materials, which limits the geometric versatility of such approaches. In this work, we investigate the use of multijet modelling (alternatively, polyjet printing) – a layer-by-layer, multi-material inkjetting process – for 3D printing geometrically complex, yet functionally advantageous fluidic components comprised of both static and dynamic physical elements. We examine a fundamental class of 3D printed microfluidic operators, including fluidic capacitors, fluidic diodes, and fluidic transistors. In addition, we evaluate the potential to advance on-chip automation of integrated fluidic systems via geometric modification of component parameters. Theoretical and experimental results for 3D fluidic capacitors demonstrated that transitioning from planar to non-planar diaphragm architectures improved component performance. Flow rectification experiments for 3D printed fluidic diodes revealed a diodicity of 80.6 ± 1.8. Geometry-based gain enhancement for 3D printed fluidic transistors yielded pressure gain of 3.01 ± 0.78. Consistent with additional additive manufacturing methodologies, the use of digitally-transferrable 3D models of fluidic components combined with commercially-available 3D printers could extend the fluidic routing capabilities presented here to researchers in fields beyond the core engineering community. PMID:26725379

  10. 3D printed microfluidic circuitry via multijet-based additive manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Sochol, R D; Sweet, E; Glick, C C; Venkatesh, S; Avetisyan, A; Ekman, K F; Raulinaitis, A; Tsai, A; Wienkers, A; Korner, K; Hanson, K; Long, A; Hightower, B J; Slatton, G; Burnett, D C; Massey, T L; Iwai, K; Lee, L P; Pister, K S J; Lin, L

    2016-02-21

    The miniaturization of integrated fluidic processors affords extensive benefits for chemical and biological fields, yet traditional, monolithic methods of microfabrication present numerous obstacles for the scaling of fluidic operators. Recently, researchers have investigated the use of additive manufacturing or "three-dimensional (3D) printing" technologies - predominantly stereolithography - as a promising alternative for the construction of submillimeter-scale fluidic components. One challenge, however, is that current stereolithography methods lack the ability to simultaneously print sacrificial support materials, which limits the geometric versatility of such approaches. In this work, we investigate the use of multijet modelling (alternatively, polyjet printing) - a layer-by-layer, multi-material inkjetting process - for 3D printing geometrically complex, yet functionally advantageous fluidic components comprised of both static and dynamic physical elements. We examine a fundamental class of 3D printed microfluidic operators, including fluidic capacitors, fluidic diodes, and fluidic transistors. In addition, we evaluate the potential to advance on-chip automation of integrated fluidic systems via geometric modification of component parameters. Theoretical and experimental results for 3D fluidic capacitors demonstrated that transitioning from planar to non-planar diaphragm architectures improved component performance. Flow rectification experiments for 3D printed fluidic diodes revealed a diodicity of 80.6 ± 1.8. Geometry-based gain enhancement for 3D printed fluidic transistors yielded pressure gain of 3.01 ± 0.78. Consistent with additional additive manufacturing methodologies, the use of digitally-transferrable 3D models of fluidic components combined with commercially-available 3D printers could extend the fluidic routing capabilities presented here to researchers in fields beyond the core engineering community.

  11. Taxonomic position of Eothenomys wardi (Arvicolinae: Cricetidae) based on morphological and molecular analyses with a detailed description of the species.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Tao; Jin, Wei; Sun, Zhi Yu; Liu, Yang; Murphy, Robert W; Fu, Jian Rong; Wang, Xin; Hou, Quan Fen; Tu, Fei Yun; Liao, Rui; Liu, Shao Ying; Yue, Bi Song

    2013-01-01

    Ward's Red-backed Vole (Eothenomys wardi) is a rodent from the family Cricetidae. This endemic species occurs only in extreme northwestern Yunnan province, China in the Mekong and Salween river divide. It occupies steep cliffs at 2,800 to 4,250 m above sea level on the remote Qinghai-Tibetan plateau. The validity of E. wardi is controversial and no specimens exist apart from the nominal series. In 2010, we collected 38 topotypes of E. wardi from Meri Snow Mountain. The results of our phylogenetic analyses based on nucleotide sequences of the mitochondrial genes cytochrome b (cytb) and cytochrome c oxidase subunit one (COI) suggest that E. wardi is the sister group of E. custos, against its previously presumed sister species or conspecific species E. chinensis. In addition, seven out of 34 morphological characters differentiate E. wardi from other members of the genus Eothenomys. Therefore, we consider E. wardi to be a valid species and we provide its detailed morphological description.

  12. Genetic relationship between lodging and lodging components in barley (Hordeum vulgare) based on unconditional and conditional quantitative trait locus analyses.

    PubMed

    Chen, W Y; Liu, Z M; Deng, G B; Pan, Z F; Liang, J J; Zeng, X Q; Tashi, N M; Long, H; Yu, M Q

    2014-03-17

    Lodging (LD) is a major constraint limiting the yield and forage quality of barley. Detailed analyses of LD component (LDC) traits were conducted using 246 F2 plants generated from a cross between cultivars ZQ320 and 1277. Genetic relationships between LD and LDC were evaluated by unconditional and conditional quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping with 117 simple sequence repeat markers. Ultimately, 53 unconditional QTL related to LD were identified on seven barley chromosomes. Up to 15 QTL accounted for over 10% of the phenotypic variation, and up to 20 QTL for culm strength were detected. Six QTL with pleiotropic effects showing significant negative correlations with LD were found between markers Bmag353 and GBM1482 on chromosome 4H. These alleles and alleles of QTL for wall thickness, culm strength, plant height, and plant weight originated from ZQ320. Conditional mapping identified 96 additional QTL for LD. Conditional QTL analysis demonstrated that plant height, plant height center of gravity, and length of the sixth internode had the greatest contribution to LD, whereas culm strength and length of the fourth internode, and culm strength of the second internode were the key factors for LD-resistant. Therefore, lodging resistance in barley can be improved based on selection of alleles affecting culm strength, wall thickness, plant height, and plant weight. The conditional QTL mapping method can be used to evaluate possible genetic relationships between LD and LDC while efficiently and precisely determining counteracting QTL, which will help in understanding the genetic basis of LD in barley.

  13. Improved microstructure of cement-based composites through the addition of rock wool particles

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Wei-Ting; Cheng, An; Huang, Ran; Zou, Si-Yu

    2013-10-15

    Rock wool is an inorganic fibrous substance produced by steam blasting and cooling molten glass. As with other industrial by-products, rock wool particles can be used as cementitious materials or ultra fine fillers in cement-based composites. This study investigated the microstructure of mortar specimens produced with cement-based composites that include various forms of rock wool particles. It conducted compressive strength testing, rapid chloride penetration tests, X-ray diffraction analysis, thermo-gravimetric analysis, and scanning electronic microscopy to evaluate the macro- and micro-properties of the cement-based composites. Test results indicate that inclusion of rock wool particles in composites improved compressive strength and reduced chloride ion penetration at the age of 91 days due to the reduction of calcium hydroxide content. Microscopic analysis confirms that the use of rock wool particles contributed to the formation of a denser, more compact microstructure within the hardened paste. In addition, X-ray diffraction analysis shows few changes in formation of pozzolanic reaction products and no new hydrations are formed with incorporating rock wool particles. - Highlights: • We report the microstructural characterization of cement-based composites. • Different mixes produced with various rock wool particles have been tested. • The influence of different mixes on macro and micro properties has been discussed. • The macro properties are included compressive strength and permeability. • XRD and SEM observations confirm the pozzolanic reaction in the resulting pastes.

  14. Analysing the performance of personal computers based on Intel microprocessors for sequence aligning bioinformatics applications.

    PubMed

    Nair, Pradeep S; John, Eugene B

    2007-01-01

    Aligning specific sequences against a very large number of other sequences is a central aspect of bioinformatics. With the widespread availability of personal computers in biology laboratories, sequence alignment is now often performed locally. This makes it necessary to analyse the performance of personal computers for sequence aligning bioinformatics benchmarks. In this paper, we analyse the performance of a personal computer for the popular BLAST and FASTA sequence alignment suites. Results indicate that these benchmarks have a large number of recurring operations and use memory operations extensively. It seems that the performance can be improved with a bigger L1-cache.

  15. The extension of a DNA double helix by an additional Watson-Crick base pair on the same backbone.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pawan; Sharma, Pawan K; Madsen, Charlotte S; Petersen, Michael; Nielsen, Poul

    2013-06-17

    Additional base pair: The DNA duplex can be extended with an additional Watson-Crick base pair on the same backbone by the use of double-headed nucleotides. These also work as compressed dinucleotides and form two base pairs with cognate nucleobases on the opposite strand.

  16. Evidence for in-situ methane production in ice based on anomalous isotope analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sowers, T. A.; Priscu, J.

    2004-12-01

    the Sajama ice core from central Bolivia (18oS, 69oW, 6542masl), for example, were 1X-5X higher than contemporaneous values recorded in polar ice cores [Campen et al., 2003]. \\delta13CH4 values from five discrete depths were compared to corresponding measurements made on the Taylor Dome ice core and suggest the additional (in-situ) CH_{4} in the Sajama samples has an average isotopic composition of -63.2±2.8‰ . For reference, atmospheric δ ^{13}CH_{4} values range from -42 to -45/pm over this period. The Sajama isotope values are characteristic of methanogenic CH_{4} emitted from most terrestrial ecosystems. The second case study revolves around ice that was recovered from a perennially ice covered lake in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica. Previous work on ice from Lake Bonney demonstrated a rich microbial consortium located ~2m below the surface [Priscu et al., 1998]. Methane isotope analyses were made on ice from this depth interval to identify the presence of microbially produced CH_{4}. δ ^{13}CH_{4} and δ DCH4 results suggest the CH4 arises from acetogenic CH4 production as opposed to CO2 reduction. Campen, R.K., T. Sowers, and R.B. Alley, Evidence of Microbial Consortia Metabolizing Within a Low-Latitude Mountain Glacier, Geology, 31 (No. 3), 231-234, 2003. Priscu, J.C., et al., Perennial Antarctic Lake Ice: An oasis for life in a polar desert, Science, 280, 2095-2098, 1998.

  17. Epistatic Gene-Based Interaction Analyses for Glaucoma in eMERGE and NEIGHBOR Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Shefali Setia; Lucas, Anastasia; Bradford, Yuki; Linneman, James G.; Hauser, Michael A.; Pasquale, Louis R.; Peissig, Peggy L.; Brilliant, Murray H.; McCarty, Catherine A.; Haines, Jonathan L.; Wiggs, Janey L.; Vrabec, Tamara R.; Ritchie, Marylyn D.

    2016-01-01

    Primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) is a complex disease and is one of the major leading causes of blindness worldwide. Genome-wide association studies have successfully identified several common variants associated with glaucoma; however, most of these variants only explain a small proportion of the genetic risk. Apart from the standard approach to identify main effects of variants across the genome, it is believed that gene-gene interactions can help elucidate part of the missing heritability by allowing for the test of interactions between genetic variants to mimic the complex nature of biology. To explain the etiology of glaucoma, we first performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) on glaucoma case-control samples obtained from electronic medical records (EMR) to establish the utility of EMR data in detecting non-spurious and relevant associations; this analysis was aimed at confirming already known associations with glaucoma and validating the EMR derived glaucoma phenotype. Our findings from GWAS suggest consistent evidence of several known associations in POAG. We then performed an interaction analysis for variants found to be marginally associated with glaucoma (SNPs with main effect p-value <0.01) and observed interesting findings in the electronic MEdical Records and GEnomics Network (eMERGE) network dataset. Genes from the top epistatic interactions from eMERGE data (Likelihood Ratio Test i.e. LRT p-value <1e-05) were then tested for replication in the NEIGHBOR consortium dataset. To replicate our findings, we performed a gene-based SNP-SNP interaction analysis in NEIGHBOR and observed significant gene-gene interactions (p-value <0.001) among the top 17 gene-gene models identified in the discovery phase. Variants from gene-gene interaction analysis that we found to be associated with POAG explain 3.5% of additional genetic variance in eMERGE dataset above what is explained by the SNPs in genes that are replicated from previous GWAS studies (which

  18. Epistatic Gene-Based Interaction Analyses for Glaucoma in eMERGE and NEIGHBOR Consortium.

    PubMed

    Verma, Shefali Setia; Cooke Bailey, Jessica N; Lucas, Anastasia; Bradford, Yuki; Linneman, James G; Hauser, Michael A; Pasquale, Louis R; Peissig, Peggy L; Brilliant, Murray H; McCarty, Catherine A; Haines, Jonathan L; Wiggs, Janey L; Vrabec, Tamara R; Tromp, Gerard; Ritchie, Marylyn D

    2016-09-01

    Primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) is a complex disease and is one of the major leading causes of blindness worldwide. Genome-wide association studies have successfully identified several common variants associated with glaucoma; however, most of these variants only explain a small proportion of the genetic risk. Apart from the standard approach to identify main effects of variants across the genome, it is believed that gene-gene interactions can help elucidate part of the missing heritability by allowing for the test of interactions between genetic variants to mimic the complex nature of biology. To explain the etiology of glaucoma, we first performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) on glaucoma case-control samples obtained from electronic medical records (EMR) to establish the utility of EMR data in detecting non-spurious and relevant associations; this analysis was aimed at confirming already known associations with glaucoma and validating the EMR derived glaucoma phenotype. Our findings from GWAS suggest consistent evidence of several known associations in POAG. We then performed an interaction analysis for variants found to be marginally associated with glaucoma (SNPs with main effect p-value <0.01) and observed interesting findings in the electronic MEdical Records and GEnomics Network (eMERGE) network dataset. Genes from the top epistatic interactions from eMERGE data (Likelihood Ratio Test i.e. LRT p-value <1e-05) were then tested for replication in the NEIGHBOR consortium dataset. To replicate our findings, we performed a gene-based SNP-SNP interaction analysis in NEIGHBOR and observed significant gene-gene interactions (p-value <0.001) among the top 17 gene-gene models identified in the discovery phase. Variants from gene-gene interaction analysis that we found to be associated with POAG explain 3.5% of additional genetic variance in eMERGE dataset above what is explained by the SNPs in genes that are replicated from previous GWAS studies (which

  19. IMPROVING CONTROL ROOM DESIGN AND OPERATIONS BASED ON HUMAN FACTORS ANALYSES OR HOW MUCH HUMAN FACTORS UPGRADE IS ENOUGH ?

    SciTech Connect

    HIGGINS,J.C.; OHARA,J.M.; ALMEIDA,P.

    2002-09-19

    THE JOSE CABRERA NUCLEAR POWER PLANT IS A ONE LOOP WESTINGHOUSE PRESSURIZED WATER REACTOR. IN THE CONTROL ROOM, THE DISPLAYS AND CONTROLS USED BY OPERATORS FOR THE EMERGENCY OPERATING PROCEDURES ARE DISTRIBUTED ON FRONT AND BACK PANELS. THIS CONFIGURATION CONTRIBUTED TO RISK IN THE PROBABILISTIC SAFETY ASSESSMENT WHERE IMPORTANT OPERATOR ACTIONS ARE REQUIRED. THIS STUDY WAS UNDERTAKEN TO EVALUATE THE IMPACT OF THE DESIGN ON CREW PERFORMANCE AND PLANT SAFETY AND TO DEVELOP DESIGN IMPROVEMENTS.FIVE POTENTIAL EFFECTS WERE IDENTIFIED. THEN NUREG-0711 [1], PROGRAMMATIC, HUMAN FACTORS, ANALYSES WERE CONDUCTED TO SYSTEMATICALLY EVALUATE THE CR-LA YOUT TO DETERMINE IF THERE WAS EVIDENCE OF THE POTENTIAL EFFECTS. THESE ANALYSES INCLUDED OPERATING EXPERIENCE REVIEW, PSA REVIEW, TASK ANALYSES, AND WALKTHROUGH SIMULATIONS. BASED ON THE RESULTS OF THESE ANALYSES, A VARIETY OF CONTROL ROOM MODIFICATIONS WERE IDENTIFIED. FROM THE ALTERNATIVES, A SELECTION WAS MADE THAT PROVIDED A REASONABLEBALANCE BE TWEEN PERFORMANCE, RISK AND ECONOMICS, AND MODIFICATIONS WERE MADE TO THE PLANT.

  20. Feature based Weld-Deposition for Additive Manufacturing of Complex Shapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panchagnula, Jayaprakash Sharma; Simhambhatla, Suryakumar

    2016-08-01

    Fabricating functional metal parts using Additive Manufacturing (AM) is a leading trend. However, realizing overhanging features has been a challenge due to the lack of support mechanism for metals. Powder-bed fusion techniques like, Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) employ easily-breakable-scaffolds made of the same material to realize the overhangs. However, the same approach is not extendible to deposition processes like laser or arc based direct energy deposition processes. Although it is possible to realize small overhangs by exploiting the inherent overhanging capability of the process or by blinding some small features like holes, the same cannot be extended for more complex geometries. The current work presents a novel approach for realizing complex overhanging features without the need of support structures. This is possible by using higher order kinematics and suitably aligning the overhang with the deposition direction. Feature based non-uniform slicing and non-uniform area-filling are some vital concepts required in realizing the same and are briefly discussed here. This method can be used to fabricate and/or repair fully dense and functional components for various engineering applications. Although this approach has been implemented for weld-deposition based system, the same can be extended to any other direct energy deposition processes also.

  1. Titration of the bacteriorhodopsin Schiff base involves titration of an additional protein residue.

    PubMed

    Zadok, Uri; Asato, Alfred E; Sheves, Mordechai

    2005-06-14

    The retinal protein protonated Schiff base linkage plays a key role in the function of bacteriorhodopsin (bR) as a light-driven proton pump. In the unphotolyzed pigment, the Schiff base (SB) is titrated with a pK(a) of approximately 13, but following light absorption, it experiences a decrease in the pK(a) and undergoes several alterations, including a deprotonation process. We have studied the SB titration using retinal analogues which have intrinsically lower pK(a)'s which allow for SB titrations over a much lower pH range. We found that above pH 9 the channel for the SB titration is perturbed, and the titration rate is considerably reduced. On the basis of studies with several mutants, it is suggested that the protonation state of residue Glu204 is responsible for the channel perturbation. We suggest that above pH 12 a channel for the SB titration is restored probably due to titration of an additional protein residue. The observations may imply that during the bR photocycle and M photointermediate formation the rate of Schiff base protonation from the bulk is decreased. This rate decrease may be due to the deprotonation process of the "proton-releasing complex" which includes Glu204. In contrast, during the lifetime of the O intermediate, the protonated SB is exposed to the bulk. Possible implications for the switch mechanism, and the directionality of the proton movement, are discussed.

  2. Elucidating the effect of copper as a redox additive and dopant on the performance of a PANI based supercapacitor.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Kavita; Yadav, Pankaj; Mukhopadhyay, Indrajit

    2015-01-14

    In this article, the effect of copper (Cu) as a redox additive and dopant on the performance of a polyaniline (PANI) based supercapacitor was thoroughly investigated. The electrochemical properties of PANI in H2SO4 and in H2SO4 + CuSO4 and Cu doped PANI in H2SO4 were studied using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and impedance spectroscopy (IS). The CV result indicates that the capacity of PANI in H2SO4 was significantly improved with the introduction of Cu(2+) ions into the electrolyte, but it appeared unstable because of underpotential deposition of copper over the PANI surface and the relatively irreversible nature of the redox reaction. However, a stable and improved performance was obtained for Cu doped PANI due to the combined effect of an increase in conductivity and the surface modification of the PANI film. For Cu doped PANI, nearly ∼2.4 and ∼1.5 fold improved interfacial capacitance was achieved compared to that of PANI (H2SO4) and PANI (H2SO4 + CuSO4) respectively. The obtained Nyquist spectra for all the configurations were analysed using an equivalent circuit to understand the fundamentals of capacitive and resistive response of the supercapacitor. The IS measurements lead to direct determination of parameters like series resistance, rate capability of electrodes, ion diffusion phenomena and interfacial capacitance. The experimental results and their analysis will have significant impact on understanding the effect of dopants and redox additives on the performance of PANI based supercapacitors and also lay the basis for designing a supercapacitor with an appropriate electrode and electrolyte material for numerous industrial and consumer applications.

  3. Role of Ag addition in L10 ordering of FePt-based nanocomposite magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crisan, A. D.; Vasiliu, F.; Mercioniu, I.; Crisan, O.

    2014-01-01

    The FePt system has important perspectives as high-temperature corrosion-resistant magnets. In the form of rapidly solidified melt-spun ribbons, FePt-based magnets may exhibit in certain cases a two-phase hard-soft magnetic behaviour. The present paper deals with a microstructural and magnetic study of FePtAgB alloys with increasing Ag content. The aim is to identify and confirm the effect of Ag addition in decreasing the temperature of the FePt disorder-order structural phase transformation. A detailed high-resolution transmission electron microscopy study is employed, and the alternative disposal of hard and soft regions within the two-phase microstructure is observed and interpreted with respect to the X-ray diffraction results. In the as-cast Ag-containing samples, it is shown that there is an optimum of the Ag content for which best magnetic properties are obtained. Ag addition creates a nonlinear behaviour of the coercive field and the ordering parameter, similar to the RKKY interaction-induced interlayer exchange coupling (IEC) observed in magnetic layers separated by non-magnetic spacer layers. Direct formation of the L10 phase from the as-cast state in the FePtAgB alloys is reported with magnetic parameters compatible to other exchange spring permanent nanomagnets. These findings open novel perspectives into utilization of such alloys in applications requiring magnets operating in high-temperature industrial environments.

  4. Effect of alloy additions on wear resistance of nickel based hardfacing

    SciTech Connect

    Su, Y.L.; Chen, K.Y.

    1997-03-01

    The purpose of this research is to study the influence of the microstructure and hardness of the nickel based hardfacing alloy on wear resistance of deposit layers when different alloy elements are added. Different deposit layers were obtained by SMAW in which AWS RNiCr bare electrodes were coated by fluxes, to which different measures of ferro-niobium, ferro-chromium, and carbon had been added. The result of the experiment showed that when subject to abrasive wear, if the abrasive particles were silicon carbide, the increase of the volume fraction of the hard phase had only a slight effect on improving the wear resistance of the deposit layers. On adhesive wear, the niobium added specimens formed some spherical niobium carbide particles in the matrix of the deposit layer which reduced the friction coefficient of the specimens. The addition of carbon and chromium can enhance macrohardness and wear resistance of the welding deposit significantly. This same addition will also aid wear resistance by forming a continuous phase in the microstructure of the deposit metal. While there was no significant difference between the macrohardnesses of the metals, the form of this precipitate in the deposit metals was actually the most important factor in their wear resistance.

  5. PID Controller Design Based on Global Optimization Technique with Additional Constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozana, Stepan; Docekal, Tomas

    2016-05-01

    This paper deals with design of PID controller with the use of methods of global optimization implemented in Matlab environment and Optimization Toolbox. It is based on minimization of a chosen integral criterion with respect to additional requirements on control quality such as overshoot, phase margin and limits for manipulated value. The objective function also respects user-defined weigh coefficients for its particular terms for a different penalization of individual requirements that often clash each other such as for example overshoot and phase margin. The described solution is designated for continuous linear time-invariant static systems up to 4th order and thus efficient for the most of real control processes in practice.

  6. A highly selective fluorescent probe based on Michael addition for fast detection of hydrogen sulfide.

    PubMed

    Gao, Baozhen; Cui, Lixia; Pan, Yong; Xue, Minjie; Zhu, Boyu; Zhang, Guomei; Zhang, Caihong; Shuang, Shaomin; Dong, Chuan

    2017-02-15

    A new 4-hydroxy-1,8-naphthalimide-based compound (probe 1) has been designed and synthesized. The colorimetric and fluorescent properties of probe 1 towards hydrogen sulfide (H2S) were investigated in detail. The results show that the probe 1 could selectively and sensitively recognize H2S rather than other reactive sulfur species. The reaction mechanism of this probe is an intramolecular cyclization caused by the Michael addition of H2S to give 4-hydroxy-1,8-naphthalimide. The intramolecular charge transfer of 4-hydroxy-1,8-naphthalimide is significant. Probe 1 quickly responded to H2S and showed a 75-fold fluorescence enhancement in 5min. Moreover, probe 1 could detect H2S quantitatively with a detection limit as low as 0.23μM.

  7. A highly selective fluorescent probe based on Michael addition for fast detection of hydrogen sulfide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Baozhen; Cui, Lixia; Pan, Yong; Xue, Minjie; Zhu, Boyu; Zhang, Guomei; Zhang, Caihong; Shuang, Shaomin; Dong, Chuan

    2017-02-01

    A new 4-hydroxy-1,8-naphthalimide-based compound (probe 1) has been designed and synthesized. The colorimetric and fluorescent properties of probe 1 towards hydrogen sulfide (H2S) were investigated in detail. The results show that the probe 1 could selectively and sensitively recognize H2S rather than other reactive sulfur species. The reaction mechanism of this probe is an intramolecular cyclization caused by the Michael addition of H2S to give 4-hydroxy-1,8-naphthalimide. The intramolecular charge transfer of 4-hydroxy-1,8-naphthalimide is significant. Probe 1 quickly responded to H2S and showed a 75-fold fluorescence enhancement in 5 min. Moreover, probe 1 could detect H2S quantitatively with a detection limit as low as 0.23 μM.

  8. Dextran-based hydrogel formed by thiol-Michael addition reaction for 3D cell encapsulation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhen Qi; Wei, Zhao; Zhu, Xv Long; Huang, Guo You; Xu, Feng; Yang, Jian Hai; Osada, Yoshihito; Zrínyi, Miklós; Li, Jian Hui; Chen, Yong Mei

    2015-04-01

    Cell encapsulation in three-dimensional (3D) hydrogels can mimic native cell microenvironment and plays a major role in cell-based transplantation therapies. In this contribution, a novel in situ-forming hydrogel, Dex-l-DTT hydrogel ("l" means "linked-by"), by cross-linking glycidyl methacrylate derivatized dextran (Dex-GMA) and dithiothreitol (DTT) under physiological conditions, has been developed using thiol-Michael addition reaction. The mechanical properties, gelation process and degree of swelling of the hydrogel can be easily adjusted by changing the pH of phosphate buffer saline. The 3D cell encapsulation ability is demonstrated by encapsulating rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) and NIH/3T3 fibroblasts into the in situ-forming hydrogel with maintained high viability. The BMSCs also maintain their differentiation potential after encapsulation. These results demonstrate that the Dex-l-DTT hydrogel holds great potential for biomedical field.

  9. Quality control of laser- and powder bed-based Additive Manufacturing (AM) technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berumen, Sebastian; Bechmann, Florian; Lindner, Stefan; Kruth, Jean-Pierre; Craeghs, Tom

    The quality of metal components manufactured by laser- and powder bed-based additive manufacturing technologies has continuously been improved over the last years. However, to establish this production technology in industries with very high quality standards the accessibility of prevalent quality management methods to all steps of the process chain needs still to be enhanced. This publication describes which tools are and will be available to fulfil those requirements from the perspective of a laser machine manufacturer. Generally five aspects of the part building process are covered by separate Quality Management (QM) modules: the powder quality, the temperature management, the process gas atmosphere, the melt pool behaviour and the documentation module. This paper sets the focus on melt pool analysis and control.

  10. Optimization-based additive decomposition of weakly coercive problems with applications

    SciTech Connect

    Bochev, Pavel B.; Ridzal, Denis

    2016-01-27

    In this study, we present an abstract mathematical framework for an optimization-based additive decomposition of a large class of variational problems into a collection of concurrent subproblems. The framework replaces a given monolithic problem by an equivalent constrained optimization formulation in which the subproblems define the optimization constraints and the objective is to minimize the mismatch between their solutions. The significance of this reformulation stems from the fact that one can solve the resulting optimality system by an iterative process involving only solutions of the subproblems. Consequently, assuming that stable numerical methods and efficient solvers are available for every subproblem, our reformulation leads to robust and efficient numerical algorithms for a given monolithic problem by breaking it into subproblems that can be handled more easily. An application of the framework to the Oseen equations illustrates its potential.

  11. Optimization-based additive decomposition of weakly coercive problems with applications

    DOE PAGES

    Bochev, Pavel B.; Ridzal, Denis

    2016-01-27

    In this study, we present an abstract mathematical framework for an optimization-based additive decomposition of a large class of variational problems into a collection of concurrent subproblems. The framework replaces a given monolithic problem by an equivalent constrained optimization formulation in which the subproblems define the optimization constraints and the objective is to minimize the mismatch between their solutions. The significance of this reformulation stems from the fact that one can solve the resulting optimality system by an iterative process involving only solutions of the subproblems. Consequently, assuming that stable numerical methods and efficient solvers are available for every subproblem,more » our reformulation leads to robust and efficient numerical algorithms for a given monolithic problem by breaking it into subproblems that can be handled more easily. An application of the framework to the Oseen equations illustrates its potential.« less

  12. Adding functionality with additive manufacturing: Fabrication of titanium-based antibiotic eluting implants.

    PubMed

    Cox, Sophie C; Jamshidi, Parastoo; Eisenstein, Neil M; Webber, Mark A; Hassanin, Hany; Attallah, Moataz M; Shepherd, Duncan E T; Addison, Owen; Grover, Liam M

    2016-07-01

    Additive manufacturing technologies have been utilised in healthcare to create patient-specific implants. This study demonstrates the potential to add new implant functionality by further exploiting the design flexibility of these technologies. Selective laser melting was used to manufacture titanium-based (Ti-6Al-4V) implants containing a reservoir. Pore channels, connecting the implant surface to the reservoir, were incorporated to facilitate antibiotic delivery. An injectable brushite, calcium phosphate cement, was formulated as a carrier vehicle for gentamicin. Incorporation of the antibiotic significantly (p=0.01) improved the compressive strength (5.8±0.7MPa) of the cement compared to non-antibiotic samples. The controlled release of gentamicin sulphate from the calcium phosphate cement injected into the implant reservoir was demonstrated in short term elution studies using ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. Orientation of the implant pore channels were shown, using micro-computed tomography, to impact design reproducibility and the back-pressure generated during cement injection which ultimately altered porosity. The amount of antibiotic released from all implant designs over a 6hour period (<28% of the total amount) were found to exceed the minimum inhibitory concentrations of Staphylococcus aureus (16μg/mL) and Staphylococcus epidermidis (1μg/mL); two bacterial species commonly associated with periprosthetic infections. Antibacterial efficacy was confirmed against both bacterial cultures using an agar diffusion assay. Interestingly, pore channel orientation was shown to influence the directionality of inhibition zones. Promisingly, this work demonstrates the potential to additively manufacture a titanium-based antibiotic eluting implant, which is an attractive alternative to current treatment strategies of periprosthetic infections.

  13. Additional base-pair formation in DNA duplexes by a double-headed nucleotide.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Charlotte S; Witzke, Sarah; Kumar, Pawan; Negi, Kushuma; Sharma, Pawan K; Petersen, Michael; Nielsen, Poul

    2012-06-11

    We have designed and synthesised a double-headed nucleotide that presents two nucleobases in the interior of a dsDNA duplex. This nucleotide recognises and forms Watson-Crick base pairs with two complementary adenosines in a Watson-Crick framework. Furthermore, with judicious positioning in complementary strands, the nucleotide recognises itself through the formation of a T:T base pair. Thus, two novel nucleic acid motifs can be defined by using our double-headed nucleotide. Both motifs were characterised by UV melting experiments, CD and NMR spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulations. Both motifs leave the thermostability of the native dsDNA duplex largely unaltered. Molecular dynamics calculations showed that the double-headed nucleotides are accommodated in the dsDNA by entirely local perturbations and that the modified duplexes retain an overall B-type geometry with the dsDNA unwound by around 25 or 60°, respectively, in each of the modified motifs. Both motifs can be accommodated twice in a dsDNA duplex without incurring any loss of stability and extrapolating from this observation and the results of modelling, it is conceivable that both can be multiplied several times within a dsDNA duplex. These new motifs extend the DNA recognition repertoire and may form the basis for a complete series of double-headed nucleotides based on all 16 base combinations of the four natural nucleobases. In addition, both motifs can be used in the design of nanoscale DNA structures in which a specific duplex twist is required.

  14. Sex based subgroup differences in randomized controlled trials: empirical evidence from Cochrane meta-analyses

    PubMed Central

    Wallach, Joshua D; Sullivan, Patrick G; Trepanowski, John F; Steyerberg, Ewout W

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the frequency, validity, and relevance of statistically significant (P<0.05) sex-treatment interactions in randomized controlled trials in Cochrane meta-analyses. Design Meta-epidemiological study. Data sources Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR) and PubMed. Eligibility criteria for study selection Reviews published in the CDSR with sex-treatment subgroup analyses in the forest plots, using data from randomized controlled trials. Data extraction Information on the study design and sex subgroup data were extracted from reviews and forest plots that met inclusion criteria. For each statistically significant sex-treatment interaction, the potential for biological plausibility and clinical significance was considered. Results Among the 41 reviews with relevant data, there were 109 separate treatment-outcome analyses (“topics”). Among the 109 topics, eight (7%) had a statistically significant sex-treatment interaction. The 109 topics included 311 randomized controlled trials (162 with both sexes, 46 with males only, 103 with females only). Of the 162 individual randomized controlled trials that included both sexes, 15 (9%) had a statistically significant sex-treatment interaction. Of four topics where the first published randomized controlled trial had a statistically significant sex-treatment interaction, no meta-analyses that included other randomized controlled trials retained the statistical significance and no meta-analyses showed statistical significance when data from the first published randomized controlled trial were excluded. Of the eight statistically significant sex-treatment interactions from the overall analyses, only three were discussed by the CDSR reviewers for a potential impact on different clinical management for males compared with females. None of these topics had a sex-treatment interaction that influenced treatment recommendations in recent guidelines. UpToDate, an online physician-authored clinical

  15. Dropwise additive manufacturing of pharmaceutical products for solvent-based dosage forms.

    PubMed

    Hirshfield, Laura; Giridhar, Arun; Taylor, Lynne S; Harris, Michael T; Reklaitis, Gintaras V

    2014-02-01

    In recent years, the US Food and Drug Administration has encouraged pharmaceutical companies to develop more innovative and efficient manufacturing methods with improved online monitoring and control. Mini-manufacturing of medicine is one such method enabling the creation of individualized product forms for each patient. This work presents dropwise additive manufacturing of pharmaceutical products (DAMPP), an automated, controlled mini-manufacturing method that deposits active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) directly onto edible substrates using drop-on-demand (DoD) inkjet printing technology. The use of DoD technology allows for precise control over the material properties, drug solid state form, drop size, and drop dynamics and can be beneficial in the creation of high-potency drug forms, combination drugs with multiple APIs or individualized medicine products tailored to a specific patient. In this work, DAMPP was used to create dosage forms from solvent-based formulations consisting of API, polymer, and solvent carrier. The forms were then analyzed to determine the reproducibility of creating an on-target dosage form, the morphology of the API of the final form and the dissolution behavior of the drug over time. DAMPP is found to be a viable alternative to traditional mass-manufacturing methods for solvent-based oral dosage forms.

  16. Solid-state supercapacitors with ionic liquid based gel polymer electrolyte: Effect of lithium salt addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, G. P.; Hashmi, S. A.

    2013-12-01

    Performance characteristics of the solid-state supercapacitors fabricated with ionic liquid (IL) incorporated gel polymer electrolyte and acid treated multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) electrodes have been studied. The effect of Li-salt (LiPF6) addition in the IL (1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tris(pentafluoroethyl) trifluorophosphate, EMImFAP) based gel electrolyte on the performance of supercapacitors has been specifically investigated. The LiPF6/IL/poly(vinylidine fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVdF-HFP) gel electrolyte film possesses excellent electrochemical window of 4 V (from -2.0 to 2.0 V), high ionic conductivity ˜2.6 × 10-3 S cm-1 at 20 °C and high enough thermal stability. The comparative performance of supercapacitors employing electrolytes with and without lithium salt has been evaluated by impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetric studies. The acid-treated MWCNT electrodes show specific capacitance of ˜127 F g-1 with IL/LiPF6 containing gel polymer electrolyte as compared to that with the gel polymer electrolyte without Li-salt, showing the value of ˜76 F g-1. The long cycling stability of the solid state supercapacitor based on the Li-salt containing gel polymer electrolyte confirms the electrochemical stability of the electrolyte.

  17. Teacher-Conducted Trial-Based Functional Analyses as the Basis for Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloom, Sarah E.; Lambert, Joseph M.; Dayton, Elizabeth; Samaha, Andrew L.

