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Sample records for additional analyses examined

  1. Improving complex kinship analyses with additional STR loci.

    PubMed

    Carboni, Ilaria; Iozzi, Sara; Nutini, Anna Lucia; Torricelli, Francesca; Ricci, Ugo

    2014-11-01

    In a standard paternity testing, mother, child, and alleged father are analyzed with STR markers using commercially available kits. Since Italian civil legislation does not have thresholds to confirm a paternity, paternity is practically proven when likelihood ratio increases prior probability of paternity to posterior, accepted by court as sufficient. However, in some cases the number of markers included in a commercial kit may be insufficient to conclusively prove or disprove a relationship between individuals, especially when complex family scenarios are suspected or indirect analyses are required. Additional genetic information can increase the values of the likelihood ratio regarding the detection of true parental relationships in a pedigree, while reducing the chances of false attributions (e.g. false paternities). In these cases the introduction of a 26Plex amplification system allows to examine 23-26 additional markers depending on the commercial kit used, thus increasing the statistical power of the kinship analysis. The PCR conditions were optimized for a multiplex amplification system and a new generation CE instrument. In order to demonstrate the utility of additional STRs markers, four complex kinship cases are presented.

  2. 12 CFR 980.7 - Examinations; requests for additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... Nothing in this part shall limit in any manner the right of the Finance Board to conduct any examination... new business activity, nothing in this part shall limit the right of the Finance Board at any time to... cooperative nature of the Bank System; and (v) Finance Board review of any contracts or agreements between...

  3. Decreasing Cloudiness Over China: An Updated Analysis Examining Additional Variables

    SciTech Connect

    Kaiser, D.P.

    2000-01-14

    As preparation of the IPCC's Third Assessment Report takes place, one of the many observed climate variables of key interest is cloud amount. For several nations of the world, there exist records of surface-observed cloud amount dating back to the middle of the 20th Century or earlier, offering valuable information on variations and trends. Studies using such databases include Sun and Groisman (1999) and Kaiser and Razuvaev (1995) for the former Soviet Union, Angel1 et al. (1984) for the United States, Henderson-Sellers (1986) for Europe, Jones and Henderson-Sellers (1992) for Australia, and Kaiser (1998) for China. The findings of Kaiser (1998) differ from the other studies in that much of China appears to have experienced decreased cloudiness over recent decades (1954-1994), whereas the other land regions for the most part show evidence of increasing cloud cover. This paper expands on Kaiser (1998) by analyzing trends in additional meteorological variables for Chi na [station pressure (p), water vapor pressure (e), and relative humidity (rh)] and extending the total cloud amount (N) analysis an additional two years (through 1996).

  4. Examination of Triacylglycerol Biosynthetic Pathways via De Novo Transcriptomic and Proteomic Analyses in an Unsequenced Microalga

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-17

    Examination of Triacylglycerol Biosynthetic Pathways via De Novo Transcriptomic and Proteomic Analyses in an Unsequenced Microalga Michael T...dependent upon available genomic sequence data, and the lack of these data has hindered the pursuit of such analyses for many oleaginous microalgae . In order...to examine the triacylglycerol biosynthetic pathway in the unsequenced oleaginous microalga , Chlorella vulgaris, we have established a strategy with

  5. English as an Additional Language (EAL) "viva voce": The EAL Doctoral Oral Examination Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Is the doctoral "viva voce" a reasonable method of examination? This exploratory paper proposes that the doctoral "viva voce" (oral examination) is a slightly different hurdle for doctoral candidates for whom English is an additional language (EAL, also termed ESL) than for those whose first language is English. It investigates…

  6. Parental Anxiety and Child Symptomatology: An Examination of Additive and Interactive Effects of Parent Psychopathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burstein, Marcy; Ginsburg, Golda S.; Tein, Jenn-Yun

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined relations between parent anxiety and child anxiety, depression, and externalizing symptoms. In addition, the study tested the additive and interactive effects of parent anxiety with parent depression and externalizing symptoms in relation to child symptoms. Forty-eight parents with anxiety disorders and 49 parents…

  7. Structured additive distributional regression for analysing landings per unit effort in fisheries research.

    PubMed

    Mamouridis, Valeria; Klein, Nadja; Kneib, Thomas; Cadarso Suarez, Carmen; Maynou, Francesc

    2017-01-01

    We analysed the landings per unit effort (LPUE) from the Barcelona trawl fleet targeting the red shrimp (Aristeus antennatus) using novel Bayesian structured additive distributional regression to gain a better understanding of the dynamics and determinants of variation in LPUE. The data set, covering a time span of 17 years, includes fleet-dependent variables (e.g. the number of trips performed by vessels), temporal variables (inter- and intra-annual variability) and environmental variables (the North Atlantic Oscillation index). Based on structured additive distributional regression, we evaluate (i) the gain in replacing purely linear predictors by additive predictors including nonlinear effects of continuous covariates, (ii) the inclusion of vessel-specific effects based on either fixed or random effects, (iii) different types of distributions for the response, and (iv) the potential gain in not only modelling the location but also the scale/shape parameter of these distributions. Our findings support that flexible model variants are indeed able to improve the fit considerably and that additional insights can be gained. Tools to select within several model specifications and assumptions are discussed in detail as well.

  8. ADDITIONAL STRESS AND FRACTURE MECHANICS ANALYSES OF PRESSURIZED WATER REACTOR PRESSURE VESSEL NOZZLES

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, Matthew; Yin, Shengjun; Stevens, Gary; Sommerville, Daniel; Palm, Nathan; Heinecke, Carol

    2012-01-01

    In past years, the authors have undertaken various studies of nozzles in both boiling water reactors (BWRs) and pressurized water reactors (PWRs) located in the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) adjacent to the core beltline region. Those studies described stress and fracture mechanics analyses performed to assess various RPV nozzle geometries, which were selected based on their proximity to the core beltline region, i.e., those nozzle configurations that are located close enough to the core region such that they may receive sufficient fluence prior to end-of-life (EOL) to require evaluation of embrittlement as part of the RPV analyses associated with pressure-temperature (P-T) limits. In this paper, additional stress and fracture analyses are summarized that were performed for additional PWR nozzles with the following objectives: To expand the population of PWR nozzle configurations evaluated, which was limited in the previous work to just two nozzles (one inlet and one outlet nozzle). To model and understand differences in stress results obtained for an internal pressure load case using a two-dimensional (2-D) axi-symmetric finite element model (FEM) vs. a three-dimensional (3-D) FEM for these PWR nozzles. In particular, the ovalization (stress concentration) effect of two intersecting cylinders, which is typical of RPV nozzle configurations, was investigated. To investigate the applicability of previously recommended linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) hand solutions for calculating the Mode I stress intensity factor for a postulated nozzle corner crack for pressure loading for these PWR nozzles. These analyses were performed to further expand earlier work completed to support potential revision and refinement of Title 10 to the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 50, Appendix G, Fracture Toughness Requirements, and are intended to supplement similar evaluation of nozzles presented at the 2008, 2009, and 2011 Pressure Vessels and Piping (PVP

  9. Additional Measurements and Analyses of H217O and H218O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearson, John; Yu, Shanshan; Walters, Adam; Daly, Adam M.

    2015-06-01

    Historically the analysis of the spectrum of water has been a balance between the quality of the data set and the applicability of the Hamiltonian to a highly non-rigid molecule. Recently, a number of different non-rigid analysis approaches have successfully been applied to 16O water resulting in a self-consistent set of transitions and energy levels to high J which allowed the spectrum to be modeled to experimental precision. The data set for 17O and 18O water was previously reviewed and many of the problematic measurements identified, but Hamiltonian modeling of the remaining data resulted in significantly poorer quality fits than that for the 16O parent. As a result, we have made additional microwave measurements and modeled the existing 17O and 18O data sets with an Euler series model. This effort has illuminated a number of additional problematic measurements in the previous data sets and has resulted in analyses of 17O and 18O water that are of similar quality to the 16O analysis. We report the new lines, the analyses and make recommendations on the quality of the experimental data sets. SS. Yu, J.C. Pearson, B.J. Drouin et al. J. Mol. Spectrosc. 279,~16-25 (2012) J. Tennyson, P.F. Bernath, L.R. Brown et al. J. Quant. Spectrosc. Rad. Trans. 117, 29-58 (2013) J. Tennyson, P.F. Bernath, L.R. Brown et al. J. Quant. Spectrosc. Rad. Trans. 110, 573-596 (2009) H.M. Pickett, J.C. Pearson, C.E. Miller J. Mol. Spectrosc. 233, 174-179 (2005)

  10. Examination of Triacylglycerol Biosynthetic Pathways via De Novo Transcriptomic and Proteomic Analyses in an Unsequenced Microalga

    PubMed Central

    Guarnieri, Michael T.; Nag, Ambarish; Smolinski, Sharon L.; Darzins, Al; Seibert, Michael; Pienkos, Philip T.

    2011-01-01

    Biofuels derived from algal lipids represent an opportunity to dramatically impact the global energy demand for transportation fuels. Systems biology analyses of oleaginous algae could greatly accelerate the commercialization of algal-derived biofuels by elucidating the key components involved in lipid productivity and leading to the initiation of hypothesis-driven strain-improvement strategies. However, higher-level systems biology analyses, such as transcriptomics and proteomics, are highly dependent upon available genomic sequence data, and the lack of these data has hindered the pursuit of such analyses for many oleaginous microalgae. In order to examine the triacylglycerol biosynthetic pathway in the unsequenced oleaginous microalga, Chlorella vulgaris, we have established a strategy with which to bypass the necessity for genomic sequence information by using the transcriptome as a guide. Our results indicate an upregulation of both fatty acid and triacylglycerol biosynthetic machinery under oil-accumulating conditions, and demonstrate the utility of a de novo assembled transcriptome as a search model for proteomic analysis of an unsequenced microalga. PMID:22043295

  11. Examination of triacylglycerol biosynthetic pathways via de novo transcriptomic and proteomic analyses in an unsequenced microalga.

    PubMed

    Guarnieri, Michael T; Nag, Ambarish; Smolinski, Sharon L; Darzins, Al; Seibert, Michael; Pienkos, Philip T

    2011-01-01

    Biofuels derived from algal lipids represent an opportunity to dramatically impact the global energy demand for transportation fuels. Systems biology analyses of oleaginous algae could greatly accelerate the commercialization of algal-derived biofuels by elucidating the key components involved in lipid productivity and leading to the initiation of hypothesis-driven strain-improvement strategies. However, higher-level systems biology analyses, such as transcriptomics and proteomics, are highly dependent upon available genomic sequence data, and the lack of these data has hindered the pursuit of such analyses for many oleaginous microalgae. In order to examine the triacylglycerol biosynthetic pathway in the unsequenced oleaginous microalga, Chlorella vulgaris, we have established a strategy with which to bypass the necessity for genomic sequence information by using the transcriptome as a guide. Our results indicate an upregulation of both fatty acid and triacylglycerol biosynthetic machinery under oil-accumulating conditions, and demonstrate the utility of a de novo assembled transcriptome as a search model for proteomic analysis of an unsequenced microalga.

  12. Examining the Use of Facebook and Twitter as an Additional Social Space in a MOOC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Min; McKelroy, Emily; Kang, Jina; Harron, Jason; Liu, Sa

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the researchers examined if and to what extent social media tools such as Facebook and Twitter can augment participants' learning experience in an xMOOC and offer an additional social space. Two research questions guided this inquiry: (1) What did MOOC participants consider the usefulness of the Facebook group and Twitter feed…

  13. Examining the Proportion of Dietary Phosphorus From Plants, Animals, and Food Additives Excreted in Urine.

    PubMed

    St-Jules, David E; Jagannathan, Ram; Gutekunst, Lisa; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar; Sevick, Mary Ann

    2017-03-01

    Phosphorus bioavailability is an emerging topic of interest in the field of renal nutrition that has important research and clinical implications. Estimates of phosphorus bioavailability, based on digestibility, indicate that bioavailability of phosphorus increases from plants to animals to food additives. In this commentary, we examined the proportion of dietary phosphorus from plants, animals, and food additives excreted in urine from four controlled-feeding studies conducted in healthy adults and patients with chronic kidney disease. As expected, a smaller proportion of phosphorus from plant foods was excreted in urine compared to animal foods. However, contrary to expectations, phosphorus from food additives appeared to be incompletely absorbed. The apparent discrepancy between digestibility of phosphorus additives and the proportion excreted in urine suggests a need for human balance studies to determine the bioavailability of different sources of phosphorus.

  14. Bicycling injury hospitalisation rates in Canadian jurisdictions: analyses examining associations with helmet legislation and mode share

    PubMed Central

    Teschke, Kay; Koehoorn, Mieke; Shen, Hui; Dennis, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to calculate exposure-based bicycling hospitalisation rates in Canadian jurisdictions with different helmet legislation and bicycling mode shares, and to examine whether the rates were related to these differences. Methods Administrative data on hospital stays for bicycling injuries to 10 body region groups and national survey data on bicycling trips were used to calculate hospitalisation rates. Rates were calculated for 44 sex, age and jurisdiction strata for all injury causes and 22 age and jurisdiction strata for traffic-related injury causes. Inferential analyses examined associations between hospitalisation rates and sex, age group, helmet legislation and bicycling mode share. Results In Canada, over the study period 2006–2011, there was an average of 3690 hospitalisations per year and an estimated 593 million annual trips by bicycle among people 12 years of age and older, for a cycling hospitalisation rate of 622 per 100 million trips (95% CI 611 to 633). Hospitalisation rates varied substantially across the jurisdiction, age and sex strata, but only two characteristics explained this variability. For all injury causes, sex was associated with hospitalisation rates; females had rates consistently lower than males. For traffic-related injury causes, higher cycling mode share was consistently associated with lower hospitalisation rates. Helmet legislation was not associated with hospitalisation rates for brain, head, scalp, skull, face or neck injuries. Conclusions These results suggest that transportation and health policymakers who aim to reduce bicycling injury rates in the population should focus on factors related to increased cycling mode share and female cycling choices. Bicycling routes designed to be physically separated from traffic or along quiet streets fit both these criteria and are associated with lower relative risks of injury. PMID:26525719

  15. Examining the effects of one- and three-dimensional spatial filtering analyses in magnetoencephalography.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Sam; Prendergast, Garreth; Hymers, Mark; Green, Gary

    2011-01-01

    Spatial filtering, or beamforming, is a commonly used data-driven analysis technique in the field of Magnetoencephalography (MEG). Although routinely referred to as a single technique, beamforming in fact encompasses several different methods, both with regard to defining the spatial filters used to reconstruct source-space time series and in terms of the analysis of these time series. This paper evaluates two alternative methods of spatial filter construction and application. It demonstrates how encoding different requirements into the design of these filters has an effect on the results obtained. The analyses presented demonstrate the potential value of implementations which examine the timeseries projections in multiple orientations at a single location by showing that beamforming can reconstruct predominantly radial sources in the case of a multiple-spheres forward model. The accuracy of source reconstruction appears to be more related to depth than source orientation. Furthermore, it is shown that using three 1-dimensional spatial filters can result in inaccurate source-space time series reconstruction. The paper concludes with brief recommendations regarding reporting beamforming methodologies in order to help remove ambiguity about the specifics of the techniques which have been used.

  16. Examination of Calcium Silicate Cements with Low-Viscosity Methyl Cellulose or Hydroxypropyl Cellulose Additive.

    PubMed

    Baba, Toshiaki; Tsujimoto, Yasuhisa

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to improve the operability of calcium silicate cements (CSCs) such as mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) cement. The flow, working time, and setting time of CSCs with different compositions containing low-viscosity methyl cellulose (MC) or hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) additive were examined according to ISO 6876-2012; calcium ion release analysis was also conducted. MTA and low-heat Portland cement (LPC) including 20% fine particle zirconium oxide (ZO group), LPC including zirconium oxide and 2 wt% low-viscosity MC (MC group), and HPC (HPC group) were tested. MC and HPC groups exhibited significantly higher flow values and setting times than other groups (p < 0.05). Additionally, flow values of these groups were higher than the ISO 6876-2012 reference values; furthermore, working times were over 10 min. Calcium ion release was retarded with ZO, MC, and HPC groups compared with MTA. The concentration of calcium ions was decreased by the addition of the MC or HPC group compared with the ZO group. When low-viscosity MC or HPC was added, the composition of CSCs changed, thus fulfilling the requirements for use as root canal sealer. Calcium ion release by CSCs was affected by changing the CSC composition via the addition of MC or HPC.

  17. Examination of Calcium Silicate Cements with Low-Viscosity Methyl Cellulose or Hydroxypropyl Cellulose Additive

    PubMed Central

    Tsujimoto, Yasuhisa

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to improve the operability of calcium silicate cements (CSCs) such as mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) cement. The flow, working time, and setting time of CSCs with different compositions containing low-viscosity methyl cellulose (MC) or hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) additive were examined according to ISO 6876-2012; calcium ion release analysis was also conducted. MTA and low-heat Portland cement (LPC) including 20% fine particle zirconium oxide (ZO group), LPC including zirconium oxide and 2 wt% low-viscosity MC (MC group), and HPC (HPC group) were tested. MC and HPC groups exhibited significantly higher flow values and setting times than other groups (p < 0.05). Additionally, flow values of these groups were higher than the ISO 6876-2012 reference values; furthermore, working times were over 10 min. Calcium ion release was retarded with ZO, MC, and HPC groups compared with MTA. The concentration of calcium ions was decreased by the addition of the MC or HPC group compared with the ZO group. When low-viscosity MC or HPC was added, the composition of CSCs changed, thus fulfilling the requirements for use as root canal sealer. Calcium ion release by CSCs was affected by changing the CSC composition via the addition of MC or HPC. PMID:27981048

  18. Pharmacotherapy for pain: efficacy and safety issues examined by subgroup analyses.

    PubMed

    Dahan, Albert; Olofsen, Erik; Niesters, Marieke

    2015-04-01

    Responses to pharmacotherapy for acute and chronic pain are highly variable, and efficacy is often compromised by some form of toxicity. To increase our understanding of complexities of pharmacotherapy, the authors discuss an approach to identify analgesic responder subgroups and predictors of response. Additionally, analgesic efficacy and toxicity were combined in a single risk-benefit index (utility function) to quantify the probability of side effects in high- vs low-analgesic responders. The subgroup analysis consists of a mathematical description or time series analysis, mixture analysis, and covariate analysis. Applied to ketamine treatment of chronic pain in complex regional pain syndrome and capsaicin 8% patch treatment in post-herpetic neuralgia patients, the analyses yielded homogenous subgroups that differed in distribution frequency between treatments. For capsaicine, a high variability in pretreatment pain reporting was associated with a high probability of falling into a full analgesic subgroup, irrespective of treatment. The utility function was applied to opioid-induced analgesia and respiratory depression. An important observation was that, irrespective of dose, low-analgesic responders to fentanyl had a greater probability of respiratory depression than analgesia while the reverse was true for high-analgesic responders. These data show dissociation between 2 μ-opioid end-points and explain the danger of treating poor analgesic responders with increasingly higher opioid doses. Apart from being valuable in drug development programs, the outlined approach can be used to determine the choice of drug and dose in the treatment of pain in patients with potent and toxic analgesics.

  19. Using Additional Analyses to Clarify the Functions of Problem Behavior: An Analysis of Two Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, Steven W.; Dozier, Claudia L.; Neidert, Pamela L.; Jowett, Erica S.; Newquist, Matthew H.

    2014-01-01

    Functional analyses (FA) have proven useful for identifying contingencies that influence problem behavior. Research has shown that some problem behavior may only occur in specific contexts or be influenced by multiple or idiosyncratic variables. When these contexts or sources of influence are not assessed in an FA, further assessment may be…

  20. Identifying Useful Auxiliary Variables for Incomplete Data Analyses: A Note on a Group Difference Examination Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raykov, Tenko; Marcoulides, George A.

    2014-01-01

    This research note contributes to the discussion of methods that can be used to identify useful auxiliary variables for analyses of incomplete data sets. A latent variable approach is discussed, which is helpful in finding auxiliary variables with the property that if included in subsequent maximum likelihood analyses they may enhance considerably…

  1. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  2. Metagenomic analyses of the late Pleistocene permafrost - additional tools for reconstruction of environmental conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivkina, Elizaveta; Petrovskaya, Lada; Vishnivetskaya, Tatiana; Krivushin, Kirill; Shmakova, Lyubov; Tutukina, Maria; Meyers, Arthur; Kondrashov, Fyodor

    2016-04-01

    A comparative analysis of the metagenomes from two 30 000-year-old permafrost samples, one of lake-alluvial origin and the other from late Pleistocene Ice Complex sediments, revealed significant differences within microbial communities. The late Pleistocene Ice Complex sediments (which have been characterized by the absence of methane with lower values of redox potential and Fe2+ content) showed a low abundance of methanogenic archaea and enzymes from both the carbon and nitrogen cycles, but a higher abundance of enzymes associated with the sulfur cycle. The metagenomic and geochemical analyses described in the paper provide evidence that the formation of the sampled late Pleistocene Ice Complex sediments likely took place under much more aerobic conditions than lake-alluvial sediments.

  3. Additional Development and Systems Analyses of Pneumatic Technology for High Speed Civil Transport Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Englar, Robert J.; Willie, F. Scott; Lee, Warren J.

    1999-01-01

    In the Task I portion of this NASA research grant, configuration development and experimental investigations have been conducted on a series of pneumatic high-lift and control surface devices applied to a generic High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) model configuration to determine their potential for improved aerodynamic performance, plus stability and control of higher performance aircraft. These investigations were intended to optimize pneumatic lift and drag performance; provide adequate control and longitudinal stability; reduce separation flowfields at high angle of attack; increase takeoff/climbout lift-to-drag ratios; and reduce system complexity and weight. Experimental aerodynamic evaluations were performed on a semi-span HSCT generic model with improved fuselage fineness ratio and with interchangeable plain flaps, blown flaps, pneumatic Circulation Control Wing (CCW) high-lift configurations, plain and blown canards, a novel Circulation Control (CC) cylinder blown canard, and a clean cruise wing for reference. Conventional tail power was also investigated for longitudinal trim capability. Also evaluated was unsteady pulsed blowing of the wing high-lift system to determine if reduced pulsed mass flow rates and blowing requirements could be made to yield the same lift as that resulting from steady-state blowing. Depending on the pulsing frequency applied, reduced mass flow rates were indeed found able to provide lift augmentation at lesser blowing values than for the steady conditions. Significant improvements in the aerodynamic characteristics leading to improved performance and stability/control were identified, and the various components were compared to evaluate the pneumatic potential of each. Aerodynamic results were provided to the Georgia Tech Aerospace System Design Lab. to conduct the companion system analyses and feasibility study (Task 2) of theses concepts applied to an operational advanced HSCT aircraft. Results and conclusions from these

  4. A group additivity algorithm for polychlorinated dibenzofurans derived from selected DFT analyses.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Dennis; Ewan, Bruce C R

    2007-06-14

    The difficulty in measuring the heats of combustion of polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) has resulted in a shortage of data on their heats of formation, required for the purpose of developing an understanding of the role of thermodynamics and kinetics in their production via industrial processes. B3LYP density functional theory calculations have been carried out on a number of PCDFs using 6-31G(d) and 6-311+G(3df,p) basis sets to estimate their heats of formation based on the known experimental values for dibenzofuran, benzene and chlorobenzene. By examining the interactions among chlorine substituents, it is shown that energy contributions arising from successive chlorination can be interpreted in a predictable way, based on a small number of key energy parameters associated with ring position and chlorine atom repulsions. These parameters have been presented as the basis for a simplified prediction algorithm, which can be used to reproduce the predicted DFT heat of formation to within a few kJ/mol, avoiding the need to carry out extensive DFT calculations on the possible 135 isomers of the dibenzofuran group.

  5. Examination of the jarosite-alunite precipitate addition in the raw meal for the production of sulfoaluminate cement clinker.

    PubMed

    Katsioti, M; Tsakiridis, P E; Leonardou-Agatzini, S; Oustadakis, P

    2006-04-17

    The aim of the present research work was to investigate the possibility of adding a jarosite-alunite chemical precipitate, a waste product of a new hydrometallurgical process developed to treat economically low-grade nickel oxides ores, in the raw meal for the production of sulfoaluminate cement clinker. For that reason, two samples of raw meals were prepared, one contained 20% gypsum, as a reference sample ((SAC)Ref) and another with 11.31% jarosite-alunite precipitate ((SAC)J/A). Both raw meals were sintered at 1300 degrees C. The results of chemical and mineralogical analyses as well as the microscopic examination showed that the use of the jarosite-alunite precipitate did not affect the mineralogical characteristics of the so produced sulfoaluminate cement clinker and there was confirmed the formation of the sulfoaluminate phase (C4A3S), the most typical phase of this cement type. Furthermore, both clinkers were tested by determining the grindability, setting time, compressive strength and expansibility. The hydration products were examined by XRD analysis at 2, 7, 28 and 90 days. The results of the physico-mechanical tests showed that the addition of jarosite-alunite precipitate did not negatively affect the quality of the produced cement.

  6. An experiment in software reliability: Additional analyses using data from automated replications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunham, Janet R.; Lauterbach, Linda A.

    1988-01-01

    A study undertaken to collect software error data of laboratory quality for use in the development of credible methods for predicting the reliability of software used in life-critical applications is summarized. The software error data reported were acquired through automated repetitive run testing of three independent implementations of a launch interceptor condition module of a radar tracking problem. The results are based on 100 test applications to accumulate a sufficient sample size for error rate estimation. The data collected is used to confirm the results of two Boeing studies reported in NASA-CR-165836 Software Reliability: Repetitive Run Experimentation and Modeling, and NASA-CR-172378 Software Reliability: Additional Investigations into Modeling With Replicated Experiments, respectively. That is, the results confirm the log-linear pattern of software error rates and reject the hypothesis of equal error rates per individual fault. This rejection casts doubt on the assumption that the program's failure rate is a constant multiple of the number of residual bugs; an assumption which underlies some of the current models of software reliability. data raises new questions concerning the phenomenon of interacting faults.

  7. Reprocessing the Southern Hemisphere ADditional OZonesondes (SHADOZ) Database for Long-Term Trend Analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witte, J. C.; Thompson, A. M.; Coetzee, G.; Fujiwara, M.; Johnson, B. J.; Sterling, C. W.; Cullis, P.; Ashburn, C. E.; Jordan, A. F.

    2015-12-01

    SHADOZ is a large archive of tropical balloon-bone ozonesonde data at NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center with data from 14 tropical and subtropical stations provided by collaborators in Europe, Asia, Latin America and Africa . The SHADOZ time series began in 1998, using electrochemical concentration cell (ECC) ozonesondes. Like many long-term sounding stations, SHADOZ is characterized by variations in operating procedures, launch protocols, and data processing such that biases within a data record and among sites appear. In addition, over time, the radiosonde and ozonesonde instruments and data processing protocols have changed, adding to the measurement uncertainties at individual stations and limiting the reliability of ozone profile trends and continuous satellite validation. Currently, the ozonesonde community is engaged in reprocessing ECC data, with an emphasis on homogenization of the records to compensate for the variations in instrumentation and technique. The goals are to improve the information and integrity of each measurement record and to support calculation of more reliable trends. We illustrate the reprocessing activity of SHADOZ with selected stations. We will (1) show reprocessing steps based on the recent WMO report that provides post-processing guidelines for ozonesondes; (2) characterize uncertainties in various parts of the ECC conditioning process; and (3) compare original and reprocessed data to co-located ground and satellite measurements of column ozone.

  8. RWTY (R We There Yet): An R package for examining convergence of Bayesian phylogenetic analyses.

    PubMed

    Warren, Dan L; Geneva, Anthony J; Lanfear, Robert

    2017-01-12

    Bayesian inference using Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) has become one of the primary methods used to infer phylogenies from sequence data. Assessing convergence is a crucial component of these analyses, as it establishes the reliability of the posterior distribution estimates of the tree topology and model parameters sampled from the MCMC. Numerous tests and visualizations have been developed for this purpose, but many of the most popular methods are implemented in ways that make them inconvenient to use for large data sets. RWTY is an R package that implements established and new methods for diagnosing phylogenetic MCMC convergence in a single convenient interface.

  9. Examining Treatment Effects for Single-Case ABAB Designs through Sensitivity Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crumbacher, Christine A.

    2013-01-01

    Single-case designs (SCDs) are often used to examine the impact of an intervention over brief periods of time (Kratochwill & Stoiber, 2002; Segool, Brinkman, & Carlson, 2007). The majority of SCDs are inspected using visual analysis (Kromrey & Foster-Johnson, 1996; Morgan & Morgan, 2009). Although the single-case literature…

  10. Comparative Analyses of Physics Candidates Scores in West African and National Examinations Councils

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utibe, Uduak James; Agah, John Joseph

    2015-01-01

    The study is a comparative analysis of physics candidates' scores in West African and National Examinations Councils. It also investigates influence of gender. Results of 480 candidates were randomly selected form three randomly selected Senior Science Colleges using the WASSCE and NECOSSCE computer printout sent to the schools, transformed using…

  11. Stardust Interstellar Preliminary Examination V: XRF analyses of interstellar dust candidates at ESRF ID13

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brenker, Frank E.; Westphal, Andrew J.; Vincze, Laszlo; Burghammer, Manfred; Schmitz, Sylvia; Schoonjans, Tom; Silversmit, Geert; Vekemans, Bart; Allen, Carlton; Anderson, David; Ansari, Asna; Bajt, SašA.; Bastien, Ron K.; Bassim, Nabil; Bechtel, Hans A.; Borg, Janet; Bridges, John; Brownlee, Donald E.; Burchell, Mark; Butterworth, Anna L.; Changela, Hitesh; Cloetens, Peter; Davis, Andrew M.; Doll, Ryan; Floss, Christine; Flynn, George; Fougeray, Patrick; Frank, David R.; Gainsforth, Zack; Grün, Eberhard; Heck, Philipp R.; Hillier, Jon K.; Hoppe, Peter; Hudson, Bruce; Huth, Joachim; Hvide, Brit; Kearsley, Anton; King, Ashley J.; Lai, Barry; Leitner, Jan; Lemelle, Laurence; Leroux, Hugues; Leonard, Ariel; Lettieri, Robert; Marchant, William; Nittler, Larry R.; Ogliore, Ryan; Ong, Wei Ja; Postberg, Frank; Price, Mark C.; Sandford, Scott A.; Tresseras, Juan-Angel Sans; Simionovici, Alexandre S.; Solé, Vicente A.; Srama, Ralf; Stadermann, Frank; Stephan, Thomas; Sterken, Veerle J.; Stodolna, Julien; Stroud, Rhonda M.; Sutton, Steven; Trieloff, Mario; Tsou, Peter; Tsuchiyama, Akira; Tyliszczak, Tolek; Korff, Joshua; Wordsworth, Naomi; Zevin, Daniel; Zolensky, Michael E.

    2014-09-01

    Here, we report analyses by synchrotron X-ray fluorescence microscopy of the elemental composition of eight candidate impact features extracted from the Stardust Interstellar Dust Collector (SIDC). Six of the features were unambiguous tracks, and two were crater-like features. Five of the tracks are so-called "midnight" tracks—that is, they had trajectories consistent with an origin either in the interstellar dust stream or as secondaries from impacts on the Sample Return Capsule (SRC). In a companion paper reporting synchrotron X-ray diffraction analyses of ISPE candidates, we show that two of these particles contain natural crystalline materials: the terminal particle of track 30 contains olivine and spinel, and the terminal particle of track 34 contains olivine. Here, we show that the terminal particle of track 30, Orion, shows elemental abundances, normalized to Fe, that are close to CI values, and a complex, fine-grained structure. The terminal particle of track 34, Hylabrook, shows abundances that deviate strongly from CI, but shows little fine structure and is nearly homogenous. The terminal particles of other midnight tracks, 29 and 37, had heavy element abundances below detection threshold. A third, track 28, showed a composition inconsistent with an extraterrestrial origin, but also inconsistent with known spacecraft materials. A sixth track, with a trajectory consistent with secondary ejecta from an impact on one of the spacecraft solar panels, contains abundant Ce and Zn. This is consistent with the known composition of the glass covering the solar panel. Neither crater-like feature is likely to be associated with extraterrestrial materials. We also analyzed blank aerogel samples to characterize background and variability between aerogel tiles. We found significant differences in contamination levels and compositions, emphasizing the need for local background subtraction for accurate quantification.

  12. Stardust Interstellar Preliminary Examination V: XRF Analyses of Interstellar Dust Candidates at ESRF ID13

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brenker, Frank E.; Westphal, Andrew J.; Simionovici, Alexandre S.; Flynn, George J.; Gainsforth, Zack; Allen, Carlton C.; Sanford, Scott; Zolensky, Michael E.; Bastien, Ron K.; Frank, David R.

    2014-01-01

    Here, we report analyses by synchrotron X-ray fluorescence microscopy of the elemental composition of eight candidate impact features extracted from the Stardust Interstellar Dust Collector (SIDC). Six of the features were unambiguous tracks, and two were crater-like features. Five of the tracks are so-called midnight tracks that is, they had trajectories consistent with an origin either in the interstellar dust stream or as secondaries from impacts on the Sample Return Capsule (SRC). In a companion paper reporting synchrotron X-ray diffraction analyses of ISPE candidates, we show that two of these particles contain natural crystalline materials: the terminal particle of track 30contains olivine and spinel, and the terminal particle of track 34 contains olivine. Here, we show that the terminal particle of track 30, Orion, shows elemental abundances, normalized to Fe, that are close to CI values, and a complex, fine-grained structure. The terminal particle of track 34, Hylabrook, shows abundances that deviate strongly from CI, but shows little fine structure and is nearly homogenous. The terminal particles of other midnight tracks, 29 and 37, had heavy element abundances below detection threshold. A third, track28, showed a composition inconsistent with an extraterrestrial origin, but also inconsistent with known spacecraft materials. A sixth track, with a trajectory consistent with secondary ejecta from an impact on one of the spacecraft solar panels, contains abundant Ce and Zn. This is consistent with the known composition of the glass covering the solar panel. Neither crater-like feature is likely to be associated with extraterrestrial materials. We also analyzed blank aerogel samples to characterize background and variability between aerogel tiles. We found significant differences in contamination levels and compositions, emphasizing the need for local background subtraction for accurate quantification.

  13. Morphological Examination and Phylogenetic Analyses of Phycopeltis spp. (Trentepohliales, Ulvophyceae) from Tropical China

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Huan; Zhao, Zhijuan; Xia, Shuang; Hu, Zhengyu; Liu, Guoxiang

    2015-01-01

    During an investigation of Trentepohliales (Ulvophyceae) from tropical areas in China, four species of the genus Phycopeltis were identified: Phycopeltis aurea, P. epiphyton, P. flabellata and P. prostrata. The morphological characteristics of both young and adult thalli were observed and compared. Three species (P. flabellata, P. aurea and P. epiphyton) shared a symmetrical development with dichotomously branching vegetative cells during early stages; conversely, P. prostrata had dishevelled filaments with no dichotomously branching filaments and no symmetrical development. The adult thalli of the former three species shared common morphological characteristics, such as equally dichotomous filaments, absence of erect hair and gametangia formed in prostate vegetative filaments. Phylogenetic analyses based on SSU and ITS rDNA sequences showed that the three morphologically similar species were in a clade that was sister to a clade containing T. umbrina and T. abietina, thus confirming morphological monophyly. Conversely, Phycopeltis prostrata, a species with erect filaments, sessile gametangia on the basal erect hair, larger length/width ratio of vegetative cells and very loosely coalescent prostrate filaments, branched separately from the core Phycopeltis group and the T. umbrina and T. abietina clade. Based on morphological and molecular evidence, the genus Phycopeltis was paraphyletic. Furthermore, the traditional taxonomic criteria for Phycopeltis must be reassessed based on phylogeny using more species. A new circumscription of the Phycopeltis and the erection of new genera are recommended. PMID:25643363

  14. Cystoscopy in cattle--a valuable additional tool for clinical examination.

    PubMed

    Franz, Sonja; Winter, Petra; Baumgartner, W

    2004-01-01

    Based on the findings of physical examination and on laboratory findings the urinary bladder of 23 cows was examined endoscopically in order to investigate the application of cystoscopy in cattle. The endoscopic findings of all examined cows were compared with the findings of physical examination and the results of macroscopic and microscopic urinalysis and the bacteriological culture of the urine. By physical examination only 3 cows were diagnosed to have urinary tract disease, whereas all other cows were suspected of having an urinary tract disease. Bacteriological culture of the urine revealed Corynebacterium renale and Escherichia coli infection in 18 cows, while the remaining 5 cows were negative. By cystoscopy catarrhal cystitis was diagnosed in 2 cases, haemorrhagic cystitis in 5 cases, and fibrinous-purulent and fibrinous-haemorrhagic cystitis in 13 cases. Three cows showed no pathological changes of the urinary bladder mucosa by endoscopic examination. Cystoscopy facilitates diagnosis through the direct visualisation of mucosal lesions and makes it possible to give a more accurate prognosis based upon the findings.

  15. Examining Relationships Among Several Oyster Pathogens in the Genus Bonamia Using Molecular Data, in Phylogenetic Analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, D.; Burreson, E.

    2006-12-01

    Bonamiasis is a disease that affects oyster stocks around the world and is caused by intracellular protozoan parasites. Bonamia species can rapidly spread through oyster stocks and cause clinical disease in the host. The type species in the genus, Bonamia ostreae, was described from the European flat oyster Ostrea edulis. Since that time, several bonamia-like species have been observed in the following oyster hosts: Crassostrea ariakensis deployed in North Carolina, USA, Ostrea pulchana from Argentina, Ostrea chilensis from Chile, and in Ostrea angasi from Australia. There is, however, much debate over the species identity of these undescribed Bonamia parasites. An hypothesis that I will test is whether the species of Bonamia that occurs in the aforementioned oysters are representative of one species of Bonamia, Bonamia exitiosa, or are representative of different, currently undescribed, species of Bonamia. To test this hypothesis, molecular techniques to include the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and simultaneous bi-directional sequencing (SBS) reactions were utilized to target the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the ribosomal RNA gene complex for each of the undescribed Bonamia species and for Bonamia exitiosa. Phylogenetic analysis of the sequenced data in addition to pertinent morphological data, geographic distribution information, and possible host dispersals are included in this study to provide additional information for testing hypotheses developed based on molecular data.

  16. FoodWiki: a Mobile App Examines Side Effects of Food Additives Via Semantic Web.

    PubMed

    Çelik Ertuğrul, Duygu

    2016-02-01

    In this article, a research project on mobile safe food consumption system (FoodWiki) is discussed that performs its own inferencing rules in its own knowledge base. Currently, the developed rules examines the side effects that are causing some health risks: heart disease, diabetes, allergy, and asthma as initial. There are thousands compounds added to the processed food by food producers with numerous effects on the food: to add color, stabilize, texturize, preserve, sweeten, thicken, add flavor, soften, emulsify, and so forth. Those commonly used ingredients or compounds in manufactured foods may have many side effects that cause several health risks such as heart disease, hypertension, cholesterol, asthma, diabetes, allergies, alzheimer etc. according to World Health Organization. Safety in food consumption, especially by patients in these risk groups, has become crucial, given that such health problems are ranked in the top ten health risks around the world. It is needed personal e-health knowledge base systems to help patients take control of their safe food consumption. The systems with advanced semantic knowledge base can provide recommendations of appropriate foods before consumption by individuals. The proposed FoodWiki system is using a concept based search mechanism that performs on thousands food compounds to provide more relevant information.

  17. Number line estimation and mental addition: examining the potential roles of language and education.

    PubMed

    Laski, Elida V; Yu, Qingyi

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the relative importance of language and education to the development of numerical knowledge. Consistent with previous research suggesting that counting systems that transparently reflect the base-10 system facilitate an understanding of numerical concepts, Chinese and Chinese American kindergartners' and second graders' number line estimation (0-100 and 0-1000) was 1 to 2 years more advanced than that of American children tested in previous studies. However, Chinese children performed better than their Chinese American peers, who were fluent in Chinese but had been educated in America, at kindergarten on 0-100 number lines, at second grade on 0-1000 number lines, and at both time points on complex addition problems. Overall, the pattern of findings suggests that educational approach may have a greater influence on numerical development than the linguistic structure of the counting system. The findings also demonstrate that, despite generating accurate estimates of numerical magnitude on 0-100 number lines earlier, it still takes Chinese children approximately 2 years to demonstrate accurate estimates on 0-1000 number lines, which raises questions about how to promote the mapping of knowledge across numerical scales.

  18. Reproductive mode evolution in lizards revisited: updated analyses examining geographic, climatic and phylogenetic effects support the cold-climate hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Watson, C M; Makowsky, R; Bagley, J C

    2014-12-01

    Viviparity, the bearing of live young, has evolved well over 100 times among squamate reptiles. This reproductive strategy is hypothesized to allow maternal control of the foetus' thermal environment and thereby to increase the fitness of the parents and offspring. Two hypotheses have been posited to explain this phenomenon: (i) the cold-climate hypothesis (CCH), which advocates low temperatures as the primary selective force; and (ii) the maternal manipulation hypothesis (MMH), which advocates temperature variability as the primary selective force. Here, we investigate whether climatic and geographic variables associated with the CCH vs. the MMH best explain the current geographical distributions of viviparity in lizards while incorporating recent advances in comparative methods, squamate phylogenetics and geospatial analysis. To do this, we compared nonphylogenetic and phylogenetic models predicting viviparity based on point-of-capture data from 20,994 museum specimens representing 215 lizard species in conjunction with spatially explicit bioclimatic and geographic (elevation and latitude) data layers. The database we analysed emphasized Nearctic lizards from three species-rich genera (Phrynosoma, Plestiodon and Sceloporus); however, we additionally analysed a less substantial, but worldwide sample of species to verify the universality of our Nearctic results. We found that maximum temperature of the warmest month (and, less commonly, elevation and maximum temperature of the driest quarter) was frequently the best predictor of viviparity and showed an association consistent with the CCH. Our results strongly favour the CCH over the MMH in explaining lizard reproductive mode evolution.

  19. Examining the association between rumination, negative affectivity, and negative affect induced by a paced auditory serial addition task.

    PubMed

    Feldner, Matthew T; Leen-Feldner, Ellen W; Zvolensky, Michael J; Lejuez, C W

    2006-09-01

    The present study examined the relations among a depressive ruminative response style, a general propensity to experience negative affectivity, and negative affect induced by a paced serial auditory addition task (PASAT). Ninety nonclinical individuals completed a computerized version of the PASAT, which elicits a generalized negative affect response [Lejuez, C. W., Kahler, C. W., & Brown, R. A. (2003). A modified computer version of the paced auditory serial addition task (PASAT) as a laboratory-based stressor: Implications for behavioral assessment. Behavior Therapist, 26, 290-292]. As hypothesized, there was a moderate correlation between depressive rumination and a propensity to experience negative affect, as indexed both by a significant association with a negative affect personality factor and the prediction of negative affect elicited during the provocation. Findings also suggested that dispositional negative affectivity moderated the effects of a depressive ruminative response style on the valence but not arousal dimensions of emotional responding to the challenge. These findings are discussed in terms of improving our understanding of rumination and its potential role in emotional vulnerability processes.

  20. Examining Individual and Instruction-Related Predictors of the Self-Determination of Students with Disabilities: Multiple Regression Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Youngsun; Wehmeyer, Michael L.; Palmer, Susan B.; Williams-Diehm, Kendra; Davies, Daniel K.; Stock, Steven E.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined individual and instructional predictors of the self-determination of students with disabilities, as measured by the "Arc's Self-Determination Scale" and the student version of the "AIR Self-Determination Scale." The general findings indicated that instructional, knowledge, and dispositional factors were stronger predictors of…

  1. Mean and Covariance Structures Analyses: An Examination of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale among Adolescents and Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whiteside-Mansell, Leanne; Corwyn, Robert Flynn

    2003-01-01

    Examined the cross-age comparability of the widely used Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) in 414 adolescents and 900 adults in families receiving Aid to Families with Dependent Children. Found similarities of means in the RSES across groups. (SLD)

  2. Examining the Influence of Additional Field-Based Experiences on Pre-Service Teachers and Their Perceived Ability to Teach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Sarah K.

    2012-01-01

    In an attempt to analyse more closely the training experiences of pre-service teachers, the author conducted an exploratory quasi-experimental study at a university located in the Rocky Mountain region of the USA. All students who were enrolled in the same reading methods course (but enrolled in different sections) were invited to participate in…

  3. Examining the Relationship between Gender and Drug-Using Behaviors in Adolescents: The Use of Diagnostic Assessments and Biochemical Analyses of Urine Samples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, William H.; Moore, David D.

    1999-01-01

    Examines the relationship between gender and drug use among adolescents using diagnostic assessments and biochemical analyses of urine samples. Statistical significance was found in the relationship between gender and marijuana use. The study confirms that more research is needed in this area. (Author/MKA)

  4. Coprophagy in a cave-adapted salamander; the importance of bat guano examined through nutritional and stable isotope analyses

    PubMed Central

    Fenolio, Danté B; Graening, G.O; Collier, Bret A; Stout, Jim F

    2005-01-01

    During a two year population ecology study in a cave environment, 15 Eurycea (=Typhlotriton) spelaea were observed ingesting bat guano. Furthermore, E. spelaea capture numbers increased significantly during the time that grey bats (Myotis grisescens) deposited fresh guano. We investigated the hypothesis that this behaviour was not incidental to the capture of invertebrate prey, but a diet switch to an energy-rich detritus in an oligotrophic environment. Stable isotope assays determined that guano may be assimilated into salamander muscle tissue, and nutritional analyses revealed that guano is a comparable food source to potential invertebrate prey items. This is the first report of coprophagy in a salamander and in any amphibian for reasons other than intestinal inoculation. Because many temperate subterranean environments are often energy poor and this limitation is thought to select for increased diet breadth, we predict that coprophagy may be common in subterranean vertebrates where it is not currently recognized. PMID:16615210

  5. Forensic Image Analyses of Skin and Underlying Muscles as a Tool for Postmortem Interval Delimitation: Histopathologic Examination.

    PubMed

    El-Nahass, El-Shaymaa; Moselhy, Walaa A; Hassan, Nour El-Houda Y

    2017-03-03

    One of the biggest challenges for forensic pathologists is to diagnose the postmortem interval (PMI) delimitation; therefore, the aim of this study was to use a routine histopathologic examination and quantitative analysis to obtain an accurate diagnosis of PMI. The current study was done by using 24 adult male albino rats divided into 8 groups based on the scarification schedule (0, 8, 16, 24, 32, 40, 48, and 72 hours PMI). Skin specimens were collected and subjected to a routine histopathologic processing. Examination of hematoxylin-eosin-stained sections from the skin, its appendages and underlying muscles were carried out. Morphometric analysis of epidermal nuclear chromatin intensities and area percentages, reticular dermis integrated density, and sebaceous gland nuclei areas and chromatin condensation was done. Progressive histopathologic changes could be detected in epidermis, dermis, hypodermis, underlying muscles including nerve endings, and red blood cells in relation to hours PMI. Significant difference was found in epidermal nuclear chromatin intensities at different-hours PMI (at P < 0.001). The highest intensity was detected 40 hours PMI. Quantitative analysis of measurements of dermal collagen area percentages revealed a high significant difference between 0 hours PMI and 24 to 72 hours PMI (P < 0.001). As the PMI increases, sebaceous gland nuclei and nuclear chromatin condensation showed a dramatic decrease. Significant differences of sebaceous gland nuclei areas between 0 hours and different-hours PMI (P < 0.001) were obtained. A combination between routine histopathologic examination and quantitative and morphometric analysis of the skin could be used to evaluate the time of death in different-hours PMI.

  6. Examining the response of larch needle carbohydrates to climate using compound-specific δ13C and concentration analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rinne, Katja T.; Saurer, Matthias; Kirdyanov, Alexander V.; Bryukhanova, Marina V.; Prokushkin, Anatoly S.; Churakova Sidorova, Olga V.; Siegwolf, Rolf T. W.

    2016-04-01

    Little is known about the dynamics of concentrations and carbon isotope ratios of individual carbohydrates in leaves in response to climatic and physiological factors. Improved knowledge of the isotopic ratio in sugars will enhance our understanding of the tree ring isotope ratio and will help to decipher environmental conditions in retrospect more reliably. Carbohydrate samples from larch (Larix gmelinii) needles of two sites in the continuous permafrost zone of Siberia with differing growth conditions were analysed with the Compound-Specific Isotope Analysis (CSIA). We compared concentrations and carbon isotope values (δ13C) of sucrose, fructose, glucose and pinitol combined with phenological data. The results for the variability of the needle carbohydrates show high dynamics with distinct seasonal characteristics between and within the studied years with a clear link to the climatic conditions, particularly vapour pressure deficit. Compound-specific differences in δ13C values as a response to climate were detected. The δ13C of pinitol, which contributes up to 50% of total soluble carbohydrates, was almost invariant during the whole growing season. Our study provides the first in-depth characterization of compound-specific needle carbohydrate isotope variability, identifies involved mechanisms and shows the potential of such results for linking tree physiological responses to different climatic conditions.

  7. Multilevel regression analyses to investigate the relationship between two variables over time: examining the longitudinal association between intrusion and avoidance.

    PubMed

    Suvak, Michael K; Walling, Sherry M; Iverson, Katherine M; Taft, Casey T; Resick, Patricia A

    2009-12-01

    Multilevel modeling is a powerful and flexible framework for analyzing nested data structures (e.g., repeated measures or longitudinal designs). The authors illustrate a series of multilevel regression procedures that can be used to elucidate the nature of the relationship between two variables across time. The goal is to help trauma researchers become more aware of the utility of multilevel modeling as a tool for increasing the field's understanding of posttraumatic adaptation. These procedures are demonstrated by examining the relationship between two posttraumatic symptoms, intrusion and avoidance, across five assessment points in a sample of rape and robbery survivors (n = 286). Results revealed that changes in intrusion were highly correlated with changes in avoidance over the 18-month posttrauma period.

  8. A Pilot Study to Examine the Effect of Additional Structured Outdoor Playtime on Preschoolers' Physical Activity Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alhassan, Sofiya; Nwaokelemeh, Ogechi; Lyden, Kate; Goldsby, TaShauna; Mendoza, Albert

    2013-01-01

    The impact of additional structured outdoor playtime on preschoolers'; physical activity (PA) level is unclear. The purpose of this pilot study was to explore the effects of increasing structured outdoor playtime on preschoolers'; PA levels. Eight full-day classrooms (n = 134 children) from two preschool programmes were randomised into a treatment…

  9. Phylogenetic analyses and characterization of RNase X25 from Drosophila melanogaster suggest a conserved housekeeping role and additional functions for RNase T2 enzymes in protostomes.

    PubMed

    Ambrosio, Linda; Morriss, Stephanie; Riaz, Ayesha; Bailey, Ryan; Ding, Jian; MacIntosh, Gustavo C

    2014-01-01

    Ribonucleases belonging to the RNase T2 family are enzymes associated with the secretory pathway that are almost absolutely conserved in all eukaryotes. Studies in plants and vertebrates suggest they have an important housekeeping function in rRNA recycling. However, little is known about this family of enzymes in protostomes. We characterized RNase X25, the only RNase T2 enzyme in Drosophila melanogaster. We found that RNase X25 is the major contributor of ribonuclease activity in flies as detected by in gel assays, and has an acidic pH preference. Gene expression analyses showed that the RNase X25 transcript is present in all adult tissues and developmental stages. RNase X25 expression is elevated in response to nutritional stresses; consistent with the hypothesis that this enzyme has a housekeeping role in recycling RNA. A correlation between induction of RNase X25 expression and autophagy was observed. Moreover, induction of gene expression was triggered by oxidative stress suggesting that RNase X25 may have additional roles in stress responses. Phylogenetic analyses of this family in protostomes showed that RNase T2 genes have undergone duplication events followed by divergence in several phyla, including the loss of catalytic residues, and suggest that RNase T2 proteins have acquired novel functions. Among those, it is likely that a role in host immunosuppression evolved independently in several groups, including parasitic Platyhelminthes and parasitoid wasps. The presence of only one RNase T2 gene in the D. melanogaster genome, without any other evident secretory RNase activity detected, makes this organism an ideal system to study the cellular functions of RNase T2 proteins associated with RNA recycling and maintenance of cellular homeostasis. On the other hand, the discovery of gene duplications in several protostome genomes also presents interesting new avenues to study additional biological functions of this ancient family of proteins.

  10. Examining the associations between HIV-related stigma and health outcomes in people living with HIV/AIDS: a series of meta-analyses

    PubMed Central

    Mitra, Sanjana; Chen, Shiyi; Gogolishvili, David; Globerman, Jason; Chambers, Lori; Wilson, Mike; Logie, Carmen H; Shi, Qiyun; Morassaei, Sara; Rourke, Sean B

    2016-01-01

    Objective To conduct a systematic review and series of meta-analyses on the association between HIV-related stigma and health among people living with HIV. Data sources A structured search was conducted on 6 electronic databases for journal articles reporting associations between HIV-related stigma and health-related outcomes published between 1996 and 2013. Study eligibility criteria Controlled studies, cohort studies, case-control studies and cross-sectional studies in people living with HIV were considered for inclusion. Outcome measures Mental health (depressive symptoms, emotional and mental distress, anxiety), quality of life, physical health, social support, adherence to antiretroviral therapy, access to and usage of health/social services and risk behaviours. Results 64 studies were included in our meta-analyses. We found significant associations between HIV-related stigma and higher rates of depression, lower social support and lower levels of adherence to antiretroviral medications and access to and usage of health and social services. Weaker relationships were observed between HIV-related stigma and anxiety, quality of life, physical health, emotional and mental distress and sexual risk practices. While risk of bias assessments revealed overall good quality related to how HIV stigma and health outcomes were measured on the included studies, high risk of bias among individual studies was observed in terms of appropriate control for potential confounders. Additional research should focus on elucidating the mechanisms behind the negative relationship between stigma and health to better inform interventions to reduce the impact of stigma on the health and well-being of people with HIV. Conclusions This systematic review and series of meta-analyses support the notion that HIV-related stigma has a detrimental impact on a variety of health-related outcomes in people with HIV. This review can inform the development of multifaceted, intersectoral interventions to

  11. Additive-dominance genetic model analyses for late-maturity alpha-amylase activity in a bread wheat factorial crossing population.