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have focused on whether a trial-based functional analysis (FA) yields the same outcomes as more traditional FAs, and whether interventions based on trial-based FAs can reduce socially maintained problem behavior. We included a full range of behavior functions and taught 3 teachers to conduct a trial-based FA with 3 boys with…

  18. A Comparison of the Results of Many-Facet Rasch Analyses Based on Crossed and Judge Pair Designs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ilhan, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the results of many-facet Rasch analyses based on crossed and judge pair designs. The study was conducted with 168 eighth grade students and five judges. The study data were collected using an achievement test with open-ended questions and a holistic rubric that was used to rate the responses. In the data…

  19. Systematics of Plant-Pathogenic and Related Streptomyces Species Based on Phylogenetic Analyses of Multiple Gene Loci

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The 10 species of Streptomyces implicated as the etiological agents in scab disease of potatoes or soft rot disease of sweet potatoes are distributed among 7 different phylogenetic clades in analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, but high sequence similarity of this gene among Streptomyces speci...

  20. Modifying Si-based consolidants through the addition of colloidal nano-particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ksinopoulou, E.; Bakolas, A.; Moropoulou, A.

    2016-04-01

    The modification of silicon-based stone consolidants has been the subject of many scientific studies aiming to overcome the commonly reported drawbacks of these materials, such as the tendency to shrink and crack during drying. The addition of nano-particle dispersions into silica matrix has been found to enhance their effectiveness in several ways. Objective of the current research was to study the preparation of particle-modified consolidants (PMC), consisting of an ethyl silicate matrix (TEOS) loaded with colloidal silica (SiO2) nano-particles and oxide titania (TiO2) particles. The effect of the polyacrylic acid on the dispersion stability was also investigated, by varying its concentration into PMC samples. The prepared materials were allowed to dry in two different relative humidity environments and then evaluated based on their stability in the sol phase, the aggregation sizes, determined through dynamic light scattering, the % solids content and their morphological characteristics, observed via scanning electron microscopy (SEM-EDAX). Mercury intrusion porosimetry was also applied to investigate the microstructural characteristics and differences between the prepared consolidants. Significant role in the final form of the material is played by both the initial molar ratios in the mixtures, as well as the conditions where the drying and aging takes place. Based on the results, the three-component PMCs appear to be promising in stone consolidation, as they show a reduction in cracking and shrinkage during drying and a more porous network, compared with the siliceous material, or the two-component TEOS-SiO2 formulation.

  1. Indoor carbon dioxide concentrations and sick building syndrome symptoms in the BASE study revisited: Analyses of the 100 building dataset

    SciTech Connect

    Erdmann, Christine A.; Steiner, Kate C.; Apte, Michael G.

    2002-02-01

    In previously published analyses of the 41-building 1994-1996 USEPA Building Assessment Survey and Evaluation (BASE) dataset, higher workday time-averaged indoor minus outdoor CO{sub 2} concentrations (dCO{sub 2}) were associated with increased prevalence of certain mucous membrane and lower respiratory sick building syndrome (SBS) symptoms, even at peak dCO{sub 2} concentrations below 1,000 ppm. For this paper, similar analyses were performed using the larger 100-building 1994-1998 BASE dataset. Multivariate logistic regression analyses quantified the associations between dCO{sub 2} and the SBS symptoms, adjusting for age, sex, smoking status, presence of carpet in workspace, thermal exposure, relative humidity, and a marker for entrained automobile exhaust. Adjusted dCO{sub 2} prevalence odds ratios for sore throat and wheeze were 1.17 and 1.20 per 100-ppm increase in dCO{sub 2} (p <0.05), respectively. These new analyses generally support our prior findings. Regional differences in climate, building design, and operation may account for some of the differences observed in analyses of the two datasets.

  2. Development of a Fragment-Based in Silico Profiler for Michael Addition Thiol Reactivity.

    PubMed

    Ebbrell, David J; Madden, Judith C; Cronin, Mark T D; Schultz, Terry W; Enoch, Steven J

    2016-06-20

    The Adverse Outcome Pathway (AOP) paradigm details the existing knowledge that links the initial interaction between a chemical and a biological system, termed the molecular initiating event (MIE), through a series of intermediate events, to an adverse effect. An important example of a well-defined MIE is the formation of a covalent bond between a biological nucleophile and an electrophilic compound. This particular MIE has been associated with various toxicological end points such as acute aquatic toxicity, skin sensitization, and respiratory sensitization. This study has investigated the calculated parameters that are required to predict the rate of chemical bond formation (reactivity) of a dataset of Michael acceptors. Reactivity of these compounds toward glutathione was predicted using a combination of a calculated activation energy value (Eact, calculated using density functional theory (DFT) calculation at the B3YLP/6-31G+(d) level of theory, and solvent-accessible surface area values (SAS) at the α carbon. To further develop the method, a fragment-based algorithm was developed enabling the reactivity to be predicted for Michael acceptors without the need to perform the time-consuming DFT calculations. Results showed the developed fragment method was successful in predicting the reactivity of the Michael acceptors excluding two sets of chemicals: volatile esters with an extended substituent at the β-carbon and chemicals containing a conjugated benzene ring as part of the polarizing group. Additionally the study also demonstrated the ease with which the approach can be extended to other chemical classes by the calculation of additional fragments and their associated Eact and SAS values. The resulting method is likely to be of use in regulatory toxicology tools where an understanding of covalent bond formation as a potential MIE is important within the AOP paradigm.

  3. Electric poling-assisted additive manufacturing process for PVDF polymer-based piezoelectric device applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, ChaBum; Tarbutton, Joshua A.

    2014-09-01

    This paper presents a new additive manufacturing (AM) process to directly and continuously print piezoelectric devices from polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) polymeric filament rods under a strong electric field. This process, called ‘electric poling-assisted additive manufacturing or EPAM, combines AM and electric poling processes and is able to fabricate free-form shape piezoelectric devices continuously. In this process, the PVDF polymer dipoles remain well-aligned and uniform over a large area in a single design, production and fabrication step. During EPAM process, molten PVDF polymer is simultaneously mechanically stresses in-situ by the leading nozzle and electrically poled by applying high electric field under high temperature. The EPAM system was constructed to directly print piezoelectric structures from PVDF polymeric filament while applying high electric field between nozzle tip and printing bed in AM machine. Piezoelectric devices were successfully fabricated using the EPAM process. The crystalline phase transitions that occurred from the process were identified by using the Fourier transform infrared spectroscope. The results indicate that devices printed under a strong electric field become piezoelectric during the EPAM process and that stronger electric fields result in greater piezoelectricity as marked by the electrical response and the formation of sharper peaks at the polar β crystalline wavenumber of the PVDF polymer. Performing this process in the absence of an electric field does not result in dipole alignment of PVDF polymer. The EPAM process is expected to lead to the widespread use of AM to fabricate a variety of piezoelectric PVDF polymer-based devices for sensing, actuation and energy harvesting applications with simple, low cost, single processing and fabrication step.

  4. The acid-base impact of free water removal from, and addition to, plasma.

    PubMed

    Haskins, Steve C; Hopper, Kate; Rezende, Marlis L

    2006-03-01

    Water, compared with plasma at a pH of 7.4, is a weak acid. The addition of free water to a patient should have an acidifying effect (dilutional acidosis) and the removal of it, an alkalinizing effect (concentrational alkalosis). The specific effects of free water loss or gain in a relatively complex fluid such as plasma has, to the authors' knowledge, not been reported. This information would be useful in the interpretation of the effect of changes in free water in patients. Plasma samples from goats were either evaporated in a tonometer to 80% of baseline volume or hydrated by the addition of distilled water to 120% of baseline volume. The pH and partial pressure of carbon dioxide, sodium, potassium, ionized calcium, chloride, lactate, phosphorous, albumin, and total protein concentrations were measured. Actual base excess (ABE), standard bicarbonate, anion gap, strong ion difference, strong ion gap, unmeasured anions, and the effects of sodium, chloride, phosphate, and albumin changes on ABE were calculated. Most parameters changed 20% in proportion to the magnitude of dehydration or hydration. Bicarbonate concentration, however, increased only 11% in the evaporation trial and decreased only -2% in the dehydration trial. The evaporation trial was associated with a mild, but significant, metabolic alkalotic effect (ABE increased 3.2 mM/L), whereas the hydration trial was associated with a slight, insignificant metabolic acidotic effect (ABE decreased only 0.6 mM/L). The calculated free water ABE effect (change in sodium concentration) was offset by opposite changes in calculated chloride, lactate, phosphate, and albumin ABE effects.

  5. Use of Additives to Improve Performance of Methyl Butyrate-Based Lithium-Ion Electrolytes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smart, Marshall C.; Bugga, Ratnakumar V.

    2011-01-01

    This work addresses the need for robust rechargeable batteries that can operate well over a wide temperature range. To this end, a number of electrolyte formulations have been developed that incorporate the use of electrolyte additives to improve the high-temperature resilience, low-temperature power capability, and life characteristics of methyl butyrate-based electrolyte solutions. These electrolyte additives include mono-fluoroethylene carbonate (FEC), lithium oxalate, vinylene carbonate (VC), and lithium bis(oxalato)borate (LiBOB), which have been shown to result in improved high-temperature resilience of all carbonate-based electrolytes. Improved performance has been demonstrated of Li-ion cells with methyl butyrate-based electrolytes, including 1.20M LiPF6 in EC+EMC+MB (20:20:60 v/v %); 1.20M LiPF6 in EC+EMC+MB (20:20:60 v/v %) + 2% FEC; 1.20M LiPF6 in EC+EMC+MB (20:20:60 v/v %) + 4% FEC; 1.20M LiPF6 in EC+EMC+MB (20:20:60 v/v %) + lithium oxalate; 1.20M LiPF6 in EC+EMC+MB (20:20:60 v/v %) + 2% VC; and 1.20M LiPF6 in EC+EMC+MB (20:20:60 v/v %) + 0.10M LiBOB. These electrolytes have been shown to improve performance in MCMB-LiNiCoO2 and graphite-LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 experimental Li-ion cells. A number of LiPF6-based mixed carbonate electrolyte formulations have been developed that contain ester co-solvents, which have been optimized for operation at low temperature, while still providing reasonable performance at high temperature. For example, a number of ester co-solvents were investigated, including methyl propionate (MP), ethyl propionate (EP), methyl butyrate (MB), ethyl butyrate (EB), propyl butyrate (PB), and butyl butyrate (BB) in multi-component electrolytes of the following composition: 1.0M LiPF6 in ethylene carbonate (EC) + ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC) + X (20:60:20 v/v %) [where X = ester co-solvent]. ["Optimized Car bon ate and Ester-Based Li-Ion Electrolytes", NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 32, No. 4 (April 2008), p. 56.] Focusing upon improved rate

  6. Decision analyses for optimization of monitoring networks based on uncertainty quantification of model predictions of contaminant transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vesselinov, V. V.; Harp, D.

    2011-12-01

    Model-based decision making related to environmental management problems is a challenging problem. There has been substantial theoretical research and practical applications related to this problem. However, there are very few cases in which the actual decision analyses have been tested in the field to evaluate their adequacy. Over the last several years, we have performed a series of decision analyses to support optimization of a monitoring network at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) site. The problem deals with contaminant transport in the regional aquifer beneath the LANL site. At three separate stages, the existing monitoring network was augmented based on analyses of the existing uncertainties; in total, five new monitoring wells were proposed. At each stage, the data collected at the new monitoring wells demonstrated the adequacy of the prior uncertainty and decision analyses. The decision analyses required a detailed estimation of uncertainties in model predictions. Various uncertainties, including measurement errors and uncertainties in the conceptualization and model parameters, contributed to the uncertainties in the model predictions. The decision analyses were computationally intensive requiring on the order of one million model simulations; computational efficiency is achieved using (1) high-performance computing (LANL multiprocessor clusters), (2) novel computational techniques for model analysis, and (3) a simple analytical 3D simulator to simulate contaminant transport. Decision support related to optimal design of monitoring networks required optimization of the proposed new monitoring well locations in order to reduce existing model-prediction uncertainties and environmental risk. An important aspect of the analysis is the application of novel techniques for optimization (SQUADS based on coupling of Particle Swarm and Levenberg-Marquardt optimization methods; Vesselinov & Harp, 2011) and uncertainty quantification (ABAGUS: Agent-Based

  7. Linking field-based metabolomics and chemical analyses to identify contaminants of emerging concern in the Great Lakes ecosystem

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although research has focused on remediating ecological impacts of environmental contaminants on the Great Lakes and other aquatic ecosystems, there exists a continuing need for additional biologically-based tools for monitoring success. Profiling of endogenous metabolites (i.e....

  8. Insights into the phylogeny of sporadotrichid ciliates (Protozoa, Ciliophora: Hypotricha) based on genealogical analyses of multiple molecular markers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Xiaoyan; Hu, Xiaozhong; Al-Rasheid, Khaled A. S.; Al-Farraj, Saleh A.; Song, Weibo

    2011-01-01

    The sporadotrichid ciliates are an especially diverse group. A number of investigators have studied the morphological, morphogenetic, and molecular relationships among members of this group. Despite this, a consistent classification is still lacking and several important questions about the phylogenetic relationships within this group remain unsolved. To improve our understanding of these relationships, we constructed phylogenetic trees using the nucleotide sequences of the small-subunit rRNA (SSrRNA) gene and amino acid sequences of actin I and α-tubulin. Analyses of SSrRNA gene sequences indicated that: 1) the Sporadotrichida sensu Lynn (2008) and the Oxytrichidae are polyphyletic; 2) the Uroleptus species, which are classified to urostylids, formed a sister group with the oxytrichids; 3) Halteria grandinella, which is grouped morphologically with oligotrich species, clustered within the oxytrichids. These results are congruent with previous studies based on SSrRNA gene sequences. However, the amino acid sequences of actin I and α-tubulin yielded different topologies. The main results are: 1) in all phylogenetic trees, the genus Oxytricha was paraphyletic; 2) Uroleptus was sister to a subset of Urostyla and Holosticha, albeit with low supporting values; 3) Halteria grandinella was separated distantly from the Oxytrichidae in trees inferred from actin I amino acid sequences but clustered with oligotrichids in the α-tubulin analysis. The inconsistency among the trees inferred from these different molecular markers may be caused by rapidly accumulated genetic characterizations of ciliates. Further studies with additional molecular markers and sampling of more taxa are expected to better address the relationships among sporadotrichids.

  9. Comprehensive Phylogenetic Reconstruction of Amoebozoa Based on Concatenated Analyses of SSU-rDNA and Actin Genes

    PubMed Central

    Lahr, Daniel J. G.; Grant, Jessica; Nguyen, Truc; Lin, Jian Hua; Katz, Laura A.

    2011-01-01

    Evolutionary relationships within Amoebozoa have been the subject of controversy for two reasons: 1) paucity of morphological characters in traditional surveys and 2) haphazard taxonomic sampling in modern molecular reconstructions. These along with other factors have prevented the erection of a definitive system that resolves confidently both higher and lower-level relationships. Additionally, the recent recognition that many protosteloid amoebae are in fact scattered throughout the Amoebozoa suggests that phylogenetic reconstructions have been excluding an extensive and integral group of organisms. Here we provide a comprehensive phylogenetic reconstruction based on 139 taxa using molecular information from both SSU-rDNA and actin genes. We provide molecular data for 13 of those taxa, 12 of which had not been previously characterized. We explored the dataset extensively by generating 18 alternative reconstructions that assess the effect of missing data, long-branched taxa, unstable taxa, fast evolving sites and inclusion of environmental sequences. We compared reconstructions with each other as well as against previously published phylogenies. Our analyses show that many of the morphologically established lower-level relationships (defined here as relationships roughly equivalent to Order level or below) are congruent with molecular data. However, the data are insufficient to corroborate or reject the large majority of proposed higher-level relationships (above the Order-level), with the exception of Tubulinea, Archamoebae and Myxogastrea, which are consistently recovered. Moreover, contrary to previous expectations, the inclusion of available environmental sequences does not significantly improve the Amoebozoa reconstruction. This is probably because key amoebozoan taxa are not easily amplified by environmental sequencing methodology due to high rates of molecular evolution and regular occurrence of large indels and introns. Finally, in an effort to facilitate

  10. The comparison of classification analyses on the public opinion focus of biofuels based on twitter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Shianghau; Guo, Jiannjong

    2016-02-01

    The study combined with the text mining and classification methodology to investigate the biofuels related tweets on the social network so as to understand the general public opinion focus. The contribution of the study enclosed the subsequent two points. First, the study utilized the text mining method to explore the content of biofuels connected tweets on the famed social network "twitter" and found the main keywords consistent with their frequencies. Second, the study applied the Back Propagation Neural Network (BPN), random forests model and two sorts of hybrid algorithmclassification analyses to compare the classification results.

  11. Application of finite-element-based solution technologies for viscoplastic structural analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arya, V. K.

    1990-01-01

    Finite-element solution technology developed for use in conjunction with advanced viscoplastic models is described. The development of such solution technology is necessary for performing stress/life analyses of engineering structural problems where the complex geometries and loadings make the conventional analytical solutions difficult. The versatility of the solution technology is demonstrated by applying it to viscoplastic models possessing different mathematical structures and encompassing isotropic and anisotropic material. The computational results qualitatively replicate deformation behavior observed in experiments on prototypical structural components.

  12. ddRAD-seq phylogenetics based on nucleotide, indel, and presence-absence polymorphisms: Analyses of two avian genera with contrasting histories.

    PubMed

    DaCosta, Jeffrey M; Sorenson, Michael D

    2016-01-01

    Genotype-by-sequencing (GBS) methods have revolutionized the field of molecular ecology, but their application in molecular phylogenetics remains somewhat limited. In addition, most phylogenetic studies based on large GBS data sets have relied on analyses of concatenated data rather than species tree methods that explicitly account for genealogical stochasticity among loci. We explored the utility of "double-digest" restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (ddRAD-seq) for phylogenetic analyses of the Lagonosticta firefinches (family Estrildidae) and the Vidua brood parasitic finches (family Viduidae). As expected, the number of homologous loci shared among samples was negatively correlated with genetic distance due to the accumulation of restriction site polymorphisms. Nonetheless, for each genus, we obtained data sets of ∼3000 loci shared in common among all samples, including a more distantly related outgroup taxon. For all samples combined, we obtained >1000 homologous loci despite ∼20my divergence between estrildid and parasitic finches. In addition to nucleotide polymorphisms, the ddRAD-seq data yielded large sets of indel and locus presence-absence polymorphisms, all of which had higher consistency indices than mtDNA sequence data in the context of concatenated parsimony analyses. Species tree methods, using individual gene trees or single nucleotide polymorphisms as input, generated results broadly consistent with analyses of concatenated data, particularly for Lagonosticta, which appears to have a well resolved, bifurcating history. Results for Vidua were also generally consistent across methods and data sets, although nodal support and results from different species tree methods were more variable. Lower gene tree congruence in Vidua is likely the result of its unique evolutionary history, which includes rapid speciation by host shift and occasional hybridization and introgression due to incomplete reproductive isolation. We conclude that dd

  13. DLP-based light engines for additive manufacturing of ceramic parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatzenbichler, M.; Geppert, M.; Gruber, S.; Ipp, E.; Almedal, R.; Stampfl, J.

    2012-03-01

    In the framework of the European research project PHOCAM (http://www.phocam.eu) the involved partners are developing systems and materials for lithography-based additive manufacturing technologies (AMT) which are used for shaping advanced ceramic materials. In this approach a ceramic-filled photosensitive resin is selectively exposed layer by layer. By stacking up the individual layers with a typical layer thickness between 25 and 50μm, a three-dimensional part is built up. After structuring, a solid part consisting of a ceramic filled polymer is obtained. The polymer is afterwards burnt off and in a last step the part is sintered to obtain a fully dense ceramic part. The developed systems are based on selective exposure with DLP projection (Digital Light Processing). A key element of the developed systems is a light engine which uses digital mirror devices (DMD) in combination light emitting diodes (460nm) as light source. In the current setup DMDs with 1920x1080 pixels are used. The use of LEDs in combination with a customized optical projection system ensures a spatial and temporal homogeneity of the intensity at the build platform which is significantly better than with traditionally used light engines. The system has a resolution of 40μm and a build size of 79x43x100mm. It could be shown that this system can fabricate dense ceramic parts with excellent strength. In the case of alumina densities up to 99.6% of the theoretical density were achieved, yielding a biaxial strength of 510MPa. Besides technical ceramics like alumina it is also possible to structure bioceramics, e.g. tricalcium phosphate.

  14. Update of human spinal cord reirradiation tolerance based on additional data from 38 patients

    SciTech Connect

    Nieder, Carsten . E-mail: cnied@hotmail.com; Grosu, Anca L.; Andratschke, Nicolaus H.; Molls, Michael

    2006-12-01

    Purpose: To update a combined analysis of all published clinical data. Methods and Materials: We collected data from 38 additional patients treated in our department or published in four different reports and calculated the biologically effective dose (BED) according to the linear-quadratic model using an {alpha}/{beta} value of 2 Gy for cervical and thoracic cord and 4 Gy for lumbar cord. In this model, a dose of 50 Gy given in single daily fractions of 2 Gy is equivalent to a BED of 100 Gy{sub 2} or 75 Gy{sub 4}. Results: The 2005 risk score based on three variables (cumulative BED, highest BED of all treatment series in a particular individual, and interval), which discriminate three different risk groups, does not require modification. The low-risk group now contains 1 case of radiation myelopathy (RM) after hypofractionated stereotactic reirradiation. Therefore, the rate increased from 0% to 3%. Intermediate-risk patients developed RM in 25%, and high-risk patients in 90%. When the interval between the two treatment courses is not shorter than 6 months and the dose of each course is {<=}98 Gy{sub 2}, the cumulative BED where no case of RM has yet been reported is 120 Gy{sub 2}. Conclusions: Based on these updated results, the risk of RM appears small after {<=}135.5 Gy{sub 2} when the interval is not shorter than 6 months and the dose of each course is {<=}98 Gy{sub 2}. We would recommend limiting the dose to the lowest feasible level. The influence of very steep dose gradients from stereotactic and intensity-modulated approaches (i.e., a more complex volume-effect) requires further evaluation.

  15. The effect of acidic and basic additives on the enantioseparation of basic drugs using polysaccharide-based chiral stationary phases.

    PubMed

    Ye, Yun K; Stringham, Rodger W

    2006-08-01

    The enantioseparation of nine commercially available basic drugs was achieved on polysaccharide-based chiral stationary phases with the acidic additive ethanesulfonic acid and the basic additive butylamine. Seven different commercially available CSPs were used for the study (AD, AS, OD, OJ, OG, OB, and OC). Mobile phase additives have been proven to be essential in obtaining satisfactory enantio-resolution in terms of both efficiency and selectivity. Significantly improved selectivities were obtained for the basic probe drugs with the acidic additive, ethanesulfonic acid, rather than the basic additive, butylamine. This is best seen with Chiralpak AS CSP. No enantioseparation for the nine drugs was observed when butylamine was used as an additive; however, satisfactory enantioseparation for the nine drugs was achieved using ethanesulfonic acid. Higher column efficiencies were observed with the acidic additive, especially when isopropanol was used as a modifier. Higher sensitivity was also achieved with ethanesulfonic acid because of the significantly lower background at the UV detection wavelength. The acidic additive was demonstrated to be superior to the basic additive for the enantioseparation of basic drugs using seven different polysaccharide-based CSPs. These results are counterintuitive to the common "rule of thumb" in enantioseparation that states acidic additives work best for acidic analytes and basic additives work best for basic analytes. The beneficial effects of acidic additive in enantioseparations observed in this study could significantly improve the applicability of polysaccharide-based CSPs for the enantioseparation of basic analytes.

  16. Video-Based Analyses of Motivation and Interaction in Science Classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moeller Andersen, Hanne; Nielsen, Birgitte Lund

    2013-04-01

    An analytical framework for examining students' motivation was developed and used for analyses of video excerpts from science classrooms. The framework was developed in an iterative process involving theories on motivation and video excerpts from a 'motivational event' where students worked in groups. Subsequently, the framework was used for an analysis of students' motivation in the whole class situation. A cross-case analysis was carried out illustrating characteristics of students' motivation dependent on the context. This research showed that students' motivation to learn science is stimulated by a range of different factors, with autonomy, relatedness and belonging apparently being the main sources of motivation. The teacher's combined use of questions, uptake and high level evaluation was very important for students' learning processes and motivation, especially students' self-efficacy. By coding and analysing video excerpts from science classrooms, we were able to demonstrate that the analytical framework helped us gain new insights into the effect of teachers' communication and other elements on students' motivation.

  17. Addition of cranberry to proton pump inhibitor-based triple therapy for Helicobacter pylori eradication

    PubMed Central

    Seyyedmajidi, Mohammadreza; Ahmadi, Anahita; Hajiebrahimi, Shahin; Seyedmajidi, Seyedali; Rajabikashani, Majid; Firoozabadi, Mona; Vafaeimanesh, Jamshid

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Proton pump inhibitor-based triple therapy with two antibiotics for Helicobacter pylori eradication is widely accepted, but this combination fails in a considerable number of cases. Some studies have shown that cranberry inhibits the adhesion of a wide range of microbial pathogens, including H. pylori. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of cranberry on H. pylori eradication with a standard therapy including lansoprazole, clarithromycin, and amoxicillin (LCA) in patients with peptic ulcer disease (PUD). Methods: In this study, H. pylori-positive patients with PUD were randomized into two groups: Group A: A 14-day LCA triple therapy with 30 mg lansoprazole bid, 1000 mg amoxicillin bid, and 500 mg clarithromycin bid; Group B: A 14-day 500 mg cranberry capsules bid plus LCA triple therapy. A 13C-urea breath test was performed for eradication assessment 6 weeks after the completion of the treatment. Findings: Two hundred patients (53.5% males, between 23 and 77 years, mean age ± standard deviation: 50.29 ± 17.79 years) continued treatment protocols and underwent 13C-urea breath testing. H. pylori eradication was achieved in 74% in Group A (LCA without cranberry) and 89% in Group B (LCA with cranberry) (P = 0.042). Conclusion: The addition of cranberry to LCA triple therapy for H. pylori has a higher rate of eradication than the standard regimen alone (up to 89% and significant). PMID:27843960

  18. Simultaneous interpenetrating silicone hydrogel based on radical/addition polymerization for extended release of ocular therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jinku; Zhang, Leilei; Zhang, Yongchun; Li, Tianduo; Huo, Guanghua

    2014-01-01

    Hydrogels with interpenetrating network (IPN) can overcome thermodynamic incompatibility and obtain transparent materials with limited phase separation. In this report, hydroxyl-grafting polysiloxane (HPSO) was synthesized and transparent silicone hydrogels with interpenetrating network were simultaneously prepared based on radical polymerization of methacrylic monomer of 3-methacryloxypropyl tris(trimethylsiloxy)silane/N,N-dimethylacrylamide and addition polymerization of HPSO/isophorone diisocyanate. The silicone hydrogels were characterized by dehydration kinetics, tensile tester, light transmittance, ion permeability, oxygen permeability, and lysozyme deposition. The results show that increasing the proportion of hydrophobic network of HPSO in the IPN silicone hydrogel decreases equilibrium swelling ratio, ion permeability, Young's modulus, and lysozyme deposition; on the contrary, increased tensile strength, elongation at break and oxygen permeability. Puerarin and ketoconazole were used as models to evaluate the drug loading and in vitro release behavior of the silicone hydrogels. It is revealed that the amount of loaded drugs in the hydrogel decreases with the increase of HPSO network in the hydrogels. All the silicone hydrogels exhibit extended release behavior, especially for ketoconazole, the in vitro release is divided into two phases corresponding to the rapid release at initial 24 h and relatively slow release from 125 to 360 h.

  19. Repurposing mainstream CNC machine tools for laser-based additive manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Jason B.

    2016-04-01

    The advent of laser technology has been a key enabler for industrial 3D printing, known as Additive Manufacturing (AM). Despite its commercial success and unique technical capabilities, laser-based AM systems are not yet able to produce parts with the same accuracy and surface finish as CNC machining. To enable the geometry and material freedoms afforded by AM, yet achieve the precision and productivity of CNC machining, hybrid combinations of these two processes have started to gain traction. To achieve the benefits of combined processing, laser technology has been integrated into mainstream CNC machines - effectively repurposing them as hybrid manufacturing platforms. This paper reviews how this engineering challenge has prompted beam delivery innovations to allow automated changeover between laser processing and machining, using standard CNC tool changers. Handling laser-processing heads using the tool changer also enables automated change over between different types of laser processing heads, further expanding the breadth of laser processing flexibility in a hybrid CNC. This paper highlights the development, challenges and future impact of hybrid CNCs on laser processing.

  20. Nonlinearity measurements of solar cells with an LED-based combinatorial flux addition method

    PubMed Central

    Hamadani, Behrang H.; Shore, Andrew; Roller, John; Yoon, Howard W; Campanelli, Mark

    2016-01-01

    We present a light emitting diode (LED)-based system utilizing a combinatorial flux addition method to investigate the nonlinear relationship in solar cells between the output current of the cell and the incident irradiance level. The magnitude of the light flux is controlled by the supplied currents to two LEDs (or two sets of them) in a combinatorial fashion. The signals measured from the cell are arranged within a related overdetermined linear system of equations derived from an appropriately chosen Nth degree polynomial representing the relationship between the measured signals and the incident fluxes. The flux values and the polynomial coefficients are then solved for by linear least squares to obtain the best fit. The technique can be applied to any solar cell, under either monochromatic or broadband spectrum. For the unscaled solution, no reference detectors or prior calibrations of the light flux are required. However, if at least one calibrated irradiance value is known, then the entire curve can be scaled to an appropriate spectral responsivity value. Using this technique, a large number of data points can be obtained in a relatively short time scale over a large signal range. PMID:27524837

  1. Nonlinearity measurements of solar cells with an LED-based combinatorial flux addition method.

    PubMed

    Hamadani, Behrang H; Shore, Andrew; Roller, John; Yoon, Howard W; Campanelli, Mark

    2016-02-01

    We present a light emitting diode (LED)-based system utilizing a combinatorial flux addition method to investigate the nonlinear relationship in solar cells between the output current of the cell and the incident irradiance level. The magnitude of the light flux is controlled by the supplied currents to two LEDs (or two sets of them) in a combinatorial fashion. The signals measured from the cell are arranged within a related overdetermined linear system of equations derived from an appropriately chosen N(th) degree polynomial representing the relationship between the measured signals and the incident fluxes. The flux values and the polynomial coefficients are then solved for by linear least squares to obtain the best fit. The technique can be applied to any solar cell, under either monochromatic or broadband spectrum. For the unscaled solution, no reference detectors or prior calibrations of the light flux are required. However, if at least one calibrated irradiance value is known, then the entire curve can be scaled to an appropriate spectral responsivity value. Using this technique, a large number of data points can be obtained in a relatively short time scale over a large signal range.

  2. Soy Protein Isolate As Fluid Loss Additive in Bentonite-Water-Based Drilling Fluids.

    PubMed

    Li, Mei-Chun; Wu, Qinglin; Song, Kunlin; Lee, Sunyoung; Jin, Chunde; Ren, Suxia; Lei, Tingzhou

    2015-11-11

    Wellbore instability and formation collapse caused by lost circulation are vital issues during well excavation in the oil industry. This study reports the novel utilization of soy protein isolate (SPI) as fluid loss additive in bentonite-water based drilling fluids (BT-WDFs) and describes how its particle size and concentration influence on the filtration property of SPI/BT-WDFs. It was found that high pressure homogenization (HPH)-treated SPI had superior filtration property over that of native SPI due to the improved ability for the plugging pore throat. HPH treatment also caused a significant change in the surface characteristic of SPI, leading to a considerable surface interaction with BT in aqueous solution. The concentration of SPI had a significant impact on the dispersion state of SPI/BT mixtures in aquesous solution. At low SPI concentrations, strong aggregations were created, resulting in the formation of thick, loose, high-porosity and high-permeability filter cakes and high fluid loss. At high SPI concentrations, intercatlated/exfoliated structures were generated, resulting in the formation of thin, compact, low-porosity and low-permeability filter cakes and low fluid loss. The SPI/BT-WDFs exhibited superior filtration property than pure BT-WDFs at the same solid concentraion, demonstrating the potential utilization of SPI as an effective, renewable, and biodegradable fluid loss reducer in well excavation applications.

  3. Dropwise additive manufacturing of pharmaceutical products for melt-based dosage forms.

    PubMed

    Içten, Elçin; Giridhar, Arun; Taylor, Lynne S; Nagy, Zoltan K; Reklaitis, Gintaras V

    2015-05-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration introduced the quality by design approach and process analytical technology guidance to encourage innovation and efficiency in pharmaceutical development, manufacturing, and quality assurance. As part of this renewed emphasis on the improvement of manufacturing, the pharmaceutical industry has begun to develop more efficient production processes with more intensive use of online measurement and sensing, real-time quality control, and process control tools. Here, we present dropwise additive manufacturing of pharmaceutical products (DAMPP) as an alternative to conventional pharmaceutical manufacturing methods. This mini-manufacturing process for the production of pharmaceuticals utilizes drop on demand printing technology for automated and controlled deposition of melt-based formulations onto edible substrates. The advantages of drop-on-demand technology, including reproducible production of small droplets, adjustable drop sizing, high placement accuracy, and flexible use of different formulations, enable production of individualized dosing even for low-dose and high-potency drugs. In this work, DAMPP is used to produce solid oral dosage forms from hot melts of an active pharmaceutical ingredient and a polymer. The dosage forms are analyzed to show the reproducibility of dosing and the dissolution behavior of different formulations.

  4. Textbook Questions in Context-Based and Traditional Chemistry Curricula Analysed from a Content Perspective and a Learning Activities Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Overman, Michelle; Vermunt, Jan D.; Meijer, Paulien C.; Bulte, Astrid M. W.; Brekelmans, Mieke

    2013-11-01

    In this study, questions in context-based and traditional chemistry textbooks were analysed from two perspectives that are at the heart of chemistry curricula reforms: a content perspective and a learning activities perspective. To analyse these textbook questions, we developed an instrument for each perspective. In total, 971 textbook questions were analysed. Textbook questions in context-based and traditional curricula appeared to differ significantly in their orientation on content and in the activation to engage students in certain learning activities. Although traditional curricula included more questions that stress traditional chemistry content and included more reproductive chemistry questions than context-based curricula, they were not always as traditional as we had expected. Context-based chemistry curricula focused more on chemistry content relating to societal/technological issues and chemistry theory development and also more questions were included that activate students to regulate their own learning. However, context-based chemistry curricula still included a considerable amount of traditional chemistry content and did not focus as much on higher order learning as we had expected. The developed instruments might be helpful in chemistry curricula design to gain insights into the content which is stressed and how students are activated by textbook questions to engage in learning.

  5. Phase stability of thermal barrier oxides based on t'-zirconia with trivalent oxide additions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebollo Franco, Noemi Rosa

    Zirconia stabilized with 7+/-1 wt.% addition of yttria (7YSZ) is widely used for thermal barrier coatings (TBC's) on actively cooled gas turbine components, selected partly because of its superior durability under thermal cyclic conditions. As deposited, 7YSZ occurs as a metastable single-phase tetragonal solid solution (t') that is thermodynamically stable against the deleterious transformation to monoclinic upon cooling. However, at high temperatures t' is driven to decompose diffusionally into an equilibrium mixture of high-Y cubic and low-Y tetragonal; the latter becomes transformable to monoclinic compromising the mechanical integrity of the system. This dissertation explores the effects of trivalent stabilizers, including Y, Sc and selected rare-earth oxides (REO's), on the phase stability of the resulting solid solutions in zirconia. The REO additions are of interest because they can potentially enhance the insulation efficiency on the coating allowing higher operating temperatures. However, understanding of their effects on phase stability and potentially on cyclic durability at the projected use temperature in next generation engines (1200-1400°C) is insufficient to guide the design of coatings with the desirable combination of lower thermal conductivity and acceptable durability. Sc was also investigated because of previous reports on the higher phase stability of materials doped with Sc, and Y served as the baseline. The experimental approach is based on powders synthesized by reverse co-precipitation of precursor solutions, usually compacted and then subjected to a variety of heat treatments, following their evolution by means of X-ray diffractometry, dilatometry, transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The use of powders facilitated the synthesis of a wider range of compositions that would not have been possible by coating deposition approaches, and because the synthesis occurs at low temperature, it also enabled the starting

  6. Metabolic sequences of anaerobic fermentation on glucose-based feeding substrates based on correlation analyses of microbial and metabolite profiling.

    PubMed

    Date, Yasuhiro; Iikura, Tomohiro; Yamazawa, Akira; Moriya, Shigeharu; Kikuchi, Jun

    2012-12-07

    Degradation processes in various biomasses are managed by complex metabolic dynamics created by diverse and extensive interactions and competition in microbial communities and their environments. It is important to develop visualization methods to provide a bird's-eye view when characterizing the entire sequential metabolic process in an environmental ecosystem. Here, we describe an approach for the visualization of the metabolic sequences in anaerobic fermentation ecosystems, characterizing the entire metabolic dynamics using a combination of microbial community profiles and metabolic profiles. By evaluating their time-dependent variation, we found that microbial community profiles and metabolite production processes were characteristically affected by the feeding of different glucose-based substrates (glucose, starch, cellulose), although the compositions of the major microbial community and the metabolites detected were likely to be similar in all experiments. This combinatorial approach to variation in microbial communities and metabolic profiles was used successfully to visualize metabolic sequences in anaerobic fermentation ecosystems, in addition to mining candidate microbiota for cellulose degradation. Thus, this approach provides a powerful tool for visualizing and evaluating metabolic sequences within the biomass degradation process in an environmental ecosystem. This is the first report to visualize the entire metabolic dynamic in an anaerobic fermentation ecosystem as metabolic sequences.

  7. Activity Based Learning in a Freshman Global Business Course: Analyses of Preferences and Demographic Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Mark F.; Guy, Paul W.

    2007-01-01

    The present study investigates pre-business students' reaction to Activity Based Learning in a lower division core required course entitled Introduction to Global Business in the business curriculum at California State University Chico. The study investigates students' preference for Activity Based Learning in comparison to a more traditional…

  8. Environmental Assessment: Construct a CDC Main Entry Addition at Grand Forks Air Force Base

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    North Dakota. Purpose and Need: The purpose of the proposed action is to construct an addition to the northeast end of the Child Development Center...families. There is a companion proposal to repair the administrative support area in the northeast end of the Child Development Center (CDC), Bldg...action is to construct an addition to the northeast end of the Child Development Center (CDC), Building 168 at 1683 J St. The addition will provide

  9. Aroma profile of Garnacha Tintorera-based sweet wines by chromatographic and sensorial analyses.

    PubMed

    Noguerol-Pato, R; González-Álvarez, M; González-Barreiro, C; Cancho-Grande, B; Simal-Gándara, J

    2012-10-15

    The aroma profiles obtained of three Garnacha Tintorera-based wines were studied: a base wine, a naturally sweet wine, and a mixture of naturally sweet wine with other sweet wine obtained by fortification with spirits. The aroma fingerprint was traced by GC-MS analysis of volatile compounds and by sensorial analysis of odours and tastes. Within the volatiles compounds, sotolon (73 μg/L) and acetoin (122 μg/L) were the two main compounds found in naturally sweet wine. With regards to the odorant series, those most dominant for Garnacha Tintorera base wine were floral, fruity and spicy. Instead, the most marked odorant series affected by off-vine drying of the grapes were floral, caramelized and vegetal-wood. Finally, odorant series affected by the switch-off of alcoholic fermentation with ethanol 96% (v/v) fit for human consumption followed by oak barrel aging were caramelized and vegetal-wood. A partial least square test (PLS-2) was used to detect correlations between sets of sensory data (those obtained with mouth and nose) with the ultimate aim of improving our current understanding of the flavour of Garnacha Tintorera red wines, both base and sweet. Based on the sensory dataset analysis, the descriptors with the highest weight for separating base and sweet wines from Garnacha Tintorera were sweetness, dried fruit and caramel (for sweet wines) vs. bitterness, astringency and geranium (for base wines).

  10. Analyses of a continuum traffic flow model for a nonlane-based system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Arvind Kumar; Dhiman, Isha

    2014-03-01

    We develop a heterogeneous continuum model based upon a car-following model for a nonlane-based system taking lateral separation into account. The criterion for linear stability analysis and traveling wave solution of the homogeneous case is studied. The consideration of the lateral separation not only stabilizes the flow but also shrinks the critical region. For heterogeneous case, the fundamental diagram is examined for two different equilibrium speed-density functions and the effect of lane width is investigated for different compositions of heterogeneous traffic. The theoretical findings agree well with the results of numerical simulation which justifies the applicability of the model to a nonlane-based system.

  11. Topsoil organic carbon content of Europe, a new map based on a generalised additive model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Brogniez, Delphine; Ballabio, Cristiano; Stevens, Antoine; Jones, Robert J. A.; Montanarella, Luca; van Wesemael, Bas

    2014-05-01

    There is an increasing demand for up-to-date spatially continuous organic carbon (OC) data for global environment and climatic modeling. Whilst the current map of topsoil organic carbon content for Europe (Jones et al., 2005) was produced by applying expert-knowledge based pedo-transfer rules on large soil mapping units, the aim of this study was to replace it by applying digital soil mapping techniques on the first European harmonised geo-referenced topsoil (0-20 cm) database, which arises from the LUCAS (land use/cover area frame statistical survey) survey. A generalized additive model (GAM) was calibrated on 85% of the dataset (ca. 17 000 soil samples) and a backward stepwise approach selected slope, land cover, temperature, net primary productivity, latitude and longitude as environmental covariates (500 m resolution). The validation of the model (applied on 15% of the dataset), gave an R2 of 0.27. We observed that most organic soils were under-predicted by the model and that soils of Scandinavia were also poorly predicted. The model showed an RMSE of 42 g kg-1 for mineral soils and of 287 g kg-1 for organic soils. The map of predicted OC content showed the lowest values in Mediterranean countries and in croplands across Europe, whereas highest OC content were predicted in wetlands, woodlands and in mountainous areas. The map of standard error of the OC model predictions showed high values in northern latitudes, wetlands, moors and heathlands, whereas low uncertainty was mostly found in croplands. A comparison of our results with the map of Jones et al. (2005) showed a general agreement on the prediction of mineral soils' OC content, most probably because the models use some common covariates, namely land cover and temperature. Our model however failed to predict values of OC content greater than 200 g kg-1, which we explain by the imposed unimodal distribution of our model, whose mean is tilted towards the majority of soils, which are mineral. Finally, average

  12. Low-Friction Adsorbed Layers of a Triblock Copolymer Additive in Oil-Based Lubrication.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Shinji; Fujihara, Ami; Yusa, Shin-ichi; Tanabe, Tadao; Kurihara, Kazue

    2015-11-10

    The tribological properties of the dilute solution of an ABA triblock copolymer, poly(11-acrylamidoundecanoic acid)-block-poly(stearyl methacrylate)-block-poly(11-acrylamidoundecanoic acid (A5S992A5), in poly(α-olefin) (PAO) confined between mica surfaces were investigated using the surface forces apparatus (SFA). Friction force was measured as a function of applied load and sliding velocity, and the film thickness and contact geometry during sliding were analyzed using the fringes of equal chromatic order (FECO) in the SFA. The results were contrasted with those of confined PAO films; the effects of the addition of A5S992A5 on the tribological properties were discussed. The thickness of the A5S992A5/PAO system varied with time after surface preparation and with repetitive sliding motions. The thickness was within the range from 40 to 70 nm 1 day after preparation (the Day1 film), and was about 20 nm on the following day (the Day2 film). The thickness of the confined PAO film was thinner than 1.4 nm, indicating that the A5S992A5/PAO system formed thick adsorbed layers on mica surfaces. The friction coefficient was about 0.03 to 0.04 for the Day1 film and well below 0.01 for the Day2 film, which were 1 or 2 orders of magnitude lower than the values for the confined PAO films. The time dependent changes of the adsorbed layer thickness and friction properties should be caused by the relatively low solubility of A5S992A5 in PAO. The detailed analysis of the contact geometry and friction behaviors implies that the particularly low friction of the Day2 film originates from the following factors: (i) shrinkage of the A5S992A5 molecules (mainly the poly(stearyl methacrylate) blocks) that leads to a viscoelastic properties of the adsorbed layers; and (ii) the intervening PAO layer between the adsorbed polymer layers that constitutes a high-fluidity sliding interface. Our results suggest that the block copolymer having relatively low solubility in a lubricant base oil is

  13. Novel optical-based methods and analyses for elucidating cellular mechanics and dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koo, Peter K.

    Resolving distinct biochemical interaction states by analyzing the diffusive behaviors of individual protein trajectories is challenging due to the limited statistics provided by short trajectories and experimental noise sources, which are intimately coupled into each proteins localization. In the first part of this thesis, we introduce a novel, a machine-learning based classification methodology, called perturbation expectation-maximization (pEM), which simultaneously analyzes a population of protein trajectories to uncover the system of short-time diffusive behaviors which collectively result from distinct biochemical interactions. We then discuss an experimental application of pEM to Rho GTPase, an integral regulator of cytoskeletal dynamics and cellular homeostasis, inside live cells. We also derive the maximum likelihood estimator (MLE) for driven diffusion, confined diffusion, and fractional Brownian motion. We demonstrate that MLE yields improved estimates in comparison with traditional diffusion analysis, namely mean squared displacement analysis. In addition, we also introduce mleBayes, which is an empirical Bayesian model selection scheme to classify an individual protein trajectory to a given diffusion mode. By employing mleBayes on simulated data, we demonstrate that accurate determination of the underlying diffusive properties, beyond normal diffusion, remains challenging when analyzing particle trajectories on an individual basis. To improve upon the statistical limitations of classification from analyzing trajectories on an individual basis, we extend pEM with a new version (pEMv2) to simultaneously analyzing a collection of particle trajectories to uncover the system of interactions which give rise to unique normal or non-normal diffusive states. We test the performance of pEMv2 on various sets of simulated particle trajectories which transition between various modes of normal and non-normal diffusive states to highlight considerations when

  14. Remediation Versus Prevention of PCB Contamination: A Comparison Based on Risk and Cost Analyses

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-01

    REFERENCES 74 . By OD,t it: t, ’ IOist 1 A-11i LIST OF FIGURES (Figures in Appendices not included) Figure 1. Human Risk Comparison (Base vs. Background Risk...Costs (Uncertainty Case 5) Figure 11. Human Risk Comparison (Risk Range) Figure 12. Cost Range with Base Risk ii * LIST OF TABLES (Tables in appendices...Study of Newly Hatched Fathead Minnows (Aroclor 1248) Table 6. FDA Regulations for PCBs Table 7. Applicable or Relevant and Appropriate Requirements

  15. Model-based analyses of bioequivalence crossover trials using the stochastic approximation expectation maximisation algorithm.

    PubMed

    Dubois, Anne; Lavielle, Marc; Gsteiger, Sandro; Pigeolet, Etienne; Mentré, France

    2011-09-20

    In this work, we develop a bioequivalence analysis using nonlinear mixed effects models (NLMEM) that mimics the standard noncompartmental analysis (NCA). We estimate NLMEM parameters, including between-subject and within-subject variability and treatment, period and sequence effects. We explain how to perform a Wald test on a secondary parameter, and we propose an extension of the likelihood ratio test for bioequivalence. We compare these NLMEM-based bioequivalence tests with standard NCA-based tests. We evaluate by simulation the NCA and NLMEM estimates and the type I error of the bioequivalence tests. For NLMEM, we use the stochastic approximation expectation maximisation (SAEM) algorithm implemented in monolix. We simulate crossover trials under H(0) using different numbers of subjects and of samples per subject. We simulate with different settings for between-subject and within-subject variability and for the residual error variance. The simulation study illustrates the accuracy of NLMEM-based geometric means estimated with the SAEM algorithm, whereas the NCA estimates are biased for sparse design. NCA-based bioequivalence tests show good type I error except for high variability. For a rich design, type I errors of NLMEM-based bioequivalence tests (Wald test and likelihood ratio test) do not differ from the nominal level of 5%. Type I errors are inflated for sparse design. We apply the bioequivalence Wald test based on NCA and NLMEM estimates to a three-way crossover trial, showing that Omnitrope®; (Sandoz GmbH, Kundl, Austria) powder and solution are bioequivalent to Genotropin®; (Pfizer Pharma GmbH, Karlsruhe, Germany). NLMEM-based bioequivalence tests are an alternative to standard NCA-based tests. However, caution is needed for small sample size and highly variable drug.

  16. Analyses of crime patterns in NIBRS data based on a novel graph theory clustering method: Virginia as a case study.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Peixin; Darrah, Marjorie; Nolan, Jim; Zhang, Cun-Quan

    2014-01-01

    This paper suggests a novel clustering method for analyzing the National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS) data, which include the determination of correlation of different crime types, the development of a likelihood index for crimes to occur in a jurisdiction, and the clustering of jurisdictions based on crime type. The method was tested by using the 2005 assault data from 121 jurisdictions in Virginia as a test case. The analyses of these data show that some different crime types are correlated and some different crime parameters are correlated with different crime types. The analyses also show that certain jurisdictions within Virginia share certain crime patterns. This information assists with constructing a pattern for a specific crime type and can be used to determine whether a jurisdiction may be more likely to see this type of crime occur in their area.

  17. Satellite Sounder-Based OLR-, Cloud- and Atmospheric Temperature Climatologies for Climate Analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molnar, Gyula I.; Susskind, Joel

    2006-01-01

    Global energy balance of the Earth-atmosphere system may change due to natural and man-made climate variations. For example, changes in the outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) can be regarded as a crucial indicator of climate variations. Clouds play an important role -still insufficiently assessed in the global energy balance on all spatial and temporal scales, and satellites provide an ideal platform to measure cloud and large-scale atmospheric variables simultaneously. The TOVS series of satellites were the first to provide this type of information since 1979. OLR [Mehta and Susskind], cloud cover and cloud top pressure [Susskind et al] are among the key climatic parameters computed by the TOVS Pathfinder Path-A algorithm using mainly the retrieved temperature and moisture profiles. AIRS, regarded as the new and improved TOVS , has a much higher spectral resolution and greater S/N ratio, retrieving climatic parameters with higher accuracy. First we present encouraging agreements between MODIS and AIRS cloud top pressure (C(sub tp) and effective (A(sub eff), a product of infrared emissivity at 11 microns and physical cloud cover or A(sub c)) cloud fraction seasonal and interannual variabilities for selected months. Next we present validation efforts and preliminary trend analyses of TOVS-retrieved C(sub tp) and A(sub eff). For example, decadal global trends of the TOVS Path-A and ISCCP-D2 P(sub c), and A(sub eff)/A(sub c), values are similar. Furthermore, the TOVS Path-A and ISCCP-AVHRR [available since 19831 cloud fractions correlate even more strongly, including regional trends. We also present TOVS and AIRS OLR validation effort results and (for the longer-term TOVS Pathfinder Path-A dataset) trend analyses. OLR interannual spatial variabilities from the available state-of-the-art CERES measurements and both from the AIRS [Susskind et al] and TOVS OLR computations are in remarkably good agreement. Global monthly mean CERES and TOVS OLR time series show very good

  18. Estimation of Sonic Fatigue by Reduced-Order Finite Element Based Analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rizzi, Stephen A.; Przekop, Adam

    2006-01-01

    A computationally efficient, reduced-order method is presented for prediction of sonic fatigue of structures exhibiting geometrically nonlinear response. A procedure to determine the nonlinear modal stiffness using commercial finite element codes allows the coupled nonlinear equations of motion in physical degrees of freedom to be transformed to a smaller coupled system of equations in modal coordinates. The nonlinear modal system is first solved using a computationally light equivalent linearization solution to determine if the structure responds to the applied loading in a nonlinear fashion. If so, a higher fidelity numerical simulation in modal coordinates is undertaken to more accurately determine the nonlinear response. Comparisons of displacement and stress response obtained from the reduced-order analyses are made with results obtained from numerical simulation in physical degrees-of-freedom. Fatigue life predictions from nonlinear modal and physical simulations are made using the rainflow cycle counting method in a linear cumulative damage analysis. Results computed for a simple beam structure under a random acoustic loading demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach and compare favorably with results obtained from the solution in physical degrees-of-freedom.

  19. Comparison of key aroma compounds in cooked brown rice varieties based on aroma extract dilution analyses.

    PubMed

    Jezussek, Magnus; Juliano, Bienvenido O; Schieberle, Peter

    2002-02-27

    The aroma compounds present in cooked brown rice of the three varieties Improved Malagkit Sungsong (IMS), Basmati 370 (B 370), and Khaskhani (KK), and of the variety Indica (German supermarket sample), were identified on the basis of aroma extract dilution analyses (AEDA). A total of 41 odor-active compounds were identified, of which eleven are reported for the first time as rice constituents. 2-Amino acetophenone (medicinal, phenolic), which was up to now unknown in rice aroma, exhibited the highest flavor dilution (FD) factor among the 30 to 39 odor-active compounds detected in all four varieties. 2-Acetyl-1-pyrroline, exhibiting an intense popcorn-like aroma-note, was confirmed as a further key aroma constituent in IMS, B 370, and KK, but was not important in Indica. Differences in the FD factors between the varieties were found for the previously unknown rice aroma compound 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone (Sotolon; seasoning-like), which was higher in B 370 than in IMS and KK. In IMS, a yet unknown, spicy smelling component with a very high FD factor could be detected, which contributed with lower FD factors to the overall aromas of B 370 and KK, and was not present in Indica. The latter variety, which was available on the German market, differed most in its overall aroma from the three Asian brown rices.

  20. Taxonomic hypotheses regarding the genus Gerbillus (Rodentia, Muridae, Gerbillinae) based on molecular analyses of museum specimens

    PubMed Central

    Ndiaye, Arame; Tatard, Caroline; Stanley, William; Granjon, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Methodological improvements now allow routine analyses of highly degraded DNA samples as found in museum specimens. Using these methods could be useful in studying such groups as rodents of the genus Gerbillus for which i) the taxonomy is still highly debated, ii) collection of fresh specimens may prove difficult. Here we address precise taxonomic questions using a small portion of the cytochrome b gene obtained from 45 dry skin/skull museum samples (from 1913 to 1974) originating from two African and three Asian countries. The specimens were labelled Gerbillus gerbillus, Gerbillus andersoni, Gerbillus nanus, Gerbillus amoenus, Gerbillus perpallidus and Gerbillus pyramidum, and molecular results mostly confirmed these assignations. The close relationship between Gerbillus nanus (Asian origin) and Gerbillus amoenus (African origin) confirmed that they represent vicariant sibling species which differentiated in allopatry on either side of the Red Sea. In the closely related Gerbillus perpallidus and Gerbillus pyramidum, specimens considered as belonging to one Gerbillus pyramidum subspecies (Gerbillus pyramidum floweri) appeared closer to Gerbillus perpallidus suggesting that they (Gerbillus pyramidum floweri and Gerbillus perpallidus) may represent a unique species, distributed on both sides of the Nile River, for which the correct name should be Gerbillus floweri. Furthermore, the three other Gerbillus pyramidum subspecies grouped together with no apparent genetic structure suggesting that they may not yet represent genetically differentiated lineages. This study confirms the importance of using these methods on museum samples, which can open new perspectives in this particular group as well as in other groups of interest. PMID:27047247

  1. Evaluating Instrument Quality in Science Education: Rasch-based analyses of a Nature of Science test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neumann, Irene; Neumann, Knut; Nehm, Ross

    2011-07-01

    Given the central importance of the Nature of Science (NOS) and Scientific Inquiry (SI) in national and international science standards and science learning, empirical support for the theoretical delineation of these constructs is of considerable significance. Furthermore, tests of the effects of varying magnitudes of NOS knowledge on domain-specific science understanding and belief require the application of instruments validated in accordance with AERA, APA, and NCME assessment standards. Our study explores three interrelated aspects of a recently developed NOS instrument: (1) validity and reliability; (2) instrument dimensionality; and (3) item scales, properties, and qualities within the context of Classical Test Theory and Item Response Theory (Rasch modeling). A construct analysis revealed that the instrument did not match published operationalizations of NOS concepts. Rasch analysis of the original instrument-as well as a reduced item set-indicated that a two-dimensional Rasch model fit significantly better than a one-dimensional model in both cases. Thus, our study revealed that NOS and SI are supported as two separate dimensions, corroborating theoretical distinctions in the literature. To identify items with unacceptable fit values, item quality analyses were used. A Wright Map revealed that few items sufficiently distinguished high performers in the sample and excessive numbers of items were present at the low end of the performance scale. Overall, our study outlines an approach for how Rasch modeling may be used to evaluate and improve Likert-type instruments in science education.

  2. Impact of zeolite-based nanomodified additive on the structure and strength of the cement stone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egorova, A. D.; Filippova, K. E.

    2015-01-01

    Portland cement is the main binder in the building materials industry; its properties strongly influence properties of mortars and concretes. Some regions experience difficulties with delivery and storage of Portland cement, raising the need to develop an effective additive from the available raw materials. Such materials for the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) are zeolite-containing rocks. Studies have shown that introducing of dibutylphthalate to the composition of modified additive during mechanochemical activation leads to achievement of up to 11% of total amount particles with the size of 3-30 nm. After introducing 0.5% of the obtained additives, the compressive strength of cement-sand slurry samples increases up to 28%. Positive effect of additives introduction is also observed at high flow rate of water (W / C = 0.7). Gaining strength reaches 23%, allowing the efficient use of additive for movable mixtures with enhanced strength properties. In general, the proposed supplement allows reducing the water flow in the solution without decreasing its mobility, and increasing strength properties, which makes it possible to obtain a whole class of solutions of modified cement binder. The market value of the developed additives is 18 rubles per 1 kg, making sound competition in the market of modifying additives.

  3. Safety assessment of historical masonry churches based on pre-assigned kinematic limit analysis, FE limit and pushover analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Milani, Gabriele Valente, Marco

    2014-10-06

    This study presents some results of a comprehensive numerical analysis on three masonry churches damaged by the recent Emilia-Romagna (Italy) seismic events occurred in May 2012. The numerical study comprises: (a) pushover analyses conducted with a commercial code, standard nonlinear material models and two different horizontal load distributions; (b) FE kinematic limit analyses performed using a non-commercial software based on a preliminary homogenization of the masonry materials and a subsequent limit analysis with triangular elements and interfaces; (c) kinematic limit analyses conducted in agreement with the Italian code and based on the a-priori assumption of preassigned failure mechanisms, where the masonry material is considered unable to withstand tensile stresses. All models are capable of giving information on the active failure mechanism and the base shear at failure, which, if properly made non-dimensional with the weight of the structure, gives also an indication of the horizontal peak ground acceleration causing the collapse of the church. The results obtained from all three models indicate that the collapse is usually due to the activation of partial mechanisms (apse, façade, lateral walls, etc.). Moreover the horizontal peak ground acceleration associated to the collapse is largely lower than that required in that seismic zone by the Italian code for ordinary buildings. These outcomes highlight that structural upgrading interventions would be extremely beneficial for the considerable reduction of the seismic vulnerability of such kind of historical structures.

  4. PCaAnalyser: A 2D-Image Analysis Based Module for Effective Determination of Prostate Cancer Progression in 3D Culture

    PubMed Central

    Lovitt, Carrie J.; Avery, Vicky M.

    2013-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) in vitro cell based assays for Prostate Cancer (PCa) research are rapidly becoming the preferred alternative to that of conventional 2D monolayer cultures. 3D assays more precisely mimic the microenvironment found in vivo, and thus are ideally suited to evaluate compounds and their suitability for progression in the drug discovery pipeline. To achieve the desired high throughput needed for most screening programs, automated quantification of 3D cultures is required. Towards this end, this paper reports on the development of a prototype analysis module for an automated high-content-analysis (HCA) system, which allows for accurate and fast investigation of in vitro 3D cell culture models for PCa. The Java based program, which we have named PCaAnalyser, uses novel algorithms that allow accurate and rapid quantitation of protein expression in 3D cell culture. As currently configured, the PCaAnalyser can quantify a range of biological parameters including: nuclei-count, nuclei-spheroid membership prediction, various function based classification of peripheral and non-peripheral areas to measure expression of biomarkers and protein constituents known to be associated with PCa progression, as well as defining segregate cellular-objects effectively for a range of signal-to-noise ratios. In addition, PCaAnalyser architecture is highly flexible, operating as a single independent analysis, as well as in batch mode; essential for High-Throughput-Screening (HTS). Utilising the PCaAnalyser, accurate and rapid analysis in an automated high throughput manner is provided, and reproducible analysis of the distribution and intensity of well-established markers associated with PCa progression in a range of metastatic PCa cell-lines (DU145 and PC3) in a 3D model demonstrated. PMID:24278197

  5. Water sensitivity, antimicrobial, and physicochemical analyses of edible films based on HPMC and/or chitosan.

    PubMed

    Sebti, Issam; Chollet, Emilie; Degraeve, Pascal; Noel, Claude; Peyrol, Eric

    2007-02-07

    Several properties of chitosan films associated or not with hydroxypropylmethylcellulose polymer (HPMC) and HPMC films incorporating or not nisin and/or milk fat were studied. Nisin addition at a level of 250 microg mL-1 and likewise chitosan at 1% (w/v) concentration were efficient for total inhibiting Aspergillus niger and Kocuria rhizophila food deterioration microorganisms. HPMC and chitosan films were transparent, whereas nisin and/or fat incorporation induced a 2-fold lightness parameter increase and, consequently, involved more white films. Measurements of tensile strength, as well as ultimate elongation, showed that chitosan and HPMC initial films were elastic and flexible. High thermal treatments and additive incorporation induced less elastic and more plastic films. Water vapor transmission as far as total water desorption rates suggested that chitosan films were slightly sensitive to water. Water transfer was decreased by <60% as compared with other biopolymer films. Regarding its hydrophobic property, the capacity of fat to improve film water barrier was very limited.

  6. Development of gas chromatographic methods for the analyses of organic carbonate-based electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terborg, Lydia; Weber, Sascha; Passerini, Stefano; Winter, Martin; Karst, Uwe; Nowak, Sascha

    2014-01-01

    In this work, novel methods based on gas chromatography (GC) for the investigation of common organic carbonate-based electrolyte systems are presented, which are used in lithium ion batteries. The methods were developed for flame ionization detection (FID), mass spectrometric detection (MS). Further, headspace (HS) sampling for the investigation of solid samples like electrodes is reported. Limits of detection are reported for FID. Finally, the developed methods were applied to the electrolyte system of commercially available lithium ion batteries as well as on in-house assembled cells.

  7. Identification of Bacterial Populations in Drinking Water Using 16S rRNA-Based Sequence Analyses

    EPA Science Inventory

    Intracellular RNA is rapidly degraded in stressed cells and is more unstable outside of the cell than DNA. As a result, RNA-based methods have been suggested to study the active microbial fraction in environmental matrices. The aim of this study was to identify bacterial populati...

  8. 49 CFR 1515.9 - Appeal of security threat assessment based on other analyses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Appeal of security threat assessment based on... (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ADMINISTRATIVE AND PROCEDURAL RULES APPEAL AND WAIVER PROCEDURES FOR SECURITY THREAT ASSESSMENTS FOR INDIVIDUALS § 1515.9...

  9. Implementation and Validation of Trial-Based Functional Analyses in Public Elementary School Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lloyd, Blair P.; Wehby, Joseph H.; Weaver, Emily S.; Goldman, Samantha E.; Harvey, Michelle N.; Sherlock, Daniel R.

    2015-01-01

    Although functional analysis (FA) remains the standard for identifying the function of problem behavior for students with developmental disabilities, traditional FA procedures are typically costly in terms of time, resources, and perceived risks. Preliminary research suggests that trial-based FA may be a less costly alternative. The purpose of…

  10. Analysing a Web-Based E-Commerce Learning Community: A Case Study in Brazil.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joia, Luiz Antonio

    2002-01-01

    Demonstrates the use of a Web-based participative virtual learning environment for graduate students in Brazil enrolled in an electronic commerce course in a Masters in Business Administration program. Discusses learning communities; computer-supported collaborative work and collaborative learning; influences on student participation; the role of…

  11. Analysing Task Design and Students' Responses to Context-Based Problems through Different Analytical Frameworks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broman, Karolina; Bernholt, Sascha; Parchmann, Ilka

    2015-01-01

    Background: Context-based learning approaches are used to enhance students' interest in, and knowledge about, science. According to different empirical studies, students' interest is improved by applying these more non-conventional approaches, while effects on learning outcomes are less coherent. Hence, further insights are needed into the…

  12. Analysing surface plasmon resonance phase sensor based on Mach-Zehnder interferometer technique using glycerin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashif, Muhammad; Bakar, A. Ashrif A.; Hashim, Fazida Hanim

    2016-12-01

    Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) based on Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) is a very accurate tool for the detection and analysis of molecular interactions. The performance of the proposed SPR phase sensor is dependent upon multiple performance parameters that include sensitivity, repeatability, drift and the induction speed of fluid into the flow cell. The SPR Mach-Zehnder interferometer is tested for different glycerin-water concentrations to check its performance based on the different parameters. This paper highlights the enhancement of the performance of SPR phase technique based on MZI that is influenced by different parameters, measured using glycerin solutions. These four performance parameters can affect the performance of SPR based on MZI and have a particular impact on the sensor output. It also provides us information about suitable working conditions for the SPR Mach-Zehnder interferometer sensor. The experiment data shows that the sensor's sensitivity is high for small concentrations of glycerin-water mixtures. Also, any change in drift as well as in induction speed of fluid can affect the performance of SPR Mach-Zehnder interferometer. The sensitivity of SPR phase sensor is high as it can measure glycerin concentration as low as 0.05%.

  13. Dimensionality of the Chinese Perceived Causes of Poverty Scale: Findings Based on Confirmatory Factor Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shek, Daniel T. L.; Ma, Cecilia Man-Sze

    2009-01-01

    The Chinese Perceived Causes of Poverty Scale (CPCPS) was constructed to assess Chinese people's beliefs about poverty. Four categories of explanations of poverty are covered in this scale: personal problems of poor people, lack of opportunities to escape from poverty, exploitation of poor people, and bad fate. Based on the responses of 1,519…

  14. Analyses of Receptive and Productive Korean EFL Vocabulary: Computer-Based Vocabulary Learning Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Scott Sungki

    2013-01-01

    The present research study investigated the effects of 8 versions of a computer-based vocabulary learning program on receptive and productive knowledge levels of college students. The participants were 106 male and 103 female Korean EFL students from Kyungsung University and Kwandong University in Korea. Students who participated in versions of…

  15. Intra-specific genetic relationship analyses of Elaeagnus angustifolia based on RP-HPLC biochemical markers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiang; Ruan, Xiao; Huang, Jun-hua; Xu, Ning-yi; Yan, Qi-chuan

    2006-04-01

    Elaeagnus angustifolia Linn. has various ecological, medicinal and economical uses. An approach was established using RP-HPLC (reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography) to classify and analyse the intra-specific genetic relationships of seventeen populations of E. angustifolia, collected from the Xinjiang areas of China. Chromatograms of alcohol-soluble proteins produced by seventeen populations of E. angustifolia, were compared. Each chromatogram of alcohol-soluble proteins came from a single seed of one wild plant only. The results showed that when using a Waters Delta Pak. C18, 5 microm particle size reversed phase column (150 mm x 3.9 mm), a linear gradient of 25%-60% solvent B with flow rate of 1 ml/min and run time of 67 min, the chromatography yielded optimum separation of E. angustifolia alcohol-soluble proteins. Representative peaks in each population were chosen according to peak area and occurrence in every seed. The converted data on the elution peaks of each population were different and could be used to represent those populations. GSC (genetic similarity coefficients) of 41% to 62% showed a medium degree of genetic diversity among the populations in these eco-areas. Cluster analysis showed that the seventeen populations of E. angustifolia could be divided into six clusters at the GSC=0.535 level and indicated the general and unique biochemical markers of these clusters. We suggest that E. angustifolia distribution in these eco-areas could be classified into six variable species. RP-HPLC was shown to be a rapid, repeatable and reliable method for E. angustifolia classification and identification and for analysis of genetic diversity.

  16. Improving the safety of a body composition analyser based on the PGNAA method.

    PubMed

    Miri-Hakimabad, Hashem; Izadi-Najafabadi, Reza; Vejdani-Noghreiyan, Alireza; Panjeh, Hamed

    2007-12-01

    The 252Cf radioisotope and 241Am-Be are intense neutron emitters that are readily encapsulated in compact, portable and sealed sources. Some features such as high flux of neutron emission and reliable neutron spectrum of these sources make them suitable for the prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) method. The PGNAA method can be used in medicine for neutron radiography and body chemical composition analysis. 252Cf and 241Am-Be sources generate not only neutrons but also are intense gamma emitters. Furthermore, the sample in medical treatments is a human body, so it may be exposed to the bombardments of these gamma-rays. Moreover, accumulations of these high-rate gamma-rays in the detector volume cause simultaneous pulses that can be piled up and distort the spectra in the region of interest (ROI). In order to remove these disadvantages in a practical way without being concerned about losing the thermal neutron flux, a gamma-ray filter made of Pb must be employed. The paper suggests a relatively safe body chemical composition analyser (BCCA) machine that uses a spherical Pb shield, enclosing the neutron source. Gamma-ray shielding effects and the optimum radius of the spherical Pb shield have been investigated, using the MCNP-4C code, and compared with the unfiltered case, the bare source. Finally, experimental results demonstrate that an optimised gamma-ray shield for the neutron source in a BCCA can reduce effectively the risk of exposure to the 252Cf and 241Am-Be sources.

  17. Ecogeographical associations between climate and human body composition: analyses based on anthropometry and skinfolds.

    PubMed

    Wells, Jonathan C K

    2012-02-01

    In the 19th century, two "ecogeographical rules" were proposed hypothesizing associations of climate with mammalian body size and proportions. Data on human body weight and relative leg length support these rules; however, it is unknown whether such associations are attributable to lean tissue (the heat-producing component) or fat (energy stores). Data on weight, height, and two skinfold thickness were obtained from the literature for 137 nonindustrialized populations, providing 145 male and 115 female individual samples. A variety of indices of adiposity and lean mass were analyzed. Preliminary analyses indicated secular increases in skinfolds in men but not women, and associations of age and height with lean mass in both sexes. Decreasing annual temperature was associated with increasing body mass index (BMI), and increasing triceps but not subscapular skinfold. After adjusting for skinfolds, decreasing temperature remained associated with increasing BMI. These results indicate that colder environments favor both greater peripheral energy stores, and greater lean mass. Contrasting results for triceps and subscapular skinfolds might be due to adaptive strategies either constraining central adiposity in cold environments to reduce cardiovascular risk, or favoring central adiposity in warmer environments to maintain energetic support of the immune system. Polynesian populations were analyzed separately and contradicted all of the climate trends, indicating support for the hypothesis that they are cold-adapted despite occupying a tropical region. It is unclear whether such associations emerge through natural selection or through trans-generational and life-course plasticity. These findings nevertheless aid understanding of the wide variability in human physique and adiposity.

  18. A pathway-based analysis provides additional support for an immune-related genetic susceptibility to Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Holmans, Peter; Moskvina, Valentina; Jones, Lesley; Sharma, Manu; Vedernikov, Alexey; Buchel, Finja; Saad, Mohamad; Sadd, Mohamad; Bras, Jose M; Bettella, Francesco; Nicolaou, Nayia; Simón-Sánchez, Javier; Mittag, Florian; Gibbs, J Raphael; Schulte, Claudia; Durr, Alexandra; Guerreiro, Rita; Hernandez, Dena; Brice, Alexis; Stefánsson, Hreinn; Majamaa, Kari; Gasser, Thomas; Heutink, Peter; Wood, Nicholas W; Martinez, Maria; Singleton, Andrew B; Nalls, Michael A; Hardy, John; Morris, Huw R; Williams, Nigel M

    2013-03-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease affecting 1-2% in people >60 and 3-4% in people >80. Genome-wide association (GWA) studies have now implicated significant evidence for association in at least 18 genomic regions. We have studied a large PD-meta analysis and identified a significant excess of SNPs (P < 1 × 10(-16)) that are associated with PD but fall short of the genome-wide significance threshold. This result was independent of variants at the 18 previously implicated regions and implies the presence of additional polygenic risk alleles. To understand how these loci increase risk of PD, we applied a pathway-based analysis, testing for biological functions that were significantly enriched for genes containing variants associated with PD. Analysing two independent GWA studies, we identified that both had a significant excess in the number of functional categories enriched for PD-associated genes (minimum P = 0.014 and P = 0.006, respectively). Moreover, 58 categories were significantly enriched for associated genes in both GWA studies (P < 0.001), implicating genes involved in the 'regulation of leucocyte/lymphocyte activity' and also 'cytokine-mediated signalling' as conferring an increased susceptibility to PD. These results were unaltered by the exclusion of all 178 genes that were present at the 18 genomic regions previously reported to be strongly associated with PD (including the HLA locus). Our findings, therefore, provide independent support to the strong association signal at the HLA locus and imply that the immune-related genetic susceptibility to PD is likely to be more widespread in the genome than previously appreciated.

  19. Using Correlational Analyses to Improve Prevention Strategies based on Survey Data from Youth

    PubMed Central

    Ridenour, Ty A.; Feinberg, Mark E.