    PubMed

    Rasul, Golam; Glover, Karl D; Krishnan, Padmanaban G; Wu, Jixiang; Berzonsky, William A; Ibrahim, Amir M H

    2015-12-01

    Elevated level of late maturity α-amylase activity (LMAA) can result in low falling number scores, reduced grain quality, and downgrade of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) class. A mating population was developed by crossing parents with different levels of LMAA. The F2 and F3 hybrids and their parents were evaluated for LMAA, and data were analyzed using the R software package 'qgtools' integrated with an additive-dominance genetic model and a mixed linear model approach. Simulated results showed high testing powers for additive and additive × environment variances, and comparatively low powers for dominance and dominance × environment variances. All variance components and their proportions to the phenotypic variance for the parents and hybrids were significant except for the dominance × environment variance. The estimated narrow-sense heritability and broad-sense heritability for LMAA were 14 and 54%, respectively. High significant negative additive effects for parents suggest that spring wheat cultivars 'Lancer' and 'Chester' can serve as good general combiners, and that 'Kinsman' and 'Seri-82' had negative specific combining ability in some hybrids despite of their own significant positive additive effects, suggesting they can be used as parents to reduce LMAA levels. Seri-82 showed very good general combining ability effect when used as a male parent, indicating the importance of reciprocal effects. High significant negative dominance effects and high-parent heterosis for hybrids demonstrated that the specific hybrid combinations; Chester × Kinsman, 'Lerma52' × Lancer, Lerma52 × 'LoSprout' and 'Janz' × Seri-82 could be generated to produce cultivars with significantly reduced LMAA level.

  12. Novel Flow Cytometry Analyses of Boar Sperm Viability: Can the Addition of Whole Sperm-Rich Fraction Seminal Plasma to Frozen-Thawed Boar Sperm Affect It?

    PubMed Central

    Díaz, Rommy; Boguen, Rodrigo; Martins, Simone Maria Massami Kitamura; Ravagnani, Gisele Mouro; Leal, Diego Feitosa; Oliveira, Melissa de Lima; Muro, Bruno Bracco Donatelli; Parra, Beatriz Martins; Meirelles, Flávio Vieira; Papa, Frederico Ozanan; Dell’Aqua, José Antônio; Alvarenga, Marco Antônio; Moretti, Aníbal de Sant’Anna; Sepúlveda, Néstor

    2016-01-01

    Boar semen cryopreservation remains a challenge due to the extension of cold shock damage. Thus, many alternatives have emerged to improve the quality of frozen-thawed boar sperm. Although the use of seminal plasma arising from boar sperm-rich fraction (SP-SRF) has shown good efficacy; however, the majority of actual sperm evaluation techniques include a single or dual sperm parameter analysis, which overrates the real sperm viability. Within this context, this work was performed to introduce a sperm flow cytometry fourfold stain technique for simultaneous evaluation of plasma and acrosomal membrane integrity and mitochondrial membrane potential. We then used the sperm flow cytometry fourfold stain technique to study the effect of SP-SRF on frozen-thawed boar sperm and further evaluated the effect of this treatment on sperm movement, tyrosine phosphorylation and fertility rate (FR). The sperm fourfold stain technique is accurate (R2 = 0.9356, p > 0.01) for simultaneous evaluation of plasma and acrosomal membrane integrity and mitochondrial membrane potential (IPIAH cells). Centrifugation pre-cryopreservation was not deleterious (p > 0.05) for any analyzed variables. Addition of SP-SRF after cryopreservation was able to improve total and progressive motility (p < 0.05) when boar semen was cryopreserved without SP-SRF; however, it was not able to decrease tyrosine phosphorylation (p > 0.05) or improve IPIAH cells (p > 0.05). FR was not (p > 0.05) statistically increased by the addition of seminal plasma, though females inseminated with frozen-thawed boar semen plus SP-SRF did perform better than those inseminated with sperm lacking seminal plasma. Thus, we conclude that sperm fourfold stain can be used to simultaneously evaluate plasma and acrosomal membrane integrity and mitochondrial membrane potential, and the addition of SP-SRF at thawed boar semen cryopreserved in absence of SP-SRF improve its total and progressive motility. PMID:27529819

  13. Halogen-free ionic liquid as an additive in zinc(II)-selective electrode: surface analyses as correlated to the membrane activity.

    PubMed

    Al-Asousi, Maryam F; Shoukry, Adel F; Bu-Olayan, Abdul Hadi

    2012-05-30

    Two conventional Zn(II) polyvinyl chloride (PVC) membrane electrodes have been prepared and characterized. They were based on dibenzo-24-crown-8 (DBC) as a neutral carrier, dioctyl phthalate (DOP) as a plasticizer, and potassium tetrakis (p-chlorophenyl) borate, KTpClPB or the halogen-free ionic liquid, tetraoctylammonium dodecylbenzene sulfonate [TOA][DBS] as an additive. The use of ionic liquid has been found to enhance the selectivity of the sensor. For each electrode, the surfaces of two membranes were investigated using X-ray photoelectron, ion-scattering spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. One of the two membranes was conditioned by soaking it for 24 h in a 1.0×10(-3) M Zn(NO(3))(2) solution and the second was soaked in bi-distilled water for the same interval (24 h). Comparing the two surfaces indicated the following: (a) the high selectivity in case of using [TOA][DBS] as an additive is due to the extra mediation caused by the ionic liquid and (b) the working mechanism of the electrode is based on phase equilibrium at the surface of the membrane associated with ion transport through the bulk of the membrane.

  14. Socioeconomic Status, Food Security, and Dental Caries in US Children: Mediation Analyses of Data From the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007–2008

    PubMed Central

    Masterson, Erin E.; Carle, Adam C.; Mancl, Lloyd A.; Coldwell, Susan E.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined associations of household socioeconomic status (SES) and food security with children’s oral health outcomes. Methods. We analyzed 2007 and 2008 US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data for children aged 5 to 17 years (n = 2206) to examine the relationship between food security and untreated dental caries and to assess whether food security mediates the SES–caries relationship. Results. About 20.1% of children had untreated caries. Most households had full food security (62%); 13% had marginal, 17% had low, and 8% had very low food security. Higher SES was associated with significantly lower caries prevalence (prevalence ratio [PR] = 0.77; 95% confidence interval = 0.63, 0.94; P = .01). Children from households with low or very low food security had significantly higher caries prevalence (PR = 2.00 and PR = 1.70, respectively) than did children living in fully food-secure households. Caries prevalence did not differ among children from fully and marginally food-secure households (P = .17). Food insecurity did not appear to mediate the SES–caries relationship. Conclusions. Interventions and policies to ensure food security may help address the US pediatric caries epidemic. PMID:24625141

  15. Examination of Epigenetic and other Molecular Factors Associated with mda-9/Syntenin Dysregulation in Cancer Through Integrated Analyses of Public Genomic Datasets

    PubMed Central

    Bacolod, Manny D.; Das, Swadesh K.; Sokhi, Upneet K.; Bradley, Steven; Fenstermacher, David A.; Pellecchia, Maurizio; Emdad, Luni; Sarkar, Devanand; Fisher, Paul B.

    2016-01-01

    mda-9/Syntenin (melanoma differentiation-associated gene 9) is a PDZ domain-containing, cancer invasion-related protein. In this study, we employed multiple integrated bioinformatic approaches to identify the probable epigenetic factors, molecular pathways, and functionalities associated with mda-9 dysregulation during cancer progression. Analyses of publicly available genomic data (e.g., expression, copy number, methylation) from TCGA, GEO, ENCODE, and Human Protein Atlas projects led to the following observations: a) mda-9 expression correlates with both copy number and methylation level of an intronic CpG site (cg17197774) located downstream of the CpG island, b) cg17197774 methylation is a likely prognostic marker in glioma, c) Among 22 cancer types, melanoma exhibits the highest mda-9 level, and lowest level of methylation at cg17197774, d) cg17197774 hypomehtylation is also associated with histone modifications (at the mda-9 locus) indicative of more active transcription, e) Using Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA), and the VIGOR (Virtual Gene Over-expression or Repression ) analytical scheme, we were able to predict mda-9’s association with extracellular matrix organization (e.g., MMPs, collagen, integrins), IGFBP2 and NF-κB signaling pathways, phospholipid metabolism, cytokines (e.g., interleukins), CTLA-4, and components of complement cascade pathways. Indeed, previous publications have shown that many of the aforementioned genes and pathways are associated with mda-9’s functionality. PMID:26093898

  16. High protists diversity in the plankton of sulfurous lakes and lagoons examined by 18s rRNA gene sequence analyses.

    PubMed

    Triadó-Margarit, Xavier; Casamayor, Emilio O

    2015-12-01

    Diversity of small protists was studied in sulfidic and anoxic (euxinic) stratified karstic lakes and coastal lagoons by 18S rRNA gene analyses. We hypothesized a major sulfide effect, reducing protist diversity and richness with only a few specialized populations adapted to deal with low-redox conditions and high-sulfide concentrations. However, genetic fingerprinting suggested similar ecological diversity in anoxic and sulfurous than in upper oxygen rich water compartments with specific populations inhabiting euxinic waters. Many of them agreed with genera previously identified by microscopic observations, but also new and unexpected groups were detected. Most of the sequences matched a rich assemblage of Ciliophora (i.e., Coleps, Prorodon, Plagiopyla, Strombidium, Metopus, Vorticella and Caenomorpha, among others) and algae (mainly Cryptomonadales). Unidentified Cercozoa, Fungi, Stramenopiles and Discoba were recurrently found. The lack of GenBank counterparts was higher in deep hypolimnetic waters and appeared differentially allocated in the different taxa, being higher within Discoba and lower in Cryptophyceae. A larger number of populations than expected were specifically detected in the deep sulfurous waters, with unknown ecological interactions and metabolic capabilities.

  17. Stardust Interstellar Preliminary Examination IV: Scanning Transmission X-Ray Microscopy Analyses of Impact Features in the Stardust Interstellar Dust Collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butterworth, Anna L.; Westphal, Andrew J.; Frank, David R.; Allen, Carlton C.; Bechtel, Hans A.; Sandford, Scott A.; Tsou, Peter; Zolensky, Michael E.

    2014-01-01

    We report the quantitative characterization by synchrotron soft X-ray spectroscopy of 31 potential impact features in the aerogel capture medium of the Stardust Interstellar Dust Collector. Samples were analyzed in aerogel by acquiring high spatial resolution maps and high energy-resolution spectra of major rock-forming elements Mg, Al, Si, Fe, and others. We developed diagnostic screening tests to reject spacecraft secondary ejecta and terrestrial contaminants from further consideration as interstellar dust candidates. The results support an extraterrestrial origin for three interstellar candidates: I1043,1,30 (Orion) is a 3 pg particle with Mg-spinel, forsterite, and an iron-bearing phase. I1047,1,34 (Hylabrook) is a 4 pg particle comprising an olivine core surrounded by low-density, amorphous Mg-silicate and amorphous Fe, Cr, and Mn phases. I1003,1,40 (Sorok) has the track morphology of a high-speed impact, but contains no detectable residue that is convincingly distinguishable from the background aerogel. Twenty-two samples with an anthropogenic origin were rejected, including four secondary ejecta from impacts on the Stardust spacecraft aft solar panels, nine ejecta from secondary impacts on the Stardust Sample Return Capsule, and nine contaminants lacking evidence of an impact. Other samples in the collection included I1029,1,6, which contained surviving solar system impactor material. Four samples remained ambiguous: I1006,2,18, I1044,2,32, and I1092,2,38 were too dense for analysis, and we did not detect an intact projectile in I1044,3,33. We detected no radiation effects from the synchrotron soft X-ray analyses; however, we recorded the effects of synchrotron hard X-ray radiation on I1043,1,30 and I1047,1,34.

  18. Examining food additives and spices for their anti-oxidant ability to counteract oxidative damage due to chronic exposure to free radicals from environmental pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Raul A., III

    The main objective of this work was to examine food additives and spices (from the Apiaceae family) to determine their antioxidant properties to counteract oxidative stress (damage) caused by Environmental pollutants. Environmental pollutants generate Reactive Oxygen species and Reactive Nitrogen species. Star anise essential oil showed lower antioxidant activity than extracts using DPPH scavenging. Dill Seed -- Anethum Graveolens -the monoterpene components of dill showed to activate the enzyme glutathione-S-transferase , which helped attach the antioxidant molecule glutathione to oxidized molecules that would otherwise do damage in the body. The antioxidant activity of extracts of dill was comparable with ascorbic acid, alpha-tocopherol, and quercetin in in-vitro systems. Black Cumin -- Nigella Sativa: was evaluated the method 1,1-diphenyl2-picrylhhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity. Positive correlations were found between the total phenolic content in the black cumin extracts and their antioxidant activities. Caraway -- Carum Carvi: The antioxidant activity was evaluated by the scavenging effects of 1,1'-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). Caraway showed strong antioxidant activity. Cumin -- Cuminum Cyminum - the major polyphenolic were extracted and separated by HPTLC. The antioxidant activity of the cumin extract was tested on 1,1'-diphenyl-2- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging. Coriander -- Coriandrum Sativum - the antioxidant and free-radical-scavenging property of the seeds was studied and also investigated whether the administration of seeds curtails oxidative stress. Coriander seed powder not only inhibited the process of Peroxidative damage, but also significantly reactivated the antioxidant enzymes and antioxidant levels. The seeds also showed scavenging activity against superoxides and hydroxyl radicals. The total polyphenolic content of the seeds was found to be 12.2 galic acid equivalents (GAE)/g while the total flavonoid content

  19. Constitutive Analyses of Nontraditional Stabilization Additives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-11-01

    Final report Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Prepared for Headquarters, U. S. Army Corps of Engineers Washington, DC 20314-1000...program, AT22 Work Package 238, currently sponsored by Headquarters, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (CECW-EW). This publication was prepared by personnel...Dr. Steve L. Larson and vii Ms. Barbara Tardy, Inorganics Remediation Team, EL. Mr. Tingle and associates prepared this publication under the

  20. The Additive Impact of Group and Individual Publicly Displayed Feedback: Examining Individual Response Patterns and Response Generalization in a Safe-Driving Occupational Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludwig, Timothy D.; Geller, E. Scott; Clarke, Steven W.

    2010-01-01

    Additive effects of publicly posting individual feedback following group goal-setting and feedback were evaluated. The turn-signal use of pizza deliverers was studied in a multiple baseline design across two pizza stores. After baseline observations, pizza deliverers voted on a group turn-signal goal and then received 4 weeks of group feedback on…

  1. An examination of the origin and evolution of additional tandem repeats in the mitochondrial DNA control region of Japanese sika deer (Cervus Nippon).

    PubMed

    Ba, Hengxing; Wu, Lang; Liu, Zongyue; Li, Chunyi

    2016-01-01

    Tandem repeat units are only detected in the left domain of the mitochondrial DNA control region in sika deer. Previous studies showed that Japanese sika deer have more tandem repeat units than its cousins from the Asian continent and Taiwan, which often have only three repeat units. To determine the origin and evolution of these additional repeat units in Japanese sika deer, we obtained the sequence of repeat units from an expanded dataset of the control region from all sika deer lineages. The functional constraint is inferred to act on the first repeat unit because this repeat has the least sequence divergence in comparison to the other units. Based on slipped-strand mispairing mechanisms, the illegitimate elongation model could account for the addition or deletion of these additional repeat units in the Japanese sika deer population. We also report that these additional repeat units could be occurring in the internal positions of tandem repeat regions, possibly via coupling with a homogenization mechanism within and among these lineages. Moreover, the increased number of repeat units in the Japanese sika deer population could reflect a balance between mutation and selection, as well as genetic drift.

  2. The use of additive and subtractive approaches to examine the nuclear localization sequence of the polyomavirus major capsid protein VP1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, D.; Haynes, J. I. 2nd; Brady, J. N.; Consigli, R. A.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1992-01-01

    A nuclear localization signal (NLS) has been identified in the N-terminal (Ala1-Pro-Lys-Arg-Lys-Ser-Gly-Val-Ser-Lys-Cys11) amino acid sequence of the polyomavirus major capsid protein VP1. The importance of this amino acid sequence for nuclear transport of VP1 protein was demonstrated by a genetic "subtractive" study using the constructs pSG5VP1 (full-length VP1) and pSG5 delta 5'VP1 (truncated VP1, lacking amino acids Ala1-Cys11). These constructs were used to transfect COS-7 cells, and expression and intracellular localization of the VP1 protein was visualized by indirect immunofluorescence. These studies revealed that the full-length VP1 was expressed and localized in the nucleus, while the truncated VP1 protein was localized in the cytoplasm and not transported to the nucleus. These findings were substantiated by an "additive" approach using FITC-labeled conjugates of synthetic peptides homologous to the NLS of VP1 cross-linked to bovine serum albumin or immunoglobulin G. Both conjugates localized in the nucleus after microinjection into the cytoplasm of 3T6 cells. The importance of individual amino acids found in the basic sequence (Lys3-Arg-Lys5) of the NLS was also investigated. This was accomplished by synthesizing three additional peptides in which lysine-3 was substituted with threonine, arginine-4 was substituted with threonine, or lysine-5 was substituted with threonine. It was found that lysine-3 was crucial for nuclear transport, since substitution of this amino acid with threonine prevented nuclear localization of the microinjected, FITC-labeled conjugate.

  3. Through the lens of the microscope: Examining the addition of traditional and digital microscopes to the study of cell theory in a rural middle school setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ennis, Jackie Strum

    2005-07-01

    Situated in the classrooms of three middle school teachers in a rural school system in North Carolina, this study examined the variable of microscope use on three levels---no microscopes, analog microscopes, and digital microscopes---during the unit on cells. The study benefited from the use of two complementary parts---a quasi-experimental quantitative part and a qualitative component. The quantitative component of the study utilized two instruments, the Scientific Attitude Inventory II (SAI II) (Moore & Foy, 1997) and a content test developed for this study. Each instrument was administered as a pretest and a posttest to the three groups of students. An analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was conducted. Results of the ANCOVA on the content test showed that when controlling for the pretest scores, there were no differences between the mean posttest scores of the students. Results of the ANCOVA on the SAI II showed that when controlling for the pretest scores, there was a statistically significant difference (p<.05) among the mean posttest scores. However, Scheffe's Method of Multiple Comparisons revealed no significant differences among the scores of the three groups of students. Descriptive data provided the students' scores disaggregated by gender and by racial identity. The qualitative component utilized classroom observation, teacher interviews, and student interviews as data sources in the three learning environments. Analysis of the data revealed that the students in all three classrooms were engaged in the learning activities and benefited from the learning experiences. However, the students who used the digital microscopes were more engaged than the other groups. These students used technology as a mindtool to help them bridge the concrete experiences to the abstract concepts associated with cell theory. Yet, the teacher who used the digital microscopes missed opportunities for them to use the devices for knowledge construction. Two types of digital

  4. Chemical Analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bulluck, J. W.; Rushing, R. A.

    1994-01-01

    As a preliminary study on the effects of chemical aging of polymer materials MERL and TRI have examined two polymeric materials that are typically used for offshore umbilical applications. These two materials were Tefzel, a copolymer of ethylene and tetrafluoroethylene, and Coflon, polyvinylidene fluoride. The Coflon specimens were cut from pipe sections and exposed to H2S at various temperatures and pressures. One of these specimens was tested for methane permeation, and another for H2S permeation. The Tefzel specimens were cut from .05 mm sheet stock material and were exposed to methanol at elevated temperature and pressure. One of these specimens was exposed to methanol permeation for 2 days at 100 C and 2500 psi. An additional specimen was exposed to liquid methanol for 3 days at 150 C and 15 Bar. Virgin specimens of each material were similarly prepared and tested.

  5. Potlining Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolf Keller

    2004-08-10

    In this project, a concept to improve the performance of aluminum production cells by introducing potlining additives was examined and tested. Boron oxide was added to cathode blocks, and titanium was dissolved in the metal pool; this resulted in the formation of titanium diboride and caused the molten aluminum to wet the carbonaceous cathode surface. Such wetting reportedly leads to operational improvements and extended cell life. In addition, boron oxide suppresses cyanide formation. This final report presents and discusses the results of this project. Substantial economic benefits for the practical implementation of the technology are projected, especially for modern cells with graphitized blocks. For example, with an energy savings of about 5% and an increase in pot life from 1500 to 2500 days, a cost savings of $ 0.023 per pound of aluminum produced is projected for a 200 kA pot.

  6. In situ sulfur isotopes (δ(34)S and δ(33)S) analyses in sulfides and elemental sulfur using high sensitivity cones combined with the addition of nitrogen by laser ablation MC-ICP-MS.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jiali; Hu, Zhaochu; Zhang, Wen; Yang, Lu; Liu, Yongsheng; Li, Ming; Zong, Keqing; Gao, Shan; Hu, Shenghong

    2016-03-10

    The sulfur isotope is an important geochemical tracer in diverse fields of geosciences. In this study, the effects of three different cone combinations with the addition of N2 on the performance of in situ S isotope analyses were investigated in detail. The signal intensities of S isotopes were improved by a factor of 2.3 and 3.6 using the X skimmer cone combined with the standard sample cone or the Jet sample cone, respectively, compared with the standard arrangement (H skimmer cone combined with the standard sample cone). This signal enhancement is important for the improvement of the precision and accuracy of in situ S isotope analysis at high spatial resolution. Different cone combinations have a significant effect on the mass bias and mass bias stability for S isotopes. Poor precisions of S isotope ratios were obtained using the Jet and X cones combination at their corresponding optimum makeup gas flow when using Ar plasma only. The addition of 4-8 ml min(-1) nitrogen to the central gas flow in laser ablation MC-ICP-MS was found to significantly enlarge the mass bias stability zone at their corresponding optimum makeup gas flow in these three different cone combinations. The polyatomic interferences of OO, SH, OOH were also significantly reduced, and the interference free plateaus of sulfur isotopes became broader and flatter in the nitrogen mode (N2 = 4 ml min(-1)). However, the signal intensity of S was not increased by the addition of nitrogen in this study. The laser fluence and ablation mode had significant effects on sulfur isotope fractionation during the analysis of sulfides and elemental sulfur by laser ablation MC-ICP-MS. The matrix effect among different sulfides and elemental sulfur was observed, but could be significantly reduced by line scan ablation in preference to single spot ablation under the optimized fluence. It is recommended that the d90 values of the particles in pressed powder pellets for accurate and precise S isotope analysis

  7. Nutrients from dairy foods are difficult to replace in diets of Americans: food pattern modeling and an analyses of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2006.

    PubMed

    Fulgoni, Victor L; Keast, Debra R; Auestad, Nancy; Quann, Erin E

    2011-10-01

    Because dairy products provide shortfall nutrients (eg, calcium, potassium, and vitamin D) and other important nutrients, this study hypothesized that it would be difficult for Americans to meet nutritional requirements for these nutrients in the absence of dairy product consumption or when recommended nondairy calcium sources are consumed. To test this hypothesis, MyPyramid dietary pattern modeling exercises and an analyses of data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2006 were conducted in those aged at least 2 years (n = 16 822). Impact of adding or removing 1 serving of dairy, removing all dairy, and replacing dairy with nondairy calcium sources was evaluated. Dietary pattern modeling indicated that at least 3 servings of dairy foods are needed to help individuals meet recommendations for nutrients, such as calcium and magnesium, and 4 servings may be needed to help some groups meet potassium recommendations. A calcium-equivalent serving of dairy requires 1.1 servings of fortified soy beverage, 0.6 serving of fortified orange juice, 1.2 servings of bony fish, or 2.2 servings of leafy greens. The replacement of dairy with calcium-equivalent foods alters the overall nutritional profile of the diet and affects nutrients including protein, potassium, magnesium, phosphorus, riboflavin, vitamins A, D and B(12). Similar modeling exercises using consumption data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey also demonstrated that nondairy calcium replacement foods are not a nutritionally equivalent substitute for dairy products. In conclusion, although it is possible to meet calcium intake recommendations without consuming dairy foods, calcium replacement foods are not a nutritionally equivalent substitute for dairy foods and consumption of a calcium-equivalent amount of some nondairy foods is unrealistic.

  8. Sociopolitical Analyses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Galen, Jane, Ed.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This theme issue of the serial "Educational Foundations" contains four articles devoted to the topic of "Sociopolitical Analyses." In "An Interview with Peter L. McLaren," Mary Leach presented the views of Peter L. McLaren on topics of local and national discourses, values, and the politics of difference. Landon E.…

  9. Additive Similarity Trees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sattath, Shmuel; Tversky, Amos

    1977-01-01

    Tree representations of similarity data are investigated. Hierarchical clustering is critically examined, and a more general procedure, called the additive tree, is presented. The additive tree representation is then compared to multidimensional scaling. (Author/JKS)

  10. Food additives

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857

  11. Food additives

    MedlinePlus

    ... or natural. Natural food additives include: Herbs or spices to add flavor to foods Vinegar for pickling ... Certain colors improve the appearance of foods. Many spices, as well as natural and man-made flavors, ...

  12. Spacelab Charcoal Analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slivon, L. E.; Hernon-Kenny, L. A.; Katona, V. R.; Dejarme, L. E.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes analytical methods and results obtained from chemical analysis of 31 charcoal samples in five sets. Each set was obtained from a single scrubber used to filter ambient air on board a Spacelab mission. Analysis of the charcoal samples was conducted by thermal desorption followed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). All samples were analyzed using identical methods. The method used for these analyses was able to detect compounds independent of their polarity or volatility. In addition to the charcoal samples, analyses of three Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) water samples were conducted specifically for trimethylamine.

  13. Ear examination

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003340.htm Ear examination To use the sharing features on this page, ... ear References King EF, Couch ME. History, physical examination, and the preoperative evaluation. In: Flint PW, Haughey ...

  14. Phosphazene additives

    DOEpatents

    Harrup, Mason K; Rollins, Harry W

    2013-11-26

    An additive comprising a phosphazene compound that has at least two reactive functional groups and at least one capping functional group bonded to phosphorus atoms of the phosphazene compound. One of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with cellulose and the other of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with a resin, such as an amine resin of a polycarboxylic acid resin. The at least one capping functional group is selected from the group consisting of a short chain ether group, an alkoxy group, or an aryloxy group. Also disclosed are an additive-resin admixture, a method of treating a wood product, and a wood product.

  15. Epidemiology of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus in Korea through an Investigation of the National Registration Project of Type 1 Diabetes for the Reimbursement of Glucometer Strips with Additional Analyses Using Claims Data

    PubMed Central

    Song, Sun Ok; Nam, Joo Young; Park, Kyeong Hye; Yoon, Ji-Hae; Son, Kyung-Mi; Ko, Young; Lim, Dong-Ha

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and incidence of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) in Korea. In addition, we planned to do a performance analysis of the Registration Project of Type 1 diabetes for the reimbursement of consumable materials. Methods To obtain nationwide data on the incidence and prevalence of T1DM, we extracted claims data from July 2011 to August 2013 from the Registration Project of Type 1 diabetes on the reimbursement of consumable materials in the National Health Insurance (NHI) Database. For a more detailed analysis of the T1DM population in Korea, stratification by gender, age, and area was performed, and prevalence and incidence were calculated. Results Of the 8,256 subjects enrolled over the 26 months, the male to female ratio was 1 to 1.12, the median age was 37.1 years, and an average of 136 new T1DM patients were registered to the T1DM registry each month, resulting in 1,632 newly diagnosed T1DM patients each year. We found that the incidence rate of new T1DM cases was 3.28 per 100,000 people. The average proportion of T1DM patients compared with each region's population was 0.0125%. The total number of insurance subscribers under the universal compulsory NHI in Korea was 49,662,097, and the total number of diabetes patients, excluding duplication, was 3,762,332. Conclusion The prevalence of T1DM over the course of the study was approximately 0.017% to 0.021% of the entire population of Korea, and the annual incidence of T1DM was 3.28:100,000 overall and 3.25:100,000 for Koreans under 20 years old. PMID:26912154

  16. Partly Tailored Examinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bedard, R.

    1974-01-01

    A type of examination in which additional questions are provided was used for Grade 12 Algebra and College 1 Introductory Calculus. An hypothesis was formulated that this procedure should reveal additional knowledge which whould be reflected in superior average scores for the class group. (Editor)

  17. 10 CFR 436.24 - Uncertainty analyses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Uncertainty analyses. 436.24 Section 436.24 Energy... Procedures for Life Cycle Cost Analyses § 436.24 Uncertainty analyses. If particular items of cost data or... by conducting additional analyses using any standard engineering economics method such as...

  18. 10 CFR 436.24 - Uncertainty analyses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Uncertainty analyses. 436.24 Section 436.24 Energy... Procedures for Life Cycle Cost Analyses § 436.24 Uncertainty analyses. If particular items of cost data or... by conducting additional analyses using any standard engineering economics method such as...

  19. Nonrestricted multiple-choice examination items.

    PubMed

    Kolstad, R; Goaz, P; Kolstad, R

    1982-08-01

    Multiple-choice items are frequently used in objective examinations. The format chosen should conform to the nature of the instruction. Knowledge about cumulative information, such as lists of attributes, can be tested efficiently by means of multiple-choice items that include a variable number of correct answers. In contrast to conventional, single-answer questions, nonrestricted multiple-choice items are capable of including more facts and fewer incorrect responses. In addition, the nonrestricted format is not burdened with the repetitious pattern of one correct answer coupled with several incorrect responses, a cue that may promote successful guessing. Item analyses can be performed on examinations that include both conventional and nonrestricted items. The reliability of one examination constructed totally with nonrestricted items was analyzed by means of the Kuder-Richardson Formula No. 20. The value 0.72 proved this examination to be both discriminating and consistent.

  20. Overlapping meta-analyses on the same topic: survey of published studies

    PubMed Central

    Siontis, Konstantinos C; Hernandez-Boussard, Tina

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess how common it is to have multiple overlapping meta-analyses of randomized trials published on the same topic. Design Survey of published meta-analyses. Data sources PubMed. Study selection and methods Meta-analyses published in 2010 were identified, and 5% of them were randomly selected. We further selected those that included randomized trials and examined effectiveness of any medical intervention. For eligible meta-analyses, we searched for other meta-analyses on the same topic (covering the same comparisons, indications/settings, and outcomes or overlapping subsets of them) published until February 2013. Results Of 73 eligible meta-analyses published in 2010, 49 (67%) had at least one other overlapping meta-analysis (median two meta-analyses per topic, interquartile range 1-4, maximum 13). In 17 topics at least one author was involved in at least two of the overlapping meta-analyses. No characteristics of the index meta-analyses were associated with the potential for overlapping meta-analyses. Among pairs of overlapping meta-analyses in 20 randomly selected topics, 13 of the more recent meta-analyses did not include any additional outcomes. In three of the four topics with eight or more published meta-analyses, many meta-analyses examined only a subset of the eligible interventions or indications/settings covered by the index meta-analysis. Conversely, for statins in the prevention of atrial fibrillation after cardiac surgery, 11 meta-analyses were published with similar eligibility criteria for interventions and setting: there was still variability on which studies were included, but the results were always similar or even identical across meta-analyses. Conclusions While some independent replication of meta-analyses by different teams is possibly useful, the overall picture suggests that there is a waste of efforts with many topics covered by multiple overlapping meta-analyses. PMID:23873947

  1. Food additives and preschool children.

    PubMed

    Martyn, Danika M; McNulty, Breige A; Nugent, Anne P; Gibney, Michael J

    2013-02-01

    Food additives have been used throughout history to perform specific functions in foods. A comprehensive framework of legislation is in place within Europe to control the use of additives in the food supply and ensure they pose no risk to human health. Further to this, exposure assessments are regularly carried out to monitor population intakes and verify that intakes are not above acceptable levels (acceptable daily intakes). Young children may have a higher dietary exposure to chemicals than adults due to a combination of rapid growth rates and distinct food intake patterns. For this reason, exposure assessments are particularly important in this age group. The paper will review the use of additives and exposure assessment methods and examine factors that affect dietary exposure by young children. One of the most widely investigated unfavourable health effects associated with food additive intake in preschool-aged children are suggested adverse behavioural effects. Research that has examined this relationship has reported a variety of responses, with many noting an increase in hyperactivity as reported by parents but not when assessed using objective examiners. This review has examined the experimental approaches used in such studies and suggests that efforts are needed to standardise objective methods of measuring behaviour in preschool children. Further to this, a more holistic approach to examining food additive intakes by preschool children is advisable, where overall exposure is considered rather than focusing solely on behavioural effects and possibly examining intakes of food additives other than food colours.

  2. Analyses of Transistor Punchthrough Failures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicolas, David P.

    1999-01-01

    The failure of two transistors in the Altitude Switch Assembly for the Solid Rocket Booster followed by two additional failures a year later presented a challenge to failure analysts. These devices had successfully worked for many years on numerous missions. There was no history of failures with this type of device. Extensive checks of the test procedures gave no indication for a source of the cause. The devices were manufactured more than twenty years ago and failure information on this lot date code was not readily available. External visual exam, radiography, PEID, and leak testing were performed with nominal results Electrical testing indicated nearly identical base-emitter and base-collector characteristics (both forward and reverse) with a low resistance short emitter to collector. These characteristics are indicative of a classic failure mechanism called punchthrough. In failure analysis punchthrough refers to an condition where a relatively low voltage pulse causes the device to conduct very hard producing localized areas of thermal runaway or "hot spots". At one or more of these hot spots, the excessive currents melt the silicon. Heavily doped emitter material diffuses through the base region to the collector forming a diffusion pipe shorting the emitter to base to collector. Upon cooling, an alloy junction forms between the pipe and the base region. Generally, the hot spot (punch-through site) is under the bond and no surface artifact is visible. The devices were delidded and the internal structures were examined microscopically. The gold emitter lead was melted on one device, but others had anomalies in the metallization around the in-tact emitter bonds. The SEM examination confirmed some anomalies to be cosmetic defects while other anomalies were artifacts of the punchthrough site. Subsequent to these analyses, the contractor determined that some irregular testing procedures occurred at the time of the failures heretofore unreported. These testing

  3. MELCOR analyses for accident progression issues

    SciTech Connect

    Dingman, S.E.; Shaffer, C.J.; Payne, A.C.; Carmel, M.K. )

    1991-01-01

    Results of calculations performed with MELCOR and HECTR in support of the NUREG-1150 study are presented in this report. The analyses examined a wide range of issues. The analyses included integral calculations covering an entire accident sequence, as well as calculations that addressed specific issues that could affect several accident sequences. The results of the analyses for Grand Gulf, Peach Bottom, LaSalle, and Sequoyah are described, and the major conclusions are summarized. 23 refs., 69 figs., 8 tabs.

  4. 49 CFR 1180.7 - Market analyses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Market analyses. 1180.7 Section 1180.7..., TRACKAGE RIGHTS, AND LEASE PROCEDURES General Acquisition Procedures § 1180.7 Market analyses. (a) For... identify and address relevant markets and issues, and provide additional information as requested by...

  5. 49 CFR 1180.7 - Market analyses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Market analyses. 1180.7 Section 1180.7..., TRACKAGE RIGHTS, AND LEASE PROCEDURES General Acquisition Procedures § 1180.7 Market analyses. (a) For... identify and address relevant markets and issues, and provide additional information as requested by...

  6. 10 CFR 436.24 - Uncertainty analyses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Procedures for Life Cycle Cost Analyses § 436.24 Uncertainty analyses. If particular items of cost data or... impact of uncertainty on the calculation of life cycle cost effectiveness or the assignment of rank order... and probabilistic analysis. If additional analysis casts substantial doubt on the life cycle...

  7. 10 CFR 436.24 - Uncertainty analyses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Procedures for Life Cycle Cost Analyses § 436.24 Uncertainty analyses. If particular items of cost data or... impact of uncertainty on the calculation of life cycle cost effectiveness or the assignment of rank order... and probabilistic analysis. If additional analysis casts substantial doubt on the life cycle...

  8. 10 CFR 436.24 - Uncertainty analyses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Procedures for Life Cycle Cost Analyses § 436.24 Uncertainty analyses. If particular items of cost data or... impact of uncertainty on the calculation of life cycle cost effectiveness or the assignment of rank order... and probabilistic analysis. If additional analysis casts substantial doubt on the life cycle...

  9. Nonlinear structural crash dynamics analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayduk, R. J.; Thomson, R. G.; Wittlin, G.; Kamat, M. P.

    1979-01-01

    Presented in this paper are the results of three nonlinear computer programs, KRASH, ACTION and DYCAST used to analyze the dynamic response of a twin-engine, low-wing airplane section subjected to a 8.38 m/s (27.5 ft/s) vertical impact velocity crash condition. This impact condition simulates the vertical sink rate in a shallow aircraft landing or takeoff accident. The three distinct analysis techniques for nonlinear dynamic response of aircraft structures are briefly examined and compared versus each other and the experimental data. The report contains brief descriptions of the three computer programs, the respective aircraft section mathematical models, pertinent data from the experimental test performed at NASA Langley, and a comparison of the analyses versus test results. Cost and accuracy comparisons between the three analyses are made to illustrate the possible uses of the different nonlinear programs and their future potential.

  10. Examining hydrogen transitions.

    SciTech Connect

    Plotkin, S. E.; Energy Systems

    2007-03-01

    This report describes the results of an effort to identify key analytic issues associated with modeling a transition to hydrogen as a fuel for light duty vehicles, and using insights gained from this effort to suggest ways to improve ongoing modeling efforts. The study reported on here examined multiple hydrogen scenarios reported in the literature, identified modeling issues associated with those scenario analyses, and examined three DOE-sponsored hydrogen transition models in the context of those modeling issues. The three hydrogen transition models are HyTrans (contractor: Oak Ridge National Laboratory), MARKAL/DOE* (Brookhaven National Laboratory), and NEMS-H2 (OnLocation, Inc). The goals of these models are (1) to help DOE improve its R&D effort by identifying key technology and other roadblocks to a transition and testing its technical program goals to determine whether they are likely to lead to the market success of hydrogen technologies, (2) to evaluate alternative policies to promote a transition, and (3) to estimate the costs and benefits of alternative pathways to hydrogen development.

  11. NOAA's National Snow Analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carroll, T. R.; Cline, D. W.; Olheiser, C. M.; Rost, A. A.; Nilsson, A. O.; Fall, G. M.; Li, L.; Bovitz, C. T.

    2005-12-01

    NOAA's National Operational Hydrologic Remote Sensing Center (NOHRSC) routinely ingests all of the electronically available, real-time, ground-based, snow data; airborne snow water equivalent data; satellite areal extent of snow cover information; and numerical weather prediction (NWP) model forcings for the coterminous U.S. The NWP model forcings are physically downscaled from their native 13 km2 spatial resolution to a 1 km2 resolution for the CONUS. The downscaled NWP forcings drive an energy-and-mass-balance snow accumulation and ablation model at a 1 km2 spatial resolution and at a 1 hour temporal resolution for the country. The ground-based, airborne, and satellite snow observations are assimilated into the snow model's simulated state variables using a Newtonian nudging technique. The principle advantages of the assimilation technique are: (1) approximate balance is maintained in the snow model, (2) physical processes are easily accommodated in the model, and (3) asynoptic data are incorporated at the appropriate times. The snow model is reinitialized with the assimilated snow observations to generate a variety of snow products that combine to form NOAA's NOHRSC National Snow Analyses (NSA). The NOHRSC NSA incorporate all of the available information necessary and available to produce a "best estimate" of real-time snow cover conditions at 1 km2 spatial resolution and 1 hour temporal resolution for the country. The NOHRSC NSA consist of a variety of daily, operational, products that characterize real-time snowpack conditions including: snow water equivalent, snow depth, surface and internal snowpack temperatures, surface and blowing snow sublimation, and snowmelt for the CONUS. The products are generated and distributed in a variety of formats including: interactive maps, time-series, alphanumeric products (e.g., mean areal snow water equivalent on a hydrologic basin-by-basin basis), text and map discussions, map animations, and quantitative gridded products

  12. Physical examination during space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, B. A. Jr; Billica, R. D.; Bishop, S. L.; Blackwell, T.; Layne, C. S.; Harm, D. L.; Sandoz, G. R.; Rosenow, E. C. 3rd

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To develop techniques for conducting a physical examination in microgravity and to describe and document the physiologic changes noted with use of a modified basic physical examination. DESIGN: On the basis of data gathered from physical examinations on KC-135 flights, three physical variables were assessed serially in astronauts during two shuttle missions (of 8- and 10-day duration, respectively). Preflight, in-flight, and postflight examinations were conducted by trained physician-astronauts or flight surgeons, who used this modified examination. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Five male and two female crewmembers participated in the "hands-on" physical examination of all physiologic systems except the genitourinary system. Level of edema, intensity of bowel sounds, and peripheral reflexes were assessed and graded. RESULTS: This investigation identified unique elements of a physical examination performed during space flight that will assist in the development of standard methods for conducting examinations of astronauts in weightlessness. In addition, demonstrable changes induced by microgravity were noted in most physiologic systems examined. CONCLUSION: The data support the hypothesis that the microgravity examination differs from that conducted on earth or in a 1g environment. In addition, alterations in the physiologic response can be detected with use of hands-on technique. These data are invaluable in the development of optimal medical care for humans in space.

  13. Wavelet Analyses and Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bordeianu, Cristian C.; Landau, Rubin H.; Paez, Manuel J.

    2009-01-01

    It is shown how a modern extension of Fourier analysis known as wavelet analysis is applied to signals containing multiscale information. First, a continuous wavelet transform is used to analyse the spectrum of a nonstationary signal (one whose form changes in time). The spectral analysis of such a signal gives the strength of the signal in each…

  14. Apollo 14 microbial analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, G. R.

    1972-01-01

    Extensive microbiological analyses that were performed on the Apollo 14 prime and backup crewmembers and ancillary personnel are discussed. The crewmembers were subjected to four separate and quite different environments during the 137-day monitoring period. The relation between each of these environments and observed changes in the microflora of each astronaut are presented.

  15. Atmospheric tether mission analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    NASA is considering the use of tethered satellites to explore regions of the atmosphere inaccessible to spacecraft or high altitude research balloons. This report summarizes the Lockheed Martin Astronautics (LMA) effort for the engineering study team assessment of an Orbiter-based atmospheric tether mission. Lockheed Martin responsibilities included design recommendations for the deployer and tether, as well as tether dynamic analyses for the mission. Three tether configurations were studied including single line, multistrand (Hoytether) and tape designs.

  16. An assessment of stress analyses in the theory of abfraction.

    PubMed

    Litonjua, Luis A; Andreana, Sebastiano; Patra, Abani K; Cohen, Robert E

    2004-01-01

    Wedged-shaped lesions at the cemento-enamel junction of teeth have been attributed primarily to biomechanical loading forces that cause flexure and failure of enamel and dentin. This theory, termed abfraction, remains controversial. This review examined studies on mechanical properties of enamel and dentin and studies on bite forces and mastication as background information. Abfraction is based principally on a few early finite element analysis and photoelastic models showing stress concentration at the dental cervical area without actually showing enamel and dentin fracture. However, a review of more recent dental stress analyses has been contradictory. Particularly, analyses of the periodontal ligament and alveolar bone, not modeled in previous studies, have shown that those structures may dissipate occlusal loading forces from the cervical areas. In addition, some models may not fully represent intricate dental anatomy and complex occlusal function. Therefore, the key basis of the abfraction theory may be flawed.

  17. Examination Management and Examination Malpractice: The Nexus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogunji, James A.

    2011-01-01

    Examination malpractice or cheating has become a global phenomenon. In different countries of the world today, developed and developing, academic dishonesty especially cheating in examinations has heightened and taken frightening dimension. In many countries of the world this phenomenon has become a serious matter of concern that has left many…

  18. LDEF Satellite Radiation Analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, T. W.; Colborn, B. L.

    1996-01-01

    Model calculations and analyses have been carried out to compare with several sets of data (dose, induced radioactivity in various experiment samples and spacecraft components, fission foil measurements, and LET spectra) from passive radiation dosimetry on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) satellite, which was recovered after almost six years in space. The calculations and data comparisons are used to estimate the accuracy of current models and methods for predicting the ionizing radiation environment in low earth orbit. The emphasis is on checking the accuracy of trapped proton flux and anisotropy models.

  19. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, J. R.; St. Clair, T. L.; Burks, H. D.; Stoakley, D. M.

    1987-01-01

    A method has been found for enhancing the melt flow of thermoplastic polyimides during processing. A high molecular weight 422 copoly(amic acid) or copolyimide was fused with approximately 0.05 to 5 pct by weight of a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive, and this melt was studied by capillary rheometry. Excellent flow and improved composite properties on graphite resulted from the addition of a PMDA-aniline additive to LARC-TPI. Solution viscosity studies imply that amic acid additives temporarily lower molecular weight and, hence, enlarge the processing window. Thus, compositions containing the additive have a lower melt viscosity for a longer time than those unmodified.

  20. [Food additives and healthiness].

    PubMed

    Heinonen, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Additives are used for improving food structure or preventing its spoilage, for example. Many substances used as additives are also naturally present in food. The safety of additives is evaluated according to commonly agreed principles. If high concentrations of an additive cause adverse health effects for humans, a limit of acceptable daily intake (ADI) is set for it. An additive is a risk only when ADI is exceeded. The healthiness of food is measured on the basis of nutrient density and scientifically proven effects.

  1. EEG analyses with SOBI.

    SciTech Connect

    Glickman, Matthew R.; Tang, Akaysha

    2009-02-01

    The motivating vision behind Sandia's MENTOR/PAL LDRD project has been that of systems which use real-time psychophysiological data to support and enhance human performance, both individually and of groups. Relevant and significant psychophysiological data being a necessary prerequisite to such systems, this LDRD has focused on identifying and refining such signals. The project has focused in particular on EEG (electroencephalogram) data as a promising candidate signal because it (potentially) provides a broad window on brain activity with relatively low cost and logistical constraints. We report here on two analyses performed on EEG data collected in this project using the SOBI (Second Order Blind Identification) algorithm to identify two independent sources of brain activity: one in the frontal lobe and one in the occipital. The first study looks at directional influences between the two components, while the second study looks at inferring gender based upon the frontal component.

  2. Network Class Superposition Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, Carl A. B.; Zeng, Chen; Simha, Rahul

    2013-01-01

    Networks are often used to understand a whole system by modeling the interactions among its pieces. Examples include biomolecules in a cell interacting to provide some primary function, or species in an environment forming a stable community. However, these interactions are often unknown; instead, the pieces' dynamic states are known, and network structure must be inferred. Because observed function may be explained by many different networks (e.g., for the yeast cell cycle process [1]), considering dynamics beyond this primary function means picking a single network or suitable sample: measuring over all networks exhibiting the primary function is computationally infeasible. We circumvent that obstacle by calculating the network class ensemble. We represent the ensemble by a stochastic matrix , which is a transition-by-transition superposition of the system dynamics for each member of the class. We present concrete results for derived from Boolean time series dynamics on networks obeying the Strong Inhibition rule, by applying to several traditional questions about network dynamics. We show that the distribution of the number of point attractors can be accurately estimated with . We show how to generate Derrida plots based on . We show that -based Shannon entropy outperforms other methods at selecting experiments to further narrow the network structure. We also outline an experimental test of predictions based on . We motivate all of these results in terms of a popular molecular biology Boolean network model for the yeast cell cycle, but the methods and analyses we introduce are general. We conclude with open questions for , for example, application to other models, computational considerations when scaling up to larger systems, and other potential analyses. PMID:23565141

  3. Network class superposition analyses.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Carl A B; Zeng, Chen; Simha, Rahul

    2013-01-01

    Networks are often used to understand a whole system by modeling the interactions among its pieces. Examples include biomolecules in a cell interacting to provide some primary function, or species in an environment forming a stable community. However, these interactions are often unknown; instead, the pieces' dynamic states are known, and network structure must be inferred. Because observed function may be explained by many different networks (e.g., ≈ 10(30) for the yeast cell cycle process), considering dynamics beyond this primary function means picking a single network or suitable sample: measuring over all networks exhibiting the primary function is computationally infeasible. We circumvent that obstacle by calculating the network class ensemble. We represent the ensemble by a stochastic matrix T, which is a transition-by-transition superposition of the system dynamics for each member of the class. We present concrete results for T derived from boolean time series dynamics on networks obeying the Strong Inhibition rule, by applying T to several traditional questions about network dynamics. We show that the distribution of the number of point attractors can be accurately estimated with T. We show how to generate Derrida plots based on T. We show that T-based Shannon entropy outperforms other methods at selecting experiments to further narrow the network structure. We also outline an experimental test of predictions based on T. We motivate all of these results in terms of a popular molecular biology boolean network model for the yeast cell cycle, but the methods and analyses we introduce are general. We conclude with open questions for T, for example, application to other models, computational considerations when scaling up to larger systems, and other potential analyses.

  4. Uncertainty and Sensitivity Analyses Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, J.C.; Ramsdell, J.V. Jr.

    1993-04-01

    Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project staff are developing mathematical models to be used to estimate the radiation dose that individuals may have received as a result of emissions since 1944 from the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. An uncertainty and sensitivity analyses plan is essential to understand and interpret the predictions from these mathematical models. This is especially true in the case of the HEDR models where the values of many parameters are unknown. This plan gives a thorough documentation of the uncertainty and hierarchical sensitivity analysis methods recommended for use on all HEDR mathematical models. The documentation includes both technical definitions and examples. In addition, an extensive demonstration of the uncertainty and sensitivity analysis process is provided using actual results from the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Integrated Codes (HEDRIC). This demonstration shows how the approaches used in the recommended plan can be adapted for all dose predictions in the HEDR Project.

  5. Genetic Analyses of Integrin Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Wickström, Sara A.; Radovanac, Korana; Fässler, Reinhard

    2011-01-01

    The development of multicellular organisms, as well as maintenance of organ architecture and function, requires robust regulation of cell fates. This is in part achieved by conserved signaling pathways through which cells process extracellular information and translate this information into changes in proliferation, differentiation, migration, and cell shape. Gene deletion studies in higher eukaryotes have assigned critical roles for components of the extracellular matrix (ECM) and their cellular receptors in a vast number of developmental processes, indicating that a large proportion of this signaling is regulated by cell-ECM interactions. In addition, genetic alterations in components of this signaling axis play causative roles in several human diseases. This review will discuss what genetic analyses in mice and lower organisms have taught us about adhesion signaling in development and disease. PMID:21421914

  6. Sixth Form Examining Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schools Council, London (England).

    The methods of examining in the sixth form of secondary education in England and Wales is the basis for discussion by subject committees of the Schools Council. Special reference is made to internal examinations, oral assessments, teacher's assessments, the relaxing of the time limits for examination, and the use of aids during examinations. The…

  7. Polylactides in additive biomanufacturing.

    PubMed

    Poh, Patrina S P; Chhaya, Mohit P; Wunner, Felix M; De-Juan-Pardo, Elena M; Schilling, Arndt F; Schantz, Jan-Thorsten; van Griensven, Martijn; Hutmacher, Dietmar W

    2016-12-15

    New advanced manufacturing technologies under the alias of additive biomanufacturing allow the design and fabrication of a range of products from pre-operative models, cutting guides and medical devices to scaffolds. The process of printing in 3 dimensions of cells, extracellular matrix (ECM) and biomaterials (bioinks, powders, etc.) to generate in vitro and/or in vivo tissue analogue structures has been termed bioprinting. To further advance in additive biomanufacturing, there are many aspects that we can learn from the wider additive manufacturing (AM) industry, which have progressed tremendously since its introduction into the manufacturing sector. First, this review gives an overview of additive manufacturing and both industry and academia efforts in addressing specific challenges in the AM technologies to drive toward AM-enabled industrial revolution. After which, considerations of poly(lactides) as a biomaterial in additive biomanufacturing are discussed. Challenges in wider additive biomanufacturing field are discussed in terms of (a) biomaterials; (b) computer-aided design, engineering and manufacturing; (c) AM and additive biomanufacturing printers hardware; and (d) system integration. Finally, the outlook for additive biomanufacturing was discussed.

  8. Additive Manufactured Product Integrity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waller, Jess; Wells, Doug; James, Steve; Nichols, Charles

    2017-01-01

    NASA is providing key leadership in an international effort linking NASA and non-NASA resources to speed adoption of additive manufacturing (AM) to meet NASA's mission goals. Participants include industry, NASA's space partners, other government agencies, standards organizations and academia. Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) is identified as a universal need for all aspects of additive manufacturing.

  9. Additive interaction between heterogeneous environmental ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    BACKGROUND Environmental exposures often occur in tandem; however, epidemiological research often focuses on singular exposures. Statistical interactions among broad, well-characterized environmental domains have not yet been evaluated in association with health. We address this gap by conducting a county-level cross-sectional analysis of interactions between Environmental Quality Index (EQI) domain indices on preterm birth in the Unites States from 2000-2005.METHODS: The EQI, a county-level index constructed for the 2000-2005 time period, was constructed from five domain-specific indices (air, water, land, built and sociodemographic) using principal component analyses. County-level preterm birth rates (n=3141) were estimated using live births from the National Center for Health Statistics. Linear regression was used to estimate prevalence differences (PD) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) comparing worse environmental quality to the better quality for each model for a) each individual domain main effect b) the interaction contrast and c) the two main effects plus interaction effect (i.e. the “net effect”) to show departure from additive interaction for the all U.S counties. Analyses were also performed for subgroupings by four urban/rural strata. RESULTS: We found the suggestion of antagonistic interactions but no synergism, along with several purely additive (i.e., no interaction) associations. In the non-stratified model, we observed antagonistic interac

  10. The Economic Cost of Homosexuality: Multilevel Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumle, Amanda K.; Poston, Dudley, Jr.