    2007-01-01

    Community coalition prevention models often select interventions based on the types of risk factors (outcome predictors) that are elevated. Variances and correlations between predictors and targeted behaviors also may vary between communities and provide information to improve the selection of interventions. Community differences in risk factor levels and correlations between predictors and problem behaviors were examined using a child self-report computer assessment (ALEXSA©; prevention.psu.edu/people/ALEXSA.htm). Three school-based subsamples of children were studied. Means, prevalences, and correlations differed significantly between samples. Discussion addresses developmental considerations and illustrates how correlations between predictors and problem behaviors might improve the selection of interventions. This study is preliminary and should be replicated with larger community samples, more indicated/selected sample, and in more communities. PMID:17410278

  20. An Approach to Risk-Based Design Incorporating Damage Tolerance Analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, Norman F., Jr.; Glaessgen, Edward H.; Sleight, David W.

    2002-01-01

    Incorporating risk-based design as an integral part of spacecraft development is becoming more and more common. Assessment of uncertainties associated with design parameters and environmental aspects such as loading provides increased knowledge of the design and its performance. Results of such studies can contribute to mitigating risk through a system-level assessment. Understanding the risk of an event occurring, the probability of its occurrence, and the consequences of its occurrence can lead to robust, reliable designs. This paper describes an approach to risk-based structural design incorporating damage-tolerance analysis. The application of this approach to a candidate Earth-entry vehicle is described. The emphasis of the paper is on describing an approach for establishing damage-tolerant structural response inputs to a system-level probabilistic risk assessment.

  1. A bead-based western for high-throughput cellular signal transduction analyses

    PubMed Central

    Treindl, Fridolin; Ruprecht, Benjamin; Beiter, Yvonne; Schultz, Silke; Döttinger, Anette; Staebler, Annette; Joos, Thomas O.; Kling, Simon; Poetz, Oliver; Fehm, Tanja; Neubauer, Hans; Kuster, Bernhard; Templin, Markus F.

    2016-01-01

    Dissecting cellular signalling requires the analysis of large number of proteins. The DigiWest approach we describe here transfers the western blot to a bead-based microarray platform. By combining gel-based protein separation with immobilization on microspheres, hundreds of replicas of the initial blot are created, thus enabling the comprehensive analysis of limited material, such as cells collected by laser capture microdissection, and extending traditional western blotting to reach proteomic scales. The combination of molecular weight resolution, sensitivity and signal linearity on an automated platform enables the rapid quantification of hundreds of specific proteins and protein modifications in complex samples. This high-throughput western blot approach allowed us to identify and characterize alterations in cellular signal transduction that occur during the development of resistance to the kinase inhibitor Lapatinib, revealing major changes in the activation state of Ephrin-mediated signalling and a central role for p53-controlled processes. PMID:27659302

  2. Kinetic analyses and performance of a colloidal magnetic nanoparticle based immunoassay dedicated to allergy diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Teste, Bruno; Kanoufi, Frédéric; Descroix, Stéphanie; Poncet, Pascal; Georgelin, Thomas; Siaugue, Jean-Michel; Petr, Jan; Varenne, Anne; Hennion, Marie-Claire

    2011-07-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate the possibility to use magnetic nanoparticles as immunosupports for allergy diagnosis. Most immunoassays used for immunosupports and clinical diagnosis are based on a heterogeneous solid-phase system and suffer from mass-transfer limitation. The nanoparticles' colloidal behavior and magnetic properties bring the advantages of homogeneous immunoassay, i.e., species diffusion, and of heterogeneous immunoassay, i.e., easy separation of the immunocomplex and free forms, as well as analyte preconcentration. We thus developed a colloidal, non-competitive, indirect immunoassay using magnetic core-shell nanoparticles (MCSNP) as immunosupports. The feasibility of such an immunoassay was first demonstrated with a model antibody and described by comparing the immunocapture kinetics using macro (standard microtiter plate), micro (microparticles) and nanosupports (MCSNP). The influence of the nanosupport properties (surface chemistry, antigen density) and of the medium (ionic strength, counter ion nature) on the immunocapture efficiency and specificity was then investigated. The performances of this original MCSNP-based immunoassay were compared with a gold standard enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using a microtiter plate. The capture rate of target IgG was accelerated 200-fold and a tenfold lower limit of detection was achieved. Finally, the MCSNP-based immunoassay was successfully applied to the detection of specific IgE from milk-allergic patient's sera with a lower LOD and a good agreement (CV < 6%) with the microtiter plate, confirming the great potential of this analytical platform in the field of immunodiagnosis.

  3. Land use investigation with remote sensing based on spectral character analyses in Poyang Lake region, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Shu-e.; Wang, Baosheng; Wang, Huaiqing

    2004-01-01

    Based on Landsat TM data combined with practical investigation information obtained using Global Positioning Systems (GPS), we created a training field of land use classification. Using the methods of spectral distance analysis, we analyzed spectral signature value of different training fields in TM3, TM4, TM5 and TM7 band, and compared these with the standard deviation analysis. Based on these results, we selected the best spectral bands for classification and created remote sensing interpretation marks of land use classification. Supervising classification was used with the image classification of TM and the maximum likelihood was used for parametric rule of supervised classification. We applied the method of spectral signature analysis to the individual study of land use classification of Poyang Lake region. The land use was classified into 9 classes: paddy field, non-irrigated farmland, forestland, grassland, water area, lake beach, grass beach, sandy land and residential area. Based on the data of GPS investigation, we assessed the classification accuracy. Result indicated that classification accuracy reached 91.43% and the classification effect was better than the common supervised classifying and unsupervised classifying.

  4. Web-based applications for building, managing and analysing kinetic models of biological systems.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong-Yup; Saha, Rajib; Yusufi, Faraaz Noor Khan; Park, Wonjun; Karimi, Iftekhar A

    2009-01-01

    Mathematical modelling and computational analysis play an essential role in improving our capability to elucidate the functions and characteristics of complex biological systems such as metabolic, regulatory and cell signalling pathways. The modelling and concomitant simulation render it possible to predict the cellular behaviour of systems under various genetically and/or environmentally perturbed conditions. This motivates systems biologists/bioengineers/bioinformaticians to develop new tools and applications, allowing non-experts to easily conduct such modelling and analysis. However, among a multitude of systems biology tools developed to date, only a handful of projects have adopted a web-based approach to kinetic modelling. In this report, we evaluate the capabilities and characteristics of current web-based tools in systems biology and identify desirable features, limitations and bottlenecks for further improvements in terms of usability and functionality. A short discussion on software architecture issues involved in web-based applications and the approaches taken by existing tools is included for those interested in developing their own simulation applications.

  5. Integrated Genomic and Network-Based Analyses of Complex Diseases and Human Disease Network.

    PubMed

    Al-Harazi, Olfat; Al Insaif, Sadiq; Al-Ajlan, Monirah A; Kaya, Namik; Dzimiri, Nduna; Colak, Dilek

    2016-06-20

    A disease phenotype generally reflects various pathobiological processes that interact in a complex network. The highly interconnected nature of the human protein interaction network (interactome) indicates that, at the molecular level, it is difficult to consider diseases as being independent of one another. Recently, genome-wide molecular measurements, data mining and bioinformatics approaches have provided the means to explore human diseases from a molecular basis. The exploration of diseases and a system of disease relationships based on the integration of genome-wide molecular data with the human interactome could offer a powerful perspective for understanding the molecular architecture of diseases. Recently, subnetwork markers have proven to be more robust and reliable than individual biomarker genes selected based on gene expression profiles alone, and achieve higher accuracy in disease classification. We have applied one of these methodologies to idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (IDCM) data that we have generated using a microarray and identified significant subnetworks associated with the disease. In this paper, we review the recent endeavours in this direction, and summarize the existing methodologies and computational tools for network-based analysis of complex diseases and molecular relationships among apparently different disorders and human disease network. We also discuss the future research trends and topics of this promising field.

  6. A Wave-Based Approach for Seismic Response Analyses of High-Rise Buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, R.; Hilali, S. Al; Abdulla, A.; Kurbi, M. Al

    This study examines one-dimensional wave propagation in a multi-story building with seismic excitation. In particular, the building is modeled as a series of shear beams for columns/walls and lumped masses for floors. Wave response at one location of the building is then derived to an impulse displacement at another location in time and frequency domains, termed here as wave-based or generalized impulse/frequency response function (GIRF/GFRF), which is dependent upon the building characteristics above the impulse location. Not only does this study illustrate features of GIRF/GFRF in terms of building properties, it also shows broad-based applications of the modeling. Two examples are presented with the use of the modeling. One is wave-based characterization of ten-story Millikan Library in Pasadena, California with the recordings of Yorba Linda earthquake of September 3, 2002. The other is analysis for influence of stochastic floor-to-column mass ratio, story-height and seismic input in seismic wave responses.

  7. Using gender-based analyses to understand physical inactivity among women in Yellowstone County, Montana.

    PubMed

    Duin, Diane K; Golbeck, Amanda L; Keippel, April Ennis; Ciemins, Elizabeth; Hanson, Hillary; Neary, Tracy; Fink, Heather

    2015-08-01

    Physical inactivity contributes to many health problems. Gender, the socially constructed roles and activities deemed appropriate for men and women, is an important factor in women's physical inactivity. To better understand how gender influences participation in leisure-time physical activity, a gender analysis was conducted using sex-disaggregated data from a county-wide health assessment phone survey and a qualitative analysis of focus group transcripts. From this gender analysis, several gender-based constraints emerged, including women's roles as caregivers, which left little time or energy for physical activity, women's leisure time activities and hobbies, which were less active than men's hobbies, and expectations for women's appearance that made them uncomfortable sweating in front of strangers. Gender-based opportunities included women's enjoyment of activity as a social connection, less rigid gender roles for younger women, and a sense of responsibility to set a good example for their families. The gender analysis was used to gain a deeper understanding of gender-based constraints and opportunities related to physical activity. This understanding is being used in the next step of our research to develop a gender-specific intervention to promote physical activity in women that addresses the underlying causes of physical inactivity through accommodation or transformation of those gender norms.

  8. Assessing an organizational culture instrument based on the Competing Values Framework: Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses

    PubMed Central

    Helfrich, Christian D; Li, Yu-Fang; Mohr, David C; Meterko, Mark; Sales, Anne E

    2007-01-01

    Background The Competing Values Framework (CVF) has been widely used in health services research to assess organizational culture as a predictor of quality improvement implementation, employee and patient satisfaction, and team functioning, among other outcomes. CVF instruments generally are presented as well-validated with reliable aggregated subscales. However, only one study in the health sector has been conducted for the express purpose of validation, and that study population was limited to hospital managers from a single geographic locale. Methods We used exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses to examine the underlying structure of data from a CVF instrument. We analyzed cross-sectional data from a work environment survey conducted in the Veterans Health Administration (VHA). The study population comprised all staff in non-supervisory positions. The survey included 14 items adapted from a popular CVF instrument, which measures organizational culture according to four subscales: hierarchical, entrepreneurial, team, and rational. Results Data from 71,776 non-supervisory employees (approximate response rate 51%) from 168 VHA facilities were used in this analysis. Internal consistency of the subscales was moderate to strong (α = 0.68 to 0.85). However, the entrepreneurial, team, and rational subscales had higher correlations across subscales than within, indicating poor divergent properties. Exploratory factor analysis revealed two factors, comprising the ten items from the entrepreneurial, team, and rational subscales loading on the first factor, and two items from the hierarchical subscale loading on the second factor, along with one item from the rational subscale that cross-loaded on both factors. Results from confirmatory factor analysis suggested that the two-subscale solution provides a more parsimonious fit to the data as compared to the original four-subscale model. Conclusion This study suggests that there may be problems applying conventional

  9. Boosting the Performance of Ionic-Liquid-Based Supercapacitors with Polar Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Kun; Wu, Jianzhong

    2016-10-05

    Recent years have witnessed growing interests in both the fundamentals and applications of electric double layer capacitors (EDLCs), also known as supercapacitors. A number of strategies have been explored to optimize the device performance in terms of both the energy and power densities. Because the properties of electric double layers (EDL) are sensitive to ion distributions in the close vicinity of the electrode surfaces, the supercapacitor performance is sensitive to both the electrode pore structure and the electrolyte composition. In this paper, we study the effects of polar additives on EDLC capacitance using the classical density functional theory within the framework of a coarse-grained model for the microscopic structure of the porous electrodes and room-temperature ionic liquids. The theoretical results indicate that a highly polar, low-molecular-weight additive is able to drastically increase the EDLC capacitance at low bulk concentration. Additionally, the additive is able to dampen the oscillatory dependence of the capacitance on the pore size, thereby boosting the performance of amorphous electrode materials. Finally, the theoretical predictions are directly testable with experiments and provide new insights into the additive effects on EDL properties.

  10. Boosting the Performance of Ionic-Liquid-Based Supercapacitors with Polar Additives

    DOE PAGES

    Liu, Kun; Wu, Jianzhong

    2016-10-05

    Recent years have witnessed growing interests in both the fundamentals and applications of electric double layer capacitors (EDLCs), also known as supercapacitors. A number of strategies have been explored to optimize the device performance in terms of both the energy and power densities. Because the properties of electric double layers (EDL) are sensitive to ion distributions in the close vicinity of the electrode surfaces, the supercapacitor performance is sensitive to both the electrode pore structure and the electrolyte composition. In this paper, we study the effects of polar additives on EDLC capacitance using the classical density functional theory within themore » framework of a coarse-grained model for the microscopic structure of the porous electrodes and room-temperature ionic liquids. The theoretical results indicate that a highly polar, low-molecular-weight additive is able to drastically increase the EDLC capacitance at low bulk concentration. Additionally, the additive is able to dampen the oscillatory dependence of the capacitance on the pore size, thereby boosting the performance of amorphous electrode materials. Finally, the theoretical predictions are directly testable with experiments and provide new insights into the additive effects on EDL properties.« less

  11. [Bootstrap method-based estimation on the confidence interval for additive interaction in cohort studies].

    PubMed

    Pan, Jin-ren; Chen, Kun

    2010-07-01

    Interaction assessment is an important step in epidemiological analysis. When etiological study is carried out, the logarithmic models such as logistic model or Cox proportional hazard model are commonly used to estimate the independent effects of the risk factors. However, estimating interaction between risk factors by the regression coefficient of the product term is on multiplicative scale, and for public-health purposes, it is supposed to be on additive scale or departure from additivity. This paper illustrates with a example of cohort study by fitting Cox proportional hazard model to estimate three measures for additive interaction which presented by Rothman. Adopting the S-Plus application with a built-in Bootstrap function, it is convenient to estimate the confidence interval for additive interaction. Furthermore, this method can avoid the exaggerated estimation by using ORs in a cohort study to gain better precision. When using the complex combination models between additive interaction and multiplicative interaction, it is reasonable to choose the former one when the result is inconsistent.

  12. Experimental and theoretical analyses on the ultrasonic cavitation processing of Al-based alloys and nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Shian

    Strong evidence is showing that microstructure and mechanical properties of a casting component can be significantly improved if nanoparticles are used as reinforcement to form metal-matrix-nano-composite (MMNC). In this paper, 6061/A356 nanocomposite castings are fabricated using the ultrasonic stirring technology (UST). The 6061/A356 alloy and Al2O3/SiC nanoparticles are used as the matrix alloy and the reinforcement, respectively. Nanoparticles are injected into the molten metal and dispersed by ultrasonic cavitation and acoustic streaming. The applied UST parameters in the current experiments are used to validate a recently developed multiphase Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model, which is used to model the nanoparticle dispersion during UST processing. The CFD model accounts for turbulent fluid flow, heat transfer and the complex interaction between the molten alloy and nanoparticles using the ANSYS Fluent Dense Discrete Phase Model (DDPM). The modeling study includes the effects of ultrasonic probe location and the initial location where the nanoparticles are injected into the molten alloy. The microstructure, mechanical behavior and mechanical properties of the nanocomposite castings have been also investigated in detail. The current experimental results show that the tensile strength and elongation of the as-cast nanocomposite samples (6061/A356 alloy reinforced by Al2O 3 or SiC nanoparticles) are improved. The addition of the Al2O 3 or SiC nanoparticles in 6061/A356 alloy matrix changes the fracture mechanism from brittle dominated to ductile dominated.

  13. Mass spectrometry-based proteomics and analyses of serum: a primer for the clinical investigator.

    PubMed

    Fusaro, V A; Stone, J H

    2003-01-01

    The vocabulary of proteomics and the swiftly-developing, technological nature of the field constitute substantial barriers to clinical investigators. In recent years, mass spectrometry has emerged as the most promising technique in this field. The purpose of this review is to introduce the field of mass spectrometry-based proteomics to clinical investigators, to explain many of the relevant terms, to introduce the equipment employed in this field, and to outline approaches to asking clinical questions using a proteomic approach. Examples of clinical applications of proteomic techniques are provided from the fields of cancer and vasculitis research, with an emphasis on a pattern recognition approach.

  14. Feasibility of mini-sequencing schemes based on nucleotide polymorphisms for microbial identification and population analyses.

    PubMed

    Araujo, Ricardo; Eusebio, Nadia; Caramalho, Rita

    2015-03-01

    Practical schemes based on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) have been proposed as alternatives to simplify and replace the molecular methodologies based on the extensive sequencing analysis of genes. SNaPshot mini-sequencing has been progressively experienced during the last decade and represents a fast and robust strategy to analyze critical polymorphisms. Such assays have been proposed to characterize some bacteria and microbial eukaryotes, and its feasibility was now reviewed in the present manuscript. The mini-sequencing schemes showed high discriminatory power and competence for identification of microorganisms, but some specificity errors were still found, particularly for species of the Burkholderia cepacia complex and mycobacteria. SNP assays designed for other goals, e.g., comparison of strains, detection of serotypes, virulence, epidemic, and phylogenetic-related subgroups of isolates, can be very useful by facilitating the investigation of large collections of isolates. The next-generation of SNP assays might consider the inclusion of large number of markers to fully characterize microbial taxonomy and strains; nevertheless, these new technologies are still prone to errors and can largely benefit from integration with well-established mini-sequencing assays. Newly proposed molecular tools should be systematically tested in collections of isolates with high indexes of diversity and guarantee interlaboratorial validation.

  15. Nonlinear optical analyses of organic N-(9-Anthrylmethylidene) methylamine Schiff base.

    PubMed

    Vijayalakshmi, S; Kalyanaraman, S; Krishnakumar, V

    2013-05-15

    The organic NLO Schiff base of N-(9-Anthrylmethylidene) methylamine was synthesized by condensation process. The material was characterized through Powder XRD, FT-IR, and Raman techniques. The various planes of reflection are identified from the Powder XRD pattern. The formation of Schiff base is confirmed through FT-IR and Raman analysis. The intra molecular charge transfer interaction and the existence of the first-order molecular hyperpolarizability (β) are identified from the red shift of the UV-Vis analysis. The structure of the molecule was optimized by density functional theory (DFT) using B3LYP method with 6-31G basis set. The NBO analysis is used to interpret the delocalization. The dipole moment and first hyperpolarizability values were also computed by HF/6-31G. These values indicate that the compound is a good candidate with nonlinear optical properties. This is the first time report on the existence of a second harmonic generation (SHG), χ(2), efficiency that has been identified by Powder Kurtz-Perry method.

  16. VALUE-BASED MEDICINE AND OPHTHALMOLOGY: AN APPRAISAL OF COST-UTILITY ANALYSES

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Gary C; Brown, Melissa M; Sharma, Sanjay; Brown, Heidi; Smithen, Lindsay; Leeser, David B; Beauchamp, George

    2004-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose To ascertain the extent to which ophthalmologic interventions have been evaluated in value-based medicine format. Methods Retrospective literature review. Papers in the healthcare literature utilizing cost-utility analysis were reviewed by researchers at the Center for Value-Based Medicine, Flourtown, Pennsylvania. A literature review of papers addressing the cost-utility analysis of ophthalmologic procedures in the United States over a 12-year period from 1992 to 2003 was undertaken using the National Library of Medicine and EMBASE databases. The cost-utility of ophthalmologic interventions in inflation-adjusted (real) year 2003 US dollars expended per quality-adjusted life-year ($/QALY) was ascertained in all instances. Results A total of 19 papers were found, including a total of 25 interventions. The median cost-utility of ophthalmologic interventions was $5,219/QALY, with a range from $746/QALY to $6.5 million/QALY. Conclusions The majority of ophthalmologic interventions are especially cost-effective by conventional standards. This is because of the substantial value that ophthalmologic interventions confer to patients with eye diseases for the resources expended. PMID:15747756

  17. Augmentation of French grunt diet description using combined visual and DNA-based analyses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hargrove, John S.; Parkyn, Daryl C.; Murie, Debra J.; Demopoulos, Amanda W.J.; Austin, James D.

    2012-01-01

    Trophic linkages within a coral-reef ecosystem may be difficult to discern in fish species that reside on, but do not forage on, coral reefs. Furthermore, dietary analysis of fish can be difficult in situations where prey is thoroughly macerated, resulting in many visually unrecognisable food items. The present study examined whether the inclusion of a DNA-based method could improve the identification of prey consumed by French grunt, Haemulon flavolineatum, a reef fish that possesses pharyngeal teeth and forages on soft-bodied prey items. Visual analysis indicated that crustaceans were most abundant numerically (38.9%), followed by sipunculans (31.0%) and polychaete worms (5.2%), with a substantial number of unidentified prey (12.7%). For the subset of prey with both visual and molecular data, there was a marked reduction in the number of unidentified sipunculans (visual – 31.1%, combined &ndash 4.4%), unidentified crustaceans (visual &ndash 15.6%, combined &ndash 6.7%), and unidentified taxa (visual &ndash 11.1%, combined &ndash 0.0%). Utilising results from both methodologies resulted in an increased number of prey placed at the family level (visual &ndash 6, combined &ndash 33) and species level (visual &ndash 0, combined &ndash 4). Although more costly than visual analysis alone, our study demonstrated the feasibility of DNA-based identification of visually unidentifiable prey in the stomach contents of fish.

  18. Neutronics analyses of tritium breeding blanket performance in a spherical torus based volumetric neutron source

    SciTech Connect

    Cerbone, R. J.; Cheng, E.T.; Peng, Yueng Kay Martin

    1998-01-01

    A spherical torus based volumetric neutron source (ST-VNS) concept has been developed in recent studies as a possible intermediate step to develop the necessary technology for reactor components of future fusion power plants. Such a VNS would complement ITER in testing, developing, and qualifying nuclear technology components. A recently developed design concept for a spherical torus based VNS permits the development capability to increase fusion power and wall loading. Results of neutronics calculations for such a ST-VNS with neutron wall loading ranging from 0.5 to 5 MW/m(2) have been competed. In this paper, we report the tritium breeding and neutronics performance of several power blanket compositions and configurations. These include, a helium cooled natural lithium in vanadium alloy structural material blanket; a helium cooled enriched lithium-lead, in a vanadium-alloy structure blanket; and a heterogeneous configured blanket consisting of a dual cooled blanket consisting of enriched lithium-lead enclosed in silicon carbide with ferritic steel for the structural material.

  19. Low-cost Electromagnetic Heating Technology for Polymer Extrusion-based Additive Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, William G.; Rios, Orlando; Akers, Ronald R.; Morrison, William A.

    2016-01-07

    To improve the flow of materials used in in polymer additive manufacturing, ORNL and Ajax Tocco created an induction system for heating fused deposition modeling (FDM) nozzles used in polymer additive manufacturing. The system is capable of reaching a temperature of 230 C, a typical nozzle temperature for extruding ABS polymers, in 17 seconds. A prototype system was built at ORNL and sent to Ajax Tocco who analyzed the system and created a finalized power supply. The induction system was mounted to a PrintSpace Altair desktop printer and used to create several test parts similar in quality to those created using a resistive heated nozzle.

  20. Fossil-based comparative analyses reveal ancient marine ancestry erased by extinction in ray-finned fishes.

    PubMed

    Betancur-R, Ricardo; Ortí, Guillermo; Pyron, Robert Alexander

    2015-05-01

    The marine-freshwater boundary is a major biodiversity gradient and few groups have colonised both systems successfully. Fishes have transitioned between habitats repeatedly, diversifying in rivers, lakes and oceans over evolutionary time. However, their history of habitat colonisation and diversification is unclear based on available fossil and phylogenetic data. We estimate ancestral habitats and diversification and transition rates using a large-scale phylogeny of extant fish taxa and one containing a massive number of extinct species. Extant-only phylogenetic analyses indicate freshwater ancestry, but inclusion of fossils reveal strong evidence of marine ancestry in lineages now restricted to freshwaters. Diversification and colonisation dynamics vary asymmetrically between habitats, as marine lineages colonise and flourish in rivers more frequently than the reverse. Our study highlights the importance of including fossils in comparative analyses, showing that freshwaters have played a role as refuges for ancient fish lineages, a signal erased by extinction in extant-only phylogenies.

  1. Seasonal profiles of ovarian activity in Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) based on urinary hormone metabolite analyses.

    PubMed

    Jewgenow, K; Göritz, F; Vargas, A; Dehnhard, M

    2009-07-01

    The Iberian Lynx Ex-Situ Conservation Programme is an essential part of a co-ordinated action plan to conserve the most endangered felid species of the world. Successful captive breeding demands reliable methods for reproduction monitoring including reliable non-invasive pregnancy diagnosis. During a 3-year study, urine samples from six captive Iberian lynx females were obtained (one non-pregnant, one pseudo-pregnant and 11 pregnant cycles). Progesterone, pregnanediol and oestradiol were determined in urinary extracts and relevant urinary oestrogen metabolites were characterized by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Urinary progestins did not follow the typical pregnancy-related course of felids. In the lynx, we failed to demonstrate an urinary progestin elevation during pregnancy. In contrast, urinary oestrogens increased from 3.8 +/- 0.6 to 8.6 +/- 0.5 ng/mg creatinine (p < 0.001) during the pregnancy. A comparison of pseudo-pregnant with pregnant cycles revealed a further increase of oestrogens caused by implantation (p < 0.05). In one female, which refused to mate, no difference was estimated between oestrogens levels during the breeding and non-breeding seasons. Almost 10-fold higher oestrogen concentrations were measured in urines of females that shared enclosures with males. HPLC analysis of oestrogens in urine samples collected from Iberian lynx during the pregnancy revealed that lynx urine is composed of two polar oestrogen metabolites in addition to oestrone and minor amounts of oestradiol. Oestrone was detectable in all urinary extracts (8-12% of metabolites), whereas oestradiol was elevated only during late pregnancy (18%). Thus, seasonal luteal activity in Iberian lynx can be monitored by urinary oestrogens. The increase of urinary oestradiol during late pregnancy might indicate an oestradiol secretion by the lynx placenta.

  2. Non-localization and localization ROC analyses using clinically based scoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paquerault, Sophie; Samuelson, Frank W.; Myers, Kyle J.; Smith, Robert C.

    2009-02-01

    We are investigating the potential for differences in study conclusions when assessing the estimated impact of a computer-aided detection (CAD) system on readers' performance. The data utilized in this investigation were derived from a multi-reader multi-case observer study involving one hundred mammographic background images to which fixed-size and fixed-intensity Gaussian signals were added, generating a low- and high-intensity signal sets. The study setting allowed CAD assessment in two situations: when CAD sensitivity was 1) superior or 2) lower than the average reader. Seven readers were asked to review each set in the unaided and CAD-aided reading modes, mark and rate their findings. Using this data, we studied the effect on study conclusion of three clinically-based receiver operating characteristic (ROC) scoring definitions. These scoring definitions included both location-specific and non-location-specific rules. The results showed agreement in the estimated impact of CAD on the overall reader performance. In the study setting where CAD sensitivity is superior to the average reader, the mean difference in AUC between the CAD-aided read and unaided read was 0.049 (95%CIs: -0.027; 0.130) for the image scoring definition that is based on non-location-specific rules, and 0.104 (95%CIs: 0.036; 0.174) and 0.090 (95%CIs: 0.031; 0.155) for image scoring definitions that are based on location-specific rules. The increases in AUC were statistically significant for the location-specific scoring definitions. It was further observed that the variance on these estimates was reduced when using the location-specific scoring definitions compared to that using a non-location-specific scoring definition. In the study setting where CAD sensitivity is equivalent or lower than the average reader, the mean differences in AUC are slightly above 0.01 for all image scoring definitions. These increases in AUC were not statistical significant for any of the image scoring definitions

  3. Quantitative characterization of metastatic disease in the spine. Part II. Histogram-based analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Whyne, Cari; Hardisty, Michael; Wu, Florence; Skrinskas, Tomas; Clemons, Mark; Gordon, Lyle; Basran, Parminder S.

    2007-08-15

    Radiological imaging is essential to the appropriate management of patients with bone metastasis; however, there have been no widely accepted guidelines as to the optimal method for quantifying the potential impact of skeletal lesions or to evaluate response to treatment. The current inability to rapidly quantify the response of bone metastases excludes patients with cancer and bone disease from participating in clinical trials of many new treatments as these studies frequently require patients with so-called measurable disease. Computed tomography (CT) can provide excellent skeletal detail with a sensitivity for the diagnosis of bone metastases. The purpose of this study was to establish an objective method to quantitatively characterize disease in the bony spine using CT-based segmentations. It was hypothesized that histogram analysis of CT vertebral density distributions would enable standardized segmentation of tumor tissue and consequently allow quantification of disease in the metastatic spine. Thirty two healthy vertebral CT scans were first studied to establish a baseline characterization. The histograms of the trabecular centrums were found to be Gaussian distributions (average root-mean-square difference=30 voxel counts), as expected for a uniform material. Intrapatient vertebral level similarity was also observed as the means were not significantly different (p>0.8). Thus, a patient-specific healthy vertebral body histogram is able to characterize healthy trabecular bone throughout that individual's thoracolumbar spine. Eleven metastatically involved vertebrae were analyzed to determine the characteristics of the lytic and blastic bone voxels relative to the healthy bone. Lytic and blastic tumors were segmented as connected areas with voxel intensities between specified thresholds. The tested thresholds were {mu}-1.0{sigma}, {mu}-1.5{sigma}, and {mu}-2.0{sigma}, for lytic and {mu}+2.0{sigma}, {mu}+3.0{sigma}, and {mu}+3.5{sigma} for blastic tissue where

  4. Genealogical analyses of rabies virus strains from Brazil based on N gene alleles.

    PubMed Central

    Heinemann, M. B.; Fernandes-Matioli, F. M. C.; Cortez, A.; Soares, R. M.; Sakamoto, S. M.; Bernardi, F.; Ito, F. H.; Madeira, A. M. B. N.; Richtzenhain, L. J.

    2002-01-01

    Thirty rabies virus isolates from cows and vampire bats from different regions of São Paulo State, Southeastern Brazil and three rabies vaccines were studied genetically. The analysis was based on direct sequencing of PCR-amplified products of 600 nucleotides coding for the amino terminus of nucleoprotein gene. The sequences were checked to verify their genealogical and evolutionary relationships and possible implication for health programmes. Statistical data indicated that there were no significant genetic differences between samples isolated from distinct hosts, from different geographical regions and between samples collected in the last two decades. According to the HKA test, the variability observed in the sequences is probably due to genetic drift. Since changes in genetic material may produce modifications in the protein responsible for immunogenicity of virus, which may eventually cause vaccine failure in herds, we suggest that continuous efforts in monitoring genetic diversity in rabies virus field strains, in relation to vaccine strains, must be conducted. PMID:12113496

  5. Seismic response analyses of base isolated structures with high damping elastomeric bearings

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, C.Y.; Tang, Y.; Chang, Y.W.; Seidensticker, R.W. ); Marchertas, A.H. )

    1991-01-01

    Seismic response analysis of base-isolated structures with high damping elastomeric bearings is described. Emphasis is placed on the adaptation of a nonlinear constitutive model for the isolation bearing together with the treatment of foundation embedment for the soil-structure-interaction analysis. The constitutive model requires six input parameters derived from bearing experimental data under sinusoidal loading. The characteristic behavior of bearing, such as the variation of shear modulus and material damping with the change of maximum shear deformation, can be captured closely by the formulation. In the treatment of soil embedment a spring method is utilized to evaluate the foundation input motion as well as soil stiffness and damping. The above features have been incorporated into a three-dimensional system response program, SISEC, developed at Argonne National Laboratory. Sample problems are presented to illustrate the relative response of isolated and unisolated structures. 11 refs., 12 figs.

  6. Analyses of DNA Base Sequences for Eukaryotes in Terms of Power Spectrum Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isohata, Yasuhiko; Hayashi, Masaki

    2005-02-01

    By adopting a power spectrum method we have analyzed long-range correlations in the gene base sequences, exons and introns for five or six eukaryote species. As a measure of the long-range correlations, we have used an exponent α in 1/fα, which is an approximation of a power spectrum in a low-frequency region. We have analyzed frequency distributions of α and the dependence of its average values <α> on the sequence length for the five or six species, paying particular attention to the species dependence. We have shown that long-range correlations have been formed mainly due to the intron's elongation as well as by the sequence structures of introns acquired over the course of evolution.

  7. Beyond H&E: integration of nucleic acid-based analyses into diagnostic pathology.

    PubMed

    Maes, R K; Langohr, I M; Wise, A G; Smedley, R C; Thaiwong, T; Kiupel, M

    2014-01-01

    Veterinary pathology of infectious, particularly viral, and neoplastic diseases has advanced significantly with the advent of newer molecular methodologies that can detect nucleic acid of infectious agents within microscopic lesions, differentiate neoplastic from nonneoplastic cells, or determine the suitability of a targeted therapy by detecting specific mutations in certain cancers. Polymerase chain reaction-based amplification of DNA or RNA and in situ hybridization are currently the most commonly used methods for nucleic acid detection. In contrast, the main methodology used for protein detection within microscopic lesions is immunohistochemistry. Other methods that allow for analysis of nucleic acids within a particular cell type or individual cells, such as laser capture microdissection, are also available in some laboratories. This review gives an overview of the factors that influence the accurate analysis of nucleic acids in formalin-fixed tissues, as well as of different approaches to detect such targets.

  8. Feasibility study for lowering the minimum gas pressure in solution-mined caverns based on geomechanical analyses of creep-induced damage and healing

    SciTech Connect

    Ratigan, J.L.; Nieland, J.D.; Devries, K.L.

    1998-12-31

    Geomechanical analyses were made to determine the minimum gas pressure allowable based on an existing stress-based criterion (Damage Potential) and an advanced constitutive model (MDCF model) capable of quantifying the level of damage and healing in rock salt. The MDCF model is a constitutive model developed for the WIPP to provide a continuum description of the dislocation and damage deformation of salt. The purpose of this study was to determine if the MDCF model is applicable for evaluating the minimum gas pressure of CNG storage caverns. Specifically, it was to be determined if this model would predict that the minimum gas pressure in the caverns could be lowered without compromising the stability of the cavern. Additionally, the healing behavior of the salt was analyzed to determine if complete healing of the damaged rock zone would occur during the period the cavern was at maximum gas pressure. Significant findings of this study are reported.

  9. A Phylogeny of the Family Poritidae (Cnidaria, Scleractinia) Based on Molecular and Morphological Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Kitano, Yuko F.; Benzoni, Francesca; Arrigoni, Roberto; Shirayama, Yoshihisa; Wallace, Carden C.; Fukami, Hironobu

    2014-01-01

    The family Poritidae formerly included 6 genera: Alveopora, Goniopora, Machadoporites, Porites, Poritipora, and Stylaraea. Morphologically, the genera can be differentiated based on the number of tentacles, the number of septa and their arrangement, the length of the polyp column, and the diameter of the corallites. However, the phylogenetic relationships within and between the genera are unknown or contentious. On the one hand, Alveopora has been transferred to the Acroporidae recently because it was shown to be more closely related to this family than to the Poritidae by previous molecular studies. On the other hand, Goniopora is morphologically similar to 2 recently described genera, Machadoporites and Poritipora, particularly with regard to the number of septa (approximately 24), but they have not yet been investigated at the molecular level. In this study, we analyzed 93 samples from all 5 poritid genera and Alveopora using 2 genetic markers (the barcoding region of the mitochondrial COI and the ITS region of the nuclear rDNA) to investigate their phylogenetic relationships and to revise their taxonomy. The reconstructed molecular trees confirmed that Alveopora is genetically distant from all poritid genera but closely related to the family Acroporidae, whereas the other genera are genetically closely related. The molecular trees also revealed that Machadoporites and Poritipora were indistinguishable from Goniopora. However, Goniopora stutchburyi was genetically isolated from the other congeneric species and formed a sister group to Goniopora together with Porites and Stylaraea, thus suggesting that 24 septa could be an ancestral feature in the Poritidae. Based on these data, we move G. stutchburyi into a new genus, Bernardpora gen. nov., whereas Machadoporites and Poritipora are merged with Goniopora. PMID:24871224

  10. Backscattering characteristics Analyses of winter wheat covered area and Drought Monitoring Based on active microwave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, C., Sr.; Li, L.

    2015-12-01

    The advantage of active microwave remote sensing on the sensitivity of polarization characteristic, backscatter intensity and phase characteristics to soil moisture demonstrates its potential to map and monitor relative soil moisture changes and drought information with high spatial resolution. However, the existence of soil surface condition and vegetation effects confounds the retrieval of soil moisture from active microwave, and therefore limits its applications on soil moisture retrieval and drought monitoring. To research how to reduce the effect of soil roughness and wheat cover with multi- incident angles and multi polarization active microwave remote sensing data, MIMICS and AIEM models were used to simulate the backscattering coefficient of winter wheat covered field. The interaction between winter wheat at main growth stages and microwave was analyzed. The effects of surface roughness and physical parameters of wheat on the backscattering characteristics and the variation of different incident angles and different polarization conditions are simulated and analyzed emphatically. Then scattering coefficient information of winter wheat covered area at different wheat growth stage was measured with a C band ground-based scattering meter. At the same time, biomass, leaf area index and soil rough degree, soil water content and other related parameters are collected. After comparing and analyzing the measured data and the simulated data at different incident angles and different polarization modes, we propose an approach of using multi polarization and multi angle data to eliminate the soil roughness and wheat vegetation effects and performing the inversion of soil moisture. Using the Radarsat2 satellite SAR data and ground-based scatter data gotten at the same period in 2012, soil moisture information of greater area is obtained, and then the drought information is obtained, which is consistent with the measured results.

  11. Testing foetal-maternal heart rate synchronization via model-based analyses.

    PubMed

    Riedl, Maik; van Leeuwen, Peter; Suhrbier, Alexander; Malberg, Hagen; Grönemeyer, Dietrich; Kurths, Jürgen; Wessel, Niels

    2009-04-13

    The investigation of foetal reaction to internal and external conditions and stimuli is an important tool in the characterization of the developing neural integration of the foetus. An interesting example of this is the study of the interrelationship between the foetal and the maternal heart rate. Recent studies have shown a certain likelihood of occasional heart rate synchronization between mother and foetus. In the case of respiratory-induced heart rate changes, the comparison with maternal surrogates suggests that the evidence for detected synchronization is largely statistical and does not result from physiological interaction. Rather, they simply reflect a stochastic, temporary stability of two independent oscillators with time-variant frequencies. We reanalysed three datasets from that study for a more local consideration. Epochs of assumed synchronization associated with short-term regulation of the foetal heart rate were selected and compared with synchronization resulting from white noise instead of the foetal signal. Using data-driven modelling analysis, it was possible to identify the consistent influence of the heartbeat duration of maternal beats preceding the foetal beats during epochs of synchronization. These maternal beats occurred approximately one maternal respiratory cycle prior to the affected foetal beat. A similar effect could not be found in the epochs without synchronization. Simulations based on the fitted models led to a higher likelihood of synchronization in the data segments with assumed foetal-maternal interaction than in the segment without such assumed interaction. We conclude that the data-driven model-based analysis can be a useful tool for the identification of synchronization.

  12. Surface-Based Analyses of Anatomical Properties of the Visual Cortex in Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Prins, Doety; Plank, Tina; Baseler, Heidi A.; Gouws, André D.; Beer, Anton; Morland, Antony B.; Greenlee, Mark W.; Cornelissen, Frans W.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Macular degeneration (MD) can cause a central visual field defect. In a previous study, we found volumetric reductions along the entire visual pathways of MD patients, possibly indicating degeneration of inactive neuronal tissue. This may have important implications. In particular, new therapeutic strategies to restore retinal function rely on intact visual pathways and cortex to reestablish visual function. Here we reanalyze the data of our previous study using surface-based morphometry (SBM) rather than voxel-based morphometry (VBM). This can help determine the robustness of the findings and will lead to a better understanding of the nature of neuroanatomical changes associated with MD. Methods The metrics of interest were acquired by performing SBM analysis on T1-weighted MRI data acquired from 113 subjects: patients with juvenile MD (JMD; n = 34), patients with age-related MD (AMD; n = 24) and healthy age-matched controls (HC; n = 55). Results Relative to age-matched controls, JMD patients showed a thinner cortex, a smaller cortical surface area and a lower grey matter volume in V1 and V2, while AMD patients showed thinning of the cortex in V2. Neither patient group showed a significant difference in mean curvature of the visual cortex. Discussion The thinner cortex, smaller surface area and lower grey matter volume in the visual cortex of JMD patients are consistent with our previous results showing a volumetric reduction in their visual cortex. Finding comparable results using two rather different analysis techniques suggests the presence of marked cortical degeneration in the JMD patients. In the AMD patients, we found a thinner cortex in V2 but not in V1. In contrast to our previous VBM analysis, SBM revealed no volumetric reductions of the visual cortex. This suggests that the cortical changes in AMD patients are relatively subtle, as they apparently can be missed by one of the methods. PMID:26789126

  13. Effect of additives on the anisotropic etching of silicon by using a TMAH based solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jun, Ki-Hwa; Kim, Bum-Joon; Kim, Jung-Sik

    2015-09-01

    In this study, the anisotropic etching properties of single crystal silicon were examined using a tetramethyl ammonium hydroxide (TMAH). The variations in the Si etching rate and surface morphology at different etching temperatures and TMAH concentrations were evaluated. The effects of different additives were also examined. As the THAM concentration (10-25 wt. %) decreased, the etching rate increased from 10 μm/h to 70 μm/h at temperatures between 70°C and 90°C. On the other hand, the etched surface roughness became degraded as the hillock density and corner undercut ratio increased. To solve these problems, four additives, pyrazine, ammonium persulfate (AP), ammonium hydrogen sulfate (AHS), and isopropyl alcohol (IPA), were added to the TMAH solution. The experimental results showed that these additives play an important role in increasing the etching rate up to 10-20%. The etched surface was also improved significantly by the decreased hillock density on the surface. The addition of IPA to the TMAH solution showed excellent results in improving the etched surface flatness and the undercutting compensation. On the other hand, one of the characteristics of IPA is the decrease in etching rate with increasing amount of IPA. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  14. The Use of ICT in Kindergarten for Teaching Addition Based on Realistic Mathematics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaranis, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate if information and communications technology (ICT) helps improve kindergarten students' basic mathematical achievement regarding addition. Our research compares the level of mathematical competence of the students taught using our ICT oriented learning method which specifically takes advantage of…

  15. Lewis base additives improve the zeolite ferrierite-catalyzed synthesis of isostearic acid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Isostearic acid (IA) is of interest for industrial purposes especially in the area of biolubricants, such as cosmetics and slip additives for polyolefin and related copolymer films. This study was designed to develop a zeolitic catalysis process for IA production through isomerization of fatty aci...

  16. Enhancement of intergranular current density of Sm-based oxypnictide superconductors with Sn addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Shiv Jee; Shimoyama, Jun-ichi; Ogino, Hiraku; Yamamoto, Akiyasu; Kishio, Kohji

    2014-08-01

    A series of Sn-added Sm1111 sintered bulks (SmFeAs(O, F) + xSn x = 0-0.8) was synthesized, and the influence of Sn addition on the superconducting properties of SmFeAs(O, F) was studied. The cell volume (V) slightly increases with Sn addition in the lightly F-doped Sm1111 (SmFeAsO0.88F0.12), suggesting a slight reduction of F concentration in the lattice, whereas there is almost no change in V for the optimally F-doped sample (SmFeAsO0.8F0.2). The transition temperature (Tc) of SmFeAsO0.88F0.12 decreased from 50 to 40 K for x = 0.35, with another maximum at x = 0.27 (Tc = 50 K). On the other hand, SmFeAsO0.8F0.2 remained an almost constant Tc ˜ 56 K up to x = 0.8. Microstructural analysis depicts that the impurity phases in SmFeAsO0.8F0.2 were reduced by Sn addition, resulting in an increase in clean and well connected grain boundaries. Remanent magnetization measurements revealed that Sn addition improved the intergrain Jc at 5 K from 1 × 102 to 1.1 × 104 A cm-2 for SmFeAsO0.8F0.2 and from 4 × 103 to 9.7 × 103 A cm-2 for SmFeAsO0.88F0.12. We believe this superior intergrain Jc to be attributable to the strong intergrain coupling due to grain connectivity improved by the Sn addition.

  17. Comparative assessment of bone mass and structure using texture-based and histomorphometric analyses

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Yongqing; Yingling, Vanessa R.; Malique, Rumena; Li, Chao Yang; Schaffler, Mitchell B.; Raphan, Theodore

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a methodology for quantitatively assessing bone quantity and anisotropy based on texture analysis using Gabor wavelets. The wavelet approach has the capability to simultaneously examine the images at low and high resolutions to gain information on both global and detailed local features of the bone image. The program that implemented the texture analysis gave measures of density (MDensity) and anisotropy (MAnisotropy). It also allowed us to examine the texture energy at four orientations (0°, 45°, 90°, 135°) to gain insight about the details of the anisotropy. Analysis of templates of four simulated patterns, which had same number of dots but with differing orientations, demonstrated how the texture-based analysis differentiated between these templates. The measures of MAnisotropy discriminated between the four simulated patterns. The MDensity measures were similar across all patterns. These outcomes matched the design intent of the simulated patterns. We also compared the trabecular bone images obtained from a previous study, in which the right forelimbs of normal female retired breeder beagle dogs (5–7 years old) were cast for 12 months to induce bone loss, using both histomorphometry and texture analysis. Both histomorphometry and the texture analysis detected significant differences in the trabecular bone of the distal metatarsal between the control and disuse groups. Percent trabecular bone (Tb.Ar/T.Ar) and the textural density parameter (MDensity) were highly correlated (r =0.962). MAnisotropy was decreased (3.9%) after the 12-month disuse protocol, but was not significantly different from normal. However, the texture energy values at all orientations (0°, 45°, 90° and 135°) were significantly decreased in the disuse group. Therefore, texture analysis was able to assess anisotropy, which could not be extracted from histomorphometric parameters. We conclude that texture analysis is an effective tool for

  18. A new material mapping procedure for quantitative computed tomography-based, continuum finite element analyses of the vertebra.

    PubMed

    Unnikrishnan, Ginu U; Morgan, Elise F

    2011-07-01

    Inaccuracies in the estimation of material properties and errors in the assignment of these properties into finite element models limit the reliability, accuracy, and precision of quantitative computed tomography (QCT)-based finite element analyses of the vertebra. In this work, a new mesh-independent, material mapping procedure was developed to improve the quality of predictions of vertebral mechanical behavior from QCT-based finite element models. In this procedure, an intermediate step, called the material block model, was introduced to determine the distribution of material properties based on bone mineral density, and these properties were then mapped onto the finite element mesh. A sensitivity study was first conducted on a calibration phantom to understand the influence of the size of the material blocks on the computed bone mineral density. It was observed that varying the material block size produced only marginal changes in the predictions of mineral density. Finite element (FE) analyses were then conducted on a square column-shaped region of the vertebra and also on the entire vertebra in order to study the effect of material block size on the FE-derived outcomes. The predicted values of stiffness for the column and the vertebra decreased with decreasing block size. When these results were compared to those of a mesh convergence analysis, it was found that the influence of element size on vertebral stiffness was less than that of the material block size. This mapping procedure allows the material properties in a finite element study to be determined based on the block size required for an accurate representation of the material field, while the size of the finite elements can be selected independently and based on the required numerical accuracy of the finite element solution. The mesh-independent, material mapping procedure developed in this study could be particularly helpful in improving the accuracy of finite element analyses of vertebroplasty and

  19. Methodology for Definition of Yellow Fever Priority Areas, Based on Environmental Variables and Multiple Correspondence Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Eduardo Stramandinoli; Barata, Rita de Cássia Barradas

    2012-01-01

    Yellow fever (YF) is endemic in much of Brazil, where cases of the disease are reported every year. Since 2008, outbreaks of the disease have occurred in regions of the country where no reports had been registered for decades, which has obligated public health authorities to redefine risk areas for the disease. The aim of the present study was to propose a methodology of environmental risk analysis for defining priority municipalities for YF vaccination, using as example, the State of São Paulo, Brazil. The municipalities were divided into two groups (affected and unaffected by YF) and compared based on environmental parameters related to the disease's eco-epidemiology. Bivariate analysis was used to identify statistically significant associations between the variables and virus circulation. Multiple correspondence analysis (MCA) was used to evaluate the relationship among the variables and their contribution to the dynamics of YF in Sao Paulo. The MCA generated a factor that was able to differentiate between affected and unaffected municipalities and was used to determine risk levels. This methodology can be replicated in other regions, standardized, and adapted to each context. PMID:22802971

  20. Metabolic model for the filamentous ‘Candidatus Microthrix parvicella' based on genomic and metagenomic analyses

    PubMed Central

    Jon McIlroy, Simon; Kristiansen, Rikke; Albertsen, Mads; Michael Karst, Søren; Rossetti, Simona; Lund Nielsen, Jeppe; Tandoi, Valter; James Seviour, Robert; Nielsen, Per Halkjær

    2013-01-01

    ‘Candidatus Microthrix parvicella' is a lipid-accumulating, filamentous bacterium so far found only in activated sludge wastewater treatment plants, where it is a common causative agent of sludge separation problems. Despite attracting considerable interest, its detailed physiology is still unclear. In this study, the genome of the RN1 strain was sequenced and annotated, which facilitated the construction of a theoretical metabolic model based on available in situ and axenic experimental data. This model proposes that under anaerobic conditions, this organism accumulates preferentially long-chain fatty acids as triacylglycerols. Utilisation of trehalose and/or polyphosphate stores or partial oxidation of long-chain fatty acids may supply the energy required for anaerobic lipid uptake and storage. Comparing the genome sequence of this isolate with metagenomes from two full-scale wastewater treatment plants with enhanced biological phosphorus removal reveals high similarity, with few metabolic differences between the axenic and the dominant community ‘Ca. M. parvicella' strains. Hence, the metabolic model presented in this paper could be considered generally applicable to strains in full-scale treatment systems. The genomic information obtained here will provide the basis for future research into in situ gene expression and regulation. Such information will give substantial insight into the ecophysiology of this unusual and biotechnologically important filamentous bacterium. PMID:23446830

  1. Copper response of Proteus hauseri based on proteomic and genetic expression and cell morphology analyses.

    PubMed

    Ng, I-Son; Zheng, Xuesong; Wang, Nan; Chen, Bor-Yann; Zhang, Xia; Lu, Yinghua

    2014-07-01

    The copper response of Proteus hauseri ZMd44 was determined using one-dimensional (1D) gel electrophoresis coupled with MALDI-TOF-TOF mass spectrometry for a similarity analysis of proteins isolated from P. hauseri ZMd44 cultured in CuSO4-bearing LB medium. Candidate proteins identified as a copper-transporting P-type ATPase (CTPP), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), flagellin (Fla), and outer membrane proteins (Omps) were the major copper-associated proteins in P. hauseri. In a comparative analysis of subcellular (i.e., periplasmic, intracellular, and inner membranes) and cellular debris, proteomics analysis revealed a distinct differential expression of proteins in P. hauseri with and without copper ion exposure. These findings were consistent with the transcription level dynamics determined using quantitative real-time PCR. Based on a genetic cluster analysis of copper-associated proteins from P. hauseri, Fla and one of the Omps showed greater diversity in their protein sequences compared to those of other Proteus species. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and the observed growth on LB agar plates showed that the swarming motility of cells was significantly suppressed and inhibited upon Cu(II) exposure. Thus, copper stress could have important therapeutic significance due to the loss of swarming motility capacity in P. hauseri, which causes urinary tract infections.

  2. Analyses of Large Coal-Based SOFCs for High Power Stack Block Development

    SciTech Connect

    Recknagle, Kurtis P; Koeppel, Brian J

    2010-10-01

    This report summarizes the numerical modeling and analytical efforts for SOFC stack development performed for the coal-based SOFC program. The stack modeling activities began in 2004, but this report focuses on the most relevant results obtained since August 2008. This includes the latter half of Phase-I and all of Phase-II activities under technical guidance of VPS and FCE. The models developed to predict the thermal-flow-electrochemical behaviors and thermal-mechanical responses of generic planar stacks and towers are described. The effects of cell geometry, fuel gas composition, on-cell reforming, operating conditions, cell performance, seal leak, voltage degradation, boundary conditions, and stack height are studied. The modeling activities to evaluate and achieve technical targets for large stack blocks are described, and results from the latest thermal-fluid-electrochemical and structural models are summarized. Modeling results for stack modifications such as scale-up and component thickness reduction to realize cost reduction are presented. Supporting modeling activities in the areas of cell fabrication and loss of contact are also described.

  3. Voxel-based analyses of magnetization transfer imaging of the brain in hepatic encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Miese, Falk R; Wittsack, Hans-Jörg; Kircheis, Gerald; Holstein, Arne; Mathys, Christian; Mödder, Ulrich; Cohnen, Mathias

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the spatial distribution of cerebral abnormalities in cirrhotic subjects with and without hepatic encephalopathy (HE) found with magnetization transfer imaging (MTI). METHODS: Nineteen cirrhotic patients graded from neurologically normal to HE grade 2 and 18 healthy control subjects underwent magnetic resonance imaging. They gave institutional-review-board-approved written consent. Magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) maps were generated from MTI. We tested for significant differences compared to the control group using statistical non-parametric mapping (SnPM) for a voxel-based evaluation. RESULTS: The MTR of grey and white matter was lower in subjects with more severe HE. Changes were found in patients with cirrhosis without neurological deficits in the basal ganglia and bilateral white matter. The loss in magnetization transfer increased in severity and spatial extent in patients with overt HE. Patients with HE grade 2 showed an MTR decrease in white and grey matter: the maximum loss of magnetization transfer effect was located in the basal ganglia [SnPM (pseudo-)t = 17.98, P = 0.0001]. CONCLUSION: The distribution of MTR changes in HE points to an early involvement of basal ganglia and white matter in HE. PMID:19891014

  4. Methodology for definition of yellow fever priority areas, based on environmental variables and multiple correspondence analyses.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Eduardo Stramandinoli; Barata, Rita de Cássia Barradas

    2012-01-01

    Yellow fever (YF) is endemic in much of Brazil, where cases of the disease are reported every year. Since 2008, outbreaks of the disease have occurred in regions of the country where no reports had been registered for decades, which has obligated public health authorities to redefine risk areas for the disease. The aim of the present study was to propose a methodology of environmental risk analysis for defining priority municipalities for YF vaccination, using as example, the State of São Paulo, Brazil. The municipalities were divided into two groups (affected and unaffected by YF) and compared based on environmental parameters related to the disease's eco-epidemiology. Bivariate analysis was used to identify statistically significant associations between the variables and virus circulation. Multiple correspondence analysis (MCA) was used to evaluate the relationship among the variables and their contribution to the dynamics of YF in Sao Paulo. The MCA generated a factor that was able to differentiate between affected and unaffected municipalities and was used to determine risk levels. This methodology can be replicated in other regions, standardized, and adapted to each context.

  5. Quantitative analyses of tartaric acid based on terahertz time domain spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Binghua; Fan, Mengbao

    2010-10-01

    Terahertz wave is the electromagnetic spectrum situated between microwave and infrared wave. Quantitative analysis based on terahertz spectroscopy is very important for the application of terahertz techniques. But how to realize it is still under study. L-tartaric acid is widely used as acidulant in beverage, and other food, such as soft drinks, wine, candy, bread and some colloidal sweetmeats. In this paper, terahertz time-domain spectroscopy is applied to quantify the tartaric acid. Two methods are employed to process the terahertz spectra of different samples with different content of tartaric acid. The first one is linear regression combining correlation analysis. The second is partial least square (PLS), in which the absorption spectra in the 0.8-1.4THz region are used to quantify the tartaric acid. To compare the performance of these two principles, the relative error of the two methods is analyzed. For this experiment, the first method does better than the second one. But the first method is suitable for the quantitative analysis of materials which has obvious terahertz absorption peaks, while for material which has no obvious terahertz absorption peaks, the second one is more appropriate.

  6. Segregation and genetic linkage analyses of river catfish, Mystus nemurus, based on microsatellite markers.

    PubMed

    Hoh, B P; Siraj, S S; Tan, S G; Yusoff, K

    2013-02-28

    The river catfish Mystus nemurus is an important fresh water species for aquaculture in Malaysia. We report the first genetic linkage map of M. nemurus based on segregation analysis and a linkage map using newly developed microsatellite markers of M. nemurus. A total of 70 of the newly developed polymorphic DNA microsatellite markers were analyzed on pedigrees generated using a pseudo-testcross strategy from 2 mapping families. In the first mapping family, 100 offspring were produced from randomly selected dams of the same populations; dams of the second family were selected from 2 different populations, and this family had 50 offspring. Thirty-one of the 70 markers segregated according to the Mendelian segregation ratio. Linkage analysis revealed that 17 microsatellite markers belonging to 7 linkage groups were obtained at a logarithm of the odds score of 1.2 spanning 584 cM by the Kosambi mapping function, whereas the other 14 remained unlinked. The results from this study will act as primer to a more extensive genetic mapping study aimed towards identifying genetic loci involved in determining economically important traits.

  7. Improving the local solution accuracy of large-scale digital image-based finite element analyses.

    PubMed

    Charras, G T; Guldberg, R E

    2000-02-01

    Digital image-based finite element modeling (DIBFEM) has become a widely utilized approach for efficiently meshing complex biological structures such as trabecular bone. While DIBFEM can provide accurate predictions of apparent mechanical properties, its application to simulate local phenomena such as tissue failure or adaptation has been limited by high local solution errors at digital model boundaries. Furthermore, refinement of digital meshes does not necessarily reduce local maximum errors. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential to reduce local mean and maximum solution errors in digital meshes using a post-processing filtration method. The effectiveness of a three-dimensional, boundary-specific filtering algorithm was found to be mesh size dependent. Mean absolute and maximum errors were reduced for meshes with more than five elements through the diameter of a cantilever beam considered representative of a single trabecula. Furthermore, mesh refinement consistently decreased errors for filtered solutions but not necessarily for non-filtered solutions. Models with more than five elements through the beam diameter yielded absolute mean errors of less than 15% for both Von Mises stress and maximum principal strain. When applied to a high-resolution model of trabecular bone microstructure, boundary filtering produced a more continuous solution distribution and reduced the predicted maximum stress by 30%. Boundary-specific filtering provides a simple means of improving local solution accuracy while retaining the model generation and numerical storage efficiency of the DIBFEM technique.

  8. Multivariate Chemometrics with Regression and Classification Analyses in Heroin Profiling Based on the Chromatographic Data.

    PubMed

    B Gadžurić, Slobodan; O Podunavac Kuzmanović, Sanja; B Vraneš, Milan; Petrin, Marija; Bugarski, Tatjana; Kovačević, Strahinja Z

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to promote and facilitate forensic profiling and chemical analysis of illicit drug samples in order to determine their origin, methods of production and transfer through the country. The article is based on the gas chromatography analysis of heroin samples seized from three different locations in Serbia. Chemometric approach with appropriate statistical tools (multiple-linear regression (MLR), hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and Wald-Wolfowitz run (WWR) test) were applied on chromatographic data of heroin samples in order to correlate and examine the geographic origin of seized heroin samples. The best MLR models were further validated by leave-one-out technique as well as by the calculation of basic statistical parameters for the established models. To confirm the predictive power of the models, external set of heroin samples was used. High agreement between experimental and predicted values of acetyl thebaol and diacetyl morphine peak ratio, obtained in the validation procedure, indicated the good quality of derived MLR models. WWR test showed which examined heroin samples come from the same population, and HCA was applied in order to overview the similarities among the studied heroine samples.

  9. A method of mounting multiple otoliths for beam-based microchemical analyses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Donohoe, C.J.; Zimmerman, C.E.

    2010-01-01

    Beam-based analytical methods are widely used to measure the concentrations of elements and isotopes in otoliths. These methods usually require that otoliths be individually mounted and prepared to properly expose the desired growth region to the analytical beam. Most analytical instruments, such as LA-ICPMS and ion and electron microprobes, have sample holders that will accept only one to six slides or mounts at a time. We describe a method of mounting otoliths that allows for easy transfer of many otoliths to a single mount after they have been prepared. Such an approach increases the number of otoliths that can be analyzed in a single session by reducing the need open the sample chamber to exchange slides-a particularly time consuming step on instruments that operate under vacuum. For ion and electron microprobes, the method also greatly reduces the number of slides that must be coated with an electrical conductor prior to analysis. In this method, a narrow strip of cover glass is first glued at one end to a standard microscope slide. The otolith is then mounted in thermoplastic resin on the opposite, free end of the strip. The otolith can then be ground and flipped, if needed, by reheating the mounting medium. After otolith preparation is complete, the cover glass is cut with a scribe to free the otolith and up to 20 small otoliths can be arranged on a single petrographic slide. ?? 2010 The Author(s).

  10. Phylogeny-based developmental analyses illuminate evolution of inflorescence architectures in dogwoods (Cornus s. l., Cornaceae).

    PubMed

    Feng, Chun-Miao; Xiang, Qiu-Yun Jenny; Franks, Robert G

    2011-08-01

    • Inflorescence architecture is important to angiosperm reproduction, but our knowledge of the developmental basis underlying the evolution of inflorescence architectures is limited. Using a phylogeny-based comparative analysis of developmental pathways, we tested the long-standing hypothesis that umbel evolved from elongated inflorescences by suppression of inflorescence branches, while head evolved from umbels by suppression of pedicels. • The developmental pathways of six species of Cornus producing different inflorescence types were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and histological analysis. Critical developmental events were traced over the molecular phylogeny to identify evolutionary changes leading to the formation of umbels and heads using methods accounting for evolutionary time and phylogenetic uncertainty. • We defined 24 developmental events describing the developmental progression of the different inflorescence types. The evolutionary transition from paniculate cymes to umbels and heads required alterations of seven developmental events occurring at different evolutionary times. • Our results indicate that heads and umbels evolved independently in Cornus from elongated forms via an umbellate dichasium ancestor and this process involved several independent changes. Our findings shed novel insights into head and umbel evolution concealed by outer morphology. Our work illustrates the importance of combining developmental and phylogenetic data to better define morphological evolutionary processes.

  11. Projecting the performance of risk prediction based on polygenic analyses of genome-wide association studies

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Wheeler, Bill; Sampson, Joshua; Hartge, Patricia; Chanock, Stephen J.; Park, Ju-Hyun

    2013-01-01

    We report a new model to project the predictive performance of polygenic models based on the number and distribution of effect sizes for the underlying susceptibility alleles and the size of the training dataset. Using estimates of effect-size distribution and heritability derived from current studies, we project that while 45% of the variance of height has been attributed to common tagging Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNP), a model trained on one million people may only explain 33.4% of variance of the trait. Current studies can identify 3.0%, 1.1%, and 7.0%, of the populations who are at two-fold or higher than average risk for Type 2 diabetes, coronary artery disease and prostate cancer, respectively. Tripling of sample sizes could elevate the percentages to 18.8%, 6.1%, and 12.2%, respectively. The utility of future polygenic models will depend on achievable sample sizes, underlying genetic architecture and information on other risk-factors, including family history. PMID:23455638

  12. SEM-EBSD based Realistic Modeling and Crystallographic Homogenization FE Analyses of LDH Formability Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Kuramae, Hiroyuki; Nakamachi, Eiji; Ngoc Tam, Nguyen; Nakamura, Yasunori; Sakamoto, Hidetoshi; Morimoto, Hideo

    2007-05-17

    Homogenization algorithm is introduced to the elastic/crystalline viscoplastic finite element (FE) procedure to develop multi-scale analysis code to predict the formability of sheet metal in macro scale, and simultaneously the crystal texture and hardening evolutions in micro scale. The isotropic and kinematical hardening lows are employed in the crystalline plasticity constitutive equation. For the multi-scale structure, two scales are considered. One is a microscopic polycrystal structure and the other a macroscopic elastic plastic continuum. We measure crystal morphologies by using the scanning electron microscope (SEM) with electron back scattered diffraction (EBSD), and define a three dimensional representative volume element (RVE) of micro ploycrystal structure, which satisfy the periodicity condition of crystal orientation distribution. Since nonlinear multi-scale FE analysis requires large computation time, development of parallel computing technique is needed. To realize the parallel analysis on PC cluster system, the dynamic explicit FE formulations are employed. Applying the domain partitioning technique to FE mesh of macro continuum, homogenized stresses based on micro crystal structures are computed in parallel without solving simultaneous linear equation. The parallel FEM code is applied to simulate the limit dome height (LDH) test problem and hemispherical cup deep drawing problem of aluminum alloy AL6022, mild steel DQSK, high strength steel HSLA, and dual phase steel DP600 sheet metals. The localized distribution of thickness strain and the texture evolution are obtained.

  13. Multivariate Chemometrics with Regression and Classification Analyses in Heroin Profiling Based on the Chromatographic Data

    PubMed Central

    B. Gadžurić, Slobodan; O. Podunavac Kuzmanović, Sanja; B. Vraneš, Milan; Petrin, Marija; Bugarski, Tatjana; Kovačević, Strahinja Z.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to promote and facilitate forensic profiling and chemical analysis of illicit drug samples in order to determine their origin, methods of production and transfer through the country. The article is based on the gas chromatography analysis of heroin samples seized from three different locations in Serbia. Chemometric approach with appropriate statistical tools (multiple-linear regression (MLR), hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and Wald-Wolfowitz run (WWR) test) were applied on chromatographic data of heroin samples in order to correlate and examine the geographic origin of seized heroin samples. The best MLR models were further validated by leave-one-out technique as well as by the calculation of basic statistical parameters for the established models. To confirm the predictive power of the models, external set of heroin samples was used. High agreement between experimental and predicted values of acetyl thebaol and diacetyl morphine peak ratio, obtained in the validation procedure, indicated the good quality of derived MLR models. WWR test showed which examined heroin samples come from the same population, and HCA was applied in order to overview the similarities among the studied heroine samples. PMID:28243268

  14. Audio-visual perception of 3D cinematography: an fMRI study using condition-based and computation-based analyses.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Akitoshi; Bordier, Cecile; Macaluso, Emiliano

    2013-01-01

    The use of naturalistic stimuli to probe sensory functions in the human brain is gaining increasing interest. Previous imaging studies examined brain activity associated with the processing of cinematographic material using both standard "condition-based" designs, as well as "computational" methods based on the extraction of time-varying features of the stimuli (e.g. motion). Here, we exploited both approaches to investigate the neural correlates of complex visual and auditory spatial signals in cinematography. In the first experiment, the participants watched a piece of a commercial movie presented in four blocked conditions: 3D vision with surround sounds (3D-Surround), 3D with monaural sound (3D-Mono), 2D-Surround, and 2D-Mono. In the second experiment, they watched two different segments of the movie both presented continuously in 3D-Surround. The blocked presentation served for standard condition-based analyses, while all datasets were submitted to computation-based analyses. The latter assessed where activity co-varied with visual disparity signals and the complexity of auditory multi-sources signals. The blocked analyses associated 3D viewing with the activation of the dorsal and lateral occipital cortex and superior parietal lobule, while the surround sounds activated the superior and middle temporal gyri (S/MTG). The computation-based analyses revealed the effects of absolute disparity in dorsal occipital and posterior parietal cortices and of disparity gradients in the posterior middle temporal gyrus plus the inferior frontal gyrus. The complexity of the surround sounds was associated with activity in specific sub-regions of S/MTG, even after accounting for changes of sound intensity. These results demonstrate that the processing of naturalistic audio-visual signals entails an extensive set of visual and auditory areas, and that computation-based analyses can track the contribution of complex spatial aspects characterizing such life-like stimuli.

  15. Contextualising and Analysing Planetary Rover Image Products through the Web-Based PRoGIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morley, Jeremy; Sprinks, James; Muller, Jan-Peter; Tao, Yu; Paar, Gerhard; Huber, Ben; Bauer, Arnold; Willner, Konrad; Traxler, Christoph; Garov, Andrey; Karachevtseva, Irina

    2014-05-01

    The international planetary science community has launched, landed and operated dozens of human and robotic missions to the planets and the Moon. They have collected various surface imagery that has only been partially utilized for further scientific purposes. The FP7 project PRoViDE (Planetary Robotics Vision Data Exploitation) is assembling a major portion of the imaging data gathered so far from planetary surface missions into a unique database, bringing them into a spatial context and providing access to a complete set of 3D vision products. Processing is complemented by a multi-resolution visualization engine that combines various levels of detail for a seamless and immersive real-time access to dynamically rendered 3D scenes. PRoViDE aims to (1) complete relevant 3D vision processing of planetary surface missions, such as Surveyor, Viking, Pathfinder, MER, MSL, Phoenix, Huygens, and Lunar ground-level imagery from Apollo, Russian Lunokhod and selected Luna missions, (2) provide highest resolution & accuracy remote sensing (orbital) vision data processing results for these sites to embed the robotic imagery and its products into spatial planetary context, (3) collect 3D Vision processing and remote sensing products within a single coherent spatial data base, (4) realise seamless fusion between orbital and ground vision data, (5) demonstrate the potential of planetary surface vision data by maximising image quality visualisation in 3D publishing platform, (6) collect and formulate use cases for novel scientific application scenarios exploiting the newly introduced spatial relationships and presentation, (7) demonstrate the concepts for MSL, (9) realize on-line dissemination of key data & its presentation by a web-based GIS and rendering tool named PRoGIS (Planetary Robotics GIS). PRoGIS is designed to give access to rover image archives in geographical context, using projected image view cones, obtained from existing meta-data and updated according to

  16. Metabolonote: a wiki-based database for managing hierarchical metadata of metabolome analyses.

    PubMed

    Ara, Takeshi; Enomoto, Mitsuo; Arita, Masanori; Ikeda, Chiaki; Kera, Kota; Yamada, Manabu; Nishioka, Takaaki; Ikeda, Tasuku; Nihei, Yoshito; Shibata, Daisuke; Kanaya, Shigehiko; Sakurai, Nozomu

    2015-01-01

    Metabolomics - technology for comprehensive detection of small molecules in an organism - lags behind the other "omics" in terms of publication and dissemination of experimental data. Among the reasons for this are difficulty precisely recording information about complicated analytical experiments (metadata), existence of various databases with their own metadata descriptions, and low reusability of the published data, resulting in submitters (the researchers who generate the data) being insufficiently motivated. To tackle these issues, we developed Metabolonote, a Semantic MediaWiki-based database designed specifically for managing metabolomic metadata. We also defined a metadata and data description format, called "Togo Metabolome Data" (TogoMD), with an ID system that is required for unique access to each level of the tree-structured metadata such as study purpose, sample, analytical method, and data analysis. Separation of the management of metadata from that of data and permission to attach related information to the metadata provide advantages for submitters, readers, and database developers. The metadata are enriched with information such as links to comparable data, thereby functioning as a hub of related data resources. They also enhance not only readers' understanding and use of data but also submitters' motivation to publish the data. The metadata are computationally shared among other systems via APIs, which facilitate the construction of novel databases by database developers. A permission system that allows publication of immature metadata and feedback from readers also helps submitters to improve their metadata. Hence, this aspect of Metabolonote, as a metadata preparation tool, is complementary to high-quality and persistent data repositories such as MetaboLights. A total of 808 metadata for analyzed data obtained from 35 biological species are published currently. Metabolonote and related tools are available free of cost at http://metabolonote.kazusa.or.jp/.

  17. The importance of retaining a phylogenetic perspective in traits-based community analyses

    DOE PAGES

    Poteat, Monica D.; Buchwalter, David B.; Jacobus, Luke M.

    2015-04-08

    1) Many environmental stressors manifest their effects via physiological processes (traits) that can differ significantly among species and species groups. We compiled available data for three traits related to the bioconcentration of the toxic metal cadmium (Cd) from 42 aquatic insect species representing orders Ephemeroptera (mayfly), Plecoptera (stonefly), and Trichoptera (caddisfly). These traits included the propensity to take up Cd from water (uptake rate constant, ku), the ability to excrete Cd (efflux rate constant, ke), and the net result of these two processes (bioconcentration factor, BCF). 2) Ranges in these Cd bioaccumulation traits varied in magnitude across lineages (some lineagesmore » had a greater tendency to bioaccumulate Cd than others). Overlap in the ranges of trait values among different lineages was common and highlights situations where species from different lineages can share a similar trait state, but represent the high end of possible physiological values for one lineage and the low end for another. 3) Variance around the mean trait state differed widely across clades, suggesting that some groups (e.g., Ephemerellidae) are inherently more variable than others (e.g., Perlidae). Thus, trait variability/lability is at least partially a function of lineage. 4) Akaike information criterion (AIC) comparisons of statistical models were more often driven by clade than by other potential biological or ecological explanation tested. Clade-driven models generally improved with increasing taxonomic resolution. 5) Altogether, these findings suggest that lineage provides context for the analysis of species traits, and that failure to consider lineage in community-based analysis of traits may obscure important patterns of species responses to environmental change.« less

  18. The importance of retaining a phylogenetic perspective in traits-based community analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Poteat, Monica D.; Buchwalter, David B.; Jacobus, Luke M.