    2011-01-01

    This article builds on earlier studies that have examined "the economic cost of homosexuality," by using data from the 2000 U.S. Census and by employing multilevel analyses. Our findings indicate that partnered gay men experience a 12.5 percent earnings penalty compared to married heterosexual men, and a statistically insignificant earnings…

  11. Examination Involving Students as Peer Examiners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ljungman, Anders G.; Silen, Charlotte

    2008-01-01

    The main interest in this article is students' involvement in assessment as a part of growth towards self-directedness in learning. In order to enhance students' development of autonomy in learning, a project involving "older" students as peer examiners for "younger" students was designed and carried out. Students in the sixth semester in a…

  12. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fletcher, James C. (Inventor); Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor); Burks, Harold D. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

  13. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor); Burks, Harold D. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of the additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

  14. Rod examination gauge

    SciTech Connect

    Bacvinskas, W.S.; Bayer, J.E.; Davis, W.W.; Fodor, G.; Kikta, T.J.; Matchett, R.L.; Nilsen, R.J.; Wilczynski, R.

    1991-12-31

    The present invention is directed to a semi-automatic rod examination gauge for performing a large number of exacting measurements on radioactive fuel rods. The rod examination gauge performs various measurements underwater with remote controlled machinery of high reliability. The rod examination gauge includes instruments and a closed circuit television camera for measuring fuel rod length, free hanging bow measurement, diameter measurement, oxide thickness measurement, cladding defect examination, rod ovality measurement, wear mark depth and volume measurement, as well as visual examination. A control system is provided including a programmable logic controller and a computer for providing a programmed sequence of operations for the rod examination and collection of data.

  15. Stardust Interstellar Preliminary Examination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westphal, A.; Stardust Interstellar Preliminary Examation Team: http://www. ssl. berkeley. edu/~westphal/ISPE/

    2011-12-01

    A. J. Westphal, C. Allen, A. Ansari, S. Bajt, R. S. Bastien, H. A. Bechtel, J. Borg, F. E. Brenker, J. Bridges, D. E. Brownlee, M. Burchell, M. Burghammer, A. L. Butterworth, A. M. Davis, P. Cloetens, C. Floss, G. Flynn, D. Frank, Z. Gainsforth, E. Grün, P. R. Heck, J. K. Hillier, P. Hoppe, G. Huss, J. Huth, B. Hvide, A. Kearsley, A. J. King, B. Lai, J. Leitner, L. Lemelle, H. Leroux, R. Lettieri, W. Marchant, L. R. Nittler, R. Ogliore, F. Postberg, M. C. Price, S. A. Sandford, J.-A. Sans Tresseras, T. Schoonjans, S. Schmitz, G. Silversmit, A. Simionovici, V. A. Solé, R. Srama, T. Stephan, V. Sterken, J. Stodolna, R. M. Stroud, S. Sutton, M. Trieloff, P. Tsou, A. Tsuchiyama, T. Tyliszczak, B. Vekemans, L. Vincze, D. Zevin, M. E. Zolensky, >29,000 Stardust@home dusters ISPE author affiliations are at http://www.ssl.berkeley.edu/~westphal/ISPE/. In 2000 and 2002, a ~0.1m2 array of aerogel tiles and alumi-num foils onboard the Stardust spacecraft was exposed to the interstellar dust (ISD) stream for an integrated time of 200 days. The exposure took place in interplanetary space, beyond the orbit of Mars, and thus was free of the ubiquitous orbital debris in low-earth orbit that precludes effective searches for interstellar dust there. Despite the long exposure of the Stardust collector, <<100 ISD particles are expected to have been captured. The particles are thought to be ~1μm or less in size, and the total ISD collection is probably <10-6 by mass of the collection of cometary dust parti-cles captured in the Stardust cometary dust collector from the coma of the Jupiter-family comet Wild 2. Thus, although the first solid sample from the local interstellar medium is clearly of high interest, the diminutive size of the particles and the low numbers of particles present daunting challenges. Nevertheless, six recent developments have made a Preliminary Examination (PE) of this sample practical: (1) rapid automated digital optical scanning microscopy for three

  16. Food Additives and Hyperkinesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wender, Ester H.

    1977-01-01

    The hypothesis that food additives are causally associated with hyperkinesis and learning disabilities in children is reviewed, and available data are summarized. Available from: American Medical Association 535 North Dearborn Street Chicago, Illinois 60610. (JG)

  17. Smog control fuel additives

    SciTech Connect

    Lundby, W.

    1993-06-29

    A method is described of controlling, reducing or eliminating, ozone and related smog resulting from photochemical reactions between ozone and automotive or industrial gases comprising the addition of iodine or compounds of iodine to hydrocarbon-base fuels prior to or during combustion in an amount of about 1 part iodine per 240 to 10,000,000 parts fuel, by weight, to be accomplished by: (a) the addition of these inhibitors during or after the refining or manufacturing process of liquid fuels; (b) the production of these inhibitors for addition into fuel tanks, such as automotive or industrial tanks; or (c) the addition of these inhibitors into combustion chambers of equipment utilizing solid fuels for the purpose of reducing ozone.

  18. Analyses of S-Box in Image Encryption Applications Based on Fuzzy Decision Making Criterion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehman, Inayatur; Shah, Tariq; Hussain, Iqtadar

    2014-06-01

    In this manuscript, we put forward a standard based on fuzzy decision making criterion to examine the current substitution boxes and study their strengths and weaknesses in order to decide their appropriateness in image encryption applications. The proposed standard utilizes the results of correlation analysis, entropy analysis, contrast analysis, homogeneity analysis, energy analysis, and mean of absolute deviation analysis. These analyses are applied to well-known substitution boxes. The outcome of these analyses are additional observed and a fuzzy soft set decision making criterion is used to decide the suitability of an S-box to image encryption applications.

  19. AIM and NBO analyses of N-N rotational barrier in monocyclic nitrosamine compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roohi, H.; Ebrahimi, A.; Alirezapoor, F.; Hajealirezahi, M.

    2005-06-01

    The rotational barrier in monocyclic aliphatic nitroseamines has been examined with the aid of topological theory of atoms in molecules and Weinhold's natural bond orbital (NBO) analyses. In addition, due to the similarity of the structures of nitrosamines and amides, we have compared the origin of the rotational barrier in nitrosoamine NH 2NO and formamide NH 2CHO compounds. A good correlation between the structural parameters, NBO results, and the properties of charge density has been found.

  20. NEUTRONICS ANALYSES FOR SNS TARGETS DEPOSITIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Popova, Irina I; Remec, Igor; Gallmeier, Franz X

    2016-01-01

    In order to deposit Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) spent facility components replaced due to end-of-life radiation-induced material damage or burn-up, or because of mechanical failure or design improvements, waste classification analyses are being performed. These analyses include an accurate estimate of the radionuclide inventory, on which base components are classified and an appropriate container for transport and storage is determined. After the choice for the container is made, transport calculations are performed for the facility component to be placed inside the container, ensuring compliance with waste management regulations. When necessary, additional shielding is added. Most of the effort is concentrated on the target deposition, which normally takes place once or twice per year. Additionally, the second target station (STS) is in a process of design and waste management analyses for the STS target are being developed to support a deposition plan

  1. Wood's lamp examination

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003386.htm Wood's lamp examination To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A Wood's lamp examination is a test that uses ultraviolet ( ...

  2. Examine Your Skin

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... Store In Memory Melanoma Info Melanoma Facts Melanoma Prevention Sunscreen Suggestions Examine Your Skin Newly Diagnosed? Understanding ... video. UPDATED: November 23, 2016 Melanoma Facts Melanoma Prevention Sunscreen Suggestions Examine Your Skin Newly Diagnosed? Understanding ...

  3. The preparticipation physical examination.

    PubMed

    Pedraza, Jaime; Jardeleza, Julie Ann

    2013-12-01

    This article reviews the components of the preparticipation physical examination. It looks at some of the key elements of the history and the physical examination that help determine whether an athlete can participate in an organized sport.

  4. Children's patterns of reasoning about reading and addition concepts.

    PubMed

    Farrington-Flint, Lee; Canobi, Katherine H; Wood, Clare; Faulkner, Dorothy

    2010-06-01

    Children's reasoning was examined within two educational contexts (word reading and addition) so as to understand the factors that contribute to relational reasoning in the two domains. Sixty-seven 5- to 7-year-olds were given a series of related words to read or single-digit addition items to solve (interspersed with unrelated items). The frequency, accuracy, and response times of children's self-reports on the conceptually related items provided a measure of relational reasoning, while performance on the unrelated addition and reading items provided a measure of procedural skill. The results indicated that the children's ability to use conceptual relations to solve both reading and addition problems enhanced speed and accuracy levels, increased with age, and was related to procedural skill. However, regression analyses revealed that domain-specific competencies can best explain the use of conceptual relations in both reading and addition. Moreover, a cluster analysis revealed that children differ according to the academic domain in which they first apply conceptual relations and these differences are related to individual variation in their procedural skills within these particular domains. These results highlight the developmental significance of relational reasoning in the context of reading and addition and underscore the importance of concept-procedure links in explaining children's literacy and arithmetical development.

  5. Physics 300 Provincial Examination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education and Training, Winnipeg.

    This document consists of the physics 300 provincial examination (English version), a separate "provincial summary report" on the results of giving the test, and a separate French language version of the examination. This physics examination contains a 53-item multiple choice section and an 12 item free response section. Subsections of…

  6. Additional EIPC Study Analysis. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Hadley, Stanton W; Gotham, Douglas J.; Luciani, Ralph L.

    2014-12-01

    Between 2010 and 2012 the Eastern Interconnection Planning Collaborative (EIPC) conducted a major long-term resource and transmission study of the Eastern Interconnection (EI). With guidance from a Stakeholder Steering Committee (SSC) that included representatives from the Eastern Interconnection States Planning Council (EISPC) among others, the project was conducted in two phases. Phase 1 involved a long-term capacity expansion analysis that involved creation of eight major futures plus 72 sensitivities. Three scenarios were selected for more extensive transmission- focused evaluation in Phase 2. Five power flow analyses, nine production cost model runs (including six sensitivities), and three capital cost estimations were developed during this second phase. The results from Phase 1 and 2 provided a wealth of data that could be examined further to address energy-related questions. A list of 14 topics was developed for further analysis. This paper brings together the earlier interim reports of the first 13 topics plus one additional topic into a single final report.

  7. Group Sparse Additive Models

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Junming; Chen, Xi; Xing, Eric P.

    2016-01-01

    We consider the problem of sparse variable selection in nonparametric additive models, with the prior knowledge of the structure among the covariates to encourage those variables within a group to be selected jointly. Previous works either study the group sparsity in the parametric setting (e.g., group lasso), or address the problem in the nonparametric setting without exploiting the structural information (e.g., sparse additive models). In this paper, we present a new method, called group sparse additive models (GroupSpAM), which can handle group sparsity in additive models. We generalize the ℓ1/ℓ2 norm to Hilbert spaces as the sparsity-inducing penalty in GroupSpAM. Moreover, we derive a novel thresholding condition for identifying the functional sparsity at the group level, and propose an efficient block coordinate descent algorithm for constructing the estimate. We demonstrate by simulation that GroupSpAM substantially outperforms the competing methods in terms of support recovery and prediction accuracy in additive models, and also conduct a comparative experiment on a real breast cancer dataset.

  8. Additive Manufacturing Infrared Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaddy, Darrell

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing is a rapid prototyping technology that allows parts to be built in a series of thin layers from plastic, ceramics, and metallics. Metallic additive manufacturing is an emerging form of rapid prototyping that allows complex structures to be built using various metallic powders. Significant time and cost savings have also been observed using the metallic additive manufacturing compared with traditional techniques. Development of the metallic additive manufacturing technology has advanced significantly over the last decade, although many of the techniques to inspect parts made from these processes have not advanced significantly or have limitations. Several external geometry inspection techniques exist such as Coordinate Measurement Machines (CMM), Laser Scanners, Structured Light Scanning Systems, or even traditional calipers and gages. All of the aforementioned techniques are limited to external geometry and contours or must use a contact probe to inspect limited internal dimensions. This presentation will document the development of a process for real-time dimensional inspection technique and digital quality record of the additive manufacturing process using Infrared camera imaging and processing techniques.

  9. [Ultrasound examination of hidradenitis suppurativa].

    PubMed

    Martorell, A; Segura Palacios, J M

    2015-11-01

    Hidradenitis suppurativa is a debilitating chronic, recurrent, inflammatory cutaneous disease of the hair follicle that usually presents with painful, deep and inflamed lesions in the areas of the body with apocrine glands, most frequently the axillary, groin and anogenital regions. This entity is difficult to manage since it can be difficult to determine the true nature and extension of the lesions. Cutaneous ultrasound allows real-time visualization of the cutaneous structures under examination, defining the type of lesion, its anatomical extension, and the degree of inflammatory activity, which affects adequate patient management. The present review analyses the importance of ultrasound in the assessment of patients with hidradenitis suppurativa.

  10. Phenylethynyl Containing Reactive Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Phenylethynyl containing reactive additives were prepared from aromatic diamine, containing phenylethvnvl groups and various ratios of phthalic anhydride and 4-phenylethynviphthalic anhydride in glacial acetic acid to form the imide in one step or in N-methyl-2-pvrrolidinone to form the amide acid intermediate. The reactive additives were mixed in various amounts (10% to 90%) with oligomers containing either terminal or pendent phenylethynyl groups (or both) to reduce the melt viscosity and thereby enhance processability. Upon thermal cure, the additives react and become chemically incorporated into the matrix and effect an increase in crosslink density relative to that of the host resin. This resultant increase in crosslink density has advantageous consequences on the cured resin properties such as higher glass transition temperature and higher modulus as compared to that of the host resin.

  11. Fused Lasso Additive Model

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Ashley; Witten, Daniela; Simon, Noah

    2016-01-01

    We consider the problem of predicting an outcome variable using p covariates that are measured on n independent observations, in a setting in which additive, flexible, and interpretable fits are desired. We propose the fused lasso additive model (FLAM), in which each additive function is estimated to be piecewise constant with a small number of adaptively-chosen knots. FLAM is the solution to a convex optimization problem, for which a simple algorithm with guaranteed convergence to a global optimum is provided. FLAM is shown to be consistent in high dimensions, and an unbiased estimator of its degrees of freedom is proposed. We evaluate the performance of FLAM in a simulation study and on two data sets. Supplemental materials are available online, and the R package flam is available on CRAN. PMID:28239246

  12. Phenylethynyl Containing Reactive Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Phenylethynyl containing reactive additives were prepared from aromatic diamines containing phenylethynyl groups and various ratios of phthalic anhydride and 4-phenylethynylphthalic anhydride in glacial acetic acid to form the imide in one step or in N-methyl-2-pyrrolidi none to form the amide acid intermediate. The reactive additives were mixed in various amounts (10% to 90%) with oligomers containing either terminal or pendent phenylethynyl groups (or both) to reduce the melt viscosity and thereby enhance processability. Upon thermal cure, the additives react and become chemically incorporated into the matrix and effect an increase in crosslink density relative to that of the host resin. This resultant increase in crosslink density has advantageous consequences on the cured resin properties such as higher glass transition temperature and higher modulus as compared to that of the host resin.

  13. Additives in plastics.

    PubMed Central

    Deanin, R D

    1975-01-01

    The polymers used in plastics are generally harmless. However, they are rarely used in pure form. In almost all commercial plastics, they are "compounded" with monomeric ingredients to improve their processing and end-use performance. In order of total volume used, these monomeric additives may be classified as follows: reinforcing fibers, fillers, and coupling agents; plasticizers; colorants; stabilizers (halogen stabilizers, antioxidants, ultraviolet absorbers, and biological preservatives); processing aids (lubricants, others, and flow controls); flame retardants, peroxides; and antistats. Some information is already available, and much more is needed, on potential toxicity and safe handling of these additives during processing and manufacture of plastics products. PMID:1175566

  14. Additives in plastics.

    PubMed

    Deanin, R D

    1975-06-01

    The polymers used in plastics are generally harmless. However, they are rarely used in pure form. In almost all commercial plastics, they are "compounded" with monomeric ingredients to improve their processing and end-use performance. In order of total volume used, these monomeric additives may be classified as follows: reinforcing fibers, fillers, and coupling agents; plasticizers; colorants; stabilizers (halogen stabilizers, antioxidants, ultraviolet absorbers, and biological preservatives); processing aids (lubricants, others, and flow controls); flame retardants, peroxides; and antistats. Some information is already available, and much more is needed, on potential toxicity and safe handling of these additives during processing and manufacture of plastics products.

  15. Biobased lubricant additives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fully biobased lubricants are those formulated using all biobased ingredients, i.e. biobased base oils and biobased additives. Such formulations provide the maximum environmental, safety, and economic benefits expected from a biobased product. Currently, there are a number of biobased base oils that...

  16. More Than Additional Space...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CEFP Journal, 1973

    1973-01-01

    A much needed addition to the Jamestown Elementary School turned out to be more than an expansion of walls for more space. A new educational program, a limited budget, and a short time line were tackled on a team approach basis and were successfully resolved. (Author)

  17. Medical examiner variability.

    PubMed

    Hinchcliffe, R

    1997-01-01

    There are undoubtedly many factors that contribute to inter-examiner variability relevant to the use of medical practitioners in justiciable matters. One source of variability with regard to claims relating to hearing disorders could well be the training and 'calibration' of medical examiners. A tentative analysis of the examination papers and of the declared roles of the specialties that provide these examiners lends support to such a thesis. One solution would be to train special specialists for medicolegal work, as envisaged by Boyarsky for forensic urology (Boyarsky, 1996). At the same time there is the need to change the role-perception of many examiners. There is also the need for medical examiners to express honest, unbiased opinions. There are also problems inherent in the litigation process which does not promote the interactive and adaptive processes between experts that characterise scientific discussions and enquiry.

  18. Paediatric short case examination.

    PubMed

    Isaacs, David

    2014-11-01

    The short case is a highly artificial scenario, in which the examination candidate is given little or no history and instructed to examine one system or one aspect of a patient and draw conclusions. Despite their artificiality, short cases test clinical skills which senior paediatricians value and consider essential qualities of a competent physician. This article presents some general suggestions on an approach to doing short case examinations.

  19. Vinyl capped addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vannucci, Raymond D. (Inventor); Malarik, Diane C. (Inventor); Delvigs, Peter (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    Polyimide resins (PMR) are generally useful where high strength and temperature capabilities are required (at temperatures up to about 700 F). Polyimide resins are particularly useful in applications such as jet engine compressor components, for example, blades, vanes, air seals, air splitters, and engine casing parts. Aromatic vinyl capped addition polyimides are obtained by reacting a diamine, an ester of tetracarboxylic acid, and an aromatic vinyl compound. Low void materials with improved oxidative stability when exposed to 700 F air may be fabricated as fiber reinforced high molecular weight capped polyimide composites. The aromatic vinyl capped polyimides are provided with a more aromatic nature and are more thermally stable than highly aliphatic, norbornenyl-type end-capped polyimides employed in PMR resins. The substitution of aromatic vinyl end-caps for norbornenyl end-caps in addition polyimides results in polymers with improved oxidative stability.

  20. Micromechanical Analyses of Sturzstroms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imre, Bernd; Laue, Jan; Springman, Sarah M.

    2010-05-01

    Sturzstroms are very fast landslides of very large initial volume. As type features they display extreme run out, pared with intensive fragmentation of the involved blocks of rock within a collisional flow. The inherent danger to the growing communities in alpine valleys below future potential sites of sturzstroms must be examined and results of predictions of endangered zones allow to impact upon the planning processes in these areas. This calls for the ability to make Type A predictions, according to Lambe (1973), which are done before an event. But Type A predictions are only possible if sufficient understanding of the mechanisms involved in a process is available. The motivation of the doctoral thesis research project presented is therefore to reveal the mechanics of sturzstroms in more detail in order to contribute to the development of a Type A run out prediction model. It is obvious that a sturzstrom represents a highly dynamic collisional granular regime. Thus particles do not only collide but will eventually crush each other. Erismann and Abele (2001) describe this process as dynamic disintegration, where kinetic energy is the main driver for fragmenting the rock mass. In this case an approach combining the type features long run out and fragmentation within a single hypothesis is represented by the dynamic fragmentation-spreading model (Davies and McSaveney, 2009; McSaveney and Davies, 2009). Unfortunately, sturzstroms, and fragmentation within sturzstroms, can not be observed directly in a real event because of their long "reoccurrence time" and the obvious difficulties in placing measuring devices within such a rock flow. Therefore, rigorous modelling is required in particular of the transition from static to dynamic behaviour to achieve better knowledge of the mechanics of sturzstroms, and to provide empirical evidence to confirm the dynamic fragmentation-spreading model. Within this study fragmentation and their effects on the mobility of sturzstroms

  1. Electrophilic addition of astatine

    SciTech Connect

    Norseev, Yu.V.; Vasaros, L.; Nhan, D.D.; Huan, N.K.

    1988-03-01

    It has been shown for the first time that astatine is capable of undergoing addition reactions to unsaturated hydrocarbons. A new compound of astatine, viz., ethylene astatohydrin, has been obtained, and its retention numbers of squalane, Apiezon, and tricresyl phosphate have been found. The influence of various factors on the formation of ethylene astatohydrin has been studied. It has been concluded on the basis of the results obtained that the univalent cations of astatine in an acidic medium is protonated hypoastatous acid.

  2. Functional Generalized Additive Models.

    PubMed

    McLean, Mathew W; Hooker, Giles; Staicu, Ana-Maria; Scheipl, Fabian; Ruppert, David

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the functional generalized additive model (FGAM), a novel regression model for association studies between a scalar response and a functional predictor. We model the link-transformed mean response as the integral with respect to t of F{X(t), t} where F(·,·) is an unknown regression function and X(t) is a functional covariate. Rather than having an additive model in a finite number of principal components as in Müller and Yao (2008), our model incorporates the functional predictor directly and thus our model can be viewed as the natural functional extension of generalized additive models. We estimate F(·,·) using tensor-product B-splines with roughness penalties. A pointwise quantile transformation of the functional predictor is also considered to ensure each tensor-product B-spline has observed data on its support. The methods are evaluated using simulated data and their predictive performance is compared with other competing scalar-on-function regression alternatives. We illustrate the usefulness of our approach through an application to brain tractography, where X(t) is a signal from diffusion tensor imaging at position, t, along a tract in the brain. In one example, the response is disease-status (case or control) and in a second example, it is the score on a cognitive test. R code for performing the simulations and fitting the FGAM can be found in supplemental materials available online.

  3. Examining the knee joint.

    PubMed

    Monk, Daniel

    2013-04-01

    Appropriate history taking and examination can ensure accurate diagnosis of common knee problems, and rapid and effective interventions or referral to orthopaedic specialists. This article describes the anatomy of the knee joint and discusses relevant history taking, the examination process, special tests and radiology, as well as common knee injuries and their management.

  4. Examination Syllabus Comparisons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallatratt, J. L.

    1983-01-01

    A study was conducted based on an analysis of computer study courses leading to CSE and 0-level examinations. Several findings are discussed and questions about future developments are raised. Syllabus content (including history, hardware, basic computer science, programming, applications, and implications), format, and examinations are among the…

  5. A qualitative method for analysing multivoicedness

    PubMed Central

    Aveling, Emma-Louise; Gillespie, Alex; Cornish, Flora

    2015-01-01

    ‘Multivoicedness’ and the ‘multivoiced Self’ have become important theoretical concepts guiding research. Drawing on the tradition of dialogism, the Self is conceptualised as being constituted by a multiplicity of dynamic, interacting voices. Despite the growth in literature and empirical research, there remains a paucity of established methodological tools for analysing the multivoiced Self using qualitative data. In this article, we set out a systematic, practical ‘how-to’ guide for analysing multivoicedness. Using theoretically derived tools, our three-step method comprises: identifying the voices of I-positions within the Self’s talk (or text), identifying the voices of ‘inner-Others’, and examining the dialogue and relationships between the different voices. We elaborate each step and illustrate our method using examples from a published paper in which data were analysed using this method. We conclude by offering more general principles for the use of the method and discussing potential applications. PMID:26664292

  6. 11 CFR 9007.4 - Additional audits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional audits. 9007.4 Section 9007.4 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION CAMPAIGN FUND: GENERAL ELECTION FINANCING EXAMINATIONS AND AUDITS; REPAYMENTS § 9007.4 Additional audits. In accordance with 11 CFR...

  7. 11 CFR 9007.4 - Additional audits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Additional audits. 9007.4 Section 9007.4... FINANCING EXAMINATIONS AND AUDITS; REPAYMENTS § 9007.4 Additional audits. In accordance with 11 CFR 104.16(c), the Commission, pursuant to 11 CFR 111.10, may upon affirmative vote of four members conduct an...

  8. 11 CFR 9007.4 - Additional audits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Additional audits. 9007.4 Section 9007.4 Federal... EXAMINATIONS AND AUDITS; REPAYMENTS § 9007.4 Additional audits. In accordance with 11 CFR 104.16(c), the Commission, pursuant to 11 CFR 111.10, may upon affirmative vote of four members conduct an audit and...

  9. The Additive Coloration of Alkali Halides

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jirgal, G. H.; and others

    1969-01-01

    Describes the construction and use of an inexpensive, vacuum furnace designed to produce F-centers in alkali halide crystals by additive coloration. The method described avoids corrosion or contamination during the coloration process. Examination of the resultant crystals is discussed and several experiments using additively colored crystals are…

  10. Siloxane containing addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maudgal, S.; St. Clair, T. L.

    1984-01-01

    Addition polyimide oligomers have been synthesized from bis(gamma-aminopropyl) tetramethyldisiloxane and 3, 3', 4, 4'-benzophenonetetracarboxylic dianhydride using a variety of latent crosslinking groups as endcappers. The prepolymers were isolated and characterized for solubility (in amide, chlorinated and ether solvents), melt flow and cure properties. The most promising systems, maleimide and acetylene terminated prepolymers, were selected for detailed study. Graphite cloth reinforced composites were prepared and properties compared with those of graphite/Kerimid 601, a commercially available bismaleimide. Mixtures of the maleimide terminated system with Kerimid 601, in varying proportions, were also studied.

  11. Platelet additive solution - electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Azuma, Hiroshi; Hirayama, Junichi; Akino, Mitsuaki; Ikeda, Hisami

    2011-06-01

    Recent attention to solutions that replace most or all plasma in platelet concentrates, while maintaining satisfactory platelet function, is motivated by the potential of plasma reduction or depletion to mitigate various transfusion-related adverse events. This report considers the electrolytic composition of previously described platelet additive solutions, in order to draw general conclusions about what is required for platelet function and longevity. The optimal concentrations of Na(+) and Cl(-) are 69-115 mM. The presence of both K(+) and Mg(2+) in platelet suspension at nearly physiological concentrations (3-5mM and 1.5-3mM, respectively) is indispensable for good preservation capacity because both electrolytes are required to prevent platelet activation. In contrast to K(+) and Mg(2+), Ca(2+) may not be important because no free Ca(2+) is available in M-sol, which showed excellent platelet preservation capacity at less than 5% plasma concentration. The importance of bicarbonate (approximately 40 mM) can be recognized when the platelets are suspended in additive solution under less than 5% residual plasma concentration.

  12. [Safety of food additives in Japan].

    PubMed

    Ito, Sumio

    2011-01-01

    Recently, many accidents relating to food happened in Japan. The consumer's distrust for food, food companies, and the administration is increasing. The consumer especially has an extreme refusal feeling for chemicals such as food additives and agricultural chemicals, and begins to request agricultural chemical-free vegetables and food additive-free food. Food companies also state no agricultural chemicals and no food additives to correspond with consumers' request and aim at differentiating. The food additive is that the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare specifies the one that person's health might not be ruined by providing for Food Sanitation Law Article 10 in our country. The standard for food additives and standard for use of food additives are provided according to regulations of Food Sanitation Law Article 11. Therefore, it is thought that the food additive used is safe now. Then, it reports on the procedure and the safety examination, etc. in our country for designation for food additive this time.

  13. Additive composition, for gasoline

    SciTech Connect

    Vataru, M.

    1989-01-10

    An admixture is described that comprises Diesel fuel and an additive composition added thereto which is between about 0.05 to about 2.0 percent by weight of the fuel, the composition comprising: (a) between about 0.05 and 25% relative weight parts of an organic peroxide, and (b) between about 0.1 and 25% relative weight parts of detergent selected from the component group that consists of: (i) fatty amines; (ii) ethoxylated and propoxylated derivatives of fatty amines; (iii) fatty diamines; (iv) fatty imidazlines; (v) polymeric amines and derivatives thereof; (vi) combination of one or more of the (i) through (v) components with carboxylic acid or acids having from three to forth carbon atoms, (c) from about 99.0 to about 50% by weight of a hydrocarbon solvent.

  14. Teardrop bladder: additional considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Wechsler, R.J.; Brennan, R.E.

    1982-07-01

    Nine cases of teardrop bladder (TDB) seen at excretory urography are presented. In some of these patients, the iliopsoas muscles were at the upper limit of normal in size, and additional evaluation of the perivesical structures with computed tomography (CT) was necessary. CT demonstrated only hypertrophied muscles with or without perivesical fat. The psoas muscles and pelvic width were measured in 8 patients and compared with the measurements of a control group of males without TDB. Patients with TDB had large iliopsoas muscles and narrow pelves compared with the control group. The psoas muscle width/pelvic width ratio was significantly greater (p < 0.0005) in patients with TDB than in the control group, with values of 1.04 + 0.05 and 0.82 + 0.09, respectively. It is concluded that TDB is not an uncommon normal variant in black males. Both iliopsoas muscle hypertrophy and a narrow pelvis are factors that predispose a patient to TDB.

  15. New addition curing polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frimer, Aryeh A.; Cavano, Paul

    1991-01-01

    In an attempt to improve the thermal-oxidative stability (TOS) of PMR-type polymers, the use of 1,4-phenylenebis (phenylmaleic anhydride) PPMA, was evaluated. Two series of nadic end-capped addition curing polyimides were prepared by imidizing PPMA with either 4,4'-methylene dianiline or p-phenylenediamine. The first resulted in improved solubility and increased resin flow while the latter yielded a compression molded neat resin sample with a T(sub g) of 408 C, close to 70 C higher than PME-15. The performance of these materials in long term weight loss studies was below that of PMR-15, independent of post-cure conditions. These results can be rationalized in terms of the thermal lability of the pendant phenyl groups and the incomplete imidization of the sterically congested PPMA. The preparation of model compounds as well as future research directions are discussed.

  16. Perspectives on Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourell, David L.

    2016-07-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has skyrocketed in visibility commercially and in the public sector. This article describes the development of this field from early layered manufacturing approaches of photosculpture, topography, and material deposition. Certain precursors to modern AM processes are also briefly described. The growth of the field over the last 30 years is presented. Included is the standard delineation of AM technologies into seven broad categories. The economics of AM part generation is considered, and the impacts of the economics on application sectors are described. On the basis of current trends, the future outlook will include a convergence of AM fabricators, mass-produced AM fabricators, enabling of topology optimization designs, and specialization in the AM legal arena. Long-term developments with huge impact are organ printing and volume-based printing.

  17. Sewage sludge additive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalvinskas, J. J.; Mueller, W. A.; Ingham, J. D. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    The additive is for a raw sewage treatment process of the type where settling tanks are used for the purpose of permitting the suspended matter in the raw sewage to be settled as well as to permit adsorption of the dissolved contaminants in the water of the sewage. The sludge, which settles down to the bottom of the settling tank is extracted, pyrolyzed and activated to form activated carbon and ash which is mixed with the sewage prior to its introduction into the settling tank. The sludge does not provide all of the activated carbon and ash required for adequate treatment of the raw sewage. It is necessary to add carbon to the process and instead of expensive commercial carbon, coal is used to provide the carbon supplement.

  18. [Social geriatric examination].

    PubMed

    Sipsma, D H

    1983-12-01

    The method of social-geriatric examination is described. This type of examination by an ambulatory team takes place at the patient's home. The examination is firstly directed to the interactions in the human-environmental system. By means of a scheme as an aid the interactions can be analyzed. This analysis, how people are dealing with each other and with need for care and with care, precedes the analysis of the chain of interacting unfavourable conditions of social, mental and physical nature, which are responsible for the disturbance of the balance of the system. This disturbance is signaled by way of the primary health care system to the geriatric examination circuit of which the social-geriatric team functions as first receiver of those signals.

  19. Examination of the UPDRS bradykinesia subscale: equivalence, reliability and validity.

    PubMed

    Buck, Philip O; Wilson, Ronald E; Seeberger, Lauren C; Conner, Jill B; Castelli-Haley, Jane

    2011-01-01

    Administering items or subscales separately from the measure for which they were designed to be a part may have unintended consequences for research and practice in Parkinson's disease (PD). The current study tested the equivalence of the bradykinesia subscale when administered alone versus as a component of the full 14-item Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) motor examination, as well as examined the reliability and validity of the bradykinesia subscale. The study sample consisted of 112 patients with PD. Patients were randomly assigned to either the bradykinesia subscale alone group (n = 56), who were administered the bradykinesia subscale separately from the rest of the UPDRS motor examination, or the full scale group (n = 56), who were administered the UPDRS motor examination in its standard format. The two one-sided t-test (TOST) procedure was used to test for mean equivalency between the two administration groups. Additionally, reliability and validity analyses were performed. The bradykinesia subscale mean scores from the full scale group and the subscale alone group were not statistically equivalent. However, in both groups, the bradykinesia subscale had exceptional reliability and was strongly and similarly related to age, activities of daily living, disability, and other assessments of motor symptom severity. The bradykinesia subscale is a valid and reliable assessment when administered separately from the rest of the UPDRS motor examination; however, caution should be taken when comparing mean scores across studies or occasions when different administrations are used.

  20. PROTOCOL FOR EXAMINATION OF THE INNER CAN CLOSURE WELD REGION FOR 3013 DE CONTAINERS

    SciTech Connect

    Mickalonis, J.

    2014-09-16

    The protocol for the examination of the inner can closure weld region (ICCWR) for 3013 DE containers is presented within this report. The protocol includes sectioning of the inner can lid section, documenting the surface condition, measuring corrosion parameters, and storing of samples. This protocol may change as the investigation develops since findings may necessitate additional steps be taken. Details of the previous analyses, which formed the basis for this protocol, are also presented.

  1. EEO Implications of Job Analyses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lacy, D. Patrick, Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses job analyses as they relate to the requirements of Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Equal Pay Act of 1963, and the Rehabilitation Act of 1973. Argues that job analyses can establish the job-relatedness of entrance requirements and aid in defenses against charges of discrimination. Journal availability: see EA 511 615.

  2. Additive lattice kirigami.

    PubMed

    Castle, Toen; Sussman, Daniel M; Tanis, Michael; Kamien, Randall D

    2016-09-01

    Kirigami uses bending, folding, cutting, and pasting to create complex three-dimensional (3D) structures from a flat sheet. In the case of lattice kirigami, this cutting and rejoining introduces defects into an underlying 2D lattice in the form of points of nonzero Gaussian curvature. A set of simple rules was previously used to generate a wide variety of stepped structures; we now pare back these rules to their minimum. This allows us to describe a set of techniques that unify a wide variety of cut-and-paste actions under the rubric of lattice kirigami, including adding new material and rejoining material across arbitrary cuts in the sheet. We also explore the use of more complex lattices and the different structures that consequently arise. Regardless of the choice of lattice, creating complex structures may require multiple overlapping kirigami cuts, where subsequent cuts are not performed on a locally flat lattice. Our additive kirigami method describes such cuts, providing a simple methodology and a set of techniques to build a huge variety of complex 3D shapes.

  3. Ceramics with Different Additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Juanjuan; Feng, Lajun; Lei, Ali; Zhao, Kang; Yan, Aijun

    2014-09-01

    Li2CO3, MgCO3, BaCO3, and Bi2O3 dopants were introduced into CaCu3Ti4O12 (CCTO) ceramics in order to improve the dielectric properties. The CCTO ceramics were prepared by conventional solid-state reaction method. The phase structure, microstructure, and dielectric behavior were carefully investigated. The pure structure without any impurity phases can be confirmed by the x-ray diffraction patterns. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) analysis illuminated that the grains of Ca0.90Li0.20Cu3Ti4O12 ceramics were greater than that of pure CCTO. It was important for the properties of the CCTO ceramics to study the additives in complex impedance spectroscopy. It was found that the Ca0.90Li0.20Cu3Ti4O12 ceramics had the higher permittivity (>45000), the lower dielectric loss (<0.025) than those of CCTO at 1 kHz at room temperature and good temperature stability from -30 to 75 °C.

  4. Additive lattice kirigami

    PubMed Central

    Castle, Toen; Sussman, Daniel M.; Tanis, Michael; Kamien, Randall D.

    2016-01-01

    Kirigami uses bending, folding, cutting, and pasting to create complex three-dimensional (3D) structures from a flat sheet. In the case of lattice kirigami, this cutting and rejoining introduces defects into an underlying 2D lattice in the form of points of nonzero Gaussian curvature. A set of simple rules was previously used to generate a wide variety of stepped structures; we now pare back these rules to their minimum. This allows us to describe a set of techniques that unify a wide variety of cut-and-paste actions under the rubric of lattice kirigami, including adding new material and rejoining material across arbitrary cuts in the sheet. We also explore the use of more complex lattices and the different structures that consequently arise. Regardless of the choice of lattice, creating complex structures may require multiple overlapping kirigami cuts, where subsequent cuts are not performed on a locally flat lattice. Our additive kirigami method describes such cuts, providing a simple methodology and a set of techniques to build a huge variety of complex 3D shapes. PMID:27679822

  5. Intergenerational Transmission of Maltreatment: A Multilevel Examination

    PubMed Central

    Leve, Leslie D.; Khurana, Atika; Reich, Emily B.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the commonly held belief that there is a high degree of intergenerational continuity in maltreatment, studies to date suggest a mixed pattern of findings. One reason for the variance in findings may be related to the measurement approach used, which includes a range of self-report and official indicators of maltreatment and both cross-sectional and longitudinal designs. This study attempted to shed light on the phenomenon of intergenerational continuity of maltreatment by examining multiple indicators of perpetration of maltreatment in young adults and multiple risk factors across different levels within an individual’s social ecology. The sample included 166 women who had been placed in out-of-home care as adolescents (>85% had a substantiated maltreatment incident) and followed into young adulthood, and included three waves of adolescent data and six waves of young adult data collected across 10 years. The participants were originally recruited during adolescence as part of a randomized controlled trial examining the efficacy of the Treatment Foster Care Oregon intervention. Analyses revealed weak to modest associations between the three indicators of perpetration of maltreatment in young adulthood, i.e., official child welfare records, self-reported child welfare system involvement, and self-reported maltreatment (r = .03–.51). Further, different patterns of prediction emerged as a function of the measurement approach. Adolescent delinquency was a significant predictor of subsequent self-reported child welfare contact, and young adult partner risk was a significant predictor of perpetration of maltreatment as indexed by both official child welfare records and self-reported child welfare contact. In addition, women who were originally assigned to the intervention condition reported perpetrating less maltreatment during young adulthood. Implications for measurement and interventions related to reducing the risk for intergenerational transmission of

  6. Dimensionless numbers in additive manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, T.; Manvatkar, V.; De, A.; DebRoy, T.

    2017-02-01

    The effects of many process variables and alloy properties on the structure and properties of additively manufactured parts are examined using four dimensionless numbers. The structure and properties of components made from 316 Stainless steel, Ti-6Al-4V, and Inconel 718 powders for various dimensionless heat inputs, Peclet numbers, Marangoni numbers, and Fourier numbers are studied. Temperature fields, cooling rates, solidification parameters, lack of fusion defects, and thermal strains are examined using a well-tested three-dimensional transient heat transfer and fluid flow model. The results show that lack of fusion defects in the fabricated parts can be minimized by strengthening interlayer bonding using high values of dimensionless heat input. The formation of harmful intermetallics such as laves phases in Inconel 718 can be suppressed using low heat input that results in a small molten pool, a steep temperature gradient, and a fast cooling rate. Improved interlayer bonding can be achieved at high Marangoni numbers, which results in vigorous circulation of liquid metal, larger pool dimensions, and greater depth of penetration. A high Fourier number ensures rapid cooling, low thermal distortion, and a high ratio of temperature gradient to the solidification growth rate with a greater tendency of plane front solidification.

  7. [DNA examination for criminal investigation].

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Masanori

    2008-11-30

    The main purpose of DNA examination in a criminal investigation is identification from biological specimen material (sample). Occasionally, DNA genotyping of the sample in which decomposition, pollution, mixture, degeneration, etc., have progressed is requested for identification. In addition, in cases of a small amount of sample, it is not possible to conduct checks many times. The Police Agency in Japan introduced the multiplex PCR system that can detect 15 kinds of STR genotyping and perform sex determination simultaneously using only a small amount of DNA.

  8. The Efficacy of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy: A Review of Meta-analyses

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Stefan G.; Asnaani, Anu; Vonk, Imke J.J.; Sawyer, Alice T.; Fang, Angela

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) refers to a popular therapeutic approach that has been applied to a variety of problems. The goal of this review was to provide a comprehensive survey of meta-analyses examining the efficacy of CBT. We identified 269 meta-analytic studies and reviewed of those a representative sample of 106 meta-analyses examining CBT for the following problems: substance use disorder, schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders, depression and dysthymia, bipolar disorder, anxiety disorders, somatoform disorders, eating disorders, insomnia, personality disorders, anger and aggression, criminal behaviors, general stress, distress due to general medical conditions, chronic pain and fatigue, distress related to pregnancy complications and female hormonal conditions. Additional meta-analytic reviews examined the efficacy of CBT for various problems in children and elderly adults. The strongest support exists for CBT of anxiety disorders, somatoform disorders, bulimia, anger control problems, and general stress. Eleven studies compared response rates between CBT and other treatments or control conditions. CBT showed higher response rates than the comparison conditions in 7 of these reviews and only one review reported that CBT had lower response rates than comparison treatments. In general, the evidence-base of CBT is very strong. However, additional research is needed to examine the efficacy of CBT for randomized-controlled studies. Moreover, except for children and elderly populations, no meta-analytic studies of CBT have been reported on specific subgroups, such as ethnic minorities and low income samples. PMID:23459093

  9. A Method to Examine Content Domain Structures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Agostino, Jerome; Karpinski, Aryn; Welsh, Megan

    2011-01-01

    After a test is developed, most content validation analyses shift from ascertaining domain definition to studying domain representation and relevance because the domain is assumed to be set once a test exists. We present an approach that allows for the examination of alternative domain structures based on extant test items. In our example based on…

  10. Examining the decomposed brain.

    PubMed

    MacKenzie, James Mackintosh

    2014-12-01

    Examination of the decomposed brain is a largely neglected area of forensic neuropathology. However, careful examination often yields valuable information that may assist in criminal proceedings. Decomposition encompasses the processes of autolysis, putrefaction, and decay. Most decomposed brains will be affected by both autolysis and putrefaction, resulting in a brain that may, at one end of the spectrum, be almost normal or, at the other end, pulpified, depending on the conditions in which the body remained after death and the postmortem interval. Naked eye examination may detect areas of hemorrhage and also guides appropriate sampling for histology. Histological appearances are often better than what would be predicted from the state of the brain. Histology often confirms macroscopic abnormalities and may also reveal other features such as ischemic injury. Silver staining demonstrates neuritic plaques, and immunocytochemistry for β-amyloid precursor protein and other molecules produces results comparable with those seen in well-preserved fixed brains. The usefulness of information derived from the examination of the decomposed brain in criminal proceedings is illustrated with 6 case reports drawn from the author's own practice.

  11. Biorhythms: An Empirical Examination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kunz, Phillip R.

    1984-01-01

    Examines the theory of biorhythms using data from 727 deaths, 319 marriages, and data from students who kept track of their feelings and abilities, either having a biorhythm to follow or not knowing about the theory. None of the data sets provided confirmation of the theory. (JAC)

  12. Examining College Writing Readiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncheon, Julia C.; Tierney, William G.

    2014-01-01

    Increasing postsecondary access depends in large part on enhancing underrepresented students' writing ability, or college writing readiness. However, what exactly constitutes college-level writing is not clear-cut, complicating efforts to improve secondary preparation. This article examines recent efforts to define postsecondary writing,…

  13. Scientist Examines Tornado Vortex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    In this Quick Time movie, a scientist examines what appears to be a tornado vortex (blue) coming out of a thunderstorm. The scientist uses 3D glasses to be able to see in 3 dimensions the different flows going out into the vortex. Earth science and weather studies are an important ongoing function of NASA and its affiliates.

  14. Finite element analyses of tool stresses in metal cutting processes

    SciTech Connect

    Kistler, B.L.

    1997-01-01

    In this report, we analytically predict and examine stresses in tool tips used in high speed orthogonal machining operations. Specifically, one analysis was compared to an existing experimental measurement of stresses in a sapphire tool tip cutting 1020 steel at slow speeds. In addition, two analyses were done of a carbide tool tip in a machining process at higher cutting speeds, in order to compare to experimental results produced as part of this study. The metal being cut was simulated using a Sandia developed damage plasticity material model, which allowed the cutting to occur analytically without prespecifying the line of cutting/failure. The latter analyses incorporated temperature effects on the tool tip. Calculated tool forces and peak stresses matched experimental data to within 20%. Stress contours generally agreed between analysis and experiment. This work could be extended to investigate/predict failures in the tool tip, which would be of great interest to machining shops in understanding how to optimize cost/retooling time.

  15. Analysing the ventricular fibrillation waveform.

    PubMed

    Reed, Matthew J; Clegg, Gareth R; Robertson, Colin E

    2003-04-01

    The surface electrocardiogram associated with ventricular fibrillation has been of interest to researchers for some time. Over the last few decades, techniques have been developed to analyse this signal in an attempt to obtain more information about the state of the myocardium and the chances of successful defibrillation. This review looks at the implications of analysing the VF waveform and discusses the various techniques that have been used, including fast Fourier transform analysis, wavelet transform analysis and mathematical techniques such as chaos theory.

  16. Examining Cyber Command Structures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-01

    its mission in its newest warlare domain , cyberspace, some have questioned its choices with regard to command and control of its cyber forces. This...thesis examines historical cases of new warlare domains and how the Department of Defense structured the command and control elements of its forces...dedicated to the air and space domains . It explores the current cyber command and control construct, and looks at two others that would likely be

  17. Dental physical examination.

    PubMed

    Baker, G J

    1998-08-01

    The objectives of the equine dental physical examination are to detect and quantify oral and dental disorders, to propose and carry out their treatment, and to implement management programs. The veterinarian should be able to offer a prognosis and to detail any future treatment or management plans that may be required. These objectives should take into account the cost of these procedures, and the veterinarian should be prepared to offer a cost-benefit analysis of the problem and the proposed cures.

  18. AGR-1 Post Irradiation Examination Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Demkowicz, Paul Andrew

    2015-08-01

    The post-irradiation examination (PIE) of the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR)-1 experiment was a multi-year, collaborative effort between Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to study the performance of UCO (uranium carbide, uranium oxide) tristructural isotropic (TRISO) coated particle fuel fabricated in the U.S. and irradiated at the Advanced Test Reactor at INL to a peak burnup of 19.6% fissions per initial metal atom. This work involved a broad array of experiments and analyses to evaluate the level of fission product retention by the fuel particles and compacts (both during irradiation and during post-irradiation heating tests to simulate reactor accident conditions), investigate the kernel and coating layer morphology evolution and the causes of coating failure, and explore the migration of fission products through the coating layers. The results have generally confirmed the excellent performance of the AGR-1 fuel, first indicated during the irradiation by the observation of zero TRISO coated particle failures out of 298,000 particles in the experiment. Overall release of fission products was determined by PIE to have been relatively low during the irradiation. A significant finding was the extremely low levels of cesium released through intact coatings. This was true both during the irradiation and during post-irradiation heating tests to temperatures as high as 1800°C. Post-irradiation safety test fuel performance was generally excellent. Silver release from the particles and compacts during irradiation was often very high. Extensive microanalysis of fuel particles was performed after irradiation and after high-temperature safety testing. The results of particle microanalysis indicate that the UCO fuel is effective at controlling the oxygen partial pressure within the particle and limiting kernel migration. Post-irradiation examination has provided the final body of data that speaks to the quality of the AGR-1 fuel, building

  19. Nonindependence and sensitivity analyses in ecological and evolutionary meta-analyses.

    PubMed

    Noble, Daniel W A; Lagisz, Malgorzata; O'dea, Rose E; Nakagawa, Shinichi

    2017-01-30

    Meta-analysis is an important tool for synthesizing research on a variety of topics in ecology and evolution, including molecular ecology, but can be susceptible to nonindependence. Nonindependence can affect two major interrelated components of a meta-analysis: (i) the calculation of effect size statistics and (ii) the estimation of overall meta-analytic estimates and their uncertainty. While some solutions to nonindependence exist at the statistical analysis stages, there is little advice on what to do when complex analyses are not possible, or when studies with nonindependent experimental designs exist in the data. Here we argue that exploring the effects of procedural decisions in a meta-analysis (e.g. inclusion of different quality data, choice of effect size) and statistical assumptions (e.g. assuming no phylogenetic covariance) using sensitivity analyses are extremely important in assessing the impact of nonindependence. Sensitivity analyses can provide greater confidence in results and highlight important limitations of empirical work (e.g. impact of study design on overall effects). Despite their importance, sensitivity analyses are seldom applied to problems of nonindependence. To encourage better practice for dealing with nonindependence in meta-analytic studies, we present accessible examples demonstrating the impact that ignoring nonindependence can have on meta-analytic estimates. We also provide pragmatic solutions for dealing with nonindependent study designs, and for analysing dependent effect sizes. Additionally, we offer reporting guidelines that will facilitate disclosure of the sources of nonindependence in meta-analyses, leading to greater transparency and more robust conclusions.

  20. Influence of mineral oil and additives on microhardness and surface chemistry of magnesium oxide (001) surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, K.; Shigaki, H.; Buckley, D. H.

    1982-01-01

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses and hardness experiments were conducted with cleaved magnesium oxide /001/ surfaces. The magnesium oxide bulk crystals were cleaved into specimens along the /001/ surface, and indentations were made on the cleaved surface in laboratory air, in nitrogen gas, or in degassed mineral oil with and without an additive while not exposing specimen surface to any other environment. The various additives examined contained sulfur, phosphorus, chlorine, or oleic acid. The sulfur-containing additive exhibited the highest hardness and smallest dislocation patterns evidencing plastic deformation; the chlorine-containing additive exhibited the lowest hardness and largest dislocation patterns evidencing plastic deformation. Hydrocarbon and chloride (MgCl2) films formed on the magnesium oxide surface. A chloride film was responsible for the lowest measured hardness.

  1. Further analyses of Rio Cuarto impact glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, Peter H.; Bunch, T. E.; Koeberl, C.; Collins, W.

    1993-01-01

    Initial analyses of the geologic setting, petrology, and geochemistry of glasses recovered from within and around the elongate Rio Cuarto (RC) craters in Argentina focused on selected samples in order to document the general similarity with impactites around other terrestrial impact craters and to establish their origin. Continued analysis has surveyed the diversity in compositions for a range of samples, examined further evidence for temperature and pressure history, and compared the results with experimentally fused loess from oblique hypervelocity impacts. These new results not only firmly establish their impact origin but provide new insight on the impact process.

  2. Visual examination apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haines, R. F.; Fitzgerald, J. W.; Rositano, S. A. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    An automated visual examination apparatus for measuring visual sensitivity and mapping blind spot location is described. The apparatus includes a projection system for displaying to a patient a series of visual stimuli, a response switch enabling him to indicate his reaction to the stimuli, and a recording system responsive to both the visual stimuli per se and the patient's response. The recording system provides a correlated permanent record of both stimuli and response from which a substantive and readily apparent visual evaluation can be made.

  3. Hot cell examination table

    DOEpatents

    Gaal, Peter S.; Ebejer, Lino P.; Kareis, James H.; Schlegel, Gary L.

    1991-01-01

    A table for use in a hot cell or similar controlled environment for use in examining specimens. The table has a movable table top that can be moved relative to a table frame. A shaft is fixedly mounted to the frame for axial rotation. A shaft traveler having a plurality of tilted rollers biased against the shaft is connected to the table top such that rotation of the shaft causes the shaft traveler to roll along the shaft. An electromagnetic drive is connected to the shaft and the frame for controllably rotating the shaft.

  4. EPOXI Trajectory and Maneuver Analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chung, Min-Kun J.; Bhaskaran, Shyamkumar; Chesley, Steven R.; Halsell, C. Allen; Helfrich, Clifford E.; Jefferson, David C.; McElrath, Timothy P.; Rush, Brian P.; Wang, Tseng-Chan M.; Yen, Chen-wan L.

    2011-01-01

    The EPOXI mission is a NASA Discovery Mission of Opportunity combining two separate investigations: Extrasolar Planet Observation and Characterization (EPOCh) and Deep Impact eXtended Investigation (DIXI). Both investigations reused the DI instruments and spacecraft that successfully flew by the comet Tempel-1 (4 July 2005). For EPOCh, the goal was to find exoplanets with the high resolution imager, while for DIXI it was to fly by the comet Hartley 2 (4 Nov 2010). This paper documents the navigation experience of the earlier ma-neuver analyses critical for the EPOXI mission including statistical ?V analyses and other useful analyses in designing maneuvers. It also recounts the trajectory design leading up to the final reference trajectory to Hartley 2.

  5. Sustainability Characterization for Additive Manufacturing

    PubMed Central

    Mani, Mahesh; Lyons, Kevin W; Gupta, SK

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has the potential to create geometrically complex parts that require a high degree of customization, using less material and producing less waste. Recent studies have shown that AM can be an economically viable option for use by the industry, yet there are some inherent challenges associated with AM for wider acceptance. The lack of standards in AM impedes its use for parts production since industries primarily depend on established standards in processes and material selection to ensure the consistency and quality. Inability to compare AM performance against traditional manufacturing methods can be a barrier for implementing AM processes. AM process sustainability has become a driver due to growing environmental concerns for manufacturing. This has reinforced the importance to understand and characterize AM processes for sustainability. Process characterization for sustainability will help close the gaps for comparing AM performance to traditional manufacturing methods. Based on a literature review, this paper first examines the potential environmental impacts of AM. A methodology for sustainability characterization of AM is then proposed to serve as a resource for the community to benchmark AM processes for sustainability. Next, research perspectives are discussed along with relevant standardization efforts. PMID:26601038

  6. Sustainability Characterization for Additive Manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Mani, Mahesh; Lyons, Kevin W; Gupta, S K

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has the potential to create geometrically complex parts that require a high degree of customization, using less material and producing less waste. Recent studies have shown that AM can be an economically viable option for use by the industry, yet there are some inherent challenges associated with AM for wider acceptance. The lack of standards in AM impedes its use for parts production since industries primarily depend on established standards in processes and material selection to ensure the consistency and quality. Inability to compare AM performance against traditional manufacturing methods can be a barrier for implementing AM processes. AM process sustainability has become a driver due to growing environmental concerns for manufacturing. This has reinforced the importance to understand and characterize AM processes for sustainability. Process characterization for sustainability will help close the gaps for comparing AM performance to traditional manufacturing methods. Based on a literature review, this paper first examines the potential environmental impacts of AM. A methodology for sustainability characterization of AM is then proposed to serve as a resource for the community to benchmark AM processes for sustainability. Next, research perspectives are discussed along with relevant standardization efforts.

  7. Children's understanding of additive concepts.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Katherine M; Dubé, Adam K; Beatch, Jacqueline-Ann

    2017-04-01

    Most research on children's arithmetic concepts is based on one concept at a time, limiting the conclusions that can be made about how children's conceptual knowledge of arithmetic develops. This study examined six arithmetic concepts (identity, negation, commutativity, equivalence, inversion, and addition and subtraction associativity) in Grades 3, 4, and 5. Identity (a-0=a) and negation (a-a=0) were well understood, followed by moderate understanding of commutativity (a+b=b+a) and inversion (a+b-b=a), with weak understanding of equivalence (a+b+c=a+[b+c]) and associativity (a+b-c=[b-c]+a). Understanding increased across grade only for commutativity and equivalence. Four clusters were found: The Weak Concept cluster understood only identity and negation; the Two-Term Concept cluster also understood commutativity; the Inversion Concept cluster understood identity, negation, and inversion; and the Strong Concept cluster had the strongest understanding of all of the concepts. Grade 3 students tended to be in the Weak and Inversion Concept clusters, Grade 4 students were equally likely to be in any of the clusters, and Grade 5 students were most likely to be in the Two-Term and Strong Concept clusters. The findings of this study highlight that conclusions about the development of arithmetic concepts are highly dependent on which concepts are being assessed and underscore the need for multiple concepts to be investigated at the same time.

  8. Pawnee Nation Energy Option Analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Matlock, M.; Kersey, K.; Riding In, C.

    2009-07-21

    Pawnee Nation of Oklahoma Energy Option Analyses In 2003, the Pawnee Nation leadership identified the need for the tribe to comprehensively address its energy issues. During a strategic energy planning workshop a general framework was laid out and the Pawnee Nation Energy Task Force was created to work toward further development of the tribe’s energy vision. The overarching goals of the “first steps” project were to identify the most appropriate focus for its strategic energy initiatives going forward, and to provide information necessary to take the next steps in pursuit of the “best fit” energy options. Description of Activities Performed The research team reviewed existing data pertaining to the availability of biomass (focusing on woody biomass, agricultural biomass/bio-energy crops, and methane capture), solar, wind and hydropower resources on the Pawnee-owned lands. Using these data, combined with assumptions about costs and revenue streams, the research team performed preliminary feasibility assessments for each resource category. The research team also reviewed available funding resources and made recommendations to Pawnee Nation highlighting those resources with the greatest potential for financially-viable development, both in the near-term and over a longer time horizon. Findings and Recommendations Due to a lack of financial incentives for renewable energy, particularly at the state level, combined mediocre renewable energy resources, renewable energy development opportunities are limited for Pawnee Nation. However, near-term potential exists for development of solar hot water at the gym, and an exterior wood-fired boiler system at the tribe’s main administrative building. Pawnee Nation should also explore options for developing LFGTE resources in collaboration with the City of Pawnee. Significant potential may also exist for development of bio-energy resources within the next decade. Pawnee Nation representatives should closely monitor

  9. Communications satellite needs examined

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Supharat

    1985-02-01

    Thailand can use a communications satellite to provide various forms of international and domestic telecommunications services such as telephone, teleprinter, telephotograph, television and radio service. This can be done in a manner that is just as efficient as using a microwave radio and underwater and optical fiber cable system. A communications satellite is also superior in terms of flexibility and speed in putting it into operation with no restrictions on distance, routes or geographical characteristics. A ground radio transmitter-receiver station can be built anywhere radio waves from the satellite can be picked up. Costs of launching a satellite into orbit and procedures involved from a regulatory point of view are examined. Initiatives taken to provide Thailand with its own satellites are highlighted.

  10. 36 CFR 1290.7 - Additional guidance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... Kennedy. (b) The inclusion of artifacts in the scope of the term assassination record is understood to... regulation. (c) Whenever artifacts are included in the JFK Assassination Records Collection, it shall be... materials depicting the artifacts. Additional display of or examination by the public of artifacts in...

  11. 36 CFR 1290.7 - Additional guidance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... Kennedy. (b) The inclusion of artifacts in the scope of the term assassination record is understood to... regulation. (c) Whenever artifacts are included in the JFK Assassination Records Collection, it shall be... materials depicting the artifacts. Additional display of or examination by the public of artifacts in...

  12. 36 CFR 1290.7 - Additional guidance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... Kennedy. (b) The inclusion of artifacts in the scope of the term assassination record is understood to... regulation. (c) Whenever artifacts are included in the JFK Assassination Records Collection, it shall be... materials depicting the artifacts. Additional display of or examination by the public of artifacts in...

  13. 36 CFR 1290.7 - Additional guidance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... Kennedy. (b) The inclusion of artifacts in the scope of the term assassination record is understood to... regulation. (c) Whenever artifacts are included in the JFK Assassination Records Collection, it shall be... materials depicting the artifacts. Additional display of or examination by the public of artifacts in...

  14. 36 CFR 1290.7 - Additional guidance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... Kennedy. (b) The inclusion of artifacts in the scope of the term assassination record is understood to... regulation. (c) Whenever artifacts are included in the JFK Assassination Records Collection, it shall be... materials depicting the artifacts. Additional display of or examination by the public of artifacts in...

  15. Applying statistical causal analyses to agricultural conservation: A case study examining P loss impacts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Estimating the effect of agricultural conservation practices on reducing nutrient loss using observational data can be confounded by differing crop types and differing management practices. As we may not have the full knowledge of these confounding factors, conventional statistical methods are ofte...

  16. Examination of metabolic responses to phosphorus limitation via proteomic analyses in the marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum.

    PubMed

    Feng, Tian-Ya; Yang, Zhi-Kai; Zheng, Jian-Wei; Xie, Ying; Li, Da-Wei; Murugan, Shanmugaraj Bala; Yang, Wei-Dong; Liu, Jie-Sheng; Li, Hong-Ye

    2015-05-28

    Phosphorus (P) is an essential macronutrient for the survival of marine phytoplankton. In the present study, phytoplankton response to phosphorus limitation was studied by proteomic profiling in diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum in both cellular and molecular levels. A total of 42 non-redundant proteins were identified, among which 8 proteins were found to be upregulated and 34 proteins were downregulated. The results also showed that the proteins associated with inorganic phosphate uptake were downregulated, whereas the proteins involved in organic phosphorus uptake such as alkaline phosphatase were upregulated. The proteins involved in metabolic responses such as protein degradation, lipid accumulation and photorespiration were upregulated whereas energy metabolism, photosynthesis, amino acid and nucleic acid metabolism tend to be downregulated. Overall our results showed the changes in protein levels of P. tricornutum during phosphorus stress. This study preludes for understanding the role of phosphorous in marine biogeochemical cycles and phytoplankton response to phosphorous scarcity in ocean. It also provides insight into the succession of phytoplankton community, providing scientific basis for elucidating the mechanism of algal blooms.

  17. Examination of metabolic responses to phosphorus limitation via proteomic analyses in the marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Tian-Ya; Yang, Zhi-Kai; Zheng, Jian-Wei; Xie, Ying; Li, Da-Wei; Murugan, Shanmugaraj Bala; Yang, Wei-Dong; Liu, Jie-Sheng; Li, Hong-Ye

    2015-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) is an essential macronutrient for the survival of marine phytoplankton. In the present study, phytoplankton response to phosphorus limitation was studied by proteomic profiling in diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum in both cellular and molecular levels. A total of 42 non-redundant proteins were identified, among which 8 proteins were found to be upregulated and 34 proteins were downregulated. The results also showed that the proteins associated with inorganic phosphate uptake were downregulated, whereas the proteins involved in organic phosphorus uptake such as alkaline phosphatase were upregulated. The proteins involved in metabolic responses such as protein degradation, lipid accumulation and photorespiration were upregulated whereas energy metabolism, photosynthesis, amino acid and nucleic acid metabolism tend to be downregulated. Overall our results showed the changes in protein levels of P. tricornutum during phosphorus stress. This study preludes for understanding the role of phosphorous in marine biogeochemical cycles and phytoplankton response to phosphorous scarcity in ocean. It also provides insight into the succession of phytoplankton community, providing scientific basis for elucidating the mechanism of algal blooms. PMID:26020491

  18. Feed analyses and their interpretation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Compositional analysis is central to determining the nutritional value of feedstuffs. The utility of the values and how they should be used depends on how representative the feed subsample is, the nutritional relevance of the assays, analytical variability of the analyses, and whether a feed is suit...

  19. Analysing Children's Drawings: Applied Imagination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bland, Derek

    2012-01-01

    This article centres on a research project in which freehand drawings provided a richly creative and colourful data source of children's imagined, ideal learning environments. Issues concerning the analysis of the visual data are discussed, in particular, how imaginative content was analysed and how the analytical process was dependent on an…

  20. Examining maintenance responsibilities.

    PubMed

    Lam, K C

    2001-06-01

    This paper has examined the important responsibilities of the two organisations involved in the provision of maintenance service for the vital building services in many of our highly serviced buildings. The issues raised could be put to beneficial use in both clients and maintenance providers. All in all, the clients should work closely with their maintenance providers. Engineering services in buildings will not perform satisfactorily and efficiently if both parties do not work together and understand the maintenance tasks based on a business partnering mode. Put forward is the view that the management of the activities involved in the operation and maintenance process is a "shared commitment/involvement" between the client and the maintenance provider. It is obvious that many factors can influence the continued effectiveness of a quality maintenance scheme set up by client and provider. Some of these factors are: Change in key personnel Updates in technology Amendments to engineering practice Implementation of legislative requirements Changes in operation by client or provider Change of use of building Passage of time These factors must be fully reviewed by both parties from time to time, and necessary actions taken. A cooperative team working relationship and improved communication should be fostered by the client and his provider for the best management of services maintenance. This arrangement will contribute to better building services systems with continuous improvement; improved value for clients and higher return for the maintenance provider.

  1. Diagnosis and complementary examinations.

    PubMed

    Menghini, Moreno; Duncan, Jacque L

    2014-01-01

    Development of neuroprotective therapies requires an understanding of the mechanisms of retinal degeneration and a way to monitor response to treatment. With the increasing availability of genetic testing, precise characterization of the retinal degeneration phenotype is essential. This chapter covers standard and innovative diagnostic techniques and complementary examinations needed for the evaluation and treatment of retinal degenerative diseases. It aims to provide an overview of functional and structural diagnostic tools for the evaluation of retinal degenerative diseases, but is not intended as a comprehensive reference. Subjective assessment of visual function includes psychophysical tests, such as perimetry and microperimetry. Electrophysiology tests, such as the electroretinogram and electro-oculogram, are crucial in the assessment of retinal degenerative diseases and provide an objective assessment of global photoreceptor and retinal pigment epithelial cell function. Retinal structural measures are correlated with measures of retinal function to characterize the disease phenotype, including fundus photography using color, near-infrared, and autofluorescence imaging. Ocular perfusion can be assessed using fluorescein, indocyanine green, and noninvasive angiography. Optical coherence tomography provides information about retinal structure. Resolution of all images of retinal structure can be improved using adaptive optics, which permits visualization of individual photoreceptors and retinal pigment epithelial cells in the macula.

  2. Workload analyse of assembling process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghenghea, L. D.

    2015-11-01

    The workload is the most important indicator for managers responsible of industrial technological processes no matter if these are automated, mechanized or simply manual in each case, machines or workers will be in the focus of workload measurements. The paper deals with workload analyses made to a most part manual assembling technology for roller bearings assembling process, executed in a big company, with integrated bearings manufacturing processes. In this analyses the delay sample technique have been used to identify and divide all bearing assemblers activities, to get information about time parts from 480 minutes day work time that workers allow to each activity. The developed study shows some ways to increase the process productivity without supplementary investments and also indicated the process automation could be the solution to gain maximum productivity.

  3. Supplementary report on antilock analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zellner, J. W.

    1985-01-01

    Generic modulator analysis was performed to quantify the effects of dump and reapply pressure rates on antilock stability and performance. Analysis will include dump and reapply rates, and lumped modulator delay. Based on the results of the generic modulator analysis and earlier toggle optimization analysis (with Mitsubishi modulator), a recommended preliminary antilock design was synthesized and its response and performance simulated. The results of these analyses are documented.

  4. How Safe Are Color Additives?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home For Consumers Consumer Updates How Safe are Color Additives? Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... Consumer Updates RSS Feed Download PDF (380 K) Color additives give the red tint to your fruit ...

  5. Detergent Additive for Lubricating Oils,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The Russian patent pertains to a method of producing additives for lubricating oils . A method is known for producing an antiwear additive for... lubricating oils by processing phenols with phosphorus oxychloride, phosphoric acid esters are obtained. In order to give the additive detergent properties

  6. Re-Examining the Dimensions of Obligatory Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Lindsay R.; Hall, Craig R.; Fraser, Shawn N.; Rodgers, Wendy M.; Wilson, Philip M.; Loitz, Christina C.

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined the factor structure and psychometric properties of the Obligatory Exercise Questionnaire using exploratory factor analyses (Study 1), and confirmatory factor analyses (Study 2). The relationships between obligatory exercise and other psychological variables including: motivation, subjective well-being, physical self-concept,…

  7. Using Seen Examination Questions in Economics: An Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reimann, Nicola; Robson, Martin

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a detailed quantitative analysis of the use of seen questions within examinations in Economics option modules at one UK university. 4622 marks for seen and unseen questions awarded over a period of three years were analysed; the impact of personal characteristics was analysed using a sub-sample. It was found that the number of…

  8. Incorporation of additives into polymers

    DOEpatents

    McCleskey, T. Mark; Yates, Matthew Z.

    2003-07-29

    There has been invented a method for incorporating additives into polymers comprising: (a) forming an aqueous or alcohol-based colloidal system of the polymer; (b) emulsifying the colloidal system with a compressed fluid; and (c) contacting the colloidal polymer with the additive in the presence of the compressed fluid. The colloidal polymer can be contacted with the additive by having the additive in the compressed fluid used for emulsification or by adding the additive to the colloidal system before or after emulsification with the compressed fluid. The invention process can be carried out either as a batch process or as a continuous on-line process.

  9. Additive manufacturing of optical components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinrich, Andreas; Rank, Manuel; Maillard, Philippe; Suckow, Anne; Bauckhage, Yannick; Rößler, Patrick; Lang, Johannes; Shariff, Fatin; Pekrul, Sven

    2016-08-01

    The development of additive manufacturing methods has enlarged rapidly in recent years. Thereby, the work mainly focuses on the realization of mechanical components, but the additive manufacturing technology offers a high potential in the field of optics as well. Owing to new design possibilities, completely new solutions are possible. This article briefly reviews and compares the most important additive manufacturing methods for polymer optics. Additionally, it points out the characteristics of additive manufactured polymer optics. Thereby, surface quality is of crucial importance. In order to improve it, appropriate post-processing steps are necessary (e.g. robot polishing or coating), which will be discussed. An essential part of this paper deals with various additive manufactured optical components and their use, especially in optical systems for shape metrology (e.g. borehole sensor, tilt sensor, freeform surface sensor, fisheye lens). The examples should demonstrate the potentials and limitations of optical components produced by additive manufacturing.

  10. Analysing photonic structures in plants

    PubMed Central

    Vignolini, Silvia; Moyroud, Edwige; Glover, Beverley J.; Steiner, Ullrich

    2013-01-01

    The outer layers of a range of plant tissues, including flower petals, leaves and fruits, exhibit an intriguing variation of microscopic structures. Some of these structures include ordered periodic multilayers and diffraction gratings that give rise to interesting optical appearances. The colour arising from such structures is generally brighter than pigment-based colour. Here, we describe the main types of photonic structures found in plants and discuss the experimental approaches that can be used to analyse them. These experimental approaches allow identification of the physical mechanisms producing structural colours with a high degree of confidence. PMID:23883949

  11. Laser power beaming system analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeiders, Glenn W., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The successful demonstration of the PAMELA adaptive optics hardware and the fabrication of the BTOS truss structure were identified by the program office as the two most critical elements of the NASA power beaming program, so it was these that received attention during this program. Much of the effort was expended in direct program support at MSFC, but detailed technical analyses of the AMP deterministic control scheme and the BTOS truss structure (both the JPL design and a spherical one) were prepared and are attached, and recommendations are given.

  12. Summary of LDEF battery analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Chris; Thaller, Larry; Bittner, Harlin; Deligiannis, Frank; Tiller, Smith; Sullivan, David; Bene, James

    1992-01-01

    Tests and analyses of NiCd, LiSO2, and LiCf batteries flown on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) includes results from NASA, Aerospace, and commercial labs. The LiSO2 cells illustrate six-year degradation of internal components acceptable for space applications, with up to 85 percent battery capacity remaining on discharge of some returned cells. LiCf batteries completed their mission, but lost any remaining capacity due to internal degradation. Returned NiCd batteries tested an GSFC showed slight case distortion due to pressure build up, but were functioning as designed.

  13. Analysing photonic structures in plants.

    PubMed

    Vignolini, Silvia; Moyroud, Edwige; Glover, Beverley J; Steiner, Ullrich

    2013-10-06

    The outer layers of a range of plant tissues, including flower petals, leaves and fruits, exhibit an intriguing variation of microscopic structures. Some of these structures include ordered periodic multilayers and diffraction gratings that give rise to interesting optical appearances. The colour arising from such structures is generally brighter than pigment-based colour. Here, we describe the main types of photonic structures found in plants and discuss the experimental approaches that can be used to analyse them. These experimental approaches allow identification of the physical mechanisms producing structural colours with a high degree of confidence.

  14. Summary of dynamic analyses of selected NSS buildings. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, J.E.

    1980-07-01

    This report covers the collapse analyses of floor-over-basement areas. The floors were separated into floor systems and were analyzed 'as built' and for various upgrading configurations through an examination of individual elements. The purpose of the report is two-fold: first, to increase the data base of analyzed 'as built' NSS building floors; and second, to determine the expedient upgrading potentials of NSS building floors. This report summarizes the results of the collapse analyses of the 11 NSS buildings examined in this study. The results of the 'as built' analyses are then grouped with the collapse analyses of 36 NSS buildings to provide a population of 46 buildings (one building was reexamined). The predicted collapse overpressures, examined previously by Wiehle (1974), of the weakest floor element by building and by floor system are presented in the form of histograms and cumulative frequency distributions. The effect of frame type on the collapse strength of the floor elements was examined as in the previous report (Wiehle, 1974). This report also summarizes, for the 11 buildings analyzed herein, the upgrading potentials of floor elements grouped by individual element, floor system and building. Preliminary indications of these collapse analyses indicate that the best way to assess which building and/or element is most upgradable is to look for elements, especially slabs or pan-joist systems, having the greatest span.

  15. [Postural examination in daily occlusodontology].

    PubMed

    Serviere, F

    1989-03-01

    According to the osteopathic and chiropractic concepts, facing a TMJ problem, the practitioner has to determine if the trouble observed in the stomatognatic apparatus is the cause or the effect of the structural problems present anywhere else in the body. The postural examination allows to answer this question. Tow techniques can be used. First a static and dynamic posture test proposed by Bricot. The level of the cranium, the eyes, the shoulders, the wrists, the pelvis and the ankles is analysed, from a front view; from the side, the gravity line is inspected: vertex, auditory meatus, shoulder, hip joint, anterior side of the tibia, ankle joint. The vertical posture can be studied from the front: the arms are held straight and the antero-posterior length between the fingers is measured. From the back, one notes the recoil of the buttocks on one side. An ocular convergence test is performed. Then one uses a Romberg test (oscillation of the body when the eyes are closed), and a Fukuda stepping test. The patient is then asked to bite on a compress, and the same exams are redone. If no change occurs, we are dealing with an ascending problem: the origin of the problem is not the stomatognathic system. The second technique is the Meerssemann test that needs the practice of Applied Kinesiology muscle testing. The patient is lying supine and one tests: the dental occlusion, the two TMJs, the temporal muscles, masseters, pterygoids, sterno-cleido-mastoids, upper tapezius, left and right sacro-iliac joints, psoas muscles bilaterally.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Phylogenetic analyses of Lapita decoration do not support branching evolution or regional population structure during colonization of Remote Oceania.

    PubMed

    Cochrane, Ethan E; Lipo, Carl P

    2010-12-12

    Intricately decorated Lapita pottery (3100-2700 BP) was made and deposited by the prehistoric colonizers of Pacific islands, east of the main Solomon's chain. For decades, analyses of this pottery have focused on the ancestor-descendant relationships of populations and the relative degree of interaction across the region to explain similarities in Lapita decoration. Cladistic analyses, increasingly used to examine the evolutionary relationships of material culture assemblages, have not been conducted on Lapita artefacts. Here, we present the first cladistic analysis of Lapita pottery and note the difficulties in using cladistics to investigate datasets where a high degree of horizontal transmission and non-branching evolution may explain observed variation. We additionally present NeighborNet and phenetic distance network analyses to generate hypotheses that may account for Lapita decorative similarity.

  17. THOR Turbulence Electron Analyser: TEA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fazakerley, Andrew; Moore, Tom; Owen, Chris; Pollock, Craig; Wicks, Rob; Samara, Marilia; Rae, Jonny; Hancock, Barry; Kataria, Dhiren; Rust, Duncan

    2016-04-01

    Turbulence Heating ObserveR (THOR) is the first mission ever flown in space dedicated to plasma turbulence. The Turbulence Electron Analyser (TEA) will measure the plasma electron populations in the mission's Regions of Interest. It will collect a 3D electron velocity distribution with cadences as short as 5 ms. The instrument will be capable of measuring energies up to 30 keV. TEA consists of multiple electrostatic analyser heads arranged so as to measure electrons arriving from look directions covering the full sky, i.e. 4 pi solid angle. The baseline concept is similar to the successful FPI-DES instrument currently operating on the MMS mission. TEA is intended to have a similar angular resolution, but a larger geometric factor. In comparison to earlier missions, TEA improves on the measurement cadence. For example, MMS FPI-DES routinely operates at 30 ms cadence. The objective of measuring distributions at rates as fast as 5 ms is driven by the mission's scientific requirements to resolve electron gyroscale size structures, where plasma heating and fluctuation dissipation is predicted to occur. TEA will therefore be capable of making measurements of the evolution of distribution functions across thin (a few km) current sheets travelling past the spacecraft at up to 600 km/s, of the Power Spectral Density of fluctuations of electron moments and of distributions fast enough to match frequencies with waves expected to be dissipating turbulence (e.g. with 100 Hz whistler waves).

  18. Evolution of solidification texture during additive manufacturing

    PubMed Central

    Wei, H. L.; Mazumder, J.; DebRoy, T.

    2015-01-01

    Striking differences in the solidification textures of a nickel based alloy owing to changes in laser scanning pattern during additive manufacturing are examined based on theory and experimental data. Understanding and controlling texture are important because it affects mechanical and chemical properties. Solidification texture depends on the local heat flow directions and competitive grain growth in one of the six <100> preferred growth directions in face centered cubic alloys. Therefore, the heat flow directions are examined for various laser beam scanning patterns based on numerical modeling of heat transfer and fluid flow in three dimensions. Here we show that numerical modeling can not only provide a deeper understanding of the solidification growth patterns during the additive manufacturing, it also serves as a basis for customizing solidification textures which are important for properties and performance of components. PMID:26553246

  19. Evolution of solidification texture during additive manufacturing

    DOE PAGES

    Wei, H. L.; Mazumder, J.; DebRoy, T.

    2015-11-10

    Striking differences in the solidification textures of a nickel based alloy owing to changes in laser scanning pattern during additive manufacturing are examined based on theory and experimental data. Understanding and controlling texture are important because it affects mechanical and chemical properties. Solidification texture depends on the local heat flow directions and competitive grain growth in one of the six <100> preferred growth directions in face centered cubic alloys. Furthermore, the heat flow directions are examined for various laser beam scanning patterns based on numerical modeling of heat transfer and fluid flow in three dimensions. Here we show that numericalmore » modeling can not only provide a deeper understanding of the solidification growth patterns during the additive manufacturing, it also serves as a basis for customizing solidification textures which are important for properties and performance of components.« less

  20. Evolution of solidification texture during additive manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, H. L.; Mazumder, J.; DebRoy, T.

    2015-11-10

    Striking differences in the solidification textures of a nickel based alloy owing to changes in laser scanning pattern during additive manufacturing are examined based on theory and experimental data. Understanding and controlling texture are important because it affects mechanical and chemical properties. Solidification texture depends on the local heat flow directions and competitive grain growth in one of the six <100> preferred growth directions in face centered cubic alloys. Furthermore, the heat flow directions are examined for various laser beam scanning patterns based on numerical modeling of heat transfer and fluid flow in three dimensions. Here we show that numerical modeling can not only provide a deeper understanding of the solidification growth patterns during the additive manufacturing, it also serves as a basis for customizing solidification textures which are important for properties and performance of components.

  1. Evolution of solidification texture during additive manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Wei, H L; Mazumder, J; DebRoy, T

    2015-11-10

    Striking differences in the solidification textures of a nickel based alloy owing to changes in laser scanning pattern during additive manufacturing are examined based on theory and experimental data. Understanding and controlling texture are important because it affects mechanical and chemical properties. Solidification texture depends on the local heat flow directions and competitive grain growth in one of the six <100> preferred growth directions in face centered cubic alloys. Therefore, the heat flow directions are examined for various laser beam scanning patterns based on numerical modeling of heat transfer and fluid flow in three dimensions. Here we show that numerical modeling can not only provide a deeper understanding of the solidification growth patterns during the additive manufacturing, it also serves as a basis for customizing solidification textures which are important for properties and performance of components.

  2. Evolution of solidification texture during additive manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, H. L.; Mazumder, J.; Debroy, T.

    2015-11-01

    Striking differences in the solidification textures of a nickel based alloy owing to changes in laser scanning pattern during additive manufacturing are examined based on theory and experimental data. Understanding and controlling texture are important because it affects mechanical and chemical properties. Solidification texture depends on the local heat flow directions and competitive grain growth in one of the six <100> preferred growth directions in face centered cubic alloys. Therefore, the heat flow directions are examined for various laser beam scanning patterns based on numerical modeling of heat transfer and fluid flow in three dimensions. Here we show that numerical modeling can not only provide a deeper understanding of the solidification growth patterns during the additive manufacturing, it also serves as a basis for customizing solidification textures which are important for properties and performance of components.

  3. Spatially explicit analyses unveil density dependence.

    PubMed Central

    Veldtman, Ruan; McGeoch, Melodie A.

    2004-01-01

    Density-dependent processes are fundamental in the understanding of species population dynamics. Whereas the benefits of considering the spatial dimension in population biology are widely acknowledged, the implications of doing so for the statistical detection of spatial density dependence have not been examined. The outcome of traditional tests may therefore differ from those that include ecologically relevant locational information on both the prey species and natural enemy. Here, we explicitly incorporate spatial information on individual counts when testing for density dependence between an insect herbivore and its parasitoids. The spatially explicit approach used identified significant density dependence more frequently and in different instances than traditional methods. The form of density dependence detected also differed between methods. These results demonstrate that the explicit consideration of patch location in density-dependence analyses is likely to significantly alter current understanding of the prevalence and form of spatial density dependence in natural populations. PMID:15590593

  4. The Pill vs. the Sword: Additional Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Lottes, Ilsa L.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, I present additional information for policy-makers and researchers to consider in response to the view proposed by Potts et al that "the pill is mightier than the sword." I identify states with both high rates of terrorism and a youth bulge and discuss correlates of both these societal characteristics. The research examined supports the view that factors other than access to family planning are more important in facilitating terrorism. PMID:26673473

  5. Enantioselective Michael addition of water.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bi-Shuang; Resch, Verena; Otten, Linda G; Hanefeld, Ulf

    2015-02-09

    The enantioselective Michael addition using water as both nucleophile and solvent has to date proved beyond the ability of synthetic chemists. Herein, the direct, enantioselective Michael addition of water in water to prepare important β-hydroxy carbonyl compounds using whole cells of Rhodococcus strains is described. Good yields and excellent enantioselectivities were achieved with this method. Deuterium labeling studies demonstrate that a Michael hydratase catalyzes the water addition exclusively with anti-stereochemistry.

  6. Enantioselective Michael Addition of Water

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Bi-Shuang; Resch, Verena; Otten, Linda G; Hanefeld, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    The enantioselective Michael addition using water as both nucleophile and solvent has to date proved beyond the ability of synthetic chemists. Herein, the direct, enantioselective Michael addition of water in water to prepare important β-hydroxy carbonyl compounds using whole cells of Rhodococcus strains is described. Good yields and excellent enantioselectivities were achieved with this method. Deuterium labeling studies demonstrate that a Michael hydratase catalyzes the water addition exclusively with anti-stereochemistry. PMID:25529526

  7. [Total analysis of organic rubber additives].

    PubMed

    He, Wen-Xuan; Robert, Shanks; You, Ye-Ming

    2010-03-01

    In the present paper, after middle pressure chromatograph separation using both positive phase and reversed-phase conditions, the organic additives in ethylene-propylene rubber were identified by infrared spectrometer. At the same time, by using solid phase extraction column to maintain the main component-fuel oil in organic additves to avoid its interfering with minor compounds, other organic additves were separated and analysed by GC/Ms. In addition, the remaining active compound such as benzoyl peroxide was identified by CC/Ms, through analyzing acetone extract directly. Using the above mentioned techniques, soften agents (fuel oil, plant oil and phthalte), curing agent (benzoylperoxide), vulcanizing accelerators (2-mercaptobenzothiazole, ethyl thiuram and butyl thiuram), and antiagers (2, 6-Di-tert-butyl-4-methyl phenol and styrenated phenol) in ethylene-propylene rubber were identified. Although the technique was established in ethylene-propylene rubber system, it can be used in other rubber system.

  8. Test Anxiety in Written and Oral Examinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparfeldt, Jorn R.; Rost, Detlef H.; Baumeister, Ulrike M.; Christ, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    The distinction of different test anxiety reactions (e.g., worry, emotionality) is well established. Recently, additional relevance has been given to school-subject-specific test anxiety factors. The present study explored a further aspect concerning the structure of test anxiety experiences, specifically oral versus written examination modes. A…

  9. Perturbation analyses of intermolecular interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koyama, Yohei M.; Kobayashi, Tetsuya J.; Ueda, Hiroki R.

    2011-08-01

    Conformational fluctuations of a protein molecule are important to its function, and it is known that environmental molecules, such as water molecules, ions, and ligand molecules, significantly affect the function by changing the conformational fluctuations. However, it is difficult to systematically understand the role of environmental molecules because intermolecular interactions related to the conformational fluctuations are complicated. To identify important intermolecular interactions with regard to the conformational fluctuations, we develop herein (i) distance-independent and (ii) distance-dependent perturbation analyses of the intermolecular interactions. We show that these perturbation analyses can be realized by performing (i) a principal component analysis using conditional expectations of truncated and shifted intermolecular potential energy terms and (ii) a functional principal component analysis using products of intermolecular forces and conditional cumulative densities. We refer to these analyses as intermolecular perturbation analysis (IPA) and distance-dependent intermolecular perturbation analysis (DIPA), respectively. For comparison of the IPA and the DIPA, we apply them to the alanine dipeptide isomerization in explicit water. Although the first IPA principal components discriminate two states (the α state and PPII (polyproline II) + β states) for larger cutoff length, the separation between the PPII state and the β state is unclear in the second IPA principal components. On the other hand, in the large cutoff value, DIPA eigenvalues converge faster than that for IPA and the top two DIPA principal components clearly identify the three states. By using the DIPA biplot, the contributions of the dipeptide-water interactions to each state are analyzed systematically. Since the DIPA improves the state identification and the convergence rate with retaining distance information, we conclude that the DIPA is a more practical method compared with the

  10. NMC stratospheric analyses during the 1987 Antarctic expedition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gelman, Melvyn E.; Newman, Paul A.

    1988-01-01

    Stratospheric constant pressure analyses of geopotential height and temperature, produced as part of regular operations at the National Meteorological Center (NMC), were used by several participants of the Antarctic Ozone Expedition. A brief decription is given of the NMC stratospheric analyses and the data that are used to derive them. In addition, comparisons of the analysis values at the locations of radiosonde and aircraft data are presented to provide indications for assessing the representativeness of the NMC stratospheric analyses during the 1987 Antarctic winter-spring period.

  11. Shielding Analyses for VISION Beam Line at SNS

    SciTech Connect

    Popova, Irina; Gallmeier, Franz X

    2014-01-01

    Full-scale neutron and gamma transport analyses were performed to design shielding around the VISION beam line, instrument shielding enclosure, beam stop, secondary shutter including a temporary beam stop for the still closed neighboring beam line to meet requirement is to achieve dose rates below 0.25 mrem/h at 30 cm from the shielding surface. The beam stop and the temporary beam stop analyses were performed with the discrete ordinate code DORT additionally to Monte Carlo analyses with the MCNPX code. Comparison of the results is presented.

  12. Analyses to improve operational flexibility

    SciTech Connect

    Trikouros, N.G.

    1986-01-01

    Operational flexibility is greatly enhanced if the technical bases for plant limits and design margins are fully understood, and the analyses necessary to evaluate the effect of plant modifications or changes in operating modes on these parameters can be performed as required. If a condition should arise that might jeopardize a plant limit or reduce operational flexibility, it would be necessary to understand the basis for the limit or the specific condition limiting operational flexibility and be capable of performing a reanalysis to either demonstrate that the limit will not be violated or to change the limit. This paper provides examples of GPU Nuclear efforts in this regard. Examples of Oyster Creek and Three Mile Island operating experiences are discussed.

  13. Chemical analyses of provided samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, Christopher H.

    1993-01-01

    Two batches of samples were received and chemical analysis was performed of the surface and near surface regions of the samples by the surface analysis by laser ionization (SALI) method. The samples included four one-inch optics and several paint samples. The analyses emphasized surface contamination or modification. In these studies, pulsed sputtering by 7 keV Ar+ and primarily single-photon ionization (SPI) by coherent 118 nm radiation (at approximately 5 x 10(exp 5) W/cm(sup 2) were used. For two of the samples, also multiphoton ionization (MPI) at 266 nm (approximately 5 x 10(exp 11) W/cm(sup 2) was used. Most notable among the results was the silicone contamination on Mg2 mirror 28-92, and that the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) paint sample had been enriched in K and Na and depleted in Zn, Si, B, and organic compounds relative to the control paint.

  14. Geomorphic analyses from space imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morisawa, M.

    1985-01-01

    One of the most obvious applications of space imagery to geomorphological analyses is in the study of drainage patterns and channel networks. LANDSAT, high altitude photography and other types of remote sensing imagery are excellent for depicting stream networks on a regional scale because of their broad coverage in a single image. They offer a valuable tool for comparing and analyzing drainage patterns and channel networks all over the world. Three aspects considered in this geomorphological study are: (1) the origin, evolution and rates of development of drainage systems; (2) the topological studies of network and channel arrangements; and (3) the adjustment of streams to tectonic events and geologic structure (i.e., the mode and rate of adjustment).

  15. Isotopic signatures by bulk analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Efurd, D.W.; Rokop, D.J.

    1997-12-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has developed a series of measurement techniques for identification of nuclear signatures by analyzing bulk samples. Two specific applications for isotopic fingerprinting to identify the origin of anthropogenic radioactivity in bulk samples are presented. The first example is the analyses of environmental samples collected in the US Arctic to determine the impact of dumping of radionuclides in this polar region. Analyses of sediment and biota samples indicate that for the areas sampled the anthropogenic radionuclide content of sediments was predominantly the result of the deposition of global fallout. The anthropogenic radionuclide concentrations in fish, birds and mammals were very low. It can be surmised that marine food chains are presently not significantly affected. The second example is isotopic fingerprinting of water and sediment samples from the Rocky Flats Facility (RFP). The largest source of anthropogenic radioactivity presently affecting surface-waters at RFP is the sediments that are currently residing in the holding ponds. One gram of sediment from a holding pond contains approximately 50 times more plutonium than 1 liter of water from the pond. Essentially 100% of the uranium in Ponds A-1 and A-2 originated as depleted uranium. The largest source of radioactivity in the terminal Ponds A-4, B-5 and C-2 was naturally occurring uranium and its decay product radium. The uranium concentrations in the waters collected from the terminal ponds contained 0.05% or less of the interim standard calculated derived concentration guide for uranium in waters available to the public. All of the radioactivity observed in soil, sediment and water samples collected at RFP was naturally occurring, the result of processes at RFP or the result of global fallout. No extraneous anthropogenic alpha, beta or gamma activities were detected. The plutonium concentrations in Pond C-2 appear to vary seasonally.

  16. Precise Chemical Analyses of Planetary Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kring, David; Schweitzer, Jeffrey; Meyer, Charles; Trombka, Jacob; Freund, Friedemann; Economou, Thanasis; Yen, Albert; Kim, Soon Sam; Treiman, Allan H.; Blake, David; Lisse, Carey

    1996-01-01

    We identify the chemical elements and element ratios that should be analyzed to address many of the issues identified by the Committee on Planetary and Lunar Exploration (COMPLEX). We determined that most of these issues require two sensitive instruments to analyze the necessary complement of elements. In addition, it is useful in many cases to use one instrument to analyze the outermost planetary surface (e.g. to determine weathering effects), while a second is used to analyze a subsurface volume of material (e.g., to determine the composition of unaltered planetary surface material). This dual approach to chemical analyses will also facilitate the calibration of orbital and/or Earth-based spectral observations of the planetary body. We determined that in many cases the scientific issues defined by COMPLEX can only be fully addressed with combined packages of instruments that would supplement the chemical data with mineralogic or visual information.

  17. What can we do about exploratory analyses in clinical trials?

    PubMed

    Moyé, Lem

    2015-11-01

    The research community has alternatively embraced then repudiated exploratory analyses since the inception of clinical trials in the middle of the twentieth century. After a series of important but ultimately unreproducible findings, these non-prospectively declared evaluations were relegated to hypothesis generating. Since the majority of evaluations conducted in clinical trials with their rich data sets are exploratory, the absence of their persuasive power adds to the inefficiency of clinical trial analyses in an atmosphere of fiscal frugality. However, the principle argument against exploratory analyses is not based in statistical theory, but pragmatism and observation. The absence of any theoretical treatment of exploratory analyses postpones the day when their statistical weaknesses might be repaired. Here, we introduce examination of the characteristics of exploratory analyses from a probabilistic and statistical framework. Setting the obvious logistical concerns aside (i.e., the absence of planning produces poor precision), exploratory analyses do not appear to suffer from estimation theory weaknesses. The problem appears to be a difficulty in what is actually reported as the p-value. The use of Bayes Theorem provides p-values that are more in line with confirmatory analyses. This development may inaugurate a body of work that would lead to the readmission of exploratory analyses to a position of persuasive power in clinical trials.

  18. What Can We Do About Exploratory Analyses in Clinical Trials?

    PubMed Central

    Moyé, Lem

    2015-01-01

    The research community has alternatively embraced then repudiated exploratory analyses since the inception of clinical trials in the middle of the twentieth century. After a series of important but ultimately unreproducible findings, these non-prospectively declared evaluations were relegated to hypothesis generating. Since the majority of evaluations conducted in clinical trials with their rich data sets are exploratory, the absence of their persuasive power adds to the inefficiency of clinical trial analyses in an atmosphere of fiscal frugality. However, the principle argument against exploratory analyses is not based in statistical theory, but pragmatism and observation. The absence of any theoretical treatment of exploratory analyses postpones the day when their statistical weaknesses might be repaired. Here, we introduce examination of the characteristics of exploratory analyses from a probabilistic and statistical framework. Setting the obvious logistical concerns aside (i.e., the absence of planning produces poor precision), exploratory analyses do not appear to suffer from estimation theory weaknesses. The problem appears to be a difficulty in what is actually reported as the p-value. The use of Bayes Theorem provides p-values that are more in line with confirmatory analyses. This development may inaugurate a body of work that would lead to the readmission of exploratory analyses to a position of persuasive power in clinical trials. PMID:26390962

  19. Fractal and multifractal analyses of bipartite networks.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jin-Long; Wang, Jian; Yu, Zu-Guo; Xie, Xian-Hua

    2017-03-31

    Bipartite networks have attracted considerable interest in various fields. Fractality and multifractality of unipartite (classical) networks have been studied in recent years, but there is no work to study these properties of bipartite networks. In this paper, we try to unfold the self-similarity structure of bipartite networks by performing the fractal and multifractal analyses for a variety of real-world bipartite network data sets and models. First, we find the fractality in some bipartite networks, including the CiteULike, Netflix, MovieLens (ml-20m), Delicious data sets and (u, v)-flower model. Meanwhile, we observe the shifted power-law or exponential behavior in other several networks. We then focus on the multifractal properties of bipartite networks. Our results indicate that the multifractality exists in those bipartite networks possessing fractality. To capture the inherent attribute of bipartite network with two types different nodes, we give the different weights for the nodes of different classes, and show the existence of multifractality in these node-weighted bipartite networks. In addition, for the data sets with ratings, we modify the two existing algorithms for fractal and multifractal analyses of edge-weighted unipartite networks to study the self-similarity of the corresponding edge-weighted bipartite networks. The results show that our modified algorithms are feasible and can effectively uncover the self-similarity structure of these edge-weighted bipartite networks and their corresponding node-weighted versions.

  20. Fractal and multifractal analyses of bipartite networks

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jin-Long; Wang, Jian; Yu, Zu-Guo; Xie, Xian-Hua

    2017-01-01

    Bipartite networks have attracted considerable interest in various fields. Fractality and multifractality of unipartite (classical) networks have been studied in recent years, but there is no work to study these properties of bipartite networks. In this paper, we try to unfold the self-similarity structure of bipartite networks by performing the fractal and multifractal analyses for a variety of real-world bipartite network data sets and models. First, we find the fractality in some bipartite networks, including the CiteULike, Netflix, MovieLens (ml-20m), Delicious data sets and (u, v)-flower model. Meanwhile, we observe the shifted power-law or exponential behavior in other several networks. We then focus on the multifractal properties of bipartite networks. Our results indicate that the multifractality exists in those bipartite networks possessing fractality. To capture the inherent attribute of bipartite network with two types different nodes, we give the different weights for the nodes of different classes, and show the existence of multifractality in these node-weighted bipartite networks. In addition, for the data sets with ratings, we modify the two existing algorithms for fractal and multifractal analyses of edge-weighted unipartite networks to study the self-similarity of the corresponding edge-weighted bipartite networks. The results show that our modified algorithms are feasible and can effectively uncover the self-similarity structure of these edge-weighted bipartite networks and their corresponding node-weighted versions. PMID:28361962

  1. Integrated Genomic Analyses of Ovarian Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Summary The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) project has analyzed mRNA expression, miRNA expression, promoter methylation, and DNA copy number in 489 high-grade serous ovarian adenocarcinomas (HGS-OvCa) and the DNA sequences of exons from coding genes in 316 of these tumors. These results show that HGS-OvCa is characterized by TP53 mutations in almost all tumors (96%); low prevalence but statistically recurrent somatic mutations in 9 additional genes including NF1, BRCA1, BRCA2, RB1, and CDK12; 113 significant focal DNA copy number aberrations; and promoter methylation events involving 168 genes. Analyses delineated four ovarian cancer transcriptional subtypes, three miRNA subtypes, four promoter methylation subtypes, a transcriptional signature associated with survival duration and shed new light on the impact on survival of tumors with BRCA1/2 and CCNE1 aberrations. Pathway analyses suggested that homologous recombination is defective in about half of tumors, and that Notch and FOXM1 signaling are involved in serous ovarian cancer pathophysiology. PMID:21720365

  2. Bioinformatics tools for analysing viral genomic data.

    PubMed

    Orton, R J; Gu, Q; Hughes, J; Maabar, M; Modha, S; Vattipally, S B; Wilkie, G S; Davison, A J

    2016-04-01

    The field of viral genomics and bioinformatics is experiencing a strong resurgence due to high-throughput sequencing (HTS) technology, which enables the rapid and cost-effective sequencing and subsequent assembly of large numbers of viral genomes. In addition, the unprecedented power of HTS technologies has enabled the analysis of intra-host viral diversity and quasispecies dynamics in relation to important biological questions on viral transmission, vaccine resistance and host jumping. HTS also enables the rapid identification of both known and potentially new viruses from field and clinical samples, thus adding new tools to the fields of viral discovery and metagenomics. Bioinformatics has been central to the rise of HTS applications because new algorithms and software tools are continually needed to process and analyse the large, complex datasets generated in this rapidly evolving area. In this paper, the authors give a brief overview of the main bioinformatics tools available for viral genomic research, with a particular emphasis on HTS technologies and their main applications. They summarise the major steps in various HTS analyses, starting with quality control of raw reads and encompassing activities ranging from consensus and de novo genome assembly to variant calling and metagenomics, as well as RNA sequencing.

  3. Color Addition and Subtraction Apps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz, Frances; Ruiz, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Color addition and subtraction apps in HTML5 have been developed for students as an online hands-on experience so that they can more easily master principles introduced through traditional classroom demonstrations. The evolution of the additive RGB color model is traced through the early IBM color adapters so that students can proceed step by step…

  4. Additive Effects on Asymmetric Catalysis.

    PubMed

    Hong, Liang; Sun, Wangsheng; Yang, Dongxu; Li, Guofeng; Wang, Rui

    2016-03-23

    This review highlights a number of additives that can be used to make asymmetric reactions perfect. Without changing other reaction conditions, simply adding additives can lead to improved asymmetric catalysis, such as reduced reaction time, improved yield, or/and increased selectivity.

  5. Examiner Reliability of Fluorosis Scoring: A Comparison of Photographic and Clinical Examination Findings

    PubMed Central

    Cruz-Orcutt, Noemi; Warren, John J.; Broffitt, Barbara; Levy, Steven M.; Weber-Gasparoni, Karin

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess and compare examiner reliability of clinical and photographic fluorosis examinations using the Fluorosis Risk Index (FRI) among children in the Iowa Fluoride Study (IFS). Methods The IFS examined 538 children for fluorosis and dental caries at age 13 and obtained intra-oral photographs from nearly all of them. To assess examiner reliability, duplicate clinical examinations were conducted for 40 of the subjects. In addition, 200 of the photographs were scored independently for fluorosis by two examiners in a standardized manner. Fluorosis data were compared between examiners for the clinical exams and separately for the photographic exams, and a comparison was made between clinical and photographic exams. For all 3 comparisons, examiner reliability was assessed using kappa statistics at the tooth level. Results Inter-examiner reliability for the duplicate clinical exams on the sample of 40 subjects as measured by kappa was 0.59, while the repeat exams of the 200 photographs yielded a kappa of 0.64. For the comparison of photographic and clinical exams, inter-examiner reliability, as measured by weighted kappa, was 0.46. FRI scores obtained using the photographs were higher on average than those obtained from the clinical exams. Fluorosis prevalence was higher for photographs (33%) than found for clinical exam (18%). Conclusion Results suggest inter-examiner reliability is greater and fluorosis scores higher when using photographic compared to clinical examinations. PMID:22316120

  6. Examiners' perceptions of the objective structured clinical examination in colposcopy.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, N S

    2013-02-01

    Certification in Colposcopy by the British Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology (BSCCP) and the Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists is a formal pre- requisite to the practice of colposcopy within the UK. This certification is awarded after passing an Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE). The aim of the project is to explore examiners' perceptions of the OSCE examination in colposcopy and consider whether it is the right tool to differentiate between safe and unsafe practice in colposcopy. A case study research methodology was employed for the project, and questionnaires were sent to 30 examiners for OSCE in Colposcopy. The project also included conducting semi-structured interviews with two examiners, two trainees and a senior manager of the BSCCP. The questionnaire had a response rate of 28 (94%). The satisfaction rate among the examiners about the standard of questions in OSCE in Colposcopy was 93%, and 89% of the examiners would allow a candidate passing the examination to carry out a clinic in their absence. A total of 26 (94%) examiners thought that the examination was fit for purpose. It was suggested that testing of practical skills should also be made part of the examination. It seems OSCE in Colposcopy is perceived well both by the examiners and the candidates.

  7. Interpreting Examiners' Annotations on Examination Papers: A Sociocultural Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Martin; Shaw, Stuart

    2012-01-01

    In Ireland and the UK it is accepted practice that agencies with formal responsibility for delivering school examinations allow examination candidates, and in many cases their teachers, to see their examination papers once they have been marked. Returned papers can carry various pieces of information; as well as the total score given for a…

  8. Analysing intracellular deformation of polymer capsules using structured illumination microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xi; Cui, Jiwei; Sun, Huanli; Müllner, Markus; Yan, Yan; Noi, Ka Fung; Ping, Yuan; Caruso, Frank

    2016-06-01

    Understanding the behaviour of therapeutic carriers is important in elucidating their mechanism of action and how they are processed inside cells. Herein we examine the intracellular deformation of layer-by-layer assembled polymer capsules using super-resolution structured illumination microscopy (SIM). Spherical- and cylindrical-shaped capsules were studied in three different cell lines, namely HeLa (human epithelial cell line), RAW264.7 (mouse macrophage cell line) and differentiated THP-1 (human monocyte-derived macrophage cell line). We observed that the deformation of capsules was dependent on cell line, but independent of capsule shape. This suggests that the mechanical forces, which induce capsule deformation during cell uptake, vary between cell lines, indicating that the capsules are exposed to higher mechanical forces in HeLa cells, followed by RAW264.7 and then differentiated THP-1 cells. Our study demonstrates the use of super-resolution SIM in analysing intracellular capsule deformation, offering important insights into the cellular processing of drug carriers in cells and providing fundamental knowledge of intracellular mechanobiology. Furthermore, this study may aid in the design of novel drug carriers that are sensitive to deformation for enhanced drug release properties.Understanding the behaviour of therapeutic carriers is important in elucidating their mechanism of action and how they are processed inside cells. Herein we examine the intracellular deformation of layer-by-layer assembled polymer capsules using super-resolution structured illumination microscopy (SIM). Spherical- and cylindrical-shaped capsules were studied in three different cell lines, namely HeLa (human epithelial cell line), RAW264.7 (mouse macrophage cell line) and differentiated THP-1 (human monocyte-derived macrophage cell line). We observed that the deformation of capsules was dependent on cell line, but independent of capsule shape. This suggests that the mechanical forces

  9. Computer-Graded Examinations: Evaluation of a Teacher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, Charles B., Jr.

    1970-01-01

    Discusses computer-graded examinations as a means of improving test construction, student evaluation, and teacher effectiveness. Mentions that teachers need to be cognizant of Bloom's taxonomy of educational objectives in preparing examinations. Describes the statistical information obtainable from item analyses, such as difficulty index, phi…

  10. Examining Relationships among Dialect Variation and Emergent Literacy Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terry, Nicole Patton

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between nonmainstream American English (NMAE) dialect use and various emergent literacy skills among typically developing children in prekindergarten. Correlation and regression analyses were used to examine the relationship between children's production of NMAE forms (i.e., dialect variation [DVAR]) and their…

  11. Supersonic market and economic analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rochte, L. S.

    1980-01-01

    Advanced supersonic transport markets of the free world were projected for the period 1985 to 2004. Passenger traffic volume and airplane range and seat capacity requirements were estimated for Mach 2.2 service by international regional area market areas and by city pairs within and between these areas. Market factors and traffic factors examined include variable loads, growth rates, supersonic transport market shares, and schedule frequencies considering the different makeup of passenger traffic and individual city pairs. Direct, indirect, and total operating costs and yield levels were economically analyzed for first class and full fare economy class traffic.

  12. Genetic analyses of captive Alala (Corvus hawaiiensis) using AFLP analyses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jarvi, Susan I.; Bianchi, Kiara R.

    2006-01-01

    affected by the mutation rate at microsatellite loci, thus introducing a bias. Also, the number of loci that can be studied is frequently limited to fewer than 10. This theoretically represents a maximum of one marker for each of 10 chromosomes. Dominant markers like AFLP allow a larger fraction of the genome to be screened. Large numbers of loci can be screened by AFLP to resolve very small individual differences that can be used for identification of individuals, estimates of pairwise relatedness and, in some cases, for parentage analyses. Since AFLP is a dominant marker (can not distinguish between +/+ homozygote versus +/- heterozygote), it has limitations for parentage analyses. Only when both parents are homozygous for the absence of alleles (-/-) and offspring show a presence (+/+ or +/-) can the parents be excluded. In this case, microsatellites become preferable as they have the potential to exclude individual parents when the other parent is unknown. Another limitation of AFLP is that the loci are generally less polymorphic (only two alleles/locus) than microsatellite loci (often >10 alleles/locus). While generally fewer than 10 highly polymorphic microsatellite loci are enough to exclude and assign parentage, it might require up to 100 or more AFLP loci. While there are pros and cons to different methodologies, the total number of loci evaluated by AFLP generally offsets the limitations imposed due to the dominant nature of this approach and end results between methods are generally comparable. Overall objectives of this study were to evaluate the level of genetic diversity in the captive population of Alala, to compare genetic data with currently available pedigree information, and to determine the extent of relatedness of mating pairs and among founding individuals.