    2015-04-08

    1) Many environmental stressors manifest their effects via physiological processes (traits) that can differ significantly among species and species groups. We compiled available data for three traits related to the bioconcentration of the toxic metal cadmium (Cd) from 42 aquatic insect species representing orders Ephemeroptera (mayfly), Plecoptera (stonefly), and Trichoptera (caddisfly). These traits included the propensity to take up Cd from water (uptake rate constant, ku), the ability to excrete Cd (efflux rate constant, ke), and the net result of these two processes (bioconcentration factor, BCF). 2) Ranges in these Cd bioaccumulation traits varied in magnitude across lineages (some lineages had a greater tendency to bioaccumulate Cd than others). Overlap in the ranges of trait values among different lineages was common and highlights situations where species from different lineages can share a similar trait state, but represent the high end of possible physiological values for one lineage and the low end for another. 3) Variance around the mean trait state differed widely across clades, suggesting that some groups (e.g., Ephemerellidae) are inherently more variable than others (e.g., Perlidae). Thus, trait variability/lability is at least partially a function of lineage. 4) Akaike information criterion (AIC) comparisons of statistical models were more often driven by clade than by other potential biological or ecological explanation tested. Clade-driven models generally improved with increasing taxonomic resolution. 5) Altogether, these findings suggest that lineage provides context for the analysis of species traits, and that failure to consider lineage in community-based analysis of traits may obscure important patterns of species responses to environmental change.

  19. Metabolonote: A Wiki-Based Database for Managing Hierarchical Metadata of Metabolome Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Ara, Takeshi; Enomoto, Mitsuo; Arita, Masanori; Ikeda, Chiaki; Kera, Kota; Yamada, Manabu; Nishioka, Takaaki; Ikeda, Tasuku; Nihei, Yoshito; Shibata, Daisuke; Kanaya, Shigehiko; Sakurai, Nozomu

    2015-01-01

    Metabolomics – technology for comprehensive detection of small molecules in an organism – lags behind the other “omics” in terms of publication and dissemination of experimental data. Among the reasons for this are difficulty precisely recording information about complicated analytical experiments (metadata), existence of various databases with their own metadata descriptions, and low reusability of the published data, resulting in submitters (the researchers who generate the data) being insufficiently motivated. To tackle these issues, we developed Metabolonote, a Semantic MediaWiki-based database designed specifically for managing metabolomic metadata. We also defined a metadata and data description format, called “Togo Metabolome Data” (TogoMD), with an ID system that is required for unique access to each level of the tree-structured metadata such as study purpose, sample, analytical method, and data analysis. Separation of the management of metadata from that of data and permission to attach related information to the metadata provide advantages for submitters, readers, and database developers. The metadata are enriched with information such as links to comparable data, thereby functioning as a hub of related data resources. They also enhance not only readers’ understanding and use of data but also submitters’ motivation to publish the data. The metadata are computationally shared among other systems via APIs, which facilitate the construction of novel databases by database developers. A permission system that allows publication of immature metadata and feedback from readers also helps submitters to improve their metadata. Hence, this aspect of Metabolonote, as a metadata preparation tool, is complementary to high-quality and persistent data repositories such as MetaboLights. A total of 808 metadata for analyzed data obtained from 35 biological species are published currently. Metabolonote and related tools are available free of cost at http

  20. Three-Dimensional Analyses of Skutterudite-Based Segmented Unicouples with Metallic Coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saber, Hamed H.; El-Genk, Mohamed S.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a 3-D performance analysis of Skutterudite-Based Segmented Unicouple (SKU) with nine μm thick Molybdenum (Mo) coatings on n- and p-legs near the hot junction. The analysis performed at hot and cold junction temperatures of 973 K and 300 K investigated the effect of the coating on lateral distributions of the electric current, voltage, and temperatures in the legs and the conversion efficiency and electric power generated by the unicouple. The p- and n-legs are 20 mm long and have hot and cold segments of CeFe3.5Co0.5Sb12 and Bi0.4Sb1.6Te3, and of CoSb3 and Bi2Te2.95Se0.05, respectively. The cross-section area of the p-leg is 11 mm2. The cross sectional area of the n-leg and the lengths of the Mo coatings and of various segments of the legs are determined for maximum conversion efficiency using a 1-D optimization model. The 3-D analysis performed with ANSYS finite element commercial software used the dimension determined by the 1-D model. Results show that the electric currents near the outer surface of the Mo coatings flow in the opposite direction to those in the n- and p-legs. In very thin parts of legs near the interface with the coatings, electric currents flow in the same direction as in the coatings, but decrease rapidly with inward distance from the interface, eventually becoming zero, then flowing in the same direction as the electric current in the legs. Such current circulation increases joules losses in the coated parts of the hot segments of the legs, decreasing the conversion efficiency. The increased heat flow from the hot shoe through the metallic coatings contributes to decreasing the conversion efficiency, but increasing the electric power generated by SKU.

  1. Genetic structure of wild boar (Sus scrofa) populations from East Asia based on microsatellite loci analyses

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Wild boar, Sus scrofa, is an extant wild ancestor of the domestic pig as an agro-economically important mammal. Wild boar has a worldwide distribution with its geographic origin in Southeast Asia, but genetic diversity and genetic structure of wild boar in East Asia are poorly understood. To characterize the pattern and amount of genetic variation and population structure of wild boar in East Asia, we genotyped and analyzed microsatellite loci for a total of 238 wild boar specimens from ten locations across six countries in East and Southeast Asia. Results Our data indicated that wild boar populations in East Asia are genetically diverse and structured, showing a significant correlation of genetic distance with geographic distance and implying a low level of gene flow at a regional scale. Bayesian-based clustering analysis was indicative of seven inferred genetic clusters in which wild boars in East Asia are geographically structured. The level of genetic diversity was relatively high in wild boars from Southeast Asia, compared with those from Northeast Asia. This gradient pattern of genetic diversity is consistent with an assumed ancestral population of wild boar in Southeast Asia. Genetic evidences from a relationship tree and structure analysis suggest that wild boar in Jeju Island, South Korea have a distinct genetic background from those in mainland Korea. Conclusions Our results reveal a diverse pattern of genetic diversity and the existence of genetic differentiation among wild boar populations inhabiting East Asia. This study highlights the potential contribution of genetic variation of wild boar to the high genetic diversity of local domestic pigs during domestication in East Asia. PMID:25034725

  2. Genetic diversity in populations of Slovak Spotted cattle based on single nucleotide polymorphisms analyses.

    PubMed

    Moravčíková, Nina; Trakovická, Anna; Navrátilová, Alica

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify SNPs in leptin (LEP), leptin receptor (LEPR) and growth hormone (GH) genes in order to analyze genetic diversity of Slovak Spotted cattle. The total numbers of blood samples were taken from 353 Slovak Spotted cows originating from four farms. Genomic DNA was isolated by phenol-chloroform extraction method and analyzed by PCR-RFLP method. After digestion with restriction, enzymes were detected in whole population of cow's alleles with frequency: LEP/Sau3AI A 0.84 and B 0.16 (±0.0152); LEPR/BseGI C 0.95 and T 0.05 (±0.0089) and GH/AluI L 0.70 and V 0.30 (±0.0188). Based on the observed vs. expected genotypes frequencies populations across loci were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (P\\>0.05). Predominant for SNP LEP/Sau3AI was AA genotype (0.70), for SNP LEPR/T945M CC genotype (0.91), and LL genotype (0.48) was most frequent for SNP GH/AluI. The observed heterozygosity of SNPs across populations was also transferred to the low or median polymorphic information content 0.24 (He 0.28), 0.08 (He 0.09) and 0.33 (He 0.47) for LEP, LEPR and GH genes, respectively. Within genetic variability estimating negative values of fixation indexes FIS (-0.09-0.05) and FIT (-0.07-0.03) indicating heterozygote excess were observed. The value of FST indexes (0.018-0.023) shows very low levels of genetic differentiation in allele frequencies of loci among evaluated subpopulations. The low values of genetic distances (0.0018-0.0159) indicated high genetic relatedness among animals in subpopulations caused probably by common ancestry used in breeding program at farms.

  3. Analysing Amazonian forest productivity using a new individual and trait-based model (TFS v.1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fyllas, N. M.; Gloor, E.; Mercado, L. M.; Sitch, S.; Quesada, C. A.; Domingues, T. F.; Galbraith, D. R.; Torre-Lezama, A.; Vilanova, E.; Ramírez-Angulo, H.; Higuchi, N.; Neill, D. A.; Silveira, M.; Ferreira, L.; Aymard C, G. A.; Malhi, Y.; Phillips, O. L.; Lloyd, J.

    2014-02-01

    Repeated long-term censuses have revealed large-scale spatial patterns in Amazon Basin forest structure and dynamism, with some forests in the west of the Basin having up to a twice as high rate of aboveground biomass production and tree recruitment as forests in the east. Possible causes for this variation could be the climatic and edaphic gradients across the Basin and/or the spatial distribution of tree species composition. To help understand causes of this variation a new individual-based model of tropical forest growth designed to take full advantage of the forest census data available from the Amazonian Forest Inventory Network (RAINFOR) has been developed. The model incorporates variations in tree size distribution, functional traits and soil physical properties and runs at the stand level with four functional traits, leaf dry mass per area (Ma), leaf nitrogen (NL) and phosphorus (PL) content and wood density (DW) used to represent a continuum of plant strategies found in tropical forests. We first applied the model to validate canopy-level water fluxes at three Amazon eddy flux sites. For all three sites the canopy-level water fluxes were adequately simulated. We then applied the model at seven plots, where intensive measurements of carbon allocation are available. Tree-by-tree multi-annual growth rates generally agreed well with observations for small trees, but with deviations identified for large trees. At the stand-level, simulations at 40 plots were used to explore the influence of climate and soil fertility on the gross (ΠG) and net (ΠN) primary production rates as well as the carbon use efficiency (CU). Simulated ΠG, ΠN and CU were not associated with temperature. However all three measures of stand level productivity were positively related to annual precipitation and soil fertility.

  4. Three-Dimensional Analyses of Skutterudite-Based Segmented Unicouples with Metallic Coating

    SciTech Connect

    Saber, Hamed H.; El-Genk, Mohamed S.

    2006-01-20

    This paper presents the results of a 3-D performance analysis of Skutterudite-Based Segmented Unicouple (SKU) with nine {mu}m thick Molybdenum (Mo) coatings on n- and p-legs near the hot junction. The analysis performed at hot and cold junction temperatures of 973 K and 300 K investigated the effect of the coating on lateral distributions of the electric current, voltage, and temperatures in the legs and the conversion efficiency and electric power generated by the unicouple. The p- and n-legs are 20 mm long and have hot and cold segments of CeFe3.5Co0.5Sb12 and Bi0.4Sb1.6Te3, and of CoSb3 and Bi2Te2.95Se0.05, respectively. The cross-section area of the p-leg is 11 mm2. The cross sectional area of the n-leg and the lengths of the Mo coatings and of various segments of the legs are determined for maximum conversion efficiency using a 1-D optimization model. The 3-D analysis performed with ANSYS finite element commercial software used the dimension determined by the 1-D model. Results show that the electric currents near the outer surface of the Mo coatings flow in the opposite direction to those in the n- and p-legs. In very thin parts of legs near the interface with the coatings, electric currents flow in the same direction as in the coatings, but decrease rapidly with inward distance from the interface, eventually becoming zero, then flowing in the same direction as the electric current in the legs. Such current circulation increases joules losses in the coated parts of the hot segments of the legs, decreasing the conversion efficiency. The increased heat flow from the hot shoe through the metallic coatings contributes to decreasing the conversion efficiency, but increasing the electric power generated by SKU.

  5. Lewis base catalyzed, enantioselective aldol addition of methyl trichlorosilyl ketene acetal to ketones.

    PubMed

    Denmark, Scott E; Fan, Yu; Eastgate, Martin D

    2005-06-24

    The catalytic enantioselective addition of an acetate enolate equivalent to ketones is described. Methyl trichlorosilyl ketene acetal reacts with a wide range of ketones in the presence of pyridine N-oxide to afford the aldol addition products in excellent yields. Chiral 2,2'-pyridyl bis-N-oxides bearing various substituents at the 3,3'- and 6,6'-positions also provide excellent yields of the aldol products with variable enantioselectivities ranging from 94/6 er for aromatic ketones to nearly racemic for aliphatic ketones. An X-ray crystal structure of the complex between a catalyst and silicon tetrachloride (((P)-(R,R)-19.SiCl(4))) has been obtained. Extensive computational analysis provides a stereochemical rationale for the observed trends in enantioselectivities.

  6. Environmental behavior of cement-based stabilized foundry sludge products incorporating additives.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, M C; Irabien, A

    2004-06-18

    A series of experiments were conducted to stabilize the inorganic and organic pollutants in a foundry sludge from a cast iron activity using Portland cement as binder and three different types of additives, organophilic bentonite, lime and coal fly ash. Ecotoxicological and chemical behavior of stabilized mixes of foundry sludge were analyzed to assess the feasibility to immobilize both types of contaminants, all determined on the basis of compliance leaching tests. The incorporation of lime reduces the ecotoxicity of stabilized mixes and enhances stabilization of organic pollutants obtaining better results when a 50% of cement is replaced by lime. However, the alkalinity of lime increases slightly the leached zinc up to concentrations above the limit set under neutral conditions by the European regulations. The addition of organophilic bentonite and coal fly ash can immobilize the phenolic compounds but are inefficient to reduce the ecotoxicity and mobility of zinc of final products.

  7. Identification of Mitral Annulus Hinge Point Based on Local Context Feature and Additive SVM Classifier.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianming; Liu, Yangchun; Xu, Wei

    2015-01-01

    The position of the hinge point of mitral annulus (MA) is important for segmentation, modeling and multimodalities registration of cardiac structures. The main difficulties in identifying the hinge point of MA are the inherent noisy, low resolution of echocardiography, and so on. This work aims to automatically detect the hinge point of MA by combining local context feature with additive support vector machines (SVM) classifier. The innovations are as follows: (1) designing a local context feature for MA in cardiac ultrasound image; (2) applying the additive kernel SVM classifier to identify the candidates of the hinge point of MA; (3) designing a weighted density field of candidates which represents the blocks of candidates; and (4) estimating an adaptive threshold on the weighted density field to get the position of the hinge point of MA and exclude the error from SVM classifier. The proposed algorithm is tested on echocardiographic four-chamber image sequence of 10 pediatric patients. Compared with the manual selected hinge points of MA which are selected by professional doctors, the mean error is in 0.96 ± 1.04 mm. Additive SVM classifier can fast and accurately identify the MA hinge point.

  8. Analysis of redox additive-based overcharge protection for rechargeable lithium batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narayanan, S. R.; Surampudi, S.; Attia, A. I.; Bankston, C. P.

    1991-01-01

    The overcharge condition in secondary lithium batteries employing redox additives for overcharge protection, has been theoretically analyzed in terms of a finite linear diffusion model. The analysis leads to expressions relating the steady-state overcharge current density and cell voltage to the concentration, diffusion coefficient, standard reduction potential of the redox couple, and interelectrode distance. The model permits the estimation of the maximum permissible overcharge rate for any chosen set of system conditions. Digital simulation of the overcharge experiment leads to numerical representation of the potential transients, and estimate of the influence of diffusion coefficient and interelectrode distance on the transient attainment of the steady state during overcharge. The model has been experimentally verified using 1,1-prime-dimethyl ferrocene as a redox additive. The analysis of the experimental results in terms of the theory allows the calculation of the diffusion coefficient and the formal potential of the redox couple. The model and the theoretical results may be exploited in the design and optimization of overcharge protection by the redox additive approach.

  9. Effect of commercial mineral-based additives on composting and compost quality.

    PubMed

    Himanen, M; Hänninen, K

    2009-08-01

    The effectiveness of two commercial additives meant to improve the composting process was studied in a laboratory-scale experiment. Improver A (sulphates and oxides of iron, magnesium, manganese, and zinc mixed with clay) and B (mixture of calcium hydroxide, peroxide, and oxide) were added to source-separated biowaste:peat mixture (1:1, v/v) in proportions recommended by the producers. The composting process (T, emissions of CO(2), NH(3), and CH(4)) and the quality of the compost (pH, conductivity, C/N ratio, water-soluble NH(4)-N and NO(3)-N, water- and NaOH-soluble low-weight carboxylic acids, nutrients, heavy metals and phytotoxicity to Lepidium sarivum) were monitored during one year. Compared with the control, the addition of improver B increased pH by two units, led to an earlier elimination of water-soluble ammonia, an increase in nitrates, a 10-fold increase in concentrations of acetic acid, and shortened phytotoxicity period by half; as negative aspect it led to volatilization of ammonia. The addition of improver A led to a longer thermophilic stage by one week and lower concentrations of low-weight carboxylic acids (both water- and NaOH-extractable) with formic and acetic of similar amounts, however, most of the aspects claimed by the improver's producer were not confirmed in this trial.

  10. Design and development of microcontroller-based clinical chemistry analyser for measurement of various blood biochemistry parameters.

    PubMed

    Taneja, S R; Gupta, R C; Kumar, Jagdish; Thariyan, K K; Verma, Sanjeev

    2005-01-01

    Clinical chemistry analyser is a high-performance microcontroller-based photometric biochemical analyser to measure various blood biochemical parameters such as blood glucose, urea, protein, bilirubin, and so forth, and also to measure and observe enzyme growth occurred while performing the other biochemical tests such as ALT (alkaline amino transferase), amylase, AST (aspartate amino transferase), and so forth. These tests are of great significance in biochemistry and used for diagnostic purposes and classifying various disorders and diseases such as diabetes, liver malfunctioning, renal diseases, and so forth. An inexpensive clinical chemistry analyser developed by the authors is described in this paper. This is an open system in which any reagent kit available in the market can be used. The system is based on the principle of absorbance transmittance photometry. System design is based around 80C31 microcontroller with RAM, EPROM, and peripheral interface devices. The developed system incorporates light source, an optical module, interference filters of various wave lengths, peltier device for maintaining required temperature of the mixture in flow cell, peristaltic pump for sample aspiration, graphic LCD display for displaying blood parameters, patients test results and kinetic test graph, 40 columns mini thermal printer, and also 32-key keyboard for executing various functions. The lab tests conducted on the instrument include versatility of the analyzer, flexibility of the software, and treatment of sample. The prototype was tested and evaluated over 1000 blood samples successfully for seventeen blood parameters. Evaluation was carried out at Government Medical College and Hospital, the Department of Biochemistry. The test results were found to be comparable with other standard instruments.

  11. Analysing Amazonian forest productivity using a new individual and trait-based model (TFS v.1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fyllas, N. M.; Gloor, E.; Mercado, L. M.; Sitch, S.; Quesada, C. A.; Domingues, T. F.; Galbraith, D. R.; Torre-Lezama, A.; Vilanova, E.; Ramírez-Angulo, H.; Higuchi, N.; Neill, D. A.; Silveira, M.; Ferreira, L.; Aymard C., G. A.; Malhi, Y.; Phillips, O. L.; Lloyd, J.

    2014-07-01

    Repeated long-term censuses have revealed large-scale spatial patterns in Amazon basin forest structure and dynamism, with some forests in the west of the basin having up to a twice as high rate of aboveground biomass production and tree recruitment as forests in the east. Possible causes for this variation could be the climatic and edaphic gradients across the basin and/or the spatial distribution of tree species composition. To help understand causes of this variation a new individual-based model of tropical forest growth, designed to take full advantage of the forest census data available from the Amazonian Forest Inventory Network (RAINFOR), has been developed. The model allows for within-stand variations in tree size distribution and key functional traits and between-stand differences in climate and soil physical and chemical properties. It runs at the stand level with four functional traits - leaf dry mass per area (Ma), leaf nitrogen (NL) and phosphorus (PL) content and wood density (DW) varying from tree to tree - in a way that replicates the observed continua found within each stand. We first applied the model to validate canopy-level water fluxes at three eddy covariance flux measurement sites. For all three sites the canopy-level water fluxes were adequately simulated. We then applied the model at seven plots, where intensive measurements of carbon allocation are available. Tree-by-tree multi-annual growth rates generally agreed well with observations for small trees, but with deviations identified for larger trees. At the stand level, simulations at 40 plots were used to explore the influence of climate and soil nutrient availability on the gross (ΠG) and net (ΠN) primary production rates as well as the carbon use efficiency (CU). Simulated ΠG, ΠN and CU were not associated with temperature. On the other hand, all three measures of stand level productivity were positively related to both mean annual precipitation and soil nutrient status

  12. Using a laser-based CO2 carbon isotope analyser to investigate gas transfer in geological media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillon, S.; Pili, E.; Agrinier, P.

    2012-05-01

    CO2 stable carbon isotopes are very attractive in environmental research to investigate both natural and anthropogenic carbon sources. Laser-based CO2 carbon isotope analysis provides continuous measurement at high temporal resolution and is a promising alternative to isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS). We performed a thorough assessment of a commercially available CO2 Carbon Isotope Analyser (CCIA DLT-100, Los Gatos Research) that allows in situ measurement of δ 13C in CO2. Using a set of reference gases of known CO2 concentration and carbon isotopic composition, we evaluated the precision, long-term stability, temperature sensitivity and concentration dependence of the analyser. Despite good precision calculated from Allan variance (5.0 ppm for CO2 concentration, and 0.05 ‰ for δ 13C at 60 s averaging), real performances are altered by two main sources of error: temperature sensitivity and dependence of δ 13C on CO2 concentration. Data processing is required to correct for these errors. Following application of these corrections, we achieve an accuracy of 8.7 ppm for CO2 concentration and 1.3 ‰ for δ 13C, which is worse compared to mass spectrometry performance, but still allowing field applications. With this portable analyser we measured CO2 flux degassed from rock in an underground tunnel. The obtained carbon isotopic composition agrees with IRMS measurement, and can be used to identify the carbon source.

  13. Effect of Stevia rebaudiana addition on bioaccessibility of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of beverages based on exotic fruits mixed with oat following simulated human digestion.

    PubMed

    Carbonell-Capella, Juana M; Buniowska, Magdalena; Esteve, María J; Frígola, Ana

    2015-10-01

    In order to determine the impact of Stevia rebaudiana (SR) addition on bioactive compounds bioaccessibility of a new developed functional beverage based on exotic fruits (mango juice, papaya juice and açaí) mixed with orange juice and oat, an in vitro gastrointestinal digestion was performed. Ascorbic acid, total carotenoids, total phenolics, total anthocyanins, total antioxidant capacity and steviol glycosides were evaluated before and after a simulated gastrointestinal digestion. Salivary and gastric digestion had no substantial effect on any of the major phenolic compounds, ascorbic acid, total antioxidant capacity and steviol glycosides, whereas carotenoids and anthocyanins diminished significantly during the gastric step. All analysed compounds were significantly altered during the pancreatic-bile digestion and this effect was more marked for carotenoids and total anthocyanins. However, phenolic compounds, anthocyanins, total antioxidant capacity and steviol glycosides bioaccessibility increased as did SR concentration. Ascorbic acid bioaccessibility was negatively affected by the SR addition.

  14. Subshell fitting of relativistic atomic core electron densities for use in QTAIM analyses of ECP-based wave functions.

    PubMed

    Keith, Todd A; Frisch, Michael J

    2011-11-17

    Scalar-relativistic, all-electron density functional theory (DFT) calculations were done for free, neutral atoms of all elements of the periodic table using the universal Gaussian basis set. Each core, closed-subshell contribution to a total atomic electron density distribution was separately fitted to a spherical electron density function: a linear combination of s-type Gaussian functions. The resulting core subshell electron densities are useful for systematically and compactly approximating total core electron densities of atoms in molecules, for any atomic core defined in terms of closed subshells. When used to augment the electron density from a wave function based on a calculation using effective core potentials (ECPs) in the Hamiltonian, the atomic core electron densities are sufficient to restore the otherwise-absent electron density maxima at the nuclear positions and eliminate spurious critical points in the neighborhood of the atom, thus enabling quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM) analyses to be done in the neighborhoods of atoms for which ECPs were used. Comparison of results from QTAIM analyses with all-electron, relativistic and nonrelativistic molecular wave functions validates the use of the atomic core electron densities for augmenting electron densities from ECP-based wave functions. For an atom in a molecule for which a small-core or medium-core ECPs is used, simply representing the core using a simplistic, tightly localized electron density function is actually sufficient to obtain a correct electron density topology and perform QTAIM analyses to obtain at least semiquantitatively meaningful results, but this is often not true when a large-core ECP is used. Comparison of QTAIM results from augmenting ECP-based molecular wave functions with the realistic atomic core electron densities presented here versus augmenting with the limiting case of tight core densities may be useful for diagnosing the reliability of large-core ECP models in

  15. Effect of incorporation of additives in tris-based egg yolk extender on buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) sperm tyrosine phosphorylation during cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    Kumar, R; Atreja, S K

    2012-06-01

    Phosphorylation of tyrosine residues on sperm protein is a known indicator of capacitation and a major intracellular signalling event. There is evidence that sperm cryopreservation promotes tyrosine phosphorylation and is associated with reduced fertility of spermatozoa. Under this study, cryoprotective role of different additives namely taurine, trehalose, catalase and 4-bromophenacyl bromide on buffalo sperm quality was evaluated. Buffalo semen was cryopreserved in tris-based egg yolk extender supplemented with additives like taurine (50 mm) or trehalose (100 mm) or 4-bromophenacyl bromide (200 μm) or catalase (100 U/ml) and used for assessment of levels of tyrosine phosphorylation in frozen-thawed spermatozoa. The results obtained were compared with the level of protein tyrosine phosphorylation of semen cryopreserved in tris-based egg yolk extender without additives. Proteins were extracted from a total number of nine ejaculates from three individual buffalo bulls chosen at random and analysed for tyrosine phospho-proteins using SDS-PAGE followed by immunoblotting. Monoclonal anti-phosphotyrosine antibody (Clone pT-154) was used as primary antibody followed by treatment with HRP-conjugated secondary antibody. Signals were detected on X-ray film using chemiluminescence. Nine proteins (p20, p30, p32, p38, p49, p56, p59, p72 and p86) were found to be tyrosine phosphorylated in cryopreserved spermatozoa. Supplementation of additives significantly (p<0.05) reduced the level of protein tyrosine phosphorylation in spermatozoa. Moreover, this study showed improved (p<0.05) post-thaw motility, viability and membrane integrity of spermatozoa on addition of these additives. The results obtained clearly indicate reduced level of capacitation like changes on supplementation of additives in terms of protein tyrosine phosphorylation.

  16. Audio-Visual Perception of 3D Cinematography: An fMRI Study Using Condition-Based and Computation-Based Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Ogawa, Akitoshi; Bordier, Cecile; Macaluso, Emiliano

    2013-01-01

    The use of naturalistic stimuli to probe sensory functions in the human brain is gaining increasing interest. Previous imaging studies examined brain activity associated with the processing of cinematographic material using both standard “condition-based” designs, as well as “computational” methods based on the extraction of time-varying features of the stimuli (e.g. motion). Here, we exploited both approaches to investigate the neural correlates of complex visual and auditory spatial signals in cinematography. In the first experiment, the participants watched a piece of a commercial movie presented in four blocked conditions: 3D vision with surround sounds (3D-Surround), 3D with monaural sound (3D-Mono), 2D-Surround, and 2D-Mono. In the second experiment, they watched two different segments of the movie both presented continuously in 3D-Surround. The blocked presentation served for standard condition-based analyses, while all datasets were submitted to computation-based analyses. The latter assessed where activity co-varied with visual disparity signals and the complexity of auditory multi-sources signals. The blocked analyses associated 3D viewing with the activation of the dorsal and lateral occipital cortex and superior parietal lobule, while the surround sounds activated the superior and middle temporal gyri (S/MTG). The computation-based analyses revealed the effects of absolute disparity in dorsal occipital and posterior parietal cortices and of disparity gradients in the posterior middle temporal gyrus plus the inferior frontal gyrus. The complexity of the surround sounds was associated with activity in specific sub-regions of S/MTG, even after accounting for changes of sound intensity. These results demonstrate that the processing of naturalistic audio-visual signals entails an extensive set of visual and auditory areas, and that computation-based analyses can track the contribution of complex spatial aspects characterizing such life-like stimuli

  17. Bis(fluoromalonato)borate (BFMB) Anion Based Ionic Liquid As an Additive for Lithium-Ion Battery Electrolytes

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Xiao-Guang; Liao, Chen; Baggetto, Loic; Guo, Bingkun; Unocic, Raymond R; Veith, Gabriel M; Dai, Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Propylene carbonate (PC) is a good solvent for lithium ion battery applications due to its low melting point and high dielectric constant. However, PC is easily intercalated into graphite causing it to exfoliate, killing its electrochemical performance. Here we report on the synthesis of a new ionic liquid electrolyte based on partially fluorinated borate anion, 1-butyl-1,2-dimethylimidazolium bis(fluoromalonato)borate (BDMIm.BFMB), which can be used as an additive in 1 M LiPF6/PC electrolyte to suppress graphite exfoliation and improve cycling performance. In addition, both PC and BDMIm.BFMB can be used synergistically as additive to 1.0M LiPF6/methyl isopropyl sulfone (MIPS) to dramatically improve its cycling performance. It is also found that the chemistry nature of the ionic liquids has dramatic effect on their role as additive in PC based electrolyte.

  18. Parent-Based Adolescent Sexual Health Interventions And Effect on Communication Outcomes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Maria, Diane Santa; Markham, Christine; Mullen, Patricia Dolan; Bluethmann, Shirley

    2016-01-01

    Context Parent-based adolescent sexual health interventions aim to reduce sexual risk behaviors by bolstering parental protective behaviors. Few studies of theory use, methods, applications, delivery and outcomes of parent-based interventions have been conducted. Methods A systematic search of databases for the period 1998–2013 identified 28 published trials of U.S. parent-based interventions to examine theory use, setting, reach, delivery mode, dose and effects on parent-child communication. Established coding schemes were used to assess use of theory and describe methods employed to achieve behavioral change; intervention effects were explored in meta-analyses. Results Most interventions were conducted with minority parents in group sessions or via self-paced activities; interventions averaged seven hours, and most used theory extensively. Meta-analyses found improvements in sexual health communication: Analysis of 11 controlled trials indicated a medium effect on increasing communication (Cohen's d, 0.5), and analysis of nine trials found a large effect on increasing parental comfort with communication (0.7); effects were positive regardless of delivery mode or intervention dose. Intervention participants were 68% more likely than controls to report increased communication and 75% more likely to report increased comfort. Conclusions These findings point to gaps in the range of programs examined in published trials—for example, interventions for parents of sexual minority youth, programs for custodial grandparents and faith-based services. Yet they provide support for the effectiveness of parent-based interventions in improving communication. Innovative delivery approaches could extend programs' reach, and further research on sexual health outcomes would facilitate the meta-analysis of intervention effectiveness in improving adolescent sexual health behaviors. PMID:25639664

  19. On the development and investigation of quaternary Pt-based superalloys with Ni additions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenderoth, M.; Glatzel, U.; Völkl, R.; Cornish, L. A.; Süss, R.; Vorberg, S.; Fischer, B.

    2005-03-01

    The objective of this work is to mimic the microstructure and strengthening mechanisms of Ni-based superalloys in a new group of high-temperature alloys based on the system Pt-Al. The elements Cr and Ni were chosen as further alloying components. Having a face-centered cubic (fcc) crystal structure with an Ll2-ordered and coherently embedded phase, these new alloys should increase creep and corrosion resistance beyond Ni-based superalloys. After arc melting and heat treatment, the alloys were investigated by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). In the aged condition, the alloy composition 13 at. pct Al, 3 at. pct Cr, 7 at. pct Ni, and balance Pt showed the most promising microstructure with cubical precipitates, 30 pct precipitate volume fraction, and a lattice misfit of about -0.1 pct at room temperature.

  20. Elaboration And Characterization Of Foam Glass Based On Cullet With Addition Of Soluble Silicates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayadi, A.; Stiti, N.; Benhaoua, F.; Boumchedda, K.; Lerari, Y.

    2011-01-01

    The politics of the energy saving and of the acoustic comfort buildings is at the heart of the research of new compounds permitting to improve the materials performance actually commercialised. With this aim in view, we'll purpose to elaborate a porous material (foam glass) with addition of soluble silicates (up to 40%) of which the principal material is the waste glass in order to recycle it and improving the present laws about the waste products in closed circuit: (Finished products ← waste products← finished products). The investigations have shown that grinding waste glass to particle size less than 0.1 mm and adding 1% of Ca CO3 content provide production of material with the following properties: particle density 0,5 g/cm3, strength 17,50 MPa and water adsorption 95%, the temperature for foaming ranges were determined at 850° C. The microstructures are homogenous, with pore sizes up to 2 mm. The addition of soluble silicates (up to 40%) has resulted in the foam glass of very high porosity. The foam glass is counted among the new glass products meeting certain requirements sought comfort in the building industry in particular (thermal and acoustic insulation). The product obtained present of excellent properties thermal (λ = 0,031 W/m° C) and acoustic (R = 15 dB).

  1. Elaboration And Characterization Of Foam Glass Based On Cullet With Addition Of Soluble Silicates

    SciTech Connect

    Ayadi, A.; Stiti, N.; Benhaoua, F.; Boumchedda, K.; Lerari, Y.

    2011-01-17

    The politics of the energy saving and of the acoustic comfort buildings is at the heart of the research of new compounds permitting to improve the materials performance actually commercialised. With this aim in view, we'll purpose to elaborate a porous material (foam glass) with addition of soluble silicates (up to 40%) of which the principal material is the waste glass in order to recycle it and improving the present laws about the waste products in closed circuit: (Finished products (leftarrow) waste products (leftarrow) finished products). The investigations have shown that grinding waste glass to particle size less than 0.1 mm and adding 1% of Ca CO{sub 3} content provide production of material with the following properties: particle density 0,5 g/cm{sup 3}, strength 17,50 MPa and water adsorption 95%, the temperature for foaming ranges were determined at 850 deg. C. The microstructures are homogenous, with pore sizes up to 2 mm. The addition of soluble silicates (up to 40%) has resulted in the foam glass of very high porosity. The foam glass is counted among the new glass products meeting certain requirements sought comfort in the building industry in particular (thermal and acoustic insulation). The product obtained present of excellent properties thermal ({lambda} = 0,031 W/m deg. C) and acoustic (R = 15 dB).

  2. Lightweight custom composite prosthetic components using an additive manufacturing-based molding technique.

    PubMed

    Leddy, Michael T; Belter, Joseph T; Gemmell, Kevin D; Dollar, Aaron M

    2015-01-01

    Additive manufacturing techniques are becoming more prominent and cost-effective as 3D printing becomes higher quality and more inexpensive. The idea of 3D printed prosthetics components promises affordable, customizable devices, but these systems currently have major shortcomings in durability and function. In this paper, we propose a fabrication method for custom composite prostheses utilizing additive manufacturing, allowing for customizability, as well the durability of professional prosthetics. The manufacturing process is completed using 3D printed molds in a multi-stage molding system, which creates a custom finger or palm with a lightweight epoxy foam core, a durable composite outer shell, and soft urethane gripping surfaces. The composite material was compared to 3D printed and aluminum materials using a three-point bending test to compare stiffness, as well as gravimetric measurements to compare weight. The composite finger demonstrates the largest stiffness with the lowest weight compared to other tested fingers, as well as having customizability and lower cost, proving to potentially be a substantial benefit to the development of upper-limb prostheses.