  13. Time series analyses of global change data.

    PubMed

    Lane, L J; Nichols, M H; Osborn, H B

    1994-01-01

    The hypothesis that statistical analyses of historical time series data can be used to separate the influences of natural variations from anthropogenic sources on global climate change is tested. Point, regional, national, and global temperature data are analyzed. Trend analyses for the period 1901-1987 suggest mean annual temperatures increased (in degrees C per century) globally at the rate of about 0.5, in the USA at about 0.3, in the south-western USA desert region at about 1.2, and at the Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed in south-eastern Arizona at about 0.8. However, the rates of temperature change are not constant but vary within the 87-year period. Serial correlation and spectral density analysis of the temperature time series showed weak periodicities at various frequencies. The only common periodicity among the temperature series is an apparent cycle of about 43 years. The temperature time series were correlated with the Wolf sunspot index, atmospheric CO(2) concentrations interpolated from the Siple ice core data, and atmospheric CO(2) concentration data from Mauna Loa measurements. Correlation analysis of temperature data with concurrent data on atmospheric CO(2) concentrations and the Wolf sunspot index support previously reported significant correlation over the 1901-1987 period. Correlation analysis between temperature, atmospheric CO(2) concentration, and the Wolf sunspot index for the shorter period, 1958-1987, when continuous Mauna Loa CO(2) data are available, suggest significant correlation between global warming and atmospheric CO(2) concentrations but no significant correlation between global warming and the Wolf sunspot index. This may be because the Wolf sunspot index apparently increased from 1901 until about 1960 and then decreased thereafter, while global warming apparently continued to increase through 1987. Correlation of sunspot activity with global warming may be spurious but additional analyses are required to test this hypothesis

  14. Mechanical properties and examination of cracking in TMI-2 pressure vessel lower head material

    SciTech Connect

    Diercks, D.R.; Neimark, L.A.

    1993-09-01

    Mechanical tests have been conducted on material from 15 samples removed from the lower head of the Three Mile Island unit 2 nuclear reactor pressure vessel. Measured properties include tensile properties and hardness profiles at room temperature, tensile and creep properties at temperatures of 600 to 1200{degrees}C, and Charpy V-notch impact properties at {minus}20 to +300{degrees}C. These data, which were used in the subsequent analyses of the margin-to-failure of the lower head during the accident, are presented here. In addition, the results of metallographic and scanning electron microscope examinations of cladding cracking in three of the lower head samples are discussed.

  15. A comparison of breast self-examination and clinical examination.

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, T. C.; Penn, N. E.; Giebink, J.; Bastien, R.

    1994-01-01

    Twenty-six female college students were trained to examine their breasts using the Mammacare Method. After training, participants were asked to demonstrate their breast self-examination technique for a competency evaluation. On average, 85% of the components of the palpation technique were correctly included in the participants' self-examinations, indicating that they had been trained competently. Breast self-examiners then were asked to palpate three breast models in search of embedded lumps. Thirteen health professionals were asked to examine the same breast models for lumps. The examination of the models by self-examiners was compared to that by health professionals. Breast self-examiners took longer to examine each model, and on average correctly identified significantly more lumps than health professionals. The two groups did not differ in number of false-positive findings. These results indicate that women adequately trained to perform breast self-examination can perform breast examinations at least as accurately as health professionals. PMID:8151721

  16. Color Addition and Subtraction Apps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz, Frances; Ruiz, Michael J.

    2015-10-01

    Color addition and subtraction apps in HTML5 have been developed for students as an online hands-on experience so that they can more easily master principles introduced through traditional classroom demonstrations. The evolution of the additive RGB color model is traced through the early IBM color adapters so that students can proceed step by step in understanding mathematical representations of RGB color. Finally, color addition and subtraction are presented for the X11 colors from web design to illustrate yet another real-life application of color mixing.

  17. [Retrospective evaluation of the results of the microbiological meat examination (MFU) from calves and cows].

    PubMed

    Dahl, P; Zweifel, C; Müller, R; Stephan, R

    2006-07-01

    The microbiological meat examination (MFU), consisting of a bacteriological analysis and a testing for antibiotic residues, is one of several additional analyses used for an edibility rating of carcasses made during meat inspection. Reasons for performing a microbiological meat examination and procedures in the laboratory are defined in the Swiss ordinance for meat examination (FUV). The aim of this study was to analyze the data of 313 microbiological meat examinations from calves and 2882 microbiological meat examinations from cows carried out at the Institute for Food Safety and Hygiene during a period of 8 years. Reasons for microbiological meat examinations as reported by the meat inspectors were mainly classified to the category of "inflammation and necroses" (FUV, Annex 4, Pt 1.2; calves: 73%, cows: 48%). As declarations of the age of the pathological-anatomical changes (that influences directly the probability of detection of pathogens) were generally missing, it is not surprising that the compliance between a particular pathological-anatomical change and a specific detection of pathogens is poor (calves: 19%, cows: 18% of all MFU). About 18% (calves) and 45% (cows) of the reasons for microbiological meat examinations did not correspond to one of the reasons mentioned in the ordinance for meat examination. However, according to the data set, some reasons require a microbiological meat examination due to an often-found specific detection of pathogens. Otherwise, a remarkable number of reasons mentioned were missing the link to bacteriological etiology. Moreover, 14% (calf) and 7% (cow) of microbiological meat examinations with the declaration "no pretreatment" as well as 15% (calf) and 11% (cow) of microbiological meat examinations without declaration showed a positive result in the testing for antibiotic residues.

  18. Photovoltaics: Life-cycle Analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Fthenakis V. M.; Kim, H.C.

    2009-10-02

    Life-cycle analysis is an invaluable tool for investigating the environmental profile of a product or technology from cradle to grave. Such life-cycle analyses of energy technologies are essential, especially as material and energy flows are often interwoven, and divergent emissions into the environment may occur at different life-cycle-stages. This approach is well exemplified by our description of material and energy flows in four commercial PV technologies, i.e., mono-crystalline silicon, multi-crystalline silicon, ribbon-silicon, and cadmium telluride. The same life-cycle approach is applied to the balance of system that supports flat, fixed PV modules during operation. We also discuss the life-cycle environmental metrics for a concentration PV system with a tracker and lenses to capture more sunlight per cell area than the flat, fixed system but requires large auxiliary components. Select life-cycle risk indicators for PV, i.e., fatalities, injures, and maximum consequences are evaluated in a comparative context with other electricity-generation pathways.

  19. Comparison between Inbreeding Analyses Methodologies.

    PubMed

    Esparza, Mireia; Martínez-Abadías, Neus; Sjøvold, Torstein; González-José, Rolando; Hernández, Miquel

    2015-12-01

    Surnames are widely used in inbreeding analysis, but the validity of results has often been questioned due to the failure to comply with the prerequisites of the method. Here we analyze inbreeding in Hallstatt (Austria) between the 17th and the 19th centuries both using genealogies and surnames. The high and significant correlation of the results obtained by both methods demonstrates the validity of the use of surnames in this kind of studies. On the other hand, the inbreeding values obtained (0.24 x 10⁻³ in the genealogies analysis and 2.66 x 10⁻³ in the surnames analysis) are lower than those observed in Europe for this period and for this kind of population, demonstrating the falseness of the apparent isolation of Hallstatt's population. The temporal trend of inbreeding in both analyses does not follow the European general pattern, but shows a maximum in 1850 with a later decrease along the second half of the 19th century. This is probably due to the high migration rate that is implied by the construction of transport infrastructures around the 1870's.

  20. Helicopter tail rotor noise analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, A. R.; Chou, S. T.

    1986-01-01

    A study was made of helicopter tail rotor noise, particularly that due to interactions with the main rotor tip vortices, and with the fuselage separation mean wake. The tail rotor blade-main rotor tip vortex interaction is modelled as an airfoil of infinite span cutting through a moving vortex. The vortex and the geometry information required by the analyses are obtained through a free wake geometry analysis of the main rotor. The acoustic pressure-time histories for the tail rotor blade-vortex interactions are then calculated. These acoustic results are compared to tail rotor loading and thickness noise, and are found to be significant to the overall tail rotor noise generation. Under most helicopter operating conditions, large acoustic pressure fluctuations can be generated due to a series of skewed main rotor tip vortices passing through the tail rotor disk. The noise generation depends strongly upon the helicopter operating conditions and the location of the tail rotor relative to the main rotor.

  1. Proteins analysed as virtual knots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, Keith; Taylor, Alexander J.; Dennis, Mark R.

    2017-02-01

    Long, flexible physical filaments are naturally tangled and knotted, from macroscopic string down to long-chain molecules. The existence of knotting in a filament naturally affects its configuration and properties, and may be very stable or disappear rapidly under manipulation and interaction. Knotting has been previously identified in protein backbone chains, for which these mechanical constraints are of fundamental importance to their molecular functionality, despite their being open curves in which the knots are not mathematically well defined; knotting can only be identified by closing the termini of the chain somehow. We introduce a new method for resolving knotting in open curves using virtual knots, which are a wider class of topological objects that do not require a classical closure and so naturally capture the topological ambiguity inherent in open curves. We describe the results of analysing proteins in the Protein Data Bank by this new scheme, recovering and extending previous knotting results, and identifying topological interest in some new cases. The statistics of virtual knots in protein chains are compared with those of open random walks and Hamiltonian subchains on cubic lattices, identifying a regime of open curves in which the virtual knotting description is likely to be important.

  2. Network analyses in systems pharmacology

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Seth I.; Iyengar, Ravi

    2009-01-01

    Systems pharmacology is an emerging area of pharmacology which utilizes network analysis of drug action as one of its approaches. By considering drug actions and side effects in the context of the regulatory networks within which the drug targets and disease gene products function, network analysis promises to greatly increase our knowledge of the mechanisms underlying the multiple actions of drugs. Systems pharmacology can provide new approaches for drug discovery for complex diseases. The integrated approach used in systems pharmacology can allow for drug action to be considered in the context of the whole genome. Network-based studies are becoming an increasingly important tool in understanding the relationships between drug action and disease susceptibility genes. This review discusses how analysis of biological networks has contributed to the genesis of systems pharmacology and how these studies have improved global understanding of drug targets, suggested new targets and approaches for therapeutics, and provided a deeper understanding of the effects of drugs. Taken together, these types of analyses can lead to new therapeutic options while improving the safety and efficacy of existing medications. Contact: ravi.iyengar@mssm.edu PMID:19648136

  3. Proteins analysed as virtual knots

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Keith; Taylor, Alexander J.; Dennis, Mark R.

    2017-01-01

    Long, flexible physical filaments are naturally tangled and knotted, from macroscopic string down to long-chain molecules. The existence of knotting in a filament naturally affects its configuration and properties, and may be very stable or disappear rapidly under manipulation and interaction. Knotting has been previously identified in protein backbone chains, for which these mechanical constraints are of fundamental importance to their molecular functionality, despite their being open curves in which the knots are not mathematically well defined; knotting can only be identified by closing the termini of the chain somehow. We introduce a new method for resolving knotting in open curves using virtual knots, which are a wider class of topological objects that do not require a classical closure and so naturally capture the topological ambiguity inherent in open curves. We describe the results of analysing proteins in the Protein Data Bank by this new scheme, recovering and extending previous knotting results, and identifying topological interest in some new cases. The statistics of virtual knots in protein chains are compared with those of open random walks and Hamiltonian subchains on cubic lattices, identifying a regime of open curves in which the virtual knotting description is likely to be important. PMID:28205562

  4. Physical examination of the shoulder.

    PubMed

    King, Joseph J; Wright, Thomas W

    2014-10-01

    This article summarizes the overall assessment of the shoulder joint and seeks to help direct clinicians to diagnose shoulder pathology using standard and specific physical examinations. The history and standard examination can prompt the examiner to focus on specific tests to further evaluate the shoulder and limit the differential diagnoses. An appropriate and directed shoulder physical examination allows the clinician to focus on further diagnostic strategies and treatment options for the patient.

  5. Adverse reactions to drug additives.

    PubMed

    Simon, R A

    1984-10-01

    There is a long list of additives used by the pharmaceutical industry. Most of the agents used have not been implicated in hypersensitivity reactions. Among those that have, only reactions to parabens and sulfites have been well established. Parabens have been shown to be responsible for rare immunoglobulin E-mediated reactions that occur after the use of local anesthetics. Sulfites, which are present in many drugs, including agents commonly used to treat asthma, have been shown to provoke severe asthmatic attacks in sensitive individuals. Recent studies indicate that additives do not play a significant role in "hyperactivity." The role of additives in urticaria is not well established and therefore the incidence of adverse reactions in this patient population is simply not known. In double-blind, placebo-controlled studies, reactions to tartrazine or additives other than sulfites, if they occur at all, are indeed quite rare for the asthmatic population, even for the aspirin-sensitive subpopulation.

  6. Radiation Therapy: Additional Treatment Options

    MedlinePlus

    ... SNIPEND SNIPSTART Find A Radiation Oncologist SNIPEND Additional Treatment Options SNIPSTART A A SNIPEND Chemotherapy Medicines prescribed ... such as antibodies, to fight cancer. Novel Targeted Therapies Cancer doctors now know much more about how ...

  7. Calculators and Computers: Graphical Addition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spero, Samuel W.

    1978-01-01

    A computer program is presented that generates problem sets involving sketching graphs of trigonometric functions using graphical addition. The students use calculators to sketch the graphs and a computer solution is used to check it. (MP)

  8. External Examining: Fit for Purpose?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloxham, Sue; Price, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    In a context of international concern about academic standards, the practice of external examining is widely admired for its role in defending standards. Yet a contradiction exists between this faith in examining and continuing concerns about standards. This article argues that external examining rests on assumptions about standards which are…

  9. Timing of the Medical Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christian, Cindy W.

    2011-01-01

    The medical examination of the sexually abused child may have evidentiary, medical, and therapeutic purposes, and the timing of the examination requires consideration of each of these objectives. In cases of acute sexual assault, emergent examinations may be needed to identify injury, collect forensic evidence, and provide infection and pregnancy…

  10. Comparative sequence analyses of sixteen reptilian paramyxoviruses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ahne, W.; Batts, W.N.; Kurath, G.; Winton, J.R.

    1999-01-01

    Viral genomic RNA of Fer-de-Lance virus (FDLV), a paramyxovirus highly pathogenic for reptiles, was reverse transcribed and cloned. Plasmids with significant sequence similarities to the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) and polymerase (L) genes of mammalian paramyxoviruses were identified by BLAST search. Partial sequences of the FDLV genes were used to design primers for amplification by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing of 518-bp L gene and 352-bp HN gene fragments from a collection of 15 previously uncharacterized reptilian paramyxoviruses. Phylogenetic analyses of the partial L and HN sequences produced similar trees in which there were two distinct subgroups of isolates that were supported with maximum bootstrap values, and several intermediate isolates. Within each subgroup the nucleotide divergence values were less than 2.5%, while the divergence between the two subgroups was 20-22%. This indicated that the two subgroups represent distinct virus species containing multiple virus strains. The five intermediate isolates had nucleotide divergence values of 11-20% and may represent additional distinct species. In addition to establishing diversity among reptilian paramyxoviruses, the phylogenetic groupings showed some correlation with geographic location, and clearly demonstrated a low level of host species-specificity within these viruses. Copyright (C) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V.

  11. Historical Analyses of Disordered Handwriting

    PubMed Central

    Schiegg, Markus; Thorpe, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    Handwritten texts carry significant information, extending beyond the meaning of their words. Modern neurology, for example, benefits from the interpretation of the graphic features of writing and drawing for the diagnosis and monitoring of diseases and disorders. This article examines how handwriting analysis can be used, and has been used historically, as a methodological tool for the assessment of medical conditions and how this enhances our understanding of historical contexts of writing. We analyze handwritten material, writing tests and letters, from patients in an early 20th-century psychiatric hospital in southern Germany (Irsee/Kaufbeuren). In this institution, early psychiatrists assessed handwriting features, providing us novel insights into the earliest practices of psychiatric handwriting analysis, which can be connected to Berkenkotter’s research on medical admission records. We finally consider the degree to which historical handwriting bears semiotic potential to explain the psychological state and personality of a writer, and how future research in written communication should approach these sources.

  12. Composite filter aids for cleanup of additives

    SciTech Connect

    Rudenko, L.I.; Sklyar, V.Y.

    1984-03-01

    This article examines the properties of composite filter aids in additive cleanup using two- and three-component filter aid composites based on perlite, kieselguhr, diatomite, asbestos, and wood flour. Filtration tests were run on naphtha solutions of the additive zinc dialkyldithiophosphate. The laboratory studies indicate that composites of perlite and kieselguhr with fibrous materials (wood flour or asbestos) show great promise for the removal of solid contaminants from the zinc disalkydithiophosphate additive. The advantages of the filter aid composite based on perlite, kieselguhr, and wood flour in comparison with the two-component composites are the higher filtration rate (by 26%) and the smaller losses of additive (by a factor of 2.1) and isobutyl alcohol (by a factor of 1.6). It is demonstrated that the filtration rate with the three components is 50-60% higher than with the composite of perlite with kieselguhr. The filtration of the zinc dialkyldithiophosphate additive using the composite filter aid based on perlite, kieselguhr, and wood flour, has been adopted at the Volgograd Petroleum Refinery. Includes 2 tables.

  13. Influence of bio-additives on combustion of liquid fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patsch, Marek; Durčanský, Peter

    2016-06-01

    In this contribution there are analyses of the course of the pressure curves, which were measured in the diesel engine MD UR IV, which is often used in cogeneration units. The results of the analyses confront the properties and quality of fuels. The measuring was realized with a constant rotation speed of the engine and by using different fuels. The fuels were pure diesel fuels and diesel fuel with bio-additives of hydrogenate RO (rape oil), FAME, and bioethanol.

  14. Malaria Diagnosis Using Automated Analysers: A Boon for Hematopathologists in Endemic Areas

    PubMed Central

    Narang, Vikram; Sood, Neena; Garg, Bhavna; Gupta, Vikram Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Background Haematological abnormalities are common in acute febrile tropical illnesses. Malaria is a major health problem in tropics. In endemic areas especially in the post monsoon season, it is not practical to manually screen all peripheral blood films (PBF) for malarial parasite. Automated analysers offer rapid, sensitive and cost effective screening of all samples. Aim The study was done to evaluate the usefulness of automated cell counters analysing their histograms, scatter-grams and the flaggings generated in malaria positive and negative cases. The comparison of other haematological parameters were also studied which could help to identify malaria parasite in peripheral blood smear. Materials and Methods The blood samples were analysed using Beckman coulter LH-750. The abnormal scatter grams and additional peaks in WBC histograms were observed diligently & compared with normal controls. Haematological abnormalities were also evaluated. Statistical Analysis Statistical analysis was done by using software Epi-Info version 7.1.4 freely available from CDC website. Fisher exact test was applied to calculate the p-value and value < 0.05 was considered as significant. Final identification of malarial parasite species was done independently by peripheral blood smear examination by two pathologists. Results Of all the 200 cases evaluated abnormal scatter grams were observed in all the cases of malaria while abnormal WBC histogram peaks were noted in 96% cases demonstrating a peak at the threshold of the histogram. The difference between number of slides positive for abnormal WBC scatter gram and abnormal WBC histogram peaks were statistically highly significant (p=0.007). So abnormal WBC scatter gram can better give idea of malarial parasite presence. Of the haematological parameters thrombocytopenia (92% cases) emerged as the strongest predictor of malaria. Conclusion It is recommended for haematopathologists to review the haematological data and the scatter plots

  15. [TG-FTIR study on pyrolysis of wheat-straw with abundant CaO additives].

    PubMed

    Han, Long; Wang, Qin-Hui; Yang, Yu-Kun; Yu, Chun-Jiang; Fang, Meng-Xiang; Luo, Zhong-Yang

    2011-04-01

    Biomass pyrolysis in presence of abundant CaO additives is a fundamental process prior to CaO sorption enhanced gasification in biomass-based zero emission system. In the present study, thermogravimetric Fourier transform infrared (TG-FTIR) analysis was adopted to examine the effects of CaO additives on the mass loss process and volatiles evolution of wheat-straw pyrolysis. Observations from TG and FTIR analyses simultaneously demonstrated a two-stage process for CaO catalyzed wheat-straw pyrolysis, different from the single stage process for pure wheat-straw pyrolysis. CaO additives could not only absorb the released CO2 but also reduce the yields of tar species such as toluene, phenol, and formic acid in the first stage, resulting in decreased mass loss and maximum mass loss rate in this stage with an increase in CaO addition. The second stage was attributed to the CaCO3 decomposition and the mass loss and maximum mass loss rate increased with increasing amount of CaO additives. The results of the present study demonstrated the great potential of CaO additives to capture CO2 and reduce tars yields in biomass-based zero emission system. The gasification temperature in the system should be lowered down to avoid CaCO3 decomposition.

  16. National Postirradiation Examination Workshop Report

    SciTech Connect

    Schulthess, Jason L

    2011-06-01

    A National Post-Irradiation-Examination (PIE) Workshop was held March 29-30, 2011, in Washington D.C., stimulated by the DOE Acting Assistant Secretary for Nuclear Energy approval on January 31, 2011 of the “Mission Need Statement for Advanced Post-Irradiation Examination Capability”. As stated in the Mission Need, “A better understanding of nuclear fuels and material performance in the nuclear environment, at the nanoscale and lower, is critical to the development of innovative fuels and materials required for tomorrow’s nuclear energy systems.” (2011) Developing an advanced post-irradiation capability is the most important thing we can do to advance nuclear energy as an option to meeting national energy goals. Understanding the behavior of fuels and materials in a nuclear reactor irradiation environment is the limiting factor in nuclear plant safety, longevity, efficiency, and economics. The National PIE Workshop is part of fulfilling or addressing Department of Energy (DOE) missions in safe and publically acceptable nuclear energy. Several presentations were given during the opening of the workshop. Generally speaking, these presentations established that we cannot continue to rely on others in the world to provide the capabilities we need to move forward with nuclear energy technology. These presentations also generally identified the need for increased microstructural understanding of fuels and materials to be coupled with modeling and simulation, and increased accessibility and infrastructure to facilitate the interaction between national laboratories and participating organizations. The overall results of the work of the presenters and panels was distilled into four primary needs 1. Understanding material changes in the extreme nuclear environment at the nanoscale. Nanoscale studies have significant importance due to the mechanisms that cause materials to degrade, which actually occur on the nanoscale. 2. Enabling additional proficiency in

  17. Automated nutrient analyses in seawater

    SciTech Connect

    Whitledge, T.E.; Malloy, S.C.; Patton, C.J.; Wirick, C.D.

    1981-02-01

    This manual was assembled for use as a guide for analyzing the nutrient content of seawater samples collected in the marine coastal zone of the Northeast United States and the Bering Sea. Some modifications (changes in dilution or sample pump tube sizes) may be necessary to achieve optimum measurements in very pronounced oligotrophic, eutrophic or brackish areas. Information is presented under the following section headings: theory and mechanics of automated analysis; continuous flow system description; operation of autoanalyzer system; cookbook of current nutrient methods; automated analyzer and data analysis software; computer interfacing and hardware modifications; and trouble shooting. The three appendixes are entitled: references and additional reading; manifold components and chemicals; and software listings. (JGB)

  18. FY01 Supplemental Science and Performance Analyses, Volume 1: Scientific Bases and Analyses, Rev 00

    SciTech Connect

    David Dobson

    2001-06-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is considering the possible recommendation of a site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for development as a geologic repository for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel. To facilitate public review and comment, in May 2001 the DOE released the Yucca Mountain Science and Engineering Report (S&ER) (DOE 2001 [DIRS 153849]), which presents technical information supporting the consideration of the possible site recommendation. The report summarizes the results of more than 20 years of scientific and engineering studies. A decision to recommend the site has not been made: the DOE has provided the S&ER and its supporting documents as an aid to the public in formulating comments on the possible recommendation. When the S&ER (DOE 2001 [DIRS 153849]) was released, the DOE acknowledged that technical and scientific analyses of the site were ongoing. Therefore, the DOE noted in the Federal Register Notice accompanying the report (66 FR 23 013 [DIRS 155009], p. 2) that additional technical information would be released before the dates, locations, and times for public hearings on the possible recommendation were announced. This information includes: (1) the results of additional technical studies of a potential repository at Yucca Mountain, contained in this FY01 Supplemental Science and Performance Analyses: Vol. 1, Scientific Bases and Analyses; and FY01 Supplemental Science and Performance Analyses: Vol. 2, Performance Analyses (McNeish 2001 [DIRS 155023]) (collectively referred to as the SSPA) and (2) a preliminary evaluation of the Yucca Mountain site's preclosure and postclosure performance against the DOE's proposed site suitability guidelines (10 CFR Part 963 [64 FR 67054] [DIRS 124754]). By making the large amount of information developed on Yucca Mountain available in stages, the DOE intends to provide the public and interested parties with time to review the available materials and to formulate and submit

  19. Statistical Analyses of White-Light Flares: Two Main Results about Flare Behaviour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dal, Hasan Ali

    2012-08-01

    We present two main results, based on models and the statistical analyses of 1672 U-band flares. We also discuss the behaviour of white-light flares. In addition, the parameters of the flares detected from two years of observations on CR Dra are presented. By comparing with flare parameters obtained from other UV Ceti-type stars, we examine the behaviour of the optical flare processes along with the spectral types. Moreover, we aimed, using large white-light flare data, to analyse the flare time-scales with respect to some results obtained from X-ray observations. Using SPSS V17.0 and GraphPad Prism V5.02 software, the flares detected from CR Dra were modelled with the OPEA function, and analysed with the t-Test method to compare similar flare events in other stars. In addition, using some regression calculations in order to derive the best histograms, the time-scales of white-light flares were analysed. Firstly, CR Dra flares have revealed that white-light flares behave in a similar way as their counterparts observed in X-rays. As can be seen in X-ray observations, the electron density seems to be a dominant parameter in white-light flare process, too. Secondly, the distributions of the flare time-scales demonstrate that the number of observed flares reaches a maximum value in some particular ratios, which are 0.5, or its multiples, and especially positive integers. The thermal processes might be dominant for these white-light flares, while non-thermal processes might be dominant in the others. To obtain better results for the behaviour of the white-light flare process along with the spectral types, much more stars in a wide spectral range, from spectral type dK5e to dM6e, must be observed in white-light flare patrols.

  20. Examining differences between recovered and declining endangered species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Abbitt, R.J.F.; Michael, Scott J.

    2001-01-01

    Between 1973 and 1999, 43 species in the United States were reclassified from endangered to threatened or removed entirely from the Endangered Species List. Of these, 23 were identified as recovered. In 1999 the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) published a list of 33 additional species for possible reclassification and/or delisting. We initiated this study to examine why some endangered species recover but others continue to decline and to identify differences in management activities between these two groups. We defined recovered/recovering species as previously recovered species and the additional recovered/recovering species listed by the USFWS. We defined declining species as those identified as declining in the most recent USFWS Report to Congress. Information on recovered/recovering and declining species was gathered from relevant literature, recovery plans, U.S. Federal Register documents, and individuals responsible for the recovery management of each species. We used this information to examine (1) the percentage of current and historic range covered by management activities; (2) threats affecting the species; (3) population sizes at the time of listing; (4) current versus historic range size; and (5) percentage of recovery management objectives completed. Although few statistical analyses provided significant results, those that did suggest the following differences between recovered/recovering and declining species: (1) recovered/recovering species face threats that are easier to address; (2) recovered/recovering species occupy a greater percentage of their historic range; and (3) recovered/recovering species have a greater percentage of their recovery management objectives completed. Those species with threats easier to address and that occupy a greater percentage of their historic range are recovered/recovering. In contrast, declining species face threats more difficult to address and occupy significantly less of their historic range. If this

  1. Evaluation of certain food additives.

    PubMed

    2015-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives, including flavouring agents, and to prepare specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation of and assessment of dietary exposure to food additives, including flavouring agents. A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and dietary exposure data for eight food additives (Benzoe tonkinensis; carrageenan; citric and fatty acid esters of glycerol; gardenia yellow; lutein esters from Tagetes erecta; octenyl succinic acid-modified gum arabic; octenyl succinic acid-modified starch; paprika extract; and pectin) and eight groups of flavouring agents (aliphatic and alicyclic hydrocarbons; aliphatic and aromatic ethers; ionones and structurally related substances; miscellaneous nitrogen-containing substances; monocyclic and bicyclic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters; phenol and phenol derivatives; phenyl-substituted aliphatic alcohols and related aldehydes and esters; and sulfur-containing heterocyclic compounds). Specifications for the following food additives were revised: citric acid; gellan gum; polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monostearate; potassium aluminium silicate; and Quillaia extract (Type 2). Annexed to the report are tables summarizing the Committee's recommendations for dietary exposures to and toxicological evaluations of all of the food additives and flavouring agents considered at this meeting.

  2. [INVITED] Lasers in additive manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinkerton, Andrew J.

    2016-04-01

    Additive manufacturing is a topic of considerable ongoing interest, with forecasts predicting it to have major impact on industry in the future. This paper focusses on the current status and potential future development of the technology, with particular reference to the role of lasers within it. It begins by making clear the types and roles of lasers in the different categories of additive manufacturing. This is followed by concise reviews of the economic benefits and disadvantages of the technology, current state of the market and use of additive manufacturing in different industries. Details of these fields are referenced rather than expanded in detail. The paper continues, focusing on current indicators to the future of additive manufacturing. Barriers to its development, trends and opportunities in major industrial sectors, and wider opportunities for its development are covered. Evidence indicates that additive manufacturing may not become the dominant manufacturing technology in all industries, but represents an excellent opportunity for lasers to increase their influence in manufacturing as a whole.

  3. Systematic review and assessment of systematic reviews examining the effect of periodontal treatment on glycemic control in patients with diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Iguchi, Shinya; Suzuki, Daigo; Kawano, Eisuke; Sato, Shuichi

    2017-01-01

    Objetives There have been several systematic reviews(SRs) on whether periodontal treatment for an individual with both periodontal disease and diabetes can improve diabetes outcomes. The purpose of this investigation was to conduct a systematic review (SR) of previous meta-analyses, and to assess the methodological quality of the SRs examining the effects of periodontal treatment and diabetes. (PROSPERO Registration # CRD 42015023470). Study Design We searched five electronic databases and identified previous meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials published through July 2015. In cases where the meta-analysis did not meet our criteria, the meta-analyses were recalculated. General characteristics of each included trial were abstracted, analyzed, and compared. The mean difference, 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and the I2 statistic were abstracted or recalculated. The Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews Instrument (AMSTAR) was used to assess methodological quality. Results Of the 475 citations screened, nine systematic reviews were included. In total, 13 meta-analyses included in nine SRs were examined. In comparability analyses, meta-analyses in four SRs did not meet our criteria, and were recalcuated. Of these 13 meta-analyses, 10 suggested significant effects of periodontal treatment on HbA1c improvement. Mean differences found in the 13 meta-analyses ranged from -0.93 to 0.13. AMSTAR assessment revealed six SRs with moderate and three with high overall quality. Conclusions We can conclude that there is a significant effect of periodontal treatment on improvement of HbA1c in diabetes patients, although the effect size is extremely small. In addition to the small effect size, not all SRs could be considered of high quality. Key words:Periodontal treatment, diabetes, HbA1c, systematic review, systematic review of systematic reviews, evidence-based medicine, AMSTAR. PMID:28160589

  4. "Analysing Genre: Language Use in Professional Settings." A Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drury, Helen

    1995-01-01

    "Analysing Genre," by Vijay K. Bhatia, is a timely addition to the literature on genre analysis in English for specific purposes. It is divided into three parts: the first provides theoretical background; the second explains how genre analysis works in different academic and professional settings; and the third exemplifies the…

  5. 46 CFR 189.40-3 - Drydock examination, internal structural examination, cargo tank internal examination, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Drydock examination, internal structural examination, cargo tank internal examination, and underwater survey intervals. 189.40-3 Section 189.40-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS INSPECTION...

  6. Additive manufacturing of hybrid circuits

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, Nelson S.; Sarobol, Pylin; Cook, Adam; Clem, Paul G.; Keicher, David M.; Hirschfeld, Deidre; Hall, Aaron Christopher

    2016-03-26

    There is a rising interest in developing functional electronics using additively manufactured components. Considerations in materials selection and pathways to forming hybrid circuits and devices must demonstrate useful electronic function; must enable integration; and must complement the complex shape, low cost, high volume, and high functionality of structural but generally electronically passive additively manufactured components. This article reviews several emerging technologies being used in industry and research/development to provide integration advantages of fabricating multilayer hybrid circuits or devices. First, we review a maskless, noncontact, direct write (DW) technology that excels in the deposition of metallic colloid inks for electrical interconnects. Second, we review a complementary technology, aerosol deposition (AD), which excels in the deposition of metallic and ceramic powder as consolidated, thick conformal coatings and is additionally patternable through masking. As a result, we show examples of hybrid circuits/devices integrated beyond 2-D planes, using combinations of DW or AD processes and conventional, established processes.

  7. Tougher Addition Polyimides Containing Siloxane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St. Clair, T. L.; Maudgal, S.

    1986-01-01

    Laminates show increased impact resistances and other desirable mechanical properties. Bismaleamic acid extended by reaction of diaminosiloxane with maleic anhydride in 1:1 molar ratio, followed by reaction with half this molar ratio of aromatic dianhydride. Bismaleamic acid also extended by reaction of diaminosiloxane with maleic anhydride in 1:2 molar ratio, followed by reaction with half this molar ratio of aromatic diamine (Michael-addition reaction). Impact resistances improved over those of unmodified bismaleimide, showing significant increase in toughness. Aromatic addition polyimides developed as both matrix and adhesive resins for applications on future aircraft and spacecraft.

  8. Printability of alloys for additive manufacturing

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, T.; Zuback, J. S.; De, A.; DebRoy, T.

    2016-01-01

    Although additive manufacturing (AM), or three dimensional (3D) printing, provides significant advantages over existing manufacturing techniques, metallic parts produced by AM are susceptible to distortion, lack of fusion defects and compositional changes. Here we show that the printability, or the ability of an alloy to avoid these defects, can be examined by developing and testing appropriate theories. A theoretical scaling analysis is used to test vulnerability of various alloys to thermal distortion. A theoretical kinetic model is used to examine predisposition of different alloys to AM induced compositional changes. A well-tested numerical heat transfer and fluid flow model is used to compare susceptibilities of various alloys to lack of fusion defects. These results are tested and validated with independent experimental data. The findings presented in this paper are aimed at achieving distortion free, compositionally sound and well bonded metallic parts. PMID:26796864

  9. Printability of alloys for additive manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, T.; Zuback, J. S.; de, A.; Debroy, T.

    2016-01-01

    Although additive manufacturing (AM), or three dimensional (3D) printing, provides significant advantages over existing manufacturing techniques, metallic parts produced by AM are susceptible to distortion, lack of fusion defects and compositional changes. Here we show that the printability, or the ability of an alloy to avoid these defects, can be examined by developing and testing appropriate theories. A theoretical scaling analysis is used to test vulnerability of various alloys to thermal distortion. A theoretical kinetic model is used to examine predisposition of different alloys to AM induced compositional changes. A well-tested numerical heat transfer and fluid flow model is used to compare susceptibilities of various alloys to lack of fusion defects. These results are tested and validated with independent experimental data. The findings presented in this paper are aimed at achieving distortion free, compositionally sound and well bonded metallic parts.

  10. Printability of alloys for additive manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, T; Zuback, J S; De, A; DebRoy, T

    2016-01-22

    Although additive manufacturing (AM), or three dimensional (3D) printing, provides significant advantages over existing manufacturing techniques, metallic parts produced by AM are susceptible to distortion, lack of fusion defects and compositional changes. Here we show that the printability, or the ability of an alloy to avoid these defects, can be examined by developing and testing appropriate theories. A theoretical scaling analysis is used to test vulnerability of various alloys to thermal distortion. A theoretical kinetic model is used to examine predisposition of different alloys to AM induced compositional changes. A well-tested numerical heat transfer and fluid flow model is used to compare susceptibilities of various alloys to lack of fusion defects. These results are tested and validated with independent experimental data. The findings presented in this paper are aimed at achieving distortion free, compositionally sound and well bonded metallic parts.

  11. Printability of alloys for additive manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Mukherjee, T.; Zuback, J. S.; De, A.; DebRoy, T.

    2016-01-22

    Although additive manufacturing (AM), or three dimensional (3D) printing, provides significant advantages over existing manufacturing techniques, metallic parts produced by AM are susceptible to distortion, lack of fusion defects and compositional changes. Here we show that the printability, or the ability of an alloy to avoid these defects, can be examined by developing and testing appropriate theories. A theoretical scaling analysis is used to test vulnerability of various alloys to thermal distortion. A theoretical kinetic model is used to examine predisposition of different alloys to AM induced compositional changes. A well-tested numerical heat transfer and fluid flow model is used to compare susceptibilities of various alloys to lack of fusion defects. These results are tested and validated with independent experimental data. Here, the findings presented in this paper are aimed at achieving distortion free, compositionally sound and well bonded metallic parts.

  12. Printability of alloys for additive manufacturing

    DOE PAGES

    Mukherjee, T.; Zuback, J. S.; De, A.; ...

    2016-01-22

    Although additive manufacturing (AM), or three dimensional (3D) printing, provides significant advantages over existing manufacturing techniques, metallic parts produced by AM are susceptible to distortion, lack of fusion defects and compositional changes. Here we show that the printability, or the ability of an alloy to avoid these defects, can be examined by developing and testing appropriate theories. A theoretical scaling analysis is used to test vulnerability of various alloys to thermal distortion. A theoretical kinetic model is used to examine predisposition of different alloys to AM induced compositional changes. A well-tested numerical heat transfer and fluid flow model is usedmore » to compare susceptibilities of various alloys to lack of fusion defects. These results are tested and validated with independent experimental data. Here, the findings presented in this paper are aimed at achieving distortion free, compositionally sound and well bonded metallic parts.« less

  13. How Big of a Problem is Analytic Error in Secondary Analyses of Survey Data?

    PubMed

    West, Brady T; Sakshaug, Joseph W; Aurelien, Guy Alain S

    2016-01-01

    Secondary analyses of survey data collected from large probability samples of persons or establishments further scientific progress in many fields. The complex design features of these samples improve data collection efficiency, but also require analysts to account for these features when conducting analysis. Unfortunately, many secondary analysts from fields outside of statistics, biostatistics, and survey methodology do not have adequate training in this area, and as a result may apply incorrect statistical methods when analyzing these survey data sets. This in turn could lead to the publication of incorrect inferences based on the survey data that effectively negate the resources dedicated to these surveys. In this article, we build on the results of a preliminary meta-analysis of 100 peer-reviewed journal articles presenting analyses of data from a variety of national health surveys, which suggested that analytic errors may be extremely prevalent in these types of investigations. We first perform a meta-analysis of a stratified random sample of 145 additional research products analyzing survey data from the Scientists and Engineers Statistical Data System (SESTAT), which describes features of the U.S. Science and Engineering workforce, and examine trends in the prevalence of analytic error across the decades used to stratify the sample. We once again find that analytic errors appear to be quite prevalent in these studies. Next, we present several example analyses of real SESTAT data, and demonstrate that a failure to perform these analyses correctly can result in substantially biased estimates with standard errors that do not adequately reflect complex sample design features. Collectively, the results of this investigation suggest that reviewers of this type of research need to pay much closer attention to the analytic methods employed by researchers attempting to publish or present secondary analyses of survey data.

  14. How Big of a Problem is Analytic Error in Secondary Analyses of Survey Data?

    PubMed Central

    West, Brady T.; Sakshaug, Joseph W.; Aurelien, Guy Alain S.

    2016-01-01

    Secondary analyses of survey data collected from large probability samples of persons or establishments further scientific progress in many fields. The complex design features of these samples improve data collection efficiency, but also require analysts to account for these features when conducting analysis. Unfortunately, many secondary analysts from fields outside of statistics, biostatistics, and survey methodology do not have adequate training in this area, and as a result may apply incorrect statistical methods when analyzing these survey data sets. This in turn could lead to the publication of incorrect inferences based on the survey data that effectively negate the resources dedicated to these surveys. In this article, we build on the results of a preliminary meta-analysis of 100 peer-reviewed journal articles presenting analyses of data from a variety of national health surveys, which suggested that analytic errors may be extremely prevalent in these types of investigations. We first perform a meta-analysis of a stratified random sample of 145 additional research products analyzing survey data from the Scientists and Engineers Statistical Data System (SESTAT), which describes features of the U.S. Science and Engineering workforce, and examine trends in the prevalence of analytic error across the decades used to stratify the sample. We once again find that analytic errors appear to be quite prevalent in these studies. Next, we present several example analyses of real SESTAT data, and demonstrate that a failure to perform these analyses correctly can result in substantially biased estimates with standard errors that do not adequately reflect complex sample design features. Collectively, the results of this investigation suggest that reviewers of this type of research need to pay much closer attention to the analytic methods employed by researchers attempting to publish or present secondary analyses of survey data. PMID:27355817

  15. Examining the association between oral health and oral HPV infection.

    PubMed

    Bui, Thanh Cong; Markham, Christine M; Ross, Michael Wallis; Mullen, Patricia Dolan

    2013-09-01

    Oral human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the cause of 40% to 80% of oropharyngeal cancers; yet, no published study has examined the role of oral health in oral HPV infection, either independently or in conjunction with other risk factors. This study examined the relation between oral health and oral HPV infection and the interactive effects of oral health, smoking, and oral sex on oral HPV infection. Our analyses comprised 3,439 participants ages 30 to 69 years for whom data on oral HPV and oral health were available from the nationally representative 2009-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Results showed that higher unadjusted prevalence of oral HPV infection was associated with four measures of oral health, including self-rated oral health as poor-to-fair [prevalence ratio (PR) = 1.56; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.25-1.95], indicated the possibility of gum disease (PR = 1.51; 95% CI, 1.13-2.01), reported use of mouthwash to treat dental problems in the past week (PR = 1.28; 95% CI, 1.07-1.52), and higher number of teeth lost (Ptrend = 0.035). In multivariable logistic regression models, oral HPV infection had a statistically significant association with self-rated overall oral health (OR = 1.55; 95% CI, 1.15-2.09), independent of smoking and oral sex. In conclusion, poor oral health was an independent risk factor of oral HPV infection, irrespective of smoking and oral sex practices. Public health interventions may aim to promote oral hygiene and oral health as an additional measure to prevent HPV-related oral cancers.

  16. EXAMINATION OF THE PATELLOFEMORAL JOINT.

    PubMed

    Manske, Robert C; Davies, George J

    2016-12-01

    Patellofemoral pain is one of the leading causes of knee pain in athletes. The many causes of patellofemoral pain make diagnosis unpredictable and examination and treatment difficult. This clinical commentary discusses a detailed physical examination routine for the patient with patellofemoral pain. Critically listening and obtaining a detailed medical history followed by a clearly structured physical examination will allow the physical therapist to diagnose most forms of patellofemoral pain. This clinical commentary goes one step further by suggesting an examination scheme and order in which it should be performed during the examination process. This step-by-step guide will be helpful for the student or novice therapist and serve as review for those that are already well versed in patellofemoral examination.

  17. EXAMINATION OF THE PATELLOFEMORAL JOINT

    PubMed Central

    Davies, George J.

    2016-01-01

    Patellofemoral pain is one of the leading causes of knee pain in athletes. The many causes of patellofemoral pain make diagnosis unpredictable and examination and treatment difficult. This clinical commentary discusses a detailed physical examination routine for the patient with patellofemoral pain. Critically listening and obtaining a detailed medical history followed by a clearly structured physical examination will allow the physical therapist to diagnose most forms of patellofemoral pain. This clinical commentary goes one step further by suggesting an examination scheme and order in which it should be performed during the examination process. This step-by-step guide will be helpful for the student or novice therapist and serve as review for those that are already well versed in patellofemoral examination. PMID:27904788

  18. [A series about the value of physical examination].

    PubMed

    de Jongh, T O H; Zaat, J O M

    2010-01-01

    This article is the introduction to a new series in the Nederlands Tijdschrift voor Geneeskunde about the value of physical examination. Associated with this series, on the website (www.ntvg.nl) there are chapters of the new textbook on physical examination and films about carrying out physical examinations. Although physical examination is an essential part of the diagnostic process, often little attention is paid to the correct execution of the examination and there is insufficient knowledge of the value of the findings. The diagnostic process usually involves analysing all the information from the patient's history and a physical examination. However, research has only been done on the value of specific tests and even that is very limited. The most important measure we use for the results of a physical examination is the likelihood ratio, which shows how the likelihood of presence or absence of a disease changes depending on the examination results.

  19. The Additive Property of Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsaoussis, Dimitris S.

    1995-01-01

    Presents exercises that analyze the additive property of energy. Concludes that if a body has more than one component of energy depending on the same physical quantity, the body's total energy will be the algebraic sum of the components if a linear relationship exists between the energy components and that physical quantity. (JRH)

  20. Tetrasulfide extreme pressure lubricant additives

    SciTech Connect

    Gast, L.E.; Kenney, H.E.; Schwab, A.W.

    1980-08-19

    A novel class of compounds has been prepared comprising the tetrasulfides of /sup 18/C hydrocarbons, /sup 18/C fatty acids, and /sup 18/C fatty and alkyl and triglyceride esters. These tetrasulfides are useful as extreme pressure lubricant additives and show potential as replacements for sulfurized sperm whale oil.

  1. Out of bounds additive manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Holshouser, Chris; Newell, Clint; Palas, Sid; Love, Lonnie J.; Kunc, Vlastimil; Lind, Randall F.; Lloyd, Peter D.; Rowe, John C.; Blue, Craig A.; Duty, Chad E.; Peter, William H.; Dehoff, Ryan R.

    2013-03-01

    Lockheed Martin and Oak Ridge National Laboratory are working on an additive manufacturing system capable of manufacturing components measured not in terms of inches or feet, but multiple yards in all dimensions with the potential to manufacture parts that are completely unbounded in size.

  2. An examination of the heterosexism scale.

    PubMed

    Goodrich, Kristopher M; Selig, James P; Crofts, Gene

    2014-01-01

    Researchers explored the factor structure of Park's Heterosexism Scale (2001) with heterosexual parents of lesbian, gay, or bisexual sons or daughters. Results suggested a two-factor solution, but results varied from Park's two-factor model. Additionally, relations between the Heterosexism Scale subscales and measures of cognitive flexibility, religious commitment, and general family functioning were examined. Implications for clinical practice and future research are discussed.

  3. Evaluation of certain food additives.

    PubMed

    2012-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives, including flavouring agents, with a view to concluding as to safety concerns and to preparing specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation of and assessment of dietary exposure to food additives, including flavouring agents. A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and dietary exposure data for five food additives (magnesium dihydrogen diphosphate; mineral oil (medium and low viscosity) classes II and III; 3-phytase from Aspergillus niger expressed in Aspergillus niger; serine protease (chymotrypsin) from Nocardiopsis prasina expressed in Bacillus licheniformis; and serine protease (trypsin) from Fusarium oxysporum expressed in Fusarium venenatum) and 16 groups of flavouring agents (aliphatic and aromatic amines and amides; aliphatic and aromatic ethers; aliphatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids and related esters, sulfides, disulfides and ethers containing furan substitution; aliphatic linear alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes, acids and related alcohols, acetals and esters; amino acids and related substances; epoxides; furfuryl alcohol and related substances; linear and branched-chain aliphatic, unsaturated, unconjugated alcohols, aldehydes, acids and related esters; miscellaneous nitrogen-containing substances; phenol and phenol derivatives; pyrazine derivatives; pyridine, pyrrole and quinoline derivatives; saturated aliphatic acyclic branched-chain primary alcohols, aldehydes and acids; simple aliphatic and aromatic sulfides and thiols; sulfur-containing heterocyclic compounds; and sulfur-substituted furan derivatives). Specifications for the following food additives were revised: ethyl cellulose, mineral oil (medium viscosity), modified starches and titanium

  4. Methylation analyses in liquid biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Lissa, Delphine

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Recent implementation of low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) screening is predicted to lead to diagnosis of lung cancer at an earlier stage, with survival benefit. However, there is still a pressing need for biomarkers that will identify individuals eligible for screening, as well as improve the diagnostic accuracy of LDCT. In addition, biomarkers for prognostic stratification of patients with early stage disease, and those that can be used as surrogates to monitor tumor evolution, will greatly improve clinical management. Molecular alterations found in the DNA of tumor cells, such as mutations, translocations and methylation, are reflected in DNA that is released from the tumor into the bloodstream. Thus, in recent years, circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) has gained increasing attention as a noninvasive alternative to tissue biopsies and potential surrogate for the entire tumor genome. Activating gene mutations found in ctDNA have been proven effective in predicting response to targeted therapy. Analysis of ctDNA is also a valuable tool for longitudinal follow-up of cancer patients that does not require serial biopsies and may anticipate the acquisition of resistance. DNA methylation has also emerged as a promising marker for early detection, prognosis and real-time follow-up of tumor dynamics that is independent of the genomic composition of the primary tumor. This review summarizes the various investigational applications of methylated ctDNA in lung cancer reported to date. It also provides a brief overview of the technologies for analysis of DNA methylation in liquid biopsies, and the challenges that befall the implementation of methylated ctDNA into routine clinical practice. PMID:27826530

  5. Aerothermodynamic Analyses of Towed Ballutes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gnoffo, Peter A.; Buck, Greg; Moss, James N.; Nielsen, Eric; Berger, Karen; Jones, William T.; Rudavsky, Rena

    2006-01-01

    A ballute (balloon-parachute) is an inflatable, aerodynamic drag device for application to planetary entry vehicles. Two challenging aspects of aerothermal simulation of towed ballutes are considered. The first challenge, simulation of a complete system including inflatable tethers and a trailing toroidal ballute, is addressed using the unstructured-grid, Navier-Stokes solver FUN3D. Auxiliary simulations of a semi-infinite cylinder using the rarefied flow, Direct Simulation Monte Carlo solver, DSV2, provide additional insight into limiting behavior of the aerothermal environment around tethers directly exposed to the free stream. Simulations reveal pressures higher than stagnation and corresponding large heating rates on the tether as it emerges from the spacecraft base flow and passes through the spacecraft bow shock. The footprint of the tether shock on the toroidal ballute is also subject to heating amplification. Design options to accommodate or reduce these environments are discussed. The second challenge addresses time-accurate simulation to detect the onset of unsteady flow interactions as a function of geometry and Reynolds number. Video of unsteady interactions measured in the Langley Aerothermodynamic Laboratory 20-Inch Mach 6 Air Tunnel and CFD simulations using the structured grid, Navier-Stokes solver LAURA are compared for flow over a rigid spacecraft-sting-toroid system. The experimental data provides qualitative information on the amplitude and onset of unsteady motion which is captured in the numerical simulations. The presence of severe unsteady fluid - structure interactions is undesirable and numerical simulation must be able to predict the onset of such motion.

  6. Ulex Europaeus Agglutinin-1 Is a Reliable Taste Bud Marker for In Situ Hybridization Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Yoshimoto, Joto; Okada, Shinji; Kishi, Mikiya; Misaka, Takumi

    2015-01-01

    Taste signals are received by taste buds. To better understand the taste reception system, expression patterns of taste-related molecules are determined by in situ hybridization (ISH) analyses at the histological level. Nevertheless, even though ISH is essential for determining mRNA expression, few taste bud markers can be applied together with ISH. Ulex europaeus agglutinin-1 (UEA-1) appears to be a reliable murine taste bud marker based on immunohistochemistry (IHC) analyses. However, there is no evidence as to whether UEA-1 can be used for ISH. Thus, the present study evaluated UEA-1 using various histochemical methods, especially ISH. When lectin staining was performed after ISH procedures, UEA-1 clearly labeled taste cellular membranes and distinctly indicated boundaries between taste buds and the surrounding epithelial cells. Additionally, UEA-1 was determined as a taste bud marker not only when used in single-colored ISH but also when employed with double-labeled ISH or during simultaneous detection using IHC and ISH methods. These results suggest that UEA-1 is a useful marker when conducting analyses based on ISH methods. To clarify UEA-1 staining details, multi-fluorescent IHC (together with UEA-1 staining) was examined, resulting in more than 99% of cells being labeled by UEA-1 and overlapping with KCNQ1-expressing cells. PMID:26718243

  7. Bayesian inference analyses of the polygenic architecture of rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Stahl, Eli A; Wegmann, Daniel; Trynka, Gosia; Gutierrez-Achury, Javier; Do, Ron; Voight, Benjamin F; Kraft, Peter; Chen, Robert; Kallberg, Henrik J; Kurreeman, Fina A S; Kathiresan, Sekar; Wijmenga, Cisca; Gregersen, Peter K; Alfredsson, Lars; Siminovitch, Katherine A; Worthington, Jane; de Bakker, Paul I W; Raychaudhuri, Soumya; Plenge, Robert M

    2012-03-25

    The genetic architectures of common, complex diseases are largely uncharacterized. We modeled the genetic architecture underlying genome-wide association study (GWAS) data for rheumatoid arthritis and developed a new method using polygenic risk-score analyses to infer the total liability-scale variance explained by associated GWAS SNPs. Using this method, we estimated that, together, thousands of SNPs from rheumatoid arthritis GWAS explain an additional 20% of disease risk (excluding known associated loci). We further tested this method on datasets for three additional diseases and obtained comparable estimates for celiac disease (43% excluding the major histocompatibility complex), myocardial infarction and coronary artery disease (48%) and type 2 diabetes (49%). Our results are consistent with simulated genetic models in which hundreds of associated loci harbor common causal variants and a smaller number of loci harbor multiple rare causal variants. These analyses suggest that GWAS will continue to be highly productive for the discovery of additional susceptibility loci for common diseases.

  8. Physical examination: how to examine the arm with arteriovenous fistula.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Clemente Neves; Apóstolo, João Luís; Figueiredo, Maria Henriqueta; Martins, Maria Manuela; Dias, Vanessa Filipa

    2013-04-01

    Physical examination has demonstrated its effectiveness in identifying complications of arteriovenous fistula (AVF). It should be initiated at the stage prior to the construction of the AVF and continue in its accomplishment, maturation, and subsequent use in the treatment of hemodialysis. Nurses should incorporate the physical examination in their practices, in order to preserve the vascular net of patients and assist in the recognition of complications of AVF. It is intended to describe aspects of the physical examination that enable the identification of the AVF complications including: infection, accessory veins, venous stenosis, steal syndrome, high-output cardiac failure, and venous hypertension.

  9. Evaluation of the Hitachi 717 analyser.

    PubMed

    Biosca, C; Antoja, F; Sierra, C; Douezi, H; Macià, M; Alsina, M J; Galimany, R

    1989-01-01

    The selective multitest Boehringer Mannheim Hitachi 717 analyser was evaluated according to the guidelines of the Comisión de Instrumentación de la Sociedad Española de Química Clinica and the European Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards. The evaluation was performed in two steps: examination of the analytical units and evaluation in routine operation.THE EVALUATION OF THE ANALYTICAL UNITS INCLUDED A PHOTOMETRIC STUDY: the inaccuracy is acceptable for 340 and 405 nm; the imprecision ranges from 0.12 to 0.95% at 340 nm and from 0.30 to 0.73 at 405 nm, the linearity shows some dispersion at low absorbance for NADH at 340 nm, the drift is negligible, the imprecision of the pipette delivery system increases when the sample pipette operates with 3 mul, the reagent pipette imprecision is acceptable and the temperature control system is good.UNDER ROUTINE WORKING CONDITIONS, SEVEN DETERMINATIONS WERE STUDIED: glucose, creatinine, iron, total protein, AST, ALP and calcium. The within-run imprecision (CV) ranged from 0.6% for total protein and AST to 6.9% for iron. The between run imprecision ranged from 2.4% for glucose to 9.7% for iron. Some contamination was found in the carry-over study. The relative inaccuracy is good for all the constituents assayed.

  10. Evaluation of the Olympus AU-510 analyser.

    PubMed

    Farré, C; Velasco, J; Ramón, F

    1991-01-01

    The selective multitest Olympus AU-510 analyser was evaluated according to the recommendations of the Comision de Instrumentacion de la Sociedad Española de Quimica Clinica and the European Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards. The evaluation was carried out in two stages: an examination of the analytical units and then an evaluation in routine work conditions. The operational characteristics of the system were also studied.THE FIRST STAGE INCLUDED A PHOTOMETRIC STUDY: dependent on the absorbance, the inaccuracy varies between +0.5% to -0.6% at 405 nm and from -5.6% to 10.6% at 340 nm; the imprecision ranges between -0.22% and 0.56% at 405 nm and between 0.09% and 2.74% at 340 nm. Linearity was acceptable, apart from a very low absorbance for NADH at 340 nm; and the imprecision of the serum sample pipetter was satisfactory.TWELVE SERUM ANALYTES WERE STUDIED UNDER ROUTINE CONDITIONS: glucose, urea urate, cholesterol, triglycerides, total bilirubin, creatinine, phosphate, iron, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and gamma-glutamyl transferase.The within-run imprecision (CV%) ranged from 0.67% for phosphate to 2.89% for iron and the between-run imprecision from 0.97% for total bilirubin to 7.06% for iron. There was no carryover in a study of the serum sample pipetter. Carry-over studies with the reagent and sample pipetters shows some cross contamination in the iron assay.

  11. Assessment and Examinations in Armenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bethell, George; Harutyunyan, Karine

    2008-01-01

    This profile describes traditional assessment practices in Armenia--many of which are typical of those formerly practised throughout the Soviet Union--and the ongoing efforts to reform formal examinations and school-based evaluation techniques. The extraordinarily high stakes associated with the examination currently used to select applicants for…

  12. Examining the Pledge of Allegiance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Leisa A.

    2008-01-01

    To prepare students for effective citizenship, the author examines the Pledge of Allegiance and explores its meaning, history, and role in American history. The author includes quotes presenting different views of the U.S. Pledge of Allegiance and examples of pledges from different countries. Teachers are encouraged to have students examine their…

  13. Physical examination of the hand.

    PubMed

    Kenney, Raymond J; Hammert, Warren C

    2014-11-01

    Examination of the hand is an essential piece of a hand surgeon's skill set. This current concepts review presents a systematic process of performing a comprehensive physical examination of the hand including vascular, sensory, and motor assessments. Evaluations focused on specific hand diseases and injuries are also discussed. This information can be useful for any health care provider treating patients with hand conditions.

  14. The Frontiers of Additive Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Grote, Christopher John

    2016-03-03

    Additive manufacturing, more commonly known as 3-D printing, has become a ubiquitous tool in science for its precise control over mechanical design. For additive manufacturing to work, a 3-D structure is split into thin 2D slices, and then different physical properties, such as photo-polymerization or melting, are used to grow the sequential layers. The level of control allows not only for devices to be made with a variety of materials: e.g. plastics, metals, and quantum dots, but to also have finely controlled structures leading to other novel properties. While 3-D printing is widely used by hobbyists for making models, it also has industrial applications in structural engineering, biological tissue scaffolding, customized electric circuitry, fuel cells, security, and more.

  15. Decontamination formulation with sorbent additive

    DOEpatents

    Tucker; Mark D. , Comstock; Robert H.

    2007-10-16

    A decontamination formulation and method of making that neutralizes the adverse health effects of both chemical and biological compounds, especially chemical warfare (CW) and biological warfare (BW) agents, and toxic industrial chemicals. The formulation provides solubilizing compounds that serve to effectively render the chemical and biological compounds, particularly CW and BW compounds, susceptible to attack, and at least one reactive compound that serves to attack (and detoxify or kill) the compound. The formulation includes at least one solubilizing agent, a reactive compound, a bleaching activator, a sorbent additive, and water. The highly adsorbent, water-soluble sorbent additive (e.g., sorbitol or mannitol) is used to "dry out" one or more liquid ingredients, such as the liquid bleaching activator (e.g., propylene glycol diacetate or glycerol diacetate) and convert the activator into a dry, free-flowing powder that has an extended shelf life, and is more convenient to handle and mix in the field.

  16. The neuro-ophthalmological examination.

    PubMed

    Rucker, Janet C; Kennard, Christopher; Leigh, R John

    2011-01-01

    The neuro-ophthalmological examination constitutes one of the most refined and exact components of the clinical examination, often allowing precise diagnosis and formulation of a treatment plan even within the compass of the first visit. This chapter briefly highlights important features in the neuro-ophthalmological history and then presents detailed information on the important components of a comprehensive neuro-ophthalmological examination. Covered examination topics include visual acuity, visual field testing, color vision, external eye exam, pupils, ophthalmoscopy, and eye movements. The final section discusses ancillary tests that supplement the bedside neuro-ophthalmological examination, including formal visual field analysis, electroretinography, fluorescein angiography, ocular coherence tomography, visual-evoked potentials, neuroimaging, and quantitative eye movement recordings.

  17. History of neurologic examination books.

    PubMed

    Boes, Christopher J

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study was to create an annotated list of textbooks dedicated to teaching the neurologic examination. Monographs focused primarily on the complete neurologic examination published prior to 1960 were reviewed. This analysis was limited to books with the word "examination" in the title, with exceptions for the texts of Robert Wartenberg and Gordon Holmes. Ten manuals met the criteria. Works dedicated primarily to the neurologic examination without a major emphasis on disease description or treatment first appeared in the early 1900s. Georg Monrad-Krohn's "Blue Book of Neurology" ("Blue Bible") was the earliest success. These treatises served the important purpose of educating trainees on proper neurologic examination technique. They could make a reputation and be profitable for the author (Monrad-Krohn), highlight how neurology was practiced at individual institutions (McKendree, Denny-Brown, Holmes, DeJong, Mayo Clinic authors), and honor retiring mentors (Mayo Clinic authors).

  18. Additive Manufacturing Integrated Energy Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, Roderick; Lee, Brian; Love, Lonnie; Mabe, Gavin; Keller, Martin; Curran, Scott; Chinthavali, Madhu; Green, Johney; Sawyer, Karma; Enquist, Phil

    2016-02-05

    Meet AMIE - the Additive Manufacturing Integrated Energy demonstration project. Led by Oak Ridge National Laboratory and many industry partners, the AMIE project changes the way we think about generating, storing, and using electrical power. AMIE uses an integrated energy system that shares energy between a building and a vehicle. And, utilizing advanced manufacturing and rapid innovation, it only took one year from concept to launch.

  19. Robust stability under additive perturbations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhaya, A.; Desoer, C. A.

    1985-01-01

    A MIMO linear time-invariant feedback system 1S(P,C) is considered which is assumed to be U-stable. The plant P is subjected to an additive perturbation Delta P which is proper but not necessarily stable. It is proved that the perturbed system is U-stable if and only if Delta P(I + Q x Delta P) exp -1 is U-stable.

  20. Additive Manufacturing Integrated Energy Demonstration

    ScienceCinema

    Jackson, Roderick; Lee, Brian; Love, Lonnie; Mabe, Gavin; Keller, Martin; Curran, Scott; Chinthavali, Madhu; Green, Johney; Sawyer, Karma; Enquist, Phil

    2016-07-12

    Meet AMIE - the Additive Manufacturing Integrated Energy demonstration project. Led by Oak Ridge National Laboratory and many industry partners, the AMIE project changes the way we think about generating, storing, and using electrical power. AMIE uses an integrated energy system that shares energy between a building and a vehicle. And, utilizing advanced manufacturing and rapid innovation, it only took one year from concept to launch.

  1. Nanoengineered Additives for Active Coatings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-01

    commercial ad bial activ component from the coating, leading to eventual depletion of the film. Small TPU samples were evaluated using a Kirby - Bauer ...7 Table 5. Summary of 24-hr ASTM E 2180 tests with 1 weight-percent additive in PUr (solvent dispersible) based on 6-log loading of...Noveon X-1150). The ASTM E 2180 test is run in triplicate (Note that alternative ro 1° amines) was suspended in dry tetrahydrofuran (THF) (150 mL) in

  2. HLA region excluded by linkage analyses of early onset periodontitis

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, C.; Wang, S.; Lopez, N.

    1994-09-01

    Previous studies suggested that HLA genes may influence susceptibility to early-onset periodontitis (EOP). Segregation analyses indicate that EOP may be due to a single major gene. We conducted linkage analyses to assess possible HLA effects on EOP. Fifty families with two or more close relatives affected by EOP were ascertained in Virginia and Chile. A microsatellite polymorphism within the HLA region (at the tumor necrosis factor beta locus) was typed using PCR. Linkage analyses used a donimant model most strongly supported by previous studies. Assuming locus homogeneity, our results exclude a susceptibility gene within 10 cM on either side of our marker locus. This encompasses all of the HLA region. Analyses assuming alternative models gave qualitatively similar results. Allowing for locus heterogeneity, our data still provide no support for HLA-region involvement. However, our data do not statistically exclude (LOD <-2.0) hypotheses of disease-locus heterogeneity, including models where up to half of our families could contain an EOP disease gene located in the HLA region. This is due to the limited power of even our relatively large collection of families and the inherent difficulties of mapping genes for disorders that have complex and heterogeneous etiologies. Additional statistical analyses, recruitment of families, and typing of flanking DNA markers are planned to more conclusively address these issues with respect to the HLA region and other candidate locations in the human genome. Additional results for markers covering most of the human genome will also be presented.

  3. Reversible Oxidative Addition at Carbon.

    PubMed

    Eichhorn, Antonius F; Fuchs, Sonja; Flock, Marco; Marder, Todd B; Radius, Udo

    2017-04-07

    The reactivity of N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) and cyclic alkyl amino carbenes (cAACs) with arylboronate esters is reported. The reaction with NHCs leads to the reversible formation of thermally stable Lewis acid/base adducts Ar-B(OR)2 ⋅NHC (Add1-Add6). Addition of cAAC(Me) to the catecholboronate esters 4-R-C6 H4 -Bcat (R=Me, OMe) also afforded the adducts 4-R-C6 H4 Bcat⋅cAAC(Me) (Add7, R=Me and Add8, R=OMe), which react further at room temperature to give the cAAC(Me) ring-expanded products RER1 and RER2. The boronate esters Ar-B(OR)2 of pinacol, neopentylglycol, and ethyleneglycol react with cAAC at RT via reversible B-C oxidative addition to the carbene carbon atom to afford cAAC(Me) (B{OR}2 )(Ar) (BCA1-BCA6). NMR studies of cAAC(Me) (Bneop)(4-Me-C6 H4 ) (BCA4) demonstrate the reversible nature of this oxidative addition process.

  4. Additive manufacturing of hybrid circuits

    DOE PAGES

    Bell, Nelson S.; Sarobol, Pylin; Cook, Adam; ...

    2016-03-26

    There is a rising interest in developing functional electronics using additively manufactured components. Considerations in materials selection and pathways to forming hybrid circuits and devices must demonstrate useful electronic function; must enable integration; and must complement the complex shape, low cost, high volume, and high functionality of structural but generally electronically passive additively manufactured components. This article reviews several emerging technologies being used in industry and research/development to provide integration advantages of fabricating multilayer hybrid circuits or devices. First, we review a maskless, noncontact, direct write (DW) technology that excels in the deposition of metallic colloid inks for electrical interconnects.more » Second, we review a complementary technology, aerosol deposition (AD), which excels in the deposition of metallic and ceramic powder as consolidated, thick conformal coatings and is additionally patternable through masking. As a result, we show examples of hybrid circuits/devices integrated beyond 2-D planes, using combinations of DW or AD processes and conventional, established processes.« less

  5. Pawnee Nation Energy Option Analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Matlock, M.; Kersey, K.; Riding In, C.

    2009-07-31

    introduced two model energy codes Pawnee Nation should consider for adoption. Summary of Current and Expected Future Electricity Usage The research team provided a summary overview of electricity usage patterns in current buildings and included discussion of known plans for new construction. Utility Options Review Pawnee Nation electric utility options were analyzed through a four-phase process, which included: 1) summarizing the relevant utility background information; 2) gathering relevant utility assessment data; 3) developing a set of realistic Pawnee electric utility service options, and 4) analyzing the various Pawnee electric utility service options for the Pawnee Energy Team’s consideration. III. Findings and Recommendations Due to a lack of financial incentives for renewable energy, particularly at the state level, combined mediocre renewable energy resources, renewable energy development opportunities are limited for Pawnee Nation. However, near-term potential exists for development of solar hot water at the gym, and an exterior wood-fired boiler system at the tribe’s main administrative building. Pawnee Nation should also explore options for developing LFGTE resources in collaboration with the City of Pawnee. Significant potential may also exist for development of bio-energy resources within the next decade. Pawnee Nation representatives should closely monitor market developments in the bio-energy industry, establish contacts with research institutions with which the tribe could potentially partner in grant-funded research initiatives. In addition, a substantial effort by the Kaw and Cherokee tribes is underway to pursue wind development at the Chilocco School Site in northern Oklahoma where Pawnee is a joint landowner. Pawnee Nation representatives should become actively involved in these development discussions and should explore the potential for joint investment in wind development at the Chilocco site.

  6. Fire-Retardant Polymeric Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Martha K.; Smith, Trent M.

    2011-01-01

    Polyhydroxyamide (PHA) and polymethoxyamide (PMeOA) are fire-retardant (FR) thermoplastic polymers and have been found to be useful as an additive for imparting fire retardant properties to other compatible, thermoplastic polymers (including some elastomers). Examples of compatible flammable polymers include nylons, polyesters, and acrylics. Unlike most prior additives, PHA and PMeOA do not appreciably degrade the mechanical properties of the matrix polymer; indeed, in some cases, mechanical properties are enhanced. Also, unlike some prior additives, PHA and PMeOA do not decompose into large amounts of corrosive or toxic compounds during combustion and can be processed at elevated temperatures. PMeOA derivative formulations were synthesized and used as an FR additive in the fabrication of polyamide (PA) and polystyrene (PS) composites with notable reduction (>30 percent for PS) in peak heat release rates compared to the neat polymer as measured by a Cone Calorimeter (ASTM E1354). Synergistic effects were noted with nanosilica composites. These nanosilica composites had more than 50-percent reduction in peak heat release rates. In a typical application, a flammable thermoplastic, thermoplastic blend, or elastomer that one seeks to render flame-retardant is first dry-mixed with PHA or PMeOA or derivative thereof. The proportion of PHA or PMeOA or derivative in the mixture is typically chosen to lie between 1 and 20 weight percent. The dry blend can then be melt-extruded. The extruded polymer blend can further be extruded and/or molded into fibers, pipes, or any other of a variety of objects that may be required to be fire-retardant. The physical and chemical mechanisms which impart flame retardancy of the additive include inhibiting free-radical oxidation in the vapor phase, preventing vaporization of fuel (the polymer), and cooling through the formation of chemical bonds in either the vapor or the condensed phase. Under thermal stress, the cyclic hydroxyl/ methoxy

  7. Evaluation of certain food additives.

    PubMed

    2009-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives, including flavouring agents, with a view to recommending acceptable daily intakes (ADIs) and to preparing specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation and assessment of intake of food additives (in particular, flavouring agents). A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and intake data for certain food additives (asparaginase from Aspergillus niger expressed in A. niger, calcium lignosulfonate (40-65), ethyl lauroyl arginate, paprika extract, phospholipase C expressed in Pichia pastoris, phytosterols, phytostanols and their esters, polydimethylsiloxane, steviol glycosides and sulfites [assessment of dietary exposure]) and 10 groups of related flavouring agents (aliphatic branched-chain saturated and unsaturated alcohols, aldehydes, acids and related esters; aliphatic linear alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes, acids and related alcohols, acetals and esters; aliphatic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters; alkoxy-substituted allylbenzenes present in foods and essential oils and used as flavouring agents; esters of aliphatic acyclic primary alcohols with aliphatic linear saturated carboxylic acids; furan-substituted aliphatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids and related esters, sulfides, disulfides and ethers; miscellaneous nitrogen-containing substances; monocyclic and bicyclic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters; hydroxy- and alkoxy-substituted benzyl derivatives; and substances structurally related to menthol). Specifications for the following food additives were revised: canthaxanthin; carob bean gum and carob bean gum (clarified); chlorophyllin copper complexes, sodium and potassium salts; Fast Green FCF; guar gum and guar gum (clarified

  8. Consumption patterns and perception analyses of hangwa.

    PubMed

    Kwock, Chang Geun; Lee, Min A; Park, So Hyun

    2012-03-01

    Hangwa is a traditional food, corresponding to the current consumption trend, in need of marketing strategies to extend its consumption. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to analyze consumers' consumption patterns and perception of Hangwa to increase consumption in the market. A questionnaire was sent to 250 consumers by e-mail from Oct 8∼23, 2009 and the data from 231 persons were analyzed in this study. Statistical, descriptive, paired samples t-test, and importance-performance analyses were conducted using SPSS WIN 17.0. According to the results, Hangwa was purchased mainly 'for present' (39.8%) and the main reasons for buying it were 'traditional image' (33.3%) and 'taste' (22.5%). When importance and performance of attributes considered in purchasing Hangwa were evaluated, performance was assessed to be lower than importance for all attributes. The attributes in the first quadrant with a high importance and a high performance were 'a sanitary process', 'a rigorous quality mark' and 'taste', which were related with quality of the products. In addition, those with a high importance but a low performance were 'popularization through advertisement', 'promotion through mass media', 'conversion of thought on traditional foods', 'a reasonable price' and 'a wide range of price'. In conclusion, Hangwa manufacturers need to diversify products and extend the expiration date based on technologies to promote its consumption. In terms of price, Hangwa should become more available by lowering the price barrier for consumers who are sensitive to price.

  9. Informative prior distributions for ELISA analyses.

    PubMed

    Klauenberg, Katy; Walzel, Monika; Ebert, Bernd; Elster, Clemens

    2015-07-01

    Immunoassays are capable of measuring very small concentrations of substances in solutions and have an immense range of application. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) tests in particular can detect the presence of an infection, of drugs, or hormones (as in the home pregnancy test). Inference of an unknown concentration via ELISA usually involves a non-linear heteroscedastic regression and subsequent prediction, which can be carried out in a Bayesian framework. For such a Bayesian inference, we are developing informative prior distributions based on extensive historical ELISA tests as well as theoretical considerations. One consideration regards the quality of the immunoassay leading to two practical requirements for the applicability of the priors. Simulations show that the additional prior information can lead to inferences which are robust to reasonable perturbations of the model and changes in the design of the data. On real data, the applicability is demonstrated across different laboratories, for different analytes and laboratory equipment as well as for previous and current ELISAs with sigmoid regression function. Consistency checks on real data (similar to cross-validation) underpin the adequacy of the suggested priors. Altogether, the new priors may improve concentration estimation for ELISAs that fulfill certain design conditions, by extending the range of the analyses, decreasing the uncertainty, or giving more robust estimates. Future use of these priors is straightforward because explicit, closed-form expressions are provided. This work encourages development and application of informative, yet general, prior distributions for other types of immunoassays.

  10. CFD analyses of coolant channel flowfields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yagley, Jennifer A.; Feng, Jinzhang; Merkle, Charles L.

    1993-01-01

    The flowfield characteristics in rocket engine coolant channels are analyzed by means of a numerical model. The channels are characterized by large length to diameter ratios, high Reynolds numbers, and asymmetrical heating. At representative flow conditions, the channel length is approximately twice the hydraulic entrance length so that fully developed conditions would be reached for a constant property fluid. For the supercritical hydrogen that is used as the coolant, the strong property variations create significant secondary flows in the cross-plane which have a major influence on the flow and the resulting heat transfer. Comparison of constant and variable property solutions show substantial differences. In addition, the property variations prevent fully developed flow. The density variation accelerates the fluid in the channels increasing the pressure drop without an accompanying increase in heat flux. Analyses of the inlet configuration suggest that side entry from a manifold can affect the development of the velocity profile because of vortices generated as the flow enters the channel. Current work is focused on studying the effects of channel bifurcation on the flow field and the heat transfer characteristics.

  11. Computational Aeroelastic Analyses of a Low-Boom Supersonic Configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silva, Walter A.; Sanetrik, Mark D.; Chwalowski, Pawel; Connolly, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    An overview of NASA's Commercial Supersonic Technology (CST) Aeroservoelasticity (ASE) element is provided with a focus on recent computational aeroelastic analyses of a low-boom supersonic configuration developed by Lockheed-Martin and referred to as the N+2 configuration. The overview includes details of the computational models developed to date including a linear finite element model (FEM), linear unsteady aerodynamic models, unstructured CFD grids, and CFD-based aeroelastic analyses. In addition, a summary of the work involving the development of aeroelastic reduced-order models (ROMs) and the development of an aero-propulso-servo-elastic (APSE) model is provided.

  12. Additive Bilingualism, Schooling, and Special Education: A Minority Group Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landry, R.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of schooling on the acquisition of an additive type of bilingualism is examined, focusing on additive bilingualism's relation to the ethnolinguistic vitality of linguistic groups and contributions of individual networks of linguistic contacts. A special and regular education merger without domination by a single cultural perspective is…

  13. The Role of Conceptual Understanding in Children's Addition Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canobi, Katherine H.; Reeve, Robert A.; Pattison, Philippa E.

    1998-01-01

    Examined the relationship between 6- to 8-year olds' conceptual understanding of additive composition, commutativity, and associativity principles and addition problem-solving procedures. Results revealed that conceptual understanding was related to using order-indifferent, decomposition, and retrieval strategies and speed and accuracy in solving…

  14. The Mozart Effect: Additional Data.

    PubMed

    Hughes, John R.

    2002-04-01

    After the review of the Mozart effect was published in this journal (Hughes JR. Epilepsy Behav 2001;2:369-417), additional data from the music of Haydn and Liszt have been analyzed that may account for the decrease in seizure activity originally reported during Mozart music. Even with these added data Mozart music continued to score significantly higher than the selections from the other six composers in one of the important characteristics of this music, namely, the repetition of the melody. However Haydn's values were second highest among Mozart, J. S. Bach, Wagner, Beethoven, Chopin, and Liszt.

  15. Water based drilling mud additive

    SciTech Connect

    McCrary, J.L.

    1983-12-13

    A water based fluid additive useful in drilling mud used during drilling of an oil or gas well is disclosed, produced by reacting water at temperatures between 210/sup 0/-280/sup 0/ F. with a mixture comprising in percent by weight: gilsonite 25-30%, tannin 7-15%, lignite 25-35%, sulfonating compound 15-25%, water soluble base compound 5-15%, methylene-yielding compound 1-5%, and then removing substantially all of the remaining water to produce a dried product.

  16. Metal Additive Manufacturing: A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frazier, William E.

    2014-06-01

    This paper reviews the state-of-the-art of an important, rapidly emerging, manufacturing technology that is alternatively called additive manufacturing (AM), direct digital manufacturing, free form fabrication, or 3D printing, etc. A broad contextual overview of metallic AM is provided. AM has the potential to revolutionize the global parts manufacturing and logistics landscape. It enables distributed manufacturing and the productions of parts-on-demand while offering the potential to reduce cost, energy consumption, and carbon footprint. This paper explores the material science, processes, and business consideration associated with achieving these performance gains. It is concluded that a paradigm shift is required in order to fully exploit AM potential.

  17. Theatre fleet's vital additional capacity.

    PubMed

    2012-11-01

    Vanguard Healthcare's fleet of mobile surgical facilities has been deployed to healthcare sites throughout Europe and beyond for over a decade, providing vital additional clinical capacity when existing buildings are refurbished or upgraded, in the event of flood or fire, or simply to help hospitals cater for rising demand. It is a combination of careful planning, teamwork, and the specialist expertise of Vanguard's personnel--many with a clinical background--that ensures not only each unit's successful installation, but equally its subsequent running, servicing, and maintenance, the company explains.

  18. Shale JP-4 Additive Evaluation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-10-01

    8217. •% . , ’ ,,,r ,% . -- - ,.-. ’ ’ 4,w% %’. " - ,’ . . . * ’, .* . TABLE OF CONTENTS .4q ,4 . * SECTION PAGE I. INTRODUCTION 1 II. TEST PARAMETERS 2 1...42 PRECEDING PAGE BLANK TABLE OF CONTENTS (CON’T) SECT ION PAGE V. CONCLUSIONS 44 REFERENCES 46 APPENDIX A Drum to Test Sample Relationship 47 APPENDIX...B.O.C.L.E. Results 40 vii LIST OF TABLES TABLE PAGE 1 Antioxidants 3 2 Raw Shale/Petroleum Fuel Properties 10 3 Drum Sample Additive Content 13 4

  19. Thermo-Elastic Finite Element Analyses of Annular Nuclear Fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Y. D.; Kwon, S. B.; Rho, K. T.; Kim, M. S.; Song, H. J.

    In this study, we tried to examine the pros and cons of the annular type of fuel concerning mainly with the temperatures and stresses of pellet and cladding. The inner and outer gaps between pellet and cladding may play an important role on the temperature distribution and stress distribution of fuel system. Thus, we tested several inner and outer gap cases, and we evaluated the effect of gaps on fuel systems. We conducted thermo-elastic-plastic-creep analyses using an in-house thermo-elastic-plastic-creep finite element program that adopted the 'effective-stress-function' algorithm. Most analyses were conducted until the gaps disappeared; however, certain analyses lasted for 1582 days, after which the fuels were replaced. Further study on the optimal gaps sizes for annular nuclear fuel systems is still required.

  20. Statistical analyses in the physiology of exercise and kinanthropometry.

    PubMed

    Winter, E M; Eston, R G; Lamb, K L

    2001-10-01

    Research into the physiology of exercise and kinanthropometry is intended to improve our understanding of how the body responds and adapts to exercise. If such studies are to be meaningful, they have to be well designed and analysed. Advances in personal computing have made available statistical analyses that were previously the preserve of elaborate mainframe systems and have increased opportunities for investigation. However, the ease with which analyses can be performed can mask underlying philosophical and epistemological shortcomings. The aim of this review is to examine the use of four techniques that are especially relevant to physiological studies: (1) bivariate correlation and linear and non-linear regression, (2) multiple regression, (3) repeated-measures analysis of variance and (4) multi-level modelling. The importance of adhering to underlying statistical assumptions is emphasized and ways to accommodate violations of these assumptions are identified.

  1. Stardust Interstellar Preliminary Examination (ISPE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westphal, A. J.; Allen, C.; Bajt, S.; Basset, R.; Bastien, R.; Bechtel, H.; Bleuet, P.; Borg, J.; Brenker, F.; Bridges, J.; Brownlee, D. E.; Burchell, M.; Burghammer, M.; Butterworth, A. L.; Cloetens, P.; Cody, G.; Ferroir, T.; Floss, C.; Flynn, G. J.; Frank, D.; Gainsforth, Z.; Grün, E.; Hoppe, P.; Kearsley, A.; Lemelle, L.; Leroux, H.; Lettieri, R.; Marchant, W.; Mendez, B.; Nittler, L. R.; Ogliore, R.; Postberg, F.; Sandford, S. A.; Schmitz, S.; Silversmit, G.; Simionovici, A.; Srama, R.; Stadermann, F. J.; Stephan, T.; Stroud, R. M.; Susini, J.; Sutton, S.; Trieloff, M.; Tsou, P.; Tsuchiyama, A.; Tyliczszak, T.; Vekemans, B.; Vincze, L.; Warren, J.; Zolensky, M. E.

    2009-03-01

    The Stardust Interstellar Preliminary Examination (ISPE) is a three-year effort to characterize the Stardust interstellar dust collection and collector using non-destructive techniques. We summarize the status of the ISPE.

  2. History of neurologic examination books

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to create an annotated list of textbooks dedicated to teaching the neurologic examination. Monographs focused primarily on the complete neurologic examination published prior to 1960 were reviewed. This analysis was limited to books with the word “examination” in the title, with exceptions for the texts of Robert Wartenberg and Gordon Holmes. Ten manuals met the criteria. Works dedicated primarily to the neurologic examination without a major emphasis on disease description or treatment first appeared in the early 1900s. Georg Monrad-Krohn's “Blue Book of Neurology” (“Blue Bible”) was the earliest success. These treatises served the important purpose of educating trainees on proper neurologic examination technique. They could make a reputation and be profitable for the author (Monrad-Krohn), highlight how neurology was practiced at individual institutions (McKendree, Denny-Brown, Holmes, DeJong, Mayo Clinic authors), and honor retiring mentors (Mayo Clinic authors). PMID:25829645

  3. Examining Children's Models of Seed.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jewell, Natalie

    2002-01-01

    Reports research that examines children's models of seed. Explores the conceptions held by children (N=75) of germination and seed formation. Concludes that children hold a restricted meaning for the term 'seed'. (DDR)

  4. High Flow Addition Curing Polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chuang, Kathy C.; Vannucci, Raymond D.; Ansari, Irfan; Cerny, Lawrence L.; Scheiman, Daniel A.

    1994-01-01

    A new series of high flow PMR-type addition curing polyimides was developed, which employed the substitution of 2,2'-bis (trifluoromethyl) -4,4'-diaminobiphenyl (BTDB) for p-phenylenediamine (p -PDA) in a PMR-IL formulation. These thermoset polyimides, designated as 12F resins, were prepared from BTDB and the dimethyl ester of 4,4'- (hexafluo- roisopropylidene) -diphthalic acid (HFDE) with either nadic ester (NE) or p-aminostyrene (PAS) as the endcaps for addition curing. The 12F prepolymers displayed lower melting temperatures in DSC analysis, and higher melt flow in rheological studies than the cor- responding PMR-11 polyimides. Long-term isothermal aging studies showed that BTDB- based 12F resins exhibited comparable thermo-oxidative stability to P-PDA based PMR-11 polyimides. The noncoplanar 2- and 2'-disubstituted biphenyldiamine (BTDB) not only lowered the melt viscosities of 12F prepolymers, but also retained reasonable thermal sta- bility of the cured resins. The 12F polyimide resin with p-aminostyrene endcaps showed the best promise for long-term, high-temperature application at 343 C (650 F).

  5. Fuel Additives: Canada bans MMT

    SciTech Connect

    Sissell, K.

    1997-04-16

    The Canadian Senate voted late last week to ban use of the manganese-based fuel additive MMT, produced only in the US by Ethyl. MMT, which has been sold in Canada for the past 20 years and accounts for about half of Ethyl`s Canadian sales, has been criticized by environmentalists, who have raised public health concerns, and automakers, who say it harms emission control systems. {open_quotes}Canada`s vote is a great victory for public health and the environment,{close_quotes} says Environmental Defense Fund executive director Fred Krupp. {open_quotes}The US should move swiftly to follow suit and suspend sales of MMT until adequate toxicity testing on the additive is completed.{close_quotes} EPA had refused to approve MMT for sale because of health concerns but was compelled to do so by a December 1995 court ruling. Ethyl asserts the ban violates Canada`s obligations under Nafta and says it will file a damage claim with the Nafta arbitration panel.

  6. Additive manufacturing of RF absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, Matthew S.

    The ability of additive manufacturing techniques to fabricate integrated electromagnetic absorbers tuned for specific radio frequency bands within structural composites allows for unique combinations of mechanical and electromagnetic properties. These composites and films can be used for RF shielding of sensitive electromagnetic components through in-plane and out-of-plane RF absorption. Structural composites are a common building block of many commercial platforms. These platforms may be placed in situations in which there is a need for embedded RF absorbing properties along with structural properties. Instead of adding radar absorbing treatments to the external surface of existing structures, which adds increased size, weight and cost; it could prove to be advantageous to integrate the microwave absorbing properties directly into the composite during the fabrication process. In this thesis, a method based on additive manufacturing techniques of composites structures with prescribed electromagnetic loss, within the frequency range 1 to 26GHz, is presented. This method utilizes screen printing and nScrypt micro dispensing to pattern a carbon based ink onto low loss substrates. The materials chosen for this study will be presented, and the fabrication technique that these materials went through to create RF absorbing structures will be described. The calibration methods used, the modeling of the RF structures, and the applications in which this technology can be utilized will also be presented.

  7. S8DR shield examination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, D. G.; Mccurnin, W. R.

    1973-01-01

    The SNAP 8 developmental reactor lithium hydride shield was examined after being irradiated for over 7000 hours at relatively low temperature. A crack was located in the seam weld of the containment vessel, probably the result of hot short cracking under thermal stress. The LiH was visually examined at two locations and its appearance was typical of low temperature irradiated LiH. The adherence of the chrome oxide emittance coating was found to be excellent.

  8. [Examining victims of interpersonal violence].

    PubMed

    Laberke, Patrick J; Martinez, Rosa Maria; Mauf, Sabrina; Bartsch, Christine

    2015-01-14

    Interpersonal violence represents a widespread phenomenon with a high prevalence. Consequences of these acts of violence are serious and extensive to the victims and from a socio-economic point of view. Physical examination of the victims is a key aspect in the medic-legal expertise. This article describes the basic principles and the standard procedures in conjunction with the examination of violent crime victims.

  9. Diesel fuel detergent additive performance and assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Vincent, M.W.; Papachristos, M.J.; Williams, D.; Burton, J.

    1994-10-01

    Diesel fuel detergent additives are increasingly linked with high quality automotive diesel fuels. Both in Europe and in the USA, field problems associated with fuel injector coking or fouling have been experienced. In Europe indirect injection (IDI) light duty engines used in passenger cars were affected, while in the USA, a direct injection (DI) engine in heavy duty truck applications experienced field problems. In both cases, a fuel additive detergent performance test has evolved using an engine linked with the original field problem, although engine design modifications employed by the manufacturers have ensured improved operation in service. Increasing awareness of the potential for injector nozzle coking to cause deterioration in engine performance is coupled with a need to meet ever more stringent exhaust emissions legislation. These two requirements indicate that the use of detergency additives will continue to be associated with high quality diesel fuels. The paper examines detergency performance evaluated in a range of IDI and DI engines and correlates performance in the two most widely recognised test engines, namely the Peugeot 1.9 litre IDI, and Cummins L10 DI engines. 17 refs., 18 figs., 5 tabs.

  10. Laboratory Assay of Brood Care for Quantitative Analyses of Individual Differences in Honey Bee (Apis mellifera) Affiliative Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Shpigler, Hagai Y.; Robinson, Gene E.

    2015-01-01

    Care of offspring is a form of affiliative behavior that is fundamental to studies of animal social behavior. Insects do not figure prominently in this topic because Drosophila melanogaster and other traditional models show little if any paternal or maternal care. However, the eusocial honey bee exhibits cooperative brood care with larvae receiving intense and continuous care from their adult sisters, but this behavior has not been well studied because a robust quantitative assay does not exist. We present a new laboratory assay that enables quantification of group or individual honey bee brood “nursing behavior” toward a queen larva. In addition to validating the assay, we used it to examine the influence of the age of the larva and the genetic background of the adult bees on nursing performance. This new assay also can be used in the future for mechanistic analyses of eusociality and comparative analyses of affilative behavior with other animals. PMID:26569402

  11. Depression and Pain: Independent and Additive Relationships to Anger Expression

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    Naval Health Research Center Depression and Pain : Independent and Additive Relationships to Anger Expression Marcus K. Taylor Gerald E...AND SUBTITLE Depression and Pain : Independent and Additive Relationships to Anger Expression 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...expression are understudied. OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to examine the independent and additive relationships of depression and pain to anger

  12. Neutron Characterization for Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watkins, Thomas; Bilheux, Hassina; An, Ke; Payzant, Andrew; DeHoff, Ryan; Duty, Chad; Peter, William; Blue, Craig; Brice, Craig A.

    2013-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is leveraging decades of experience in neutron characterization of advanced materials together with resources such as the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) and the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) shown in Fig. 1 to solve challenging problems in additive manufacturing (AM). Additive manufacturing, or three-dimensional (3-D) printing, is a rapidly maturing technology wherein components are built by selectively adding feedstock material at locations specified by a computer model. The majority of these technologies use thermally driven phase change mechanisms to convert the feedstock into functioning material. As the molten material cools and solidifies, the component is subjected to significant thermal gradients, generating significant internal stresses throughout the part (Fig. 2). As layers are added, inherent residual stresses cause warping and distortions that lead to geometrical differences between the final part and the original computer generated design. This effect also limits geometries that can be fabricated using AM, such as thin-walled, high-aspect- ratio, and overhanging structures. Distortion may be minimized by intelligent toolpath planning or strategic placement of support structures, but these approaches are not well understood and often "Edisonian" in nature. Residual stresses can also impact component performance during operation. For example, in a thermally cycled environment such as a high-pressure turbine engine, residual stresses can cause components to distort unpredictably. Different thermal treatments on as-fabricated AM components have been used to minimize residual stress, but components still retain a nonhomogeneous stress state and/or demonstrate a relaxation-derived geometric distortion. Industry, federal laboratory, and university collaboration is needed to address these challenges and enable the U.S. to compete in the global market. Work is currently being conducted on AM technologies at the ORNL

  13. Additives in fibers and fabrics.

    PubMed Central

    Barker, R H

    1975-01-01

    The additives and contaminants which occur in textile fibers vary widely, depending on the type of fiber and the pretreatment which it has received. Synthetic fibers such as nylon and polyester contain trace amounts of contaminants such as catalysts and catalyst deactivators which remain after the synthesis of the basic polymers. In addition, there are frequently a number of materials which are added to perform specific functions in almost all man-made fibers. Examples of these would include traces of metals or metal salts used as tracers for identification of specific lots of fiber, TiO2 or similar materials added as delustrants, and a host of organic species added for such special purposes as antistatic agents or flame retardants. There may also be considerable quantities of residual monomer or small oligomers dissolved in the polymer matrix. The situation becomes even more complex after the fibers are converted into fabric form. Numerous materials are applied at various stages of fabric preparation to act as lubricants, sizing agents, antistats, bleaches, and wetting agents to facilitate the processing, but these are normally removed before the fabric reaches the cutters of the ultimate consumers and therefore usually do not constitute potential hazards. However, there are many other chemical agents which are frequently added during the later stages of fabric preparation and which are not designed to be removed. Aside from dyes and printing pigments, the most common additive for apparel fabrics is a durable press treatment. This generally involves the use of materials capable of crosslinking cellulosics by reacting through such functions as N-methylolated amides or related compounds such as ureas and carbamates. These materials pose some potential hazards due to both the nitrogenous bases and the formaldehyde which they usually release. There is usually also some residual catalyst in fabrics which have received such treatments. Other types of chemical treatments

  14. Usefulness of cpDNA markers for phylogenetic and phylogeographic analyses of closely related cactus species.

    PubMed

    Bonatelli, I A S; Zappi, D C; Taylor, N P; Moraes, E M

    2013-02-28

    Although plastid DNA has been widely explored as a marker of choice for phylogeny and phylogeography studies, little is known about its utility for examining relationships between closely related species. The slow evolutionary rates inherent to chloroplast (cp) DNA make it difficult to perform lower level taxonomic analyses, particularly at the population level. We characterized the nucleotide variation and investigated the utility of eight noncoding cpDNA regions in four closely related species of the Pilosocereus aurisetus group (Cactaceae), an endemic taxon of eastern South America. The plastid intergenic spacers 5'-trnS-trnG, 3'-trnS-trnG and trnT-trnL were the most variable regions and were the most useful for lower level taxonomic comparisons, especially when used together. We conclude that an adequate combination of regions alongside indels as an additional character improves the usefulness of cpDNA for phylogenetic studies.

  15. Anniston Community Health Survey: Follow-Up and Dioxin Analyses (ACHS-II) - Methods

    PubMed Central

    Birnbaum, L.S.; Dutton, N.D.; Cusack, C.; Mennemeyer, S.T.; Pavuk, M.

    2015-01-01

    High serum concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been reported previously among residents of Anniston, Alabama, where a PCB production facility was located in the past. As the second of two cross-sectional studies of these Anniston residents, the Anniston Community Health Survey: Follow-Up and Dioxin Analyses (ACHS-II) will yield repeated measurements to be used to evaluate changes over time in ortho-PCB concentrations and selected health indicators in study participants. Dioxins, non-ortho PCBs, other chemicals, heavy metals, and a variety of additional clinical tests not previously measured in the original ACHS cohort will be examined in ACHS-II. The follow-up study also incorporates a questionnaire with extended sections on diet and occupational history for a more comprehensive assessment of possible exposure sources. Data collection for ACHS-II from 359 eligible participants took place in 2014, seven to nine years after ACHS. PMID:25982988

  16. Anniston community health survey: Follow-up and dioxin analyses (ACHS-II)--methods.

    PubMed

    Birnbaum, Linda S; Dutton, N D; Cusack, C; Mennemeyer, S T; Pavuk, M

    2016-02-01

    High serum concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been reported previously among residents of Anniston, Alabama, where a PCB production facility was located in the past. As the second of two cross-sectional studies of these Anniston residents, the Anniston Community Health Survey: Follow-Up and Dioxin Analyses (ACHS-II) will yield repeated measurements to be used to evaluate changes over time in ortho-PCB concentrations and selected health indicators in study participants. Dioxins, non-ortho PCBs, other chemicals, heavy metals, and a variety of additional clinical tests not previously measured in the original ACHS cohort will be examined in ACHS-II. The follow-up study also incorporates a questionnaire with extended sections on diet and occupational history for a more comprehensive assessment of possible exposure sources. Data collection for ACHS-II from 359 eligible participants took place in 2014, 7 to 9 years after ACHS.

  17. Lists and analyses of the mineral springs of the United States: A preliminary study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peale, Albert C.

    1886-01-01

    In attempting the collection of data for the statement of the commercial value of the mineral waters of the country for publication in the report on the Mineral Resources of the United States, 1883 and 1884, it was necessary as a prerequisite to have a list of the springs from which these waters are derived. An examination of the few general works on the subject very soon showed that all existing lists were incomplete. The tables given in this paper were therefore compiled, as the first step in the preparation of the mineral spring statistics of the. United States, They were omitted from the paper published in Mr. Williams's report, for want of space. Since the appearance of that report they have been revised and, with the addition of such analyses as could be obtained, prepared for publication as a bulletin of the Survey.

  18. The ASSET intercomparison of ozone analyses: method and first results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geer, A. J.; Lahoz, W. A.; Bekki, S.; Bormann, N.; Errera, Q.; Eskes, H. J.; Fonteyn, D.; Jackson, D. R.; Juckes, M. N.; Massart, S.; Peuch, V.-H.; Rharmili, S.; Segers, A.

    2006-12-01

    This paper aims to summarise the current performance of ozone data assimilation (DA) systems, to show where they can be improved, and to quantify their errors. It examines 11 sets of ozone analyses from 7 different DA systems. Two are numerical weather prediction (NWP) systems based on general circulation models (GCMs); the other five use chemistry transport models (CTMs). The systems examined contain either linearised or detailed ozone chemistry, or no chemistry at all. In most analyses, MIPAS (Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding) ozone data are assimilated; two assimilate SCIAMACHY (Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Chartography) observations instead. Analyses are compared to independent ozone observations covering the troposphere, stratosphere and lower mesosphere during the period July to November 2003. Biases and standard deviations are largest, and show the largest divergence between systems, in the troposphere, in the upper-troposphere/lower-stratosphere, in the upper-stratosphere and mesosphere, and the Antarctic ozone hole region. However, in any particular area, apart from the troposphere, at least one system can be found that agrees well with independent data. In general, none of the differences can be linked to the assimilation technique (Kalman filter, three or four dimensional variational methods, direct inversion) or the system (CTM or NWP system). Where results diverge, a main explanation is the way ozone is modelled. It is important to correctly model transport at the tropical tropopause, to avoid positive biases and excessive structure in the ozone field. In the southern hemisphere ozone hole, only the analyses which correctly model heterogeneous ozone depletion are able to reproduce the near-complete ozone destruction over the pole. In the upper-stratosphere and mesosphere (above 5 hPa), some ozone photochemistry schemes caused large but easily remedied biases. The diurnal cycle of ozone in the

  19. An Additive Manufacturing Test Artifact

    PubMed Central

    Moylan, Shawn; Slotwinski, John; Cooke, April; Jurrens, Kevin; Donmez, M Alkan

    2014-01-01

    A test artifact, intended for standardization, is proposed for the purpose of evaluating the performance of additive manufacturing (AM) systems. A thorough analysis of previously proposed AM test artifacts as well as experience with machining test artifacts have inspired the design of the proposed test artifact. This new artifact is designed to provide a characterization of the capabilities and limitations of an AM system, as well as to allow system improvement by linking specific errors measured in the test artifact to specific sources in the AM system. The proposed test artifact has been built in multiple materials using multiple AM technologies. The results of several of the builds are discussed, demonstrating how the measurement results can be used to characterize and improve a specific AM system. PMID:26601039

  20. An Additive Manufacturing Test Artifact.

    PubMed

    Moylan, Shawn; Slotwinski, John; Cooke, April; Jurrens, Kevin; Donmez, M Alkan

    2014-01-01

    A test artifact, intended for standardization, is proposed for the purpose of evaluating the performance of additive manufacturing (AM) systems. A thorough analysis of previously proposed AM test artifacts as well as experience with machining test artifacts have inspired the design of the proposed test artifact. This new artifact is designed to provide a characterization of the capabilities and limitations of an AM system, as well as to allow system improvement by linking specific errors measured in the test artifact to specific sources in the AM system. The proposed test artifact has been built in multiple materials using multiple AM technologies. The results of several of the builds are discussed, demonstrating how the measurement results can be used to characterize and improve a specific AM system.

  1. Optics of progressive addition lenses.

    PubMed

    Sheedy, J E; Buri, M; Bailey, I L; Azus, J; Borish, I M

    1987-02-01

    The optical characteristics of the major progressive addition lenses were measured using an automated lensometer with a specially designed lens holder to simulate eye rotation. Measurements were made every 3 degrees (about 1.5 mm) and graphs of isospherical equivalent lines and isocylinder lines were developed. Generally the near zone of these lenses is narrower and lower than in bifocal or trifocal lenses. Distinct differences exist between the various progressive lenses. The width of the near zone, rate of power progression, amount of unwanted cylinder (level with the distance center), and clarity of the distance zone are compared for the various lenses. The optical measurements demonstrate an apparent trade-off between the size of the cylinder-free area of the lens and the amount of the cylinder.

  2. Micromechanical Failure Analyses for Finite Element Polymer Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    CHAMBERS,ROBERT S.; REEDY JR.,EARL DAVID; LO,CHI S.; ADOLF,DOUGLAS B.; GUESS,TOMMY R.

    2000-11-01

    Polymer stresses around sharp corners and in constrained geometries of encapsulated components can generate cracks leading to system failures. Often, analysts use maximum stresses as a qualitative indicator for evaluating the strength of encapsulated component designs. Although this approach has been useful for making relative comparisons screening prospective design changes, it has not been tied quantitatively to failure. Accurate failure models are needed for analyses to predict whether encapsulated components meet life cycle requirements. With Sandia's recently developed nonlinear viscoelastic polymer models, it has been possible to examine more accurately the local stress-strain distributions in zones of likely failure initiation looking for physically based failure mechanisms and continuum metrics that correlate with the cohesive failure event. This study has identified significant differences between rubbery and glassy failure mechanisms that suggest reasonable alternatives for cohesive failure criteria and metrics. Rubbery failure seems best characterized by the mechanisms of finite extensibility and appears to correlate with maximum strain predictions. Glassy failure, however, seems driven by cavitation and correlates with the maximum hydrostatic tension. Using these metrics, two three-point bending geometries were tested and analyzed under variable loading rates, different temperatures and comparable mesh resolution (i.e., accuracy) to make quantitative failure predictions. The resulting predictions and observations agreed well suggesting the need for additional research. In a separate, additional study, the asymptotically singular stress state found at the tip of a rigid, square inclusion embedded within a thin, linear elastic disk was determined for uniform cooling. The singular stress field is characterized by a single stress intensity factor K{sub a} and the applicable K{sub a} calibration relationship has been determined for both fully bonded and

  3. Real-Time Soils Characterization and Analyses Systems Used at Ohio Closure Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Roybal, Lyle Gene; Carpenter, Michael Vance; Giles, John Robert; Hartwell, John Kelvin; Danahy, R.

    2003-02-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) and the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) have jointly developed a field-deployed analytical system to rapidly scan, characterize, and analyze surface soil contamination. The basic system consists of a sodium iodide (NaI) spectrometer and global positioning system (GPS) hardware. This hardware can be deployed from any of four different platforms depending on the scope of the survey at hand. These platforms range from a large tractor-based unit (the RTRAK) used to survey large, relatively flat areas to a hand-pushed unit where maneuverability is important, to an excavator mounted system used to scan pits and trenches. The mobile sodium iodide concept was initially developed by the FEMP to provide pre-screening analyses for soils contaminated with uranium, thorium, and radium. The initial study is documented in the RTRAK Applicability Study and provides analyses supporting the field usage of the concept. The RTRAK system produced data that required several days of post-processing and analyses to generate an estimation of field coverage and activity levels. The INEEL has provided integrated engineering, computer hardware and software support to greatly streamline the data acquisition and analysis process to the point where real-time activity and coverage maps are available to the field technicians. On-line analyses have been added to automatically convert GPS data to Ohio State-Plane coordinates, examine and correct collected spectra for energy calibration drifts common to NaI spectrometers, and strip spectra in regions of interest to provide moisture corrected activity levels for total uranium, thorium-232, and radium-226. Additionally, the software provides a number of checks and alarms to alert operators that a hand-examination of spectral data in a particular area may be required. The FEMP has estimated that this technology has produced projected site savings in excess of $34M

  4. Role of optimization in interdisciplinary analyses of naval structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dhir, S. K.; Hurwitz, M. M.

    1984-01-01

    The need for numerical design optimization of naval structures is discussed. The complexity of problems that arise due to the significant roles played by three major disciplines, i.e., structural mechanics, acoustics, and hydrodynamics are discussed. A major computer software effort that has recently begun at the David W. Taylor Naval Ship R&D Center to accommodate large multidisciplinary analyses is also described. In addition to primarily facilitating, via the use of data bases, interdisciplinary analyses for predicting the response of the Navy's ships and related structures, this software effort is expected to provide the analyst with a convenient numerical workbench for performing large numbers of analyses that may be necessary for optimizing the design performance. Finally, an example is included that investigates several aspects of optimizing a typical naval structure from the viewpoints of strength, hydrodynamic form, and acoustic characteristics.

  5. Electron/proton spectrometer certification documentation analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gleeson, P.

    1972-01-01

    A compilation of analyses generated during the development of the electron-proton spectrometer for the Skylab program is presented. The data documents the analyses required by the electron-proton spectrometer verification plan. The verification plan was generated to satisfy the ancillary hardware requirements of the Apollo Applications program. The certification of the spectrometer requires that various tests, inspections, and analyses be documented, approved, and accepted by reliability and quality control personnel of the spectrometer development program.

  6. Diesel injector additives for a clean exhaust

    SciTech Connect

    Herbstman, S.; Virk, K.S.

    1988-08-01

    Increased public awareness of clean air is causing closer examination of potential health problems associated with diesel exhaust particulates. Recently, the EPA published standards mandating a sixfold reduction in diesel exhaust particulates for heavy duty engines from 0.60 gm/bhp-hr in 1988-1990 to 0.10 gm/bhp-hr in 1994. NOx exhaust concentrations were also reduced. For some time now, we have been interested in ways to reduce black smoke from diesel engines since it is one of the prime contributors to exhaust particulates. One of its causes is dirty or clogged fuel injectors due to deposit buildup. During operation with dirty injectors, the spray pattern of fuel into the combustion chamber is distorted, usually resulting in a fuel-rich environment. Incomplete burning of the rich fuel mixture results in an excess of carbonaceous material which is discharged in the exhaust as black smoke. We are engaged in evaluating additives with detergency and antioxidant properties to reduce deposit buildup in the injectors. Long chain alkylamines, and other types of surfactant molecules have been reported as active in preventing deposit buildup. However, little practical information was available concerning structure-activity relationships for use in developing a commercially acceptable additive package. We decided to investigate additives which are active either as gasoline carburetor detergents or as lubricant dispersants; both categories appear to have the necessary surfactant behavior and oil solubility to satisfy our needs for a diesel injector keep clean agent. Our approach to the problem was to develop an additive package for future use in Texaco fuels to reduce black smoke.

  7. Efficient ALL vs. ALL collision risk analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escobar, D.; Paskowitz, M.; Agueda, A.; Garcia, G.; Molina, M.