  3. Lithium-Ion Electrolytes Containing Phosphorous-Based, Flame-Retardant Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smart, Marshall C.; Smith, Kiah A.; Bugga, Ratnakumar V.; Prakash, G. K. Surya

    2010-01-01

    Future NASA missions aimed at exploring Mars, the Moon, and the outer planets require rechargeable batteries that can operate over a wide temperature range (-60 to +60 C) to satisfy the requirements of various applications. In addition, many of these applications will require improved safety, due to their use by humans. Currently, the state-of-the-art lithium-ion (Li-ion) system has been demonstrated to operate over a wide range of temperatures (-40 to +40 C); however, abuse conditions can often lead to cell rupture and fire. The nature of the electrolyte can greatly affect the propensity of the cell/battery to catch fire, given the flammability of the organic solvents used within. Li-ion electrolytes have been developed that contain a flame-retardant additive in conjunction with fluorinated co-solvents to provide a safe system with a wide operating temperature range. Previous work incorporated fluorinated esters into multi-component electrolyte formulations, which were demonstrated to cover a temperature range from 60 to +60 C. This work was described in Fluoroester Co-Solvents for Low-Temperature Li+ Cells (NPO-44626), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 33, No. 9 (September 2009), p. 37; and Optimized Li-Ion Electrolytes Con tain ing Fluorinated Ester Co-Solvents (NPO-45824), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 34, No. 3 (March 2010), p. 48. Other previous work improved the safety characteristics of the electrolytes by adding flame-retardant additives such as triphenyl phosphate (TPhPh), tri-butyl phosphate (TBuPh), triethyl phosphate (TEtPh), and bis(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl) methyl phosphonate (TFMPo). The current work involves further investigation of other types of flame-retardant additives, including tris(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl) phosphate, tris(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl) phosphite, triphenylphosphite, diethyl ethylphosphonate, and diethyl phenylphosphonate added to an electrolyte composition intended for wide operating temperatures. In general, many of the formulations investigated in this

  4. Extension to linear dynamics for hybrid stress finite element formulation based on additional displacements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumihara, K.

    Based upon legitimate variational principles, one microscopic-macroscopic finite element formulation for linear dynamics is presented by Hybrid Stress Finite Element Method. The microscopic application of Geometric Perturbation introduced by Pian and the introduction of infinitesimal limit core element (Baby Element) have been consistently combined according to the flexible and inherent interpretation of the legitimate variational principles initially originated by Pian and Tong. The conceptual development based upon Hybrid Finite Element Method is extended to linear dynamics with the introduction of physically meaningful higher modes.

  5. The effect of the addition of different fibres on the transverse and impact strength of acrylic resin denture base material.

    PubMed

    Rahamneh, A; Jagger, D C; Harrison, A

    2003-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of the addition of different types of fibres on the transverse and impact strength of acrylic resin denture base material. The addition of glass fibres (strand) and polyethylene fibres produced a non significant increase in the modulus of elasticity, compared with the control of conventional heat-cured acrylic resin. The addition of glass fibres (woven and strand), polyethylene and carbon fibres to acrylic resin produced a non significant increase in the modulus of rupture. The addition of carbon, glass (strand) and polyethylene fibres produced a significant increase in the impact strength. Within the limitations of this study the addition of silk fibres did not produce an improvement in the mechanical properties.

  6. In situ sulfur isotopes (δ(34)S and δ(33)S) analyses in sulfides and elemental sulfur using high sensitivity cones combined with the addition of nitrogen by laser ablation MC-ICP-MS.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jiali; Hu, Zhaochu; Zhang, Wen; Yang, Lu; Liu, Yongsheng; Li, Ming; Zong, Keqing; Gao, Shan; Hu, Shenghong

    2016-03-10

    The sulfur isotope is an important geochemical tracer in diverse fields of geosciences. In this study, the effects of three different cone combinations with the addition of N2 on the performance of in situ S isotope analyses were investigated in detail. The signal intensities of S isotopes were improved by a factor of 2.3 and 3.6 using the X skimmer cone combined with the standard sample cone or the Jet sample cone, respectively, compared with the standard arrangement (H skimmer cone combined with the standard sample cone). This signal enhancement is important for the improvement of the precision and accuracy of in situ S isotope analysis at high spatial resolution. Different cone combinations have a significant effect on the mass bias and mass bias stability for S isotopes. Poor precisions of S isotope ratios were obtained using the Jet and X cones combination at their corresponding optimum makeup gas flow when using Ar plasma only. The addition of 4-8 ml min(-1) nitrogen to the central gas flow in laser ablation MC-ICP-MS was found to significantly enlarge the mass bias stability zone at their corresponding optimum makeup gas flow in these three different cone combinations. The polyatomic interferences of OO, SH, OOH were also significantly reduced, and the interference free plateaus of sulfur isotopes became broader and flatter in the nitrogen mode (N2 = 4 ml min(-1)). However, the signal intensity of S was not increased by the addition of nitrogen in this study. The laser fluence and ablation mode had significant effects on sulfur isotope fractionation during the analysis of sulfides and elemental sulfur by laser ablation MC-ICP-MS. The matrix effect among different sulfides and elemental sulfur was observed, but could be significantly reduced by line scan ablation in preference to single spot ablation under the optimized fluence. It is recommended that the d90 values of the particles in pressed powder pellets for accurate and precise S isotope analysis

  7. Pyrolysis bio-oils as additives for vegetable oil based lubricants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Softwood and hardwood lignins, along with hardwood as such, were pyrolyzed to afford bio-oil distillates in which phenols were major products. Extraction with alkali gave a range of lignin-related phenols having molecular weights (MWs) from 110 to 344. Because vegetable oil based lubricants have dra...

  8. Addition of a Project-Based Component to a Conventional Expository Physical Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsaparlis, Georgios; Gorezi, Marianna

    2007-01-01

    Students should enjoy their laboratory classes and for this purpose a project-based activity is added to a conventional physical chemistry laboratory. Students were given project work instead of conventional experiment and then they had to make progress in the project according to instructions and then carry out experiments related to the project.

  9. Application of electron beam equipment based on a plasma cathode gun in additive technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galchenko, N. K.; Kolesnikova, K. A.; Semenov, G. V.; Rau, A. G.; Raskoshniy, S. Y.; Bezzubko, A. V.; Dampilon, B. V.; Sorokova, S. N.

    2016-11-01

    The paper discusses the application of electron beam equipment based on a plasma cathode gun for three-dimensional surface modification of metals and alloys. The effect of substrate surface preparation on the adhesion strength of gas thermal coatings has been investigated.

  10. 29 CFR 2590.702-1 - Additional requirements prohibiting discrimination based on genetic information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... diabetes. A begins to experience excessive sweating, thirst, and fatigue. A's physician examines A and... adult onset diabetes mellitus (Type 2 diabetes). (ii) Conclusion. In this Example 1, A has been... involved. The diagnosis is not based principally on genetic information. Thus, Type 2 diabetes...

  11. 45 CFR 146.122 - Additional requirements prohibiting discrimination based on genetic information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... diabetes. A begins to experience excessive sweating, thirst, and fatigue. A's physician examines A and... adult onset diabetes mellitus (Type 2 diabetes). (ii) Conclusion. In this Example 1, A has been... involved. The diagnosis is not based principally on genetic information. Thus, Type 2 diabetes...

  12. Single-cell SNP analyses and interpretations based on RNA-Seq data for colon cancer research.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiahuan; Zhou, Qian; Wang, Yangfan; Ning, Kang

    2016-09-28

    Single-cell sequencing is useful for illustrating the cellular heterogeneities inherent in many intricate biological systems, particularly in human cancer. However, owing to the difficulties in acquiring, amplifying and analyzing single-cell genetic material, obstacles remain for single-cell diversity assessments such as single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analyses, rendering biological interpretations of single-cell omics data elusive. We used RNA-Seq data from single-cell and bulk colon cancer samples to analyze the SNP profiles for both structural and functional comparisons. Colon cancer-related pathways with single-cell level SNP enrichment, including the TGF-β and p53 signaling pathways, were also investigated based on both their SNP enrichment patterns and gene expression. We also detected a certain number of fusion transcripts, which may promote tumorigenesis, at the single-cell level. Based on these results, single-cell analyses not only recapitulated the SNP analysis results from the bulk samples but also detected cell-to-cell and cell-to-bulk variations, thereby aiding in early diagnosis and in identifying the precise mechanisms underlying cancers at the single-cell level.

  13. MINLITH—an experience-based algorithm for estimating the likely mineralogical compositions of sedimentary rocks from bulk chemical analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosen, Oleg M.; Abbyasov, Ali A.; Tipper, John C.

    2004-07-01

    The MINLITH algorithm is a tool for estimating the likely mineralogical compositions of sedimentary rocks, using information from bulk chemical analyses. It is an experience-based algorithm that represents compositions in terms of a simplified set of normative minerals. MINLITH has been designed to be applied principally to mature sedimentary rocks, but it can (with care) be applied also to immature sediments and to metasedimentary rocks; the compositions that MINLITH gives for metasedimentary rocks are approximations to the original (i.e. pre-metamorphic) mineralogical compositions. The experience base on which MINLITH is built is a collection of 600 reference samples of sedimentary rocks. The compositional regularities found in these samples have allowed empirical rules to be developed to predict how the oxides reported in a bulk chemical analysis should be partitioned among the minerals most likely to be present. The discrepancies between MINLITH-estimated compositions and physically determined modal compositions are relatively small for the most widespread types of mature sedimentary rocks; they are comparable in their magnitude to the discrepancies associated with other methods for estimating mineralogical compositions from bulk chemical analyses, and to the discrepancies associated with quantitative X-ray diffractometry. The MINLITH algorithm is of particular value: (1) for providing preliminary estimates of mineralogical composition, prior to precise modal analysis; (2) for identifying systematic compositional variation within suites of samples; (3) in generalised sample classification; (4) in the sedimentological interpretation of metasedimentary rocks.

  14. Advanced 3D textile composites reinforcements meso F.E analyses based on X-ray computed tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naouar, Naim; Vidal-Salle, Emmanuelle; Boisse, Philippe

    2016-10-01

    Meso-FE modelling of 3D textile composites is a powerful tool, which can help determine mechanical properties and permeability of the reinforcements or composites. The quality of the meso FE analyses depends on the quality of the initial model. A direct method based on X-ray tomography imaging is introduced to determine finite element models based on the real geometry of 3D composite reinforcements. The method is particularly suitable regarding 3D textile reinforcements for which internal geometries are numerous and complex. The approach used for the separation of the yarns in different directions is specialized because the fibres flow in three-dimensional space. An analysis of the image's texture is performed. A hyperelastic model developed for fibre bundles is used for the simulation of the deformation of the 3D reinforcement.

  15. A numerical investigation on exergy analyses of a pyroelectric tryglycine sulfate (TGS)-based solar energy harvesting system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Manish; Vaish, Rahul; Singh Chauhan, Vishal

    2016-02-01

    This study is based on a numerical demonstration of energy and exergy analyses of a solar energy harvesting system based on the pyroelectric effect. The performance of a tryglycine sulfate (TGS) single crystal was investigated mathematically in the present study. The power output was optimized for different load resistances and load capacitances. The maximum power output was obtained as 0.95 μW across a load resistance of 40 MΩ and a 4.7 μF load capacitor. Further exergy analysis was performed for a pyroelectric energy harvesting system. Maximum values for electrical and thermal exergies obtained are 0.12 μW and 12 mW, respectively. Furthermore the maximum obtained electrical and thermal exergy efficiencies are 0.000 037% and 3.6%, respectively. The average thermal exergy efficiency is 2.15% for a cycle frequency of 0.014 Hz.

  16. Tribological properties of hydraulic fluids modified by peat-based additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ionov, V. V.; Larionov, S. A.; Sarkisov, Ju S.; Kopanica, N. O.; Gorchkova, A. V.; Gorlenko, N. P.; Tzevtkov, N. A.; Ikonnikova, K. V.

    2017-02-01

    The paper presents physicochemical investigations of the structure and properties of a nano-modifier synthesized from peat, the local raw material subjected to pyrolysis in air-free conditions. This nano-modifying additive is a combination of various forms of nanocarbon and polar and non-polar adsorbing materials such as silica (SiO2), calcium carbonate (CaCO3) and carbon (C). Different nanocarbon forms (nanotubes, fullerenes, nanodiamonds, nanofiber, nanodispersed carbon) used in different proportions with micro and macro peat components give multifunctional properties to the synthesized nano-modifier and the ability to positively change tribological properties of hydraulic fluids and oil lubricants. Test results of type TMT-600 show that its different percentage is required to modify tribological properties of the steel tribocouple under different loading conditions. At 0.5 wt.% content of this nano-modifier, stabilization of the friction ratio and an increase of seizure load are observed.

  17. Titanium-Based Hip Stems with Drug Delivery Functionality through Additive Manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Bezuidenhout, Martin B; Dimitrov, Dimitar M; van Staden, Anton D; Oosthuizen, Gert A; Dicks, Leon M T

    2015-01-01

    Postoperative infections are a major concern in patients that receive implants. These infections generally occur in areas with poor blood flow and pathogens do not always respond to antibiotic treatment. With the latest developments in nanotechnology, the incorporation of antibiotics into prosthetic implants may soon become a standard procedure. The success will, however, depend on the ability to control the release of antibiotics at concentrations high enough to prevent the development of antibiotic-resistant strains. Through additive manufacturing, antibiotics can be incorporated into cementless femoral stems to produce prosthetic devices with antimicrobial properties. With the emerging increase in resistance to antibiotics, the incorporation of antimicrobial compounds other than antibiotics, preferably drugs with a broader spectrum of antimicrobial activity, will have to be explored. This review highlights the microorganisms associated with total hip arthroplasty (THA), discusses the advantages and disadvantages of the latest materials used in hip implants, compares different antimicrobial agents that could be incorporated, and addresses novel ideas for future research.

  18. Design and tuning of standard additive model based fuzzy PID controllers for multivariable process systems.

    PubMed

    Harinath, Eranda; Mann, George K I

    2008-06-01

    This paper describes a design and two-level tuning method for fuzzy proportional-integral derivative (FPID) controllers for a multivariable process where the fuzzy inference uses the inference of standard additive model. The proposed method can be used for any n x n multi-input-multi-output process and guarantees closed-loop stability. In the two-level tuning scheme, the tuning follows two steps: low-level tuning followed by high-level tuning. The low-level tuning adjusts apparent linear gains, whereas the high-level tuning changes the nonlinearity in the normalized fuzzy output. In this paper, two types of FPID configurations are considered, and their performances are evaluated by using a real-time multizone temperature control problem having a 3 x 3 process system.

  19. Influence of tall oil biodiesel with Mg and Mo based fuel additives on diesel engine performance and emission.

    PubMed

    Keskin, Ali; Gürü, Metin; Altiparmak, Duran

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate influences of tall oil biodiesel with Mg and Mo based fuel additives on diesel engine performance and emission. Tall oil resinic acids were reacted with MgO and MoO(2) stoichiometrically for the production of metal-based fuel additives (combustion catalysts). The metal-based additives were added into tall oil biodiesel (B60) at the rate of 4 micromol/l, 8 micromol/l and 12 micromol/l for preparing test fuels. In general, both of the metal-based additives improved flash point, pour point and viscosity of the biodiesel fuel, depending on the rate of additives. A single cylinder DI diesel engine was used in the tests. Engine performance values did not change significantly with biodiesel fuels, but exhaust emission profile was improved. CO emissions and smoke opacity decreased by 56.42% and by 30.43%, respectively. In general, low NO(x) and CO(2) emissions were measured with the biodiesel fuels.

  20. Laser-based additive manufacturing: where it has been, where it needs to go

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Khershed P.

    2014-03-01

    It is no secret that the laser was the driver for additive manufacturing (AM) of 3D objects since such objects were first demonstrated in the mid-1980s. A myriad of techniques utilizing the directed energy of lasers were invented. Lasers are used to selectively sinter or fuse incremental layers in powder-beds, melt streaming powder following a programmed path, and polymerize photopolymers in a liquid vat layer-by-layer. The laser is an energy source of choice for repair of damaged components, for manufacture of new or replacement parts, and for rapid prototyping of concept designs. Lasers enable microstructure gradients and heterogeneous structures designed to exhibit unique properties and behavior. Laserbased additive manufacturing has been successful in producing relatively simple near net-shape metallic parts saving material and cost, but requiring finish-machining and in repair and refurbishment of worn components. It has been routinely used to produce polymer parts. These capabilities have been widely recognized as evidenced by the explosion in interest in AM technology, nationally. These successes are, however, tempered by challenges facing practitioners such as process and part qualification and verification, which are needed to bring AM as a true manufacturing technology. The ONR manufacturing science program, in collaboration with other agencies, invested in basic R&D in AM since its beginnings. It continues to invest, currently focusing on developing cyber-enabled manufacturing systems for AM. It is believed that such computation, communication and control approaches will help in validating AM and moving it to the factory floor along side CNC machines.

  1. Lewis base catalyzed 1,3-dithiane addition to carbonyl and imino compounds using 2-trimethylsilyl-1,3-dithiane.

    PubMed

    Michida, Makoto; Mukaiyama, Teruaki

    2008-09-01

    Lewis base-catalyzed 1,3-dithiane addition to electrophiles such as carbonyl compounds and N-substituted aldimines with 2-trimethylsilyl-1,3-dithiane (TMS-dithiane) is described. By the activation of the carbon-silicon bond in the presence of a Lewis base catalyst such as tetrabutylammonium phenoxide (PhONnBu(4)), a 1,3-dithiane addition reaction proceeded smoothly to afford the corresponding adducts in good to high yields under mild conditions. This synthesis is also applied to the reactions of ketones having alpha-protons, and of N-substituted aldimines.

  2. Neutron measurements of stresses in a test artifact produced by laser-based additive manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Gnäupel-Herold, Thomas; Slotwinski, John; Moylan, Shawn

    2014-02-18

    A stainless steel test artifact produced by Direct Metal Laser Sintering and similar to a proposed standardized test artifact was examined using neutron diffraction. The artifact contained a number of structures with different aspect ratios pertaining to wall thickness, height above base plate, and side length. Through spatial resolutions of the order of one millimeter the volumetric distribution of stresses in several was measured. It was found that the stresses peak in the tensile region around 500 MPa near the top surface, with balancing compressive stresses in the interior. The presence of a support structure (a one millimeter high, thin walled, hence weaker, lattice structure deposited on the base plate, followed by a fully dense AM structure) has only minor effects on the stresses.

  3. Characteristics of tetrahydrofuran-based electrolytes with magnesium alkoxide additives for rechargeable magnesium batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, In-Tae; Yamabuki, Kazuhiro; Sumimoto, Michinori; Tsutsumi, Hiromori; Morita, Masayuki; Yoshimoto, Nobuko

    2016-08-01

    The electrochemical behavior of magnesium (Mg) metal was investigated in tetrahydrofuran (THF)-based solutions containing magnesium bromide (MgBr2) and/or magnesium ethoxide (Mg(OEt)2). THF solutions containing a single solute, MgBr2 or Mg(OEt)2, show no visible faradaic current based on Mg deposition and/or dissolution. However, the electrolyte system containing both solutes, MgBr2 + Mg(OEt)2/THF, gives a reversible current response of Mg deposition and dissolution. The ionic structure of the electrolyte system containing the binary solute was examined by infrared (IR) spectroscopy and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. It was confirmed that MgBr2 and Mg(OEt)2 are coordinated (solvated) with THF molecules to form an EtOsbnd Mgsbnd Br·4THF complex. The DFT calculations also suggest the possible formation of μ-complexes for the MgBr2/Mg(OEt)2 binary system in THF. The voltammetric responses at the Pt electrode indicate low overpotential and high coulombic efficiency for Mg deposition and dissolution in THF-based solutions containing suitable molar ratios of MgBr2 and Mg(OEt)2. The constant-current charge-discharge cycling of Mg in MgBr2 + Mg(OEt)2/THF electrolyte also shows low overpotential and good cyclability over 300 cycles.

  4. A comparison between evapotranspiration estimates based on remotely sensed surface energy balance and ground-based soil water balance analyses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Remotely sensed and in-situ data were used to investigate dynamics of root zone soil moisture and evapotranspiration (ET) at four Mesonet stations in north-central Oklahoma over an 11-year period (2000-2010). Two moisture deficit indicators based on soil matric potential had spatial and temporal pat...

  5. The Effect of CeO2 Addition on the Microstructure and Properties of Ni-Based Flame-Spray Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhenyu; Liang, Bunv; Guo, Hongjian

    2014-04-01

    Ni-based alloy with different amount of CeO2 powders were flame sprayed and melted onto 1045 carbon steel substrate. Microstructure and properties of the coatings were studied by XRD, field emission gun scanning electron microscope (FEGSEM) and SEM analyses. The wear behavior of the coatings was investigated under dry sliding wear conditions, and was compared with that of the coatings without CeO2, The results show that the microstructure of the coating with CeO2 differs widely from the coating without CeO2, the novel microstructure is beneficial for wear resistance. Abrasive wear tests without lubricant and analysis of the worn surfaces revealed that the Ni-based alloy coatings with the addition of 0.8% CeO2 exhibit higher wear resistance.

  6. Bifunctional heterogeneous catalysis of silica-alumina-supported tertiary amines with controlled acid-base interactions for efficient 1,4-addition reactions.

    PubMed

    Motokura, Ken; Tanaka, Satoka; Tada, Mizuki; Iwasawa, Yasuhiro

    2009-10-19

    We report the first tunable bifunctional surface of silica-alumina-supported tertiary amines (SA-NEt(2)) active for catalytic 1,4-addition reactions of nitroalkanes and thiols to electron-deficient alkenes. The 1,4-addition reaction of nitroalkanes to electron-deficient alkenes is one of the most useful carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions and applicable toward a wide range of organic syntheses. The reaction between nitroethane and methyl vinyl ketone scarcely proceeded with either SA or homogeneous amines, and a mixture of SA and amines showed very low catalytic activity. In addition, undesirable side reactions occurred in the case of a strong base like sodium ethoxide employed as a catalytic reagent. Only the present SA-supported amine (SA-NEt(2)) catalyst enabled selective formation of a double-alkylated product without promotions of side reactions such as an intramolecular cyclization reaction. The heterogeneous SA-NEt(2) catalyst was easily recovered from the reaction mixture by simple filtration and reusable with retention of its catalytic activity and selectivity. Furthermore, the SA-NEt(2) catalyst system was applicable to the addition reaction of other nitroalkanes and thiols to various electron-deficient alkenes. The solid-state magic-angle spinning (MAS) NMR spectroscopic analyses, including variable-contact-time (13)C cross-polarization (CP)/MAS NMR spectroscopy, revealed that acid-base interactions between surface acid sites and immobilized amines can be controlled by pretreatment of SA at different temperatures. The catalytic activities for these addition reactions were strongly affected by the surface acid-base interactions.

  7. A new multipollutant, no-threshold air quality health index based on short-term associations observed in daily time-series analyses.

    PubMed

    Stieb, David M; Burnett, Richard T; Smith-Doiron, Marc; Brion, Orly; Shin, Hwashin Hyun; Economou, Vanita

    2008-03-01

    Air quality indices currently in use have been criticized because they do not capture additive effects of multiple pollutants, or reflect the apparent no-threshold concentration-response relationship between air pollution and health. We propose a new air quality health index (AQHI), constructed as the sum of excess mortality risk associated with individual pollutants from a time-series analysis of air pollution and mortality in Canadian cities, adjusted to a 0-10 scale, and calculated hourly on the basis of trailing 3-hr average pollutant concentrations. Extensive sensitivity analyses were conducted using alternative combinations of pollutants from single and multipollutant models. All formulations considered produced frequency distributions of the daily maximum AQHI that were right-skewed, with modal values of 3 or 4, and less than 10% of values at 7 or above on the 10-point scale. In the absence of a gold standard and given the uncertainty in how to best reflect the mix of pollutants, we recommend a formulation based on associations of nitrogen dioxide, ozone, and particulate matter of median aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 microm with mortality from single-pollutant models. Further sensitivity analyses revealed good agreement of this formulation with others based on alternative sources of coefficients drawn from published studies of mortality and morbidity. These analyses provide evidence that the AQHI represents a valid approach to formulating an index with the objective of allowing people to judge the relative probability of experiencing adverse health effects from day to day. Together with health messages and a graphic display, the AQHI scale appears promising as an air quality risk communication tool.

  8. Optimization of solution-processed oligothiophene:fullerene based organic solar cells by using solvent additives.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Gisela L; Urdanpilleta, Marta; Fitzner, Roland; Brier, Eduard; Mena-Osteritz, Elena; Reinold, Egon; Bäuerle, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The optimization of solution-processed organic bulk-heterojunction solar cells with the acceptor-substituted quinquethiophene DCV5T-Bu 4 as donor in conjunction with PC61BM as acceptor is described. Power conversion efficiencies up to 3.0% and external quantum efficiencies up to 40% were obtained through the use of 1-chloronaphthalene as solvent additive in the fabrication of the photovoltaic devices. Furthermore, atomic force microscopy investigations of the photoactive layer gave insight into the distribution of donor and acceptor within the blend. The unique combination of solubility and thermal stability of DCV5T-Bu 4 also allows for fabrication of organic solar cells by vacuum deposition. Thus, we were able to perform a rare comparison of the device characteristics of the solution-processed DCV5T-Bu 4 :PC61BM solar cell with its vacuum-processed DCV5T-Bu 4 :C60 counterpart. Interestingly in this case, the efficiencies of the small-molecule organic solar cells prepared by using solution techniques are approaching those fabricated by using vacuum technology. This result is significant as vacuum-processed devices typically display much better performances in photovoltaic cells.

  9. Additive Manufacturing of SiC Based Ceramics and Ceramic Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halbig, Michael Charles; Singh, Mrityunjay

    2015-01-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC) ceramics and SiC fiber reinforcedSiC ceramic matrix composites (SiCSiC CMCs) offer high payoff as replacements for metals in turbine engine applications due to their lighter weight, higher temperature capability, and lower cooling requirements. Additive manufacturing approaches can offer game changing technologies for the quick and low cost fabrication of parts with much greater design freedom and geometric complexity. Four approaches for developing these materials are presented. The first two utilize low cost 3D printers. The first uses pre-ceramic pastes developed as feed materials which are converted to SiC after firing. The second uses wood containing filament to print a carbonaceous preform which is infiltrated with a pre-ceramic polymer and converted to SiC. The other two approaches pursue the AM of CMCs. The first is binder jet SiC powder processing in collaboration with rp+m (Rapid Prototyping+Manufacturing). Processing optimization was pursued through SiC powder blending, infiltration with and without SiC nano powder loading, and integration of nanofibers into the powder bed. The second approach was laminated object manufacturing (LOM) in which fiber prepregs and laminates are cut to shape by a laser and stacked to form the desired part. Scanning electron microscopy was conducted on materials from all approaches with select approaches also characterized with XRD, TGA, and bend testing.

  10. Titanium-Based Hip Stems with Drug Delivery Functionality through Additive Manufacturing

    PubMed Central

    Bezuidenhout, Martin B.; Dimitrov, Dimitar M.; van Staden, Anton D.; Oosthuizen, Gert A.; Dicks, Leon M. T.

    2015-01-01

    Postoperative infections are a major concern in patients that receive implants. These infections generally occur in areas with poor blood flow and pathogens do not always respond to antibiotic treatment. With the latest developments in nanotechnology, the incorporation of antibiotics into prosthetic implants may soon become a standard procedure. The success will, however, depend on the ability to control the release of antibiotics at concentrations high enough to prevent the development of antibiotic-resistant strains. Through additive manufacturing, antibiotics can be incorporated into cementless femoral stems to produce prosthetic devices with antimicrobial properties. With the emerging increase in resistance to antibiotics, the incorporation of antimicrobial compounds other than antibiotics, preferably drugs with a broader spectrum of antimicrobial activity, will have to be explored. This review highlights the microorganisms associated with total hip arthroplasty (THA), discusses the advantages and disadvantages of the latest materials used in hip implants, compares different antimicrobial agents that could be incorporated, and addresses novel ideas for future research. PMID:26504776

  11. Protective effect of two yeast based feed additives on pigs chronically exposed to deoxynivalenol and zearalenone.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Alexandra C; See, M Todd; Kim, Sung Woo

    2014-12-12

    To evaluate the effects of the mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEA) on pigs and the benefits of two mycotoxin mitigation strategies, gilts (n = 84, 9.1 ± 0.1 kg) were allotted to four treatments: CON (control); MT (4.8 mg/kg feed DON and 0.3 mg/kg feed ZEA); MT-YC (MT + 2 g/kg of yeast cell wall product); and MT-YF (MT + 2 g/kg of yeast fermentation product). After 42 days of feeding, pigs fed MT had reduced (p < 0.05) growth performance compared with pigs fed CON. Pigs fed MT-YF had greater (p < 0.05) average daily gain and tended to have greater (p = 0.080) average daily feed intake than MT, whereas pigs fed MT-YC did not differ from MT. Oxidative DNA damage increased (p < 0.05) in MT, whereas pigs fed MT-YF tended to have lower (p = 0.067) oxidative stress. Liver hydropic degeneration was increased (p < 0.05) in MT in contrast to CON and MT-YF, and tended to be greater (p = 0.079) than MT-YC. Collectively, feeding diets contaminated with mycotoxins significantly reduced growth performance and impacted pig health. The yeast additives had varied ability to reduce mycotoxin effects on pig growth and health, but may still play a beneficial role in reducing the overall impacts of a mycotoxin challenge on pigs.

  12. Do Health Professionals Need Additional Competencies for Stratified Cancer Prevention Based on Genetic Risk Profiling?

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, Susmita; Henneman, Lidewij; Dent, Tom; Hall, Alison; Burton, Alice; Pharoah, Paul; Pashayan, Nora; Burton, Hilary

    2015-01-01

    There is growing evidence that inclusion of genetic information about known common susceptibility variants may enable population risk-stratification and personalized prevention for common diseases including cancer. This would require the inclusion of genetic testing as an integral part of individual risk assessment of an asymptomatic individual. Front line health professionals would be expected to interact with and assist asymptomatic individuals through the risk stratification process. In that case, additional knowledge and skills may be needed. Current guidelines and frameworks for genetic competencies of non-specialist health professionals place an emphasis on rare inherited genetic diseases. For common diseases, health professionals do use risk assessment tools but such tools currently do not assess genetic susceptibility of individuals. In this article, we compare the skills and knowledge needed by non-genetic health professionals, if risk-stratified prevention is implemented, with existing competence recommendations from the UK, USA and Europe, in order to assess the gaps in current competences. We found that health professionals would benefit from understanding the contribution of common genetic variations in disease risk, the rationale for a risk-stratified prevention pathway, and the implications of using genomic information in risk-assessment and risk management of asymptomatic individuals for common disease prevention. PMID:26068647

  13. Do Health Professionals Need Additional Competencies for Stratified Cancer Prevention Based on Genetic Risk Profiling?

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Susmita; Henneman, Lidewij; Dent, Tom; Hall, Alison; Burton, Alice; Pharoah, Paul; Pashayan, Nora; Burton, Hilary

    2015-06-09

    There is growing evidence that inclusion of genetic information about known common susceptibility variants may enable population risk-stratification and personalized prevention for common diseases including cancer. This would require the inclusion of genetic testing as an integral part of individual risk assessment of an asymptomatic individual. Front line health professionals would be expected to interact with and assist asymptomatic individuals through the risk stratification process. In that case, additional knowledge and skills may be needed. Current guidelines and frameworks for genetic competencies of non-specialist health professionals place an emphasis on rare inherited genetic diseases. For common diseases, health professionals do use risk assessment tools but such tools currently do not assess genetic susceptibility of individuals. In this article, we compare the skills and knowledge needed by non-genetic health professionals, if risk-stratified prevention is implemented, with existing competence recommendations from the UK, USA and Europe, in order to assess the gaps in current competences. We found that health professionals would benefit from understanding the contribution of common genetic variations in disease risk, the rationale for a risk-stratified prevention pathway, and the implications of using genomic information in risk-assessment and risk management of asymptomatic individuals for common disease prevention.

  14. Novel Evolutionary Lineages Revealed in the Chaetothyriales (Fungi) Based on Multigene Phylogenetic Analyses and Comparison of ITS Secondary Structure

    PubMed Central

    Réblová, Martina; Untereiner, Wendy A.; Réblová, Kamila

    2013-01-01

    Cyphellophora and Phialophora (Chaetothyriales, Pezizomycota) comprise species known from skin infections of humans and animals and from a variety of environmental sources. These fungi were studied based on the comparison of cultural and morphological features and phylogenetic analyses of five nuclear loci, i.e., internal transcribed spacer rDNA operon (ITS), large and small subunit nuclear ribosomal DNA (nuc28S rDNA, nuc18S rDNA), β-tubulin, DNA replication licensing factor (mcm7) and second largest subunit of RNA polymerase II (rpb2). Phylogenetic results were supported by comparative analysis of ITS1 and ITS2 secondary structure of representatives of the Chaetothyriales and the identification of substitutions among the taxa analyzed. Base pairs with non-conserved, co-evolving nucleotides that maintain base pairing in the RNA transcript and unique evolutionary motifs in the ITS2 that characterize whole clades or individual taxa were mapped on predicted secondary structure models. Morphological characteristics, structural data and phylogenetic analyses of three datasets, i.e., ITS, ITS-β-tubulin and 28S-18S-rpb2-mcm7, define a robust clade containing eight species of Cyphellophora (including the type) and six species of Phialophora. These taxa are now accommodated in the Cyphellophoraceae, a novel evolutionary lineage within the Chaetothyriales. Cyphellophora is emended and expanded to encompass species with both septate and nonseptate conidia formed on discrete, intercalary, terminal or lateral phialides. Six new combinations in Cyphellophora are proposed and a dichotomous key to species accepted in the genus is provided. Cyphellophora eugeniae and C. hylomeconis, which grouped in the Chaetothyriaceae, represent another novel lineage and are introduced as the type species of separate genera. PMID:23723988

  15. Mechanics of additively manufactured porous biomaterials based on the rhombicuboctahedron unit cell.

    PubMed

    Hedayati, R; Sadighi, M; Mohammadi-Aghdam, M; Zadpoor, A A

    2016-01-01

    Thanks to recent developments in additive manufacturing techniques, it is now possible to fabricate porous biomaterials with arbitrarily complex micro-architectures. Micro-architectures of such biomaterials determine their physical and biological properties, meaning that one could potentially improve the performance of such biomaterials through rational design of micro-architecture. The relationship between the micro-architecture of porous biomaterials and their physical and biological properties has therefore received increasing attention recently. In this paper, we studied the mechanical properties of porous biomaterials made from a relatively unexplored unit cell, namely rhombicuboctahedron. We derived analytical relationships that relate the micro-architecture of such porous biomaterials, i.e. the dimensions of the rhombicuboctahedron unit cell, to their elastic modulus, Poisson's ratio, and yield stress. Finite element models were also developed to validate the analytical solutions. Analytical and numerical results were compared with experimental data from one of our recent studies. It was found that analytical solutions and numerical results show a very good agreement particularly for smaller values of apparent density. The elastic moduli predicted by analytical and numerical models were in very good agreement with experimental observations too. While in excellent agreement with each other, analytical and numerical models somewhat over-predicted the yield stress of the porous structures as compared to experimental data. As the ratio of the vertical struts to the inclined struts, α, approaches zero and infinity, the rhombicuboctahedron unit cell respectively approaches the octahedron (or truncated cube) and cube unit cells. For those limits, the analytical solutions presented here were found to approach the analytic solutions obtained for the octahedron, truncated cube, and cube unit cells, meaning that the presented solutions are generalizations of the

  16. Fiber-based solid phase microextraction using fused silica lined bottles to collect, store, and stabilize a multianalyte headspace gas sample for offline analyses.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Chris A; Carter, J Chance; Ertel, John R; Alviso, Cindy T; Chinn, Sarah C; Maxwell, Robert S

    2015-07-03

    We have developed a solid phase microextraction (SPME) sampling method using fused silica lined bottles (400 ml) to collect, store, and stabilize a headspace subsample from the source for subsequent offline, repetitive analyses of the gas using fiber-based SPME. The method enables long-term stability for repeated offline analysis of the organic species collected from the source headspace and retains all the advantages of fiber SPME sampling (e.g. rapid extraction, solvent free, simple and inexpensive) while providing additional advantages. Typically, the analytes collected on the SPME fiber must be desorbed and analyzed immediately to mitigate analyte loss or contamination. The new SPME sampling method, conducted offline using carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane (carboxen/PDMS - 85 μm) coated fibers, has been shown to be identical to in situ SPME sampling of a headspace acquired from an 80 component organic matrix with reproducibility demonstrated to be less than %RSD=7.0% for replicate samples measured over a 30-day period. In addition, repetitive samplings from one headspace aliquot are possible using one or more fibers and fiber types as well as quantitative options such as internal standard addition as demonstrated in a feasibility study using a benzene/toluene/xylene (BTX; 1 ppmv) certified gas standard, in which the SPME measurement precision (%RSD) was improved by a factor of 1.5-1.9 compared to the use of an external standard.