    2011-09-01

    In recent years, the space debris has gained a lot of attention due to the increasing amount of uncontrolled man-made objects orbiting the Earth. This population poses a significant and constantly growing thread to operational satellites. In order to face this thread in an independent manner, ESA has launched an initiative for the development of a European SSA System where GMV is participating via several activities. Apart from those activities financed by ESA, GMV has developed closeap, a tool for efficient conjunction assessment and collision probability prediction. ESÁs NAPEOS has been selected as computational engine and numerical propagator to be used in the tool, which can be considered as an add-on to the standard NAPEOS package. closeap makes use of the same orbit computation, conjunction assessment and collision risk algorithms implemented in CRASS, but at the same time both systems are completely independent. Moreover, the implementation in closeap has been validated against CRASS with excellent results. This paper describes the performance improvements implemented in closeap at algorithm level to ensure that the most time demanding scenarios (e.g., all catalogued objects are analysed against each other - all vs. all scenarios -) can be analysed in a reasonable amount of time with commercial-off-the-shelf hardware. However, the amount of space debris increases steadily due to the human activities. Thus, the number of objects involved in a full collision assessment is expected to increase notably and, consequently, the computational cost, which scales as the square of the number of objects, will increase as well. Additionally, orbit propagation algorithms that are computationally expensive might be needed to predict more accurately the trajectories of the space debris. In order to cope with such computational needs, the next natural step in the development of collision assessment tools is the use of parallelization techniques. In this paper we investigate

  8. 7 CFR 94.102 - Analyses available.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) COMMODITY LABORATORY TESTING PROGRAMS... analyses for total ash, fat by acid hydrolysis, moisture, salt, protein, beta-carotene,...

  9. 7 CFR 94.102 - Analyses available.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) COMMODITY LABORATORY TESTING PROGRAMS... analyses for total ash, fat by acid hydrolysis, moisture, salt, protein, beta-carotene,...

  10. Non-destructive infrared analyses: a method for provenance analyses of sandstones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowitz, Jörg; Ehling, Angela

    2008-12-01

    Infrared spectroscopy (IR spectroscopy) is commonly applied in the laboratory for mineral analyses in addition to XRD. Because such technical efforts are time and cost consuming, we present an infrared-based mobile method for non-destructive mineral and provenance analyses of sandstones. IR spectroscopy is based on activating chemical bonds. By irradiating a mineral mixture, special bonds are activated to vibrate depending on the bond energy (resonance vibration). Accordingly, the energy of the IR spectrum will be reduced thereby generating an absorption spectrum. The positions of the absorption maxima within the spectral region indicate the type of the bonds and in many cases identify minerals containing these bonds. The non-destructive reflection spectroscopy operates in the near infrared region (NIR) and can detect all common clay minerals as well as sulfates, hydroxides and carbonates. The spectra produced have been interpreted by computer using digital mineral libraries that have been especially collected for sandstones. The comparison of all results with XRD, RFA and interpretations of thin sections demonstrates impressively the accuracy and reliability of this method. Not only are different minerals detectable, but also differently ordered kaolinites and varieties of illites can be identified by the shape and size of the absorption bands. Especially clay minerals and their varieties in combination with their relative contents form the characteristic spectra of sandstones. Other components such as limonite, hematite and amorphous silica also influence the spectra. Sandstones, similar in colour and texture, often can be identified by their characteristic reflectance spectra. Reference libraries with more than 60 spectra of important German sandstones have been created to enable entirely computerized interpretations and identifications of these dimension stones. The analysis of infrared spectroscopy results is demonstrated with examples of different sandstones

  11. Handwriting Examination: Moving from Art to Science

    SciTech Connect

    Jarman, K.H.; Hanlen, R.C.; Manzolillo, P.A.

    1999-04-12

    In this document, we present a method for validating the premises and methodology of forensic handwriting examination. This method is intuitively appealing because it relies on quantitative measurements currently used qualitatively by FDE's in making comparisons, and it is scientifically rigorous because it exploits the power of multivariate statistical analysis. This approach uses measures of both central tendency and variation to construct a profile for a given individual. (Central tendency and variation are important for characterizing an individual's writing and both are currently used by FDE's in comparative analyses). Once constructed, different profiles are then compared for individuality using cluster analysis; they are grouped so that profiles within a group cannot be differentiated from one another based on the measured characteristics, whereas profiles between groups can. The cluster analysis procedure used here exploits the power of multivariate hypothesis testing. The result is not only a profile grouping but also an indication of statistical significance of the groups generated.

  12. Integrated Waste Treatment Unit (IWTU) Input Coal Analyses and Off-Gass Filter (OGF) Content Analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, Carol M.; Missimer, David M.; Guenther, Chris P.; Shekhawat, Dushyant; VanEssendelft, Dirk T.; Means, Nicholas C.

    2015-04-23

    in process piping and materials, in excessive off-gas absorbent loading, and in undesired process emissions. The ash content of the coal is important as the ash adds to the DMR and other vessel products which affect the final waste product mass and composition. The amount and composition of the ash also affects the reaction kinetics. Thus ash content and composition contributes to the mass balance. In addition, sodium, potassium, calcium, sulfur, and maybe silica and alumina in the ash may contribute to wall-scale formation. Sodium, potassium, and alumina in the ash will be overwhelmed by the sodium, potassium, and alumina from the feed but the impact from the other ash components needs to be quantified. A maximum coal particle size is specified so the feed system does not plug and a minimum particle size is specified to prevent excess elutriation from the DMR to the Process Gas Filter (PGF). A vendor specification was used to procure the calcined coal for IWTU processing. While the vendor supplied a composite analysis for the 22 tons of coal (Appendix A), this study compares independent analyses of the coal performed at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). Three supersacks a were sampled at three different heights within the sack in order to determine within bag variability and between bag variability of the coal. These analyses were also compared to the vendor’s composite analyses and to the coal specification. These analyses were also compared to historic data on Bestac coal analyses that had been performed at Hazen Research Inc. (HRI) between 2004-2011.

  13. Patient dose considerations in computed tomography examinations

    PubMed Central

    Tsalafoutas, Ioannis A; Koukourakis, Georgios V

    2010-01-01

    Ionizing radiation is extensively used in medicine and its contribution to both diagnosis and therapy is undisputable. However, the use of ionizing radiation also involves a certain risk since it may cause damage to tissues and organs and trigger carcinogenesis. Computed tomography (CT) is currently one of the major contributors to the collective population radiation dose both because it is a relatively high dose examination and an increasing number of people are subjected to CT examinations many times during their lifetime. The evolution of CT scanner technology has greatly increased the clinical applications of CT and its availability throughout the world and made it a routine rather than a specialized examination. With the modern multislice CT scanners, fast volume scanning of the whole human body within less than 1 min is now feasible. Two dimensional images of superb quality can be reconstructed in every possible plane with respect to the patient axis (e.g. axial, sagital and coronal). Furthermore, three-dimensional images of all anatomic structures and organs can be produced with only minimal additional effort (e.g. skeleton, tracheobronchial tree, gastrointestinal system and cardiovascular system). All these applications, which are diagnostically valuable, also involve a significant radiation risk. Therefore, all medical professionals involved with CT, either as referring or examining medical doctors must be aware of the risks involved before they decide to prescribe or perform CT examinations. Ultimately, the final decision concerning justification for a prescribed CT examination lies upon the radiologist. In this paper, we summarize the basic information concerning the detrimental effects of ionizing radiation, as well as the CT dosimetry background. Furthermore, after a brief summary of the evolution of CT scanning, the current CT scanner technology and its special features with respect to patient doses are given in detail. Some numerical data is also

  14. An examination of the misuse of prescription stimulants among college students using the theory of planned behavior.

    PubMed

    Gallucci, Andrew; Martin, Ryan; Beaujean, Alex; Usdan, Stuart

    2015-01-01

    The misuse of prescription stimulants (MPS) is an emergent adverse health behavior among undergraduate college students. However, current research on MPS is largely atheoretical. The purpose of this study was to validate a survey to assess MPS-related theory of planned behavior (TPB) constructs (i.e. attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control) and determine the relationship between these constructs, MPS-related risk factors (e.g. gender and class status), and current MPS (i.e. past 30 days use) among college students. Participants (N = 978, 67.8% female and 82.9% Caucasian) at a large public university in the southeastern USA completed a survey assessing MPS and MPS-related TPB constructs during fall 2010. To examine the relationship between MPS-related TPB constructs and current MPS, we conducted (1) confirmatory factor analyses to validate that our survey items assessed MPS-related TPB constructs and (2) a series of regression analyses to examine associations between MPS-related TPB constructs, potential MPS-related risk factors, and MPS in this sample. Our factor analyses indicated that the survey items assessed MPS-related TPB constructs and our multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that perceived behavioral control was significantly associated with current MPS. In addition, analyses found that having a prescription stimulant was a protective factor against MPS when the model included MPS-related TPB variables.

  15. The use of secondary ion mass spectrometry in forensic analyses of ultra-small samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cliff, John

    2010-05-01

    less than 300 picograms of bacteria. Perhaps the most successful application of SIMS for forensic purposes to date is in the field of nuclear forensics. An example that has been used by laboratories associated with the International Atomic Energy Agency is the examination of environmental samples for enriched uranium particles indicative of clandestine weapons production activities.. The analytical challenge in these types of measurements is to search complex environmental matrices for U-bearing particles which must then be analyzed for 234U, 235U, and 236U content with high precision and accuracy. Older-generation SIMS instruments were hampered by small geometries that made resolution of significant interferences problematic. In addition, automated particle search software was proprietary and difficult to obtain. With the development of new search software, the IMS 1280 is capable of searching a sample in a matter of hours, flagging U-bearing particles for later analyses, and providing a rough 235U content. Particles of interest can be revisited for high precision analyses, and all U-isotopes can be measured simultaneously in multicollector mode, dramatically improving analysis time and internal precision. Further, the large geometry of the instrument allows complete resolution of isobaric interferences that have traditionally limited SIMS analyses of difficult samples. Examples of analyses of micron-sized standard particles indicate that estimates of 235U enrichment can be obtained with an external relative precision of 0.1% and 234U and 236U contents can be obtained with a relative precision of less than 1%. Analyses of 'real' samples show a dramatic improvement in the data quality obtained compared with small-geometry SIMS instruments making SIMS the method of choice for these high-profile samples when accurate, precise, and rapid results are required.

  16. Multi-Canister overpack ultrasonic examination of closure weld

    SciTech Connect

    SMITH, K.E.

    1998-11-03

    The method used for non-destructive examination of the closure weld must provide adequate assurance that the weld is structurally sound for the pressure and lifting loads to be imposed, and must be consistent with NRC equivalency requirements established for the SNF Project. Given the large flaw size that would need to exist before the structural integrity of the weld is challenged, liquid penetrant testing of the root and final passes provides adequate assurance of weld quality to meet structural loads. In addition, the helium leak test provides confirmation that the containment boundary is intact and leaktight. While UT examination does provide additional evidence of weld integrity, the value of that additional evidence for this particular application does not justify performing UT examination, given the additional financial and ALARA costs associated with performing the examination.

  17. [Diagnosis. History and physical examination].

    PubMed

    Pérez Martín, Álvaro

    2014-01-01

    Family physicians play a key role in the diagnosis and management of patients with osteoarthritis. Diagnosis is mainly clinical and radiological. A complete history should be taken with meticulous physical examination of the joints. The history-taking should aim to detect risk factors and compatible clinical symptoms. Pain characteristics should be identified, distinguishing between mechanical and inflammatory pain, and an exhaustive examination of the joints should be performed, with evaluation of the presence of pain, deformity, mobility restrictions (both active and passive), crepitus, joint effusion, and inflammation. A differential diagnosis should be made with all diseases that affect the joints and/or produce joint stiffness.

  18. Anorectal examination in emergency departments.

    PubMed

    Summers, Anthony

    2013-04-01

    Many patients present to emergency departments with anorectal problems, such as haemorrhoids, anal fissure and pruritis ani. Often, patients with such problems are embarrassed about them or fearful about their potential diagnoses, so practitioners must approach history taking and examination sensitively. They should also have a good understanding of the anatomy of the anorectal area, and be able to recognise the signs and symptoms of relevant conditions. This article provides an overview of the anatomy and physiology of the anorectal area, explains how to undertake anorectal examinations, and describes the signs and symptoms of some common conditions.

  19. Trend analyses with river sediment rating curves

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warrick, Jonathan A.

    2015-01-01

    Sediment rating curves, which are fitted relationships between river discharge (Q) and suspended-sediment concentration (C), are commonly used to assess patterns and trends in river water quality. In many of these studies it is assumed that rating curves have a power-law form (i.e., C = aQb, where a and b are fitted parameters). Two fundamental questions about the utility of these techniques are assessed in this paper: (i) How well to the parameters, a and b, characterize trends in the data? (ii) Are trends in rating curves diagnostic of changes to river water or sediment discharge? As noted in previous research, the offset parameter, a, is not an independent variable for most rivers, but rather strongly dependent on b and Q. Here it is shown that a is a poor metric for trends in the vertical offset of a rating curve, and a new parameter, â, as determined by the discharge-normalized power function [C = â (Q/QGM)b], where QGM is the geometric mean of the Q values sampled, provides a better characterization of trends. However, these techniques must be applied carefully, because curvature in the relationship between log(Q) and log(C), which exists for many rivers, can produce false trends in â and b. Also, it is shown that trends in â and b are not uniquely diagnostic of river water or sediment supply conditions. For example, an increase in â can be caused by an increase in sediment supply, a decrease in water supply, or a combination of these conditions. Large changes in water and sediment supplies can occur without any change in the parameters, â and b. Thus, trend analyses using sediment rating curves must include additional assessments of the time-dependent rates and trends of river water, sediment concentrations, and sediment discharge.

  20. Molecular Biomarker Analyses Using Circulating Tumor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Punnoose, Elizabeth A.; Atwal, Siminder K.; Spoerke, Jill M.; Savage, Heidi; Pandita, Ajay; Yeh, Ru-Fang; Pirzkall, Andrea; Fine, Bernard M.; Amler, Lukas C.; Chen, Daniel S.; Lackner, Mark R.

    2010-01-01

    Background Evaluation of cancer biomarkers from blood could significantly enable biomarker assessment by providing a relatively non-invasive source of representative tumor material. Circulating Tumor Cells (CTCs) isolated from blood of metastatic cancer patients hold significant promise in this regard. Methodology/Principal Findings Using spiked tumor-cells we evaluated CTC capture on different CTC technology platforms, including CellSearch® and two biochip platforms, and used the isolated CTCs to develop and optimize assays for molecular characterization of CTCs. We report similar performance for the various platforms tested in capturing CTCs, and find that capture efficiency is dependent on the level of EpCAM expression. We demonstrate that captured CTCs are amenable to biomarker analyses such as HER2 status, qRT-PCR for breast cancer subtype markers, KRAS mutation detection, and EGFR staining by immunofluorescence (IF). We quantify cell surface expression of EGFR in metastatic lung cancer patient samples. In addition, we determined HER2 status by IF and FISH in CTCs from metastatic breast cancer patients. In the majority of patients (89%) we found concordance with HER2 status from patient tumor tissue, though in a subset of patients (11%), HER2 status in CTCs differed from that observed in the primary tumor. Surprisingly, we found CTC counts to be higher in ER+ patients in comparison to HER2+ and triple negative patients, which could be explained by low EpCAM expression and a more mesenchymal phenotype of tumors belonging to the basal-like molecular subtype of breast cancer. Conclusions/Significance Our data suggests that molecular characterization from captured CTCs is possible and can potentially provide real-time information on biomarker status. In this regard, CTCs hold significant promise as a source of tumor material to facilitate clinical biomarker evaluation. However, limitations exist from a purely EpCAM based capture system and addition of antibodies

  1. Additively manufactured porous tantalum implants.

    PubMed

    Wauthle, Ruben; van der Stok, Johan; Amin Yavari, Saber; Van Humbeeck, Jan; Kruth, Jean-Pierre; Zadpoor, Amir Abbas; Weinans, Harrie; Mulier, Michiel; Schrooten, Jan

    2015-03-01

    The medical device industry's interest in open porous, metallic biomaterials has increased in response to additive manufacturing techniques enabling the production of complex shapes that cannot be produced with conventional techniques. Tantalum is an important metal for medical devices because of its good biocompatibility. In this study selective laser melting technology was used for the first time to manufacture highly porous pure tantalum implants with fully interconnected open pores. The architecture of the porous structure in combination with the material properties of tantalum result in mechanical properties close to those of human bone and allow for bone ingrowth. The bone regeneration performance of the porous tantalum was evaluated in vivo using an orthotopic load-bearing bone defect model in the rat femur. After 12 weeks, substantial bone ingrowth, good quality of the regenerated bone and a strong, functional implant-bone interface connection were observed. Compared to identical porous Ti-6Al-4V structures, laser-melted tantalum shows excellent osteoconductive properties, has a higher normalized fatigue strength and allows for more plastic deformation due to its high ductility. It is therefore concluded that this is a first step towards a new generation of open porous tantalum implants manufactured using selective laser melting.

  2. Additive Transforms Paint into Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Tech Traders Inc. sought assistance developing low-cost, highly effective coatings and paints that created useful thermal reflectance and were safe and non-toxic. In cooperation with a group of engineers at Kennedy Space Center., Tech Traders created Insuladd, a powder additive made up of microscopic, inert gas-filled, ceramic microspheres that can be mixed into ordinary interior or exterior paint, allowing the paint to act like a layer of insulation. When the paint dries, this forms a radiant heat barrier, turning the ordinary house paint into heat-reflecting thermal paint. According to Tech Traders, the product works with all types of paints and coatings and will not change the coverage rate, application, or adhesion of the paint. Other useful applications include feed storage silos to help prevent feed spoilage, poultry hatcheries to reduce the summer heat and winter cold effects, and on military vehicles and ships. Tech Traders has continued its connection to the aerospace community by recently providing Lockheed Martin Corporation with one of its thermal products for use on the F-22 Raptor.

  3. Dynamics of ultrasonic additive manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Hehr, Adam; Dapino, Marcelo J

    2017-01-01

    Ultrasonic additive manufacturing (UAM) is a solid-state technology for joining similar and dissimilar metal foils near room temperature by scrubbing them together with ultrasonic vibrations under pressure. Structural dynamics of the welding assembly and work piece influence how energy is transferred during the process and ultimately, part quality. To understand the effect of structural dynamics during UAM, a linear time-invariant model is proposed to relate the inputs of shear force and electric current to resultant welder velocity and voltage. Measured frequency response and operating performance of the welder under no load is used to identify model parameters. Using this model and in-situ measurements, shear force and welder efficiency are estimated to be near 2000N and 80% when welding Al 6061-H18 weld foil, respectively. Shear force and welder efficiency have never been estimated before in UAM. The influence of processing conditions, i.e., welder amplitude, normal force, and weld speed, on shear force and welder efficiency are investigated. Welder velocity was found to strongly influence the shear force magnitude and efficiency while normal force and weld speed showed little to no influence. The proposed model is used to describe high frequency harmonic content in the velocity response of the welder during welding operations and coupling of the UAM build with the welder.

  4. Examination of shipping package 9975-02403

    SciTech Connect

    Daugherty, W. L.

    2016-03-01

    SRNL examined shipping package 9975-02403 following storage of nuclear material in K-Area Complex (KAC). As a result of field surveillance activities in KAC, this package was identified to contain several non-conforming and other conditions. Further examination of this package in SRNL confirmed significant moisture and mold in the bottom layers of the lower fiberboard assembly, and identified additional corrosion along the seam weld and on the bottom of the drum. It was recently recommended that checking for corrosion along the bottom edge of the drum be implemented for packages that are removed from storage, as well as high wattage packages remaining in storage. The appearance of such corrosion on 9975-02403 further indicates that such corrosion may provide an indication of significant moisture concentration and related degradation within the package. This condition is more likely to develop in packages with higher internal heat loads.

  5. Physical examination of the respiratory system.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Claire R; Rozanski, Elizabeth A

    2013-08-01

    This article reviews the approach to a patient with respiratory distress, with a focus on clues obtained from the physical examination. Respiratory distress is a common reason for presentation of a companion animal to a veterinarian on an emergency basis, and thus the clinician should have a comfort level with the approach to these patients. Our discussion includes a basic review of respiratory pathophysiology and the differential diagnoses for hypoxemia. In the majority of cases, physical examination should allow localization of the cause of the respiratory problem to the upper airways, lower airways, pleural space, or pulmonary parenchyma. Such localization, coupled with signalment and historical clues, guides additional diagnostics and therapeutics based on the most likely differential diagnoses. Although managing a patient with respiratory distress can be challenging, a systematic approach such as the one presented here should ensure appropriate intervention in a timely fashion and maximize the chance of a good outcome.

  6. Database-Driven Analyses of Astronomical Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cami, Jan

    2012-03-01

    species to the fullerene species C60 and C70 [4]. Given the large number and variety of molecules detected in space, molecular infrared spectroscopy can be used to study pretty much any astrophysical environment that is not too energetic to dissociate the molecules. At the lowest energies, it is interesting to note that molecules such as CN have been used to measure the temperature of the Cosmic Microwave Background (see e.g., Ref. 15). The great diagnostic potential of infrared molecular spectroscopy comes at a price though. Extracting the physical parameters from the observations requires expertise in knowing how various physical processes and instrumental characteristics play together in producing the observed spectra. In addition to the astronomical aspects, this often includes interpreting and understanding the limitations of laboratory data and quantum-chemical calculations; the study of the interaction of matter with radiation at microscopic scales (called radiative transfer, akin to ray tracing) and the effects of observing (e.g., smoothing and resampling) on the resulting spectra and possible instrumental effects (e.g., fringes). All this is not trivial. To make matters worse, observational spectra often contain many components, and might include spectral contributions stemming from very different physical conditions. Fully analyzing such observations is thus a time-consuming task that requires mastery of several techniques. And with ever-increasing rates of observational data acquisition, it seems clear that in the near future, some form of automation is required to handle the data stream. It is thus appealing to consider what part of such analyses could be done without too much human intervention. Two different aspects can be separated: the first step involves simply identifying the molecular species present in the observations. Once the molecular inventory is known, we can try to extract the physical parameters from the observed spectral properties. For both

  7. The ASSET intercomparison of ozone analyses: method and first results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geer, A. J.; Lahoz, W. A.; Bekki, S.; Bormann, N.; Errera, Q.; Eskes, H. J.; Fonteyn, D.; Jackson, D. R.; Juckes, M. N.; Massart, S.; Peuch, V.-H.; Rharmili, S.; Segers, A.

    2006-06-01

    This paper examines 11 sets of ozone analyses from 7 different data assimilation systems. Two are numerical weather prediction (NWP) systems based on general circulation models (GCMs); the other five use chemistry transport models (CTMs). These systems contain either linearised or detailed ozone chemistry, or no chemistry at all. In most analyses, MIPAS (Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding) ozone data are assimilated. Two examples assimilate SCIAMACHY (Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Chartography) observations. The analyses are compared to independent ozone observations covering the troposphere, stratosphere and lower mesosphere during the period July to November 2003. Through most of the stratosphere (50 hPa to 1 hPa), biases are usually within ±10% and standard deviations less than 10% compared to ozonesondes and HALOE (Halogen Occultation Experiment). Biases and standard deviations are larger in the upper-troposphere/lower-stratosphere, in the troposphere, the mesosphere, and the Antarctic ozone hole region. In these regions, some analyses do substantially better than others, and this is mostly due to differences in the models. At the tropical tropopause, many analyses show positive biases and excessive structure in the ozone fields, likely due to known deficiencies in assimilated tropical wind fields and a degradation in MIPAS data at these levels. In the southern hemisphere ozone hole, only the analyses which correctly model heterogeneous ozone depletion are able to reproduce the near-complete ozone destruction over the pole. In the upper-stratosphere and mesosphere (above 5 hPa), some ozone photochemistry schemes caused large but easily remedied biases. The diurnal cycle of ozone in the mesosphere is not captured, except by the one system that includes a detailed treatment of mesospheric chemistry. In general, similarly good results are obtained no matter what the assimilation method (Kalman filter, three or

  8. Postirradiation examination of capsule GF-4. [HTGR

    SciTech Connect

    Kovacs, W.J.; Sedlak, B.J.

    1980-10-01

    The GF-4 capsule test was irradiated in the SILOE reactor at Grenoble, France between April 8, 1975 and July 26, 1976. High-enriched uranium (HEU) UC/sub 2/ and weak acid resin (WAR) UC/sub x/O/sub y/ fissile and ThO/sub 2/ fertile particles were tested. Postirradiation examination of cured-in-place fuel rods showed no fuel rod/graphite element interaction. In addition, all rods exhibited adequate structural integrity. Irradiation-induced dimensional changes for rods containing all TRISO-coated fuel were consistent with model predictions; however, rods containing BISO-coated fuel exhibited greater volumetric contractions than predicted.

  9. Examining Equity of Opportunities for Learning Mathematics through Positioning Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tait-McCutcheon, Sandi L.; Loveridge, Judith

    2016-01-01

    This exploratory study examined how two teachers from two New Zealand primary schools introduced and taught the same mathematics lesson to their lowest ability group of year 2 and 3 students. Emphasis was given to analysing the positioning of the teacher and students and the developing storylines and social acts from that positioning. Different…

  10. Russian Communication Orientations: A Cross-Cultural Examination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christophel, Diane M.

    1996-01-01

    Examines the relationships among perceptions of willingness to communicate, communication responsiveness, communication apprehension, introversion, and assertiveness of college students in Russia. States that comparative analyses were made with studies conducted in the United States, Sweden, Finland, Australia, Micronesia, and Puerto Rico. Finds…

  11. Preliminary Examination of lunar Samples from Apollo 12

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science, 1970

    1970-01-01

    This is the first scientific report on the examination of the lunar samples returned from the Apollo 12 mission. Analyses of 34 kilograms of lunar rocks and fines reveal significant differences from the samples from Tranquillity Base, most notably in age, texture, amount of solar wind material, and in mineral and chemical composition. (LC)

  12. Content Validation Studies of the AP Chemistry Examination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taft, Hessy L.

    1990-01-01

    Described is a curriculum survey of general chemistry courses at the college level and an evaluation survey of the advanced placement chemistry examination. Results indicated that the AP chemistry course should remain broad in coverage and should expand its laboratory component. Analyses also indicated that the AP exam was appropriate and valid.…

  13. South Carolina Trade Examinations Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crook, Shirley J.

    The South Carolina Trade Examinations for Trade and Industrial Education teachers are administered semi-annually by the South Carolina State Department of Education, Office of Vocational Education, Vocational Teacher Education Programs Unit. This handbook is designed to provide prospective trade and industrial education teachers, vocational…

  14. Examining Controversies in Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreitlow, Burton W.; And Others

    Controversies over adult education purposes, methods, audiences, and procedures are examined. After outlining a procedure for reviewing competing positions on controversial topics, the book pairs the contrasting views of two authors on each of 10 key issues facing adult education. Chapters cover: philosophies at issue (David L. Boggs); identifying…

  15. Dyadic Adjustment: An Ecosystemic Examination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Stephan M.; Larson, Jeffry H.; McCulloch, B. Jan; Stone, Katherine L.

    1997-01-01

    Examines the relationship of background, individual, and family influences on dyadic adjustment, using an ecological perspective. Data from 102 married couples were used. Age at marriage for husbands, emotional health for wives, and number of marriage and family problems as well as family life satisfaction for both were related to dyadic…

  16. Learning Style Profile: Examiner's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keefe, James W.; Monk, John S.

    This examiner's manual accompanies the Learning Style Profile (LSP), which measures cognitive skills as well as affective and environmental preferences. Charles Letteri's General Operations Model was accepted as the prototype for relating learning styles to cognitive information processing. The LSP was developed from 1983 to 1986; several versions…

  17. Canadian Accountants: Examining Workplace Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hicks, Elizabeth; Bagg, Robert; Doyle, Wendy; Young, Jeffrey D.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to examine workplace learning strategies, learning facilitators and learning barriers of public accountants in Canada across three professional levels--trainees, managers, and partners. Design/methodology/approach: Volunteer participants from public accounting firms in Nova Scotia and New Brunswick completed a demographic…

  18. Understanding Comparability of Examination Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coe, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Much of the argument about comparability of examination standards is at cross-purposes; contradictory positions are in fact often both defensible, but they are using the same words to mean different things. To clarify this, two broad conceptualisations of standards can be identified. One sees the standard in the observed phenomena of performance…

  19. Aviation System Analysis Capability Executive Assistant Analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Eileen; Kostiuk, Peter

    1999-01-01

    This document describes the analyses that may be incorporated into the Aviation System Analysis Capability Executive Assistant. The document will be used as a discussion tool to enable NASA and other integrated aviation system entities to evaluate, discuss, and prioritize analyses.

  20. 49 CFR 1180.7 - Market analyses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Market analyses. 1180.7 Section 1180.7 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT..., TRACKAGE RIGHTS, AND LEASE PROCEDURES General Acquisition Procedures § 1180.7 Market analyses. (a)...

  1. 49 CFR 1180.7 - Market analyses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Market analyses. 1180.7 Section 1180.7 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT..., TRACKAGE RIGHTS, AND LEASE PROCEDURES General Acquisition Procedures § 1180.7 Market analyses. (a)...

  2. 49 CFR 1180.7 - Market analyses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Market analyses. 1180.7 Section 1180.7 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT..., TRACKAGE RIGHTS, AND LEASE PROCEDURES General Acquisition Procedures § 1180.7 Market analyses. (a)...

  3. Data assimilation for re-analyses: potential gains from full use of post-analysis-time observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juckes, Martin; Lawrence, Bryan

    2006-03-01

    In recent years a number of operational meteorological centres have completed multidecadal reanalyses of their observation records using a version of their operational analysis systems. These operational systems aim to approximate the best possible analysis of the atmospheric state at a given time using all observations made prior to that time, and require major resources to produce. Re-analyses are made with the same real-time systems because they can be done as marginal activities on the back of operational efforts. In this paper, we examine some of the salient differences between the use of optimal real-time analyses and optimal retrospective analyses in the context of a simple linear system. In this case, the optimal real-time analysis could be obtained by the Kalman filter. When observations are available both before and after the analysis time the additional information can, in principle, be exploited to improve on the Kalman filter analysis. For linear systems the optimal retrospective analysis is given by the Kalman smoother, which combines a forward and backward Kalman filter. Results comparing these methods are presented which demonstrate the importance of using all the available data for a retrospective analysis. While using all future data is not yet tractable for retrospective meteorological analyses, such techniques are of use for more limited re-analysis.

  4. Comparison of retrospective analyses of the global ocean heat content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chepurin, Gennady A.; Carton, James A.

    1999-07-01

    is weighted more heavily relative to the observations. The analysis of Levitus et al. [Levitus, S., Boyer, T.P., Antonov, J., 1994. Interannual variability of upper ocean thermal structure. World Ocean Atlas, 1994, Vol. 5. Natl. Env. Satell. Data and Int. Serv., Natl. Oceanic and Atmos. Admin. Atlas series, Washington, DC, 176 pp.] has a much different spatial distribution of variability in the interannual band than the others. Partly, this results from the yearly time-averaging of this analysis. Three of the monthly analyses extend over 20 years and thus are useful for examining decadal variations. Comparison of these analyses shows in common a slow progression of warm water westward and then eastward along the equator in the tropical Pacific that is linked to the decadal fluctuations of El Niño.

  5. Operator-free flow injection analyser

    PubMed Central

    de Faria, Lourival C.

    1991-01-01

    A flow injection analyser has been constructed to allow an operator-free determination of up to 40 samples. Besides the usual FIA apparatus, the analyser includes a home-made sample introduction device made with three electromechanical three-way valves and an auto-sampler from Technicon which has been adapted to be commanded by an external digital signal. The analyser is controlled by a single board SDK-8085 microcomputer. The necessary interface to couple the analyser components to the microcomputer is also described. The analyser was evaluated for a Cr(VI)-FIA determination showing a very good performance with a relative standard deviation for 15 signals from the injection of 100 μl of a 1.0 mg.ml-1 standard Cr(VI) solution being equal to 0.5%. PMID:18924899

  6. Additive and subtractive transparent depth displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kooi, Frank L.; Toet, Alexander

    2003-09-01

    Image fusion is the generally preferred method to combine two or more images for visual display on a single screen. We demonstrate that perceptual image separation may be preferable over perceptual image fusion for the combined display of enhanced and synthetic imagery. In this context image separation refers to the simultaneous presentation of images on different depth planes of a single display. Image separation allows the user to recognize the source of the information that is displayed. This can be important because synthetic images are more liable to flaws. We have examined methods to optimize perceptual image separation. A true depth difference between enhanced and synthetic imagery works quite well. A standard stereoscopic display based on convergence is less suitable since the two images tend to interfere: the image behind is masked (occluded) by the image in front, which results in poor viewing comfort. This effect places 3D systems based on 3D glasses, as well as most autostereoscopic displays, at a serious disadvantage. A 3D display based on additive or subtractive transparency is acceptable: both the perceptual separation and the viewing comfort are good, but the color of objects depends on the color in the other depth layer(s). A combined additive and subtractive transparent display eliminates this disadvantage and is most suitable for the combined display of enhanced and synthetic imagery. We suggest that the development of such a display system is of a greater practical value than increasing the number of depth planes in autostereoscopic displays.

  7. High School Social Studies Homework: An Examination of Student Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kezios, Melissa Joan

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation examines high school students' perspectives on social studies homework. Specifically, it uses the high school student perspective to determine the types of social studies homework that students perceive most benefit them academically and developmentally. In addition, it examines how homework should be evaluated. Findings are…

  8. An Examination of Music Teacher Job Interview Questions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juchniewicz, Jay

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine which interview questions principals consider most important when interviewing prospective music teachers. Additionally, data were examined to determine any differences between school grade level, school setting, or years of experience as a principal in preferences for specific interview questions.…

  9. Additives In Meat and Poultry Products

    MedlinePlus

    ... What is a food additive? What is a "direct" food additive? What is an 'indirect" food additive? ... convenience foods. [ Top of Page ] What is a “direct” food additive? According to the FDA, “Direct food ...

  10. Computed tomography characterisation of additive manufacturing materials.

    PubMed

    Bibb, Richard; Thompson, Darren; Winder, John

    2011-06-01

    Additive manufacturing, covering processes frequently referred to as rapid prototyping and rapid manufacturing, provides new opportunities in the manufacture of highly complex and custom-fitting medical devices and products. Whilst many medical applications of AM have been explored and physical properties of the resulting parts have been studied, the characterisation of AM materials in computed tomography has not been explored. The aim of this study was to determine the CT number of commonly used AM materials. There are many potential applications of the information resulting from this study in the design and manufacture of wearable medical devices, implants, prostheses and medical imaging test phantoms. A selection of 19 AM material samples were CT scanned and the resultant images analysed to ascertain the materials' CT number and appearance in the images. It was found that some AM materials have CT numbers very similar to human tissues, FDM, SLA and SLS produce samples that appear uniform on CT images and that 3D printed materials show a variation in internal structure.

  11. Additional considerations on electrolysis in electromembrane extraction.

    PubMed

    Šlampová, Andrea; Kubáň, Pavel; Boček, Petr

    2016-01-15

    Optimized acceptor solutions, which eliminate electrolytically induced variations in their pH values, have been shown to improve electromembrane extraction (EME) performance. Acceptor solutions containing 500 mM formic acid (pH 1.97) ensured stable EME process for three basic drugs extracted at 50 V across 1-ethyl-2-nitrobenzene and constant extraction recoveries (66-89%) were achieved for 40-80 min EMEs. Back-extraction of analytes into donor solutions has been eliminated by application of optimized acceptor solutions, moreover, saturation of acceptor solutions with analytes had no additional effect on their back-extraction; the presence of up to 300-fold excess of analytes in optimized acceptor solutions led to slightly reduced but stable enrichment of analytes over the entire extraction time. Stable EME performance has been also achieved for extractions into 100mM HCl, note however, that seriously compromised performance of subsequent capillary electrophoretic analyses has been observed due to high conductivities of resulting acceptor solutions. Electrolytically produced H(+) and OH(-) ions have mostly remained in corresponding operating solutions, have determined their final pH values and have not been subjects of EME transfers across selective phase interfaces as was experimentally verified by pH measurements of anolytes and catholytes at various EME times.

  12. High perfomance liquid chromatography in pharmaceutical analyses.

    PubMed

    Nikolin, Branko; Imamović, Belma; Medanhodzić-Vuk, Saira; Sober, Miroslav

    2004-05-01

    In testing the pre-sale procedure the marketing of drugs and their control in the last ten years, high performance liquid chromatography replaced numerous spectroscopic methods and gas chromatography in the quantitative and qualitative analysis. In the first period of HPLC application it was thought that it would become a complementary method of gas chromatography, however, today it has nearly completely replaced gas chromatography in pharmaceutical analysis. The application of the liquid mobile phase with the possibility of transformation of mobilized polarity during chromatography and all other modifications of mobile phase depending upon the characteristics of substance which are being tested, is a great advantage in the process of separation in comparison to other methods. The greater choice of stationary phase is the next factor which enables realization of good separation. The separation line is connected to specific and sensitive detector systems, spectrafluorimeter, diode detector, electrochemical detector as other hyphernated systems HPLC-MS and HPLC-NMR, are the basic elements on which is based such wide and effective application of the HPLC method. The purpose high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of any drugs is to confirm the identity of a drug and provide quantitative results and also to monitor the progress of the therapy of a disease.1) Measuring presented on the Fig. 1. is chromatogram obtained for the plasma of depressed patients 12 h before oral administration of dexamethasone. It may also be used to further our understanding of the normal and disease process in the human body trough biomedical and therapeutically research during investigation before of the drugs registration. The analyses of drugs and metabolites in biological fluids, particularly plasma, serum or urine is one of the most demanding but one of the most common uses of high performance of liquid chromatography. Blood, plasma or serum contains numerous endogenous

  13. Poly iron sulfate flocculant as an effective additive for improving the performance of microbial fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Miyahara, Morio; Sakamoto, Akihiro; Kouzuma, Atsushi; Watanabe, Kazuya

    2016-12-01

    Laboratory microbial fuel cells were supplied with artificial wastewater and used to examine how supplementation with poly iron sulfate, an inorganic polymer flocculant widely used in wastewater-treatment plants, affects electricity generation and anode microbiomes. It is shown that poly iron sulfate substantially increases electric outputs from microbial fuel cells. Microbiological analyses show that iron and sulfate separately affect anode microbiomes, and the increase in power output is associated with the increases in bacteria affiliated with the families Geobacteraceae and/or Desulfuromonadaceae. We suggest that poly iron sulfate is an effective additive for increasing the electric output from microbial fuel cells. Other utilities of poly iron sulfate in microbial fuel cells are also discussed.

  14. Integrated Field Analyses of Thermal Springs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shervais, K.; Young, B.; Ponce-Zepeda, M. M.; Rosove, S.

    2011-12-01

    A group of undergraduate researchers through the SURE internship offered by the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) have examined thermal springs in southern Idaho, northern Utah as well as mud volcanoes in the Salton Sea, California. We used an integrated approach to estimate the setting and maximum temperature, including water chemistry, Ipad-based image and data-base management, microbiology, and gas analyses with a modified Giggenbach sampler.All springs were characterized using GISRoam (tmCogent3D). We are performing geothermometry calculations as well as comparisons with temperature gradient data on the results while also analyzing biological samples. Analyses include water temperature, pH, electrical conductivity, and TDS measured in the field. Each sample is sealed and chilled and delivered to a water lab within 12 hours.Temperatures are continuously monitored with the use of Solinst Levelogger Juniors. Through partnership with a local community college geology club, we receive results on a monthly basis and are able to process initial data earlier in order to evaluate data over a longer time span. The springs and mudpots contained microbial organisms which were analyzed using methods of single colony isolation, polymerase chain reaction, and DNA sequencing showing the impact of the organisms on the springs or vice versa. Soon we we will collect gas samples at sites that show signs of gas. This will be taken using a hybrid of the Giggenbach method and our own methods. Drawing gas samples has proven a challenge, however we devised a method to draw out gas samples utilizing the Giggenbach flask, transferring samples to glass blood sample tubes, replacing NaOH in the Giggenbach flask, and evacuating it in the field for multiple samples using a vacuum pump. We also use a floating platform devised to carry and lower a levelogger, to using an in-line fuel filter from a tractor in order to keep mud from contaminating the equipment.The use of raster

  15. Interrogating Paradigmatic and Narrative Analyses against a Backdrop of Teacher Professionalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacMath, Sheryl

    2009-01-01

    In response to Denzin and Lincoln's claim that using a variety of interpretive analyses enables a better understanding of the world, I examine two different analyses of the same data set. Using a survey of preservice elementary education students (n = 208) asked to describe their perceptions of teacher professionalism, I contrast the application…

  16. How Can Meta-Analyses Guide Practice? A Review of the Learning Disability Research Base

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Therrien, William J.; Zaman, Maliha; Banda, Devender R.

    2011-01-01

    Meta-analysis is considered an acceptable method to evaluate research studies for evidence-based practices. The purpose of this review is to examine the applicability of using meta-analyses in the learning disability field to guide classroom practice. The authors evaluated 15 learning disability meta-analyses in three domains: large-scale…

  17. Scalp cooling: a critical examination.

    PubMed

    Noble-Adams, R

    1998-11-01

    In this paper the author describes the scientific conceptual framework of chemotherapy-induced alopecia. This includes the mechanisms of hair growth, the action of chemotherapeutic agents on the hair, how scalp cooling works and how the procedure is implemented. She critically examines the published literature on scalp cooling efficacy and describes when it should be used and the pros and cons of the treatment.

  18. 46 CFR 31.10-21 - Drydock examination, internal structural examination, cargo tank internal examination, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... to Commandant (CG-CVC); (2) During the vessel's next drydocking after the request is submitted, no... recommendation of the Officer in Charge, Marine Inspection, are submitted to Commandant (CG-CVC) for final... completion of the voyage. (g) The Commandant (CG-CVC) may authorize extensions to the examination...

  19. 46 CFR 91.40-3 - Drydock examination, internal structural examination, cargo tank internal examination, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... to Commandant (CG-CVC); (2) During the vessel's next drydocking after the request is submitted, no... recommendation of the Officer in Charge, Marine Inspection, are submitted to Commandant (CG-CVC) for final... completion of the voyage. (g) The Commandant (CG-CVC) may authorize extensions to the examination...

  20. 46 CFR 189.40-3 - Drydock examination, internal structural examination, cargo tank internal examination, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... to Commandant (CG-CVC); (2) During the vessel's next drydocking after the request is submitted, no... recommendation of the Officer in Charge, Marine Inspection, are submitted to Commandant (CG-CVC) for final... completion of the voyage. (g) The Commandant (CG-CVC) may authorize extensions to the examination...

  1. 46 CFR 91.40-3 - Drydock examination, internal structural examination, cargo tank internal examination, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... to Commandant (CG-CVC); (2) During the vessel's next drydocking after the request is submitted, no... recommendation of the Officer in Charge, Marine Inspection, are submitted to Commandant (CG-CVC) for final... completion of the voyage. (g) The Commandant (CG-CVC) may authorize extensions to the examination...

  2. 46 CFR 31.10-21 - Drydock examination, internal structural examination, cargo tank internal examination, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... to Commandant (CG-CVC); (2) During the vessel's next drydocking after the request is submitted, no... recommendation of the Officer in Charge, Marine Inspection, are submitted to Commandant (CG-CVC) for final... completion of the voyage. (g) The Commandant (CG-CVC) may authorize extensions to the examination...

  3. 46 CFR 91.40-3 - Drydock examination, internal structural examination, cargo tank internal examination, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... to Commandant (CG-CVC); (2) During the vessel's next drydocking after the request is submitted, no... recommendation of the Officer in Charge, Marine Inspection, are submitted to Commandant (CG-CVC) for final... completion of the voyage. (g) The Commandant (CG-CVC) may authorize extensions to the examination...

  4. 46 CFR 189.40-3 - Drydock examination, internal structural examination, cargo tank internal examination, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... to Commandant (CG-CVC); (2) During the vessel's next drydocking after the request is submitted, no... recommendation of the Officer in Charge, Marine Inspection, are submitted to Commandant (CG-CVC) for final... completion of the voyage. (g) The Commandant (CG-CVC) may authorize extensions to the examination...

  5. 46 CFR 31.10-21 - Drydock examination, internal structural examination, cargo tank internal examination, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... to Commandant (CG-CVC); (2) During the vessel's next drydocking after the request is submitted, no... recommendation of the Officer in Charge, Marine Inspection, are submitted to Commandant (CG-CVC) for final... completion of the voyage. (g) The Commandant (CG-CVC) may authorize extensions to the examination...

  6. 46 CFR 189.40-3 - Drydock examination, internal structural examination, cargo tank internal examination, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... to Commandant (CG-CVC); (2) During the vessel's next drydocking after the request is submitted, no... recommendation of the Officer in Charge, Marine Inspection, are submitted to Commandant (CG-CVC) for final... completion of the voyage. (g) The Commandant (CG-CVC) may authorize extensions to the examination...

  7. Immigrants' health in Europe: a cross-classified multilevel approach to examine origin country, destination country, and community effects.

    PubMed

    Huijts, Tim; Kraaykamp, Gerbert

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we examined origin, destination, and community effects on first- and second-generation immigrants' health in Europe. We used information from the European Social Surveys (2002–2008) on 19,210 immigrants from 123 countries of origin, living in 31 European countries. Cross-classified multilevel regression analyses reveal that political suppression in the origin country and living in countries with large numbers of immigrant peers have a detrimental influence on immigrants' health. Originating from predominantly Islamic countries and good average health among natives in the destination country appear to be beneficial. Additionally, the results point toward health selection mechanisms into migration.

  8. 76 FR 6369 - Changes To Implement the Prioritized Examination Track (Track I) of the Enhanced Examination...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-04

    ... implementation of the Prioritized Examination Track (Track I), providing fast examination for applicants desiring... examiners or supervisory patent examiners, specialized examiner training for fast track...

  9. Fracturing and brittleness index analyses of shales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnhoorn, Auke; Primarini, Mutia; Houben, Maartje

    2016-04-01

    The formation of a fracture network in rocks has a crucial control on the flow behaviour of fluids. In addition, an existing network of fractures , influences the propagation of new fractures during e.g. hydraulic fracturing or during a seismic event. Understanding of the type and characteristics of the fracture network that will be formed during e.g. hydraulic fracturing is thus crucial to better predict the outcome of a hydraulic fracturing job. For this, knowledge of the rock properties is crucial. The brittleness index is often used as a rock property that can be used to predict the fracturing behaviour of a rock for e.g. hydraulic fracturing of shales. Various terminologies of the brittleness index (BI1, BI2 and BI3) exist based on mineralogy, elastic constants and stress-strain behaviour (Jin et al., 2014, Jarvie et al., 2007 and Holt et al., 2011). A maximum brittleness index of 1 predicts very good and efficient fracturing behaviour while a minimum brittleness index of 0 predicts a much more ductile shale behaviour. Here, we have performed systematic petrophysical, acoustic and geomechanical analyses on a set of shale samples from Whitby (UK) and we have determined the three different brittleness indices on each sample by performing all the analyses on each of the samples. We show that each of the three brittleness indices are very different for the same sample and as such it can be concluded that the brittleness index is not a good predictor of the fracturing behaviour of shales. The brittleness index based on the acoustic data (BI1) all lie around values of 0.5, while the brittleness index based on the stress strain data (BI2) give an average brittleness index around 0.75, whereas the mineralogy brittleness index (BI3) predict values below 0.2. This shows that by using different estimates of the brittleness index different decisions can be made for hydraulic fracturing. If we would rely on the mineralogy (BI3), the Whitby mudstone is not a suitable

  10. Dermatoglyphic analyses in children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Simsek, S; Taskiran, H; Karakaya, N; Fistik, T; Solak, M; Cakmak, E A

    1998-01-01

    This study was intended to elucidate the diagnostic values of dermatoglyphic features on the 45 cerebral palsy (CP) patients (28 boys and 17 girls). There were 50 healthy children in the control group. Dermatoglyphic samples were obtained from the both groups by using the paper and ink method and than analysed. The types of dermal patterns of fingertips, the counts of total ridges, the counts of a-b ridges, the values of atd angles, presence or absence of dermal patterns in the hypothenar, thenar/I, II, III, IV interdigital areas, presence of absence of the palmar flexion lines, were compared between the children with CP and control group. It was found that arch, radial loop, whorl prints have increased and ulnar print has decreased in boys investigated which was significant statistically (p < 0.001). No difference was found between investigation and control groups of girls (p > 0.05). The total ridge counts in boys and girls of the investigation group were found significantly decreasing according to the control group (p < 0.001). There was an important decrease in the counts of a-b ridges of investigation group as compared to controls. It was significant in boys (p < 0.01) but not in girls (p > 0.05). The values of atd angles of the investigation group have increased in the control group (p < 0.001 in girls and p < 0.01 in boys). The dermal prints in the hypothenar, thenar/I, II, III and IV interdigital areas showed important differences in the investigation group when compared with the control group (p < 0.01). No clear distinction occurred between the two groups from the viewpoint of palmar flexion lines (p > 0.05). In conclusion, remarkable differences in comparison to controls were found in the dermatoglyphic features of CP cases. In our opinion, by undertaking more studies on the subject and examining a higher number of cases it will be possible to obtain useful data in CP cases indicative of etiologically.

  11. Afghanistan Drawdown Preparations: DOD Decision Makers Need Additional Analyses to Determine Costs and Benefits of Returning Excess Equipment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-19

    Major end items are equipment that is important to operational readiness such as aircraft; boats; motorized wheeled , tracked, and towed vehicles...Process (cont.) Loader , Scoop Type (July 2012 Playbook, p. 292) There are155 Marine Corps Scoop Type Loaders in Afghanistan, all of which are... loaders are determined to be excess when the disposition instructions are issued, the transportation cost for the return of these loaders could range

  12. Report: Additional Analyses of Mercury Emissions Needed Before EPA Finalizes Rules for Coal-Fired Electric Utilities

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Report #2005-P-00003, February 3, 2005. Evidence indicates that EPA senior management instructed EPA staff to develop a Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) standard for mercury that would result in national emissions of 34 tons annually.

  13. Level II Ergonomic Analyses, Dover AFB, DE

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-02-01

    IERA-RS-BR-TR-1999-0002 UNITED STATES AIR FORCE IERA Level II Ergonomie Analyses, Dover AFB, DE Andrew Marcotte Marilyn Joyce The Joyce...Project (070401881, Washington, DC 20503. 1. AGENCY USE ONLY (Leave blank) 2. REPORT DATE 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Level II Ergonomie Analyses, Dover...1.0 INTRODUCTION 1-1 1.1 Purpose Of The Level II Ergonomie Analyses : 1-1 1.2 Approach 1-1 1.2.1 Initial Shop Selection and Administration of the

  14. New phylogenomic and comparative analyses provide corroborating evidence that Myxozoa is Cnidaria.

    PubMed

    Feng, Jin-Mei; Xiong, Jie; Zhang, Jin-Yong; Yang, Ya-Lin; Yao, Bin; Zhou, Zhi-Gang; Miao, Wei

    2014-12-01

    Myxozoa, a diverse group of morphologically simplified endoparasites, are well known fish parasites causing substantial economic losses in aquaculture. Despite active research, the phylogenetic position of Myxozoa remains ambiguous. After obtaining the genome and transcriptome data of the myxozoan Thelohanellus kitauei, we examined the phylogenetic position of Myxozoa from three different perspectives. First, phylogenomic analyses with the newly sequenced genomic data strongly supported the monophyly of Myxozoa and that Myxozoa is sister to Medusozoa within Cnidaria. Second, we detected two homologs to cnidarian-specific minicollagens in the T. kitauei genome with molecular characteristics similar to cnidarian-specific minicollagens, suggesting that the minicollagen homologs in T. kitauei may have functions similar to those in Cnidaria and that Myxozoa is Cnidaria. Additionally, phylogenetic analyses revealed that the minicollagens in myxozoans and medusozoans have a common ancestor. Third, we detected 11 of the 19 proto-mesodermalgenes in the T. kitauei genome, which were also present in the cnidarian Hydra magnipapillata, indicating Myxozoa is within Cnidaria. Thus, our results robustly support Myxozoa as a derived cnidarian taxon with an affinity to Medusozoa, helping to understand the diversity of the morphology, development and life cycle of Cnidaria and its evolution.

  15. Comparative Mitogenomic Analyses of Praying Mantises (Dictyoptera, Mantodea): Origin and Evolution of Unusual Intergenic Gaps

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hong-Li; Ye, Fei

    2017-01-01

    Praying mantises are a diverse group of predatory insects. Although some Mantodea mitogenomes have been reported, a comprehensive comparative and evolutionary genomic study is lacking for this group. In the present study, four new mitogenomes were sequenced, annotated, and compared to the previously published mitogenomes of other Mantodea species. Most Mantodea mitogenomes share a typical set of mitochondrial genes and a putative control region (CR). Additionally, and most intriguingly, another large non-coding region (LNC) was detected between trnM and ND2 in all six Paramantini mitogenomes examined. The main section in this common region of Paramantini may have initially originated from the corresponding control region for each species, whereas sequence differences between the LNCs and CRs and phylogenetic analyses indicate that LNC and CR are largely independently evolving. Namely, the LNC (the duplicated CR) may have subsequently degenerated during evolution. Furthermore, evidence suggests that special intergenic gaps have been introduced in some species through gene rearrangement and duplication. These gaps are actually the original abutting sequences of migrated or duplicated genes. Some gaps (G5 and G6) are homologous to the 5' and 3' surrounding regions of the duplicated gene in the original gene order, and another specific gap (G7) has tandem repeats. We analysed the phylogenetic relationships of fifteen Mantodea species using 37 concatenated mitochondrial genes and detected several synapomorphies unique to species in some clades. PMID:28367101

  16. Relations of alpine plant communities across environmental gradients: Multilevel versus multiscale analyses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Malanson, George P.; Zimmerman, Dale L.; Kinney, Mitch; Fagre, Daniel B.

    2017-01-01

    Alpine plant communities vary, and their environmental covariates could influence their response to climate change. A single multilevel model of how alpine plant community composition is determined by hierarchical relations is compared to a separate examination of those relations at different scales. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling of species cover for plots in four regions across the Rocky Mountains created dependent variables. Climate variables are derived for the four regions from interpolated data. Plot environmental variables are measured directly and the presence of thirty-seven site characteristics is recorded and used to create additional independent variables. Multilevel and best subsets regressions are used to determine the strength of the hypothesized relations. The ordinations indicate structure in the assembly of plant communities. The multilevel analyses, although revealing significant relations, provide little explanation; of the site variables, those related to site microclimate are most important. In multiscale analyses (whole and separate regions), different variables are better explanations within the different regions. This result indicates weak environmental niche control of community composition. The weak relations of the structure in the patterns of species association to the environment indicates that either alpine vegetation represents a case of the neutral theory of biogeography being a valid explanation or that it represents disequilibrium conditions. The implications of neutral theory and disequilibrium explanations are similar: Response to climate change will be difficult to quantify above equilibrium background turnover.

  17. Development of a Summative Examination with Subject Matter Expert Validation

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Eric F.; Carle, Martha H.; Stowe, Cindy D.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To describe the development, implementation and impact of a summative examination on student learning and programmatic curricular outcomes. Methods. The summative examination was developed using a systematic approach. Item reliability was evaluated using standard psychometric analyses. Content validity was assessed using necessity scoring as determined by subject matter experts. Results. Almost 700 items written by 37 faculty members were evaluated. Passing standards increased annually (45% in 2009 to 67% in 2014) as the result of targeting item difficulty and necessity scores. The percentage of items exhibiting discrimination above 0.1 increased to 100% over the four years. Necessity scores above 2.75 out of 4 increased from 65% to 100% of items over six years of examination administration. Conclusion. This examination successfully assessed student and curricular outcomes. Faculty member engagement observed in this process supports a culture of assessment. This type of examination could be beneficial to other programs. PMID:27073282

  18. An analysis of Ph.D. examiners' reports in engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prieto, Elena; Holbrook, Allyson; Bourke, Sid

    2016-03-01

    In recent years, there have been increasing calls for an overall transformation of the nature of engineering Ph.D. programs and the way theses are assessed. There exists a need to understand the examination process to ensure the best quality outcome for candidates in engineering. The work we present in this paper uses data collected between 2003 and 2010 for a total of 1220 Australian Ph.D. theses by analysing examiner reports. Our analysis indicates that Ph.D. theses in engineering, N = 106, differ considerably from those in other fields in areas such as gender of candidates and examiners and the examiners' geographical location. We also found that assessment areas such as significance and contribution of the thesis, publications arising from the thesis, breadth, depth and recency of the literature review and communication and editorial correctness are areas in which the proportion of text of engineering examiners' comments differs significantly from other fields.

  19. Analysis of factors correlating with medical radiological examination frequencies.

    PubMed

    Jahnen, A; Järvinen, H; Olerud, H; Vassilieva, J; Vogiatzi, S; Shannoun, F; Bly, R

    2015-07-01

    The European Commission (EC) funded project Dose Datamed 2 (DDM2) had two objectives: to collect available data on patient doses from the radiodiagnostic procedures (X-ray and nuclear medicine) in Europe, and to facilitate the implementation of the Radiation Protection 154 Guidelines (RP154). Besides the collection of frequency and dose data, two questionnaires were issued to gather information about medical radiological imaging. This article analyses a possible correlation between the collected frequency data, selected variables from the results of the detailed questionnaire and national economic data. Based on a 35 countries dataset, there is no correlation between the gross domestic product (GDP) and the total number of X-ray examinations in a country. However, there is a significant correlation (p < 0.01) between the GDP and the overall CT examination frequency. High income countries perform more CT examinations per inhabitant. That suggests that planar X-ray examinations are replaced by CT examinations.

  20. Advantages of an Improved Rhesus Macaque Genome for Evolutionary Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Gradnigo, Julien S.; Majumdar, Abhishek; Norgren, Robert B.; Moriyama, Etsuko N.

    2016-01-01

    The rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) is widely used in molecular evolutionary analyses, particularly to identify genes under adaptive or unique evolution in the human lineage. For such studies, it is necessary to align nucleotide sequences of homologous protein-coding genes among multiple species. The validity of these analyses is dependent on high quality genomic data. However, for most mammalian species (other than humans and mice), only draft genomes are available. There has been concern that some results obtained from evolutionary analyses using draft genomes may not be correct. The rhesus macaque provides a unique opportunity to determine whether an improved genome (MacaM) yields better results than a draft genome (rheMac2) for evolutionary studies. We compared protein-coding genes annotated in the rheMac2 and MacaM genomes with their human orthologs. We found many genes annotated in rheMac2 had apparently spurious sequences not present in genes derived from MacaM. The rheMac2 annotations also appeared to inflate a frequently used evolutionary index, ω (the ratio of nonsynonymous to synonymous substitution rates). Genes with these spurious sequences must be filtered out from evolutionary analyses to obtain correct results. With the MacaM genome, improved sequence information means many more genes can be examined for indications of selection. These results indicate how upgrading genomes from draft status to a higher level of quality can improve interpretation of evolutionary patterns. PMID:27911958

  1. Genome-Facilitated Analyses of Geomicrobial Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Kenneth H. Nealson

    2012-05-02

    that makes up chitin, virtually all of the strains were in fact capable. This led to the discovery of a great many new genes involved with chitin and NAG metabolism (7). In a similar vein, a detailed study of the sugar utilization pathway revealed a major new insight into the regulation of sugar metabolism in this genus (19). Systems Biology and Comparative Genomics of the shewanellae: Several publications were put together describing the use of comparative genomics for analyses of the group Shewanella, and these were a logical culmination of our genomic-driven research (10,15,18). Eight graduate students received their Ph.D. degrees doing part of the work described here, and four postdoctoral fellows were supported. In addition, approximately 20 undergraduates took part in projects during the grant period.

  2. Interactive graphics for functional data analyses.

    PubMed

    Wrobel, Julia; Park, So Young; Staicu, Ana Maria; Goldsmith, Jeff

    Although there are established graphics that accompany the most common functional data analyses, generating these graphics for each dataset and analysis can be cumbersome and time consuming. Often, the barriers to visualization inhibit useful exploratory data analyses and prevent the development of intuition for a method and its application to a particular dataset. The refund.shiny package was developed to address these issues for several of the most common functional data analyses. After conducting an analysis, the plot shiny() function is used to generate an interactive visualization environment that contains several distinct graphics, many of which are updated in response to user input. These visualizations reduce the burden of exploratory analyses and can serve as a useful tool for the communication of results to non-statisticians.

  3. Quality control considerations in performing washability analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, R.D.

    1984-10-01

    The author describes, in considerable detail, the procedures for carrying out washability analyses as laid down in ASTM Standard Test Method D4371. These include sampling, sample preparation, hydrometer standardisation, washability testing, and analysis of specific gravity fractions.

  4. SCM Forcing Data Derived from NWP Analyses

    DOE Data Explorer

    Jakob, Christian

    2008-01-15

    Forcing data, suitable for use with single column models (SCMs) and cloud resolving models (CRMs), have been derived from NWP analyses for the ARM (Atmospheric Radiation Measurement) Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) sites of Manus Island and Nauru.

  5. Anthocyanin analyses of Vaccinium fruit dietary supplements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vaccinium fruit ingredients within dietary supplements were identified by comparisons with anthocyanin analyses of known Vaccinium profiles (demonstration of anthocyanin fingerprinting). Available Vaccinium supplements were purchased and analyzed; their anthocyanin profiles (based on HPLC separation...

  6. Comparison with Russian analyses of meteor impact

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, G.H.

    1997-06-01

    The inversion model for meteor impacts is used to discuss Russian analyses and compare principal results. For common input parameters, the models produce consistent estimates of impactor parameters. Directions for future research are discussed and prioritized.

  7. 49 CFR 1572.107 - Other analyses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ASSESSMENTS Standards for Security Threat Assessments § 1572.107 Other analyses. (a) TSA may determine that an... the search conducted under this part reveals extensive foreign or domestic criminal convictions,...

  8. A History of Rotorcraft Comprehensive Analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Wayne

    2013-01-01

    A history of the development of rotorcraft comprehensive analyses is presented. Comprehensive analyses are digital computer programs that calculate the aeromechanical behavior of the rotor and aircraft, bringing together the most advanced models of the geometry, structure, dynamics, and aerodynamics available in rotary wing technology. The development of the major codes of the last five decades from industry, government, and universities is described. A number of common themes observed in this history are discussed.

  9. Analyses and forecasts with LAWS winds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Muyin; Paegle, Jan

    1994-01-01

    Horizontal fluxes of atmospheric water vapor are studied for summer months during 1989 and 1992 over North and South America based on analyses from European Center for Medium Range Weather Forecasts, US National Meteorological Center, and United Kingdom Meteorological Office. The calculations are performed over 20 deg by 20 deg box-shaped midlatitude domains located to the east of the Rocky Mountains in North America, and to the east of the Andes Mountains in South America. The fluxes are determined from operational center gridded analyses of wind and moisture. Differences in the monthly mean moisture flux divergence determined from these analyses are as large as 7 cm/month precipitable water equivalent over South America, and 3 cm/month over North America. Gridded analyses at higher spatial and temporal resolution exhibit better agreement in the moisture budget study. However, significant discrepancies of the moisture flux divergence computed from different gridded analyses still exist. The conclusion is more pessimistic than Rasmusson's estimate based on station data. Further analysis reveals that the most significant sources of error result from model surface elevation fields, gaps in the data archive, and uncertainties in the wind and specific humidity analyses. Uncertainties in the wind analyses are the most important problem. The low-level jets, in particular, are substantially different in the different data archives. Part of the reason for this may be due to the way the different analysis models parameterized physical processes affecting low-level jets. The results support the inference that the noise/signal ratio of the moisture budget may be improved more rapidly by providing better wind observations and analyses than by providing better moisture data.

  10. Postirradiation examination of beryllium pebbles

    SciTech Connect

    Gelles, D.S.

    1998-03-01

    Postirradiation examinations of COBRA-1A beryllium pebbles irradiated in the EBR-II fast reactor at neutron fluences which generated 2700--3700 appm helium have been performed. Measurements included density change, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The major change in microstructure is development of unusually shaped helium bubbles forming as highly non-equiaxed thin platelet-like cavities on the basal plane. Measurement of the swelling due to cavity formation was in good agreement with density change measurements.

  11. Chronic osteomyelitis examined by CT

    SciTech Connect

    Wing, V.W.; Jeffrey, R.B. Jr.; Federle, M.P.; Helms, C.A.; Trafton, P.

    1985-01-01

    CT examination of 25 patients who had acute exacerbations of chronic osteomyelitis allowed for the correct identification of single or multiple sequestra in 14 surgical patients. Plain radiographs were equivocal for sequestra in seven of these patients, because the sequestra were too small or because diffuse bony sclerosis was present. CT also demonstrated a foreign body and five soft tissue abscesses not suspected on the basis of plain radiographs. CT studies, which helped guide the operative approach, were also useful in treating those patients whose plain radiographs were positive for sequestra. The authors review the potential role of CT in evaluating patients with chronic osteomyelitis.

  12. Ultrasound examination in arthropathia humeroscapularis.

    PubMed

    Chyczewska, Agnieszka; Lasek, Władysław; Kobierowski, Marcin

    2005-02-28

    This article discusses the diagnostic potential of ultrasonography in a common clinical condition: periarthropathia humeroscapularis. The authors describe pathologies of the rotatory cuff, the tendon of the long head of humeral biceps, the bursa subacromialis, and the articular capsule. The advantages of ultrasonography are emphasized, such as its noninvasiveness, the possibility of performing dynamic examination, and general accessibility. The authors describe pathological changes, such as tendinitis, tenosynovitis, bursitis, tendinitis calcarea, tendinosis, degenerative changes, and partial and complete tear of the tendon. Impingement syndrome and dialysis- related amyloidosis of the shoulder are separately discussed.

  13. The fellowship examination in otolaryngology.

    PubMed

    Alun-Jones, T

    1990-04-01

    A questionnaire was sent to 26 successful candidates at the Royal College of Surgeons of London final fellowship examination in Otolaryngology. Twenty were returned complete. An audit of the surgical training and exam preparation of the candidates is presented. All candidates worked in teaching hospitals at the time of passing the exam and most received tuition from senior registrars. All candidates worked in the Midlands or South of the country. Fourteen of the 20 possessed another surgical fellowship. The average time spent in ENT was 29 months and in training outside ENT was 21 months.

  14. An Optometric Clinical Practicum Examination Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eskridge, Jess B.

    1979-01-01

    A practical clinical examination model for use by state board examiners in optometry is described including purpose, format, examination design, procedures, evaluation examples and administration. (JMF)

  15. [Problems of occupational fitness conclusion on periodic medical examination].

    PubMed

    Alekseev, V B; Vlasova, E M; Nosov, A E; Ponomareva, T A; Kostarev, V G

    2014-01-01

    Additional examination in Occupational Pathology Center are economic loss both for employer and employee, as the employee receives payment for those days when in the examination. Analysis of over 600 cases of occupational fitness examination in Occupational Pathology Center according to referrals given by medical institutions providing periodic medical examination shows that in most cases the conclusion was possible during periodic medical examination. Difficulties in conclusion on workers' fitness for occupation during periodic medical examination, according to our viewpoint, result not from limited diagnostic facilities for adequate examination and unfitness disclosure, but from lack of information in primary medical documentation and inadequacy of occupational factor and work characteristics presented by employer to actual working conditions.

  16. Nonlinear Thermal Analyses of a Liquid Hydrogen Tank Wall

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smeltzer, Stanley S., III; Waters, W. Allen, Jr.

    2003-01-01

    A thermal evaluation of a composite tank wall design for a liquid hydrogen tank was performed in the present study. The primary focus of the current effort was to perform one-dimensional, temperature nonlinear, transient thermal analyses to determine the through-the-thickness temperature profiles. These profiles were used to identify critical points within the flight envelope that could have detrimental effects on the adhesive bondlines used in the construction of the tank wall. Additionally, this paper presents the finite element models, analysis strategies, and thermal analysis results that were determined for several vehicle flight conditions. The basic tank wall configuration used to perform the thermal analyses consisted of carbon-epoxy facesheets and a Korex honeycomb core sandwich that was insulated with an Airex cryogenic foam and an Alumina Enhanced Thermal Barrier (AETB-12). Nonlinear, transient thermal analyses were conducted using the ABAQUS finite element code. Tank wall models at a windward side location on the fuel tank were analyzed for three basic flight conditions: cold-soak (ground-hold), ascent, and re-entry. Additionally, three ambient temperature boundary conditions were applied to the tank wall for the cold-soak condition, which simulated the launch pad cooldown process. Time-dependent heating rates were used in the analyses of the ascent and reentry segments of the flight history along with temperature dependent material properties. The steady-state through-the-thickness temperature profile from the cold-soak condition was used as the initial condition for the ascent analyses. Results from the nonlinear thermal analyses demonstrated very good correlation with results from similar models evaluated by Northrop- Grumman using a different analysis tool. Wall through-the-thickness temperature gradients as a function of flight time were obtained for future incorporation into a full-scale thermostructural analysis to evaluate the adhesive bondlines

  17. Residual Stresses and Critical Initial Flaw Size Analyses of Welds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brust, Frederick W.; Raju, Ivatury, S.; Dawocke, David S.; Cheston, Derrick

    2009-01-01

    An independent assessment was conducted to determine the critical initial flaw size (CIFS) for the flange-to-skin weld in the Ares I-X Upper Stage Simulator (USS). A series of weld analyses are performed to determine the residual stresses in a critical region of the USS. Weld residual stresses both increase constraint and mean stress thereby having an important effect on the fatigue life. The purpose of the weld analyses was to model the weld process using a variety of sequences to determine the 'best' sequence in terms of weld residual stresses and distortions. The many factors examined in this study include weld design (single-V, double-V groove), weld sequence, boundary conditions, and material properties, among others. The results of this weld analysis are included with service loads to perform a fatigue and critical initial flaw size evaluation.

  18. Correspondence between outcomes of brief and extended functional analyses.

    PubMed

    Kahng, S; Iwata, B A

    1999-01-01

    We compared results obtained from 50 sets of functional analysis data from assessments of self-injurious behavior (SIB), 35 of which showed clear response patterns and 15 of which were undifferentiated, with those obtained from two abbreviated methods of assessment: (a) a brief functional analysis, consisting of the first session of each condition from the full functional analysis, and (b) a within-session analysis, in which data from the brief analysis were regraphed to show minute-by-minute changes in response rates during a session. Results indicated that outcomes of the brief and within-session analyses corresponded with those of the full functional analyses in 66.0% and 68.0% of the cases, respectively. Further examination of results indicated a tendency for the brief analysis to identify a large proportion of positive cases (both true and false positives) and for the within-session analysis to identify a large proportion of negative cases (true and false negatives).

  19. Electrodiagnostic examination of lumbosacral radiculopathies.

    PubMed

    Weber, F; Albert, U

    2000-06-01

    To determine the diagnostic efficacy of late responses and of magnetic stimulation in the electrodiagnostic evaluation of lumbosacral radiculopathies, 42 patients with acute monoradiculopathies of L5 or S1 were examined. We performed conventional nerve conduction studies, F-wave studies, needle electrode examination (NEE) and magnetic stimulation. The results were compared with a control group of 36 persons. In the patients with weakness, we found a diagnostic sensitivity for NEE of 90% in L5 and of 80% in S1. F-waves had the same sensitivity as NEE in the patients with weakness and were more sensitive in the group of patients without weakness (L5 80%, S1 67%). Magnetic stimulation had a sensitivity of 40% in all groups. There were also abnormalities of NEE and of F-wave studies in the patients with abnormal magnetic stimulation. It is concluded that NEE is the single most effective method in acute LSR and that F-wave studies are able to provide complementary information. Magnetically evoked motor nerve root stimulation was not found of clinically relevant diagnostic value.

  20. OCT for Examination of Artwork

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Targowski, Piotr; Iwanicka, Magdalena; Rouba, Bogumiła J.; Frosinini, Cecilia

    In this chapter the application of OCT to examination of objects of cultural heritage is given. The knowledge about the structure of the object of art is necessary both for inventory purposes and planning/monitoring of conservation-restoration treatments. Due to its noninvasiveness OCT is well suited for such applications. The major limitation is in the lack of transparency of certain structures. Specific requirements, advantages and limitations of use of the OCT technique in this area are discussed first. Then the overview of applications to easel paintings, historic glass, and craftsmanship is given, followed by two examples of monitoring the laser ablation with OCT: very local in case of Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS), and more general in case of laser ablation of the varnish layer. Then the examples of application of OCT to examination of paintings are given: investigation of deterioration of the varnish layer in the "Adoration of the Magi" by Leonardo da Vinci (Uffizi, Italy), imaging of overpaintings on two 17th and 18th c. oil paintings on canvas, and visualization of specific case of retouching located between two layers of varnish in the "Madonna with Yarnwinder" (attributed to L. da Vinci, private property).

  1. Microbiological Examination of Erwinia amylovora Exopolysaccharide Ooze.

    PubMed

    Slack, Suzanne M; Zeng, Quan; Outwater, Cory A; Sundin, George W

    2017-04-01

    Fire blight, caused by the pathogen Erwinia amylovora, is the most devastating bacterial disease of pome fruit in North America and worldwide. The primary method of dispersal for E. amylovora is through ooze, a mass of exopolysaccharides and bacterial cells that is exuded as droplets from infected host tissue. During the 2013 and 2014 field seasons, 317 ooze droplets were collected from field-inoculated apple trees. Populations of E. amylovora in ooze droplets were 10(8) CFU/μl on average. Ooze droplets harboring larger (>10(8) CFU/μl) cell populations were typically smaller in total volume and had darker coloring, such as orange, red, or dark red hues. Examination of apple host tissue at the site of emergence of ooze droplets using scanning electron microscopy revealed that ooze was not exuding through natural openings; instead, it was found on erumpent mounds and small (10-μm) tears in tissue. These observations suggested that E. amylovora-induced wounds in tissue provided the exit holes for ooze extrusion from the host. Analyses of E. amylovora populations in ooze droplets and within the stems from which ooze droplets emerged indicated that approximately 9% of the total bacterial population from infected stems is diverted to ooze. Gene expression analyses indicated that E. amylovora cells in stem sections located above ooze droplets and in ooze droplets were actively expressing critical pathogenicity genes such as hrpL, dspE, and amsK. Thus, our study identified ooze as a source of large, concentrated populations of E. amylovora that emerged from the host by rupturing host tissue. Because the cells in ooze droplets are expressing genes required for pathogenesis, they are already primed for infection should they be dispersed from ooze to new infection courts.

  2. Examining Dehydration and Hypoxic Stress in Wheat Plants Using a Porous Tube Plant Nutrient Delivery System Developed for Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dreschel, T. W.; Hall, C. R.; Foster, T. E.; Salganic, M.; Warren, L.; Corbett, M.

    2005-01-01

    The Porous Tube Plant Nutrient Delivery System (PTPNDS) was designed for NASA to grow plants in microgravity of space. The system utilizes a controlled fluid loop to supply nutrients and water to plant roots growing on a ceramic surface moistened by capiflary action. A PTPNDS test bed was developed and utilizing remote sensing systems, spectral analyses procedures, gas-exchange, and fluorescence measurements, we examined differences in plant water status for wheat plants (Triticum aestivum, cv. Perigee) grown in a modified growth chamber during the summers of 2003 and 2004. Some differences in plant performance were detectable in the gas-exchange and fluorescence measurements. For instance, in both years the plants grown with the most available water had the lowest rates of photosynthesis and exhibited higher proportions of non-photochemical quenching particularly under low light levels. In addition, small differences in mean leaf water content between treatments were detected using spectral reflectance analyses.

  3. Examining the Associations Among Home-School Dissonance, Amotivation, and Classroom Disruptive Behavior for Urban High School Students.

    PubMed

    Brown-Wright, Lynda; Tyler, Kenneth M; Graves, Scott L; Thomas, Deneia; Stevens-Watkins, Danelle; Mulder, Shambra

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined the association among home-school dissonance, amotivation, and classroom disruptive behavior among 309 high school juniors and seniors at two urban high schools in the Southern region of the country. Students completed two subscales of the Patterns of Learning Activities Scales (PALS) and one subscale of the Academic Motivation Scale (AMS). ANCOVA analyses revealed significant differences in classroom disruptive behaviors for the gender independent variable. Controlling for gender in the multiple hierarchical regression analyses, it was revealed that home-school dissonance significantly predicted both amotivation and classroom disruptive behavior. In addition, a Sobel mediation analysis showed that amotivation was a significant mediator of the association between home-school dissonance and classroom disruptive behavior. Findings and limitations are discussed.

  4. Examining the Associations Among Home–School Dissonance, Amotivation, and Classroom Disruptive Behavior for Urban High School Students

    PubMed Central

    Brown-Wright, Lynda; Tyler, Kenneth M.; Graves, Scott L.; Thomas, Deneia; Stevens-Watkins, Danelle; Mulder, Shambra

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined the association among home–school dissonance, amotivation, and classroom disruptive behavior among 309 high school juniors and seniors at two urban high schools in the Southern region of the country. Students completed two subscales of the Patterns of Learning Activities Scales (PALS) and one subscale of the Academic Motivation Scale (AMS). ANCOVA analyses revealed significant differences in classroom disruptive behaviors for the gender independent variable. Controlling for gender in the multiple hierarchical regression analyses, it was revealed that home–school dissonance significantly predicted both amotivation and classroom disruptive behavior. In addition, a Sobel mediation analysis showed that amotivation was a significant mediator of the association between home–school dissonance and classroom disruptive behavior. Findings and limitations are discussed. PMID:27081213

  5. Justification for Shielded Receiver Tube Additional Lead Shielding

    SciTech Connect

    BOGER, R.M.

    2000-04-11

    In order to reduce high radiation dose rates encountered when core sampling some radioactive waste tanks the addition of 240 lbs. of lead shielding is being considered to the shielded receiver tube on core sample trucks No.1, No.3 and No.4. The lead shielding is 4 inch diameter x 1/2 inch thick half rounds that have been installed around the SR tube over its' full length. Using three unreleased but independently reviewed structural analyses HNF-6018 justifies the addition of the lead shielding.

  6. Different responses of soil respiration and its components to nitrogen addition among biomes: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Lingyan; Zhou, Xuhui; Zhang, Baocheng; Lu, Meng; Luo, Yiqi; Liu, Lingli; Li, Bo

    2014-07-01

    Anthropogenic activities have increased nitrogen (N) deposition by threefold to fivefold over the last century, which may considerably affect soil respiration (Rs). Although numerous individual studies and a few meta-analyses have been conducted, it remains controversial as to how N addition affects Rs and its components [i.e., autotrophic (Ra) and heterotrophic respiration (Rh)]. To reconcile the difference, we conducted a comprehensive meta-analysis of 295 published studies to examine the responses of Rs and its components to N addition in terrestrial ecosystems. We also assessed variations in their responses in relation to ecosystem types, environmental conditions, and experimental duration (DUR). Our results show that N addition significantly increased Rs by 2.0% across all biomes but decreased by 1.44% in forests and increased by 7.84% and 12.4% in grasslands and croplands, respectively (P < 0.05). The differences may largely result from diverse responses of Ra to N addition among biomes with more stimulation of Ra in croplands and grasslands compared with no significant change in forests. Rh exhibited a similar negative response to N addition among biomes except that in croplands, tropical and boreal forests. Methods of partitioning Rs did not induce significant differences in the responses of Ra or Rh to N addition, except that Ra from root exclusion and component integration methods exhibited the opposite responses in temperate forests. The response ratios (RR) of Rs to N addition were positively correlated with mean annual temperature (MAT), with being more significant when MAT was less than 15 °C, but negatively with DUR. In addition, the responses of Rs and its components to N addition largely resulted from the changes in root and microbial biomass and soil C content as indicated by correlation analysis. The response patterns of Rs to N addition as revealed in this study can be benchmarks for future modeling and experimental studies.

  7. Systematic Examination of Stardust Bulbous Track Wall Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakamura-Messenger, K.; Clemett, S. J.; Nguyen, A. N.; Berger, E. L.; Keller, L. P.; Messenger, S.

    2013-01-01

    Analyses of Comet Wild-2 samples returned by NASA's Stardust spacecraft have focused primarily on terminal particles (TPs) or well-preserved fine-grained materials along the track walls [1,2]. However much of the collected material was melted and mixed intimately with the aerogel by the hypervelocity impact [3,4]. We are performing systematic examinations of entire Stardust tracks to establish the mineralogy and origins of all comet Wild 2 components [7,8]. This report focuses on coordinated analyses of indigenous crystalline and amorphous/melt cometary materials along the aerogel track walls, their interaction with aerogel during collection and comparisons with their TPs.

  8. Non-additive and additive genetic effects on extraversion in 3314 Dutch adolescent twins and their parents.

    PubMed

    Rettew, David C; Rebollo-Mesa, Irene; Hudziak, James J; Willemsen, Gonneke; Boomsma, Dorret I

    2008-05-01

    The influence of non-additive genetic influences on personality traits has been increasingly reported in adult populations. Less is known, however, with respect to younger samples. In this study, we examine additive and non-additive genetic contributions to the personality trait of extraversion in 1,689 Dutch twin pairs, 1,505 mothers and 1,637 fathers of the twins. The twins were on average 15.5 years (range 12-18 years). To increase statistical power to detect non-additive genetic influences, data on extraversion were also collected in parents and simultaneously analyzed. Genetic modeling procedures incorporating age as a potential modifier of heritability showed significant influences of additive (20-23%) and non-additive genetic factors (31-33%) in addition to unshared environment (46-48%) for adolescents and for their parents. The additive genetic component was slightly and positively related to age. No significant sex differences were found for either extraversion means or for the magnitude of the genetic and environmental influences. There was no evidence of non-random mating for extraversion in the parental generation. Results show that in addition to additive genetic influences, extraversion in adolescents is influenced by non-additive genetic factors.

  9. Overview of Food Ingredients, Additives and Colors

    MedlinePlus

    ... pesticides where other legal premarket approval requirements apply. Direct food additives are those that are added to ... and other foods to add texture -- is a direct additive. Most direct additives are identified on the ...

  10. Publication bias in dermatology systematic reviews and meta-analyses.

    PubMed

    Atakpo, Paul; Vassar, Matt

    2016-05-01

    Systematic reviews and meta-analyses in dermatology provide high-level evidence for clinicians and policy makers that influence clinical decision making and treatment guidelines. One methodological problem with systematic reviews is the under representation of unpublished studies. This problem is due in part to publication bias. Omission of statistically non-significant data from meta-analyses may result in overestimation of treatment effect sizes which may lead to clinical consequences. Our goal was to assess whether systematic reviewers in dermatology evaluate and report publication bias. Further, we wanted to conduct our own evaluation of publication bias on meta-analyses that failed to do so. Our study considered systematic reviews and meta-analyses from ten dermatology journals from 2006 to 2016. A PubMed search was conducted, and all full-text articles that met our inclusion criteria were retrieved and coded by the primary author. 293 articles were included in our analysis. Additionally, we formally evaluated publication bias in meta-analyses that failed to do so using trim and fill and cumulative meta-analysis by precision methods. Publication bias was mentioned in 107 articles (36.5%) and was formally evaluated in 64 articles (21.8%). Visual inspection of a funnel plot was the most common method of evaluating publication bias. Publication bias was present in 45 articles (15.3%), not present in 57 articles (19.5%) and not determined in 191 articles (65.2%). Using the trim and fill method, 7 meta-analyses (33.33%) showed evidence of publication bias. Although the trim and fill method only found evidence of publication bias in 7 meta-analyses, the cumulative meta-analysis by precision method found evidence of publication bias in 15 meta-analyses (71.4%). Many of the reviews in our study did not mention or evaluate publication bias. Further, of the 42 articles that stated following PRISMA reporting guidelines, 19 (45.2%) evaluated for publication bias. In

  11. Genesis Preliminary Examination: Ellipsometry Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stansbery, E. K.; McNamara, K. M.

    2005-01-01

    The Genesis spacecraft returned to Earth on September 8, 2004, experiencing a non-nominal reentry in which both the drogue and main parachutes failed to deploy causing the capsule to impact the surface of the UTTR desert at a speed of approximately 310 kph (193 mph). The impact caused severe damage to the capsule and a breach of the science canister in the field. The science canister was recovered and transported to the cleanroom at UTTR within approximately 8 hours of reentry. Although the ground water table did not rise to canister level before removal, damp soil and debris from the heat shield and other spacecraft components did enter the canister and contaminate some collector surfaces. The objective of preliminary examination of the Genesis collectors is to provide the science community with the information necessary to request the most useful samples for their analysis.

  12. Cabin crew stress factors examined.

    PubMed

    Barayan, O S

    1991-05-01

    The impact of reduced cockpit crew on the cabin crew in commercial airlines is examined. One hundred cabin crew members participated in a study to determine what stressors are present in contemporary transport aircraft, the extent of differences in rating context-related and task-related stressors, and the effect of peak versus normal periods of duty time on stress factors. Results indicate that under peak period conditions, context-related factors are more stressful than task-related factors. Recommendations to alleviate cabin crew stress factors include training to maximize crew knowledge and abilities, elevate cabin crew to the same status as cockpit crew, improve the cabin crew certification program, and expose cabin crew to cockpit crew procedures to foster better communication and enhance safety.

  13. Examination Of Sulfur Measurements In DWPF Sludge Slurry And SRAT Product Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Bannochie, C. J.; Wiedenman, B. J.

    2012-11-29

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was asked to re-sample the received SB7b WAPS material for wt. % solids, perform an aqua regia digestion and analyze the digested material by inductively coupled plasma - atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES), as well as re-examine the supernate by ICP-AES. The new analyses were requested in order to provide confidence that the initial analytical subsample was representative of the Tank 40 sample received and to replicate the S results obtained on the initial subsample collected. The ICP-AES analyses for S were examined with both axial and radial detection of the sulfur ICP-AES spectroscopic emission lines to ascertain if there was any significant difference in the reported results. The outcome of this second subsample of the Tank 40 WAPS material is the first subject of this report. After examination of the data from the new subsample of the SB7b WAPS material, a team of DWPF and SRNL staff looked for ways to address the question of whether there was in fact insoluble S that was not being accounted for by ion chromatography (IC) analysis. The question of how much S is reaching the melter was thought best addressed by examining a DWPF Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) Product sample, but the significant dilution of sludge material, containing the S species in question, that results from frit addition was believed to add additional uncertainty to the S analysis of SME Product material. At the time of these discussions it was believed that all S present in a Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) Receipt sample would be converted to sulfate during the course of the SRAT cycle. A SRAT Product sample would not have the S dilution effect resulting from frit addition, and hence, it was decided that a DWPF SRAT Product sample would be obtained and submitted to SRNL for digestion and sample preparation followed by a round-robin analysis of the prepared samples by the DWPF Laboratory, F/H Laboratories, and SRNL for S and sulfate. The

  14. CUDA Enabled Graph Subset Examiner

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, Jeremy T.

    2016-12-22

    Finding Godsil-McKay switching sets in graphs is one way to demonstrate that a specific graph is not determined by its spectrum--the eigenvalues of its adjacency matrix. An important area of active research in pure mathematics is determining which graphs are determined by their spectra, i.e. when the spectrum of the adjacency matrix uniquely determines the underlying graph. We are interested in exploring the spectra of graphs in the Johnson scheme and specifically seek to determine which of these graphs are determined by their spectra. Given a graph G, a Godsil-McKay switching set is an induced subgraph H on 2k vertices with the following properties: I) H is regular, ii) every vertex in G/H is adjacent to either 0, k, or 2k vertices of H, and iii) at least one vertex in G/H is adjacent to k vertices in H. The software package examines each subset of a user specified size to determine whether or not it satisfies those 3 conditions. The software makes use of the massive parallel processing power of CUDA enabled GPUs. It also exploits the vertex transitivity of graphs in the Johnson scheme by reasoning that if G has a Godsil-McKay switching set, then it has a switching set which includes vertex 1. While the code (in its current state) is tuned to this specific problem, the method of examining each induced subgraph of G can be easily re-written to check for any user specified conditions on the subgraphs and can therefore be used much more broadly.

  15. Stardust interstellar preliminary examination (ISPE).

    SciTech Connect

    Westphal, A.J.; Allen, C.; Bajt, S.; Basset, R.; Flynn, G.L.; Sutton, S.

    2009-03-23

    The Stardust Interstellar Preliminary Examination (ISPE) is a three-year effort to characterize the Stardust interstellar dust collection and collector using non-destructive techniques. We summarize the status of the ISPE. In January 2006 the Stardust sample return capsule returned to Earth bearing the first solid samples from a primitive solar system body, Comet 81P/Wild2, and a collector dedicated to the capture and return of contemporary interstellar dust. Both collectors were {approx}0.1 m{sup 2} in area and were composed of aerogel tiles (85% of the collecting area) and aluminum foils. The Stardust Interstellar Dust Collector (SIDC) was exposed to the interstellar dust stream for a total exposure factor of 20 m{sup 2}-day during two periods before the cometary encounter. The Stardust Interstellar Preliminary Examination (ISPE) is a three-year effort to characterize the collection using nondestructive techniques. The goals and restrictions of the ISPE are described in Westphal et al. The ISPE consists of six interdependent projects: (1) Candidate identification through automated digital microscopy and a massively distributed, calibrated search; (2) Candidate extraction and photodocumentation; (3) Characterization of candidates through synchrotron-based Fourier-Tranform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning X-Ray Fluoresence Microscopy (SXRF), and Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscopy (STXM); (4) Search for and analysis of craters in foils through FESEM scanning, Auger Spectroscopy and synchrotron-based Photoemission Electron Microscopy (PEEM); (5) Modeling of interstellar dust transport in the solar system; and (6) Laboratory simulations of hypervelocity dust impacts into the collecting media.

  16. Uniform Additivity in Classical and Quantum Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cross, Andrew; Li, Ke; Smith, Graeme

    2017-01-01

    Information theory quantifies the optimal rates of resource interconversions, usually in terms of entropies. However, nonadditivity often makes evaluating entropic formulas intractable. In a few auspicious cases, additivity allows a full characterization of optimal rates. We study uniform additivity of formulas, which is easily evaluated and captures all known additive quantum formulas. Our complete characterization of uniform additivity exposes an intriguing new additive quantity and identifies a remarkable coincidence—the classical and quantum uniformly additive functions with one auxiliary variable are identical.

  17. Supplemental Performance Analyses for Igneous Activity and Human Intrusion at the Potential High-Level Nuclear Waste Repository at Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect

    Swift, P.; Gaither, K.; Freeze, G.; McCord, J.; Kalinich, D.; Saulnier, G.; Statham, W.

    2002-02-26

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is considering the possible recommendation of a site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for the potential development of a geologic repository for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel. Consequences of hypothetical disruption of the Yucca Mountain site by igneous activity or human intrusion have been evaluated in the Yucca Mountain Science and Engineering Report (S&ER) (1), which presents technical information supporting the consideration of the possible site recommendation. Since completion of the S&ER, supplemental analyses have examined possible impacts of new information and alternative assumptions on the estimates of the consequences of these events. Specifically, analyses of the consequences of igneous disruption address uncertainty regarding: (1) the impacts of changes in the repository footprint and waste package spacing on the probability of disruption; (2) impacts of alternative assumptions about the appropriat e distribution of future wind speeds to use in the analysis; (3) effects of alternative assumptions about waste particle sizes; and (4) alternative assumptions about the number of waste packages damaged by igneous intrusion; and (5) alternative assumptions about the exposure pathways and the biosphere dose conversion factors used in the analysis. Additional supplemental analyses, supporting the Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS), have examined the results for both igneous disruption and human intrusion, recalculated for a receptor group located 18 kilometers (km) from the repository (the location specified in 40 CFR 197), rather than at the 20 km distance used in the S&ER analyses.

  18. Optical, Energetic and Exergetic Analyses of Parabolic Trough Collectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murat, Öztürk; Nalan Çiçek, Bezir; Nuri, Özek

    2007-07-01

    Parabolic trough collectors generate thermal energy from solar energy. Especially, they are very convenient for applications in high temperature solar power systems. To determine the design parameters, parabolic trough collectors must be analysed with optical analysis. In addition, thermodynamics (energy and exergy) analysis in the development of an energy efficient system must be achieved. Solar radiation passes through Earth's atmosphere until it reaches on Earth's surface and is focused from the parabolic trough collector to the tube receiver with a transparent insulated envelope. All of them constitute a complex mechanism. We investigate the geometry of parabolic trough reflector and characteristics of solar radiation to the reflecting surface through Earth's atmosphere, and calculate the collecting total energy in the receiver. The parabolic trough collector, of which design parameters are given, is analysed in regard to the energy and exergy analysis considering the meteorological specification in May, June, July and August in Isparta/Turkey, and the results are presented.

  19. Multivariate analyses of crater parameters and the classification of craters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegal, B. S.; Griffiths, J. C.

    1974-01-01

    Multivariate analyses were performed on certain linear dimensions of six genetic types of craters. A total of 320 craters, consisting of laboratory fluidization craters, craters formed by chemical and nuclear explosives, terrestrial maars and other volcanic craters, and terrestrial meteorite impact craters, authenticated and probable, were analyzed in the first data set in terms of their mean rim crest diameter, mean interior relief, rim height, and mean exterior rim width. The second data set contained an additional 91 terrestrial craters of which 19 were of experimental percussive impact and 28 of volcanic collapse origin, and which was analyzed in terms of mean rim crest diameter, mean interior relief, and rim height. Principal component analyses were performed on the six genetic types of craters. Ninety per cent of the variation in the variables can be accounted for by two components. Ninety-nine per cent of the variation in the craters formed by chemical and nuclear explosives is explained by the first component alone.

  20. Analyses of shuttle orbiter approach and landing conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teper, G. L.; Dimarco, R. J.; Ashkenas, I. L.; Hoh, R. H.

    1981-01-01

    A study of one shuttle orbiter approach and landing conditions are summarized. Causes of observed PIO like flight deficiencies are identified and potential cures are examined. Closed loop pilot/vehicle analyses are described and path/attitude stability boundaries defined. The latter novel technique proved of great value in delineating and illustrating the basic causes of this multiloop pilot control problem. The analytical results are shown to be consistent with flight test and fixed base simulation. Conclusions are drawn relating to possible improvements of the shuttle orbiter/digital flight control system.

  1. New ventures require accurate risk analyses and adjustments.

    PubMed

    Eastaugh, S R

    2000-01-01

    For new business ventures to succeed, healthcare executives need to conduct robust risk analyses and develop new approaches to balance risk and return. Risk analysis involves examination of objective risks and harder-to-quantify subjective risks. Mathematical principles applied to investment portfolios also can be applied to a portfolio of departments or strategic business units within an organization. The ideal business investment would have a high expected return and a low standard deviation. Nonetheless, both conservative and speculative strategies should be considered in determining an organization's optimal service line and helping the organization manage risk.

  2. Examining changes in certification/licensure requirements and the international medical graduate examinee pool.

    PubMed

    McKinley, Danette W; Hess, Brian J; Boulet, John R; Lipner, Rebecca S

    2014-03-01

    Changes in certification requirements and examinee characteristics are likely to influence the validity of the evidence associated with interpretations made based on test data. We examined whether changes in Educational Commission for Foreign Medical Graduates (ECFMG) certification requirements over time were associated with changes in internal medicine (IM) residency program director ratings and certification examination scores. Comparisons were made between physicians who were ECFMG-certified before and after the Clinical Skills Assessment (CSA) requirement. A multivariate analysis of covariance was conducted to examine the differences in program director ratings based on CSA cohort and whether the examinees emigrated for undergraduate medical education (national vs. international students). A univariate analysis of covariance was conducted to examine differences in scores from the American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM) Internal Medicine Certification Examination. For both analyses, United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) Step 1 and Step 2 scores were used as covariates. Results indicate that, of those certified by ECFMG between 1993 and 1997, 17 % (n = 1,775) left their country of citizenship for undergraduate medical education. In contrast, 38 % (n = 1,874) of those certified between 1999 and 2003 were international students. After adjustment by covariates, the main effect of cohort membership on the program director ratings was statistically significant (Wilks' λ = 0.99, F 5, 15391 = 19.9, P < 0.001). However, the strength of the relationship between cohort group and the ratings was weak (η = 0.01). The main effect of migration status was statistically significant and weak (Wilks' λ = 0.98, F 5,15391 = 45.3, P < 0.01; η = 0.02). Differences in ABIM Internal Medicine Certification Examination scores based on whether or not CSA were required was statistically significant, although the magnitude of the association between

  3. 16 CFR 1102.16 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... PUBLICLY AVAILABLE CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY INFORMATION DATABASE Content Requirements § 1102.16 Additional... in the Database any additional information it determines to be in the public interest,...

  4. 16 CFR 1102.16 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... PUBLICLY AVAILABLE CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY INFORMATION DATABASE Content Requirements § 1102.16 Additional... in the Database any additional information it determines to be in the public interest,...

  5. 16 CFR 1102.16 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... PUBLICLY AVAILABLE CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY INFORMATION DATABASE Content Requirements § 1102.16 Additional... in the Database any additional information it determines to be in the public interest,...

  6. 40 CFR 262.43 - Additional reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Recordkeeping and Reporting § 262.43 Additional... require generators to furnish additional reports concerning the quantities and disposition of...

  7. 40 CFR 262.43 - Additional reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Recordkeeping and Reporting § 262.43 Additional... require generators to furnish additional reports concerning the quantities and disposition of...

  8. 40 CFR 262.43 - Additional reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Recordkeeping and Reporting § 262.43 Additional... require generators to furnish additional reports concerning the quantities and disposition of...

  9. 40 CFR 262.43 - Additional reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Recordkeeping and Reporting § 262.43 Additional... require generators to furnish additional reports concerning the quantities and disposition of...

  10. 40 CFR 262.43 - Additional reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO GENERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE Recordkeeping and Reporting § 262.43 Additional... require generators to furnish additional reports concerning the quantities and disposition of...

  11. Prismatic analyser concept for neutron spectrometers

    SciTech Connect

    Birk, Jonas O.; Jacobsen, Johan; Hansen, Rasmus L.; Lefmann, Kim; Markó, Márton; Niedermayer, Christof; Freeman, Paul G.; Christensen, Niels B.; Månsson, Martin; Rønnow, Henrik M.

    2014-11-15

    Developments in modern neutron spectroscopy have led to typical sample sizes decreasing from few cm to several mm in diameter samples. We demonstrate how small samples together with the right choice of analyser and detector components makes distance collimation an important concept in crystal analyser spectrometers. We further show that this opens new possibilities where neutrons with different energies are reflected by the same analyser but counted in different detectors, thus improving both energy resolution and total count rate compared to conventional spectrometers. The technique can readily be combined with advanced focussing geometries and with multiplexing instrument designs. We present a combination of simulations and data showing three different energies simultaneously reflected from one analyser. Experiments were performed on a cold triple axis instrument and on a prototype inverse geometry Time-of-flight spectrometer installed at PSI, Switzerland, and shows excellent agreement with the predictions. Typical improvements will be 2.0 times finer resolution and a factor of 1.9 in flux gain compared to a focussing Rowland geometry, or of 3.3 times finer resolution and a factor of 2.4 in flux gain compared to a single flat analyser slab.

  12. Benefits of additives application during combustion of phytomass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palacka, Matej; Vician, Peter; Holubčík, Michal; Jandačka, Jozef

    2016-06-01

    Phytomass, particularly wheat straw as a source of energy has countless benefits, but it has many problems in its direct burn too. The worst problem is the ash flow temperature. The aim of study was to analyze and reduce the problems of the wheat straw combustion. The experiment was conducted under realistic conditions. In this paper was implemented analysis of ash features with and without adding additives into the wheat straw. Selected samples were laboratory processed and examined. The result of the work was the impact of additional additives for ash features.

  13. Amine-intercalated α-zirconium phosphates as lubricant additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Huaping; Dai, Wei; Kan, Yuwei; Clearfield, Abraham; Liang, Hong

    2015-02-01

    In this study, three types of amines intercalated α-zirconium phosphate nanosheets with different interspaces were synthesized and examined as lubricant additives to a mineral oil. Results from tribological experiments illustrated that these additives improved lubricating performance. Results of rheological experiments showed that the viscosity of the mineral oil was effectively reduced with the addition of α-zirconium phosphate nanosheets. The two-dimensional structure, with larger interspaces, resulting from amine intercalation, exhibited improved effectiveness in reducing viscosity. This study demonstrates that the nanosheet structure of α-zirconium phosphates is effective in friction reduction. The manufacture of lubricants with tailored viscosity is possible by using different intercalators.

  14. Examining wildlife responses to phenology and wildfire using a landscape-scale camera trap network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Villarreal, Miguel L.; Gass, Leila; Norman, Laura; Sankeya, Joel B.; Wallace, Cynthia S.A.; McMacken, Dennis; Childs, Jack L.; Petrakis, Roy E.

    2012-01-01

    Between 2001 and 2009, the Borderlands Jaguar Detection Project deployed 174 camera traps in the mountains of southern Arizona to record jaguar activity. In addition to jaguars, the motion-activated cameras, placed along known wildlife travel routes, recorded occurrences of ~ 20 other animal species. We examined temporal relationships of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and javelina (Pecari tajacu) to landscape phenology (as measured by monthly Normalized Difference Vegetation Index data) and the timing of wildfire (Alambre Fire of 2007). Mixed model analyses suggest that temporal dynamics of these two species were related to vegetation phenology and natural disturbance in the Sky Island region, information important for wildlife managers faced with uncertainty regarding changing climate and disturbance regimes.

  15. Measuring Social Capital Investment: Scale Development and Examination of Links to Social Capital and Perceived Stress

    PubMed Central

    Wegner, Rhiana; Gong, Jie; Fang, Xiaoyi; Kaljee, Linda

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with greater social capital have better health outcomes. Investment in social capital likely increases one’s own social capital, bearing great implications for disease prevention and health promotion. In this study, the authors developed and validated the Social Capital Investment Inventory (SCII). Direct effects of social capital investment on perceived stress, and indirect effects through social capital were examined. 397 Participants from Beijing and Wuhan, China completed surveys. Analyses demonstrated that the SCII has a single factor structure and strong internal consistency. Structural equation modeling showed that individuals who invested more in social capital had greater bonding social capital, and subsequently less perceived stress. Results suggest that disease prevention and health promotion programs should consider approaches to encourage social capital investment; individuals may be able to reduce stress by increasing their investment in social capital. Future research is needed to provide additional empirical support for the SCII and observed structural relationships. PMID:25648725

  16. An examination of the factor structure of the Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire-3 in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Swami, Viren

    2009-03-01

    The present study examined the factor structure of a Malay translation of the Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire-3 among a community sample of 554 Malaysian women. Results of an exploratory factor analysis revealed the existence of four factors, two of which (Information and Internalization-Athlete) mirrored those found among Western samples. An additional factor was an amalgamation of two factors reported in the West, namely Pressure and Internalization-General. A fourth factor consisted of six items, four of which cross-loaded onto previous factors, and was consequently dropped from analyses. Cronbach's alpha coefficients for the three retained factors were all above .82, and the three factors were significantly correlated with each other and with participants' body mass index. The results of this study stress the need for locally developed scales in the study of body image and a shift away from reliance on scales developed in the West.

  17. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level is associated with myopia in the Korea national health and nutrition examination survey

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Jin-woo; Choi, Jin A; La, Tae Yoon

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this article was to assess the associations of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and daily sun exposure time with myopia in Korean adults. This study is based on the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) of Korean adults in 2010–2012; multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the associations of serum 25(OH)D levels and daily sun exposure time with myopia, defined as spherical equivalent ≤–0.5D, after adjustment for age, sex, household income, body mass index (BMI), exercise, intraocular pressure (IOP), and education level. Also, multiple linear regression analyses were performed to examine the relationship between serum 25(OH)D levels with spherical equivalent after adjustment for daily sun exposure time in addition to the confounding factors above. Between the nonmyopic and myopic groups, spherical equivalent, age, IOP, BMI, waist circumference, education level, household income, and area of residence differed significantly (all P < 0.05). Compared with subjects with daily sun exposure time <2 hour, subjects with sun exposure time ≥2 to <5 hour, and those with sun exposure time ≥5 hour had significantly less myopia (P < 0.001). In addition, compared with subjects were categorized into quartiles of serum 25(OH)D, the higher quartiles had gradually lower prevalences of myopia after adjustment for confounding factors (P < 0.001). In multiple linear regression analyses, spherical equivalent was significantly associated with serum 25(OH)D concentration after adjustment for confounding factors (P = 0.002). Low serum 25(OH)D levels and shorter daily sun exposure time may be independently associated with a high prevalence of myopia in Korean adults. These data suggest a direct role for vitamin D in the development of myopia. PMID:27861336

  18. Geomagnetic local and regional harmonic analyses.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alldredge, L.R.

    1982-01-01

    Procedures are developed for using rectangular and cylindrical harmonic analyses in local and regional areas. Both the linear least squares analysis, applicable when component data are available, and the nonlinear least squares analysis, applicable when only total field data are available, are treated. When component data are available, it is advantageous to work with residual fields obtained by subtracting components derived from a harmonic potential from the observed components. When only total field intensity data are available, they must be used directly. Residual values cannot be used. Cylindrical harmonic analyses are indicated when fields tend toward cylindrical symmetry; otherwise, rectangular harmonic analyses will be more advantageous. Examples illustrating each type of analysis are given.-Author

  19. Proteomic Analyses of the Vitreous Humour

    PubMed Central

    Angi, Martina; Kalirai, Helen; Coupland, Sarah E.; Damato, Bertil E.; Semeraro, Francesco; Romano, Mario R.

    2012-01-01

    The human vitreous humour (VH) is a transparent, highly hydrated gel, which occupies the posterior segment of the eye between the lens and the retina. Physiological and pathological conditions of the retina are reflected in the protein composition of the VH, which can be sampled as part of routine surgical procedures. Historically, many studies have investigated levels of individual proteins in VH from healthy and diseased eyes. In the last decade, proteomics analyses have been performed to characterise the proteome of the human VH and explore networks of functionally related proteins, providing insight into the aetiology of diabetic retinopathy and proliferative vitreoretinopathy. Recent proteomic studies on the VH from animal models of autoimmune uveitis have identified new signalling pathways associated to autoimmune triggers and intravitreal inflammation. This paper aims to guide biological scientists through the different proteomic techniques that have been used to analyse the VH and present future perspectives for the study of intravitreal inflammation using proteomic analyses. PMID:22973072

  20. Evaluation of infrared spectra analyses using a likelihood ratio approach: A practical example of spray paint examination.

    PubMed

    Muehlethaler, Cyril; Massonnet, Geneviève; Hicks, Tacha

    2016-03-01

    Depending on the forensic disciplines and on the analytical techniques used, Bayesian methods of evaluation have been applied both as a two-step approach (first comparison, then evaluation) and as a continuous approach (comparison and evaluation in one step). However in order to use the continuous approach, the measurements have to be reliably summarized as a numerical value linked to the property of interest, which occurrence can be determined (e.g., refractive index measurement of glass samples). For paint traces analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) however, the statistical comparison of the spectra is generally done by a similarity measure (e.g., Pearson correlation, Euclidean distance). Although useful, these measures cannot be directly associated to frequencies of occurrence of the chemical composition (binders, extenders, pigments). The continuous approach as described above is not possible, and a two-step evaluation, 1) comparison of the spectra and 2) evaluation of the results, is therefore the common practice reported in most of the laboratories. Derived from a practical question that arose during casework, a way of integrating the similarity measure between spectra into a continuous likelihood ratio formula was explored. This article proposes the use of a likelihood ratio approach with the similarity measure of infrared spectra of spray paints based on distributions of sub-populations given by the color and composition of spray paint cans. Taking into account not only the rarity of paint composition, but also the "quality" of the analytical match provides a more balanced evaluation given source or activity level propositions. We will demonstrate also that a joint statistical-expertal methodology allows for a more transparent evaluation of the results and makes a better use of current knowledge.