  17. Addition of visual noise boosts evoked potential-based brain-computer interface

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Jun; Xu, Guanghua; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Sicong; Zhang, Feng; Li, Yeping; Han, Chengcheng; Li, Lili

    2014-01-01

    Although noise has a proven beneficial role in brain functions, there have not been any attempts on the dedication of stochastic resonance effect in neural engineering applications, especially in researches of brain-computer interfaces (BCIs). In our study, a steady-state motion visual evoked potential (SSMVEP)-based BCI with periodic visual stimulation plus moderate spatiotemporal noise can achieve better offline and online performance due to enhancement of periodic components in brain responses, which was accompanied by suppression of high harmonics. Offline results behaved with a bell-shaped resonance-like functionality and 7–36% online performance improvements can be achieved when identical visual noise was adopted for different stimulation frequencies. Using neural encoding modeling, these phenomena can be explained as noise-induced input-output synchronization in human sensory systems which commonly possess a low-pass property. Our work demonstrated that noise could boost BCIs in addressing human needs. PMID:24828128

  18. Structure-property effects of tantalum additions to nickel-base superalloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heckel, R. W.; Pletka, B. J.; Koss, D. A.; Jackson, M. R.

    1982-01-01

    The characterization of the effect of Ta on the structure of Ni base superalloys, the determination of the effects of Ta (structure) variations on the mechanical, thermal, and oxidation behavior, and the identification of alloying elements which have potential as substitutes for Ta are investigated. Mar M247 type alloys are emphasized; nominal and analyzed compositions of ten alloys under study are given. X-ray and composition analysis are being used to determine the partitioning of alloying elements between gamma, gamma primes, and MC (cubic) as a function of Ta content. The diffusional interactions of the Mar M247-type alloys with as cast beta + gamma alloys are studied to determine the effects of Ta on alloy/coating degradation.

  19. Composite materials based on high-modulus compounds for additive technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigoriev, M.; Kotelnikov, N.; Buyakova, S.; Kulkov, S.

    2016-07-01

    The effect of adding nanocrystalline ZrO2 and submicron TiC to ultrafine Al2O3 on mechanical properties and the microstructure of the composites developed by hot pressing was investigated. It was shown that by means of hot pressing in argon atmosphere at the sintering temperature of 1500 °C one can obtain the composites of Al2O3-ZrO2-TiC with a fine structure and minimal porosity. It was shown that in the material a multi-scale hierarchical structure is formed, which possesses high physical and mechanical properties: the hardness and fracture toughness was 22 GPa and 5.2 MPa*m1/2, respectively. It has been shown that mechanical properties of the composite are better than those of commercial composites based on aluminum oxide (Al2O3, ZTA, Al2O3-TiC) and are comparable to those of silicon nitride.

  20. Sodium- and phosphorus-based food additives: persistent but surmountable hurdles in the management of nutrition in chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Orlando M

    2013-03-01

    Sodium- and phosphorus-based food additives are among the most commonly consumed nutrients in the world. This is because both have diverse applications in processed food manufacturing, leading to their widespread use by the food industry. Since most foods are naturally low in salt, sodium additives almost completely account for the excessive consumption of sodium throughout the world. Similarly, phosphorus additives represent a major and "hidden" phosphorus load in modern diets. These factors pose a major barrier to successfully lowering sodium or phosphorus intake in patients with CKD. As such, any serious effort to reduce sodium or phosphorus consumption will require reductions in the use of these additives by the food industry. The current regulatory environment governing the use of food additives does not favor this goal, however, in large part because these additives have historically been classified as generally safe for public consumption. To overcome these barriers, coordinated efforts will be needed to demonstrate that high intake of these additives is not safe for public consumption and as such should be subject to greater regulatory scrutiny.

  1. Sodium and phosphorus-based food additives: persistent but surmountable hurdles in the management of nutrition in chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez, Orlando M.

    2012-01-01

    Sodium and phosphorus-based food additives are among the most commonly consumed nutrients in the world. This is because both have diverse applications in processed food manufacturing, leading to their widespread utilization by the food industry. Since most foods are naturally low in salt, sodium additives almost completely account for the excessive consumption of sodium throughout the world. Similarly, phosphorus additives represent a major and “hidden” phosphorus load in modern diets. These factors pose a major barrier to successfully lowering sodium or phosphorus intake in patients with chronic kidney disease. As such, any serious effort to reduce sodium or phosphorus consumption will require reductions in the use of these additives by the food industry. The current regulatory environment governing the use of food additives does not favor this goal, however, in large part because these additives have historically been classified as generally safe for public consumption. To overcome these barriers, coordinated efforts will be needed to demonstrate that high intakes of these additives are not safe for public consumption and as such, should be subject to greater regulatory scrutiny. PMID:23439374

  2. Detection of intestinal parasites by use of the cuvette-based automated microscopy analyser sediMAX(®).

    PubMed

    Intra, J; Taverna, E; Sala, M R; Falbo, R; Cappellini, F; Brambilla, P

    2016-03-01

    Microscopy is the reference method for intestinal parasite identification. The cuvette-based automated microscopy analyser, sediMAX 1, provides 15 digital images of each sediment sample. In this study, we have evaluated this fully automated instrument for detection of enteric parasites, helminths and protozoa. A total of 700 consecutively preserved samples consisting of 60 positive samples (50 protozoa, ten helminths) and 640 negative samples were analysed. Operators were blinded to each others' results. Samples were randomized and were tested both by manual microscopy and sediMAX 1 for parasite recognition. The sediMAX 1 analysis was conducted using a dilution of faecal samples, allowing determination of morphology. The data obtained using sediMAX 1 showed a specificity of 100% and a sensitivity of 100%. Some species of helminths, such as Enterobius vermicularis, Strongyloides stercolaris, the Ancylostoma duodenale/Necator americanus complex, and schistosomes were not considered in this work, because they are rare in stool specimens, are not easily detectable with microscopy analysis, and require specific recovery techniques. This study demonstrated for the first time that sediMAX 1 can be an aid in enteric parasite identification.

  3. PHI-base: a new interface and further additions for the multi-species pathogen-host interactions database.

    PubMed

    Urban, Martin; Cuzick, Alayne; Rutherford, Kim; Irvine, Alistair; Pedro, Helder; Pant, Rashmi; Sadanadan, Vidyendra; Khamari, Lokanath; Billal, Santoshkumar; Mohanty, Sagar; Hammond-Kosack, Kim E

    2017-01-04

    The pathogen-host interactions database (PHI-base) is available at www.phi-base.org PHI-base contains expertly curated molecular and biological information on genes proven to affect the outcome of pathogen-host interactions reported in peer reviewed research articles. In addition, literature that indicates specific gene alterations that did not affect the disease interaction phenotype are curated to provide complete datasets for comparative purposes. Viruses are not included. Here we describe a revised PHI-base Version 4 data platform with improved search, filtering and extended data display functions. A PHIB-BLAST search function is provided and a link to PHI-Canto, a tool for authors to directly curate their own published data into PHI-base. The new release of PHI-base Version 4.2 (October 2016) has an increased data content containing information from 2219 manually curated references. The data provide information on 4460 genes from 264 pathogens tested on 176 hosts in 8046 interactions. Prokaryotic and eukaryotic pathogens are represented in almost equal numbers. Host species belong ∼70% to plants and 30% to other species of medical and/or environmental importance. Additional data types included into PHI-base 4 are the direct targets of pathogen effector proteins in experimental and natural host organisms. The curation problems encountered and the future directions of the PHI-base project are briefly discussed.

  4. PHI-base: a new interface and further additions for the multi-species pathogen–host interactions database

    PubMed Central

    Urban, Martin; Cuzick, Alayne; Rutherford, Kim; Irvine, Alistair; Pedro, Helder; Pant, Rashmi; Sadanadan, Vidyendra; Khamari, Lokanath; Billal, Santoshkumar; Mohanty, Sagar; Hammond-Kosack, Kim E.

    2017-01-01

    The pathogen–host interactions database (PHI-base) is available at www.phi-base.org. PHI-base contains expertly curated molecular and biological information on genes proven to affect the outcome of pathogen–host interactions reported in peer reviewed research articles. In addition, literature that indicates specific gene alterations that did not affect the disease interaction phenotype are curated to provide complete datasets for comparative purposes. Viruses are not included. Here we describe a revised PHI-base Version 4 data platform with improved search, filtering and extended data display functions. A PHIB-BLAST search function is provided and a link to PHI-Canto, a tool for authors to directly curate their own published data into PHI-base. The new release of PHI-base Version 4.2 (October 2016) has an increased data content containing information from 2219 manually curated references. The data provide information on 4460 genes from 264 pathogens tested on 176 hosts in 8046 interactions. Prokaryotic and eukaryotic pathogens are represented in almost equal numbers. Host species belong ∼70% to plants and 30% to other species of medical and/or environmental importance. Additional data types included into PHI-base 4 are the direct targets of pathogen effector proteins in experimental and natural host organisms. The curation problems encountered and the future directions of the PHI-base project are briefly discussed. PMID:27915230

  5. Accelerometry-based gait analysis, an additional objective approach to screen subjects at risk for falling.

    PubMed

    Senden, R; Savelberg, H H C M; Grimm, B; Heyligers, I C; Meijer, K

    2012-06-01

    This study investigated whether the Tinetti scale, as a subjective measure for fall risk, is associated with objectively measured gait characteristics. It is studied whether gait parameters are different for groups that are stratified for fall risk using the Tinetti scale. Moreover, the discriminative power of gait parameters to classify elderly according to the Tinetti scale is investigated. Gait of 50 elderly with a Tinneti>24 and 50 elderly with a Tinetti≤24 was analyzed using acceleration-based gait analysis. Validated algorithms were used to derive spatio-temporal gait parameters, harmonic ratio, inter-stride amplitude variability and root mean square (RMS) from the accelerometer data. Clear differences in gait were found between the groups. All gait parameters correlated with the Tinetti scale (r-range: 0.20-0.73). Only walking speed, step length and RMS showed moderate to strong correlations and high discriminative power to classify elderly according to the Tinetti scale. It is concluded that subtle gait changes that have previously been related to fall risk are not captured by the subjective assessment. It is therefore worthwhile to include objective gait assessment in fall risk screening.

  6. Enhancing the Oxidation Performance of Wrought Ni-Base Superalloy by Minor Additions of Active Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tawancy, H. M.

    2016-12-01

    We show that the oxidation performance of Cr2O3-forming superalloy based upon the Ni-Cr-W system is significantly improved by the presence of minor concentrations of La, Si and Mn, which outweigh the detrimental effect of high W concentration in the alloy. Although Cr2O3 is known to transform into volatile CrO3 at temperatures ≥950 °C, the respective protection is extended to temperatures reaching 1150 °C, which has also been correlated with the beneficial effects of La, Si and Mn. During high-temperature oxidation, an inner protective La- and Si-modified layer of α-Cr2O3 in contact with the superalloy substrate is developed and shielded by an outermost layer of MnCr2O4. The distribution of La and Si in the inner oxide layer has been characterized down to the scale of transmission electron microscopy, and the possible mechanisms underlying their beneficial effects are elucidated.

  7. Structural and electrochemical properties of succinonitrile-based gel polymer electrolytes: role of ionic liquid addition.

    PubMed

    Suleman, Mohd; Kumar, Yogesh; Hashmi, S A

    2013-06-20

    Experimental studies on the novel compositions of gel polymer electrolytes, comprised of plastic crystal succinonitrile (SN) dispersed with pyrrolidinium and imidazolium-based ionic liquids (ILs) entrapped in a host polymer poly(vinylidine fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVdF-HFP), are reported. The gel electrolytes are in the form of free-standing films with excellent mechanical, thermal, and electrochemical stability. The introduction of even a small content (~1 wt %) of ionic liquid (1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethyl-sulfonyl)imide (BMPTFSI) or 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate (EMITf) in the PVdF-HFP/SN system (1:4 w/w) enhances the electrical conductivity by 4 orders of magnitude, that is, from ~10(-7) to ~10(-3) S cm(-1) at room temperature. The structural changes due to the entrapment of SN or SN/ILs mixtures and ion-SN-polymer interactions are examined by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR)/Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and differential scanning calorimmetry (DSC). Various physicochemical properties and fast ion conduction in the gel polymer membranes show their promising characteristics as electrolytes in different ionic devices including supercapacitors.

  8. Heteroditopic ligands based on ferrocenyl benzimidazoles fused to an additional diaza heterocyclic ring system.

    PubMed

    Alfonso, María; Sola, Antonia; Caballero, Antonio; Tárraga, Alberto; Molina, Pedro

    2009-11-21

    The synthesis of ferrocene-based heteroditopic receptors in which the ferrocene moiety is attached to an imidazo[4,5-e]benzothiadiazole or imidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline is reported. These nitrogen-rich ferrocene derivatives show remarkable ion-sensing properties because of the presence of the redox active ferrocene unit and the polyazaheteroaromatic ring systems which act as a dual binding site for anions and metal cations. They display an anodic shift of the oxidation wave (DeltaE(1/2) = 67-200 mV) upon complexation with metal cations and a strong cathodic shift (DeltaE(1/2) = -82 to -100 mV) in the presence of F(-) and HP(2)O(7)(3-) anions. For the Zn(2+), Cd(2+), Hg(2+) and Pb(2+) metal cations tested, the change in the absorption spectra is accompanied by a dramatic colour change which allows the potential for "naked eye" detection.

  9. An Evaluation Quality Framework for Analysing School-Based Learning (SBL) to Work-Based Learning (WBL) Transition Module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alseddiqi, M.; Mishra, R.; Pislaru, C.

    2012-05-01

    The paper presents the results from a quality framework to measure the effectiveness of a new engineering course entitled 'school-based learning (SBL) to work-based learning (WBL) transition module' in the Technical and Vocational Education (TVE) system in Bahrain. The framework is an extended version of existing information quality frameworks with respect to pedagogical and technological contexts. It incorporates specific pedagogical and technological dimensions as per the Bahrain modern industry requirements. Users' views questionnaire on the effectiveness of the new transition module was distributed to various stakeholders including TVE teachers and students. The aim was to receive critical information in diagnosing, monitoring and evaluating different views and perceptions about the effectiveness of the new module. The analysis categorised the quality dimensions by their relative importance. This was carried out using the principal component analysis available in SPSS. The analysis clearly identified the most important quality dimensions integrated in the new module for SBL-to-WBL transition. It was also apparent that the new module contains workplace proficiencies, prepares TVE students for work placement, provides effective teaching and learning methodologies, integrates innovative technology in the process of learning, meets modern industrial needs, and presents a cooperative learning environment for TVE students. From the principal component analysis finding, to calculate the percentage of relative importance of each factor and its quality dimensions, was significant. The percentage comparison would justify the most important factor as well as the most important quality dimensions. Also, the new, re-arranged quality dimensions from the finding with an extended number of factors tended to improve the extended version of the quality information framework to a revised quality framework.

  10. Blood pressure goal achievement with olmesartan medoxomil-based treatment: additional analysis of the OLMEBEST study

    PubMed Central

    Barrios, Vivencio; Escobar, Carlos; Calderon, Alberto; Böhm, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Aims Guidelines recommend blood pressure (BP) in hypertensive patients should be <140 systolic BP (SBP) and <90 diastolic BP (DBP) mmHg. This analysis assessed goal rate achievement in hypertensive patients receiving olmesartan-based treatment in the OLMEBEST study. Methods Patients with essential hypertension (DBP ≥ 90 mmHg and <110 mmHg) received open-label olmesartan medoxomil 20 mg/day (n = 2306). After 8 weeks, patients with DBP ≥ 90 mmHg (n = 627) were randomized to 4 weeks’ double-blind treatment with olmesartan 40 mg/day monotherapy or olmesartan 20 mg/day plus hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) 12.5 mg/day. For this analysis, the numbers and proportions of patients who achieved SBP < 140 mmHg and/or DBP < 90 mmHg at the end of the 4 weeks were calculated. Results In patients who achieved DBP normalization (<90 mmHg) at week 8 (n = 1546) and continued open-label olmesartan 20 mg/day, 66.7% achieved SBP/DBP < 140/90 mmHg at Week 12. In patients who did not achieve DBP normalization at Week 8, 26.8% of those randomized to olmesartan 40 mg/day and 42.5% of those randomized to olmesartan 20 mg/day plus HCTZ 12.5 mg/day achieved a SBP/DBP < 140/90 mmHg at Week 12. Conclusion Olmesartan 40 mg/day and olmesartan 20 mg/day plus HCTZ 12.5 mg/day allow substantial proportions of patients to achieve BP goals. PMID:19756164

  11. Magnetic Properties of FeNi-Based Thin Film Materials with Different Additives.

    PubMed

    Liang, Cai; Gooneratne, Chinthaka P; Wang, Qing Xiao; Liu, Yang; Gianchandani, Yogesh; Kosel, Jurgen

    2014-09-01

    This paper presents a study of FeNi-based thin film materials deposited with Mo, Al and B using a co-sputtering process. The existence of soft magnetic properties in combination with strong magneto-mechanical coupling makes these materials attractive for sensor applications. Our findings show that FeNi deposited with Mo or Al yields magnetically soft materials and that depositing with B further increases the softness. The out-of-plane magnetic anisotropy of FeNi thin films is reduced by depositing with Al and completely removed by depositing with B. The effect of depositing with Mo is dependent on the Mo concentration. The coercivity of FeNiMo and FeNiAl is reduced to less than a half of that of FeNi, and a value as low as 40 A/m is obtained for FeNiB. The surfaces of the obtained FeNiMo, FeNiAl and FeNiB thin films reveal very different morphologies. The surface of FeNiMo shows nano-cracks, while the FeNiAl films show large clusters and fewer nano-cracks. When FeNi is deposited with B, a very smooth morphology is obtained. The crystal structure of FeNiMo strongly depends on the depositant concentration and changes into an amorphous structure at a higher Mo level. FeNiAl thin films remain polycrystalline, even at a very high concentration of Al, and FeNiB films are amorphous, even at a very low concentration of B.

  12. Magnetic Properties of FeNi-Based Thin Film Materials with Different Additives

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Cai; Gooneratne, Chinthaka P.; Wang, Qing Xiao; Liu, Yang; Gianchandani, Yogesh; Kosel, Jurgen

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a study of FeNi-based thin film materials deposited with Mo, Al and B using a co-sputtering process. The existence of soft magnetic properties in combination with strong magneto-mechanical coupling makes these materials attractive for sensor applications. Our findings show that FeNi deposited with Mo or Al yields magnetically soft materials and that depositing with B further increases the softness. The out-of-plane magnetic anisotropy of FeNi thin films is reduced by depositing with Al and completely removed by depositing with B. The effect of depositing with Mo is dependent on the Mo concentration. The coercivity of FeNiMo and FeNiAl is reduced to less than a half of that of FeNi, and a value as low as 40 A/m is obtained for FeNiB. The surfaces of the obtained FeNiMo, FeNiAl and FeNiB thin films reveal very different morphologies. The surface of FeNiMo shows nano-cracks, while the FeNiAl films show large clusters and fewer nano-cracks. When FeNi is deposited with B, a very smooth morphology is obtained. The crystal structure of FeNiMo strongly depends on the depositant concentration and changes into an amorphous structure at a higher Mo level. FeNiAl thin films remain polycrystalline, even at a very high concentration of Al, and FeNiB films are amorphous, even at a very low concentration of B. PMID:25587418

  13. Alcohol based-deep eutectic solvent (DES) as an alternative green additive to increase rotenone yield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Othman, Zetty Shafiqa; Hassan, Nur Hasyareeda; Zubairi, Saiful Irwan

    2015-09-01

    Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) are basically molten salts that interact by forming hydrogen bonds between two added components at a ratio where eutectic point reaches a melting point lower than that of each individual component. Their remarkable physicochemical properties (similar to ionic liquids) with remarkable green properties, low cost and easy handling make them a growing interest in many fields of research. Therefore, the objective of pursuing this study is to analyze the potential of alcohol-based DES as an extraction medium for rotenone extraction from Derris elliptica roots. DES was prepared by a combination of choline chloride, ChCl and 1, 4-butanediol at a ratio of 1/5. The structure of elucidation of DES was analyzed using FTIR, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR. Normal soaking extraction (NSE) method was carried out for 14 hours using seven different types of solvent systems of (1) acetone; (2) methanol; (3) acetonitrile; (4) DES; (5) DES + methanol; (6) DES + acetonitrile; and (7) [BMIM] OTf + acetone. Next, the yield of rotenone, % (w/w), and its concentration (mg/ml) in dried roots were quantitatively determined by means of RP-HPLC. The results showed that a binary solvent system of [BMIM] OTf + acetone and DES + acetonitrile was the best solvent system combination as compared to other solvent systems. It contributed to the highest rotenone content of 0.84 ± 0.05% (w/w) (1.09 ± 0.06 mg/ml) and 0.84 ± 0.02% (w/w) (1.03 ± 0.01 mg/ml) after 14 hours of exhaustive extraction time. In conclusion, a combination of the DES with a selective organic solvent has been proven to have a similar potential and efficiency as of ILs in extracting bioactive constituents in the phytochemical extraction process.

  14. Alcohol based-deep eutectic solvent (DES) as an alternative green additive to increase rotenone yield

    SciTech Connect

    Othman, Zetty Shafiqa; Hassan, Nur Hasyareeda; Zubairi, Saiful Irwan

    2015-09-25

    Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) are basically molten salts that interact by forming hydrogen bonds between two added components at a ratio where eutectic point reaches a melting point lower than that of each individual component. Their remarkable physicochemical properties (similar to ionic liquids) with remarkable green properties, low cost and easy handling make them a growing interest in many fields of research. Therefore, the objective of pursuing this study is to analyze the potential of alcohol-based DES as an extraction medium for rotenone extraction from Derris elliptica roots. DES was prepared by a combination of choline chloride, ChCl and 1, 4-butanediol at a ratio of 1/5. The structure of elucidation of DES was analyzed using FTIR, {sup 1}H-NMR and {sup 13}C-NMR. Normal soaking extraction (NSE) method was carried out for 14 hours using seven different types of solvent systems of (1) acetone; (2) methanol; (3) acetonitrile; (4) DES; (5) DES + methanol; (6) DES + acetonitrile; and (7) [BMIM] OTf + acetone. Next, the yield of rotenone, % (w/w), and its concentration (mg/ml) in dried roots were quantitatively determined by means of RP-HPLC. The results showed that a binary solvent system of [BMIM] OTf + acetone and DES + acetonitrile was the best solvent system combination as compared to other solvent systems. It contributed to the highest rotenone content of 0.84 ± 0.05% (w/w) (1.09 ± 0.06 mg/ml) and 0.84 ± 0.02% (w/w) (1.03 ± 0.01 mg/ml) after 14 hours of exhaustive extraction time. In conclusion, a combination of the DES with a selective organic solvent has been proven to have a similar potential and efficiency as of ILs in extracting bioactive constituents in the phytochemical extraction process.

  15. Ongoing Analyses of Rocket Based Combined Cycle Engines by the Applied Fluid Dynamics Analysis Group at Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruf, Joseph H.; Holt, James B.; Canabal, Francisco

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents the status of analyses on three Rocket Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) configurations underway in the Applied Fluid Dynamics Analysis Group (TD64). TD64 is performing computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis on a Penn State RBCC test rig, the proposed Draco axisymmetric RBCC engine and the Trailblazer engine. The intent of the analysis on the Penn State test rig is to benchmark the Finite Difference Navier Stokes (FDNS) code for ejector mode fluid dynamics. The Draco analysis was a trade study to determine the ejector mode performance as a function of three engine design variables. The Trailblazer analysis is to evaluate the nozzle performance in scramjet mode. Results to date of each analysis are presented.

  16. Characterization of Paecilomyces variotii and Talaromyces amestolkiae in Korea Based on the Morphological Characteristics and Multigene Phylogenetic Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Thi Thuong Thuong; Paul, Narayan Chandra

    2016-01-01

    During fungal diversity surveys of the order Eurotiales in Korea, two fungal strains, EML-DG33-1 and EML-NCP50, were isolated from samples of rat dung and fig tree leaf collected at a garden located in Gwangju in 2014. To complete the National Species List of Korea, it is a prerequisite to verify whether many questionable species, which were previously recorded but not confirmed, indeed present in Korea. Herein, the isolates were confirmed as undescribed species, Paecilomyces variotii and Talaromyces amestolkiae based on the combination of morphological and phylogenetic analyses of multigenes including the rDNA internal transcribed spacer, β-tubulin, and RNA polymerase II subunit 2. PMID:28154482

  17. Alignment analyses of a galvanometer-based scanner in free-space Fourier domain optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Qun; Zhu, Dan; Gao, Zhishan

    2015-11-10

    Free-space Fourier domain optical coherence tomography is adopted for biomedical imaging with ultrahigh resolution, in which the setup consists of an interferometer and a spectrometer. Two-dimensional lateral sampling in the sample arm of the interferometer is achieved by using a galvanometer-based scanner. Optical path difference (OPD) drift in the full scan field of view is observed in the assembly process of the scanner. A galvo mirror mount offset with respect to the rotation axis is demonstrated as the derivation of this OPD drift by both geometric analyses and model building. Then, an iterative assembly process of the scanner is proposed with the OPD drift taken as the alignment criteria.

  18. The first comprehensive molecular phylogeny of Bryozoa (Ectoprocta) based on combined analyses of nuclear and mitochondrial genes.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Judith; Obst, Matthias; Sundberg, Per

    2009-07-01

    Bryozoa is one of the most puzzling phyla in the animal kingdom and little is known about their evolutionary history. Its phylogenetic position among the Metazoa remains unsettled, as well as its intra-phylum relationships. Here, we present the first comprehensive molecular phylogeny of Bryozoa based on the mitochondrial gene COI and two nuclear genes 18S rDNA and 28S rDNA including 32 species from 23 families. We show that the monophyletic status is supported for the phylum as well as for previously defined bryozoan classes. The 28S rDNA supports a close relationship of Phylactolaemata and Stenolaemata, while partial COI and 18S rDNA show the freshwater Phylactolaemata as basal bryozoans. The Gymnolaemata have generally been divided into soft-bodied forms (Ctenostomata) and hard-bodied species (Cheilostomata). In our analyses all three genes conflict with this assumption and show hard body forms having evolved within Gymnolaemata several times.

  19. Visible-Light-Initiated Thiol-Michael Addition Polymerizations with Coumarin-Based Photobase Generators: Another Photoclick Reaction Strategy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinpeng; Xi, Weixian; Wang, Chen; Podgórski, Maciej; Bowman, Christopher N

    2016-02-16

    An efficient visible-light-sensitive photobase generator for thiol-Michael addition reactions was synthesized and evaluated. This highly reactive catalyst was designed by protecting a strong base (tetramethyl guanidine, TMG) with a visible-light-responsive group which was a coumarin derivative. The coumarin-coupled TMG was shown to exhibit extraordinary catalytic activity toward initiation of the thiol-Michael reaction, including thiol-Michael addition-based polymerization, upon visible-light irradiation, leading to a stoichiometric reaction of both thiol and vinyl functional groups. Owing to its features, this visible-light photobase generator enables homogeneous network formation in thiol-Michael polymerizations and also has the potential to be exploited in other visible-light-induced, base-catalyzed thiol-click processes such as thiol-isocynate and thiol-epoxy network-forming reactions.

  20. A review on powder-based additive manufacturing for tissue engineering: selective laser sintering and inkjet 3D printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farid Seyed Shirazi, Seyed; Gharehkhani, Samira; Mehrali, Mehdi; Yarmand, Hooman; Metselaar, Hendrik Simon Cornelis; Adib Kadri, Nahrizul; Azuan Abu Osman, Noor

    2015-06-01

    Since most starting materials for tissue engineering are in powder form, using powder-based additive manufacturing methods is attractive and practical. The principal point of employing additive manufacturing (AM) systems is to fabricate parts with arbitrary geometrical complexity with relatively minimal tooling cost and time. Selective laser sintering (SLS) and inkjet 3D printing (3DP) are two powerful and versatile AM techniques which are applicable to powder-based material systems. Hence, the latest state of knowledge available on the use of AM powder-based techniques in tissue engineering and their effect on mechanical and biological properties of fabricated tissues and scaffolds must be updated. Determining the effective setup of parameters, developing improved biocompatible/bioactive materials, and improving the mechanical/biological properties of laser sintered and 3D printed tissues are the three main concerns which have been investigated in this article.

  1. A review on powder-based additive manufacturing for tissue engineering: selective laser sintering and inkjet 3D printing.

    PubMed

    Shirazi, Seyed Farid Seyed; Gharehkhani, Samira; Mehrali, Mehdi; Yarmand, Hooman; Metselaar, Hendrik Simon Cornelis; Adib Kadri, Nahrizul; Osman, Noor Azuan Abu

    2015-06-01

    Since most starting materials for tissue engineering are in powder form, using powder-based additive manufacturing methods is attractive and practical. The principal point of employing additive manufacturing (AM) systems is to fabricate parts with arbitrary geometrical complexity with relatively minimal tooling cost and time. Selective laser sintering (SLS) and inkjet 3D printing (3DP) are two powerful and versatile AM techniques which are applicable to powder-based material systems. Hence, the latest state of knowledge available on the use of AM powder-based techniques in tissue engineering and their effect on mechanical and biological properties of fabricated tissues and scaffolds must be updated. Determining the effective setup of parameters, developing improved biocompatible/bioactive materials, and improving the mechanical/biological properties of laser sintered and 3D printed tissues are the three main concerns which have been investigated in this article.

  2. A review on powder-based additive manufacturing for tissue engineering: selective laser sintering and inkjet 3D printing

    PubMed Central

    Shirazi, Seyed Farid Seyed; Gharehkhani, Samira; Mehrali, Mehdi; Yarmand, Hooman; Metselaar, Hendrik Simon Cornelis; Adib Kadri, Nahrizul; Osman, Noor Azuan Abu

    2015-01-01

    Since most starting materials for tissue engineering are in powder form, using powder-based additive manufacturing methods is attractive and practical. The principal point of employing additive manufacturing (AM) systems is to fabricate parts with arbitrary geometrical complexity with relatively minimal tooling cost and time. Selective laser sintering (SLS) and inkjet 3D printing (3DP) are two powerful and versatile AM techniques which are applicable to powder-based material systems. Hence, the latest state of knowledge available on the use of AM powder-based techniques in tissue engineering and their effect on mechanical and biological properties of fabricated tissues and scaffolds must be updated. Determining the effective setup of parameters, developing improved biocompatible/bioactive materials, and improving the mechanical/biological properties of laser sintered and 3D printed tissues are the three main concerns which have been investigated in this article. PMID:27877783

  3. White matter abnormalities associated with auditory hallucinations in schizophrenia: a combined study of voxel-based analyses of diffusion tensor imaging and structural magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Seok, Jeong-Ho; Park, Hae-Jeong; Chun, Ji-Won; Lee, Seung-Koo; Cho, Hyun Sang; Kwon, Jun Soo; Kim, Jae-Jin

    2007-11-15

    White matter (WM) abnormalities in schizophrenia may offer important clues to a better understanding of the disconnectivity associated with the disorder. The aim of this study was to elucidate a WM basis of auditory hallucinations in schizophrenia through the simultaneous investigation of WM tract integrity and WM density. Diffusion tensor images (DTIs) and structural T1 magnetic resonance images (MRIs) were taken from 15 hallucinating schizophrenic patients, 15 non-hallucinating schizophrenic patients and 22 normal controls. Voxel-based analyses and post-hoc region of interest analyses were obtained to compare the three groups on fractional anisotropy (FA) derived from DTI as well as WM density derived from structural MRIs. In both the hallucinating and non-hallucinating groups, FA of the WM regions was significantly decreased in the left superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF), whereas WM density was significantly increased in the left inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF). The mean FA value of the left frontal part of the SLF was positively correlated with the severity score of auditory hallucinations in the hallucinating patient group. Our findings show that WM changes were mainly observed in the frontal and temporal areas, suggesting that disconnectivity in the left fronto-temporal area may contribute to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. In addition, pathologic WM changes in this region may be an important step in the development of auditory hallucinations in schizophrenia.

  4. CT-Based Attenuation Correction in Brain SPECT/CT Can Improve the Lesion Detectability of Voxel-Based Statistical Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Hiroki; Shimosegawa, Eku; Fujino, Koichi; Hatazawa, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Background Integrated SPECT/CT enables non-uniform attenuation correction (AC) using built-in CT instead of the conventional uniform AC. The effect of CT-based AC on voxel-based statistical analyses of brain SPECT findings has not yet been clarified. Here, we assessed differences in the detectability of regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) reduction using SPECT voxel-based statistical analyses based on the two types of AC methods. Subjects and Methods N-isopropyl-p-[123I]iodoamphetamine (IMP) CBF SPECT images were acquired for all the subjects and were reconstructed using 3D-OSEM with two different AC methods: Chang’s method (Chang’s AC) and the CT-based AC method. A normal database was constructed for the analysis using SPECT findings obtained for 25 healthy normal volunteers. Voxel-based Z-statistics were also calculated for SPECT findings obtained for 15 patients with chronic cerebral infarctions and 10 normal subjects. We assumed that an analysis with a higher specificity would likely produce a lower mean absolute Z-score for normal brain tissue, and a more sensitive voxel-based statistical analysis would likely produce a higher absolute Z-score for in old infarct lesions, where the CBF was severely decreased. Results The inter-subject variation in the voxel values in the normal database was lower using CT-based AC, compared with Chang’s AC, for most of the brain regions. The absolute Z-score indicating a SPECT count reduction in infarct lesions was also significantly higher in the images reconstructed using CT-based AC, compared with Chang’s AC (P = 0.003). The mean absolute value of the Z-score in the 10 intact brains was significantly lower in the images reconstructed using CT-based AC than in those reconstructed using Chang’s AC (P = 0.005). Conclusions Non-uniform CT-based AC by integrated SPECT/CT significantly improved sensitivity and the specificity of the voxel-based statistical analyses for regional SPECT count reductions, compared with

  5. Large-scale Manufacturing of Nanoparticulate-based Lubrication Additives for Improved Energy Efficiency and Reduced Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Erdemir, Ali

    2013-09-26

    This project was funded under the Department of Energy (DOE) Lab Call on Nanomanufacturing for Energy Efficiency and was directed toward the development of novel boron-based nanocolloidal lubrication additives for improving the friction and wear performance of machine components in a wide range of industrial and transportation applications. Argonne's research team concentrated on the scientific and technical aspects of the project, using a range of state-of-the art analytical and tribological test facilities. Argonne has extensive past experience and expertise in working with boron-based solid and liquid lubrication additives, and has intellectual property ownership of several. There were two industrial collaborators in this project: Ashland Oil (represented by its Valvoline subsidiary) and Primet Precision Materials, Inc. (a leading nanomaterials company). There was also a sub-contract with the University of Arkansas. The major objectives of the project were to develop novel boron-based nanocolloidal lubrication additives and to optimize and verify their performance under boundary-lubricated sliding conditions. The project also tackled problems related to colloidal dispersion, larger-scale manufacturing and blending of nano-additives with base carrier oils. Other important issues dealt with in the project were determination of the optimum size and concentration of the particles and compatibility with various base fluids and/or additives. Boron-based particulate additives considered in this project included boric acid (H{sub 3}BO{sub 3}), hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN), boron oxide, and borax. As part of this project, we also explored a hybrid MoS{sub 2} + boric acid formulation approach for more effective lubrication and reported the results. The major motivation behind this work was to reduce energy losses related to friction and wear in a wide spectrum of mechanical systems and thereby reduce our dependence on imported oil. Growing concern over greenhouse gas

  6. Conductivity recovery by redox cycling of yttrium doped barium zirconate proton conductors and exsolution of Ni-based sintering additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasani, Narendar; Pukazhselvan, D.; Kovalevsky, Andrei V.; Shaula, Aliaksandr L.; Fagg, Duncan P.

    2017-01-01

    Owing to their high stability and good bulk proton conductivity yttrium doped barium zirconate-based materials are considered as potential electrolytes for protonic ceramic fuel cell applications. Nonetheless, their refractory nature leads to problematic densification that can necessitate the addition of sintering additives. While these additives assist processing, undesirable, strong, negative impacts on proton conductivity have been regularly reported. The current work assesses the potential sintering additives NiO, BaNiOx and BaY2NiO5 and their influence on subsequent electrochemical properties of BaZr0.85Y0.15O3-δ. All sintering additives allow dense electrolyte materials (>95%) to be formed at temperatures below 1450 °C, with enhanced grain growth; with the largest grain growth being offered by the BaNiOx additive. Degradation in overall electrical performances is shown to be bulk related, corresponding to large reductions in bulk conductivity up to two orders of magnitude, whilst grain boundary conductivities are less affected. Most importantly, the current article demonstrates that these high depletions in bulk proton conductivity can be effectively inverted by redox cycling in relatively mild conditions (750 °C, cycling from N2 to H2 and back to N2), opening the way to improve processing of these materials whilst maintaining high levels of proton conductivity.

  7. Core-structure-inspired asymmetric addition reactions: enantioselective synthesis of dihydrobenzoxazi